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Title: The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michoacán, México
Author: Duellman, William E., 1930-
Language: English
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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 15, No. 1, pp. 1-148, pls. 1-6, 11 figs.

December 20, 1961

[Transcriber's Note: Words surrounded by cedillas, like ~this~ signifies
words in bold. Words surrounded by underscores, like _this_, signifies
words in italics.]



The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michoacán, México

BY

WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
LAWRENCE
1961


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr.

Volume 15, No. 1, pp. 1-148, pls. 1-6, 11 figs.
Published December 20, 1961


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Lawrence, Kansas


PRINTED IN
THE STATE PRINTING PLANT
TOPEKA, KANSAS
1961



The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michoacán, México

BY

WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN



CONTENTS


                                       PAGE

INTRODUCTION                              3
  Acknowledgments                         5
  Historical Account                      7

NATURAL LANDSCAPE                         9

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HERPETOFAUNA            13

ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES                13
  Amphibia                               14
    Caudata                              14
    Salientia                            20
  Reptilia                               56
    Testudines                           56
    Crocodilia                           58
    Sauria                               59
    Serpentes                            88

SPECIES OF QUESTIONABLE OCCURRENCE      124

GAZETTEER                               129

SUMMARY                                 141

LITERATURE CITED                        142



INTRODUCTION


For almost 30 years North American herpetologists have been making
extensive collections of reptiles and amphibians in México. Some parts
of the country, because of their accessibility, soon became relatively
well known; other regions lying off the beaten path were bypassed or
inadequately sampled. Principally in the last decade herpetologists have
been entering regions from which no collections previously were
available in an attempt to fill gaps in known distributions and to
discover unknown species of animals. In 1950 Dr. Donald D. Brand led an
exploration party from the University of Texas to the poorly explored
and faunistically unknown region of southwestern Michoacán. James A.
Peters accompanied Brand and collected amphibians and reptiles. In 1951
I welcomed the opportunity to accompany Brand on a second expedition to
southwestern Michoacán. Such was the beginning of my interest in the
herpetofauna of the region. I have been fortunate to return to Michoacán
on four successive trips, all of which had as their purpose the
accumulation of data on the herpetofauna that would result in a survey
of the component species and an analysis of their distribution.

My original intention was to amplify Peters' (1954) study based on the
collections made by him in 1950 and by me in 1951 in the Sierra de
Coalcomán. But it soon became evident that in order to understand the
relationships of the herpetofauna of the Sierra de Coalcomán, the
species inhabiting the Tepalcatepec Valley and adjacent mountain ranges
would have to be studied. In the course of making that study I examined
all specimens from Michoacán already in museums.

There have been few detailed herpetofaunal studies in México. The first
such study of any consequence was that by Bogert and Oliver (1945) on
the herpetofauna of Sonora. In that paper the authors analyzed the fauna
from a geographic view and showed the transition from tropical species
in the southern part of the state to members of the Sonoran Desert
assemblage to the north. Martin (1958) made a detailed study of the
herpetofauna of the Gómez Farías region in southern Tamaulipas; he
emphasized the ecological distribution of amphibians and reptiles in
that region with special reference to cloud forests. Duellman (1958c)
presented a preliminary geographic analysis of the herpetofauna of
Colima with special reference to the continuity of the species
inhabiting the lowlands. Zweifel (1960) discussed in detail the
herpetofauna of the Tres Marías Islands and commented on the derivation
of the fauna. Duellman (1960d) provided a detailed account of the
geographic distribution of the amphibians known to occur in the lowlands
of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and attempted to account for the present
patterns of distribution.

The present report is the first of two parts dealing with the
herpetofauna of Michoacán. The purpose of this part is to present a full
account of the species of amphibians and reptiles known to inhabit the
state of Michoacán; the accounts of the species are accompanied by a
brief description of the natural landscape and of the various
assemblages of species comprising the major faunistic groups within the
region. A gazetteer of collecting localities is appended. The second
part of the study, now in preparation, deals with the ecological and
historical geography of the herpetofauna. Since the present part will be
of interest primarily to systematic herpetologists, I have decided to
separate it from the more general material of interest to
biogeographers.

One of the major problems that faces the worker undertaking a faunal
study is the presence of species or genera of unsettled systematic
status. My work in Michoacán has been no exception; fifteen separate
studies were undertaken in an attempt to solve systematic problems in
certain groups. Some systematic problems still remain but are of little
consequence insofar as the entire faunal picture is concerned, or are so
involved as to be impractical to undertake at this time. In accounts of
species, such problems are mentioned in the hope that they will interest
some worker who will be inclined to investigate them.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

While engaged in the study of the herpetofauna of Michoacán I have built
up a debt of gratitude to many individuals, without whose aid my
ambition to complete my study never would have been realized. I am
especially grateful to those individuals who accompanied me in the
field; Lee D. Beatty, Richard E. Etheridge, Carter R. Gilbert, Fred G.
Thompson, Jerome Tulecke, and John Wellman offered stimulating
companionship and valuable assistance. On many occasions they suffered
hardships on behalf of my interests.

Studies of my own specimens have been augmented by material from other
institutions. For permitting me to examine specimens in their care I am
indebted to W. Frank Blair, Charles M. Bogert, Doris M. Cochran, William
B. Davis, James R. Dixon, the late Emmett R. Dunn, Josef Eiselt, Alice
G. C. Grandison, Norman Hartweg, Robert F. Inger, Arthur Loveridge, the
late Karl P. Schmidt, Hobart M. Smith, Robert C. Stebbins, Margaret
Storey, Edward H. Taylor, and Richard G. Zweifel.

Several people have aided me in the study of specimens and in the
analysis of data; I am grateful to Donald D. Brand, who first introduced
me to Michoacán; since that time I have benefited much from his
knowledge of the area. James A. Peters provided me with essential
information concerning his field work in southern Michoacán in 1950.
James R. Dixon and Floyd L. Downs have permitted me to use freely the
material and data that they accumulated in their recent field work in
Michoacán. Norman E. Hartweg allowed me to use the specimens and data
that he gathered in his survey of the herpetofauna in the region of
Volcán Parícutin. L. C. Stuart, Charles F. Walker, and Richard G.
Zweifel have helped in unraveling some of the systematic and
distributional problems.

I am especially grateful to my wife, Ann, who for six months helped me
track down elusive species and explore new areas. Furthermore, she has
stimulated me to carry this study to completion.

Many people in Michoacán favored the field parties with quarters,
transportation, and valuable information, which greatly facilitated the
field work. In this respect I am especially indebted to Ingeniero Ruben
Erbina of Ingenieros Civiles Asociados, who not only let us use his home
as our headquarters, but through a letter of introduction gave us the
"key" to southern Michoacán. Ingeniero Pedro Tonda aided us in Arteaga
and San Salvador. Ingeniero Anastacio Peréz Alfaro of the Comisión
Tepalcatepec in Uruapan provided the latest maps of southern Michoacán
and much essential information pertaining to travel conditions in the
area. Señor Nefty Mendoza gave us a home in Dos Aguas; this kindness
allowed us to work in this interesting region during the height of the
rainy season. Mr. and Mrs. Bob Thomas let us make use of their
facilities at Hacienda Zirimícuaro. The naval officers at the Estación
Marina at Playa Azul made pleasant what might have been a dreadful stay
in that small coastal village. To the managers and pilots of Lineas
Aereas Picho in Uruapan I owe special thanks for going out of their way
on more than one occasion to transport a stranded snake-hunter.
Throughout the months of field work beginning in 1955 I constantly have
been aided by the authorities and workers of the Comisión Tepalcatepec,
a subdivision of the Secretaria de Caminos y Obras Publicas, and of the
private corporation, Ingenieros Civiles Asociados. Much of the field
work in Michoacán was made possible only through the co-operation of the
natives who supplied mules, acted as guides, and aided in the collection
of specimens. I have learned a great deal from these people. They will
never see this report. Their work as guides, muleteers, and collectors
greatly assisted me with the mountains of equipment that had to be piled
on the backs of scrawny mules for transportation to places where the
natives seldom trod. Their efforts in behalf of Don Guillermo never will
be forgotten; I extend an especially hearty _muchas gracias_ to
Benjamin, Ignacio, Jesús, Lorenzo, Mariano, and Remigio.

Much of the work on this report was done while I was associated with the
Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan. I thank Norman E.
Hartweg and T. H. Hubbell for making available to me the facilities of
the museum and for their numerous courtesies that aided me so much.

My field work in Michoacán was supported by the Museum of Zoology at the
University of Michigan (1951), by the Horace H. Rackham School of
Graduate Studies of the University of Michigan (1955), by the Penrose
Fund of the American Philosophical Society (1956), by the Bache Fund of
the National Academy of Sciences (1958), and by the University of Kansas
Endowment Association (1960).

Permits for collecting specimens in México were provided by the
Dirección General de Caza through the courtesy of Ing. Juan Lozano
Franco and Luis Macías Arellano.


Historical Account

Unlike many parts of southern México and northern Central America,
Michoacán received no attention from the collecting expeditions of the
European museums in the last century. The earliest known herpetological
specimens from Michoacán were obtained by Louis John Xantus, who was
appointed U. S. Consul to Colima in 1859. In April, 1863, Xantus
collected at Volcán Jorullo in Michoacán; in April and May of the same
year he collected along the coast of Michoacán between the Río Cachán
and the Río Nexpa. His small collection of 19 extant specimens is in the
United States National Museum. Alfredo Dugès, a resident of Guanajuato,
México, made early contributions to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of
Michoacán. In 1885 he described _Sonora michoacanensis_, and in 1891 he
described _Eumeces altamirani_; from what is known of the distribution
of these species, he probably had collected in the Tepalcatepec Valley.
During their biological survey of México, Edward W. Nelson and Edward A.
Goldman spent a limited amount of time in Michoacán in 1892 and again in
1903 and 1904. Most of their collecting was done on the plateau in the
north-central part of the state; their collections are in the United
States National Museum. While collecting fishes in southern México, Seth
E. Meek obtained some amphibians and reptiles from Lago de Pátzcuaro in
1904; these are in the collections of the Chicago Natural History
Museum. In 1908 Hans Gadow ventured into the then unexplored "tierra
caliente" of the Balsas Valley and collected at Volcán Jorullo and other
localities in the valley. Later in the same year he collected at
Guayabo, San Salvador, and Arteaga in the Sierra de Coalcomán and at
Buena Vista and Cofradía in the Tepalcatepec Valley. His collections
were deposited in the British Museum (Natural History) and the
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien.

The first thirty years of the present century saw little more field work
in Michoacán. In the 1930's Edward H. Taylor and Hobart M. Smith
collected throughout much of México. At various times they worked in
Michoacán, principally along the road from México City to Guadalajara.
In 1935 Hobart M. Smith spent a week at Hacienda El Sabino south of
Uruapan; he revisited the locality again in 1936 and made a large and
important collection of amphibians and reptiles from the upper limits of
the arid tropical scrub forest in the Tepalcatepec Valley. Specimens
collected by Smith and Taylor were incorporated into the Edward H.
Taylor-Hobart M. Smith collection, which subsequently was deposited in
part in the Museum of Natural History at the University of Illinois and
in part in the Chicago Natural History Museum. In 1939 Hobart M. Smith
collected at Pátzcuaro and between Uruapan and Apatzingán; these
collections, made while he was a Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholar of the
Smithsonian Institution, are deposited in the United States National
Museum. In 1940 and 1941 Frederick A. Shannon, who was a member of the
Hoogstraal Expeditions under the auspices of the Chicago Natural History
Museum, collected on Cerro de Tancítaro and at Apatzingán; an account of
the specimens collected there was published by Schmidt and Shannon
(1947).

The eruption of Volcán Parícutin in February, 1943, attracted the
attention of many biologists, a group of which from the Museum of
Zoology at the University of Michigan collected in the Cordillera
Volcánica in 1945 and 1947. The amphibians and reptiles were collected
and studied by Norman E. Hartweg. In 1950 James A. Peters accompanied
Donald D. Brand on a preliminary exploration of the western part of the
Sierra de Coalcomán and adjacent Pacific coast of Michoacán; in the same
year Peters collected also on the Mexican Plateau and at Volcán Jorullo.
His specimens are in the Museum of Zoology at the University of
Michigan. Since 1950 many biologists have collected in Michoacán in the
course of work on certain groups of animals or in general surveys. In
this way Raymond Alcorn, Robert W. Dickerman, James R. Dixon, Floyd L.
Downs, Emmet T. Hooper, and Robert R. Miller have contributed to our
knowledge of the herpetofauna.

As stated previously, my own field work in Michoacán began in 1951, when
I accompanied Donald D. Brand on an exploring expedition to the
southern part of the state. In that year a short time was spent on the
Mexican Plateau, principally in the area around Lago de Cuitzeo, and at
Volcán Jorullo. In July and August we made our headquarters at
Coalcomán. From that town the field party travelled southward to Maruata
on the Pacific coast and thence back over the mountains to Coalcomán.
Later in that summer we travelled by mule from Coalcomán southeastward
to the mouth of the Río Nexpa. In 1955, accompanied by Lee D. Beatty,
Carter R. Gilbert, and Fred G. Thompson, I collected in the Tepalcatepec
Valley and at Coalcomán. We made a mule trip from Coalcomán to Cerro de
Barolosa, where we made the first collections from the pine-fir forests
in the Sierra de Coalcomán. Later in the same summer Carter R. Gilbert
and I spent a week at Playa Azul on the Pacific coast. In March, April,
and May, 1956, my wife and I collected for a short time in the
Cordillera Volcánica and on the Mexican Plateau. In early April we moved
into the Tepalcatepec Valley, where we collected intensively between
Churumuco and Tepalcatepec. In May we collected on the Pacific coast
between Boca de Apiza and La Placita. In July and August, 1956,
accompanied by Richard E. Etheridge, we returned to Michoacán and again
collected on the Mexican Plateau and in the Cordillera Volcánica, before
moving into the Tepalcatepec Valley. In an attempt to fill in gaps in
the known distributions of many species and to sample the fauna in some
previously uncollected areas, I returned to Michoacán in June, 1958.
Accompanied by Jerome B. Tulecke and John Wellman, I collected on the
Mexican Plateau in the northwestern part of the state, on the southern
slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica, and in the Tepalcatepec Valley. Most
of our time was spent in the Sierra de Coalcomán, where we collected at
Aguililla, Artega, and Dos Aguas. In 1960 two days were spent in
Michoacán; a small collection was made in the eastern part of the
Cordillera Volcánica. With the exception of the specimens collected in
1960, which are at the Museum of Natural History at the University of
Kansas, the specimens that I have collected in Michoacán are in the
Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan.



NATURAL LANDSCAPE


A proper understanding of the geographical distribution of animals in a
given region is possible only after a thorough acquaintance with the
geography of the region. Likewise, in order to gain a knowledge of the
ecological distribution and relationships of the components of the
fauna, it is necessary to study the animals in their natural
environments. In order to give the reader a picture of the physical
features and the major animal habitats within the state of Michoacán,
the following brief description is offered. Each of these facets
mentioned below will be elaborated in detail in my final report on the
herpetofauna of Michoacán.


Physiography

The state of Michoacán comprises an area of 60,093 square kilometers
(Vivó, 1953). Within this area the rugged terrain has a total relief of
nearly 4000 meters. There have been several attempts to classify the
physiographic provinces of México; the classification used here is a
slight modification of the scheme proposed by Tamayo (1949). I have
tried to keep the system as simple as possible, but still useful in
discussing the distribution of animals living in the region. For general
purposes the state of Michoacán can be divided into lowlands and
highlands as follows:

    LOWLANDS
      Pacific Coastal Plain
      Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin

    HIGHLANDS
      Mexican Plateau
      Cordillera Volcánica
      Sierra de Coalcomán

Although the lowlands in the state are continuous, they are only
narrowly connected and thus form two distinct physiographic and biotic
areas. The Pacific Coastal Plain in Michoacán extends for a distance of
about 200 kilometers (airline) from the Río Coahuayana to the Río
Balsas. The coastal plain is broad between the Río Coahuayana and San
Juan de Lima, and between Las Peñas and the Río Balsas, where the hills
rise some 12 kilometers inland from the sea. Between San Juan de Lima
and Las Peñas the mountains extend to the sea; in this region rocky
promontories form precipitous cliffs dropping into the sea. Between the
promontories are small sandy or rocky beaches.

Lying to the north of the Sierra de Coalcomán and the Sierra del Sur,
but south of the Cordillera Volcánica, is a broad structural depression,
the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin. The western part of this basin, which
separates the Sierra de Coalcomán from the Cordillera Volcánica, is the
valley of the Río Tepalcatepec, a major tributary of the Río Balsas. The
eastern part of the basin is the valley of the Río Balsas. From the
point of junction of the two rivers, the Río Balsas flows southward
through a narrow gorge, which separates the Sierra de Coalcomán from
the Sierra del Sur, to the Pacific Ocean. In Michoacán the floor of the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin varies from 200 to 700 meters above sea level.

The central part of México is a vast table-land, the Mexican Plateau,
the southern part of which extends into northern Michoacán. In this
region the terrain is rolling and varies from 1500 to 1900 meters above
sea level. Many small mountain ranges rise from the plateau and break
the continuity of the rolling table-land. Located on the southern part
of the Mexican Plateau in Michoacán are several lakes, the largest of
which are Lago de Chapala, Lago de Cuitzeo, and Lago de Pátzcuaro.

Bordering the southern edge of the Mexican Plateau is a nearly unbroken
chain of volcanos, the Cordillera Volcánica. The highest peaks in
Michoacán, Cerro San Andrés (3930 meters) and Cerro de Tancítaro (3870
meters), are in this range. Parts of the Cordillera Volcánica in
Michoacán are known by separate names; these are, from west to east:
Sierra de los Tarascos, Sierra de Ozumatlán, and Serranía de Ucareo.

Lying between the Tepalcatepec Valley and the Pacific Ocean, and east of
the Río Coahuayana and west of the Río Balsas, is an isolated highland
mass, the Sierra de Coalcomán. This mountain range rises to elevations
of slightly more than 3000 meters. It has a length of about 200
kilometers and a width of about 80 kilometers. Except for a relatively
low connection with the Cordillera Volcánica, the Sierra de Coalcomán is
isolated from other mountain ranges in southwestern México.


CLIMATE

The climates in Michoacán vary from tropical in the lowlands to cool
temperate at high elevations in the Sierra de Coalcomán and Cordillera
Volcánica. The highest temperatures are known in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec
Basin, where at Churumuco the mean annual temperature is 29.3° C. and
the range of monthly means is 3.5° C. (Contreras, 1942). Frosts occur
sporadically on the Mexican Plateau, and in the winter snow falls on the
highest mountains.

Precipitation varies geographically and seasonally. Most of the rain
falls between June and October. In the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin
rainfall in the rest of the year is negligible. The annual average
rainfall at Coahuayana on the Pacific Coastal Plain is 871 mm.
(Guzmán-Rivas, 1957:52). In the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin rainfall
seldom exceeds 800 mm. per year. In the mountains precipitation is
heavier and somewhat more evenly distributed throughout the year, but
still definitely cyclic. For example, Uruapan (elevation, 1500 meters)
receives an average annual rainfall of 1674 mm. (Contreras, 1942). The
prevailing winds are from the Pacific Ocean. The southern (windward)
slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán probably receive more rain than any
other part of the state. The Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin lies in a rain
shadow of the Sierra de Coalcomán, and the Mexican Plateau lies in a
somewhat less drastic rain shadow of the Cordillera Volcánica; these are
the driest regions in the state.


VEGETATION AND ANIMAL HABITATS

For the purposes of this report I have adopted the classification of
types of vegetation that seem to me most significant in terms of
ecological distribution of reptiles and amphibians in Michoacán. These
types are as follows:

    TEMPERATE (1000-4000 meters)
      Fir Forest (2400-4000 meters)
      Pine-oak Forest (1000-4000 meters)
      Mesquite-grassland (1500-2100 meters)

    TROPICAL (0-1000 meters)
      Arid Tropical Scrub Forest (0-1000 meters)
      Tropical Semi-deciduous Forest (150-600 meters)

The vegetation of the Pacific Coastal Plain and the Balsas-Tepalcatepec
Basin consists of arid tropical scrub forest, composed of deciduous
trees, which in many places are stunted and widely spaced. In the dry
season there is little cover provided by this forest. In the rainy
season there is a sparse growth of grasses and some shade provided by
the small leaves of the thorny trees.

In Michoacán the rainfall is heaviest on the southern slopes of the
Sierra de Coalcomán and somewhat less so on the southwestern slopes of
the Cordillera Volcánica. At these relatively low elevations (150 to 600
meters) there is tropical semi-deciduous forest, characterized by
relatively dense shade throughout the year and by a leaf mulch on the
ground. This type of forest forms the gallery forest along the larger
streams in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin and on the Pacific Coastal
Plain.

Rainfall also is heavy on the high mountain ridges, where temperatures
are low. On these ridges, fir forest, often mixed with pine and oaks, is
found. This habitat is characterized by a cool, moist climate, many
rotting logs, and a moist ground cover of leaves and needles.

Most of the mountains are covered with pine-oak forest, which in most
places is decidedly subhumid, but where this forest occurs on the
windward sides of high ridges, it sometimes is noticeably humid. In
this forest the important animal habitats include the needle- and
leaf-litter, and in some areas, bromeliads.

The rolling terrain of the Mexican Plateau supports cacti, small
leguminous trees, and grasses. Like the arid tropical scrub forest, this
type of vegetation, the Mesquite-grassland association, is deciduous and
thus provides little shelter in the dry season. Unlike the areas in
which arid tropical scrub forest is developed, the Mesquite-grassland is
found in areas having warm days and cool nights.



GEOGRAPHY OF THE HERPETOFAUNA


Although the main part of my final report on the herpetofauna of
Michoacán will deal with the geographical and ecological patterns of
distribution of the herpetofauna, a brief summary of the faunal
assemblages is presented here.

In Michoacán there are two major faunal assemblages, one in the
lowlands, and one in the highlands. A large number of the species
inhabiting the lowlands are wide-ranging species, such as _Bufo
marinus_, _Iguana iguana_, and _Boa constrictor_. Sixty-three species
are known to occur on the Pacific Coastal Plain; 41 of these, together
with 36 others occur in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin, a physiographic
region to which several species of reptiles are endemic; for example,
_Enyaliosaurus clarki_, _Urosaurus gadowi_, _Cnemidophorus calidipes_,
and _Eumeces altamirani_.

Generally speaking, the members of the highland faunal assemblage have
more restricted geographic ranges. The major exceptions are those
species that are widely distributed on the Mexican Plateau, such as:
_Bufo compactilis_, _Sceloporus torquatus_, and _Salvadora bairdi_. In
the montane habitats of the Cordillera Volcánica, 45 species of
amphibians and reptiles are known; 34 species have been found in the
Sierra de Coalcomán. Fourteen species are known to occur in both ranges.
Several species are known only from the Cordillera Volcánica and
adjacent highlands, and three species are endemic to the Sierra de
Coalcomán.



ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES


In the following pages the 176 species and subspecies of amphibians and
reptiles known to occur in the state of Michoacán are discussed in
relation to their variation, life histories, ecology, and distribution
in the state. Data have been gathered from 9676 specimens. I have not
prolonged the accounts of species with information that has been
presented elsewhere. Consequently, the length and completeness of the
accounts are variable. I have given only the information that I consider
a worthwhile contribution to our knowledge of the particular species.

The synonymies given at the beginning of each account include the first
use of the trivial name by the original author, the first usage of the
combination that I am using, and, if the circumstances make it
necessary, additional names or combinations that have been proposed
since the publication of the checklists of Mexican amphibians and
reptiles by Smith and Taylor (1945, 1948, and 1950b). References cited
only in the synonymies are not listed in the Literature Cited. Preceding
the discussion of each species is an alphabetical list of the localities
in Michoacán from which specimens have been examined. The listing of a
locality means that one or more specimens, as indicated, has been
examined from that locality. Only for those specimens especially
mentioned in the text are catalogue numbers given. Abbreviations for the
various museums and scientific collections are, as follows:

    AMNH    American Museum of Natural History
    ANSP    Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
    BMNH    British Museum (Natural History)
    CNHM    Chicago Natural History Museum
    EHT-HMS Edward H. Taylor-Hobart M. Smith collection
    JRD     James R. Dixon collection, College Station, Texas
    KU      University of Kansas Museum of Natural History
    MCZ     Museum of Comparative Zoology
    MVZ     Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
    NMW     Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
    SU      Stanford University Museum of Natural History
    TCWC    Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection
    UIMNH   University of Illinois Museum of Natural History
    UMMZ    University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
    USNM    United States National Museum
    UTNHC   University of Texas Natural History Collection

Throughout the accounts of the species all measurements are given in
millimeters; if the range of variation is given, the mean follows in
parentheses.


AMPHIBIA

Caudata


~Ambystoma amblycephalum~ Taylor

     _Ambystoma amblycephala_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26: 420, November 27, 1940.--Fifteen kilometers west of
     Morelia, Michoacán, México.

     Fifteen km. W of Morelia (19); 11 km. SSE of Opopeo (12); 8
     km. S of Pátzcuaro; 24 km. S of Pátzcuaro (2); Quiroga (20);
     Tacícuaro (167).

Taylor and Smith (1945:530) presented data on 137 specimens collected at
Tacícuaro on October 1, 1939; these are all larvae and metamorphosing
individuals. Aside from these, the largest larva examined (UMMZ 104962
from 15 km. W of Morelia) has a snout-vent length of 70.0 mm. and a tail
length of 53.5 mm. The larvae are pale pinkish tan above and somewhat
paler below; there is a lateral row of cream colored spots. The
tail-fin, which is deepest at mid-length, extends to the back of the
head and is flecked with brown. In small larvae the outer edge of the
tail-fin is dark brown. The eyes are large. Two small metamorphosed
specimens (UMMZ 98967) from 24 kilometers south of Pátzcuaro are
tentatively referred to this species. These specimens have body lengths
of 49.0 and 45.0 mm. and tail lengths of 36.0 and 31.5 mm.,
respectively. They have 17-17 and 16-15 vomerine teeth arranged in a
broad arch behind the choanae, 10 costal grooves, and 7 intercostal
spaces between adpressed toes. The dorsal color is uniform brown; that
of the venter is a dusty cream.

Larvae were collected from shallow ponds near Quiroga and 15 kilometers
west of Morelia; metamorphosed individuals were taken from beneath logs
in pine and fir forests at elevations from 2300 to 2800 meters.


~Ambystoma dumerili dumerili~ (Dugès)

     _Siredon Dumerili_ Dugès, La Naturaleza, 1:241, 1870--Lago
     de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México.

     _Bathysiredon dumerilii_, Dunn, Notulae Naturae, 36:1,
     November 9, 1939.

     _Bathysiredon dumerilii dumerilii_, Maldonado-Koerdell, Mem.
     y Rev. Acad. Nac. Cien., 56:199, 1948.

     _Ambystoma_ (_Bathysiredon_) _dumerili_, Tihen, Bull.
     Florida State Mus., 3:3, June 20, 1958.

     Lago de Pátzcuaro (22);? Morelia.

For many years this unusual salamander was known from only a few
specimens mostly collected in the last century; Smith and Taylor
(1948:7) stated: "It is presumed that this species is extinct owing to
the introduction of exotic game and food fishes." In 1951 and in 1955 I
had been told that _axolotls_ were sold in the market at Pátzcuaro;
nevertheless, none was found on my visits there. In 1956 Charles M.
Bogert obtained several large specimens at the market in Pátzcuaro.
These establish the continued existence of the salamander in Lago de
Pátzcuaro. On January 27, 1955, R. W. Dickerman procured a specimen (KU
41573) in the market at Morelia. Since fish are brought to Morelia from
Lago de Pátzcuaro, the specimen probably was from that lake.
Nevertheless, the species may occur in other permanent bodies of water
in Michoacán. Maldonado-Koerdell (1948) described _Bathysiredon dumerili
queretarensis_ from San Juan del Río, Queretaro. This locality is about
200 airline kilometers northeast of Lago de Pátzcuaro and is in the Río
Moctezuma drainage.


~Ambystoma ordinarium~ Taylor

     _Ambystoma ordinaria_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26:422, November 27, 1940.--Four miles west of El Mirador,
     near Puerto Hondo, Michoacán, México.

     Axolotl (56); Cerro San Andrés; 22 km. W of Mil Cumbres; 46
     km. E of Morelia (34); 8 km. SE of Opopeo (5); Puerto de
     Garnica (8); Puerto Hondo (41); San Gregorio (16); San José
     de la Cumbre (20).

Of 16 specimens (KU 51520-35) collected on June 18, 1955, near San
Gregorio, 15 are adult females with swollen cloacae and minute ovarian
eggs. Possibly these specimens had just recently deposited their mature
eggs. In preservative the specimens are black above and dull creamy gray
below. Measurements for the 15 females are: snout-vent length,
80.0-102.0 (92.5); tail length, 69.0-93.0 (84.2); head width, 15.8-20.5
(17.7); head length, 22.8-26.6 (24.4). A larval specimen with small
gills has a snout-vent length of 72 mm. and a tail length of 62 mm.
Three specimens have 12 costal grooves; the other have 11.

Of 20 specimens from San José de la Cumbre (UMMZ 112857 and 115143), 14
are neotenic adults; the others are larvae. In life the salamanders were
blackish to olive-brown above with scattered cream-colored dots on the
dorsum and flanks but in preservative are dull grayish black with
indistinct pale spots and dark reticulations. The belly is pale gray
with indistinct dark spots. Eleven females and three males have the
following measurements, respectively: snout-vent length, 76.0-90.0
(80.7), 64.0-84.0 (74.3); tail length, 70.0-81.0 (75.0), 58.0-71.0
(66.7); head width, 19.5-23.5 (20.7), 17.5-20.5 (19.3); head length,
22.0-25.0 (23.0), 20.0-22.5 (21.5). The smallest larva has a snout-vent
length of 43.0 mm. and a tail length of 38.0 mm. Two individuals have 12
costal grooves; the others have 11. All of the females contained eggs,
the largest of which were 1.5 mm. in diameter. The stomachs of most of
the specimens were distended with oligochaets, aquatic insect larvae,
and small aquatic beetles.

A series of 34 larvae (JRD 5904-37) from 46 kilometers east of Morelia
are tentatively referred to this species. These specimens are
olive-brown above with cream-colored spots on the flanks; the dorsal
tail-fin does not extend onto the body.

This species has been found only at elevations in excess of 2400 meters
in pine and fir forests. At Rancho Axolotl James A. Peters collected
larvae and neotenic individuals in a rocky stream and adults from
beneath rocks and logs in the forest near the stream. Neotenic
individuals and larvae were found in a clear stream in pine-fir forest
at an elevation of 2700 meters near San José de la Cumbre; specimens
were collected there in July, 1955, and again in July, 1956. The site
was visited in April, 1956, at which time the stream consisted of only a
few puddles; no salamanders were found.


~Ambystoma tigrinum velasci~ Dugès

     _Ambystoma velasci_ Dugès, La Naturaleza, ser. 2, 1:142,
     1888.--Laguna Santa Isabel, near Guadalupe Hidalgo, Distrito
     Federal, México.

     _Ambystoma tigrinum velasci_, Dunn, Copeia, no. 3:157,
     November 14, 1940.

     Pátzcuaro (5); Tacícuaro (9).

Definite specific assignment of these specimens, all larvae, cannot be
made at this time. They have shovel-shaped heads and laterally
compressed bodies with the dorsal tail-fin extending anteriorly to the
back of the head. The eyes are small. The body is pale tan with dark
mottling on the tail and flanks. The average snout-vent length for nine
specimens from Tacícuaro is 61.0 mm.

The larvae from Tacícuaro (UMMZ 89255) were collected by Dyfrig Forbes
in October, 1939; those from Pátzcuaro, presumably Lago de Pátzcuaro
(BMNH 1914.1.28-247-8 and CNHM 948), were collected by Hans Gadow and
Seth Meek in 1908.


~Pseudoeurycea belli~ (Gray)

     _Spelerpes belli_ Gray, Catalogue Batrachia Gradientia
     British Museum, p. 46, 1850.--México. Type locality
     restricted to 2 miles east of Río Frío, Puebla, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950a:341).

     _Pseudoeurycea bellii_, Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     30:209, June 12, 1944.

     Axolotl (2); Carapan; Cerro Tancítaro (84); Macho de Agua;
     22 km. W of Mil Cumbres; Opopeo; Pátzcuaro (8); Puerto Hondo
     (2): San José de la Cumbre; San Juan de Parangaricutiro
     (42); Uruapan (5); Zacapu (4).

This salamander seems to reach its greatest abundance in Michoacán in
the Sierra de los Tarascos between Pátzcuaro and Tancítaro, where it is
found at elevations from 1500 to 2900 meters. It is found less commonly
in the eastern part of the Cordillera Volcánica in Michoacán, where it
sometimes occurs in association with _Pseudoeurycea robertsi_.

On June 22 and 23, 1955, four clutches of eggs of this species were
found beneath adobe bricks and rocks on the volcanic ash that has buried
the village of San Juan de Parangaricutiro. The eggs were unstalked and
separate, but adherent in clumps of three or four (Pl. 2, Fig. 1). The
outer membranes were covered with fine particles of ash. The ash beneath
the stones where the eggs were found was only slightly moist; one clump
of eggs was partially desiccated. Three complete clutches have 20, 23,
and 34 eggs; one clutch of 15 eggs was being eaten by beetles
(Tenebrionidae: _Eleodes_ sp.). The eggs vary in size from 4.6 to 6.5
mm. and average 5.3 mm. in diameter. They are unpigmented. Surrounding
the embryo is a vitelline membrane, an inner, and an outer envelope
(Fig. 1). In an average-sized egg having an embryo 4 mm. in length, the
diameter of the outer membrane is 5.3 mm., the inner membrane 5.0 mm.,
and the vitelline membrane 4.6 mm. All of the eggs contained embryos in
which the limb buds were developed; in about half of these the eyes were
distinctly visible.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Diagram of an egg of _Pseudoeurycea belli_ from
San Juan de Parangaricutiro, Michoacán. × 10.]

The first heavy rain of the season occurred on the night of June 22,
1955. Thus, at least sometimes, _Pseudoeurycea belli_ lays its eggs
before the onset of the rainy season. A female having a snout-vent
length of 110 mm., collected on June 22, 1955, contained 36 ovarian eggs
having diameters from 3.0 to 3.5 mm. The fact that small juveniles were
collected on the same date indicates that this salamander lays eggs over
a period of several weeks in late spring and early summer.

The smallest juvenile examined has a snout-vent length of 17.0 mm. and a
tail length of 7.5 mm. Twelve juveniles from the vicinity of San Juan de
Parangaricutiro have an average snout-vent length of 19.4 mm. and an
average tail length of 9.7 mm. In juveniles the adpressed limbs either
touch or overlap by one intercostal space; in adults there are two or
three intercostal spaces between adpressed toes. Therefore the greatest
number of intercostal spaces between adpressed limbs is found in the
largest specimens. A similar relationship between adpressed limbs (=
length of limbs) and snout-vent length was shown for _Plethodon
richmondi_ by Duellman (1954a). The number of vomerine teeth is
variable; the number of teeth seems to be closely correlated with the
size of the salamander (Fig. 2). A similar correlation between the
number of maxillary teeth and body length was reported for
_Chiropterotriton multidentatus_ by Rabb (1958). In 12 juvenile
_Pseudoeurycea belli_ there are 6-13 (8.8) vomerine teeth, and in 11
adults having snout-vent lengths greater than 90 mm. there are 39-49
(44.0) vomerine teeth. The coloration of the juveniles resembles that of
the adults (Pl. 1).

[Illustration: FIG. 2. Correlation between the number of vomerine teeth
and snout-vent length in 79 _Pseudoeurycea belli_ from Michoacán.]

The differences between this species and _Pseudoeurycea gigantea_ are
minor. Taylor (1939a) distinguished _gigantea_ from _belli_ by the
larger size, fewer intercostal spaces between adpressed limbs, more
vomerine teeth, and absence of occipital spots in _gigantea_. Taylor and
Smith (1945) stated that in life the spots in _gigantea_ are orange
instead of red as in _belli_. Five specimens of _Pseudoeurycea belli_
from Michoacán, including one juvenile, lack occipital spots. In the 34
living individuals that I have seen from Michoacán the spots varied from
deep red to orange. Therefore, of the characters listed by Taylor (_op.
cit._) to diagnose _Pseudoeurycea gigantea_, only the over-all larger
size and smaller number of intercostal spaces between adpressed limbs (=
relatively longer limbs) are useful in separating _Pseudoeurycea belli_
and _gigantea_.


~Pseudoeurycea robertsi~ (Taylor)

     _Oedipus robertsi_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 25:287,
     July 10, 1939.--Nevado de Toluca, México.

     _Pseudoeurycea robertsi_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     30:209, June 12, 1944.

     Atzimba (3); Macho de Agua (9); Puerto Lengua de Vaca (14).

Previously this species has been recorded only from the type locality.
In July, 1956, individuals referable to this species were found at two
sites in pine-fir forest immediately to the east of Macho de Agua and in
pine-oak-fir forest at Atzimba. On August 20, 1958, a series was
collected in pine-fir forest at Puerto Lengua de Vaca. These localities
are between 2900 and 3000 meters in the Cordillera Volcánica in eastern
Michoacán.

In life the coloration of these salamanders was highly variable. The
belly and undersurfaces of the tail and hind limbs were pale gray, with
or without silvery white flecks; the chin was a cream-color and flecked
with silvery white in some specimens. The middorsal area was brown,
orange-brown, or dull grayish yellow. The flanks and lateral surfaces of
the tail were black with yellowish flecks or streaks on the flanks and
yellowish or orange-brown flecks on the tail. The iris was golden brown.
Measurements of eight males and two females are, respectively:
snout-vent length, 42.5-56.0 (49.5), 54.0-60.0 (57.0); tail length,
42.0-56.0 (48.1), 52.0-55.0 (53.5). The smallest juvenile has a
snout-vent length of 28.0 mm. and a tail length of 23.0 mm. Of the 26
available specimens, six have 12 costal grooves, and the others have 11.

In comparison with 36 topotypes, the specimens from Michoacán have a
less striking dorsal color pattern; none has a well-defined dorsal
reddish brown area or bold reddish mottling on the tail. Furthermore,
the specimens from Michoacán have paler venters than do topotypic
specimens.


Salientia


~Rhinophrynus dorsalis~ Duméril and Bibron

     _Rhinophrynus dorsalis_ Duméril and Bibron, Erpétologie
     générale, vol. 8:758, 1841.--Veracruz, Veracruz, México.

     Mouth of the Río Balsas (10).

These specimens (BMNH 1914.1.28.181-90) were collected by Gadow in 1908
and reported by him (1930:72): "Whilst this very sluggish termite-eating
toad is common enough in the sweltering hot country of the state of Vera
Cruz, up to an elevation of 1500 feet, it was unknown on the west side
of the Isthmus until I found it in great numbers near the mouth of the
Balsas River, in and near fresh-water pools, where it attracted
attention by its loud peculiar voice during the pairing season in the
month of July." Subsequently, Peters (1954:3) verified the
identification of these specimens. Although torrential rains fell during
the week in July, 1955, that I spent at Playa Azul near the mouth of the
Río Balsas, the distinctive voice of _Rhinophrynus_ was not heard.
Elsewhere on the Pacific coast of México adult _Rhinophrynus_ have been
reported only from Tehuantepec and a few localities on the coastal
lowlands of Chiapas. Taylor (1942b:37) found on the coast of Guerrero a
tadpole that was referred to the genus _Rhinophrynus_ by Orton (1943).
In the summer of 1960 adults of _Rhinophrynus_ were collected near
Acapulco, Guerrero (Fouquette, _in litt._). These recent collections
verify the existence of the species along the Pacific lowlands of México
at least as far north as Michoacán.


~Scaphiopus hammondi multiplicatus~ Cope

     _Scaphiopus multiplicatus_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 15:52, June 8, 1863.--Valley of México.

     _Scaphiopus hammondi multiplicatus_, Kellogg, Bull. U. S.
     Natl. Mus., 160:22, March 31, 1932.

     Angahuan (5); Cuitzeo (4); Cuseño Station (2); Jiquilpan
     (9); Morelia (7); Pátzcuaro (3); Quiroga; Tarécuaro; Uruapan
     (24); Zacapu.

This small toad has been found at elevations between 1500 and 2500
meters on the Mexican Plateau and associated mountain ranges; it occurs
in mesquite-grassland and in pine forests. Calling males and females
laden with eggs have been collected in the rainy season in the months of
July and August. The call is a medium-pitched snore. In living
individuals the dorsal ground color varies from pale brown to gray with
dark brown or olive-brown markings. In many individuals the tips of the
small dorsal pustules are red.


~Bufo coccifer~ Cope

     _Bufo coccifer_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     18:130, 1866--Arriba, Costa Rica.

     Apatzingán (27); Lombardia; Nueva Italia (5).

In life the dorsal color pattern consists of a yellowish tan ground
color with dark brown spots; the middorsal stripe is deep yellow or
cream color. The venter is a dusty cream color, and the iris is pale
gold. Males have dark brown horny nuptial tuberosities on the thumb. The
following measurements are of 21 males and four females, respectively:
snout-vent length, 43.5-51.7 (48.1), 55.6-62.6 (59.1); tibia length,
16.6-18.8 (17.6), 18.8-20.3 (19.3); head width, 16.7-19.7 (18.4),
20.6-22.2 (21.4); head length, 13.8-16.6 (14.8), 16.5-18.2 (17.3).

The specimens from the Tepalcatepec Valley differ slightly from
specimens from southeastern México and Central America. Those from
Michoacán have low and narrow cranial crests; in about one-half of the
specimens the occipital crest exists only as a row of tubercles, and in
some the postorbital and suborbital crests are barely discernible.
Specimens from the southern part of the range, Costa Rica and Nicaragua,
have much higher and thicker cranial crests; in these the occipital
crest is well defined and extends posteriorly to a point back of the
anterior edge of the parotid gland; the postorbital and suborbital
crests are well marked. Of 48 specimens from Esquipulas, Guatemala, all
have high crests, but these are not so well developed as in ten
specimens from Matagalpa, Nicaragua, and three from various localities
in Costa Rica. Six specimens from Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, have cranial
crests that are lower than those in specimens from Guatemala. In three
of the specimens from Tehuantepec the occipital crests are reduced to a
series of tubercles. Of six specimens from Agua del Obispo, Guerrero,
four have poorly developed occipital crests. These observations suggest
the presence of a cline in the development of the cranial crests;
specimens have higher crests in the southern part of the range than in
the northern part.

In México _Bufo coccifer_ has been collected only in semi-xeric
habitats, but to the south, from Guatemala to Costa Rica, it has been
found in more upland and humid habitats. Southern specimens are darker
than those from the north, a possible correlation with the differences
in habitat.

These toads probably range throughout the Tepalcatepec Valley, but they
are unknown from the coast of Michoacán. Breeding choruses were found
after heavy rains on June 24, 1955, and on August 2, 1956. The first was
in a muddy ditch; the second was in a flooded grassy field. The call is
a high-pitched, but not loud, "whirrr." Males were calling from the edge
of the water or from clumps of grass in the water. Clasping pairs were
in the water; amplexus is axillary.


~Bufo compactilis compactilis~ Wiegmann

     _Bufo compactilis_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 26:661,
     1833.--México. Type locality restricted to Xochimilco,
     Distrito Federal, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:330).

     _Bufo compactilis compactilis_, Smith, Herpetologica, 4:7,
     September 17, 1947.

     Cuitzeo (2); Emiliano Zapata (20); Jiquilpan (5); La Palma
     (5); Morelia; Tupátaro.

The southwestern terminus of the range of this species is on the Mexican
Plateau in Michoacán. All specimens from the state have spotted venters.
In living toads the dorsal ground color was gray or grayish tan with
olive green spots. The vocal sac was brownish gray; the iris was a
bright golden color.

On June 11, 1958, many individuals were calling from shallow water in a
flooded field at Emiliano Zapata. The call is a slow trill, in which the
individual notes are discernible.


~Bufo marinus~ (Linnaeus)

     _Rana marina_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, 1:211,
     1758.--America.

     _Bufo horribilis_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 26:654,
     1833.--Misantla and Veracruz, Veracruz, México. Taylor and
     Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., 95:551, January 30, 1945.

     _Bufo angustipes_ Taylor and Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
     95:553, January 30, 1945.--La Esperanza, Chiapas, México.

     Aguililla; Apatzingán (3); Barranca de Bejuco; Capirio;
     Charapendo; Chichihuas; Coahuayana (2); Coalcomán (7);
     Cofradía (2); 25 km. S of Cuatro Caminos; El Sabino (10);
     Huahua, La Playa (13); Ojos de Agua de San Telmo; Ostula;
     Playa Azul (2); Pómaro (2).

This large toad is characteristically found in areas supporting tropical
scrub forest to elevations of about 1000 meters. The species is much
more abundant than the numbers listed above suggest. In the dry season
individuals have been observed in patios, along streams, and by
irrigation ditches. In the rainy season the loud, rattling call of the
males is heard at night throughout the Tepalcatepec Valley and the
coastal lowlands.

Taylor and Smith (1945:552) revived Wiegmann's _Bufo horribilis_ for the
large toads of México that are here referred to _B. marinus_. Their
action was based upon the supposition that the "species _marinus_" is
composite. Although probably true, this supposition has yet to be
proved. Until the large, and apparently related, species of _Bufo_
inhabiting tropical America have been studied systematically as a unit,
the recognition of segments of the population as either species or
subspecies is meaningless. Taylor and Smith (op. cit.:553) based the
description of a new species, _Bufo angustipes_, on one rather
emaciated, formalin-hardened female from La Esperanza, Chiapas. The type
(USNM 116513), when compared with numerous specimens of _Bufo marinus_
from throughout the range of the species in México and northern Central
America, displays no combination of characters to set it off from the
others. Therefore, I suggest that _Bufo horribilis_ Wiegmann and _Bufo
angustipes_ Taylor and Smith be placed in the synonymy of _Bufo marinus_
(Linnaeus) until future systematic study of the genus and this species
in particular establishes the existence of recognizable taxa.


~Bufo marmoreus~ Wiegmann

     _Bufo marmoreus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 26:66,
     1833.--Veracruz, Veracruz, México.

     Barranca de Bejuco; Coahuayana (11); El Diezmo (2); La
     Placita (9); La Orilla (12); Motín del Oro; Ostula (9);
     Playa Azul (5); Pómaro (15); Salitre de Estopilas; San Pedro
     Naranjestila.

In Michoacán this species is confined to elevations of less than 1000
meters on the coast and foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán. In this
region in the months of June and July, breeding congregations have been
found in temporary pools and along streams.

Smith and Taylor (1948:39), in their key to the Mexican species of
_Bufo_, placed emphasis on the nature of the supraorbital and
postorbital crests (whether they form a curve or a sharp angle) in
distinguishing _Bufo marmoreus_ from _Bufo perplexus_. In the original
description of _perplexus_, Taylor (1943a:347) characterized the species
as follows: supraorbital and postorbital crests forming a sharp angle,
instead of a curve as in _marmoreus_; supratympanic crest smaller than
in _marmoreus_; diagonal lateral stripe lacking in females;
concentration of dorsal tubercles as found in _marmoreus_ lacking in
males. The discovery of specimens in which the crests form a curve and
others in which the crests form an angle in both the Tepalcatepec Valley
and in the coastal lowlands prompted an investigation of these
characters and others throughout the ranges of the species. An
examination of 410 specimens has resulted in the following conclusions.


TABLE 1.--VARIATION IN THE SHAPE OF THE SUPRAORBITAL AND POSTORBITAL
CRANIAL CRESTS IN BUFO MARMOREUS AND B. PERPLEXUS.

+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|LOCALITY                | N |  Curved   |Intermediate| Angular  |
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Tepalcatepec Valley     | 50| 10 (20.0%)| 17 (34.0%) |23 (46.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Morelos                 | 12|  2 (16.6%)|  5 (41.7%) | 5 (41.7%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Izúcar, Puebla          |  4|  2 (50.0%)|  0  (0.0%) | 2 (50.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Southern Sinaloa        |  1|  1(100.0%)|  0  (0.0%) | 0  (0.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco|  2|  2(100.0%)|  0  (0.0%) | 0  (0.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Colima                  | 45| 25 (55.0%)| 18 (40.0%) | 2  (5.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Coast of Michoacán      | 55| 35 (63.6%)| 17 (30.9%) | 3  (5.5%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Acapulco, Guerrero      |  7|  7(100.0%)|  0  (0.0%) | 0  (0.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Chilpancingo, Guerrero  | 10|  1 (10.0%)|  4 (40.0%) | 5 (50.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Pochutla, Oaxaca        | 13|  6 (46.2%)|  6 (46.2%) | 1  (7.6%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Tehuantepec, Oaxaca     |177| 81 (45.8%)| 67 (37.8%) |29 (16.4%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Tonolá, Chiapas         |  1|  0  (0.0%)|  0  (0.0%) | 1(100.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|Veracruz                | 33| 26 (78.8%)|  6 (18.2%) | 1  (3.0%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+
|   Total                |410|198 (48.3%)|140 (34.2%) |72 (17.5%)|
+------------------------+---+-----------+------------+----------+

    1. Although the highest percentage of individuals having the
    supraorbital and postorbital crests forming a sharp angle is
    from localities in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin, numerous
    individuals from throughout the range of _marmoreus_ have the
    crests forming an angle (Table 1).

     2. In all samples of ten or more specimens, some toads have
     the supraorbital and postorbital crests forming a sharp
     angle, some have the crests forming a curve, and some have
     an intermediate condition.

     3. The relative size of the supratympanic crest is highly
     variable in all samples examined.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. Adult male of _Bufo perplexus_ from Apatzingán,
Michoacán. × 1.5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. Adult male of _Bufo marmoreus_ from Pómaro,
Michoacán. × 1.5.]

[Illustration: PLATE 1

Hatchling of _Pseudoeurycea belli_ from San Juan de Parangaricutiro,
Michoacán. × 8.]

[Illustration: PLATE 2

FIG. 1. Nest and eggs of _Pseudoeurycea belli_ beneath a
rock at San Juan de Parangaricutiro. Approx. natural size.

FIG. 2. Multiple egg clutches of _Phyllomedusa
dacnicolor_ from Coalcomán, Michoacán. 1/3 ×.

[Illustration: PLATE 3

FIG. 1. Adult male of _Tomodactylus angustidigitorum_
from Paracho, Michoacán. × 4.

FIG. 2. Adult male of _Tomodactylus fuscus_ from Los
Cantiles, Michoacán. ×4.

[Illustration: PLATE 4

FIG. 1. Adult male of _Tomodactylus nitidus_ nitidus from
Tuxpan, Michoacán. ×.

FIG. 2. Adult male of _Tomodactylus nitidus orarius_ from
Tecolapa, Colima. × 4.]

[Illustration: PLATE 5

FIG. 1. Adult male of _Tomodactylus nitidus_ petersi from
Apatzingán, Michoacán. × 4.

Fig. 2. Adult male of _Tomodactylus rufescens_ from Dos
Aguas, Michoacán. × 4.]

[Illustration: PLATE 6

FIG. 1. Adult male of _Hypopachus caprimimus_ from
Tuxpan, Michoacán. × 2-1/2.

FIG. 2. Adult male of _Hypopachus oxyrrhinus ovis_ from
Tangamandapio, Michoacán. × 3.]

     4. A distinct, pale-colored, diagonal lateral stripe is
     found in females only from localities outside of the
     Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin; females from the basin have a
     spotted dorsum.

     5. Males from the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin usually have a
     broad middorsal line that is yellow or pale tan; those from
     outside the basin have either a narrow middorsal line or
     none.

     6. Males from the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin have low,
     scattered dorsal tubercles (Fig. 3); males from outside the
     basin have a concentration of tubercles in a broad band on
     the back (Fig. 4).

Therefore the nature of the cranial crests is of little value in
separating two populations, but the color pattern of the females and the
nature of the dorsal tubercles of the males do show distinct
differences. Furthermore, certain differences in size and proportion are
evident; _Bufo marmoreus_ is a slightly larger toad and has a relatively
longer tibia and longer head than _perplexus_ (Table 2).


TABLE 2.--COMPARISON OF CERTAIN MEASUREMENTS AND PROPORTIONS IN BUFO
MARMOREUS AND B. PERPLEXUS. (MEANS ARE GIVEN IN PARENTHESES BELOW THE
RANGES.)

+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+
|                   |            |  |          |Tibia length|Head length|
|     Species       |    Sex     | N|Snout-vent+------------+-----------+
|                   |            |  |  length  | Snout-vent |Snout-vent |
|                   |            |  |          |   length   |  length   |
+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+
|  _B. marmoreus_   |    Male    |15|61.5-72.5 | 35.9-41.6  | 28.3-33.3 |
|                   |            |  |  (65.2)  |   (39.0)   |  (31.6)   |
+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+
|  _B. perplexus_   |    Male    |20|50.0-59.0 | 33.7-38.1  | 26.4-31.1 |
|                   |            |  |  (54.9)  |   (36.4)   |  (29.5)   |
+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+
|  _B. marmoreus_   |   Female   | 7|68.0-76.0 | 33.0-36.8  | 26.8-32.6 |
|                   |            |  |  (70.7)  |   (34.7)   |  (29.6)   |
+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+
|  _B. perplexus_      |Female   | 6|64.1-69.8 | 32.4-36.9  | 25.1-29.0 |
|                   |            |  |  (66.8)  |   (35.5)   |  (27.5)   |
+-------------------+------------+--+----------+------------+-----------+

Taylor (1943a:347) described _Bufo perplexus_ from Mexcala on the Río
Balsas in Guerrero. Among the many paratypes are specimens from Tonolá,
Chiapas, and Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. These apparently were referred to
_perplexus_ solely on the nature of the cranial crests. All of the
specimens examined during the course of the present study from the
lowlands of Veracruz and from the Pacific lowlands from Sinaloa
southward to Chiapas are referable to _Bufo marmoreus_; those from the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin are referable to _Bufo perplexus_, as defined
above. Ten specimens from Chilpancingo, Guerrero (UMMZ 115352), do not
readily fit either species. Perhaps there is gene exchange between the
inland and coastal populations through the relatively low pass at
Chilpancingo, at the mouth of the Río Balsas, and near the convergent
headwaters of the Río Coahuayana and Río Tepalcatepec in southern
Jalisco. If this can be demonstrated, then _Bufo perplexus_ would have
to be considered as a subspecies of _Bufo marmoreus_, instead of an
allopatric species.


~Bufo perplexus~ Taylor

     _Bufo perplexus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 29:347,
     October 15, 1943.--Balsas River near Mexcala, Guerrero,
     México.

     Aguililla (2); Apatzingán (42); Buena Vista (5); Capirio
     (3); La Playa (25); Lombardia (6); Nueva Italia (9); Río
     Cancita, 14 km. E of Apatzingán; Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S
     of Apatzingán; San Salvador (4); Tzitzio; Volcán Jorullo.


~Bufo occidentalis~ Camerano

     _Bufo occidentalis_ Camerano, Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino,
     14:887, December 31, 1878.--México. Type locality restricted
     to Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:330). Firschein, Copeia, no. 3:220, September 15,
     1950.

     _Bufo símus_, Smith and Taylor, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
     194:42, 1948.

     Barranca Seca (32); Cerro de Barolosa (4); Cerro Tancítaro,
     3 km. E of Apo (2); Cerro Tancítaro, 19 km. E. of Apo (10);
     Charapendo; Coalcomán (7); Dos Aguas (4); Jacona, Jaramillo
     (2); Las Tecatas; Los Reyes (181); Tancítaro (10); Uruapan
     (3).

This toad is an inhabitant of pine and oak forests between 900 and 2400
meters. Near Charapendo on the slopes of the Sierra de los Tarascos and
at Coalcomán it apparently reaches its lowest altitudinal limits. At
both of these localities the pine-oak forest is replaced by arid
tropical scrub forest on the lower slopes.

Twenty-four tadpoles were collected on May 3 in a quiet section of a
fast stream near Barranca Seca. The tadpoles have a robust body,
broadest about two-thirds the distance from the snout to the posterior
edge of the body, half again as broad as deep. Eyes dorsolateral;
nostrils dorsal, somewhat directed forward, and about three-fifths the
distance from the tip of the snout to the eye; spiracle sinistral and
lateral, located at about midbody; anus median; tail long and slender;
tail-musculature extends nearly to tip of tail; depth of
tail-musculature at mid-length about one-third total depth of tail;
dorsal tail-fin not extending onto body (Fig. 5); average body length of
ten tadpoles having small hind limb buds, 14.4 mm.; average tail length,
22.0 mm.

Mouth ventral, nearly terminal, about one-third as wide as widest part
of body; anterior lip has no papillae; lower lip bordered by two rows of
papillae and lateral lips by one row of papillae; beaks moderately well
developed, the upper forming a broad arch and finely denticulate; tooth
rows 2/3, the upper rows extending to the edge of the lips, subequal in
length, and slightly longer than lower rows, which also are subequal in
length; inner upper tooth row broken medially; inner lower tooth row
sometimes broken (Fig. 6).

The body is black dorsally and laterally, and bluish gray ventrally; the
tail musculature is brown and stippled with darker brown. The fins are
transparent and stippled with brown, the stippling being most pronounced
on the posterior two-thirds of the upper tail-fin.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. Tadpole of _Bufo occidentalis_ (UMMZ 94269) from
Barranca Seca, Michoacán. × 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6. Mouthparts of larval _Bufo occidentalis_ (UMMZ
94269) from Barranca Seca, Michoacán. × 20.]

Forty recently metamorphosed individuals average 18.9 mm. in snout-vent
length.

The relationships of this toad seem to be with _Bufo bocourti_ Brocchi,
an inhabitant of pine and oak forests in the uplands of Chiapas and
Guatemala. In _Bufo occidentalis_ the tympanum usually is indistinct and
sometimes completely covered, and it is absent in _bocourti_. _Bufo
occidentalis_ has a broader interorbital area and relatively shorter and
more rounded parotid glands than _bocourti_. The tadpoles of the two
species are nearly identical (see Stuart, 1943:12).


~Leptodactylus labialis~ (Cope)

     _Cystignathus labialis_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc.,
     17:90, 1877.--No type locality designated; type locality
     restricted to Potrero Viejo, Veracruz, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:350).

     _Leptodactylus labialis_, Brocchi, Mission Scientifique au
     Mexique et dans l'Amerique Centrale, pt. 3, sec. 2, livr.
     1:20, 1881.

     Apatzingán (26); Capirio (5); Cofradía (9); El Sabino (4);
     Lombardia; Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S of Apatzingán (2).

In the Tepalcatepec Valley this frog reaches the northernmost known
limit of its range in western México. Although the species is abundant
in the valley, it apparently is absent from the coastal lowlands. In the
Tepalcatepec Valley _Leptodactylus melanonotus_ seems to be more
abundant than _labialis_. In the rainy season both species have been
heard calling from the same ponds and flooded fields.

There are only slight differences in size between the sexes;
measurements of 20 males and eight females are, respectively: snout-vent
length, 32.3-39.5 (35.1), 34.1-39.2 (37.2); tibia length, 14.3-17.0
(15.4), 14.9-16.8 (15.8); head width, 11.0-13.6 (12.0), 12.2-13.2
(12.6); head length, 12.8-15.1 (13.3), 12.8-14.6 (13.7).


~Leptodactylus melanonotus~ (Hallowell)

     _Cystignathus melanonotus_ Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 12:485, 1861.--Nicaragua. Type locality
     restricted to Recero, Nicaragua, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:320).

     _Leptodactylus melanonotus_, Brocchi, Mission Scientifique
     au Mexique et dans l'Amerique Centrale, pt. 3, sec. 2, livr.
     1:20, 1881.

     Apatzingán (103); Capirio; Charapendo (7); Coahuayana;
     Cofradía (10); El Sabino (21); La Playa (3); Lombardia (5);
     Maruata; Nueva Italia (7); Ostula (9); Playa Azul (11); Río
     Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia; Río Marquez, 13 km. SE of
     Nueva Italia (6); Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S of Apatzingán.


This species is widespread in the lowlands of the state; it has been
collected up to elevations of 1050 meters in the Tepalcatepec Valley. In
the dry season individuals were discovered beneath rocks along streams
and in damp arroyos; in the rainy season they were found wherever there
was water. Males were heard calling from flooded fields, ditches, rocky
streams, and small puddles. The call is a series of individual notes:
"woink, woink, woink."

Adult males are noticeably smaller than females; measurements for 20
males and ten females from Apatzingán are, respectively: snout-vent
length, 29.6-34.6 (32.3), 36.3-44.1 (40.8); tibia length, 12.6-15.1
(14.0), 16.5-19.0 (17.8); head width, 10.8-11.9 (11.3), 12.6-14.8
(13.7); head length, 11.2-13.2 (11.9), 13.1-14.8 (14.0). Brownish yellow
ventral glands are present in some juveniles and in some adults
collected in the dry season as well as in the rainy season.


~Leptodactylus occidentalis~ Taylor

     _Leptodactylus occidentalis_ Taylor, Trans. Kansas Acad.
     Sci., 39:349, 1937.--Tepic, Nayarit, México.

     Five km. W of Tangamandapio.

On the night of June 11, 1958, this species was calling from a
hyacinth-choked ditch. Although numerous individuals were heard, only
one specimen was obtained. The frogs were calling from the tangled mat
of hyacinths along with _Hyla eximia_, _Hypopachus oxyrrhinus ovis_, and
_Rana pipiens_.

Taylor (1936a:352) characterized this species as follows: "The narrow
head, small maximum size (38 mm. for females, 33 mm. for males), the
character of the postaxillary and postfemoral glands, the narrower
groups of vomerine teeth, clearly distinguish this western Mexican form
from the more robust, larger _melanonotus_ to the south. The call is
likewise fainter and different in quality." Concerning the glands,
Taylor (_loc. cit._) remarked: "There is a possibility that the horny
excrescence covering the glands may appear only during the breeding
season. This character is quite as strongly marked in females as in
males." Bogert and Oliver (1945:324) concluded that the population of
_Leptodactylus_ in northwestern México could not be distinguished from
_melanonotus_ in other parts of the country and thus synonymized
_Leptodactylus occidentalis_ with _melanonotus_. Bogert and Oliver (op.
cit.: 324) stated that the extent as well as the presence or absence of
ventral glands was highly variable in all samples examined by them.

Upon seeing numerous living individuals of _Leptodactylus melanonotus_
from many parts of its range in México and individuals of the population
of _Leptodactylus_ in northwestern México (Nayarit and Sinaloa), I was
immediately impressed not so much by the differences in the development
of the ventral glands, but by the color of the glands. The differences
in color are apparent in freshly preserved specimens. With the exception
of _Leptodactylus_ from northwestern México, specimens of _melanonotus_
from throughout México and northern Central America have yellow or
yellowish brown glands. Specimens from northwestern México have black or
brownish black glands that are conspicuously darker than those found in
_melanonotus_. Examination of 653 preserved specimens of _Leptodactylus
melanonotus_ from México and Guatemala has failed to reveal specimens
with black ventral glands, like those found in specimens from
northwestern México, to which the name _Leptodactylus occidentalis_ has
been applied. Furthermore, in _melanonotus_ the glands are less distinct
and more extensive than in _occidentalis_; in the latter species glands
are absent from the throat and midventral area, where they often are
present in _melanonotus_ (Fig. 7).

In some individuals of both species collected in the dry season and in
some collected in the rainy (breeding) season the glands are absent; the
development of these glands, therefore, does not seem to be correlated
with breeding. Likewise, the glands are present or absent in either sex,
and often as not they are present in juveniles. Presence of the glands,
therefore, cannot be correlated either with sexual or ontogenetic
development. Since the glands are found in individuals from all parts of
the range, it is unlikely that there is a correlation between the
development of the glands and the environment.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. Diagrammatic view of ventral surfaces of
_Leptodactylus melanonotus_ (A) and _Leptodactylus occidentalis_ (B),
showing usual position and size of glandular areas. Approx. natural
size.]

Aside from the differences in the ventral glands, the call is different
in the two populations. The call of _Leptodactylus occidentalis_ is a
rather harsh "wack, wack, wack" as contrasted with the more nasal
"woink, woink, woink" of _melanonotus_. Sound spectrographs are needed
to analyze the differences in calls. None of the specimens of
_occidentalis_ examined approaches in size the largest individuals of
_melanonotus_; possibly the size of the frogs is another valid character
for separating the species. On the basis of the above data it is evident
that the frogs in northwestern México show certain characters that
distinguish them from _Leptodactylus melanonotus_, as it is known
throughout the rest of México. It is not known for certain that
_melanonotus_ and _occidentalis_ are sympatric. Several series of old,
poorly preserved specimens from Nayarit and Sinaloa cannot be placed in
either species, for none has visible ventral glands. _Leptodactylus
melanonotus_ is known from Acaponeta, Nayarit (AMNH 43913-25), and the
following localities in Jalisco: Barro de Navidad (UMMZ 118098), La
Concepción (UMMZ 113081), La Resolana (UMMZ 102104), and Tenachitlán
(UMMZ 113045-6). Records for _Leptodactylus occidentalis_ are: Álamos,
Sonora (AMNH 51356-65); Culiacán (AMNH 49511-9), Chele (UMMZ 110914),
and Rosario (UMMZ 113062) in Sinaloa; Ixtlán del Río (UMMZ 102108), San
Blas (UMMZ 112814, 112994, 110892, 115543), and Tepic (UMMZ 115544) in
Nayarit; Ameca (UMMZ 102106-7) and La Cofradía on the south shore of
Lago de Chapala (UMMZ 102105) in Jalisco; and Tangamandapio, Michoacán
(UMMZ 119145). From these scattered records it appears that
_Leptodactylus occidentalis_ in the southern part of its range stays in
the uplands, whereas _melanonotus_ is confined to the lowlands.


~Microbatrachylus hobartsmithi~ (Taylor)

     _Eleutherodactylus hobartsmithi_ Taylor, Trans. Kansas Acad.
     Sci., 39:355, 1937.--Uruapan, Michoacán, México.

     _Microbatrachylus hobartsmithi_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 26:501, November 27, 1940.

     Cascada Tzararacua (6); 21 km. W of Ciudad Hidalgo; 29 km. E
     of Morelia; Puerto Hondo; San José de la Cumbre (13);
     Uruapan (2); Zitácuaro.

Of six specimens from Cascada Tzararacua, five are colored like typical
_M. hobartsmithi_, having the anterior and posterior surfaces of the
thighs and the upper arms pale pink in life and a grayish brown dorsum
in preservative. The other specimen (UMMZ 94231) has in preservative a
dark brown dorsolateral line on each side enclosing a pale tan area that
extends from the snout to the vent. One specimen from 29 kilometers east
of Morelia (UIMNH 40338) and 13 specimens from San José de la Cumbre
(UMMZ 102111) do not have the prominent tarsal tubercles characteristic
of _M. hobartsmithi_. Also, in these fourteen specimens the palmar
tubercles are larger, and the dark anal patch more distinct, than in
typical _M. hobartsmithi_. Possibly these specimens, which are from the
high mountains in the eastern part of Michoacán, represent another
species of _Microbatrachylus_. However, Taylor (1940d:501) reported a
series of _M. hobartsmithi_ from the mountains 10 miles west of Villa
Victoria in the western part of the state of México.

The largest specimen from Michoacán is a gravid female (UIMNH 16104)
having a snout-vent length of 23.5 mm.

_Microbatrachylus hobartsmithi_ has been found in rocky ravines along
streams in the Cordillera Volcánica and the southwestern escarpment of
these mountains at elevations from 1450 to 2750 meters.


~Microbatrachylus pygmaeus~ (Taylor)

     _Eleutherodactylus pygmaeus_ Taylor, Trans. Kansas Acad.
     Sci., 39:352, 1937.--1 mile north of Rodriguez Clara,
     Veracruz, México.

     _Microbatrachylus pygmaeus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26:500, November 27, 1940.

     _Microbatrachylus albolabris_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 26:502, November 27, 1940.--2 miles west of Córdoba,
     Veracruz, México.

     _Microbatrachylus minimus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26:507, November 27, 1940.--Agua del Obispo, Guerrero,
     México.

     _Microbatrachylus imitator_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     28:70, May 15, 1942.--La Esperanza, Chiapas, México.

     Arteaga (328).

This large series (UMMZ 119247-8) was collected on June 22 and 23, 1958,
before the onset of the heavy summer rains. The frogs were found in a
shaded ravine at the north edge of Arteaga; they were obtained during
the day, at which time they were actively moving about in the leaf
litter along a small stream.

These frogs are all referred to _M. pygmaeus_, because this is the
earliest name available for frogs showing the variation in
characteristics displayed by this large series. The characters used by
Taylor (1936a, 1940d, 1941a, and 1942b) and Smith and Taylor (1948) to
distinguish the various species of _Microbatrachylus_ include color
pattern, relative length of the hind limb, presence and position of
dorsal dermal folds or pustules, relative size of inner and outer
metatarsal tubercles, and the number of palmar tubercles. All specimens
from Arteaga have two palmar tubercles; the inner and outer metatarsal
tubercles are subequal in size. Furthermore, aside from sexual
difference, there is little variation in the relative length of the hind
limbs (Table 3). However, many color patterns do exist in the series;
each of these color patterns is described below.


TABLE 3.--SNOUT-VENT LENGTH EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TIBIA LENGTH IN
ANIMALS OF SIX COLOR PATTERNS OF MICROBATRACHYLUS PYGMAEUS. (LETTERS
REFER TO THE VARIANTS HAVING THE COLOR PATTERN DISCUSSED IMMEDIATELY
BELOW)

+------------+-----------+---------+---------+----+--------+
|            |           | Number  |  Range  |    | Twice  |
| Color      |    Sex    |   of    |   of    |Mean|standard|
|Pattern     |           |specimens|variation|    | error  |
|            |           |         |         |    |of mean |
+------------+-----------+---------+---------+----+--------+
|     A      |    Male   |   25    |51.4-57.5|55.2|  3.34  |
|            |   Female  |   25    |49.3-54.9|51.6|  3.12  |
|     B      |    Male   |   20    |51.0-57.1|55.4|  2.44  |
|            |   Female  |   21    |47.3-54.9|51.2|  3.52  |
|     C      |    Male   |    6    |54.5-56.2|55.2|  ....  |
|            |   Female  |    6    |50.0-52.9|51.6|  ....  |
|     D      |    Male   |   17    |52.9-58.2|55.4|  2.64  |
|            |   Female  |   14    |48.5-56.6|52.1|  4.16  |
|     E      |    Male   |   10    |50.9-56.9|55.1|  3.40  |
|            |   Female  |    7    |49.6-54.5|51.6|  ....  |
|     F      |   Female  |    2    |51.9-52.6|52.3|  ....  |
+------------+-----------+---------+---------+----+--------+

A.--225 specimens: Dorsum mottled brown and cream, usually with a dark
spot between the eyes and one or two dark V-shaped marks with the apex
anteriorly on the back; 55 of these have a narrow cream-colored line
from the tip of the snout to the vent and thence onto the posterior
surfaces of the thighs. All are pustulate above; in most specimens the
pustules form no pattern, but in some they tend to form a V in the
scapular region.

B.--41 specimens: Dorsum pale tan or cream-color with brown mottling on
flanks; a brown interorbital bar and a brown chevron in scapular region.
Dorsum irregularly pustulate; in some specimens the pustules tend to
form a V in the scapular region.

C.--12 specimens: Dorsum colored like "A", but having a broad yellow
stripe narrowly bordered by black from the tip of the snout to the vent;
in some specimens there is a narrow yellow stripe on the posterior
surfaces of the thighs. The dorsum is irregularly pustulate.

D.--31 specimens: Dorsum variably streaked with cream-color or pale tan
and brown; usually a broad cream-colored stripe from eyelid to groin
bordered laterally by a somewhat narrower brown stripe; middorsal area
cream-color and separated from dorsolateral cream-colored stripe by a
brown stripe, or middorsal area brown with a cream-colored or yellow,
narrow stripe from tip of snout to vent; a dark stripe from tympanum to
flank; dorsal surfaces of heels creamy white to pale orange; anal patch
brown. A dermal ridge from posterior edge of eyelid to rump; another
ridge extends posteromedially from the eyelid; scattered pustules on the
dorsum in some specimens.

E.--17 specimens: A narrow dark stripe from snout, through nostril and
eye, over tympanum, to vent, enclosing a unicolor dorsum (reddish tan to
yellowish tan in life); heels pale tan or yellow above; anal patch
black. A faint dermal ridge from posterior edge of eyelid to rump, or
part way to rump.

F.--2 specimens: Mottled brown and cream-color above; upper lips and
upper arms white. A dermal fold from posterior edge of eyelid to rump;
scattered pustules on dorsum.

Some of these color variants are assignable to names proposed by Taylor:
"A" and "B" undoubtedly are _M. pygmaeus_ (Taylor, 1936a); "C" probably
is _M. pygmaeus_; "D" is referable to _M. minimus_ (Taylor, 1940d) in
most characteristics, although the coloration is more nearly like that
of _M. lineatissimus_ (Taylor, 1941a), a larger species characterized by
a relatively long hind limb; "E" apparently is _M. imitator_ (Taylor,
1942b); "F" is _M. albolabris_ (Taylor, 1940d). Examination of series of
these frogs from other parts of México shows a similar composition of
color variants. Of 78 specimens from the Río Sarabia and the village of
Sarabia in Oaxaca (UMMZ 115428-37), 57 are "A," six are "D," three are
"E," and 12 are "F"; of 22 specimens from Teapa, Tabasco (UMMZ 113829),
11 are "A," five are "D," two are "E," and four are "F"; of 33 specimens
from Potrero Viejo, Veracruz (USNM 115447-58, 115461-71, 116840-2,
116864-70), ten are "A," 13 are "E," and ten are "F"; of 31 specimens
from La Esperanza, Chiapas (USNM 115477-9, 116827-39, 116849-63), 28 are
"A" and four are "F."

It is highly doubtful if these color variants are actually distinct
species. Goin (1950 and 1954) in his studies of inheritance of color
pattern in West Indian species of the genus _Eleutherodactylus_ has
shown that similar color pattern variants come from the same clutch of
eggs; furthermore, Goin has worked out the genetic ratios of certain of
these variants. Heathwole (_in litt._) obtained "normal" specimens and
individuals having a broad middorsal stripe ("C" in figure 9) from a
clutch of eggs of _Eleutherodactylus gollmeri_. The presence of a broad
middorsal yellow stripe is common in _Eleutherodactylus rugulosus_.

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of variability in color pattern in
Mexican eleutherodactylids is the parallelism between members of the
_Eleutherodactylus rhodopis_-group and some members of
_Microbatrachylus_. In the former group there are white-lipped
individuals (_Eleutherodactylus beatae_ Boulenger), individuals having a
unicolor reddish or yellowish dorsum (_E. dorsoconcolor_ Taylor), and
individuals having a dorsal pattern of irregular longitudinal brown and
cream-colored streaks (_E. venustus_ Günther). In the humid forests of
southern Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, and Chiapas members of both groups
occur sympatrically. A proper understanding of the evolutionary
significance of these variants in the two groups, as well as proper
allocation of the presently recognized species, must await experimental
evidence based on studies of the inheritance of color pattern.
Nevertheless, at present it is apparent that certain characters,
especially the nature of the dermal folds and pustules, and the color
pattern, are of little taxonomic value in distinguishing "species" of
_Microbatrachylus_. The data derived from a study of the large series
from Arteaga, together with that from the other series examined,
suggests that _Microbatrachylus albolabris_, _imitator_, _minimus_, and
_pygmaeus_ are morphotypes of one species. Of these names, _pygmaeus_ is
the oldest. Consequently _Microbatrachylus pygmaeus_ has been used here
for the series from Arteaga.

Although _Microbatrachylus hobartsmithi_, a species distinguished from
all of the above by the presence of tubercles on the outer edge of the
tarsus, is known from Michoacán northward into Nayarit,
_Microbatrachylus pygmaeus_ previously has not been known north of
Guerrero, where it occurs in habitats similar to that in which it was
collected at Arteaga.


~Eleutherodactylus augusti cactorum~ Taylor

     _Eleutherodactylus cactorum_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     25:391, July 10, 1939.--20 miles northwest of Tehuacán,
     Puebla, México.

     _Eleutherodactylus augusti cactorum_, Zweifel, Amer. Mus.
     Novitates, 1813:20, December 23, 1956.

     Cherán; Coalcomán; Uruapan.

The few specimens indicate that this species occurs at moderate to high
elevations in the state. The specimens from Cherán and Uruapan were
obtained in pine forests; the specimen from Coalcomán was found on a
rocky hillside covered with dense forest and located about 100 meters
below the lower limits of the pine forest in the area. A specimen from
Rancho Reparto (elevation 1850 meters) on the west slope of Cerro
Barolosa was lost.

The specimen from Coalcomán (UMMZ 104728) is a juvenile having a
snout-vent length of 25.0 mm. In life it was tan above, mottled with
olive-green. The ventral surfaces were gray; the hind limbs were
distinctly barred with yellow and brown, and the lips were barred with
yellow and black.


~Eleutherodactylus occidentalis~ Taylor

     _Eleutherodactylus occidentalis_ Taylor, Proc. Biol. Soc.
     Washington, 54:91, July 31, 1941.--Hacienda El Florencio,
     Zacatecas, México.

     Arteaga (2); Cascada Tzararacua; Coalcomán (2); 19 km. SW of
     Coire (3); La Placita (7); Los Reyes; Ostula (4); Pómaro
     (2).

The locality records for this species suggest that it is a member of a
group of animals, the distribution of which includes the western part of
the Mexican Plateau and the Pacific lowlands. In Michoacán this frog
has been collected in pine-oak forest at Cascada Tzararacua and at Los
Reyes, in arid scrub forest at Arteaga and Coalcomán, and in tropical
semi-deciduous forest on the lower Pacific slopes of the Sierra de
Coalcomán. On July 5, 1950, James Peters (1954:6) found calling males at
La Placita.

Most of the specimens are immature; four adult males have snout-vent
lengths of 30.9-33.0 (32.2) mm. In all specimens the first finger is
noticeably longer than the second; the inner metatarsal tubercle is
large, flat, and cream-colored, contrasting with the dark brown sole of
the foot. When the hind limbs are adpressed, the heels broadly overlap.
Characteristically, a dark line extends from the snout, through the eye,
above the tympanum, to a point above the insertion of the forelimb.
Usually there is a dark bar behind the tympanum, two dark brown bars
from the eye to the mouth and thence onto the lower jaw, and another
dark bar on the upper lip between the eye and nostril. One adult from
Arteaga, an adult and a juvenile from La Placita, and one juvenile each
from Coire, Ostula, and Pómaro, have the lower lip barred with dark
brown and white, and have a white stripe extending the length of the
upper lip. In life the dorsum varies from dark gray or olive-brown to
tan or reddish brown.

This species belongs to a group containing two other populations that
are currently recognized as species--_calcitrans_, known only from
Omiltemi, Guerrero, and _mexicanus_, reported from the mountains of
Oaxaca. Another apparently undescribed member of this group has been
collected in the mountains of northern Puebla. The locality records
indicate that the group inhabits the mountains on the periphery of the
Mexican Plateau, except in western México, where _Eleutherodactylus
occidentalis_ extends to the Pacific lowlands.


~Eleutherodactylus rugulosus vocalis~ Taylor

     _Eleutherodactylus vocalis_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26:401, November 27, 1940.--Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán,
     México.

     Arteaga (10); El Sabino (8); Salitre de Estopilas (3);
     Tumbiscatio (2); Tzitzio (2).

The distributional data on this frog in Michoacán indicate that it
inhabits riparian situations in arroyos and canyons in the lower slopes
of the Cordillera Volcánica and the Sierra de Coalcomán, where it has
been taken at elevations only below 1100 meters.

The dorsal color of living individuals from Arteaga varied from dark
gray and olive brown to tan and reddish brown. The iris was grayish
brown. In contrast, individuals from Agua del Obispo, Guerrero, had pale
golden eyes; specimens from Matías Romero, Oaxaca, had gold eyes heavily
flecked with gray; and individuals from Volcán San Martin, Veracruz, had
bronze eyes.

The use of the trinomial here is arbitrary. Frogs of the
_Eleutherodactylus rugulosus_ group in México (_rugulosus_, _avocalis_,
and _vocalis_) exhibit only slight differences in size, proportions, and
coloration (Duellman, 1958c:6). Furthermore, the named populations are
allopatric. _Eleutherodactylus rugulosus vocalis_, as defined by
Duellman (_loc. cit._), occurs in the foothills of the Sierra Madre
Occidental and associated ranges from central Sinaloa southward into
Michoacán.


~Tomodactylus angustidigitorum~ Taylor

     _Tomadactylus angustidigitorum_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 26:494, November 27, 1940.--Quiroga, Michoacán,
     México.

     Angahuan (6); Apo; Carapan (21); 19 km. S of Carapan (13);
     Cerro Tancítaro (12); Cherán; Corupu (14); Cuseño Station
     (14); Opopeo (3); Paracho (11); Parícutin (2); Pátzcuaro
     (3); Quiroga (59); San Juan de Parangaricutiro (16);
     Tancítaro (25); Uruapan (8); Zacapu (11).

This species is indigenous to the pine-oak forests on the southern rim
of the Mexican Plateau, and has been collected at elevations from 1500
to 2500 meters. Males have been observed to call from rocks, rock
fences, clumps of grass, and low bushes; the call is a single "peep." At
San Juan de Parangaricutiro numerous specimens were found in the daytime
beneath adobe bricks and lava on the volcanic ash derived from Volcán
Parícutin; at Paracho individuals were found by day beneath rocks in a
pine forest.

In most specimens the dorsum is dark reddish brown, and the prominent
inguinal glands are cream-color or pale orange (Pl. 3, Fig. 1). Of eight
individuals collected at Paracho, one was reddish brown, two were
pinkish tan, three were dark brown, and two were black.


~Tomodactylus fuscus~ Davis and Dixon

     _Tomodactylus fuscus_ Davis and Dixon, Herpetologica,
     11:157, July 15, 1955.--1.5 miles southeast of Huitzilac,
     Morelos, México.

     Los Cantiles (2); 28 km. E of Morelia.

The range of this species includes the Sierra Ajusco in México and
Morelos and thence westward to the Serranía Ucareo in Michoacán. The
specimen from 28 kilometers east of Morelia was found in an oak forest
on a steep hillside at an elevation of 2100 meters. One from Los
Cantiles was calling from a steep cliff at an elevation of 2200 meters
in pine-oak forest. This specimen (UMMZ 119156) in life had a pale
olive-brown dorsum with irregular dark brown mottling and transverse
bars on the limbs. The interorbital bar, the upper arms, and the tips of
the dorsal pustules were pale orange; the iris was pale grayish gold
(Pl. 3, Fig. 2).


~Tomodactylus nitidus nitidus~ (Peters)

     _Liuperus nitidus_ Peters, Monats. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p.
     878, 1869.--Izúcar de Matamoras, Puebla, México.

     _Tomodactylus amulae_ Günther, Biologia Centrali-Americana,
     Reptilia and Batrachia, p. 219, April, 1900.--Amula,
     Guerrero, México.

     _Tomodactylus nitidus nitidus_, Dixon, Texas Jour. Sci.,
     9:385, December, 1957.

     Copuyo (15); Tuxpan (8); Tzitzio (11).

One specimen from Tzitzio (UMMZ 99155) was referred to _Tomodactylus
nitidus petersi_ by Dixon (1957:390). A re-examination of this specimen,
and examination of ten others from the same locality (UMMZ 121571)
reveals that the relatively small size of the tympanum and absence of
dense ventral spotting place these specimens closer to _T. nitidus
nitidus_ than to _T. nitidus petersi_.

The specimens from Tuxpan (UMMZ 114303-4) had in life a gray to olive
tan ground color with dark olive-green markings, bright yellow thighs
with olive-green transverse bands, yellowish tan shanks with olive-green
bars, yellow groin, white inguinal glands with black markings, grayish
white belly with scattered brownish black spots in some specimens, and a
deep golden iris (Pl. 4, Fig. 1). These specimens were found calling
from bushes in a rocky field at an elevation of 1800 meters. The call is
a high-pitched "pee-ee-eep."


~Tomodactylus nitidus orarius~ Dixon

     _Tomodactylus nitidus orarius_ Dixon, Texas Jour. Sci.,
     9:392, December, 1957.--4.5 miles southwest of Tecolapa,
     Colima, México.

     La Placita (3); Pómaro.

These specimens, referred to _Tomodactylus petersi_ by Duellman
(1954b:5), were included in _T. nitidus orarius_ by Dixon (1957:392).
Color notes based on living individuals from Tecolapa, Colima (UMMZ
114312 and 116922), are: gray above mottled with brown; venter dirty
white; anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs bright yellow; iris
pale golden (Pl. 4, Fig. 2). The call is a soft "braa" usually followed
by three high notes: "braaa-eep-ee-eep." In Michoacán this subspecies
has been found only in the coastal region and the lower foothills of the
Sierra de Coalcomán, an area in which it replaces _Tomodactylus nitidus
petersi_. This is the only _Tomodactylus_ known to inhabit coastal
lowlands.


~Tomodactylus nitidus petersi~ Duellman

     _Tomodactylus petersi_ Duellman, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 560:5, October 22, 1954.--Coalcomán, Michoacán,
     México.

     _Tomodactylus nitidus petersi_, Dixon, Texas Jour. Sci.,
     9:390, December, 1957.

     Aguililla; Apatzingán (8); Cascada Tzararacua: Charapendo
     (5); Coalcomán (5); 18 km. E of Dos Aguas (6); El Sabino
     (5); La Playa (2); Jiquilpan; Uruapan (2); Volcán Jorullo;
     Zamora.

In life, specimens from Apatzingán (UMMZ 114308-9) varied in dorsal
color from grayish tan to pale brown; the dorsal markings were olive
green. The thighs and groin were yellowish orange; the iris was pale
golden, and the vocal sac was purplish gray (Pl. 5, Fig. 1).
Measurements for 13 adult males from the Tepalcatepec Valley are:
snout-vent length, 21.9-26.8 (24.3); tibia length, 8.4-9.9 (9.3); head
width, 7.2-9.2 (7.8); head length, 7.6-8.7 (8.2).

At Apatzingán and Charapendo in the Tepalcatepec Valley males were found
calling from rocks and bushes in open arid tropical scrub forest. The
call, a triple note "peep-ee-eep," is repeated once every 90 to 135
seconds. _Tomodactylus nitidus petersi_ probably ranges throughout the
Tepalcatepec Valley and surrounding foothills. Dixon (1957:392) referred
the specimens from Zamora, Jiquilpan, and Uruapan to this subspecies.
Uruapan is near the lower limits of the pine forest on the slopes of the
Cordillera Volcánica; Zamora and Jiquilpan are on a low part of the
Mexican Plateau southeast of Lago de Chapala.


~Tomodactylus rufescens~ Duellman and Dixon

     _Tomodactylus rufescens_ Duellman and Dixon, Texas Jour.
     Sci., 11:78, March, 1959.--Dos Aguas, Michoacán, México.

     Dos Aguas (14); 18 km. E of Dos Aguas (6).

Fourteen specimens from the pine-oak forests around Dos Aguas (UMMZ
118503-10, 121498-9) have reddish brown dorsal color and a narrow
cream-colored middorsal line (Pl. 5, Fig. 2). Twelve of these specimens
are adult males having snout-vent lengths of 20.7 to 24.6 (22.5) mm. One
female has a snout-vent length of 24.8 mm., and one juvenile has a
snout-vent length of 14.5 mm. Six specimens are from a region of mixture
of pine-oak forest and arid tropical scrub forest at 18 kilometers east
of Dos Aguas (UMMZ 121497, 121500). All are males having snout-vent
lengths of 18.0 to 22.6 (20.7) mm. The dorsum is tan marked with black;
the thighs are yellowish orange.

The specimens from 18 kilometers east of Dos Aguas were found on July
22, 1960, by Floyd L. Downs and John Winklemann, who collected calling
males of _Tomodactylus rufescens_ and _Tomodactylus nitidus petersi_ at
the same locality. Downs (_personal communication_) stated the call was
a single note. At Dos Aguas I heard _T. rufescens_ give two calls, one a
single "peep," the other a triple note--"pee-ee-eep."

In the higher parts of the Sierra de Coalcomán _Tomodactylus rufescens_
seems to fill the same niche as _T. angustidigitorum_ does in the
Cordillera Volcánica. At lower elevations in their respective mountain
ranges the species occur sympatrically with _T. nitidus petersi_.


~Diaglena reticulata~ Taylor

     _Diaglena reticulata_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     28:60, May 15, 1942.--Cerro Arenal, Oaxaca, México.

     Nueva Italia (3); Ostula (7).

Until recently frogs of the genus _Diaglena_ were known only from a few
specimens from southern Sinaloa (_Diaglena spatulata_) and from the
Pacific lowlands of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (_Diaglena reticulata_).
Peters (1955a) reported specimens from Ostula, Michoacán, and compared
these specimens with one _D. reticulata_ from Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, and
four _D. spatulata_ from Sinaloa. This comparison showed that the
specimens from Michoacán, although showing some minor differences from
_D. reticulata_, are closer to that species than to _D. spatulata_.
Subsequent to Peters' work, series of both species of _Diaglena_,
including additional specimens from Michoacán and from Colima, have been
collected, and a more qualified comparison is now possible.

In comparing specimens of _D. spatulata_ from southern Sinaloa (UMMZ
115322) with specimens of _D. reticulata_ from Tehuantepec, Oaxaca (UMMZ
115321), the differences noted by Taylor (1942c:60) were found to be
constant. But specimens from Ostula, Michoacán (UMMZ 104418), and five
individuals from Colima (TNHC 26379-83) were found to be intermediate in
certain characters. The skin of the dorsum in _D. reticulata_ is
granular; that in _D. spatulata_ is smooth. The skin in specimens from
Ostula and Colima is slightly granular. The dorsal ground color of _D.
reticulata_ is yellowish brown with dark reticulations; the dorsal
ground color of _D. spatulata_ is olive-green. Specimens from Ostula and
Colima most closely resemble those from Tehuantepec in coloration, but
the reticulations are more coarse, and the ground color has an
olive-green tint. _Diaglena reticulata_ also differs from _D.
spatulata_ in having a larger over-all size, slightly broader head, a
narrower interorbital distance, and a more pointed snout with a deeper
labial shelf (Table 4). The specimens from Ostula and Colima are
intermediate between _D. reticulata_ from Oaxaca and _D. spatulata_ from
Sinaloa in body proportions.

Of three specimens from the Tepalcatepec Valley (JRD 5991-3), only two
are suitable for measuring. These specimens are smaller than adults from
the coastal areas and have broader heads and snouts, but narrower
interorbital distances, than specimens in the other samples (Table 4).
The texture of the skin is like that of specimens from Ostula and
Colima. The coloration resembles that of _D. reticulata_, but the
reticulations are bold and form indistinct bands on the hind limbs.


TABLE 4.--COMPARISON OF FOUR CHARACTERS IN FIVE SAMPLES OF DIAGLENA.
(ALL DATA ARE FOR MALES; MEANS GIVEN IN PARENTHESES BELOW RANGES.)

+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|                 |         |          |   Head   | Inter-  |Internarial|
|                 |         |          |  width   | orbital | distance  |
|                 | Number  |Snout-vent|          |distance |           |
|    Locality     |   of    |  length  |----------+---------+-----------+
|                 |specimens|          |Snout-vent|  Head   |   Head    |
|                 |         |          |  length  |  width  |   width   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|     Oaxaca      |    9    |71.1-87.5 |25.4-29.1 |63.0-71.4| 11.9-13.8 |
|                 |         |  (80.7)  |  (27.9)  | (67.1)  |  (12.9)   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|    Coast of     |    5    |72.0-79.2 |24.3-27.2 |67.0-73.8| 13.7-14.4 |
|    Michoacán    |         |  (74.8)  |  (25.6)  | (71.4)  |  (14.1)   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|     Colima      |    4    |71.7-79.6 |26.1-28.6 |70.5-75.3| 16.0-17.9 |
|                 |         |  (74.8)  |  (27.4)  | (72.0)  |  (16.6)   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|  Tepalcatepec   |    2    |63.0-65.4 |28.3-32.2 |57.3-62.4| 17.0-20.2 |
|     Valley      |         |  (64.2)  |  (30.3)  | (59.9)  |  (18.6)   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+
|     Sinaloa     |   11    |71.9-81.3 |24.0-27.3 |70.5-78.1| 15.0-17.3 |
|                 |         |  (77.3)  |  (25.7)  | (73.4)  |  (16.1)   |
+-----------------+---------+----------+----------+---------+-----------+

All specimens from Michoacán and Colima more closely approach _Diaglena
reticulata_ than _D. spatulata_. The acquisition of additional
specimens, especially from the area between Sinaloa and Colima and from
Guerrero, is necessary to determine the relationships among the various
populations known at present. Both species of _Diaglena_ inhabit
tropical scrub forest; none has been found in the more humid and
tropical semi-deciduous forests. Humid forest replaces the scrub forest
in the lowlands of southern Nayarit and northern Jalisco; possibly this
forest acts as a barrier to the distribution of _Diaglena_ and thus
serves as a divider between the ranges of _D. spatulata_ to the north
and _D. reticulata_ to the south.


~Pternohyla fodiens~ Boulenger

     _Pternohyla fodiens_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser.
     5, 10:326, 1882.--Presidio, Sinaloa, México.

     Nueva Italia (2).

These specimens (JRD 5994-5) were found on the road near Nueva Italia
during a heavy rain on the night of August 25, 1960, by James R. Dixon.
Both are females having snout-vent lengths of 64.0 and 59.0 mm. They are
typical of the species as it is known from Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco,
and Colima.

These specimens constitute the southernmost record for the species,
which ranges in semi-arid habitats from southern Arizona southward along
the Pacific lowlands of México to Colima and inland on the Mexican
Plateau in Jalisco.


~Phyllomedusa dacnicolor~ Cope

     _Phyllomedusa dacnicolor_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 16:181, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima,
     México. Funkhouser, Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Stanford
     Univ., 5:37, April 1, 1957.

     _Agalychnis alcorni_ Taylor, Copeia, no. 2:31, June 2,
     1952.--Río Tepalcatepec, 17 miles south of Apatzingán,
     Michoacán, México.

     _Agalychnis dacnicolor_, Duellman, Herpetologica, 13:29,
     March 30, 1957.

     _Phyllomedusa alcorni_, Funkhouser, Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist.
     Mus. Stanford Univ., 5:30, April 1, 1957.

     Aguililla (13); Apatzingán (7); Charapendo; Coahuayana (3);
     Coalcomán (54); El Sabino; Huetamo Road (2); La Orilla; La
     Placita; Nueva Italia (4); 32 km. E of Neuva Italia (2); Río
     Cancita, 14 km. E of Apatzingán; Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S
     of Apatzingán; Salitre de Estopilas (2); Tzitzio (4).

This large tree frog has been found only in the lowlands below elevation
of about 1000 meters, usually in arid tropical scrub forest. Calling
males were heard on rainy nights throughout the rainy season; in nearly
every instance both males and females were found in low trees and
bushes. On summer nights when there had been no rain, adults were found
sitting on bushes in the scrub forest.

At Coalcomán on July 1, 1955, a chorus was heard at midday. About forty
_Phyllomedusa dacnicolor_ were found in one guayava bush at the edge of
a recently dried pond. Individual males were calling; clasping males
were silent. The call is a barking groan. Fifteen individual egg masses
were hanging from branches and leaves in tear-drop fashion. Each egg
mass contained 100 to 350 pale green eggs, located only in the exterior
part of the clear gelatinous mass. Two composite egg masses appeared to
have been made up by egg deposition on the part of three to five females
(Pl. 2, Fig. 2).

As shown by Duellman (1957a), the characters used by Taylor (1952) to
diagnose _Phyllomedusa alcorni_ are sexually dimorphic. Funkhouser
(1957) apparently was unaware of this sexual dimorphism, for she
recognized _P. alcorni_ and _P. dacnicolor_ as distinct species.


~Phrynohyas inflata~ (Taylor)

     _Acrodytes inflata_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30:64,
     June 12, 1944.--La Venta, Guerrero, México.

     _Phrynohyas inflata_, Duellman, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 96:19, February 1, 1956.

     _Phrynohyas corasterias_ Shannon and Humphrey,
     Herpetologica, 13:15, March 30, 1957.--4.8 miles east of San
     Blas, Nayarit, México.

     Barranca de Bejuco.

One specimen of this large species was collected in 1951; it was found
on a low branch in tropical semi-deciduous forest at an elevation of 65
meters. In life there were olive-gray blotches on a pale gray dorsum;
the iris was a dark golden color.

This species, which is known from only a few specimens, seems to be
restricted to the coastal lowlands and low foothills from Guerrero
northward to Nayarit. Shannon and Humphrey (1957) described _Phrynohyas
corasterias_ from Nayarit. Their description was based on a small female
having a snout-vent length of 34.4 mm. The new species was diagnosed as
differing from _P. inflata_ in having less webbing on the feet, a poorly
developed supratympanic fold, a more pustulate dorsum, and marked
differences in dorsal pattern, color, and nature of antebrachial
banding. The significance of the webbing was questioned by Shannon and
Humphrey. The nature of the supratympanic fold and dorsal pustules
changes with age (Duellman, 1956a:31). _Phrynohyas inflata_ is known to
attain a snout-vent length of 95 mm. Dermal structures that undergo
ontogenetic change are of little importance in comparing a juvenile with
a large adult. The only significant difference in color pattern between
_P. inflata_ and _P. corasterias_ is the presence of wide transverse
bands on the limbs of the latter. In this respect _P. corasterias_
approaches _P. latifasciata_, a species known only from two specimens
from southern Sinaloa. The acquisition of additional specimens from
Jalisco, Nayarit, and Sinaloa may show that _P. inflata_ and _P.
latifasciata_ are conspecific, as suggested by Duellman (1956a:21).
Nonetheless, the specimen on which the description of _P. corasterias_
was based is not sufficiently different from the known specimens of _P.
inflata_ to warrant specific recognition.


~Hyla arenicolor~

     _Hyla arenicolor_ Cope, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     ser. 2, 6:84, July, 1866.--Northern Sonora, México. Type
     locality restricted to Santa Rita Mountains, Pima County,
     Arizona, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:354).

     Agua Cerca; Cascada Tzararacua (3); Chinapa; Cojumatlán; Dos
     Aguas; El Sabino (25); El Espinal; Lago de Camécuaro;
     Lombardia (2); Tupátaro; Zinapécuaro.

Altitudinally this frog ranges from 500 to 2100 meters; although the
environments in which it has been found vary from open arid tropical
scrub forest to pine forest, it usually is found near rocky streams in
these habitats. There is great disparity in size between specimens from
the mountains and those from the Tepalcatepec Valley. Seven males from
elevations in excess of 1400 meters have an average snout-vent length of
34.7 mm.; nine from elevations below 1000 meters have an average
snout-vent length of 49.1 mm. In life a male collected at night at
Lombardia (UMMZ 112846) had dark brown spots on a grayish brown dorsum;
the groin, anterior and posterior surfaces of the thighs, and ventral
surfaces of the hind limbs and palms were yellowish orange. The belly
and tips of digits were white; the vocal sac was purplish brown, and the
iris was dark grayish gold. In contrast, a specimen obtained in the
daytime at Chinapa (UMMZ 119204) had indistinct gray spots on a pale
ashy gray dorsum; the flash colors were yellow. After dark the spots
were dark olive-brown on a grayish brown dorsum.

Two males were found calling from a rocky stream near Lombardia on July
12, 1955. The call is a nasal "ah-ah-ah-ah."


~Hyla baudini~ Duméril and Bibron

     _Hyla baudinii_ Duméril and Bibron, Erpétologie générale,
     vol. 8:564, 1841.--México. Type locality restricted to
     Córdoba, Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:346).

     Aguililla (5); Apatzingán (30); Arteaga; Buena Vista;
     Charapendo; Coahuayana; Cofradía (4); El Sabino (12); La
     Placita; La Playa; Maruata; Nueva Italia (3); 32 km. E of
     Nueva Italia (2); Ostula (4); Río Tepalcatepec, 25 km. S of
     Apatzingán (3); Salitre de Estopilas; San José de la Montaña
     (2); Tumbiscatio; Tzitzio.

This tree frog is widespread in the coastal lowlands and in the
Tepalcatepec Valley up to elevations of about 1200 meters. It is found
in numbers in the early part of the rainy season, at which time males
were heard calling from bushes and trees along ditches and temporary
ponds. The call is a loud nasal "waank-waank-waank." One individual that
was emitting a long and unusually high-pitched call was found to have
one hind limb engulfed by a _Leptodeira maculata_.

When active at night these frogs usually are pale tan to reddish brown
above with dark brown markings. A specimen found sitting on a maguey
plant in the daytime was pale ashy gray with a pale green upper lip.


~Hyla bistincta~ Cope

     _Hyla bistincta_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 17:87,
     1877.--Veracruz, México. Type locality restricted to
     Acultzingo, Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:346).

     Cerro San Andrés; Dos Aguas (2); Los Conejos (3); Uruapan
     (50).

In the Parque Nacional at Uruapan this species was found in abundance
during the day. The frogs hide in an entanglement of vines and
vegetation overhanging several small spring-fed streams. Tadpoles were
in the rocky streams, and metamorphosing young were on vegetation at the
edges of the streams.

In life the dorsum is greenish tan with brown mottling; in some
individuals the entire dorsum is dark chocolate brown. The flanks are
pale lemon yellow barred with lavender-brown. Notes on the color of a
living frog from Dos Aguas (UMMZ 119193) are: Dorsal ground color a
medium shade of brown with dark brown flecks; flanks black with silvery
white and pale yellow spots; belly pale yellowish white; throat mottled
with grayish brown; iris pale copper color.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. Tadpole of _Hyla bistincta_ (UMMZ 115231) from
Uruapan, Michoacán. × 2.]

Description of Tadpole: Body somewhat depressed; maximum width of body
slightly more than one-half of body length. Nostrils placed
dorsolaterally and directed anteriorly, situated about midway between
tip of snout and eye. Eyes of moderate size, dorsolateral in position
and directed upwards. Tail about twice as long as body, thrice as long
as deep, and tapering gradually to a rounded tip. Tail-musculature not
extending to tip of tail fin. Spiracle sinistral, lateral, and situated
at midbody. Vent dextral; the cloacal tube extending along ventral part
of tail for a distance equal to about one-eighth of body length (Fig.
8). Average body length of six tadpoles with small hind limb buds, 19.5
mm.; tail length, 38.3 mm. Mouth ventral, its width equal to about
two-thirds of greatest width of body. Lips bordered by two rows of small
papillae; row of larger papillae between upper lip and outer upper
tooth-row, similar row between lower lip and outer lower tooth-row;
laterally these rows degenerating into numerous small papillae. Horny
beaks well developed; upper beak moderately arched and deeply indented;
lower beak slightly indented. Serrations of beaks blunt and peglike,
moderately developed on both beaks, but slightly stronger on lower one.
Tooth-rows 2/3; upper rows nearly equal in length and slightly longer
than lower rows, which are subequal in length; inner upper tooth row
interrupted medially by rounded notch; inner lower tooth-row turned
downward laterally; teeth in all rows about equal in size, but
decreasing in length laterally (Fig. 9).

[Illustration: FIG. 9. Mouthparts of larval _Hyla bistincta_ (UMMZ
115231) from Uruapan, Michoacán. × 15.]

Color in formalin: pale grayish brown dorsally and laterally; pale gray
ventrally; tail-musculature brown; tail-fin translucent with scattered
melanophores most numerous on upper fin.

In most details these tadpoles resemble those of _Hyla robertsorum_
described by Rabb and Mosimann (1955).

Four metamorphosing young have snout-vent lengths of 23.0-23.5 (23.2);
a completely metamorphosed individual has a snout-vent length of 24.8
mm.

In Michoacán this stream-breeding hylid occurs at elevations of 1,600 to
2,400 meters in the Sierra de Coalcomán and in the mountains rising from
the Mexican Plateau.


~Hyla eximia~ Baird

     _Hyla eximia_ Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     7:61, October 20, 1854.--Valley of México. Type locality
     restricted to Coyoacán, Distrito Federal, México, by Smith
     and Taylor (1950a:329).

     _Hyla microeximia_ Maslin, Herpetologica, 13:81, July 10,
     1957.--3 miles northwest of Jocotepec, Jalisco, México.

     Ciudad Hidalgo (36); Cuitzeo; 29 km. NW of Jacona; Jiquilpan
     (2); Lago de Camécuaro (2); Lago de Pátzcuaro (129); Los
     Reyes; Morelia; Sahuayo (3); San Gregorio (63);
     Tangamandapio (4); Temazcal (26); Tupátaro; Tuxpan (15);
     Undameo (2); Uruapan (20); Zacapu; Zamora (27); Zinapécuaro
     (10).

More than 80 per cent of the specimens from Michoacán have brown spots
between the lateral and dorsolateral dark stripes, and more than 50 per
cent have spots between the dorsolateral stripes, at least posteriorly.
In comparison with specimens from the Valley of México, those from
Michoacán have more distinct dorsolateral stripes that extend farther
anteriorly, sometimes to the eyelid, and in this respect are more nearly
like those from Jalisco and Nayarit (Taylor, 1939b:425). Some specimens
from the western part of Michoacán possess certain characters used by
Maslin (1957:81) to distinguish _Hyla microeximia_ from _H. eximia_;
nevertheless, the variation is such that two species cannot be
distinguished in Michoacán. Four series of freshly preserved specimens
have been studied in detail; in the discussion below they are arranged
from west to east; the measurement is for snout-vent length of ten males
from each sample:

     _Zamora._--Twenty-two specimens (UMMZ 102083), 24.0-27.6
     (26.1) mm. Dorsolateral dark stripe, or row of dashes,
     present in all specimens; dark spots in lateral and dorsal
     green fields; lateral dark stripe confluent with
     dorsolateral stripe posteriorly in 18 specimens; white line
     not extending to groin.

     _Temazcal._--Thirty-five specimens (UMMZ 119162), 26.5-31.1
     (28.2) mm. Dorsolateral dark stripe of row of spots present
     only posteriorly in most; both dorsolateral stripes and
     dorsal spots lacking in four specimens; heavy spotting
     dorsally in three others; lateral and dorsolateral dark
     stripes confluent posteriorly in three; lateral white stripe
     extending to groin in 16 specimens.

     _Ciudad Hidalgo._--Thirty-six specimens (UMMZ 119163),
     26.4-30.9 (28.2) mm. Dorsolateral dark stripe or row of
     spots present only posteriorly in most; no brown spots in
     the green fields of many specimens; large brown inguinal
     spot in most specimens; heavy spotting dorsally in four;
     lateral and dorsolateral dark stripes confluent posteriorly
     in five; lateral white line extending to groin in most
     specimens.

     _Tuxpan._--Fifteen specimens (UMMZ 115227), 28.7-33.0 (30.5)
     mm. Dorsolateral dark stripe or row of dashes in all
     specimens; dark spots in lateral green fields, at least
     posteriorly in most; dark spots posteriorly in the dorsal
     green field in five; lateral dark stripe separated from
     dorsolateral stripe in all specimens; lateral white line
     extends to the groin in all specimens.

As can be seen from the above descriptions, the distinguishing
characters of _Hyla microeximia_--confluence of lateral and dorsolateral
dark stripes posteriorly, extent of lateral white stripe, and
distribution of dark spots dorsally--are found in individuals from all
of the populations sampled. In the samples from western Michoacán there
is a higher incidence of _microeximia_-like frogs than in those from
other parts of the state. _Hyla eximia_ is a wide-ranging species
varying greatly geographically and individually. A thorough review of
the species and related members of the _Hyla eximia_-group is necessary
before certain populations can justifiably be segregated as subspecies
or species.

In Michoacán _Hyla eximia_ has been collected in mesquite-grassland,
pine-oak forest, and cultivated areas on the Mexican Plateau from 1500
to 2300 meters; apparently it is absent from the Sierra de Coalcomán.
This is the most abundant frog on the southern part of the Mexican
Plateau; in the rainy season breeding choruses are found in temporary
pools and in the marshes adjacent to the permanent lakes.


~Hyla lafrentzi~ Mertens and Wolterstorff

     _Hyla lafrentzi_ Mertens and Wolterstorff, Zool. Anz.,
     84:235, August 25, 1929.--Desierto de los Leones, Distrito
     Federal, México.

     Cerro San Andrés (26); Opopeo (9).

In March, 1949, James A. Peters collected this species at elevations of
2400 to 2800 meters on the west slope of Cerro San Andrés. The frogs
were found beneath logs and rocks in a damp canyon in coniferous forest.
Among the juveniles in this series is a completely transformed
individual (UMMZ 102093) having a snout-vent length of 14.5 mm. Five
adults have snout-vent lengths of 36.2-39.5 (38.0) mm. _Hyla lafrentzi_
has noticeably longer hind limbs than _H. eximia_; in the former, when
the hind limb is brought forward along the body, the tibiotarsal
articulation extends to the snout. There are dark transverse bands on
the hind limbs; the dorsolateral stripe is broken into an anterior and a
posterior segment, and the latter is narrowly bordered by white in most
specimens.

_Hyla lafrentzi_ occurs at higher elevations than any other frog in
Michoacán; the locality records from throughout the range indicate that
it is restricted to pine and pine-fir forests. In these habitats it
replaces _Hyla eximia_, which inhabits the lower pine-oak forests and
mesquite-grassland on the Mexican Plateau. Ponds are absent at places
where _Hyla lafrentzi_ has been collected; possibly the eggs are laid in
streams.


~Hyla smaragdina~ Taylor

     _Hyla smaragdina_ Taylor, Copeia, No. 1:18, March 30,
     1940.--6 kilometers east of Cojumatlán, Michoacán, México.

     _Hylella azteca_ Taylor, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 56:49,
     June 16, 1943.--Tepoztlán, Morelos, México.

     Cojumatlán (30); Copuyo (7); 18 km. E of Dos Aguas (22);
     Ostula (8); Pómaro (3); Sahuayo; Salitre de Estopilas (7).

Taylor (1940a:18) diagnosed this species as having few or no vomerine
teeth, no vocal sac, a rather broad and flat head, two large tubercles
below the anus, a granular venter, and a green dorsum in life. The
specimens on which the description was based are either immature or
non-breeding individuals; all were collected from bromeliads growing on
cacti near Cojumatlán. Another small, flat-headed hylid from Tepoztlán,
Morelos, was described and diagnosed by Taylor (1943b:49) as differing
from _Hyla smaragdina_ in having a vocal sac and a broader head. This
specimen was named _Hylella azteca_. Specimens from the coastal region
of Michoacán and Colima were referred to _Hylella azteca_ by Peters
(1954:7) and Duellman (1958c:8).

Comparison of topotypic _Hyla smaragdina_ and the holotype of _Hylella
azteca_ (UIMNH 25044) with the several series of specimens from
Michoacán has resulted in the conclusion that all pertain to only one
species. Although the type series of _Hyla smaragdina_ consists of
immature specimens, the males in that series do possess vocal sacs.
Since these were not breeding individuals, the sacs are not well
developed. The characters of the anal tubercles and the relative width
of the head are of no value in separating the two species. The
apparently aestivating individuals comprising the type series of _Hyla
smaragdina_, and the type of _Hylella azteca_, which also was found in a
bromeliad, were green in life. Of the calling males found on the coast
of Michoacán, most were yellowish tan when found; two were pale green,
but soon changed to pale tan. Calling males from Copuyo and Dos Aguas
were pale yellowish tan. Therefore the color of the dorsum is of little
significance in distinguishing the two named populations.

Males of _Hyla smaragdina_ have been found calling in the months of June
and July from rocky streams; the call is a nasal "haah-haah-haah,"
repeated quickly and constantly for as long as 30 seconds. As pointed
out by Duellman (1958c:9), this breeding behavior is unlike that
suggested by Taylor (1943b:51). In Michoacán _Hyla smaragdina_ has been
found in tropical semi-deciduous forest, oak forest, and
mesquite-grassland at elevations from 150 to 1500 meters.


~Hyla smithi~ Boulenger

     _Hyla smithi_ Boulenger, Zool. Rec. Reptilia and Batrachia,
     38:33, 1902.--Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.

     Aguililla (14); Apatzingán (104); Arteaga; Charapendo (5);
     Coalcomán (11); El Sabino (44); La Playa (6); Lombardia (2);
     Nueva Italia (8); Playa Azul; Salitre de Estopilas (2).

This small hylid is abundant in the Tepalcatepec Valley to elevations of
about 1000 meters; it was found infrequently on the coastal lowlands.
Males call from bushes in and around flooded fields and ditches, from
grasses and small herbs in the water and from vegetation overhanging
small streams. The call consists of a series of short, high notes,
somewhat reminiscent of a katydid's song. In the dry season occasional
males were heard calling from irrigated fields near Apatzingán. In the
daytime individuals were found in the axils of leaves of the
elephant-ear plants (_Xanthosoma_).

In living individuals the dorsal color usually is uniform pale yellow;
often the lateral white stripe is barely visible. The vocal sac is
bright yellow, and the iris is pale gold. In some individuals there are
scattered dark brown spots or flecks on the back and upper surfaces of
limbs. Twenty males from Apatzingán have the following measurements:
snout-vent length, 22.8-26.0 (25.0) mm., tibia length, 10.7-13.6 (12.6)
mm.; head width, 7.2-8.0 (7.6) mm., head length, 7.1-8.1 (7.7) mm.


~Hypopachus caprimimus~ Taylor

     _Hypopachus caprimimus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     26:526, November 27, 1940.--Agua del Obispo, Guerrero,
     México.

     Buena Vista; Copuyo (6); Charapendo (3); Cofradía;
     Jaramillo; Jungapeo; San Salvador; Tuxpan.

Specimens of _Hypopachus_ from the Balsas drainage in Michoacán have
characters consistent with topotypic _H. caprimimus_. Eleven specimens
from the southern edge of the Mexican Plateau all have the flanks darker
than the dorsum, a distinct and continuous dark stripe from the occiput
to the groin, a large dark spot in the inguinal region, and a pair of
dark transverse stripes on the thigh and shank (Pl. 6, Fig. 1). With
the exception of three specimens from Charapendo, all have a
predominantly brown venter with round, cream-colored spots.

Peters (1954:8) referred specimens from Buena Vista and San Salvador to
_Hypopachus oxyrrhinus_. He stated that the specimen (BMNH
1914.1.28.150) from San Salvador had flanks much darker than the dorsum
and a well-defined continuous stripe from the occiput to the groin; this
specimen has the characters of _H. caprimimus_. The specimen (BMNH
1914.1.28.151) from Buena Vista resembles _H. oxyrrhinus_ in some
characters, but it is not like _H. oxyrrhinus ovis_ on the Mexican
Plateau in Michoacán. The specimen has paired transverse stripes on the
hind limbs as does _H. caprimimus_, and is here referred to that
species.

In Michoacán this species has been collected in arid tropical scrub
forest at elevations of 200 to 1800 meters in the northern foothills of
the Sierra de Coalcomán, the Tepalcatepec and Tuxpan valleys, and on the
lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica. Calling males have been found
along streams. One specimen from Charapendo was regurgitated by a
_Leptodeira maculata_.


~Hypopachus oxyrrhinus ovis~ Taylor

     _Hypopachus ovis_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 26:520,
     November 27, 1940.--Tepic, Nayarit, México.

     _Hypopachus oxyrrhinus ovis_, Shannon and Humphrey,
     Herpetologica, 14:89, July 23, 1958.

     Emiliano Zapata; 30 km. NW of Jacona (2); 10 km. NE of
     Pátzcuaro (2); Tangamandapio (16); 24 km. W of Zamora (16).

Thirty-seven specimens from the Mexican Plateau in northwestern
Michoacán agree well with the diagnosis of _Hypopachus oxyrrhinus ovis_
by Shannon and Humphrey (1958). With the exception of one specimen from
Tangamandapio, all have dark bellies extensively mottled or spotted with
cream-color. Most of the specimens have some form of an irregular,
usually broken, dark line from the occiput to the groin. In eight
specimens there is no line or linear arrangement of spots; instead the
dorsum is spotted or flecked with dark brown. The ground color of the
dorsum and flanks varies from dull reddish brown to grayish brown;
cream-colored spots are evident on the flanks and posterior surfaces of
the thighs in all specimens (Pl. 6, Fig. 2).

In comparison with 14 specimens from Quesería, Colima (UMMZ 80001-2),
individuals from the Mexican Plateau have a darker venter with bolder
markings, and a more mottled dorsum.

In Michoacán this species has been taken between 1500 and 2200 meters on
the Mexican Plateau, where it inhabits mesquite-grassland and cultivated
areas.


~Rana dunni~ Zweifel

     _Rana dunni_ Zweifel, Copeia, no. 2:78, July 15, 1957.--Lago
     de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México.

     Lago de Pátzcuaro (23); Río de Morelia, near Undameo (8).

Aside from the type series of this species, there are in the Museum of
Zoology at the University of Michigan six specimens taken from "tanks"
at the limnological station at Pátzcuaro by Paul S. Martin in 1948, and
eight specimens found in shaded ditches along the Río de Morelia by
Robert R. Miller on April 4, 1957. The Río de Morelia flows into Lago de
Cuitzeo; this drainage is separated from Lago de Pátzcuaro by a chain of
hills about 2400 meters in elevation. Dr. Richard G. Zweifel has
examined these specimens and has informed me that, although they differ
slightly from typical _Rana dunni_, they are much closer to that species
than to _Rana montezumae_.


~Rana megapoda~ Taylor

     _Rana megapoda_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 28:310,
     November 12, 1942.--Chapala, Jalisco, México.

     La Palma (8).

These specimens (USNM 113998-114005) are from the marshes along the
southeastern shore of Lago de Chapala. Five females have snout-vent
lengths of 124.0-138.1 (131.5), and one male has a snout-vent length of
110.2 mm. Two juveniles have snout-vent lengths of 49.7 and 56.3 mm. The
coloration of the juveniles is more bold than that of the adults. The
body proportions of these specimens agree with those presented by
Zweifel (1957:80).


~Rana montezumae~ Baird

     _Rana montezumae_ Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     7:61, October 20, 1854.--Mexico City, Distrito Federal,
     México.

     La Palma; 8 km. NW of Maravatio (10); Sahuayo; Tupátaro (7).

This species probably is more abundant and widespread than is indicated
by the few specimens listed above. It has been found only in the
vicinity of permanent water on the Mexican Plateau and the mountains
rising from the plateau at elevations of 1500 to 2000 meters. Its
apparent absence from Lago de Pátzcuaro cannot be explained, unless
_Rana dunni_ replaces it there.


~Rana pipiens~ Schreber

     _Rana pipiens_ Schreber, Der Naturforscher, Halle, 18:185,
     1782.--Raccoon, Gloucester County, New Jersey.

     Aguililla (2); Apatzingán (13); Arteaga; Axolotl (16);
     Camachines (2); Capirio; Cascada Tzararacua (3); Cerro San
     Andrés (6); Charapendo (4); Ciudad Hidalgo; Coalcomán (17);
     Cuitzeo (3); El Sabino (10); Jacona (3); 29 km. NW of Jacona
     (8); Jiquilpan; La Orilla (3); La Palma (5); La Playa (4);
     Lago de Chapala (3); Lago de Pátzcuaro (6); Lombardia; Los
     Conejos (67); Los Reyes (7); Macho de Agua; Maravatio;
     Morelia (5); Opopeo (3); Pátzcuaro (9); 26 km. S of
     Pátzcuaro (52); Puerto Hondo (3); Río Duero, 14 km. E of
     Zamora (13); Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S of Apatzingán (2);
     San Gregorio (38); San José de la Cumbre (5); Tangamandapio;
     Zacapu; 18 km. W of Zamora (35).

Except on the Pacific lowlands, this species is abundant throughout the
state. It has been collected from sea level to 2800 meters, the greatest
altitudinal range of any amphibian in Michoacán. It has been found
frequently in the Tepalcatepec Valley; it is not a distinctly highland
species in southern Michoacán, as stated by Peters (1954:9). One
specimen from Aguililla (UMMZ 119257) is an albino. In this specimen
there is a faint pattern on the hind limbs; otherwise the entire body is
creamy white; the eyes are pink.


~Rana pustulosa~ Boulenger

     _Rana pustulosa_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5,
     11:343, 1883.--Ventanas, Durango, México.

     Arteaga (4); 21 km. S of Arteaga; Cascada Tzararacua (3);
     Coalcomán (3); 12 km. ENE of Dos Aguas (3); El Sabino (53);
     Los Reyes (3); Tzitzio (4); Uruapan.

Although _Rana pustulosa_ seems to be absent from the Mexican Plateau in
Michoacán, it has been collected at elevations of 850 to 2150 meters on
the slopes of the Cordillera Volcánico and in the Sierra de Coalcomán.
Usually the frogs are found along rocky streams, but at Coalcomán they
were found in a hyacinth-choked old river channel, and at El Sabino, in
irrigation ditches.

In most specimens the dorsum is dark olive-brown; in some it is pale
olive-tan with dense dark brown mottling on the back and dark transverse
bands on the hind limbs.

Thirteen tadpoles (UMMZ 94271) taken from a seepage pool by a stream
near Uruapan closely resemble the description of tadpoles of this
species given by Taylor (1942b).



REPTILIA


Testudines


~Chelonia mydas~ (Linnaeus)

     _Testudo mydas_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10:197,
     1758.--Type locality restricted to Ascension Island by
     Mertens and Müller (1928:23).

     _Chelonia mydas_, Brongniart, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom., 2:89,
     1800.

     Beach between Río Motín and Río Colotlán (2); Maruata; Playa
     Azul (4).

Green sea turtles are abundant along the coast of Michoacán. Laying
females and fresh nests were found on August 6-12, 1950, July 14-16,
1951, and July 8-10, 1955. The general account of sea turtles on the
coast of Michoacán that was given by Peters (1957) is supplemented here
by my field notes on the actions of one female observed on the night of
July 14, 1951, near Maruata by Donald D. Brand and I. Because of a full
moon, visibility was excellent.

In the course of the day several _Chelonia_ were seen in the surf;
shortly after dark the first turtle was observed on the beach. Several
were observed to come out on the beach and crawl nearly to the strand
line, only to return to the sea.

At 10:20 p. m. one turtle was seen about 15 meters from the water. We
watched this turtle from some distance and observed that by 10:26 p. m.
she had moved about ten meters to a bank of sand about two meters high.
Ten minutes later she had climbed the bank and disappeared over the top
into the brush. We moved closer and remained hidden below the bank.
Although we could not see the turtle, we could hear her movements.
Between 10:37 and 10:57 p. m. the turtle dug, often flipping the dry
sand for a distance of about two meters. When this energetic digging
ceased, we moved up the bank to see that she was facing inland and
sitting in a depression about one and one-half meters in diameter and 30
centimeters in depth. She had cleaned out this depression in the past 20
minutes. Between 11:00 and 11:36 p. m. she dug the nest hole by first
scooping sand with one hind flipper and then with the other; when sand
was thrown by one flipper, there was a similar, but weaker, motion by
the other flipper. At 11:36 p. m. she stopped digging. By crawling up
behind the turtle we were able to examine the nest cavity, which
measured 21 centimeters across the top and 38 centimeters deep. The
diameter of the bottom of the hole was estimated to be about 50
centimeters. At 11:40 p. m. she released the first egg; a minute later
she dropped the second. At 11:42 p. m. the third and fourth eggs were
released; these were coherent, as were the fifth and sixth eggs released
at 11:43 p. m. After this, as many as three eggs were dropped at a
time. After laying about 60 eggs, she paused for a minute and then
continued laying. By 11:55 p. m. she had laid 98 eggs; after this, the
process of deposition slowed considerably. She dropped a fragment of an
egg followed by normal eggs. At midnight she deposited a miniature egg
about 20 mm. in diameter. This terminated the deposition. Immediately
she began to cover the nest.

Within ten minutes after the last egg was deposited the nest had been
covered. The turtle first had been seen at 10:20 p. m.; judging from its
speed and its distance from the water, the turtle probably had been on
land for about ten minutes. About 25 minutes were used in crawling from
the water to the nesting site. One hour and 33 minutes were spent at the
nesting site; of this time twenty minutes were taken for egg deposition.
The turtle was not followed back to the water, but if the return trip
took approximately the same amount of time as required to travel from
the ocean to the nesting site, the total elapsed time from departure to
return to the water was about two and one-half hours.

We collected the eggs as they were deposited. There were 106 eggs, each
having a diameter of about 40 mm., plus one small egg and a fragment of
another. The turtle had a carapace about one meter in length.

From our limited observations of sea turtles and their tracks on the
beaches, and from the accounts of these animals by the residents of the
coastal region, great numbers of sea turtles use these relatively
uninhabited beaches for nesting grounds. However, the turtles do not go
unmolested. The natives capture turtles and collect their eggs. Opened
and emptied nests also showed signs of predatory activity on the part of
other mammals. In the vicinity of Playa Azul several turtles were killed
by dogs.


~Kinosternon hirtipes hirtipes~ Wagler

     _Cinosternon hirtipes_ Wagler, Naturl. Syst. Amph., p. 37,
     1830.--México. Type locality restricted to Mazatlán,
     Sinaloa, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:25).

     _Kinosternon hirtipes hirtipes_, Schmidt, Check list N Amer.
     Amph. Rept., ed. 6, p. 89, 1953.

     Eight km. W of Ciudad Hidalgo; Jiquilpan; La Palma; Lago de
     Camécuaro (4); Lago de Cuitzeo (3); Lago de Pátzcuaro (8);
     14 km. E of Zamora (4).

One specimen from eight kilometers west of Ciudad Hidalgo (UIMNH 24707)
is from the Río Tuxpan, a tributary of the Río Balsas; this is the only
record for the species from the Balsas drainage. All others are from the
lakes or rivers flowing into the lakes on the southern part of the
Mexican Plateau. This species exists in Lago de Pátzcuaro to the
apparent exclusion of the abundant and widespread _Kinosternon
integrum_.


~Kinosternon integrum~ LeConte

     _Kinosternon integrum_ LeConte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 7:183, 1854.--México. Type locality restricted
     to Acapulco, Guerrero, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:25).

     Agua Cerca (3); Aguililla; Arteaga (8); Apatzingán (7);
     Barranca de Herradero; Buenavista (20); Capirio (2);
     Charapendo (3); Chupio; Coahuayana (2); Coalcomán (169);
     Copuyo (4); El Sabino (8); Jacona; Jiquilpan (12); La Orilla
     (2); La Playa (2); Lago de Cuitzeo (27); Las Higuertas;
     Lombardia (3); Los Reyes (5); Morelia; Ojos de Agua de San
     Telmo; San Pedro Naranjestila; Tacícuaro.

Excepting Lago de Pátzcuaro, _Kinosternon integrum_ occupies all
permanent and temporary ponds, lakes, and streams below 2200 meters
throughout the state. At Coalcomán the species was in roadside ditches,
small puddles, flooded fields, a hyacinth-choked ox-bow of the Río
Coalcomán, as well as in the Río Coalcomán and its tributaries.
Specimens from Arteaga and Barranca de Herradero were found in clear
rocky streams; the one from Las Higuertas was found in a small muddy
pond in pine-oak forest.

On August 26, 1960, James R. Dixon found a copulating pair in a pool at
Capirio. The large series from Coalcomán contains juveniles and adults;
these turtles formed the basis for the study of relative growth of
plastral scutes in this species by Mosimann (1956).


~Geoemyda rubida perixantha~ Mosimann and Rabb

     _Geoemyda rubida perixantha_ Mosimann and Rabb, Occ. Pap.
     Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 548:1, November 9, 1953.--Eight
     kilometers south of Tecomán, Colima, México.

     Apatzingán (2); Coahuayana; La Placita; Punta San Juan de
     Lima.

These specimens have been discussed in detail by Mosimann and Rabb
(1953). All are from the arid tropical scrub forest; those from the
coastal regions were collected at elevations of less than 40 meters, and
those from the Tepalcatepec Valley were collected at an elevation of 335
meters.


Crocodilia


~Crocodylus acutus acutus~ Cuvier

     _Crocodylus acutus_ Cuvier, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris,
     10:55, 1807.--Santo Domingo.

     _Crocodylus acutus acutus_, Müller and Hellmich,
     Ibero-Amerik. Stud., 13:128, 1940.

     Boca de Apiza (2); Playa Azul (2).

The crocodile or "caiman" is abundant in the brackish lagoons along the
cost of Michoacán; three large adults and several juveniles were
observed at Estero Pichi at Playa Azul; others were seen at Mexiquillo
and Maruata. Residents of the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin frequently have
reported "caimanes" in the Río Balsas and Río Tepalcatepec, but the
existence of the crocodile in these rivers has not been verified by
specimens.


Sauria


~Phyllodactylus duellmani~ Dixon

     _Phyllodactylus duellmani_ Dixon, Southwest Nat., 5:37,
     April 15, 1960.--Rancho El Espinal, Michoacán, México.

     Fourteen km. SSW of Apatzingán; Capirio; Cafradía (3); El
     Espinal (3).

This species is known only from the Tepalcatepec Valley, where it has
been found in open arid situations from 180 to 500 meters. Specimens
were found in the daytime in stumps, dead cacti, and the hollow branches
of the legume, _Apoplanesia paniculata_. In life adults were pale gray
or grayish tan above and creamy white below. A juvenile having a
snout-vent length of 18 mm. had a pale orange tail with gray
cross-bands. In the adults the tail was colored like the body. The
specimen from 14 kilometers south-southwest of Apatzingán (KU 29764) and
those from Cofradía (BMNH 1914.1.28.28-30) were not listed by Dixon
(1960).


~Phyllodactylus homolepidurus~ Smith

     _Phyllodactylus homolepidurus_ Smith, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 22:121, November 15, 1935.--Five miles southwest of
     Hermosillo, Sonora, México.

     El Ticuiz (2); La Placita; Ostula (2); Pómaro; San Pedro
     Naranjestila.

These specimens have been referred to _Phyllodactylus homolepidurus_ by
James R. Dixon (_in litt._), who is currently studying the American
members of the genus. Geckos of this species have been found in tropical
semi-deciduous forest in the coastal lowlands to elevations of 500
meters. Most specimens were found beneath the bark of standing dead
trees or stumps. Two individuals from El Ticuiz (UMMZ 115102) in life
were dark gray above with brownish tubercles; the belly was a dusty
cream-color. Apparently this species does not enter the Tepalcatepec
Valley, where _Phyllodactylus lanei_ is abundant.


~Phyllodactylus lanei~ Smith

     _Phyllodactylus lanei_ Smith, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     22:125, November 15, 1935.--Tierra Colorado, Guerrero,
     México.

     Apatzingán (13); 21 km. S of Arteaga: El Sabino (53); La
     Playa; Ostula (2); Río Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (8);
     16 km. N of Tafetán.

This widespread species has been taken at elevations of less than 1100
meters in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin, where it occurs in riparian
situations in the foothills. Specimens have been collected in tropical
semi-deciduous forest at Ostula and in oak forest south of Arteaga; both
of these localities are on the Pacific slopes of the Sierra de
Coalcomán, a region inhabited by _Phyllodactylus homolepidurus_. Both
species have been collected at Ostula.

A juvenile from 21 kilometers south of Arteaga (UMMZ 118933) had
alternating black and white bands on the tail. In life most of the
lizards are dull ashy gray or grayish tan above and white below.
According to Dixon (_in litt._), one specimen from Apatzingán (UMMZ
115102) resembles _Phyllodactylus magnus_ in scutellation, but it lacks
the distinctive yellow venter of that species.

Apparently _Phyllodactylus lanei_ is restricted to rather mesic
environments in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Valley and surrounding
foothills; in the more open arid environments on the floor of the valley
it seems to be replaced by _Phyllodactylus duellmani_.


~Phyllodactylus paucituberculatus~ Dixon

     _Phyllodactylus paucituberculatus_ Dixon, Southwest. Nat.,
     5:40, April 15, 1960.--Río Cupatitzio (= Río Marquez), 6.5
     miles south of Lombardia, Michoacán, México.

     Río Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (6).

Two of these specimens (UMMZ 112692-3) were discussed in detail by Dixon
(1960:40) in his description of the species. On August 25, 1960, Dixon
collected four additional specimens at the type locality, a conglomerate
cliff along the Río Marquez. These will be reported by him in his
forthcoming study of the genus.


~Anolis dunni~ Smith

     _Anolis dunni_ Smith, Copeia, no. 1:9, May 10, 1936.--Agua
     del Obispo, Guerrero, México.

     Arteaga (3); 19 km. S of Arteaga.

Three females from Arteaga (UMMZ 119075) have snout-vent lengths of 41,
41, and 44 mm. In life the pale grayish brown dorsum was marked with
dark brown; the belly was white, and the throat was pale pink. All have
a dark interorbital bar and dark vertical bars on the upper labials. In
two specimens there are only scattered dark flecks on the dorsum; in the
third there is a dark postorbital stripe, a dark lateral stripe, and
four narrow transverse bands on the body. A male from 19 kilometers
south of Arteaga (UMMZ 119076) having a snout-vent length of 49 mm. had
in life a tan dorsum, a broad white stripe from the ear to the groin,
scattered small white spots on the dorsum, and indistinct pale
cream-colored spots on the posterior surfaces of the thighs. This male
has the dark labial bars, but lacks the dark interorbital bar, found in
the females. The large rose-pink throat fan extends to about the middle
of the belly. In all of the specimens the middorsal scales are keeled
and much smaller than the smooth pavementlike or slightly imbricate
ventrals. All have two gulars in contact with the mental, five scales
between the nasals, five scales (not including the first labials) in
contact with the rostral, and four rows of loreals. In these characters
these specimens agree well with _Anolis dunni_ from Guerrero, as
diagnosed by Davis (1954b).

Previously _Anolis dunni_ has been reported only from the vicinity of
Agua del Obispo, Guerrero, a locality situated at an elevation of about
900 meters in pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Sur. All known close
relatives of _Anolis dunni_ occur only in Guerrero: _A. taylori_ Smith
and Spieler from Acapulco, _A. gadowi_ Boulenger from Tierra Colorado,
_A. liogaster_ Boulenger, and _A. omiltemanus_ Davis from Omiltemi. The
present specimens from elevations of about 900 meters in riparian stream
vegetation and oak forest represent the northern known limits of this
group of _Anolis_.


~Anolis nebulosus~ (Wiegmann)

     _Dactyloa nebulosa_ Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana, p. 47,
     1834.--México. Type locality restricted to Mazatlán,
     Sinaloa, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:66).

     _Anolis nebulosas_, Bocourt, Mission Scientifique au Mexique
     et dan l'Amerique Centrale. Reptiles, livr. 2:77, 1873.

     Acahuato (3); Agua Cerca; Apatzingán (4); Araparicuaro (3);
     29 km. S of Ario de Rosales (3); 20 km. S of Arteaga (2);
     Barranca de Bejuco; Cascada Tzararacua (5); Cerro Tancítaro
     (13); Cherán; Chupio (5); Coalcomán (10); Cofradía; Dos
     Aguas (10); 18 km. E of Dos Aguas (3); El Diezmo; El Sabino
     (43); El Ticuiz; Jiquilpan (2); La Orilla; La Placita; La
     Playa (3); Los Conejos (2); Los Pozos; Nogueleras (2);
     Ostula; 8 km. W of Pátzcuaro (2); 8 km. NE of Pátzcuaro;
     Playa Azul (3); Río Cachán; Río Marquez, 10 km. S of
     Lombardia; Río Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S of Apatzingán; San
     Juan de Lima (6); San Pedro Naranjestila; Temazcal; Tuxpan
     (2); Tzitzio; Uruapan (74); 11 km. N of Uruapan (2); Volcán
     Jorullo; 16 km. E of Zacapu (2); 18 km. W of Zamora;
     Ziracuaretiro.

Even with the abundance of material the assignment of a specific name to
these anoles is only tentative, for definite determination between
_Anolis nebulosus_ Wiegmann and _A. nebuloides_ Bocourt is uncertain.
Bocourt (1873:75) distinguished _A. nebuloides_ from _A. nebulosus_ by
the following characters: (1) head scales keeled, not smooth; (2) snout
narrower; (3) ear opening larger; (4) supraorbital semicircles separated
by a row of small scales and not in contact; (5) dorsal scales larger
and subequal in size to the belly scales. Boulenger (1885:77) used the
same characters; Smith and Taylor (1950b:58) in their key to the Mexican
species of _Anolis_ stated that the dorsal scales are slightly smaller
than the ventrals in _A. nebulosus_ and markedly smaller in _A.
nebuloides_. Smith (_in litt._) stated that the characters of the
relative sizes of the dorsal and ventral scales were incorrect in that
key.

The application of the above criteria to specimens from Michoacán has
not resulted in the recognition of two species. The majority of the
specimens have the supraorbital semicircles separated by at least one
small scale; the head scales, with the exception of those on the snout
in a few individuals, are smooth; the dorsal scales are only slightly
smaller than the ventrals. In other characters of scutellation the
specimens are highly variable. The males in life have an orange throat
fan. Anoles of this kind have been found in Michoacán, Colima, Jalisco,
Nayarit, and southern Sinaloa. Near Oaxaca, Oaxaca, specimens were
collected that superficially resemble those from Michoacán and farther
north. These have low keels on the snout scales, dorsals somewhat larger
than the ventrals, and a pink throat fan. In ten males from Oaxaca the
size of the dorsal scales relative to that of the ventrals is 1.00:0.83;
the same ratio for 25 males from Michoacán is 1.00:1.08. In both samples
there are specimens in which the dorsal and ventral scales are about
equal in size.

Investigations by Richard E. Etheridge on the osteology of _Anolis_,
including those species here being considered, have revealed relatively
constant differences in the parasternalia and in the caudal vertebrae.
The application of Etheridge's findings to anoline systematics must
await the completion of his study.

The carination of the scales on the snout _versus_ smooth scales there
seems to be the only significant character given by Bocourt that
distinguishes _A. Nebuloides_ from _A. nebulosus_. The difference in the
color of the throat fan, which is apparent only in living individuals,
is more striking. Obviously more than one species is represented, as is
borne out by the differences in the color of the throat fan and in the
osteology, but there is uncertainty about the correct name for each
species. On the strength of Bocourt's diagnosis of keeled snout scales
in _A. nebuloides_, I am applying that name to the population in Oaxaca
and _A. nebulosus_ to the specimens from Michoacán. As arranged here,
the two species can be distinguished, as follows:

     _A. nebulosus._--Dorsal scales only slightly smaller than
     the ventral scales; snout scales usually smooth; throat-fan
     bright orange in adult males.

     _A. nebuloides._--Dorsal scales somewhat larger than the
     ventral scales; snout scales having a low keel; throat-fan
     pink in adult males.

With respect to geographic distribution, _A. nebulosus_ has been
collected from southern Sinaloa southward to Michoacán. The lizards here
referred to _A. nebuloides_ have been taken only in pine-oak forest on
the mountain slopes near Oaxaca City. Zweifel and Norris (1955:233)
reported anoles with pink throat-fans from southern Sonora; possibly
those specimens are _A. nebuloides_; I have not examined them. I have
seen several preserved specimens from the vicinity of Tehuantepec,
Oaxaca. Although they probably belong to this group, those specimens
differ from both _A. nebulosus_ and _A. nebuloides_ in their larger
size, relatively larger head, and much larger throat fan.

Aside from the minor variation in scutellation, specimens of _Anolis
nebulosus_ from Michoacán vary greatly in coloration. Usually the
females have some form of a broad middorsal pale-colored band. In life
this is dull yellow, tan, or orange. Two females from Dos Aguas are
strikingly different; one (UMMZ 119521) has a broad middorsal orange
stripe that is scalloped laterally and bordered by gray. The other (UMMZ
119081) has a narrow middorsal cream-colored line. Males usually are
unicolor brown or olive-tan; sometimes the middorsal region is darker.
Some individuals have dark cross-bands or chevrons on the dorsum. One
male from Dos Aguas (UMMZ 119080) has a cream-colored lateral stripe.

In Michoacán _Anolis nebulosus_ occurs from sea level to elevations
slightly in excess of 2100 meters, usually in areas of dense cover,
whether this be herbaceous, viney, or woody, ordinarily on the ground as
well as in bushes and trees. One was in a bromeliad growing about ten
meters above the ground. In the arid Tepalcatepec Valley anoles of this
species are most frequently found in the tangled growth along streams.
Above Uruapan they were found in pine-oak forest, and on the Mexican
Plateau between Zamora and Zacapu they were found in a bunch grass-scrub
oak association.


~Anolis schmidti~ Smith

     _Anolis schmidti_ Smith, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool.
     ser., 24:21, January 30, 1939.--Manzanillo, Colima, México.

     La Placita; San Juan de Lima.

Peters (1954:11) reported on the specimen from La Placita; another was
secured at San Juan de Lima in 1956. The latter (UMMZ 115078) is a male
having a snout-vent length of 43.0 mm. and a tail length of 70.5 mm. The
dorsal ground color is pale tan; there are five pairs of irregular dark
brown dorsolateral blotches. In life the throat fan was pale orange.
These specimens agree with those from Colima described by Duellman
(1958c:10). The distribution of _Anolis schmidti_ seems to be restricted
to the coastal lowlands from Michoacán to Nayarit.


~Basiliscus vittatus~ Wiegmann

     _Basiliscus vittatus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:373,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to Veracruz,
     Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:72).

     Apatzingán (9); Capirio; Coahuayana (5); El Cerrito; El
     Sabino (2); El Ticuiz; La Placita (3); Maruata (2); Motín
     del Oro; Ostula; Playa Azul (3).

This species has been found only on the coast and in the low
Tepalcatepec Valley. In the latter area it is restricted to riparian
situations along the larger streams. The lizard is abundant in the
mangrove swamps bordering the brackish lagoons on the coast. In July,
1955, scores of individuals were seen around Estero Pichi at Playa Azul.
Adults, especially the large males, are exceedingly wary and difficult
to collect. At all localities where they were found, the lizards were
most often seen in dense bushes, where they are well camouflaged.
Individuals of all sizes were observed to run across the surface of the
ponds.


~Iguana iguana rhinolopha~ Wiegmann

     _Iguana rhinolopha_ Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana, p. 44,
     1834.--México. Type locality restricted to Córdoba,
     Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:72).

     _Iguana iguana rhinolopha_, Van Denburgh, Proc. Acad. Nat.
     Sci. Philadelphia, 1897:461, January 18, 1898.

     Apatzingán (8); Capirio (3); El Cerrito; El Ticuiz (2); La
     Placita; La Playa (2); Maruata; Playa Azul; Río Cachán.

Like the preceding species, this lizard is always found near water. It
does not ascend the foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán, but in the
Balsas Basin it reaches elevations of 800 meters at La Playa. Large
adults are often seen in the large trees making up the gallery forests
along rivers. From high perches the lizards drop into the water with a
terrific splash. Bright green juveniles were abundant in bushes along
the Río Tepalcatepec in July, 1955.


~Ctenosaura pectinata~ (Wiegmann)

     _Cyclura pectinata_ Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana, p. 42,
     1834.--México (by inference). Type locality restricted to
     Colima, Colima, México, by Bailey (1928:25).

     _Ctenosaura pectinata_, Gray, Catalogue of the lizards...
     British Museum, p. 191, 1845.

     Apatzingán (27); between Ario de Rosales and La Playa;
     Barranca de Bejuco; Capirio (2); Coalcomán (4); El Espinal;
     El Sabino (2); El Ticuiz; Jazmin (2); La Huacana; La Placita
     (8); La Playa (3); Limoncito; Lombardia; Motín del Oro;
     Playa Azul; Río Cancita, 12 km. E of Apatzingán (2); Río
     Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (2);? Uruapan; Volcán
     Jorullo.

_Ctenosaura pectinata_ is a common lowland species that ascends the
slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán and the Cordillera Volcánica to
elevations of about 1050 meters (approximating the lower limits of the
oak forest). The record from Uruapan (USNM 10234, collected by Dugès) is
doubtful.

These large lizards are most easily observed on rock fences along roads.
Near Apatzingán innumerable individuals can be seen in mid-morning.
Later in the day, as the sun rises higher in the sky, the lizards
retreat to the shade of the crevices in the fences. The abundance of
these lizards in the Tepalcatepec Valley, together with evidence
gathered from the natives of the valley, indicates that these lizards
are seldom used for human consumption there. On the other hand, several
people in Coalcomán consider the "iguana negra" (local name for
_Ctenosaura_) to be a delicacy and serve it at every opportunity. In
early July, 1951, brilliant green young of the year were collected at La
Playa and at Coalcomán.


~Enyaliosaurus clarki~ (Bailey)

     _Ctenosaura clarki_ Bailey, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., 73:44,
     September 26, 1928.--Ovopeo (= Oropeo), Michoacán, México.

     _Enyaliosaurus clarki_, Duellman and Duellman, Occ. Pap.
     Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 598:1, February 16, 1959.

     Twelve km. SSW of Apatzingán; Capirio (7); Cofradía (3); El
     Espinal (2); 32 km. E of Huetamo; Jazmin (5); Oropeo (10);
     Rancho Nuevo; Río Cancita, 12 km. E of Apatzingán (8);
     Tepalcatepec (3); Zicuiran (6).

This species is known only from the low areas of the Balsas-Tepalcatepec
Basin between elevations of 200 and 510 meters. It is commonly found in
the open arid tropical scrub forest dominated by _Prosopsis_ sp.,
_Apoplanesia paniculata_, and _Cercidium plurifoliolatum_. Continued
collecting in the Tepalcatepec Valley has borne out the suggestions of
Duellman and Duellman (1959) concerning the distribution and abundance
of this lizard. Also, continued collecting in Colima and on the Pacific
coast has failed to reveal the presence of _Enyaliosaurus_ there.


~Phrynosoma asio~ Cope

     _Phrynosoma asio_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     16:178, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima, México.

     Apatzingán (4); San Salvador.

In Michoacán this species has been obtained only in the Tepalcatepec
Valley and on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán between 300
and 700 meters. Apparently the lizard is absent from the coastal
lowlands of Michoacán and Guerrero. The distribution of this species,
therefore, is discontinuous. One population inhabits the lowlands of
Colima and the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin inland to northern Guerrero and
Morelos; a southern population inhabits the Plains of Tehuantepec in
Oaxaca.

A juvenile from Apatzingán (USNM 47739) has a snout-vent length of 40.0
mm. and a tail length of 19.5 mm.


~Sceloporus aeneus aeneus~ Wiegmann

     _Sceloporus aeneus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:370,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to Tres Cumbres,
     Morelos, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:137).

     _Sceloporus aeneus aeneus_, Smith, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 361:6, December 15, 1937.

     Angahuan; Araparicuaro (2); Capácuaro (2); Carapan (11);
     Cherán (11); 18 km. WNW of Ciudad Hidalgo (10); Cuseño
     Station; Jeráhuaro; Los Conejos (36); Macho de Agua (7);
     Opopeo; Paracho (2); Pátzcuaro (4); Pino Gordo; 18 km. W of
     Quiroga (2); Tancítaro (49); Uruapan (14); 16 km. NW of
     Zacapu (5); between Zacapu and Zamora (2); 13 km. E of
     Zinapécuaro; 14 km. SE of Zitácuaro (14).

This small terrestrial species inhabits the pine and fir forests of the
Cordillera Volcánica between elevations of 1850 and 3100 meters;
apparently it is absent from the Sierra de Coalcomán. It seems to prefer
rather open coniferous forests in which there is a more or less
continuous cover of grasses on the ground. On warm sunny days the
lizards can be observed scurrying about in the grass; in the early hours
of the day, or on cold days, they are found beneath stones, logs, or
dead clumps of bunch grass.


~Sceloporus asper~ Boulenger

     _Sceloporus asper_ Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,
     1897:497, October, 1897.--La Cumbre de los Arrastrados,
     Jalisco, México.

     Apatzingán (3); 10 km. E of Dos Aguas; Uruapan (41).

This strictly arboreal lizard is abundant in the mixed broad-leafed
forest near Uruapan. The lizards are exceedingly wary and can be
approached only with difficulty. In life males have pale blue bellies;
the throat is pale pink. The pale gray dorsum marked with irregular
darker gray blotches blends well with the color of the tree trunks on
which the lizard lives. The one specimen from Dos Aguas was found on a
pine tree; it provides the only record for the species from the Sierra
de Coalcomán.


~Sceloporus bulleri~ Boulenger

     _Sceloporus bulleri_ Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,
     1894:729, April, 1895.--Las Cumbre de los Arrastrados,
     Jalisco, México.

     Acuaro de las Lleguas (13); Barolosa (9); Dos Aguas (61); 10
     km. NE of Dos Aguas (5).

Heretofore this species has been known only from a few specimens from
scattered localities in the Sierra Madre Occidental in southwestern
Jalisco and Sinaloa. The collection of a large series of these lizards
in virgin pine forest at elevations of more than 2000 meters in the
Sierra de Coalcomán now makes possible an analysis of variation in the
species.

Superficially _S. bulleri_ resembles _S. torquatus_, but _S. bulleri_ is
smaller, has more dorsal scales, fewer scales in the dark collar, and
fewer femoral pores. In 88 specimens of _S. bulleri_ there are 36-41
(38.7) dorsal scales and 2 or 3 (2.6) middorsal scales in the collar, as
compared with 28-31 (29.3) dorsal scales and 3 or 4 (3.4) middorsal
scales in the collar of 26 specimens of _S. torquatus_ from Uruapan. In
20 adult males of _S. bulleri_ there are 13-15 (14.3) femoral pores, and
13-16 (14.4) in 11 females; 13 males of _S. torquatus_ have 14-21 (17.3)
femoral pores, and 13 females have 15-21 (16.7). Seventeen adult males
of _S. bulleri_ have snout-vent lengths of 72-91 (82.0); ten females,
71-87 (75.7). In comparison, 13 adult males of _S. torquatus_ have an
average snout-vent length of 88.9 mm., and 13 females, 88.5 mm. In _S.
bulleri_ there is little variation in the head scales. The frontal is in
contact with the interparietal in 63, and not in 24, specimens; the
median frontonasal is in contact with the frontal in 13, and not in 74,
specimens. In 39 specimens there are two canthals, and in 48 there is
one; in 29 specimens there are three preauriculars, and in 58 there are
four.

In life adult males have a pale blue tail, bright blue belly patches, a
purplish blue throat, and pale blue lines on the sides of the head and
neck.

This species was obtained at four localities in the high mountains of
the Sierra de Coalcomán. In this mountain range _Sceloporus bulleri_
apparently replaces _S. torquatus_, a species that is widespread in the
Cordillera Volcánica and on the Mexican Plateau. At Dos Aguas and at
Acuaro de las Lleguas the lizards were abundant in the tall pine forest,
where they were found on standing pine trees, on pine logs, and on rock
outcroppings.


~Sceloporus dugesi intermedius~ Dugès

     _Sceloporus intermedius_ Dugès, La Naturaleza, 4:29,
     1877.--La Noria, near Zamora, Michoacán, México.

     _Sceloporus dugesii intermedius_, Smith, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 24:663, February 16, 1938.

     Cojumatlán (6); Jiquilpan (11); Lago de Camécuaro; Lago de
     Chapala; Morelia (23); Pátzcuaro (84); Quiroga (35); Sahuayo
     (4); Tacícuaro (2); Tangamandapio (17); Tangancícuaro (9);
     Zacapu (4); Zamora (11); Zinapécuaro (9).

This lizard is strictly an inhabitant of the Mexican Plateau, where it
is found in rocky places, sometimes in pine-oak forest, but more
frequently in mesquite-grassland. It is a terrestrial species, and is
most often seen on rock fences at elevations of 1500 to 2200 meters.

This species differs from _S. bulleri_ and _S. torquatus_ in having two
rows of supraoculars, instead of one; also it has more dorsal scales.
Twenty-six specimens of _Sceloporus dugesi intermedius_ from
Tangamandapio and Tangancícuaro have 44-48 (45.7) dorsal scales, as
compared with an average of 38.7 in _S. bulleri_ and 29.3 in _S.
torquatus_. In life _Sceloporus dugesi intermedius_ has a dull greenish
gray dorsum; in males the belly patches are bright blue bordered
medially by black, and the throat is bluish gray. The largest specimen
examined is a male having a snout-vent length of 80 mm.


~Sceloporus gadowae~ Boulenger

     _Sceloporus gadoviae_ Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,
     1905, 2:246, October 7, 1905.--Mezquititlán, Guerrero,
     México.

     Chupio; El Sabino (77); La Playa (6); Río Marquez, 10 km. S
     of Lombardia (11).

Although this species has a rather extensive range in the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin in the state of Michoacán, Guerrero, Morelos,
and Puebla, it is only locally abundant in that area. Usually these
lizards are found on rocky cliffs in which there are many crevices for
cover. _Sceloporus gadowae_ is abundant on a conglomerate cliff along
the Río Marquez south of Lombardia. Although the closely related _S.
pyrocephalus_ is abundant in the stream valley and in the hills above
the cliff, _S. gadowae_ has been found only on the cliff; few
individuals of _S. pyrocephalus_ have been observed on the cliff. A
similar situation was discovered on a much more extensive conglomerate
cliff along the Río Balsas near Mexcala, Guerrero. Near Tehuitzingo,
Puebla, where _S. pyrocephalus_ was not found, _S. gadowae_ was found on
conglomerate cliffs. Probably there is strong competition between the
two species; possibly this has resulted in the restriction of _S.
gadowae_ to isolated cliff-habitats within the extensive range of the
more widespread _S. pyrocephalus_.

In Michoacán _Sceloporus gadowae_ has been found along the lower slopes
of the Cordillera Volcánica at elevations from 250 to 1050 meters. All
of the localities from which this lizard is known lie in the arid
tropical scrub forest.


~Sceloporus grammicus microlepidotus~ Wiegmann

     _Sceloporus microlepidotus_ Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana,
     p. 51, 1834.--México. Type locality restricted to México,
     Distrito Federal, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:120).

     _Sceloporus grammicus microlepidotus_, Smith and Laufe,
     Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 48:332, December, 1945.

     Angahuari; Apo (10); Atzimba (3); Carapan (5); Cerro San
     Andrés (17); Cerro Tancítaro (18); Corupu; Cuseño Station
     (2); Jacona; Jeráhuaro (10); Macho de Agua; Mil Cumbres; 46
     km. E of Morelia; 60 km. E of Morelia (2); Opopeo (14);
     Pátzcuaro (30); Puerto Hondo (19); San Gregorio (41); San
     José de la Cumbre (8); Sierra Patamba; Tancítaro (233);
     Tupátaro; Undameo; Uruapan (180); between Zacapu and Zamora;
     24 km. SE of Zitácuaro; between Zurumbeneo and Cerro
     Garnica.

This small species of _Sceloporus_ is an ubiquitous inhabitant of the
coniferous forests from 1550 to 3100 meters in the Cordillera Volcánica.
Usually it is seen on tree trunks, but occasionally on the ground. Near
the lower limit of the altitudinal distribution of the species, as at
Uruapan, individuals sometimes are found on broad-leafed trees.
Apparently _Sceloporus heterolepis_ replaces _S. grammicus
microlepidotus_ in the Sierra de Coalcomán.


~Sceloporus heterolepis~ Boulenger

     _Sceloporus heterolepis_ Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,
     1894:731, April, 1895.--La Cumbre de los Arrastrados,
     Jalisco, México.

     Araparicuaro; Cerro Barolosa (6); Dos Aguas (13); Los
     Conejos; 11 km. N of Uruapan (3).

Although Michoacán has not previously been included in the range of this
lizard, it was first collected in the state by Gadow in 1908 (BMNH
1914.1.28.69 from Araparicuaro). The description of _S. heterolepis_
given by Smith (1939:197) can be supplemented by data on the 23
specimens now in the collections of the Museum of Zoology at the
University of Michigan. All have two canthals; there are 55 to 71 (63.6)
scales in the middorsal row; 1 to 3 rows middorsally are somewhat
enlarged and bordered on either side by a row of larger scales bearing
high keels. There are 14 to 20 (16.2) femoral pores. Eight adult males
have snout-vent lengths from 49 to 61 (58.0) mm. and tail lengths from
57 to 74 (66.0) mm.; four adult females have snout-vent lengths from 52
to 57 (55.2) mm. and tail lengths from 60 to 66 (63.5) mm. The smallest
of eight juveniles has a snout-vent length of 28 mm. and a tail length
of 32 mm. The dorsum in adults is pale grayish brown; there are three
irregular chevron-shaped dark marks and a triangular dark brown mark
above the insertion of the hind limbs; on the tail are dark brown rings.
There are scattered faint blue flecks on the flanks and narrow
transverse dark lines on the lower limbs. Males have pale bluish green
belly patches and an orange-salmon-colored throat; the belly in females
is pale orange-tan. The juveniles have a more contrasting color pattern;
the dark chevrons on the dorsum are bordered posteriorly by pale gray.

In Michoacán this species has been obtained in pine and pine-fir forests
from 1800 to 2700 meters. On Cerro Barolosa and at Dos Aguas, both in
the Sierra de Coalcomán, the lizards were found beneath the bark of
dead, standing pines. In the Sierra de Coalcomán _Sceloporus
heterolepis_ seems to fill the niche of the small arboreal _Sceloporus_
in the coniferous forest in southwestern México, a position held by _S.
grammicus microlepidotus_ in the Cordillera Volcánica; the latter
species does not occur in the Sierra de Coalcomán. Five specimens of
_Sceloporus heterolepis_ are known from the Cordillera Volcánica,
whereas 603 of _S. grammicus microlepidotus_ have been collected there.
The ecological relationships that exist between the two species in the
Cordillera Volcánica are not known.

Insofar as is known, _Sceloporus heterolepis_ reaches the southern
limits of its range in the Sierra de Coalcomán and in the western part
of the Cordillera Volcánica. Other records for the species are from the
Sierra Madre Occidental in Jalisco. Langebartel (1959) described
_Sceloporus shannonorum_ from the mountains near the Durango-Sinaloa
border; the single specimen of _S. shannonorum_ differs significantly
from _S. heterolepis_ only in having fewer dorsal scales (48). The
acquisition of additional material, especially from Nayarit and northern
Jalisco, probably will provide a basis for showing that these two
populations are conspecific.


~Sceloporus horridus oligoporus~ Cope

     _Sceloporus oligoporus_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 16:177, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima,
     México.

     _Sceloporus horridus oligoporus_, Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 24:520, February 16, 1938.

     Aguililla; Apatzingán (50); Arteaga (2); Capirio (2);
     Cascada Tzararacua; Charapendo (4); Coahuayana (3);
     Coalcomán (32); 19 km. S of Corralito; 27 km. E of Dos
     Aguas; El Sabino (55); El Ticuiz; Huetamo (2); Jazmin;
     Jungapeo (2); La Orilla (2); La Placita; Limoncito (3);
     Playa Azul (5); Tzitzio (8); Uruapan (4); Volcán Jorullo
     (2); Ziracuaretiro; Zirimícuaro (13).

All of the specimens from Michoacán seem to be typical _S. horridus
oligoporus_; none has more than six femoral pores.

Characteristically this species is found in open arid scrub forest; it
reaches its greatest abundance in rocky areas in which there are
scattered leguminous trees and bushes. It has been found in these low
trees and bushes almost as frequently as it has been found on the
ground; none has been seen in large trees or far above the ground.
Altitudinally, this species ranges from sea level to about 1600 meters.


~Sceloporus melanorhinus calligaster~ Smith

     _Sceloporus melanorhinus calligaster_ Smith, Proc. U. S.
     Natl. Mus., 92:360, November 5, 1942.--Acapulco, Guerrero,
     México.

     Aguililla; Apatzingán (18); Barranca de Herradero; Capirio
     (19); Coahuayana (4); Coalcomán (2); Cofradía (4); El
     Cerrito; El Sabino (33); El Ticuiz (3); La Placita (6);
     Lombardia (4); Playa Azul; Río Marquez, 10 km. S of
     Lombardia (2); Río Marquez, 13 km. SE of Nueva Italia (4);
     Salitre de Estopila; San Juan de Lima (2); Santa Ana;
     Tzitzio; Ziracuaretiro.

Smith (1942a:360) diagnosed _Sceloporus melanorhinus calligaster_ as
having fewer femoral pores than the other subspecies of _S.
melanorhinus_ and as having the lateral belly patches in the males
confluent in the midline. Examination of forty specimens from the
Tepalcatepec Valley and the coastal regions of Michoacán does not
substantiate this diagnosis. The number of femoral pores varies from 15
to 22 (18.9); 14 individuals (35%) had 20 or more femoral pores. Smith
(_loc. cit._) stated that _S. melanorhinus_ in Oaxaca had 18 to 27
(21.6) femoral pores and that 77 per cent of the specimens had more than
20 femoral pores. Of the 24 males examined from Michoacán, 18 have the
lateral belly patches separated in the midline. Usually they are
separated by no more than one scale, but in some individuals they are
separated by two or more scales. Although the above data minimize
certain differences between the northern and southern populations of
this species, certain of the color pattern characters seem to be
diagnostic of the subspecies inhabiting the Pacific lowlands from
Guerrero to Nayarit. Large adults of _S. m. calligaster_ have only a
faint dorsal pattern, which in the subspecies _melanorhinus_ and
_stuarti_ consists of a series of large, dark, interconnected triangles
on the back. This pattern is present in young and small adults of _S. m.
calligaster_; furthermore, in this subspecies the ventral coloration of
the males differs from that found in the more southern populations.
Adult males of _S. m. calligaster_ have a black throat, that changes to
brilliant blue posteriorly, and a large white spot medially on the chin.
This spot is present in some specimens from Oaxaca and Chiapas, but, if
present, it is much smaller and less distinct than in specimens from
Michoacán. In _S. m. calligaster_ the chest and midventral area are
orange to salmon-color.

A male from Lombardia in life was colored as follows: Dorsum grayish tan
bearing faint bluish gray flecks; chest deep salmon-orange, this color
continuing down midventral area to the somewhat paler groin; belly
patches pale blue fading to pale green laterally; throat black
anteriorly enclosing a white spot; throat blue posteriorly and bluish
green posterolaterally.

Individual lizards were observed to change in dorsal color from a pale
ashy gray to a rather dull brown. Normally, inactive individuals and
those observed on overcast days were dull brown.

_Sceloporus melanorhinus calligaster_ is found in trees in riparian
situations in the lowlands to elevations of about 1500 meters. It does
not inhabit the arid tropical scrub forest in the Tepalcatepec Valley or
on the coast, but in those areas is found in the gallery forests along
streams and rivers. The lizards are wary and live high in the trees;
they are especially difficult to locate in the rainy season, when the
trees are in full leaf.


~Sceloporus pyrocephalus~ Cope

     _Sceloporus pyrocephalus_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 16:177, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima,
     México.

     Acahuato (2); Apatzingán (142); Arteaga (4); 26 km. S of
     Arteaga (4); Capirio (6); Chinapa; Chupio; 19 km. S of
     Corralito (5); El Sabino (220); Jazmin (3); La Placita (8);
     La Playa (14); La Salada (6); Lombardia (5); Nueva Italia
     (14); Ojos de Agua de San Telmo (2); Oropeo (3); Ostula;
     Punta de San Telmo (3); Río Cancita, 14 km. E of Apatzingán
     (13); Río Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (10); Río Marquez,
     13 km. SE of Nueva Italia (3); San Juan de Lima (2); Santa
     Ana (2); Tafetan (2); Tepalcatepec (2); Tzitzio (6); Volcán
     Jorullo (3).

This small species is extremely common in the Tepalcatepec Valley and
noticeably less so on the coast. It is usually found on the ground in
rocky areas, but males frequently have been seen on the trunks of low
trees in the scrub forest. Altitudinally, it ranges from sea level to
slightly more than 1000 meters. The sexes are readily distinguished in
the field (Oliver, 1937; Smith, 1939; Duellman, 1954b). In the dry
season only males were observed in the Tepalcatepec Valley, but in the
rainy season both sexes were found in approximately the same numbers.


~Sceloporus scalaris scalaris~ Wiegmann

     _Sceloporus scalaris_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:370,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to México, Distrito
     Federal, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:137).

     _Sceloporus scalaris scalaris_, Smith, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 361:2, December 15, 1937.

     Carapan (2); Cherán; Ciudad Hidalgo; Huingo (3); Jacona (3);
     Jiquilpan (2); Lago de Camécuaro (2); Lago de Chapala; Lago
     de Cuitzeo (5); Morelia (4); Pátzcuaro (4); Queréndaro;
     Quiroga; Tacícuaro (5); Tarécuaro; Zacapu (4); Zamora (4);
     Zinapécuaro (11).

This small terrestrial species does not seem to be abundant anywhere in
the state. It sometimes is found in open pine, oak, or pine-oak forest,
but usually it is observed in areas supporting bunch grass. In such
places the lizards sun and forage on the open ground and quickly take
refuge in the large clumps of grass. Altitudinally, the species ranges
from 1550 to 2300 meters. Although _Sceloporus scalaris scalaris_ has
been found in association with _S. dugesi intermedius_, _S. spinosus_,
and _S. torquatus_, it does not seem to form any close ecological
association with any of these species. In the pine forests of the
Cordillera Volcánica _S. s. scalaris_ is replaced by _Sceloporus aeneus
aeneus_, another small terrestrial species that occurs in great
abundance throughout the coniferous forests of the Cordillera Volcánica.


~Sceloporus siniferus siniferus~ Cope

     _Sceloporus siniferus_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc.,
     11:159, 1869.--Pacific side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
     Type locality restricted to Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950b:134).

     _Sceloporus siniferus siniferus_, Smith and Taylor, Bull. U.
     S. Natl. Mus., 199:134, October 26, 1950.

     Twenty-six km. S of Arteaga; Barranca de Bejuco (2);
     Coahuayana; El Ticuiz (2); La Mira; La Orilla (2); La
     Placita (9); Maruata; Ojos de Agua de San Telmo; Ostula (4);
     Playa Azul (6); Pómaro (2); Puerto de las Higuerita; Santa
     Ana (3).

This small terrestrial species inhabits the dense arid tropical scrub
forest on the coast and lower foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán to
elevations of about 150 meters. It also occurs in the lower Balsas
Valley, but it has not been found in the scrub forest of the broad
Tepalcatepec Valley. Perhaps the large number of _Sceloporus siniferus_
on the coastal lowlands is responsible for the small number there of _S.
pyrocephalus_, another terrestrial species of about the same size. The
latter is abundant in the Tepalcatepec Valley, where _S. siniferus
siniferus_ has not been found. _Sceloporus siniferus siniferus_ is a
fast runner and difficult to collect; consequently, the small number of
specimens available is not indicative of its abundance.


~Sceloporus spinosus spinosus~ Wiegmann

     _Sceloporus spinosus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:370,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to Puebla, Puebla,
     México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:116).

     _Sceloporus spinosus spinosus_, Martín del Campo, Anal.
     Inst. Biol. México, 8:262, 1937.

     Cojumatlán (2); Huetamo Road; Lago de Cuitzeo (4); Maravatio
     (8); Tupátaro (2).

Although this species is widespread on the southern part of the Mexican
Plateau, it is uncommon in Michoacán. It has been collected only in
rather open situations in the mesquite-grassland on the plateau between
1500 and 2300 meters, where it has been found in association with
_Sceloporus dugesi intermedius_ and _S. scalaris scalaris_. Most
specimens of _Sceloporus spinosus spinosus_ have been observed on rock
fences. In this habitat the species is the larger member of a pair of
species, the smaller of which is _Sceloporus dugesi intermedius_.


~Sceloporus torquatus torquatus~ Wiegmann

     _Sceloporus torquatus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:369,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to México, Distrito
     Federal, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:126).

     _Sceloporus torquatus torquatus_, Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos.
     Soc., 22:402, 1885.

     Angahuan (31); Araparicuaro; Capácuaro (3); Carapan (11);
     Cerro Tancítaro; Cherán; Ciudad Hidalgo; Cojumatlán;
     Copándaro (2); Corupu (4); Cuseño Station (9); El Álamo;
     Jacona (6); Jiquilpan (2); Jungapeo (3); Lago de Camécuaro;
     Lago de Chapala; Lago de Cuitzeo (3); La Palma (2); Los
     Conejos (3); Los Reyes (3); Maravatio (9); Morelia (17);
     Paracho (3); Pátzcuaro (27); Pino Gordo; Queréndaro (2);
     Quiroga; Sahuayo (3); San José de la Cumbre; San Juan de
     Panangaricutiro; Tacícuaro (10); Tancítaro (200);
     Tangamandapio; Tangancícuaro (3); Temazcal (2); Tupátaro
     (5); Uruapan (136); Zacapu; Zinapécuaro (10); Zirimícuaro
     (12); Zitácuaro.

This large species inhabits the Mexican Plateau and the Cordillera
Volcánica, but not the Sierra de Coalcomán, where apparently it is
replaced by _Sceloporus bulleri_. _Sceloporus torquatus torquatus_
usually is found in pine or pine-fir forests at elevations between 1450
and 3000 meters. In many places it is almost entirely arboreal, but in
areas where there are many fallen trees or rock fences and rock piles,
many individuals have been found on the ground near the rocks or logs.
In the coniferous forests this species is associated with _S. grammicus
microtepidotus_ and _S. aeneus aeneus_.

The distinction made by Smith (1938:572) between the subspecies _S.
torquatus torquatus_ and _melanogaster_ is slight. Individuals with pale
bluish spots are found throughout the range of the species in Michoacán;
spotting is especially evident in the young. Individuals having an
incomplete nuchal collar have been found at Maravatio and at Zinapécuaro
in the northern part of the state; in this character these specimens
resemble _S. torquatus melanogaster_, which is found to the north from
Guanajuato to Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí.


~Sceloporus utiformis~ Cope

     _Sceloporus utiformis_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 16:177, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima,
     México.

     Nineteen km. S of Arteaga (2); Cascada Tzararacua (17);
     Coahuayana (3); Coalcomán (6); El Sabino (2); El Ticuiz (2);
     Ostula (3); Pómaro; Río Cachán; San Juan de Lima; Uruapan
     (26).

In Michoacán the range of this species is discontinuous. It has been
found between 1050 and 1550 meters on the slopes of the Cordillera
Volcánica, and on the coast and seaward slopes of the Sierra de
Coalcomán up to an elevation of 900 meters. It is absent from the
Tepalcatepec Valley. At Uruapan and at Cascada Tzararacua this lizard
was found on the ground in oak forest or in open pine-oak forest; on the
coast and foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán it was found on the
ground in the gallery forests along streams, and not in the scrub
forest.


~Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus~ (Schmidt)

     _Uta tuberculata_ Schmidt, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 22:4,
     December 1, 1921.--Colima, Colima, México.

     _Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus_, Mittleman, Bull. Mus.
     Comp. Zool., 91:169, September, 1942.

     Twenty-six km. S of Arteaga; Cascada Tzararacua (2); Chupio;
     Coahuayana; Coalcomán (8); El Sabino (2); Jungapeo; La
     Orilla (2); La Placita (4); Playa Azul (4); Pómaro (2); San
     Salvador (16);? Tupátaro; Uruapan (12); Tzitzio; Zamora.

The known distribution and geographic variation of _Urosaurus
bicarinatus_ in southwestern México presents a confused picture. In
general rugosity, specimens from the coastal region of Michoacán
(Coahuayana, La Orilla, La Placita, Playa Azul, and Pómaro) resemble _U.
bicarinatus tuberculatus_ to the north along the Pacific coast.
Furthermore, specimens from the coast have less stippling in the gular
region than do those from the Sierra de Coalcomán and the slopes of the
Cordillera Volcánica. Specimens from the mountains have greatly carinate
enlarged dorsals, large lateral tubercles, and heavily stippled throats;
in these characters they resemble specimens from Morelos, Guerrero, and
Oaxaca. As mentioned by Peters (1954:14), some specimens from La Orilla
and San Salvador are like _U. bicarinatus bicarinatus_ in certain
characters, and one specimen has the blue ventral patches restricted to
the sternal area, a characteristic of _U. bicarinatus anonymorphus_ of
Oaxaca and eastern Guerrero. Examination of all available specimens from
Michoacán indicates that the nature of the dorsal scales is of little
value in separating the subspecies. The specimens from Michoacán are
here provisionally referred to _U. bicarinatus tuberculatus_, because
cursory examination of specimens from several localities between Nayarit
and Oaxaca shows that there are only minor differences between the named
populations. Individuals from the northern part of the range are more
rugose and have larger blue ventral patches and less gular stippling
than those from the south.

In Michoacán _Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus_ is found in wooded
areas, not in open scrub forest, in the coastal area to elevations of
about 900 meters, and along the slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica and
the southern edge of the Mexican Plateau at elevations from 1000 to 1700
meters. The record for Tupátaro probably is erroneous, for no other
specimens of this species are known from the central plateau.
Essentially, the distribution of this species parallels that of
_Sceloporus utiformis_, a strictly terrestrial species. _Urosaurus
bicarinatus tuberculatus_ lives on tree trunks. Below 1000 meters in the
Tepalcatepec Valley _Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus_ is replaced by
_Urosaurus gadowi_.


~Urosaurus gadowi~ (Schmidt)

     _Uta gadovi_ Schmidt, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 22:3, December
     1, 1921.--Cofradía, Jalisco, México (in error) = Cofradía,
     Michoacán, México (Duellman, 1958b:49).

     _Urosaurus gadowi_, Mittleman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
     91:154, September, 1942.

     Acahuato (2); Apatzingán (56); 12-16 km. S of Apatzingán
     (12); Buenavista (7); Capirio (23); Cofradía (21); El Sabino
     (13); Guayabo; Jazmin; La Playa; La Salada (3); Nueva Italia
     (7); Rancho Nuevo; Río Cancita, 14 km. E of Apatzingán (5);
     Río Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (2); Río Marquez, 13 km.
     SE of Nueva Italia (3); San Salvador (2); Santa Ana;
     Tepalcatepec; Volcán Jorullo (3); Zicuiran (2);
     Ziracuaretiro.

Although individuals of this species have been collected at elevations
slightly exceeding 1200 meters on Volcán Jorullo and at 1100 meters at
Ziracuaretiro on the southern slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica, for
the most part these lizards are found at elevations of less than 800
meters, where they inhabit the open arid scrub forest of the
Tepalcatepec Valley, a region to which this species is endemic
(Duellman, 1958b:49). These small lizards usually are found on the
trunks and main branches of the small trees in the scrub forest; in this
habitat they are associated with _Sceloporus horridus oligoporus_, a
much larger species.

Males have a pale orange spot on the throat and a pale blue belly;
females have immaculate venters.

A specimen from Guayabo on the northern slopes of the Sierra de
Coalcomán was referred to _Urosaurus irregularis_ (Fischer) by Peters
(1954:15). I have studied this specimen (BMNH 1914.1.28.110), a female
having a snout-vent length of 46 mm., and agree with Peters that it
closely resembles Fischer's description and figure (1882: pl. 17, fig.
1). This specimen and those seen of _Urosaurus gadowi_ all have
pavementlike enlarged dorsal scales that are complete across the
vertical line. In _U. gadowi_ the enlarged dorsals usually are in four
to six irregular rows; in the specimen from Guayabo the dorsals are in
two rows. Although none of the other specimens of _U. gadowi_ examined
has only two rows of enlarged dorsals, I prefer to consider the specimen
from Guayabo as an aberrant individual of that species, rather than _U.
irregularis_. Guayabo is in the known range of _U. gadowi_. _Urosaurus
irregularis_ is known only from the type specimen in the Bremen Museum;
the type locality, according to Fischer (1882:232), is "Aus dem
Hochlande von Mexico." If an examination of the type specimen of _U.
irregularis_ shows it to be identical with _U. gadowi_, then _U.
irregularis_ would be the name for the lizards here referred to _U.
gadowi_.


~Mabuya brachypoda~ Taylor

     _Mabuya brachypoda_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 38
     (1):308, December 20, 1956.--Four kilometers east-southeast
     of Los Angeles de Tilarán, Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

     El Sabino (42); La Placita; Playa Azul; Tzitzio (3).

Previously this species has been reported from La Placita as _Mabuya
mabouya alliacea_ by Peters (1954:15). Webb (1958:1311) provided
evidence that Mexican specimens were conspecific with _Mabuya
brachypoda_, as described from Costa Rica by Taylor (1956:308). The
large series in the Taylor collection studied by Webb and listed by him
as being from Uruapan actually is part of a series collected by Hobart
M. Smith at El Sabino at an elevation of 1050 meters, 30 kilometers
south of Uruapan.

This species probably ranges throughout the coastal region of the state;
individuals from La Placita and Playa Azul were taken in dense scrub
forest near sea level.


~Scincella assata taylori~ (Oliver)

     _Leiolopisma assatum taylori_ Oliver, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 360:12, November 20, 1937.--Santiago,
     Colima, México.

     _Scincella assata taylori_, Mittleman, Herpetologica, 6:20,
     June 5, 1950.

     Twenty-one km. S of Arteaga; Ostula.

The specimen from Ostula was obtained in semi-deciduous broad-leaf
forest at an elevation of 120 meters; that from 21 kilometers south of
Arteaga was taken in oak forest at an elevation of 830 meters. Both
localities are on the coastal slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán.
Probably the species inhabits the heavy forests on the lower slopes of
these mountains. The specimen from south of Arteaga (UMMZ 119117) in
life had a tan dorsum and a bright orange-pink tail.


~Eumeces altamirani~ Dugès

     _Eumeces altamirani_ Dugès, La Naturaleza, ser. 2, 1:485,
     1891.--Apatzingán, Michoacán, México.

     Twelve km. E of Apatzingán; El Sabino (4).

One specimen of this rare species was found beneath a rock in the open
scrub forest 12 kilometers east of Apatzingán on July 3, 1955. Another
skink, presumably of this species, was seen at Capirio. The specimen
from east of Apatzingán is a male having a snout-vent length of 97 mm.
and an incomplete tail. In most respects it compares favorably with
accounts of the species given by Taylor (1936b:55 and 1936c:102). The
frontal is divided by a transverse suture; the enlarged dorsal scales
are arranged in 11 pairs anteriorly, followed by 48 unpaired enlarged
scales. The head and middorsal area are brown; there is a pale tan
stripe on the edges of the vertebral and paravertebral rows, bordered by
a dark brown stripe on the paravertebral row, which, in turn, is
bordered by a pale tan stripe on the lateral edge of the paravertebral
scale row and the median edge of the adjacent scale row. The stripes
extend from the neck to the base of the tail. The flanks are mottled
with brown and cream-color; the labials are cream-color barred by brown;
the venter is a pale cream-color.

Dugès (1891:485) described _Eumeces altamirani_ from "las regiones
cálidas del Estado de Michoacán" and subsequently (1896:480) gave
Apatzingán as a locality for the species. Presumably he had only one
specimen. In 1935 Hobart M. Smith collected the species at El Sabino on
the lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica bordering the Tepalcatepec
Valley. All of the known specimens are from this valley and the adjacent
slopes, an area to which the species apparently is endemic.


~Eumeces colimensis~ Taylor

     _Eumeces colimensis_ Taylor, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.,
     zool. ser., 20:77, May 15, 1935.--Colima, Colima, México.

     Coalcomán; Salitre de Estopila.

The species was reported by Peters (1954:16); no additional material has
been discovered. The species is known only from foothills and low
mountains at elevations between 130 and 950 meters in Michoacán and
Colima.


~Eumeces copei~ Taylor

     _Eumeces copei_ Taylor, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 46:133,
     June 5, 1933.--10 miles southeast of Asunción, México,
     México. Cerro Tancítaro (3); Zacapu.

This member of the _Eumeces brevirostris_-group has been found only in
pine or pine-fir forests at elevations from 1800 to 2700 meters. It
probably ranges throughout the high mountains of the state north of the
Tepalcatepec Valley; its apparent absence in other parts of the
Cordillera Volcánica, other than on Cerro Tancítaro, is surprising. The
species has been taken near Asunción in the state of México and at
Lagunas de Zempoala in Morelos.

In this species the lateral pale yellow stripe, which is bordered below
by dark brown, extends to the groin and onto the base of the tail. The
dorsolateral stripe is separated from the copper-colored middorsum by a
narrow brown stripe.


~Eumeces dugesi~ Thominot

     _Eumeces Dugesii_ Thominot, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser.
     7, 7:138, 1883.--Guanajuato. Type locality restricted to
     Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:169).

     Carapan (6); Cherán (5); Opopeo (2); 17 km. S of Pátzcuaro
     (3); San José de la Cumbre (2); Tancítaro (2);
     Tangancícuaro; Uruapan; Zacapu.

Individuals of this species frequently have been found beneath rocks and
logs in pine-oak, pine, or fir forests from elevations of 1550 to 1850
meters. To judge from specimens available, _E. dugesi_ probably is the
most abundant and widespread species of skink in the state.

In this species the lateral yellow stripe is indistinct and is
persistent only in the axilla; the dorsolateral stripes terminate
anterior to the hind limbs and are not separated from the tan dorsum.


~Eumeces indubitus~ Taylor

     _Eumeces indubitus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 21:257,
     November 27, 1934.--Near Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.

     Puerto Hondo.

The one specimen of this species from Michoacán was collected by Edward
H. Taylor in pine forest at Puerto Hondo, near Zitácuaro, at an
elevation of about 2750 meters (Taylor, 1935:466). The species is known
from the high mountains of eastern Michoacán, western México, and
northern Morelos.


~Eumeces parvulus~ Taylor

     _Eumeces parvulus_ Taylor, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
     46:175, October 26, 1933.--Tepic, Nayarit, México.

     El Ticuiz; La Placita; Pómaro (2); San Pedro Naranjestila
     (3).

Aside from the specimens reported by Peters (1954:17), one other
specimen was obtained at El Ticuiz. It has 22 scale rows, 3 supraoculars
in contact with the frontal, 2 postlabials, and a unicolored olive-tan
dorsum. In life the anterior dorsolateral stripes were pale pinkish tan,
the labials cream color, the throat white, and the tail pale blue. All
specimens were found in semi-deciduous broad-leaf forest at elevations
of less than 500 meters on the seaward slopes of the Sierra de
Coalcomán.


~Ameiva undulata sinistra~ Smith and Laufe

     _Ameiva undulata sinistra_ Smith and Laufe, Univ. Kansas
     Sci. Bull., 31 (1):59, May 1, 1946.--Manzanillo, Colima,
     México.

     Apatzingán (9); 19 km. S of Arteaga (3); Barranca de Bejuco
     (2); Coahuayana (6); Coalcomán (3); El Ticuiz (10); La
     Placita (2); Limoncito (3); Ostula (2); Playa Azul; Salitre
     de Estopila; San Juan de Lima (2); San Pedro Naranjestila
     (4).

Six males and six females from the Tepalcatepec Valley have more femoral
pores than do 16 males and nine females from the coastal lowlands; the
ranges and average number of femoral pores in the former are 40-50
(44.8) for males and 38-40 (38.6) for females; males from the coast have
34-44 (39.2), and females have 32-40 (36.2) femoral pores. In all
specimens the number of lamellae beneath the fourth toe varies from 26
to 33 (29.7). In life juveniles have a pale olive-tan dorsum and a
dorsolateral dark band, superimposed on which is a row of darker brown
spots. The dorsolateral band is bordered below by a narrow cream-colored
stripe. The tail is tan above and grayish white below; the belly is pale
bluish white. Adult males are brilliantly colored in life. A male having
a snout-vent length of 108 mm. had a rusty brown dorsum and bright blue
bars on the flanks separated by dark brown interspaces. The side of the
head was pale green, and the chin and throat were golden yellow. In some
specimens the throat is orange. Juveniles and subadults have dark flecks
on the brown or tan middorsal area, but these are absent in the largest
males.

This species inhabits the heavily wooded areas in the lowlands to
elevations of about 950 meters. In the Tepalcatepec Valley it has been
found only in gallery forests along streams. In both the Tepalcatepec
Valley and the coastal lowlands there is a noticeable absence of large
adults in the dry season.


~Cnemidophorus calidipes~ Duellman

     _Cnemidophorus calidipes_ Duellman, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 574:1, December 23, 1955.--Capirio,
     Michoacán, México.

     Apatzingán (56); 12-20 km. S of Apatzingán (5); 19 km. E of
     Apatzingán (5); 25 km. S of Arteaga; Capirio (57); El
     Espinal (13); Jazmin (9); 11 km. S of Lombardia; Nueva
     Italia.

This small, distinctive species of the _sexlineatus_-group of
_Cnemidophorus_ was discovered in the Tepalcatepec Valley in 1955
(Duellman, 1955); subsequent field studies showed it to be widespread in
the valley (Duellman, 1960c). One specimen (KU 29747) is from the
relatively arid, low Pacific slope of the Sierra de Coalcomán, 25
kilometers south of Arteaga. All other specimens have been taken at
elevations of 200 to 650 meters in the Tepalcatepec Valley, where the
species characteristically inhabits the open scrub forests of the valley
floor, especially the _Cercidium-Prosopis-Apoplanesia_ associations,
where there is a sparse growth of grasses. In this habitat it is most
frequently seen in association with _Cnemidophorus costatus zweifeli_
and _C. deppei infernalis_.

Aside from the characters given in Table 5, _Cnemidophorus calidipes_
differs from other species of _Cnemidophorus_ in Michoacán by possessing
a complete (or nearly so) supraorbital semicircle-series of granules; in
other species the granules seldom extend anteriorly beyond the posterior
border of the frontal.


~Cnemidophorus communis communis~ Cope

     _Cnemidophorus communis_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc.,
     17:95, 1877.--No type locality given; type locality
     restricted to Colima, Colima, México, by Zweifel (1959a:74).

     _Cnemidophorus communis communis_, Zweifel, Bull. Amer. Mus.
     Nat. Hist., 117:74, April 27, 1959.

     Aguililla (2); Apatzingán (6); 13 km. S of Arteaga (2); 19
     km. S of Arteaga (3); Capirio (3); Coahuayana (3); Coalcomán
     (44); El Ticuiz; between El Ticuiz and Ojos de Agua de San
     Telmo; La Placita (6); Pómaro (2); Río Cachán; Salitre de
     Estopila; San Juan de Lima.

The specimens from Coalcomán and the coastal localities were referred to
_Cnemidophorus sacki copei_ by Peters (1954:18) and Duellman (1954b:12).
Zweifel (1959a) referred these specimens to _Cnemidophorus communis
communis_ and pointed out the probable sympatry of _C. communis_ and _C.
costatus_ (= _sacki_ of Zweifel) in the Tepalcatepec Valley.

There is considerable geographic variation in the number of dorsal
granules around the midbody. Sixteen specimens from the coastal regions
of Michoacán have 129-146 (136.3) granules; nine from the Tepalcatepec
Valley have 124-137 (128.3), and 44 from Coalcomán at an elevation of
950 meters in the Sierra de Coalcomán, intermediate geographically
between the coast and the Tepalcatepec Valley, have 105-144 (119.7). The
number of granules in specimens from the coast of Michoacán compares
favorably with the range of 118-154 (137.8) for 34 specimens from
Colima, Colima (Zweifel, 1959a:107). Aside from the characters given in
Table 5, _C. communis communis_ can be distinguished from other members
of the _Cnemidophorus sexlineatus_-group (_calidipes_, _costatus_, and
_scarlaris_) by its relatively small post-antebrachial scales.


TABLE 5.--COMPARISON OF THE TEN SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CNEMIDOPHORUS
IN MICHOACÁN (SCALE COUNTS ARE FOR SPECIMENS FROM MICHOACÁN ONLY)

----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
                |Dorsal  |Femoral| Adult color      |  Throat   | Maximum
  Species       |granules| pores | pattern          |  color    |snout-vent
                |        |       |                  |           |  length
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_calidipes_     | 66-86  |31-47  |Light brown dorsum| Pink      |  79 mm.
                | (75)   |(39)   |with vertical blue|           |
                |        |       |bars and spots    |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_communis       |105-146 | 38-52 |Green dorsum with | Pink      | 135 mm.
 communis_      |(124)   | (44)  |six rows of yellow|           |
                |        |       |spots             |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_costatus       | 97-102 |37-43  |Cross-bars        | Pink      | 126 mm.
 occidentalis_  | (99)   |(39)   |anteriorly and    |           |
                |        |       |pale spots        |           |
                |        |       |posteriorly       |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_costatus       |91-117  |32-49  |Lateral and       |Pink with  | 132 mm.
 zweifeli_      |(106)   |(41)   |dorsolateral rows |blue spot  |
                |        |       |of spots;         |           |
                |        |       |paravertebrals    |           |
                |        |       |fused with pale   |           |
                |        |       |green middorsum   |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_deppei deppei_ |116-117 |37-38  |Green             | Black     |  93 mm.
                |(116)   |(37)   |paravertebral and |           |
                |        |       |dorsolateral      |           |
                |        |       |stripes; lateral  |           |
                |        |       |stripe broken into|           |
                |        |       |row of bluish     |           |
                |        |       |spots             |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_deppei         |91-120  |31-43  |Green             | Black     |  84 mm.
 infernalis_    |(101)   |(36)   |paravertebral and |           |
                |        |       |dorsolateral      |           |
                |        |       |stripes; broad    |           |
                |        |       |cream lateral     |           |
                |        |       |stripe; reddish   |           |
                |        |       |flanks            |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_lineatissimus  |108-140 |32-47  |Paravertebral     |Pink and   |  98 mm.
 exoristus_     |(122)   |(39)   |stripes fused with|black      |
                |        |       |yellow middorsal|           |
                |        |       |stripe; vertical  |           |
                |        |       |bars on flanks    |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_lineatissimus  |117-126 |32-37  |Eight distinct    |Bluish-pink|  96 mm.
 lineatissimus_ |(121)   |(35)   |stripes plus      |and black  |
                |        |       |partially fused   |           |
                |        |       |vertebrals        |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_lineatissimus  |126-164 |32-48  |Broad middorsal   |Pink and   | 106 mm.
 lividus_       |(148)   |(38)   |stripe;           |black      |
                |        |       |paravertebrals    |           |
                |        |       |distinct; blue    |           |
                |        |       |lateral spots     |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------
_scalaris_      | 80-92  |32-41  |Six distinct cream|Orange-pink|  95 mm.
                | (86)   |(35)   |stripes; tan spots|           |
                |        |       |in dark fields    |           |
----------------+--------+-------+------------------+-----------+----------

Although this is the largest species of _Cnemidophorus_ in Michoacán
(adult males attain a snout-vent length of 135 mm.), it is neither
widespread nor abundant. On the coastal lowlands it occurs primarily
with _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lividus_. In the coastal lowlands
there is little open scrub forest, a type of habitat that seems to be
preferred by _C. communis communis_. In the Tepalcatepec Valley, _C.
communis communis_ occurs in the open scrub forest with the more
abundant large species _C. costatus_ (subspecies _zweifeli_). Only in
the scrub forest in the Coalcomán Valley, where no other species of
_Cnemidophorus_ occurs, is _C. communis communis_ abundant.


~Cnemidophorus costatus occidentalis~ Gadow

     _Cnemidophorus communis occidentalis_ Gadow, Proc. Zool.
     Soc. London, 1906, 1:339, August 23, 1906.--Type locality
     restricted to Ixtlán, Nayarit, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:182).

     _Cnemidophorus costatus occidentalis_, Zweifel, Copeia, No.
     1:98; March 17, 1961.

     Jiquilpan (4).

Only four specimens from the extreme northwestern part of the state are
referable to this subspecies. These have 97 to 102 dorsal granules at
midbody and lack the blue gular band or spot characteristic of the
subspecies in the Tepalcatepec Valley. Probably _C. costatus
occidentalis_ ranges throughout the Chapala depression, but to the east
it is replaced by _Cnemidophorus scalaris scalaris_.


~Cnemidophorus costatus zweifeli~ Duellman

     _Cnemidophorus sacki zweifeli_ Duellman, Univ. Kansas Publ.
     Mus. Nat. Hist., 10:589, May 2, 1960.--Capirio, Michoacán,
     México.

     Apatzingán (107); Buenavista (3); Capirio (31); Charapendo
     (12); Chinapa (2); 19 km. S of Corralito (3); Jazmin (2);
     between La Playa and Volcán Jorullo (2); Limoncito (3); 14
     km. S of Lombardia (11); Nueva Italia (15); Río Marquez, 10
     km. S of Lombardia (2); Río Marquez, 13 km. SE of Nueva
     Italia; Tafetan (18); 14 km. E of Tepalcatepec (2); Tzitzio
     (11); 19 km. S of Tzitzio; Volcán Jorullo (5);
     Ziracuaretiro; Zirimícuaro.

These lizards were referred to _Cnemidophorus sacki copei_ by Duellman
(1954b:12 and 1955:6); Duellman (1960a) described the subspecies
_zweifeli_ and assigned it to _Cnemidophorus sacki_. Zweifel (1961:98)
used the specific name C. _costatus_ for the whiptails on the
southwestern part of the Mexican Plateau (_C. c. occidentalis_). Since
_occidentalis_ and _zweifeli_ are conspecific, the combination _C.
costatus zweifeli_ is used here for the population inhabiting the
Tepalcatepec Valley.

This lizard is abundant in the Tepalcatepec Valley, where it lives in
open and dense scrub forest, usually at elevations of less than 1000
meters. Throughout the valley it is found in association with
_Cnemidophorus deppei infernalis_, and in the lower parts of the valley
it also is associated with _Cnemidophorus calidipes_. Observations made
in the dry season indicate that large adults are not active at that
time.

On the coastal lowlands and in the valleys in the Sierra de Coalcomán
_Cnemidophorus costatus zweifeli_ is replaced by _C. communis communis_.
To the east in the Balsas Basin _C. costatus zweifeli_ intergrades with
_C. costatus costatus_.


~Cnemidophorus deppei deppei~ Wiegmann

     _Cnemidophorus deppei_ Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana, p.
     29, 1834.--México. Type locality restricted to Tehuantepec,
     Oaxaca, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:179).

     _Cnemidophorus deppei deppei_, Cope, Trans. Amer. Philos.
     Soc., 17:31, 1892.

     Salitre de Estopila; San Pedro Naranjestila.

This small species, which is extremely abundant on the coastal lowlands
of Guerrero, seems to be rare on the coast of Michoacán, where it has
been taken at elevations of 130 and 500 meters in open situations in
otherwise forested areas. Duellman and Wellman (1960:25) discussed these
specimens in relation to their subspecific assignment. They were
referred to _Cnemidophorus deppei lineatissimus_ by Peters (1954:18).


~Cnemidophorus deppei infernalis~ Duellman and Wellman

     _Cnemidophorus deppei infernalis_ Duellman and Wellman,
     Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 111:32, February 10,
     1960.--Mexcala, Guerrero, México.

     Acahuato; Apatzingán (227); Capirio (3); El Sabino; Jazmin;
     La Playa (6); Lombardia (6); Nueva Italia (4); Río Marquez,
     10 km. S of Lombardia (6); Río Marquez, 13 km. SE of Nueva
     Italia (10); south of Tancítaro; Volcán Jorullo (3).

This is one of the most abundant and widespread lizards in the
Tepalcatepec Valley. Throughout its range it is ecologically associated
with _Cnemidophorus costatus zweifeli_, which ranges to elevations
somewhat higher than the 1050 meters known for _C. deppei infernalis_.
This small lizard reaches its greatest abundance in grassy areas on the
floor of the Tepalcatepec Valley, where in the
_Cercidium-Prosopis-Apoplanesia_ associations it occurs with
_Cnemidophorus calidipes_.

Duellman and Wellman (1960) discussed the variation and relationships of
_Cnemidophorus deppei_, of which the subspecies _infernalis_ is
restricted to the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin.


~Cnemidophorus lineatissimus exoristus~ Duellman and Wellman

     _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus exoristus_ Duellman and
     Wellman, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 111:44,
     February 10, 1960.--Rancho Santa Ana, four kilometers
     northeast of San Salvador, Michoacán, México.

     Thirteen to 25 km. S of Arteaga (18); Capirio (19);
     Limoncito (13); Santa Ana (22).

As in _Cnemidophorus calidipes_, the distribution of this subspecies
seems to be restricted to the Tepalcatepec Valley, except in the
vicinity of Arteaga, where it occurs on the southern slope of the Sierra
de Coalcomán. As pointed out by Duellman and Wellman (1960:46), the
specimens from south of Arteaga are like those from the Tepalcatepec
Valley in scutellation and coloration, and not like _Cnemidophorus
lineatissimus lividus_ from the geographically closer coastal lowlands.

In the Tepalcatepec Valley _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus exoristus_
inhabits gallery forests along the larger streams; in this habitat it is
associated with _Ameiva undulata sinistra_. From the other species of
_Cnemidophorus_ in Michoacán, _C. lineatissimus exoristus_ can be
distinguished by the possession of seven longitudinal stripes in adults
and by the characters of scutellation given in Table 5.


~Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lineatissimus~ Cope

     _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos.
     Soc., 17:94, 1877.--Colima and Guadalajara. Type locality
     restricted to Colima, Colima, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:179).

     _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lineatissimus_, Duellman and
     Wellman, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 111:41,
     February 10, 1960.

     Boca de Apiza (4).

These specimens have 117 to 126 dorsal granules at midbody, a noticeably
lower count than that for _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lividus_ on the
coast of Michoacán, which has 126 to 164 (148). Apparently these
specimens represent immature _C. lineatissimus lineatissimus_; the
differences between these and _C. lineatissimus lividus_ from nearby
localities indicate that possibly the populations are distinct species
and not subspecies, as suggested by Duellman and Wellman (1960:41).


~Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lividus~ Duellman and Wellman

     _Cnemidophorus lineatissimus lividus_ Duellman and Wellman,
     Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 111:50, February 10,
     1960.--Maruata, Michoacán, México.

     Barranca de Bejuco (4); Boca de Apiza (2); Coahuayana (6);
     El Ticuiz (7); La Placita (11); Maruata (7); Motín del Oro;
     Ostula (5); Playa Azul (4); Playa Cuilala (2); Pómaro (2);
     Salitre de Estopila (2); San Pedro Naranjestila.

This is the most abundant and widespread species of _Cnemidophorus_ on
the coastal lowlands of Michoacán, where it ranges from sea level to
elevations of about 500 meters. In this area it inhabits dense arid
scrub forest and semi-deciduous broad-leafed forest. Both of these
habitats are continuous, or nearly so, along the lowlands and foothills
of the Sierra de Coalcomán. This in itself may explain the abundance of
_Cnemidophorus lineatissimus_ and the relative scarcity of _C. deppei_
and _C. communis_ in the coastal area, for _C. deppei_ and _C. communis_
usually inhabit more open arid scrub forest, as occurs in the
Tepalcatepec Valley. Living in the dense scrub forest with _C.
lineatissimus_ is _Ameiva undulata sinistra_.


~Cnemidophorus scalaris~ Cope

     _Cnemidophorus gularis scalaris_ Cope, Trans. Amer. Philos.
     Soc., 17:47, 1892.--Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México.

     _Cnemidophorus scalaris_, Zweifel, Bull. American Mus. Nat.
     Hist., 117:72, 1959.

     Araro (2); Jacona; Lago de Cuitzeo (42); Morelia; 21 km. N
     of Morelia (4).

Zweifel (1959a:72) assigned the small species of _Cnemidophorus_ having
a relatively low number of dorsal granules and inhabiting the southern
part of the Mexican Plateau to _C. scalaris_, which he diagnosed as
rarely exceeding 100 mm. in snout-vent length and always having an
average of less than 100 dorsal granules at midbody and usually less
than 90. Forty-two specimens from the south shore of Lago de Cuitzeo
(UMMZ 119558) have 80-91 (85.8) dorsal granules. Four specimens from 21
kilometers north of Norelia (UIMNH 6952 and UMMZ 104743) have 89, 78,
92, and 84 granules; one from Morelia (UMMZ 104742) has 78; two from
Araro (UMMZ 119522) have 80 and 87; one from Jacona (UIMNH 24703) has
88.

Since no large adult males are present in the series from Michoacán, an
adequate comparison of coloration between these and populations on the
northern part of the Mexican Plateau cannot be made. _Cnemidophorus
scalaris_ is a name applied to the lizards inhabiting the Mexican
Plateau from Chihuahua south to Puebla by Zweifel (1959a:72). It is
doubtful if all of the populations assigned to this subspecies belong
there; possibly more than one species is involved, but the paucity of
material prevents further analysis at this time.


~Heloderma horridum horridum~ (Wiegmann)

     _Trachyderma horridum_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 22:421,
     1829.--México. Type locality restricted to Huajintlán,
     Guerrero, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:193).

     _Heloderma horridum horridum_, Bogert and Martín del Campo,
     Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 109:20, April 16, 1956.

     Apatzingán; Coalcomán; La Placita; Oropeo; Parácuaro.

This species is known from elevations of less than 1000 meters in the
Tepalcatepec Valley, the Sierra de Coalcomán, and the coastal lowlands.
Specimens from Coalcomán, La Placita, and Parácuaro came from areas of
dense woods; those from Apatzingán and Oropeo might have come from
patches of dense woods in the otherwise open scrub forest of the
Tepalcatepec Valley.


~Gerrhonotus imbricatus imbricatus~ Wiegmann

     _Gerrhonotus imbricatus_ Wiegmann, Isis von Oken, 21:379,
     1828.--México. Type locality restricted to México, Distrito
     Federal, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:201).

     _Gerrhonotus imbricatus imbricatus_, Dunn, Proc. Acad. Nat.
     Sci. Philadelphia, 88:475, October 20, 1936.

     Acuaro de las Lleguas (9); Cerro Barolosa (4); Cerro
     Tancítaro (36); Dos Aguas (22); Paracho; Sierra Patamba;
     Tinguidín; Zacapu.

Specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán are noticeably different from
those inhabiting the mountains rising from the Mexican Plateau. Of 45
specimens from Cerro Tancítaro and adjacent areas on the Mexican Plateau
and in the Cordillera Volcánica, 15 have twelve longitudinal rows of
dorsal scales and 30 have fourteen rows. Of seven specimens from the
state of México, 5 have twelve rows and 2 have fourteen; of nine
specimens from central Veracruz, 8 have twelve rows and one has
fourteen; of six specimens from Hidalgo, 5 have twelve rows and one has
sixteen; of two specimens from Guanajuata, one has fourteen and the
other has sixteen rows. All of the 35 specimens from the Sierra de
Coalcomán have sixteen rows. Furthermore, these specimens have the
superciliary row extended anteriorly, so that the anterior superciliary
is in broad contact with the loreal. Specimens from Cerro Tancítaro have
a shorter superciliary row, so that the anterior superciliary is not in
broad contact with the loreal. These characters were used by Tihen
(1949:220) to distinguish _Gerrhonotus imbricatus ciliaris_ from _G.
imbricatus imbricatus_. According to Tihen, the subspecies _G.
imbricatus ciliaris_ ranges from Guanajuato and Hidalgo northward to
Chihuahua and Coahuila, whereas the nominal subspecies occurs from
Michoacán and Hidalgo southward to Oaxaca. Specimens from the Sierra de
Autlán in Jalisco are like those from Cerro Tancítaro; consequently,
there seems to be no connection between the populations of _G.
imbricatus ciliaris_ in the mountains of the northern part of the
Mexican Plateau with the _ciliaris_-like individuals found in the Sierra
de Coalcomán. The acquisition and study of additional material from
throughout the range of the species is necessary to clarify the picture
of geographic variation. Until then, I prefer to consider all of the
specimens from Michoacán as _Gerrhonotus imbricatus imbricatus_.

The largest specimen is a male having a snout-vent length of 136 mm. Two
juveniles collected in July 24, 1960, have snout-vent lengths of 36 and
42 mm. A specimen having a snout-vent length of 127 mm. and a tail
length of 145 mm. was regurgitated by a _Crotalus pusillus_, which had a
body length of 550 mm.

_Gerrhonotus imbricatus imbricatus_ is an inhabitant of coniferous
forests. In the Cordillera Volcánica it occurs from 1500 to 3500 meters
at the top of Cerro Tancítaro. In the Sierra de Coalcomán it occurs from
2100 to 2700 meters. On July 4, 1955, a pair was found in copulation
beneath a pine log at 2700 meters on Cerro Barolosa. The male was lying
on top of the female and was holding her head firmly in his jaws; the
male's tail was curled under the female's tail, so that the cloacae were
in contact.


Serpentes

~Typhlops braminus~ (Daudin)

     _Eryx braminus_ Daudin, Hist.... des reptiles, 7:279,
     1803.--Vazagapatam, India.

     _Typhlops braminus_, Cuvier, Règne animal, ed. 2, 2:73,
     1829.

     Apatzingán; Arteaga.


Both specimens known from Michoacán were collected by Gadow in 1908.
Peters (1954:20) remarked that the specimen from Arteaga probably does
not indicate a rapid spreading of the species, which most likely was
introduced into México at the time that vessels were stopping at
Acapulco from the Philippines (Taylor, 1940b:444), but instead may
indicate that pack trains from Acapulco passed through the Sierra de
Coalcomán. The occurrence of this snake along a long-used _camino_
substantiates this belief.


~Leptotyphlops bressoni~ Taylor

     _Leptotyphlops bressoni_ Taylor, Copeia, No. 1:5, March 9,
     1939.--Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán, México.

     El Sabino.

This species still is known definitely only from the type specimen
collected on the lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica at the
northern edge of the Tepalcatepec Valley. A specimen (now lost) reported
from Aguililla by Cope (1887:63) possibly represents this species (see
Smith and Taylor, 1945:21, and Peters, 1954:20).


~Leptotyphlops gadowi~ Duellman

     _Leptotyphlops gadowi_ Duellman, Copeia, No. 2:93, May 29,
     1956.--Apatzingán, Michoacán, México.

     Apatzingán.

No additional specimens of this species have been collected since the
species was described by Duellman (1956b:93). Data given with the
specimen by Gadow indicate that it came from his camp above Apatzingán
at an elevation of about 800 meters. Although the exact position of this
camp is unknown, the lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica above
Apatzingán usually support arid scrub forest at elevations below 1000
meters. Therefore, this species probably is an inhabitant of the arid
scrub forest.


~Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli~ Oliver

     _Leptotyphlops bakewelli_ Oliver, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 360:16, November 20, 1937.--Paso del Río, Colima,
     México.

     _Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli_, Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl.
     Mus., 93:445, October 29, 1943.

     La Placita (4); La Salada; Ostula.

The five specimens from the coastal lowlands are from elevations of less
than 150 meters; these were collected by Peters (1954:20); the specimen
from La Salada is from an elevation of 580 meters in the Tepalcatepec
Valley. Peters (_loc. cit._) remarked that the rostral and the tip of
the tail that were described as white by Oliver (1937:17) actually are
sulphur-yellow in life.


~Loxocemus bicolor~ Cope

     _Loxocemus bicolor_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 13:77, June 30, 1861.--La Unión, El Salvador.

     _Loxocemus sumichrasti_ Bocourt, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 6,
     4:1, 1876.--Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.

     Apatzingán (6); La Orilla; Lombardia.

As noted by Peters (1954:21), this species was not recorded from
Michoacán by Smith and Taylor (1945:27), but Gadow (1930:30) collected a
specimen at La Orilla in 1908. This specimen (BMNH 1914.1.28.124) is a
male having 235 ventrals and 47 caudals, a dark brown dorsum, and
cream-colored labials and venter. The anterior chin-shields are
considerably longer than the scales bordering the chin-shields. In these
characters this specimen agrees with the diagnosis of _Loxocemus
bicolor_ given by Taylor (1940c:447), who revived _Loxocemus
sumichrasti_ Bocourt. Of the six specimens from Apatzingán in the
Tepalcatepec Valley, three males have 243 to 253 (246.6) ventrals and 44
to 45 (44.3) caudals; three females have 238 to 247 (244.0) ventrals and
42 to 44 (43.0) caudals. Certain characters of scutellation utilized by
Taylor for separating _L. bicolor_ and _L. sumichrasti_ are inconsistent
in this series. The chin-shields are longer than the adjacent scales,
like those illustrated in _L. bicolor_ by Taylor (_op. cit._, fig. 1).
The relative lengths of the prefrontal and internasal sutures are
subequal, or the prefrontal suture is slightly longer. Thus, in these
characters of scutellation these snakes are like _L. bicolor_, but in
coloration they are like _L. sumichrasti_; the dorsal color in life was
an iridescent dark bluish gray, and the belly was pale gray or bluish
gray.

The supposed differences in scutellation between _L. bicolor_ and _L.
sumichrasti_ have been questioned by Woodbury and Woodbury (1944:360);
these authors treated _L. sumichrasti_ as a subspecies of _L. bicolor_.
As pointed out by Zweifel (1959b:5), such an arrangement is not tenable,
for, although individuals with each kind of color pattern have not been
collected together at any one locality, the over-all geographic picture
is one of sympatric distribution. Only snakes having the coloration of
_L. sumichrasti_ have been collected in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin. I
agree with Zweifel (_loc. cit._) that on the basis of morphological
similarities and sympatric distribution, _L. bicolor_ and _L.
sumichrasti_ seem to be dimorphic phases of the same species, showing no
more striking differences in coloration than _Lampropeltis getulus
californiae_, a now classical example of pattern dimorphism in snakes.

In Michoacán, as in other parts of its range, _Loxocemus bicolor_
inhabits arid scrub forest environments at low elevations.


~Boa constrictor imperator~ Daudin

     _Boa imperator_ Daudin, Hist. nat.... des reptiles, 5:150,
     1803.--México. Type locality restricted to Córdoba,
     Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:347).

     _Boa constrictor imperator_, Forcart, Herpetologica, 7:199,
     December 31, 1951.

     Apatzingán (4); Coalcomán; El Sabino (2); La Placita; La
     Playa (2); Lombardia; Nueva Italia (2); Río Cachán; Río
     Marquez, 13 km. SE of Nueva Italia; Río Nexpa; Volcán
     Jorullo.

These specimens have come from a variety of habitats from elevations of
less than 1,000 meters. The species seems to be equally abundant in the
broad-leafed semi-deciduous forests of the coastal foothills and in the
arid Tepalcatepec Valley. In the latter area most of the specimens were
collected at night.


~Coniophanes fissidens dispersus~ Smith

     _Coniophanes fissidens dispersus_ Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl.
     Mus., 91:106, November 13, 1941.--El Limoncito, Guerrero,
     México.

     Arteaga.

Further collecting in southern Michoacán has failed to add additional
material of this species, which is known in the state from the one
specimen collected by Gadow in 1908. The species possibly ranges
throughout the coastal foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán. Peters
(1954:21) described the specimen from Arteaga.


~Coniophanes lateritius lateritius~ Cope

     _Coniophanes lateritius_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 13:524, March 31, 1862.--Guadalajara, Jalisco,
     México.

     _Coniophanes lateritius lateritius_, Smith and Grant,
     Herpetologica, 14:20, April 25, 1958.

     Nineteen km. S of Arteaga.

The one specimen available from Michoacán of this apparently rare
species was discussed by Wellman (1959:127), who pointed out that
although the specimen was geographically intermediate between the
subspecies _C. l. lateritius_ (Jalisco and Nayarit) and _C. l.
melanocephalus_ (Morelos and Puebla), the specimen (UMMZ 118954) was
like _C. l. lateritius_ in scutellation and in color pattern differed
from other known specimens of the species in having had in life a pale
orange, instead of a brick-red, dorsum. Additional specimens from the
Sierra de Coalcomán will be required in order to determine whether this
specimen is a representative of an orange-colored population or merely
is aberrant in coloration.

The present specimen is from an elevation of 900 meters in oak forest on
the southern slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán; other locality records
for the species indicate that it inhabits broad-leafed forest in
foothills from Nayarit to Puebla.


~Conophis vittatus vittatus~ Peters

     _Conophis vittatus_ Peters, Monats. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p.
     519, 1860.--No type locality given. Type locality restricted
     to Laguna Coyuca, Guerrero, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:331).

     _Conophis vittatus vittatus_, Smith, Jour. Washington Acad.
     Sci., 31:119, March 17, 1941.

     Arteaga; Coalcomán (4); La Playa; 19 km. S of Tzitzio.

All specimens of this terrestrial snake have been collected in areas of
scrub forest between 800 and 1100 meters above sea level. Since the
species is known from the coastal regions of Guerrero and Colima, its
absence from the cost of Michoacán is unexplainable; probably the lack
of specimens from these areas is due solely to inadequate collecting.


~Conopsis biserialis~ Taylor and Smith

     _Conopsis biserialis_ Taylor and Smith, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 28 (2):333, November 12, 1942.--Ten miles west of
     Villa Victoria, México, México.

     Capácuaro (5); Cerro San Andrés; Cherán; Ciudad Hidalgo;
     Macho de Agua (4): Pátzcuaro (8); Tancítaro (24); Uruapan
     (9); 24 km. SE of Zitácuaro (14).

This species is abundant in the coniferous forests at elevations from
1550 to 2800 meters throughout the Cordillera Volcánica; apparently it
does not occur in the Sierra de Coalcomán.

On August 1, 1956, a copulating pair was found beneath a rock at
Capácuaro.

One of the best characters to distinguish this species from _Toluca
lineata_, which occurs with _Conopsis_ throughout its range in
Michoacán, is the presence of large, black ventral blotches in _Conopsis
biserialis_, as contrasted with the two rows of small black spots in
_Toluca lineata_.


~Conopsis nasus~ Günther

     _Conopsis nasus_ Günther, Catalogue... snakes... British
     Museum, p. 6, 1858.--California (in error). Type locality
     restricted to Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:330).

     Carapan (2); Erongaricuaro; Maravatio (3); Morelia (2);
     Nahuatzen; Pátzcuaro (7); Tacícuaro (8); Tancítaro.

This species has been collected in oak, pine-oak, and fir forests at
elevations of 1900 to 2450 meters on the mountains rising from the
Mexican Plateau. It does not seem to be so abundant as _Conopsis
biserialis_. Sufficient ecological data to determine differences in
habitat between the two species have not been compiled.


~Diadophis dugesi~ Villada

     _Diadophis punctatus dougesii_ Villada, La Naturaleza,
     3:226, 1875.--Potreros de Balbuena, Distrito Federal,
     México.

     _Diadophis dugesii_, Blanchard, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci.,
     7:51, December 30, 1942.

     Morelia (2); Pátzcuaro; Quiroga.

Apparently this snake is uncommon in Michoacán. It has been found only
at elevations of 1900 to 2200 meters in pine and pine-oak forests on the
mountains rising from the Mexican Plateau.


~Dryadophis melanolomus stuarti~ Smith

     _Dryadophis melanolomus stuarti_ Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl.
     Mus., 93:418, October 29, 1943.--Acapulco, Guerrero, México.

     Coahuayana; El Ticuiz; La Placita (3); Punto San Juan de
     Lima; Punto San Telmo.

The few specimens indicate that in Michoacán, as elsewhere on the
Pacific coast of México, this species is restricted to forested regions
on the coastal plain. It does not occur in the Tepalcatepec Valley.

The coloration, in life, of a juvenile (UMMZ 114604) is as follows: The
dorsum is uniform pale grayish tan on posterior one-third of body and on
tail; anteriorly there are pale grayish tan middorsal blotches separated
by grayish white interspaces, which are about one-half the length of the
blotches. Posteriorly the blotches are less distinct, fading into the
uniform grayish tan ground color of the posterior part of the body. The
blotches extend laterally onto the fourth and fifth scale rows. Large
squarish lateral intercalary blotches of darker brown interconnect with
the dorsal blotches. The top of the head is pale olive-brown; a dark
brown postorbital stripe extends from the eye to the posterior edge of
the last upper labial. The labials, chin, and ventrals 1-30 are creamy
white, changing to a dusty cream-color posteriorly; the chin and
ventrals 1-30 are heavily spotted with dark brown. The iris is a
cream-color above and chocolate brown below; the tongue is blue.


~Drymarchon corais rubidus~ Smith

     _Drymarchon corais rubidus_ Smith, Jour. Washington Acad.
     Sci., 31:474, November 11, 1941.--Rosario, Sinaloa, México.

     Apatzingán (5); Arroyo El Salto; Arteaga; Capirio; El Sabino
     (7); La Palma; La Placita; Ostula; San Juan de Lima.

Not all of the specimens from Michoacán are typical in color pattern of
this subspecies, as defined by Smith (1941a:475). All specimens from the
Tepalcatepec Valley are uniformly black above; they have reddish or
cream-colored chins and the anterior two-thirds of the belly salmon-pink
or reddish buff. Individuals from the Sierra de Coalcomán (Arteaga and
Arroyo El Salto) are like those from the Tepalcatepec Valley. Three
specimens from the coastal lowlands differ noticeably in color pattern:

UMMZ 104504, adult male (Ostula).--Pale brown above flecked with black
anteriorly; at midbody, flecks form narrow transverse bands that become
progressively wider posteriorly, until on tail no brown pigment evident,
all ventrals reddish buff, except last eight, which are black.

UMMZ 104602, adult female (La Placita).--Black above, reddish
cross-bands and flecks on all of body; dorsal and ventral surfaces of
tail black; chin cream-color and entire belly reddish buff.

UMMZ 114626, adult male (San Juan de Lima).--Black above; dull
rust-colored cross-bands on anterior half of body; chin white; belly
rust-colored on anterior two-thirds of body and black posteriorly.

One specimen from La Palma on the Mexican Plateau (KU 29275) has the top
of the head an olive-color, the entire dorsum black, the chin and
ventrals 1-42 a cream-color, remainder of venter black, and all of the
labials heavily barred with black. A juvenile from Capirio in the
Tepalcatepec Valley (UMMZ 114627) is black above and has pale
olive-colored flecks on the anterior one-third of the body; the top of
the head is dark olive-brown, and the sides of the head are somewhat
paler. Anteriorly the belly is a cream-color; posteriorly it is black.

The specimens from the Tepalcatepec Valley are typical of _Drymarchon
corais rubidus_. Those from the coastal lowlands differ in having large
areas of brown or red pigment on the dorsum, a condition not mentioned
by Smith in his description of the subspecies. The specimen from La
Palma, like many others from various localities on the Mexican Plateau,
resembles in certain characters _D. corais orizabensis_ (Smith, _op.
cit._: 477). Our knowledge of the geographical variation in coloration
in this species is incomplete; many populations have been assigned to
subspecific rank without justification.

In Michoacán this species is found from sea level to 1350 meters in the
Sierra de Coalcomán and to 1300 meters at La Palma on Lago de Chapala.
It has been collected in scrub forest, semi-deciduous broad-leafed
forest, and oak forest.


~Drymobius margaritiferus fistulosus~ Smith

     _Drymobius margaritiferus fistulosus_ Smith, Proc. U. S.
     Natl. Mus., 92:383, November 5, 1942.--Miramar, Nayarit,
     México.

     Apatzingán (3); Coahuayana; Coalcomán (3); El Sabino (3); El
     Ticuiz; 12 km. S of Tzitzio.

This snake is abundant in the lowlands of the state; the few specimens
listed above are indicative not of the rarity, but rather of the speed
and agility, of this diurnal snake. It most frequently is found near
water, where there is a dense growth of vegetation. One individual was
observed in a large pool inhabited by several small _Rana pipiens_, and
another was seen along the bank of a hyacinth-choked river channel. A
third individual was captured while it was in pursuit of a
_Cnemidophorus_.

This species has been collected on the coastal lowlands and seaward
foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán and in the Tepalcatepec Valley to
elevations of 1150 meters.


~Elaphe triaspis intermedia~ (Boettger)

     _Pityophis intermedius_ Boettger, Ber. Offen. Vereins.
     Naturk., 22:148, 1883.--México. Type locality restricted to
     Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán, México, by Dowling (1960:74).

     _Elaphe triaspis intermedia_, Mertens and Dowling,
     Senckenbergiana, 33:201, November 15, 1952.

     Twenty-four km. E of Apatzingán; Chupio; El Sabino (4); 11
     km. E of Emiliano Zapata.

Dowling (1960) has shown that specimens from the Balsas-Tepalcatepec
Basin have fewer ventrals and caudals than those from the Sierra del Sur
or the coast. All specimens from Michoacán were collected in open
forest, either scrub or oak forest. They were found in drier situations
than those described for the species in southern Tamaulipas by Martin
(1958:69). In Michoacán _Elaphe triaspis intermedia_ is known from the
Tepalcatepec Valley, the lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica, and
the western edge of the Mexican Plateau at an elevation of 1350 meters.
It probably occurs in the lower parts of the Sierra de Coalcomán and
along the Pacific coast, for it is known from the coastal lowlands of
Guerrero and Colima. In August, 1951, I saw a snake that probably was
this species in Barranca de Bejuco.


~Enulius unicolor~ (Fischer)

     _Geophis unicolor_ Fischer, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 7:227,
     1882.--México. Type locality restricted to Chilpancingo,
     Guerrero, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:331).

     _Enulius unicolor_, Taylor and Smith, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 25:247, July 10, 1939.

     Between Ario de Rosales and La Playa; Coalcomán; Jungapeo
     (4); between Zitácuaro and Tuxpan.

This small snake has been collected from beneath rocks in brushy areas
and broad-leafed forest between 900 and 1800 meters; it has not been
found in coniferous forest. The limited ecological data suggest that the
species inhabits the transition zone between the tropical scrub forest
and the temperate hardwood forest.

All of the specimens have 17 rows of scales; four males have 169-178
(174.2) ventrals and 102-111 (106.8) caudals; two females have 192 and
195 ventrals and 96 and 87 caudals. Three individuals have one
postocular on one side and two on the other; in the other specimens
there are two postoculars on each side. The largest male has a body
length of 232 mm. and a tail length of 130 mm.; the largest female has a
body length of 274 mm. and a tail length of 119 mm.


~Geagras redimitus~ Cope

     _Geagras redimitus_ Cope, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, ser. 2, 8:141, 1876.

     San Juan de Lima (2).

Previously this species was known definitely only from the Plains of
Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. _Sphenocalamus lineolatus_ was described by Fischer
(1883:5) from Mazatlán; this name has been placed in the synonymy of
_Geagras redimitus_ Cope. Although Fischer gave the type locality only
as "Mazatlán" and did not designate the state, it is probable that the
type originated from Mazatlán, Sinaloa. The present specimens are from a
locality almost midway between Tehuantepec and Mazatlán and support the
possibility that _Geagras_ ranges along the Pacific coast of México from
Oaxaca to Sinaloa.

The two specimens from Michoacán (UMMZ 114446-7), both males, have 118
and 122 ventrals, 31 and 33 caudals, body lengths of 108 and 81 mm., and
tail lengths of 20 and 15 mm. Both have 1-1 preoculars, 1-1 postoculars,
1-2 temporals, 6-6 upper labials, and 5-5 lower labials. In life, the
dorsum was pale tan; the top of the head and the middorsal and lateral
stripes were dark brown; the belly was white. The occipital spots were
pale pinkish tan. Both specimens were found beneath rocks in tropical
semi-deciduous forest at an elevation of 15 meters on the coastal plain.


~Geophis dugesi~ Bocourt

     _Geophis dugesii_ Bocourt, Miss. Scientifique au Mexique et
     dans l'Amerique Centrale, Rept., livr. 9:573,
     1883.--Tangancícuaro, Michoacán, México.

     Carapan; Tangancícuaro; Zacapu.

Aside from the three specimens listed above, there are two (SU 4407-8)
bearing the data "Michoacán." Bocourt (1883:574) stated that the type
specimen from Tangancícuaro had six or seven pale cross-bands on the
anterior part of the body. An illustration, presumably of the same
specimen, by Dugès (1884:Pl. 9) shows five distinct and one indistinct
cross-bands. Of the four specimens that I have examined, none has more
than three pale cross-bands, and one has only one indistinct cross-band.
Two females have 154 and 158 ventrals and 38 and 37 caudals; two males
have 150 and 151 ventrals and 43 and 42 caudals.

This species is known only from elevations between 1750 and 2050 meters
on the southwestern edge of the Mexican Plateau in the state of
Michoacán.


~Geophis incomptus~ Duellman

     _Geophis incomptus_ Duellman, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 605:3, May 29, 1959.--Dos Aguas, Michoacán,
     México.

     Dos Aguas (15).

This species, which seems to be related to _Geophis maculiferus_, is
known only from the pine-oak forest in the vicinity of Dos Aguas
(elevation 2100 meters) in the Sierra de Coalcomán. Aside from the five
specimens comprising the type series, there are ten other specimens in
the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan collected by Floyd
L. Downs in July, 1960. Data from these specimens and those comprising
the type series show that in this sample seven males have 146-153
(149.3) ventrals and 35-37 (36.0) caudals; eight females have 150-154
(152.4) ventrals and 29-34 (32.5) caudals. The largest specimen is a
female with a body length of 344 mm. and a tail length of 53 mm.


~Geophis maculiferus~ Taylor

     _Geophis maculiferus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     27:119, December 30, 1941.--Near Cicio [_sic_] = Tzitzio,
     Michoacán, México.

     Tzitzio.

The type and only known specimen of _Geophis maculiferus_ (UIMNH 25078)
is a female having 140 ventrals and 30 caudals, dorsal scales in 15
rows, one postocular, and an anterior temporal. Only one other species
in México has dorsal scales in 15 rows and has an anterior temporal;
that species is _G. incomptus_, which differs from _G. maculiferus_ in
having six or seven lower labials, instead of five, and in having the
edges of the ventrals dark, instead of a uniformly cream-colored belly.

The locality from which the specimen was obtained lies at an elevation
of 1630 meters on the southern slope of the Cordillera Volcánica. At
that elevation there is an interdigitation of arid tropical scrub forest
and pine-oak forest; probably _Geophis maculiferus_ inhabits the
pine-oak forest.


~Geophis nigrocinctus~ Duellman

     _Geophis nigrocinctus_ Duellman, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 605:1, May 29, 1959.--Dos Aguas, Michoacán,
     México.

     Dos Aguas (3).

The three specimens comprising the type series of the species were found
beneath logs and in a stump in pine-oak forest at an elevation of 2100
meters. A discussion of the variation in these specimens and of
probable relationships of the species was given by Duellman (1959).
Floyd Downs spent several days at Dos Aguas in July, 1960; although he
found ten specimens of _Geophis incomptus_, no further specimens of _G.
nigrocinctus_ were obtained.


~Geophis petersi~ Boulenger

     _Geophis petersii_ Boulenger, Catalogue Snakes... British
     Museum, 2:321, September 23, 1894.--Mexico City. Type
     locality restricted to Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950a:335).

     Cherán; Coalcomán; Morelia; Pátzcuaro (6).

This seems to be the most widespread species of _Geophis_ in Michoacán.
It has been found at elevations between 950 and 2350 meters, chiefly in
pine or pine-oak forest. Boulenger (1894:321) described _Geophis
petersi_ from a specimen stated to be from Mexico City, a locality which
probably is in error. The only localities from which the species is
definitely known are those listed in this account.

Three males and five females from the Mexican Plateau and the Cordillera
Volcánica have respectively 140-144 (141.7) and 143-151 (146.0) ventrals
and 39-41 (40.0) and 29-35 (33.2) caudals. All have dorsal scales in 15
rows, 1 postocular, no anterior temporal, and a relatively small
triangular supraocular. The specimen from Coalcomán (UMMZ 104698) was
referred to _Geophis nasalis_ by Peters (1954:22). This specimen is
abnormal in several characters; in five places there is a fusion and
separation of the vertebral and paravertebral scale rows, producing a
change from 17 to 15 rows of dorsal scales. Fusion of the three rows
takes place at the level of the 8th, 41st, 47th, 54th, and 65th
ventrals. Furthermore, there is a small secondary postocular on each
side of the head. In other characters the specimen is like _G. petersi_;
the resemblances to that species are greater than to _G. nasalis_, which
has been recorded from Guatemala and southern Chiapas.


~Geophis tarascae~ Hartweg

     _Geophis tarascae_ Hartweg, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 601:1, May 4, 1959.--Uruapan, Michoacán, México.

     Uruapan (3).

A female of this species was collected in the Parque Nacional at the
north edge of Uruapan in 1899, and a male was taken there in 1947; these
specimens were used by Hartweg in his description of the species. Floyd
L. Downs obtained another specimen in the Parque Nacional on July 19,
1960. It has 164 ventrals and 46 caudals; in life, the ground color of
the neck was brown with a purplish tint; the dorsal markings were black;
the chin was a cream-color, and the belly was white. This specimen is
distinguished from those of all other species of _Geophis_ in Michoacán
in that it has dark irregular cross-bars on the dorsum and a row of dark
spots on the venter.


~Hypsiglena torquata ochrorhyncha~ Cope

     _Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 12:246, November 15, 1860.--Cape San Lucas,
     Baja California, México.

     _Hypsiglena torquata ochrorhyncha_, Bogert and Oliver, Bull.
     Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 83:378, March 30, 1945.

     Tupátaro.

The systematic status of the geographic variants of _Hypsiglena_ in
México and southwestern United States has been commented on by several
authors. Tanner (1944) considered _H. torquata_ and _H. ochrorhyncha_ to
be distinct species; Bogert and Oliver (1945:379) and Duellman
(1957b:238) presented evidence indicating that _H. torquata_ and _H.
ochrorhyncha_ intergrade in Sinaloa and southern Sonora. In _Hypsiglena_
the scutellation, including the numbers of labials, dorsals, ventrals,
and caudals, seem to vary in a clinal manner. Nevertheless, these snakes
can be divided into two distinct populations on the basis of the nuchal
color pattern, consisting of an _ochrorhyncha_-type (a broad dark
nape-band, the lateral edges of which extend anteriorly and fuse with a
postorbital stripe, and a narrow nape stripe extending from the
posteromedian edges of the parietals to the dark nape band) and a
_torquata_-type (a somewhat narrower dark nape-band bordered anteriorly
by a pale nuchal area, and no dark nape stripe). Snakes having the
_ochrorhyncha_-type of nuchal pattern are found on the Mexican Plateau
from Michoacán northward into the desert regions of Sonora and the
southwestern United States. Snakes having the _torquata_-type of pattern
are found on the coastal lowlands and adjacent slopes of the Sierra
Madre Occidental from southern Sinaloa to Colima and thence inland in
the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin to Morelos and Guerrero. An exception is
_Hypsiglena torquata dunklei_ from Forlón and San Fernando, Tamaulipas;
it has the _torquata_-type of nuchal pattern. The distributional picture
is somewhat complicated because some individuals having the
_torquata_-type of nuchal pattern also have a faint nape stripe. If
these are taken as exceptions, the general picture of distribution in
México is _H. t. torquata_ on the Pacific lowlands from Sinaloa
southward to the Balsas Basin and _H. t. ochrorhyncha_ on the Mexican
Plateau.

Smith (1943:433) resurrected _Hypsiglena jani_ Dugès for the snakes of
the _ochrorhyncha_-type on the southern part of the Mexican Plateau. He
stated that the southern specimens differed from northern ones in having
a nuchal spot 9 or 10 scales in length, as compared with a spot 2 to 6
scales in length in northern specimens. A cursory examination of
specimens from the areas between Arizona and Michoacán showed that there
is a gradual increase in the size of the spot from north to south. If no
other characters can be found to distinguish the populations, they
should be considered as a single subspecies.

_Hypsiglena affinis_ differs from _H. torquata_ in possessing 19 instead
of 21 rows of dorsal scales. Additional material is needed from the
western slopes of Jalisco and the Barrancas in Zacatecas and Durango,
before definite allocation of _affinis_ can be made.

Bogert and Oliver (1945:379) discussed the status of certain named
populations in Baja California and concluded that only one species
occurs there, and that the species probably is conspecific with _H.
torquata_. A careful review of the genus _Hypsiglena_ might show that
there is only one species.

The one specimen from Michoacán (USNM 46513) is from an elevation of
about 2300 meters near the southern edge of the Mexican Plateau.


~Hypsiglena torquata torquata~ (Günther)

     _Leptodeira torquata_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3,
     5:170.--Laguna Island, Nicaragua (in error).

     _Hypsiglena torquata torquata_, Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 25:371, July 10, 1939.

     Apatzingán; Capirio; Cofradía.

Specimens from the three mentioned localities have the dark nuchal spot
bordered anteriorly by a pale blotch. In life the specimen from Capirio
(UMMZ 114424) had rich reddish brown dorsal spots; the dorsal ground
color was grayish white above and somewhat more gray laterally. The pale
nuchal area was a cream-color, and the iris was grayish red.

All of the specimens were found in the arid scrub forest in the
Tepalcatepec Valley at elevations between 200 and 350 meters.


~Imantodes gemmistratus gracillimus~ (Günther)

     _Dipsas gracillima_ Günther, Biol. Centrali-Americana,
     Rept., p. 177, July, 1895.--southern México. Type locality
     restricted to Acapulco, Guerrero, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:331).

     _Imantodes gemmistratus gracillimus_, Zweifel, Amer. Mus.
     Novitates, 1961:12, September 16, 1959.

     La Orilla.

The specimen from La Orilla was reported by Peters (1954:23) as
_Imantodes gemmistratus oliveri_; Zweifel (1959c) showed that _I. g.
oliveri_ did not range west of Tehuantepec and that the snakes
inhabiting the coastal lowlands of Guerrero, Michoacán, and Colima were
assignable to the subspecies _gracillimus_. It may be assumed that this
subspecies ranges throughout the coastal lowlands and foothills of the
Sierra de Coalcomán.


~Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus~ (Cope)

     _Dipsas gemmistrata latistrata_ Cope, Bull. U. S. Natl.
     Mus., 32:68, 1887.--Southern Jalisco. Type locality
     restricted to Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:334).

     _Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus_, Zweifel, Amer. Mus.
     Novitates, 1961:3, September 16, 1959.

     El Sabino.

The one specimen from Michoacán was collected near the upper limits of
the scrub forest on the slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica. Zweifel
(1959c:10) stated that in certain aspects of coloration this specimen
was like _I. gemmistratus gracillimus_, but in scutellation and other
features of coloration it was like _I. g. latistratus_. There are too
few specimens of this species to define the ranges of the various
subspecies with any degree of accuracy, but from the limited number of
specimens available, it seems that _I. gemmistratus gracillimus_ occurs
on the Pacific lowlands from Guerrero northward to Colima. Northward on
the Pacific lowlands from Colima to Sinaloa and in the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin is found _I. gemmistratus latistratus_.


~Lampropeltis doliata~ (Linnaeus)

     _Coluber doliatus_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, 1:379,
     1766.--Charleston, South Carolina.

     _Lampropeltis doliata_, Klauber, Copeia, No. 1:11, April 15,
     1948.

     Coalcomán (3); El Sabino; 24 km. W of Morelia; Río Nexpa;
     Uruapan.

The few specimens of this species from Michoacán show a wide range of
variation; furthermore, the present systematic status of the subspecies
of _Lampropeltis doliata_ portrays an incongruous pattern of
distribution. Specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán have relatively
narrow red bands that are not interrupted dorsally by extensions of the
black rings; the scales in the red bands have black tips. The specimen
from El Sabino (EHT-HMS 5253) and the one from the Río Nexpa on the
coast (USNM 31491) have broader red bands; the scales in the red bands
do not have black tips. A specimen from 24 kilometers west of Morelia
(UIMNH 17782) and one from Uruapan (UMMZ 121508) have the red bands
interrupted dorsally by extensions from the black rings.

Specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán were referred to _L. doliata
blanchardi_ by Peters (1954:24), who noted that in some characters
these snakes were like _L. d. nelsoni_ and in others like _L. d.
polyzona_. The individual from El Sabino was referred to _L. d. nelsoni_
by Taylor (1940c:465); the one from 24 kilometers west of Morelia was
referred to _L. d. arcifera_ by Smith (1942c:198). If these assignments
are correct, three subspecies of _Lampropeltis doliata_ occur in
Michoacán: _blanchardi_ in the Sierra de Coalcomán, _nelsoni_ on the
coast and in the Tepalcatepec Valley, and _arcifera_ on the Mexican
Plateau and in the Cordillera Volcánica. Such a distribution is
plausible, but the few specimens and our general lack of knowledge of
the variation and relationships of the different populations do not
permit a definite assignment at this time.


~Lampropeltis ruthveni~ Blanchard

     _Lampropeltis ruthveni_ Blanchard, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 81:8, April 28, 1920.--Pátzcuaro, Michoacán,
     México.

     Morelia; Pátzcuaro; Tacícuaro.

At the present time this species is known definitely from only three
localities on the Mexican Plateau in Michoacán. An incomplete skin from
El Sabino (EHT-HMS 5438) was referred to this species by Taylor
(1940c:465); the specimen cannot be found, so verification of the
identification cannot be made at this time.


~Leptodeira latifasciata~ (Günther)

     _Hypsiglena latifasciata_ Günther, Biologia
     Centrali-Americana, Reptilia, p. 138, October,
     1894.--Southern México. Type locality restricted to
     Huajintlán, Morelos, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:331).

     _Leptodeira latifasciata_, Dunn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.,
     22:696, December, 1936.

     Apatzingán; El Sabino; La Playa; 32 km. E of Nueva Italia.

This nocturnal snake apparently ranges throughout the arid
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Valley to elevations of about 1050 meters. It has
been collected only in the arid scrub forest. Aside from the specimens
listed by Duellman (1958a:93), there is one (UMMZ 120223) having eight
body blotches, a body length of 510 mm. and a tail length of 103 mm.


~Leptodeira maculata~ (Hallowell)

     _Megalops maculatus_ Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 13:488, March 31, 1862.--"Tahiti." Type
     locality restricted to Manzanillo, Colima, México, by
     Duellman (1958a:54).

     _Leptodeira maculata_, Duellman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
     Hist., 114:53, February 24, 1958.

     Aguililla (2); Apatzingán (24); Arteaga (2); Capirio (3);
     Charapendo (2); Coahuayana (3); Cofradía; Cuatro Caminos; La
     Placita (3); Lombardia (69); Nueva Italia (29); Pómaro; Río
     Marquez, 10 km. S of Lombardia (2); Salitre de Estopila;
     Tafetan (2); Volcán Jorullo.

This snake is abundant in the arid Tepalcatepec Valley; most of the
specimens have been collected in arid scrub forest at elevations of less
than 500 meters. With the onset of the rains in late June and early
July, large numbers of these snakes can be found around temporary pools,
where they feed on small frogs and toads. In the dry season few
individuals were found, and all of those were beneath cover. Specimens
from the coast have more body-blotches than do those from the
Tepalcatepec Valley (Duellman, 1958a:56); otherwise the snakes show
little variation.


~Leptodeira splendida bressoni~ Taylor

     _Leptodeira bressoni_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     25:321, July 10, 1939.--Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán,
     México.

     _Leptodeira splendida bressoni_, Duellman, Bull. Amer. Mus.
     Nat. Hist., 114:84, February 24, 1958.

     Coalcomán (3); El Sabino (3); Uruapan (5).

The range of _Leptodeira splendida bressoni_ apparently does not overlap
that of _Leptodeira maculata_; the latter is restricted to the lower
reaches of the arid scrub forest, whereas _L. s. bressoni_ inhabits the
upper limits of the arid scrub forest and the lower part of the pine-oak
forest. Specimens have been collected between 950 and 1630 meters on the
slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica and at 950 meters in the Sierra de
Coalcomán. At Uruapan individuals were found beneath rocks along a
stream and in a stone fence. _Leptodeira duellmani_, which was described
from Coalcomán by Peters (1954:25), is an aberrant individual of _L. s.
bressoni_ (Duellman, 1958a:56).


~Leptophis diplotropis~ (Günther)

     _Ahaetulla diplotropis_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser.
     4, 9:25, 1872.--Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.

     _Leptophis diplotropis_, Bocourt, Mission scientifique au
     Mexique et dans l'Amerique Centrale, Reptiles, livr. 15:835,
     1897.

     Between Aguililla and Dos Aguas; Arteaga; Coalcomán; El
     Diezmo; El Sabino (5); La Playa; Ocorla.

Most specimens of this species have been collected in tropical
semi-deciduous forest at elevations of less than 1000 meters. In the
Sierra de Coalcomán one was taken in pine-oak forest at an elevation of
1700 meters near Ocorla; another was found in broad-leafed forest
between Aguililla and Dos Aguas at an elevation of 1600 meters. Most
individuals have been seen in trees or bushes. The absence of
broad-leafed forest in the Tepalcatepec Valley probably accounts for the
absence of this snake in that area.


~Manolepis putnami~ (Jan)

     _Dromicus putnami_ Jan, Elenco sistematico degli Ofidi, p.
     67, 1863.--San Blas, Nayarit, México.

     _Manolepsis putnami_, Smith and Taylor, Bull. U. S. Natl.
     Mus., 187:92, October 5, 1945.

     La Placita (3); Maquili; Ostula.

In Michoacán the species has been found only in tropical semi-deciduous
forest on the lower slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán. From the
observations made by Peters (1954:28), this snake is diurnal and feeds
on teiid lizards.


~Masticophis striolatus striolatus~ Mertens

     _Coluber striolatus_ Mertens, Zoologica (Stuttgart), 32:190,
     1934.--Substitute name for _Coluber lineatus_ Bocourt, a
     secondary homonym of _Coluber lineatus_ Linnaeus = _Lygophis
     lineatus_. Type locality restricted to Presidio de Mazatlán,
     Sinaloa, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:343).

     _Masticophis striolatus striolatus_, Zweifel and Norris,
     Amer. Midl. Nat., 54:242, July, 1955.

     Apatzingán (4); Arteaga; Coalcomán (3); El Sabino;
     Jiquilpan; La Palma; La Playa (3); Lombardia; Nueva Italia;
     Río Cachán; Santa Ana; Uruapan (2); Volcán Jorullo;
     Ziracuaretiro.

This large diurnal species inhabits open scrub forest and cultivated
terrain from sea level to about 1650 meters. On the Mexican Plateau it
is known from the area around Lago de Chapala, to which it possibly
gained access through the valleys in the headwaters of the Tepalcatepec
drainage. Specimens from southern Michoacán have been reported
previously by Peters (1954:28) and Duellman (1954b:16) as _Masticophis
flagellum lineatus_.


~Masticophis taeniatus australis~ Smith

     _Masticophis taeniatus australis_ Smith, Jour. Washington
     Acad. Sci., 31:390, September 11, 1941.--Guanajuato,
     Guanajuato, México.

     Tacícuaro (2); Zamora.

This species reaches the southern limit of its distribution in the state
of Michoacán. The limited ecological data available suggest that the
species inhabits the open mesquite grassland of the Mexican Plateau.


~Oxybelis aeneus auratus~ (Bell)

     _Dryinus auratus_ Bell, Zool. Jour., 2:324, 1825.--México.
     Type locality restricted to Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950a:340).

     _Oxybelis aeneus auratus_, Bogert and Oliver, Bull. Amer.
     Mus. Nat. Hist., 83:381, March 30, 1945.

     Coahuayana; El Sabino (4); between Las Tecatas and Las
     Higuertas; between Los Pozos and La Ciénega; Playa Azul;
     Pómaro (2); between Pómaro and Maruata (2); Punto San Telmo;
     Río Tizupan.

On the basis of the number of specimens seen and collected on the
seaward slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán, this is a common snake
there. Most specimens were collected in tropical semi-deciduous forest;
others were collected in oak forest to an elevation of 1700 meters.
Apparently _Oxybelis_ does not inhabit the lower parts of the
Tepalcatepec Valley; the only specimens from the inland area are four
from El Sabino, which is situated at about 900 meters on the slopes of
the Cordillera Volcánica. One individual was seen in gallery forest near
Limoncito at an elevation of 730 meters on the northern slopes of the
Sierra de Coalcomán.


~Pituophis deppei deppei~ (Duméril)

     _Elaphis deppei_ Duméril, Mem. Acad. Inst. France, 23:453,
     1835.--México. Type locality restricted to San Juan
     Teotihuacán, México, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:334).

     _Pituophis deppei deppei_, Stull, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 250:1, October 12, 1932.

     Carapan (2); Morelia; Tacámbaro; Tacícuaro; Zacapu.

Duellman (1960b) showed that the widespread species _Pituophis deppei_
was composite and that the "lined subspecies" actually represented
another species, _Pituophis lineaticollis_. _Pituophis deppei_ occurs
only on the Mexican Plateau; in Michoacán it inhabits mesquite grassland
and oak-bunch grass associations between 1900 and 2200 meters.


~Pituophis lineaticollis lineaticollis~ (Cope)

     _Arizona lineaticollis_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 13:300, December 28, 1861.--Southern Mexican
     Plateau. Type locality restricted to 24 kilometers northwest
     of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México, by Duellman (1960b:607).

     _Pituophis lineaticollis lineaticollis_, Duellman, Univ.
     Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 10:607, May 2, 1960.

     Acuaro de las Lleguas; Dos Aguas (3); Morelia; Tancítaro
     (5).

This species reaches the northern limits of its range in the Sierra de
Coalcomán and on the Mexican Plateau in Michoacán. On the plateau it has
been collected in mesquite grassland at elevations between 1500 and 2000
meters. In the Sierra de Coalcomán individuals were found in open
pine-oak forest at 2100 meters elevation and in a meadow surrounded by
pine-oak forest at 2300 meters.


~Pseudoficimia frontalis~ (Cope)

     _Toluca frontalis_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     16:167, September 30, 1864.--Colima, Colima, México.

     _Pseudoficimia frontalis_, Günther, Biologia
     Centrali-Americana, Reptilia, p. 96, May, 1893.

     Apatzingán; Coalcomán (6); El Sabino (2).

Most specimens were found beneath rocks in grassy areas near the upper
limits of the arid scrub forest, both in the Sierra de Coalcomán and on
the southern slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica; all are from elevations
of less than 1100 meters. One specimen was found on a road at night near
Apatzingán. This species has been found in similar habitats near
Huajintlán, Guerrero, and in arid scrub forest at lower elevations in
Colima. It is unknown from the coast of Michoacán.


~Pseudoficimia pulcherrima~ Taylor and Smith

     _Pseudoficimia pulcherrima_ Taylor and Smith, Univ. Kansas
     Sci. Bull., 28:246, May 15, 1942.--Huajintlán, Guerrero,
     México.

     Apatzingán.

This specimen (CNHM 39208) was reported by Schmidt and Shannon
(1947:81); they stated that it was a paratype of _P. pulcherrima_.
However, Taylor and Smith (1942a:246) did not mention the specimen;
aside from the type (EHT-HMS 5497), the only other specimen they
designated as belonging to the type series was UMMZ 85711 from
Chilpancingo, Guerrero.

The taxonomic validity of _Pseudoficimia pulcherrima_ remains doubtful,
for only minor characters distinguish it from _P. frontalis_.
Furthermore, all known specimens of _P. pulcherrima_ are from within the
geographic range of _P. frontalis_.


~Rhadinaea hesperia hesperia~ Bailey

     _Rhadinaea hesperia_ Bailey, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 412:8, May 6, 1940.--Omilteme and Sierra de Burro,
     Guerrero. Type locality restricted to Omilteme, Guerrero,
     México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:332).

     _Rhadinaea hesperia hesperia_, Smith, Proc. Biol. Soc.
     Washington, 55:185, December 31, 1942.

     Arteaga (3); Coalcomán; El Sabino (2); Uruapan; Volcán
     Jorullo (2).

One specimen from Volcán Jorullo (UMMZ 104494), three from Arteaga (UMMZ
119281), and one from Uruapan (UMMZ 92342) are typical of the subspecies
_R. h. hesperia_ in possessing a lateral cream-colored line on the sixth
and parts of the fifth and seventh dorsal scale rows and in lacking a
dark line on the second scale row. The specimens from El Sabino (EHT-HMS
5441 and UIMNH 18933) and one from Coalcomán (UMMZ 104502) have the
cream-colored line on the sixth and adjacent parts of the fifth and
seventh scale rows and have a dark line on the second scale row. Another
individual from Volcán Jorullo (UMMZ 104682) has cream-colored lines
like the others, but it possesses two lateral dark lines, one on the
second scale row, and one on the third.

Smith (1942d:186) diagnosed _Rhadinaea hesperia hesperioides_ as
differing from the nominal subspecies in having the cream-colored line
on the fourth and fifth scale rows and in possessing a dark line on the
second scale row. The specimens seen all have the lateral cream-colored
line centered on the sixth scale row, as is characteristic of _R. h.
hesperia_. Although many of the specimens also possess a dark line on
the second scale row, these specimens are here assigned to _R. h.
hesperia_. Additional specimens are necessary to define accurately the
subspecies and their ranges. Peters (1954:29) assigned the specimens
from Coalcomán to _R. h. hesperioides_.

In life the specimens from Arteaga had bright cream-colored temporal
stripes and dorsolateral stripes on the anterior part of the body. The
chin and anterior one-sixth of the belly was white; posteriorly the
venter was bright orange-red.

In Michoacán this snake has been found in tropical semi-deciduous
forest, arid scrub forest, and pine-oak forest at elevations from 850 to
1500 meters.


~Rhadinaea laureata~ (Günther)

     _Dromicus laureatus_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4,
     1:419, 1868.--Mexico City.

     _Rhadinaea laureata_, Boulenger, Catalogue Snakes... British
     Museum, 2, p. 179, September 23, 1894.

     Capácuaro; Carapan (8); Cherán (3); Paracho (2); Pátzcuaro;
     Tancítaro (10).

This snake is abundant in the Cordillera Volcánica, but it is unknown in
the mountains to the northeast of Morelia or in the Sierra de Coalcomán.
Most specimens were found beneath volcanic rocks imbedded in the ashy
soil in pine forest between 1800 and 2300 meters.


~Rhadinaea taeniata~ (Peters)

     _Dromicus taeniatus_ Peters, Monats. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p.
     275, 1863.--México.

     _Rhadinaea taeniata_, Bailey, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
     Michigan, 412:14, May 6, 1940.

     Tancítaro (2).

This species, which is known only from a small region in the mountains
of Jalisco and central Michoacán, is represented by two specimens (CNHM
37130 and 39030) collected at Tancítaro (see Schmidt and Shannon,
1947:80).


~Salvadora bairdi~ Jan

     _Salvadora Bairdii_ Jan. Icon. gener. ophid., livr. 2, pl.
     3, fig. 2, 1860.--México. Type locality restricted to
     Acámbaro, Guanajuato, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:330).

     Barranca Seca; Carapan; Cerro San Andrés; Cojumatlán (2);
     Jiquilpan; Morelia; Pátzcuaro (4); Quiroga; Sahuayo (2);
     Tacícuaro (12); Tancítaro (56); Uruapan (2); Zacapu (2);
     between Zitácuaro and Tuxpan (3).

This species is abundant on the Mexican plateau, where it inhabits the
more grassy areas in the mesquite grassland and cutover land in the pine
forests from 1550 to 2500 meters. Davis and Dixon (1957:21) described a
specimen from Zacapu as having two dark paravertebral stripes diverging
on the temporals and extending through the eye onto the loreal, a
characteristic of _Salvadora lineata_. On the basis of this specimen,
Davis and Dixon suggested that _Salvadora bairdi_ and _S. lineata_ were
subspecifically related. The examination of the large number of
specimens from Michoacán has revealed this kind of coloration in only
one other specimen, an individual from Tacícuaro, in which the stripes
diverge, but do not extend through the eye onto the loreal. Data on
scutellation for the large series from Tancítaro were given by Schmidt
and Shannon (1947:78), and for the series from Tacícuaro by Smith
(1943:466).


~Salvadora mexicana~ (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril)

     _Zamenis mexicanus_ Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril,
     Erpétologie genérale, 7 (pt. 1), p. 695, 1854.--Cape
     Corrientes, Jalisco, México.

     _Salvadora mexicana_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3,
     12:349, 1863.

     Apatzingán (12); Capirio (2); El Sabino (5); Huetamo; La
     Placita; La Playa (4); Lombardia; Nueva Italia; Ojos de Agua
     de San Telmo; Oropeo; Río Cancita, 14 km. E of Apatzingán;
     Santa Ana.

This is one of the most abundant snakes in the arid lowlands of the
Tepalcatepec Valley; observations indicate that it probably is equally
abundant on the coastal lowlands. Near Apatzingán as many as five of
these snakes have been seen in one-half hour. The snakes seem to be
equally abundant and active in the dry season and in the rainy season.
Most individuals were seen on the ground, but two were found in low
trees. On several occasions _Salvadora mexicana_ was observed in pursuit
of lizards on the ground. Captured individuals regurgitated
_Cnemidophorus costatus zweifeli_, _Cnemidophorus deppei infernalis_,
_Sceloporus horridus oligoporus_, _Sceloporus pyrocephalus_, and
_Urosaurus gadowi_.

_Salvadora mexicana_ inhabits only the arid scrub forest at elevations
from sea level to about 1000 meters.


~Sibon nebulatus~ (Linnaeus)

     _Coluber nebulatus_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, 1, p.
     222, 1758.--Africa (in error). Type locality restricted to
     Jicaltepec, Veracruz, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:349).

     _Sibon nebulatus_, Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 26:473,
     November 27, 1940.

     Aquila.

The one specimen from Michoacán was collected by Peters (1954:30) in
tropical semi-deciduous forest on the coastal foothills of the Sierra de
Coalcomán. As presently known, the range of this species in western
México extends from Chiapas to Nayarit. Throughout this region the
species avoids scrub forest; this may explain its absence in the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Valley.


~Sonora michoacanensis michoacanensis~ (Dugès)

     _Contia michoacanensis_ Dugès, _in_ Cope, Proc. Amer.
     Philos. Soc., 22:178, 1885.--Michoacán. Type locality
     restricted to Apatzingán, Michoacán, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:335).

     _Sonora michoacanensis michoacanensis_, Stickel, Proc. Biol.
     Soc. Washington, 56:116, October 19, 1943.

     Apatzingán (3); Coalcomán (3); 12 km. S of Tzitzio.

These specimens, together with all known specimens from the Sierra del
Sur in Guerrero (KU 23790-1, MVZ 45123) and the upper Balsas Basin in
Puebla (UIMNH 41688), are referable to _S. m. michoacanensis_. The
dorsal pattern consists of a highly variable number of cross-bands of
red, white, and black. In the specimens from Michoacán there are as many
as 17 red cross-bands on the body. One specimen from Apatzingán (CNHM
37141) has just behind the head a white band, bordered on either side by
a narrow black band; posteriorly the body is uniform red. Two specimens
from Coalcomán (UMMZ 109905-6) have respectively 11 and 13 red
cross-bands and 20 and 17 white cross-bands, and the posterior part of
the body is devoid of red color. Other specimens from these localities
have red, black, and white cross-bands throughout the length of the
body.

_Sonora michoacanensis michoacanensis_ is distinguished from _S.
michoacanensis mutabilis_ by the presence of cross-bands on the tail in
the latter (Stickel, 1943:116). One specimen from Coalcomán (UMMZ
109904) has one narrow band on the tail; all others from Michoacán have
uniformly red tails.

Apparently _Sonora michoacanensis michoacanensis_ ranges in semi-arid
and arid habitats from the upper Balsas Basin in Puebla westward to the
lower slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán, whereas _S. m. mutabilis_
lives in foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental from southern Jalisco
to Nayarit. Zweifel (1959b:6) presented evidence to show that specimens
of _S. m. mutabilis_ supposedly from "Distrito Federal" probably bear
erroneous locality data.


~Tantilla bocourti~ (Günther)

     _Homalocranium bocourti_ Günther, Biologia
     Centrali-Americana, Reptilia, p. 149, 1895.--Guanajuato,
     Guanajuato, México.

     _Tantilla bocourti_, Cope, Amer. Nat., 30:1021, December,
     1896.

     Carapan; Pátzcuaro (2); between Zitácuaro and Río Tuxpan
     (11).

This small snake is an inhabitant of the coniferous forests and the
pine-oak forests on the Cordillera Volcánica. Data on the series from
between Zitácuaro and the Río Tuxpan were given by Taylor (1940c:481).


~Tantilla calamarina~ Cope

     _Tantilla calamarina_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 18:320, February 13, 1867.--Guadalajara,
     Jalisco, México.

     Apatzingán; La Placita.

Although this snake has been collected at high elevations along the rim
of the Mexican Plateau in Nayarit, Jalisco, México, and Puebla, the
specimens from Michoacán are from arid scrub forest at elevations of
less than 400 meters. The species has been found in similar habitats in
Colima (Oliver, 1937:24) and in Sinaloa and the Tres Marías Islands
(Zweifel, 1960:110).


~Toluca lineata lineata~ Kennicott

     _Toluca lineata_ Kennicott, _in_ Baird, Report on the United
     States and Mexican boundary survey, 2, Reptiles, p. 23,
     1859.--Valley of México.

     _Toluca lineata lineata_, Taylor and Smith, Univ. Kansas
     Sci. Bull., 28:343, May 15, 1942.

     Capácuaro; Carapan (12); Cherán (23); Cojumatlán; Los Reyes;
     Morelia (2); Nahuatzen; Paracho (10); Pátzcuaro (17);
     Uruapan (2).

This small snake is an inhabitant of the coniferous forests between
elevations of about 1550 and 2800 meters. Not infrequently, individuals
have been found in pine-oak forest within these elevations.

The generic status of _Toluca_ is unsettled. Taylor and Smith (1942b)
separated _Toluca_ from _Conopsis_ by the presence of enlarged and
grooved posterior maxillary teeth in _Toluca_ and their absence in
_Conopsis_. Bogert and Oliver (1945:378) suggested synonymizing _Toluca_
with _Conopsis_. Smith and Laufe (1945:12) defined the generic position
of _Toluca_. Actually, in deciding the generic position of these snakes,
five genera (_Ficimia_, _Gyalopion_, _Pseudoficimia_, _Conopsis_, and
_Toluca_) must be considered. Of these _Ficimia_ and _Gyalopion_ are
closely related; they have been placed in one genus by some workers.
_Pseudoficimia_ is intermediate between _Ficimia-Gyalopion_ and
_Toluca-Conopsis_. A workable definition of the supraspecific
classification of these snakes must await a thorough review of the
species.


~Trimorphodon biscutatus biscutatus~ (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril)

     _Dipsas biscutata_ Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, Erpétologie
     genérale, 7 (pt. 2):1153, 1854.--México. Type locality
     restricted to Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:340).

     _Trimorphodon biscutatus biscutatus_, Smith, Proc. U. S.
     Natl. Mus., 91:159, November 10, 1941.

     Apatzingán (11); Cofradía; Cuatro Caminos; El Sabino (2); La
     Placita; La Playa (2); Lombardia (2); Nueva Italia (2); Río
     Tepalcatepec, 27 km. S of Apatzingán; Tafetán.

In the arid lowlands of the Tepalcatepec Valley and presumably also in
the scrub forest of the coastal lowlands, this is an abundant snake,
which is active only at night. Usually snakes of this species are found
on the ground, but one large individual was observed at night in a low
tree. That individual defied capture by widely opening its mouth and
striking repeatedly at the collector. The excreta of one specimen
contained feathers of an unidentified species of bird.


~Trimorphodon latifascia~ Peters

     _Trimorphodon biscutata latifascia_ Peters, Monats. Akad.
     Wiss. Berlin, p. 877, 1869.--Puebla, México. Type locality
     restricted to Izúcar de Matamoros, Puebla, México, by Smith
     and Taylor (1950a:341).

     _Trimorphodon latifascia_. Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     25:364, July 10, 1939.

     Apatzingán (5); Casada Tzararacua; Coalcomán (2); Lombardia;
     14 km. S of Lombardia; Nueva Italia; San Salvador.

In Michoacán this species has been collected in semi-arid habitats at
elevations from 300 to 1430 meters in the Tepalcatepec Valley and lower
slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica. In this area it occurs sympatrically
with _Trimorphodon biscutatus biscutatus_.

In life, adults have a pale tan dorsal ground color and rich chocolate
brown cross-bands; the eye is pale grayish tan. A juvenile from
Coalcomán has black cross-bands on a pale grayish tan ground color. As
stated by Schmidt and Shannon (1947:83) and Peters (1954:32), the type
specimen of _Trimorphodon fasciolata_ Smith from Cascada Tzararacua is
indistinguishable from specimens of _Trimorphodon latifascia_.

Seven males have 209 to 223 (216.5) ventrals; one female has 227
ventrals. The number of dark cross-bands on the body varies from 12 to
16 (13.5). The relationships of this species are with _Trimorphodon
tau_ on the Mexican Plateau. In fact, additional specimens from the
headwaters of the Tepalcatepec Valley and the lower slopes of the
Mexican Plateau in eastern Michoacán and adjacent Jalisco may show that
the two are conspecific. _Trimorphodon latifascia_ differs from _tau_ in
having fewer dark cross-bands on the body and in lacking an interocular
bar.


~Trimorphodon tau~ Cope

     _Trimorphodon tau_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 11:151,
     1869.--Quiotepec, Oaxaca, México.

     Emiliano Zapata (2); between Morelia and Ciudad Hidalgo;
     Tacícuaro; Tangamandapio.

Two of the specimens from Michoacán (UMMZ 118948 from Tangamandapio and
UIMNH 19138 from Tacícuaro) have cream-colored, Y-shaped marks on the
head. These markings supposedly are characteristic of _Trimorphodon
upsilon_. One specimen from Emiliano Zapata (UMMZ 118950) and one from
between Morelia and Ciudad Hidalgo (EHT-HMS 21402) have a cream-colored
line on the parietal suture; in another specimen from Emiliano Zapata
(UMMZ 118949) the anterior end of this line is expanded, giving the
appearance of an incipient "Y". Thus, the nature of the markings on the
head in specimens from Michoacán is intermediate between the typical
condition in _Trimorphodon tau_ and the usual condition in _T. upsilon_.
Smith and Taylor (1945:148) gave the range of _Trimorphodon tau_ as:
"Central Guerrero, in the Sierra Madre del Sur; central Oaxaca; and the
edge of the plateau in central Michoacán." They gave the range of
_Trimorphodon upsilon_ as: "Southern Chihuahua south to central
Michoacán, east to central Hidalgo." Specimens referable to _T. tau_
have been found at La Joya de Salas, near Ciudad Victoria, and near
Llera, Tamaulipas (see Smith and Darling, 1952:85, and Martin, 1958:74).
Some of these specimens also show combinations of characteristics of _T.
tau_ and _T. upsilon_. Smith and Darling (_loc. cit._) suggested that
_T. tau_ and _T. upsilon_ be considered as subspecies. However, if _T.
tau_ and _T. upsilon_ are subspecies, intergrades would be expected
between the ranges of the two populations and not on the northeastern
and southwestern periphery of their combined ranges. Instead, the
limited evidence now available suggests that _T. tau_ and _T. upsilon_
are names based on a highly variable character of color pattern of the
head, and that only one species is involved.

In Michoacán this species inhabits the mesquite grassland on the Mexican
Plateau.


~Tropidodipsas occidentala~ Oliver

     _Tropidodipsas occidentala_ Oliver, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 360:20, November 20, 1937.--Comala, Colima,
     México.

     Coalcomán.

This specimen was reported by Peters (1954:34), who found it beneath a
rock at the mouth of a heavily wooded ravine near Coalcomán at an
elevation of 950 meters. The only other known specimen is from Comala,
Colima, a village, like Coalcomán, that is located near the upper limits
of the arid scrub forest.


~Natrix valida isabelleae~ Conant

     _Natrix valida isabelleae_ Conant, Nat. Hist. Misc., 126:7,
     September 15, 1953.--Pie de la Cuesta, Laguna Coyuca,
     Guerrero, México.

     Coahuayana; Playa Azul (2); Punto San Juan de Lima.

Three females and one male have, respectively, 133, 135, 135, and 131
ventrals, and 68, 68, 73, and 75 caudals. The grayish stippling on the
posterior ventral surfaces mentioned by Conant (1953:9) is not visible
on these specimens. In the small individuals from Punto San Juan de Lima
and from Coahuayana there are four longitudinal rows of dark spots on
the dorsum; in two large females from Playa Azul the spots are barely
discernible.

All of the specimens from Michoacán were found in the coastal lowlands;
those from Playa Azul were collected from a small brackish,
mangrove-lined lagoon.


~Storeria storerioides~ (Cope)

     _Tropidoclonium storerioides_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 17:190, December 26, 1865.--Mexican Plateau.
     Type locality restricted to Tres Cumbres, Morelos, México,
     by Smith and Taylor (1950a:336).

     _Storeria storerioides_, Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
     8(3):29, June, 1883.

     Dos Aguas (11); Puerto de Garnica; Tancítaro (11); Tzitzio;
     Uruapan; 16 km. NW of Zacapu.

Three males and six females from the Sierra de Coalcomán have,
respectively, 122-128 (125.3) and 126-136 (130.0) ventrals, and 46-47
(46.7) and 38-42 (39.1) caudals. Four males and eleven females from the
Cordillera Volcánica have, respectively, 124-132 (128.5) and 127-139
(136.4) ventrals, and 43-48 (44.7) and 38-44 (40.2) caudals. These data
show that, although there is little difference in the number of caudals,
specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán have fewer ventrals than do
specimens from the Cordillera Volcánica. Of eleven specimens from the
Sierra de Coalcomán, two have black bellies. Five others from the Sierra
de Coalcomán and one from Puerto de Garnica in the Cordillera Volcánica
have the bellies heavily stippled with black, giving a gray appearance.
Melanistic tendencies in this species have been discussed by Anderson
(1960:64), who examined the specimen from Tzitzio. In life, one specimen
from Dos Aguas (UMMZ 119451) had a cream-colored belly; the edges of the
ventrals were dark brick-red.

In Michoacán this snake inhabits pine-oak, pine, and fir forests at
elevations between 1550 and 2800 meters in the Cordillera Volcánica and
the Sierra de Coalcomán. Most specimens were found beneath rocks; the
one from Tzitzio was removed from the stomach of a Mexican Motmot
(Anderson, 1960:66).


~Thamnophis dorsalis cyclides~ Cope

     _Thamnophis cyrtopsis cyclides_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 13:299, December 28, 1861.--Cape San Lucas,
     Baja California (in error). Type locality restricted to
     Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:330). Smith, Copeia, no. 2:140, June 8, 1951.
     Milstead, Texas Jour. Sci., 5:368, September, 1953.

     _Thamnophis eques eques_ (_nec._ Reuss), Smith, Zoologica,
     27:106, October 23, 1942. Bogert and Oliver, Bull. Amer.
     Mus. Nat. Hist., 83:356, March 30, 1945.

     _Thamnophis vicinus_ Smith, Zoologica, 27:104, October 23,
     1942.--Temazcal, Michoacán, México.

     _Thamnophis dorsalis cyclides_, Fitch and Milstead, Copeia,
     no. 1:112, March 17, 1961.

     Barolosa; Coalcomán; Dos Aguas (3); Los Reyes; Morelia (16);
     Opopeo; Pino Gordo; Tacícuaro (16); Tancítaro (14);
     Tangamandapio (2); Temazcal (2); Tzintzuntzan; Uruapan.

The snakes comprising the former _Thamnophis eques_-group have undergone
extensive taxonomic and nomenclatural shuffling by Smith (1942 and
1951), Bogert and Oliver (1945), Milstead (1953), and Fitch and Milstead
(1961). Smith recognized in Michoacán three members of the _T. eques_ (=
_dorsalis_) complex: _eques eques_, _eques postremus_, and _vicinus_.
Later, Smith (1951) showed that the specific name _eques_ had been
misapplied, so that _T. eques eques_ became _T. cyrtopsis cyclides_, and
_T. eques postremus_ became _T. cyrtopsis postremus_; under this
arrangement _T. vicinus_ stood unchanged. In the meantime, Bogert and
Oliver (1945:359) presented a reinterpretation of Smith's data and
suggested that _T. vicinus_, which differs from _T. dorsalis cyclides_
only in lacking a middorsal stripe, "... is not a species, but only a
pattern phase, possibly a simple mutant of _T. e. eques_" (= _T.
dorsalis cyclides_, by present arrangement). Milstead (1953) agreed with
Bogert and Oliver on the status of _T. vicinus_; furthermore, on the
basis of only a few specimens, Milstead concluded that _T. cyrtopsis
postremus_ was not subspecifically distinct from _T. cyrtopsis
cyclides_. Recently, Fitch and Milstead (1961) showed that _Thamnophis
dorsalis_ Baird and Girard (1853) was the correct name for the snakes
that had been recognized as _Thamnophis cyrtopsis_ Kennicott (1860).
Consequently, the snakes referred to _T. eques eques_ by Smith (1942)
and to _T. cyrtopsis cyclides_ by Smith (1951) and Milstead (1953) are
now _T. dorsalis cyclides_.

Aside from one specimen from Temazcal and nine from Morelia (paratypes
of _T. vicinus_), only two other specimens completely lacking the
middorsal stripe have been seen; one is a male (UMMZ 102510) having 161
ventrals and an incomplete tail from Pino Gordo, and the other is a male
(CNHM 39060) from Tancítaro having 158 ventrals and an incomplete tail.
A female from Tancítaro (CNHM 39061) having 153 ventrals and 77 caudals
has no lateral stripes and only a narrow middorsal stripe on the
anterior part of the body. Throughout the region where _T. vicinus_-like
snakes have been found, typical _T. dorsalis cyclides_ occurs in much
greater numbers. I concur with Bogert and Oliver in placing _T. vicinus_
as a synonym of _T. dorsalis cyclides_.

[Illustration: FIG. 10. Dorsal color pattern of _Thamnophis dorsalis
cyclides_ (A) and _Thamnophis dorsalis postremus_ (B).]

Milstead (1953) had available few specimens of _Thamnophis dorsalis_
from the Tepalcatepec Valley. The large series now in existence shows
that the population in the Tepalcatepec Valley differs distinctly from
that inhabiting the Mexican Plateau, Cordillera Volcánica, and Sierra de
Coalcomán. Therefore the name _T. dorsalis postremus_ Smith (1942) is
resurrected for the population in the Tepalcatepec Valley. _T. dorsalis
cyclides_ and _T. dorsalis postremus_ differ in color pattern (Fig. 10)
and in scutellation (Table 6). Specimens from the Mexican Plateau and
mountain ranges have a distinct light stripe on the second and third
scale rows, a dark brown dorsum having squarish black spots, and a row
of dark spots on the first row of dorsal scales. Specimens from the
Tepalcatepec Valley have a grayish brown dorsum having smaller and less
distinct dark spots and no light stripe on the second and third scale
rows; the first, second, and third rows of scales are colored like the
venter. In some specimens there are small dark flecks on the first row
of dorsal scales.


TABLE 6.--VARIATION IN SCUTELLATION IN THAMNOPHIS DORSALIS.

+---------------------------------+-------+---------+------------+
|           Character             |Mexican|Sierra de|Tepalcatepec|
|                                 |Plateau|Coalcomán|   Valley   |
+------------------+--------------+-------+---------+------------+
|     Ventrals     | Female  N    |  31   |    2    |     32     |
|                  |         Mean | 164.0 |  156.5  |   144.6    |
|                  |         Range|153-171| 154-159 |  138-151   |
|                  +--------------+-------+---------+------------+
|                  |    Male N    |  19   |    2    |     32     |
|                  |         Mean | 153.5 |  154.7  |   138.3    |
|                  |         Range|149-159| 149-159 |  131-141   |
+------------------+--------------+-------+---------+------------+
|     Caudals      | Female  N    |  28   |    2    |     29     |
|                  |         Mean | 83.8  |  81.0   |    73.4    |
|                  |         Range|80-100 |  79-83  |   70-79    |
|                  +--------------+-------+---------+------------+
|                  |    Male N    |  14   |    2    |     28     |
|                  |         Mean | 78.0  |  72.0   |    68.5    |
|                  |         Range| 71-87 |   72    |   63-73    |
+------------------+--------------+-------+---------+------------+

One specimen from Uruapan (1550 meters) and one from Coalcomán (950
meters) are intermediate in color pattern between _T. dorsalis cyclides_
and _T. dorsalis postremus_. Both have indistinct lateral stripes and
only small dark spots below the stripes. In scutellation these specimens
are like _T. dorsalis cyclides_.

In Michoacán _Thamnophis dorsalis cyclides_ has been collected in a
variety of habitats on the Mexican Plateau: pine-oak forest, fir forest,
marshes, and cleared land from 1550 to 2800 meters. In the Sierra de
Coalcomán one was taken in broad-leafed forest at 950 meters, three in
pine-oak forest at 2100 meters, and one in pine forest at 2300 meters.


~Thamnophis dorsalis postremus~ Smith

     _Thamnophis eques postremus_ Smith, Zoologica, 27:109,
     October 23, 1942.--El Sabino, Michoacán, México.

     _Thamnophis cyrtopsis postremus_ Smith, Copeia, no. 2:140,
     June 8, 1951.

     _Thamnophis cyrtopsis cyclides_ (part), Milstead, Texas
     Jour. Sci., 5:368, September, 1953.

     _Thamnophis dorsalis postremus_, Fitch and Milstead, Copeia,
     no. 1:112, March 17, 1961.

     Apatzingán (31); Capirio (2); Charapendo; Cuatro Caminos
     (22); El Sabino; Lombardia (9); Nueva Italia (8); Uruapan
     (3).

The reasons for recognizing the population of _Thamnophis dorsalis_ in
the Tepalcatepec Valley as distinct from that on the surrounding
highlands are presented in the discussion of _Thamnophis dorsalis
cyclides_. In certain features of coloration and in the low numbers of
ventrals and caudals, _T. dorsalis postremus_ shows more resemblance to
_T. dorsalis sumichrasti_ than to _T. dorsalis cyclides_. According to
Milstead (1953:367), _T. dorsalis cyclides_ ranges southward from the
Río Balsas in southwestern México. If specimens could be obtained from
the upper Balsas Basin they might show that _T. dorsalis postremus_
inhabits that extensive basin.

In the Tepalcatepec Valley _T. dorsalis postremus_ is most frequently
found at night in the rainy season, at which time the snakes are
abundant near temporary pools where frogs are breeding. The absence of
specimens from the coastal lowlands of Guerrero, Michoacán, and Colima
indicate that, although the species inhabits the lowlands of the
Tepalcatepec Valley, its range does not include the coastal lowlands.

A female (UMMZ 119402 from Cuatro Caminos) having 139 ventrals and a
body length of 576 mm., on June 20, 1958, gave birth to 25 young, of
which 18 (9 males and 9 females) were preserved. In body length the
males varied from 132 to 141 (137.3) mm.; the females, 125 to 137
(133.1) mm. In tail length the males varied from 38 to 44 (42.4) mm.;
females, 35 to 42 (39.7) mm. The males have 138 to 147 (142.2) ventrals
and 70 to 75 (72.9) caudals; females have 131 to 140 (135.8) ventrals
and 63 to 71 (67.0) caudals.


~Thamnophis eques eques~ (Reuss)

     _Coluber eques_ Reuss, Zool. Misc., p. 152, 1834.--México.
     Type locality restricted to Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950a:334).

     _Thamnophis macrostemma macrostemma_, Smith and Taylor,
     Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 187:163, October 5, 1945.

     _Thamnophis subcarinata subcarinata_, Smith, Herpetologica,
     5:63, May 31, 1949.

     _Thamnophis eques eques_, Smith, Copeia, no. 2:139, June 8,
     1951.

     Jiquilpan; Lago de Cuitzeo; Lago de Pátzcuaro (17);
     Pátzcuaro (5); Tangancícuaro; Tupátaro (2); Undameo; Zacapu.

Although this snake has been collected in open pine-oak forest and in
oak-bunch grass associations, it seems to reach its greatest abundance
in marshes on the Mexican Plateau at elevations of 1550 to 2300 meters.


~Thamnophis melanogaster canescens~ Smith

     _Thamnophis melanogaster canescens_ Smith, Zoologica,
     27:117, October 23, 1942.--Chapala, Jalisco, México.

     Lago de Cuitzeo (5); Lago de Pátzcuaro; Pátzcuaro;
     Tacícuaro; Tangamandapio (2).

This species of garter snake seems to be most abundant in the marshes
adjacent to the lakes on the Mexican Plateau in Michoacán and Jalisco.
At these elevations (1550 to 2200 meters) it often is found in
association with _Thamnophis eques eques_ and sometimes with _Thamnophis
dorsalis cyclides_. On June 11, 1958, individuals of this species were
found in a hyacinth-choked marsh at Tangamandapio at night.

One specimen from Tangamandapio (UMMZ 119414) had, in life, a dark
chocolate brown dorsum, reddish brown sides, and cream-colored belly,
chin, and labials. There were no longitudinal dorsal stripes.


~Thamnophis scalaris scaliger~ (Jan)

     _Tropidonotus scaliger_ Jan, Elenco sistematico degli Ofidi,
     p. 70, 1863.--No type locality designated. Type locality
     restricted to Mexico City, Distrito Federal, by Smith and
     Taylor (1950a:329).

     _Thamnophis scalaris scaliger_, Smith, Zoologica, 27:103,
     October 23, 1942.

     Cerro Tancítaro (2); Nahuatzen; Opopeo; 26 km. S of
     Pátzcuaro.

The few specimens of this species from Michoacán have been collected at
elevations from 1800 to 3400 meters in pine or fir forest in the
Cordillera Volcánica.


~Micrurus distans michoacanensis~ (Dugès)

     _Elaps diastema michoacanensis_ Dugès, La Naturaleza, ser.
     2, 1:487, 1891.--Michoacán. Type locality restricted to
     Apatzingán, Michoacán, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:335).

     _Micrurus distans michoacanensis_, Zweifel, Amer. Mus.
     Novitates, 1953:11, June 26, 1959.

     Apatzingán (6).

All specimens were collected in the arid scrub forest of the
Tepalcatepec Valley. The number of black rings on the body varies from
six to eleven. In this respect they agree with the diagnosis of this
subspecies presented by Zweifel (1959b:9).


~Micrurus laticollaris~ (Peters)

     _Elaps marcgravii laticollaris_ Peters, Monats. Akad. Wiss.
     Berlin, p. 877, 1869.--Izúcar de Matamoros, Puebla, México.

     _Micrurus laticollaris_, Schmidt, Publ. Field Mus. Nat.
     Hist., zool. ser., 20:39, December 11, 1933.

     El Sabino (2); Lombardia.

This species ranges throughout the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin westward
into Colima; specimens from Michoacán were collected in arid scrub
forest at elevations from 500 to 1050 meters. The limited observations
on _Micrurus distans michoacanensis_ and _M. laticollaris_ indicate
that, at least in the Tepalcatepec Valley, _M. laticollaris_ seems to
inhabit slightly more mesic areas than does _M. distans michoacanensis_.


~Pelamis platurus~ (Linnaeus)

     _Anguis platura_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, 1:391,
     1766.--Pine Island, Pacific Ocean.

     _Pelamis platurus_, Gray, Ann. Philos., p. 15, 1825.

     Boca de Apiza.

In November, 1955, Alfonzo Gonzales, a geographer from the University of
Texas, observed sea snakes on the beaches of Michoacán. In May, 1956,
Donald D. Brand of the University of Texas gave me one specimen of
_Pelamis platurus_ that he obtained on March 2, 1956, at Boca de Apiza.
Furthermore, he supplied me with the following observations based on his
field work along the coast of Michoacán from the Río Coahuayana to
Maruata from March 1, to April 15, 1956. At that time many sea snakes
were observed; in some places living and dead individuals were seen on
the beaches; innumerable snakes were seen in the surf. When live
individuals were taken from the beach and thrown into the ocean, they
usually swam to shore. Many partially eaten individuals were seen
protruding from crab holes. Inquiries among the natives resulted in the
following information: Sea snakes are frequently seen between November
and April, but most commonly in March and April, at which time the water
is cold. The natives referred to the sea snakes as "culebra del mar."
Most natives said that the snakes were not poisonous; others did not
know of any venomous properties. In May, 1956, I worked the coastal
region from the Río Coahuayana to La Placita and saw no sea snakes. In
the summer of 1950 James A. Peters, and in the summer of 1951 I worked
nearly the entire coastal region of Michoacán; during that time no
_Pelamis_ were seen. Insofar as I know, this is the first report of such
seasonal activity in _Pelamis platurus_ in the Americas.


~Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus~ Günther

     _Ancisdrodon bilineatus_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser.
     3, 12:364, 1863.--Pacific coast of Guatemala.

     _Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus_, Burger and Robertson,
     Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 34 (1):213, October 1, 1951.

     Apatzingán; El Sabino; La Playa; Los Reyes.

All specimens from Michoacán are from inland localities between 300 and
1500 meters. The one from Los Reyes (USNM 46416) was collected by Nelson
and Goldman on February 13, 1903. The elevation of Los Reyes (1500
meters) seems unusually high for this species, but otherwise there is no
reason to doubt the authenticity of the record. Goldman (1951:192) in
his description of Los Reyes stated: "Los Reyes is near the boundary
between the Lower Austral and Arid Upper Tropical Zones but is
preponderantly tropical in zonal character. The regular crops are mainly
sugar cane, rice, and corn." Thus the biotic features of the area are
not noticeably different from those at El Sabino and La Playa at lower
elevations. The development of extensive agriculture through irrigation
in the Tepalcatepec Valley and planting of rice and sugar-cane in that
area may produce a more widespread habitat for this snake.

The absence of specimens from the coastal lowlands is due solely to
inadequate collecting; the natives there know the snake and report that
it is not uncommon in certain areas.


~Crotalus basiliscus basiliscus~ (Cope)

     _Caudisonia basilisca_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, September 30, 1864.--Colima. Type locality
     restricted to Colima, Colima, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950a:328).

     _Crotalus basiliscus basiliscus_, Gloyd, Nat. Hist. Misc.,
     17:1, April 23, 1948.

     Apatzingán (4); Camachines; Coalcomán; El Ticuiz.

Specimens from southern Michoacán have fewer ventrals and caudals than
do those from the northern part of the range; three males and three
females have, respectively, 178, 182, 182, 185, 186, and 188 ventrals,
and 27, 28, 29, 22, 29, and 29 caudals. Klauber (1952:81) gave the
following data for _Crotalus basiliscus_ (based on specimens from the
entire range, except Oaxaca): ventrals in males, 179-201 (191.4), in
females, 185-206 (197.6); caudals in males, 26-36 (30.7), in females,
21-29 (24.4). Klauber (1952:84) remarked that the one specimen that he
had seen from Apatzingán had fewer ventrals and caudals than most other
specimens. The low numbers of ventrals and caudals in specimens from
Michoacán, as compared with more northern populations, may be indicative
of a trend in the reduction of the numbers of these scutes from north to
south. The southernmost examples of _Crotalus basiliscus_ (_Crotalus
basiliscus oaxacus_ from Oaxaca) have 172-175 ventrals and 21 caudals
(Gloyd, 1948).

In Michoacán _Crotalus basiliscus basiliscus_ has been found in arid
habitats on the coast, in the Tepalcatepec Valley, and in the lower
parts of the Sierra de Coalcomán. All specimens are from localities
below 1070 meters in elevation.


~Crotalus durissus culminatus~ Klauber

     _Crotalus durissus culminatus_ Klauber, Bull. Zool. Soc. San
     Diego, 26:65, August 8, 1952.--El Sabino, Michoacán, México.

     El Sabino (18).

These specimens are part of the type series and were collected by Hobart
M. Smith near the upper limits of the arid scrub forest at an elevation
of about 1050 meters on the lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica at
the northern edge of the Tepalcatepec Valley. They were discussed in
detail by Klauber (1952:66-70).


~Crotalus intermedius intermedius~ Troschel

     _Crotalus intermedius_ Troschel, _in_ von Müller, Reisen in
     Vereiningten Staaten, Canada und Mexico, vol. 3, p. 613,
     1865.--Type locality unknown.

     _Crotalus intermedius intermedius_, Klauber, Bull. Zool.
     Soc. San Diego, 26:9, August 8, 1952.

     Cerro Tancítaro.

The one specimen is from the pine forests on the Cordillera Volcánica.
At the present time this species is known from scattered localities in
west-central Veracruz, Oaxaca, Michoacán, and as _Crotalus intermedius
omiltemanus_ in Central Guerrero. Apparently it is restricted to montane
environments.


~Crotalus molossus nigrescens~ Gloyd

     _Crotalus molossus nigrescens_ Gloyd, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 325:2, January 28, 1936.--Four miles west of
     La Colorada, Zacatecas, México.

     Carapan; Los Conejos; Pátzcuaro; Tacícuaro (5).

In Michoacán this species has been found in pine forests between 1550
and 2300 meters in the Cordillera Volcánica. I expected to find it in
the Sierra de Coalcomán, but inquiries among the natives living in the
pine forests of that mountain range revealed that the people there have
no knowledge of a large species of rattlesnake.


~Crotalus polystictus~ (Cope)

     _Caudisonia polysticta_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 17:191, December 26, 1865.--Tableland of
     México. Type locality restricted to Tupátaro, Guanajuata,
     México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:330).

     _Crotalus polystictus_ Cope, _in_ Yarrow, Wheeler's Rept.
     Geog. Geol. Expl. Surv. W. 100th. Mer., vol. 5, p. 533,
     1875.

     Tacícuaro (4); Tupátaro (2).

Formerly this species was abundant in the marshes around Lago de
Chapala. The draining of these marshes probably resulted in reducing the
numbers of these rattlesnakes. The species is known only from the
Mexican Plateau at elevations of 1450 to 2400 meters.


~Crotalus pusillus~ Klauber

     _Crotalus pusillus_ Klauber, Bull. Zool. Soc. San Diego,
     26:34, August 8, 1952.--Tancítaro, Michoacán, México.

     Acuaro de las Lleguas (2); Carapan; Cerro Tancítaro (16);
     Dos Aguas (12).

Aside from the type series of _Crotalus pusillus_ from Cerro Tancítaro
and one specimen from Carapan referred to the species by Klauber
(1952:38), there are fourteen specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán.
These specimens (UMMZ 112566-7, 118591-9, 118601, 121512-3) are like
_Crotalus pusillus_ from Cerro Tancítaro in having the prefrontals
paired, a black proximal rattle, and the underside of the tail black.
The prefrontals are bordered posteriorly by one scale in two specimens,
by two scales in three specimens, and by three scales in the other nine.
The snakes from the Sierra de Coalcomán have 40 to 46 (42) dorsal body
blotches. Ten males have 150-158 (154.4) ventrals and 29-33 (31.0)
caudals; two females have 157 and 160 ventrals, and 25 and 27 caudals.
The largest specimen is a male having a body length of 545 mm. and a
tail length of 63 mm. The only noticeable difference between the
specimens from the Sierra de Coalcomán and the topotypic series is that
the latter have fewer dorsal blotches; the range of variation is 33 to
46 (39.8).

Most specimens of this species have a grayish brown dorsum and dark
brown dorsal blotches. Two specimens from Dos Aguas (UMMZ 118596 and
118599) are pale brown above and have indistinct blotches.

One specimen from Dos Aguas regurgitated a large _Gerrhonotus imbricatus
imbricatus_; of two others from the same locality, one regurgitated a
_Sceloporus bulleri_ and an _Eptesicus fuscus_. The latter specimen was
collected at the entrance of a small cave, where it probably had
captured the bat.

In the Cordillera Volcánica _Crotalus pusillus_ has been obtained in
pine-oak forest at elevations between 1550 and 1800 meters. In the
Sierra de Coalcomán two specimens were taken in pine forest at an
elevation of 2300 meters; ten other were found beneath rocks and logs in
pine-oak forest at an elevation of 2100 meters.


~Crotalus triseriatus aquilus~ Klauber

     _Crotalus triseriatus aquilus_ Klauber, Bull. Zool. Soc. San
     Diego, 26:24, August 8, 1952.--Alvarez, San Luis Potosí,
     México.

     Morelia (10); Tacícuaro (2).

I am following Klauber (1952) in assigning some of the specimens of this
species from Michoacán to the subspecies _aquilus_ and others to _C. t.
triseriatus_. The distinguishing characters of these subspecies are
given by Klauber (1952:28). On the basis of the few localities from
which the species is known in Michoacán it seems as though _C. t.
aquilus_ inhabits the open grassy areas on the Mexican Plateau and the
associated open pine-oak or oak-bunch grass habitats to the north and
east of the Cordillera Volcánica. _Crotalus triseriatus aquilus_ has
been collected at elevations from 1600 to 2000 meters in Michoacán.


~Crotalus triseriatus triseriatus~ (Wagler)

     _Uropsophus triseriatus_ Wagler, Natürliches System der
     Amphibien, p. 176, 1830.--México. (Probably Mexico City.)

     _Crotalus triseriatus triseriatus_, Klauber, Bull. Zool.
     Soc. San Diego, 26:19, August 8, 1952.

     Cerro Tancítaro (36); Opopeo; Pátzcuaro.

This small rattlesnake inhabits rocky areas in pine and pine-oak forests
above 1600 meters in the Cordillera Volcánica; it has been collected at
3270 meters on Cerro Tancítaro. The series reported by Schmidt and
Shannon (1947:84) is a mixture of specimens of _Crotalus triseriatus_
and _Crotalus pusillus_. The two species are found together on Cerro
Tancítaro, but only _Crotalus pusillus_ inhabits the coniferous forests
of the Sierra de Coalcomán. Klauber (1952:30) stated that despite the
proximity of _Crotalus triseriatus triseriatus_ and _Crotalus
triseriatus aquilus_ in Michoacán, there is no evidence of
intergradation. He went on to suggest that additional material might
show that the two named populations actually are distinct species. The
specimens that have been studied since Klauber's investigations also
show no evidence of intergradation, but there still is no known sympatry
of the populations.

The small montane rattlesnakes belonging to the species _C. pricei_, _C.
pusillus_, and _C. triseriatus_ present a problem in systematics and
distribution worthy of intensive investigation. A knowledge of the
distribution and relationships of the various populations of these
snakes, together with other species also living in isolated populations
on the higher mountains in México, probably will be of great
significance in understanding dispersal and differentiation of animals
during the Pleistocene.



SPECIES OF QUESTIONABLE OCCURRENCE


Some species for which there are no authentic records from Michoacán can
be expected there on zoogeographic probability. Other species have been
recorded from Michoacán, but these records are doubtful for any one of
several reasons. Fifteen species of such questionable occurrence are
discussed below:


~Syrrhophus modestus modestus~ Taylor

     _Syrrhophus modestus_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
     28:304, May 15, 1942.--Hacienda Paso del Río, Colima,
     México.

     _Syrrhophus modestus modestus_, Duellman, Occ. Pap. Mus.
     Zool. Univ. Michigan, 594:5, June 6, 1958.

This small terrestrial frog is not uncommon on the coastal lowlands and
foothills in Nayarit and in Colima, where it has been collected within a
few kilometers of the Michoacán border. At Tecolapa, Colima, on August
9, 1956, _Syrrhophus modestus modestus_ was found with _Tomodactylus
nitidus orarius_, _Bufo marinus_, _Bufo marmoreus_, _Hyla baudini_,
_Hyla smithi_, and _Phyllomedusa dacnicolor_, all of which occur on the
coastal lowlands of Michoacán. Because of its solitary and secretive
habits, _Syrrhophus modestus modestus_ is not common in collections.
Additional field work on the coast of Michoacán should reveal the
presence of the species there.


~Hyla microcephala sartori~ Smith

     _Hyla microcephala sartori_ Smith, Herpetologica, 7:186,
     December 31, 1951.--1 mi. N of Organos, S of El Triente,
     Guerrero, México.

On August 28, 1960, J. R. Dixon obtained a series of this species from a
temporary pond 6 kilometers northeast of La Resolana, Jalisco.
Previously, _Hyla microcephala sartori_ had been known only from the
lowlands of Guerrero and Oaxaca. The existence of the species in Jalisco
provides evidence that this frog also occurs in Michoacán and Colima.


~Gastrophryne usta usta~ (Cope)

     _Engystoma ustum_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
     18:131, 1866.--Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

     _Gastrophryne usta usta_, Carvalho, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.
     Univ. Michigan, 555:13, July 16, 1954.

Smith and Taylor (1948:93-4) listed specimens of this species from
Organos and El Treinta, Guerrero, and from Paso del Río, Quesería,
Santiago, and Tecomán, Colima. The species occurs from Sinaloa and
central Veracruz southward at low elevations to the Isthmus of
Tehuantepec and thence along the Pacific lowlands into Central America.
Almost certainly it occurs on the coastal lowlands in Michoacán. Since
the amphibian fauna of the Tepalcatepec Valley has been better sampled
than that of the coast, I suspect that if _Gastrophryne_ occurred in the
Tepalcatepec Valley, I would have found it there.


~Lepidochelys olivacea~ (Eschscholtz)

     _Chelonia olivacea_ Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, pt. 1, p. 2,
     1829.--Manila Bay, Philippine Islands.

     _Lepidochelys olivacea_, Girard, United States Exploring
     Expedition..., vol. 20, Herpetology, p. 435, 1858.

According to Smith and Taylor (1950b: 15), this sea turtle is known from
the entire Pacific coast of México; these authors reported the species
from Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Colima, and Sonora. Although the only
sea turtle that I observed in Michoacán is _Chelonia mydas_, others
probably do use the sheltered beaches for nesting. The scanty records of
sea turtles along the Pacific coast of México indicate that _Chelonia
mydas_ and _Lepidochelys olivacea_ are the most abundant species in that
region. There are scattered records of _Dermochelys coriacea_, _Caretta
caretta_, and _Eretmochelys imbricata_ along the Pacific coast. The
occurrence of any of these along the coast of Michoacán is probable.


~Geoemyda pulcherrima pulcherrima~ (Gray)

     _Emys pulcherrima_ Gray, Catalogue of the Shield Reptiles in
     British Museum, vol. 1, p. 25.--México. Type locality
     restricted to Presidio de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México, by
     Smith and Taylor (1950b:30).

     _Geoemyda pulcherrima pulcherrima_, Wettstein, Sitzb. Akad.
     Wiss. Wien, 143:18, 1934.

Smith and Taylor (1950b:30) recorded this species from Sonora, Sinaloa,
Nayarit, Colima, and Guerrero; these records indicate that the species
probably is distributed along the Pacific coast of México southward from
southern Sonora. It unquestionably occurs on the coast of Michoacán.
Natives of the coastal lowlands tell of another "tortuga de la tierra"
besides _Geoemyda rubida_. In the collections of the Museum of Natural
History of the University of Illinois is a specimen of _Geoemyda
pulcherrima_ from Mexcala in the Balsas Basin in northern Guerrero. On
the basis of this specimen it is highly probable that the species also
inhabits the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin in Michoacán.


~Pseudemys scripta ornata~ (Gray)

     _Emys ornata_ Gray, Synopsis reptilium, p. 30,
     1831.--Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México.

     _Pseudemys scripta ornata_, Carr, Herpetologica, 1:135,
     December 30, 1938.

The systematics and distribution of _Pseudemys scripta_ in México and
Central America are poorly understood. Smith and Taylor (1950b:32)
recorded this turtle from the Pacific lowlands of Sinaloa, Jalisco,
Oaxaca, and Chiapas. This species is represented by vicarious
populations throughout the Atlantic lowlands of México, northwestern
México, over much of the United States, and also in Baja California.
Along the Pacific coast of México the species seems to be extremely
rare, or, at least, only locally abundant. Since the species has such a
wide distribution, and since it occurs on the Pacific lowlands both to
the north and to the south of Michoacán, it is reasonable to expect its
presence on the coast of Michoacán. Inquiries among the natives living
in the Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin produced only negative evidence about
the occurrence of _Pseudemys_ in the Río Tepalcatepec and Río Balsas. I
suspect that the best place to search for these turtles on the coast of
Michoacán is in the numerous fresh-water lagoons on the coastal plain.


~Caiman crocodilus fuscus~ (Cope)

     _Perosuchus fuscus_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
     Philadelphia, 20:203, November 9, 1868.--Río Magdalena,
     Columbia.

     _Caiman crocodilus fuscus_, Mertens, Senckenbergiana,
     26:275, December 22, 1943.

Gadow (1930:50) reported that _Caiman sclerops_ (= _Caiman crocodilus
fuscus_) inhabited the "tierra caliente" in Michoacán. Smith and Taylor
(1950b:212) accepted Gadow's record for the State, although otherwise
the species is unknown north of Oaxaca. Peters (1954:10) refuted Gadow's
record on the basis that Gadow's collections contained no specimens of
_Caiman_. The local name "caiman" refers to both _Crocodylus_ and to
_Caiman_, for, in general, the natives do not distinguish between the
two. "Caimanes" are reported from along the coast of Michoacán, where
the name presumably refers to _Crocodylus acutus acutus_, and in the
Balsas-Tepalcatepec Basin (Gadow, 1930:50; Webber, 1946:267). I have
seen no specimens of either _Crocodylus_ or _Caiman_ from the Balsas
Basin. If crocodilians do occur in the basin, they probably are
_Crocodylus acutus acutus_. There is no basis, whatsoever, for including
Michoacán in the range of _Caiman crocodilus fuscus_.


~Bipes canaliculatus~ Bonnaterre

     _Bipes canaliculatus_ Bonnaterre, Encyclopédie méthodique,
     Erpétologie, p. 68, 1789.--México. Type locality restricted
     to Mexcala, Guerrero, México, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:39).

Dugès (1896:480) reported this species from Morelia, Michoacán. Smith
and Taylor (1950b:39), who recorded the species from three localities in
the Balsas Basin in Guerrero, rejected Dugès' record. I, too, am
unwilling to accept Dugès' record. Nevertheless, the species probably
occurs throughout much of the Balsas Basin. This idea is strengthened by
comments made by Storm (1939:342): "The last hard drop, that afternoon,
was down the great Cerro de los Cajones [southwest of Tacámbaro], and
here in the upper forest we came upon... a lizard with front legs and
none behind ... the animal with hands and no feet that señor Smith
[Hobart M. Smith] was seeking!... They're named _Bipes caniculatus_
(_sic._)."


~Coleonyx elegans nemoralis~ Klauber

     _Coleonyx elegans nemoralis_ Klauber, Trans. San Diego Soc.
     Nat. Hist., 10:195, March 9, 1949.--Paso del Río, Colima,
     México.

Klauber (1945:199) and Smith and Taylor (1950b:43) reported this lizard
from the coastal lowlands of Colima and Guerrero. Davis and Smith
(1953:101) reported it from 8 kilometers northeast of Temilpa, Morelos,
in the upper Balsas Basin. Specimens of this lizard have been collected
infrequently; the few locality records and limited ecological data
indicate that it inhabits dense scrub forest and tropical semi-deciduous
forest. _Coleonyx elegans nemoralis_ is to be expected on the coastal
lowlands, the seaward foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán, and on the
lower slopes of the Cordillera Volcánica along the northern edge of the
Tepalcatepec Valley.


~Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare~ (Linnaeus)

     _Lacerta obricularis_ Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12,
     1:1062, 1789.--México (by inference). Type locality
     restricted to México, Districto Federal, by Smith and Taylor
     (1950b:97).

     _Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare_, Smith, Trans. Kansas
     Acad. Sci., 37:290, 1934.

Gadow (1905:213) inferred that _Phrynosoma orbiculare_ occurred at
elevations of more than 3000 feet in Michoacán. There are no specimens
of this species known from Gadow's collections made in Michoacán. Smith
and Taylor (1950b:98) apparently accepted Gadow's statement and recorded
the species from Michoacán: "above 3000 feet (Jorullo?)." Reeve
(1952:940) somehow misconstrued this statement to read "Jorullo, above
Zumpango (Smith and Taylor, 1950b)." Reeve did not indicate on his map
(1952:939) that the species occurred in Michoacán. In the most recent
review of the species (Horowitz, 1955), no localities are given in
Michoacán. Since _Phrynosoma orbiculare_ is known from central Jalisco,
Guanajuato, Queretaro, and México, its presence at least in northeastern
Michoacán is to be expected, although at the present time there are no
specimens known from the state.


~Eumeces brevirostris~ (Günther)

     _Mabouia brevirostris_ Günther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p.
     316, August, 1860.--Oaxaca. Type locality restricted to
     Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950b:168).

     _Eumeces brevirostris_, Bocourt, Mission scientifique au
     Mexique et dans l'Amerique Céntrale. Reptiles, livr. 6, p.
     439, 1879.

Smith and Taylor (1950b:168) Listed this species: "_Michoacán_: No
specific record." I am unaware of any specimen of this skink from the
state. As presently recognized, this species contains two subspecies.
One of these occurs in the mountains of Oaxaca northward into central
Veracruz; the other, _Eumeces brevirostris bilineatus_, occurs in
Durango southward to Jalisco, where it inhabits the Sierra Madre
Occidental. Possibly the species occurs in the Sierra de los Tarascos in
Michoacán.


~Eumeces callicephalus~ Bocourt

     _Eumeces callacephalus_ Bocourt, Mission scientifique au
     Mexique et dans l'Amerique Céntrale. Reptiles, livr. 6, p.
     431, 1879.--Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México.

Dugés (1896) in a paper in which he listed several species of _Eumeces_
in México, reported _Eumeces callicephalus_ from Michoacán, but he gave
no specific locality within the state. Michoacán was included in the
range of the species by Taylor (1936:298) and by Smith and Taylor
(1950b:164). The species definitely is known from southeastern Arizona
southward to Guanajuato. It may occur in Michoacán, but, since there are
three rather widespread species of _Eumeces_ inhabiting the Mexican
Plateau and associated mountain ranges in the northern and northeastern
part of Michoacán, interspecific competition might be a reason for the
absence of _Eumeces callicephalus_ there.


~Leptodeira septentrionalis polysticta~ Günther

     _Leptodeira polysticta_ Günther, Biologia
     Centrali-Americana, Reptilia, p. 172, May, 1895.--Belice,
     British Honduras.

     _Leptodeira septentrionalis polysticta_, Duellman, Bull.
     Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 114:72, February 24, 1958.

Although this species occurs from sea level to elevations of about 2000
meters from Nayarit southward into Central America, no specimens are
known from Michoacán. Smith and Taylor (1945:87) listed the species as
occurring in Michoacán, but they had no record on which to base this
report. Probably, the species occurs on the coastal lowlands and seaward
slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán.


~Tropidodipsas fasciata guerreroensis~ Taylor

     _Tropidodipsas guerreroensis_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci.
     Bull., 26:470; November 27, 1940.--Buena Vista, Guerrero,
     México.

     _Tropidodipsas fasciata guerreroensis_, Alvarez del Toro and
     Smith, Herpetologica, 12:16, March 6, 1956.

Dugès (1896:480) reported a snake, questionably of this species, from
Uruapan, Michoacán. Taylor (1940c) suggested that on geographic grounds
Dugès' record might refer to _T. f. guerreroensis_, which is known
definitely only from the type locality. _Tropidodipsas occidentala_ is
known from Comala, Colima, and Coalcomán, Michoacán. On zoogeopraphic
grounds that species might be found at Uruapan. Since the specimen
apparently no longer is extant, the identification cannot be
ascertained.


~Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri~ (Jan)

     _Elaps fitzingeri_ Jan, Rev. Mag. Zool., p. 521,
     1858.--México. Type locality restricted to Guanajuato,
     Guanajuato, México, by Smith and Taylor (1950a:330).

     _Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri_, Brown and Smith, Proc.
     Biol. Soc. Washington, 55:63, June 25, 1942.

Smith and Taylor (1945:174) recorded the species from Zamora, Michoacán.
Hobart M. Smith (_in litt._) stated that this record was based on a
report of _Elaps fulvius_ from Zamora by Dugès (1896:482). Smith guessed
that the report was based on a specimen of _Micrurus fitzingeri_. The
specimen has not been seen. Although the species is known from
Guanajuato and México, until a specimen is available from Michoacán, the
species should not be considered part of the herpetofauna of Michoacán.



GAZETTEER


The localities in Michoacán here listed are those from which specimens
were examined as well as other localities mentioned in the text. The
localities are arranged alphabetically according to the most definitive
word or words in the total name. For example, Lago de Chapala is listed
as "Chapala (Lago de)" and Cerro de Tancítaro is listed as "Tancítaro
(Cerro de)." Insofar as has been possible, the following information is
given for each locality: geographical co-ordinates to the nearest minute
of north latitude and west longitude, elevation in meters above mean sea
level, a description of its geographical location, type of dominant
vegetation, and in some cases comments concerning collecting sites in
the vicinity. Distances are in kilometers; all are map (air line)
distances, unless otherwise indicated. Many localities visited on mule
trips are given as being a certain number of "mule hours" in a general
direction from another town or village. In order to reach most of these
localities today, one would have to go by mule, and this is the way the
muleteers determine their distances. Some of the elevations are taken
from maps, but most of them were obtained from one or more readings of
altimeters that we carried in the field. The terms used for describing
the vegetation are those defined in the section of the natural
landscape.

[Illustration: FIG. 11. Map of Michoacán showing important localities
mentioned in text. Localities not on this map can be located by
directions given in the gazetteer.]

My primary cartographic sources have been: the provisional edition of
maps published by the American Geographic Society (Colima, Guadalajara,
México, and San Luis Potosí sheets published between 1933 and 1940),
scale 1:1,000,000; the preliminary sheets (Colima, Guadalajara,
Guanajuato, and México) published in 1949 with a scale of 1:500,000 of
the Carta Geográfica de la República Méxicana (Dirección de Geografía y
Meterología, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganadería); and the Carta de
Cuenca Tepalcatepec (Scale 1:250,000) prepared in 1958 by the Comisión
del Tepalcatepec, Secretaria de Recursos Hidráulicos. I have visited
most of the 181 localities and have gathered data pertaining to
vegetation, altitude, and location. I think, nevertheless, that the
accuracy of some of the locations and elevations as given in the
gazetteer is questionable. This situation can be rectified only by
detailed geographic studies.

Most of the important towns, villages, rivers, and high mountains are
shown on the accompanying map (Fig. 11). Places not shown on this map
can be located from directions given in the gazetteer.

     Acahuata.--Lat. 19° 10', long. 102° 21', elev. 1040 m. A
     village north of Apatzingán and on the southern slope of
     Cerro de Tancítaro; transition between arid tropical scrub
     forest and pine-oak forest; tropical semi-deciduous forest in
     barrancas.

     Agua Cerca.--Lat. 19° 06', long. 101° 45', elev. 1550 m. A
     ranch south-southwest of Ario de Rosales on the road to La
     Huacana; pine-oak forest.

     Aguililla.--Lat. 18° 45', long. 102° 47', elev. 860 m.; a
     town in a low valley in the Sierra de Coalcomán; arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Álamo (El).--Lat. 19° 42', long. 100° 55', elev. 2300 m. A
     ranch 5 kilometers by road east of El Temazcal; pine-oak
     forest.

     Angahuan.--Lat. 19° 33', long. 102° 14', elev. 2440 m. A
     Tarascan village about 27 kilometers northwest of Uruapan;
     pine forest. Much of the land is still covered by a deep
     layer of ashes from the nearby Volcán Parícutin.

     Apatzingán.--Lat. 19° 06', long. 102° 22', elev. 335 m. The
     largest town in the Tepalcatepec Valley; arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Apiza (Boca de).--Lat. 18° 42', long. 103° 44', sea level.
     The name of the mouth of the Río Coahuayana; sandy beach and
     coco palms.

     Apo.--Lat. 19° 25', long. 102° 25', elev. 2160 m. A village
     on the western slope of Cerro de Tancítaro; pine-oak forest.

     Aquila.--Lat. 18° 32', long. 103° 30', elev. 150 m. A small
     village on the Río Aquila in the seaward foothills of the
     Sierra de Coalcomán; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Araparicuaro.--Lat. 19° 22', long. 102° 12', elev. 1525 m. A
     village 19 kilometers west-southwest of Uruapan on the trail
     to Tancítaro; pine-oak forest.

     Araro.--Lat. 19° 54', long. 100° 50', elev. 1830 m. A small
     village at the eastern end of the Lago de Cuitzeo lakebed;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Ario de Rosales.--Lat. 19° 12', long. 101° 42', elev. 1980
     m. A town in the Cordillera Volcánica on the road from
     Pátzcuaro to La Huacana; mixed hardwoods and pine forest.

     Arteaga (formerly Carrizal).--Lat. 18° 28', long. 102° 25',
     elev. 850 m. A town in the eastern part of the Sierra de
     Coalcomán; transition between arid tropical scrub forest and
     oak forest.

     Atzimba.--Lat. 19° 39', long. 100° 47', elev. 2900 m. A
     national park in the Cordillera Volcánica, located between
     Ciudad Hidalgo and Morelia, 32 kilometers by road
     west-southwest of Ciudad Hidalgo; mixed pine and fir forest.

     Axolotl (Rancho).--Lat. 19° 47', long. 100° 38', elev. 2900
     m. A settlement on the western slopes of Cerro San Andrés;
     pine, oak, and fir forest.

     Balsas (Río).--A large river having its headwaters in
     Tlaxcala, Puebla, and northwestern Oaxaca, flowing westward
     through an arid valley to the Pacific Ocean, and in its
     lower part forming the boundary between Michoacán and
     Guerrero.

     Barolosa (Cerro de).--Lat. 18° 52', long. 102° 57', elev.
     2900-3050 m. Presumably the highest mountain in the Sierra
     de Coalcomán and located about 13 hours by mule
     east-northeast of Coalcomán; open pine-oak-fir forest and
     alder thickets.

     Barolosa (Rancho).--Lat. 18° 50', long. 103° 00', elev. 2320
     m. A small ranch on the west-northwestern slope of Cerro de
     Barolosa, about 11 hours by mule east-northeast of
     Coalcomán; open pine-oak forest.

     Barranca Seca.--Lat. 19° 32', long. 102° 15', elev. 2100 m.
     A small village about 7 kilometers northwest of San Juan de
     Parangaricutiro; pine forest.

     Bejuco (Barranca de).--Lat. 18° 07', long. 102° 48', elev.
     90 m. A barranca in the lower slopes of the Sierra de
     Coalcomán just west of the lower reaches of the Río Nexpa;
     tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Buenavista (Tomatlán).--Lat. 19° 17', long. 102° 36', elev.
     425 m. A village on the Río Masiaco in the Tepalcatepec
     Valley, 33 kilometers by road west-northwest of Apatzingán;
     open arid tropical scrub forest.

     Buena Vista.--Lat. 18° 40', long. 102° 09', elev. 600 m. A
     ranch on the northeastern slopes of the Sierra de Coalcomán;
     arid tropical scrub forest.

     Cachán (Río).--Lat. 18° 14', long. 103° 14'. A river formed
     by the affluence of the Río Coalcomán and the Río San José
     and flowing into the Pacific Ocean at a point indicated by
     the co-ordinates given above. Sometimes the name is applied
     to the lower part of the river as used here; other times the
     name is used for the entire length of the Río Coalcomán.

     Camichines.--Lat. 18° 47', long. 103° 05', elev. 1070 m. A
     ranch about 5 kilometers east-northeast of Coalcomán;
     transition between arid tropical scrub forest and oak
     forest.

     Camécuaro (Lago de).--Lat. 19° 55', long. 102° 13', elev.
     1615 m. A small lake (depth to about 10 m.) drained by the
     Río Duero and located one kilometer north-northwest of
     Tangancícuaro; mesquite-grassland and some cypress and oak
     around the lake.

     Cancita (Río).--A tributary of the Río Tepalcatepec flowing
     southward from the southeastern slope of Cerro de Tancítaro.

     Cantiles (Los).--Lat. 19° 43', long. 100° 55', elev. 2160 m.
     A ranch 33 kilometers by road east of Morelia; pine forest.

     Capácuaro.--Lat. 19° 33', long. 102° 02', elev. 2070 m. A
     Tarascan village 18 kilometers by road north of Uruapan;
     pine forest.

     Capirio.--Lat. 18° 52', long. 102° 08', elev. 180 m. A
     village on the Río Tepalcatepec, 22 kilometers by road south
     of Nueva Italia; open arid tropical scrub forest and some
     gallery forest along the river.

     Carapan.--Lat. 19° 52', long. 102° 02', elev. 2070 m. A
     village on the northern edge of the Sierra de los Tarascos,
     32 kilometers by road west of Zacapu; pine-oak forest at
     village and to the south; mesquite-grassland immediately to
     the north.

     Cerrito (El).--Lat. 18° 45', long. 103° 40', elev. 15 m. A
     ranch about 3 kilometers northeast of Coahuayana; tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Chapala (Lago de).--A large lake on the Mexican Plateau at
     an elevation of 1525 m., partly in the state of Jalisco. It
     is drained by the Río Grande de Santiago, which flows
     northward and then westward into the Pacific Ocean.
     Immediately to the east of the lake are remnants of once
     extensive marshes.

     Charapendo.--Lat. 19° 15', long. 102° 04', elev. 975 m. A
     village 24 kilometers by road south of Uruapan near the
     upper limit of the arid tropical scrub forest in the
     Tepalcatepec Valley.

     Cherán.--Lat. 19° 42', long. 101° 57', elev. 2350 m. A
     Tarascan village 27 kilometers by road south-southeast of
     Carapan; pine forest.

     Chichihuas.--Lat. 18° 47', long. 103° 12', elev. 1200 m. A
     ranch about 6 kilometers west-southwest of Coalcomán; scrub
     oak forest.

     Chinapa.--Lat. 19° 22', long. 100° 51', elev. 930 m. A small
     village on the Río Chinapa, 43 kilometers south of El
     Temzcal on the road to Huetamo; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Chupio.--Lat. 19° 10', long. 101° 27', elev. 1080 m. A
     village 12 kilometers by road south of Tacámbaro; transition
     between arid tropical scrub forest and oak forest.

     Churumuco.--Lat. 18° 37', long. 101° 38', elev. 210 m. A
     small town in the Balsas Valley; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Ciénega (La).--Lat. 18° 28', long. 103° 18', elev. 900 m. A
     ranch about 3 hours by mule north of Coire; tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Coahuayana.--Lat. 18° 44', long. 103° 31', elev. 15 m. A
     village on the coastal plain near the mouth of the Río
     Coahuayana; arid tropical scrub forest and tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Coalcomán.--Lat. 18° 47', long. 103° 08', elev. 945 m. The
     largest town in the Sierra de Coalcomán and situated in a
     valley about 12 by 6 kilometers; arid tropical scrub forest
     on valley floor; oaks and some tropical semi-deciduous
     forest on surrounding slopes.

     Coalcomán (Río).--A river having its headwaters northeast of
     the town of Coalcomán and flowing southward to join with the
     Río San José to form the Río Cachán.

     Coalcomán (Sierra de).--A highland mass outlined by the Río
     Coahuayana and its tributaries on the west, the Río
     Tepalcatepec on the north, and the Río Balsas on the east,
     and the Pacific Ocean on the south. The axis of the sierra
     extends for about 200 kilometers in a west-northwest to
     east-southeast direction; the mountains are nearly 80
     kilometers in breadth; the highest parts of the range are
     about 3000 meters above sea level.

     Cofradía.--Lat. 18° 56', long. 102° 17', elev. 215 m. A
     ranch about 17 kilometers southeast of Apatzingán; arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Coire.--Lat. 18° 26', long. 103° 22', elev. 300 m. A village
     on the seaward foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán on the
     Río Coire; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Cojumatlán.--Lat. 20° 07', long. 102° 51', elev. 1530 m. A
     village on the southeastern shore of Lago de Chapala;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Colola (Río).--A small river emptying into the Pacific Ocean
     between Maruata and Punto San Telmo.

     Conejos (Los).--Lat. 19° 22' long. 102° 07', elev. 1850 m. A
     village 6 kilometers west-southwest of Uruapan, and
     sometimes known as Nuevo San Juan; pine-oak forest.

     Copándaro.--Lat. 19° 54', long. 101° 12', elev. 1800 m. A
     village on the south edge of the Lago de Cuitzeo lakebed;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Copuyo (Capuyo or Copullo).--Lat. 18° 28', long. 100° 56',
     elev. 1200 m. A small village about 5 kilometers by road
     west of Paso Ancho; transition between arid tropical scrub
     forest and oak forest.

     Cordillera Volcánica.--A mountain range along the southern
     edge of the Mexican Plateau, roughly along the nineteenth
     parallel, and made up of many volcanos; the range extends
     from Volcán de Colima on the west to Cofre de Perote and
     Orizaba in Veracruz; several of the volcanos reach
     elevations of more than 4000 meters.

     Corralito (El).--Lat. 18° 52', long. 102° 38', elev. 270 m.
     A small village in the Tepalcatepec Valley, about 30
     kilometers southwest of Apatzingán; arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Corupu (Corupo).--Lat. 19° 28', long. 102° 19', elev. 2450
     m. A village 29 kilometers northwest of Uruapan; pine
     forest.

     Cuatro Caminos.--Lat. 19° 00', long. 102° 05' elev. 335 m. A
     village 4 kilometers south of Nueva Italia; arid tropical
     scrub forest.

     Cuilala (Playa).--Lat. 18° 10', long. 103° 06', sea level. A
     sandy beach on the Pacific Ocean just east of La Higuerita.

     Cuitzeo.--Lat. 19° 58', long. 101° 09', 1800 m. A village on
     the north shore of the Lago de Cuitzeo lakebed;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Cuitzeo (Lago de).--A large lakebed on the Mexican Plateau
     at an elevation of 1800 m. In dry years there is little
     water in the lake, and most of the lakebed is dry; in very
     wet years the entire lakebed is flooded. The Río de Morelia
     flows into the lake, which has no outlet; surrounding
     vegetation is mesquite-grassland.

     Cuseño Station.--Lat. 19° 30', long. 102° 16', elev. 2200 m.
     A field station of the American Geological Society
     established in 1945 and demolished in 1953; located at the
     northern edge of the lava flow at Volcán Parícutin; remnants
     of pine forest.

     Diezmo (El).--Lat. 18° 26', long. 103° 19', elev. 850 m. A
     ranch about 8 kilometers north of Coire; tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Dos Aguas.--Lat. 18° 45', long. 102° 55', elev. 2100 m. A
     lumber camp on the eastern slope of Cerro de Barolosa,
     located about 22 kilometers west-northwest of Aguililla;
     pine-oak forest and some fir forest in sheltered ravines.

     Duero (Río).--A small river having its headwaters near
     Tangancícuaro and flowing northwestward into the Río Lerma;
     source of irrigation water for surrounding agricultural
     area.

     Emiliano Zapata.--Lat. 18° 59', long. 102° 39' elev. 1600 m.
     A town 10 kilometers east of Jiquilpan; mesquite-grassland
     and irrigated fields.

     Erongaricuaro.--Lat. 19° 35', long. 101° 43', elev. 2150 m.
     A Tarascan village on the western shore of Lago de
     Pátzcuaro; pine forest.

     Espinal (El).--Lat. 18° 27', long. 102° 07', elev. 500 m. A
     ranch in the northern foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán,
     9 kilometers by road north-northeast of San Salvador; arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Estopilas (Salitre de).--Lat. 18° 30', long. 103° 23', elev.
     130 m. A small village about 10 kilometers east of Ostula;
     tropical semi-deciduous forest and arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Garnica (Cerro).--Lat. 19° 43', long. 100° 48', elev. 3000
     m. A mountain about 8 kilometers north of Pino Gordo;
     pine-oak-fir forest.

     Garnica (Puerto de).--Lat. 19° 42', long. 100° 51', elev.
     2840 m. A mountain pass 46 kilometers by road west of Ciudad
     Hidalgo; pine and fir forest.

     Gregorio (San).--Lat. 19° 25', long. 101° 24', elev. 2200 m.
     A ranch about 16 kilometers southeast of Pátzcuaro; pine
     forest.

     Guayabo.--Lat. 18° 45', long. 102° 15', elev. 760 m. A
     village in the Sierra de Coalcomán about 32 kilometers
     north-northeast of Arteaga; upper limits of arid tropical
     scrub forest.

     Herradero (Barranca de).--Lat. 18° 17', long. 103° 08',
     elev. 200-250 m. A barranca south of San Pedro Naranjestila
     in the Sierra de Coalcomán; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Hidalgo (Ciudad).--Lat. 19° 32', long. 100° 34', elev. 2100
     m. A town in the valley of the Río Tuxpan;
     mesquite-grassland and pine-oak forest.

     Higuerita (La).--Lat. 18° 12', long. 103° 06', sea level. A
     place name on the Pacific coast; sandy beach and arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Higuertas (Las).--Lat. 18° 39', long. 103° 17', elev. 1600
     m. A ranch about 7 hours by mule southwest of Coalcomán;
     pine-oak forest.

     Hondo (Puerto).--Lat. 19° 25', long. 100° 13', elev. 2750 m.
     A pass in the mountains, 14 kilometers by road east of
     Zitácuaro (just west of Macho de Agua); pine, oak, and fir
     forest.

     Huancana (La).--Lat. 18° 58', long. 101° 50', elev. 550 m. A
     village in the Balsas Basin; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Huahua (La).--Lat. 18° 12', long. 103° 00', sea level. A
     small village on the Pacific coast; arid tropical scrub
     forest and gallery forest along the Arroyo de Huahua.

     Huetamo.--Lat. 18° 38', long. 100° 53', elev. 300 m. A town
     in the Balsas Valley; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Huingo.--Lat. 19° 55', long. 100° 50', elev. 1800 m. A
     village on the eastern edge of the Lago de Cuitzeo lakebed;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Jacona.--Lat. 19° 57', long. 102° 18', elev. 1600 m. A small
     town, 4.3 kilometers by road southwest of Zamora;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Jaramillo.--Lat. 19° 20', long. 102° 02', elev. 1500 m. A
     ranch 9 kilometers by road south of Uruapan; pine-oak
     forest.

     Jazmin.--Lat. 18° 52', long. 101° 58', elev. 275 m. A
     village in the Tepalcatepec Valley, 32 kilometers by road
     southeast of Cuatro Caminos; open arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Jeráhuaro.--Lat. 19° 52', long. 100° 35', elev. 2600 m. A
     town in the northern part of the state and located east of
     Lago de Cuitzeo; pine-oak forest.

     Jiquilpan.--Lat. 19° 59', long. 102° 43', elev. 1570 m. A
     town just southeast of Lago de Chapala; mesquite-grassland.

     Jorullo (Volcán).--Lat 19° 00', long. 101° 45', elev. 1300
     m. (crest). A cinder and lava cone rising from the foothills
     of the Cordillera Volcánica; arid tropical scrub forest on
     lower slopes and pine-oak forest on top.

     Jungapeo.--Lat. 19° 26', long. 100° 29', elev. 1430 m. A
     village in the valley of the Río Tuxpan, about 13 kilometers
     south of Tuxpan on the southern slopes of the Mexican
     Plateau; tropical semi-deciduous forest and pine-oak forest.

     Lengua de Vaca (Puerto de).--Lat. 19° 26', long. 100° 13',
     elev. 2900 m. A pass in the mountains at the
     Michoacán-Mexico border through which passes the Mexico
     City-Morelia highway; pine and fir forest.

     Lerma (Río).--A river originating in the state of México and
     flowing westward, and forming the northern boundary of the
     state of Michoacán, to Lago de Chapala.

     Lima (San Juan de).--Lat. 18° 29', long. 102° 42', sea
     level. A ranch on the Pacific coast; arid tropical scrub
     forest and tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Lima (Punta San Juan de).--Lat. 18° 38', long. 102° 43', sea
     level. A rocky promontory jutting into the Pacific Ocean
     just southwest of San Juan de Lima; arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Limoncito.--Lat. 18° 45', long. 102° 43', elev. 730 m. A
     ranch 10 kilometers north of Aguililla; arid tropical scrub
     forest; tropical semi-deciduous gallery forest along the
     nearby Río Tepecuate.

     Lombardia.--Lat. 19° 08', long. 102° 02', elev. 640 m. A
     town in the Tepalcatepec Valley, 38 kilometers by road south
     of Uruapan; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Lleguas (Acuaro de las).--Lat. 18° 48', long. 102° 52',
     elev. 2320 m. A place name for a stream and meadow (Llano de
     la Llegua) surrounded by pine-oak forest, located about 10
     hours by mule east of Coalcomán.

     Macho de Agua.--Lat. 19° 25', long. 100° 15', elev. 2850 m.
     A ranch just west of Puerto de Lengua de Vaca and 16
     kilometers by road east of Zitácuaro; mixed oak, pine, and
     fir forest.

     Maquili.--Lat. 18° 36', long. 103° 32', elev. 120 m. A
     village on the Río Aquila about 3 kilometers south-southwest
     of Aguila; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Maravatio.--Lat. 19° 53', long. 100° 27', elev. 2010 m. A
     town in the Río Lerma Valley; irrigated fields on flats and
     pine-oak forest on slopes.

     Marquez (Río).--A tributary to the Río Tepalcatepec, flowing
     through a deep gorge (Barranca del Marquez) between
     Lombardia and Nueva Italia. The stream originates from
     springs near Uruapan, where the stream is known as the Río
     Cupatitzio.

     Maruata.--Lat. 18° 17', long. 103° 20', sea level. Place
     name for a Nineteenth Century port of little importance near
     the mouth of the Río Coire; sandy beach, fresh-water lagoon,
     and arid tropical scrub forest.

     Mexcala (Laguna).--Lat. 18° 29', long. 103° 41', sea level.
     A brackish lagoon surrounded by mangroves, located just
     southwest of El Ticuiz.

     Mil Cumbres.--Lat. 19° 39', long. 100° 47', elev. 2800 m. A
     name for a look-out on the México-Morelia highway in Atzimba
     National Park, about 32 kilometers by road west-southwest of
     Ciudad Hidalgo; pine and fir forest.

     Mira (La).--Lat. 18° 05', long. 102° 20', elev. 20 m. A
     small village about 5 kilometers north-northeast of Playa
     Azul; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Morelia.--Lat. 19° 43', long. 101° 10', elev. 1900 m.
     Capital of and largest city in Michoacán; mesquite-grassland
     on flats and pine-oak forest on surrounding hills.

     Morelia (Río de).--A small, intermittent stream originating
     in the mountains south of Morelia and emptying into Lago de
     Cuitzeo.

     Motín del Oro.--Lat. 18° 14', long. 103° 48', sea level. A
     ranch on the Pacific coast; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Motín (Río).--Lat. 18° 13', long. 103° 48' (mouth). A small
     river flowing from the Sierra de Coalcomán into the Pacific
     Ocean.

     Nahuatzen (Nauhuatzin).--Lat. 19° 42', long. 101° 50', elev.
     2450 m. A Tarascan village in the mountains west of Lago de
     Pátzcuaro; pine forest.

     Nexpa (Río).--Lat. 18° 05', long. 102° 47' (mouth). A large
     river draining the central part of the Sierra de Coalcomán,
     originating near Aguililla, and flowing into the Pacific
     Ocean.

     Nogueleras.--Lat. 18° 34', long. 103° 17', elev. 1600 m. A
     ranch about 10 hours by mule south-southwest of Coalcomán;
     oak forest.

     Nueva Italia.--Lat. 19° 02', long. 102° 07', elev. 380 m. A
     town in the Tepalcatepec Valley, 59 kilometers by road south
     of Uruapan; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Nuevo (Rancho).--Lat. 18° 26', long. 102° 07', elev. 520 m.
     A ranch 7 kilometers by road north-northeast of San Salvador
     in the northern foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán; arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Ocorla.--Lat. 18° 38', long. 103° 07', elev. 885 m. A ranch
     about 6 hours by mule south-southeast of Coalcomán; scrubby
     oak forest.

     Opopeo.--Lat. 19° 24', long. 101° 37', elev. 2800 m. A
     village 16 kilometers south of Pátzcuaro; pine and fir
     forest.

     Orilla (La).--Lat. 18° 00', long. 102° 12', elev. 10 m. The
     site of a former hacienda of the same name near the mouth of
     the Río Balsas; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Oropeo.--Lat. 18° 52', long. 101° 48', elev. 300 m. A
     village in the Tepalcatepec Valley about 13 kilometers south
     of La Huacana; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Ostula.--Lat. 18° 30', long. 103° 28', elev. 120 m. A
     village in the seaward foothills of the Sierra de Coalcomán,
     located on the Río Ostula about 16 kilometers east-southeast
     of La Placita; arid tropical scrub forest and scattered
     tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Ozumatlán (Sierra de).--A range in the Cordillera Volcánica
     extending east-northeast from a point south of Morelia to
     Queréndaro and reaching elevations in excess of 2600 m.

     Palma (La).--Lat. 20° 09', long. 102° 46', elev. 1525 m. A
     village on the southeastern shore of Lago de Chapala;
     lake-shore marshes and mesquite-grassland.

     Paracho.--Lat. 19° 39', long. 102° 02', elev. 2375 m. A
     Tarascan village in the Cordillera Volcánica, located 35
     kilometers by road north of Uruapan; pine forest.

     Parangaricutiro (San Juan de).--Lat. 19° 30', long. 102°
     15', elev. 2200 m. A former Tarascan village that was
     destroyed by the eruption of Volcán Parícutin; lava and
     volcanic ash amidst open pine forest.

     Parícutin (Volcán).--Lat. 19° 30', long. 102° 16', elev.
     2200 m. at base and 2700 m. at summit. A volcano born in
     February, 1943; it ceased to be active in December, 1951,
     and is located at the north-northeastern base of Cerro de
     Tancítaro; volcanic ash and lava amidst open pine forest.

     Paso Ancho.--Lat. 19° 28', long. 100° 52', elev. 1100 m. A
     small village 30 kilometers south of El Temazcal on the road
     to Huetamo; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Patamba (Sierra).--Lat. 19° 45', long. 102° 21', elev. 3700
     m. at summit. A mountain, the summit of which is about 22
     kilometers southwest of Tangancícuaro; pine forest from 2000
     to 2600 m.; fir forest above 2600 m.

     Pátzcuaro.--Lat. 19° 30', long. 101° 36', elev. 2200 m. A
     town near the southeastern shore of Lago de Pátzcuaro; pine
     forest.

     Pátzcuaro (Lago de).--A large lake on the southwestern part
     of the Mexican Plateau at an elevation of 2165 m. It has no
     outlet. The lake is surrounded by mountains supporting pine
     and pine-oak forest. Along the southern and eastern shores
     of the lake are small marshes.

     Peñas (Las).--Lat. 18° 03', long. 102° 38', sea level. A
     small village on the Pacific coast; arid tropical scrub
     forest.

     Pichi (Estero).--Lat. 18° 01', long. 102° 24', sea level. A
     brackish lagoon surrounded by mangroves and coconut groves,
     located just east of Playa Azul.

     Pino Gordo.--Lat. 19° 42', long. 100° 45', elev. 2600 m. A
     ranch 37 kilometers by road west of Ciudad Hidalgo; pine-oak
     forest.

     Placita (La).--Lat. 18° 32', long. 103° 37', elev. 20 m. A
     village on the coastal lowlands, located on the Río Aquila;
     arid tropical scrub forest; tropical semi-deciduous forest
     along the river.

     Playa (La).--Lat. 18° 57', long. 102° 33', elev. 800 m. A
     small village on the western edge of the lava flow of Volcán
     Jorullo; arid tropical scrub forest and some tropical
     semi-deciduous forest in ravines.

     Playa Azul.--Lat. 18° 01', long. 102° 25', sea level. A
     village on the Pacific coast near the mouth of the Río
     Carrizal; arid tropical scrub forest; coconut plantations;
     mangrove-lined lagoons.

     Pómaro.--Lat. 18° 18', long. 103° 17', elev. 300 m. An
     Indian village in the southern foothills of the Sierra de
     Coalcomán, located about 3 hours by mule north-northeast of
     Maruata; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     Pozos (Los).--Lat. 18° 30', long. 103° 17', elev. 300 m. A
     ranch located about 5 hours by mule north of Coire; tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Queréndaro.--Lat. 19° 48', long. 100° 53', elev. 1900 m. A
     town on the Mexican Plateau south of Lago de Cuitzeo;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Quiroga.--Lat. 19° 42', long. 101° 30', elev. 2200 m. A
     Tarascan town on the north edge of Lago de Pátzcuaro;
     mesquite-grassland and pine-oak forest.

     Reyes (Los).--Lat. 19° 35', long. 102° 28', elev. 1500 m. A
     town in western Michoacán, 50 kilometers south-southwest of
     Zamora; mesquite-grassland, oak and pine forest.

     Sabino (El).--Lat. 19° 14', long. 102° 03', elev. 1050 m. A
     hacienda about 24 kilometers south of Uruapan; arid tropical
     scrub forest, many streams, rice fields.

     Sahuayo.--Lat. 20° 05', long. 102° 43', elev. 1550 m. A town
     just south of the eastern end of Lago de Chapala;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Salada (La).--Lat. 19° 07', long. 102° 00', elev. 580 m. A
     ranch southwest of Lombardia; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Salto (Arroyo El).--Lat. 18° 45', long. 103° 04', elev. 1370
     m. A valley of the Río Flores about 3 hours by mule
     east-southeast of Coalcomán; pine-oak forest.

     San Andrés (Cerro).--Lat. 19° 48', long. 100° 35', elev.
     3950 m. at summit. A mountain, the summit of which is about
     16 kilometers north-northwest of Ciudad Hidalgo; oak forest
     to 2500 m. and pine and fir forest above 2500 m.

     San José (de la Cumbre).--Lat. 19° 41', long. 100° 50',
     elev. 2750 m. A ranch 51 kilometers by road east of Morelia;
     pine and fir forest.

     San José (de la Montaña).--Lat. 18° 25', long. 103° 06',
     elev. 750 m. A village sometimes called La Guitarra, located
     14 hours by mule south-southeast of Coalcomán; tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     San Pedro Naranjestila.--Lat. 18° 17', long. 103° 06', elev.
     500 m. An Indian village in the southern foothills of the
     Sierra de Coalcomán; tropical semi-deciduous forest.

     San Salvador.--Lat. 18° 25', long. 102° 08', elev. 700 m. A
     small village in the Sierra de Coalcomán, 37 kilometers by
     road northeast of Arteaga; arid tropical scrub forest.

     San Telmo (Ojos de Agua de).--Lat. 18° 37', long. 103° 42',
     sea level. A small settlement at the base of Punto San Juan
     de Lima; tropical semi-deciduous forest and groves of oil
     palms.

     San Telmo (Punta).--Lat. 18° 18', long. 103° 29', sea level.
     A rocky promontory jutting into the Pacific Ocean, on which
     there is a lighthouse (El Faro); arid tropical scrub forest.

     Santa Ana.--Lat. 18° 27', long. 102° 06', elev. 600 m. A
     ranch about 4 kilometers by road northeast of San Salvador;
     arid tropical scrub forest.

     Tacámbaro.--Lat. 19° 05', long. 101° 22', elev. 1820 m. A
     town in the Cordillera Volcánica; pine forest.

     Tacícuaro.--Lat. 19° 38', long. 101° 18', elev. 2000 m. A
     village 21 kilometers east-southeast of Quiroga;
     mesquite-grassland and scrubby oak forest.

     Tafetan.--Lat. 19° 43', long. 100° 52', elev. 1000 m. A
     village 40 kilometers by road south of El Temazcal; arid
     tropical scrub forest.

     Tancítaro.--Lat. 19° 20', long. 102° 22', elev. 1850 m. A
     small town on the southern slope of Cerro de Tancítaro;
     pine-oak forest.

     Tancítaro (Cerro de).--Lat. 19° 25', long. 102° 18', elev.
     3870 m. at summit. An old volcano in the Cordillera
     Volcánica; the southern slope drops into the Tepalcatepec
     Valley; the summit is about 30 kilometers west of Uruapan;
     pine and oak forest on lower slopes replaced by pine or fir
     forest above.

     Tangamandapio.--Lat. 19° 56', long. 102° 25', elev. 1700 m.
     A small town on the Mexican Plateau between Jiquilpan and
     Zamora; mesquite-grassland and irrigated fields.

     Tangancícuaro.--Lat. 19° 52', long. 102° 13', elev. 1770 m.
     A town 12 kilometers by road southeast of Zamora;
     mesquite-grassland and irrigated fields.

     Tarascos (Sierra de los).--A name applied to that part of
     the Cordillera Volcánica extending eastward from Cerro de
     Tancítaro and Sierra Patamba to Pátzcuaro.

     Tarécuaro.--Lat. 19° 53', long. 102° 29', elev. 1700 m. A
     village on the Mexican Plateau, 26 kilometers southwest of
     Zamora; mesquite-grassland and pine-oak forest.

     Tecatas (Las).--Lat. 18° 36', long. 103° 17', elev. 1950 m.
     A ranch located about 10 hours by mule south-southwest of
     Coalcomán; oak forest.

     Temazcal (El).--Lat. 19° 40', long. 100° 56', elev. 2200 m.
     A road junction, 29 kilometers east of Morelia; here the
     road to Huetamo leads south from the Mexico City-Morelia
     highway; pine forest.

     Tepalcatepec.--Lat. 19° 10', long. 102° 50', elev. 570 m. A
     village in the upper Tepalcatepec Valley; arid tropical
     scrub forest.

     Tepalcatepec (Río).--A large river having its headwaters in
     southeastern Jalisco and flowing through a broad valley,
     which separates the Cordillera Volcánica from the Sierra de
     Coalcomán, to the Río Balsas.

     Ticuiz (El).--Lat. 18° 40', long. 103° 40', elev. 10 m. A
     village on the coastal plain about 11 kilometers south of
     Coahuayana; arid tropical scrub forest and tropical
     semi-deciduous forest.

     Tinguidín.--Lat. 19° 45', long. 102° 28', elev. 1800 m. A
     small town, 17 kilometers north of Los Reyes; pine-oak
     forest.

     Tizupan (Río).--Lat. 18° 09', long. 102° 55' (mouth). A
     small river flowing southward from the Sierra de Coalcomán
     to the Pacific Ocean.

     Tlalpujahua.--Lat. 19° 48', long. 100° 10', elev. 2600 m. A
     mining town in the northeastern part of the state; pine and
     fir forest.

     Tumbiscatio.--Lat. 18° 32', long. 102° 20', elev. 900 m. A
     town in the Sierra de Coalcomán; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Tupátaro.--Lat. 19° 53', long. 100° 15', elev. 2050 m. A
     village in the northeastern corner of the state, 13
     kilometers northwest of Tlalpujahua; oak forest.

     Tuxpan.--Lat. 19° 35', long. 100° 27', elev. 1850 m. A town
     in a basin nearly surrounded by mountains and near the
     headwaters of the Río Tuxpan, 19 kilometers by road
     east-southeast of Ciudad Hidalgo; arid mesquite-grassland
     and irrigated fields.

     Tuxpan (Río).--A river draining the mountains in the eastern
     part of the state and flowing southward into the Río Balsas.

     Tzararacua (Cascada).--Lat. 19° 18', long. 102° 02', 1430 m.
     A waterfalls of the Río Cupatitzio, 10.5 kilometers by road
     south of Uruapan; oak forest with scattered pines.

     Tzintzuntzan.--Lat. 19° 38', long. 101° 35', elev. 2170 m. A
     village at the site of the seat of the ancient Tarascan
     empire on the eastern shore of Lago de Pátzcuaro; grasslands
     and marshes.

     Tzitzio.--Lat. 19° 35', long. 100° 55', elev. 1630 m. A
     village 16 kilometers by road south of El Temazcal; pine-oak
     and arid tropical scrub forest.

     Ucareo (Serranía de).--A part of the Cordillera Volcánica,
     including Cerro San Andrés.

     Undameo.--Lat. 19° 34', long. 101° 17', elev. 2000 m. A
     village 20 kilometers west-southwest of Morelia;
     mesquite-grassland.

     Uruapan.--Lat. 19° 25', long. 102° 02', elev. 1630 m. A
     large town on the southern slopes of the Cordillera
     Volcánica; pine-oak forest.

     Zacapu.--Lat. 19° 48', long. 101° 47', elev. 2000 m. A town
     on the Mexican Plateau; mesquite-grassland.

     Zamora.--Lat. 19° 59', long. 102° 17', elev. 1570 m. A large
     town on the Mexican Plateau; mesquite-grassland.

     Zicuiran.--Lat. 18° 53', long. 101° 55', elev. 190 m. A
     small village 23 kilometers east-southeast of Cuatro
     Caminos; arid tropical scrub forest.

     Zinapécuaro.--Lat. 19° 52', long. 100° 49', elev. 1900 m. A
     town near the southeastern end of Lago de Cuitzeo;
     mesquite-grassland and pine-oak forest.

     Ziracuaretiro.--Lat. 19° 25', long. 101° 52', elev. 1230 m.
     A village 19 kilometers by road east of Uruapan; transition
     between pine-oak forest and arid tropical scrub forest.

     Zirimícuaro.--Lat. 19° 24', long. 101° 56', elev. 1300 m. A
     hacienda 13 kilometers by road east of Uruapan; pine-oak
     forest and fields of sugar cane.

     Zitácuaro.--Lat. 19° 25', long. 100° 21', elev. 2100 m. A
     town in the highlands of eastern Michoacán; pine-oak forest.

     Zurumbeneo.--Lat. 19° 43', long. 101° 02', elev. 2100 m. A
     ranch 19 kilometers by road east of Morelia; scrubby oak
     forest.



SUMMARY


The preceding analysis of the amphibians and reptiles of the state of
Michoacán shows that the herpetofauna is composed of 176 species and
subspecies definitely recorded from the state, plus ten others that
probably occur there. Ten species are reported for the first time from
Michoacán: _Pseudoeurycea robertsi_, _Leptodactylus occidentalis_,
_Microbatrachylus pygmaeus_, _Pternohyla fodiens_, _Hypopachus
caprimimus_, _Phyllodactylus homolepidurus_, _Anolis dunni_, _Sceloporus
bulleri_, _Sceloporus heterolepis,_ and _Geagras redimitus_. Five
species that have been reported previously from Michoacán are based on
specimens having unreliable locality data or on misidentifications;
therefore, the following species are not considered to be a part of the
herpetofauna of Michoacán: _Caiman crocodilus fuscus_, _Urosaurus
irregularis_, _Geophis nasalis_, _Tropidodipsas fasciata guerreroensis_,
and _Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri_.

Systematic studies based at least in part on specimens from Michoacán
have resulted in a redefinition of nine species and subspecies: _Bufo
marmoreus_, _Bufo perplexus_, _Anolis nebulosus_, _Anolis nebuloides_,
_Sceloporus bulleri_, _Sceloporus heterolepis_, _Sceloporus melanorhinus
calligaster_, _Hypsiglena torquata torquata_, and _Hypsiglena torquata
ochrorhyncha_.

Nine species that previously have been recognized as valid have been
placed in synonymy. These are: _Bufo horribilis_ Wiegmann, 1833, and
_Bufo angustipes_ Smith and Taylor, 1945, as synonyms of _Bufo marinus_
(Linnaeus), 1758. _Microbatrachylus albolabris_ Taylor, 1940,
_Microbatrachylus minimus_ Taylor, 1940, and _Microbatrachylus imitator_
Taylor, 1942, as synonyms of _Microbatrachylus pygmaeus_ (Taylor), 1937.
_Phrynohyas corasterias_ Shannon and Humphrey, 1957, as a synonym of
_Phrynohyas inflata_ (Taylor), 1944. _Hyla microeximia_ Maslin, 1957, as
a synonym of _Hyla eximia_ Baird, 1854. _Hylella azteca_ Taylor, 1943,
as a synonym of _Hyla smaragdina_ Taylor, 1940. _Loxocemus sumichrasti_
Bocourt, 1876, as a synonym of _Loxocemus bicolor_ Cope, 1861.
_Eleutherodactylus vocalis_ Taylor, 1940, is considered to be a
subspecies of _Eleutherodactylus rugulosus_. The populations of
_Thamnophis dorsalis_ in the Tepalcatepec Valley are shown to be
distinct from those inhabiting the highlands of the state; _Thamnophis
dorsalis postremus_ Smith, 1942, is revived for the population in the
Tepalcatepec Valley.

Descriptions are given of the tadpoles of _Bufo occidentalis_ and _Hyla
bistincta_.



LITERATURE CITED


ANDERSON, J. D.

1960. _Storeria storerioides_ in western Mexico. Herpetologica, 16:63-6,
March 31.


BOGERT, C. M., and OLIVER, J. A.

1945. A preliminary analysis of the herpetofauna of Sonora. Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., 83:297-426, March 30.


BOULENGER, G. A.

1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum, vol. II. London,
xiii + 497 pp., November 15.

1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, vol. II, London, xi
+ 382 pp., September 23.


CONANT, R.

1953. Three new water snakes of the genus _Natrix_ from Mexico. Nat.
Hist. Misc., 126:1-9, September 15.


CONTRERAS ARIAS, A.

1942. Mapa de las provincias climatologicas de la República Méxicana.
Dir. Meteoro, Hidro. Inst. Geog. México, xxvii + 54 pp.


COPE, E. D.

1861. Contributions to the ophidiology of Lower California, Mexico, and
Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 13:292-306,
December 28.

1887. Catalogue of batrachians and reptiles of Central America and
Mexico. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 32:1-98.


DAVIS, W. B.

1954. Three new anoles from Mexico. Herpetologica, 10:1-6, April 20.


DAVIS, W. B., and DIXON, J. R.

1957. Notes on Mexican snakes (Ophidia). Southwest. Nat., 2:19-27,
January.


DAVIS, W. B., and SMITH, H. M.

1953. Lizards and turtles of the Mexican state of Morelos.
Herpetologica. 9:100-108, July 22.


DIXON, J. R.

1957. Geographic variation and distribution of the genus _Tomodactylus_
in Mexico. Texas Jour. Sci., 9:379-409, December.

1960. Two new geckos, genus _Phyllodactylus_ (Reptilia: Sauria), from
Michoacán, Mexico. Southwest. Nat., 5:37-42, April 15.


DOWLING, H. G.

1960. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus _Elaphe_ Fitzinger. VII.
The _triaspis_ section, Zoologica, 45:53-80, August 15.


DUELLMAN, W. E.

1954a. The salamander _Plethodon richmondi_ in southwestern Ohio.
Copeia, 1950 (1):40-45, February 19.

1954b. The amphibians and reptiles of Jorullo Volcano, Michoacan,
Mexico. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 560:1-24, October 22.

1955. A new whiptail lizard, genus _Cnemidorphorus_, from Mexico. Occ.
Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 574:1-7, December 23.

1956a. The frogs of the hylid genus _Phrynohyas_ Fitzinger, 1843. Misc.
Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96:1-47, February 21.

1956b. A new snake of the genus _Leptotyphlops_ from Michoacán, México.
Copeia, 1956 (2):93-94, May 29.

1957a. Sexual dimorphism in the hylid frog _Agalychnis dacnicolor_ Cope,
and the status of _Agalychnis alcorni_ Taylor. Herpetologica, 13:29-30,
March 30.

1957b. Notes on snakes from the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Herpetologica,
13:237-240, October 31.

1958a. A monographic study of the colubrid snake genus _Leptodeira_.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 114:1-152, February 24.

1958b. Comments on the type locality and geographic distribution of
_Urosaurus gadowi_. Copeia, 1958 (1):48-49, February 21.

1958c. A preliminary analysis of the herpetofauna of Colima, Mexico.
Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 589:1-22, March 21.

1959. Two new snakes, genus _Geophis_, from Michoacan, Mexico. Occ. Pap.
Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 605:1-9, May 29.

1960a. A new subspecies of lizard, Cnemidophorus sacki, from Michoacán,
México. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 10:587-598, May 2.

1960b. A taxonomic study of the Middle American snake Pituophis deppei,
Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 10:599-610, May 2.

1960c. Variation, distribution, and ecology of the Mexican teiid lizard
_Cnemidophorus calidipes_. Copeia, 1960(2):97-101, June 29.

1960d. A distributional study of the amphibians of the Isthmus of
Tehuantepec, México. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 13:19-72,
August 16.


DUELLMAN, W. E., and DIXON, J. R.

1959. A new frog of the genus _Tomodactylus_ from Michoacán, Mexico.
Texas Jour. Sci., 11:78-82, March.


DUELLMAN, W. E., and DUELLMAN, A. S.

1959. Notes on the variation, distribution, and ecology of the iguanid
lizard _Enyaliosaurus clarki_. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
598:1-10, February 16.


DUELLMAN, W. E., and WELLMAN, J.

1960. A systematic study of the lizards of the _deppei_ group (Genus
_Cnemidophorus_) in Mexico and Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Michigan, 111:1-80, February 10.


DUGÈS, A.

1884. Dos reptiles de Mexico. La Naturaleza, 6:359-362.

1891. _Eumeces altamirani_ A. Dug. La Naturaleza, ser. 2, 1:485-486.

1896. Reptiles y batracios de los E. U. Mexicanos. La Naturaleza, ser.
2, 2:479-485.


DUMÉRIL, A. M., and BOCOURT, F.

1870-1909. Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amerique Centrale,
Recherches zoologiques. Études sur les reptiles. Paris, xiv + 1012 pp.


FISCHER, J. G.

1882. Herpetologische Bemerkengen vorzugsweise über Stücke der Sammlung
des Naturhistorischen Museum in Bremen. Abhand. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen,
7:225-238.

1883. Beschreibungen neuer Reptilien. Akad. Gymnas. Hamburg, 1883:1-16.


FITCH, H. S., and MILSTEAD, W. W.

1961. An older name for _Thamnophis cyrtopsis_ (Kennicott). Copeia, no.
1:112, March 17, 1961.


FUNKHOUSER, A.

1957. A review of the Neotropical tree-frogs of the genus
_Phyllomedusa_. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Stanford Univ., 5:1-90, April
1.


GADOW, H.

1905. Distribution of Mexican amphibians and reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc.
London, 1905:191-244, October 7.

1930. Jorullo. Cambridge Univ. Press, xviii + 100 pp.


GLOYD, H. K.

1948. Description of a neglected subspecies of rattlesnake from Mexico.
Nat. Hist. Misc., 17:1-4, April 23.


GOIN, C. J.

1950. Color pattern inheritance in some frogs of the genus
_Eleutherodactylus_. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 9:1-15, March 3.

1954. Remarks on evolution of color pattern in the _gossei_ group of the
frog genus _Eleutherodactylus_. Ann. Carnegie Mus., 33:185-195, June 4.


GOLDMAN, E. A.

1951. Biological investigations in Mexico. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 115,
xii + 476 pp., July 31.


GUZMÁN-RIVAS, P.

1957. Rainfall analysis for some stations in southwest Mexico. _In_
Brand, Coastal study of southwest Mexico, Part I. Univ. Texas, Austin,
xii + 140 pp., June 15.


HOROWITZ, S. B.

1955. An arrangement of the subspecies of the horned toad, _Phrynosoma
orbiculare_ (Iguanidae). Amer. Midl. Nat., 54:209-218, July.


KLAUBER, L. M.

1945. The geckos of the genus Coleonyx with descriptions of new
subspecies. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 10:133-216, March 9.

1952. Taxonomic studies of the rattlesnakes of Mainland Mexico. Bull.
Zool. Soc. San Diego, 26:1-143, August 8.


LANGEBARTEL, D. A.

1959. A new lizard (_Sceloporus_) from the Sierra Madre Occidental of
Mexico. Herpetologica, 15:25-27, February 25.


MALDONADO-KOERDELL, M.

1948. Los colecciones de anfibios del Museo Alfredo Dugès en la
Universidad de Guanajuato, I--Urodelos. Mem. Revist. Acad. Nac. Cien.,
56:185-226.


MARTIN, P. S.

1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gómez Farías
Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
101:1-102, April 15.


MASLIN, T. P.

1957. _Hyla microeximia_ sp. n., Hylidae, Amphibia, from Jalisco,
Mexico. Herpetologica, 13:81-86, July 10.


MILSTEAD, W. W.

1953. Geographic variation in the garter snake, _Thamnophis cyrtopsis_.
Texas Jour. Sci., 5:348-379, September.


MOSIMANN, J. E.

1956. Variation and relative growth in the plastral scutes of the turtle
_Kinosternon integrum_ LeConte. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
97:1-43, November 7.


MOSIMANN, J. E., and RABB, G. B.

1953. A new subspecies of the turtle _Geoemyda rubida_ (Cope) from
western Mexico. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 548:1-7, November
9.


OLIVER, J. A.

1937. Notes on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the state of
Colima, Mexico. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 360:1-28, November
20.


ORTON, G.

1943. The tadpole of _Rhinophrynus dorsalis_. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Michigan, 472:1-8, May 18.


PETERS, J. A.

1954. The amphibians and reptiles of the coast and coastal sierra of
Michoacán, Mexico. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 554:1-37, June
23.

1955. Notes on the frog genus _Diaglena_ Cope. Nat. Hist. Misc.,
143:1-8, March 28.

1957. The eggs (turtle) and I. Biologist, 39:21-4.


RABB, G. B.

1958. On certain Mexican salamanders of the plethodontid genus
_Chiropterotriton_. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 587:1-37, June
6.


RABB, G. B., and MOSIMANN, J. E.

1955. The tadpole of _Hyla robertsorum_ with comments on the affinities
of the species. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:1-9, March 29.


REEVE, W. L.

1952. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizards genus
_Phrynosoma_. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 34 (pt. 2):817-960, February 15.


SCHMIDT, K. P., and SHANNON, F. A.

1947. Notes on amphibians and reptiles of Michoacán, Mexico. Fieldiana,
zool., 31:63-85, February 20.


SHANNON, F. A., and HUMPHREY, F. L.

1957. A new species of _Phrynohyas_ from Nayarit. Herpetologica,
13:15-18, March 30.

1958. A discussion of the polytypic species, _Hypopachus oxyrrhinus_,
with a description of a new subspecies. Herpetologica, 14:85-95, July
23.


SMITH, H. M.

1938. The lizards of the _torquatus_ group of the genus _Sceloporus_
Wiegmann, 1828. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 24:539-693, February 16.

1939. The Mexican and Central American lizards of the genus
_Sceloporus_. Zool. ser., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 26:1-397, July 27.

1941a. A review of the subspecies of the indigo snake (_Drymarchon
corais_). Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 31:466-481, November 11.

1941b. Notes on the snake genus _Trimorphodon_. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
91:149-168, November 10.

1942a. Mexican Herpetological Miscellany. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
92:349-395, November 5.

1942b. The synonymy of the garter snakes (_Thamnophis_), with notes on
Mexican and Central American species. Zoologica, 27:97-123, October 23.

1942c. Remarks on the Mexican king snakes of the triangulum group. Proc.
Rochester Acad. Sci., 8:196-207, September 10.

1942d. Descriptions of new species and subspecies of Mexican snakes of
the genus _Rhadinaea_. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 55:185-192, December
31.

1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in
Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proc. U.
S. Natl. Mus., 93:393-504, October 29.

1951. The identity of the ophidian name _Coluber eques_ Reuss. Copeia,
1951 (2):138-140, June 8.


SMITH, H. M., and LAUFE, L. E.

1945. Notes on a herpetological collection from Oaxaca. Herpetologica,
3:1-13, November 21.


SMITH, H. M., and TAYLOR, E. H.

1945. An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bull. U.
S. Natl. Mus., 187:iv + 239 pp., October 5.

1948. An annotated checklist and key to the Amphibia of Mexico. Bull. U.
S. Natl. Mus., 194: iv + 118 pp., June 17.

1950a. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Univ. Kansas
Sci. Bull., 33, pt. 2:313-380, March 20.

1950b. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico
exclusive of the snakes. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 199:v + 253, October
26.


SMITH, P. W., and DARLING, D. M.

1952. Results of a herpetological collection from eastern central
Mexico. Herpetologica, 8:81-86, November 1.


STICKEL, W. H.

1943. The Mexican snakes of the genera _Sonora_ and _Chionactis_, with
notes on the status of other colubrid genera. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Washington, 56:109-128, October 19.


STORM, M.

1939. Hoofways into hot country. Bland Bros., Mexico City, 521 pp.


STUART, L. C.

1943. Comments on the herpetofauna of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of
Guatemala. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 471:1-28, May 17.


TAMAYO, J. L.

1949. Geografía General de Mexico. I--Geografía Fisica. Mexico City,
viii + 628 pp.


TANNER, W. W.

1944. A taxonomic study of the genus _Hypsiglena_. Great Basin Nat.,
5:25-92, December 29.


TAYLOR, E. H.

1936a. New species of amphibia from Mexico. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.,
39:349-363.

1936b. The rediscovery of the lizard _Eumeces altamirani_ (Dugès) with
notes on two other Mexican species of the genus. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Washington, 49:55-58, May 1.

1936c. A taxonomic study of the cosmopolitan scincoid lizards of the
genus _Eumeces_. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 23:1-643, August 15.

1939a. Concerning Mexican salamanders. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
25:259-313, July 10.

1939b. Frogs of the _Hyla eximia_ group in Mexico, with descriptions of
two new species. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 25:421-445, July 10.

1940a. A new bromeliad frog from northwestern Michoacan. Copeia, 1940
(1):18-20, March 30.

1940b. Mexican snakes of the genus _Typhlops_. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
26:441-444, November 27.

1940c. Some Mexican serpents. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 26:445-487,
November 27.

1940d. Herpetological Miscellany. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 26:489-571,
November 27.

1941a. Some Mexican frogs. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 54:87-94, July
31.

1941b. Herpetological Miscellany, No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
27:105-138, December 30.

1942a. New tailless Amphibia from Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
28:67-89, May 15.

1942b. Tadpoles of Mexican Anura. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 28:37-55, May
15.

1942c. The frog genus _Diaglena_ with a description of a new species.
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 28:57-65, May 15.

1943a. Herpetological novelties from Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
29:343-361, October 15.

1943b. A new _Hylella_ from Mexico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
56:49-52, June 16.

1952. A new hylid frog of the genus _Agalychnis_ from southwestern
Mexico. Copeia, 1952 (1):31-32, June 2.

1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 38
(pt. 1):3-322, December 20.


TAYLOR, E. H., and SMITH, H. M.

1942a. Concerning the snake genus _Pseudoficimia_ Bocourt. Univ. Kansas
Sci. Bull., 28:241-249, November 12.

1942b. The snake genera _Conopsis_ and _Toluca_. Univ. Kansas Sci.
Bull., 28:325-363, November 12.

1945. Summary of the collections of amphibians made in Mexico under the
Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
95:521-613, June 30.


TIHEN, J. A.

1949. A review of the lizard genus _Barisia_. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
33:217-256, April 20.


VIVÓ, J.

1953. Geografía de México. Mexico City, ed. 3, 338 pp.


WEBB, R. G.

1958. The status of the Mexican lizards of the genus _Mabuya_. Univ.
Kansas Sci. Bull., 38:1303-1313, March 2.


WELLMAN, J.

1959. Notes on the variation in and distribution of the Mexican colubrid
snake _Coniophanes lateritius_. Herpetologica, 15:127-128, September 10.


WOODBURY, A. M., and WOODBURY, D. M.

1944. Notes on Mexican snakes from Oaxaca. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci.,
34:360-373, November 15.


ZWEIFEL, R. G.

1957. A new frog of the genus _Rana_ from Michoacán, Mexico. Copeia,
1957 (2):78-83, July 15.

1959a. Variation in and distribution of lizards of western Mexico
related to _Cnemidophorus sacki_. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
117:57-116, April 27.

1959b. Additions to the herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico. Amer. Mus.
Novitates, 1953:1-13, June 26.

1959c. Snakes of the genus _Imantodes_ in western Mexico. Amer. Mus.
Novitates, 1961:1-18, September 16.

1960. Results of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History
Expedition to western Mexico. 9. Herpetology of the Tres Marías Islands.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 119:77-128, February 29.

1961. Relationship of two whiptail lizards (genus _Cnemidophorus_) in
western Mexico. Copeia, no. 1:98-103, March 17.


_Transmitted April 21, 1961._



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


Institutional libraries interested in publications exchange may obtain
this series by addressing the Exchange Librarian, University of Kansas
Library, Lawrence, Kansas. Copies for individuals, persons working in a
particular field of study, may be obtained by addressing instead the
Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. There
is no provision for sale of this series by the University Library, which
meets institutional requests, or by the Museum of Natural History, which
meets the requests of individuals. However, when individuals request
copies from the Museum, 25 cents should be included, for each separate
number that is 100 pages or more in length, for the purpose of defraying
the costs of wrapping and mailing.

* An asterisk designates those numbers of which the Museum's supply (not
the Library's supply) is exhausted. Numbers published to date, in this
series, are as follows:


Vol. 1. Nos. 1-26 and index. Pp. 1-638. 1946-1950.


*Vol. 2. (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest. Pp.
1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.


Vol. 3. *1. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and
distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 18 figures in text. June
12, 1951.

2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds. By George
H. Lowery, Jr. Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text. June 29, 1951.

3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale Arvey. Pp.
478-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables. October 10, 1951.

4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H. Lowery, Jr.,
and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649, 7 figures in text, 2 tables.
October 10, 1951.

Index. Pp. 651-681.


*Vol. 4. (Complete) American weasels. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 1-466, 41
plates, 31 figures in text. December 27, 1951.


Vol. 5. Nos. 1-37 and index. Pp. 1-676, 1951-1953.


*Vol. 6. (Complete) Mammals of Utah, _taxonomy and distribution_. By
Stephen D. Durrant. Pp. 1-549, 91 figures in text, 30 tables. August 10,
1952.


Vol. 7. *1. Mammals of Kansas. By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 1-303, 73
figures in text, 37 tables. August 25, 1952.

2. Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in northeastern Kansas. By
Henry S. Fitch and Lewis L. Sandidge. Pp. 305-338, 5 figures in text.
August 24, 1953.

3. The silky pocket mice (Perognathus flavus) of Mexico. By Rollin H.
Baker. Pp. 339-347, 1 figure in text. February 15, 1954.

4. North American jumping mice (Genus Zapus). By Philip H. Krutzsch. Pp.
349-472, 47 figures in text, 4 tables. April 21, 1954.

5. Mammals from Southeastern Alaska. By Rollin H. Baker and James S.
Findley. Pp. 473-477. April 21, 1954.

6. Distribution of Some Nebraskan Mammals. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp.
479-487. April 21, 1954.

7. Subspeciation in the montane meadow mouse. Microtus montanus, in
Wyoming and Colorado. By Sydney Anderson. Pp. 489-506, 2 figures in
text. July 23, 1954.

8. A new subspecies of bat (Myotis velifer) from southeastern California
and Arizona. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 507-512. July 23, 1954.

9. Mammals of the San Gabriel mountains of California. By Terry A.
Vaughan. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text, 12 tables. November 15, 1954.

10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern Mexico. By Rollin
H. Baker. Pp. 583-586. November 15, 1954.

11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By E. Raymond Hall.
Pp. 587-590. November 15. 1954.

12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Cratogeomys castanops, in
Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608.
March 15. 1955.

13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from northeastern Mexico.
By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612. April 8, 1955.

14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews. By James S.
Findley. Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its distribution and systematic
position. By Dennis G. Rainey and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 619-624. 2
figures in text. June 10, 1955.

Index. Pp. 625-651.


Vol. 8. Nos. 1-10 and index. Pp. 1-675, 1954-1956.


Vol. 9. 1. Speciation of the wandering shrew. By James S. Findley. Pp.
1-68, 18 figures in text. December 10, 1955.

2. Additional records and extensions of ranges of mammals from Utah. By
Stephen D. Durrant, M. Raymond Lee, and Richard M. Hansen. Pp. 69-80.
December 10, 1955.

3. A new long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) from northeastern Mexico. By
Rollin H. Baker and Howard J. Stains. Pp. 81-84. December 10, 1955.

4. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus pennsylvanicus, in
Wyoming. By Sydney Anderson. Pp. 85-104, 2 figures in text. May 10,
1956.

5. The condylarth genus Ellipsodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 105-116, 6
figures in text. May 19, 1956.

6. Additional remains of the multituberculate genus Eucosmodon. By
Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 117-123, 10 figures in text. May 19, 1956.

7. Mammals of Coahuila, Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 125-335, 75
figures in text. June 15, 1956.

8. Comments on the taxonomic status of Apodemus peninsulae, with
description of a new subspecies from North China. By J. Knox Jones, Jr.
Pp. 337-346, 1 figure in text, 1 table. August 15, 1956.

9. Extensions of known ranges of Mexican bats. By Sydney Anderson. Pp.
347-351. August 15, 1956.

10. A new bat (Genus Leptonycteris) from Coahuila. By Howard J. Stains.
Pp. 353-356. January 21, 1957.

11. A new species of pocket gopher (Genus Pappogeomys) from Jalisco,
Mexico. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 357-361. January 21, 1957.

12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, in
Colorado. By Phillip M. Youngman. Pp. 363-387, 7 figures in text.
February 21, 1958.

13. New bog lemming (genus Synaptomys) from Nebraska. By J. Knox Jones,
Jr. Pp. 385-388. May 12, 1958.

14. Pleistocene bats from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo León, México. By J.
Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 389-396. December 19, 1958.

15. New Subspecies of the rodent Baiomys from Central America. By Robert
L. Packard. Pp. 397-404. December 19, 1958.

16. Mammals of the Grand Mesa, Colorado. By Sydney Anderson. Pp.
405-414, 1 figure in text. May 20, 1959.

17. Distribution, variation, and relationships of the montane vole,
Microtus montanus. By Emil K. Urban. Pp. 415-511. 12 figures in text, 2
tables. August 1, 1959.

18. Conspecificity of two pocket mice, Perognathus goldmani and P.
artus. By E. Raymond Hall and Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie. Pp. 513-518, 1
map. January 14, 1960.

19. Records of harvest mice, Reithrodontomys, from Central America, with
description of a new subspecies from Nicaragua. By Sydney Anderson and
J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 519-529. January 14, 1960.

20. Small carnivores from San Josecito Cave (Pleistocene), Nuevo León,
México. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 531-538, 1 figure in text. January 14,
1960.

21. Pleistocene pocket gophers from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo León,
México. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 539-548, 1 figure in text. January 14,
1960.

22. Review of the insectivores of Korea. By J. Knox Jones, Jr., and
David H. Johnson. Pp. 549-578. February 23, 1960.

23. Speciation and evolution of the pygmy mice, genus Baiomys. By Robert
L. Packard. Pp. 579-670, 4 plates, 12 figures in text. June 16, 1960.

Index Pp. 671-690.


Vol. 10. 1. Studies of birds killed in nocturnal migration. By Harrison
B. Tordoff and Robert M. Mengel. Pp. 1-44, 6 figures in text, 2 tables.
September 12, 1956.

2. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta and A. maritima.
By Glen E. Woolfenden. Pp. 45-75, 6 plates, 1 figure. December 20, 1956.

3. The forest habitat of the University of Kansas Natural History
Reservation. By Henry S. Fitch and Ronald R. McGregor. Pp. 77-127, 2
plates, 7 figures in text, 4 tables. December 31, 1956.

4. Aspects of reproduction and development in the prairie vole (Microtus
ochrogaster). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 129-161, 8 figures in text, 4
tables. December 19, 1957.

5. Birds found on the Arctic slope of northern Alaska. By James W. Bee.
Pp. 163-211, pls. 9-10, 1 figure in text. March 12, 1958.

6. The wood rats of Colorado: distribution and ecology. By Robert B.
Finley, Jr. Pp. 213-552, 34 plates, 8 figures in text, 35 tables.
November 7, 1958.

7. Home ranges and movements of the eastern cottontail in Kansas. By
Donald W. Janes. Pp. 553-572, 4 plates, 3 figures in text. May 4, 1959.

8. Natural history of the salamander. Aneides hardyi. By Richard F.
Johnston and Schad Gerhard. Pp. 573-585. October 8, 1959.

9. A new subspecies of lizard, Cnemidophorus sacki, from Michoacán,
México. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 587-598, 2 figures in text. May 2,
1960.

10. A taxonomic study of the Middle American Snake, Pituophis deppei. By
William E. Duellman. Pp. 599-612, 1 plate, 1 figure in text. May 2,
1960.

Index Pp. 611-626.


Vol. 11. Nos. 1-10 and index. Pp. 1-703, 1958-1960.


Vol. 12. 1. Functional morphology of three bats: Eumops, Myotis,
Macrotus. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 1-153, 4 plates, 24 figures in text,
July 8, 1959.

2. The ancestry of modern Amphibia: a review of the evidence. By
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. Pp. 155-180, 10 figures in text. July 10, 1959.

3. The baculum in microtine rodents. By Sydney Anderson. Pp. 181-218, 49
figures in text. February 19, 1960.

4. A new order of fishlike Amphibia from the Pennsylvanian of Kansas. By
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr., and Peggy Lou Stewart. Pp. 217-240, 12 figures
in text. May 2, 1960.

More numbers will appear in volume 12.


Vol. 13. 1. Five natural hybrid combinations in minnows (Cyprinidae). By
Frank B. Cross and W. L. Minckley. Pp. 1-18. June 1, 1960.

2. A distributional study of the amphibians of the isthmus of
Tehuantepec, México. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 19-72, pls. 1-8, 3
figs. August 16, 1960.

3. A new subspecies of the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta) from
Coahuila, México. By John M. Legler. Pp. 73-84, pis. 9-12, 3 figures in
text. August 16, 1960.

4. Autecology of the Copperhead. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 85-288, pls.
13-20, 26 figures in text. November 30, 1960.

5. Occurrence of the Garter Snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, in the Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains. By Henry S. Fitch and T. Paul Maslin. Pp.
289-308, 4 figures in text. February 10, 1961.

6. Fishes of the Wakarusa River in Kansas. By James E. Deacon and Artie
L. Metcalf. Pp. 309-322, 1 figure in text. February 10, 1961.

7. Geographic variation in the North American Cyprinid Fish, Hybopsis
gracilis. By Leonard J. Olund and Frank B. Cross. Pp. 323-348, pis.
21-24, 2 figures in text. February 10, 1961.

8. Descriptions of two species of frogs, Genus Ptychohyla--studies of
American hylid frogs, V. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 349-357, pl. 25, 2
figures in text. April 27, 1961.

9. Fish populations, following a drought, in the Neosho and Marais des
Cygnes rivers of Kansas. By James Everett Deacon. Pp. 359-427, pis.
26-30, 3 figs. in text. August 11, 1961.

More numbers will appear in volume 13.


Vol. 14. 1. Neotropical bats from western México. By Sydney Anderson.
Pp. 1-8. October 24, 1960.

2. Geographic variation in the harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis
on the central Great Plains and in adjacent regions. By J. Knox Jones,
Jr. and B. Mursaloglu. Pp. 9-27, 1 figure in text. July 24, 1961.

3. Mammals of Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. By Sydney Anderson.
Pp. 29-67, pls. 1-2, 3 figures in text. July 24, 1961.

More numbers will appear in volume 14.


Vol. 15. 1. The amphibians and reptiles of Michoacán, México. By William
E. Duellman. Pp. 1-148, pls. 1-6, 11 figs. December 20, 1961.





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