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Title: Speeches and Addresses of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales: 1863-1888
Author: Edward VII, King of Great Britain, 1841-1910
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Speeches and Addresses of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales: 1863-1888" ***

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Transcriber's Note:

In the original, the speeches of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales are set in a
larger type face. In this e-text the larger type sections are represented
by indentation. Corrections are listed at the end of the book.

       *       *       *       *       *



              H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES:


            [Illustration: Albert Edward P.]



              H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES:


                     EDITED BY

          JAMES MACAULAY, A.M., M.D. EDIN.,


                 _WITH A PORTRAIT._



                  To the Memory of

                 HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS

         T H E  P R I N C E  C O N S O R T,




The year 1888, that of the Silver Wedding of the Prince and Princess of
Wales, is also the 25th anniversary of the year when the Prince first
began to appear in public life. It is, therefore, a fit time to present
some record of events in which His Royal Highness has taken part, and of
services rendered by him to the nation, during the past quarter of a
century. The best and the least formal way of doing this seemed to be
the reproduction of his Speeches and Addresses, along with some account
of the occasions when they were delivered.

Some of these speeches, in more recent years, are known to all, and
their importance is universally recognised; such as those relating to
the various International Exhibitions, the foundation of the Royal
College of Music, and the establishment of the Imperial Institute. But
throughout the whole of the twenty-five years, there has been a
succession of speeches, on all manner of occasions, of many of which
there is no adequate record or remembrance. It is only due to the Prince
to recall the various services thus rendered by him, especially during
those earlier years when the loss of the Prince Consort was most deeply
felt, and when the Queen, whose Jubilee has been so splendidly
celebrated, was living in retirement. A new generation has come on the
stage since those days, and there are comparatively few who remember the
number and variety of occasions upon which Royalty was worthily
represented by the Prince of Wales, and the important and arduous duties
voluntarily and cheerfully undertaken by him.

Before carrying out this design, it was advisable to ascertain if there
might be any objection on the part of the Prince of Wales. There might,
for instance, be a purpose of official publication of these speeches. On
the matter being referred to the Prince, he not only made no objection,
but, in most kind and gracious terms, gave his sanction to the work, and
hoped it might be "useful to the various objects which he had publicly
advocated and supported."

The number and diversity of occasions on which the Prince has made these
public appearances will surprise those who have not personal
recollection of them. The speeches themselves will surprise no one. The
Prince has had education and culture such as few of any station obtain;
directed at first by such a father as the Prince Consort, and by tutors
who carried out the design of both his parents. Accomplished in Art, and
interested in Science, in Antiquities, and most branches of learning;
with some University training at Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh, and
with his mind enlarged by foreign travel, we might expect the fruits of
such training to appear in his public addresses. Add to this the
kindliness which comes from a good natural disposition, the sympathetic
influence of a genial manner, and the grace which is given by a training
from childhood in the highest station, and we can understand how the
speeches even of the earliest years were heard with pleasure and
approval. Some of the speeches are very brief, but are always to the
point, and present the gist of the subject in hand. It was Earl
Granville who once said, in proposing his health, that, "if the speeches
of His Royal Highness were usually short, they were always, to use a
homely expression, as full of meat as an egg." Even where there has been
no formal speech, we are interested in knowing what the Prince has done
as well as what he has said; and therefore some important occasions are
included when no speech was made.

It is the variety of subjects that will strike most readers. Let it be
noted, moreover, that the speeches now reproduced are only those
addressed to meetings where reporters for the press were present. There
have been innumerable meetings besides,--meetings of Commissions, of
Boards, of Councils, of Committees, at none of which has the Prince ever
been an inactive or silent member, but rather the guiding and moving
spirit. If the voluntary offices of His Royal Highness were printed at
length, they would far outnumber those mere honorary titles with which
the College of Arms concerns itself; and are such as imply thought and
work, in many useful and beneficent ways.

Long may His Royal Highness have the health and the will for such
offices and duties. If his future career is equal to the hopes and
promise of his early life, and the performances of the last twenty-five
years, he will leave a name illustrious and memorable in the history of
the British Empire.

       *       *       *       *       *

[***symbol] _The frontispiece portrait, under which the Prince of
Wales has been pleased to put his autograph, is etched by W. Strang,
from a recent photograph by Van der Weyde._


  THE EARLY YEARS OF THE PRINCE OF WALES                         1

  AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY BANQUET OF 1863                          11
  FREEDOM OF THE CITY OF LONDON                                 12
  BRITISH ORPHAN ASYLUM                                         14
  AT MERCERS' HALL                                              16
  THE ROYAL LITERARY FUND DINNER                                17
  IRISH INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1865                        21
      AGRICULTURAL HALL, ISLINGTON                              24
  THE SAILORS' HOME, LONDON DOCKS                               25
  ROYAL DRAMATIC COLLEGE                                        26
  FISHMONGERS' HALL DINNER                                      27
  SPEECH DAY AT WELLINGTON COLLEGE                              29
  INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS                                31
  THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY                         33
  FRIEND OF THE CLERGY CORPORATION                              36
  WAREHOUSEMEN AND CLERKS' SCHOOL                               38
  MERCHANT SEAMEN'S ORPHAN ASYLUM                               39
  ROYAL VISIT TO NORWICH IN 1866                                41
  ROYAL NATIONAL LIFE-BOAT INSTITUTION                          42
  SOCIETY OF ANCIENT BRITONS                                    44
  LONDON INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE                                  47
  FESTIVAL OF ST. PATRICK                                       50
  DUBLIN AND CARNARVON                                          55
  ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL                                    62
  FOREIGN TOUR, 1868-1869                                       67
  THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY                                69
  EARLSWOOD ASYLUM                                              71
  THE ALEXANDRA DOCK AT LYNN                                    73
  VISIT TO MANCHESTER                                           74
      LONDON                                                    78
  THE SCOTTISH HOSPITAL                                         81
  ROYAL MASONIC INSTITUTION FOR BOYS                            85
  ROYAL GENERAL THEATRICAL FUND                                 89
  ST. GEORGE'S HOSPITAL                                         93
  DULWICH COLLEGE                                               96
  SCHOOLS FOR THE CHILDREN OF SEAMEN                            98
  NEW GRAMMAR SCHOOL AT READING                                100
  ALBERT GOLD MEDAL TO M. DE LESSEPS                           103
  OPENING OF THE THAMES EMBANKMENT                             105
  WORKMEN'S INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION                           106
  THE ROYAL ALBERT HALL                                        107
  THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1871                         110
  ARTISTS' ORPHAN FUND                                         111
  ROYAL MASONIC INSTITUTION FOR GIRLS                          114
  EARLSWOOD ASYLUM FESTIVAL                                    116
  HOMES FOR LITTLE BOYS                                        118
  THE ROYAL CALEDONIAN ASYLUM                                  120
  DUBLIN AGRICULTURAL SHOW                                     122
  THE ILLNESS OF DECEMBER, 1871                                128
  NORFOLK AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY                                 132
  AT GREAT YARMOUTH                                            135
  THE SCHOOL DRILL REVIEW                                      138
  WEYMOUTH AND THE PORTLAND BREAKWATER                         139
  VISIT TO DERBY                                               140
  RAILWAY BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION                               142
  THE BRITISH ORPHAN ASYLUM FESTIVAL                           146
  BANQUET TO SIR GARNET WOLSELEY                               148
  ROYAL MEDICAL BENEVOLENT COLLEGE                             150
  AT THE MIDDLE AND THE INNER TEMPLE                           152
  NEW GUILDHALL AND LAW COURTS, PLYMOUTH                       154
  VISIT TO BIRMINGHAM IN 1874                                  156
  THE ROYAL CAMBRIDGE ASYLUM                                   159
  AT MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL                                  163
  THE GERMAN HOSPITAL                                          165
  THE INDIAN EMBASSY, 1875-76                                  180
  LICENSED VICTUALLERS' ASYLUM                                 185
  UNVEILING ALBERT STATUE AT CAMBRIDGE                         190
  INFANT ORPHAN ASYLUM, WANSTEAD                               193
  THE TRAINING SHIP 'BRITANNIA'                                195
  CABDRIVERS' BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION                           198
  THE PRINCESS HELENA COLLEGE                                  201
  NEW HARBOUR AT HOLYHEAD                                      203
  AT KING'S COLLEGE                                            209
  COLONIAL BANQUET AT THE MANSION HOUSE                        211
  CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE                          215
  THE INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL CONGRESS                           218
  MEMORIAL TO DEAN STANLEY                                     220
  RIFLE VOLUNTEERS                                             223
  BRITISH GRAVES IN THE CRIMEA                                 225
  THE FISHERIES EXHIBITION                                     228
  OPENING OF FISHERIES EXHIBITION                              230
  CLOSING OF FISHERIES EXHIBITION                              231
      OF SURPLUS                                               235
  NEW CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL                                    237
  THE NORTHBROOK CLUB                                          238
  CITY OF LONDON COLLEGE IN MOORFIELDS                         239
  ROYAL NATIONAL LIFE-BOAT INSTITUTION                         244
  THE HEALTH EXHIBITION                                        246
  OPENING OF GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE                        248
  VISIT TO IRELAND IN 1885                                     261
  THE DARWIN MEMORIAL                                          271
  THE BIRKBECK INSTITUTION                                     272
  RAILWAY GUARDS' FRIENDLY SOCIETY                             274
  CONVALESCENT HOME AT SWANLEY                                 276
  THE YORKSHIRE COLLEGE AT LEEDS                               278
  THE GORDON BOYS' HOME                                        282
  OPENING OF THE MERSEY TUNNEL                                 286
  INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS                               290
  AT THE COLONIAL OFFICE                                       293
  FOUNDATION STONE OF THE PEOPLE'S PALACE                      296
  SION COLLEGE                                                 301
  COLONIAL AND INDIAN EXHIBITION OF 1886                       303
  THE IMPERIAL INSTITUTE                                       310
  THE LONDON ORPHAN ASYLUM                                     315
  THE COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS                                    318
  THE MANCHESTER EXHIBITION                                    319
  THE LONDON HOSPITAL NEW BUILDINGS                            321
  THE FREEMASONS AND THE QUEEN'S JUBILEE                       325
  THE SHAFTESBURY HOUSE                                        327
  CONSECRATION OF TRURO CATHEDRAL                              328
  NEW COLOURS TO THE OLD 46TH REGIMENT                         330
  THE GLASGOW EXHIBITION OF 1888                               332
  SIR BARTLE FRERE'S STATUE                                    337
  NEW GYMNASIUM IN LONG ACRE (OF Y. M. C. A.)                  338
  THE ROYAL MASONIC INSTITUTE FOR GIRLS                        340
  WEST NORFOLK HUNT                                            344
  AT BLACKBURN                                                 345
  THE ANGLO-DANISH EXHIBITION                                  347
  GREAT NORTHERN HOSPITAL, HOLLOWAY ROAD                       349

         *       *       *       *       *

  SPEECHES AT ROYAL ACADEMY BANQUETS                           355

  ROYAL BANQUETS AT THE TRINITY HOUSE                          377

  THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC                                   391
      NATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL FOR MUSIC                       391
      FOUNDING THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC                      394
      THE COLONIES AND THE COLLEGE OF MUSIC                    403

  INDEX                                                        417


As the record of Public Speeches in the following pages does not begin
till 1863, it may be well to give a few dates and incidents of previous
years in the life of the Prince of Wales.

He was born on the 9th of November, 1841, at Buckingham Palace. From
Windsor, to which the Court removed on the 6th of December, the Queen
wrote next day to King Leopold, "We arrived here safe and sound, with
our awfully large nursery establishment, yesterday morning.... I wonder
very much whom our little boy will be like. You will understand how
fervent are my prayers, and I am sure everybody's must be, to see him
resemble his father in every respect, both in body and mind."

The Prince, named Albert Edward, was baptized in St. George's Chapel,
Windsor, on the 25th of January, 1842. King Frederick William of Prussia
was invited to be the boy's Godfather, and he came over personally to
undertake the office. The other Sponsors, six in number, were members of
the Houses of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, and of the English Royal
family. There was a full choral service at the christening. A special
anthem had been composed by Sir George Elvey. On the Prince Consort
being told of this, and asked when it should be sung, he answered, "Not
at all; no anthem. If the service ends by an anthem we shall all go out
criticising the music. We will have something we all know--something in
which we can all join--something devotional. The Hallelujah Chorus; we
shall all join in that, with our hearts." The Hallelujah Chorus ended
the service accordingly. The incident is noteworthy, as showing how the
infant Prince was committed, at his baptism, not in outward form only,
but in devout spirit, to the care of the Heavenly Father.

When the Queen told King Leopold of the removal of the Court to Windsor,
she had made special mention of "the nursery establishment." No mother
in any rank of life ever paid greater attention to this part of the
home, wherever the Court might be. In Memoirs and Recollections of the
Queen, by those who have belonged to her household, many anecdotes are
found which show the watchful care and the personal superintendence of
the Royal Mother.

It is only this year, in the autumn of 1888, that Mrs. Hull, who entered
Her Majesty's service as nurse to the Prince of Wales, died, in her
seventy-ninth year. She was a kind and conscientious attendant to every
one of the Royal children, and the Queen ever retained great regard for
the faithful nurse--"Dear old May," as she used to call her. When she
retired from the Royal service, and lived in recent years in Windsor,
she was always welcome at the Castle. The Queen herself and the
Princesses often saw her, and the Prince of Wales frequently brought her
handsome presents. In reading the account of her funeral, it is pleasant
to see that on the card attached to one of the many wreaths laid on her
coffin were the words: "A mark of affection and gratitude from Victoria
R. I." A beautiful wreath sent by the Prince and Princess of Wales bore
the inscription: "In remembrance of dear old May."

When the Royal children came to be under governesses and teachers, they
were taught well the usual branches of early education, and were also
trained in practical ways, the boys in the use of tools, and the girls
in household work, especially when the Swiss Cottage at Osborne was
occupied by the young folk.

In the story of the 'Early Years of the Prince Consort' there is an
amusing reference to the interruptions of the schoolroom studies by the
old Duke of Saxe-Coburg, who loved to carry off the two boys, and take
them on excursions. The Prince himself did this sometimes, as when the
two elder children, in the autumn of 1846, were taken with their parents
in the _Victoria and Albert_ to Portland, Weymouth, Guernsey, Dartmouth,
and Plymouth, between August 8th and 25th; and to Jersey, Falmouth, St.
Michael's Mount, and the Duchy of Cornwall, between September 2nd and
9th. Of these excursions details are given in the Queen's 'Leaves from a
Journal.' The Queen tells how, at several places off the Cornish coast,
"boats crowded round us in all directions, and when Bertie showed
himself the people shouted, 'Three cheers for the Duke of Cornwall!'"
... In the Journal, under date September 7th, Prince Albert having that
day landed to visit some mines, the Queen has this entry, "The
Corporation of Penryn were on board, and very anxious to see the Duke of
Cornwall, so I stepped out of the pavilion with Bertie, and Lord
Palmerston told them that that was the Duke of Cornwall; and the old
Mayor of Penryn said that 'he hoped he would grow up to be a blessing to
his parents, and to his country.'"

On September the 2nd, on the evening of the day when the Royal yacht
left Osborne for the Channel Islands, "Bertie put on his sailor's dress,
which was beautifully made by the man on board who makes for our
sailors. When he appeared, the officers and sailors, who were all
assembled on deck to see him, cheered, and seemed delighted with him."

In 1847 there was another holiday journey, this time to Scotland, the
Queen and the Prince taking with them, as before, the two eldest
children, with Miss Hildyard, their governess. They embarked at Osborne,
in the Royal yacht, on the 11th of August. On the 14th they were at
Pembroke, when the dockyard and the castle were inspected: thence along
the coast of Wales, landing at Bangor, from whence there was an
expedition to Penryn Castle, and thence past the Isle of Man to the
Scottish coast. Of this journey a detailed account is given in a letter
to Baron Stockmar. At Rothesay in the Isle of Bute, the Prince Consort
says, "The people were as much rejoiced to see the Duke of Rothesay as
the Welsh were to salute the Prince of Wales on their native ground." It
was this enthusiasm about local associations that led the Queen, after
the first visit to Ireland, to desire for the Prince the title of Earl
of Dublin.

During 1848 and the following year there was much in the state of public
affairs, at home and abroad, to occupy the attention of the Queen and
the Prince Consort, but they were anxiously considering the plans for
the future education of the Prince of Wales. In May 1848 negociations
had been opened with Mr. Birch, who had been highly recommended as
tutor. In the spring of 1849 the appointment was made, and Prince
Albert, in a letter to the Dowager Duchess of Gotha, dated Windsor
Castle, 10th April, thus wrote, "The children grow more than well.
Bertie will be given over in a few weeks into the hands of a tutor, whom
we have found in Mr. Birch, a young, good-looking, amiable man, who was
a tutor at Eton, and who not only himself took the highest honours at
Cambridge, but whose pupils have won especial distinction. It is an
important step, and God's blessing be upon it, for upon the good
education of Princes, and especially of those who are destined to
govern, the welfare of the world in these days very greatly depends."

Of the course and conduct of the studies of the Prince, under Mr. Birch,
from 1849-1851, and under his successor, Mr. Gibbs, from 1851-1858, it
is not necessary to speak. His other teachers were efficient in their
departments, such as Mr. Corbould, who taught drawing to all the Royal
children; and M. Brasseur, the French teacher, to whom the Prince paid a
visit when in Paris in 1888. As in the earlier years, so when he was
under tutors, the real education for public life was less in study than
in the companionship and the example of his parents. A man of wide
knowledge and of varied accomplishments like the Prince Consort had
higher views of education than mere scholastic routine. He took his son
to all places where a love of arts and sciences might be encouraged and
fostered, and hence the Prince obtained knowledge and acquired tastes
not universal among young Englishmen, in times before the subjects of
academic training and honours had been enlarged, mainly through the
influence of the Prince Consort, as Chancellor of the University of
Cambridge. From his father also he inherited the taste for music which
has been since turned to national benefit. But above all, he was often
taken to meetings and festivals connected with charitable institutions,
a Princely duty in which the son has been proud to follow the example of
his lamented father.

The extra-scholastic education of the Prince was continued throughout
the time that Mr. Gibbs, his classical tutor, remained with him. He was
also gradually introduced to public life, and initiated in affairs of
modern as well as ancient history,--events reported in the newspapers of
the day, as well as those recorded by the historians of antiquity. As
early as the 3rd of April, 1854, when the Addresses from both Houses of
Parliament were presented to the Queen, in answer to Her Majesty's
message announcing the opening of war with Russia, we are told that "the
Prince of Wales took his place, for the first time, beside the Queen and
Prince Albert upon the throne." In the succeeding years these
appearances in public were frequent, and in 1857 he accompanied the
Queen and the Prince on their memorable visit to the Art Treasures
Exhibition at Manchester. The Princess Royal, the Princess Alice, Prince
George, and Prince Frederick William of Prussia, were also guests at
Worsley Hall during this visit. In Manchester, as recorded by the Queen
in her Diary, "The crowd was enormous, greater than ever witnessed
before, and enthusiastic beyond belief--nothing but kind and friendly
faces." Upwards of a million people were computed to have been in the
streets that day. Not only were the treasures of the Exhibition
carefully inspected, but visits were paid to some of the great
manufacturing works of the town. On the day that the Queen drove to see
the statue of herself recently erected in the Peel Park, the Prince
Consort, with his two eldest sons, and Prince Frederick William, went to
the Manchester Town Hall, to receive the address which the Corporation
presented to the Prussian Prince on his approaching marriage with the
Princess Royal.

In July of that year, 1857, the Prince of Wales went to Königswinter,
for the purposes of study. He was accompanied by General Grey, Sir Henry
Ponsonby, and several companions, among whom were Mr. C. Wood, son of
Lord Halifax, Lord Cadogan, and Mr. F. Stanley, son of Lord Derby. With
Mr. Gibbs was now associated the Rev. Canon Tarver, who, on the
retirement of Mr. Gibbs in 1858, was appointed Director of Studies and
Chaplain. In this capacity he accompanied the Prince to Rome, Spain, and
Portugal, and afterwards went with him to Edinburgh, remaining with the
Prince till the autumn of 1859, when his education ceased to be
conducted at home.

Of the principal events of the year 1858 as regards the Prince, a most
interesting statement is given in a letter of his father to his old
friend Stockmar. It is dated Windsor Castle, April 2nd. "Yesterday the
Confirmation of the Prince of Wales went off with great solemnity, and I
hope with lasting impression on his mind. The previous day his
examination took place before the Archbishop and ourselves. Wellesley
(Dean of Windsor) prolonged it a full hour, and Bertie acquitted himself
_extremely well_. To-day we take the sacrament with him." In a
Memorandum by Her Majesty, it is said that the Prince Consort "had a
very strong feeling about the solemnity of this act, and did not like to
appear in company either the evening before or on the day on which he
took the sacrament; and he and the Queen almost always dined alone on
these occasions." With such habitual feelings about the solemnity of the
service, the "First Communion" of his eldest son must have deeply
touched his heart.

In the letter to Stockmar the Prince continues his statement about the
educational plans for his son. "Next week he is to make a run for
fourteen days to the South of Ireland, with Mr. Gibbs, Captain de Ros,
and Dr. Minter, for recreation. When he returns to London he is to take
up his residence at the White Lodge, in Richmond Park, so as to be away
from the world, and devote himself exclusively to study, and prepare for
a military examination. As companions for him we have appointed three
very distinguished young men, of from 23 to 26 years of age, who are to
occupy in monthly rotation a kind of equerry's place about him, and from
whose more intimate intercourse I anticipate no small benefit to
Bertie." These companions were Lord Valletort, eldest son of Lord
Mount-Edgecombe, Major Teesdale, R.A., of Kars celebrity, and Major
Loyd-Lindsay, V.C., of all of whom the Prince expresses to Stockmar his
high opinion. "Besides these three, only Mr. Gibbs and Mr. Tarver will
go with him to Richmond. As future Governor I have as yet been able to
think of no one as likely to suit, except Colonel Bruce, Lord Elgin's
brother, and his military secretary in Canada, who now commands one of
the battalions of Grenadier Guards. He has all the amiability of his
sister (Lady Augusta Bruce, afterwards Lady Augusta Stanley), with great
mildness of expression, and is full of ability."

Fortunately for the Prince, the wish to obtain the services of Colonel
Bruce was successful. On the 9th of November, 1858, writing from Windsor
Castle to the King of Prussia on political affairs, which in Prussia
were then in troubled condition, the Prince adds: "I ought not to tease
you just now with family trifles, still I will let you know that Bertie,
who to-day solemnizes his eighteenth birthday, proposes to pay a
fortnight's visit to his sister, and asks leave to present himself to
you. It will not be a State, but purely a family visit; and we,
therefore, beg you only to show him such slender courtesies as are
suitable to a member, and a very young one, of the family. To-day he
becomes a Colonel in the Army, unattached, and will receive the Garter.
Colonel Bruce, Lord Elgin's brother, has become his Governor."

The Prince speaks of family events as trifles, compared with great
political affairs, but he felt deeply every change in the home life. A
few weeks earlier, he had taken his son, Alfred, to his ship at
Spithead, from which he went to sea at once. On the day before, the
father wrote, "His departure will be another great trial to us: the
second child lost to our family circle in one year."

On the 10th of January, 1859, the Prince of Wales started on his Italian
tour. He had previously been hard at study. He had opportunities of
seeing much that was interesting in his continental journey, but the
stay at Rome, which was greatly enjoyed, had to be abruptly ended. The
restless ambition of the Emperor of the French had brought about war
with Austria, and a French descent on Sardinia. Orders were sent to the
Prince of Wales to leave Rome and repair to Gibraltar, which he reached
on the 7th of May. The plan now arranged was that he was to visit the
south of Spain and Lisbon, to return to England in the middle of June,
and in July and August to take up his head-quarters in Edinburgh for

All this was well carried out, and on the 11th of September the Prince
joined his parents at Balmoral. The Court had left Osborne on the 29th
of August for the Highlands, and reached Balmoral on the 31st, after
spending a day and a night in Edinburgh. Writing to Stockmar a few days
after, the Prince Consort says they had "travelled for the first time by
night, straight through from London to Edinburgh, in order to gain a day
for that place. The experiment proved a complete success, and the Queen
was not at all tired. When in Edinburgh I had an educational conference
with all the persons who are taking part in the education of the Prince
of Wales. They all speak highly of him, and he seems to have shown zeal
and good will. Dr. Lyon Playfair is giving him lectures on Chemistry in
relation to Manufactures, and at the close of each special course he
visits the appropriate manufactory with him, so as to explain its
practical application. Dr. Schmitz, the Rector of the High School of
Edinburgh, a German, gives him lectures on Roman History. Italian,
German, and French are advanced at the same time; and three times a week
the Prince exercises with the 16th Hussars, who are stationed near the
city. Mr. Fisher, who is to be tutor at Oxford, was also in Holyrood.
Law and History are to be the subjects on which he is to prepare the

All this shows the care taken in regard to the education of the Prince.
The Royal pupil had rather a stiff course of study in these days, but he
stuck manfully to all his work, which had been carefully planned by his
good father, who held that little relaxation should be allowed even
during holiday time. In a letter of 17th September, 1859, to Mr. Tarver,
who was still Director of Studies, he wrote, "I should be very sorry
that he" (the Prince of Wales) "should look upon the reading of a novel,
even by Sir Walter Scott, _as a day's work_." Fond as he was himself of
high-class works of fiction, the Prince held they should be sparingly
laid open to young people during years which should be devoted to

In December 1859 the Prince Consort wrote to the old Duchess of Coburg,
who ever retained lively interest in all the family affairs, "The visit
of Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his Princess came to a close
on the 3rd. He has delighted us much. Vicky has developed greatly of
late, and yet remained quite a child,--of such is the Kingdom of
Heaven." With sad interest we recall this, after recent events. Also it
is written about the same time, "The Prince of Wales is working hard at

The year closed, and the new year dawned very peaceably and happily, the
Queen saying in her Diary, "I never remember spending a pleasanter New
Year's Day, surrounded by our children and dear Mama. It is really
extraordinary how much our good children did for the day, in reading,
reciting, and music."

In the early spring arrangements were being made for the proposed visit
of the Prince of Wales to America. A promise of this visit had been
given to the Canadians during the Crimean War for which Her Majesty's
loyal subjects in the Dominion had levied and equipped a regiment. A
request was then made that Her Majesty would visit her American
possessions. On this being pronounced inexpedient, the Canadians asked
that one of the Queen's sons might be Governor-General. Their youth made
this impossible, and then the promise was made that the Prince of Wales,
as soon as he was old enough, should visit Canada. It was now announced
that this visit should be early in the autumn of 1860, and that it
should be signalised by laying the foundation stone of the new Canadian
Parliament House at Ottawa. It was also arranged that the Prince should
be accompanied by the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary Of State for the

This no sooner became known on the other side of the water than the
President of the United States, James Buchanan, addressed a letter to
the Queen, dated on June 4th (Independence Day), offering a cordial
welcome to the States, and assuring Her Majesty that the Prince would be
everywhere greeted in a manner that could not fail to be gratifying to
the Queen. A reply was sent, in the same friendly spirit, informing the
President that the Prince would return from Canada through the United
States, and that it would give him pleasure to have an opportunity of
testifying in person to the President that the feelings which prompted
his invitation were fully reciprocated on this side of the Atlantic.

After a short visit to Coburg in the early summer, the Prince started
for the New World on the 10th of July, and on the 25th landed at St.
John's, Newfoundland. His arrival caused a fever of excitement. "If all
the Colonies feel towards the Prince as Newfoundland does," wrote one
who witnessed the scenes, "it was a most politic step to have sent him
on this tour." The rough fishermen and their wives were delighted, and
were full of admiration. "God bless his pretty face, and send him a good
wife!" was their most frequent exclamation. The manner of the Prince to
the venerable Bishop of Newfoundland was "very beautiful, so gentle, and
quite reverential," that all were touched, and the old man said, "God
bless my dear young Prince! I hope he will carry away a favourable
impression of this almost unknown rugged island."

The same enthusiasm was shown everywhere in Canada, and the Duke of
Newcastle writing to the Queen on the 23rd of September, from Dwight in
Illinois, after he had crossed into the United States, thus summed up
the results of the visit: "Now that the Canadian visit is concluded, the
Duke of Newcastle may pronounce it eminently successful, and may venture
to offer Her Majesty his humble but very hearty congratulations. He does
not doubt that future years will clearly demonstrate the good that has
been done. The attachment to the Crown has been greatly cemented.... The
Duke of Newcastle is rejoiced to think that this is not the only good
that has sprung out of this visit. It has done much good to the Prince
of Wales himself, and the development of his mind and habit of thought
is very perceptible. The Duke of Newcastle will be much disappointed if
your Majesty and the Prince Consort are not pleased with the change that
has been brought about by this practical school, in which so many of the
future duties of life have been forced upon the Prince's daily
attention. He has certainly left a very favourable impression behind

Besides laying the foundation stone of the buildings for the Parliament
House at Ottawa, the Prince performed another memorable action in
driving home the last rivet of the magnificent Victoria Bridge at

The enthusiasm caused by the visit to the States was immense. Chicago
was the first great town reached after leaving Niagara, and here the
reception was remarkable. It was the same at Cincinnati, and at St.
Louis. In fact everywhere the friendly spirit of the people was the
same, and the courtesy of the civic authorities, and of the educated
classes, most marked. A pleasant record of the prevailing feeling is
given in a letter from a well-known American author. "The Prince is
decidedly a popular character with us, and he may consider himself a
lucky lad if he escapes nomination for President before he reaches his
home-bound fleet. The funny part of the whole affair is to note the
unwillingness of people to be _shabbed_ off with a sham title (Baron
Renfrew, under which name he travelled in the States), instead of His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, a real up and down and out and out
Prince, and of the right stuff too; coupled with a hope he may long
remain so; for there is not a living being more sincerely beloved by our
people than his Royal mother."

Washington was reached on the 3rd of October. The most memorable
incident of his stay at the capital was an excursion, on the 5th, in
company with the President to Mount Vernon, the home and the
burial-place of George Washington. The reporter of the Times thus speaks
of the event, "Before this humble tomb the Prince, the President, and
all the party stood uncovered. It is easy moralizing on this visit, for
there is something grandly suggestive of historical retribution in the
reverential awe of the Prince of Wales, the great-grandson of George
III., standing bare-headed at the foot of the coffin of Washington. For
a few moments the party stood mute and motionless, and the Prince then
proceeded to plant a chestnut by the side of the tomb. It seemed when
the Royal youth closed in the earth around the little germ, that he was
burying the last faint trace of discord between us and our great
brethren in the West."

The Prince left Washington for Richmond on the following day, and closed
his American tour at Boston, after having had a magnificent welcome at
New York from the vast population of that city. In an American paper of
the day it was said, "All our reminiscences, the history, the poetry,
the romance of England for ten centuries, are concentrated in the
huzzahs with which we greet the Prince of Wales."

The Prince landed at Plymouth on the 13th of November and the same
evening arrived at Windsor. On the 18th of January he went to Cambridge
for his first term, and resumed his studies, under his preceptors, at
Madingley Hall. At the end of his second term he went to the camp of the
Curragh of Kildare during the summer vacation.

In the autumn of 1861 he went to Germany, with the intention of meeting
the Princess Alexandra of Denmark, with the view to marriage, if the
meeting should result in mutual attachment. The meeting, which took
place at Speier and at Heidelberg, led to their engagement. The Prince
returned to Madingley Hall, from whence he was summoned to Windsor on
the day before his beloved father's death, on the 14th of December,

It is not our purpose to encroach further on the office of the future
biographer of the Prince of Wales. In the 'Life of the Prince Consort'
the sad incidents of that December are described with touching pathos.
Neither do we propose to narrate the events that occurred between the
death of the Prince Consort and the marriage of the Prince of Wales, to
the Princess Alexandra, on the 10th of March, 1863. These events are
fresh in the recollection of many to whom the incidents of the earlier
life of the Prince are less known. It is enough to say as to these
years, that he continued to be diligent in the acquirement of varied
knowledge; that he carefully attended to his military duties; that he
took active part in the volunteer movement; and in town and country was
alike popular, from his love of manly sport as well as of the pursuits
of art.

The coming of age of the Prince was not celebrated with great ceremony,
for he was abroad at the time, and the shadow of sorrow was still over
the Royal household. But when the Prince brought his bride to England
the joy of the nation was unbounded. The passage of the Prince and
Princess through the streets of London was a scene of popular
enthusiasm such as has seldom been witnessed, so tumultuous was the
outburst of joy. The magnificent splendour of the marriage itself was as
nothing compared with that national demonstration. In the following
pages it will be seen how the Prince and Princess were one in public
life, as they were in heart and home.

When the Prince and Princess were returning from Osborne, where they
spent the honeymoon, on arriving at Portsmouth, _en route_ to Windsor,
the Mayor and Corporation presented an address, upon the deck of the
Royal yacht _Fairy_. This was the first of a succession of "addresses,"
which were merely marriage congratulations, couched in complimentary
strains, and responded to in a few grateful and gracious words. These
addresses were so numerous that they came to be merely mentioned in
list, and in that early time might have been troublesome, but for the
courtesy and good nature of the Prince. These demonstrations continued
throughout the summer, the last being at Edinburgh, where their Royal
Highnesses remained for a night on the way to Abergeldie, their Highland
home near Balmoral. They did not go to Holyrood Palace, but to Douglas'
private hotel, in St. Andrew's Square. Here a vast crowd assembled, and
the Prince and Princess had to appear and bow their acknowledgments from
the open window, till the multitude dispersed. But before going to the
North, the Prince had already made public appearances, and his voice had
been heard, in the City of London. The words were few, but the occasions
were so important that with them may be commenced the record of the
Speeches of His Royal Highness. The earliest appearance in a public
assembly was at the banquet of the Royal Academy of Arts, on the 2nd of
May, 1863.



_May 2nd, 1863._

The annual banquet given by the President and Council of the
Royal Academy of Arts, at Burlington House, is one of the chief
events of the London season, or rather, it marks the opening of the
season. It always takes place on the Saturday preceding the
first Monday in May, when the Exhibition of Pictures is opened
to the public. Seldom can a more distinguished company of men,
eminent in art, science, and literature, as well as in social position
and public life, be seen together than on these occasions. The
Prince of Wales has been a very frequent guest, and his speeches
have been so numerous, that it seems best to group them together,
at a later part of this volume. But the first speech at the Academy
banquet was so interesting an occasion that it is given under the
date of its delivery.

The presence of the young Prince, and so soon after his
marriage, gave unusual _éclat_ to the banquet of 1863. At that
time Sir Charles Eastlake was President, and the rooms of the
Academy were at Trafalgar Square. After the toast of "The Queen,"
the President made touching reference to the loss which the
nation as well as the Royal Family had recently sustained. He
gave "The memory of the great and good Prince Consort," which
was drunk in deep silence. Then followed the toast of "The Prince
of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family." "The Council of the
Royal Academy," said the President, "had that day the honour of
offering their respectful and heartfelt congratulations to His Royal
Highness on his marriage to a Princess, whose personal attractions
and gracious manners enhance the impression of Her Royal
Highness's amiable character."

The Prince, in replying, spoke (as was said at the time)
"evidently under deep emotion, but in a peculiarly clear and
pleasing tone of voice, and with great impressiveness of

   "Sir Charles Eastlake, your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and
   Gentlemen,--It is with the most contending feelings of pleasure,
   pride, and sorrow that I rise to return you thanks in the name of
   myself and the Royal family for the kind terms in which you, Sir
   Charles, have proposed our health, and for the very cordial way
   in which this distinguished assembly has received it. I cannot on
   this occasion divest my mind of the associations connected with
   my beloved and lamented father. His bright example cannot fail to
   stimulate my efforts to tread in his footsteps: and, whatever my
   shortcomings may be, I may at least presume to participate in the
   interest which he took in every institution which tended to
   encourage art and science in this country, but more especially in
   the prosperity of the Royal Academy. Adverting to my marriage, I
   beg you to believe how grateful I feel for, and I may be
   permitted to add how sincerely I appreciate, the sentiments you
   have expressed with reference to the Princess. I know that I am
   only speaking her mind in joining her thoughts to mine on this
   occasion. We neither of us can ever forget the manner in which
   our union has been celebrated throughout the nation; and I should
   be more than ungrateful if I did not retain the most lasting as
   well as most pleasing recollection of the kind expressions and
   reception which my attendance at your anniversary meeting has
   evoked this evening."

Among the speakers at this banquet of 1863 were Lord Palmerston,
Mr. Thackeray, and Sir Roderick Murchison.


_June 8th, 1863._

The first event of importance in the public life of the Prince of Wales,
after his marriage, was the taking up the freedom of the City of London,
on the 8th of June, 1863. As far back as the 12th of March the following
resolution had been passed by the Court of Common Council:--

"That His Royal Highness Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, be very
respectfully requested to take upon himself the freedom of the City, to
which he is entitled by patrimony; and that upon his acceding to this
request His Royal Highness be presented with the copy of the freedom,
enclosed in a casket, in testimony of the affection and profound respect
entertained by the Court for his person and character."

Having signified his assent to the request, the 8th of June was fixed as
the day when the Prince would come to Guildhall to take up the freedom.
The Lord Mayor and the civic authorities thought that this would be the
fittest time for the official reception of the Prince and Princess, and
for an entertainment, worthy of the occasion of the marriage, and of the
ancient hospitality of the City of London. Invitations were accordingly
issued to about two thousand guests to meet the Royal visitors, and the
list included all the most eminent persons in public life or in society,
and the ambassadors and representatives of foreign countries. Immense
and costly preparations were made, both in the decoration of the Hall,
and for the reception of the guests. Shortly after 9 p.m. the sound of
trumpets announced that the Royal party had arrived. The Prince wore his
military uniform, and the Riband and Star of the Garter. The Princess
wore a rich but simple white dress, with coronet and brooch of diamonds,
the wedding present of her husband, and the splendid necklace of
brilliants which the City of London had presented. With them came Prince
Alfred, the Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and Princess Mary of
Cambridge, and other Royal personages, followed by a numerous retinue.
The Royal party were conducted to the daïs, in front of which was a
table at which the Lord Mayor (Alderman Rose, M.P.), and the City
officials took their places, and there resolved themselves into a Court
of Common Council. All wore their robes and insignia of office, the
sword and mace laid on the table before the Lord Mayor. The resolution
passed on the 12th of March having been read, and also the official
record of His Royal Highness's title to the freedom, the Prince then
read aloud and afterwards subscribed the following declaration:--

"I, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, do solemnly declare that I will be
good and true to our Sovereign Lady Queen Victoria; that I will be
obedient to the Mayor of this City; that I will maintain the franchises
and customs thereof, and will keep this City harmless, in that which in
me is; that I will also keep the Queen's peace in my own person; that I
will know no gatherings nor conspiracies made against the Queen's peace,
but I will warn the Mayor thereof, or hinder it to my power; and that
all these points and articles I will well and truly keep, according to
the laws and customs of this City, to my power.


Mr. Benjamin Scott, the Chamberlain, then read an address, at the close
of which he offered the right hand of fellowship as a citizen of London,
and presented the gold casket containing the record of the freedom. The
Prince, in reply, said:--

    "My Lord Mayor, Mr. Chamberlain, and Gentlemen,--It is, I assure
    you, a source of sincere gratification to me to attend here for
    the purpose of being invested with a privilege which for the
    reasons you have stated you are unable to confer upon me, and
    which descends to me by inheritance. It is a patrimony that I am
    proud to claim--this freedom of the greatest city of the
    commercial world, which holds its charter from such an ancient
    date. My pride is increased when I call to memory the long list
    of illustrious men who have been enrolled among the citizens of
    London, more especially when I connect with that list the
    beloved father to whom you have adverted in such warm terms of
    eulogy and respect, and through whom I am here to claim my
    freedom of the City of London. My Lord Mayor and Gentlemen, the
    Princess and myself heartily thank you for the past--for your
    loyalty and expressions of attachment towards the Queen, for the
    manifestations of this evening towards ourselves, and for all
    your prayers for our future happiness."

When the ceremony was ended, the Prince and the Royal visitors withdrew
from the Hall, but soon returned to join in the festivities, which began
with a ball. "The Lord Mayor led off in a spirited quadrille with Her
Royal Highness the Princess, and the Prince with the Lady Mayoress." So
runs the record, with details of the dances, and the names of the
dancers in the area kept clear, in front of the daïs, for the special
guests. Attempts were occasionally made to keep up dancing in the body
of the Hall, but the crowd was so great that, till after supper, and the
retirement of the Royal party, the fête was more of a grand assembly
than a ball. Under whatever name, it was a magnificent entertainment,
and aged citizens tell us that Guildhall had never witnessed a scene so
splendid and joyous.


_June 24th, 1863._

One of the earliest appearances of the Prince and Princess of Wales in
support of a charitable institution was when they opened the new
buildings erected at Slough for the British Orphan Asylum, on the 24th
of June, 1863. The scholars belonging to the Asylum had so largely
increased in number that the Board of Directors resolved in 1862 to move
the whole establishment from Clapham Rise, its former locality, to more
spacious premises at Slough. They bought the freehold of the well-known
and large Royal Hotel, which had been closed since the old coaches had
been driven off the road by the railway. The situation was admirable,
and the grounds spacious, and by adding an additional story the building
was readily adapted to its new purpose.

The fine weather and the presence of the Prince and Princess attracted a
large assemblage. On the arrival of their Royal Highnesses the pupils
sang the old Hundredth Psalm, the National Anthem having been previously
played by military bands as the procession moved towards a daïs, beneath
a marquee on the lawn. An Address was read, concluding with the
expression of a hope that the Prince and Princess would allow their
names to be enrolled as Vice-Patron and Vice-Patroness of the Asylum, of
which the Queen is Patron. The Prince made the following  reply:--

"It has given the Princess and myself great pleasure to be present at
the opening of your most excellent Asylum, and to have been invited to
take part in so good a work. The benevolent purposes of this
widely-extended institution speak for themselves. It is one in which the
Queen and my lamented father, the promoter of every scheme for the
relief of the miserable, evinced a warm interest, and the details which
you have given of its formation and progress furnish another appeal for
aid from those whose highest enjoyment it is to give a home and
education to the fatherless and destitute. It is a privilege, I assure
you, that the Princess and myself value greatly to have our names
associated with the British orphan Asylum."

The Prince then formally declared the building to be for ever dedicated
to the purposes of the British orphan Asylum, and also announced the
munificent gift of £12,000 from Mr. Edward Mackenzie to the building
fund. The Bishop of Bath and Wells offered prayer; a choral was sung,
and many purses were presented in the offertory. Trees were also planted
in commemoration of the day.

Eleven years later, the Prince presided at the anniversary festival of
the Asylum. He then said that he felt a special interest in the
institution, which he had visited along with the Princess of Wales so
many years before. In his speech at that festival he spoke more fully of
the objects and merits of the Asylum, as will be seen in the report
under the date of the festival in May 1874.


_July 8th, 1863._

After the visit to Guildhall, the common hall of all the City Guilds or
Companies, the civic event of most importance was when, on the 8th of
July, 1863, the Prince went to the City to take up his freedom in the
Mercers' Company, and to enroll his name on their records.

It was a fitting thing thus early to show his attachment to ancient
Guilds and Corporate Constitutions. The Mercers' Company is the first in
rank, and the most ancient of all the great City Guilds, and its roll of
members is one of the most illustrious. Its existence as a Metropolitan
Guild can be traced as far back as the year 1172, and the Company
received its incorporation in 1392 from Richard II., who conferred upon
it the honour of becoming one of its brethren. Besides the Royal names
of King Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, the Company can boast those of
Sir Richard Whittington, William Caxton the Printer, Sir Thomas Gresham,
and Dean Colet, the founder of St. Paul's School. The address to the
Prince was read by the Master Warden, the Rev. Markland Barnard, who had
the distinction of representing the fourteenth generation of his family,
who had been freemen or wardens of the Company ever since the third year
of Henry IV.

To this address the Prince listened with marked attention, and then
replied, in a clear and pleasing tone, which those who heard it said he
inherited from his Royal mother:--

    "Master and Court of Assistants,--I am glad to avail myself of
    the last opportunity which my stay in London affords me of
    attending here this day to receive the freedom of your ancient
    and honourable company. The oldest of the city companies, the
    Mercers', is hardly exceeded by any in the amount of its
    charities, or in its capabilities of doing good. How these
    powers have been exercised, the list of the foundations of the
    company and of the distinguished persons whom you have
    enumerated as benefactors and freemen tells us. Among the
    latter, the great Sovereign, who was herself a sister of the
    company, stands conspicuous; and commerce and science appear
    equally to have lent their representatives to ennoble the
    Mercers' Company. To be associated with such names in the
    freedom and history of your company is an honour and privilege I
    am proud to have conferred upon me. I thank you sincerely for
    the terms in which you have mentioned the names of my beloved
    mother and the Princess, and for the happiness you desire for us

The Prince then subscribed the Oath of the Company, with its quaint old
phraseology, affixing his usual signature, ALBERT EDWARD, P.

The Clerk then presented His Royal Highness with the formal document
which enrolled him as a Freeman, enclosed in a massive gold casket of
exquisite design and workmanship. The numerous visitors who had
witnessed the ceremony afterwards had a _déjeuner_ in the Banqueting
Hall, the Prince with a small number of select guests being at the same
time entertained in the Council Room.


_May 18th, 1864._

In the last annual Report of the Royal Literary Fund, for 1888, it is
said: "The anniversary of 1864 was memorable as the first public dinner
presided over by the Prince of Wales, to whose presence in the chair the
Institution is indebted for a success altogether unprecedented in the
history of its anniversaries."

The annual Report for 1864 contains a detailed account of the
proceedings at that meeting, the seventy-fifth anniversary of the
Institution. It was natural that a large number of eminent men should
assemble to support the youthful Chairman, whose illustrious father had
presided at the fifty-third anniversary, in 1842. In the long list of
Stewards, in 1864, appear the names of almost all those most
distinguished at that time, not only in Literature, but in Art and
Science, and in every department of the public service. Upwards of four
hundred attended, and the special donations to the fund at the dinner
amounted to £2328 17_s._, a sum then far in advance of any profit of
former anniversaries. This amount has only once since been exceeded,
when the King of the Belgians presided, in 1872.

In commemoration of Prince Albert's presidency, Her Majesty was
graciously pleased to grant to this Institution the privilege of bearing
the Crown as an addition to its Armorial bearings, and the style of the
Institution was thenceforth that of "The Royal Literary Fund." Her
Majesty confers upon it the sanction of her name as its Patron, and has
shown her interest by an annual benefaction of One Hundred Guineas, ever
since the year of her Accession.

By the donations and subscriptions of members of the Corporation, with
the addition of legacies, and the profits obtained at the anniversary
festivals, the Royal Literary Fund has been enabled, since its
foundation in the latter part of the eighteenth century, to dispense
upwards of £105,000 to needy persons of the literary class.

The importance and the benefits of the Institution will more clearly
appear from a brief statement of the proceedings at the Festival over
which H.R.H. the Prince of Wales presided. The dinner was served in St.
James's Hall on Wednesday, May 18th. Grace was said by the Lord Primate
of Ireland. After the removal of the cloth, and the singing of the "Deum
Laudate," the Prince rose to propose the first toast:--

    "The first toast I have the honour to propose is 'The health of
    Her Majesty the Queen, our munificent Patron;' a toast which I
    feel sure will be drunk with the enthusiasm which it elicits on
    all public occasions. Although the Queen is now compelled, to a
    certain extent, to withdraw from public life, still her interest
    in every institution of this country, and particularly in
    charitable institutions, remains undiminished. Gentlemen, I give
    you 'The Queen.'"

The next toast was proposed by the Marquis of Salisbury, "The health of
Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal
Family." The toast was drunk with all the honours and responded to by
His Royal Highness the Chairman. "The Church" having been proposed by
the Rt. Hon. Edward Cardwell, and responded to by the Archbishop of
Armagh, H.R.H. the Chairman proposed the toast of "The Army, Navy, and
Volunteers," saying:--

    "This is a toast which it gives me especial pleasure to propose
    from the circumstance of my having served for a time with both
    infantry and cavalry. Short as my service was, it has been long
    enough to impress me with the conviction of the efficiency of
    all ranks composing the British army. I have also had an
    opportunity during my voyage to America in 1860, and on many
    other occasions, of witnessing the able manner in which the
    duties of the navy are performed. The volunteers demand our
    warmest thanks and approbation for the zeal with which they came
    forward when they thought their services were required, a zeal
    which they still evince on every occasion afforded to them. I
    beg to couple with 'the Army and Volunteers,' the name of my
    illustrious relative the Duke of Cambridge, who so ably fills
    the arduous post of Commander-in-Chief entrusted to him by the
    Queen, and to whose practical and liberal administration the
    army owes its present high state of efficiency. With 'the Navy,'
    I will couple the name of Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Milne, who
    has only lately returned from the successful discharge of the
    difficult duties attaching to the command of the North American
    Station. Gentlemen, let us drink to the 'Army, Navy, and

The Duke of Cambridge and Admiral Sir Alexander Milne having responded,
His Royal Highness the Chairman then gave the toast of "The Royal
Literary Fund," saying:--

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen, I have now the
    honour to propose the most important toast of the evening, it is
    'Prosperity to the Royal Literary Fund.' Although the most
    important, it is nevertheless the toast upon which, perhaps, I
    can say least, certainly I can give you no new information, as
    every one here present knows better than I do the character of
    this institution. Still it is right that I should offer a few
    remarks on the working of this Society. You are all aware,
    gentlemen, of the immense advantages which have been derived
    from it in support of literature and science. One of its
    principal features is that it is not limited to our own
    countrymen, but is often extended to literary men of all
    nations; so that we may feel proud to think that by our timely
    assistance, we not only advance the literature of our own
    country, but that of other nations. In this way, many eminent
    men who would otherwise be incapacitated from carrying on their
    labours, and from making their talents known to the world, are
    enabled to do so. The second important feature is the secrecy
    with which this timely aid is given,--a secrecy so sacredly
    observed that in the whole number of cases, which amount to
    1,645 since the foundation of this Corporation in the year 1790,
    there is not a single case of any indiscretion having been
    committed; and if cases have been brought to light at all, it
    has only been through the acknowledgment of the literary men
    thus assisted, who have been anxious to express their gratitude.
    I ought here to mention the name of an eminent man of letters,
    whose loss must be deeply deplored in all literary circles. I
    allude to Mr. Thackeray. I allude to him, not so much on account
    of his works, for they are standard works, but because he was
    an active member of your committee, and always ready to open
    his purse for the relief of literary men struggling with

    "Gentlemen, some of those here present do not perhaps know that
    in France, since 1857, an Institution similar to ours, and
    founded by M. Thenard, has been in existence for the benefit of
    scientific men only, and that a few days ago M. Champfleury, a
    distinguished writer, proposed to form a Literary Society
    adopting some of our principles. It is to be hoped that some day
    these two societies may form sister Literary Funds; and if
    administered on our model, I think we may augur for the new
    institution a large measure of success. We shall at all times be
    most happy to enter into communication with it, and show it the
    result of our long experience and of the unwearied zeal and
    exertion of the Officers of this Corporation.

    "I will not detain you much longer, gentlemen, but I cannot sit
    down without bringing back to your recollection the deep
    interest which my dear and lamented father took in everything
    connected with literature and science, and particularly in the
    labours of this Society. Nobody has forgotten that the second
    time he spoke in public in this country, was as chairman of the
    Literary Fund dinner. And we all, I am convinced, deeply regret
    that the speeches made on that occasion were not reported at
    full length, as every word falling from those lips could not
    fail to command universal admiration. Gentlemen, let us drink
    'Prosperity to the Royal Literary Fund.'"

The list of subscriptions and donations having been read, including a
donation of £110 from the Prince of Wales, Earl Stanhope, as President
of the Institution, responded. Speeches being delivered by Earl Russell,
Mr. Anthony Trollope, Lord Houghton, and H. E. M. Van de Weyer, Earl
Stanhope proposed the health of the Chairman, which was received with
much enthusiasm, and the Prince thus replied:--

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords and Gentlemen, I thank you most
    sincerely for the kind and cordial manner in which you have
    drunk my health, and I feel proud to have occupied the chair for
    the first time, on so interesting and important an occasion. I
    must now take the opportunity to congratulate this Corporation
    on the great advantage which it enjoys, in the services of the
    distinguished nobleman who now fills the high office of your
    President, and who has contributed so much to historical
    literature. I can give him no higher praise, than by saying that
    he is a worthy successor of a nobleman who was for more than
    twenty years your president; who throughout a long political
    career never made an enemy, and who always found time to assist
    in the advancement of literature and art. I allude to the late
    Marquess of Lansdowne. Gentlemen, allow me to propose one more
    toast. In the presence of a Society, accustomed to cultivate
    with such signal success the flowers of literature, it would be
    unpardonable to forget the flowers of society. I propose the
    health of 'The Ladies,' who, by their numerous attendance here
    this evening, evince the interest they take in the Literary

The toast was received with the usual honours. It should have been
mentioned that nearly 400 ladies were present, but in the galleries, not
at the tables as guests, as is the better custom at some anniversaries.


_May 9th, 1865._

The city of Dublin has seldom presented a scene of more general joy than
when the Prince of Wales opened the International Exhibition, on the 9th
of May, 1865. The weather was superb, the loyal demonstrations in the
streets were enthusiastic, and the great Hall where the opening ceremony
took place, decorated with the flag of all nations, was densely crowded
with the most distinguished assembly that Ireland could bring to welcome
the heir of the throne, and the representative of the Queen. There were
no disloyal feelings nor discordant sounds in the Palace that day. The
Duke of Leinster, the Earl of Rosse, and the highest and most
distinguished of the nobles of Ireland were there. The Lord Mayor and
Corporation of the City appeared in their civic robes. The Mayors of
Cork and Waterford and Londonderry walked together; and the Lord Mayors
of London and York, and the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, with many
official personages, joined in the procession. When His Royal Highness
took his place in the chair of State, the orchestra, 1000 strong,
performed the National Anthem, and 10,000 voices sent up their loyal
cheers at its conclusion.

The Duke of Leinster read the address of the Committee, to which the
Prince replied:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I thank you for your address. It is a
    source of sincere pleasure to me to discharge the duties
    confided to me by Her Majesty the Queen in thus inaugurating
    your Exhibition. It is not less in accordance with my own
    feelings than with those of Her Majesty to assist in every
    measure calculated for the happiness and welfare of the Irish
    people. The example of my lamented and beloved parent will, I
    trust, ever be present to my mind as a stimulus in the
    encouragement of every work tending to advance international
    prosperity, and to develope the powers and resources of our own
    country. The cultivation of the fine arts, in itself so powerful
    an auxiliary in the civilization and refinement of the human
    race, has been an important object in these Exhibitions, and
    seems already to have produced most satisfactory results.
    Believe me very sensible of your kind wishes on behalf of the
    Princess of Wales. Her regret at being unable to accompany me
    equals my own, and you may rely upon her anxiety to come among
    you, assured of the welcome she will receive."

Then from the grand organ and choir rose the ever impressive music of
the Hundredth Psalm, the most Catholic of all strains of praise and
thanksgiving. At its close there was another address, giving an account
of the origin and history of the Exhibition. A copy of the Catalogue,
and the key of the building, having been presented to the Prince, the
organ and orchestra pealed forth Handel's Coronation Anthem. Then came
another address, presented by the Lord Mayor and the Corporation of
Dublin, in their civic robes. This was read and handed to His Royal
Highness, who thus replied:--

    "My Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the City of
    Dublin,--I return you my hearty thanks for the kind welcome you
    have given me, and for your loyal expressions towards Her
    Majesty the Queen. I regret that circumstances should prevent
    the extension of my visit to a longer period. It would have been
    very gratifying to the Princess had she been able to accompany
    me, and I request that you be assured that we look forward to
    another occasion when she will have the opportunity of
    appreciating the hearty welcome which my own experience leads me
    to anticipate for her. You justly ascribe to me a peculiar
    interest in this day's ceremony. As the son of that revered and
    lamented parent to whose wisdom, energy, and influence you truly
    state exhibitions such as these owe their origin, I may well
    feel proud in being able to assist in the inauguration of the
    one we are about to open. May your prayers be granted that it
    will be the means of producing the usual result attending
    well-directed labour, and conduce to the prosperity of Ireland
    and to the happiness of her people."

Then followed more music, from Haydn's Creation, and the State
procession moved from the centre of the nave, and made a tour of the
Exhibition. The Committee had arranged that music should form a notable
feature of the ceremonies, for when the Prince returned to the daïs, the
orchestra gave with grand effect Mendelssohn's 'Hymn of Praise.' At its
conclusion the Prince rose and commanded Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster
King-at-Arms, to declare the Exhibition open. This was done amidst a
flourish of trumpets, and on a rocket being sent up as a signal, salvos
of artillery were fired from the forts and batteries, and from the ships
of war off Kingstown.

Such was the opening ceremony. In the evening the Lord Mayor gave a ball
at the Mansion House. The city was brilliantly illuminated. Next day
there was a review in the Ph[oe]nix Park, the number of spectators on
the ground being greater than on any occasion since the visit of the
Queen in 1849. The Prince of Wales, who wore the uniform of the 10th
Hussars, of which regiment he is Colonel, was received with the utmost

This was the first State visit of the Prince of Wales to Ireland. His
second visit, along with the Princess of Wales, was a time of even
greater brilliancy, and evoked equal enthusiasm of loyalty. If later
visits were marked with less unanimity of rejoicing, the causes of the
apparent disloyalty are well understood, and the disaffection is known
to be partial and temporary. Nothing has ever occurred to lessen the
personal popularity of the Prince of Wales, nor to give reasonable cause
for the reception of any of the Royal Family being less cordial and
enthusiastic than that of the Prince in 1865. The Exhibition of that
year was held under the patronage of the Queen, who wished every success
to the "patriotic undertaking," as she called it. They can be no true
patriots who seek to lessen the Queen's interest in the welfare of


_May 19th, 1865._

After the great national and international Exhibitions, in which were
seen the most advanced displays of art, fostered by wealth, skill, and
training, it is pleasant to look back upon other exhibitions, of a
humbler but not less useful kind, which were encouraged and patronized
by the Prince of Wales. One of the most memorable of these, the pattern
and parent of many local exhibitions of similar kind, was the
Reformatory Exhibition held in the Agricultural Hall, Islington, in
1865. It was to exhibit the productions of various schools connected
with the Reformatory and Refuge Union. The articles were the veritable
manufacture of poor boys and girls of the lowest classes, many of them
utterly destitute and hopeless as to any usefulness in life, until
rescued and taught various industries, by the efforts of Christian and
philanthropic men.

The good and venerated Lord Shaftesbury was the President of the Union,
of which the Prince of Wales had gladly allowed himself to be named
Patron. In an address read by Lord Shaftesbury, it was stated that the
objects exhibited were contributed by workers in above two hundred
separate institutions in London and other great towns. An invitation had
been sent out for contributions from foreign schools of the same class,
and this was responded to by articles being sent from almost every part
of Europe, and some from Africa and America. Hence the title of
international could be fairly given to the show. The representatives of
several foreign governments were present on the occasion. The opening of
the meeting by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the sacred choral music
performed by about one thousand children from the Reformatory and Refuge
Schools, showed that moral and religious training was associated with
the industrial work of the Union.

To the address of Lord Shaftesbury, the Prince replied as follows:--

    "Your Grace, your Excellencies, my Lords, Ladies and
    Gentlemen,--I have gladly taken a part in the proceedings of
    this day, and complied with your request that I should attend,
    as patron of this society, with the greatest satisfaction. The
    benevolent purpose of this Exhibition cannot fail to be followed
    by deserved success, and claims the co-operation of every one
    who has the interests of the industrious poor at heart, and who
    desires to forward the object which the Reformatory and Refuge
    Union has in view--namely, industrial and moral training. The
    Committee do me justice in believing that I cordially sympathize
    in the welcome this society offers to those representatives of
    foreign countries who have responded to the invitation they have
    received by their presence and contributions. In doing so they
    have borne testimony, in common with ourselves, to the value of
    these international exhibitions in promoting the growth of those
    Christian and kind feelings towards each other which we ought to
    pray should animate the whole of the nations of the world."

This reply, read in a clear, sonorous voice, was heard in every part of
the building, and at its conclusion the cheers were loud and prolonged.
Prayers were then offered up by the Archbishop of Canterbury, after
which, and the singing of a hymn composed by the late Prince Consort,
His Royal Highness declared the Exhibition opened.

The Prince then spent considerable time in examining various parts of
the Exhibition, and delighted many youthful manufacturers by the very
numerous purchases of every description, from the girls' as well as the
boys' stalls, such as lace and crochet work to take to the Princess of
Wales. The heartiness with which the Prince entered into the spirit of
the occasion charmed all who were present.

On an earlier day of the same year, on the 1st of March, the Prince had
visited an Exhibition got up by the South London Working Classes. No
formal address or speech marked this visit, but the interest taken by
the Prince, and his liberal purchases, of which all the neighbourhood
soon heard and spoke, secured the success of the Exhibition. One
exhibitor wished the Prince to accept a toy cart, which had attracted
his notice, but the Prince good-humouredly declined such irregularity,
however kindly intended, and insisted on paying for this as for all the
purchases during the visit.


_May 22nd, 1865._

The objects and the advantages of Sailors' Homes are now so universally
known, that few words are needed for introducing a brief report of the
visit of the Prince of Wales to the Home at the London Docks, on May
22nd, 1865. This institution has now for above fifty years afforded
protection, comfort, and instruction to all classes of the mercantile
marine service. With increase of the trade and shipping of London, new
accommodation was required; and in 1863 the foundation stone of a new
wing to the Sailors' Home was laid by Lord Palmerston.

It was to open this completed building that the Prince of Wales made his
visit to the east of London. The event was regarded as a great honour by
the crowded and busy population of that quarter, and a general holiday
was held on the occasion. Many distinguished persons, including some of
the Foreign Ministers, were present. Foreign seamen in the British
mercantile service are admitted to benefits of the Home. An address
having been read by Admiral Sir William Bowles, President of the
Institution, the Prince replied:--

    "Sir William Bowles, your Excellencies, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--It is very gratifying to me to comply with the
    invitation I have received to take a part in this day's
    proceedings and to preside at the opening of the new wing of
    this institution. The beneficial results attending the
    establishment of a Sailors' Home for our immense mercantile navy
    are shown by the statements and figures which you have now
    given, and which establish in the most satisfactory manner the
    necessity of adding to the original building. The interest taken
    by my lamented father in the religious welfare of this
    institution, evinced by his laying the foundation stone of the
    Seamen's Church adjoining, will not, I trust, be less in his
    son, who is well aware of the sentiments of loyalty and devotion
    to the Throne which distinguish the mercantile navy of Great


_June 5th, 1865._

How much the Prince of Wales has, from early life, favoured dramatic
art, and encouraged its professors, is universally known. While enjoying
the drama for his own recreation, amidst more arduous labours, he has
been always ready to support any well-devised and well-directed scheme
for the benefit of the dramatic profession. It was with this feeling
that he accepted the invitation to inaugurate and formally open the
Royal Dramatic College at Woking.

There was a great gathering on the occasion, and the hall was well
filled, principally by ladies, before the proceedings commenced. Mr.
Webster, the Master of the College, having presented the Prince with a
massive gold key, symbolical of the ceremony, and having read an address
describing the objects of the Institution, His Royal Highness replied as

    "Gentlemen,--It is truly gratifying to my feelings to find
    myself this day called on to take a part in the final completion
    of a building the foundation of which was the work of my
    lamented father, as it was also an object which he had much at
    heart. My satisfaction is increased by finding his beneficent
    plan carried out in a manner worthy of the cause and of the
    profession for the benefit of which the Dramatic College has
    been instituted, and that, as the inevitable hour approaches, he
    who has so often administered to your amusement, blended with
    instruction, will here find a retreat open for age and its
    infirmities, in grateful recognition of a debt due by the world
    at large. I am happy to learn that the funds are progressively
    increasing towards conferring the inestimable boon of education
    on the children of men who, whether by their performances or by
    their writings, have themselves laboured so well in the cause of
    literature, and so justly earned this provision for their
    offspring. The inauguration of the building we are now in
    completes the three purposes which you have enumerated as
    forming the original design of this institution. After having
    provided for the material wants and comforts of those who are
    entitled to seek a shelter in this asylum, the last object is to
    cheer their evening of life, and to embellish its closing scenes
    with the books, memorials, and records of their art, that they
    may again live in the past, and make their final exit in a
    spirit of thankfulness to God and their fellow-creatures."


_June 11th, 1865._

On the 11th of June, 1865, a banquet was given to the Prince of Wales by
the Fishmongers' Company in their hall at London Bridge. Two years
before, in 1863, the name of the Prince was added to the roll of the
Company, so that on this occasion he appeared as a member as well as a
guest. Allusion was made to this by the Prime Warden, James Spicer,
who, as Chairman, proposed the health of the Prince and Princess of
Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family. Reference was also made to the
recent birth of another infant Prince, so that there was prospect of two
Royal members, who would in due time have the right of inscribing their
names on their freemen's roll. Some of the Prime Warden's words are
worth reproducing, as showing at how early an age the Prince had
exhibited the traits of character, and the line of action, by which he
has now so long been distinguished. The Prime Warden said that "he was
not using the language of flattery, but simply recording a fact with
which the people of these realms, from one end of the kingdom to the
other, were conversant, when he said that the esteem and the affection
with which His Royal Highness was regarded by Her Majesty's subjects
were owing no less to his amiable manners, his kindly disposition, and
the condescension which he invariably displayed in his intercourse with
all the classes of the community, than to the exalted position which he
occupied, and the relation in which he stood as heir apparent to the
British Throne. There was another circumstance which had endeared him to
the people of England, and that was that he had followed so closely in
the footsteps of his ever-to-be-lamented and illustrious father, by
lending his high sanction to the promotion of those industrial
exhibitions that tended so much to elevate and improve the tastes and
habits of the people."

The Prince of Wales, in acknowledging the toast, said:--

    "Mr. Prime Warden, your Royal Highness, my Lords, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen,--I thank you very much for the kind manner in which
    my name and that of the Princess of Wales, and the other members
    of the Royal family, have been proposed and received. I need
    hardly tell you that it is a source of sincere gratification to
    me to be present here this evening; not only as a guest, but as
    a member--a freeman of this corporation. I have not forgotten
    that soon after I came of age the first freedom of any of the
    ancient guilds of this city with which I was presented was that
    of the Fishmongers' Company in 1863. I am proud also to think
    that I have been thus enrolled as a member of a company into
    which so many of my relations have been admitted, whose
    portraits adorn these walls. Although this is a joyous occasion,
    I cannot forbear alluding to the loss of one whose name is
    intimately connected with the city of London, Mr. Cubitt, who
    was twice elected Lord Mayor of London, and who was your Prime
    Warden three years ago when I took up my freedom in this
    company. I need not recall to your memory how anxious he was to
    promote every kind of charity, and I feel sure you will not
    think it unbecoming in me or inopportune to mention his name on
    this occasion. In conclusion, I beg again to thank you for the
    kind manner in which you have alluded to a recent event, and the
    cordial wishes you have expressed for the speedy recovery of the
    Princess. I can assure you my heartfelt wish is that my two sons
    may learn to emulate and follow the bright example of their
    revered grandfather."


_July 3rd, 1865._

On the 3rd of July 1865, the ceremony of distributing prizes at
Wellington College was performed by the Prince of Wales, in presence of
a distinguished company. The Governors of the College were in
attendance, the Bishop of Oxford, the Earl of Derby, Earl Stanhope, Lord
Eversley, Lord Chelmsford, Mr. Walter, M.P., and Mr. Cox. At the
luncheon, which followed the proceedings in the large hall of the
College, the head master, Mr. Benson (now Archbishop of Canterbury),
having proposed the toast of the Prince of Wales, thanking him for his
presence that day, and for the kind favour and interest with which he
had uniformly regarded the institution, the Prince replied:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I am deeply sensible of the manner in
    which Mr. Benson has proposed my health, and in which it has
    been received by the company assembled here to-day. I need
    hardly assure you that it is a source of sincere gratification
    to me to find myself once more within the walls of Wellington
    College, taking part in the proceedings of 'Speech Day,' and
    distributing prizes to the successful competitors. Allow me, Mr.
    Benson, to congratulate you, and through you the whole college,
    on the highly efficient state in which I find it. I feel
    convinced that my young friends have not forgotten that it bears
    the name of one of the greatest soldiers England ever knew. In
    the success of this institution Mr. Benson has already
    mentioned, and I need hardly remind you, that the Queen takes a
    strong interest; a still greater interest was taken by my
    father, to whose exertions the college really owes its origin. I
    have now, my lords and gentlemen, a very pleasing task to
    perform, and that is to make an announcement which I hope will
    not be considered indiscreet on my part. At the last meeting of
    the Governors of Wellington College, Lord Derby intimated that
    it was his intention to devote the profits of his justly
    celebrated translation of 'Homer' to the production of a prize
    to be given annually as a reward to the foundationer who within
    the year of his leaving the college should conduct himself to
    the entire approbation of the Head Master--be considered, in
    fact, the most industrious and well-conducted boy or young man
    in the school. I feel certain that this announcement will be
    received with great pleasure. It will show you the interest
    which the noble lord takes in this institution, and will be a
    stimulus to increased exertion on the part of those within its
    walls. I thank you, Mr. Benson, for proposing, and you, my lords
    and gentlemen, for drinking, my health so cordially; and I
    assure you it affords me great gratification whenever I can do
    anything to promote the welfare of Wellington College."

The report of the proceedings states that this speech was "delivered
with a heartiness which elicited corresponding enthusiasm in the
audience." The other speakers were Sir John Pakington, who said he had
the most gratifying proof of the efficiency of the College in the
progress made by his son as one of the pupils; and Lord Derby, who said
that no worthier and suitable memorial of "the Great Duke" could have
been erected in his honour than this institution, which was not merely a
military school, but a college for training young Englishmen for the
Universities, and for every department of public life, although all the
foundationers are sons of deceased officers. Lord Derby also referred to
the prize instituted by him, such rewards being usually given only to
ability and successful study, while his object was to hold forth a
stimulus to general study, and persevering good conduct. He would not
have referred to the gift which it was his happiness to make, had not
the matter been mentioned by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.

The Prince was again at Wellington College on the 17th of June, 1867,
and he has ever since taken personal interest in the institution, as one
of its Governors.


_May 9th, 1866._

The President and Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers had the
honour of entertaining the Prince of Wales, Prince Alfred, as he was
then styled, and a very distinguished company, at dinner, in Willis's
Rooms, on the 9th of May, 1866. Among the guests were the veteran Sir
John Burgoyne, the Dukes of Sutherland and Buccleuch, Earl Grey, Lord
Salisbury, Sir John Pakington, Sir Edwin Landseer, Professor (Sir
Richard) Owen, Baron Marochetti, the Presidents of the Royal Society and
of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and representatives of
various departments in the public service. The members and associates of
the Institution, numbering nearly two hundred, included all the civil
engineers most eminent at that time, or who have since risen to
distinction. Some of the names recall notable events and achievements in
our time, sometimes called "the age of the engineers." Rennie,
Armstrong, Bidder, Hawkshaw, Scott Russell, Hawksley, Cubitt, Penn,
Fairbairn, Brunlees, Brassey, Samuda, Bramwell, Bessemer, Maudsley,
Rawlinson, Vignoles, are on the list of those present on this memorable
occasion. Mr. Fowler, President of the Institution, presided at the
dinner, and in proposing the loyal toasts which are given at all such
meetings, said of the Prince of Wales, that, "notwithstanding the
numerous duties of his exalted station, His Royal Highness has always
taken the greatest interest in those works which occupy the thoughts and
lives of engineers, and therefore it is a source of peculiar
gratification to the profession that His Royal Highness has been pleased
to join the Institution of Civil Engineers, which had the honour to rank
as its most distinguished honorary member His Royal Highness the Prince

The Prince of Wales in returning thanks, said:--

    "Mr. President, your Royal Highness, my Lords and Gentlemen, I
    have indeed every reason to feel deeply flattered and gratified
    at the very kind manner in which you, Mr. President, have
    proposed this toast, and for the way in which it has been
    received by the company present. Under any circumstances, it
    would have afforded me sincere pleasure to have been present
    this evening--present at a meeting of so distinguished a body as
    the Civil Engineers of Great Britain; but it is still more
    agreeable to me to find myself here in the position of one of
    your honorary members. I thank you for the manner in which you
    have mentioned my name regarding me as one of yourselves. I feel
    proud to think that my lamented father was also an honorary
    member of this distinguished Institution. Mr. President and
    Gentlemen, perhaps it is a difficult task for me to address so
    eminently scientific a body, more especially to eulogize them;
    but I cannot forbear adverting to the names of two most
    distinguished members of it--I allude to Mr. Brunel and Mr.
    Stephenson, whose names will never be obliterated from our
    memory. The important services they have rendered to this
    country can never be forgotten. Let us look round at the vast
    works which have been completed, or which are in the course of
    completion in this country. Though it may, perhaps, seem
    unnecessary, I think it is right I should on this occasion ask
    you to look for a moment at the vast extension of our docks all
    over this country--at the great improvements in the electric
    telegraph, and also in our steamships, and, in fact, in the
    general steam navigation on our waters. Let us look at what has
    been done at home--and when I say at home, I mean in this
    Metropolis. No one can walk over Westminster-bridge without
    being struck by those magnificent quays which are being built on
    either side of the river, and are commonly called the Thames
    Embankment. These constitute the most important works of the
    day. I must also refer to the Metropolitan Underground Railway,
    which is owing to the continued exertions of your distinguished
    President, and which, although not entirely completed, has been
    in use for nearly three years, and has, I believe, to a
    considerable extent diminished the traffic in our streets. Let
    us look also at our colonies, and see the many important works
    which our engineers have contrived there. I would allude more
    especially to one--the celebrated bridge built over the St.
    Lawrence, called the Victoria-bridge, which is close to
    Montreal, and which was constructed by one of your most renowned
    engineers, Mr. Stephenson. I had the honour of inaugurating that
    bridge in the name of Her Majesty the Queen. I have to be
    thankful to you all in many ways; but I have to be particularly
    thankful to Mr. Stephenson for having built such a bridge,
    because, perhaps, I should never have had an opportunity of
    visiting our North American colonies and a portion of the United
    States if I had not received an invitation to inaugurate that
    great work. Let me thank you once more, Mr. President, for the
    honour done me, and for the kind way in which the name of the
    Princess of Wales has been received. And let me assure you that
    it affords me the deepest gratification to have the honour of
    being present this evening as one of your members."

The Chairman then gave the toast of "the Army, Navy, and Volunteers,"
coupling with it the names of Prince Alfred, Sir John Burgoyne, and
Colonel Erskine. The speech of Prince Alfred, in reply, is worth
recalling, as one of the earliest occasions on which he represented the
profession in which he now holds so high a position:--

"Mr. President, your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I need
scarcely tell you with what pleasure I rise to respond to this toast,
nor how proud I feel to hear my name associated with the Royal navy.
Within the last few years the navy has become more connected with the
civil engineers than ever it was before. Many improvements we owe--in
fact, I may say all the later improvements we owe--to the civil
engineers. There is only one thing they have not succeeded in doing, and
that is making us look more beautiful than we did before. Indeed, I am
afraid they have rather caused us to deteriorate in appearance. I need
not add that I take, and shall continue to take, the greatest interest
in this body; the more so from the fact of my father having been an
honorary member of the institution, and from my brother having now for
the first time taken his place in the same character."


_June 11th, 1866._

The foundation-stone of the stately edifice in Queen Victoria Street,
the head-quarters of the British and Foreign Bible Society, was laid by
the Prince of Wales, on the 11th of June, 1866. On the ground near St.
Andrew's Hill, Doctors' Commons, a spacious awning stretched over an
area with ranges of seats for above 2000 persons. On the platform were
many good and eminent men, most of whom--Lord Shaftesbury, Lord
Teignmouth, the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Winchester and
Carlisle, the Dean of Westminster, Dr. Binney--are with us no more.

The proceedings commenced with prayer, praise, and reading some portions
of Scripture appropriate to the occasion. An address was then read by
the Rev. S. B. Bergne, one of the Secretaries, giving a summary of the
history of the Society, and stating its objects and operations.

The Earl of Shaftesbury then formally requested His Royal Highness "to
undertake the solemn duty of laying the foundation stone of an edifice
which shall be raised for the glory of God, and for the promotion of the
best interests of the human race." The Prince duly and formally laid the
stone, and then replied to the address that had been read:--

    "My Lord Archbishop, my Lords and Gentlemen,--I have to thank
    you for the very interesting address in which you so ably set
    forth the objects of this noble Institution.

    "It is now sixty-three years ago since Mr. Wilberforce, the
    father of the eminent prelate who now occupies so prominent a
    place in the Church of England, met, with a few friends, by
    candlelight, in a small room in a dingy counting-house, and
    resolved upon the establishment of the Bible Society.

    "Contrast with this obscure beginning the scene of this day,
    which, not only in England and in our colonies, but in the
    United States of America, and in every nation in Europe, will
    awaken the keenest interest.

    "Such a reward of perseverance is always a gratifying spectacle;
    much more so when the work which it commemorates is one in which
    all Christians can take part, and when the object is that of
    enabling every man in his own tongue to read the wonderful works
    of God.

    "I have an hereditary claim to be here upon this occasion. My
    grandfather, the Duke of Kent, as you have reminded me, warmly
    advocated the claims of this Society; and it is gratifying to me
    to reflect that the two modern versions of the Scriptures most
    widely circulated--the German and English--were both, in their
    origin, connected with my family. The translation of Martin
    Luther was executed under the protection of the Elector of
    Saxony, the collateral ancestor of my lamented father; whilst
    that of William Tyndale, the foundation of the present
    authorized English version, was introduced with the sanction of
    the Royal predecessor of my mother the Queen, who first desired
    that the Bible 'should have free course through all Christendom,
    but especially in his own realm.'

    "It is my hope and trust, that, under the Divine guidance, the
    wider diffusion and the deeper study of the Scriptures will, in
    this as in every age, be at once the surest guarantee of the
    progress and liberty of mankind, and the means of multiplying in
    the purest form the consolations of our holy religion."

The Archbishop of York then invoked the Divine Blessing on the work. The
Bishop of Winchester, as one of the oldest living members of the
Society, expressed the grateful acknowledgments of the Committee to the
Prince, for his presence among them, and for the act performed at their
request. Two verses of the National Anthem having been sung, and the
benediction pronounced, the meeting dispersed.

The Lord Mayor, with true civic hospitality, invited the Prince of
Wales, the officers of the Society, and all who had taken any part in
the ceremony to luncheon at the Mansion House. On the health of the
Prince and the Princess of Wales being proposed, the Prince acknowledged
the compliment in the following words:--

    "I am, indeed, deeply touched and gratified by the toast which
    has just been proposed by the Lord Mayor, and by the very kind
    and feeling manner in which you have drunk to the health of the
    Princess and myself. It is to me a source of sincere
    gratification to receive again the hospitality of the Chief
    Magistrate of the City. I can never forget, nor can the Princess
    ever forget, the manner in which she was received on her first
    entry into London; and although she is not here to-day--a fact
    which I most deeply regret--I can bear testimony that she has
    never forgotten, and never will forget, the reception given to
    her three years ago. The occasion which has brought me here
    to-day has given me sincere gratification. I shall be happy on
    all occasions to do any thing that may tend, as the Lord Bishop
    of Winchester said this morning, 'to alleviate the sufferings of
    man.' But I feel sure that the work I have been enabled to
    perform, small as it may be, will bear testimony to the great
    good done to the poorer classes by a Society which has existed
    for so many years. Sincerely I thank you for the opportunity you
    have given me in coming forward on this interesting occasion,
    and I shall always be happy to render every assistance in my
    power to an institution which is calculated to render such
    important benefits to the world. I return my best thanks for the
    greeting I received this morning at the ceremony, and also for
    the kind manner in which I have been received on this occasion."

Her Majesty the Queen signified her interest in the proceedings of the
day by sending £100 to the Building Fund, and £100 was also contributed
by the Prince of Wales.

The Bible Society has, since its establishment in 1804, issued about 113
millions of Bibles, Testaments, or portions thereof. Its issues yearly
are now about four million copies. The full income in 1887 amounted to
£116,761; and the sum received for Scriptures sold was £104,880. The
Society has aided the translation of the Bible into 280 languages or


_June 13th, 1866._

The sixteenth anniversary festival of this institution was celebrated at
Willis's Rooms on the 13th of June, 1866. Among the guests were the
Archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Armagh, and numerous dignitaries in
Church and State, the Marquis of Salisbury presiding. The Prince of
Wales honoured the company with his presence, and on his health being
proposed by the chairman, he said:--

    "My Lord Chairman, my Lords and Gentlemen,--I feel, indeed,
    deeply flattered and gratified by the kind terms in which you
    have spoken of me, and by the kind manner in which my health has
    been received by the company, and I have earnestly to thank you
    in my own name and in the name of the Princess of Wales and of
    the other members of the Royal family. Among the many charities
    in this country, I believe there are few which demand our
    sympathy and support more than the Friend of the Clergy
    Corporation. Its object is to assist the orphans and unmarried
    daughters of clergymen of the Church of England, and to afford
    temporary aid to their necessitous parents. We have met here
    this evening to advocate the cause of the institution, and I
    believe that at the present moment the pensions which it
    distributes amount to the large sum of £4000 per annum, and that
    it helps to maintain 106 pensioners, while there are 60 more
    persons applying for its bounty. One remarkable characteristic
    of the institution is that its pensions, which never exceed £40
    a year, are granted for life, and another is that these pensions
    are bestowed on members of the Church not only in England, but
    also in Ireland and the colonies. Young though I am, I think I
    may state that I am aware from my own personal knowledge how low
    are the stipends received by many of our clergymen, and I can,
    therefore, support most cordially this institution. I feel,
    however, some diffidence in alluding to that subject, because I
    know I shall thereby be trenching on the special province of our
    noble chairman. But I believe he will forgive me for saying that
    I think we ought upon this occasion to show the greatest
    possible liberality, and, if I may use the expression, that we
    ought freely to open our purses. I can again assure you that the
    Princess of Wales and the other members of the Royal family are
    most ready to participate with me in the feeling of sincere
    gratitude with which I now acknowledge the compliment you have
    just paid us. I now thank you, too, for the kind manner in which
    you have just listened to me, however imperfectly I have
    expressed myself."

In giving the toast of "Prosperity to the Institution," the noble
chairman said, that after the speech which they had just heard in its
favour from His Royal Highness it was scarcely necessary for him to say
another word. He could fully confirm everything which had been said by
His Royal Highness as to its value, and the urgent need of such an
institution was proved by the fact that there were in this kingdom no
less than 10,000 clergymen who occupied benefices of less value than
£150 a year. How was it possible for men with such incomes, who had to
move in a respectable sphere of life, to lay by anything for a period of
distress or to make a provision for their widows and orphans? He
therefore cordially concurred in the eloquent appeal made to them by His
Royal Highness.

The result of the appeal was a subscription list amounting to £1200,
including 100 guineas from the Prince of Wales.

It may be added that now (1888) there are about 100 pensioners, besides
special grants for urgent cases. Last year's receipts were £6,000, and
the invested funds are about £18,500.


_June 18th, 1866._

One of the earliest public functions undertaken by the Prince (July,
1863) was laying the foundation stone of the School, near Croydon, for
children of warehousemen, clerks, and agents of wholesale houses and
manufactories, so employed in any part of the United Kingdom. The
building was not completed till the spring of 1866, and on the 18th of
June of that year, the Prince, on being applied to, at once and
cordially agreed to preside at the inauguration or formal opening of the

The Prince was received by Earl Russell, President of the Charity, the
Bishop of Winchester, the Lord Mayor of London, the High Sheriff of
Surrey, and other official and distinguished persons interested in the
Institution. Having thoroughly inspected the building, the arrangements
of which are admirable, and having heard an address explaining the
origin and purposes of the Institution, briefly replied as follows:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--It is a sincere pleasure to me to see
    the work which we commenced in July, 1863, brought to a happy
    conclusion. Such a consummation, when we reflect on the numerous
    classes of the great commercial community of our country whose
    interests it promotes, cannot but be gratifying to every one
    present, and will induce us all gratefully to invoke the Divine
    blessing on the ultimate success of this undertaking. The
    attention that has been paid to the details of the building and
    to the comforts and wellbeing of the children it is destined to
    shelter, I may say, without presumption, merits this success.
    And if, as you have stated, 'that which is worth doing at all is
    worth doing well,' be a truth requiring any corroboration, I
    have only to point to this structure for the most unanswerable
    argument in its support. It only remains for me to thank you, my
    lords and gentlemen, for the kind expressions you have used with
    reference to the part I have taken in this day's proceedings."

Prayer was then offered by the Bishop of Winchester, and a thanksgiving
hymn sung. The ladies present then came forward with their collection
purses, and amusement was caused by the hugeness of the heap of
offerings that rose before the Prince, exceeding even the large sum
presented when the foundation stone was laid. On this occasion upwards
of one thousand ladies presented the charitable gifts, and above £5000
in money or subscriptions proved to be the gratifying result. Prayer and
thanksgiving were again offered, and the Prince, amid much enthusiasm,
declared the Asylum open.

The schools, first established in 1853, had been formerly conducted in
three separate houses at New Cross, under many disadvantages. The
building inaugurated by the Prince of Wales is one of the most
commodious and beautiful structures possessed by any charity. Its
imposing appearance and picturesque site must have been admired by many
travellers on the Brighton and South Coast Railway, near Caterham
Junction. The prosperity of the Institution has been in keeping with its
auspicious beginning.


_June 28th, 1866._

The object of the Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum is sufficiently
indicated by its name. Founded in 1817, the institution had for nearly
fifty years been carried on with success. Upwards of 800 children had
found shelter and training, but this number represents a very small
proportion of the orphans left destitute through the calamities of which
merchant seamen are constantly in peril. This asylum was at first
located in the parish of St. George's-in-the-East, and subsequently
removed to the Borough Road, where the first stone of a new building
was, in 1861, laid by the Prince Consort. The building was opened by
Earl Russell in 1862. The support given to the charity encouraged the
building of the present asylum, near Snaresbrook, in a healthy and
beautiful part of the country.

It was for the opening ceremony of the erection of a new dining-hall
that the Prince and Princess of Wales visited the Asylum, on the 28th of
June, 1866. Received by a guard of honour of the Hon. Artillery Company,
their Royal Highnesses were conducted to a tent where luncheon was
served. In proposing the health of the Royal visitors, Lord Alfred
Paget, who presided, said that "he had known His Royal Highness almost,
he might say, before he knew himself, and that he could bear testimony
to the interest he took, not only in every manly English sport, but in
everything which tended to contribute to the advancement of such
institutions as that whose success he testified by his presence on that
occasion his desire to promote."

In returning thanks the Prince of Wales said:--

    "I am, indeed, deeply sensible of and deeply grateful for the
    excessively kind manner in which the noble lord has proposed my
    health and that of the Princess of Wales, as well as for the
    very kind manner in which you all have been good enough to
    receive the toast. My presence here to-day affords me the
    greatest satisfaction, because we have come to honour a work
    which to me is particularly interesting, inasmuch as the
    foundation stone of this asylum was laid by my lamented father
    in 1861. But, under any circumstances, it would be a pleasing
    and a proud moment for me to be here on such an occasion as
    this. We must all know how important a part our mercantile navy
    plays at the present moment, and how important it is that we
    should provide for the orphans of those brave men who are
    exposed to so many dangers. As you are well aware, this
    institution has furnished an asylum since its opening in 1862
    for upwards of 180 boys and girls at a time, and it must, I am
    sure, be greatly gratifying to us that I should to-day be called
    upon to lay the foundation stone of an additional room, which I
    understand will embrace part of the plan of the original
    building. I beg again to thank you, on my own behalf and on that
    of the Princess, than whom, I assure you, nobody takes greater
    interest in the work which we are assembled to promote."

Lord A. Paget next proposed the toast of "Prosperity to the Merchant
Seamen's Orphan Asylum," which was responded to by Mr. Green, one of the

The Prince of Wales then rose and said:--

    "I have to give you the health of our noble chairman, to whom, I
    think, we ought all to be very grateful for the kind manner in
    which he has undertaken to perform the duties of his position on
    this occasion, as well as for the interest which he manifests,
    not only in this great and important charity, but in the welfare
    of the sailor all over the world. I felt almost inclined to
    blush at the terms in which he alluded to his friendship for
    myself, and I can never forget the kindness which he has shown
    towards me since my early boyhood."

The toast was very cordially drunk, and shortly after Lord A. Paget had
briefly responded to it their Royal Highnesses paid a brief visit to the
beautiful chapel, which has been endowed for the use of the asylum at
the sole cost of Lady Morrison. An address was afterwards read,
expressing the gratification which the friends of the institution
derived from the presence of their Royal Highnesses, and their
thankfulness for the interest thus manifested in its prosperity. In
reply the Prince said:--

    "My part in the proceedings of the day is attended with peculiar
    pleasure from the circumstance of its being the anniversary of
    the inauguration of this building by my lamented father. The
    call for its extension by the increased numbers applying for
    admission tells its own story. The steady support which the
    institution has continued to receive from its commencement
    encourages us to persevere in the good work so auspiciously
    begun. The interest of the Queen in its welfare is, I can assure
    you, fully participated in by me, and it only remains for me now
    to invoke the Divine blessing on the benevolent objects which
    have led to this undertaking."

The foundation stone was then laid with the usual formalities, and after
a religious service, conducted by the Archbishop of Armagh, the Royal
visitors left, amidst the cheers of the assemblage.


_August, 1866._

From the time of making his home at Sandringham, the Prince of Wales,
like all English country gentlemen, has felt that his county had special
claims on his public spirit and personal exertions. Norfolk has not been
slow to understand these claims, and the Prince has more than met the
expectations formed of him in regard to his county life. In the record
of future years it will be seen how heartily he has associated himself,
not with the agriculture only, but with the various occupations and
industries, the works and the sports, the schools and the charities of

One of the earliest public appearances of the Prince and Princess of
Wales in the county chosen as their home, was at Norwich in the autumn
of 1866. The time chosen by the Mayor and Corporation for the invitation
to visit their city was that of the Norwich musical festival of that
year. Her Majesty the Queen of Denmark, and the Duke of Edinburgh,
accompanied the Prince and Princess on this visit, which was in every
way a most enjoyable and successful one. Among the attractions of the
musical festival was the performance for the first time of Sir Michael
Costa's oratorio _Naaman_. The Norwich concerts of 1866 were remarkable
both in the richness of the programmes, and the rare excellence of the
performances. Seldom has opportunity been afforded of hearing such
variety of classic music, performed by the greatest vocal and
instrumental artists of the time.

The musical festival was not, however, the sole attraction. The capital
of the Eastern Counties was in high festival, and other entertainments
were provided. Advantage was also taken of the Prince's presence for the
ceremony of opening the Drill-shed recently erected for the Norwich
Volunteers. Colonel Black, the commander, in addressing the Prince,
referred to the great interest always taken by him in the organization
and efficiency of the volunteer force of the country, and they had
therefore sought the honour of his inaugurating the building erected for
military purposes, by the volunteers of the ancient and loyal city of
Norwich. The Prince replied that he had the greatest pleasure in
complying with the request; and, having complimented the commander on
the efficiency of his corps, and the suitability of the building for its
purposes, he declared the hall open. The chaplain of the battalion then
offered a brief prayer. The planting of memorial trees, and other
incidents associated with the Royal visit, will long be remembered by
the people of Norwich.


_March 1st, 1867._

In a maritime country like this, with seas crowded with shipping, and
with coasts dangerous from rocks or shoals, a lifeboat service for
preservation of life from shipwreck is a necessity. The Royal National
Life-boat Institution meets the want. It has now, in 1888, nearly 300
stations, all round the coast. The wreck chart, which is published
annually with the Society's Report, shows at a glance where wrecks are
most numerous, and there the boats of rescue are most required. It is
not only British coasting vessels that are thus provided for, but the
ships coming from foreign seas, and of all nations, as they crowd
towards our estuaries and ports, benefit by the lifeboat service.

On the 1st of March, 1867, the Prince of Wales took the chair at the
annual meeting of the Institution held, through the courtesy of the Lord
Mayor, in the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House. Received in the State
Drawing-Room, by the chief magistrate of London, attended by the sword
and mace bearers of the Corporation, the Prince was thence conducted to
the Hall, where a numerous and distinguished company had assembled. On
taking the chair, the Prince said:--

    "My Lord Mayor, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--It affords me
    very great pleasure to occupy the chair to-day, upon so
    interesting an occasion as the present. Among the many
    benevolent and charitable institutions of this country there
    are, I think, few which demand our sympathy and support more,
    and in which we can feel more interest, than the National
    Life-boat Institution. An institution of this kind is an
    absolute necessity in a great maritime country like ours. It is
    wholly different in one respect from other institutions, because
    although lives are to be saved, they can in those cases in which
    this society operates only be saved at the risk of the loss of
    other lives. I am happy to be able to congratulate the
    Institution upon its high state of efficiency at the present
    moment, and upon the fact that by its means very nearly one
    thousand lives have been saved in the course of the past year.

    "Lifeboats have been given by many benevolent individuals--some
    as thank-offerings from the friends of those whose lives have
    been saved, and others in memory of those who are unhappily no
    more. I am happy also to be able to say that lifeboats do not
    only exist upon our coast, but that our great example in this
    matter has been imitated by many foreign maritime countries, and
    they have chosen our institution as the model for their own. I
    beg upon this occasion to tender, in the name of the
    Institution, our warmest thanks for the kindness and courtesy of
    the Lord Mayor in allowing us to hold our meeting in this hall.
    It is indeed a peculiarly fitting place in which to hold such a
    meeting, closely connected as the Institution is with the City
    of London. Very nearly half a century ago the Institution
    originated in this city. In 1850 the late Duke of Northumberland
    became its president. My lamented father was also a vice-patron,
    and took the warmest interest in its prosperity. I am happy to
    say the respected secretary, Mr. Lewis, occupied that position
    at that time, as, indeed, he had long before that time. He has
    held it ever since, and much of the success of the Institution
    is owing to his long experience, and the energetic manner in
    which he has directed its working has raised the Institution to
    its present high state of efficiency.

    "I may say that there are 174 lifeboats afloat, and that in the
    course of the past year 33 have been called into existence, at a
    cost of no less than £17,000, the whole of which has been
    defrayed by benevolent individuals. Before concluding the brief
    remarks which I have addressed to you, however imperfectly, upon
    this occasion, I call upon you once more to offer your support
    to so excellent an Institution. I am certain you must be
    convinced that it is one which is really a necessity for a great
    maritime nation like this. I congratulate you that it has
    arrived at so efficient a state, and I feel quite sure that you
    would be the last to wish it to decay from want of funds."

The Secretary having read the Report, and various speeches having been
delivered, donations were announced to the amount of £1200. At the
luncheon, which was afterwards given in the Long Parlour, the Prince
hoped that the proceedings of that day would advance the prosperity of
the Institution, the benefits of which had only to be more widely known,
to be more largely supported.

We may add that the receipts, as stated in last year's report (1887),
were £56,970, and the expenditure £74,162. During the year 368 lives had
been saved by the Society's boats, and ten vessels saved from
destruction. Besides medals and other testimonials, £3345 had been
granted in rewards. Since the formation of the Society it has voted as
rewards 97 gold and 996 silver medals or clasps, 139 binocular glasses,
15 telescopes, and money to the amount of £96,700. These statistics are
furnished by the present secretary, Mr. Charles Dibdin, a descendant of
the Dibdin whose naval songs are known to all sailors. British seamen
are always ready to risk their lives to save their fellow men, and there
is never any difficulty found in manning the lifeboats, but it is
necessary to have a permanent staff, and to keep up the stations, while
those who volunteer to imperil their own lives ought to have reward, in
order to help to provide for others dependent on them. The Prince again
presided at the Annual Meeting in 1884.


_March 1st, 1867._

A Welsh charitable institution might claim the patronage of the Prince
of Wales, from his title, apart from the sympathy shown by him towards
benevolent works amidst all classes of the people. On St. David's Day,
March 1st, 1867, the Prince presided at the 152nd anniversary festival
of this ancient and useful charity, the origin of which dates back from
the year 1715, shortly after the accession of George I.

Caroline, the Princess of Wales, was born on the 1st of March of that
year; and as there were divisions and intrigues at the period, many
influential Welshmen combined to show their loyal attachment to the
House of Hanover.

At first the combination was probably prompted by political motives, but
the Society soon took up practical work, and founded a school for the
education of poor children of Welsh parents in London. The Scotch had
already formed similar patriotic institutions, and at a later period the
Irish followed the example. On the present anniversary the Prince was
supported by a distinguished company, including several of the most
eminent and influential natives of the Principality.

The Health of the Queen having been drunk with enthusiasm, that of the
Prince and Princess of Wales was proposed by the Duke of Cambridge, who
said that every one would agree with him in expressing the high sense
which every body entertained of the admirable way in which His Royal
Highness had supported not only the general interests of the country,
but also those of individual societies. The Prince responded in a few
hearty words, saying he would always be found ready to assist charitable
objects, whether as an onlooker, or as a participator in the
proceedings, as he was that night. Having returned warm thanks for the
reception given to the toast, and the good wishes expressed towards
himself and the Princess of Wales, he then proposed the toast of the
evening: "Prosperity to the Welsh Charity School, and Perpetuity to the
Honourable and Loyal Society of Ancient Britons."

    "I feel sure, Gentlemen, I shall not have to call upon you twice
    to respond most heartily to this toast. You all of you must
    know, perhaps far better than I can tell you, the history of
    this society; but at the same time it may be well that I should
    go back and give you a brief sketch of the society from its
    commencement. In 1715 it was founded on St. David's Day, which
    was the birthday of Caroline, Princess of Wales. My ancestor,
    George II., then Prince of Wales, became the first patron of the
    society. The Princess took great interest in the well-being of
    the society, independent of the fact of its having been founded
    in commemoration of her natal day. The school in those times was
    nothing more than a day school. It was found to be too small,
    and was removed to Clerkenwell, and there it flourished for some
    time. In 1771 it was removed to Gray's-inn Lane, and in 1818, at
    the death of the much lamented Princess Charlotte of Wales,
    whose loss the whole country most deeply felt, 50 additional
    children were, by means of a public subscription, sent to the
    school in remembrance of her name. The school continued to
    flourish, but it was thought advisable, if it could be effected,
    that the institution should be removed into the country, in
    order, among other advantages, that the children might derive
    the benefit of the fresh air. Accordingly in 1854 the school was
    removed to Ashford, and on the 13th of July, 1857, my lamented
    father inaugurated and opened the school on its present site. I
    am happy to say that I accompanied him on that occasion, and
    from that time to this you will believe me when I assure you
    that I have felt the deepest interest in the prosperity of the
    school. It has frequently occurred on my journey from Windsor to
    London by the South-Western line for me to notice the school as
    I have passed by it, but that circumstance alone would not be
    required to remind me of its claims. When the school was removed
    from London to the country considerable expense was incurred; so
    much so that it was rendered necessary to reduce the number of
    children from 200 to 150, but I am happy to be able to inform
    you that in the course of the last century and a half as many as
    3000 Welsh children have been by means of this institution
    clothed, fed, and educated, and afterwards sent forth into the
    world provided, to a certain extent, for their future career.
    This must be a gratifying announcement, and brief and imperfect
    as the sketch may have been which I have now given you, still I
    trust I have said enough to call upon you most heartily to
    continue that support which in past years you have given on the
    occasion of these annual festivals. Gentlemen, I thank you for
    the kind manner in which you have been pleased to receive these
    remarks, and I beg to propose to you, in a bumper, the toast of
    the evening."

Other toasts and speeches followed, and a most liberal collection was
made for the Charity, which is now generally known under the name of
"High School for Welsh Girls."


_July 10th, 1867._

On the 10th of July, 1867, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales
inaugurated this institution, established under the auspices of the
International Education Society. Some years previously a Committee, of
which Mr. Cobden and M. Michael Chevalier were members, proposed the
formation of an International College, having four principal
establishments, in England, France, Germany, and Italy. The pupils were
to pursue their studies at each branch in succession. It was to
inaugurate the English branch of this institution, at Spring Grove,
under the direction of Dr. Leonard Schmitz, formerly Rector of the High
School of Edinburgh, that they assembled this day.

After inspecting the building and grounds, the visitors assembled at
luncheon, the chair being occupied by Mr. Paulton, the treasurer of the
College, having on his right the Prince of Wales, and on his left the
Duc d'Aumale. The Prince de Joinville and the Comte de Paris were also
among the guests. On the health of the Prince of Wales being proposed,
he replied as follows:--

    "Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I beg to thank you for
    the kind manner in which you have drunk my health, and for the
    feeling and touching sympathy you have evinced for the Princess
    of Wales. I can assure you it gives me the greatest
    gratification to be present to-day to inaugurate this College
    under the auspices of the International Education Society. I
    sincerely trust that this propitious weather and the goodly
    company I see around me may be omens of the future of this
    institution. The site of this College is all that can be
    desired, and I know that its management will be so administered
    as to fulfil to the utmost the anticipations of its promoters.
    There is now room for 80 pupils within its walls, and when the
    new wings are completed it will be capable of accommodating
    twice, probably treble, that number. There are, I understand,
    two sister institutions abroad--one in Germany, and the other in
    France; and after the pupils have completed their studies here
    they can avail themselves of the advantages of these
    institutions to perfect themselves in modern Continental

    "I am not going to discuss the relative claims on our attention
    of the living and dead languages; but I believe it to be most
    important that modern languages should form one of the principal
    subjects of study on grounds of practical utility. No persons
    were ever more deeply impressed with this fact than my late
    lamented father, and another man whose name is now celebrated
    through England, Richard Cobden. I have travelled a great deal
    on the Continent, and I am confident that I should have found my
    sojourn in these countries far less pleasant than it was if I
    had not possessed a considerable knowledge of the vernacular of
    the people.

    "I thank you again sincerely for the manner in which you have
    drunk my health, and I shall convey to the Princess the deep
    sympathy you have evinced for her in her illness, the
    enthusiastic affection with which you have received her name,
    and your warm good wishes for her speedy restoration to health.
    Before sitting down I beg to propose a toast, which I am sure
    you will receive with every demonstration of approbation. It is
    "Success to the London College of the International Education
    Society." With that toast I beg to couple the name of Dr.
    Schmitz, whose pupil, I am proud to say, I once was while
    studying in the city of Edinburgh."

The toast having been received with great enthusiasm, Dr. Schmitz, in
reply, said he had to thank His Royal Highness for the kindness of heart
with which he had spoken of his humble name, and hoped that the College
so happily inaugurated would have a prosperous issue. The distinctive
feature of the institution was that in it the study of modern languages
and natural sciences were to be largely pursued. The dead languages,
however, were not to be ignored. They protested only against the
exclusive study of classical literature. He had himself devoted his life
to letters, but at the same time he fully recognized the claims of the
modern continental tongues and the natural sciences, by which the
civilization and progress of the world were unquestionably advanced.
Professor Huxley then proposed the "Health of the Committee of
Management," coupling with it the name of the chairman. The Chairman
having briefly replied, the meeting broke up, and the visitors dispersed
throughout the grounds for promenade.


_July 11th, 1867._

Among the many illustrious rulers of foreign nations who have been
entertained by the Lord Mayor of London, have been three Viceroys of
Egypt. On the 11th of July, 1867, at a banquet at the Mansion House, a
distinguished company assembled to meet his Highness the Viceroy, Ismail
Pasha. Twenty-one years previously, the father, and on a subsequent
occasion the brother of the Viceroy had been similarly honoured in the
capital of the British Empire. The Prince of Wales, the Duke of
Cambridge, Prince Teck, Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar, many of the
ambassadors of foreign powers, and the most eminent men of all shades of
political opinion were among the company.

The reply of the Viceroy, to the toast, given by the Lord Mayor, was
responded to in his native tongue, and interpreted by Nubar Pasha in
French: "If Egypt had rendered services to England, chiefly in
facilitating communication with India, his country was only
acknowledging the debt due to this country for the benefits received in
promoting the material and the moral progress of his people."

The next toast was the health of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and
the other members of the Royal Family, to which the Prince thus

    "My Lord Mayor, your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen, I beg to thank you most warmly and sincerely for the
    kind manner in which you, my Lord Mayor, have proposed my health
    and that of the Princess of Wales, and the other members of the
    Royal Family; and to thank the company here present for the way
    in which it has been received. I need not assure you, my Lord
    Mayor, that to have been invited here this evening has been a
    source of great pleasure to me. Under any circumstances I always
    feel it a great compliment to be invited to the hospitable board
    of the Lord Mayor and the Corporation of the city of London.

    "But this evening we have been invited here to do honour to a
    guest, and that guest the Viceroy of Egypt. As the Lord Mayor
    has very truly remarked, England and Egypt, though far distant
    from one another, though very different from one another in
    religion and in habits, are countries which have been, and will
    continue to be, closely allied to one another. We have every
    reason to be grateful to the Viceroy and to his Government for
    the means he has afforded us of visiting that country, and for
    the great hospitality that he has shown to us on all occasions.
    I myself received distinguished marks of kindness under the rule
    of his brother, the late Viceroy, in 1862. Nothing could exceed
    the kindness and courtesy with which I was treated, and the
    facilities with which I was enabled to visit that most
    interesting country. We are also indebted to the Viceroy and the
    Egyptian Government for the great facilities he has afforded our
    troops in their transit to India.

    "Egypt, as has been remarked, is a country that is fast
    improving in every way. Manufactures are rising on all
    sides--especially the manufacture of cotton. I myself visited a
    very important sugar manufactory, and it was interesting to find
    that there were English, French, and German workmen employed in
    that manufactory.

    "I do not wish, my Lord Mayor, to take up more of your time this
    evening, knowing that there are other toasts to be proposed. I
    will, therefore, conclude by again thanking you once more for
    the honour you have done me in drinking my health, and for the
    very kind expressions you have used towards the Princess of
    Wales. I know I only express her feelings when I say that she
    has been deeply touched by that universal good feeling and
    sympathy which has been shown to her during her long and painful
    illness. Thank God she has now nearly recovered, and I trust
    that in a month's time she will be able to leave London and
    enjoy the benefits of fresh air."


_March 17th, 1868._

On various occasions, the Prince of Wales has shown on Irish soil, his
sympathy with the people of the Sister Isle, and has been always
welcomed with warm and loyal feeling by the mass of the population. He
has given practical proof of his good feeling for the Irish nation by
being a patron and supporter of the Benevolent Society of St. Patrick,
in the schools of which the children of poor Irish parents residing in
the Metropolis receive education and other benefits.

The annual festival has long been well attended and supported, but never
before was there so great and brilliant a gathering as when the Prince
of Wales, on the 17th of March, 1868, presided at the dinner, at
Willis's Rooms. Among the company were the Archbishop of Armagh, the
Bishop of Derry, and many members of the House of Lords, and of the
House of Commons, connected with Ireland, with other distinguished
persons of all classes interested in the charity. The London Irish
Volunteers formed a guard of honour in front of the building, and the
Prince on entering, and taking his place as president, was greeted with
enthusiastic cheers.

The usual loyal toasts having been given, and responded to by the
Prince, with warm appreciation of the good-will, especially directed
towards the Princess of Wales, on her health being proposed by the
Archbishop of Armagh, the Prince proposed "The Army and Navy, the
Militia and the Volunteers," saying some suitable words as to each
branch of the united services.

The Earl of Longford briefly replied for the Army. Mr. Corry, in
responding for the Navy, said he believed that St. Patrick had never
been so far south as that fine harbour which was "_statio bene fida
carinis_." Complaints had been made from time to time that the
Government had not availed themselves of the facilities which Cork
harbour afforded for dockyard accommodation, but after the works at
Haulbowline were completed, he hoped that the people of Cork would see
that the Admiralty had no desire to do any injustice to Ireland in
respect of the navy. He was glad to announce to the company that on the
occasion of the forthcoming visit of the Prince of Wales to Dublin a
division of the armour-clad vessels of the Channel fleet would be sent
to the Bay of Dublin, where, weather permitting, the ships of the
division would anchor and remain during the time His Royal Highness was
to stay in Ireland.

Captain M. J. O'Connell, in returning thanks for the Volunteers,
remarked that in the London Irish there never had been any political or
polemical disputes.

At this stage of the proceedings there occurred a scene thoroughly "racy
of the soil" of which most of the noblemen and gentlemen present were
natives. The children of the schools were brought into the room, and
"St. Patrick's Day" having been struck up by the band, the boys and
girls proceeded to make the circuit of the tables. The national air of
Ireland told alike on the benefactors and the recipients of the charity.
The children looked with glistening eyes on the company, and the latter,
as the young ones passed by, loaded them with fruit and cakes to such an
extent that before the juvenile procession had made its exit from the
apartment the tables had been cleared of the entire dessert, which was a
very liberal one. The boys and girls raised a loud cheer as they left
the room, and the entire company, including the illustrious President,
appeared all the happier for having made the festival the means of so
unusual a treat for the little sons and daughters of poor Irish parents
struggling for their living in London.

After the performance of a selection of Irish airs, the Prince of Wales
again rose and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen.--The next toast which I shall have the
    honour of proposing to you is the toast of the evening. We are
    here to-night for a very excellent and charitable purpose. The
    objects of the Benevolent Society of St. Patrick have been so
    often stated--so many able speeches have been made at so many
    successive anniversaries of this festival, that there is very
    little left for me to say; but having accepted, which I did with
    pleasure, the post of chairman this evening, I feel it is due to
    the institution and to this company that I should make a few
    observations. I may as well at once say that I am about to call
    upon you to drink prosperity to the Benevolent Society of St.
    Patrick. This Society was instituted in 1784, with the object of
    relieving the necessitous children of Irish parents resident in
    London. One of its first patrons was my grandfather, the Duke of
    Kent. I have always understood that he took a very great
    interest in the Society, and I may further observe that several
    of my grand-uncles acted as presidents at your annual dinners.
    At the present moment I believe the schools are in what may be
    called a flourishing condition, They afford education to as many
    as 400 children. That the boys and girls are in good health and
    thriving is, I think, pretty evident, from the appearance they
    presented as they passed through the room just now. A special
    feature in the conduct of the schools is that no doctrinal
    teaching is permitted. They are entirely national and
    non-sectarian schools. At the same time the children are
    strongly advised to attend the instructions given by the
    ministers of the religion in which their parents wish them to be
    brought up, and they are afforded an opportunity of doing so
    every week. If it is thought desirable, the children are
    apprenticed on leaving school. This system has been found to
    work remarkably well. Inducements are held out for proficiency
    and good conduct by rewards given after examination. A
    comparatively new feature in the management of the institution
    is this--that at times when the parents are enduring hardships
    and perhaps privations owing to the want of work--when they may
    not have a sufficiency of daily bread for the maintenance of
    their families, as, for instance, during severe winter weather,
    when many poor people find it difficult to obtain employment--a
    daily meal is given to children who are in want of it. This has
    been found to afford much assistance to the parents as well as
    the children, and may therefore be regarded as a satisfactory
    addition to the arrangements of the managers. I am informed that
    of late years the institution has lost many valuable patrons and
    supporters, but I should hope that any void in this way may
    speedily be filled up. My Lords and Gentlemen,--though this may
    be called an annual festival in aid of a charity, and in this
    respect it is exceedingly useful, it has also another advantage.
    It has long been regarded as an occasion when Irishmen living in
    London may meet together without sectarian feelings or political
    allusions. Such meetings are beneficial, and they must be all
    the more so when their main object is the furtherance of a most
    excellent institution like the Benevolent Society of St.
    Patrick, prosperity to which I now ask you to drink."

    The illustrious President next gave "The Lord-Lieutenant of
    Ireland," and in doing so said, "he was sure every one would
    agree with him in thinking that Lord Abercorn had filled his
    high office with credit to himself and benefit to the country.
    His Excellency had had a very arduous task to perform. During
    Lord Abercorn's administration there had been great troubles in
    Ireland, but it was to be hoped that these were almost at an

The Earl of Mayo, in returning thanks for the Lord-Lieutenant, expressed
his opinion that the Prince of Wales on his forthcoming visit to Ireland
would experience such a reception as would induce His Royal Highness to
go there again.

The Earl of Kimberley, in proposing the health of the illustrious
President, said he thought the friends of Ireland ought to feel much
obliged to His Royal Highness for his presence there that evening. He
was convinced that good would result from it. Having on one occasion,
while filling the office of Lord-Lieutenant, had the honour to receive
the Prince of Wales at Dublin, he could state from his own knowledge
that His Royal Highness took the deepest interest in all that concerned
the welfare of Ireland, and showed the greatest anxiety to make himself
acquainted with her affairs. The Prince had made himself acquainted with
her affairs, and was in a position to give an intelligent and a just
opinion on the matter. This was of great importance for Ireland. He
thought he might venture to say that the Prince of Wales felt an
affection for Ireland.

The toast was drunk with all the honours, and with unusual enthusiasm.
The Prince of Wales said:--

    "I am exceedingly gratified by the very kind terms in which my
    noble friend has proposed my health, and the more than cordial
    manner in which you, my lords and gentlemen, have received it. I
    hope I need not assure you that it has been a source of great
    pleasure to me to take the chair at a dinner in aid of a society
    which does so much for the benefit of so many children of the
    poorer Irish in London. My noble friend has alluded to my
    approaching visit to Ireland. I shall only say that I am glad to
    visit a portion of the United Kingdom in which I have
    experienced such extensive kindness from all parties. I agree
    with the noble Lord the Chief Secretary for Ireland. If this
    visit should tend to give pleasure to the people of Ireland I
    hope there may be a longer visit hereafter. During the course of
    the last two years there has been much that has been
    disagreeable to loyal Irishmen; but I am convinced that the
    people of Ireland generally are thoroughly true and loyal, and
    that the disaffection which has existed will only be of short
    duration. It has not been engrafted on the minds of any portion
    of the Irish people by the Irish people themselves. But as we
    are assembled here for a purely charitable object this is not
    the place for political allusions. I shall, therefore, conclude
    by once more thanking you for the kind way in which you have
    drunk my health, and for the manner in which you have supported
    me this evening."

The amount contributed to the funds of the charity was about £1200,
which included 100 guineas from the Queen, and a similar sum from the
Prince of Wales.


_April 15-25th, 1868._

The projected visit to Ireland, referred to in a previous article on St.
Patrick's festival, took place in April, 1868. It was a successful and
memorable visit in every way. On the 15th of April the Prince and
Princess of Wales, who had started from Holyhead at 4 A.M., arrived in
Kingstown Harbour at 9.30, and landed amidst salutes from the fleet
attending the Royal yacht. On the way to Dublin Castle they were
received with enthusiasm by the crowds. The streets and houses were
profusely decorated with banners and evergreens. "Welcome to Erin" was
the burden of the mottoes. No troops lined the way, but reliance was put
on the loyal and hospitable spirit of the people, who kept the track
clear for the cortège, and when the escort had passed the crowd closed
in behind, like the waters in the wake of a ship which has passed
through. At night the city was brilliantly illuminated. Next day the
royal party went to Punchestown races in open carriages, and were
greeted with enthusiasm as great as on the first entrance to Dublin. On
Saturday the Prince was installed, with great ceremony, a Knight of St.
Patrick, in St. Patrick's Cathedral.

The Prince was belted with the same sword worn by George IV. In the
evening his Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant entertained the Knight, the
Royal visitors, and a distinguished company, at dinner in St. Patrick's
Hall. In proposing the health of the Prince and the Princess of Wales,
the Lord Lieutenant said that "the shouts of acclamation that for four
successive days have rung in our ears, will have shown to the
illustrious Heir of these Kingdoms, better than any words of mine, the
kindly nature of the Irish people, and the attachment that may be
awakened in their generous and warm hearts."

His Royal Highness, in returning thanks, said:--

    "Your Excellency's, your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen,--In the name of the Princess of Wales and myself, I
    beg to tender you my warmest thanks for the very kind and
    flattering manner in which this toast has been proposed, and for
    the cordial way in which it has been received by the company
    present here this evening. Under any circumstances I should feel
    it a great honour to have my health proposed by his Excellency
    the Lord-Lieutenant, but to-night the circumstances under which
    it has been proposed are peculiar, for I appear here as a Knight
    of the Illustrious Order of St. Patrick. I can assure you that
    I feel very proud to wear this evening for the first time the
    star and riband of this illustrious Order; and I am very
    grateful to Her Majesty the Queen for having given it to me. On
    former occasions I have received the Orders of Great Britain
    from Her Majesty's own hands; and, although I cannot but regret
    that on this occasion she has not been able to give this Order
    to me herself, still it was the Queen's wish that I should
    receive it on Irish soil, from the hands of her representative,
    the Lord-Lieutenant.

    "This Order was first founded, now more than 80 years ago, by my
    great-grandfather, King George III., and was instituted by him
    as a mark of his goodwill and friendship towards this country,
    and it is my hope that, as his great-grandson, having to-day
    received it on Irish soil, I may also be instrumental in
    evincing in this country, in the name of my Sovereign and my
    mother, her goodwill and friendship towards Ireland. I feel also
    proud that I have been not only invested with the insignia of
    this Order, but installed in the magnificent Cathedral of St.
    Patrick, for the restoration of which we are indebted to the
    great munificence of a private gentleman of Ireland, whose name
    is so well known that I need not mention it to you, more
    particularly as I have the pleasure of seeing him at this table.

    "My Lords and Gentlemen, I am very glad to have this opportunity
    of stating to you, on behalf of the Princess and myself, how
    deeply gratified we are by the reception which has been accorded
    to us in this country, not only, as the Lord-Lieutenant has
    observed, by the higher classes, but by the sons of the soil as
    well. After the sad times of the past year it might, perhaps,
    have been thought by some that our reception would not have been
    all that could have been wished. I myself felt confident that it
    would, and my hopes have been indeed realised. I beg, therefore,
    to offer, not only to those present who participated more
    immediately in our reception, but to the whole Irish people, our
    thanks for the cordial, hearty, and friendly welcome which we
    have received. I will not weary you with more words, but thank
    you once more for the honour you have done us in so heartily
    drinking our healths."

The Prince, we are told, spoke with an unaffected earnestness which
deepened the impression left by his words. The reference to "the sad
times of the past year" included the wretched Clerkenwell explosion
affair, the perpetrators of which outrage were on their trial in London,
at the very time when the people of Dublin were showing their loyal
attachment to the throne, and observing the most remarkable order and
decorum, even in the most crowded and poverty-stricken districts.

Besides an incessant round of banquets, receptions, concerts, balls, and
what are humorously called "entertainments," the Royal visitors devoted
much time to inspecting museums, libraries, hospitals, colleges,
schools, including some sights not usually attractive to strangers, such
as the collections of preparations and curiosities in the College of
Surgeons, and the College of Physicians. The antiquities in the Royal
Hibernian Academy's rooms were duly inspected; a conversazione at the
Royal Dublin Society attended; a flower-show at the Rotunda; The
Catholic University in Stephen's Green visited; and above all there were
splendid doings at Trinity College, where the Prince (and at the same
time, the Duke of Cambridge, and Lord Abercorn) received the investiture
of honorary Doctor of Laws. After this the Royal LL.D. went out,
unrobed, to unveil the statue of Edmund Burke.

Then there was the Cattle Show, for it happened that the usual spring
meeting of the Royal Dublin Society fell at the very time of the
Prince's visit. Of course there was also a review in Phœnix Park, and
on this occasion the military spectacle was of unusual brilliancy.

On Sunday, the 19th, His Royal Highness attended the service in Christ
Church, a cathedral exceeded by few in historic interest.

In addition to the many engagements in Dublin, visits were paid to Lord
Powerscourt's beautiful domain, with the romantic and classical scenes
of county Wicklow; and to the Duke of Leinster at Carton, and to
Maynooth College, fifteen miles off. The President, Dr. Russell, with
the officials, formally received the Prince, while the hundreds of
students gave him a cheerful welcome in the great quadrangle.

It would occupy too much space to mention all the incidents crowded into
the days of the Irish sojourn. They are all recorded in full detail, in
the newspapers of the period, and especially in the columns of the
_Times_, who sent a special correspondent to chronicle the events, day
by day. In a leading article of the _Times_, the writer gives a summary
of the proceedings, and makes comments on what might be the result of
the Royal visit. Some sentences of this article we quote as showing what
was the impression made at the time by the Prince himself:--

"Any reader of our daily correspondence could easily make out a hundred
distinct occasions during these ten days on which the Prince, most
frequently with the Princess, had to be face to face with some portion
of the people, in some ceremony or other, and had to perform a part
requiring all the graces and gifts of Royalty. There were presentations
and receptions; receiving and answering addresses; processions, walking,
riding, and driving, in morning, evening, military, academic, and
mediæval attire. The Prince was invested as a Knight, robed as an LL.D.,
and made a Lord of the Irish Privy Council; he had to breakfast, lunch,
dine, and sup with more or less publicity every twenty-four hours. He
had to go twice to races with fifty or a hundred thousand people about
him; to review a small army and make a tour in the Wicklow mountains, of
course everywhere receiving addresses under canopies, and dining in
state under galleries full of spectators. He visited and inspected
institutions, colleges, universities, academies, libraries, and cattle
shows. He had to take a very active part in assemblies of from several
hundred to several thousand dancers, and always to select for his
partners the most important personages. He had to introduce the statue
of Burke to the wind and rain of his country. He had to listen to many
speeches sufficiently to know when and what to answer. He had to examine
with respectful interest pictures, books, antiquities, relics,
manuscripts, specimens, bones, fossils, prize beasts, and works of Irish
art. He had never to be unequal to the occasion, however different from
the last or however like the last, and whatever his disadvantage as to
the novelty or the dullness of the matter and the scene. He was always
before persons who were there at home, on their own ground, and amid
persons and objects familiar to them, and sometimes in a manner made by
them. Be it Cardinal, Chancellor, Rector, Mayor, Commanding Officer,
President, Chairman, or local deputation, he had to hold his own,
without even seeming to do so--that is, without effort or self
assertion. All this he had to do continually for ten days. Now, men of
common would know what an anxious thing it is to have to do this even
once, and how utterly they may be upset by the concurrence of two or
three such occasions."

All this and more the Prince had to do and to suffer during his visit.
The speeches if not long, were numerous and appropriate. Altogether the
Irish campaign of 1868 was not an easy one. Let it be remembered with
the more honour.

On the 25th of April, the Royal visitors returned to Holyhead, and
stopping at Carnarvon, the birthplace of the first Prince of Wales,
received a public greeting, and an address. At a banquet subsequently
given, the Prince thus responded to the toast given by the High Sheriff
of the County:--

    "On behalf of the Princess and myself I return our warmest
    thanks for the kind way in which our health has been proposed,
    and for the manner in which it has been received. It has
    afforded the Princess and myself the very greatest pleasure to
    come to North Wales and visit the ancient castle of Carnarvon.
    It is particularly interesting to us to come upon this day, the
    anniversary of the birthday of the first Prince of Wales. For a
    long time it had been our intention to pay a visit to Wales, and
    I regret that that intention has been so long in the fulfilment;
    but the cordial reception which we have received to-day will, I
    am sure, lead us to look forward with great pleasure to another
    visit on some future day. We deeply regret that our stay should
    be so short, and that, it being necessary for us to go
    homewards, we cannot remain longer with you. I thank you once
    more for the kind way in which you have received the few words I
    have addressed to you, and for the welcome we have received from
    the people of Carnarvon."

His Royal Highness concluded by proposing the health of the
Lords-Lieutenant, the High Sheriffs, and the Mayors of the towns and
counties of North Wales.


_May 5th, 1868._

There is no form of charity more obviously suitable and good, than
helping distressed strangers in a strange land, and especially
foreigners in London. The sixty-second anniversary of the "Society of
Friends of Foreigners in Distress" was celebrated on May 5th, 1868, at
Willis's Rooms, under the presidency of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. The
guests included many representatives of various nations, the charity
itself being cosmopolitan, and helping the distressed of all races and

    In proposing the health of "The Queen, the Protectress of the
    Society," the Prince observed that "Her Majesty had shown a deep
    interest in the charity, ever since 1837, the year of her
    accession to the throne, when she became an annual subscriber;
    and his lamented father became its protector at his marriage,
    and continued to subscribe to its funds."

In proposing the health of the Prince and Princess of Wales, Sir Travers
Twiss, her Majesty's Advocate-General, said that he was not merely
following the high example of his august mother and lamented father, but
was moved by his own kind disposition. As it was not generally known,
he took the liberty of mentioning, even in his presence, that the
Prince, in the course of his Eastern travels, passed through no great
city without having visited its institutions in aid of suffering
humanity; and it was still fresh in the memory of those who were around
him how much his heart was touched at the sight of the shelter afforded
by British and American philanthropy to the unfortunate Syrian
Christians, who had been driven from their homes at Damascus, and found
a temporary asylum among the European residents at Beyrout.

His Royal Highness, in returning thanks, expressed the high pleasure it
was to be present in support of the institution, and proposed the health
of the "Foreign Sovereigns and Governments--protectors and patrons of
the Institution," coupling with the toast the name of his Excellency the
Prussian Ambassador; to which Count Bernstorff responded.

In proposing the principal toast of the evening, His Royal Highness said
that he was sure it would be received with enthusiasm:--

    "The 'Society of Friends of Foreigners in Distress' was the
    first of the kind established in London, and its object was to
    afford assistance to deserving and necessitous foreigners in
    this country, without distinction of nationality, religion, age,
    or sex. This institution, which had now existed for more than
    sixty years, was even at the time of its initiation thought to
    be a work of necessity; how much more so had it become such
    since the means of communication between country and country had
    been so vastly increased, and trade, manufactures, and commerce
    had so largely attracted the people of other nations to our

    "The charitable objects of the society were first to grant
    allowances to deserving foreigners in their old age. Pensioners
    were elected by the governors, and the Board of Directors paid
    the pensions annually. The second object was to grant temporary
    relief in time of sickness. These cases were inquired into with
    the greatest care, and sums from a few shillings up to £5 or £10
    were sometimes given where the cases required it. A third object
    was to afford temporary assistance to the younger members of
    families when the heads of the families were by infirmity or ill
    health unable to support them; but when such relief had been
    once afforded to any extent a period of eight weeks was required
    to elapse before any further help was rendered, unless in cases
    of great emergency. The fourth and last object of the society
    was to afford means by which foreigners might be able to return
    to their native country. As many as 243 families had been
    enabled to return to their native country by the assistance
    rendered to them by this society. Several of the families so
    assisted had been induced to quit their native land in that
    unfortunate expedition to Mexico. They had engaged in what they
    thought was a good cause, but when that fell to the ground,
    owing to events that occurred last year, those poor creatures
    were totally unprovided for, and then it was that the society
    granted them the means of returning to their native country.

    "There were some almshouses at Lower Norwood belonging to the
    society, in which several families were comfortably lodged and
    maintained. Since the origin of the society as many as 116,000
    cases had received its attention and aid. Last year 3000 persons
    were assisted, not including the 243 families that were enabled
    to return to their native home. Similar societies had recently
    sprung up, but they all differed from the one they were then
    celebrating in this respect, that they confined their assistance
    to the natives of certain countries, while this society had for
    its object the giving relief to foreigners of all nations. He
    had one more statement to make which had only been mentioned to
    him a few minutes ago. There was a gentleman present who was
    well known to them, but did not wish his name to be announced,
    who had already given £1000 to the society, and who had
    expressed himself ready to give an additional £100 if he could
    find nine other gentlemen who would each give a like sum. He
    hoped the society would be able to find those nine gentlemen to
    assist them. Having made this brief statement, he begged to
    propose that the toast be drunk up-standing with three times

The call was heartily responded to, and, after some further
complimentary and formal toasts, His Royal Highness and the principal
guests retired.


_May 13th, 1868._

As President of the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, the Prince
of Wales has always taken a warm and active interest in the affairs of
that great charitable institution. On the 13th of May, 1868, he took the
chair at what is called the annual "View" dinner. It is the custom on
that day for some of the Governors to make a visitation of the wards and
other departments of the Hospital. On this occasion the Royal President
visited six of the wards. At the dinner he was supported by Prince
Christian, the Bishop of Oxford, and other distinguished guests, as well
as the officials of the Hospital. After dinner the Royal President rose
and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--The first toast which I have the
    honour to submit to you I propose in the form in which it has
    always been given at this anniversary festival; it is 'The
    Church and the Queen.' I need hardly remind you that the Queen
    takes the liveliest interest in the hospitals of the country,
    and she has to-day evinced that interest by laying the
    foundation-stone of the sister hospital of St. Thomas. Although
    the Queen, as I understand, has never visited this hospital, I
    trust that before long I may induce her to do so, and that I may
    have the honour of showing her over it."

The Bishop of Oxford responded, and in proposing the health of "The
Prince and Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family," said
that the presence of the Royal President that day was not only a tribute
to humanity, most graceful in the heir of a hundred kings, but it was
also a tribute to the highest of human science, a tribute as much to the
noble profession of medicine, to those who ministered to the relief of
human sufferings, as to the sufferers themselves.

The Royal President said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I thank you for the toast that has
    just been given by the right rev. prelate, and has been so
    kindly received. In responding to the very kind words in which
    my health has been proposed, I can assure you it has given me
    more than ordinary pleasure to be President of this hospital and
    to take the chair, for the first time, at its anniversary
    festival. My only regret has been and is, that the many duties
    devolving upon me do not allow me to come here oftener than I
    have done; but you may be sure I take the greatest interest in
    the hospital, and the more the Treasurer tells me of what is
    going on in the hospital the better I shall be pleased. Whenever
    I have availed myself of an opportunity of visiting the hospital
    I have found it in a condition which left nothing to be desired.
    The Princess of Wales has also taken as great an interest in it
    as I have done, and as soon as she could move about after her
    return from abroad she accompanied me on a visit to this
    hospital. In the name of the Princess of Wales and the other
    members of the Royal Family I return thanks for the manner in
    which this toast has been drunk."

In proposing the next toast, "The Army, Navy, Militia, and Volunteers,"
the Royal President said:--

    "I always think that this is a puzzling toast for a chairman to
    give, although at the same time it is an easy one, because so
    many have given it, and will continue to give it, that there is,
    unfortunately, little scope for originality and variety in
    proposing it. On such an occasion as this, however, and in a
    hospital, too, it is a most appropriate toast, because medical
    departments are essential in our army and navy, and medical
    science is specially invoked by their active services. Alas that
    it should be so! But, fortunately, in our last campaign, in
    Abyssinia, there was less call than ever for medical science on
    our own side, as only one person was wounded in action."

Other customary toasts having been given, the Royal President again
rose, and said:--

    "The toast I have now the honour to propose you will receive
    with enthusiasm: it is, 'Prosperity to St. Bartholomew's
    Hospital, and Health and Ease to the Patients.' It gives me the
    greatest pleasure to propose this toast. This hospital, the
    largest and most ancient of the metropolitan hospitals, was
    founded in 1123 by Rahere, and was then attached to the Priory;
    and on the suppression of the monasteries, in 1544, it had a
    charter granted to it by Henry VIII., whose portrait occupies
    the wall on my right. At that time the hospital had only 100
    beds, one physician, and three surgeons; it has now 650 beds, 12
    physicians, and 12 surgeons, besides an array of lecturers,
    dispensers, and other officers. We may regard this as a grand
    day, and those who have gone through the wards of the hospital
    will have found everything in good order; but I once took the
    officers by surprise, and I came here in the winter, practically
    without giving notice. I can assure you I found everything on
    that occasion in the same condition as to-day--nurses and
    attendants in their places, and surgeons and physicians
    punctiliously discharging their duties.

    "I may here advert to the terrible event which occurred in the
    winter--the Clerkenwell explosion. That showed how well
    organized the hospital is, and how admirable its arrangements
    are adapted to such an emergency. Almost immediately after the
    explosion as many as 40 patients were safely housed in the
    hospital, while many had their wounds dressed and were sent
    away. I came here, and found that the sufferers were receiving
    every possible attention. Much is, no doubt, due to the
    unremitting care and supervision of the Treasurer; and if one of
    the surgeons--Mr. Holden--were not present, I would express my
    appreciation of his valuable services in terms which, I am sure,
    many in this room would be ready to endorse. Every one is
    satisfied of the thorough efficiency of the hospital; but there
    is still wanting a convalescent hospital. True, there is the
    Samaritan Fund, out of which you aid patients when they are
    dismissed; but still, when they are nearly well, you wish to
    send them into the country to recruit their health, so that they
    may return to their homes thoroughly convalescent. When this
    question is mooted I shall take the greatest interest, and do
    all I can to promote the establishment of the additional
    hospital. I have the greatest pleasure in coupling with this
    toast the name of the Treasurer, and no one will more heartily
    drink his health than I shall. He has been called upon to act as
    Treasurer to Christ's Hospital too, and, although he will
    conscientiously serve it, he will not forget his first love--St.

Mr. Foster White, the Treasurer, in responding, said that such had been
the demand upon the resources of the hospital during the past year that
its income had been exceeded by £4,000, which was owing, however,
chiefly to the high price of provisions. At the time of the Clerkenwell
explosion he was prepared, if it had been necessary, to make a ward of
the dining-room, feeling sure the Governors would have supported him.
The Governors of this hospital and the Merchant Taylors' Company were in
communication, with the object of erecting conjointly a convalescent
hospital, at an expenditure of £45,000 each corporation. In conclusion,
the Treasurer denounced with some warmth the taxation of charities.

The Royal President proposed "The Medical Staff," coupling the toast
with the names of Dr. Frederic Farre and Mr. Paget. To the latter he
tendered his heartfelt recognition of the services he had rendered
during the severe illness of the Princess of Wales.

Dr. Farre and Mr. Paget having responded, the "Corporation of London"
was proposed from the Chair, and responded to by Mr. Alderman Finnis,
and this terminated the proceedings.

This 13th of May was a day of special interest in connection with
Metropolitan Hospitals, the Queen having in the morning, with great
state ceremony, laid the foundation stone of the new St. Thomas's
Hospital, when the Prince and Princess of Wales were also present.

The informal visit paid to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, referred to by
the Prince in his speech, was on the 17th of February of that year, when
he was accompanied by the Princess of Wales. The Princess had long
wished to see the Hospital, and attention was then recalled to it by the
announcement of the reception there of the sufferers from the Fenian
outrage at Clerkenwell. They were conducted over the whole establishment
by the Treasurer and principal surgeons. The Royal visitors had the
opportunity of seeing all the Clerkenwell sufferers and of expressing
their sympathy with them. Before leaving, they inspected the beautiful
little church of St. Bartholomew the Less, which stands within the walls
of the Hospital, and is, in fact, the Hospital chapel. The informal
visit of their Royal Highnesses, which afforded great gratification to
the authorities of the institution, lasted about an hour and a half.

       *       *       *       *       *

The visits of the Prince to St. Bartholomew's have been frequent in
subsequent years, one interesting occasion being on the presentation of
a testimonial to Sir James Paget in 1871, on retiring from the post he
had long held.


_October 8th, 1868._

Whatever else Scotland may have to boast of, she may point with pride to
her parish schools and her universities. These have contributed largely
to raise her among the nations, and laid the foundation of much of the
enterprise, energy, and success in life, which have long characterized
the Scots at home and abroad, and given them an honourable place in
letters, science, and commerce.

Next to St. Andrews, and later only by a few years, Glasgow is the
oldest of the Scottish Universities. It owes its origin to the Church in
pre-Reformation times, being founded A.D. 1450, and was at first
connected with the Cathedral. The buildings did not assume their
collegiate form till after the Reformation. The front and gateway facing
the High Street were not erected till 1660. Many still remember the
dingy-looking old building, with its quaint barred windows, and
projecting balconies over the gateway, surmounted by the Royal Scottish
Arms, in the style and period of the last of the Stuarts. The visitor
passed through the four open courts, on to the handsome modern building,
the Hunterian Museum, containing the valuable collection of Dr. William
Hunter, bequeathed by him in grateful remembrance of his connection with
this University.

The venerable old College, having served its purpose through successive
generations, for more than three centuries, the Senate of the University
and the citizens of Glasgow determined to provide new buildings, upon a
site and on a scale more suited to the requirements of the time.
Subscriptions, in response to the appeal of the Senate, were obtained,
to the amount of over £160,000; and this being supplemented by the money
for the sale of the old building and the old site, with a parliamentary
vote of £120,000, gave a total of £440,000.

The site chosen for the new buildings was the rising ground called
Gilmore Hill, on the west of Kelvin Grove. The plans were prepared by
Gilbert Scott, and all the world knows how the magnificent structure in
due time rose, to be the pride and ornament of the western capital of
Scotland--in wealth and population the second city in the United

It was an imposing spectacle when the Prince of Wales, accompanied by
the Princess of Wales, laid the foundation stone of the new building, on
the 8th of October, 1868. A vast concourse of people witnessed the
ceremony. An address was presented by the Lord Provost and Corporation,
the Prince having previously received the freedom of the city.

Another address was then presented by the Principal and Senate of the
University, in replying to which the Prince said:--

    "It affords me the highest satisfaction to become a member and
    graduate of your University, and at the same time to visit a
    city the close connection of which with you has been so
    beneficial to both, as well as to the interests of learning and
    knowledge. The presence of so many of all classes of the
    citizens of Glasgow around me, and their liberal subscriptions
    for the prosecution of the work, the value they attach to its
    completion, and their sense of the advantages they and the
    people of Scotland derive from our institutions, the interest
    which my lamented father took in the advancement of every branch
    of science and education, would stimulate me to follow his
    example, and promote by every means in my power the success of
    your University and the objects for which it has been founded.
    We may confidently expect that the eminent men educated here in
    times past are only the precursors of a long train equally to be
    distinguished by every scientific acquirement. The Princess of
    Wales rejoices in the opportunity afforded her of taking part in
    this day's ceremony and cordially thanks you for your kind

FOREIGN TOUR, 1868-1869.

_November 17th, 1868-May 13th, 1869._

There is a long break in the record of proceedings or speeches on
account of the Foreign Tour on which the Prince started in November
1868, returning in May 1869. Of this time of travel it is not necessary
to say much here, as the chief events and incidents are before the
public in various works. Full reports appeared in the _Times_, and other
journals, during the movements of the Royal party on the Continent, in
Egypt, and Palestine. Reference is made to this interesting and
memorable tour in several of the speeches made by the Prince after his
return; and at a later time, as when he spoke at the meeting about the
neglect of the Crimean graves, and at that for the memorial to Dean

Only one incident of the tour, and the one of greatest historical
interest, may be mentioned, the visit to the Cave of Machpelah and the
Sepulchres of the Patriarchs. In this event, not only the personal
interest, but the national importance of the Prince's Eastern Tour, may
be said to culminate. Never before had Christian pilgrims, since the
days of the Mohammedan conquest, or of the Crusades, been allowed to see
so much of the holy tombs of the Patriarchs. The sanctity with which the
Mussulmans have invested the place is a living witness of the unbroken
veneration with which men of Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan creeds
have honoured the memory of Abraham, the father of all the faithful.
Hebron is known among the native population by no other name than
El-Khalil, the Friend of God.

It was the high position of the Prince of Wales, as son of Queen
Victoria, that obtained for him the rare privilege of access to this
sacred spot. Nor was it obtained for him without some difficulty. Mr.
Finn, the English Consul at Jerusalem, prepared the way by requesting an
order from the Porte; and the reply of the Grand Vizier left the matter
very much to the discretion of the Governor, the Pasha of Jerusalem. He
gave his consent on the condition that only a small number should
accompany the Prince; and precautions were taken that the experiment
should be made with as little risk as possible. The approach to Hebron
was lined with troops, and guards were posted on the house-tops, in case
of any outbreak of fanatical opposition to entering the holy places. A
guard attended the Prince up to the entrance of the sacred enclosure.
Even then two of the Arab Sheiks were inclined to give annoyance, but
these the Governor of Hebron ordered out, or rather escorted them out
himself, and the remainder were very courteous and complimentary to the
Prince, saying that they were glad to have the opportunity of showing
any civility in their power to one of the Princes of England, to whom
their Government and people were so much indebted for kind offices.

Dr. Rosen, well known to travellers in Palestine for his knowledge of
sacred geography, was fortunately one of the party admitted, and he was
able to make a ground plan of the platform. This, with the observations
recorded by another of the Prince's party, has given clearer knowledge
of this world-renowned spot. The existence and exact situation of the
cave, the views of the enclosure within and without, the relation of the
different tombs to each other, and the general conformity of the
traditions of the mosque to the accounts of the Bible, and of the early
travellers, were now, for the first time, clearly ascertained.

The Prince's visit was on the 7th of April, 1869. The story of the visit
spread throughout the lands of Islam; and therefore this one incident of
the Prince's Eastern Tour is here referred to as showing its national
importance, and that the prestige of England is still great in these
lands. But we must resume the record of speeches in England, where it so
happens that the first of consequence was made at a meeting of the Royal
Geographical Society.


_May 24th, 1869._

Of all the "learned societies" in London, the Royal Geographical is the
most popular. Perhaps it is because there is less "book learning"
required for its membership, than that love of travel, enterprise, and
adventure, which characterizes all true Englishmen. Professor Owen once
said that in the new Hall of the Geographical Society a statue of
'Robinson Crusoe' should be the central figure. It was a wise and
suggestive, though humorous proposal, for few geographers have not
received early impressions from Defoe's immortal book. The whole globe
is embraced in the objects of the Society, whether in the Old World or
the New, whether the explorations are in the frozen regions of the Pole,
or in the deserts and forests of tropical Africa.

The anniversary meeting of the Society was held on the 24th of May,
1869, in the Royal Institution, under the Presidency of Sir Roderick
Murchison, to whose energy and enthusiasm geographical discoveries, and
the prosperity of the Society, have been so largely due.

When the health of the Prince of Wales, as their Royal vice-patron was
given, the President referred to the appointment of Sir Samuel Baker,
the Society's medallist of the year, to the government of Equatorial
Africa. The good-will and patronage of the Viceroy in this instance was
essentially obtained through the personal influence of the Prince of
Wales. Among the guests at their table was the young Egyptian Prince

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales said:--

    "Sir Roderick Murchison, your Highness, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--Under any ordinary circumstances it would have given
    me great pleasure to be present at this interesting meeting--the
    anniversary dinner of the Royal Geographical Society; but I feel
    doubly proud to be here this evening as a vice-patron of so
    useful and celebrated an institution. Sir Roderick Murchison has
    had the kindness to allude to me as a traveller; I can only say
    that I feel ashamed almost to stand here with the name of a
    traveller, when I see around me so many distinguished persons
    who have travelled, I may almost say from one end of the world
    to the other. But I cannot be too grateful that my lamented
    father at an early period gave me an opportunity of travelling
    and seeing foreign countries; and the same permission being
    granted to my brother, I feel certain that we have both derived
    great benefit from seeing those interesting countries which it
    has been our happiness to visit. No doubt much knowledge and
    learning may be obtained by reading books of foreign travel, but
    I feel convinced that all those gentlemen who are members of
    this society will coincide with me when I say that you cannot
    form so full or favourable an idea of the countries described by
    reading of them in books as you can by visiting them yourselves.

    "I am greatly flattered and deeply sensible of the kind manner
    in which Sir Roderick Murchison has mentioned me in connexion
    with the name of one whose presence we must all very much miss
    this evening--I mean my late travelling companion, Sir Samuel
    Baker. I cannot but regret that he was forced to leave this
    country rather suddenly in order to make arrangements for his
    great and important undertaking, and could not, indeed, take
    farewell of all his friends. Sir Roderick has stated that I was
    in some way instrumental in helping Sir Samuel Baker to carry
    out the enterprise in which he is engaged. His Highness the
    Viceroy of Egypt, I know, has deeply at heart the great
    importance of that noble enterprise--to put down slavery on the
    White Nile, and I need hardly tell you that anything I could do
    in the matter was done with the utmost pleasure and
    satisfaction. Such an enterprise must meet the approval not only
    of every Englishman, but of every philanthropist. There are
    great difficulties connected with it. These difficulties must be
    great to any one, and they must still be more trying to a
    European; but I know Sir Samuel Baker to be a man of energy and
    perseverance, and whatever the difficulties he may have to
    encounter he is certain, if it lies in his power, to attain the
    end of his mission."

We may here say that when Sir Samuel Baker gave a detailed account of
his experiences, in the Hall of the London University, the Prince moved
the vote of thanks, in a speech equally eulogistic.

The Prince again rose after the toast of "The Army and Navy, and
Auxiliary Forces," had been given. He apologised for responding for the
Army, in presence of so many distinguished officers: but he spoke by
command of the President, and a soldier's first duty is obedience.

Admiral Sir George Back, the veteran Arctic explorer, and a leading
officer in the Society, returned thanks for "The Navy."

The President next proposed the health of Professor Nordenskiold, of
Stockholm, and of Mrs. Mary Somerville. The former received "the
Founder's" Medal, for his Arctic discoveries; and to Mrs. Somerville,
then in her eighty-ninth year, had been awarded the Patron or Victoria
Medal, for her scientific and astronomical researches, and her works on
physical geography.

Sir Roderick then proposed the health of Professor Owen, and the Duke of
Sutherland, and Dr. Russell, who had been companions of the Prince in
his Egyptian journey. Dr. Russell had, through the _Times_, been the
reporter and historian of the expedition. The speech of Professor Owen
was in happiest vein. Indeed, the whole of the speeches of the meeting,
including those of Sir Francis Grant, the Duke of Sutherland, Dr.
Russell, and Sir Henry Rawlinson, who proposed the health of the
President, made this a memorable anniversary of the Society.


_June 28th, 1869._

All travellers on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, have
admired the palatial and splendidly situated building near Red Hill,
Surrey, known as the Earlswood Asylum. It is an institution for the care
and education of the idiot and imbecile. Everything that can be done by
kindness and skill to ameliorate the lot of these classes, is here in
exercise. By far the larger number show some capability of improvement,
and not a few have learned some trade or industry, sufficient for their
own support. There are now nearly 600 inmates, from all parts of the
kingdom. At each half yearly election, there are about 150 applicants of
whom the Board usually can elect 30 to 35. The receipts of last year
were nearly £25,000, and the charity has £20,000 invested funds.

The first stone of the Asylum was laid by the Prince Consort in 1853,
and the building was opened by him in 1855. To lay the first stone of
additional buildings, on part of the 80 acres belonging to the Asylum,
the presence of the Prince of Wales was asked, and was very cordially
given. Accompanied by the Princess of Wales, he went to Earlswood for
this purpose on the 28th of June, 1869. The Mayor and the magistrates of
Reigate came to the Earlswood railway station with an address of
welcome, to which the Prince made reply.

Sir Charles Reed, son of the Rev. Dr. Andrew Reed, founder of the
Institution (as he was of other important charities), conducted the
Royal visitors to the gate of the Asylum, to which they had driven from
the station. From the Board Room a procession was formed, to the place
of laying the stone. Here another address was read, in reply to which
the Prince said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I thank you for the kind expressions
    contained in your address. I cannot but rejoice that my presence
    should be considered an encouragement, and conducive to the
    prosperity of an institution that lays claim to our warmest
    support. Apart from all other considerations, the fact of my
    lamented father having taken so active a part in the early
    formation of the society would, in itself, be sufficient to
    enlist my sympathy and interest in its welfare. The necessity
    for affording more extended accommodation, in consequence of the
    increased number of applicants, is the best proof of the success
    which has followed your first efforts. We must all appreciate
    the comprehensive principle which regulates, without regard to
    social or religious distinction, the admission of all classes of
    our fellow-creatures suffering under an affliction which reduces
    them to one common level. Finally, I have to assure you,
    gentlemen, how sincerely I feel your expressions of devotion and
    attachment towards the Queen, the Princess of Wales, and the
    Royal family. I am persuaded they, equally with myself, will
    watch with increasing interest the success of an institution
    this day enlarged under such hopeful circumstances."

The Treasurer then handed to the Prince a silver trowel, and Sir Charles
Reed, M.P., presented the mallet, which had been used by the Prince
Consort on laying the first stone of the "Infant Orphan Asylum" at
Wanstead, and which His Royal Highness had afterwards given to Dr.
Andrew Reed. A good supply of mortar having been brought to the Prince
of Wales in a mahogany hod, His Royal Highness spread a sufficient
quantity to make a setting for the stone. Then, amid cheering, the stone
was slowly lowered, and the Prince tapped it with the mallet, tested it
by rule and plumb, and amid a flourish of trumpets, followed by the
National Anthem, pronounced it to be well and truly fixed. The
Archbishop of Canterbury then offered an appropriate prayer, which was
followed by a hymn, of which there was an instrumental performance by
the hand of the Grenadier Guards, while the words were sung by the
entire company.

The Prince and Princess then took their seats, and, to the March of King
Christian IX., of Denmark, there was an interesting and, for the
charity, a most gratifying procession. It was one of ladies, who to the
number of 380 in single file ascended the daïs where the Prince sat, and
deposited in all 400 purses. The Prince had previously, immediately
after fixing the stone, handed to the Treasurer, a check for a hundred
guineas. A _déjeuner_ followed, and planting of memorial trees and other


_July 7th, 1869._

Six centuries ago Lynn was, next to London, the chief port on the east
coast. It is nearer than any other port to Holland and North Germany. In
course of time the foreign trade of the place had fallen into decay, and
the town itself was outstripped in business by Hull, Grimsby, Yarmouth,
and other eastern seaports. A time of revival having come, it was
considered that the prosperity of the ancient borough would be secured
by the formation of docks and accommodation for foreign trade, as the
manufacturing districts of the Midland Counties might be brought into
connection with Lynn as the shortest route to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the
Texel, and Hamburg. In hope of benefiting the trade and industry of the
town, the Lynn Dock Company was formed, and obtained from Mr. Brunlees,
C.E., the plans for a great dock, which in due time was completed, and
was inaugurated by the Prince and Princess of Wales, on the 7th of July,

Arriving from London, by special train of the Great Eastern Railway, the
Royal visitors were received, with great ceremony, in the Council Room
of the Town Hall of Lynn. An address was presented by the Recorder, in
which gratification was expressed at their Royal Highnesses having
selected an abode in the neighbourhood of the borough, and in showing
their interest in its welfare by having graciously undertaken to
inaugurate their new dock.

His Royal Highness made the following reply:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I thank you for this address, for the
    loyalty and attachment you express towards the Queen, and for
    the kind welcome you offer the Princess and myself. It is
    peculiarly gratifying to us to visit you on an occasion like the
    present. The revolutions of time and science would have had the
    same effects upon King's Lynn as upon other commercial ports but
    for the energies of the inhabitants. Without them its ancient
    name would have become interesting only for its antiquity. But
    in the century in which we live it is permitted neither to town
    nor to community to rest quiet or to stand still. The energies I
    have referred to, I have learned to appreciate from living in
    your neighbourhood, and, indeed, I have been called on to
    participate in them as regards the navigation of your waters. I
    fervently pray that the Dock we are about to open this day, may,
    under the fostering auspices of a beneficent Providence, open
    out new sources of wealth and commerce, shedding the blessings
    which are derived from them on your town, and contributing to
    the prosperity of our beloved country."

The Royal party then visited the Grammar School, where the Prince
received and responded to an address from the Masters and Scholars, and
presented to the successful competitor the gold medal, given annually,
through the munificence of the Prince, as a prize for classical and
modern languages in alternate years. The Prince presented the prize,

    "I have great pleasure in presenting you with this medal. On a
    former occasion I presented it at Sandringham, but it is more
    pleasure to you to receive it among your schoolfellows. I hope
    this medal will contribute to your success in future life, and
    that it may be a stimulus to you for further exertion."

On arriving at the Dock, the circumference of which was densely crowded,
the Royal visitors were greeted with cheering, bell-ringing, and every
demonstration of welcome. When it came to the ceremony of declaring the
dock open, an agreeable surprise was added by the terms in which the
announcement was made:--


The announcement was received with vociferous acclamation. The Prince's
intention had been signified to the Chairman of the Dock Company only a
few minutes before, and was quite unknown to the mass of the spectators,
who expressed their delight by repeated salvos of cheering.

At a banquet afterwards given, when the toast of the Royal visitors was
given, by Mr. Jarvis the President, the Prince said that he regarded
King's Lynn as his country town, and should always feel the deepest
interest in its welfare.


_July, 1869._

The annual show of the Royal Agricultural Society was held in 1869 at
Manchester, which the Prince of Wales visited on the 29th of July,
accompanied by the Princess of Wales.

There are some who remember the first visit of the Queen and Prince
Consort to Manchester in 1851. The Royal party then proceeded along the
canal to Worsley from Patricroft, where the wonderful engineering works
of James Nasmyth were inspected. In 1869, the Prince and Princess of
Wales were conducted along the same canal, but in reverse direction, the
barge going from Worsley, through Patricroft, to Old Trafford. The
Prince and Princess, with their host and hostess, the Earl and Countess
of Ellesmere, drove from the Hall to the stage where the royal barge was
waiting. A large flotilla of boats followed as a guard of honour,
including some of the Manchester Rowing Clubs. It was a strange and
picturesque canal scene, the barges being towed by horses ridden by
postillions, and the towing path all along the route, for five or six
miles, being kept clear by mounted patrols in livery. It was a great
gala day in those densely peopled regions.

In passing through Salford an address was presented by the Mayor,
Aldermen, and burgesses of that borough, in the Reading Room of the
Royal Museum. The address expressed the great pleasure experienced by
this, the second visit of the Prince to their town, enhanced by the
presence there, for the first time, of the Princess of Wales: "We
cherish a lively and affectionate remembrance of the visit of Her Most
Gracious Majesty the Queen to Peel-park in the year 1851, when she
witnessed the assemblage of 80,000 Sunday-school scholars, and listened,
not unmoved, while they sang the National Anthem. This event was
commemorated by the erection of a marble statue to Her Majesty in the
park, which was publicly inaugurated by the late and much revered Prince
Consort, who on that occasion inspected and manifested a deep interest
in the free museum and library in the park. We deeply deplored the loss
of the late Prince Consort, and erected a marble statue to his memory,
in close proximity to that of the Queen, and near the spot where he
stood when inaugurating the statue of Her Majesty."

The Prince made the following reply:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--The Princess of Wales and myself
    thank you very cordially for your address, and for the
    sentiments you are good enough to express towards us. It is very
    gratifying to us to have the opportunity of paying you a visit,
    and to observe the evidences of the growing wealth and
    population which have raised Salford to the position she now
    occupies in the Empire. It will be highly satisfactory to the
    Queen to learn how deeply engraven on your hearts is the
    recollection of the visit she paid you in 1851, and how
    cherished and beloved is the memory of my lamented father. On my
    own part, I can but acknowledge the kindness of the terms in
    which you have alluded to my past years. For those which are to
    come I can only say that it will be the one effort of my life
    to merit the good opinion of the people I am so proud to call my

In driving through the park the Royal visitors had been conducted past
the white marble statues of the Queen and the Prince Consort, and those
of Richard Cobden and Joseph Brotherton. Leaving the park, the streets
and ways being everywhere densely thronged, they reached the Manchester
Town Hall, where another address was delivered, expressing joyous
welcome from the loyal citizens, and especially the feelings of
satisfaction at the presence of the Prince, as President of the Royal
Agricultural Society, "believing the same to be an evidence of the deep
interest manifested by your Royal Highness in the success of all
movements which have for their object the advancement of art and science
and the progress and welfare of the people of this great empire. It has
been the special privilege of your Royal Highness to an unusual extent
to visit and personally to become acquainted with other Courts and
countries, and with distant portions of Her Majesty's dominions, and we
rejoice to believe that the valuable experience thereby acquired gives
to all classes of Her Majesty's subjects an assurance that your Royal
Highness will ever be foremost in all efforts to extend true liberty and
civilization, and to develope those free institutions which are the
pride and glory of our country."

To which address the Prince replied:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I thank you for the kind expressions
    of loyalty and devotion towards the Queen, the Princess of
    Wales, and myself contained in your address. I have gladly
    availed myself of the opportunity afforded me, in the fulfilment
    of my duties as President of the Royal Agricultural Society, to
    visit a city second to none in the Empire in commercial
    importance, to become better acquainted with its history, its
    locality, and the sources of its prosperity. The wise provision
    of my lamented father and of the Queen, my dear mother, has
    secured for me at an early age the advantages of visiting the
    centres of the world, the most remarkable and the most deserving
    of study for their interest and for their development of the
    elements of wealth. In admiring, and, I trust, appreciating, the
    successful result that has distinguished foreign exertions, I
    have also learnt to look with increased admiration on those
    wonderful works of human ingenuity, perseverance, and industry,
    the products of the heads and hands of my own countrymen, and
    especially of those who now surround me. May we all be grateful,
    gentlemen, to a superintending Providence, which has blessed
    the efforts of our commercial enterprise and the free
    institutions of our country,--themselves a pledge of our future

The Prince presided at a general meeting of the Council of the Society,
and opened the proceedings by a brief speech which was loudly applauded.
He also received in his own marquee a numerous deputation from the
Agricultural Society of France. At the close of the meeting the Royal
visitors drove to a station on the Manchester South Junction line, where
a train was waiting to take them to Brough, near Hull, viâ Normanton;
the Prince having engaged to be at Hull in the afternoon in order to
inaugurate the new Western Dock at that town.

The principal object of the Prince's visit was to see the Royal
Agricultural Show, the members mustering in great force for the occasion
from all parts of England. At the midday luncheon the Chairman, the Earl
of Sefton, gave the toast of "The Queen," who was deeply interested in
the agricultural affairs of the Kingdom, and set the practical example
of being an exhibitor at the present Show. The Chairman next proposed
"The Health of their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales."
He said the present toast should be the last. He had to ask them to
drink to the health of the President of the Royal Agricultural Society
of England, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, coupled with the
toast of Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales. He had looked forward
to this meeting for a long time, and it was with the greatest pride they
learnt that it was to be held under the presidency of His Royal
Highness. The reception their Royal Highnesses met with the day previous
and that day sufficiently testified to the loyalty and attachment of the
people of this country to the Crown. It was difficult to allude to the
good qualities of His Royal Highness, but he was ever foremost in the
furtherance of works of charity and usefulness. They also experienced
the warmest attachment and the truest loyalty towards the Princess.

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in replying, said:--

    "I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the kind way in
    which you have received this toast. My health has been proposed
    twofold--first for myself, and also in my position as President
    of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. I can assure you
    it was great honour that was conferred upon me when I was asked
    to assume this presidency, and my only regret is that this
    office has been a mere nominal one, and that I have not been
    able to be of so much use as I should have liked. At the same
    time I feel a pride in being President of a Society which has
    existed for so long, and which is one of the greatest
    agricultural societies anywhere, always helping forward
    improvements in agriculture. It was a great satisfaction to this
    Society to hold one of its annual meetings at Manchester, one of
    the greatest manufacturing towns of England. It is my duty as
    President of the Society to return, in the name of the Society,
    our most cordial and our warmest thanks for the extensive and
    liberal way in which the local committee have made their
    arrangements. It is to them we owe this magnificent
    entertainment in this fine tent, and also the excellent
    arrangements which we see before us. Lord Sefton told us not to
    make many speeches or long ones. I will, therefore, not make any
    further remarks, but, before sitting down, allow me to thank you
    in the name of the Princess for the kind way in which you have
    received her. I can assure you it has given her great pleasure
    to be present at this second visit to the Royal Agricultural
    Society, and this her first visit to Manchester. We both feel
    deeply grateful for the kind and hearty welcome which we have
    received, not only from Manchester, but from the inhabitants of


_July 23rd, 1869._

The best memorials of George Peabody, American citizen and
philanthropist, are the piles of buildings which stand as monuments of
his generous liberality, and of his desire to advance the physical and
moral welfare of the poor of London. He received from the Queen of
England, and from many public and official bodies, warm recognition of
his beneficence. But it was also fitting and right that in some public
place a Statue should be erected, to perpetuate his name and his
likeness, as well as to commemorate his good deeds. The citizens of
London, headed by all the leading men of the Metropolis, subscribed for
the Statue, which now adorns the site on the east of the Royal Exchange.
The Prince of Wales, having consented to perform the ceremony of
unveiling the Statue, was received at the Mansion House by the Lord
Mayor, where a distinguished company had assembled. In response to the
toast of his health, the Prince said:--

    "I thank you for the compliment you have paid me in drinking my
    health. I assure you it is always a pleasure to me to be present
    here at the Mansion-house. It is not, indeed, the first time I
    have received the hospitality of the Lord Mayor and of the City
    of London. We are assembled to take part in a great ceremony,
    and I accepted with much pleasure the invitation and the
    privilege of unveiling the statue of Mr. George Peabody. After
    the appropriate remarks the Lord Mayor has made concerning him I
    have little to say except to indorse what has been so well
    expressed by his Lordship. He is a man whose name will go down
    to posterity as a great philanthropist, and you, my Lord Mayor,
    and the citizens of London in particular, can never be
    sufficiently grateful to him for what he has done."

After the luncheon His Royal Highness was escorted to the site of the
memorial. Here Sir Benjamin Phillips, Chairman of the Committee,
addressed the Prince, concluding with these words:--"Let us hope that
this statue, erected by the sons of free England to the honour of one of
Columbia's truest and noblest citizens, may be symbolical of the peace
and goodwill that exist between the two countries, and that a people
springing from the same stock, speaking the same language, and inspired
and animated by the same love of freedom and progress may live in
uninterrupted friendship and happiness. Your Royal Highness may remember
the language so beautifully expressed by George Peabody, in the letter
that accompanied his last noble gift, when, speaking of America he said,
'I will pray that Almighty God will give to it a future as happy and
noble in the intelligence and virtue of its citizens as it will be
glorious in unexampled power and prosperity.' Your Royal Highness, these
are the sentiments uttered by a man of ripe age, and alike applicable to
the land of his birth and to the country of his adoption. May they
inspire us, may they animate us, and may they find an echo throughout
the length and breadth of our own free and happy homes."

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales than presented himself to speak,
and was hailed with enthusiastic cheers. He said:--

    "Sir Benjamin Phillips, my Lord Mayor, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I
    feel sure that all those who have heard the words which have
    just been uttered cannot but be gratified with what has been
    said. Allow me to say to you that among the many duties which I
    have to perform, and which I have the privilege of performing,
    none could have given me greater pleasure than to assist and
    take part in the unveiling of this statue on this occasion. The
    name of George Peabody is so well known to all of you that
    really I feel some difficulty in saying anything new of that
    remarkable man; but, at the same time, it affords me the deepest
    gratification to join in paying a mark of tribute and respect to
    the name of that great American citizen and philanthropist--I
    may say, that citizen of the world. England can never adequately
    pay the debt of gratitude which she owes to him--London
    especially, where his wonderful charity has been so liberally
    distributed. For a man not born in this country to give a sum, I
    believe, more than a quarter of a million of pounds sterling for
    purposes of benevolence is a fact unexampled. His name will go
    down to posterity as one who, as Sir Benjamin Phillips so justly
    remarked, has tried to ameliorate the condition of his poorer
    fellow-citizens, and especially to benefit their moral and
    social character. I have not yet had the opportunity of seeing
    the statue which is about to be unveiled, but having had the
    privilege of knowing the sculptor, Mr. Story, for a space of now
    about ten years, I feel sure it will be one worthy of his
    reputation, and worthy also of the man to whom it is dedicated.
    Before concluding the few imperfect remarks which I have
    ventured to address to you, let me thank Mr. Motley, the
    American Minister, for his presence on this occasion, and assure
    him what pleasure it gives me to take part in this great and I
    might almost say, national ceremonial of paying a tribute to the
    name of his great and distinguished countryman. Be assured that
    the feelings which I personally entertain towards America are
    the same as they ever were. I can never forget the reception
    which I had there nine years ago, and my earnest wish and hope
    is that England and America may go hand in hand in peace and

At the conclusion of His Royal Highness's address the Statue was
uncovered, and at a signal from the Lord Mayor a loud and prolonged
cheer was raised on its being exposed to view.

His Excellency, the American Minister, then addressed the vast audience.
He said, towards the close of his speech, "It is a delightful thought
that the tens of thousands who daily throng this crowded mart will see
him almost as accurately as if in the flesh, and that generations after
generations--that long, yet unborn, but I fear, never ending procession
of London's poor--will be almost as familiar in the future with the form
and features of their great benefactor as are those of us who have
enjoyed his acquaintance and friendship in life."

Mr. Story, the sculptor, having been called on, said he had no speech to
make. He added, significantly pointing to the Statue, "That is my
speech,"--a remark which occasioned much merriment and cheering.

The ceremony was then brought to a close, and the Prince took his leave.
His Royal Highness, as he did so, was repeatedly cheered.


_November 30th, 1869._

The Scottish Corporation is commonly called the Scottish Hospital, but
this is rather misleading as to the uses of the charity. Its objects are
to assist, by pensions, poor aged natives of Scotland living in London,
to afford temporary relief to Scotchmen in distress, or to aid them to
return to their own country; and also to educate poor Scottish children.
The last-named object is also carried out by a kindred institution, the
Royal Caledonian Asylum, which receives some children of indigent
Scotchmen in London, although its main purpose is the maintenance and
education of children of soldiers, sailors, and marines, natives of
Caledonia. The Scottish Hospital possesses funded property to the amount
of £40,000, and the annual receipts are about £5000. In trust to the
Scottish Hospital there is also attached the "Kinloch Bequest," for
granting pensions to Scottish soldiers and sailors, resident in the
United Kingdom, who have been wounded or have lost their sight in the
service of the country, and whose incomes do not exceed £20 from other

The anniversary festival of the Scottish Corporation is always held on
the 30th of November, St. Andrew's day. In 1869 His Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales presided at the dinner. The guests at this festival are
mostly Scottish, and a large muster of Highland Chiefs and Lowland
Lairds, as well as prosperous Scotchmen of London, supported the Royal
chairman upon this occasion. Prince Christian and other distinguished
visitors were also present. Many of the stewards wore the garb of old
Gaul, and the tartans, scarves, flags, and decorations made the Hall of
the Freemasons' Tavern assume a national appearance. The "bagpipes" were
also in honourable use, the Prince being conducted to the chair to the
tune of the Highland laddie, played by the Queen's piper, the Prince's
first piper, and the piper of the Royal Caledonian Asylum. The Prince
had previously been received by a guard of honour of the London
Artillery, whose band played the National Anthem, while the band of the
London Scottish Volunteers performed a selection of Scotch music during
the dinner. The three pipers also, at intervals, paraded the hall, and
regaled the guests with their stirring strains.

The health of the Queen was drunk with enthusiasm, specially as the
patroness of the Scottish Hospital. To the toast of "the Princess of
Wales and the rest of the Royal Family," proposed by the Duke of
Roxburghe, the Prince responded, and then gave: "The Army, Navy,
Militia, and Volunteers," referring in his speech to the Kinloch
Bequest, which provides pensions for about 400 disabled soldiers and
sailors. A Scotch vocalist, Mr. Maclagan, sang "Scots wha hae wi'
Wallace bled." Then the Prince rose to give the toast of "Prosperity to
the Scottish Hospital":--

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I have now to
    give you the toast of the evening: 'Prosperity to the Scottish
    Hospital.' I feel assured that it is a toast which the numerous
    assembly I see before me will drink in bumpers. As you know, the
    Queen is patroness of this hospital; she has been so for
    thirty-seven years, and she has contributed to its funds between
    £3000 and £4000. At twenty different anniversaries the late King
    William, as Duke of Clarence, presided. The Duke of Kent, the
    Duke of Sussex, and the Duke of Cambridge also presided at
    various anniversaries, and contributed largely to the funds of
    the hospital.

    "The hospital, as no doubt most of you know, was originally
    founded in the reign of James I. Its first charter was given to
    it by Charles II., in 1665, and a second charter of
    incorporation was granted by the same Monarch, in 1676,
    containing more extended privileges. It became necessary,
    however, to enable the corporation to extend its relief, to
    obtain a new charter, which was granted by King George I., in

    "By the paper which has been placed in my hands I observe the
    pensions which are contributed by this ancient corporation are
    very numerous. I see that a sum is set apart for the support of
    five persons exceeding 65 years of age who have occupied a
    respectable social position, and who have a permanent income of
    not less than £15, but not more than £30 per annum; for 20 poor
    and infirm persons exceeding 72 years of age, to whom a pension
    of £15 each per annum is allowed; for 110 above 68, to whom a
    pension of £12 each is allowed. Pensions of £6 are granted to 50
    persons selected from the casual list. Monthly casual relief to
    upwards of 200 is awarded by the committee, and free passages to
    Scotland are given to such as require them.

    "The charity of the Scottish Hospital is applicable to the poor
    natives of Scotland and their children resident in the
    Metropolis and its immediate neighbourhood, who, not being in
    receipt of parochial relief in this country, would in age and
    poverty, in sickness or distress, or when in want of employment,
    be exposed to the utmost wretchedness, or to discreditable
    beggary, but for the fostering relief afforded them by this
    institution. Those natives of Scotland resident in London who
    may desire to spend the remainder of their days in Scotland have
    free passages granted to them by the corporation. From the
    accumulation of a subscription which was raised in India thirty
    years ago the corporation is also enabled to allot £120 a year
    to the ministers and Kirk Sessions of the several congregations
    of the Scottish churches in London and Westminster, for the
    purpose of affording education to the children of Scottish
    parents at the schools attached to these churches.

    "I am happy to say that the Scottish Hospital is in a more
    prosperous state this year than at any former period. But at the
    same time further demands have been made upon its funds. The
    claims during the past year have been in excess of any previous
    year, and several of the cases relieved have been of a very
    pressing and urgent nature. Pensions of £6, £12, £15, and £25
    per annum have been granted to nearly 200 respectable men and
    women, whose means of support have been greatly increased by the
    timely aid afforded. Nearly 300 monthly applicants have had sums
    given to them by the directors, in several instances amounting
    to £5 at one time. In addition to these, more than 1300 persons
    have had casual assistance at the office of the corporation.
    Passages to Scotland have been granted to about 200 deserving
    persons. But for the intervention of this corporation many would
    have been compelled to apply to an English parish for relief,
    and by doing so would have lost that feeling of independence
    which every Scotsman cherishes and desires to maintain. Upwards
    of 208 children of Scottish parents resident in the Metropolis
    have during the year been educated at the expense of the
    corporation. Soldiers and sailors, natives of Scotland, to the
    number of nearly 400, have been in receipt of pensions from the
    Kinloch Bequest.

    "Although the facts must be known to most of you, I have
    nevertheless thought it necessary to mention a few of them in
    order to stimulate your generosity this evening, and induce you
    to contribute as largely as you can for the benefit of this
    excellent charity. I hope you will drink the toast of
    'Prosperity to the Scottish Hospital' in full bumpers. I have
    great pleasure in coupling with the toast the name of the noble
    Duke on my left, who has been president for four successive

The Duke of Roxburghe, in responding to the toast, announced that His
Royal Highness had kindly consented to allow his name to appear as that
of President of the Corporation for the ensuing year. As Duke of
Rothesay he had a warm welcome that evening, and in the name of his
brother Scotchmen he gave his heartfelt thanks for appearing among them.
"Nay more, I thank him in the name of the aged recipients of this great
charity, many of whom have seen better days, but who now, bowed down by
poverty, look to you for assistance in the hour of need. I also thank
His Royal Highness in the name of all whose sorrows have been lessened,
and whose homes have been brightened, by the ministrations of this
Society." He proposed the health of the Prince of Wales.

The toast was drunk with "Highland honours." His Royal Highness, who was
loudly cheered, said:--

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--Allow me to
    return you my most hearty thanks for the excessively kind way in
    which my health leas been proposed and received by you. On any
    ordinary occasion I should have been deeply gratified by the
    kind feeling displayed towards me, but I am deeply touched by
    the enthusiasm you have manifested just now in drinking my
    health with Highland honours. I can only say it has afforded me
    great pleasure to preside here this evening. Although for some
    years past the Duke of Roxburghe asked me to take the chair,
    different circumstances unfortunately prevented me--being absent
    from the country two years ago--- and again last year being on
    the Continent. I feel, therefore, exceedingly happy that I have
    been enabled to be present this evening, and to discharge what I
    have found to be the very easy duties of chairman. My lords and
    gentlemen, let me thank you once more for the honour you have
    done me in drinking my health, and for the support you have
    given me this evening."

His Royal Highness then announced that telegrams had been received
during the evening from meetings with similar objects held in New York,
Glasgow, Belfast, Ipswich, and Aberdeen, and answers had been returned
expressive of kindly feeling to the different associations. The
secretary then read a list of contributions received, among which were
100 guineas from Her Majesty the Queen, 100 guineas from His Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales, 100 guineas from the Highland Society of
London, 300 guineas from the Caledonian Society of London--in all about
£2500, being by far the largest subscription received at any anniversary
of the Scottish Hospital.


_March 30th, 1870._

The seventy-second anniversary festival of this institution was held at
Freemason's Hall on the 30th of March, 1870. The Prince of Wales
presided, and was supported by Earl de Grey and Ripon, G. M. elect, the
Duke of Manchester, the Earl of Jersey, Earl Percy, the Marquis of
Hartington, and a numerous company of above six hundred brethren, all of
whom wore dress of the craft. The galleries were crowded with ladies.

After dinner His Royal Highness, in giving the toast of "The Queen,"
said that Her Majesty had been patroness of the institution since 1852,
and on this occasion sent a donation of a hundred guineas, in addition
to the annual subscription.

The next toast was "The health of the Earl of Zetland," the retiring
Grand Master, who had held the honourable and useful post for more than
a quarter of a century. The Grand Master elect, the Earl of Ripon, in
giving the toast of the Prince and the Princess of Wales, said that the
Prince had entered the craft determined to discharge his duties to the
fullest extent, and he had taken the earliest opportunity of presiding
at one of the festivals of the craft. The Prince of Wales, in
responding, said:--

    "Brethren, I feel deeply touched by the excessively kind manner
    in which this toast has been received by you. I wish to take
    this opportunity of thanking you for the kind reception you have
    given me this evening, and I desire especially to express to you
    the pride I feel at being so heartily received among you as a
    brother Mason. I feel deeply grateful for the kind words which
    have fallen from the Deputy Grand Master, and I can assure him
    and you of my desire to follow the footsteps of my grand
    uncles, who were so long connected with the craft. Brethren,
    much has been said against Freemasonry by those who do not know
    what it is. People naturally say they do not approve secret
    societies; but I maintain that the craft is free from the
    reproach of being either disloyal or irreligious; and I am sure
    you will all support me in that assertion, for I am convinced
    that Her Majesty has no more loyal subjects than are the
    Freemasons of England. Brethren, I desire to remind you that
    when, about 70 years ago, it became necessary for the Government
    of that day to put down secret societies, my relative the late
    Duke of Sussex urged in his place in Parliament that Freemasons'
    lodges ought to be exempt from such a law, and the force of his
    appeal was acknowledged. From that time Freemasonry has been
    devoid of politics, its only object being the pure and Christian
    one of charity. Brethren, I once more thank you heartily for the
    welcome you have given me this evening, and let me assure you
    that the interests of Freemasonry shall be always upheld and
    respected by me."

Other toasts, usual at Masonic festivals, having been given, the Prince
of Wales proposed success to the institution, and made a statement
respecting its position and progress:--

    "Freemasons had fully recognized the importance of education--a
    subject which had of late so much occupied the public mind--and
    had founded many schools. The Royal Masonic Institution for Boys
    was founded in 1798, when six boys were admitted. In 1810, when
    the jubilee of the reign of George III. was celebrated, the
    number was increased to 50, and now there were 110 in the
    school. The total cost of the new building had been £47,000 of
    which £5000 was still owing, while there were other matters
    which raised the total liability to £10,200. There were now 155
    candidates for admission, but there were only nine vacancies,
    although 20 more boys could be admitted if the institution was
    free from debt. He was sure he had only to mention these facts
    to so distinguished an assemblage of Masons to insure a response
    which would greatly forward the prosperity of the institution."


_April 4th, 1870._

In everything pertaining to Exhibitions, national or international, the
Prince of Wales has never grown weary, even when the public interest has
seemed to flag. On the 4th of April, 1870, His Royal Highness presided
at the rooms of the Society of Arts, in connection with the "Educational
Section" of a series of proposed International Exhibitions. On rising to
open the proceedings, the Prince said:--

    "We are assembled here for the purpose of organizing the
    educational section of the Exhibition to be held in 1871. I
    appear before you on this occasion in a double capacity, for I
    hold the position of President of your Society, and I am
    President of the Royal Commission of 1851, having succeeded in
    this post the late lamented Lord Derby, whose name will always
    be remembered among the names of our great statesmen, and who
    will be greatly missed from that Commission, the interest of
    which he had so much at heart.

    "The long-standing connection of the Society of Arts with
    Exhibitions is well known, and in these very rooms the
    Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862 were first planned. This Society
    is, I consider, well qualified to deal with the subject before
    it, and I assure you that it is a great gratification to me to
    preside here and show that I am entirely alive to the great
    question of the day--that of education.

    "I have now to state that the meeting to-day is of members of a
    large Committee, of persons eminent in their various stations
    for the interest they have displayed in education, and that it
    has been appointed without reference to politics, party,
    denomination, or social position, for the purpose of obtaining
    the best possible representation in 1871 of the various
    materials and apparatus used in teaching, and exhibiting, as far
    as practicable, the results of the many systems of instruction
    which are in operation in this country and in other nations of
    the world. Under the first class we find such objects as affect
    the sanitary condition of schools--the desks and stools used,
    maps and globes, books, pictures, scientific diagrams, objects
    of natural history, and the like. Under the second class will be
    shown illustrations of modes of teaching, drawing, reading,
    writing, music, and gymnastics, and the interesting work of
    educating those whom nature has deprived of sight, speech, and
    hearing, with examples of the successful results.

    "In this Exhibition of Education, foreigners as well as British
    subjects will take their share, and I am happy to say that
    Sweden has already applied for permission to exhibit a
    full-sized model of one of its parish schools. The duty of this
    Committee is to see that such work as I have sketched out shall
    be completely accomplished, that exhibitors shall come forward
    and offer their productions, that the best only shall be
    selected for exhibition, and that discussions on systems of
    instruction shall be organized. I indulge a sanguine hope that
    the labours of this Committee may teach lessons which will lead
    to the improvement of the quality of primary education, and to
    the extension of that secondary instruction in science and art
    so much needed for the industrial progress of this country, a
    necessity proved at the Exhibition of 1851, originated and
    conducted by my illustrious father, and confirmed again in 1862,
    and at Paris in 1867, where our own artisans showed by their
    remarkable reports how strong were their convictions on this
    point. Difficulties there are, as there must ever be, in the
    completion of a great work, and here I am reminded how fully the
    difficulties connected with this work of education were
    appreciated by my father as long ago as 1851. But my visit with
    the Princess of Wales to the Middle Class Schools in the City of
    London on Wednesday last, and the reports on Faversham School
    and the District Union Schools of the Metropolis, which have
    been published by our Society, lead me on to hope that even
    these difficulties may admit of solution.

    "By improved organization of schools and teaching power, I think
    that it is shown that instruction may be so given as to enable
    earning and learning to go hand-in-hand together. I close these
    few remarks by bidding 'God speed' to this Committee in the
    great work that is before them. Two resolutions will be offered
    for your acceptance, and any explanation which may seem
    necessary will be afforded."

The resolutions, moved by Sir John Pakington, and by the Hon. W. Cowper
Temple, were to the effect that the meeting warmly approved of the
proposed International Educational Exhibition, which would not only
receive His Royal Highness's sanction, but his personal assistance and
co-operation. It was explained that the feature of these Exhibitions
would be the arrangement of objects illustrating the progress of art and
industry, not according to countries, but according to classes. On the
proposal of a vote of thanks to the chairman of the meeting, the Prince

    "I require and desire no thanks at all. It has given me great
    pleasure to be here to open the proceedings, and I cordially
    thank all the gentlemen who have so kindly supported me on this
    occasion. I beg again to assure you that I take a very deep
    interest in this question--that of education, and that I shall
    be always ready to give my hearty co-operation on a subject of
    this important bearing."


_May 16th, 1870._

This Fund grants relief in annuities to members of the dramatic
profession, to singers and dancers, and also to the widows and orphans
of members. At present, upwards of £2000 annually is paid to fifty
annuitants. The invested capital is about £12,000. The institution has
the merit of not being a mere charity, but is largely supported by the
actors themselves. In this respect it holds a more honourable position
than even the Royal Literary Fund; no attempt to establish a guild for
mutual help among men of letters having, as yet, been successful.

The Theatrical Fund was established as long ago as 1839 by a few actors,
and was incorporated by Royal charter in 1853. Part of the income comes
from subscribers to the fund; but it is necessary also to appeal to the
public, in the method common to all charities; the resources of the
profession not being sufficient to maintain a mutual insurance society
on financial unaided by benevolent principles.

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales presided at the 25th anniversary
festival of the Fund at St. James's Hall on the 16th of May, 1870. There
was a large attendance, including the leading members of the profession,
and some zealous supporters of the drama, among whom were the Nawab
Nazim of Bengal, with his two sons, the Princes Ali and Suleiman. Grace
having been sung after dinner the Prince gave "The Health of Her Majesty
the Queen," the patroness of this institution, and an annual subscriber
to its funds. The Duke of Sutherland, in proposing the health of "The
Prince and Princess of Wales, and other members of the Royal Family,"
adverted to the constant support given by their Royal Highnesses to the

    The Prince of Wales, in returning thanks, said "he rejoiced that
    ever since his childhood he had had opportunities of going to
    the theatre and witnessing some of the most excellent plays, and
    appreciating the performances of some of the best actors of the
    present day, many of whom he saw on either side and before him
    on this occasion. The few remarks he had to make regarding this
    most excellent fund must be reserved till a later period of the
    evening, and therefore he would not then detain the company; but
    he must observe that not only had the Princess and himself
    derived considerable amusement from what they had witnessed at
    the theatres, but they had given their patronage to the drama
    because it was their wish to encourage a noble profession."

The usual toast of the Army, Navy, and Volunteers having been given and
responded to, the Prince rose, and said:--

    "The toast which he had now to propose was the so-called toast
    of the evening, which was 'Prosperity to the Royal General
    Theatrical Fund.' It afforded him great pleasure to propose this
    toast, and when he saw the numerous assembly before him he felt
    no doubt of the great interest taken by all present in this
    excellent charity. What charity, he asked, could be more
    deserving of support? When they considered how much amusement
    and pleasure they all derived by going to the theatre, did it
    ever occur to them that it was to the actors and actresses a
    life of drudgery and hardship? Those same actors and actresses
    who appeared in some comic character might have near and dear
    relations lying sick at home. Then, also, when a time of life
    arrived in the course of nature in which they were unable longer
    to appear upon the stage ought they to be left to starve?
    Certainly not, and it was to prevent aged actors who were
    incapable of work from starving, that this fund had been

    "This charity was still more meritorious, because it was
    supported by the actors themselves. The charity was established
    in 1839 by a few London actors, and in 1853 it was incorporated
    by Royal charter. The fund was raised to provide annuities for
    aged and decayed members of the charity, and in special cases
    for granting temporary assistance to the families of deceased
    members. Any member of the profession, on the payment of a small
    annual subscription, ranging from 21_s._ 4_d._ to £28 9_s._ a
    year, according to a special scale, provided he had been
    performing three years in a theatre licensed by the Lord
    Chamberlain or by the local magistrates, was eligible to receive
    the benefits of the fund, but no member had a claim unless he
    had been a subscriber for seven years. Should he then be
    incapacitated from further work, he had the option of either
    receiving a life annuity or one-half the payments made by him
    while a subscriber. On his death an allowance of £10 was granted
    towards defraying funeral expenses. At 60 years of age any
    member was at liberty to claim an annuity if he had subscribed
    to the fund for 12 years, and female members were allowed to
    cease their subscriptions when 55 years old. Since the opening
    of the charity 322 members of the profession had been admitted
    associates. To 61 of these life pensions had been granted,
    varying from £30 to £90 a year. In 1846, the first year in which
    pensions were granted, the receipts amounted to £565, and the
    annuities to £98. Last year the total income was £1370, and the
    amount expended in pensions was £1614. The receipts of 1869
    therefore exceeded those of 1846 by £805, and the pensions, &c.,
    by £1516. Again, while in 1846 only seven members received
    annuities, the number of annuitants had increased to 33 in 1869.
    The total disbursements, however, of last year exceeded the
    income by £368, and it had been found necessary therefore to
    draw that sum from the reserve fund.

    "These few remarks would perhaps induce those who heard him to
    come forward liberally to the assistance of the charity, and to
    make up the £300 which it had been necessary to draw from the
    reserve fund. His Royal Highness concluded by calling upon the
    company to drink 'Prosperity to the General Theatrical Fund,'
    coupled with the name of one who, he was sure, they would
    receive with the greatest enthusiasm, as he was one of their
    oldest and ablest actors. He had known Mr. Buckstone personally
    ever since his childhood, and had repeatedly laughed and roared
    at his drollery and humour."

Mr. Buckstone made a very amusing and characteristic speech, but with
good sense underlying the drollery. With regard to the presence of the
Prince in the chair, he said: "That His Royal Highness is a constant and
warm supporter of the drama is evident from his frequent visits with the
Princess to all the London theatres, and his ready appreciation of every
worthy novelty. This taste for the drama may in some measure be
attributed to his early introduction to dramatic art at Windsor Castle,
where, on having the honour of appearing there by invitation of Her
Majesty and the lamented Prince Consort, I have frequently seen His
Royal Highness with his brothers and sisters, seated at the feet of
their father and mother, witnessing with delight the various

"The members of our fund cannot be too grateful for the kindness and
goodness of heart which have induced His Royal Highness to come here
to-night, as the calls upon his time have now become so many, and the
duties he has to perform so numerous and fatiguing, that we can only
wonder how he gets through them all. Even within these few days he has
held a levée; on Saturday last he patronized a performance at Drury-lane
in aid of the Dramatic College; then had to run away to Freemasons'-hall
to be present at the installation of the Grand Master; and now we find
him in the chair this evening; so what with _conversaziones_, laying
foundation stones, opening schools, and other calls upon his little
leisure, I think he may be looked upon as one of the hardest working men
in Her Majesty's dominions. Still, it is this ready kindness that
endears him to the nation, as the Princess, by her charming qualities,
is so firmly fixed in the heart of every Englishman and Englishwoman.

"And now, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, I must inform you that Her
Gracious Majesty has again sent us her handsome donation of £100; and
although, unfortunately, she does not now visit our theatres, yet she
does not forget us; and so, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, with such a
truly Royal example before you, I can only conclude by hoping that,
according to your generous feelings and your worldly means, you will
come and do likewise."

Lord W. Lennox proposed "The Visitors," coupling with it the health of
the Nawab Nazim of Bengal, who during his residence in England had
identified himself with the charities of this country. The Nawab had
been a liberal patron of theatrical performances, and had, he
understood, only one subject of regret in connection with our London
theatres--that the plays of Shakespeare were not more frequently
performed in them. The subscriptions of the evening amounted to £700,
including £100 from the Prince of Wales, and £50 from the Nawab Nazim of


_May 26th, 1870._

On the 26th of May, 1870, a public meeting was held at the Queen's
Concert Rooms, Hanover Square, in aid of the funds of St. George's
Hospital, especially with the view of enabling the Governors to open the
wards of the new wing. The meeting was one of unusual interest, not only
from the wide publicity given to the claims of the institution, but also
from the announcement that His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales would
preside, and from the high distinction of the speakers who were to take
part in the proceedings. The Princess of Wales manifested her interest
in the charity by accompanying the Prince to the meeting. The room was
densely crowded, and a number of distinguished persons were in the

His Royal Highness, on taking the chair, said:--

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--Before opening the
    proceedings of this meeting, allow me to express to you the
    satisfaction I have in being able to accept the invitation to
    preside at a meeting to-day which has for its aim such excellent
    and important objects. We are met here to-day to discuss whether
    it is expedient to open the new wing that has been added to St.
    George's Hospital. Last year a meeting was held for the same
    purpose for which we are met to-day, and it was then thought
    that the subscriptions, although they were to a great extent
    liberal subscriptions, were not sufficient in amount to
    authorize the Governors of the Hospital to open the new wing. It
    has also been much discussed whether it was not an extravagance
    on the part of the authorities to build this new wing. I must
    say--and I think I speak for those on my right and left--that
    the authorities did perfectly right in building that wing, as a
    piece of ground had been presented to them at a nominal rent by
    the late lamented Marquis of Westminster, who always came
    forward voluntarily to assist any great and important work.
    Besides that, a further sum of £5000 was given by Miss Williams
    to the building fund.

    "As regards this wing, we all know that St. George's Hospital
    lies near the South-Western and Great Western districts. We also
    know that it lies within the precincts of Kensington, Mayfair,
    and Belgravia. One would have thought that there would have
    been no difficulty, and that the large number of inhabitants in
    those parts, who are increasing monthly, and even weekly, would
    have been able to come forward and contribute sufficiently to
    this excellent institution.

    "It has been said that the Hospital of St. George is a rich one,
    but that is a great mistake. One would indeed think that it
    would be rich from its important position, and when one
    remembers how full its wards invariably are. To go back to the
    new wing. After all, it is not a very large sum that is required
    to maintain these wards. The sum only amounts to £2500 a year.
    Is it not, therefore, a scandal, ladies and gentlemen, that for
    the sake of this small sum we cannot use forty-eight beds in
    that wing? The Hospital itself is in want of money, as I will
    prove by stating that last year the expenditure amounted to as
    much as £20,000, while the income was only £15,000. In order,
    therefore, to make up the deficiency, £5000 had to be sold out
    of capital. That will be the case this year, and it may be the
    same in future years. The capital thus diminishing, the income
    will naturally be smaller, and in that way this excellent
    Hospital, which is most admirably cared for, which has the very
    best surgeons and physicians--one of whom, Mr. Prescott Hewett,
    I know personally--will sustain a yearly diminution of its
    usefulness. In this way, if the public do not come forward
    liberally we shall see one of the most excellent and important
    hospitals in London becoming, year by year, in a more difficult
    position with regard to funds.

    "I am here to state what I am not sure is known to all of you,
    that, with the exception of one hospital, the average cost of
    beds at the St. George's Hospital is less than in any other
    hospital in London. The authorities of the Hospital are not even
    satisfied with that, and, I believe, intend to appoint a
    committee to inquire still more closely and rigidly into the
    expenditure, in order to do their utmost to lessen that

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--The address I have to make to
    you is brief. I feel convinced that the gentlemen on this
    platform will advocate the claims of the Hospital in longer,
    more detailed, and more able statements than I have made; but I
    am sure that none can feel more strongly than I do the
    importance of this meeting. I feel certain also that the public
    at large, if they will only take the trouble to reflect, will
    come to our aid. Only to-day I read an excellent leading article
    in the _Times_ in support of the objects of this meeting. I
    thank you once more for the kind way in which you have received
    me, but let me say before I sit down that a most excellent
    example has been set us by a lady who has consented to give the
    sum of £1000 for the maintenance of a ward for the space of two
    years. Let this example not be lost upon us. Let us all try to
    follow it, and liberally open our purses for the sake of an
    institution of such value and importance to all of us who live
    in this part of London."

The Earl of Cadogan, one of the Treasurers, announced that the Prince of
Wales had just handed to him a cheque for two hundred guineas. The
Princess of Wales had also given a donation of fifty guineas. Miss Read
had given £500, and the Marquis of Westminster a subscription of £200 a
year. Mr. Prescott Hewett, the surgeon, gave a hundred guineas, and
other liberal donations and subscriptions were announced, amounting to
upwards of £2000.

The principal speakers at the meeting were Earl Granville, the Earl of
Derby, the Earl of Carnarvon, Mr. W. H. Smith, the Marquis of
Westminster, and the Rev. H. Howarth, Rector of St. George's, Hanover

The Marquis of Westminster, in his admirable speech moving the thanks of
the meeting to the Chairman, said that he happened to be in Milan a
short time ago, and, going over a great hospital there, containing
something like 3000 beds, he saw in different rooms portraits of the
benefactors of the institution--some full length, others three-quarters,
some half-length, and others only heads. On inquiring the reason of this
distinction, he was informed that the size of the picture depended upon
the amount of the sum given by the donor. One who gave, say £4000, had
his portrait painted full length, while the others were represented
half-length, or even by a head.... It might be thought a light and easy
thing to come forward and make so excellent a speech as His Royal
Highness had done; but he was quite sure that if any who thought thus
would come forward to try, they would find themselves mistaken. In
coming forward in this work of benevolence, His Royal Highness was
fairly entitled to the warm and cordial thanks, not only of the
governors of the hospital, but of the whole nation. He begged to include
in this vote the Princess of Wales.

His Royal Highness said:--

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--Allow me to return you all my
    most cordial thanks for the kind way in which you have supported
    me by your presence, and to my noble friend for the way in
    which he proposed the resolution. Not wishing to keep you here
    any longer, let me only urge you to be as liberal as you can,
    and I hope that the excellent speeches we have heard to-day may
    impress you with the importance of this meeting, and with the
    feeling that those speeches have been made not as a mere form,
    but as real and earnest appeals to you to open your purses most
    liberally. Lord Westminster has just alluded to the hospital at
    Milan and to the portraits of different sizes, according to the
    amount of money subscribed by the originals. I have but one
    suggestion to make to you in that respect, and one to which I am
    sure you will respond--that you should all contribute very
    largely that circular golden portrait representative of the
    Queen which this Hospital so much needs."


_June 21st, 1870._

The old corporation of "The College of God's gift" in Dulwich, in the
county of Surrey, was founded in 1619, under letters patent of King
James I., by Edward Alleyne, player, a contemporary and friend of
Shakespeare. Those who knew Dulwich College, before its reconstitution
in recent times, must remember its being spoken of as a notable instance
of "the abuse of an ancient charity." In 1857 the old corporation was
dissolved by Act of Parliament, and a new Governing Body was
established, consisting of 19 Governors, of whom 11 were to be appointed
by the Court of Chancery, and the remainder by the parishes of
Camberwell, Bishopsgate, St. Luke, Finsbury, and St. Saviour's,
Southwark, each appointing two Governors. A further scheme for the
management of the charity was approved by Her Majesty in Council in
1882, greatly modifying the arrangement of 1857. By the latter scheme
the management of the estate in its eleemosynary branch was wholly
separated from the educational branch, with separate governing bodies.

The great increase in the value of the estates had allowed the
establishment, in 1857, of Alleyn's School, and a large sum was then
provided for the erection of school buildings, a splendid edifice being
constructed by Mr. Charles Barry.

It was to open this new school that the visit of the Prince and Princess
of Wales was made on the 21st of June, 1870. By a singular coincidence
this day was the anniversary of that on which the charter of the College
had been first signed, on the 21st of June, 1607. The Prince of Wales
distributed the prizes, after the pupils had delivered speeches, and
gone through the exercises usual in public school examinations and
anniversaries. The recitations were brought to a close with singing the
National Anthem.

At the luncheon which followed, the Rev. W. Rogers presided, and
proposed the health of the Royal visitors.

His Royal Highness, who was loudly cheered on rising to reply, said:--

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I feel deeply the kind way in
    which you have received this toast, and I can assure you that it
    is with great pleasure we have to-day made so interesting a
    visit to a place which, for all of us, possesses an historical
    interest. It is hardly necessary for me to refer to the early
    history of the College. You all know that it was founded in the
    time of Queen Elizabeth, although the charter was actually
    signed by James I., and that Edward Alleyne was an eminent
    actor, and that he also held, I believe, the post of
    bear-keeper--I hope not bear-leader--to Queen Elizabeth. What we
    witness to-day is a gratifying result of that foundation.
    Everybody who has had the opportunity of seeing this splendid
    building must have derived gratification from the spectacle, and
    also from the proofs which have been furnished that education is
    by no means neglected. These proofs we have listened to in the
    English and French languages, and also in the ancient Greek, and
    we have done so with very great pleasure, in spite of the great
    heat which it was necessary for that purpose to encounter.

    "I will not detain you with further remarks. But before I sit
    down let me wish thorough success and happiness to this College,
    and let us hope that the success which has attended the last ten
    years especially of its existence will continue and increase,
    and that year by year it will advance in standing and position
    and in the number of the scholars within its walls. I have now
    the pleasure of proposing a toast which I am sure you will all
    drink with enthusiasm--'The Health of the Master of Dulwich
    College, Dr. Carver.' From the cordial way in which his name is
    cheered by the boys there can be no doubt of his popularity; and
    to his efforts, I believe, much of the success which the school
    has attained is owing."

The Rev. Dr. Carver "returned his very sincere thanks for this
compliment, which he took to be meant really for the institution of
which he was at the head. The inheritance of the last five
half-centuries was a noble one, but with it they inherited many
responsibilities, resulting from the faults and failings of their
predecessors, and there was much not only to do but to redeem. He
believed that a new era for Dulwich College had been inaugurated, and he
trusted it would hereafter win and occupy a place among the most
important and valuable institutions of the kingdom."

Their Royal Highnesses then proceeded to the Library. Before the
ceremonies at the School, they had visited the magnificent collection of
paintings, known as the Dulwich Gallery. These pictures were collected
by Sir F. Bourgeois, R.A., bequeathed by him to the College, owing to
his friendship for Mr. Allen, the Master of the College, at the time of
his death, in 1810. Some of the best pictures in this gallery were
obtained in Poland, at the time of the partition of that ancient kingdom
by the three Great Powers.


_June 30th, 1870._

Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, on the 30th of
June, 1870, performed the ceremony of opening the new schools for the
children of seamen. There was a large assembly present, including the
Lord and Lady Mayoress, the Bishop of London and Mrs. Jackson, the
Sheriffs of Middlesex, several Aldermen and public officials. The
schools are situated near the London Docks, in Wellclose Square, where
for two hundred years stood the church for Danish seamen. The site of
the buildings was the property of the Crown of Denmark, and, with the
church, was purchased from the trustees with money granted from the
Bishop of London's Fund. The newly-erected schools afford accommodation
for 600 children, and the cost was about £5500.

An address, giving the history and purpose of the institution, was read
by the vicar of St. Paul's Church for seamen of the port of London, to

    The Prince of Wales responded, saying "it was a source of
    infinite gratification to him to be present at the completion of
    a work originated by his lamented father, and to fulfil his
    benevolent design of providing for the education and religious
    welfare of the children, after having secured a place of Divine
    Worship for the parents. He trusted that the association of the
    site with its former uses would bear its fruit in the success
    of this sacred work of education and religion."

After prayers were read by the Bishop of London, the ceremony of
declaring the schools open was performed, and purses were presented,
with donations to the amount of £1500, including a hundred guineas from
the Prince of Wales.

A luncheon followed, at which the Bishop of London, in proposing the
health of the Queen, recalled a saying of George III., who once
expressed the hope that the time would come when every man in England
would possess a Bible, and be able to read it. This sentiment was also
felt by the old King's grand-daughter who now filled the throne, and
nothing was dearer to Her Majesty's heart than the religious education
of the people.

In next proposing the health of the Prince and Princess of Wales, the
Bishop said that the Royal visit of this day would give a prestige to
the schools which would ensure their popularity in the neighbourhood.
There was a special interest for the Princess of Wales in the fact that
they were on the site of the old Danish Chapel, long the only place of
worship for Danish seamen in London.

The Prince of Wales, in response, said:--

    "My Lord Bishop, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--Allow me in the name of
    the Princess of Wales and myself to tender you my warmest thanks
    for the kind way in which this toast has been proposed and
    responded to. I need not tell you that the proceedings of to-day
    have given us great pleasure, or that we feel a deep interest in
    the success of the schools which we have now opened. When we
    were asked to open these schools and play-grounds for the
    children of seamen and other persons living in this
    neighbourhood, we at once felt that the object was excellent,
    and we were anxious in coming here to-day to evince the interest
    we take in the schools. They have, as has already been
    mentioned, an especial interest for myself, because just
    twenty-four years ago the foundation stone of the neighbouring
    church for seamen was laid by my lamented father. That church,
    during the twenty-four years it has been in existence, has
    answered the purpose for which it was built, and I believe as
    many as 240,000 seamen, together with their wives and families,
    have attended divine service within its walls. Let us, then,
    hope that the children also may receive the benefits of a good
    education and religious training, and that these schools may
    fulfil the object for which they were built.

    "In this part of London there are so many poor that good schools
    are especially needed, and as these schools are not intended
    exclusively for the children of seamen, they will probably be
    most beneficial to the neighbourhood at large. Allow me to thank
    you for the way in which you have listened to the few remarks I
    have made, and to assure you that I feel deep gratification in
    being present to-day at the opening of these schools. I have,
    before sitting down, to propose 'The Health of the Lord Bishop
    of London,' to whom we owe our warmest thanks for the kind way
    in which he has come here to take part in the proceedings of
    this day, when he has so many other and important duties to
    perform. As I know that he has another pressing engagement in a
    short time, the fewer words said the better. I therefore call
    upon you to drink the health of the Lord Bishop of London."


_July 1st, 1870._

The good people of Reading are said sometimes to have grumbled at being
neglected by Royalty, their town being overshadowed by its proximity to
the Royal borough of Windsor. This notion was effaced by the splendid
events of the 1st of July, 1870. On that day the Prince and Princess of
Wales, with imposing state and ceremony, visited the ancient town, in
order to lay the foundation-stone of a new school, which was to be the
successor of the historical Grammar School, at which Archbishop Laud was
educated, one of the masters of which, Julius Palmer, was martyred
during the Marian persecution, and which in recent times had attained
high celebrity under the scholastic reign of Dr. Valpy.

The town was in high festival for the occasion, and distinguished
company assembled to meet the Royal visitors. When the Address had been
presented by the Mayor and Town Clerk, giving a summary of the history
of the school, and the purposes of the new undertaking, the Prince

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I desire to return my cordial thanks
    for your address, and to assure you, on the part of the Princess
    and myself, of the pleasure it affords us to visit a town so
    conspicuous in the pages of English history. It is most
    gratifying to me to co-operate with you, gentlemen, in securing
    for your town the benefits contemplated by the Royal founders of
    this ancient school. In extending to Reading and its county the
    advantages of a middle-class education, you are providing an
    education which, if conducted on sound principles, must conduce
    to the welfare and happiness of all who desire to profit by it;
    and that this result is anticipated is satisfactorily indicated
    by the amount of contributions already subscribed. For myself, I
    sincerely trust that the good work of which we are now assembled
    to lay the first stone may, under God's blessing, prosper and
    accomplish its purpose. It will at least prove to a succeeding
    generation that we, on our part, have striven with all our
    hearts and all our means to ripen the good seed sown by our
    fathers upwards of 300 years ago."

The ceremony of setting the stone then began, for the ceremony was to be
done with masonic honours, one side of the tent having been entirely
occupied by the Masons in costume. The Mayor, having received from the
Provincial Grand Master the handsome silver trowel prepared for the
occasion, now asked the Prince, in the name of the School Trustees, to
proceed with the ceremony. The Grand Chaplain offered a prayer, the
Architect presented his plans, the Grand Secretary read the inscription
on the stone, and the Grand Treasurer deposited gold, silver, and copper
coins of the present reign in the cavity prepared for them.

The Prince then proved and set the stone, saying:--

    "May the Great Architect of the Universe enable us successfully
    to carry on and finish the work of which we have now laid the
    principal stone, and every other undertaking which may tend to
    the advantage of the borough of Reading and this neighbourhood,
    and may this school be long preserved from peril and decay,
    diffusing its light and influence to generations yet unborn."

To this the Masons present answered with one accord, "So mote it be."
The Prince next spread corn on the stone, and from the ewers handed to
him poured out wine and oil, saying:--

    "May the bountiful hand of Heaven ever supply this country with
    abundance of corn, wine, and oil, and all the necessaries and
    comforts of life."

The Brethren again responded in the Masonic formula, "So mote it be."
Then the Treasurer to the school presented to the Senior Master Builder
(Mr. Parnell) a purse of gold, saying: "It is the pleasure of the Prince
that those who have hewed the stones, and those who have laid them, and
all who have assisted, should 'rejoice in the light.'"

Prayers by the Bishop of Oxford, and the Hallelujah Chorus, performed by
the band and choir, closed the ceremonial, which was very quaint and

At the luncheon afterwards given in the Town Hall, the Prince, after
acknowledging the usual loyal toasts, that of the Prince and Princess of
Wales having been proposed by the Mayor, said:--

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--It gives me great pleasure to
    have an opportunity of expressing to all those present the
    gratification it has given both to the Princess and myself to be
    here this day. I am glad also to have the opportunity of
    congratulating the Mayor and Corporation and the inhabitants of
    Reading on the great success of all the proceedings of the day.
    In passing through the town we could not fail to admire the
    tasteful way in which all the houses and streets were decorated;
    nor was it possible that the arrangements for laying the
    foundation stone of the new schools, and the magnificent
    ceremony attending it, could have gone off better. I trust we
    shall all take a deep interest in the school which is to be,
    succeeding as it does to one which has already existed for a
    great number of years, having been founded by my ancestor Henry
    VII., and receiving a Royal charter from Queen Elizabeth. I
    trust that the wishes expressed by the Mayor concerning the
    school may be realized, and that the children not only of the
    inhabitants of Reading but of the whole county of Berkshire will
    have an opportunity of receiving a thoroughly good education in
    it. I will not occupy your time any longer, but before sitting
    down it affords me great pleasure to propose a toast which I
    feel sure you will all receive with enthusiasm. It is 'The
    Health of the Mayor of Reading.' I am glad to have the
    opportunity of thanking him, as the representative of this
    ancient and loyal borough, for the kind and hearty reception it
    has given to us on this occasion."

After the departure of the Prince, the Mayor announced that His Royal
Highness had generously handed him a cheque for a hundred guineas
towards the building fund. At night the town was illuminated, and the
people of Reading had good reason to be pleased with the proceedings of
the day.


_July 7th, 1870._

At a meeting of the Council of the Society of Arts, on the 7th of July,
1870, the Prince of Wales, as President of the Society, presented the
Albert Gold Medal to M. de Lesseps. This medal is awarded for services
rendered to arts, manufactures, and commerce; and no services, to
commerce at least, could have been better rendered than by the
realization of the Suez Canal.

The Prince addressed M. de Lesseps in a French speech, of which the
following is a translation:--

    "It is with sincere gratification that, as President of the
    Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and
    Commerce, I have the honour of presenting to you to-day the gold
    medal which was founded after the death of my beloved father,
    and which bears his name. This medal is presented every year to
    the person who has distinguished himself most remarkably in
    advancing the interests of the objects for which the Society was
    founded, and I am fully convinced that no recipient has ever
    been more worthy than yourself of this honourable distinction.
    In presenting it, I need scarcely say that the award was
    unanimous, and I may perhaps be permitted to add that I
    stipulated for the pleasure of placing the medal myself in your
    hands. England will never forget that it was to you the success
    of that great enterprise which is so much calculated to develope
    the commercial interests subsisting between herself and her
    Eastern Empire was due; and I trust that since your sojourn
    among us the English people have evinced to you their
    appreciation of the benefits which your great work has conferred
    upon this country. Allow me once more to congratulate you upon
    your grand achievement, and to express my sincere hope, as it is
    my belief, that it will fully realise the brilliant
    anticipations which you have from the first entertained
    respecting it. In conclusion, I must assure you of the pleasure
    I feel in presenting this medal to you, not only as President of
    this Society, but as a personal friend, who has, moreover,
    enjoyed the inestimable advantage of an inspection of the Canal
    under your guidance."

M. de Lesseps replied as follows:--

"Monséigneur,--I am happy in receiving from the hands of your Royal
Highness the medal which has been awarded to me by the Society of Arts
and Manufactures. This medal, recalling the respected memory of your
august father, has a double value in my eyes, for His Royal Highness
Prince Albert, from the commencement of the enterprise of the Suez
Canal, received me with that kindly feeling which was to him habitual,
and which led him always to encourage everything which might be useful
to social progress, to the discoveries of science, and to the
development of commerce. He received me for the first time in 1858, in
his private study, where he invited me to explain to him all the details
relating to the construction of the Canal, and he followed with close
attention upon the map and on the working plan the course of the
projected scheme as worked out by the engineers. Since that time he
continued on several occasions to testify the interest which he felt in
the enterprise for which the period of commencing the works had arrived.
I thank your Royal Highness and the Society of Arts for having added
this important manifestation to all the evidences which I have had the
good fortune to receive from the Government of the Queen and from the
people of Great Britain. The words of your Royal Highness will remain
engraven in my heart. I have already had the good fortune of finding
myself with you, Monséigneur, when travelling in the desert, and there,
where a man, however highly he may be placed, shows himself as he is, I
have been able to appreciate the noble character, the lofty mind, and
the elevated sentiments of your Royal Highness, and I am happy to bear
this testimony in the presence of the distinguished men who surround us.
I shall ever be, as they are, the devoted partisan of your Royal
Highness. I pray you to present to Her Majesty the homage of my respect
and of my gratitude, and to assure her that the Company which I have the
honour to direct will be able to maintain the Suez Canal in a condition
which will satisfy all the requirements of the great commerce and of the
navigation of Great Britain."

It is always a pleasure to the Prince of Wales to give the Albert Medal
with his own hands, sometimes at Marlborough House, as to Sir Henry
Bessemer, and to M. Chevalier, the distinguished French Economist. When
the award was made to Mr. Doulton, the Prince went to Lambeth to make
the presentation, and said that he would have been glad to have received
Mr. Doulton at Marlborough House, but thought it would be more
gratifying to him to have the medal presented in his own place and among
his own workpeople--an act of gracious considerateness which was well
appreciated by the vast assembly who witnessed the event.


_July 13th, 1870._

This great work, which, for solidity of construction, durability of
material, and beauty of design, is worthy of the Metropolis of the
Empire, was commenced early in 1852, but was not completed till the
summer of 1870. Viewed in connection with the benefits to public health
and convenience, by the improvement of the course of the Thames, and the
removal of the mud banks formerly disfiguring the shores, the Embankment
may be truly said to be the greatest public work undertaken in London in
modern times. Portions of the footway had been previously open for
passengers, and improvements have been since made in the approaches and
in laying out ornamental grounds, but the completion of the roadway,
from Westminster to Blackfriars, sufficiently justified the grand State
ceremony with which the Embankment was opened, on the 13th of July,
1870, by the Prince of Wales.

On that day, the Prince, accompanied by the Princess Louise, and
attended by the Great Officers of the Household, opened the Embankment
on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen. Five Royal carriages, with an escort
of the Royal Horse Guards, proceeded from Marlborough House, by the
Mall, Whitehall, and Parliament Street to Westminster Bridge, where they
entered the embankment. Here the procession was joined by the carriages
containing the Chairman and members of the Metropolitan Board of Works.
At Hungerford Bridge an address was presented by the Chairman, Sir John
Thwaites. The Royal procession went as far as Blackfriars Bridge, and
then returned to Westminster Bridge, when the Prince, amidst the cheers
of the multitude, and the salutes of artillery, declared the Embankment
to be open.

The reply to the address read by the Prince, was as follows:--

    "Gentlemen,--It is a source of great regret to me, as I am sure
    it cannot fail to be to you, that the Queen is unable to be
    present, according to her original intention, at this
    interesting ceremony. In her name I thank you for your loyal
    address, and express to you the satisfaction with which she
    regards the completion of this great work. We must all rejoice
    that while the Embankment and the noble roadway, which I am
    happy this day to open in the name of Her Majesty, add largely
    to the beauty and convenience of the Metropolis, the works
    connected with them may be expected materially to diminish the
    sources of disease and suffering to the inhabitants of this bank
    of the Thames. In no public work of this vast capital has the
    liberal and enterprising spirit of its citizens and the genius
    and resources of our civil engineers been more signally
    displayed. I am commanded by the Queen to congratulate you
    cordially on the issue of your labours in undertakings which
    promise to be so enduring and so beneficent."

Five years before this, on the 4th of April, 1865, the Prince had
visited the great works erected at Barking, in Essex, and thence to the
Erith Marshes to perform the ceremony of starting the great engines
which lift the waters of the Southern Outfall Sewer. In a brief speech
on that occasion the Prince congratulated Mr. Thwaites, then chairman of
the Metropolitan Board of Works, and Mr. Bazalgette, the engineer, on
the completion of an important portion of the great scheme for disposing
of the sewage of London, and purifying the water of the Thames.


_July 16th, 1870._

In the summer of 1870, while the news of impending war on the continent
stirred public feeling, preparations were being quietly made in many a
home and workshop for an international exhibition of art and industry.
The special feature of the display was to be the encouragement of
individual intelligence and skill, every object exhibited having
attached to it the name of the workman, as well as the firm in whose
employment he was, if not exercising his art on his own account at home.

The Prince of Wales kindly consented to open the exhibition, in the name
of the Queen. This was done on the 16th of July, 1870. Having received
an address, giving an account of the purpose of the collection, the
Prince thus replied:--

    "Gentlemen,--I thank you for your address, and assure you that
    it is with very great pleasure I undertake the duty imposed upon
    me by the Queen in opening this Exhibition. The objects proposed
    in it are such as cannot fail to meet with the cordial
    approbation of all who are interested in the growth of our arts
    and manufactures, and who wish to connect that growth with a
    corresponding increase of sympathy and friendly relations
    between employers and their workmen. In imparting to this
    Exhibition an international character, you have sought to extend
    the range of good which may result from it, and by inviting
    competition between our workmen and those of foreign nations,
    not only to afford a wholesome stimulus to both in the exercise
    of their various callings, but to contribute, as far as you can,
    to that kindly intercourse between countries which must in the
    end prove the principal security for the peace of the world. The
    allusion which you have made to my beloved father, who would
    doubtless have regarded this Exhibition with the liveliest
    interest, as the natural supplement of that first one with which
    his name is especially connected, will be as affecting as it
    must be gratifying to the Queen. It will be my agreeable duty to
    report to her the proceedings of to-day, and I have only now, in
    her name, to wish success to the undertaking."

A catalogue of the collection, and a newspaper printed in the building,
were then presented to the Prince. The catalogue showed that
contributions had been sent from all the chief industrial centres in
England,--Sheffield, Birmingham, Coventry, Worcester,--and from Ireland,
in bog-oak carvings, and articles of the linen and flax industry. The
foreign contributions were from France, Austria, Italy, Holland, and
other parts of the continent. A musical piece composed for the occasion
was given, and the Old Hundredth psalm sung by the choir, after which
the Prince declared the Exhibition open.


_March 29th, 1871._

The "Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences" was opened by Her Majesty
the Queen with imposing ceremony on the 29th of March, 1871. The
procession from Buckingham Palace consisted of nine State carriages, in
the last of which were the Queen, the Princess of Wales, and the Duke of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In the other carriages were the Royal Family,
with the great officers of State and the Household in waiting. The Hall
was filled with nearly 8000 spectators, and the orchestra consisted of
nearly 1200 musicians and singers, Sir Michael Costa being leader.

When the Queen had taken her place on the daïs, the Prince of Wales, who
wore the uniform of Colonel of the 10th Hussars, advanced to Her
Majesty, and, as President of the Provisional Committee, read the
following address:--

    "May it please your Majesty,--As President of the Provisional
    Committee of the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences, it is
    my high privilege and gratification to report to your Majesty
    the successful completion of this Hall, an important feature of
    a long-cherished design of my beloved father, for the general
    culture of your people, in whose improvement he was always
    deeply interested. Encouraged by your Majesty's sympathies, and
    liberally supported by your subjects, we have been enabled to
    carry out the work without any aid from funds derived from
    public taxation. I am warranted in expressing our confidence
    that this building will justify the conviction we expressed in
    the report submitted on the occasion of your Majesty's laying
    its first stone, that by its erection we should be meeting a
    great public want. Your Majesty's Commissioners for the
    Exhibition of 1851 in further prosecution of my father's design
    for the encouragement of the Arts and Sciences, an object which
    he always had warmly at heart, are about to commence a series of
    Annual International Exhibitions, to the success of which this
    Hall will greatly contribute by the facilities which it will
    afford for the display of objects and for the meeting of bodies
    interested in the industries which will form the subjects of
    successive Exhibitions. The interest shown in the Hall by the
    most eminent musicians and composers of Europe strengthens our
    belief that it will largely conduce to the revival among all
    classes of the nation of a taste for the cultivation of music.
    Your Majesty will hear with satisfaction that results have
    justified the original estimate of the cost of the building, and
    that, aided by the liberal assistance of your Exhibition
    Commissioners, the corporation will commence its management
    unfettered by pecuniary liabilities, and under conditions
    eminently calculated to insure success. It is my grateful duty
    to return to your Majesty our humble thanks for the additional
    mark of your Royal favour which is conferred upon us by your
    auspicious presence on the present occasion when our labours as
    a Provisional Committee are drawing to a close. We venture to
    hope that when we shall have resigned our functions into the
    hands of the governing body, which will be elected under the
    provisions of the Royal Charter granted to us, your Majesty will
    continue to the Corporation that measure of support which has
    been always graciously given to us."

The Queen, who had listened to the address with the utmost interest and
attention, said, in a voice clearly heard in every part of the vast
building: "In handing you this answer, I wish to express my great
admiration of this beautiful Hall, and my earnest wishes for its
complete success."

The written answer to the address was not read, but it is here given to
complete the record of the day's ceremony:--

    "I thank you for the loyal address which, as President of the
    Provisional Committee of the Hall of Arts and Sciences, you have
    presented to me. In opening this spacious and noble Hall, it
    gives me pleasure to acknowledge the generous spirit which has
    been manifested in the completion, by voluntary effort, of a
    work promising so much public usefulness. I cordially concur in
    the hope you have expressed, that this Hall, forming as it does
    part of a plan in which I must ever take a deep and personal
    interest, may largely and permanently contribute to the
    promotion among my people of the love of art, as well as to the
    success of the annual exhibitions, which will bring successively
    into instructive competition the choicest products of the
    industries of all nations. These objects could not fail to
    commend themselves at all times and all places to my sympathy
    and interest, fraught as they are with recollections of him to
    whose memory this Hall is dedicated, and whose dearest aim was
    to inspire my people with a love of all that is good and noble,
    and, by closer knowledge and juster appreciation of each other,
    to cultivate a spirit of goodwill and concord among the
    inhabitants of all regions. I gladly give the assurance of my
    support to the corporation to which the Hall is about to be
    entrusted, and I earnestly hope that their efforts to promote
    the objects for which it has been constructed may be rewarded by
    a career of abiding success."

The Bishop of London, representing the Archbishop of Canterbury, offered
a dedication prayer.

The Prince of Wales, after a minute's conference with Her Majesty, then

The announcement was followed by immense cheering and the sound of
trumpets; and while the choir sang the National Anthem, the Park guns
boomed forth a loud accompaniment.

The opening ceremony being thus accomplished, the Queen and the Royal
visitors proceeded to the Royal box, where they remained during the
performance of a selection of music. The programme included a cantata,
written for the occasion by Sir Michael Costa, and the Prince Consort's
_Invocazione all'Armonia_, which was first performed when Her Majesty,
in 1867, laid the foundation-stone of the Hall this day opened.


_May 1st, 1871._

During the twenty years that had passed since the ever-memorable
Exhibition of 1851, there had been many Exhibitions, one of which, that
of 1862, might aspire to the title of Great, and proved fairly
successful. But so numerous were the imitations of the first great
example, to which, at home or abroad, none approached in romantic
interest and universal popularity, that at length the idea which in 1851
charmed all the world, had come to be somewhat tiresome to the public.
Inventors and manufacturers found it troublesome and expensive to
exhibit, not without doubt whether there were not more disadvantages
than advantages in such international displays. Some of the later
Exhibitions were little better than huge bazaars or trade shows.

Having regard to these conditions, the Royal Commissioners of 1851, with
the Prince of Wales as President, allowed matters to rest awhile,
although still feeling under obligation to carry out the grand purposes
which gave rise to the first and grandest display in Hyde Park.

It was resolved to open at South Kensington, in 1871, an "International
Exhibition of the Fine Arts and of Industry;" to be the first of a
series, each with some definite aim, and mainly confined to certain arts
or industries, instead of forming a miscellaneous museum of all sorts of
objects. As the Queen approved of this proposal, the opening of the
Exhibition of 1871 was undertaken by the Prince of Wales on Her
Majesty's behalf, and was made the occasion of an imposing State
pageant. In the Court Circular of May 2nd, and in the journals of the
same date, a full account is given of the ceremonies of the preceding
day, with lists of the illustrious and notable persons present, and
other details. The Prince made formal proclamation of the opening.

In all his labours in connection with various exhibitions, at home or
abroad, the Prince has had most able lieutenants, such as Sir Philip
Cunliffe Owen, K.C.B., but every detail of plan and of administration
has been brought before his attention, and has received the sanction of
his judgment and experience. It is no exaggeration to say that to his
presidency was mainly due the success of the British Department of the
great Paris Exhibition of 1878. This was testified in the address
presented to the Prince by Earl Granville, signed by a thousand
Englishmen who had witnessed the events of that memorable season in the
Place de Trocadero.


_May 7th, 1871._

For the relief of distressed artists, their widows and orphans,
provision is made, as far as funds allow, by the Artists' Benevolent
Institution, which was established in 1814. In course of time it was
found that the amount available for the support and education of the
orphans of artists was very insufficient, and a separate fund was
established in 1866, under the auspices of the Council of the Artists'
Benevolent Institution. From time to time donations were received, and
in 1871 it was resolved to make a more public appeal. The Prince of
Wales cheerfully agreed to preside at a dinner in aid of the fund, which
took place on the 7th of May, 1871, in the Freemasons' Hall.

The Prince was supported by a large number of artists, and of patrons
and lovers of art. The usual loyal toasts were given, and the presence
of members of the well-known "artist corps" led the Prince to make
special reference to the Volunteers.

In giving "The Army, Navy, Militia, and Volunteers," His Royal Highness

    "This is a toast which is never left out at all great public
    dinners. By some it has been called a formal toast, but in my
    opinion it should never be so styled. It is a toast which we
    ought to drink warmly and heartily. Of that which we owe to our
    army and navy I shall not speak to you at length, for this is
    not a fitting occasion; but I may say that we are bound to those
    services by a deep debt of gratitude, and let us hope that we
    shall always have reason to be as proud of them as we are at the
    present moment. We must, at the same time, never forget that
    there is something wanting. Our army is small; smaller than
    those of other countries; it ought, therefore to be better in
    comparison. As to the navy, though a great many changes have
    been made in our ships, though they have been converted from
    wooden walls into iron batteries, I think we may confidently
    anticipate that the fame which attaches to our old wooden walls
    will be transferred to our iron fleet whenever it is called upon
    to meet an enemy. The Militia, too, ought never to be omitted
    from this toast, for I look upon it as our great army of
    reserve, and desire to see it honoured; while as to the
    Volunteers, I would remark that I think we may congratulate
    ourselves on the circumstance that the movement, which has now
    existed for eleven or twelve years, shows no sign that it is
    slackening. I have the more confidence in asking you to respond
    to this portion of the toast, because I see around me many
    members of the Artists' Corps, which has always maintained a
    high position in the Volunteer force."

The Prince, in proposing the next toast, "The Artists' Orphan Fund,"

    "I have no doubt you will drink this toast in bumpers,
    particularly as this is the first dinner which has been given in
    aid of the Fund. I can assure you it has given me much pleasure
    to come here and explain to you some of the chief points
    connected with this excellent charity. Being a charity in aid of
    orphans it is, you will agree with me, worthy of peculiar
    sympathy. It recommends itself still more to our notice when we
    reflect that it proposes to help the children of those who have
    done so much to elevate and refine art among us, and whose
    beautiful pictures have so often delighted us. Many persons may
    imagine that it is not difficult to be a painter, but the
    distinguished artists whom I see around me will, I am sure,
    agree with me that that it is a great mistake. To be a good
    painter genius is by no means all that is required. Industry and
    perseverance must also be exercised just as much as in the case
    of eminent clergymen, lawyers, scientific men, philosophers, or
    the members of any other branch of human exertion which we can
    name. Again, we must remember that, although a man may have been
    a successful painter, although his genius may have been
    recognized in other countries besides his own, and although he
    may have accumulated money in the course of long, laborious
    years, yet, being laid on a bed of sickness, that money may have
    dwindled away, and his children may be left entirely destitute.
    This fund, then, is destined for the support of the orphans of
    such artists and for their education. No one particular school
    is to be set apart for education. The guardians of the children
    will be allowed to select the schools to which they shall go and
    no restrictions of any kind will be imposed upon them with
    respect to religion. I may add that the first idea of this fund
    came from a gentleman who offered to place a certain number of
    candidates in two schools which he himself established, and that
    he has since given to the charity the munificent donation of
    £900. My only regret is that, while we must all applaud the
    munificence of this gentleman, I am forbidden to mention his
    name. There is, however, another name with respect to which I
    need not be reticent, and which is well known to you all--I mean
    that of Sir W. Tite, who has given the large sum of £1000 to the
    fund. Now, I feel sure you will follow this good example, that
    you will support to the best of your ability this excellent
    charity, and that I need not urge upon you to sign freely the
    papers which have been placed before you. I may add that I am
    authorized by the Council to mention that a sum of £7000 has
    already been collected out of the £10,000 which are required, a
    result for which they beg to return their grateful thanks. But
    though the sum I have just named will enable them to carry out
    the immediate object of the fund, neither they nor any one else
    will have any objection to your adding considerably to that
    amount. I will not detain you longer, but while thanking you for
    your attention will again ask you to drink 'Prosperity and
    success to this most worthy charity.'"

    The Prince of Wales then gave "Prosperity to the Royal Academy,"
    stating that "the community at large took the greatest interest
    in that body of gentlemen, for to them we owe the elevated and
    cultivated taste with regard to painting and sculpture which now
    so widely prevailed in this country. The interests of the Royal
    Academy and of Art would, he felt sure, not suffer as long as
    they were confided to the care of Sir F. Grant, the
    distinguished President of that institution."

Sir F. Grant, in returning thanks, said the members of the Royal Academy
were very glad to have it in their power to aid so excellent a charity,
and that, in addition to the £500 which they had given last year to the
orphanage in connection with it, they were ready to give on the present
occasion a further donation of £1000. He begged, in conclusion, to
propose "Prosperity to the other Art Societies." The toast was responded
to by Mr. Clint, President of the Society of British Artists.

The Treasurer read a long list of subscriptions, amounting in all to
£12,308, including a hundred guineas from the Royal Chairman.


_May 8th, 1871._

The annual festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls was held
at Freemasons' Hall, Great Queen Street, on the 8th of May, 1871, His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales presiding. The whole assembly in the
hall was Masonic, the ladies being limited to the gallery of the Temple.
The Prince wore, besides his Royal and military Orders, the insignia of
a Past Grand Master of the English craft, and around him, in full
Masonic "clothing," according to their rank in the craft, were many
distinguished members.

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in proposing "The Queen,"

    "The first toast which I have to give is the health of the
    patroness of our craft--Her Majesty the Queen, who has always
    identified herself so far with our Freemasonry as to extend her
    hand to all charities."

Sir Patrick Colquhoun, with the Grand Master's gavel, proposed the toast
of "The Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales, and the rest of the
Royal Family." He referred in feeling and touching terms to the loss
lately sustained by the Prince and Princess, the death of an infant son
on Good Friday, April 7, and he expressed the deep thankfulness of the
brotherhood that the Princess was recovering her health.

    His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in responding for the
    toast, which had been received with loud applause, thanked the
    brethren, and said "it gave him the greatest pleasure to be
    there, surrounded by the brethren of the craft to which he was
    proud to belong. He assured them that it was a proud day indeed
    to him when he became a Mason, and he should always do his
    utmost to be a worthy brother among them. He expressed, too, on
    the part of the Princess, his personal thanks to Sir Patrick for
    his touching remarks, and his thanks to the brethren for their
    sympathy. He was glad to announce that the Princess was restored
    to her accustomed health, and in a short time would be among
    them. It might be fitting then to announce that the Princess had
    consented to be the patroness of the institution."

The toast of "Earl de Grey, the Grand Master," was then proposed by the
Royal President, and Lord Clonmell proposed "The Past Grand Master, the
Earl of Zetland." "The Deputy-Grand Master's Health" was proposed by
Mr. C. Sykes, M.P., who dwelt upon the great zeal and ability the Earl
of Carnarvon had shown in following Masonry.

    His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in proposing the toast
    of the evening, said, "in general he felt diffidence in asking
    for subscriptions for charities over which he sometimes
    presided, but he had not such a feeling on that occasion, when
    he looked round and saw on all sides the brethren of the craft,
    for he knew that one of the main principles inculcated in the
    minds of Freemasons was charity. He knew that the brethren
    composing the vast assemblage before him had come with one
    object, to support this excellent institution. A very full and
    able report had been drawn up, and therefore it was not
    necessary for him to address them at any length. He might say,
    however, that the institution was founded for the clothing,
    maintenance, and education of the daughters of decayed
    Freemasons, and it provided that the daughters of trustworthy
    Freemasons should not be left to the pangs of misery and
    ignorance. One important point was that it was supported
    entirely by voluntary contributions, and since its foundation in
    1788 it had educated, clothed, and maintained nearly 1000 girls.

    "It was specially interesting for him to be connected with that
    institution, as his grand-uncle, George IV., when Prince of
    Wales, was an earnest supporter of it, and was present at its

    "It had been the great object of the committee to give the girls
    a good, sound, simple, and useful education--not what it had
    become the fashion to consider education, but an education
    without any 'padding.' In these days education was more thought
    of than it was fifty years ago, and, indeed, it was the great
    topic of the day. But before this time the Freemasons were among
    the first to set a good example, and having set this good
    example early, it was their duty to keep it up. The committee,
    in order to test the standard of education given in those
    schools, entered some of the names of pupils for the Cambridge
    Local Examinations, and, with very few exceptions, these girls
    so entered had passed the examinations with credit to themselves
    and to the institution. The institution was flourishing in every
    respect. During the past year 100 girls had been received into
    the institution, and as many had gone forth ready to take their
    place in the every-day life of men and women, well instructed in
    all the duties of the positions they would be called upon to
    fill. He urged that it had become necessary to build afresh, and
    as he had himself found that building could not be carried out
    for nothing, the subscriptions of the brethren were looked for
    to assist the committee."

The secretary read the list of subscriptions, which included 100 guineas
from His Royal Highness the Prince, and 25 guineas from the Princess,
and though forty lists were not given in the subscriptions already
received amounted to £5000. On a later page will be found the record of
another anniversary, when the Prince presided, and when the
subscriptions were about £50,000.

The year 1888 is the centenary of the Institution, which flourishes, at
St. John's Hill, Battersea Rise. The girls are admitted at eight years
of age, and maintained until sixteen. There are nearly 250 in the
school. The annual revenue, from all sources, is about £15,500.


_May 17th, 1871._

In the summer of 1870 the foundation-stone of a new wing to the splendid
edifice of the Earlswood Asylum for Idiots, had been laid by the Prince
and Princess of Wales. The Prince further showed his interest in the
institution by presiding at the anniversary festival, held at the London
Tavern on the 17th of May, 1871. The Asylum, originally established at
Highgate in 1847, was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1862. Her Majesty
is patroness of the charity.

On the removal of the cloth the Prince gave the toast of "Her Majesty
the Queen, as the Patroness of the Institution," which was received with
every mark of respect, as was also that of "The Prince and Princess of
Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family," proposed by the Duke of

    His Royal Highness, in proposing the toast of "The Army, Navy,
    Militia, and Volunteers," expressed a hope that "the great name
    which the Army and Navy bore in English history would always
    remain unsullied in days to come. We were now at peace, thank
    God, but we might never know from one day to another what might
    occur, and, therefore, we ought always to be prepared."

    Later in the evening, His Royal Highness, in proposing the toast
    of the evening: "Prosperity to the Earlswood Idiot Asylum,"
    said, "he felt convinced there was no charity which had a
    greater demand on the public sympathy and support than it,
    appealing as it did on behalf of the idiot classes, afflicted by
    the will of Providence, and unable for the most part to help
    themselves. The institution was happily in a highly flourishing
    condition, to the great praise of those who had all along
    interested themselves in its prosperity. In 1853 his lamented
    father, who was always ready to assist the afflicted and needy,
    laid the foundation-stone of the present institution; in 1866
    the Princess of Wales and himself interested themselves in a
    bazaar for raising funds for the erection of a new wing to the
    building, and in 1869 Her Royal Highness and himself inaugurated
    that new wing.

    "It was a matter of satisfaction to his family and himself that
    they had connected themselves with an institution which aimed at
    so much practical good, and which was now in so flourishing a
    state. It was in 1847 that the late Dr. Reed brought the state
    of the idiot portion of the community under public notice; and
    from that time to this much had been done to ameliorate the
    condition of that most unfortunate class of our fellow
    creatures. Although the cases were comparatively rare in which
    cures had been made, still cures had been effected, and
    practical experience had shown that the mental state of those
    unfortunate beings was susceptible of manifest improvement by
    the exercise of care and attention well directed by intelligent
    and experienced persons. Many of them were taught music, and
    others some trade or handicraft, and in that way their hands and
    minds were occupied. There were cases in which patients so
    engaged had improved so much as to be able to return to their
    families, and afterwards to follow a trade which they had learnt
    in the institution. The Institution had been very highly praised
    by the Lunacy Commissioners, and he might remind the company
    that it was supported by voluntary contributions. This year, he
    believed, the contributions had exceeded those of any previous
    one, but an infirmary had become necessary, although no
    epidemic had hitherto occurred in the asylum; and as that would
    go far to exhaust the funds, he called upon the company to do
    their utmost to replenish them. His Royal Highness made a
    passing allusion, by way of example, to the fact that an
    anonymous benefactor had thrice contributed the sum of £1000 to
    the treasury of the institution, and in conclusion he earnestly
    appealed to the audience to do what in them lay towards the
    relief of that grievously afflicted class of their fellow

At the close of the festival Mr. William Nicholas, the secretary,
announced that the subscriptions in the course of the evening amounted
in all to £4197 odd, including a sum of 100 guineas, under initials,
which left no doubt that it was a donation by His Royal Highness the


_June 2nd, 1871._

Among the many institutions for homeless and orphan boys, the Cottage
Homes at Farningham are less heard of than some others which make more
clamorous appeals to the public. But they have for many years been the
scene of useful and beneficent work, and deserve larger support. At
Farningham there are 300 little boys, homeless, and in danger of falling
into evil ways, who are clothed, fed, educated, and taught some trade by
which they can earn their own living. They are then provided with
outfit, and placed in situations, where they are looked after as Old
Boys. This is a charity which was certain to awaken the sympathy and
receive the support of the Prince of Wales, when brought under his

On the 2nd of June, 1871, His Royal Highness presided at a festival at
the Freemasons' Hall for the benefit of the charity. He had already with
the Princess of Wales visited the Homes at Farningham, and then laid the
foundation-stone of the new buildings there. At the festival dinner, in
giving the toast, "Prosperity to the Home for Little Boys," the
following is the substance of what the Prince said:--

    "The object of the promoters of this excellent charity had been
    to take from the highways of this vast Metropolis those
    unfortunate little beings who had been deprived of their
    parents, or who had no homes, and to clothe, feed, educate, and
    train them so that they might be enabled to go forth into the
    world with a knowledge of some trade, and qualified, when they
    left this admirable home, to earn their living, by being removed
    from the temptations to crime, incident to the state of
    destitution in which they were found. What could be more
    dreadful than to see from day to day those wretched miserable
    little children, who swarmed in our streets, who knew as little
    as we did how or where they could live, or who were their
    parents and natural protectors?

    "It must be felt, then, to be the duty of every good Christian
    to endeavour to ameliorate the condition of that class of our
    fellow-creatures. He could speak from experience of the good
    that had been done by this charity, because he had, with the
    Princess, visited the institution. The asylum was erected about
    seven years ago near Tottenham, but as it was thought desirable
    to move further into the country, about 90 acres of ground were
    purchased near Farningham, in Kent, and the homes were
    established there. He then described the education received by
    the boys, their excellent schooling in such subjects as
    arithmetic and geography, besides the industrial training, which
    was a special feature of the institution. He found that they
    were taught to make clothes, boots, mats, &c.; there was a
    carpenters' shop and a painters' shop, and a paper-bag shop;
    they had a printing establishment, a laundry, a bakehouse, a
    garden, a farm, and there were means for teaching the pupils a
    great variety of other useful occupations, so that they might go
    forth good and honest young men, capable of gaining their own
    livelihood, instead of returning to those haunts of vice from
    which they had been snatched. The cost of the homes was about
    £9000 a year, but he was sorry to say the institution was still
    about £5000 in debt. Mentioning the munificent donation of
    £1000, which had recently been received from some anonymous
    benefactor, His Royal Highness concluded, amid prolonged cheers,
    by urging those present to contribute liberally, and to try to
    persuade others to support this excellent institution, and so to
    rescue as many as possible of the poor little suffering children
    of the country, who had neither father nor mother living, from
    wretchedness and crime."

A list of subscriptions and donations during the dinner was read,
amounting to the sum of £3464, including £1000 obtained from friends by
Mr. Robert Hanbury, then the President of the institution, and £150 from
the Royal Chairman.

Besides the Cottage Homes at Farningham, there are Orphan Homes at
Swanley, where 200 orphan or fatherless boys are maintained, and receive
technical education in various arts and industries, to fit them for a
working life.


_June 28th, 1871._

The 56th anniversary festival of this institution was held on the 28th
of June, 1871, at the Freemasons' Tavern, under the presidency of the
Prince of Wales, who wore the Highland costume, supported by Prince
Arthur and the Duke of Cambridge. About 350 sat down to dinner, a large
proportion being dressed in full Highland costume, among whom were the
Duke of Buccleuch, K.G., President; the Duke of Richmond, K.G.; the
Marquis of Lorne, M.P.; the Marquis of Huntly, the Earl of Fife, the
Earl of Mar, and the Earl of March.

His Royal Highness the Chairman, in proposing the toast of "Her Majesty
the Queen," alluded to the fact that Her Majesty was the patroness of
this institution, in which she had always taken the warmest interest.

The Duke of Buccleuch proposed "The health of His Royal Highness the
Chairman, the Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family."
Since the foundation of this institution in 1815 the Royal Family had
always responded most generously to every appeal that had been made to
them on its behalf, and he trusted that in consequence of the presence
of His Royal Highness on that occasion the funds of the charity would be
considerably increased. He reminded his audience that among his other
titles His Royal Highness possessed that of the Duke of Rothesay.

The toast was received with Highland honours, followed by the breaking
of the glasses from which it had been drunk. The Gaelic verses timing
the cheers were recited by Mr. Donald Mackenzie.

    His Royal Highness the Chairman "expressed his sincere thanks at
    the enthusiastic reception which had been given to the toast,
    and his gratification that it had been drunk with Highland
    honours. He was very sensible of the kindness of the feeling
    that had prompted the latter act, and he begged to be regarded
    on that occasion rather as the Duke of Rothesay than as the
    Prince of Wales. This excellent institution had been associated
    for so many years past with various members of his family that
    he was rejoiced to be able to be there that night to plead in
    its favour."

    His Royal Highness in proposing "The Army, the Navy, and the
    Reserve Forces," took occasion to refer to the changes that were
    about to be effected in the organization of the army, and
    "expressed a hope that those changes, whatever they might be,
    would place the safety or the country upon a secure foundation,
    and would enable us to prove that the author of the well-known
    _Battle of Dorking_ was a false prophet. The writer of that
    interesting production, however, deserved our thanks, inasmuch
    as he had pointed out to us the danger of being 'caught
    napping.' He begged to couple with the toast the name of his
    Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, who had already acted as
    chairman of the festivals of the charity, of Sir A. Milne, and
    of Colonel Loyd Lindsay, who had given such an impetus to the
    Volunteer movement, and who had taken such an active part in
    promoting the fund for the relief of the sick and wounded during
    the late war."

    His Royal Highness in proposing the toast of the evening,
    "Prosperity to the Royal Caledonian Asylum," referred to "the
    objects of the institution which is for supporting and educating
    the children of soldiers, sailors, and marines, natives of
    Scotland, who have died or been disabled in the service of their
    country, and of indigent Scotch parents resident in London. The
    charity had been founded in 1815, a memorable year for this
    country, and from that time until his death his lamented
    grandfather had presided over its interests. For his own part he
    could only express the satisfaction he felt at being connected
    with an institution which had received the patronage of Royalty
    for so long a period. On the occasion when his grandfather had
    presided at one of the festivals of the institution a large sum
    of money was subscribed for its support, and he trusted on that
    occasion its funds would be considerably increased, so as to
    enable the thirty vacancies to be filled up, in addition to
    providing board, lodging, clothing, and education for the 110
    boys and girls now received within the building. The children
    were given a thoroughly sound education, and many of those who
    had been brought up in the establishment had subsequently
    distinguished themselves in the Army, the Navy, and the Law.
    This charity, which was entirely supported by voluntary
    contributions, was the only one in London intended solely for
    the children of Scotch parents, and, therefore, he called upon
    all Scotchmen to contribute liberally in aid of its funds. It
    conferred much happiness upon our soldiers and sailors that they
    were able to feel assured that in the event of their death in
    action their children would be brought up in decency and
    comfort, and that they would not be allowed to fall victims to
    want and sin."

The toast was drunk with three times three. His Royal Highness the
Chairman then briefly proposed "The Health of his Grace the Duke of
Buccleuch, the President of the Institution," to which his Grace

The donations announced amounted to about £2000.

During the course of the evening, the children, headed by their pipers,
marched round the room.


_August 1st, 1871._

The Royal Agricultural Society, of which the Prince of Wales is
President, held its annual meeting at Dublin in 1871. The occasion was
taken for a royal visit to Ireland. The Prince of Wales was accompanied
by the Princess Louise, the Marquis of Lorne, and his young brother,
Prince Arthur, better known in after years as the Duke of Connaught. Of
all the Royal family, this son of the Queen has special relation to
Ireland. One of his names he bears after the great Duke of Wellington,
Arthur Wellesley, an Irishman; another of his names is after an Irish
saint, and he sits in the House of Lords by an Irish title. Born in May
1850, Arthur Patrick was only a little past coming of age at this time.

The warm-hearted Irish people gave the royal Princes a truly cordial
welcome. On arriving at Dublin, there was not merely official display,
but the popular reception was not only friendly but enthusiastic. Flags
waved everywhere, and as it was late in the evening, the city was
illuminated, and _Cead mille failthe_ shone out in conspicuous
brilliancy. From a few knots of Fenians there were heard slight sounds
of hissing, but any hostile feeling was overborne by the general

When the train from Kingstown arrived at Westland Row Terminus, the Lord
Mayor and Corporation met the Royal visitors, and the Town Clerk read
an address to which the Prince made an appropriate reply.

On the next day, August 1st, the royal visitors, having witnessed a
cricket match in College Park, and had luncheon with the officers of the
Grenadier Guards, went to the Show-yard in the afternoon. The Prince of
Wales proceeded to the Council-room, and signed the minutes of the last
meeting, in the capacity of President of the Council. The inspection of
the horses, cattle, and sheep was then made. Among the awards, made by
the judges of the Show in the forenoon, was a prize for the best pen of
shearling ewes, exhibited by His Royal Highness.

The annual banquet was given in the evening at the Exhibition Palace. It
was a brilliant and successful affair. About 450 guests were present,
and the galleries were thronged with ladies. When the Prince entered and
took his place at the head of the table there was tumultuous applause.
After dinner the Prince rose and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--The first toast which I have the
    honour of proposing to you this evening is one which I am sure
    will be heartily received by you. It is 'The Health of Her
    Majesty the Queen.' In proposing this toast I am convinced that
    the Queen has a part in the best wishes of the Irish people.
    Although, unfortunately, some time has elapsed since she has
    been over in Ireland, still I hope the day will yet come when
    she may again come over. I am also convinced that the reception
    she has met on former occasions she will meet with again. I will
    not add more, but ask you to drink the health of Her Majesty the

The toast was drunk with loyal fervour. After a short interval the
Prince of Wales again rose and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I have some slight difficulty in
    proposing the next toast, because it relates to members of my
    own family; still, as it is on the list before me, I propose
    'The Health of the rest of the Royal Family.' I am sure that it
    has been the wish of my brothers not to be useless appendages of
    the State, but to do all they can to serve their country. My
    brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, as you are aware, has for some
    time past been in the Royal Navy, and has had the advantage of
    seeing many countries, and I may say of twice sailing round the
    world. On my left is my brother who is serving in the Army, and
    who responds to this toast. I trust that he has also a bright
    career before him. He has some slight claim upon you,
    gentlemen, as he bears the name of Patrick. Without saying more,
    I beg you to drink the health of the rest of the Royal Family,
    coupled with the name of Prince Arthur."

His Royal highness Prince Arthur, on rising to respond to the toast, was
received with loud cheers, renewed during the short but effective and
well delivered speech, in which he referred to a former visit to
Ireland, when he was received with much kindness and cordiality. "That
visit was certainly but a short one, but it was long enough to enable me
to see a good deal of the country, and to inspire in me a lasting
interest in all that concerns the welfare of Ireland."

The Prince of Wales, in proposing the next toast, said:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--It is now my pleasing duty to propose
    'The Health of His Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant, and
    Prosperity to Ireland.' Nothing could give me greater pleasure
    than having the honour of proposing this toast. I am convinced
    that all the Lords-Lieutenant that come over to Ireland do their
    utmost to fulfil their duties, and sometimes they are very
    arduous ones, and I feel convinced that his Excellency on my
    right has the goodwill of the country. The theme before
    me--Prosperity to Ireland--is one that might be enlarged upon
    greatly. Nobody wishes more sincerely than I do prosperity to
    this country. No one in the large assemblage which crowds this
    hall, and no one outside this hall, could more largely wish for
    the prosperity of Ireland which was so dear to them. I think I
    may say without fear of contradiction, that at the present
    moment Ireland is rich and prosperous. There has been a great
    decrease of pauperism and of crime, and I may say that what will
    do more than anything else towards making a country prosperous
    is the extension of its agriculture. It was with great pleasure
    that I accepted the position of President of the Royal
    Agricultural Society, and it afforded me great pleasure to be
    present for a short time at the Show to-day. My brother has
    already alluded in his speech to the fine animals we saw, and I
    may add that I feel sure that in no other part of the United
    Kingdom could a more creditable Show be held than that which was
    opened near Dublin this morning. During the last four years
    there has been a great improvement in every respect in the shows
    of the Royal Agricultural Societies. I believe I am not wrong in
    stating that in 1867 the entries in the department of horses
    numbered 257, and now, on this occasion, they are but one short
    of 600. That alone shows the interest which all classes of the
    community take in these Shows, and how anxious each one is to do
    all in his power to promote the object it has in view."

Alluding to the interest which the Earl of Pembroke had shown in the
welfare of the country, and his liberality in granting a site for the
Showyard, His Royal Highness said:--

    "I am assured that if the many gentlemen and landlords who very
    often find some difficulty in leaving England, but who have
    large interests and large estates in this country, could
    contrive to come over here more frequently, it would do more
    good than anything else I could imagine. I am certain that they
    are anxious to come over, and that their relations with their
    tenantry and those around them should be in every respect good.
    I may also here refer to the great improvement made in the
    erection of farm buildings and cottages. Beyond doubt there has
    been progress in the direction of improvement there; but still I
    believe much yet remains to be done. Everything depends upon the
    well-being of the people, and if they are properly lodged it
    tends to cleanliness, and very possibly to moral advantage.
    Perhaps I may be allowed to speak of a slight personal
    experience in that matter. I have a small estate in Norfolk, and
    observed myself the greatest importance of providing suitable
    small cottages for those resident there, and, having done so,
    now reap immense advantage. I am sure that this is a question
    which belongs in itself to the well-being of Irish agriculture,
    and which will accordingly receive the best consideration of
    this society. There are many other topics upon which I might
    enlarge, but as there are still many toasts to be proposed and
    responded to, time will not permit. Besides, as you are aware,
    the excellent society under whose auspices we are assembled,
    while endeavouring to do as much good as possible, has no
    political connection whatever. You will, therefore, I am sure,
    forgive me if I do not enlarge more fully on other topics which
    might have some political bearing. I give you 'The Health of his
    Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant, and Prosperity to Ireland.'"

The Lord-Lieutenant, Earl Spencer, in responding, said that since they
last met there had been much prosperity in the country. It was a happy
thing that they were able to mark this. The calling out of the Irish
Militia had tended to encourage the confidence and loyalty of the
people. His Excellency hoped that the improved relations established by
recent legislation between landlord and tenant would have beneficial

His Excellency then proposed "The Health of the Prince of Wales," who
responded, and after several other toasts the party separated.

The Royal visitors, accompanied by the Countess Spencer and the Princess
Louise, afterwards proceeded to the Lady Mayoress's ball at the Mansion
House. The city was brilliantly illuminated at night.

       *       *       *       *       *

The enthusiastic reception of the Royal Princes, and the success of this
visit to Ireland gave much public satisfaction at the time, and is
regarded with interest now, in the light of subsequent events. There had
been some misgivings, lest the Prince might meet with an uncourteous or
at least a cold and uncordial reception. But this had never been the way
of Irishmen, even under what might seem unpropitious conditions. The
most loyal and enthusiastic greeting ever given to a Sovereign, was that
which welcomed the Queen in 1849, just after the treason of Mr. Smith
O'Brien, and at the close of a long period of agitation. Still more
remarkable was the welcome given to George IV. in 1821. There were
neither personal nor political reasons for expecting much enthusiasm on
that occasion. It was well known that the new king, like his father
before him, and the brother who then stood next to the throne, were
determined opponents of Catholic Emancipation. But no sooner had this
king set foot on Irish soil, and left the name of Kingstown to the place
where he landed, than every political grievance, penal laws and
Protestant ascendency, were all for the time forgotten. The truth is
that whatever agitation may be at the surface, the masses of the Irish
nation, like the deep waters of the ocean, are not so disturbed as to
move them to disaffection or disloyalty. There was no Irishman more
loyal than Daniel O'Connell, and many of the Home Rulers of our own day
are not less loyal to the British Crown. There is no fear of the Queen
or any of her children being received by the mass of the Irish people
without demonstrations of joy. Rather the complaint is that Ireland has
so much less of the Royal sunshine than Scotland enjoys, and it might be
well if the sister island became the permanent residence of a member of
the reigning House.

Such thoughts have no bearing on party politics, but are naturally
suggested in remembering the reception given in 1871 to the heir to the
British Crown.

A succession of engagements and of entertainments took place, as on the
visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1868. The military display
in the Phœnix Park was even more brilliant than on that occasion. One
notable incident in 1871 was the installation, with great ceremony, of
His Royal Highness as Grand Patron of the Masonic Institution in
Ireland. A formal address of welcome having been read, His Royal
Highness made the following reply:--

    "Most Worshipful Sir and Brethren,--I thank you very much for
    your cordial and grateful address, and for the kind sentiments
    expressed in it towards myself. It was a source of considerable
    satisfaction to me when I was elected a member of the craft, and
    I think I may without presumption point to the different Masonic
    meetings which, since my initiation, I have fraternally
    attended. As a proof of the interest I take in all that relates
    to Freemasonry, I can assure you that it has afforded me great
    gratification to become the Patron of the Most Ancient and
    Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in Ireland, and
    that an opportunity has been given to me by my visit to Ireland
    of being installed here to-day."

The Grand Master then clothed His Royal Highness with the collar, apron,
and jewel, as Patron. The Brethren then, according to ancient custom,
saluted the Prince as Patron of the Order in Ireland, the Grand Master
himself giving the word. His Royal Highness then said:--

    "Most Worshipful Sir and Brethren,--I have now to thank you
    heartily and cordially for your fraternal reception, and for the
    honour you have done me, and I beg to assure you of the pleasure
    I feel on having been invited to become the Patron of the Order
    of Freemasons in Ireland. It is a source of considerable
    satisfaction to me to know that my visit to this country has
    afforded this opportunity of meeting you, Brethren, in Lodge,
    and so interchanging these frank and hearty greetings. It is
    true I have not been a Mason very long. I was initiated, as you
    perhaps know, in London, a few years ago, after which I visited
    the Grand Original Lodge of Denmark, and a short time afterwards
    I had the signal satisfaction of being elected a Past Grand
    Master of the United Grand Lodge of England. Last year I had the
    honour of being elected Patron of the Order in Scotland; and,
    Brethren, though last, not least, comes the special honour you
    have conferred on me. I thank you for it from the bottom of my
    heart. I may, I think, refer with some pride to the number of
    Masonic meetings I have attended in England since my initiation
    as a proof of my deep attachment to your Order. I know, we all
    know, how good and holy a thing Freemasonry is, how excellent
    are its principles, and how perfect the doctrine it sets forth;
    but forgive me if I remind you that some of our friends outside
    are not as well acquainted with its merits as we are ourselves,
    and that a most mistaken idea prevails in some minds that,
    because we are a secret society, we meet for political purposes,
    or have a political bias in what we do. I am delighted,
    Brethren, to have this opportunity of proclaiming what I am
    satisfied you will agree with me in--that we have as Masons no
    politics; that the great object of our Order is to strengthen
    the bonds of fraternal affection, and to make us live in pure
    and Christian love with all men; that though a secret we are not
    a political body; and that our Masonic principles and hopes are
    essential parts of our attachment to the Constitution and
    loyalty to the Crown."

His Royal Highness's address was received with great applause. The Lodge
was then closed in due form.


How much the Prince of Wales had endeared himself to all classes
in the nation was attested by the deep anxiety and the universal
sorrow when he was struck down with illness in December, 1871.
Those who remember that time, can tell how, for some weeks, all
thoughts were turned to the chamber of sickness at Sandringham;
with what earnest anxiety the daily bulletins were looked for; and
with what fervent devotion the prayers of millions ascended to the
throne of grace. The "dark December" of 1861, when the good
Prince Consort lay on his deathbed, increased the ominous foreboding.
Touching incidents of that critical period are still told. The
watchful attendance of the Princess of Wales was illustrated in no
way more strikingly than in the anecdote of her request to the clergyman
at Sandringham to alter the order of the morning service so as
to let her, after joining in the public prayer for recovery, hasten
back to her husband's side. We remember, too, the affectionate
anxiety of the royal mother, and brothers and sisters; and how the
Prince himself, when he recovered consciousness, asked thoughtfully
about the condition of the servant, who died of the same fever
which nearly proved fatal to his master.

Had the Prince been "taken" at this period of his life, history would
have recorded the loss in terms of tender regret, such as had been, more
than once, felt towards Princes of Wales who died before coming to the
throne. The eldest son of James I., for instance, was long remembered
with deepest sorrow, so much was he loved, and so large the hopes of the
nation which had been centered in him. Had our Prince been lost in that
illness, there would have been another instance of what inspired one of
the noblest of all passages in classic literature, the "_Tu Marcellus
eris_" of Virgil. Happily it was otherwise ordained, and the enthusiasm
of joyful thankfulness at the recovery of the Prince was as truly
national as had been the anxiety and grief at his illness. The special
Thanksgiving Collect, written by the Archbishop of Canterbury, expressed
well the universal feeling of the nation:--

"O Father of mercies and God of all comfort, we thank Thee that Thou
hast heard the prayers of this nation in the day of our trial. We praise
and magnify Thy glorious name for that Thou hast raised Thy servant
Albert Edward Prince of Wales from the bed of sickness. Thou castest
down and Thou liftest up, and health and strength are Thy gifts. We pray
Thee to perfect the recovery of Thy servant, and to crown him day by day
with more abundant blessings both for body and soul; through Jesus
Christ our Lord. Amen."

When the Thanksgiving day was proclaimed, it was still doubtful whether
the Prince himself would be allowed by his medical attendants to risk
the winter journey for Osborne, along with the Queen. But his own desire
to be present nerved him for the effort, and he obtained the assent of
Sir James Paget, who had gone specially to give his opinion.

The danger had increased in the end of November and the first weeks of
December. The first hopeful announcement was made on December 17th, and
on January 3rd convalescence had decidedly begun. A public thanksgiving
service was proclaimed for the 21st of January. On February 22nd the
Letter of the Queen to the nation was published, and then followed the
National Thanksgiving Service in St. Paul's on the 27th.

With regard to the Royal procession, and the display inside the
Cathedral, the scene was far less imposing than on that famous day, the
23rd of April, 1789, when King George III. and Queen Charlotte went to
St. Paul's to return public thanks for His Majesty's restoration to
health. On that occasion there was more of heraldic pageantry, and more
of official display, than accords with modern usage. But everything was
done to make this assemblage as far as possible representative of all
classes in social and public life. Not fewer than 13,000 persons had
places allocated to them in the Cathedral. In the _Times_ of Wednesday,
February 28th, a full classified list of the ticket-holders will be
found. About 300 Mayors and Provosts from all parts of the kingdom had
places. There were 560 places for representatives of the Army and Navy.
The Peers and Commons had 885 tickets for each house. The Dean of St.
Paul's had nearly 1300 tickets at his disposal. The Corps Diplomatique,
"distinguished foreigners," London School Board, the Board of Works,
Learned Societies, Nonconformists, and numerous other bodies figure in
the catalogue. The wearers of uniform and official dress, besides the
gaudy civic corporations, gave variety to the scene. The Judges,
English, Scotch, and Irish, with robes and wigs, gave warm tone to the
Law corner. Special state chairs were occupied by the Lord Chancellor
and the Speaker, representing Parliament. The Press had 80 places, and
the "General Public" made up the number 12,480 tickets--those who took
part in the procession--the stewards, police, firemen, and the officials
bringing up the total to about 13,000.

The crowds lining the streets, for about seven miles along which the
procession passed, were innumerable; and every window and coign of
vantage, with numerous scaffoldings along the line, appeared filled with
spectators. Not even when the Princess of Wales entered London was there
such a dense multitude seen, and it is only on rare occasions that one
can see "all London in the streets." In our time we can remember some
such occasions--the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, the reception of
the Princess of Wales, and the entrance of Garibaldi, being among them.

It was not in the Metropolis alone, that the rejoicing was universal.
Every city and town had its festivities, and its services of
thanksgiving in Church and Chapel. Addresses came, by hundreds, from all
quarters, and the announcement was made of holiday gatherings, of
crowded meetings, of illuminations, and every form of public rejoicing.
The telegraph flashed news of similar excitement throughout the whole of
the Empire; and religious services were held wherever Englishmen are
found on the Continent, in the Colonies, and in India. If ever a
rejoicing could be called national and imperial, it was this, on the
Thanksgiving Day for the recovery of the Prince of Wales.

The service commenced with the _Te Deum_, composed expressly for the
occasion by Dr. Goss. The music of the anthem, from the words of Psalm
118th, verses 14-21, and 28, was by the same composer. Among other
musical pieces was the choral hymn, "Gotha," by the Prince Consort. The
whole of the service, devotional and musical, was most impressive, and
the special prayers and thanksgivings were joined in by the vast
congregation with devoutest feeling. It was noted by one who was
present, with regard to the familiar "General Thanksgiving," that "the
sublimity of the service culminated, and reached its highest and
intensest expression, during the silent pause which followed the
inserted words: "Particularly to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who
desires now to offer up his praises and thanksgiving for Thy late
mercies vouchsafed to him."" The famous words which close the poem of
the Seasons: "Come then expressive silence muse His praise," could be
well understood in that perfect pause of a few moments, almost awful in
its intensity, in the service at St. Paul's Cathedral. When the anthem
had been sung, the Archbishop of Canterbury gave a short sermon or
address, from Romans xii. 5: "Every one members one of another." This
was followed by the special Thanksgiving Hymn, written by the Rev. J. S.
Stone, author of "The Church's one foundation," and "Sonnets of the
Sacred year." It was sung to the good and familiar tune _Aurelia_, by
Dr. S. Wesley. Then the Archbishop pronounced the benediction. When the
organ sounded the grand notes of the National Anthem, Her Majesty came
forward and bowed twice, and the Prince bowed also. The organ continued
to play variations of the anthem as the Royal procession moved down the
nave. Thus ended this grand and joyful service, which will be remembered
in English history.

Altogether it is with the utmost gratification we can look back upon
that memorable 27th of February. A demonstration more general and
spontaneous has not been recorded even in the annals of this loyal
nation. Among high and low, rich and poor, there was one harmonious
spirit of thankful joy, in regard to the recovery of the Prince. But
apart from the special and personal aspect of the occasion, there was
much to cause national gratulation. The combined feeling of religion and
of loyalty showed that in this England of ours, the divine precepts:
"Fear God, Honour the King," are as inseparable as they are powerful,
and that their influence pervades the nation, when circumstances call
them into exercise.

The words of the "Thanksgiving Hymn" well express the sentiment of the
whole service of the day:--

    "O Thou our soul's salvation!
      Our Hope for earthly weal!
    We, who in tribulation
      Did for Thy mercy kneel,
    Lift up glad hearts before Thee,
      And eyes no longer dim,
    And for Thy grace adore Thee
      In eucharistic hymn.

    "Forth went the nation weeping
      With precious seed of prayer,
    Hope's awful vigil keeping
      'Mid rumours of despair;
    Then did Thy love deliver!
      And from Thy gracious hand,
    Joy, like the southern river,
      O'erflowed the weary land.

    "Bless Thou our adoration!
      Our gladness sanctify!
    Make this rejoicing nation
      To Thee by joy more nigh;
    O be this great Thanksgiving
      Throughout the land we raise,
    Wrought into holier living
      In all our after days!

    "Bless, Father, him Thou gavest
      Back to the loyal land,
    O Saviour, him Thou savest,
      Still cover with Thine Hand:
    O Spirit, the Defender,
      Be his to guard and guide,
    Now in life's midday splendour
      On to the eventide!"

What may be the depth of the duration of the feelings thus alluded to,
it is not for man to judge; but it is not as mere forms, that in tens of
thousands of churches there are still uttered, week by week and day by
day, prayers for the Queen, and for the Prince and Princess of
Wales,--expressing the faith, and the goodwill, and the loyalty, of the
people of this empire, as truly and heartily as on that special
thanksgiving day in St. Paul's.


_June 19th, 1872._

The loyal people of King's Lynn and its neighbourhood retained pleasant
remembrance of the festival time when, in 1869, the Prince and Princess
of Wales came to open the new Alexandra Dock. In 1872 they were
gladdened by the announcement that the Royal visitors were again coming
from Sandringham, on the 19th June, to visit their ancient town, at the
annual exhibition of the Norfolk Agricultural Society. At the east gate
of Lynn the Royal carriage was met by the Mayor, who, with the Town
Clerk, and two leading citizens, asked permission to conduct the Prince
and Princess through the town. The Earl of Leicester and Lord Sondes
were in the Royal carriage, a third carriage containing Lord Sheffield
and Lady Anne Coke. At the entrance of the Show, an address was read,
from the Norfolk Agricultural Association, to which the Prince made the
following reply:--

    "Gentlemen,--I thank you sincerely for this address. It has been
    a source of the greatest gratification to have had it in my
    power to contribute in any degree to the success of your
    association and to promote the interests of agriculture in
    Norfolk. It is with these feelings that I have endeavoured to
    make myself acquainted with some of the operations of farming,
    and to acquire some knowledge of stock, and if I have not always
    been successful in the path of competition, I have at least
    obtained prizes sufficient to encourage me to persevere, and to
    indulge in the hope that I shall obtain more. The Princess is
    always willing to come among you,--and to be present on
    occasions like the present. We both desire to take this
    opportunity of expressing the deep sense we entertain of the
    sympathy and interest which were manifested towards us in our
    late trials by yourselves and by every class in the county of

Then followed the inspection of the Show, and the parade of the prize
animals before the Grand Stand. The Prince was a successful exhibitor,
having taken a second prize in Shorthorn heifers, a second prize in the
class of ponies not above thirteen hands high, a first prize for the
best Southdown ram, the second prize in Southdown ewe lambs, a second
prize for ten wether lambs, two prizes (second and third) in the class
of Norfolk and Suffolk red-polled cattle.

In the afternoon at a banquet attended by a large number of guests, the
Prince took the chair, with the Princess of Wales on his right. Grace
having been said by the Bishop of Norwich, the toast of "The Queen" was
received with enthusiasm, and the Earl of Leicester then gave "The
Health of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal
Family." He tendered the thanks of the society to the Prince of Wales
for the aid which he had extended to agriculture, for his liberal
assistance to the local charities, for the interest which he had
displayed in county affairs, and, last but not least, for his support to
the fox-hounds. The society was also still more indebted to Her Royal
Highness the Princess of Wales for her gracious presence that evening.
Ladies ought always to interest themselves in their husbands' pursuits,
and he believed that agriculture came quite within their province. The
Earl next alluded to the illness of the Prince of Wales in December
last, and expressed his hope that His Royal Highness's life might long
be spared, as it would be devoted to the welfare of the people of
England, and the promotion of all that was good and noble. The toast was
drunk with rounds of cheering, renewed when the Prince rose to reply.

    His Royal Highness said that "he and the Princess were deeply
    thankful for the reception which they had experienced during the
    day. He was very glad that it had been in his power to fulfil
    the promise which he gave some time since that he would preside
    over the meeting. It had been a success, and he should ever
    esteem it a high compliment to have been associated with it.
    During the ten years in which he had lived in Norfolk, he had
    endeavoured not to lag behind those other county landlords who
    so ably fulfilled their duties. It would always be his earnest
    endeavour to promote the welfare of the county, in which he was
    much interested. He had to thank the meeting for the kind
    reception which the Princess of Wales always experienced
    whenever she appeared in public. It was most desirable that
    ladies should associate themselves in their husbands' pursuits,
    and when the Princess did not accompany him he always felt that
    there was something wanting. With regard to his illness, he
    should never forget the sympathy which had been extended towards
    him. He accepted that sympathy as a token of the feeling of this
    great and enlightened country towards himself and the Princess,
    the Queen, his mother, and the Monarchical system which we had

After acknowledgment had been made by Lord Leicester, for the toast of
the Lord-Lieutenant of the county, and the Bishop had responded for the
Clergy, the Prince rose to give what he called the toast of the evening:
"Prosperity to the Norfolk Agricultural Association."

    His Royal Highness traced "the progress of the society and
    especially the rapid advance which it had made since it adopted
    the principle of holding its Shows periodically in all the towns
    of the county, instead of limiting its meetings to Norwich and
    Swaffham only. At the present Show there were sixty more stock
    entries and one hundred more implements. Norfolk had always been
    held up as a great agricultural county, and was the home of the
    great nobleman, better known as 'Coke of Norfolk.' The fame of
    Coke of Norfolk had not been forgotten by his son, the present
    Earl of Leicester. The county was a great cattle-breeding
    county, the home of such men as Lord Sondes, Mr. Brown, Mr.
    Aylmer, and Mr. Overman. One other great Norfolk breeder, the
    late Lord Walsingham, had passed away, but he trusted that the
    present Lord Walsingham would continue to maintain the
    reputation of the Merton flock.

    "His Royal Highness expressed his own great personal interest in
    the Society and in the cause of agriculture generally. His late
    father, the Prince Consort, always felt the greatest interest
    in agriculture, and used to take his children to inspect his
    prize animals. It might be desirable to increase the area of the
    Society on the model of the Bath and West of England Society, by
    bringing in Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Essex. For his own
    part, he supported such an extension of the Society. A landlord
    ought to feel a pride in having the working classes properly
    housed on his estate. Those who worked from morning to night
    should find a comfortable house, which would promote their moral
    and social wellbeing. He had endeavoured to improve the cottages
    on his own estate, and he felt pride and satisfaction in having
    his workmen properly housed. In conclusion, His Royal Highness
    strongly supported the idea of having a great county school for
    Norfolk, and said it would give him the greatest pleasure to
    support the enterprise."

After various other toasts, the last being "The Ladies," proposed by the
Royal chairman, the Prince and Princess returned to Sandringham.


_July 5th, 1872._

The Prince of Wales visited Yarmouth on Thursday, the 5th of July, 1872,
and remained till Saturday as the guest of Mr. Cuddon at
Shadingfield-lodge. The object of the visit was to open the New Grammar
School, and more especially the official inspection of the Norfolk
Artillery Militia, of which the Prince is Honorary Colonel. The good
people of Yarmouth, however, were resolved to make the visit a general
holiday, and great preparations were made for giving a loyal and
enthusiastic reception. The town was gay with decorations, and the
passage through the streets was like a triumphal procession. In replying
to the Address of the Mayor and Corporation, the Prince said:--

    "It was most gratifying to me to receive in February last the
    congratulations you offered me on my recovery from illness, and
    my gratification is increased at having it now in my power to
    thank you personally for your kindness and sympathy."

Reference was made to the same subject, in a feeling speech, in which
the Prince responded to the toast of his health, at a banquet given by
the Mayor:--

    "Allow me to thank you, Mr. Mayor, for the very kind and
    touching manner in which you have proposed my health, and to
    return you all my sincere thanks for the cordial manner in which
    you have drunk it. I assure you it gives me more than ordinary
    pleasure to be here to-day. This is the first occasion since my
    return from abroad that I have met with an official reception,
    and my pleasure is increased from the fact that I regard myself
    as a Norfolk man. I have also to acknowledge the very high
    honour conferred upon me last year in my having been appointed
    Honorary Colonel of the Norfolk Militia Artillery, and to say
    how glad I am to find on coming to inspect them that they have
    their head-quarters at Yarmouth, for although my residence is
    not very near you, still you will believe me when I assure you
    that I entertain the same sentiments with regard to your borough
    of Great Yarmouth as I do towards Lynn, and all the other towns
    of Norfolk. I have also again to thank you for your sympathy
    during my illness. It is difficult for me now to speak upon that
    subject, but as it has pleased Almighty God to preserve me to my
    country I hope I may not be ungrateful for the feeling which has
    been shown towards me, and that I may do all that I can to be of
    use to my countrymen. I will not detain you much longer, but
    before sitting down it affords me great pleasure to propose to
    you a toast which I am sure you will all drink most heartily,
    and that is the health of the Mayor. I regard him as the
    representative of the people of Yarmouth, and tender to him my
    warmest thanks for the cordial and impressive welcome I have
    received. I feel convinced that, although my stay among you will
    unfortunately be short, it will be agreeable; and I trust that
    the sun which shines so brilliantly at present will continue to
    favour us during the next two days."

His Royal Highness was loudly cheered throughout his speech, especially
upon his declaration that he was a Norfolk man, and still more so upon
referring to his recovery.

The Mayor having responded, the Prince rose and proceeded to his
carriage, and drove at a slow pace by a circuitous route through the
town and along the Marine Parade to the Grammar School. Here he was
received by the Head Master, and an Address was presented by Sir Edmund
Lacon, Chairman of the Trustees of the School, to which the Prince

    "I thank you sincerely for the expressions of your kind feeling
    at my recovery. It is a source of the greatest satisfaction to
    me to have an opportunity of assisting, in whatever form it may
    be, in the great work of education. It is gratifying to see the
    schools of Edward VI. revived and devoted to the purpose for
    which they were founded, and those who are actively engaged in
    the work deserve the hearty thanks of the people to whom they
    extend the benefit which a practical religious education always
    confers. Success tells its own tale, and the numbers of the boys
    present in the school, together with those whom you expect to be
    added to it, enable me to congratulate the people of Yarmouth on
    your having revived an institution so calculated to promote
    their best interests."

    His Royal Highness then declared the school open, and, with the
    permission of the authorities, prayed that the boys be granted
    an extra week's holiday at Midsummer in remembrance of his

On the next day the Prince made the official inspection of the
Artillery; afterwards dining with the officers of his regiment.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Prince of Wales being Colonel of the Norfolk Artillery Militia, has
occasion to visit Great Yarmouth more frequently than he might otherwise
do. At the time of the inspection in 1887, advantage was taken of his
presence for laying the foundation of the new hospital, the old one
having been in use since 1838, and being too small, and unsuitable for
the increased requirements of the borough. The foundation stone of the
new edifice was laid with masonic ceremony on the 18th of May, 1887. The
Prince was accompanied by Lord Charles Beresford, and a large muster of
the brethren of the Craft assembled to meet the Grand Master. An
imposing procession proceeded from the Town Hall to the site of the
Hospital. The crowds in the streets were great, and the ceremony excited
much interest in the town. To an address from the Corporation, the
Prince replied in gracious terms; expressing his gratification at being
able again to visit the ancient borough, and to assist in so good a
work; adding, that though it was his sixth visit, he hoped it would not
be the last, as he always looked forward with the greatest pleasure to
coming to Great Yarmouth.


_July 25th, 1872._

The Horticultural Gardens at South Kensington had seen many
vicissitudes, and been turned to many uses, before it ceased to be the
head-quarters of the science and art of gardening. But the ground was
never turned to better use than when it was lent for the Annual Review
of the thousands of boys belonging to the Training Ships and the Pauper
Schools of the Metropolitan District Unions. Two of these annual reviews
had been held, under the auspices of the Society of Arts, when in 1872,
on the 25th of July, the Prince of Wales was asked, as President of that
Society, to take the leading part in the proceedings of the day.

About 4000 boys in all mustered, each little regiment marching on the
ground with its own band playing and banner flying. The Greenwich Royal
Naval School, of 700 boys, were conspicuous in their nest sailor
uniforms. The lads of the _Warspite_, _Goliath_, and _Chichester_
training ships also made a good appearance. The Greenwich boys, having
the advantage of more thorough training and instruction, were excluded
from the competition in the drill exercises for which other schools

Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar watched each school at drill under its own
inspector, and adjudged the prizes to be afterwards distributed by the
Prince of Wales. A Serjeant-major of the Guards was in charge of the
parade, and of the march past the saluting point. The arrangements of
the day had been chiefly organized by Major Donelly, R.E., to whom great
praise was due.

The boys had been at work for some hours, when at 4 P.M., the Prince and
Princess of Wales arrived on the ground, accompanied by their two eldest
boys in sailors' costume. The prizes were distributed in the Royal
Albert Hall. The Princess went to the Royal box, but the Royal princes
went with their father to the daïs, where they were welcomed with great
clapping of hands, by the thousands of boys, and the thousand adult
spectators of the scene. Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar had adjudged the
first prize to the boys of the _Goliath_; the second to the boys of the
Shoreditch School at Brentford; and the third to the Lambeth School at
Lower Norwood.

After a short address by General Sir Eardley Wilmot, speaking in the
name of the Council of the Society of Arts,--

    The Prince of Wales rose, and in an excellent impromptu speech
    "assured the members of the Council and the boys (addressing the
    latter in kindly way as 'you, my young friends'), of the
    pleasure it gave the Princess, his two sons, and himself to be
    present. Congratulating the schools on their excellent marching,
    and on the favourable report just read, His Royal Highness added
    that he hoped the boys had been up to the mark in their studies
    as well as their drill."

Two boys of each prize school came in succession to the daïs, and
received the prize banners from the Prince's hand. The Prince and his
sons then joined the Princess in her box, and it was a striking scene
when, after some bars of prelude, the words of 'God Bless the Prince of
Wales' were taken up by a thousand young and clear voices, the Prince
and Princess and the two lads standing in the front of the box while it
was sung. The last of the programme was then fulfilled by the bands
playing a selection of music.

The sight altogether was most gratifying. Here were 4000 boys, most of
them paupers, many of them orphans, receiving an excellent education, a
training in physical aptitudes and habits of obedience as well as in
mental studies. The Greenwich School is composed of the children of
seamen being educated for the sea, but the three thousand and more boys
of the other schools must in large part be looked upon as so much
material reclaimed to humanity. In fact, these three thousand and more
boys may, in the words of a paper put forth by the Society of Arts, "be
beheld with confident satisfaction as victims rescued from 'the bad,'
and preserved for the good as honest, self-supporting producers, and
worthy members of the community."


_August 11th, 1872._

On the 11th of August, 1872, the Prince of Wales went from Osborne in
the Royal yacht _Victoria and Albert_, to inaugurate the completed
Breakwater and Harbour of Refuge at Portland, and to pay a visit to
Weymouth, the favourite resort of the Prince's great-grandfather, George
III. A magnificent fleet of ironclads, headed by the _Minotaur_, bearing
the flag of Admiral Hornby, and many other vessels, were in attendance
for the ceremony, of which fifteen were first-rate ironclad ships of

The weather was stormy, and the sea had been too disturbed for the
comfort of the Civil Lords of the Admiralty; but the Prince showed no
signs of suffering from the rough voyage, and manfully went through the
proceedings of the day. The stone being laid, prayers were said by a
clergyman, plaster was spread on the surface on which the last of seven
million tons of Portland stone was to find a firm resting-place, the
usual glass bottle containing newspapers, coins, and a chart of the
island and the breakwater was laid in the groove prepared, and, when the
Prince himself had spread some mortar, the great block was lowered into
its place. His Royal Highness then struck three blows upon it with an
ivory mallet, tested it with a silver level, and completed a very short
but sufficient ceremony, by saying, "I now declare this stone to be well
and truly laid and this great work to be complete." At the concerted
signal of a lowered colour, the guns of the fort began to fire a salute,
and the spectators raised a cheer. The inscription on the stone read as
follows, the concluding quotation having been added, it is stated, by
the Prince himself:--

    "From this spot, on the 25th of July, 1849, His Royal Highness
    Prince Albert, Consort of Queen Victoria, deposited the first
    stone of this breakwater. Upon the same spot, on the 10th of
    August, 1872, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, laid this last
    stone, and declared the work complete."

        "'These are imperial works, and worthy Kings.'"

At the end of the ceremony the Royal yacht steamed towards
Weymouth, and after a rather uncomfortable passage, through a
choppy sea and over the bar, in the Royal barge, the Prince landed
at the end of the pier. Here the Mayor and Corporation presented
an address, which declared that "His Royal Highness had added
one more link to the golden chain of favours already conferred by
Royalty on this ancient borough." A luncheon was given by
Mr. Hambro, the senior member for Weymouth. The streets were
gaily decorated, and the people were loud in their loyal and joyful
demonstrations. The Royal yacht returned to Osborne late in the


_December 17th, 1872._

The tidings that the Prince and Princess of Wales were coming to Derby
from Chatsworth, where they were on a visit to the Duke of Devonshire,
caused great excitement in the district. Trains brought crowds from
Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham, and Chesterfield, to
swell the populace of Derby.

It was on the 17th of December, 1872, not far from the anniversary of
the gloomiest time of the illness of the previous year, that the visit
to Derby was made. There were several loyal addresses--from civic,
municipal, and other bodies, including one from the Freemasons of
Derbyshire. The object of the Royal visit was mainly to present the
prizes at the Derby Grammar School, one of the most flourishing of
provincial middle-class schools. The procession of carriages passed
through streets crowded with people, with brilliant escort of troops,
and decorations everywhere on the route. On arriving at the school Lord
Belper delivered an address referring to the foundation and history of
the institution, and the high scholastic standard aimed at. The Head
Master, the Rev. W. Clark, having thanked the Prince and the Princess
for coming, added that His Royal Highness had kindly said he would write
his name in each of the prize-books in remembrance of the occasion:--

    His Royal Highness, on rising, said,--"Mr. Clark, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen,--I beg you to accept from the Princess, as well as
    myself, our cordial thanks for the very kind words that have
    been addressed to us. I can assure you that I have come here
    with feelings of the greatest pleasure, and we are glad we
    accepted the kind invitation of the noble duke to visit
    Chatsworth, and that we have had the pleasure and advantage of
    visiting the ancient town of Derby. I have had great pleasure in
    presiding to-day and distributing the prizes to the successful
    competitors of the Derby school. This school, as you know, is
    one of the oldest in the kingdom, though I am afraid one of the
    poorest endowed. Still it has always borne the highest
    reputation, which I feel convinced it will continue to maintain.
    To the young men to whom I have had the pleasure of distributing
    prizes allow me to offer my most hearty congratulations, and I
    trust they may continue to go on as they are doing now. If they
    do so they will be successful in whatever profession they enter.
    I will not detain you longer, but thank you once more for the
    kind reception you have given us this day, and also tender to
    the Mayor our cordial thanks for the hearty reception we have
    received in our progress through Derby."

It may be added that the invitation to Derby was first suggested by the
Trustees of the Grammar School, who in their petition, sent to
Chatsworth, represented that this school, reputed to be one of the
oldest in the kingdom, was also one of the most poorly endowed. This was
an appeal which at once secured the goodwill of the Prince. Nor has he
forgotten the school. On the 14th of November, 1888, he went to see "the
Prince of Wales's Class Rooms," erected as a memorial of his visit in
1872. In response to a petition presented by the captain of the school,
the Prince obtained from the Head Master a promise of making November 14
a perpetual holiday in remembrance of this visit.


_March 27th, 1873._

On the evening of March 27, 1873, His Royal Highness the Prince of
Wales, who had in the morning visited several artists' studios, and in
the afternoon went to the House of Lords, presided at the annual dinner
in aid of the Railway Benevolent Institution, at Willis's Rooms. After
dinner and grace the Royal Chairman gave the usual first toast, the
health of Her Majesty the Queen, Patroness of the Railway Benevolent
Institution. The Duke of Buckingham then proposed the health of the
Prince and Princess of Wales; and in so doing took occasion to say that
it was not the first time His Royal Highness had taken interest in the
Institution, and now he had done it the honour to preside at its annual
festival. The toast being duly welcomed, the Prince said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--Although it is very unusual on a
    public occasion of this kind for the health of the Chairman to
    be given so early in the evening, yet mine has been proposed so
    kindly by the noble Duke and so well received, and has,
    moreover, been so kindly coupled with that of the Princess and
    the rest of my family, that I think it my duty to rise at once
    and respond to the toast. The noble Duke has been kind enough to
    say that my family and myself do what we can for the support of
    the great charitable Institutions of the country. I am very much
    flattered by those remarks. I can only assure you--and I think I
    may speak for the other members of my family--that it is one of
    our chief objects to come forward as often as we possibly can in
    support of Institutions which are so beneficial and so necessary
    to the well-being of the country, and which are always so
    munificently supported by all classes of the community. I thank
    you once more for the honour you have done me, and assure you
    that it is a great pleasure and gratification to me to take the
    chair here this evening."

Other toasts being proposed and acknowledged, the Prince rose and

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--The toast I have now the honour to
    propose is a bumper toast, and I know it will be received as
    such. It is that of 'Prosperity to the Railway Benevolent
    Institution and Board of Management.' When I look around me
    this evening and see how numerous is the assemblage before me, I
    feel convinced that you have come here intending to do honour to
    that toast, and to do your utmost in every way to support the
    Institution which to-day has reached its fifteenth anniversary.
    It is difficult for me, especially before you, who are so well
    acquainted with the merits of the Institution, to say anything
    new concerning it. Still I think it my duty, as your chairman,
    to mention a few facts by way of an appeal to your

    "The objects of the Railway Benevolent Institution may be
    briefly mentioned under six heads. First, it has for its object
    the granting of annuities of from £10 to £25 to the distressed
    railway officers and servants incapacitated through age,
    sickness, or accident; second, to grant small pensions to
    distressed widows; third, to educate and maintain orphan
    children; fourth, to grant temporary relief until permanent
    relief can be afforded; fifth, to induce railway officers and
    servants to insure their lives by dividing the payment of the
    premium into small periodical sums, and by granting a
    reversionary bonus of 10 per cent. out of the funds of the
    institution; sixth and lastly, to grant small sums not exceeding
    £10 to the families of those who are injured or killed in the
    performance of their duties.

    "When I look at the list before me I must say it is indeed a sad
    one; but at the same time it must be a gratification to us, who
    wish well to the Institution, to see that from the 16th of
    November, 1871, to the 16th of November last as many as 1067
    cases were relieved out of the casualty fund. I may also mention
    that the officers of the railway companies subscribe half a
    guinea and the servants 8_s._ a year. In fact, I may say that
    the railway companies give this Institution in every way their
    official support, and they may indeed well do so, because there
    is no institution which more heartily deserves our support than

    "There is, however, one curious fact which I should like to
    mention. I believe I am correct in saying that the number of
    officers and servants employed on railways in the United Kingdom
    amounts to something like 300,000, but only 35,000 of them are
    subscribers; and in Ireland there is not a single subscriber. I
    am sorry to have to make this fact known; but all the more
    reason is there that we this evening should be liberal with our
    purses, as I am sure we shall all be when we consider how often
    we travel by railway. Not a day goes by but most of you travel
    once--probably twice. In stepping into a railway carriage, do
    you not think of the risks you may run? An accident may happen
    to anybody, though every possible security and guarantee may be
    given that no accident shall occur.

    "Well, if we as passengers run risks, how much more so the
    officers and servants of the companies; and that not every day,
    but every hour and minute of their lives? We may be sure it is
    the earnest desire of the managers and directors--many of whom
    are here this evening--to do all in their power to guarantee the
    safety of the passengers and of those to whom are entrusted the
    care and management of the trains. I feel sure I cannot impress
    on them too strongly the necessity for their still using every
    effort in their power to prevent accidents, which are,
    unfortunately, too frequent. It is not for me in the presence of
    so many great railway authorities to say what plan may be best
    devised to lessen accidents--whether it may be that there are
    too many railways, whether the immense network which exists in
    this country comes too closely together at different stations,
    or the trains follow each other at intervals too short. These
    are questions with which I do not feel myself competent to deal;
    but at the same time I feel that the question of railways, and
    especially the frequency of accidents, are brought more
    distinctly under our notice when we consider the claims of the
    Institution we are brought together this evening to promote.
    This is a theme about which one might talk for a long time; and
    I know, on occasions of this kind, it would be out of place on
    my part to give you a long oration; yet, though I but feebly
    express what others would much better have laid before you, I
    hope you will believe that nobody feels more deeply for this
    Institution than I do, that nobody advocates its claims more
    ardently than I, and nobody will continue to take a greater
    interest in everything connected with our great railways.

    "To show you that I am not using mere stereotyped phrases, I may
    tell you that no week elapses without my travelling once or
    twice at least by train. I have therefore the opportunity of
    seeing, as well as anybody can see, how admirably our railway
    system is worked; not only the managers and directors, but the
    officers and servants have my warmest admiration for doing their
    utmost in the execution of their duty, and also for their
    unvarying courtesy and attention. I will now ask you once more,
    in conclusion, to open your purses as freely as you can in
    support of the Railway Benevolent Institution."

The Secretary afterwards announced subscriptions to the handsome amount
of £5000, which included a second donation by His Royal Highness of 100


_January 9th, 1874._

On the 9th of January, 1874, the Prince of Wales visited the City for
unveiling the equestrian statue erected at the western entrance of the
Holborn Viaduct, in memory of the late Prince Consort. At the site an
address was read, containing a description of the memorial, and an
account of its origin. The ceremony of unveiling over, the Prince was
driven in the state carriage of the Lord Mayor to the Guildhall, where
between 700 and 800 guests, including many distinguished persons, were
invited to luncheon. After the first loyal toast, "The Queen," had been
received with all honours, the Lord Mayor said: "I now raise my glass to
the memory of the late Prince Consort. 'He being dead yet speaketh.'"
The words were spoken with emotion, and the company rising in a body,
drank the toast in silence and with every mark of respect.

The health of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the other members of
the Royal Family--including the Duke of Cambridge, who was
present--having been given, the Prince responded.

He expressed his grateful sense of the cordiality of his reception, and
the satisfaction he had in coming for such a purpose as the inauguration
and unveiling of a statue to his lamented father. He also acknowledged
the debt of thanks to the donor of the statue, whose name he knew, but
who wished it not to be made public. "To the Corporation of London I
have to express my thanks for having contributed a part of the
statue--namely, the pedestal; and I am sure that the work which we have
inaugurated to-day will long be an ornament to the City of London."


_March 25th, 1874._

The number of institutions for helping fatherless and orphan children is
considerable, but the purpose of the British Orphan Asylum, at Slough,
is distinct from most charities of the class. The orphan children here
admitted are the sons and daughters of persons once in prosperous
circumstances, but who have been unable to make provision for their
families. Clergymen, naval and military officers, members of the legal
and medical profession, are often in this position. Commercial men are
also liable to sudden misfortune, and children are afterwards left in
poverty, who were once accustomed to ease and prosperity. The frequency
of such cases led to the establishment, in 1827, of a special Asylum for
the orphans of such persons. The honorary secretary at present is the
Rev. Canon James Fleming, whose name is alone sufficient guarantee for
the excellent object and good management of the Asylum.

At the anniversary festival, in 1874, held at Willis's Rooms, on March
25th, the Prince of Wales presided. After the toast of "The Queen,"
proposed by the Chairman, the Marquis of Hertford gave the health of
"The Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal
Family," among whom was now included the Duchess of Edinburgh. The
Marquis said: "It gives us all the greatest pleasure to see His Royal
Highness again among us as one of the Royal Family taking part in the
sacred cause of charity. We who belong to the British Orphan Asylum have
the greatest reason to be pleased and thankful to His Royal Highness for
having come among us this evening."

Other toasts having been disposed of, the Prince rose and said:--

    "It is now my duty, as your Chairman, to call upon you to drink
    the toast of 'Prosperity to the British Orphan Asylum.' I am
    satisfied you will do so most heartily, when I see around me so
    numerous an assembly prepared to do honour to the occasion, and
    to assist us in our work. I feel some diffidence in proposing
    this toast in the presence of so many who know far better than I
    do the excellence of this institution, and understand its
    working. At the same time it gives me the greatest pleasure to
    propose the toast, and to be here this evening advocating so
    excellent a cause. It is always a pleasure to advocate the cause
    of charity, and there is no other appeal that comes so home to
    the hearts of all classes of the community.

    "I have a special interest in this Asylum. It is now nearly
    eleven years since the Princess and myself visited and
    inaugurated the present building near Slough; and when I pass by
    Slough, as I frequently have to do in the course of the year, it
    always gives me pleasure to look at that building, and to think
    how many children are here provided for and educated. It is now
    very nearly half a century since this institution was founded,
    and it is different from all others in this respect, that
    children of parents who were once in prosperous circumstances
    are there educated. In it there are children of officers of the
    Army, of the legal, medical, and naval professions, and the
    proof of its usefulness is that after they have grown up they
    frequently write letters to the managers of the Asylum
    expressing their gratitude for the excellence of the practical
    education they have received, and which has been so profitable
    to them in their different avocations.

    "To show how prosperous this Asylum is, I may state that in
    January last it contained within four of 200 children. You will
    perhaps ask, if this institution is in so prosperous a
    condition, why have this dinner? Why call so many people
    together? And why am I to ask you, in as civil a manner as I
    possibly can, to subscribe towards its support? My answer is,
    that the net income of the Asylum is £3000 a year, but that the
    increase in prices of all the necessaries of life is so
    enormous, that to meet the deficiency that exists as much as
    £1500 has been sold out of their funds; and I feel that in order
    to make that deficiency good, I shall not call upon you this
    evening in vain. There are points which I might bring before
    your notice, but I think that on this occasion brevity is best,
    for you all know what a good institution it is, and I am sure
    you will drink with me 'Prosperity to the Institution,' and try
    to make it still more prosperous for the future. I beg to couple
    with the toast the health of the treasurer, the directors, the
    hon. secretaries, and medical officers of the institution."

The subscriptions announced during the evening amounted to upwards of


_March 31st, 1874._

The Lord Mayor of London, as chief magistrate of the City, has always
been ready to honour men distinguished for naval and military service
rendered to the country. A grand State Banquet was given on the 31st of
March, 1874, to Lord Wolseley, then Major-General Sir Garnet Wolseley,
on his return to England after the triumphant Ashantee Expedition. The
dinner was served in the Egyptian Hall at the Mansion House. Covers were
laid for 260 guests, among whom were His Royal Highness the Prince of
Wales, Prince Arthur, and the Duke of Cambridge. All the officers of the
Staff, and others who had taken part in the Expedition, with many
eminent persons in civic or official life, were present.

The Lord Mayor, having given the usual loyal toasts, the Prince of Wales
rose to respond to that of the Royal Family, saying:--

    "My Lord Mayor, your Royal Highness, my Lords, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen,--I beg to tender you my very warmest thanks for the
    kind way in which the Lord Mayor proposed this toast, and for
    the cordial manner in which the company now assembled have
    received it. This is not the first time I have had the honour of
    an invitation to be present at the Mansion House and receive the
    hospitality of the Lord Mayor of the City of London. But I can
    assure him that however much pleased I may have been to be
    present on former occasions, on no occasion did it afford me
    greater pleasure to be here than on this evening, when he has
    given a banquet to welcome back those gallant officers who have
    so lately returned from the Gold Coast to England. The gallant
    officers and men of that Expedition had the opportunity
    yesterday of seeing the Queen, and the Queen had the opportunity
    of seeing them, and of expressing her approval of everything
    that has occurred. Yesterday afternoon, also, both Houses of
    Parliament unanimously accorded a vote of thanks for the manner
    in which that difficult though short campaign was conducted.
    This evening, again, the Lord Mayor takes the opportunity of
    welcoming those gentlemen who are here as the representatives of
    the troops that formed that Expedition, in the hospitable manner
    which is so well known in this Hall. On a question of this kind
    it would be unbecoming in me and out of place to make any
    remarks with regard to that Expedition which has been so
    successfully closed. But I cannot sit down without taking the
    opportunity of saying how much I rejoice--if I may say so as a
    soldier and a comrade of those I see around me--that this
    Expedition has ended in so successful a manner. English officers
    and English troops have kept up their reputation. They have not
    only displayed great courage--that they have done on all
    occasions--but they displayed extraordinary endurance, owing to
    the fearful climate and country they had to contend with. I am
    glad to have the opportunity of welcoming home the gallant
    General on my right, and congratulating him on the great success
    of his expedition. Once more I thank you for the honour you have
    done me in drinking my health, and on the part of the members of
    my family, for the kind way in which you have spoken of them."

In responding to the toast of "The Army and Navy," the Duke of Cambridge
referred to the review of the troops of the Expedition on the previous
day, at Windsor, before the Queen. "The distinguished officer who
conducted this war knew the task he undertook, and how to undertake it;
and he was well backed by the officers and men placed at his disposal."
The speech of Sir Garnet Wolseley was admirable in tone and feeling, and
with clear soldier-like statement of the chief events and results of the
Expedition. He thus concluded: "The military world has learnt many
military lessons in recent years, but the most valuable to us as a
nation that has been taught us by the Abyssinian and Ashantee Wars is
that when you have to appoint an English General to command any military
undertaking it is necessary to trust him; to supply him with all he asks
for; and, above all things, to avoid the error of severing the military
command from the diplomacy necessarily connected with the operations. I
have no hesitation in saying that had my operations been encumbered by
the presence with me of a Civil Governor, or of an Ambassador authorised
to give me orders, I do not think I should ever have reached Coomassie.
Upon my arrival at Cape Coast Castle, at the beginning of last October,
I found it in a state of siege. A large Ashantee army threatened both it
and Elmina; a panic and demoralisation had seized upon all classes; the
people from the surrounding districts had flooded into the towns on the
Coast, where they soon suffered from disease, owing to their crowded
condition; trade had almost ceased altogether, and a large proportion of
the people depended upon the Government for their support. When I left
Cape Coast Castle, at the beginning of this month, I left there a
prosperous population, enjoying the blessings of peace and the
mercantile advantages attendant thereon. I found upon my arrival on the
Coast the _prestige_ of England at its lowest ebb, but before I
departed, I left our military fame firmly established on a secure base,
consequent on the victories so gallantly won by the troops under my
command. My Lord Mayor, I have to thank you most sincerely for the
manner in which you have alluded to me personally and to my military
services, and I have to thank you, in the name of all ranks composing
the expeditionary force, for the warm reception and the noble
hospitality you have accorded to us this evening."


_April 22nd, 1874._

The Royal Medical Benevolent College, at Epsom, was founded in 1851, for
the education of sons of medical men. There are at present about two
hundred boys, fifty of whom, on the foundation, are educated, boarded,
and entirely maintained at the expense of the institution. The education
is of the highest class, and the charge, to those not on the foundation,
is fifty guineas, if the pupils are above fourteen, with slight
reduction for those under that age. There is accommodation in the
College for twenty-four pensioners, who have comfortable quarters, and a
pension of twenty guineas a year. There are also twenty-six non-resident
pensioners, with the same annuity of twenty guineas.

In support of the funds of the College, the eighteenth festival, at
Willis's Rooms, was presided over by the Prince of Wales, supported by
the Duke of Teck, Earl Granville, as President of the College, and a
large number of the leading men of the profession. The usual loyal and
patriotic toasts having been given, the Royal Chairman gave the toast of
the evening, saying:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I feel both some difficulty and some
    diffidence in proposing the toast of 'Success to the Royal
    Medical College,' because, in the first place, I wish the task
    had fallen into abler hands than mine, and, in the second place,
    many of you must in any event know more upon the subject than I
    do. It may not be out of place, however, on this occasion for me
    to give you a few statistics connected with the Royal Medical
    College. No doubt many of you will be well up in the subject,
    but others will be reminded or informed. This College was
    founded by Mr. Propert, a medical gentleman of high eminence;
    and its object is, in the first place, to assist aged medical
    men and the widows of qualified practitioners, and, in the next
    place, to educate the children of such persons. In 1853 the
    first stone was laid at Epsom; in 1855 the institution was
    opened by my lamented father, who took the deepest interest in
    its welfare; and I had the opportunity, as a boy, of
    accompanying him on that occasion. I have therefore been
    acquainted with the institution, which we have come here to do
    honour to, for nineteen years. There were then five pensioners'
    houses and a school for 150 boys. There are now, including the
    three about to be elected, fifty pensioners, each of whom
    receives £21 a year, and twenty-four of whom are also resident
    in the College. The school contains 200 resident pupils, the
    sons of medical men, fifty of whom, being foundation scholars,
    are educated, boarded, clothed, and maintained at the expense of
    the institution, while the remainder are charged from £48 to £51
    a year.

    "A gentleman who is present (Sir Erasmus Wilson) has just built
    a house to hold forty more boys. I offer him our sincere thanks
    for the great benefit he has conferred upon the institution. The
    school has always been full, but we are anxious to increase its
    funds, and, as each foundationer costs £60 a year, you will see
    that we want money.

    "It will not be out of place for me to remind you what a
    difficult profession is that of medicine--what uphill work it is
    to some, unlike those whom I see around. Some who would have
    attained high positions may be struck down by illness or by some
    great sorrow, and for them provision should be made. There is
    also the case of the eminent man making a large income, but cut
    off suddenly, before he has made provision for a wife and family
    now left destitute, though the husband and father may have led a
    life of usefulness in his profession. Our object is not to make
    long speeches, nor, I hope, to bore any of those who are
    assembled here, but you may be assured that, however imperfectly
    I may have spoken, what I have said I mean most heartily, and
    when I call upon you this evening to give your support--your
    liberal support--to this charity I feel sure I shall not call in
    vain. I now propose 'Success to the Royal Medical Benevolent

The subscriptions and donations announced by the secretary amounted to
£1780, the list being headed by the Prince of Wales with 100 guineas.

Sir James Paget, in proposing the health of the president, officers, and
members of the Council of the College, said that they were to be
congratulated on the prospects of the institution, and on their having
"induced His Royal Highness to leave Sandringham at this season, to add
grace and dignity to the celebration of the twenty-first year of the

The Prince of Wales, it may be added, besides his kindly interest in all
charitable institutions, has uniformly shown courtesy and respect to the
medical profession, members of which he has from early life honoured
with his personal friendship.


_June 11th, 1874._

On the opening of the new Library in 1862, His Royal Highness the Prince
of Wales was made a Bencher of the Middle Temple. On the 11th of June,
1874, the Treasurer and Benchers of the Middle Temple entertained the
members of the Inn, and a large number of distinguished guests, at
dinner, according to ancient custom, on "the great grand day" of Trinity
Term. The Prince of Wales, being a Bencher, was present not as a guest,
but as one of the hosts, in the grand old historical Hall. This Hall,
the erection of which commenced in 1562, was completed in 1572, and is
one of the most famous relics of old London. This was the second time of
the Prince of Wales visiting it. On three prior occasions, at least, it
has been visited by Royalty--namely, by Queen Henrietta, the consort of
Charles I., Peter the Great of Russia, and William III. There is also a
tradition of the Inn that Queen Elizabeth was present at a rehearsal
there of the _Midsummer Night's Dream_, in which Shakespeare himself
took part, and that in the course of the revel Her Majesty danced with
her Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. The splendid oak screen and
music gallery at the eastern end were erected in 1572. The Hall is
graced by one of the three genuine paintings by Vandyck of Charles
I.--the other two being at Windsor and Warwick Castles--and by portraits
of Charles II., James II., William III., Queen Anne, and George III. A
bust of the Prince of Wales is also conspicuous, and a portrait of His
Royal Highness, by Mr. Watts R.A., has since been added.

The Treasurer, Mr. Runyon, Q.C., presided at the dinner, when no less
than 430 members of the Inn, Benchers, Barristers, or Students were
present, and many illustrious guests. On the right of the chair was the
Master of the Temple (the Rev. Dr. Vaughan), and next to him the
Archbishop of Canterbury; on the left the Prince of Wales, and next to
him the Lord Chief Justice. The Prince wore the silk gown of a Queen's
Counsel, and the riband of the Garter. On his health being proposed,
after that of the Queen, it was to give "respectful and hearty welcome
to Master His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales."

The Prince on rising to respond was loudly cheered, and said:--

    "Master Treasurer, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I beg to tender to
    you and to my brother Benchers my sincere thanks for the kind,
    hearty, and cordial manner in which you have received this
    toast. I cannot feel that I am quite a stranger among you,
    although it is now nearly thirteen years since I had the honour
    of being enrolled as a member of this Inn. My relations with you
    are, unfortunately, of an almost entirely honorary character,
    but I can assure you that I consider it a very high honour to be
    connected with this Inn. It is, I am sure, a good thing for the
    profession at large and for the public in general that I have
    never been called to the Bar, for I must say that I could never
    have been a brilliant ornament of it. I can assure you that I
    esteem most highly the honour of dining with you and my brother
    Benchers this evening, and with those distinguished men whom I
    see around me right and left. I entirely agree with every word
    that has fallen from the lips of our Master Treasurer, and I
    sincerely hope that this gathering may tend to much good and to
    bring forward those important results in legal education which
    you, Sir, have advocated so admirably. I thank you for the kind
    way in which you have received me, and I can only assure you
    that it has afforded me the greatest pleasure and satisfaction
    to meet you here this evening in this ancient Hall, where, I am
    told, Queen Elizabeth once danced with Chancellor Hatton. I am
    afraid that now-a-days the duties of the Chancellor are more
    arduous than they were then, and that they do not allow him much
    time to acquire the art of dancing. I cannot help thus reminding
    you of one of the great historical events which this Hall has
    witnessed, and I thank you once more for the great honour you
    have done me in proposing my health and for the cordial
    reception you have given me."

"The Queen" and "The Prince of Wales" were the only two toasts given at
the banquet.

The Treasurer and Benchers of the Inner Temple, on the 18th of May,
1870, had entertained with much splendour His Royal Highness the Prince
of Wales, His Royal Highness the Prince Christian, the Lord Chancellor,
the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice of England,
the Judges in Equity and at Common Law, the Queen's Counsel, the
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and a very distinguished company, to
celebrate the inauguration of the new Hall, which had been formally
opened by Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise a few days before.

The two Royal visitors sat at the right and left hand of the Treasurer,
Mr. Percival Pickering. Grace was said by the Master of the Temple, Dr.
Vaughan. After due justice had been done to the dinner, the Treasurer
humorously described some of the strange scenes which had been enacted
in the old Hall, which had been removed to make room for the present
magnificent structure. He then proposed "The Health of the Queen," which
was received with loyal enthusiasm. That of "The Prince of Wales and the
other members of the Royal Family" was felicitously acknowledged by the
Prince of Wales. The Archbishop of York returned thanks for the Church,
Sir William Codrington for the Army, and the Colonel of the "Devil's
Own" for the Volunteers. Mr. Gladstone proposed "The Health of the
Treasurer," whose speeches throughout the evening had been seasoned with
an amount of humour which rescued even those proposing the conventional
toasts from the imputation of being commonplace. "The Health of the
Architect," Mr. Smirke, concluded the proceedings; and the principal
portion of the company then adjourned to the drawing-room, where not
only was coffee served, but--strange novelty in such an
assemblage--cigars were introduced--an innovation which did not seem


_August 13th, 1874._

The new Guildhall, Municipal Offices, and Law Courts at Plymouth were
opened by the Prince of Wales, on the 13th of August, 1874. On landing
at the Royal Victualling Yard, the Prince proceeded in a State carriage
for Plymouth. At the entrance to the borough he was received by the
Mayor and Corporation; the procession proceeding through dense crowds to
the Guildhall square, where the Prince was formally received as Lord
High Steward of the Borough, and presented with his rod of office. An
address having been read by the Recorder, the Prince made the following

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I rejoice at again being able to
    renew my acquaintance with your ancient borough, and I return
    you my grateful thanks for the expressions of goodwill which you
    have paid me. The sentiments of loyalty conveyed in your
    address are most gratifying proofs of the feelings which animate
    the inhabitants of Plymouth towards Her Majesty the Queen and
    the members of the Royal family. I have frequently visited your
    borough, but never on so important an occasion as the present,
    when a work of no ordinary magnitude has been completed. As High
    Steward of the Borough, I cannot but take an especial interest
    in all that relates to its welfare or adds to its embellishment,
    and it gave me peculiar pleasure to accede to the request that
    was made to me that I should open this magnificent building. In
    conclusion, let me congratulate most heartily all those who have
    been concerned in the undertaking on the success which has
    attended their labours, and, connected as I am with your town, I
    feel proud to think it has been the result of local genius,
    perseverance, and energy."

An elegant silver key was then presented by the Mayor with which the
Prince opened the new Guildhall. A banquet followed, at which, in
response to the toast of the Prince and Princess of Wales, His Royal
Highness spoke as follows:--

    "Mr. Mayor, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I beg to return
    you, Mr. Mayor, my most cordial thanks for the manner in which
    you have been kind enough to propose my health, and to you,
    ladies and gentlemen, for the kind way in which you have been
    pleased to receive it. This is by no means my first visit to
    your ancient town. I have on frequent occasions spent some very
    agreeable days here; but among all the different visits that I
    have paid none will have been more interesting to me than the
    present one, nor more vividly impressed on my memory. I assure
    the Mayor and citizens of this town that great pleasure and
    gratification was afforded me in opening this magnificent hall,
    all the more so as my name is connected with your town as your
    High Steward. I esteem it a great honour to have that title,
    though the duties are certainly very slight; and if those duties
    consist only in coming here and being so kindly and cordially
    received by you all, I think I have every reason to congratulate
    myself. I congratulate those gentlemen who have built this hall,
    and who, I think, have every reason to feel satisfaction with
    its appearance and its prospects of future success. To you, Mr.
    Mayor, who have taken such pains during the last five years, as
    Chairman of the Guildhall Committee, it must be very
    gratifying; and allow me also to have the pleasure of offering
    my sincere congratulations to the Mayor of Devonport, as one of
    the architects of this Guildhall. I again beg to thank you for
    the kind reception which you have given me to-day, and, in
    conclusion, I beg also to thank you, Mr. Mayor, for the kind way
    in which you have proposed the Princess of Wales's health, and
    to assure you how deeply she regrets that she was unable to
    accompany me on the present occasion. She is now on her way to
    Scotland to meet her father, the King of Denmark, who is
    returning that way from his visit to Iceland."

Afterwards the Prince proposed the health of the Mayor, thanking him for
his reception, congratulating him upon the good order maintained in the
streets, and requesting him to convey to the citizens his sense of the
pleasure and gratification afforded him by the artistic decorations of
the town.


_November 3rd, 1874._

The Prince and Princess of Wales paid their first visit to Birmingham on
the 3rd of November, 1874. When the Mayor and Corporation of the midland
capital heard of the intended visit, they resolved to give their Royal
Highnesses a right loyal and hearty reception. Those who remember, or
have read of the early visits of the Queen and of the Prince Consort to
the town, will not be surprised at the enthusiasm with which the Prince
and Princess of Wales were welcomed on this occasion. Prince Albert came
to Birmingham for the first time in 1844. He was a guest of Sir Robert
Peel at Tamworth, and expressed a wish, as he was so near, to see the
place so famous in various arts and industries. But the town was at that
time as famous for its political independence, to use the mildest term.
In fact it was regarded as the centre and seat of democratic radicalism,
and the turbulence of Chartist times was yet fresh in remembrance. Fears
were entertained that Prince Albert might have a cool if not hostile
reception. The result proved how groundless were these suspicions. The
young Prince was welcomed with the utmost enthusiasm, not only as the
husband of the Queen, but on account of his own moral and intellectual
excellence. He was there again in 1849, to inspect the exhibition of
arts and manufactures held in Bingley Hall; and a third time in 1855 to
lay the foundation stone of the Midland Institute. In 1858 the Queen
herself came to open the public Park and Hall at Aston. Nor was this the
only visit. Few places in her dominions have been more favoured, and
nowhere has there been shown more devoted loyalty.

The advanced radicalism of Birmingham was not less marked at the time of
the Prince of Wales's visit, and the Mayor of that year, Mr. Joseph
Chamberlain, had the reputation of holding not merely democratic but
republican views. All this made the more marked the cordial reception of
the Royal visitors, both by the authorities of the town, and by the
masses of the people. The words of the _Times_ of November 4th, in its
record of the visit are worthy of being recalled, especially in what it
said of the Mayor: "Whatever Mr. Chamberlain's views may be, his
speeches of yesterday appear to us to have been admirably worthy of the
occasion, and to have done the highest credit to himself. We have heard
and chronicled a great many Mayors' speeches, but we do not know that we
ever heard or chronicled speeches made before Royal personages by
Mayors, whether they were Tories, or Whigs, or Liberals, or Radicals,
which were couched in such a tone at once of courteous homage, manly
independence, and gentlemanly feeling, which were so perfectly becoming
and so much the right thing in every way as those of Mr. Chamberlain."

To the address of the Corporation, read in the Town Hall, by the
Recorder, the Prince made the following reply:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--In the name of the Princess of Wales
    and in my own, I thank you for your address and for the kind
    terms in which you refer to our visit to your town. It has long
    been our wish to come to Birmingham, a city so celebrated not
    only in England, but throughout the world, as one of the chief
    centres of our manufacturing energy. It will be, I am persuaded,
    a source of satisfaction to the Queen to hear that the loyal
    inhabitants of this borough still retain so lively a
    recollection of the visits which with my lamented father she
    paid to Birmingham. Since that time the progress which has been
    made in the varied industries of this town has been most
    remarkable, and I trust that the condition of its working
    population, on whose exertions its prosperity so much depends,
    has improved in a still greater degree. In conclusion,
    gentlemen, I have only to express our earnest wish that
    Birmingham may long continue to enjoy that pre-eminence which it
    has so justly earned."

At the luncheon subsequently given, the Mayor proposed the health of the
Queen, as "having established claims to the admiration of Her people by
the loyal fulfilment of the responsible duties of her high station, and
at the same time the nobility of her domestic life has endeared her to
the nation. The care and solicitude she has manifested in the happiness
of her subjects causes her name to be honoured at all times, and among
all classes and ranks of society."

In proposing the health of the Royal guest, the Mayor said, "This town
has been long distinguished, not without cause, for the independence of
its citizens and the freedom and outspokenness in which all opinions are
discussed, and this fact gives value to the welcome which has been
offered, and stamps the sincerity of the wishes which are everywhere
expressed for the continued health of their Royal Highnesses."

The replies of the Prince were confined to a few brief but appropriate
sentences, and after proposing the health of the Mayor, the Royal party
proceeded to visit some of the most famous manufactories of the
district. The following letter was received next day by the Mayor, from
the Secretary of the Prince of Wales, Sir Francis Knollys, K.C.M.G.:--

"Packington Hall, Coventry, November 4, 1874.

"Sir,--I have received the commands of the Prince and Princess of Wales
to make known through you to the inhabitants of the borough of
Birmingham the satisfaction they derived from their visit to that town
yesterday. They can never forget the reception they met with nor the
welcome given to them by all classes of the community. Their Royal
Highnesses have also to thank not only the authorities who made such
excellent arrangements, but likewise the people themselves, without
whose cordial co-operation the good order which was preserved throughout
the day in so wonderful a manner could hardly have been maintained. The
opportunity which was afforded them of visiting some of the manufactures
of your great town gave their Royal Highnesses sincere pleasure, and it
was matter of regret to them that the time at their disposal did not
allow them to make a closer inspection of works of so much interest. I
may further congratulate you and the other members of the reception
committee on the happy result of your labours. Nothing could have been
more successful, and their Royal Highnesses will ever entertain most
agreeable recollections of their visit to Birmingham. I am desired, in
conclusion, to state that the Prince of Wales, being anxious to
contribute £100 in aid of the funds of one of the charitable
institutions of your town, requests that you will have the goodness to
acquaint him with the name of the institution which you may consider to
be the most deserving, and to be at the same time the most in want of
support.--I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient servant,


"To the Mayor of Birmingham."


_March 13th, 1875._

At the seventh triennial festival of this Institution the Prince of
Wales presided. The Duke of Cambridge, Prince Christian, Prince Edward
of Saxe-Weimar, and the Duke of Teck were also present. The company
included the Lord Mayor, the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, and a
large number of distinguished officers of nearly all ranks in the Army.

After the toast of "The Queen," proposed by the Royal chairman, the Lord
Mayor, in giving the next toast, spoke of "the pride with which the
nation at large regarded the Royal Family, not only on account of the
admirable way in which they performed the important duties connected
with their high position, but also because of their readiness on all
occasions to promote and aid the various charitable institutions of the
country, and to extend their sympathy to all who were in distress, not
simply in this great metropolis, but in all parts of the kingdom."

The Prince of Wales, in reply, said:--

    "I am sure I have every reason to be grateful to the Lord Mayor
    for the very kind manner in which he has proposed my health and
    that of the Princess of Wales and the other members of the Royal
    Family, and to the company here assembled for the very kind
    manner in which they have received the toast. Nothing is more
    disagreeable, I think, than to have at an early stage of the
    evening to rise to return thanks for one's own health; but, at
    the same time, I should be very ungrateful to you if I were not
    to thank you for the cordial manner in which you acceded to the
    request of the Lord Mayor. I can assure him--and I believe I can
    speak also for the rest of the Royal Family--that it is always
    our earnest endeavour to do our duty, and to assist in all good
    and charitable objects, which in this country are so numerous
    and so necessary. It will be my duty to address you again, so I
    will now only thank you once more for the kind manner in which
    you have received this toast."

The Prince of Wales, after a brief interval, again rose and said:--

    "The toast I have now to offer to you is also one of those which
    are always given, and which are always heartily received at
    gatherings like the present. It is that of 'The Army and the
    Navy.' I find some difficulty on this occasion in proposing that
    toast, because when I look around me and see the
    Commander-in-Chief, the greater portion of the Head Quarters'
    Staff, and so many distinguished generals and officers, I feel
    it would be very presumptuous on my part were I to dilate on the
    subject. I think Englishmen have every reason to be proud of
    possessing such an Army and Navy as ours. Of course we don't
    pretend that they are perfection, but I am sure that every
    endeavour is used year after year to make our land and sea
    forces as efficient as possible for our defence and for the
    maintenance of peace both in this country and in our vast
    possessions abroad. In connection with the Army, it gives me the
    greatest pleasure to propose the health of my illustrious
    relative, the Commander-in-Chief. It would ill become me to make
    those remarks in his presence which it would afford me sincere
    satisfaction to offer were he absent; but I am sure that you, as
    brother officers, know the great interest the Commander-in-Chief
    takes in the Army, and I know you will drink his health most
    cordially on this occasion. I am not able to couple any name
    with the Navy, for the very sufficient reason that there is no
    naval officer present to respond to it. I regret that our
    gallant sea forces are not represented, but the toast will not
    on that account, I am sure, be less cordially received."

The Duke of Cambridge, who was loudly cheered, said: "I personally am
much gratified by the kind reception which has been given to my name in
conjunction with this toast. His Royal Highness, with a modesty which is
delightful in one in his position, has expressed diffidence in proposing
it; but there is no ground for such diffidence on his part, for there is
no officer in the Army that I know of who takes a more lively interest
in the efficiency of the service, even in its every detail, or who,
whenever the opportunity offers, shows a greater aptitude than does His
Royal Highness. He has proved a most worthy spokesman for the Army on
this and on many other occasions, and I am sure officers of the Army are
always flattered and gratified when His Royal Highness has the
opportunity of speaking of them as he has done this evening. I feel
particular interest in being present here, and I beg to express to His
Royal Highness, who has many and constant duties to attend to, my thanks
and those of my mother, who is, unfortunately, in a very suffering
state, for having, on the mere expression of a wish on her part, at once
consented to preside on this occasion. I beg also to thank you for the
compliment which you have paid me and my family by your attendance, for
I cannot forget that this institution was originally founded in memory
of my father, who had many opportunities of showing the deep interest he
took in the charitable institutions of the country. On that account many
of his friends were anxious that some testimonial should be established
to his memory, and instead of a statue I am happy to think, as I am sure
he would have been glad to know, that it took the form of the useful and
necessary institution we have met here to assist. But for its aid the
recipients of its benefits would have to drag out a miserable existence
either in the workhouse or under even still worse circumstances. We must
all feel gratified that these old women are, thanks to the benevolence
of yourselves and the public, enabled to pass their last days in the
comparative comfort that they find in the Asylum at Kingston. As head of
the Army, I may say that a higher compliment could not possibly have
been paid to it than to establish an institution such as this, and I am
gratified to think that the support it has received leads us to the hope
that it is now established on a solid and valuable foundation. I beg
again to thank you, in the name of the Army, and to say that the service
feels the deepest interest in the prosperity of the Asylum."

The Prince of Wales next rose and said;--

    "It is now my pleasing duty to bring before you the toast of the
    evening, 'Prosperity to the Royal Cambridge Asylum for Soldiers'
    Widows.' When I see how I am surrounded and how large a
    gathering is present, I feel sure I shall not call on you in
    vain in the interest of those whom we are concerned in
    benefiting on this occasion. As my illustrious relative has
    mentioned to you, this institution was established as a memorial
    to his illustrious father, the late Duke of Cambridge. The
    object was to provide a home for the widows of privates and
    non-commissioned officers of the Army. No such institution
    previously existed, and it is still the only one of its kind in
    the country. In it the widows are provided with a furnished room
    and an allowance of 6_s._ a week, besides a grant of 2_s._ 6_d._
    per month for coals. While the expenditure is great, exceeding
    £2000, the funded income, including £50 a year, called the
    Princess Mary Fund for Nurses, amounts to little over £500 a
    year. It was originally intended to have, if possible, 130
    inmates, but at the present moment there are only 57, for there
    is no room for more, and our great object is to make the
    institution a success by increasing the numbers. On
    philanthropic grounds alone it is almost unnecessary to say a
    word as to its excellence. But when one thinks of the soldier,
    who has not only to expose his life in battle, but to run the
    risk of sickness and disease in a variety of different climates,
    away from home, often leaving his wife for many years behind
    him, it is impossible not to see that it must be a comfort to
    him, especially if ill or dying, to think there is an
    institution where his wife, if he succumbs, has a chance of
    being provided for. Among soldiers there can be but one feeling
    on this subject, and I am sure that on this occasion I shall not
    appeal to those who are present in vain.

    "I regret very much that one who has taken a deep interest in
    this institution--its chairman, Sir Edward Cust--is not here on
    this occasion, and I fear on account of illness. But it is some
    gratification to be able to read to you an extract from a letter
    of his, dated the 1st of March, to Colonel Stewart, the
    secretary, in which he says--"I think I intimated to you last
    year that I should make a disposition by my will of all my
    copyright and interest in my military histories for the benefit
    of the Asylum. As I am unable to support the Prince of Wales in
    the chair, may I beg the favour of His Royal Highness making
    this donation in my name as evidence of my sympathy for the
    institution?" Those who are present know so thoroughly well all
    the merits of the institution that it would be unnecessary for
    me to make a lengthened speech. I will therefore wind up by once
    more asking you to do all in your power to assist in
    accomplishing the great object we have in view of extending the
    building so as to accommodate more widows. With the toast which
    I have given you, I beg, in the absence of Sir E. Cust, to
    couple the name of Colonel Liddell."

Colonel Liddell, who responded, said it was the desire to provide
accommodation for one widow from each regiment in the service, which, of
course, as there were only fifty-seven inmates, left a great deal still
to be done.

    The Prince of Wales: "I have now to propose a toast which, I am
    sure, of all those I have given none will have been received
    with greater cordiality, for it is that of the 'Lady Patron.'
    You all, I know, wish as sincerely as I do that her
    health--which is not good just at present--may be restored, and
    that she may be among us for some years yet to come. One of the
    reasons why this institution has prospered so much, and why so
    many are here to-night, is the regard which is felt for the kind
    and good lady who is its president. It is not surprising that
    she should take a deep interest in an asylum intended indirectly
    for the benefit of soldiers, seeing that her husband was a
    soldier and that her son is a soldier."

The toast having been cordially drunk, was responded to by the Duke of
Cambridge, who then proposed "The Health of the Lord Mayor and the
Sheriffs," thanking them for the liberality with which they had
subscribed to the funds of the Asylum. The total amount of the
subscriptions received was announced by the Prince of Wales to be £1635
17_s._ 10_d._

The present number of inmates (1888) is sixty-nine. The receipts of the
previous year were £2700; the invested funds nearly £23,000. The
festival dinner is triennial, but additional sums have been obtained by
military _fêtes_ and other ways. In 1872 the Prince and Princess of
Wales were present at a grand military concert in the Royal Albert Hall,
when Madame Titiens and other artists volunteered their assistance, and
many of the proprietors placed their boxes and stalls at the disposal of
the Duke of Edinburgh, who was Chairman of the Committee for carrying
out the arrangements. We trust that the Duke of Cambridge may be
gratified by witnessing a large increase of the numbers benefited by an
institution in which he takes so zealous and kindly interest.


_April 6th, 1875._

When the Charterhouse School was removed from its ancient historic site
to the more remote and rural site at Godalming, arrangements were made
for installing Merchant Taylors' School in the Charterhouse. There was
ample accommodation for the 400 or 500 boys. Portions of the old
structure remain, and these with the new buildings give room for the
numerous classes, with large halls, library, lecture rooms, and a
magnificent assembly room, for morning and evening prayers, and on grand
days for speeches and prize festivals. The poor Brethren, pensioners on
the foundation, remain in their old quarters, and their chapel, with its
services, continues as before.

The installation of the Merchant Taylors' School in the Charterhouse was
an event of sufficient importance to justify the request for the
ceremony being honoured by the presence of the Prince and Princess of
Wales, who came on 6th of April, 1875, accompanied by the Princess Mary
and Duke of Teck, and other illustrious visitors. Service having been
performed in the old Carthusian chapel; and an address having been read
by the clerk, and presented by the Master of the Company; the Prince
declared the Merchant Taylors' School open. An ode in Latin Alcaics was
then declaimed by the head monitor of the School, the Archbishop of
Canterbury offered a prayer for the Divine blessing, and the service
closed with the Lord's Prayer and the Benediction.

Luncheon was afterwards served in the assembly hall. The Master of the
Company gave a brief account of the origin and history of the School,
introducing references to former Princes of Wales, who had been
benefactors of the Company, from the time of Edward I., the first Prince
of Wales, to that of King James I., who with his son, the Prince of
Wales, dined in this hall. It was for that occasion, in 1607, that Dr.
John Bull composed the music of "God Save the Queen." The Queen of James
I. was Anne of Denmark. "History repeats itself," continued the Master,
"for you, Sire, have entwined the flower of Denmark in the wreath of

The Prince, responding to the toast then given, said:--

    "For the excessively kind and flattering manner in which this
    toast has been proposed from the chair, and received by you all,
    I beg to return my warmest and most sincere thanks. I need
    hardly assure the Master and all those assembled here to-day
    what pleasure it has given to the Princess and myself to be
    present on this occasion. The numerous guilds of the City of
    London are well known for their hospitality, and especially
    distinguished is the Merchant Taylors' Company. At the same
    time, although they kindly and cordially receive their guests,
    they do all they can to make themselves useful in this great
    city. I will not recapitulate what we have heard in another
    room, and also from the lips of the Master, of the prosperity of
    this School. I hope it will continue to flourish; and that the
    sun which is now shining will bring prosperity to a School which
    has so long flourished and which is now moved to other
    buildings. I must say we cannot but congratulate the Master and
    the Guild on the beautiful building in which we are assembled at
    the present moment. In conclusion let me propose a toast I am
    sure you will all drink with enthusiasm--'Success to the
    Merchant Taylors' School.' It affords me great pleasure to
    couple with it the name of the head master, the Rev. Dr.

After the luncheon the Royal visitors inspected the buildings, and
walked through the playground, which is of considerable size for a city
school. The cheers of the boys on the departure of the Prince and
Princess were the more vehement, as they had asked and obtained from the
Master an extra week's holiday.


_April 16th, 1875._

The German Hospital, at Dalston, is one of the most useful and
well-managed charities in the Metropolis. It is for the reception of
natives of Germany, and others speaking the German language; also for
English in case of accident. There are now 125 beds for in-patients,
with a sanatarium for the benefit of those who can pay a moderate sum
weekly for their maintenance during illness. There is also a
Convalescent Home, with about twenty beds. During the past year there
were 1663 in-patients, 23,210 out-patients, and 1163 dental cases. The
Hamburg Church is connected with the Hospital by a corridor. The yearly
receipts average now about £10,000, and there is funded property
amounting to £55,000.

The Prince of Wales presided at the thirtieth anniversary festival, at
Willis's Rooms, on the 16th of April, 1875. About three hundred were
present, including some Ambassadors and Consuls of Continental States,
and other distinguished foreigners.

The Prince, in proposing the health of "The Queen," said that Her
Majesty took the greatest interest in the welfare of the Hospital, of
which she was a protector, and a donor to its funds.

Count Beust, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, gave the toast of "The
Prince and Princess of Wales and the Royal Family." He said that he
spoke the sentiments of the representatives of all German-speaking
countries, when he said that the "Royal Chairman had always shown for
the German Hospital a feeling German heart and an open English hand.
When he brought under the notice of his Sovereign, the Emperor of
Austria, that the Prince was to preside at the festival, he was
immediately instructed by His Majesty to announce the donation from him
of £100 to the funds. Let us, one and all, drink to our illustrious
Chairman, whom the people of England know not only as a gracious and
popular Prince, but also as a high-minded, generous gentleman, who takes
a deep and active interest in all that contributes to the greatness and
the welfare of the country, and to the relief of the sufferers among the
less fortunate of the community, in the fulfilment of which noble task
he is well supported by his gracious Princess."

The Prince, in reply, said:--

    "I can hardly find words adequate enough to express my deep
    thanks to his Excellency the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador for the
    exceedingly kind and flattering manner in which he has proposed
    this toast, and to you all for the hearty way in which it was
    received. I can assure you that it affords me the greatest
    pleasure and gratification to be your chairman on the present
    occasion. The members of my family have now for some years taken
    a deep interest in this charity, and I take the same interest.
    This is not at all to be wondered at, considering that we have
    German blood running in our veins. We have the greatest sympathy
    with the foreigners who live in our country, and we gladly join
    in an attempt like this to alleviate their sufferings in every
    possible way. The President of the German Hospital, the Duke of
    Cambridge, as did his father before him, takes a warm interest
    in this institution, and I sincerely hope that our family will
    always remain connected with so excellent and admirable a
    charity. I thank you once more for the hearty reception you have
    accorded to the toast."

    The Prince, again rising, proposed in cordial terms: "The
    Foreign Sovereigns and Princes, Protectors and Patrons of the
    Institution, and their Representatives who had honoured them
    with their presence." He stated that "the Emperor of Germany
    gave an annual donation of £200 to the charity, and that the
    Emperors of Russia and Austria, and the Kings of Würtemberg,
    Bavaria, Saxony, and the Netherlands, had also evinced a
    practical interest in the institution."

Count Münster, the German Ambassador, whose name was coupled with the
toast, said he agreed with his friend and colleague, Count Beust, that
it was one of the most pleasant duties of diplomatists to be present on
occasions of that kind, and he felt it, indeed, a great honour to return
thanks for the kind and gracious manner in which His Royal Highness had
proposed the health of the foreign Sovereigns and their representatives.
He was quite sure that the interest which their Majesties had taken in
that fine, benevolent institution would be much strengthened when they
became aware that the first gentleman in England--the heir to the
British Throne--had shown his practical sympathy with it by presiding
that evening. Benevolence and hospitality had always been the
characteristics of the English people, but how could it be otherwise
when the Royal Family invariably set them, on every possible occasion,
the noblest and best example? In the name of his fellow-countrymen he
tendered to His Royal Highness their most hearty thanks for the
gracious part he was taking at that gathering.

    The Prince of Wales next gave "The Army, Navy, and Reserve
    Forces," saying, in doing so, that every Englishman was proud of
    the land and sea forces of his country, and he always hoped they
    were in a highly efficient state. At the same time the Prince
    sincerely trusted that the occasion might never arise in which
    the Army and Navy might be called forth to battle with those
    countries so many of whose representatives were present that

General Sir William Knollys made a brief reply. The Prince of Wales then
gave as the toast of the evening: "Prosperity to the German Hospital."
He said:--

    "I can only regret that a toast of so much importance as this is
    has not fallen into better hands than mine, but, whatever my
    shortcomings, I am sure you will take the will for the deed.
    This toast has been given for a great many successive years, and
    the few remarks that I have to make to you will not be new to
    the great portion of the vast assembly who are gathered here
    this evening. At the same time, as I am your chairman, I think
    it my duty to make a few observations in connexion with the
    German Hospital.

    "As most of you are doubtless aware, it has 103 beds generally
    full, and last year the total in-and out-patients amounted to
    about 18,000. Of these there were 1300 in-patients, of whom 240
    were English. Besides the hospital there is a sanitarium, to
    which 42 persons were admitted. The rooms there are
    unfortunately limited in number, but the occupants are rather of
    a well-to-do class, such as professors, governesses, clerks, and
    others, who, in return for the services rendered to them, give a
    small sum of money towards defraying the necessary costs. Last
    year the expenses of the hospital were very heavy, amounting to
    £6500, exclusive of £600 for improvements. This, I hear, is
    likely to be increased considerably in the next accounts, owing
    to the continuous rise of prices. Fortunately, I am able to
    announce to you that the receipts nearly covered the
    expenditure. The fixed income, however, can only be put down at
    £1200 or £1300 a year, and the authorities of the hospital, to
    carry it on successfully and to keep it out of debt, have to
    collect annually between £4000 and £5000.

    "I think every Englishman and every foreigner will agree as to
    the necessity for a hospital founded as this is. We who are
    Englishmen must all feel what a terrible position we should be
    in if we found ourselves weary and sick in a country where it
    was impossible to make ourselves understood. When, therefore, we
    are told that in this London of ours all who speak German are
    instantly admitted to this institution, we can readily imagine
    the enormous benefits which foreigners and Germans especially
    derive from it. There are, I am told, as many as 50,000 Germans
    living in London, many of whom have to work in unhealthy trades,
    such as sugar-baking. They are mostly confined indoors all day
    long, and, but for this hospital, they would not know where to
    go to find comfort and succour.

    "A great merit, in my mind, of this institution is that it is a
    free one. It is not at all necessary to obtain a letter of
    recommendation before admission. Sick people have only to
    present themselves there and speak German to insure that the
    doors will be immediately thrown open to them, and that they
    will be tended and cared for in the most admirable manner. The
    nurses there are all trained in Elizabethan-stift at Darmstadt,
    and they do their work admirably under the care of the excellent
    chaplain (Dr. Walbaum), who has taken so deep an interest in the
    welfare of the hospital. They are thus found most important to
    the working of the hospital.

    "As so many Englishmen derive benefit from the institution, I am
    sure I can appeal to my fellow-countrymen to do all in their
    power, and I ask the company generally to see if they cannot
    collect a sum larger than on any previous occasion. At the last
    annual dinner, at which the Duke of Cambridge presided, a sum of
    £500 in excess of any former collection was obtained, and I hope
    to-night we may even exceed the sum subscribed then. I may tell
    you that a distinguished guest among us to-night, Baron von
    Diergadt, of Bonn, sent us a few years ago the magnificent
    donation of £10,000. I do not ask you, gentlemen, to give quite
    so large a sum as the Baron, but I am sure that all that is in
    your power to give you will. I desire to tender our thanks to
    the Emperor of Austria for his munificent donation, announced
    by his Ambassador this evening, and I will now ask you all most
    cordially to assist me in supporting this excellent charity. I
    give you as the toast of the evening: 'Prosperity to the German

The Secretary (Mr. Feldmann) afterwards announced the receipt of
donations (including £105 from the Prince of Wales, £200 from the
Emperor of Germany, and £100 from the Emperor of Austria) to the amount
of over £5000, being £1200 in excess of any previous collection. Other
toasts, including "The health of Baron von Diergadt, of Bonn," followed.
During dinner, Mr. Marriott's band played a selection of operatic music,
and afterward, at intervals, a choir, under the direction of Sir Julius
Benedict and Herr Ganz (all of whom gave their services gratuitously),
sang some German songs by Schubert, Schumann, Seidl, and other


_April 28th, 1875._

In the history of Freemasonry there has never occurred an event more
memorable, or a scene more imposing than the Installation of the Prince
of Wales as Grand Master of English Freemasons, at the Royal Albert
Hall, on the 28th of April, 1875. The vast Hall was filled with nearly
ten thousand members of the craft, of all ranks and degrees, and in
costume proper to their masonic conditions. An open space, in front of
the organ, had been reserved for the Grand Officers, and for
distinguished visitors, including deputations from various foreign

The Earl of Carnarvon, the Pro-Grand Master, having taken his seat on
the throne, performed the ceremonies necessary for to convert the
assemblage into a meeting of the Grand Lodge, and the Minute of the
Prince's election as Grand Master having been read and confirmed, Garter
King-at-Arms formed and headed a procession to meet His Royal Highness.
The Duke of Connaught had already seated himself near the Pro-Grand
Master, and had been warmly received; but when the Prince entered the
Hall, the vast assemblage rose as one man, and, regardless for the
moment alike of Masonic order and of the ceremonies of the craft,
greeted him with such applause as even his experience at public
assemblages could seldom have heard equalled. The Prince was conducted
up the arena to a chair on the left of the Pro-Grand Master, and before
seating himself he bowed repeatedly in response to the plaudits of the
brethren. He then went through the forms prescribed by the Masonic
ritual, and was duly inducted into his throne, the enthusiasm of the
assembled Freemasons once again outstripping the proper order of the
ceremonial, and finding vent in cheers with which the building rang

Garter King-at-Arms, who holds also the high Masonic office of Grand
Director of Ceremonies, then proclaimed His Royal Highness in due form,
and called upon the brethren to salute him in Masonic fashion. This
being done, the Earl of Carnarvon rose from the seat to which he had
retired, and, according to ancient custom, addressed the new Grand
Master on the duties of his office. He thus concluded his address:--

"Your Royal Highness is not the first by many of your illustrious family
who have sat in that chair. It is, no doubt, by the lustre of your great
name and position you will reflect honour on the craft to-day; but it is
also something to be at the head of such a body as is represented here.
I may truly say that never in the whole history of Freemasonry has such
a Grand Lodge been convened as that on which my eye rests at this
moment, and there is further an inner view to be taken, that so far as
my eyes can carry me over these serried ranks of white and blue, the
gold and purple, I recognise in them men who have solemnly taken
obligations of worth and morality--men who have undertaken the duties of
citizens and the loyalty of subjects. I am expressing but very feebly
the feelings and aspirations of this great assemblage when I say that I
trust the connexion of your Royal Highness with the craft may be
lasting, and that you may never have occasion for one moment's regret or
anxiety when you look back upon the events of to-day."

The Prince, who was again greeted with loud and prolonged cheering,
replied in the following terms:--

    "Brethren, I am deeply grateful to the Most Worshipful the
    Pro-Grand Master for the excessively kind words he has just
    spoken to you, and for the cordial reception which you have
    given me. It has been your unanimous wish that I should occupy
    this chair as your Grand Master, and you have this day installed
    me. It is difficult for me to find words adequate to express my
    deep thanks for the honour which has already been bestowed upon
    me--an honour which has, as history bears testimony, been
    bestowed upon several members of my family, my predecessors;
    and, brethren, it will always be my most ardent and sincere wish
    to walk in the footsteps of good men who have preceded me, and,
    with God's help, to fulfil the duties which I have been called
    upon to occupy to-day.

    "The Pro-Grand Master has told you, brethren, and I feel
    convinced, that such an assemblage as this has never been
    known; and when I look round me on this vast and spacious Hall,
    and see those who have come from the north and south, from the
    east and the west, it is, I trust, an omen which will prove on
    this auspicious occasion an omen of good. The various duties
    which I have to perform will frequently, I am afraid, not permit
    me to attend so much to the duties of the craft as I should
    desire; but you may be assured that when I have the time I shall
    do the utmost to maintain this high position, and do my duty by
    the craft, and by you on every possible occasion. Brethren, it
    would be useless for me to recapitulate everything which has
    been told you by the Pro-Grand Master relative to Freemasonry.
    Every Englishman knows that the two great watchwords of the
    craft are Loyalty and Charity. These are their watchwords, and
    as long as Freemasons do not, as Freemasons, mix themselves up
    in politics so long I am sure this high and noble order will
    flourish, and will maintain the integrity of our great Empire.

    "I thank you once more, brethren, for your cordial reception of
    me to-day, and I thank you for having come such immense
    distances to welcome me on this occasion. I assure you I shall
    never forget to-day--never!"

The Prince resumed his seat amid loud cheers, which were long continued.
His Royal Highness spoke with a perfect elocution which rendered every
syllable audible to the whole of the vast assemblage; but when (adds the
reporter of the scene) in conclusion, he uttered a manifest impromptu in
saying that the reception which had been accorded to him, and the
spectacle which he witnessed, were things which to the last day of his
life he "should never forget--never!" there was just so much tremor of
his voice as seemed to show that even the trained self-possession of
Royalty was somewhat shaken, as indeed it well might be, by the
magnitude and the splendour of the spectacle.

At the conclusion of the Prince's address the march from "Eli" was
performed upon the organ, and then, a telegraphic address of
congratulation from the Grand Lodge at Genoa having previously been
read, deputations from the Grand Lodges of Scotland, Ireland, Sweden,
and Denmark were successively introduced. The Grand Master next
appointed the Earl of Carnarvon to be Pro-Grand Master, Lord
Skelmersdale to be Deputy Grand Master, and the Marquis of Hamilton and
the Lord Mayor to fill two chief offices in Grand Lodge. The nomination
of the Lord Mayor appeared to give especial pleasure to the brethren,
and his Lordship, as he took his official seat, was greeted by loud and
prolonged applause. The other grand officers were then appointed, and
at five o'clock the Lodge was formally closed. The Prince was conducted
to his retiring-room by a procession of the principal brethren, and the
assembly dispersed.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the evening there was a banquet in the Freemasons' Hall, in Great
Queen Street, which was thronged as it was never thronged before. The
Prince of Wales, Most Worshipful Grand Master, presided; on his right
being the Duke of Connaught, and on his left Lord Skelmersdale, the
Deputy Grand Master. Distinguished officers and members of lodges from
all parts of the United Kingdom were present.

The Grand Master proposed the health of "The Queen," in these words:--

    "Brethren, the first toast I shall have the honour to propose to
    you this evening is one which I know will require as few words
    as possible, as it is always drunk with enthusiasm at all great
    meetings of Englishmen, more especially at meetings of the
    craft. I propose 'The Health of Her Majesty the Queen, the
    Patroness of our Order.'"

The Duke of Manchester, in proposing the health of "The Princess of
Wales and the rest of the Royal Family," said: "We have for the first
time among us as Most Worshipful Grand Master, the eldest son of Her
Majesty, and his brother, the Duke of Connaught, whom we all highly
esteem and love as the sons of a father whose memory we all so fondly
cherish, and whom we so much regret."

His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught responded, and proposed "The
health of the Most Worshipful the Grand Master."

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales replied:--

    "Brethren, I beg to return my most sincere and my most grateful
    thanks to the Junior Master Mason of England for the kind way in
    which he has proposed my health, and to you, brethren, for the
    cordial manner in which you have received it. This is the first
    time, brethren, that I have had the honour of presiding at the
    grand festival. I can assure you I am very grateful for your
    kind reception of me this evening, and I sincerely hope that we
    may have the pleasure of meeting together on these festive
    occasions many, many long years to come. I shall never forget,
    brethren, the ceremony of to-day and the reception which you
    gave me. I only hope that you may never regret the choice you
    have made of your Grand Master. Brethren, I assure you on all
    occasions I shall do my utmost to do my duty in the position in
    which you have so kindly placed me.

    "Before sitting down, brethren, I have a toast to propose, which
    I feel sure you will all drink with cordiality, and which to me
    is a specially gratifying toast--that is, the health of our
    illustrious brother the King of Sweden and Norway. It affords me
    especial pleasure to propose this toast, as seven years ago I
    became a member of this craft, initiated by the late King, the
    brother of the present one. Thereby I consider I have a more
    special interest in Sweden; and I hope that the Grand Lodges of
    Sweden and of England may always be bound together in goodwill
    and fraternal feeling. Our illustrious brother the King has been
    especially pleased to send over five distinguished brethren to
    take part in my installation. Therefore it affords me special
    gratification to drink to the health of one who I know is such a
    keen Freemason at heart, and so keen an Englishman, that he has
    frequently visited our shores. Most cordially and heartily do I
    call upon you, brethren, to drink to 'The health of our
    illustrious brother the Most Worshipful Grand Master of Sweden,
    His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway.'"

Count Salcza responded, and, speaking in French, he passed a high
eulogium on Freemasonry, and expressed his great gratification at the
magnificent ceremony that had been witnessed in the afternoon, laying
especial stress upon the Masonic good feeling between Sweden and Great
Britain. He spoke of himself as feeling that he stood among friends and
brothers, and he thanked them for their cordial reception.

His Royal Highness the Grand Master then said:--

    "Brethren, we are honoured here this evening by the
    representatives of the Grand Lodges of Scotland, of Ireland, and
    of Sweden, and I feel convinced that you will all drink with me
    most cordially and most heartily to their health. The Grand
    Lodge of England is always most desirous of being on the best
    possible terms with the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland.
    Although separate through having other Grand Masters, still
    those three Grand Lodges may consider one another more or less
    as one. I have great pleasure in proposing the health of my
    noble friend and brother, Lord Rosslyn, as representative of the
    Grand Lodge of Scotland, and I cannot forget the kind reception
    I met with at Edinburgh some years ago when he was Deputy Grand
    Master, and I received the rank of Patron of Scotch Freemasons
    at the hands of the late Earl Dalhousie. It also gives me great
    pleasure to propose the health of the representative of the
    Grand Lodge of Ireland, coupled with the name of Brother
    Shekleton, Deputy Grand Master. I have also the great privilege
    of being Patron of the Irish Grand Lodge, which honour I also
    remember, a few years ago, receiving from the late Duke of
    Leinster, who was the popular Grand Master of Ireland at that
    time, and the reception I met with I shall not easily forget. As
    the representative of the Grand Lodge of Sweden it affords the
    great pleasure to couple with this toast the name of the Admiral
    on my left. As my earliest associations in Freemasonry have been
    with the Grand Lodge of Sweden, I know when I address those
    gentlemen I see before me they will appreciate the pleasure it
    affords me in proposing this toast. Brethren, I give you the
    toast of 'The Grand Lodges of Scotland, Ireland, and Sweden,
    coupled with the names of Lord Rosslyn, Brother Shekleton, and
    Admiral Oscar Dickson.' I also include in this toast all the
    other Grand Lodges."

The toast having been drunk, Lord Rosslyn said:--

"Most Worshipful Grand Master and brethren, the honour that your Royal
Highness has done the deputation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland is
warmly appreciated by them. I am glad, indeed, to have the opportunity
after so many years' connexion with the Grand Lodge of Scotland--no less
than twenty-five years--of congratulating the craft of England and your
Royal Highness also, upon the most magnificent scene I have ever
witnessed in my life.

"I am glad also to think that the splendour, and, I must add, admirable
management of the display to-day, does not quite efface from your Royal
Highness's recollection, the scene upon a similar scale which we
endeavoured to offer you when we had the honour of having your name as
Patron of the Scottish craft. Your Royal Highness has been good enough
to say that you have not forgotten the occasion. I can assure your Royal
Highness no Scotchman will ever forget it, and I can speak on behalf of
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, with which I have been so long connected,
having served every office in it, from Junior Deacon up to Grand Master,
having been not quite a holiday Freemason, but worked my way from the
ranks up to the position I have the honour to hold now.

"His Royal Highness has this day told us what the duties of Freemasonry
are, and there is no doubt he has summed them up in two words--loyalty
and charity--which includes mercy, a quality that has been described by
the greatest of poets as becoming 'the throned Monarch better than his
crown.' There can be no doubt that under the auspices of the Most
Worshipful Grand Master the Grand Lodge of England will flourish, and
will continue to be a standard for Masonry all over the world."

Brother R. W. Shekleton, Deputy Grand Master of Ireland, spoke of the
loyalty of Irish Masons, who are, he said, "remarkable for fear of God,
fealty to the Sovereign, love to the brotherhood, and friendship to all
classes and creeds."

Brother Admiral Oscar Dickson returned thanks in the name of the Swedish
Grand Lodge for the honour conferred upon them.

The Most Worshipful Grand Master then proposed the toast of various
Grand Officers and Brethren, according to custom. Sir Erasmus Wilson
replied for the Stewards, whose special duty it was, with the aid of
their good Brother Francatelli (the Master Cook), to see to the humble
but necessary ceremonies consequent on our sublunary existence; or, in
the beautiful words of our Ritual: "to lead them to unite in the grand
design of being happy and communicating happiness."

As long before as the 1st of December, 1869, the Prince of Wales had
been received, at Freemasons' Hall, as a Past Grand Master, at a meeting
of the United Grand Lodge of England; and in a brief speech replied to
the address delivered by Lord Zetland, who was at that time Grand

One of the first appointments made by the Prince of Wales as Grand
Master was that of Colonel Shadwell Clerke, to the Secretaryship of the
Grand Lodge of England, an office the duties of which he performs with
great efficiency and courtesy.


_June 5th, 1875._

The object of this Institution is to provide pensions for Farmers, their
wives, widows, and unmarried orphan daughters. The Queen is patron, the
Duke of Richmond is President, and the Earl of Northbrook, Chairman of
the Executive Council. At the present time (1888), 647 persons are
maintained at an annual cost of nearly £14,000. The Prince of Wales has
always been a generous friend and supporter of the charity. At the Royal
Agricultural Show at Sandringham, in July, 1886, he called special
attention to it, and pleaded for increased support, as is necessary from
the continued and increasing depression of agriculture. At the present
moment above 400 persons, who have cultivated holdings varying from 2000
to 100 acres, are candidates for pensions, having been ruined through
the various causes of agricultural failure. During the past twenty-eight
years, about 1300 persons have been granted annuities, at a total
expenditure of £165,821.

At the fifteenth anniversary festival of the Institution, at Willis's
Rooms, on the 5th of June, 1875, the Prince of Wales presided. After
"The Queen," the patron of the charity, "The health of the Prince with
that of the Princess of Wales and the Royal Family," was proposed by the
Earl of Hardwicke, who said that the Prince of Wales had done them great
honour in presiding that evening. "It was only another testimony of that
interest which he takes in the welfare of every portion of the
community. The position of the Prince of Wales was not one of the
easiest. He has no definite duties, but the duty he has laid down for
himself is of a very definite nature. It is to benefit to the best of
his power all his fellow-creatures. He himself was not going to pass any
eulogiums on the Prince of Wales, although he had intimate knowledge of
his character and the privilege of his friendship. He would only say
that the Prince does credit to the very high position in which he is
placed, and that so long as he lays himself out to associate with
English people of all classes, and to faithfully discharge duties which,
if not in themselves very agreeable, are beneficial to the English race,
he will be a popular and able Prince. A duty more wrapt up with sympathy
than that which the Prince that evening undertook could not be
conceived. He tells the whole agricultural class of this country that he
places himself at their disposal to further their interests and to help
them in their distress. So long as the Royal Family cling to the soil of
this country, and mix with its life and its sports and amusements, they
will never fail to receive the support of their countrymen in all times
of trial."

The toast was received with cheers, and the Prince of Wales said:--

    "It is difficult for me, gentlemen, to find words to express my
    gratitude for the excessively kind manner in which my noble
    friend has proposed this toast, and the cordial way in which you
    have been kind enough to receive it. I need hardly tell you that
    it affords me the greatest pleasure and satisfaction to occupy
    the chair this evening. When I know those gentlemen who have
    preceded me as your Chairmen, such as Mr. Disraeli, Lord Lytton,
    the present Lord Derby, or the Duke of Richmond, I feel some
    diffidence in addressing you this evening. At the same time I
    think the proceedings of this evening will, as I hope, be short,
    yet I trust they may be satisfactory to all here present.

    "I sincerely say that I do take a great interest in all that is
    connected with agriculture. I may call myself a colleague of
    many of you present as a farmer on a small scale, and I only
    hope that I may never have occasion to be a pensioner of this
    institution. It is impossible, I think, for any British
    gentleman to live at his country place without taking an
    interest in agriculture, and in all those things which concern
    the farmers of this great country. I thank you also for the very
    kind way in which you have mentioned the health of the Princess
    of Wales and the rest of the Royal Family.

    "Before I sit down I beg to propose a toast--one which is never
    left out at great gatherings of Englishmen, and which here ought
    to be brought most prominently before your notice--'The Army,
    Navy, Militia, and Reserve Forces.' The very backbone of the
    country, the best recruits of the Army and Navy, come from the
    agricultural districts. Since we know, also, that our commercial
    and agricultural interests depend upon the valour and efficiency
    of our land and sea forces, you will, I think, agree with me
    that it is a toast especially for this meeting, one most
    suitable for this agricultural feast. It is a toast which I feel
    sure you all, gentlemen, will drink most heartily. With the Army
    it gives me great pleasure to couple the name of General Sir W.
    Knollys, and with the Navy that of Sir J. Heron Maxwell."

Sir W. Knollys, in responding for the profession to which he belongs,
including the Militia, the Volunteers, and the Reserve Forces, dwelt
upon the habits, the physical well-being, and powers of endurance which
fit the agricultural population of this country for the profession of
arms. They bring with them also that contentment and discipline which
till recent events particularly distinguished the agricultural labourer,
and are always ready to fight for country and Queen.

Sir J. Heron Maxwell having replied for the Navy, the toast-master, Mr.
Goodchild, announced a bumper toast, and the Prince of Wales said:--

    "The toast which I now have the honour of proposing to you is
    that of 'Success to the Royal Agricultural Benevolent
    Institution.' Gentlemen, this excellent and charitable
    institution has been only in existence for the space of fifteen
    years, and its object is the relief of farmers who have been
    reduced by failure of crops, loss of stock, bad seasons, and
    other reasons. It has been founded, as I say, for that purpose,
    but there is one thing which is absolutely necessary to entitle
    to relief, and that is that the recipient of the pension must
    have, as his exclusive means of support, cultivated at least
    fifty acres, or rented land at £100 a year at least for twenty
    years. And those farmers who receive pensions must prove to the
    society that they do not possess an income from other sources of
    more than £20 a year. Among those, also, who are benefited by
    the society are the widows and children or orphans of farmers
    and their unmarried daughters.

    "One main object of the managers of the institution is to
    maintain in their own districts those who have not the means of
    providing for themselves, so that, instead of their going to the
    workhouse, or having to remove to distant parts of the kingdom,
    they may be kept as much as possible in the counties where they
    were born and bred. Pensions varying from £20 to £40 a year are
    granted, and since the foundation of this society as many as 432
    pensioners have been elected, and 53 children have been educated
    and maintained at a cost of not far from £40,000. At present
    there are 302 pensioners and 41 children on the books of the
    charity, and these numbers will, I understand, be augmented
    during the present month by the election of 51 pensioners. The
    total cost of the year will be nearly £8500, and I am sorry to
    say the donations and annual sums received amount to little over
    £6800. Therefore, you see that although this institution is in a
    highly prosperous state, at the same time the funds are not as
    great as we could wish. It is for that reason that we assemble
    here--to augment those funds.

    "When I look around and see so large a number of gentlemen, who
    have come great distances to support me on this occasion, I feel
    I shall not ask them in vain to extend their support to so
    excellent an institution. You were kind enough just now to drink
    in a cordial manner my health, but I think if I had put myself
    before you as a surgeon whose health you were going to drink you
    might not have received me so cordially. On this occasion I hope
    you will look upon me as a surgeon. The few words I have to say
    to you are my lancet, with which I have to bleed you--and you
    will all feel much the better for it.

    "Many may think, 'Why should we give money to those who possibly
    by their own fault may have got into distress?' But that is not
    the object mentioned. All will agree that the cleverest
    agriculturists who thoroughly understand their business may,
    through bad seasons, failures of crops, and a variety of other
    causes which you know, gentlemen, far better than I do, have
    found themselves suddenly in the most abject want. It is a great
    pity that the farmers' clubs and agricultural societies do not
    do so much as they ought in support of so excellent an

    "I see by your applause it is only too true, and I must call
    upon you this evening to show that you have supported this
    charity in the most material manner. I thank you once more for
    the kind and attentive manner in which you have listened to the
    few words which I have uttered. I only regret that it has not
    fallen to the lot of another than myself to bring the subject
    before you, and I am sure that you will take the will for the
    deed. 'Prosperity to the Royal Agricultural Benevolent

The toast was drunk with all the honours, and the Secretary, Mr. C.
Bousfield Shaw, read a list of subscriptions headed by the Queen with
£25. The Prince of Wales gave, in addition to his annual subscription of
ten guineas, a donation of 100 guineas. The largest list of collections
was Mr. Naish's, of £465. The total amount was no less than £8000.

Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., then proposed the toast of "The Executive Council,
the Secretary, and the Honorary Local Secretaries." In the course of his
speech, he remarked that it had been well said by His Royal Highness
that agriculture is exposed to more vicissitudes and difficulties than
almost any other industry, and it was surprising that it should have
existed so long without any benevolent institution. They must not forget
in that room that they owed the fact that such an institution now exists
to the kind and generous heart of their old friend, Mr. Mechi, the
founder of this society; and the tenant-farmers of England would never
forget the day when the Heir Apparent to the Throne of England
condescended to preside at their annual banquet.

The Marquis of Huntly responded, and said as an example of the good done
by active local energy, that in Cheshire they only had last year a
donation of ten guineas, and subscribers of thirty-one, while from
Norfolk, the Prince's county, with a smaller agricultural population,
they had donations of £826.

The Prince of Wales then said:--

    "The list of toasts which we all have before us has now come to
    an end, but I shall take the liberty of proposing one more
    toast, the last, but by no means the least. We have been
    honoured on this occasion by fair ladies, and I think it would
    be very wrong if we were to separate without cordially drinking
    their health. We see especially how much the comfort, the
    well-being, prosperity, and happiness of farmers and
    agriculturists depend upon a kind wife to cheer them by the
    fireside at the end of their day's work, and to lighten by
    female influence the load of difficulties. It affords me the
    most sincere pleasure to couple with this toast the name of one
    to whom this institution is so much indebted--Mr. Mechi. Lord
    Huntly has been mentioning to you the word 'energy'; and if it
    had not been for the energy of Mr. Mechi this society would
    never have existed. Let me also say, it would not be so
    prosperous as it is now if it were not for those energies and
    the assistance which he has given it. I hope the words and
    expressions which the noble marquis has lately made use of will
    not be lost by this company, and that all those who wish to
    further the work so worthily begun by Mr. Mechi will continue
    it, so that it may never decrease in funds for the excellent
    object for which it is designed. I beg to propose the toast of
    'The Ladies,' coupled with the name of Mr. Mechi."

Mr. Mechi, in the course of his reply, said that the help of His Royal
Highness would be of the greatest importance to the institution.

The way in which the Prince introduced the toast of the founder of the
Institution was in his happiest vein. Mr. Mechi's death was a great loss
to the agricultural community, for no one more efficiently brought their
claims before the public. It may be added, that the tenant-farmers of
the kingdom have no truer friend than the Prince of Wales.


_November 1875-May 1876._

The visit of the Prince of Wales to India, apart from what it brought of
personal information or amusement, must be regarded as one of the most
important services he has yet rendered to the Empire. This is why we
call it an embassy rather than a tour or a journey. It appears that as
far back as the year 1858, the idea of a tour in the Eastern
possessions of the Crown was suggested by Lord Canning to the Prince
Consort, as part of the education of the Heir Apparent. But he was then
only seventeen, and the proposal was made merely as an incident of
foreign travel. A succession of events, both at home and in the East,
caused the scheme to be postponed, nor was it seriously renewed till the
Prince had attained an age, and acquired an experience in affairs, which
would secure for the expedition high consideration for political and
imperial, as well as personal, purposes.

In the beginning of the year 1875 it was rumoured that the project was
seriously entertained, and on the 16th of March the Marquis of Salisbury
made an official announcement to the Indian Council of the intended
visit. Many arrangements, however, had to be made, and many difficulties
surmounted, before actual preparations for the journey commenced. All
these are recounted in detail by Dr. W. H. Russell, in the introduction
to his book on the 'Prince of Wales's Tour,' a reprint in expanded and
permanent form of his letters as the special correspondent of the
_Times_. Dr. Russell had the advantage of accompanying the Prince as one
of his personal suite, under the title of Honorary Private Secretary. It
is fortunate that the journey had such a historian. The work not only
gives a Diary of the tour in India, with a full record of the
proceedings of the Prince, but is in itself a most interesting and
instructive book of travel, full of information, conveyed in the graphic
and bright style which has made the author famous as a man of letters.
To this book the reader of these pages is referred for the story of the
Royal expedition, both in India and in the countries through which he
passed on the outward and homeward journey.[A]

[Footnote A: 'The Prince of Wales's Tour: a Diary in India, with some
accounts of the visits to the Courts of Greece, Egypt, Spain, and
Portugal.' By William Howard Russell, LL.D. With illustrations by Sydney
P. Hall. Sampson Low & Co.]

The Prince was fortunate in the companions of his journey, even to the
humbler and useful attendants. It is greatly to the credit of his
judgment and his right feeling that the first to whom he expressed a
wish to accompany him was Sir Bartle Frere, a wise and good man, and
whose Indian experience would be of immense value. In the suite there
were, of his own household, Lord Suffield, Sir Dighton Probyn, Colonel
Ellis, and Sir Francis Knollys. The Duke of Sutherland, Lord Alfred
Paget, Lord Aylesford, Lord Carington, Colonel Owen Williams, Lord
Charles Beresford, Captain Fitz George, were invited to join the
expedition. Canon Duckworth was selected as chaplain, and Sir Joseph
Phayrer as physician; Mr. Albert Grey, secretary to Sir Bartle Frere,
Dr. Russell, and Mr. S. P. Hall as artist, completed the list of those
who formed the suite of His Royal Highness. Several of these--General
Probyn, Colonel Ellis, and Dr. Phayrer--had long Indian experience; and
Lord Charles Beresford had accompanied the Duke of Edinburgh in his
Indian tour the year before.

The route to be laid down required much consultation, partly from public
considerations and partly from questions of climate and care for the
Prince's health. The best time of starting had also to be considered. At
last all was arranged, and on the 11th of November the Prince started.
The route was to be viâ Brindisi, to Greece, Egypt, Bombay, Ceylon,
Madras, Calcutta, Lucknow, Delhi, Lahore, Agra, Gwalior, Nepal,
Bareilly, Allahabad, Indore, Bombay, and home by Egypt, Malta,
Gibraltar, Spain, Portugal. The departure from Lisbon was on the 7th of
May, and on the 11th the _Serapis_ anchored off the Isle of Wight, where
the Princess of Wales and the children, in the _Enchantress_ yacht,
awaited the arrival. "The scene at the landing at Portsmouth," says Dr.
Russell, "was a becoming prelude to the greeting which the whole country
gave the Prince of Wales on his return from the visit to India, which
will be for ever a great landmark in the history of the Empire."

The numerous and diverse events and incidents of the months in
India--the sight-seeing, the adventures (some of them strange and
perilous), the shooting parties and hunting expeditions, the manifold
amusements and excitements of travel--all these were enjoyed by the
Prince as much as if he were only the most light-hearted tourist or
keenest sportsman. But at the same time, so far as official ceremony and
public affairs were concerned, he bore himself all through with a
thoughtfulness and dignity worthy of his high position, and of the
important mission with which he was entrusted as representing Royalty
and the British nation.

There was ceremonial reception at Athens, and again in Egypt in the
court of the Khedive, but the first official and formal event of the
Prince's mission was the investiture of Prince Tewfik, the Viceroy's
eldest son, with the Order of the Star of India. This was done in the
palace, with imposing ceremony.

The next official event was the reception of an address from the
inhabitants of Aden, which was presented by a Parsee merchant, on behalf
of the community. The address of the Parsee showed very clearly how well
the object of the Prince's visit was understood throughout the East. The
Prince made an appropriate reply, which no doubt was speedily wired to
Bombay, and read in the native newspapers all over India.

On arriving at Bombay it was again a Parsee who headed the first
deputation and read the first address to the Prince on landing in India.
It was from the Corporation of Bombay, the second city in the British
Empire, in population if not in wealth. The address set forth in glowing
terms the historical and commercial claims of the city to distinction,
and expressed the pleasure of seeing among them the heir to the Crown,
whom the Queen had sent to become personally acquainted with the people
of India. The Prince replied in the following words:--

    "It is a great pleasure to me to begin my travels in India at a
    place so long associated with the Royal Family of England, and
    to find that during so many generations of British rule this
    great port has steadily prospered. Your natural advantages would
    have insured a large amount of commerce under any strong
    Government, but in your various and industrious population I
    gladly recognize the traces of a rule which gives shelter to all
    who obey the laws; which recognizes no invidious distinctions of
    race; which affords to all perfect liberty in matters of
    religious opinion and belief; and freedom in the pursuit of
    trade and of all lawful callings. I note with satisfaction the
    assurance I derive from your address, that under British rule
    men of varied creeds and nations live in harmony among
    themselves, and develop to the utmost those energies which they
    inherit from widely separate families of mankind, whilst all
    join in loyal attachment to the British Crown, and take their
    part, as in my native country, in the management of their own
    local affairs.

    "I shall gladly communicate to Her Majesty what you so loyally
    and kindly say regarding the pleasure which the people of India
    derive from Her Majesty's gracious permission to me to visit
    this part of Her Majesty's Empire. I assure you that the
    Princess of Wales has never ceased to share my regret that she
    was unable to accompany me. She has from her earliest years
    taken the most lively interest in this great country, and the
    cordiality of your greeting this day will make her yet more
    regret the impossibility of her sharing in person the pleasure
    your welcome afforded me."

This reply, so happily conceived, and delivered with quiet earnestness,
delighted all who heard it. But the echoes of it would soon reach every
part of India, and the chiefs and rulers, and also the leaders of
opinion in the native press, would from these words of the Prince
receive a lesson of true statesmanship and constitutional government.

The greatest event at Bombay was the reception of the Rulers and Chiefs
of Western India, a scene of truly Oriental magnificence, the
description of which forms one of the most brilliant chapters in Dr.
Russell's book. All the established forms of Indian ceremony were
observed. The greatest rulers were saluted with the largest number of
guns, the Maharajah of Mysore, for instance, having a salute of
twenty-one guns, while others were fifteen-gun chiefs or eleven-gun
rajahs, as the case might be, according to the population and wealth of
the territories over which they ruled. Their dresses, and jewels, and
retinues, and the modes of reception, as well as their personal
characteristics, are all duly recorded. The Viceroy of India, Lord
Northbrook, was with the Prince of Wales at one grand Durbar, and his
position in regard to the Royal Envoy from the Queen, the arrangement of
which had caused some difficulty in anticipation, was gracefully managed
by the Viceroy and the Prince themselves. The Bombay Durbar passed off
admirably. It was the Prince's birthday, the 9th of November, and no
such scene as on that day can he expect again to witness. The "Carpet,"
which takes an important place in Oriental durbars, the nuzzars or gifts
of homage, and other points of ceremonial, as well as the number of guns
in the salute, had all been arranged by official notices to the
political officers attached to the native courts. But the cordial
bearing of the Prince, and his kindly words when he was told that any
visitors knew the English tongue, gave more satisfaction than the formal

A State banquet was given by the Governor in honour of the Prince's
birthday. In returning thanks for his health, proposed by the Governor,
the Prince made a short but telling speech. He said:--

    "It has long been my earnest wish--the dream of my life--to
    visit India; and now that my desire has been gratified, I can
    only say, Sir Philip Wodehouse, how much pleased I am to have
    spent my thirty-fourth birthday under your roof in Bombay. I
    shall remember with satisfaction the hospitable reception I have
    had from the Governor, and all here, as long as I live, and I
    believe that I may regard what I have experienced in Bombay as a
    guarantee of the future of my progress through this great
    Empire, which forms so important a part of the dominions of the

These last words were a true forecast of the Royal progress throughout
India. What has been said of Bombay, must serve to give an idea of what
everywhere had to be recorded. But we must refrain from further details
of what occurred at other Presidencies, and only add that the crowning
public event of the whole tour, the chief ceremony of the mission of the
Prince, the holding the Chapter of the Order of the Star of India, came
off, at Calcutta, on New Year's Day, 1876, with brilliant _éclat_.

This only may be said, that no more successful embassy than that
undertaken by the Prince ever went forth from England. It may be added
that the great ends accomplished by it cost to the British Exchequer
less than £60,000; and this, although no expense was spared in carrying
out the mission with due display and munificence. Nor ought it to be
omitted that the Prince was most generous, as he is at home, in his
gifts to useful and charitable institutions, visited by him in the
course of his journey. But we must leave the fascinating story of the
Indian visit, to resume the record of the humbler, but not less
honourable duties, undertaken by the Prince after his return to England.


_May 7th, 1877._

The "Licensed Victuallers," as might be expected from so numerous,
wealthy, and ancient a Corporation, possess several charitable
institutions. They have a "Permanent Fund," founded as far back as 1794,
and incorporated in 1836, which grants weekly allowances to about two
hundred and sixty persons, at an annual outlay of £4770; grants £300
yearly for the maintenance of twelve children in the Society's School;
and dispenses temporary relief amounting to £500. The School just named,
founded in 1803, situated in Kennington Lane, Lambeth, wholly maintains
and educates 200 children of deceased or distressed members of the
Incorporated Society of Licensed Victuallers. Its income from all
sources averages £6000. Besides these charitable operations, there is
the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum, in the Old Kent Road, founded in 1827,
and incorporated in 1836, for the reception and maintenance of decayed
aged licensed victuallers, their wives or widows, and for granting
weekly allowances of money to fifty candidates, while waiting for the
more substantial benefits of the Society. The Asylum comprises 170
distinct houses, with a common library, a chapel and resident chaplain.
The property covers six acres of freehold land, and the annual expense
is about £8500.

In support of this useful and well-managed Asylum, the Prince of Wales
presided, at a special jubilee festival held on May the 7th, 1877. The
Duke of Sussex was its first patron in 1827, and he was succeeded by the
Prince Consort, on whose death the Prince of Wales assumed the office. A
large number of influential persons accepted the invitation to be
present, including Earl Granville, several members of the House of
Peers, many members of the House of Commons, and three Bishops, in all
about 300 supporters of the institution.

After grace by the Bishop of Winchester, in whose diocese the Asylum is
situated, the Chairman rose to propose the usual opening toast of "The
Queen," saying that Her Majesty had always taken deep interest in this
Asylum, and had sent £50 to its funds at one of its annual festivals.
Earl Granville, in a genial and humorous speech, proposed the toast of
"The Prince and Princess of Wales and the rest of the Royal Family."
The noble Lord said he considered it a fortunate circumstance that he
was there that evening, because in the afternoon he met a friend, who
said to him: "You really don't mean to say you are going to dine with
those wicked people the licensed victuallers?" Now, in arguing the case
with his friend, he did not go into the abstruse question whether all
persons who dealt in articles of general demand and great consumption,
useful in themselves, and capable of being misapplied or abused, such as
food, or drink, or money, or physic, or a great many other things which,
excellent in themselves in a small quantity, might be most deleterious,
when misapplied--were monsters. He satisfied himself with a much shorter
answer, which was that, as a study in human nature, it would be rather
interesting to see 300 monsters of iniquity assembled cordially to
promote the work of genuine charity and benevolence. Having justified
his presence, he ventured to say that the toast he proposed would be
received with the most unfeigned and genuine pleasure, since he had to
give "The Health of the Prince, of the Princess of Wales, and the rest
of the Royal Family." He might recommend it on the score of the high
position of the Chairman, which enabled him to influence so many for
good, or on the ground that the Prince and Princess are the most popular
couple in the country, and in all the vast dependencies of the British
Crown. He might put it on the ground that the Prince shows that genial
and cordial energy in anything which he undertakes, whether in
protecting the interests of British exhibitors on the Champs de Mars at
Paris, or in presiding in a work of charity and kindliness. He might
also recommend it in consequence of His Royal Highness being the very
best chairman of a public dinner. Instead of long speeches, His Royal
Highness made addresses that were, to use a homely expression, as full
of meat as an egg. But without using any arguments whatever, he would
give them "The Health of the Prince and Princess, and the rest of the
Royal Family," and he was sure it would be received with enthusiasm.

The band of the Grenadier Guards, under Mr. Dan Godfrey, played "God
Bless the Prince of Wales," after which the Prince rose and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I am excessively grateful to the noble
    Earl for the most kind and flattering--I may say far too
    flattering--terms in which he has been kind enough to propose my
    health, that of the Princess, and the other members of my
    family, and for the excessively cordial manner in which you have
    been kind enough to receive it this evening. It is, no doubt,
    somewhat unusual that the health of the Chairman should be given
    at so early a period, but I am very grateful to the noble Earl
    for the kind manner in which he has given it, and to you for
    the way in which you have received it. Lord Granville has just
    mentioned to you that this afternoon he was accosted by a
    friend, who asked him why he was coming to-night, and expressed
    some surprise at his doing so. Lord Granville was asked by one
    friend. During the last three or four days I have received as
    many as 200 petitions from bodies in all parts of the United
    Kingdom begging me on no account to be present here this
    evening. Of course, I do not wish in any way to disparage those
    temperance societies, which have, no doubt, excellent objects in
    view. But I think this time they have rather overshot the mark,
    because the object of the meeting to-night is not to encourage
    the love of drink, but to support a good and excellent charity.
    I can only say, and I am sure all those here will agree with me,
    that no one had the interest of all those in his adopted country
    more at heart than my lamented father, and I feel perfectly
    convinced that he would never have been the patron of the
    society unless he was sure that it was one that was likely to do
    good, and that it was deserving of his support. Lord Granville
    has made far too flattering allusion to me as a Chairman, but as
    he has been kind enough to say--giving me certainly a broad
    hint--that speeches of this kind should be short, I am only too
    happy to avail myself of it; and if brevity is the soul of wit,
    I shall be the wittiest of chairmen.

    "Before sitting down I wish to bring to your notice a toast
    which is always honoured with enthusiasm at every assemblage of
    Englishmen. The toast is given, indeed, so often that it is
    difficult to vary the manner of giving it, and especially at the
    present moment I feel it would be unbecoming in me to dilate in
    any way on the Army or the Navy. But at the present moment, when
    the political horizon far away is so obscure, I feel sure that,
    whatever may happen, it is the wish of all Englishmen that our
    Army, though small, should be in the highest state of
    efficiency, and that our Navy should be, as it ought to be, the
    best in the world. I have lately returned from a short trip in
    the Mediterranean, where I had the pleasure of spending ten days
    in one of the finest men-of-war in Her Majesty's service; and
    though the captain of that vessel is my own brother, I feel I
    may say that there are few vessels which are in a better state
    of order and discipline. And I think that if all the rest of
    the Fleet are in the same state we shall have no cause to
    complain of our Naval Service. With the Army and Reserve Forces
    I beg to couple the name of General Sir W. Knollys, and with the
    Navy that of Admiral Sir A. Milne, who for so long a time has
    given his valuable services to the Admiralty."

Sir W. Knollys, in returning thanks, said that, in addition to
intemperance in drink, there was such a thing as intemperance of the
brain and pen, and he had observed marks of that in some of the
communications which, as a member of the Prince's household, he had had
under his notice during the last few days. Sir Alexander Milne also
returned thanks. The Prince of Wales then rose and said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--The toast which I now give you is the
    toast of the evening--'Renewed Prosperity to the Licensed
    Victuallers' Asylum.' We are met here together to-night for the
    purpose of doing honour to its 50th anniversary, and when I look
    round me and see so numerous an assembly, I feel sure that we
    shall have in every respect reason to be grateful for the bounty
    of these gentlemen, who are prepared to do much towards
    benefiting this excellent charitable institution. As everybody
    is aware, it was founded as a refuge for the aged and decayed
    members of the trade, so that they might be spared from dying of
    hunger, or being thrown on the poor-rates as recipients of
    parish relief.

    "The first stone of this Asylum was laid by my grand uncle, the
    Duke of Sussex, and forty-three houses were then erected. Up to
    the year 1835 lodging only was provided; but the Board of
    Management then originated a fund which enabled them to maintain
    the inmates as well. A weekly allowance in money and coals was
    granted to these poor people.

    "In the year 1849 the applicants had become so numerous that it
    was determined to erect an additional building. The first stone
    of that building was laid by my lamented father, who again
    performed a similar service when it was found necessary,
    nineteen years ago, to enlarge still further this Asylum. In the
    year 1866 my brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, laid the foundation
    stone of another wing.

    "In the year 1863 I had the pleasure of becoming the Patron of
    this Society, although in sad circumstances, in succession to
    my father. I had great satisfaction also in assisting in the
    ceremony of unveiling the statue which has been erected to the
    memory of my father in the grounds of the Asylum. I believe I am
    correct in stating that the institution now consists of about
    170 separate habitations. The number of inmates is about 210,
    who receive, the married couples, 10_s._, and the others, 8_s._
    per week, besides coals, medical assistance, &c. The annual
    expenses are very large, as they amount to upwards of £8000, and
    as for the greater amount of that expenditure the Asylum is
    dependent upon voluntary contributions, the Governors are most
    anxious to collect now a sum which may be added to their capital
    in order that they may feel that they have more certain sources
    of income. I feel sure you will aid them, and I call upon you
    once more to give most liberally all that is in your power to
    give, and to show that you are anxious by pecuniary means as
    well as by your presence here this evening to benefit the
    institution. I will not weary you with any more words, because
    no doubt at many other dinners the main facts of the case have
    been brought before your notice. I will only say that it has
    given me the greatest pleasure to take the chair this evening. I
    thank you again for the cordial support which you have been kind
    enough to give me, and I feel that now again I may call upon you
    once more to do all in your power for the prosperity of the
    Licensed Victuallers' Asylum."

Lord G. Hamilton, M.P., proposed the toast of "The Stewards," Mr. E. N.
Buxton, M.P., in acknowledging the toast, said they had no desire to
claim from His Royal Highness in any sense any appearance of taking
sides on a question by his presence there that night. The kind words he
had spoken only showed his approval of the great principle that every
trade should provide for its poor and disabled members.

The Secretary of the Institution read a list of subscriptions, headed
with an additional donation of 100 guineas from His Royal Highness,
which was followed by large subscriptions from Messrs. Bass, Allsopp,
Huggins, Mr. C. Sykes, M.P., and other gentlemen. The whole list
amounted to £5000.

In recent years the subject of intemperance has attracted more
attention, and the crime and poverty resulting from drink has led to a
general consent of opinion that some greater regulation of the trade is


_January 22nd, 1878._

The election of His Royal Highness Prince Albert to the Chancellorship
of the University of Cambridge, was one of the honours of which he was
most justly proud. He was only twenty-eight years of age, and had not
yet been eight years in England. But during these years he had won the
respect and admiration of all that was highest and best in the nation.
When the Chancellorship of Cambridge became vacant by the death of the
Duke of Northumberland, on the 12th of February, 1847, application was
made to the Prince, on the next day, by Dr. Whewell, the Master of
Trinity, to allow himself to be put in nomination for the office. The
request was separately made by the Marquis of Lansdowne on the same day.
A letter from the Bishop of London (Blomfield) conveyed the assurance
that the Prince's acceptance of the office would be regarded by many of
the leading members of the University, with whom he had conferred, as
"honourable and advantageous to the University." The Prince replied,
through Mr. Anson, to whom the bishop's letter was addressed, that he
would be gratified by such a distinction, if it was the unanimous desire
of the University.

Unfortunately there was another candidate proposed, and an election took
place, the Prince obtaining a large majority. Of 24 Professors who
voted, 16 gave their votes for the Prince; of 30 Senior Wranglers, 19
were on his side; while of the resident members 3 to 1 voted for him.
Notwithstanding this strong expression of opinion, the Prince felt
inclined to refuse the office, but was induced to accept it, on the
reasons of the opposition being explained to him, and on the assurance
that the contest would be forgotten after a few months, and that he
might then count on the confidence and goodwill of the whole Academical

Fortunately he accepted, and the assurances of his supporters were more
than verified. On the 24th of March the ceremony of inauguration was
gone through at Buckingham Palace, when the Letters-Patent ware
presented to the Prince by the Vice-Chancellor, accompanied by the most
distinguished officials, and about one hundred and thirty members of the
University. How soon and how powerfully his influence was felt in
advancing education at Cambridge, is matter of history. The following
simple entry in his Diary, on the 1st of November, 1848, shows the
result of his first efforts: "My plan for a reform of the studies at
Cambridge is carried by a large majority." To the enlightened and
judicious plans of the Prince the subsequent advances and extension of
education in England have been largely due. Nowhere was this more
gratefully acknowledged than at Cambridge.

During his life he was honoured, and after his death a statue was
erected to his memory, chiefly by subscriptions from the University. The
site chosen was in the Fitzwilliam Museum, a memorial worthy of the
noble benefactor, who bequeathed to the University his valuable
collection of pictures and books, with a sum of £100,000 to be spent in
providing a building suitable for their reception. The statue of Prince
Albert was here fittingly placed. It was one of the best works of Mr.
Foley, in his later years, and is universally admired as a striking and
worthy representation of the illustrious Chancellor.

It was for the ceremony of unveiling this statue that the Prince of
Wales visited Cambridge on the 22nd of January, 1878. He was met at the
gate of the Museum by the Chancellor, the Duke of Devonshire, the Lord
High Steward, the Vice-Chancellor, and a distinguished company. On
entering the vestibule an address was read by the Chancellor, setting
forth the services to the University of the Prince Consort, during his
fifteen years' tenure of office. The address thus concluded:--

"This memorial of the Prince Consort cannot but serve to remind us also
as Englishmen of the signal benefits conferred by His Royal Highness
upon our Queen and country by his wise and far-seeing counsels, his
never-wearying vigilance and attention to the public welfare, and his
entire devotion to the duties of his exalted station at the sacrifice of
all personal interests and objects.

"We thank your Royal Highness for the distinguished honour conferred
upon the University by your presence among us this day. It remains only
for us to prefer our request that your Royal Highness will now be
graciously pleased to uncover the statue. To no one does this honourable
office more appropriately belong."

The Prince of Wales returned the following reply:--

    "My Lord Duke, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Members of the Senate, and
    Gentlemen,--I thank you for your address. I feel that it is
    hardly necessary for me to assure you what pleasure it affords
    me to be present on this occasion for the purpose of unveiling
    the statue of my illustrious father and your late Chancellor, in
    compliance with the special desire and invitation of the
    Chancellor and the Members of the Senate of the University. But,
    apart from the performance of this duty, I must express my great
    satisfaction at having an opportunity of revisiting Cambridge as
    a member of your University, and recalling to my mind the
    agreeable recollections which I have always retained of my
    undergraduate's days. The interest which the Prince Consort took
    in everything relating to the welfare of the University is well
    known to us all, and it is a source of deep gratification to me
    to witness the respect which the members of the University show
    to his memory by the erection of this fine statue. I will now
    proceed to execute the task imposed upon me of unveiling the

The Prince then walked up to the Statue, and having pulled a string, it
stood unveiled before the assembly, who contemplated it for a few
moments in silence.

The Chancellor again addressing the Prince, thanked him for the honour
which he had done the University in being present on so interesting an
occasion. It was, however, a source of regret to him that so many had
passed away who had the best means of becoming acquainted with the views
and thoughts of the Prince Consort--such as Professor Sedgwick and Dr.
Whewell--who, if they were alive, would gladly have borne testimony to
his great virtues that day. There were, however, many now in that hall
who, he had no doubt, entertained the liveliest recollections of the
deep interest which was taken by His Royal Highness in the work in which
the University was engaged.

The Earl of Powis also bore testimony to the unwearied interest which
was taken by the Prince Consort in the development of new studies in the
University, even amid the weighty cares of State.

Dr. G. Paget, Regius Professor of Physic, spoke in highly eulogistic
terms of the Prince Consort's love of science and art, observing that it
was under his auspices that the Moral and Natural Science Triposes had
been established, to the great advantage of teaching in the University.

The ceremony in the entrance-hall was thus brought to a close, and the
Prince of Wales, the Chancellor, and their respective suites proceeded
to the picture gallery, where His Royal Highness held a _levée_, which
was very numerously attended. After the _levée_ he returned to Trinity
College. It was several years since the Prince of Wales had paid a visit
to Cambridge of any duration. He spent some time there as an
under-graduate, and made with the Princess of Wales a stay of three days
in 1864, when he had the degree of LL.D. conferred upon him.

Another memorable visit was paid on the 9th of June, 1888, when the
Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Princess and their three daughters,
witnessed the conferring of an honorary degree on Prince Albert Victor.
Other notable graduates _honoris causâ_ were on the list that day,
including the Marquis of Salisbury, the Earl of Rosebery, Lord Selborne,
Mr. Balfour, Mr. Goscheu, and Professor Stokes. At the luncheon
afterwards given in the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Prince of Wales said it
was seven and twenty years since he was first connected with the
University. "They were happy days," he added, "and I always look back to
them with the greatest pleasure and satisfaction."


_June 28th, 1878._

This institution maintains and educates the orphans of persons once in
prosperity, from earliest infancy till fourteen or fifteen years of age.
About 60 children are now (1888) annually elected. Nearly the whole of
the income depends on voluntary contributions. Subscribers have votes,
according to the amount of their subscriptions. There are now nearly 600
in the Asylum, which is open to children from all parts of the British
dominions. The Asylum stands in beautifully wooded grounds, at Wanstead,
on the outskirts of Epping Forest.

The Prince, accompanied by the Princess of Wales, presided at the
anniversary festival, on June 28th, 1878. They drove to Wanstead, and
were received at the Asylum by the Bishop of St. Albans, in whose
diocese it is, and by the officers of the institution. They were
conducted to the Examination Room, where, Dagmar Mary Petersen, a little
orphan girl, eight years old, daughter of a Dane, who settled in London
as a commercial clerk, herself admitted just eighteen months ago by the
loyalty of a lady of the Society of Friends, who wished thus to honour
the Princess, commenced the proceedings with a pretty speech which she
had got perfectly by heart and recited very clearly. In her childish
voice she gave those assembled a distinct account of the asylum. "She
had been told that it was the largest of the kind in England. When the
boys, girls, officers, and servants are all there, 700 persons sleep in
the building. The schools are in three divisions, senior, infants, and
nursery children. In the two large senior schools there are about 400
boys and girls. They learn grammar, history, geography, arithmetic,
French, music, and drawing, and the girls learn needlework besides. In
the two infant schools they do not learn quite so much. In the nursery
they learn just a very little and play a good deal. And being little
children they learn about the Bible." The little girl who spoke this
simple address presented a bouquet to the gracious Princess after the
ceremony, and was kissed, praised, and otherwise gratified.

"God bless the Prince of Wales" was excellently sung at the conclusion
of the speech; the children came up to the Princess and took their
prizes from her hands; and marched out of the room, keeping time to
lively music. The Royal party inspected the school-rooms, play-rooms,
and dormitories, cheerful and well-ventilated halls; and the Princess
carried toys to the children in the nursery.

The Prince of Wales took the chair at luncheon, supported by the
Princess of Wales, and their suite, the Duke and Duchess of Manchester,
the Bishop of St. Albans and Hon. Mrs. Claughton, and a large assembly.
After grace the Prince of Wales rose and proposed "The Health of Her
Majesty the Queen." The toast-master next announced a bumper toast, and
the Duke of Manchester gave "The Health of His Royal Highness the Prince
of Wales, and the Princess of Wales," "a toast which is never more
heartily honoured than on these fortunately frequent occasions, when
their Royal Highnesses patronize and encourage well-organized charitable
institutions, among which this was perhaps one of the best he knew."

The Prince of Wales said, in reply:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--On the part of the Princess and myself,
    we beg to return our warmest thanks to the noble duke for the
    kind way in which he has proposed this toast, and to you, ladies
    and gentlemen, for the cordial manner in which you have received
    it. It has afforded both the Princess and myself the greatest
    possible pleasure and the greatest possible gratification to
    come here to-day and to inaugurate the fifty-first anniversary
    of this excellent and commendable institution. What we have seen
    ourselves, and what the most part of the company have witnessed
    on their own part, I think will do more than anything I can say
    to show you what an excellent institution this is, and how
    worthy it is of support in every way. The manner in which the
    children sang, the discipline under which they are evidently
    kept, the clean and healthy appearance of all of them, is a
    matter of sincere congratulation to all those who take interest
    in this institution or have the trouble of its management. I may
    say that there is one little girl who perfectly astonished us by
    the elocution which she possessed--well worthy of many a
    distinguished member of Parliament.

    "It was highly interesting to the Princess, as well as to
    myself, to have been here to-day, the fortieth anniversary of
    the Queen's Coronation. The first stone of the building in which
    we are now was laid by my lamented father a few months before I
    was born; and I hold in my hand the mallet which was used by him
    on that occasion, and which has been sent to me by Sir Charles
    Reed, the chairman of the London School Board, whose father, Dr.
    Andrew Reed, was, I understand, one of the promoters of this
    institution, and always took the warmest interest in its
    welfare. This day seventeen years ago the Prince Consort visited
    this institution, and this day exactly twelve years ago was the
    last time the Princess and I were here.

    "I am sure there is but little more for me to say in commending
    so admirable an institution to you, which has now existed for
    half a century, which maintains 600 children during the course
    of the year, and has educated and sent forth into the world as
    many as 3000 up to the present time. But a well-managed
    institution like this, with the spacious rooms which we have
    seen, will naturally convince you that it must cost a
    considerable sum, and I believe I am not incorrect in stating
    that it requires at least £18,000 a year to maintain this
    asylum. And as it is almost entirely supported by voluntary
    contributions I feel sure that all those present will do all
    they can to support this institution, and to tell their friends
    when they go home how worthy it is of support. I have now, in
    conclusion, only to propose--a toast which I give most
    heartily--'Prosperity to the Infant Orphan Asylum.'"

The Prince of Wales then left the chair, resigning it to the Bishop of
St. Albans, who gave the other usual toasts.

The secretary read a list of subscriptions. The Queen had sent her
annual donation of 10 guineas; the Prince of Wales before leaving placed
in the hands of the secretary a cheque for 100 guineas; the Duke of
Edinburgh gave 10 guineas; H. S. C. (who had long been an anonymous
benefactress), 100 guineas; country friends, £462. In all, about £1600.

This concluded the formal proceedings, but the summer weather tempted
many of the visitors to prolong their stay in the pleasant gardens of
the asylum.


_July 24th, 1878._

In the autumn of 1877, the Prince of Wales went to Dartmouth, to place
his sons, Prince Edward (as he was then usually called) and Prince
George, on the training ship _Britannia_, under the care of Captain
Fairfax, R.N. At the end of the summer term, in the following year, the
Prince consented to preside at the distribution of prizes on the
_Britannia_, and graciously announced that the successful pupils should
receive their medals and books from the hands of the Princess of Wales.

The Mayor and Corporation of the ancient borough of Dartmouth took
advantage of the occasion to give official welcome to the Royal
visitors, and to present an address, which the Prince signified his
readiness to receive on board the Royal yacht, _Osborne_. Thither the
magistrates repaired in the forenoon. The picturesque estuary of the
river Dart never had displayed so festive an appearance. The
_Britannia_, and her attendant yacht the _Sirius_, the Royal yacht, the
Admiralty yacht, which had brought the Lords of the Admiralty, several
ships of the Plymouth fleet, under Admiral Sir Thomas Symonds, besides a
large flotilla of yachts, steam launches, and all sorts of boats, were
covered with gay bunting, while flags floated from every point of the
shore and the town.

The Town Clerk having read the Address from the ancient borough, which
was first incorporated by a charter of Edward III., in 1342, and had
figured in subsequent history, especially at the time of the Spanish
Armada, the Prince, in reply, said:--

    "On behalf of the Princess of Wales, as well as on my own
    behalf, I offer my sincere thanks to you for your address and
    for your cordial welcome to us on our visit to this ancient and
    beautiful town. The salubrity of the climate of Dartmouth and
    the excellence of your sanitary arrangements have long been
    known to me, and I can appeal to no better proof of my entire
    confidence in them than that afforded by the step I have taken
    in sending our two sons to be educated on board the _Britannia_.
    I beg to assure you that with that step both the Princess and
    myself are perfectly satisfied. I trust you will continue to
    devote your attention as you have done in the past to the
    improvement of the sanitary arrangements of the town. I thank
    you again for the kind wishes you have expressed towards the
    Princess, myself, and our family."

The Prince also congratulated the Mayor, Sir Henry Seale, on the
splendid effect of the illuminations of the previous evening.
Accompanied by the Municipal authorities, and by the Duke of Connaught,
Prince Louis of Battenberg, and a numerous retinue, the Prince and
Princess then proceeded to the _Britannia_ for the distribution of the
prizes. They were received by Mr. W. H. Smith, then First Lord of the
Admiralty, and the other Lords; by the Commander-in-Chief of the
Plymouth division of the Channel Fleet; and Captain Fairfax of the
_Britannia_. Between 500 and 600 of the friends or relatives of the
cadets, and other invited guests, among whom were Lord and Lady Charles
Beresford, Sir Samuel and Lady Baker, were assembled on the
quarter-deck, sheltered from the sun by a canopy of flags, surmounted by
the flag of Denmark, and the white ensign of England.

The distribution of the prizes took place, a report on the state of the
training having been previously read by Dr. Hirst, director of studies
at the Greenwich Naval College, who had superintended the examination of
the cadets.

After the distribution, the Prince of Wales, standing on the deck in the
uniform of a captain of the Royal Naval Reserve, said:--

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--Permit me to express to you
    the great pleasure it has given the Princess to present the
    cadets who are about to leave the _Britannia_ the prizes which
    they have so successfully won, and to express to you on my own
    part as well as on that of the Princess the very great pleasure
    it has given us to be here to witness and take part in these
    interesting proceedings. From Dr. Hirst we heard a most
    interesting and exhaustive speech regarding the studies of the
    cadets and their merits. I can only wish those who are about to
    leave the _Britannia_, and who have now fairly entered that
    noble service for which they have been trained, all possible
    success. Let me hope that the tuition they have received here
    will not be thrown away upon them, and that they may all emulate
    those bright examples to be found in English history and of
    which every naval officer must be proud. To those cadets who
    still remain on board this ship I can only recommend strict
    assiduity to their studies and strict obedience to discipline,
    and all of them to try to pass out of the _Britannia_ as highly
    as they can, remembering, above all, that saying which one of
    our greatest admirals has handed down to posterity--'England
    expects every man will do his duty.' A personal interest which
    the Princess and myself take in this ship and the confidence we
    have of its being an excellent practical school for boys have
    been testified by the fact that we have sent our two sons among
    you to be educated. For myself, my only hope and trust is that
    they may do credit to the ship and to their country."

Mr. W. H. Smith, M.P., First Lord of the Admiralty, thanked their Royal
Highnesses for their welcome presence, and called upon the cadets to
give three cheers for the Prince and Princess of Wales. The cheers were
prolonged to three times three, caught up in row-boats around, and
echoed by the high banks of the Dart. The chief captains of the cadets,
who are mainly responsible for discipline and occupy a place of honour
in the ship's mess-room on the main deck, were presented to the Prince
and Princess, and the proceedings came to an end. Captain and Mrs.
Fairfax had the honour of entertaining the Royal personages and a select
party at luncheon. Later in the day the Prince of Wales paid a visit to
Captain Zirzow, on the German Imperial frigate _Niobe_, and drank a
glass of wine to the health of the Emperor of Germany. Captain Zirzow
telegraphed at once to the Emperor that the Prince of Wales had called a
health to him.

When the Prince and Princess arrived at Dartmouth on Tuesday they were
rowed to the _Britannia_, one of their sons steering and the other
pulling the second bow oar. They left the ship in a boat rowed by
full-grown sailors, and with their two sons, who were going home for
their holidays, sitting in the stern sheets. From the _Britannia_ to the
landing-place, which was brightly draped with crimson cloth, hawsers
were stretched and thus a clear lane was kept among the crowd of craft
for the passage of the Royal boat. Tho cadets of the _Britannia_ sat in
their blue coats with tossed oars, and cheers were raised by those on
the boats, yachts, the many little steam launches, and the shore. Little
girls threw flowers before the Princess as she stepped upon the landing
stage. A special train was waiting to meet the ordinary mail from
Penzance and Plymouth.

So ended a visit which formed an interesting incident in the family life
of the Prince, and the events of which will long be remembered in South


_May 5th, 1879._

The objects of the Cabdrivers Benevolent Association are: 1, to give
annuities of £20 a year; 2, to grant small loans; 3, to give temporary
assistance in cases of urgent distress; 4, to assist the widows and
orphans of cabmen. This is an institution the benefits of which are so
obvious, and for the help of a class of men so hard-worked, so
uncertainly paid, and so useful to the public, that we are not surprised
at the readiness with which the Prince of Wales assented to preside at
one of its annual festivals, and at the hearty earnestness in which he
made an appeal on its behalf. It was at the festival dinner on the 5th
of May, 1879. On coming to the toast of the evening His Royal Highness

    "There is, I think, no class of our fellow-countrymen that
    deserve more of our consideration than the cabdrivers of this
    great city, and it has already been truly expressed to you that
    one cannot think without pity of those poor men sitting on their
    cabs in the cold east winds with which we are, alas! so well
    acquainted, and in the rain and snow which have been our lot now
    for so many months.

    "They are as a rule, I believe, a class honest, persevering, and
    industrious. For them I have to plead to-night, and for this
    excellent institution, which has for the last nine years
    rendered to them such great benefits.

    "The objects of this Cabdrivers' Benevolent Association are, as
    you are aware, threefold--first, to give annuities at the rate
    of £12 each to aged cabdrivers or to those who from infirmity
    are unable to earn their living; secondly, to grant loans
    without interest to members requiring such aid, and to give
    temporary assistance to those who may be in distress through
    unavoidable causes; and, thirdly, to give legal assistance to
    members who may be unjustly summoned to the police courts. It is
    hardly possible to conceive that any benevolent institution of
    this kind is more deserving of support, not only by the large
    assembly who are gathered here, but by the inhabitants generally
    of our great Metropolis. There are a thousand cabmen who are
    members of this Association, and they pay 5_s._ a year. Pensions
    of £12 are granted now to old and indigent cabdrivers, but it is
    our great wish to augment that sum to £16" (now £20). "The
    system of loans seems to have answered admirably in every
    respect; £600 has been granted to the members without interest,
    and these loans have, I understand, been always most regularly
    and most punctually repaid. Two hundred and thirty-three cabmen
    or their families have been assisted by this society in various
    years since its formation, and its existing capital is more than
    £3000; but this we hope to augment still further.

    "One statement I may make which may be of interest to those
    present here this evening. I mentioned that as a class the
    cabmen are thoroughly honest. As a proof of that I have
    statistics here before me which state that last year there were
    between 16,000 and 17,000 articles left in cabs, amounting in
    value to about £20,000, which have been punctually returned. I
    believe, at least it is the popular belief, that there is only
    one article a cabman never returns, and this is an umbrella, and
    I think that is, we may consider, quite fair. A gentleman having
    an umbrella may not want a cab, but without an umbrella he will
    be compelled to take a cab if the rain comes on!

    "There are now between 11,000 and 12,000 cabmen, and the amount
    of the expense in cab fares comes to a most colossal sum,
    something between £4,000,000 and £5,000,000 sterling. With
    regard to the remark I made as to the honesty of cabmen, it may
    perhaps be not out of place if I mention an anecdote which was
    told me to-day. A gentleman drove in a cab to a shop, left the
    cab, and entered the shop. On coming out of the shop, he was not
    in so quiet a frame of mind as when he entered it; it was
    evident to the passers-by that he was dissatisfied with the
    shopman; he left the shop and went away. The shopman threw a
    case into the cab. The gentleman had forgotten it. But the
    cabman immediately drove to Scotland Yard and delivered the
    case, which was found to contain jewellery worth £2300. This
    will give you some idea of the honesty of these men, for whom we
    are endeavouring to do much. Some considerable good was done
    only four years ago by a philanthropic and noble lord whose name
    is known to you, who started cabmen's shelters. There are now
    twenty of these, and they shelter 2000 cabmen, doing much to
    alleviate the discomfort of the men, who sit so many hours of
    the night suffering from the inclemency of the seasons.

    "When I see this large assemblage I feel I shall not call in
    vain, and I call upon you to augment the capital which already
    exists. With this toast I have great pleasure in associating one
    who is treasurer of the Association, Lord Richard Grosvenor (now
    Lord Stalbridge), member of a family well known in works of
    charity and philanthropy. I thank you for the kind way in which
    you have listened to my imperfect remarks, and now I must ask
    you to drink with enthusiasm 'Success to the Cabdrivers'
    Benevolent Association!'"

It is pleasant to find from the latest published report that the
Institution, which the Prince of Wales so warmly commended, is in a
prosperous condition. The annuities have been raised to £20, and there
are 40 annuitants now on the books. The receipts in 1887 were £2191, and
the funded property was £10,000. Temporary relief was given to upwards
of 200 cabmen. Upwards of 1200 members contribute 5_s._ annually, but
this is a small proportion of the whole number of cabdrivers, more of
whom ought to be persuaded to join as members, as they alone receive the
benefits of the Association. The applicants for loans, on the prescribed
terms, were 89. The cabmen have been fortunate in the chairmen at the
festivals and annual general meetings. The Prince of Wales is patron of
the Association. The honorary secretary is G. Stormont Murphy, Esq., and
the office is at 15, Soho Square.


_May 23rd, 1880._

The Prince of Wales presided at Willis's Rooms at a dinner in aid of the
funds of the Princess Helena College, on the 23rd of May, 1880.

After the customary proceedings and toasts of the evening, and speeches
by the Duke of Cambridge and Lord Sydney, the Prince rose and proposed
the toast of "Prosperity to the Princess Helena College." He said:--

    "At many of the dinners at which I have the pleasure of taking
    the chair, the charities in support of which they are given
    require more words to bring them to the notice of those who
    attend than the present one does. But though the specific nature
    of this institution relieves me from the necessity of entering
    upon any lengthened advocacy of its claims, it is not the less
    deserving of your hearty support in every respect. As you are
    aware, the Princess Helena College was formerly called the Adult
    Orphan Institution, and it has for its object the bringing up of
    daughters of officers of the Army and Navy and of clergymen. Its
    first meeting took place as far back as 1818, and in 1820 the
    institution was built. As Lord Sydney told you, it originated
    with a relative of his own. It was founded by her, and by my
    grand-aunt, Princess Augusta of Gloucester. King George IV. also
    took great interest in its welfare, allotting the plot of ground
    in the Regent's Park where the College now stands.

    "The object of the institution is not only to provide a
    thoroughly good education for the daughters of officers and
    clergymen, but to send them forth into the world in a useful
    capacity; and I think you will agree with me that in the
    capacity of well-qualified governesses they go forth in the most
    useful manner. In the days when it was first instituted so much
    attention was not given to education as in our time, and you
    can therefore easily understand that as more highly efficient
    education is needed now for these young ladies there is a
    proportionate increase of expense. Like many other institutions,
    its expenditure has been greater than its receipts, and, as a
    consequence, it has been found necessary to somewhat alter its
    rules by admitting a certain number of paying students as
    boarders, and also by establishing day classes for the daughters
    of gentlemen. In order to fit the institution for this new
    sphere of operations it has been necessary to enlarge the
    building, and though, no doubt, the effect of this arrangement
    will be to increase receipts, the enlargement of the building
    has naturally entailed great cost, and in order to meet that
    charge I have to call upon you, gentlemen, to do all you can, by
    a most liberal contribution to-night, to enable the committee to
    meet their pecuniary difficulties. The best proof you can give
    me of the real interest you take in the welfare of this
    excellent institution will be to subscribe as handsomely as it
    is in your power to do. I am informed that a distinguished naval
    officer is acting as steward here to-night in gratitude for the
    benefit his daughters have derived in their education from a
    governess who was brought up at the Princess Helena College. I
    have mentioned before that the Queen is its patron. Her Majesty
    subscribes £50 a year to its funds, and on this special occasion
    she presents 100 guineas. The interest taken by my sister, the
    Princess, in its welfare is sufficiently proved by the fact that
    she is President of the Council of the College, and I have great
    pleasure in stating to you that it is by her express wish and
    recommendation that I am here to-night. I will, in conclusion,
    again ask you to let me feel by the liberality of your
    contributions that I have not failed in my duty as your

The Secretary then read a list of donations and subscriptions, which,
including those from the Queen and 100 guineas from the Prince of Wales,
amounted to over £2060.

The College still flourishes at Ealing, a populous district, where day
boarders are also admitted to the classes of the institution.


_June 17th, 1880._

To possess the best possible packet service between England and Ireland
is a matter of national importance. In the old days of sailing ships the
perils and uncertainties of the passage across the Channel were
notorious. When steamships carried mails and passengers, and when the
bridging of the Menai Straits for railway traffic had been achieved, it
was necessary to provide improved harbour accommodation, and other
works, both for convenience and safety, at Holyhead. These works
included a spacious harbour, and a breakwater securing the additional
space of a sheltered roadstead. The length of the North Breakwater is
nearly 8000 feet. The harbour and deep-water sheltered roadstead are
together between six and seven hundred acres in extent. It took
twenty-five years to carry out the design, at a cost of about
£1,500,000. This outlay included the works and buildings for Government
use in the postal service. The engineer-in-chief was Mr. James Rennel,
and on his death, in 1856, Mr. afterwards Sir John Hawkshaw.

To celebrate the completion of the works, the Prince of Wales visited
Holyhead on the 19th of August, 1873, when he declared the Breakwater
complete and the Harbour of Refuge open. The Duke of Edinburgh, Master
of the Trinity House, Sir Frederick Arrow, Deputy Master, and many
distinguished representatives of various departments of the public
service assisted at the ceremony. Near the Lighthouse a gun-metal plate
records the fact that the Breakwater, "commenced in 1845, was on August
19th, 1873, declared complete, by Albert Edward, Prince of Wales," in
whose public life the proceedings of the day form a memorable event.

But there was yet much to be done for the Anglo-Irish route, viâ
Holyhead. The communication had so increased that the North Western
Railway Company found enlarged harbour accommodation a necessity for the
benefit of their own traffic.

It is not often that Royal sanction is given to the undertakings of
shareholding companies; but the new harbour at Holyhead, while it was
constructed at the cost and for the benefit of the London and North
Western Railway Company, has so much importance for commerce and
traffic, as to make it a national object. The Prince of Wales was
accordingly asked to inaugurate the new harbour, and a large number of
distinguished and official persons were invited by the Directors to be
present on the occasion. At the luncheon, the Chairman of the Company
proposed the usual loyal toasts, and the Prince of Wales responded in
the following terms:--

    "Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I am deeply flattered by
    the kind manner in which this toast has been proposed and
    received in this large and distinguished assemblage. I feel it a
    matter of the greatest pleasure, and at the same time the
    greatest pride, to be among you here to-day. It is a matter of
    pride, ladies and gentlemen, to be connected with this
    Principality, and it has afforded me the greatest pleasure to
    accept the invitation of the Chairman and Directors of the
    London and North Western Company to inaugurate this new harbour.
    It is not the first time, as you are aware, that I have had
    occasion to come to Holyhead. Seven years ago I had the pleasure
    of inaugurating your breakwater, which I am glad to see is now
    successfully terminated and is of the greatest possible utility.
    The sunshine we have enjoyed to-day may be taken as a good
    augury for the success of the London and North Western Railway
    Company in their new undertaking. This undertaking has cost them
    a very large sum of money, but it will, I am sure, be of the
    greatest benefit to commerce, and will tend to make the Holyhead
    route still more than it is a connecting link between England
    and Ireland. Before sitting down I have a toast to propose,
    which I feel sure you will drink with the greatest pleasure; it
    is 'The Health of the Chairman, Mr. Moon, and Success and
    Prosperity to the London and North Western Railway Company.' I
    also desire to declare the new harbour open."

Both on land and water there were many loyal demonstrations; and
gentlemen representing all the leading railway companies, French and
Irish, as well as English and Welsh, were entertained by the Directors
of the London and North Western.

The opening sentences of a leading article in the _Times_ on the
following day, form a tribute due to the Prince for his part in the

"The representative duties of Royalty in this country are heavier than
the private functions the hardest-worked Englishman has to perform. Only
the other day we were recording the part played by the Prince of Wales
in an ecclesiastical pageant in Cornwall. On Wednesday he was
introducing a foreign Sovereign to the Corporation of London. Straight
from that ceremonial he had to take flight across the island to open
formally the new harbour at Holyhead. In these scenes and a hundred like
them a Prince's functions cannot be discharged satisfactorily unless he
be at once an impersonation of Royal State and, what is harder still,
his own individual self. He must act his public character as if he
enjoyed the festival as much as any of the spectators. He must be able
to stamp a national impress upon the solemnity, yet mark its local and
particular significance. In presenting a King of the Hellenes to the
citizens at the Guildhall the Prince of Wales had to remember that his
guest and the guest of the City was both a near and dear relative and
the embodiment of an illustrious cause. In laying the first stone of a
cathedral at Truro he had to be both Duke of Cornwall and the Heir of
England. In presiding yesterday at Holyhead he had to recollect the
provincial associations connected with the title he bears, and not
forget the imperial importance of a work which creates a new link
between two great divisions of the United Kingdom. That he achieved his
task successfully was a matter of course. No apprehension ever touches
those who are present at a scene of which the Prince of Wales is the
centre, that he may chance to chill by lack of interest, to choose his
words of admiration inopportunely, or to praise without sympathy. The
work he came, as it were, to sanction by national approbation is a grand
engineering undertaking, and is grander yet in its probable moral
consequences. The Prince of Wales understood and expressed its
significance from both aspects."


_August 16th, 1880._

The Royal Welsh Fusiliers (or Twenty-third Regiment of Foot in the old
Army Lists) received the more familiar name from having been first
raised in Wales in 1714, and in honour of the Prince of Wales of that
day. Their nationality is further betokened by the Prince of Wales's
plume, with the motto "Ich Dien," which, together with the Rising Sun,
the Red Dragon, the White Horse, and the Sphinx, they bear on their
colours. The regiment is one of the oldest and most famous in the Army,
and the proud words, "Nec aspera terrent," which are emblazoned on its
regimental silk, it has amply justified by its gallant conduct from the
Battle of the Boyne, in 1690, to the Indian Mutiny, in 1858, including
Egypt, Corunna, Martinique, Albuera, Badajoz, Salamanca, the Pyrenees,
Nivelle, Orthes, Toulouse, Waterloo, Alma, Inkerman, Sebastopol, and
nearly fifty other engagements which are not recorded on its colours.

It was peculiarly fitting that the duty of presenting new colours to
this brave and distinguished Welsh regiment should be undertaken by the
Prince of Wales. This he did on the 16th of August, 1880, coming from
Osborne for the purpose, when the 1st Battalion of the Welsh Fusiliers,
above nine hundred strong, including officers, was embarking for India
from Portsmouth.

The colours, exchanged for new ones on that day, had been presented in
1849 by the late Prince Consort, the battalion at the same time
receiving from the Queen the first of those Royal goats, which have
always since marched at the head of the regiment. When the gallant
"Nanny Goats," as the Twenty-third are nick-named, first had the
regimental pet is not exactly known, but since 1849 a Royal goat has
been received from Windsor whenever a vacancy occurs.

The colours replaced by the new ones in 1880 had a history of their own,
and the regiment took pride in them, although in such a tattered
condition that they could not be unfurled. The Queen's colour was that
which was carried by Lieutenant Anstruther, who was killed when planting
it on the Great Redoubt at Sebastopol. Twelve officers and half the rank
and file fell in that terrible rush, but the Royal Welsh had the honour
of first entering the enemy's stronghold. No fewer than seventy-five
bullets passed through the colours, and the pole of one of them was shot
in two, and had to be tied up with a cord. Sergeant O'Connor, though
dangerously wounded, carried the Queen's colours till the end of the
battle, and was rewarded by a commission in the regiment, receiving the
Victoria Cross at the close of the war. He rose to be Colonel of the 2nd
Battalion, and was present, with his breast covered with well-earned
decorations, when the Prince of Wales came to present the new colours at
Portsmouth. The colours were afterwards carried through the Indian
Mutiny, where Colonel Elgee and several of the officers had the honour
of serving under them. The ragged relics were relegated to the
honourable obscurity of Wrexham Church.

The ceremony of removing the old colours and presenting the new was an
imposing spectacle, witnessed by an immense assemblage, and amidst great
enthusiasm. The old colours having been placed in front of the saluting
post, were afterwards sent to the rear, the band playing "Auld Lang
Syne." Then the new colours were presented by the Prince, with whom was
the Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Edward of
Saxe-Weimar. Having received the colours from the Majors, the Prince
presented them separately to the Lieutenants, and then turning to the
Colonel, spoke as follows:--

    "Colonel Elgee, officers, and non-commissioned officers and men
    of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers,--I consider it a very great
    privilege to have been asked to present your regiment with new
    colours on the eve of its departure for India. It occurs to me
    in presenting these colours that they are to replace those which
    were given to you about thirty-one years ago by my lamented
    father, and which through three campaigns your regiment has
    carried with honour and success. You will in a few years
    celebrate your 200th anniversary, and during that time your
    regiment has served in nearly every quarter of the globe, and
    seen as much or more service than any regiment in the Army. You
    have served at Corunna, Salamanca, the Peninsula, Waterloo,
    Alma, Inkerman, Sebastopol, Lucknow, and, coming down to more
    recent times, Ashantee. I feel sure that there will always be
    the same emulation among those who serve in your ranks as there
    has been in the past, and that the good name of your regiment
    will always be maintained as prominently as it is now. You are
    now on the eve of departure for India, and nobody wishes you
    'God-speed' more sincerely than I do. I feel sure that, whatever
    your services may be, they will be such as will bring credit to
    your regiment, and will add additional proofs of the valour for
    which it is so justly celebrated."

Colonel Elgee made a suitable and soldierly reply, thus concluding: "I
am sure that wherever the colours are carried--whether before an enemy
or in the performance of our duties at home in times of peace--the
regiment will always maintain the high reputation it has won. On the eve
of our departure for India, we beg to express our heartiest wishes for
the health and happiness of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, your
Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales, and the remainder of the Royal

The line having been reformed, His Royal Highness had the whole of the
officers drawn up on each side of the drums, and as they saluted and
passed to their posts, each was individually presented to the Prince and
Princess by the Colonel. A few more movements, and the ranks were
closed, the line broke into columns to the right, and marched past to
the jetty, where they embarked on board the _Malabar_. After luncheon,
the whole party from the Royal yacht, including the Princess Beatrice,
who had arrived in the _Alberta_ to receive the Empress Eugénie and take
her to Osborne on a visit to the Queen, proceeded on board the
_Malabar_, where they stayed three-quarters of an hour and made a
thorough inspection of the ship, where they were welcomed with much
enthusiasm. When at length the ship drew away into the stream, followed
by the Royal yacht _Osborne_, the band of the Royal Marines ashore
played "The March of the Men of Harlech," and "Cheer, Boys, Cheer,"
while the troops responded by singing "Auld Lang Syne."


_May 24th, 1881._

This Hospital, which is the oldest of its kind in London, is situated in
Waterloo Bridge Road, in a populous and poor district. It contains now
about 50 beds. The number of out-patient attendances averages 3000 a
month, and upwards of 250 visits each month are paid by the
house-surgeon to sick children at their own homes. The ordinary receipts
are about £3000, and the funded property £6500. It is a well-managed and
useful charity, and just such a one as would gain the good will of the
Prince of Wales, who presided at the festival dinner, in Willis's Rooms,
on the Queen's Birthday, May 24th, 1881.

After the customary loyal and patriotic toasts, the Royal Chairman
briefly but earnestly pleaded the cause of the charity. He said that--

    The largeness of the gathering on that occasion was evidence of
    the interest taken in this great and important charity. During
    the last few years, he remarked, we had suffered from both
    agricultural and commercial depression, and institutions of a
    charitable kind, especially those which owed their existence and
    maintenance to voluntary contributions, must naturally feel a
    depression, which prevented many persons from coming forward to
    their support; but still he did not despair of the results of
    the appeal which he had to make that evening. This institution
    had now been in existence for seventy-one years. It was situated
    in a very populous and very poor district, its object being the
    cure of sick children and women. He might remark that many of
    his family had taken considerable interest in this hospital. His
    grandfather, the Duke of Kent, presided at the first anniversary
    dinner, and his great-uncle, the Duke of Sussex, took a deep
    interest in it. Only four years ago his sister, the Princess
    Louise, visited the institution, and, being much gratified with
    what she saw, gave her name to one of the wards. Unfortunately,
    the institution was not so flourishing financially as it ought
    to be. The ordinary income was £2000 a year less than was
    required to meet the expenditure. It was also most important
    that the hospital should be enlarged. The freehold of the
    surrounding property had been obtained from the Duchy of
    Cornwall at an expense of £3000. Several years ago that great
    philanthropist, Lord Shaftesbury, presided at a dinner in aid of
    this charity, when a sum of nearly £3000 was raised. If the same
    amount could be made up that evening all who were interested in
    the institution would be deeply gratified. Mentioning that since
    the foundation of the Hospital as many as 400,000 children had
    been relieved, His Royal Highness said that patients were
    received not only from all parts of this country, but also from
    the Continent, and medical and surgical treatment was afforded
    them gratuitously. The report of the Hospital Saturday Fund
    stated that the institution stood among the first for efficiency
    and economy.

Before concluding his speech the Prince of Wales proposed the health of
the Lord Mayor, who is by virtue of his office President of the
institution. Mr. Kestin, the Secretary, read a list of donations and
subscriptions which, including 100 guineas from the chairman, exceeded


_July 2nd, 1881._

The Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Princess, distributed the
principal prizes of the year at King's College, London, on the 2nd of
July, 1881. The Rev. Canon Barry, D.D., the Principal, received the
Royal visitors, and at the opening of the proceedings, said: "it will
always be a day in the annals of the College to be marked with a white
stone, when the Prince and Princess of Wales had come for the first time
among them, and on the jubilee day of the institution." After the
distribution of the prizes and decorations, the Prince acknowledging a
vote of thanks for his presence, proposed by the Duke of Cambridge, and
seconded by the Bishop of Gloucester, said:--

    "Mr. Principal Barry, Ladies and Gentlemen,--For the very kind
    words in which the illustrious Duke has proposed the vote of
    thanks, the kind way in which it has been seconded by the Bishop
    of Gloucester and Bristol, and the cordial manner in which you
    have all been good enough to receive this vote, I ask you to
    accept my most sincere thanks, and also the thanks of the
    Princess of Wales for the kind way in which her name has been
    alluded to to-day.

    "It would have been a gratification to me on any day to come to
    this college and present the prizes to the successful
    competitors, but as this day is your jubilee day, your fiftieth
    anniversary, it makes it still more interesting to me to come
    here to-day and give away the prizes. After all that has fallen
    from the lips of your Principal, and after perusing, though I
    admit somewhat cursorily, the annual report, but little is left
    for me to say; but all those who take an interest in the success
    of this college will have every reason to be satisfied with the
    state of the college, and with the report which I hold in my
    hands. Everything connected with this institution is on a most
    satisfactory and excellent footing.

    "In these days, when education is so much thought of, and when
    meetings in every part of the kingdom are continually taking
    place for the purpose of getting still higher standards of
    education, it is naturally difficult for institutions of old
    date to keep up with the times; but I do not think or fear that
    this college will have any reason to fear competition from
    others, as it already stands as one of the second or third great
    educational colleges in the kingdom. The prizes which have been
    given to-day for the different subjects in this list embrace
    nearly every possible subject of education which may be of use
    to those young men who are going out into the world.

    "This college justly claims to be one which has done very much
    for the higher education of men; and it affords me, and I know
    it affords also the Princess of Wales, great gratification to
    learn that it will be extended also towards the education of
    women. This year, since the Principal and the Council received a
    memorial signed by various distinguished persons, they have very
    wisely adopted that memorial, by enabling women already to
    receive education by way of listening to lectures from
    distinguished teachers and professors in this college.

    "It has been already stated that some of our children have
    received education from some of the professors of this college.
    It is very gratifying to us that such has been the case, and we
    have every hope that they will derive benefit from the
    instruction they have received.

    "Before concluding I wish to congratulate those young gentlemen
    to whom I have presented these prizes to-day on having received
    these proofs that the education they have received here has not
    been thrown away. As most of them are about to leave the
    college, I sincerely hope they will allow me to offer them my
    best wishes, and to trust that in their future career they will
    continue to do credit to themselves and those by whom they have
    been educated. I again express the pleasure which both the
    Princess and myself have felt in coming here to-day, and say
    that we most cordially wish continued and lasting prosperity to
    King's College."


_July 16th, 1881._

The Lord Mayor of London entertained the Prince of Wales, President of
the Colonial Institute, and a large company of representatives of the
Colonies, with other distinguished guests, at dinner, at the Mansion
House, on July the 16th, 1881. Seldom has there been such an assemblage
in the Capital of the British Empire. Governors, Premiers, and
Administrators of so many countries were present, that one might almost
wonder how affairs went on in their absence. But rulers as well as
subjects must have holiday rest, and the facility and rapidity of travel
allow easy access from all parts of the world to "the mother country."

The Lord Mayor (Sir William McArthur, M.P.), after the toast of "The
Queen," said that they were honoured with the presence of an unexpected
but very distinguished guest, the King of the Sandwich Islands. It was
the first time that His Majesty had visited Europe, and he naturally
wished to visit the land which first made known to the world the islands
of the Pacific. "Having once visited the Sandwich Islands," said the
Lord Mayor, "I was charmed not only with the beauty of the scenery and
the fertility of the soil, but with the good order which everywhere
prevailed. His Majesty reigns over a very prosperous and a very happy

The toast being duly honoured, the King of the Sandwich Islands
expressed his high sense of the graciousness of the Queen, the Prince of
Wales, and the other Royal and distinguished persons he had met, and
would carry back to his country the most grateful and pleasant
recollections of his visit.

Tho Lord Mayor next gave "The health of the Prince of Wales, the
Princess of Wales, and the other members of the Royal Family." In
response to the toast, the Prince arose amidst great cheering, and

    "My Lord Mayor, your Majesty, my Lords and Gentlemen,--For the
    kind and remarkably flattering way in which you, my Lord Mayor,
    have been good enough to propose this toast, and you, my lords
    and gentlemen, for the kind and hearty way in which you have
    received it, I beg to offer you my most sincere thanks. It is a
    peculiar pleasure to me to come to the City, because I have the
    honour of being one of its freemen. But this is, indeed, a very
    special dinner, one of a kind that I do not suppose has ever
    been given before; for we have here this evening representatives
    of probably every Colony in the Empire. We have not only the
    Secretary of the Colonies, but Governors past and present,
    ministers, administrators, and agents are all, I think, to be
    found here this evening. I regret that it has not been possible
    for me to see half or one-third of the colonies which it has
    been the good fortune of my brother the Duke of Edinburgh to
    visit. In his voyages round the world he has had opportunities
    more than once of seeing all our great colonies. Though I have
    not been able personally to see them, or only a small portion of
    them, you may rest assured it does not diminish in any way the
    interest I take in them.

    "It is, I am sorry to say, now going on for twenty-one years
    since I visited our large North American colonies. Still, though
    I was very young at the time, the remembrance of that visit is
    as deeply imprinted on my memory now as it was at that time. I
    shall never forget the public receptions which were accorded to
    me in Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward
    Island, and if it were possible for me at any time to repeat
    that visit, I need not tell you, gentlemen, who now represent
    here those great North American colonies, of the great pleasure
    it would give me to do so. It affords me great gratification to
    see an old friend, Sir John Macdonald, the Premier of Canada,
    here this evening.

    "It was a most pressing invitation, certainly, that I received
    two years ago to visit the great Australasian Colonies, and
    though at the time I was unable to give an answer, in the
    affirmative or in the negative, still it soon became apparent
    that my many duties here in England would prevent my
    accomplishing what would have been a long, though a most
    interesting voyage. I regret that such has been the case, and
    that I was not able to accept the kind invitation I received to
    visit the Exhibitions at Sydney and at Melbourne. I am glad,
    however, to know that they have proved a great success, as has
    been testified to me only this evening by the noble Duke
    (Manchester) by my side, who has so lately returned. Though, my
    lords and gentlemen, I have, as I have said before, not had the
    opportunity of seeing these great Australasian Colonies, which
    every day and every year are making such immense development,
    still, at the International Exhibitions of London, Paris, and
    Vienna, I had not only an opportunity of seeing their various
    products there exhibited, but I had the pleasure of making the
    personal acquaintance of many colonists--a fact which has been a
    matter of great importance and great benefit to myself.

    "It is now thirty years since the first International Exhibition
    took place in London, and then for the first time colonial
    exhibits were shown to the world. Since that time, from the
    Exhibitions which have followed our first great gathering in
    1851, the improvements that have been made are manifest. That in
    itself is a clear proof of the way in which the colonies have
    been exerting themselves to make their vast territories of the
    great importance that they are at the present moment. But
    though, my Lord Mayor, I have not been to Australasia, as you
    have mentioned, I have sent my two sons on a visit there; and it
    has been a matter of great gratification, not only to myself and
    to the Princess, but to the Queen, to hear of the kindly
    reception they have met with everywhere. They are but young, but
    I feel confident that their visit to the Antipodes will do them
    an incalculable amount of good. On their way out they visited a
    colony in which, unfortunately, the condition of affairs was not
    quite as satisfactory as we could wish, and as a consequence
    they did not extend their visits in that part of South Africa
    quite so far inland as might otherwise have been the case. I
    must thank you once more, my Lord Mayor, for the kind way in
    which you have proposed this toast.

    "I thank you, in the name of the Princess and the other members
    of the Royal Family, for the kind reception their names have met
    with from all here to-night, and I beg again to assure you most
    cordially and heartily of the great pleasure it has given me to
    be present here among so many distinguished colonists and
    gentlemen connected with the colonies, and to have had an
    opportunity of meeting your distinguished guest, the King of the
    Sandwich Islands. If your lordship's visit to his dominions
    remains impressed on your mind, I think your lordship's kindly
    reception of His Majesty here to-night is not likely soon to be
    forgotten by him."

The Duke of Manchester, in responding to the toast of "The House of
Lords," said that he took much less part in the proceedings of that
august body than many of its members. He had, however, lately visited
some of our colonies--and that was, perhaps, the reason why he was
called upon to respond to that toast. Having given some remarkable
statistics of progress in Australia, he said, "It was calculated that
Australians and New Zealanders, per head, man, woman, and child,
consumed £8 10s.-worth of British goods, while France only rated at 7s.
8d. per head, and the United States at 7s. per head. These were facts
showing that, if for no other reason, there were very forcible financial
reasons why we should consolidate, encourage, and promote in every way
the prosperity of the British Colonies."

The Speaker, in returning thanks on behalf of the House of Commons, said
he was one of those who had a great faith in the future of the English
people throughout the world. Wherever Englishmen set their foot they
grew and prospered; they had learnt the habit of self-government, and
were well acquainted with the forms of government, and they carried with
them English customs, English habits, English institutions. Thus we had
a great Colonial Empire firmly compacted together of colonists from the
old country, all loyal subjects of the Crown. He trusted and believed
that that state of things would long continue, and he hoped that the
bonds between those colonies and the mother country would become closer
and closer from generation to generation.

The Lord Mayor then proposed the toast of the evening, "The British
Colonies," to which the Earl of Kimberley replied, concluding with these
words: "This is a representative assembly, and one of the most
remarkable ever gathered together in this Metropolis. I congratulate
you, my Lord Mayor, on the happy notion of bringing together this
assembly, which must have an equally happy effect in promoting good
feeling both here and in the Colonies, inasmuch as it is a type of the
union which ought to bind us together."

    The Prince of Wales then proposed the Lord Mayor's health in a
    brief speech, in the course of which he said that it must be
    especially gratifying to his lordship to preside at such a
    dinner, seeing that he was well acquainted with the colonies,
    being a colonial merchant of high repute, and having visited, if
    not all, at any rate most of our great colonies.

The Lord Mayor briefly acknowledged the compliment, and said this
meeting was one of the most gratifying incidents of his year of office.


_July 18th, 1881._

Of many movements originated by the late Prince Consort, and carried
forward by the Prince of Wales, the advancement of technical education
is one of the highest national importance. Without going into past
history, it is sufficient to say that of late years some of the Guilds
of the City of London have been awakened to a sense of their duties in
training artisans, for which purpose they were at first mainly founded.
The Corporation of London has aided the movement, but in a more limited
way. At first the efforts were directed to the encouragement of
technical education in existing schools and colleges by pecuniary
grants. But subsequently the Institute has been enabled to establish
schools of its own, and to assist in development of technical
instruction, not in London only, but in many large provincial towns.

The Institute had been incorporated in 1880, and in May of that year the
late Duke of Albany laid the foundation stone of the Finsbury Technical
College, the first building in the Metropolis exclusively devoted to
this practical training. In Lambeth and other districts similar schools
have been instituted; but it was thought advisable to found a Central
Institute for systematic teaching the practical applications of science
and art to the trades and industries of the country. Hitherto the
training of artisans has been mainly dependent on the customs of
apprenticeship in the various handicrafts; upwards of twenty of the City
Companies, including nine out of the twelve greater Guilds, had
subscribed largely, and had entered the associated Institute, when the
Prince of Wales was invited to become the President. By the influence of
the Prince, as President of the Royal Commissioners of 1851, a site for
the proposed central College was granted at a nominal rent, on the
estate at South Kensington. To lay the foundation stone of this
building, the Prince, accompanied by the Princess of Wales, came on the
18th of July, 1881.

An address having been delivered by the Lord Chancellor, Lord Selborne,
Chairman of the Committee of the Institute, the Prince of Wales
delivered the following speech, which more clearly presents the whole
subject, and brings out its national importance:--

    "My Lord Chancellor, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I thank
    you for your address, and beg leave to assure you that it gives
    me much satisfaction to attend here to-day to lay the foundation
    stone of an institution which gives such forcible expression to
    one of the most important needs in the education of persons who
    are destined to take part in the productive history of this

    "Hitherto English teaching has chiefly relied on training the
    intellectual faculties, so as to adapt men to apply their
    intelligence in any occupation of life to which they may be
    called; and this general discipline of the mind has on the whole
    been found sufficient until recent times; but during the last
    thirty years the competition of other nations, even in
    manufactures which once were exclusively carried on in this
    kingdom, has been very severe. The great progress that has been
    made in the means of locomotion as well as in the application of
    steam for the purposes of life has distributed the raw materials
    of industry all over the world, and has economized time and
    labour in their conversion to objects of utility. Other nations
    which did not possess in such abundance as Great Britain coal,
    the source of power, and iron, the essence of strength,
    compensated for the want of raw material by the technical
    education of their industrial classes, and this country has,
    therefore, seen manufactures springing up everywhere, guided by
    the trained intelligence thus created. Both in Europe and in
    America technical colleges for teaching, not the practice, but
    the principles of science and art involved in particular
    industries, had been organized in all the leading centres of

    "England is now thoroughly aware of the necessity for
    supplementing her educational institutions by colleges of a like
    nature. Most of our great manufacturing towns have either
    started or have already erected their colleges of science and
    art. In only a few instances, however, have they become
    developed into schools for systematic technical instruction.
    This building, which is to be erected by the City and Guilds of
    London, will be of considerable benefit to the whole kingdom,
    not only as an example of the institute devoting itself to
    technical training, but as a focus likewise for uniting the
    different technical schools in the Metropolis already in
    existence, and a central establishment also to which promising
    students from the provinces may, by the aid of scholarships, he
    brought to benefit by the superior instruction which London can
    command. While studying at your institution, they will have the
    further advantages that the treasures of the South Kensington
    Museum and the numerous collections in the City may bring to
    bear on the artistic and scientific education of future

    "Let me remind you that the realization of this idea was one of
    the most cherished objects which my lamented father had in view.
    After the Exhibition of 1851, he recognized the need of
    technical education in the future, and he foresaw how difficult
    it would be in London to find space for such museums and
    colleges as those which now surround the spot on which we stand.
    It is, therefore, to me a peculiar pleasure that the
    Commissioners of the Exhibition, of which I am the President,
    have been able to contribute to your present important
    undertaking, by giving to you the ground upon which the present
    college is to be erected, with a sufficient reserve of land to
    insure its future development.

    "Allow me, in conclusion, to express the great satisfaction
    which I experience in seeing the ancient guilds of the City of
    London so warmly co-operating in the advancement of technical
    instruction. I am aware that several of them have for some time
    past in various ways separately encouraged the study of science
    and art in the Metropolis, as well as in the provinces; and it
    is a noble effort on their part when they join together to
    establish a united institute with the view of making still
    greater and more systematic endeavours for the promotion of this
    branch of special education. By consenting at your request to
    become the President of this Institute I hope it may be in my
    power to benefit the good work, and that our joint exertions,
    aided, I trust, by the continued liberality of the City and
    Guilds of London, may prove to be an example to the rest of the
    country to train the intelligence of industrial communities, so
    that, with the increasing competition of the world, England may
    retain her proud pre-eminence as a manufacturing nation."

After this address, the ceremony of laying the foundation stone was
completed. A medal to commemorate the event had previously been struck
at the Royal Mint.

It is stated in the Times of October 20th, 1888, that "in the last ten
years several of the Companies, in conjunction with the City
Corporation, have together given something like a quarter of a million
to the City Guilds of London Institute--the amount including gifts of
£46,000 from the Goldsmiths, of £43,000 from the Drapers, of £37,000
from the Clothworkers, of £34,000 from the Fishmongers, of £22,000 from
the Mercers, of £10,000 from the Grocers, and of £11,000 from the City
Corporation. Besides this, to mention the more salient examples, the
Drapers have given some £60,000 to the People's Palace, the Goldsmiths
have promised an annuity of £2,500, equivalent to a capital sum of
£85,000, to the New Cross Technical Institute, the Mercers propose to
devote £60,000 to the establishment of an agricultural college in
Wiltshire, and the Shipwrights' Company is taking the lead in a movement
for the formation of a college of shipbuilding in connection with a
Technical Institute at the East-end."

Besides all this, the people of South London are preparing to establish
three Technical Institutes, with the help of the Charity Commissioners;
and, if possible, to secure the Albert Palace for a Battersea Institute.
A similar movement has begun in North London. These local Technical
Schools are independent of the City Guilds of London Institute at
Kensington, but the impulse was given by its establishment.


_August 3rd, 1881._

The seventh meeting of the International Medical Congress was formally
opened by the Prince of Wales, on the 3rd of August, 1881. It was the
first time the Congress had been held in England. The great room of St.
James's Hall was nearly filled, 3000 members being present. No lady
practitioners were admitted, although at least 25 women, practising
medicine, were then on the English Medical Register, and a protest
against the decision of the Council had been signed by 43 duly qualified
medical women. At previous meetings of the Congress in foreign countries
women were not excluded.

The Prince of Wales, on his arrival, was received by Sir W. Jenner, Sir
William Gull, Sir James Paget, Sir J. Risdon Bennett, and other members
of the Committee. The Honorary Secretary having read the report of the
Executive Committee, the Prince of Wales, who was accompanied by the
Crown Prince of Prussia, the late Emperor "Frederick the Noble," rose
and said:--

    "Your Imperial Highness and Gentlemen,--I gladly complied with
    the request that I should be patron of the International Medical
    Congress of 1881, and among many reasons for so doing was my
    conviction that few things can tend more to the welfare of
    mankind than that educated men of all nations should from time
    to time meet together for the promotion of the branches of
    knowledge to which they devote themselves. The intercourse and
    the mutual esteem of nations have often been advanced by great
    international exhibitions, and I look back with pleasure to
    those with which I have been connected; but when conferences are
    held among those who in all parts of the world apply themselves
    to the study of science, even greater international benefits
    may, I think, be confidently anticipated, more especially in the
    study of medicine and surgery, for in these the effects of
    climate and of national habits must give to the practitioners of
    each nation opportunities, not only of acquiring knowledge, but
    of imparting knowledge to those of their _confrères_ whom they
    meet in Congress.

    "I venture to think, gentlemen, that the Executive Committee
    have acted wisely in instituting sections for the discussion of
    a very wide range of subjects, including not only the sciences
    on which medical knowledge is founded, but many of its most
    practical applications, and I am very happy to see that so great
    scope will be granted for the discussion of important questions
    relating to the public health, to the cure of the sick in
    hospitals and in the houses of the poor, and to the welfare of
    the Army and Navy. The devotion with which many members of the
    medical profession readily share the dangers of climate and the
    fatigues and dangers of war, and the many risks which must be
    encountered in the study of means, not only for the remedy, but
    for the prevention of disease, deserves the warmest
    acknowledgment from the public.

    "I have great satisfaction in believing, in seeing this crowded
    hall, that I may already regard the Congress as successful in
    having attracted a number never hitherto equalled of medical men
    from all parts of this kingdom, as well as from every country in
    Europe, from the United States, and from other parts of the
    world. The list of officers of the Congress, including as it
    does the names of those distinguished in every branch of
    medical science, shows how heartily the proposal to hold the
    meeting in London has been received. I think it speaks well for
    the good feeling of the profession that there should have been
    so warm a response to the invitations. How cordially the
    proposal has been received may be seen not only in the large
    number of visitors, but in the fact that they include a large
    proportion of those who enjoy a high reputation not only in
    their own countries, but throughout the world. I sincerely
    congratulate the reception committee on this good promise of
    complete success, and I trust that at the close of the Congress
    they will feel rewarded for the labour they have bestowed upon
    it. The report which the secretary-general, Mr. MacCormack, has
    read will have explained how great have been his labours. He
    will hereafter he well repaid, and I am sure Mr. MacCormack is
    sensible that he will be recompensed even for his great
    exertions by the assurance that the progress of the important
    science of medicine has been materially promoted, for any
    addition to the knowledge of medicine must always be followed by
    an increase in the happiness of mankind."

There was general cheering at the close of the speech, and Sir James
Paget, as President of the Congress, then read the inaugural address;
after which the meeting resolved itself into sections for special
subjects. Professor Virchow, of Berlin, delivered an address in German
at one of the sections.


_December 13th, 1881._

In the ancient Chapter-house, Westminster Abbey, a meeting was held on
the 13th of December, 1881, for promoting a scheme for raising a fitting
memorial to the lamented Dean Stanley. The Very Rev. Dr. Bradley, the
new Dean, presided, and was supported by the Prince of Wales, the
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Marquis of Salisbury, Earl Granville, the
Duke of Westminster, and many eminent persons in Church and State. There
were also some ladies, and the representatives of Working Men's Clubs
and Institutes, the purpose being to honour the memory of Dean Stanley,
not merely as a high ecclesiastic, but as the helper of many good and
beneficent objects in social life. The proposed tribute was to take the
form first of a monumental memorial in the Abbey to the Dean, and also
to his wife, Lady Augusta Stanley, and to establish a Home for Training
Nurses at Westminster, an object in which Lady Augusta had taken deep
interest. The present meeting, however, was only to set on foot the
movement, and the first resolution was: "That the genius, the character,
and the public services of the late Dean of Westminster eminently
entitle him to a national memorial." This was moved by the Prince of
Wales, who said:--

    "Mr. Dean, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--In proposing the first
    resolution, which has been committed to my care, I desire to
    express the very sincere pleasure, though I must call it the sad
    pleasure, which I feel in being asked to move this resolution. I
    do so with feelings of sorrow, owing to the long friendship and
    acquaintance which I had with the late Dean of Westminster; and
    yet with pleasure, as I have the satisfaction of proposing to
    you a national memorial to which I am convinced the late Dean
    was so thoroughly entitled. The loss which the death of that
    eminent man has caused to this, and, I may say also, to other
    countries, is indeed great. That loss was deeply felt by my
    beloved mother the Queen, who bore for the late Dean the
    greatest possible friendship and affection, and also by all the
    members of her family.

    "If I may be allowed to speak about myself, I had the great
    advantage of knowing most intimately Arthur Stanley for a period
    of twenty-two years. Not only had I the advantage of being his
    pupil during my residence at the University of Oxford, but I was
    also his fellow-traveller in the East when we visited Egypt and
    the Holy Land together; and I am not likely to forget the charm
    of his companionship and all the knowledge that he imparted to
    me during that tour. The many virtues and many great qualities
    of the Dean are so well known to all of you, and are so well
    appreciated throughout the length and breadth of the land, that
    it is almost superfluous in me, and would be almost out of
    taste, were I now to go through the long list of all that he has
    done from the day in which his name came into prominence. Still,
    as the churchman, as the scholar, as the man of letters, as the
    philanthropist, and, above all, as the true friend, his name
    must always go down to posterity as a great and good man, and as
    one who will have made his mark on the chapter of his country's
    history. To all classes he felt alike--to rich and poor, to
    high and low--he was, I may say, the friend of all; and it is
    most gratifying on this occasion to see here present the
    representatives of all classes of the community, and especially
    of the great labouring class to whom he was so devoted, and who,
    I think, owe him so much.

    "It is also deeply gratifying, I am sure, to the Dean and those
    who take a deep interest in this meeting that we have the
    advantage of the presence to-day of the Minister of the United
    States. As I was saying, not only was the late Dean appreciated
    and looked up to in this country and in Europe, but also by that
    kindred country across the Atlantic to which he so lately paid a
    visit, and where we know that he received so much kindness and
    hospitality. I heard from his own lips on his return from
    America the expression of the great gratification he derived
    from his visit, and of the hope--of what, alas! was not to
    be--that he might on some future occasion be able to repeat it.

    "There is much more that I should wish to say in regard to one
    whom I so deeply deplore, and to whom I bore so great an
    affection. But I am sure it is not the object of this meeting to
    make long speeches, and as many speakers have to follow me, I
    will only again express the gratification I feel in being here
    to propose the resolution which I now have the honour of
    bringing before you."

The resolution was seconded by Earl Granville. The Hon. J. Russell
Lowell bore testimony to the honour in which the memory of Dean Stanley
was held in America, and said he felt sure that many of his countrymen
would be delighted, as some already had done, to share the privilege of
helping this memorial.

The Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait) moved the next resolution, as to
the placing of the recumbent statue in the Abbey, and also completing
the windows in the Chapter-house, in accordance with plans proposed and
partly executed by the Dean. After speeches by the Marquis of Salisbury,
Mr. S. Morley. M.P., the Marquis of Lorne, and Lord Chief Justice
Coleridge, Mr. Gardiner, representing the Working Men's Club and
Institute Union, spoke of the constant efforts of the late Dean to help
and elevate the classes who lived by manual labour. He was President of
their Union, and he was honoured by the working men of Westminster and


_March 1st, 1882._

The 21st anniversary dinner of the Civil Service Volunteers, on the 1st
of March, 1882, at Willis's Rooms, was presided over by the Prince of
Wales, honorary Colonel of the Corps. In replying to the toast of his
health, proposed by the Duke of Manchester, the Prince said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen and Brother Volunteers,--For the kind
    manner in which the Duke of Manchester has proposed this toast,
    and for the cordial welcome given to it by you, gentlemen and
    brother Volunteers, allow me to return you my most sincere
    thanks. I can assure you that it affords me great satisfaction
    to preside here to-night on what I may call the twenty-second
    anniversary of the existence of this regiment. The twenty-first
    anniversary of the Rifle Volunteers was celebrated last year,
    and it will, I am sure, not be forgotten through the length and
    breadth of the land that the Queen reviewed the English
    Volunteers in Windsor Park in the summer, and the Scotch
    Volunteers afterwards at Edinburgh.

    "I remember, gentlemen, as though it were only yesterday, when I
    was an undergraduate at the University of Oxford in 1859, the
    commencement of the Volunteer movement. I remember the interest
    which all the townspeople of Oxford took in that movement, and
    also the interest it excited among the undergraduates. I confess
    I thought at that time, and many others shared my opinion, that
    to a certain extent the commencement of that movement was an
    inclination on the part of the citizens of our country to play
    at soldiers. Many thought that the movement would not last.
    However, I am glad to find, as you all will have been equally
    glad to find, that we were entirely mistaken in that opinion.
    Twenty-two years ago, when, I may say, the movement had begun to
    ripen, I am not wrong, I think, in stating that the number of
    Volunteers was very nearly 100,000 men. The force has since gone
    through certain vicissitudes, but I think I may say that at the
    present moment it never was in a more flourishing condition, and
    it now numbers not far short of 200,000 men. Most sincerely do
    I hope that the occasion may not arise when their services might
    be required for the defence of their country, but I feel
    convinced that, should that occasion ever arise, the Rifle
    Volunteers of the United Kingdom will go to the front and stand
    to their guns in every sense of the word.

    "One great inducement to join the force has been, I think, the
    Wimbledon camp and rifle shooting, and I feel convinced that in
    no country are there better rifle shots than in this, and few
    better than in the Volunteer force. No doubt a great stimulus
    has been given to that force by their being called on to take
    part in manœuvres, reviews, and sham fights, and of late years
    from their being frequently brigaded with regular troops. I am
    sure there is nothing they like better, and I am sure that for
    the Regular Army, as well as for the Militia, it is most
    desirable this should continue.

    "With regard to this regiment with which my name has been now
    associated for twenty-two years, I can only say that from all
    the accounts I have heard it is in a high state of efficiency.
    Since the time of their formation in 1860, 2177 men have passed
    through their ranks, and last year the regiment had a strength
    of 518 men. Nearly all their officers, I believe, have passed
    through the school, and attained the distinction of the letter P
    in the Army List--a distinction of which I know they are justly
    proud. I had an opportunity of reviewing them in 1863 in London,
    and again at Wimbledon in 1870; I saw them at the Review at
    Windsor last year, and I sincerely hope, if it may not be
    inconvenient to those members of the corps who have so many
    avocations, to see them before many weeks are over at the Review
    at Portsmouth.

    "Gentlemen, let me thank you also for the kind way in which you
    have received the name of the Princess of Wales and the names of
    my brothers and my sons. I am happy to be able to announce to
    you that I received a telegram just before dinner informing me
    of the arrival of the _Bacchante_ at Suez. My sons are now,
    therefore, rapidly approaching the termination of their cruise,
    which has been round the world. I thank you once more for your
    kind reception of me to-night, and it affords me the greatest
    pleasure now to propose the toast of 'Prosperity to the Civil
    Service Rifle Volunteers,' coupled with the name of your
    Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Bury. I know that in his
    presence it would be disagreeable to him if I were to mete out
    any praise which I feel is his due, but I know how much he has
    at heart the prosperity and the efficiency of his regiment, and,
    being now the oldest serving Lieutenant-Colonel in the Volunteer
    force, that you would all deeply regret the day when he should
    leave you. I call upon you, and upon the distinguished guests
    here to-night, to drink prosperity to the regiment, and couple
    the toast with the name of Lord Bury."

Viscount Bury, in responding to the toast, said that in looking at the
first list of the officers of the regiment, he found only three names of
those now in active service, those of His Royal Highness, of himself,
and Major Mills. About 350 members of the corps sat down to dinner on
this, its 21st anniversary. The Duke of Portland, Lord Elcho, now the
Earl of Wemyss, Colonel Loyd-Lindsay, Colonel Grenfell, Governor of the
Bank of England, Colonel Du Plat Taylor, and many veterans of the Force,
were present.


_March 10th, 1883._

Attention had from time to time been directed, by reports of travellers
and others, to the neglected state of the burial-places in the Crimea,
and the ruinous condition of monumental memorials over the graves. An
allowance of £90 a year had been made by the Government for maintaining
the different cemeteries, but this was utterly insufficient for the
purpose. The Consul-General at Odessa had recently reported that there
were at least eleven graveyards or cemeteries scattered between
Balaclava and Sebastopol, and there were many others in different places
where the dead had been laid. The scandal of neglect was so great that
the Duke of Cambridge called a meeting at the United Service
Institution, Whitehall, to consider what ought to be done. A large
number of distinguished men, including many of those who had passed
through the Crimean War, responded to the invitation, and letters were
received from others throughout the country who were unable to be

The Duke of Cambridge made a clear statement of the condition of
affairs, and mentioned various suggestions for putting a stop to the
desecration of the burial-places, and for preserving the memorials from
further injury. The Prince of Wales had come to the meeting, and as he
had seen the places referred to, during his Eastern travels, he was
asked by the Chairman to move the first resolution, which was to the
effect that immediate steps should be taken to remedy the existing state
of the Crimean graves.

The Prince, who was warmly received, rose, and said:

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I was not aware
    until I arrived in this room that I should be called upon to
    move the first resolution. But I need hardly tell you the great
    interest the subject we are discussing here to-day has for me,
    and the great pleasure it gives me to propose the following
    resolution:--'That the present condition of the British
    cemeteries in the Crimea is not creditable to this country, and
    that endeavours should be made to raise the necessary funds to
    have them restored, and to preserve them from further
    desecration.' In 1869 I had occasion to visit the Crimea, and to
    go over all those spots so familiar to most of the gentlemen I
    see opposite me, who took a part in the campaign. And it was a
    matter of particular interest to me to visit those different
    spots where our brave soldiers were buried. I confess that it
    was with deep regret that I saw the manner in which the tombs
    were kept. The condition of the graves was not creditable to us,
    and not creditable to a great country like ours, for I am sure
    we are the very first to do honour to the dead who fought in the
    name of their country.

    "It struck me at the time that one of the great faults lay in
    there being so many different cemeteries. The French had a much
    simpler and a better system--that which they call the
    _ossuaire_. I was told at the time that to the feelings of
    Englishmen--on religious, and possibly, I may also say, on
    sentimental grounds--it was repugnant to disturb the remains of
    those who were interred in the Crimea as was done by the French,
    and that to collect them and put them into one large building
    was not what was consonant with our feelings generally. But I
    cannot help thinking, as considerable time has elapsed since our
    comrades fell, and also as we are, in every sense of the word, a
    thoroughly practical nation--I feel myself strongly, although I
    cannot say how far that feeling may be shared by the meeting
    to-day--that it would be far better, and in the long run far
    cheaper, if we were to build a kind of mausoleum, collecting the
    remains of our comrades who fell in the Crimean War, and
    putting them into such a mausoleum. It was really sad to see the
    neglected condition of the tombs. There was one especially with
    which I was struck--that of Sir Robert Newman, who was in the
    Grenadier Guards, and fell in the Battle of Inkerman. His tomb
    was a most elaborate and expensive one, and was built with a
    dark stone, a kind of porphyry. This was broken almost entirely
    to pieces. Upon inquiry of some Russian authorities who
    accompanied me on that occasion, I discovered a curious fact.
    The idea was not merely that of disturbing and breaking open the
    tombs; but, as most of you are aware, the Crim Tartars--who are
    Mohammedans by religion--had an idea that treasures were to be
    found in the tombs. Therefore, the disturbing of them was not
    merely for the sake of disturbing the dead, but with the hope of
    finding some treasures there. It is needless to say that their
    investigations were not satisfied in that respect.

    "Of course, gentlemen, with regard to the pecuniary part of the
    question, it is not for me to go into that; but I hope that, as
    so many distinguished military and naval men are present, they
    cannot but have a strong feeling with me that it will ever be a
    living disgrace to us unless we adopt some means to-day by which
    the tombs of our comrades who fell in the Crimea are kept in a
    proper state of preservation. I have merely suggested the idea
    of an _ossuaire_, because it seems to me the simplest form to
    adopt. But it would involve, what many object to, disturbing the
    remains of some who fell. I only hope that before the meeting
    separates to-day we may have arrived at some satisfactory
    conclusion that the graves of our comrades shall in some way be
    respected and maintained in a manner creditable to ourselves and
    to our country. Therefore, it is with the greatest pleasure that
    I move the first resolution."

The resolution was seconded by General Sir W. Codrington, who said that
the Russian Government had given additional land at Cathcart's Hill; and
that the grave-stones and other memorials should be removed there. He
did not think there should be any removal of the remains of the dead.

The Prince of Wales again rose, and said--

    "I wish to add that when I went over the different places of
    interest in the Crimea, and inspected all our burial-places, I
    was accompanied by one of the most courteous gentlemen, General
    Kotzebue, the Governor-General of Odessa; and I need only say
    that, as far as the Russian Government represented by him was
    concerned, everything was done to keep the graves from
    desecration. But he told me that, unfortunately, they were
    powerless to prevent it; and it was his opinion, and he strongly
    advised me, that the only way in which to prevent a repetition
    of a desecration of the tombs would be, as I mentioned before,
    to collect the remains and place them in a mausoleum--in the
    same way, in fact, as the French had done. I wish also to say
    that, on my return in the summer from my visit to the Crimea, I
    brought the whole matter most strongly before the late Lord
    Clarendon, who was then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs."

After conversation and remarks by Admiral Sir H. Keppel, General Sir L.
A. Simmons, Lord Wolseley, and others, resolutions were carried for the
concentration of the memorials in one central place, without removing
the remains of the dead; and for applying to the Government and to the
nation for larger funds to pay additional guardians of the cemeteries.
The Duke of Cambridge was warmly commended for having called the
meeting, which was justified by the large attendance, and the Prince of
Wales for his advocacy of the object in view. Tho interest of their
Royal Highnesses was practically attested by the gift of £50 from the
Prince of Wales and £25 from the Duke of Cambridge toward the necessary
funds. It was stated in the course of the proceedings that the French
Government granted yearly more than double what the British Government
did, for protecting the Crimean graves.



In the preface to the Official Catalogue of the International Fisheries
Exhibition, the compiler, Mr. Trendell, gives an interesting account of
the origin and gradual development of that successful undertaking. It
was not till some years after the great Exhibition of 1851 that
attention was given to this special department of industry and commerce.
At Boulogne, Havre, and other maritime places, there were local
expositions; but the first international exhibition on a large scale was
that of Berlin in 1880. Norwich was the first town in England to follow
the Continental example. The local character of the undertaking soon
expanded into a national enterprise, the Corporation of London and the
Fishmongers' Company lending their influence. Chiefly through the agency
of Mr. Birkbeck, one of the Norfolk County members, the official
sanction of the Government was obtained, with permission to grant medals
and diplomas of merit, as in other national exhibitions. The Prince of
Wales took a lively interest in the success of this Norwich project, and
he secured the co-operation of Mr. Birkbeck for holding an International
Exhibition in London.

In July 1881 a meeting was held at the Hall of the Fishmongers' Company,
when a formal resolution was passed for carrying out the proposal, and a
Committee formed for arranging the general plan of the Exhibition. In
February 1882 a second meeting was held at Willis's Rooms, when the Duke
of Richmond read the report of the proceedings of the Committee formed
in the previous year. The sanction of the Queen was obtained as Patron,
and the Prince of Wales as President, the Duke of Edinburgh and the
other Royal Dukes being named Vice-Presidents, with the Duke of Richmond
as Chairman of the General Committee. The sentiments and motives of the
promoters of the undertaking were well expressed in words spoken by the
Prince of Wales at the inaugural banquet at Norwich. He said:--

    "It is particularly gratifying to see that at last an interest
    is being taken not only in our fisheries, but in our fishermen,
    whose lives are so frequently exposed to risk through the
    severity of weather and the dangerous character of the Eastern
    coast. Among a very interesting display of specimens, I
    especially observed the apparatus for saving life, and a variety
    of models of lifeboats, which cannot fail to bring before the
    public generally their duty in regard to the protection of the
    fishing interests of our country. Whilst thinking over the
    probable results that may attend this Exhibition, I could not
    fail to reflect upon the labour it has cost more minds than one;
    and I do trust, having regard to the importance of our national
    fishing interest, and the value of our fishermen's lives, that a
    sort of National Society may be instituted which will maintain
    those who are unfortunately in want, and help to assuage the
    grief and misery of the widows and orphans of those who perish
    at sea. I believe it is only necessary to throw out the hint to
    see established in this country a National Fishermen's Aid
    Society, which shall command the support not only of those
    living upon the line of our fishing coast here, but of all
    concerned in fishery throughout our dominions."

It thus appears that at the time of the Norwich Exhibition, and much
more after the greater show at South Kensington, the Prince of Wales
had in view the welfare of the fishing folk as well as the benefit of
the fisheries. What is an exhibition--with its display of exhibits, its
prizes, awards, conferences, and its whole visible organisation--compared
with the safety of our fishermen's lives, and the improvement of their
homes? For some departments of this beneficent work there are special
agencies at work--such as the Lifeboat Association, the Deep-Sea
Mission, Sailors' Homes, and Seamen's Hospitals--but the idea of the
Prince was that a great central society, analogous to the Royal
Agricultural Society for the cultivation of the soil, might be
established, attending to all matters bearing on the social and moral,
as well as the material, benefits of the fishing population of these
islands. It is said that the Government has resolved tardily to have a
Department of Agriculture; it is equally needful to have a Department
for all matters connected with the "harvests of the sea."


_May 12th, 1883._

The International Fisheries Exhibition was opened with great ceremony on
the 12th of May, 1883, by the Prince of Wales, "by command of Her
Majesty, and on Her Majesty's behalf." Most of the members of the Royal
Family were present, the Foreign Ambassadors and Ministers, Her
Majesty's Ministers, and other distinguished persons. The Prince was
accompanied by the Princess of Wales, Prince Albert Victor, and Prince
George of Wales. The Duke of Richmond, Chairman of the General
Committee, having read a statement of the object and the contents of the
Exhibition, the Prince replied:--

    "My Lord Duke, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--It gives me great
    pleasure to open this International Fisheries Exhibition on
    behalf of the Queen, although I feel assured that it is a matter
    of sincere regret to all present that Her Majesty finds herself
    unable to undertake a duty which it would have afforded her much
    gratification to have performed. In view of the rapid increase
    of the population in all civilized countries, and especially in
    these sea-girt kingdoms, a profound interest attaches to every
    industry which affects the supply of food; and, in this respect,
    the harvest of the sea is hardly less important than that of the
    land. I share your hope that the Exhibition now about to open
    may afford the means of enabling practical fishermen to
    acquaint themselves with the latest improvements which have been
    made in their craft in all parts of the world; so that without
    needless destruction, or avoidable waste of any kind, mankind
    may derive the fullest possible advantage from the bounty of the
    waters. I am glad to hear that your attention has been directed
    to the condition of the fishing population. It is a subject in
    which my brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, was led to take a
    particular interest during his tenure of office as Admiral
    Superintendent of the Naval Reserve; and, as he is compelled to
    be absent during the sittings of the Congress to which you
    allude, I shall have the pleasure of reading a paper on this
    topic which he has prepared at its first meeting. Lifeboats and
    life-saving apparatus undoubtedly fall strictly within the
    province of a fishery exhibition; but I may congratulate you on
    the circumstance that, without overstepping your proper limits,
    you have been able to confer a benefit, not only on all
    fishermen and all sailors by profession, but also on all who
    travel by sea; and in these days of rapid and extensive
    locomotion this means a large proportion of civilized mankind.
    On behalf of the Queen, I add my thanks to those which you
    tender to the Governments of foreign nations and of our colonies
    for their generous co-operation. And to their representatives
    whose untiring exertions you so justly acknowledge, I offer not
    only thanks, but an English welcome."

The Archbishop of Canterbury having offered a prayer, the Prince
declared the Exhibition open.


_October 31st, 1883._

If there ever had been any doubt as to the success of the International
Fisheries Exhibition, it had been thoroughly removed long before the end
of the season drew near. The popular interest had been shown from the
beginning, and the number of visitors exceeded all expectations. The
total number of visitors was 2,703,051. The daily average of visitors,
including Wednesday, when half-a-crown was the price of admission, was
18,388. The financial result was sure to be satisfactory when such vast
numbers had been attracted.

On the 31st of October, the day appointed for closing, Mr. Edward
Birkbeck, M.P., Chairman of the Executive Committee, read to His Royal
Highness the President an address, presenting the chief statistical and
other official reports of the undertaking. One novel feature was the
report on "the fish dinners" supplied with the co-operation of the
National School of Cookery. No less than 209,673 dinners were supplied,
at sixpence a head, and with satisfactory pecuniary results.

A Report as to the work of the Juries having been presented by the Duke
of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales thus replied to the address of the
Executive Committee:--

    "I have listened with great pleasure to the Report of the
    Executive Committee.

    "Her Majesty has followed with much interest the success which
    has so signally attended this Exhibition, and I have had the
    gratification of receiving, this morning, a telegram from the
    Queen, begging me to inform you of these sentiments, and
    likewise to express Her Majesty's fervent hope that lasting
    benefit to the fishing population may be the reward of those who
    have shown so much interest in the welfare of this Exhibition.
    And it is as much a matter of satisfaction to my brothers as to
    myself to have contributed towards the success of an enterprise,
    respecting which, at the outset, nothing was certain but the
    heavy responsibility of those who had engaged in it.

    "I am well aware that Her Majesty's Government, the Governments
    of Foreign Countries, and of our Colonies, through their
    respective Commissioners, and the various public bodies and
    private persons to whom you have alluded, have afforded most
    valuable and indeed indispensable aid to our undertaking; and I
    desire to add my own thanks to yours for their very important

    "But it is just that I should supply the only deficiency which I
    observe in your Report, by pointing out that without the
    administrative capacity and unremitting toil of the Members of
    the Executive Committee, and especially of its Chairman, the
    eminently satisfactory results which you have reported to me
    could not have been attained.

    "I learn with much pleasure that, after all expenses are
    defrayed, a substantial surplus will remain in your hands.

    "The best method of disposing of that surplus is a matter which
    will need careful consideration. It would be premature to allude
    to any of the various suggestions which have already been put
    forward; but I am of opinion that no proposal will be
    satisfactory to the public, unless it is immediately directed
    towards the carrying out of the objects of the Exhibition from
    which the fund is derived; namely, the promotion of the welfare
    of Fishermen, Fisheries, and the Fishing Industry in general.

    "And I think our duty towards the supporters of the Exhibition
    will not be discharged until we have done something towards the
    alleviation of the calamities fatally incidental to the
    Fisherman's calling; and until we have also done something
    towards the promotion of that application of Science to practice
    from which the Fishing Industry, like all other industries, can
    alone look for improvement.

    "I believe, that apart from what may be effected by the
    judicious use of the Surplus Fund, the latter end may best be
    attained by the formation of a Society, having for its object
    the collection of statistics and other information relative to
    Fisheries; the diffusion among the fishing population of a
    knowledge of all improvements in the methods and appliances of
    their calling; the discussion of questions bearing upon Fishing
    Interests; and the elucidation of those problems of Natural
    History which bear upon the subject. Such a Society, as the
    representative of the interests of the Fisheries, would
    naturally take charge of the scientific investigations which
    bear upon those interests, and would, no doubt, be brought into
    relation with the Aquarium which you wisely propose to offer to
    the Government, and with the already existing Fishery Museum of
    the Department of Science and Art, which is founded on the
    Collection bequeathed to the nation by the late Mr. Buckland,
    but which has been immensely enlarged and enriched by the
    liberality of many of our exhibitors.

    "You have rightly divined that it is a source of great
    gratification to me to be able to continue the work commenced by
    my father in 1851; and, by giving scope for the peaceful
    emulation of the leaders of industry of all nationalities in
    public Exhibitions, to divert the minds of men from those
    international rivalries by which all suffer, to those by which
    all gain.

    "The evidence of the public interest in such Exhibitions,
    afforded by the vast concourse of visitors from all parts of the
    realm to that which is now closed, has led me to hope that the
    buildings which have been erected at so much cost, and which
    have so admirably served their purpose, shall continue for the
    next three years to be employed for Exhibitions of a similarly
    comprehensive character.

    "In considering what shall be the subject-matter of these
    Exhibitions, three topics of paramount interest to our community
    have presented themselves to my mind. These are Health, both
    bodily and mental; Industrial Inventions; and the
    rapidly-growing resources of our Colonies and of our Indian

    "I have expressed a desire that the Exhibition of 1884 will
    embrace the conditions of health, in so far as, like food,
    clothes, and dwellings, they fall under the head of Hygiene, or,
    like appliances for general and technical teaching, gymnasia and
    schools, under that of Education.

    "The question of the Patent Laws has for many years engaged the
    attention of all those interested in the progress of invention
    and the just reward of the inventor. I am advised that the
    Patent Act of last Session will afford a satisfactory solution
    of the difficulties which beset this subject, and will be
    especially useful to the poor inventor by enabling him to obtain
    protection for his invention at a considerably reduced rate, and
    in a manner which will be more advantageous to him.

    "Under these circumstances, it has appeared to me that much good
    may result from an Exhibition in the year 1885, showing the
    Progress of Invention, especially in labour-saving machinery,
    since 1862; that is to say, since the last great International
    Exhibition held in this country.

    "At the close of the Paris Exhibition of 1868, I had the
    satisfaction of receiving from the Colonial Commissioners an
    address, in which great stress was laid on the desirability of
    establishing a permanent Colonial Museum in London, as a
    powerful means of diffusing throughout the Mother Country a
    better knowledge of the nature and importance of the several
    Dependencies of the Empire, of facilitating commercial
    relations, marking progress, and aiding the researches of men of
    science, and also of affording valuable information to
    intending emigrants.

    "At that time I was able to do little more than to assure the
    Commissioners of my readiness to promote such a scheme, and to
    recommend the respective Governments to give it their full

    "I trust that the British Colonial Exhibition which I propose to
    hold in 1886, may result in the foundation of such a Museum--the
    institution of which would secure for the people of this country
    a permanent record of the resources and development of Her
    Majesty's Colonies; and I hope that an important section of the
    proposed Exhibition of that year may result from the
    co-operation of our fellow-subjects, the people of India, in a
    suitable representation of the industrial arts of that Empire.

    "In conclusion, I desire, as President of these Exhibitions, to
    thank the Special Commissioners, the Members of the General
    Committee, and the Jurors, for the time and labour they have
    devoted to the business of the Exhibition; and to express my
    high approbation of the cheerfulness and assiduity with which
    the members of the Executive Staff have discharged their very
    onerous duties.

    "And I must finally signalize, as especially deserving of our
    gratitude, my brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the other
    foreign and English gentlemen, to whom we are indebted for the
    bestowal of much time and thought upon the papers which have
    been brought before those Conferences, which have formed so
    interesting and so useful a feature of the Exhibition. I am glad
    to hear that the value of the contribution to Fishery
    Literature, effected by the publication of these papers and the
    discussions to which they gave rise, has received authoritative


After all the affairs of the Exhibition of 1883 had been wound up,
including the financial accounts, a meeting of the General Committee was
held on Saturday, March 22nd, 1884, to receive the Report of the
Executive Committee. Details of receipts and outlay were presented.
Reference was made to the wide interest awakened by the Exhibition, the
attendance of fishermen from many lands, as well as from all parts of
the United Kingdom, and the success of the attempt to sell fish at
prices hitherto unknown in our great towns. The Report and Balance Sheet
having been presented, the Prince of Wales thus spoke:--

    "You have all listened, I am sure, with great interest to the
    report that has been read to you by the Chairman of the
    Executive Committee. From what we have heard, I think it is
    patent to all that the late Fisheries Exhibition has in every
    point of view been a success. It has been a financial success,
    and it has also been a success as regards the enormous number of
    people who have visited it, not only of our own countrymen and
    those from our colonies, but from every part of the globe. It is
    unnecessary for me on an occasion of this kind to enumerate the
    objects of this Exhibition, but I maintain that its two salient
    objects--viz., the scientific and practical ones--have fully
    justified its existence: its scientific object by the display of
    every possible kind of modern appliance, thus showing the great
    improvements that have been made in the fishing industry of the
    world; and its practical object because it not only showed to
    our own countrymen, but to all the world, what a valuable means
    of subsistence fish is. Many, I believe, had no idea of its
    value; while the existence of varieties of fish was made known
    which had not even been heard of by the great majority of
    people. Well, gentlemen, you have all heard that there is a
    surplus amounting to £15,243, and the question is naturally how
    to employ that sum. In the address that I read to you at the
    closing of the Exhibition I held out some hope that this might
    be applied in a useful and practical manner, and I would
    therefore now suggest to the General Committee that one of the
    best objects by which to perpetuate the results of this
    successful Exhibition would be to appropriate, say, about
    £10,000 to alleviate the distress of widows and orphans of sea
    fishermen. I use the words 'alleviate the distress' because I do
    not wish to bind any of you to our erecting an orphanage. That
    would cost a great deal of money, and, I think, would possibly
    be a mistake. If we were to embark in any great building
    enterprise of that kind, and in future find ourselves in debt,
    we should have frustrated the very object we have in view, viz.,
    supporting the widows and orphans of those brave men who peril
    their lives at sea. I would also suggest that £3000 should be
    given as an endowment to a society, which might be called the
    Royal Fisheries Society. What shape that might take will be for
    your future consideration; but possibly some society might be
    founded under such a name or character, similar to the Royal
    Agricultural Society. We shall then have a surplus of about
    £2000 left, which, I think you will all agree, will be a good
    thing to keep in reserve. It would be for the general public in
    future to show their interest in this scheme by supporting it to
    the best of their ability. I beg, therefore, to move the
    following resolution:--'That a sum of £10,000 be invested, with
    a view to applying the proceeds to the assistance of families
    who have suffered the loss of a father or husband in the
    prosecution of his calling as a sea fisherman; and that a
    further sum of £3000 be applied to the formation of a Fisheries
    Society, such as was suggested by His Royal Highness the
    President in his reply to the report of the Executive Committee
    on the 31st of October, 1883.'"

That suggestion was that a society should be formed, having for its
object the collection of statistics and other information relative to
Fisheries; the diffusing among the fishing population of a knowledge of
all improvements in the methods and appliances of their calling; the
discussion of questions bearing upon fishing interests: we wish we could
add, "the interests of the public," in obtaining more and cheaper fish!


_December 12th, 1882._

The large and commodious building on the Embankment, which is the new
seat of the old "City of London School," was formally opened by the
Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Princess of Wales, on the 12th of
December, 1882. The Lord Mayor, in state, the masters of the principal
City Companies, and a large assembly of civic and educational notables
were present. The Lord Mayor having given an address on the history of
the school, and the work done by the Corporation in connection with it,
asked the Prince to declare the new building open.

The Prince, after expressing the gratification it gave to himself and
the Princess to take part in the proceedings of the day, and, having
thanked the Lord Mayor for the historical address, said:--

    "After what you have all heard with regard to the existence of
    this school, it will be hardly necessary for me to add more than
    a very few words. I also express my fervent hope that a school
    such as this one, which has flourished for a space of between
    forty and fifty years, will continue ever to do so. It is a
    palpable fact that many pupils have gone up to the Universities,
    and taken high degrees, both in Classics at Oxford and in
    Mathematics at Cambridge. The present Head Master is one of
    those who took high honours at Cambridge. Last, but not least,
    the Lord Mayor himself was educated in this school, and is the
    first boy who has reached that high position.

    "I must congratulate the architect, and all those who have
    designed and built this school. I feel convinced from what we
    have seen that it is an admirably suited building for all
    educational purposes. Its site, close to the Thames, where it
    will get fresh air, and the admirable manner in which all the
    rooms are constructed, promise well for the future. Let me once
    again express a fervent hope that, under the blessing of God, it
    will continue to flourish and prosper. I now declare the new
    buildings open."

The announcement was received with great cheering, with a flourish of
trumpets. The present Head Master, Dr. Abbott, worthily sustains the
reputation which the school held under Dr. Mortimer.


_May 21st, 1883._

The opening of the club, in Whitehall Gardens, named after the Earl of
Northbrook, for the use of native gentlemen from the East Indies and
their friends, attracted a large and influential assemblage. By the
request of Lord Northbrook the Prince of Wales declared the club open.
He said that, after the clear and full statement by Lord Northbrook, he
had little to say about the objects and advantages of the club. After
expressing his gratification at being invited to be present, he said:--

    "I have not forgotten--and I address this especially to those
    gentlemen who come from India--nor am I likely ever to forget,
    the magnificent reception I met with in India, not only from the
    Native Princes, but from every class in India; and the interest
    I take in all that concerns Her Majesty's Indian empire I assure
    you will ever continue. I think it highly desirable that a club
    of this nature should have been formed, so as to bring natives
    of India into direct communication with our own countrymen, and
    that facilities should be afforded them to find a comfortable
    place where they can meet together for the interchange of ideas,
    and where they can seek relaxation after their labours in the
    professions which they have come here to study. That it will be
    found in every respect desirable, I am sure, and I have not the
    smallest doubt that it will be successful. I am glad to hear
    from Lord Northbrook of the money which has come from India. It
    is gratifying to know that the Indian Princes have been
    magnanimous in their subscriptions, and have shown the great
    interest they take in the success of the undertaking. I heartily
    wish prosperity to the Northbrook Club."

Some letters from India having been read, and several native gentlemen
having been presented, the Prince made a tour of the club with the


_July 8th, 1883._

The City of London College, which has spacious premises in White Street,
Moorfields, is intended for giving educational advantages to young men,
chiefly by means of evening classes for those engaged in business or
work during the day. It was originally established, in 1848, at Crosby
Hall, moving from there to Sussex Hall, Leadenhall Street, and finally
settled in the new building in Moorfields, the cost of which was
£16,000. To inaugurate this new College, the Prince of Wales,
accompanied by the Princess, went to the City. After being shown over
the building their Royal Highnesses were conducted by the Lord Mayor to
the great hall, which is capable of holding about 1000 persons, and
which was densely filled.

The Reverend Prebendary Whittington, Principal of the College, read an
address thanking the Prince for his presence, and stating the objects of
the College. He mentioned that in 1858 the Prince Consort paid a visit
to Crosby Hall, and testified his approval of the work done for the
intellectual, social, and moral improvement of the young men of London,
by consenting to become the first patron, an office which had since his
death been filled by the Queen. Her Majesty had testified her continued
approval by a generous donation to the new building fund.

The Prince of Wales, in reply, said:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--It is with sincere pleasure that I thank
    you on behalf of the Princess of Wales, as well as on my own,
    for the loyal address of welcome which has just been presented
    to us, and for being given this opportunity of expressing to you
    our approval of your efforts for the improvement of the
    intellectual, social, moral, and spiritual condition of the
    young men of this vast metropolis. Such occasions are always
    fraught with the deepest interest to me, recalling as they do
    the memory of my beloved father, the Prince Consort, who devoted
    his time, his experience, and his great abilities to the
    promotion of undertakings such as the one you now have in hand,
    to which he lent his countenance by becoming its first patron,
    and which the Queen still encourages by her patronage. We
    sincerely trust our presence here to-day may encourage others to
    take an interest in this great undertaking, and we rejoice to be
    able to declare your new building open."

A prayer for the continued success of the institution was then offered
up by Bishop Claughton, and the Old Hundredth Psalm was sung.

The Secretary then read a list of subscriptions, including fifty guineas
from the Prince of Wales. The Lord Mayor said that the Prince always
showed his interest in education, and he had lately been present at the
opening of the City of London School. This College gave more advanced
and practical teaching than was given at that School.

Mr. Clarke, Q.C., M.P., said he had been a student of the College
twenty-six or twenty-seven years ago, and the education he there
received had been most valuable to him. Mr. Prebendary Mackenzie having
supported the resolution of a vote of thanks to their Royal Highnesses,
the Prince returned his warm thanks and added:--

    "So much has been said with regard to this College that I should
    only be taking up your time if I were to allude to it further
    than to say that I feel convinced--and it is our earnest
    hope--that this College, which has been so successful hitherto,
    will continue to prosper in the new building. Most cordially do
    we wish it all success. A greater proof cannot be given of the
    excellent character of the education which the students here
    receive than that given by the seconder of the resolution, Mr.
    Clarke, who has not only attained a high position in the
    profession he has adopted, but who has also become a member of
    Parliament. I thank you again for your kind reception of us
    to-day, and for the pleasure it has given us to inaugurate this
    very handsome building."


_February 22nd, 1884._

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales is not infrequent in his
attendance in the House of Lords, but he has very rarely addressed the
House. It is natural that he should avoid even the appearance of being
mixed up with political controversies, or touching points that might
bear a party construction. But on questions of a social or patriotic
bearing to which he is known to have given personal attention, the voice
of the Prince would be always heard with pleasure, and his opinions
carry due weight. It was so in the matter of the Housing of the Poor,
which was brought before the House on the 22nd of February, 1884.

The Marquis of Salisbury moved an Address to Her Majesty for the
appointment of a Royal Commission to inquire into the housing of the
working classes. Lord Carington seconded the motion, after which the
Prince of Wales rose, amidst cheers from both sides of the House. He

    "My Lords,--The speeches which have fallen from the lips of the
    noble Marquis who introduced this subject, and from the noble
    Lord who has just sat down, cannot fail to have been heard with
    the deepest interest by your Lordships. I feel also convinced
    that your Lordships, in common with all classes of Her Majesty's
    subjects, will be gratified to learn that the noble Marquis has
    asked for a searching inquiry to be made into that great and
    momentous question with regard to the housing, and the
    amelioration of the dwellings, of the poor and the working,
    classes, and that Her Majesty's Government have already
    appointed a Commission for that purpose.

    "My Lords, it is not my intention to trouble your Lordships with
    many remarks, though I take the keenest and liveliest interest
    in this great question. Still, I confess I have not gone
    sufficiently into the matter for me to venture on giving an
    opinion, especially after what has fallen from the noble Marquis
    and the noble Lord. At the same time, I can assure you, my
    Lords, that I am deeply flattered at having been appointed a
    member of the Royal Commission. The subject of the housing of
    the poor is not entirely unknown to me, as having acquired a
    property in Norfolk now for twenty years, I have had something
    to do in building fresh dwellings for the poor and working
    classes. On arriving there I found the dwellings in the most
    deplorable condition, but I hope now that there is hardly one on
    the estate who can complain of not being adequately housed.

    "I quite endorse what has fallen from the noble Marquis and the
    quotation which he made from the letter of Mr. Williams which
    appeared in to-day's newspapers. A few days ago I visited two of
    the poorest courts in the district of St. Pancras and Holborn,
    where, I can assure you, my Lords, that the condition of the
    people, or rather of their dwellings, was perfectly disgraceful.
    This in itself proves to me how important it is that there
    should be a thoroughly searching inquiry. As your Lordships are
    aware, there have existed now for some short space of time
    several private societies organised for the purpose of inquiring
    into this very question. I am sure that we ought all to be
    grateful to these gentlemen for giving up their time to so
    important a subject, and I feel that the Royal Commission can in
    nowise clash with the efforts of these private individuals.

    "In conclusion, my Lords, I wish to say that I cherish an
    earnest hope, which I feel will be shared by your Lordships,
    that the result of this Royal Commission will be a
    recommendation to Parliament of measures of a drastic and
    thorough kind, which may be the means of not only improving the
    dwellings of the poor, but of ameliorating their condition

His Royal Highness was followed by Lord Shaftesbury, the Bishop of
London, and others, but nothing was added in the debate of a practical
nature, and the motion of Lord Salisbury was unanimously carried.


_February 25th, 1884._

The Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by the Princess Louise,
Marchioness of Lorne, and the Princesses Louise, Victoria, and Maude of
Wales, visited Chelsea Barracks on Monday, the 25th of February, 1884,
for the distribution of prizes to the girls at the Guards' Industrial
Home. It is very honourable to the officers of the Guards, that they
provide as far as they can for the welfare of the wives and families of
the soldiers, as well as of the men of their regiments. The boys
educated in the regimental schools were easily provided for, but for the
training of the girls for useful occupations it had been advisable to
establish this Industrial Home in the neighbourhood of the barracks.
This was explained by General Higginson, commanding the brigade of
Guards in the Home district, and a report of the state of the
institution during the past year was read by Colonel Cockran, the
honorary secretary.

The Prince of Wales then distributed the prizes to the girls, in his
usual kindly manner. General Higginson, in the name of the brigade,
thanked their Royal Highnesses for the proof they had given of their
favour and good will. The Prince replied--

    "General Higginson, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--The Princess begs me
    to return her warmest thanks for the very kind words in which
    you have expressed your thanks to her on behalf of the brigade
    for taking part in the ceremony which we have just witnessed. I
    know I am only expressing her views when I state that it has
    given her sincere pleasure to be here, and that she shares with
    me an interest in everything which concerns the brigade of
    Guards. After what has fallen from you, General Higginson, and
    after the reading of the report, there is little left for me to
    say beyond congratulating those who founded this institution and
    those who so ably maintain it, upon the highly satisfactory way
    in which it is managed and upon the creditable manner in which,
    as we know, every detail connected with its working is
    conducted. We sincerely hope that those young ladies who have
    to-day received prizes will go forth to pursue their avocations
    in life with credit both to themselves and to the instruction
    they have received in this institution. We trust that having
    reached its 21st anniversary--the coming of age of the Guards'
    Industrial Home--the institution will ever continue to flourish.
    For my own part, I may say, General Higginson, that I think all
    the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the
    Household Brigade are aware of the deep feeling which I
    entertain towards them, and that I have not forgotten my
    association with them three-and-twenty years ago. That feeling
    of kindliness towards them, and of interest in all that concerns
    them, will continue to the day of my death."

After the ceremony was over, there was an amateur theatrical
performance, to the great amusement not only of the young folk, but of
the crowd of spectators who filled the hall.


_March 15th, 1884._

The Prince of Wales presided, not for the first time, at the annual
meeting of the Lifeboat Institution, which was held at Willis's Rooms on
the 15th of March, 1884. The Secretary, Mr. C. Dibdin, having read the
report, the Prince of Wales said:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--Before calling upon the noble duke (the
    Duke of Argyll) to move the first resolution, I wish to say a
    few words. You have all of you, I feel convinced, heard with the
    greatest interest the report which has just been read by the
    secretary, and I think we must all be unanimous in the opinion
    that that report is highly satisfactory as regards everything
    connected with this institution.

    "The National Lifeboat Institution, having been founded in 1824,
    has now reached its sixtieth anniversary, and I think you will
    all agree with me that there is no institution throughout our
    country which is of greater importance or more demands our
    sympathy and assistance. From our geographical position as a
    sea-girt isle, and from the immense colonies which we have
    acquired, the mass of ships that travel to and fro and reach our
    islands is almost too vast to enable us even to realize what
    their number can actually be. Those vessels naturally encounter
    tempests, the results of which are shipwrecks and loss of life.
    The risks especially which that valuable and important
    community, the fishermen on our coasts, have to run from the
    beginning to the end of the year must be well known to you all.
    It is especially to save their lives, and not only theirs, but
    the lives of all who travel on the sea, that this great national
    institution has been founded. Strange to say that
    notwithstanding the great improvements which have been effected
    in navigation and in the different scientific inventions which
    have been made, there is no doubt that an increase of shipwrecks
    annually occurs.

    "I may mention that it must have been of interest to those of
    you who visited the Fisheries Exhibition last year to notice all
    the models of boats, contrivances for fishing, and apparatus for
    saving life which were there shown to you. It must be patent to
    everybody that a society of this kind is an absolute necessity.
    Look at what it has done. Since its foundation nearly 31,000
    lives have been saved by its instrumentality. Already this year
    up to now--the middle of March--300 lives have been saved, and
    last year the total number was nearly 1000. The institution has
    now 274 lifeboats, and no doubt you are fully aware, through the
    medium of the Press, of the gallantry which has been displayed
    by the coxswains and crews of those boats. This is so well known
    to you, I am sure, that I need not engross your attention by
    dwelling upon the topic. Of one thing, however, I must remind
    you. I must impress upon your minds the fact that, although we
    admit this to be a national and most important institution, it
    is at the same time entirely supported by voluntary
    contributions. Therefore I most urgently ask you to ponder well
    over this fact, and impress upon you the great necessity which
    exists for keeping it up and maintaining it in a state of
    efficiency with adequate funds. A large annual income is, of
    course, required for this purpose. To maintain a lifeboat
    station in a good state £70 per annum is needed.

    "Allusion has been made in the report to the fact that the
    Princess of Wales has become a vice-patroness of this
    institution, and I need hardly tell you that she shares with me
    all the views that I hold in relation to it. It was a great
    gratification to her quite recently to present medals to two of
    the most deserving coxswains who had distinguished themselves
    in saving lives. Upon the utility and merits of this
    institution one might speak for hours, but our meeting to-day is
    for business, and not merely for the purpose of delivering
    addresses; so I will now call upon the Duke of Argyll to move
    the first resolution."

Speeches having been made by the Duke of Argyll, Admiral Sir H. Keppell,
Lord Charles Beresford, and the Lord Mayor (Fowler), and resolutions
passed, the Duke of Northumberland proposed a vote of thanks to the
Prince of Wales for presiding, who in responding said:--

    "I assure you it has been a source of sincere gratification to
    me to take the chair on this occasion. I assure you also that
    nobody more cordially wishes this institution continued success
    and prosperity than I do. It is a thoroughly national and useful
    institution, and if it is only as ably managed and conducted in
    the future as it has been in the past, I feel convinced it will
    continue to flourish. I know how much we ought to feel grateful
    to those who have undertaken the arduous duty of managing this
    institution, for giving their valuable time and assistance, and
    bow much our hearts ought always to go with those I brave and
    gallant men who seek to rescue the lives of their
    fellow-countrymen in all weathers, and in all times by day or


_June 17th, 1884._

The lamented death of the Duke of Albany on the 28th of March,
1884, prevented the Prince of Wales from taking active part in the
preparations for the Health Exhibition of that summer. He had
before arranged, along with the Executive Council, of which the
Duke of Buckingham was Chairman, the general plan of the
Exhibition, in the designs of which Prince Leopold had taken deep
interest. On the 17th of June the Prince formally inaugurated
the work of the international juries, a necessary and important
part of the whole undertaking. It was the first occasion in
which His Royal Highness had taken part in public affairs since
the death of his brother. The meeting took place in the Albert
Hall, and a great assembly had gathered, including many distinguished

The Duke of Buckingham, on behalf of the Executive Council, expressed
the great gratification they felt at the appearance of His Royal
Highness among them, as to him was due the inception of the undertaking.
Sir James Paget, the Vice-Chairman of the Council, delivered an
elaborate and eloquent address on the purposes and the importance of the
Exhibition. He was followed by Sir Lyon Playfair. After these addresses
Lord Reay presented to His Royal Highness, the Foreign Commissioners,
and the Chairmen and Jurors for the different sections. The Prince then

    "Your Excellencies, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--Owing to a very sad
    cause I was unable to open the Health Exhibition. But I am
    particularly glad to have had this opportunity of being present
    to preside here to-day on the occasion of the assembling of the
    international juries. It has given me great pleasure to have
    made the personal acquaintance of all those distinguished
    gentlemen who have come from the Continent, and who, no doubt at
    considerable inconvenience to themselves, have so kindly
    consented to come over here to decide on matters appertaining to
    the Health Exhibition. It is particularly gratifying to me to
    have been here to receive them, and I sincerely hope that their
    labours will be crowned with success. That the Exhibition has up
    to the present time been successful so far as numbers are
    concerned we have evidence to show, but I hope at the same time
    that for scientific and educational purposes the public at large
    may derive even greater benefit from it than they can get by
    merely coming here to enjoy the Exhibition as a place of

    "After the address from the Duke of Buckingham, and the long,
    able, and most interesting one from Sir James Paget, which was
    commented upon by Sir Lyon Playfair, it would be perfectly
    superfluous for me to detain you but for a few moments on any
    subject relating to health. These addresses, which you have all
    listened to with such great interest, will, I trust, have proved
    to you what an important consideration the matter of health is.
    This Exhibition, under the able chairmanship of the Duke of
    Buckingham and those gentlemen of the Executive Council who have
    worked under him, has, I think, been brought to a remarkable
    degree of perfection. They have done everything they can do to
    make it pleasing to the eye; but still I hope that those who
    visit the Exhibition will remember that there are greater and
    more important objects at stake--that they will go home
    impressed by the study of those objects as well as by the
    pleasure they may have derived from the wonderful inventions and
    methods of showing them. I wish to tender my thanks to the Lord
    Mayor and the great City Companies for their kind co-operation
    in this Exhibition, and I am sure we are all much gratified at
    the success of what is called Old London. Before concluding I
    would beg to ask the Chairmen and Jurors at the close of the
    proceedings to constitute their juries and select their

The French Ambassador, in moving a vote of thanks to the Prince of Wales
for presiding, referred to His Royal Highness's readiness on all
occasions to give his time and to devote his energies to any cause which
might advance the welfare of the people of this country. He called on
them to thank His Royal Highness, not only in the name of those present
and of the foreigners who had contributed to the Exhibition, and more
particularly those of France, but in the name of thousands upon
thousands of the poor and disinherited of the earth, of children and the
helpless, whose benefit would ultimately be promoted by this Exhibition.

The Lord Mayor seconded the motion, which was agreed to with
acclamation. The Prince, in closing the proceedings, tendered his
warmest thanks to the French Ambassador and his colleagues for their
presence on that occasion and for their continued co-operation in the
Exhibitions with which he had been connected. His Royal Highness, in
concluding, thanked the Lord Mayor, as representative of the City of
London, for all that the City and the Guilds of London had done to
promote the success of the Exhibition.


_June 25th, 1884._

The building, of which the foundation was laid nearly three years
before, was completed within the time originally contracted for, and the
Prince of Wales came to open it on the 25th of June, 1884. Again the
Lord Chancellor read the report, and on behalf of the Governors and
Council of the City and Guilds of London Institute, thanked His Royal
Highness for his continued interest, and his presence that day. Touching
allusion was made to the death of the Duke of Albany, who had laid the
foundation stone of the Finsbury Technical College in May 1881. "As
years roll by, and when the connection between the technical education
of the people and the commercial prosperity of the country becomes as
well understood and appreciated here as it is abroad, the year 1880, in
which the City and Guilds of London Institute was incorporated, and the
year 1884, in which this central institution was opened, will stand out
as epochs in what we hope may be an unbroken record of industrial
progress; and we sincerely trust that the remembrance of this day's
proceedings may ever furnish to your Royal Highness a pleasing and
satisfactory thought, enabling you to associate the endeavours of your
illustrious father, dating back more than thirty years, to improve the
arts and manufactures of the country, with the work of this Technical
Institute, over which your Royal Highness so graciously presides."

The Prince of Wales, in reply, said:--

    "My Lord Chancellor, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I have listened
    with attention to your address, and I assure you it gives me
    great pleasure to be able to preside at the opening of this
    important institution, the first pillar of which, in company
    with her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, I set nearly
    three years since. I thank you for your very feeling reference
    to the severe loss which the Queen, and each member of Her
    Majesty's family, has sustained by the untimely death of my late
    brother. His interest in every movement calculated to humanize
    and to elevate the people of this country will, I am quite sure,
    cause his loss to be felt far beyond the circle of his immediate

    "I have been gratified that the City and the Livery Companies of
    London have so generously responded to the letter which, as
    President of the Institute, I addressed some few months since to
    the Lord Mayor and to the Worshipful Masters of the Livery
    Companies of London. This Institute, which owes its origin to
    the liberality of the City and of the Guilds of London, is an
    illustration of the excellent work that may be done by united
    action, which could not possibly be accomplished by individual
    efforts. Conformably with the traditions of these ancient
    Guilds, there is, perhaps, no purpose to which they could more
    appropriately devote their surplus funds, and none which would
    be of more practical advantage to the country at large than the
    promotion of technical education. The altered conditions of
    apprenticeship, and the almost general substitution of machine
    for hand labour have made the teaching of science, in its
    application to productive industry, a necessary part of the
    training of all classes of persons engaged in manufacturing

    "There never was a time, perhaps, when the importance of
    technical education was more generally recognized than now, and
    I am gratified to learn from the report of the Royal
    Commissioners appointed to inquire into the subject to which
    your lordship has referred, that, although we are still behind
    many of our foreign neighbours in the provision of technical
    schools of different grades, the encouragement afforded by the
    State to the teaching of science and of art, supplemented as it
    now is by the Institute's assistance to the teaching of
    technology, has placed within reach of our artizan population
    facilities for technical instruction which have already
    influenced, and which promise to influence still more in the
    future, the progress of our manufacturing industry.

    "As president of this Institute, I have noted with much
    satisfaction the rapid development of the work which the Council
    have initiated, and which they so successfully control. I am
    anxious to take this opportunity of expressing in public what is
    already known to you, my Lord Chancellor, and to the members of
    the Council, the obligations which we are all under to Mr.
    Philip Magnus, our able director and secretary, for his
    unwearied exertions in having so successfully accomplished the
    organization of the practical work of the institution. I have no
    doubt that the opportunities for advanced instruction, which
    will be afforded in the well-arranged laboratories and workshops
    of this building, will enable the managers and superintendents
    of our manufacturing works to obtain more readily than hitherto
    that higher technical instruction which is so essential to the
    development of our trade and commerce.

    "But it is especially as a training college for teachers that
    this institution will occupy an important place in the
    educational establishments of this country. The demand for
    technical instruction has increased so rapidly during the last
    few years that the supply of teachers has not kept pace with it,
    and I have noticed with satisfaction that in the scheme for the
    organization of this school due prominence is given to the
    provision of gratuitous courses of instruction for technical
    teachers from all parts of the kingdom. I shall be glad to see
    other corporations and individuals follow the example of the
    Clothworkers' Company, by establishing scholarships which shall
    serve to connect the elementary schools of this country with
    this institution. Hitherto, all schools have led up to the
    Universities, and literary training has been encouraged to the
    disadvantage of scientific instruction. Manufacturing industry
    has, consequently, not been able to attract to its pursuits its
    fair proportion of the best intellect of the country. The
    foundation of scholarships in connection with this institution
    will enable selected pupils from elementary schools to enter
    schools of a higher grade, and to complete their education
    within these walls.

    "As president of the International Health Exhibition, I am glad
    that the Council of this Institute have been able to place at
    the disposal of the Council of the Health Exhibition a portion
    of this building for the exhibition of apparatus and appliances
    used in technical and other schools. I have no doubt that we
    shall find in that exhibition, which I hope to be able presently
    to visit, much that is generally instructive, and that the
    foreign sections will contain exhibits which will prove of great
    interest to the educational authorities of this country. To the
    Corporation and to the Livery Companies of London, the Council
    of the International Health Exhibition are indebted for much
    valuable assistance, and I thank them for it.

    "It now only remains for me to declare the Central Institution
    of the City and Guilds of London Institute to be open, and to
    express the warmest hope that the important educational work to
    be carried on in this great national school of technical science
    and art will help to promote the development of our leading
    industries, and that the City and Guilds of London, which have
    so liberally subscribed funds for the erection and equipment of
    this institution, will maintain it with efficiency, and will at
    the same time continue their support to all other parts of the
    Institute's operations."

After short speeches by Lord Carlingford, Mr. Mundella, and the Lord
Mayor, the Prince inspected the various parts of the Institute,
including the rooms where specimens of the work of students of the
Finsbury College, and where exhibits from foreign technical schools were


_August 1st, 1884._

One of the most important meetings presided over by the Prince of Wales,
and one of the most memorable gatherings for many a year past seen in
the City of London, was that held in the Guildhall, on the 1st of
August, 1884. The object was to celebrate the Jubilee of the Abolition
of Slavery in the British Colonies, to recall the work of the British
and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society during the last half-century, and to
consider the position and prospects of the slavery question at the
present time throughout the world.

It was in every respect a most remarkable meeting. The great Hall was
densely crowded from end to end. On the platform were assembled large
numbers of distinguished persons, of different creeds, and opposite
political parties, but all united in the cause which had brought them
together that day. The names of a few of those present will show how
various were the classes thus represented. The Lord Mayor (Alderman
Fowler, M.P.), and the Chief Magistrates of London, the Archbishop of
Canterbury and Cardinal Manning, Earl Granville and the Earl of Derby,
Sir Stafford Northcote and Mr. W. E. Forster, Mr. Sergeant Simon. Sir
Wilfrid Lawson, Mr. T. R. Potter, Mr. Henry Richard, and many other
leading members of Parliament, sat together on the same platform. There
were present a few of the veterans who had taken part in the
anti-slavery struggles fifty years before, such as Joseph Sturge and Sir
Harry Verney, M.P. Descendants of the early champions of the cause,
bearing the honoured names of Wilberforce, Lushington, Buxton, Pease,
Forster, showed that the spirit of their fathers was maintained in a new
generation. Among the ladies on the platform were the Baroness
Burdett-Coutts, Miss Gordon, the sister of General Gordon, of Khartoum,
and some members of the Society of Friends, always abounding in good

The Secretary of the Society read a list of names of those unable to be
present, but expressing warm sympathy with the purpose of the meeting.
There were letters from the Chief Rabbi, from Lord Salisbury, the Duke
of Norfolk, the Duke of Sutherland, the Duke of Argyll, Lord Carnarvon,
and other men of distinction. The most touching communication was from
the venerated Earl of Shaftesbury, who had promised to attend, but was
obliged to dictate a letter from a sick-bed, in which he expressed the
satisfaction he felt in having lived to see such changes in regard to
slavery during the past fifty years. On the daïs behind the platform
were busts of Granville Sharp, and of Clarkson, decorated with flowers,
and in front were exhibited massive wooden yokes and iron chains, such
as are used for the gangs of slaves in the journey to the coast of

Well might Lord Granville express his delight on "looking at this
assembly of eminent men in all the walks of life in this country, of
different professions, of different pursuits, of different religious
denominations, of different political parties, all absorbed by one
philanthropic idea, and presided over by the illustrious Prince, the
Heir-Apparent to the Throne." How the Prince came to occupy this
position, it may interest many readers to know. Mr. Allen, the Secretary
of the Society, and Mr. W. E. Forster, went to ask him to preside at the
meeting. Mr. Forster, for whom the Prince had high personal esteem,
reminded him that his father had made his first public appearance as
chairman of a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Society. The Prince did not
need to be reminded of this, but at once most cordially assented to
preside from his own interest in the subject, and if Mr. Allen would
give a few necessary dates and facts he would do the best he could. With
this assurance the success of the meeting was secured.

The Lord Mayor, according to civic custom, having taken the chair for an
instant, then vacated it, and invited His Royal Highness to preside over
the meeting. The Prince then rose, amidst enthusiastic cheers, and

    "My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--At the express wish of the
    Lord Mayor I am asked to preside on this auspicious occasion. I
    need hardly tell you that in such a cause it gives me more than
    ordinary pleasure to occupy the chair at so great and
    influential a meeting as this. I confess I had some reluctance
    in presiding to-day, feeling that others could accomplish the
    task far better than I should. But I also felt that possibly I
    might have some slight claim to occupy the chair on such an
    occasion, as so many members of my family have presided over
    former meetings in connection with Anti-Slavery movements. In
    the years 1825 and 1828, my uncle the late Duke of Gloucester
    presided at meetings of the Society, which were numerously
    attended. The Duke of Sussex did so in 1840; and you are well
    aware of the interest they took in promoting the objects of the
    Society by bringing forward questions concerning it in
    Parliament. In the same year my lamented father occupied the
    chair at a very large and crowded meeting at Exeter Hall; and I
    believe that occasion was the very first on which he occupied
    the chair at any public meeting in this country. Let me say that
    my excuse for standing before you to-day may be given in words
    used by him forty-four years ago. They were these--'I have been
    induced to preside at the meeting of this Society from the
    conviction of its paramount importance to the greatest interests
    of humanity and justice.'

    "This is a great and important anniversary. To-day we celebrate
    the jubilee of the emancipation of Slavery throughout our
    colonies; and it is also a day which has been looked forward to
    with pleasure and satisfaction by this excellent Society, which
    has worked so hard in this great cause of humanity.

    "We may be all proud, ladies and gentlemen, that England was the
    first country which abolished negro Slavery. Parliament voted,
    and the nation paid, twenty million pounds to facilitate this
    object. Our example was followed by many other countries, though
    I regret to say that in Brazil and Cuba slavery still exists, as
    well as in Mohammedan and heathen countries. It is a very
    natural temptation that, in newly-peopled countries, and
    especially when the climate prevents Europeans from working,
    forced labour should be introduced. The Duke of Gloucester very
    properly said that 'The Slave-trade can only be thoroughly
    abolished by the abolition of Slavery; that while there is a
    demand, there will be a supply; this is the keynote of the
    Society during its existence.'

    "Principally owing to the indefatigable exertions of the
    undaunted Thomas Clarkson and his great Parliamentary coadjutor,
    William Wilberforce, the Slave-trade and the untold horrors of
    the Middle Passage were, as far as Great Britain was concerned,
    put an end to in the year 1807. The majority, therefore, of the
    Slaves in the West Indian Islands who received the benefit of
    the Emancipation Act were descendants of those Africans who had
    been originally torn from the forests of Africa. Speaking of the
    proclamation of the emancipation of the Slaves in the colonies,
    Mr. Buxton said:--'Throughout the colonies the churches and
    chapels had been thrown open, and the Slaves had crowded into
    them on the evening of the 31st of July, 1834. As the hour of
    midnight approached they fell upon their knees, and awaited the
    solemn moment, all hushed, silent, and prepared. When twelve
    o'clock sounded from the chapel bells they sprang upon their
    feet, and through every island rang glad sounds of thanksgiving
    to the Father of all, for the chains were broken and the Slaves
    were free.'

    "I may mention that I have within a short time ago received a
    telegram from the President of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference
    in session at Burslem, congratulating me and you on the meeting
    of to-day, and stating that it was during the session of the
    Conference in 1834 that the abolition of Slavery in the West
    Indian Colonies became an accomplished fact--a consummation for
    which, as Wesleyan Methodists, they had universally prayed and
    laboured. They cannot therefore, but profoundly rejoice at the
    jubilee of the great event, with its incalculable benefits, not
    only to the West Indies, but to all other peoples throughout the

    "It may not, perhaps, be generally known to you that Slavery was
    abolished in India in 1843 by the simple passing of an Act
    destroying its legal status, and putting the freeman and Slave
    on the same footing before the law. The natural result took
    place, and millions of Slaves gratuitously procured their own
    freedom without any sudden dislocation of the rights claimed by
    their masters. A plan similar to this would be found a most
    effectual one in Egypt and other Mohammedan countries. This
    example was followed by Lord Carnarvon in 1874 on the Gold Coast
    of Western Africa, where he was able to abolish Slavery without
    any serious interference with the habits and customs of the
    people. Under the influence of England, the Bey of Tunis issued
    a decree in 1846, abolishing Slavery and the Slave-trade
    throughout his dominions, which concluded in the following
    simple and forcible terms:--'Know that all Slaves that shall
    touch our territory by sea or by land shall become free.'

    "In connection with this there are two names which I cannot do
    otherwise than allude to to-day--that of Sir Samuel Baker, and
    one which is on everybody's lips--that of General Gordon. You
    are well aware that during the term of five or six years that
    they were governors of the Soudan their great object was to put
    down the Slave-trade on the White Nile. They were successful to
    a great extent, but I fear they had great difficulties to
    contend with, and when their backs were turned much of the evil
    came out again which they had found on their arrival.

    "I will now turn to Europe. The great Republic of France in
    1848, under the guidance of the veteran Abolitionist M. Victor
    Schœlcher and his colleagues, passed a short Act abolishing
    Slavery throughout the French dominions: 'La République n'admet
    plus d'esclaves sur le territoire Français.' In Russia the
    emancipation of twenty millions of serfs in 1861 by the late
    Emperor of Russia must not pass unchronicled in a review of the
    history of emancipation, although, strictly speaking, this form
    of Slavery can scarcely be classed with that resulting from the
    African Slave-trade. In the United States of America in 1865 the
    fetters of six millions of Slaves in the Southern States were
    melted in the hot fires of the most terrible civil war of modern
    times. Passing on to South America, and looking to Brazil, it
    may be noted with satisfaction that all of the small republics
    formerly under the rule of Spain put an end to Slavery at the
    time they threw off the yoke of the mother country. The great
    Empire of Brazil has alone, I regret to say, retained the curse
    which she inherited from her Portuguese rulers. At the present
    moment she possesses nearly a million and a half of Slaves on
    her vast plantations, but arrangements are made for their
    gradual emancipation.

    "Now, having taken this glance at the condition of Slavery
    to-day, I will add, in the words of the Society, that 'the chief
    object of this jubilee meeting is to rekindle the enthusiasm of
    England, and to assist her to carry on this civilising torch of
    freedom until its beneficent light shall be shed over all the
    earth.' The place in which this meeting is held, the character
    of this great meeting, and the reception these words have
    received, assure me that I have not done wrong in stating freely
    these objects. One of the objects of the Society is to circulate
    at home and abroad accurate information on the enormities of the
    Slave-trade and of Slavery, to give evidence--if evidence,
    indeed, be wanting--to the inhabitants of Slave-holding
    countries of the pecuniary advantages of free labour, and to
    diffuse authentic information respecting the beneficial result
    to the countries of emancipation. The late Duke of Gloucester,
    in the course of a speech made by him in 1825, said that 'his
    family had been brought to this country for the protection of
    the rights and liberties of its subjects, and as a member of
    that family he should not be discharging his duty towards them
    if he did not recommend the sacred principles of freedom by
    every means in his power.' Most heartily and most cordially do I
    endorse his words.

    "I rejoice that we have on the platform the eminent sons of two
    eminent fathers in the work of abolishing the Slave-trade and
    Slavery. Lord Derby and Mr. Forster, whom I rejoice to see here,
    have a hereditary connection with emancipation. The late Lord
    Derby, then Mr. Stanley, was Colonial Secretary to the Liberal
    Government of that day, which had set before it the task of
    carrying through Parliament a measure which was to put a term to
    Slavery in all the dependencies of the United Kingdom. Mr.
    Forster's father, having taken his full share of the agitation
    which led to the abolition of colonial Slavery, went to
    Tennessee on an Anti-Slavery errand and died in that State.
    There are glimpses, ladies and gentlemen, in Mr. Trevelyan's
    'Life of Macaulay,' of the devotion with which this great
    movement was carried on. Zachary Macaulay, father of our great
    historian, was one of the chief workers in the cause, and it is
    said of him that for forty years he was ever burdened with the
    thought that he was called upon to wage war with this gigantic
    evil. In some of the West India islands the apprenticeship
    system produced worse evils than the servitude of the Slave. The
    negroes were theoretically free, but practically Slaves. The
    masters had been paid for their emancipation, but still held
    them to service. In a year or two the term of apprenticeship was
    shortened, and soon afterwards public opinion at home demanded
    and effected its complete abolition. There were four years of
    disappointment, trouble, dispute, and suffering in all the West
    Indies, except the island of Antigua, where the planters had
    preferred to make the change from Slavery to freedom at a single
    step. Full emancipation of the colonies had to be enforced in
    1838 by another Act, which abolished the transition stage, and
    proclaimed universal and complete emancipation. This Act Only
    completed the work which 1833 began. The battle in which so many
    noble spirits had been engaged was practically won when the name
    of Slavery was abolished. The negroes of the West Indies look
    back to the 1st August, 1834, as the birthday of their race. The
    Emancipation Act, which on that day came into force, spoke the
    doom of Slavery all round the world.

    "I have ventured on this occasion to touch on different topics
    and dates which I thought would be of interest, but it is not my
    wish to weary you with longer details. Allow me to thank you for
    the kind way in which you have listened to the remarks I have
    made, and to assure you how deeply I am with you on this
    occasion, both heart and soul."

It was no formal compliment when Earl Granville, who followed the
President, said, that "the illustrious Prince, following the example of
his noble father, and of other members of the Royal Family, not only
presided on this occasion with dignity and grace, but had spoken with
earnestness and power on this great question." He also paid a generous
tribute to the memory of Lord Palmerston, under whom he had begun his
own official life, and who had laboured long and zealously in the
anti-slavery cause.

The speakers who succeeded, without exception, rose to the height of the
great argument. Sir Stafford Northcote, the Lord Iddesleigh of after
years, closed his speech with a noble peroration: "They had deep reason
to be thankful for the position which England had been allowed to take
in this great controversy. They knew what that great position was; they
knew how it astonished the world, and how it astonished ourselves, that
this island had spread itself in its intentions and designs over so
large a portion of the world's surface, and what responsibility it had
taken upon itself in consequence. This position had brought us into
communication with every portion of the globe where Slavery prevailed.
It gave us great opportunities, and we must see that they are not
neglected. England's mission was not to magnify herself and speak of the
greatness she had achieved: it was rather to look to the happiness and
the advancement of the world. There were lines written by a great poet
which were originally applied to the great Empire of Rome, but which
were applicable to England. They spoke of that which became an Imperial
race, and of the aptitude of other nations for other arts and pursuits.
It was the Imperial position and the boast of England to release the
captive, and set free the Slave; and, in the words of the poet to whom
he had referred, he would say: 'These are Imperial arts, and worthy

The Archbishop of Canterbury spoke of the duty of the clergy to promote
and direct public feeling on this question. Lord Derby, then Foreign
Secretary, in referring to direct action by England, said that
international diplomacy set limits to carrying out all that they might
wish in regard to foreign slavery. "The English Act of 1834 had
practically given the death-blow to slavery throughout the world. I do
not think this is saying too much, for we know the force of public
opinion." He concluded by saying that "the slave trade, although
somewhat checked, will never be thoroughly got rid of till Slavery dies
out in Asia, and in partially civilized countries. How this is to be
effected, when it can be done, and through what agencies, are questions
not to be settled by an off-hand sentence at a public meeting. But that
it ought to be done--that it can be done, and that in time it will be
done--are matters about which I entertain no doubt; and, that being so,
I have much pleasure in proposing this resolution."

The resolution ran as follows:--"That this meeting, while fully
recognising the great steps made by nearly all civilised nations in the
path of human freedom, has yet to contemplate with feelings of the
deepest sorrow the vast extent of Slavery still maintained among
Mohammedan and heathen nations, producing, as its consequence, the
indescribable horrors of the Central and East African Slave-trade, as
fatal to human life on shore as the dreadful Middle Passage formerly was
at sea; in view of this appalling state of things, this meeting pledges
itself to support the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in its
efforts to urge the Governments of all Slave-holding countries to put an
end to Slavery as the only certain method of stopping the Slave-trade."

Mr. Forster said that this resolution had been drawn with a temperance
of language which he feared he would not have been able to command. He
thought that the services which England had rendered to some nations
still encouraging Slavery and the Slave-trade, entitled her voice to be
raised with great authority. But he recognised the difficulties, which
should nerve them to greater earnestness in strengthening public opinion
in this country on the subject. "I greatly rejoice," said Mr. Forster,
"to see this meeting, and I believe this means a new departure, and a
determination to carry on the work, and to strengthen the hands of this
Society for what it has yet to do."

Cardinal Manning, in an earnest and eloquent appeal, also urged the
claims of the Society. "The reports published by it, as to the actual
state of Slavery and the Slave-trade, are too sadly true. We are told
that Livingstone, whose name cannot be mentioned in this hall or
anywhere without awaking the sympathy of all Christian men, has left it
on record as his belief that half-a-million of human lives are annually
sacrificed by this African Slave-trade. This horrible traffic runs in
three tracks, marked by skeletons, from the centre of Africa towards
Madagascar, towards Zanzibar, and towards the Red Sea. Also, we are
told, that of those who are carried away by force, some are so worn by
fatigue as to die, others falling by the way are slaughtered by the
sword, so that of this great multitude only one-third ever reaches the
end of their horrible destination. It would seem to me that never in the
Middle Passage was murder and misery so great."

What was thus said by Cardinal Manning has been since confirmed by his
Eminence Cardinal Lavigerie, Archbishop of Algiers and Carthage, when
recently in London, engaged in a righteous crusade to be preached by him
in all the Capitals of Europe. This African prelate, from his own
knowledge, during the last thirty years, as missionary and as prelate,
gave terrible details of the slave trade, as the curse of that dark
continent. The Cardinal says that the traffic can never be stopped,
except by force, and if the Governments of Europe cannot effect this, he
advocates a voluntary crusade of men, ready to form armed colonies of
blacks to protect the missionaries of religion and civilization, and to
defend the slave regions from the murderous raiders who invade them. The
success of Emin Pasha who has for ten years kept the whole of his great
Equatorial province free from the ravages of the slave-hunters shows
what can be done. But for the shameful abandonment of Gordon at
Khartoum, the slave trade would at this time have been almost at an end,
and the grand desires of Livingstone for the peace and welfare of Africa
would have been accomplished. Let us hope that Cardinal Lavigerie's
visit may not be in vain so far as England is concerned. He came quietly
and went quietly, only paying two visits after his public appearance at
Prince's Hall, one to the Marquis of Salisbury, and the other to the
Prince of Wales.

To return to the Guildhall, the loyal and hearty thanks of the meeting
were offered to His Royal Highness, on the motion of the Lord Mayor,
seconded by Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, and carried by acclamation. The
Prince, in reply, said:--

    "I am not likely to forget this important day, and most
    sincerely do I hope that important results may accrue from it.
    We have to-day celebrated the past, but we have the future to
    look to, as many speakers have said, and I cannot do better than
    agree with my right hon. friend on my left (Mr. Forster) that we
    must act with caution. But with due caution, and with the advice
    and good example which have been set, I feel sure that in time
    all countries will follow in the footsteps of England. The best
    chance of a complete abolition of Slavery will lie in
    civilisation, in opening up those great countries, Asia and
    Africa, many parts of which are now known to but few Europeans,
    and in disseminating education. In time people will see that
    they have derived no benefit from having Slaves, that the
    freeman will do his work far better than the one who is forced
    to labour. I mentioned, in first speaking, the names of many men
    connected with the subject on which we have met to-day. I will
    now add the name of one who was taken from us a few months ago,
    and who always had the deepest interest in this Society--I
    allude to the eminent and much regretted statesman, Sir Bartle
    Frere. And on this occasion his widow, Lady Frere, has sent to
    us these slave irons [pointing to the chains in front], which
    were brought some years ago from Zanzibar by Sir Bartle Frere,
    and you will, by looking at these implements of the slavers, be
    convinced more, perhaps, than by anything else, of the cruelty
    and hardships which slaves in this part of Africa had to
    undergo. I will not detain you longer, but I must thank you once
    more for the kind support you have given me to-day, and also
    those gentlemen, many of them old and valued friends of my own,
    who have addressed you in such eloquent and exhaustive

The Prince vacated the chair, which was then taken by the Lord Mayor,
and His Royal Highness left, amid loud cheers. His Royal Highness
afterwards graciously consented to become Patron of the British and
Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.


_April 9th-17th._

Seventeen years had passed since the Prince and Princess of Wales had
been in Ireland, and had been received with generous and loyal
enthusiasm. It was feared by many that the spirit of loyalty in the
Irish people had died away and could never be revived. The selfish and
treasonable agitators who had long stirred up hostile and disloyal
feelings were vexed and angry when they heard of another Royal visit.
They used every means that a malign ingenuity could suggest to repress
the generous impulses of the Irish race, and did all in their power to
prepare for the Prince and Princess of Wales a reception different from
that which had been given on their former visits. When they found that
the mass of the people looked forward with joyful anticipation to the
coming of the Prince and Princess among them, they recommended, on the
part of what they called the national party, to maintain a "dignified
neutrality," and to abstain from joining in the loyal demonstration with
which it was evident the Royal visitors would be welcomed. The design
proved a failure. From the moment of landing at Kingstown to the day of
their departure, not in Dublin only, but in the progress through the
south of Ireland, the feeling of disaffection and disloyalty was
overborne by the spontaneous and hearty enthusiasm of the people.

The first manifestation of loyal feeling was displayed at Kingstown,
when an address was presented by the Commissioners of the township. The
reply of the Prince shows how the spirit of the address was

    "Mr. Chairman and Town Commissioners of Kingstown,--It has given
    me great pleasure to receive the address with which you have
    greeted me on my first landing in Ireland after some absence
    from your shores, and I am grateful to you for the welcome which
    you have accorded to the Princess of Wales and myself. I value,
    I can assure you, very highly the expression of loyalty and
    attachment to the Crown which your address contains, and I will
    not fail to communicate to the Queen the sentiments of loyalty
    and of devotion which you express towards Her Majesty. Most
    certainly do I hope that this may not be the last visit which we
    shall pay to a country where we have always been welcomed by
    kindness, and where the hospitality which we have invariably
    received on all former occasions has left so many pleasant
    recollections impressed on our minds."

On arriving at Dublin the first address was presented by the City
Reception Committee, the citizens having, with the hearty co-operation
of all classes, undertaken to pay the common courtesies of welcome,
which rightly should have been done, and on former occasions were done,
by the Lord Mayor and Corporation. An address was at the same time
presented by the Chamber of Commerce. To both addresses the Prince thus

    "Mr. Martin, Mr. Guinness, and Gentlemen,--On behalf of the
    Princess of Wales and myself, I thank you heartily for the
    address you have read to me, and I am very grateful to the
    citizens of Dublin who through you have welcomed me to their
    city. It gives the Princess and myself much gratification once
    more to visit a country where we have received so much kindness,
    and I regret the length of the interval which has elapsed since
    we last were in Ireland, and fully appreciate your sentiments of
    loyalty to the Throne and Constitution, and I will take care to
    communicate to the Queen your expressions of devotion and
    attachment to Her Majesty. It will give me much pleasure to
    renew my acquaintance with Dublin and see the results of the
    civic and private enterprise to which you refer. The furtherance
    of the welfare of all classes of the realm is an object which is
    dear to me, and I trust that the efforts of the Commission of
    which I am a member will tend to the improvement of the
    dwellings of those who contribute by their labour to the
    prosperity of our great towns, and will thus add to their public
    utility as citizens as well as to their private and domestic
    happiness. I hope to visit many parts of Ireland and see much of
    the work, as well as share some of the amusements, of the Irish
    people. The kindness with which you have greeted me encourages
    me to look forward with pleasure to my visit to a country where
    courtesy and hospitality have ever been the characteristics of
    the people."

One passage in the address of the Chamber of Commerce the Prince did not
refer to, but it is of great importance. After the warm expressions of
loyalty to the Throne and the Constitution, and of devotion to the Queen
and the Royal Family, the address continued, "We earnestly desire that
your present visit may be productive of so much pleasure to your Royal
Highnesses that you may feel encouraged to honour Ireland hereafter by
visits of more frequent occurrence and of longer duration. We venture to
assure you that it would be a great gratification to Her Majesty's loyal
subjects in Ireland if a permanent Royal residence should be established
in our country, and if some members of the Royal Family should see fit
to make their home among us for some part of every year." About the
permanent Royal residence in Ireland, the Prince kept a judicious
silence, for it is a point which involves financial as well as political
questions. But the opinion of the best Irish, of all classes, may well
be considered, if the proposal is brought before Parliament.

The address of the Royal Dublin Society when the Royal party visited the
Agricultural Show elicited another appropriate speech from the Prince.
After acknowledging the expressions of loyalty to the Throne, and of
personal kindness in the welcome given, the Prince said:--

    "The proceedings of your society have ever been a matter of deep
    interest to me, as they were to my lamented father; and, having
    been fortunate enough on many occasions to be a successful
    exhibitor at agricultural shows, I am able to appreciate the
    service rendered to agriculture generally, and to the rearing of
    cattle and horses especially, by your labours. In your attitude
    towards the geographical survey I rejoice to see a determination
    which proves to me that the promotion of those objects which you
    consider to be for the best interests of your country is
    paramount in your minds. I most sincerely trust that success may
    attend each and all of your important undertakings, for they
    are designed to promote the prosperity of a people who, quick to
    grapple with the difficulties of science and always ready to
    take advantage of the benefits of commerce, are necessarily
    dependent to a large extent on highly taught and scientific

Later in the day the Prince went to see for himself the condition of
some of the poorest parts of the city. His kindly sympathetic, manners
towards the poor, and the minute acquaintance which he showed with the
whole subject of the housing of the labouring classes, in all the
details of construction and sanitation, were the theme of universal
surprise and admiration. Of this inspection of the "slums" a reporter at
the time said, "The visit of the Prince to these parts of the city was
not publicly announced. But the people were not long in discovering who
their visitor was. He had come among them with his eldest son,
unattended by any guard, and the event showed that his confidence was
not misplaced. Cheers and welcomes and every outward demonstration of
loyal good feeling attended him along his whole course. It was a
reception which had been well earned, and it will certainly not be the
least pleasant recollection which the Prince will carry back when his
Irish visit is at an end."

The proceedings on the 10th of April were as many and as laborious as
those of the preceding day. The first duty was the reception of
addresses from various public bodies. There were no fewer than thirty
different addresses, presented by deputations of five persons for each.
They were received by the Prince, who wore the Order of St. Patrick. The
Princess of Wales was on his left, and Prince Albert Victor on her left.
All the addresses were handed in succession to the Prince, without being
read, which would have occupied too much time, and then the deputations
were requested to approach the daïs, when the Prince, in dear expressive
tones, read the following reply:--

    "Your Graces, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I have thought it more
    for your convenience, as well as more within the compass of my
    ability, that I should, with your permission, make a general
    reply to the many kind addresses with which you have honoured
    me, and copies of which have already by your courtesy been
    before me, than that I should attempt a separate reply to each.
    I feel myself highly honoured by having been welcomed in this
    historic hall by so many bodies representing so many and so
    varied interests as you do. Leaders of local administrations,
    heads of religious communities, representatives of learning and
    art, philanthropy and education, you have one and all greeted me
    with the kindness and good will which has made a deep
    impression upon me, and which I never shall forget. You have
    alluded in terms of loyalty, which have much gratified me, to
    your attachment to the Constitution, and have expressed in a
    manner which I will not fail to communicate to the Queen your
    devotion to Her Majesty.

    "In varied capacities, and by widely different paths, you pursue
    those great objects which, dear to you, are, believe me, dear
    also to me--the prosperity and progress of Ireland, the welfare
    and happiness of her people. That many difficulties from time to
    time impede you I can well understand. Such is the natural
    course of events. But I am glad to be able to gather from your
    addresses that you are advancing steadily towards the goal which
    you have in view. From my heart I wish you success, and I would
    that time and my own powers would permit me to explain fully and
    in detail the deep interest which I feel not only in the welfare
    of this great Empire at large, but in the true happiness of
    those several classes of the community on whose behalf you have
    come here to-day. You have referred to the Princess of Wales,
    who has accompanied me on this occasion, and for her I thank you
    for your welcome to a country, of the past visits to which we
    have pleasant recollections, and where we hope in future, as we
    have in the past, to spend happy days."

The several deputations listened with great interest to the reply, and
at the close gave expression to their pleasure in cordial acclamations.

The next event set down in the programme of the day was one to which
great national importance is attached--namely, that of laying the
foundation stone of the new Museum of Science and Art in connection with
South Kensington. Elaborate preparations had been made for it, and the
grounds at each side of Leinster House, which is to be the central
building, were adorned with gay flags and fitted up with stands, from
which the entry of the Royal party and the ceremonial itself could be
seen. A guard of honour, contributed by the Cornwall Regiment, with
their band, was stationed on Leinster Lawn, opening upon Merrion Square,
through which the Royal party entered. On the route from the Castle to
Leinster House, the streets were everywhere densely crowded, and the
houses decorated. An open passage for the procession was kept by the
police without any difficulty, the populace behaving with exemplary
decorum. The Prince and Princess acknowledged most graciously the
enthusiastic greetings of the crowds, which were largely composed of the
working classes. The first stone having been duly laid, and a statement
having been made by Professor Ball of the objects of the new "Museum of
Science and Art, and of the National Library of Ireland," the Prince

    "Mr. Ball, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I thank you heartily on
    behalf of the Princess of Wales and myself for the very cordial
    welcome which you leave given us to-day. It is peculiarly
    satisfactory to me to have been able to take part in the
    interesting ceremony of laying the foundation stone upon which
    the superstructure of the new museum will, I hope, before long
    be built. It gratified me to learn of the action which the
    Science and Art Department had taken in reference to this museum
    and to observe the support which that action received both from
    the Royal Dublin Society and from the Royal Irish Academy. It is
    by a united movement such as this that difficulties are overcome
    and success made possible of attainment. I am glad to think that
    the two great societies I have named have combined to smooth the
    way for an institute which will, I trust, be useful to a large
    number of the people of Ireland. I hope some day to see in full
    working order the institution of which the first stone has been
    laid this afternoon. When this is so, the magnificent
    collections, which have obtained a wide reputation, will be open
    to a public thoroughly capable of appreciating their merit and
    deriving advantages from their amalgamation under one roof. The
    Museum will worthily face the great library, where the efforts
    of a State Department have been successfully combined with a
    movement originated by the the citizens, and supported out of
    the rates, the object of which is to give free facilities for
    reading and study to the people of this metropolis. I am glad to
    have been assisted to-day by the councils of the great societies
    to which I have referred. To them, as well as to the visitors of
    the Museum, and the trustees of the National Library, I offer my
    warm thanks for the kindness of their reception, as well as for
    the opportunity they have given me for sharing in a movement
    calculated to make Leinster House even more worthy than
    heretofore of the pride of the Irish nation, and the admiration
    of literary and scientific bodies throughout the world."

After leaving the Leinster House the Royal and Viceregal parties drove
to the Royal University, where another interesting ceremony was
performed. The hall of the University was crowded with a brilliant
concourse of graduates and spectators. Their Royal Highnesses and the
Lord Lieutenant and Countess Spencer were met by the Chancellor, the
Duke of Abercorn, and the Vice-Chancellor, Lord Emly. After their Royal
Highnesses had robed they were conducted to the hall. After all had
taken their seats in the hall, a formal announcement was made by Dr.
Meredith that the Senate had resolved to confer the degree of Doctor of
Laws _honoris causâ_ upon His Royal Highness Albert Edward Prince of
Wales, and also the degree of Doctor of Music _honoris causâ_ upon Her
Royal Highness Alexandra Princess of Wales, and that their Royal
Highnesses had been graciously pleased to intimate that they would
accept those degrees. The announcement was received with loud applause
by the assembly. The Chancellor then read and presented an address to
the Prince, offering a respectful welcome and homage to His Royal
Highness and his august consort. It also referred to the success of the

The degrees having been conferred, the Prince rose and said:--

    "My Lord Duke, my Lords, and Gentlemen of the Senate of the
    Royal University,--I am very grateful to you for the manner in
    which you have received us in this hall, and on behalf of the
    Princess of Wales and myself I thank you for the kind welcome
    with which you have greeted us. The higher education of the
    people is a subject in which I learnt from my lamented father to
    take a great interest. It is a question to the solution of which
    your labours, I am happy to think, have contributed much. Though
    no considerable time has elapsed since the foundation of the
    Royal University, it has already had a marked effect among those
    people of this country who are especially open to the influence
    of a University career. I shall value the degree which you have
    conferred upon me, and I am proud to rank myself among the
    graduates of a University, the advantages of which I am happy to
    hear from you that all classes of the community avail themselves

    "By the admission of women to your degrees you have supported
    the view that the gentler sex are capable, not only of severe
    competition in science, but of enjoying the benefits and using
    the power which a well-considered scientific education bestows.
    It gratified me to learn that you were willing to confer upon
    the Princess of Wales the degree of Doctor of Music, which, Her
    Royal Highness wishes me to state on her behalf, she has
    received with pleasure not only because she felt that it was an
    honour to herself, but because she wished to show her approval
    of her action of the ladies of Ireland in accepting the
    facilities and advantages which you have offered to them. In Her
    Royal Highness's name and in my own, I thank you for the honour
    you have done me, and for the kindness with which you have
    received us to-day."

The Prince's speech was received with great cheering. The proceedings
concluded with the National Anthem. The Royal and Viceregal parties
returned to Dublin Castle amid renewed greetings from the citizens who
still waited in the streets to see them.

Some of the incidents of the Royal visit must be passed over with simple
mention, the Levée held by the Prince, the Drawing-room held by the
Princess, and the State Ball given by the Lord Lieutenant, of which it
was said at the time that "no scene so animated and attractive has been
witnessed in Dublin Castle since the former visit of their Royal
Highnesses to Ireland." The opening of the new dock at the extremity of
the North Wall attested the progress that has been made in the Port of
Dublin, accommodation being now provided for shipping of the largest
class. The Prince congratulated the "Port and Docks Board" on the
completion of this work, and the Princess performed the ceremony of
opening and christening the new basin, which is called the Alexandra
Basin in commemoration of the event.

This took place on Saturday, the 11th of April. On the same day the
Royal visitors inspected the Artane Industrial School, with its
workshops and farms, and its probationary institution for the very
young, a truly beneficent work carried on by the Christian Brothers. The
Artane institution is one of the best of its class. The Government
contribute 5_s._ a week for each boy trained there, the rest of the cost
being provided by charitable donations, and the profits of the

Having described the visit to the Royal University, that to Trinity
College must not be omitted. The reception was one of most enthusiastic
loyalty. In the hall a vast assembly awaited the entrance of their Royal
Highnesses, consisting of the members of the Senate, Fellows,
Professors, and invited visitors. An address was read by the
Vice-Chancellor, in which reference was made to the former visit of the
Prince, when his name was enrolled among those of adopted sons of the
_alma mater_. The Prince made appropriate reply for himself and for the
Princess, and at the close of his speech asked the Provost, Dr. Jellett,
to grant the undergraduates a term. "I cannot," added the Prince, "ask
for the degree examination, but perhaps you will grant the college
examination." To the request so graciously made, the Provost said that
the Board of Trinity College acceded. The cheers from the undergraduates
as the Royal visitors passed into the hall had been enthusiastic, and
were if possible more fervent as they left the College.

The last function performed by the Prince before leaving Dublin was
presenting new colours to the Cornwall Regiment, then in garrison at
Dublin. The ceremony took place in the Castle Gardens. The corps
mustered 800 strong, under Colonel Stabb, the commanding officer. The
Prince wore his Field Marshal's uniform, and his son that of the Norfolk
Artillery Volunteers. The usual routine on such occasions was followed,
after which the Prince addressed the regiment which had formed up close
around the group of officers among whom he stood.

    "Colonel Stabb, Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Men of
    the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry,--I consider it a high
    honour to be permitted to present new colours to such a
    distinguished regiment as that under your command--one which
    ever since it was raised in 1704 has had as brilliant a record
    of services in the field as any regiment in Her Majesty's
    service. You first served with the great Duke of Marlborough in
    Flanders, and then in America. Dettingen is the first name
    inscribed on your colours. In the great Peninsular War you
    especially distinguished yourselves, and suffered heavy losses
    at Corunna and Salamanca. At Quatre Bras and Waterloo you lost
    more than any other corps engaged, and the gallant Sir Thomas
    Picton was killed at the head of your regiment. Your next
    service was in India, where you took part in the Punjab
    campaign. Later, in 1857, you gallantly distinguished yourselves
    in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny, and gallantly held the
    Residency of Lucknow during its defence from June till November.
    You were on that occasion commanded by Brigadier-General Inglis,
    who for those services was created a Major-General and a Knight
    Commander of the Bath, while you received the honour of being
    made Light Infantry. You, Colonel Stabb, are, I believe, the
    only officer of the regiment present who served during the
    Mutiny. When some years ago I visited the remains of the
    Residency of Lucknow, my attention was especially called to the
    services of this regiment. On your return the Queen and my
    father inspected the regiment and personally thanked the
    officers, non-commissioned officers and men for their gallant
    conduct at Lucknow, and I feel doubly proud as their son to
    have the honour of presenting these new colours to you to-day.
    The latest records on your colours are Egypt and Tel-el-Kebir. A
    second battalion, at this moment serving in the Soudan, has
    recently been added to you, which, with the Royal Cornwall
    Rangers Militia, of which I am the honorary Colonel, and the two
    Volunteer battalions, make up the Duke of Cornwall's Light
    Infantry. From the title I bear I am simply proud to be thus
    connected with this fine regiment. In confiding these colours to
    your care I feel that the honour of your Sovereign and your
    country will ever be before you as on former occasions, and that
    in the future, as in the past, the roll of honourable
    distinction of your colours will ever increase."

Colonel Stabb, in the name of all the officers and men of the regiment,
thanked His Royal Highness for the great honour he had done them in
presenting the colours, and said he could not do better than express a
fervent hope, which he did with a great deal of confidence, that the
regiment would as faithfully defend the new colours as they did their
colours at Waterloo and Lucknow. He was sure the honour would be
appreciated by the battalions of the regiment, and he tendered to His
Royal Highness their grateful thanks.

On the afternoon of the 13th the Prince and Princess started from the
Kingsbridge Station for Cork. At Mallow there were signs that the visit
to the South might not be without unpleasant incidents. A loyal address
was presented at the station, but Mr. O'Brien and other Home Rule
leaders had brought a number of Nationalists with bands, to disturb the
unanimity of welcome. The rioters had to be ejected by the Constabulary.
At Cork there were similar attempts at hostile demonstration, but it was
shown only by the lowest rabble, and at the instigation of the political
agitators. The patriots of the present time are of immeasurably lower
type than Daniel O'Connell, even when he was most zealous for Repeal of
the Union. He was always loyal as well as patriotic, and however bitter
in words, he was always a gentleman in his actions. Whatever may be the
views as to politics, the men who could incite their followers to insult
the Prince and Princess of Wales, whose hearts are full of sympathy and
love for Ireland, are unworthy the name of Irishmen. At Cork, several of
the Home Rule members urged the people to resent the visit of the Royal
party as a degradation to their city. At Dundalk on the same day, Mr.
Redmond, M.P., addressing a meeting of the National League, "expressed
his joy at the difficulty of England with the Soudan and Afghanistan. He
hoped that the Russian bear would soon stick his claw into the British
lion. He was sorry that this Prince of Wales was not there to see what
the real feeling of the Irish people was, instead of scampering about
the country attended by military and police and bloody Earl Spencer."

In spite of a few jarring notes of this kind, the reception of the
Prince and Princess in Ireland was worthy of the warm and hospitable
character of the Irish Nation. Another proof was given that the
disaffection is only temporary and partial, and due to the malignant
influence of those who delude the ignorant with false representations.
No one understands this better than the Prince of Wales, than whom the
people of Ireland have no truer friend.


_June 9th, 1885._

As one of the Trustees of the British Museum, the Prince of Wales was
requested to represent them on the occasion of the unveiling of the
statue of Charles Darwin, in the entrance-hall of the Museum of Natural
History, now at South Kensington. The ceremony of unveiling was
performed by Professor Huxley, whose address, after brief reference to
the high claims of the author of 'The Origin of Species,' and other
works of enduring fame, gave a statement as to the history of the
memorial statue. Then addressing the Prince as representing the
Trustees, he was requested to accept the statue from the Darwin Memorial

The Prince, in reply, said:--

    "I consider it to be a high privilege to have been deputed by
    the unanimous wish of my colleagues, the Trustees of the British
    Museum, to accept, in their names, the gift which you have
    offered us on behalf of the Committee of the Darwin Memorial.
    The Committee and subscribers may rest assured that we have most
    willingly assigned this honourable place to the statue of the
    great Englishman who has exerted so vast an influence upon the
    progress of those branches of natural knowledge, the advancement
    of which is the object of the vast collection gathered here. It
    has given me much pleasure to learn that the memorial has
    received so much support in foreign countries, and it may be
    regarded as cosmopolitan rather than merely national; while the
    fact that persons of every condition of life have contributed to
    it affords remarkable evidence of the popular interest in the
    discussion of scientific problems. A memorial to which all
    nations and all classes of society have contributed cannot be
    more fitly lodged than in our Museum, which though national is
    open to all the world, and the resources of which are at the
    disposal of every student of Nature, whatever his condition or
    his country, who enters our doors."


_July 4th, 1885._

This institution was founded in 1825, by Dr. Birkbeck, a zealous
educationist of that time, for promoting learning, chiefly among the
middle and working classes, by opening evening classes, and establishing
lectures and other means of instruction. The old building having become
insufficient in its accommodation, a new edifice was erected near
Chancery Lane, of which the foundation stone was laid, in 1883, by the
late Duke of Albany. To open this new building the Prince and Princess
of Wales came, on the 4th of July, 1885.

A loyal address having been presented by Mr. Birkbeck, M.P., one of the
trustees, the Prince thus replied:--

    "I thank you for the loyal address which you have presented to
    me, and would express the heartfelt satisfaction which I
    experience in visiting an institution with which my lamented
    brother's name will ever be associated. You have referred to his
    touching words when laying the foundation stone of this
    building, and I am reminded that on that memorable occasion he
    stated that he had lent his aid to an enterprise on the
    accomplishment of which he would be able to look back with
    feelings of satisfaction and pride! It was not permitted to him
    to see this noble structure in its finished state, but I rejoice
    to know that prior to the great calamity which befell us he had
    received an intimation that the building was approaching

    "I observe with pleasure the names of the distinguished
    contributors to the building fund, and I rejoice that the Queen
    has shown her interest in an institution which met with the warm
    support of my revered father. Sixty years ago the Duke of Sussex
    performed the inaugural ceremony of your old building; and it
    speaks much for the vitality of your institution that after so
    lengthened a period a member of my family should be again
    invited to declare a building open so extensive as this one, the
    erection of which has been absolutely demanded by the expansion
    of your work. An institution in which provision is made for 6000
    students, and to which both sexes are invited, must exert a very
    beneficial influence on the young men and women of the
    Metropolis, for whose mental advancement it has been erected.
    Many of the students in the old building have worthily
    distinguished themselves, and it behoves those who partake of
    the greater advantages of the new institution to emulate the
    noble examples which have been set by their predecessors.

    "The movement initiated by Dr. George Birkbeck was a very
    remarkable one, and the foundation of the old institution was an
    event of historic importance. We are informed that this movement
    has spread not only throughout the Kingdom, but that its
    ramifications have extended to different parts of the world, and
    the presence to-day of representatives of our Colonies is to me
    one of the most interesting features of the proceedings. The
    success of Dr. Birkbeck's work is to be traced in the fact that,
    in the words of Professor Tyndall, 'it responded at the proper
    time to a national need, and to a need of human nature.'

    "This institution has anticipated some of the beneficent
    movements of the age, and by its technical instruction, and the
    admission of both sexes to its advantages, has exerted a very
    powerful influence for good. With a vitality so potent we may
    look forward to the time when even this extensive building will
    be insufficient for your needs. It is a subject for
    congratulation that the institutions which by the establishment
    of the Birkbeck Institution have been called into existence are
    being so wisely adapted to the requirements of the age, and are
    exerting by their development such a beneficent influence among
    the people at large. I desire to thank you most heartily for the
    kind welcome you have given us here this afternoon, and I
    earnestly hope that this great institution will continue to
    flourish, and that we may hear from time to time of its
    increasing prosperity.

    "This building, which will be regarded as a memorial of my dear
    brother's devotion to the great cause of education, I have now
    the gratification to declare open, and, in his words, 'to
    dedicate it to those noble uses which it is intended to serve.'"

The thanks of the audience to the Prince were proposed by the Lord
Mayor, and seconded by Sir Charles Tupper, High Commissioner for Canada.


_July 5th, 1884._

At the ninth triennial festival of the Railway Guards' Universal
Friendly Society, held at Willis's Rooms, July 5th, 1884, the Prince of
Wales presided. A large number of directors and leading men connected
with the railway companies were among the company. In giving or
responding to the usual loyal toasts, His Royal Highness, in a very
grateful and gracious way, took the opportunity of expressing his warm
sense of the uniform attention shown to the Queen, and also to himself
and the Princess of Wales, during their very frequent journeys, by the
directors and all the officials and servants of the various railway
companies. Everything was done for their safety and comfort, and he
wished thus publicly to acknowledge his appreciation of what was done.

In giving the toast of the evening, "Prosperity to the Railway Guards'
Universal Friendly Society," the Prince said:--

    "We are to-day celebrating the ninth triennial festival of this
    Society, in aid of the 'Permanent Sick and Injured, and Widows
    and Orphans' Fund,' and I think all will agree with me that
    there is no charity which better deserves the attention and
    support of the public than this one. That it has already
    received such support is apparent to us from the length of time
    it has existed, but like all other great institutions of the
    kind in our country, the money which is required is, also,
    greatly in excess of that which is at their disposal to meet the
    actual necessities which arise.

    "No public servants, I think, more deserve our sincere sympathy
    and support than the guards of our railway trains. It is obvious
    to all of us who have to travel constantly on railways how much
    our safety depends on their industry, their vigilance, their
    sobriety, and their discipline; and it is very gratifying to
    know that we may confidently rely on finding these qualities in
    them. Knowing what they have to go through, their exposure to
    all weathers and to risks of all kinds; remembering how much
    they have to be away from their homes and their families, it
    seems to me that we have hardly the right to expect to obtain
    from them their valuable services unless we in some measure
    mitigate their sufferings in sickness and from accident, and
    unless in case of death we do something for the maintenance of
    their widows and orphans. The Society was founded in June, 1849,
    and is one of the oldest societies in existence designed for the
    benefit of railway _employés_, and may be said to represent
    every line in the United Kingdom. It consists of forty-eight
    districts at the present time, situated at the principal railway
    stations throughout the country, from London to Inverness. In
    addition to the usual advantages offered by friendly
    societies--the ordinary sick and death benefits--this society
    possesses two special features adapted to the requirements of
    railway guards, who are exposed to very great risks from
    accidents. These objects are: 1st, a liberal provision for life
    for all those members who may become permanently disabled,
    either from injuries or constitutional causes; 2nd, annuities
    for the widows and orphans of deceased members. Other
    institutions, if they attempt to provide these exceptional
    benefits, only do so to a limited extent, and the members to
    whom they are granted are elected as vacancies occur; but the
    policy of this society has always been to provide these great
    blessings for all who are so unfortunate as to require them;
    and, notwithstanding that statistics show that guards run
    greater risks than other classes of railway servants, the
    contributions of the members themselves have been so largely
    supplemented by the generous support accorded by the public
    generally, that the society up to the present time has been able
    to carry out this fundamental principle."

The greater portion of the speech of His Royal Highness consisted of
statistics of a most interesting kind, both as to the vast extent of
railway travelling, the number of trains, of passengers, of railway
_employés_, at that time numbering 357,650. All these statistics, as
obtained from the returns of the Board of Trade, and also the number of
persons killed or injured, especially those employed on the lines, were
presented with admirable clearness to the audience, and were heard with
great interest; but the statistics are not the same now, and are
therefore not here given. The Prince concluded with an earnest appeal
for help to the institution for which he pleaded. The appeal was
liberally responded to, the subscriptions amounting to £3383, including
a hundred guineas from the Royal Chairman, which has been his generous
custom at the close of most of the charitable meetings for objects which
have had the advantage of his support and advocacy.

It ought to be added that the Prince had already presided at a festival
of the "Railway Benevolent Association," where he spoke with equal
warmth and sympathy for all classes of railway servants. There are now
other institutions with similar objects, partly provident and partly
benevolent, and it is an excellent kind of charity. The directors of
companies do their part, and, where there is any just cause, can be made
to do more, under the Employers' Liability Act. For unavoidable
accidents the men themselves contribute their money, on the principle of
mutual insurance, but there is need also for more of the benevolent
gifts of those who travel by rail.


_July 13th, 1885._

On the 8th of July, 1872, the Prince of Wales, as President of St.
Bartholomew's Hospital, formally opened a new Convalescent Home, in
connection with that Hospital. This was an institution much needed at
the time, and its advantages had long been urged on the Governors by Mr.
Foster White, the Treasurer. At several existing Homes, such as at
Walton-on-Thames, and Bognor, patients from St. Bartholomew's had been
received, but it was desirable to have an establishment of its own, and
conducted by its own officers. The carrying out of this scheme would
require large expenditure, and a suitable building could not be provided
for a considerable time. A temporary home was obtained at Highgate,
through the generous munificence of Sir Sydney Waterlow, one of the
Governors of the Hospital. He presented as a free gift the lease, for
several years, of Lauderdale House, a mansion with many historical
associations, somewhat old, but with every convenience for use as a
temporary home for convalescent patients, and so it continued for
thirteen years. On the 13th of July, 1885, the Prince, accompanied by
the Princess of Wales, and the Princesses Louise, Victoria, and Maude,
visited Swanley, in Kent, to open the permanent Home, erected through
the generosity of Mr. Charles T. Kettlewell, one of the Governors of the
Hospital. It is a spacious building, with accommodation for forty-five
male and twenty-five female patients, standing in the middle of
beautiful grounds, comprising an area of fifteen acres.

Their Royal Highnesses having taken their places on the daïs at the end
of a tent, Sir Sydney Waterlow, who had for several years given the use
of Lauderdale House at Highgate, read an address, which gave a summary
of the facts relating to the new institution. Besides the gift of
£15,000 by Mr. Kettlewell for the building, an anonymous donor, a
governor of the Hospital, contributed £500 for the site; Mr. Homan,
another governor, and Mrs. Homan had built a chapel and provided its
furniture and communion plate; and Sir James Tyler had given an organ to
the chapel, and built the lodge at the entrance of the grounds.

Sir Sydney having finished his address, the Prince of Wales said:--

    "Sir Sydney Waterlow, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--You have given us
    a most interesting account of the history of the institution you
    wish me to open. I can only say on behalf of the Princess of
    Wales and myself that we are extremely happy to have an
    opportunity of assisting at the inauguration of an institution
    such as this, where the patients ought to feel very grateful for
    the manner in which every plan for their comfort has been
    carried out through the munificence of Mr. Kettlewell. Nothing
    can be of greater importance than that convalescent homes such
    as this should exist, especially in connection with large
    hospitals such as St. Bartholomew's. The spot now chosen, with
    its healthy aspect and beautiful scenery, will, I am sure, meet
    all requirements. It affords me great pleasure to be here
    to-day, and I feel proud to be the president of such an
    institution as St. Bartholomew's, and to be able to assist Sir
    Sydney Waterlow, who takes such interest in, and devotes so much
    of his time and energies to, the prosperity of the hospital. I
    have great satisfaction in declaring the home to be now open."

The ceremony over, the Rev. S. Kettlewell, who had offered the
dedicatory prayer, and his son, Mr. C. T. Kettlewell, donor of the
building, were presented to the Prince of Wales by Sir Sydney Waterlow.
Before leaving, the Royal party visited the home, and also inspected the
adjacent laundry buildings which have been erected for use as a washing
establishment for St. Bartholomew's Hospital.


_July 15th, 1885._

The Yorkshire College at Leeds is one of the most important and useful
of the educational institutions that have in recent times been
established. Commencing in 1874 on a comparatively small scale, it has
gradually grown to be a great school, not for technical and scientific
training only, but for all departments of study. The staff of the
College includes professors of mathematics, physics, chemistry,
engineering, and various branches of industrial teaching; and also of
classics, history, and modern literature, and languages. The celebrated
Leeds School of Medicine has been affiliated to the College. For special
departments of practical instruction provision has been made, the
Clothworkers' Company of London undertaking to support that which
pertains to textile industries, and the Drapers' Company that of
colliery management and mining engineering. Workshops, laboratories,
lecture rooms, and other premises, are connected with the College, the
buildings of which were designed by Sir Alfred Waterhouse, and commenced
in 1877, when the foundation stone was laid by the Archbishop of York.
The friends of the College have contributed not less than £200,000 to
bring it to its present condition. To inaugurate this great institution
the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Leeds on the 15th of July,

On arriving at Leeds from Studley, the seat of Lord Ripon, their Royal
Highnesses were received by the Mayor and Corporation, and conducted to
the Town Hall, which was opened by the Queen and the Prince Consort in
1858. An address being read by the Town Clerk, the Prince replied:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I receive with the greatest pleasure
    the address which you have just presented to me, and the
    Princess of Wales joins me in thanking you most sincerely for
    your kind words of welcome. Coming from the civic authorities of
    one of our greatest industrial centres these expressions are a
    proof, if any were required, that the population of this country
    remains true in its appreciation of the value of our
    time-honoured institutions, in devotion to the Queen, and in
    attachment to the Royal Family. I rejoice to learn from your
    address that the visits of the members of my family at various
    times to this great city have been attended with beneficial
    results, and have contributed in some degree to its welfare and
    prosperity, and to the development of the many useful
    institutions for which Leeds is so justly famous. Although it
    has pleased the Almighty to remove some of my dearest and most
    gifted relations from the scene of their labours, I can assure
    you that their survivors will always be ready to encourage by
    their presence and assistance the foundation and advancement of
    such institutions as the one which we are brought together
    to-day to inaugurate. It will be a source of sincere
    gratification to me to convey to the Queen your expressions of
    loyal devotion, and I can assure you that they will be highly
    appreciated by Her Majesty."

An address from the Leeds Masonic lodges was also received and responded
to, after which their Royal Highnesses proceeded to the Yorkshire
College. Here they were received, in the Clothworkers' Court, by the
Marquis of Ripon, President of the College and Chairman of the Council,
Sir Edward Baines, Sir Andrew Fairbairn, Mr. Beckett Denison, and other
distinguished persons. Deputations of the London Companies, the Mayors
of several Yorkshire boroughs, and Yorkshire Members of Parliament; the
Principal and Professors of the College; and a numerous company had
assembled. Prayer was offered by the Archbishop of York; an address was
read by Professor Bodington, the Principal. Sir Edward Baines made a
statement as to the origin and growth of the College, in which he said
that he must mention a feature of the College which, so far as he knew,
was original and highly useful. Their professors had always been ready
to deliver popular scientific lectures on extremely moderate terms, and
those lectures had proved very attractive, but recently they had
undertaken, in addition, to give scientific instruction to the numerous
teachers of elementary schools on Saturdays and several evenings of the
week, and thus they not only conferred a boon on the teachers, but
qualified them to impart the elements of science to their scholars. A
double advantage was realized to several hundreds of teachers and to
thousands of scholars of elementary schools. The scholars were by these
means introduced to such a knowledge of the elements of science as would
qualify them to become useful members of mechanics' institutes, and
might in many cases implant a taste for higher attainments than had been
looked for either in the school or the institute.

The Prince of Wales replied as follows to the address read by the

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--We have received your addresses with
    feelings of extreme gratification, and it affords us sincere
    pleasure to be present here to-day, and to be able to take a
    part in the inaugural ceremony in connection with this
    important and useful institution. I have for a long time been
    deeply impressed with the advisability of establishing in our
    great centres of population colleges and schools, not only for
    promoting the intellectual advancement of the people, but also,
    as you have very justly observed, for increasing their
    prosperity by furthering the application of scientific knowledge
    to the industrial arts. I rejoice to hear that your laudable
    endeavours have been duly appreciated, and have received liberal
    support from various quarters, and I beg to offer my most hearty
    congratulations to the great company of the Clothworkers of the
    City of London for their judicious and liberal encouragement of
    your College--an example which, I trust, will ere long find many
    ready followers. We have inspected with considerable interest
    the various lecture-rooms and laboratories over which you have
    conducted us, and we have had much satisfaction in acceding to
    your request to declare this valuable addition to the science
    and art of the country open. I thank you, in conclusion, for
    your expressions of loyalty and devotion to the Queen, which I
    will not fail to communicate to Her Majesty. I declare the
    Yorkshire College now open."

This concluded the proceedings in this part of the day's programme, and
the company then dispersed. The Royal visitors accepted an invitation
from the authorities of the College to luncheon in the Coliseum, which
is a newly-erected edifice affording much larger and better
accommodation than any other building in the town for great public
gatherings. Besides the invited guests, the two tiers of galleries were
overcrowded with spectators. The Marquis of Ripon, who presided, having
proposed the usual loyal toasts, the Prince replied as follows:--

    "In the name of the Princess and in my own, I beg to tender to
    you, Lord Ripon, our warmest thanks and acknowledgments for the
    very kind terms in which you have proposed this toast, and to
    you, ladies and gentlemen, for the way in which you have
    received it. I am anxious to tender to the mayor, as the
    representative of the citizens of this large and important town,
    our thanks also for the magnificent and cordial reception we
    have met with to-day, one which we are not likely to forget.
    This is certainly not the first visit I have paid to Leeds, as I
    did so some seventeen years ago, but the pleasure on this
    occasion is enhanced in my eyes as the Princess has been able
    to accompany me. The mayor also alluded to the fact that the
    visit of the Queen and of my lamented father had not been
    forgotten, and we were glad to visit that very Town Hall which
    they opened some twenty-six or twenty-seven years ago. I
    consider that the object of our visit here is connected in some
    respects with the visit of the Queen and my lamented father, as
    he alluded at that time to the great importance of scientific
    and technical education, and of a great town like this if
    possible taking up the matter. In opening to-day that important
    and useful building, the Yorkshire College, I feel I may in some
    way have followed in his footsteps, by having been the means of
    promoting what is of the greatest importance to our country, and
    what is also of the greatest importance to the success of our
    great commercial enterprises--viz., technical and scientific

    "The building which we have visited to-day will always be in our
    recollection one of great interest, and we feel sure that it is
    likely to flourish and be of the greatest importance, and to set
    an example to all the other great towns of the kingdom. The
    rooms we visited, and all the arrangements for learning in a
    scientific and technical manner not only the industries
    themselves, but their scientific principles, cannot but be
    productive of the greatest good not only now, but in years to
    come. The College has received many great and munificent
    donations, which will be read out later on, but I may mention
    the names of Sir Andrew Fairbairn, the Duke of Devonshire, and
    Lord Ripon, your President, as having contributed largely to the
    funds of the institution. I must say also that those who are
    interested in the College owe a deep debt of gratitude to the
    Clothworkers' Company of the City of London, for the magnificent
    donations which they have given are a proof of the importance of
    this institution. They have also shown their interest in it, and
    their belief that it is certain to be successful."

    His Royal Highness then referred to the importance attached to
    music in Yorkshire, and to the great interest he had taken in
    the Royal College of Music. He remarked that he thought the
    promotion of that art would materially benefit all classes in
    this country. Towards that College he knew nearly £1000 was
    collected in Leeds, but that unfortunately was insufficient to
    endow a scholarship, but if the president and directors of the
    Yorkshire College could see their way at some future time to add
    music to the list of subjects taught he felt sure they would not
    in years to come regret it, and that it would be of great
    benefit to the people of Leeds.

    Before proceeding with the toast he had the privilege to
    propose, "Prosperity to the Yorkshire College," with which he
    could not help feeling that he must associate the health of Lord
    Ripon. He felt that they would wish him to say a word with
    regard to its former president, one who was distinguished and
    lovable in every sense of the word, and who was carried off by
    the hand of the assassin in the midst of health and life. That
    was indeed matter for thought and reflection, and he felt sure
    that every Yorkshireman deeply regretted the death of Lord
    Frederick Cavendish. In his successor, however, they had found
    one who had occupied some of the most important offices which
    could be held under the Crown, and who, having himself been
    President of the Council on Education, was well fitted to hold
    the high office which he now did. He therefore called on them to
    drink with him, "Prosperity to the Yorkshire College," with
    which he had the greatest pleasure in coupling the name of their
    president, Lord Ripon.

The Chairman, in acknowledging the warmth with which the toast was
honoured, alluded with pride to the position the College had in ten
years won. He hoped they would place the crown upon their work by coming
into union with the Victoria University at Manchester.


_January 12th, 1886._

After the sad tidings of the death of General Gordon at Khartoum had
been confirmed, there was a universal desire to connect his name with
some national memorial. Tributes of honour were paid to him by the
leaders of both parties in Parliament, and a grant was voted for a
public monument, in the form of a statue, which is now seen in Trafalgar
Square. But a desire was felt for some other memorial, and after much
consideration the most suitable was thought to be an institution for
training boys of the class in whose welfare he took deep personal
interest. This was the origin of the Gordon Boys' Home, first located at
Fort Wallington, Fareham, and now having its permanent site at West End,

From the time of the first suggestion of a memorial the Prince of Wales
took the most active interest in the matter. He attended the early
meetings of the committee formed to carry out the proposal, and moved
the first resolution for a memorial at the Mansion House on May 30th,
1885. At that time the idea was to found a hospital at Port Said, but
this scheme was not carried out. There seemed to be difficulty in
agreeing about some fitter memorial, but the committee finally resolved
on the establishment of the Boys' Home, and the War Office granted the
use of Fort Wallington to commence the undertaking, for which the funds
had to be provided by public subscription. In support of this fund the
Prince of Wales summoned a meeting at Marlborough House on the 12th of
January, 1886. At this meeting he said that "having had the honour of
presiding at the meeting of the Gordon Memorial Committee in the summer
of 1885, he thought it desirable, at the beginning of another year, to
summon a meeting to hear what progress had been made." He told of the
appointment of Major-General Tyndall, C.B., as commandant, and of his
commencing the work with a few boys at Fort Wallington, the number
gradually rising to fifty. The Prince called on Lord Napier of Magdala
to say a few words in addition to the formal report which was read.

Lord Napier of Magdala, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, then
presented the report of the progress made in the establishment of the
Gordon Memorial Home. He said that on visiting the institution a few
days ago he found the boys on parade in a neat and appropriate uniform.
They looked clean, smart, and steady. The dormitories were like
soldiers' barrack-rooms, in perfect order. The lavatories gave every
facility for cleanliness. In the kitchen the boys all took a turn in
cooking. In the workshops the pupil teachers were undergoing instruction
in carpentry work. The school was well arranged and the teaching
effective. In short, the progress of the institution was remarkable,
considering the short time it had been established, and this was due to
the organization of General Higginson and the administration of General
Tyndall and his staff. Nor had the necessity for amusement been left
unprovided for. The work was done in the spirit of the great soldier and
Christian whom the institution commemorated, and the results were most

The Prince of Wales said:--

    "I feel sure it must be gratifying to all of us to hear the
    statements made by Lord Napier of Magdala of the satisfactory
    manner in which the Gordon Boys' Home is progressing. I may
    also say that all of us are indebted to the great energy which
    Generals Higginson and Tyndall have displayed."

His Royal Highness then called on General Higginson, who pointed out the
special advantages to be obtained by the institution, where the training
would fit the boys for any calling which they might choose, if they do
not go into the army. He said that "this was a national memorial to a
great man. It would be more than pitiful if an institution like this
were allowed to languish or to be cramped in its development. That would
lead the world to believe that Gordon's memory was forgotten. The one
great object Gordon had was to help the distressed, and he could not
imagine that when it was known what work was being done the institution
would fail for want of funds."

The Duke of Cambridge made a very earnest and generous appeal, and ended
by telling the meeting that it was to the Prince of Wales that the
success of the movement would be mainly due. "Gentlemen," said the Duke,
"we have had great praise bestowed, and justly bestowed, upon my gallant
friend Field-Marshal Lord Napier of Magdala and upon General Higginson,
who have taken up this interesting charge; but allow me to remark that
there is nobody to whom we owe so much as His Royal Highness the Prince
of Wales. I do not wish to flatter him, but I must say that when the
Prince takes up a subject he always does so thoroughly and well. I do
not think there has ever been a subject which he has taken up more
feelingly and thoroughly than he has taken up this Gordon Memorial, and
having done honour to those who have assisted in the way they have, I
think we should do equal honour to His Royal Highness, and I therefore
beg to move a vote of thanks to him for the kind and gracious manner in
which he has taken up this subject and has presided at this and other

The Prince of Wales said:--

    "After the kind and flattering remarks which have fallen from my
    illustrious relative I regret to be under the painful necessity
    of calling him to order, but there is a motion which has not yet
    been put to the meeting. At the same time I thank him beforehand
    most sincerely for what he has been good enough to say. You all
    know the very great interest I take in this important matter,
    and I feel sure it is right we should bring before the public as
    much as possible the name of that great and distinguished
    officer and Englishman who is now no more. He is not forgotten,
    but as months and years go by so many important events come
    before the public that sometimes other matters naturally are
    considered more prominent, and even a name like General Gordon's
    might be forgotten for a time. I am inclined to think there is
    nothing that could perpetuate his memory in a more satisfactory
    form in regard to his own relations, and what they think he
    would have wished, than this boys' home. I cannot help thinking
    'The Gordon Boys' Home' will be ever associated with the name of
    General Charles Gordon.

    "To obtain money is always a difficulty. I do not doubt the
    willingness of the public to give money, but their ability is
    not always so great, and I have a suggestion to make to you
    which may find favour in your eyes. If it is thought desirable
    that we should have a public dinner, I should be happy to take
    the chair. We could invite many to attend and give as much as
    they were able, and I have great hopes that in that way, and
    from speeches that may be made, the subject will be brought
    still more prominently before the public, and that we may do
    more good than by advertising." The resolution "That the
    Institution cannot be developed without larger funds, and it is
    resolved that further effort be made to obtain them," was then
    put to the meeting by His Royal Highness and carried.

The Duke of Cambridge said: "Having made my speech, I will not repeat
it. I admit I was out of order, but I now beg to move a vote of thanks
to His Royal Highness for his kindness in presiding on this occasion."
The motion was seconded by the Duke of Norfolk.

The leading article in the _Times_ on the following day thus closed:
"There are few benevolent institutions which offer fairer promise of
good results than the Gordon Boys' Home. But the care with which it has
been organized and the special sphere which it seeks to fill enable us
to press with greater confidence its peculiar claim to the support of
the English public, founded upon the fact that it forms a national
monument to the memory of a great Englishman. The heroism of General
Gordon, his betrayal by those who utilized his rare personal qualities
in the hour of their need, and the tragic end of a life of simple
devotion to duty have been somewhat obscured by the ephemeral contests
of the passing hour. Looking back over the records of the last few
months, we are almost reduced to the sad and savage mood of
Hamlet--'then there's hope a great man's memory may outlive his life
half a year.' But the memory of Gordon's life and death will be a point
of light in the history of the Victorian age long after the strenuous
trifling of our politicians has sunk into forgetfulness. In honouring
this man of antique mould, this Englishman who in a somewhat tricky and
small-minded age 'could do and dared not lie,' we shall far more honour
ourselves; and in munificently endowing a work such as he loved to carry
out the nation will find itself twice blessed."

The London office of the Gordon Boys' Home is at 20, Cockspur Street,
within sight of the statue in Trafalgar Square.


_January 20th, 1886._

For more than half a century, in fact ever since the opening of the
first English railway, it has been the dream of engineers to obtain
direct communication between Liverpool and Birkenhead, and the Welsh
lines. The ferry-boat traffic had been enormous and ever increasing, but
it little helped the transit of minerals and heavy goods. Even since the
construction of the great Runcorn bridge the land route had been found
long and troublesome. It was not till 1870 that parliamentary sanction
could be obtained to make a direct route by tunnelling under the Mersey,
but attempts to carry out the scheme were not then successful. At
length, towards the close of 1879, an arrangement was made with Major
Isaac, and from that time the work was unceasing, above 3000 men having
been constantly employed. In 1886 the work was completed. The importance
of the undertaking was recognized, and the Prince of Wales was invited
to open "The Mersey Tunnel." The Princess of Wales was unable to be
present, but on the 20th of January, 1886, the Prince, with his sons
Prince Albert Victor and Prince George, came from Eaton Hall, where they
were the guests of the Duke of Westminster.

On his arrival at Birkenhead the Prince was escorted to a daïs, and an
address was read by Mr. Knight, the secretary, on behalf of the
chairman. Mr. Cecil Raikes, M.P., and the directors, engineers,
contractors, and officers of "The Mersey Railway Company." In reply His
Royal Highness said:--

    "Mr. Raikes and Gentlemen,--I thank you for your address and for
    the cordial and loyal terms in which you have welcomed me here
    to-day. I experience at all times sincere pleasure when
    circumstances permit me to associate my name with any
    undertaking tending to advance the welfare and convenience of
    the community, and I accepted, therefore, with much satisfaction
    your invitation to be present on this interesting occasion to
    assist in the inauguration of a national work of such vast
    importance. An enterprise of this nature is always deserving of
    the warmest support and encouragement, as it not only completes
    the railway system of the district, and thus provides constant
    and easy means of communication between towns of such prominence
    as Liverpool and Birkenhead, but it cannot fail also before long
    to afford material benefit to the millions of hands in the
    neighbouring industrial centres by aiding the more rapid
    development of commercial intercourse. The heartiest
    commendation should, therefore, be bestowed on all engaged in
    the promotion of so great and worthy an object. I fervently
    trust that well-merited success may be the result of your
    labours, and that an ever-increasing prosperity may be your
    reward for the difficulties which you have encountered, and
    which have been mainly overcome by the admirable skill, the
    indomitable patience, and the unceasing and unwearied energy
    which have been displayed by all those who have contributed to
    bring this work to a happy and a triumphant termination. Let me
    convey to you, in conclusion, gentlemen, at the special request
    of the Princess of Wales, the expression of her deep and
    unfeigned regret at having been unavoidably prevented from
    accompanying me here to-day. She begs me to assure you that
    nothing but the imperative orders of the physicians would have
    precluded her from sharing the gratification which I experience
    at taking part in the proceedings which celebrate the
    consummation of your most arduous task."

When the cheers which greeted the Prince's speech had subsided, the
Mayor of Birkenhead, Mr. John Laird, was introduced to His Royal
Highness, whom he asked to receive an address from the Corporation of
that town. The Recorder then read the address, which remarked--"The
communication between Birkenhead and Liverpool has hitherto been by a
ferry, one of the most ancient and important in the kingdom, first
established at a very early period, and conferred by King Edward III.,
in the year 1332, on the Prior and Convent of Birkenhead. It is a happy
coincidence that your Royal Highness should be present to open this new
connecting link between the county from which your Royal Highness
derives the title of Earl of Chester and the Royal Duchy of Lancaster."

His Royal Highness made an appropriate reply, in which he said:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--It has given me, I assure you,
    unfeigned pleasure to have been able to comply with your
    request to receive an address from the Mayor, Aldermen, and
    Burgesses of the borough of Birkenhead, and I am confident that
    though you may be one of the youngest of the corporate bodies,
    you equal the oldest in loyalty and in devotion to the Queen and
    the Royal Family. The completion of the work which I am about to
    declare open will mark an important era in the history of this
    district, for it will not only afford an improved line of
    communication between two towns of so much consequence and
    increasing prosperity as Birkenhead and Liverpool, but it will
    likewise supply the means of easy and ready access to the
    principality of Wales, with its places of picturesque beauty and
    interest, and its numerous health resorts. The utility of the
    undertaking cannot therefore be over-estimated."

The Royal party then re-entered the train, and after inspecting the
works at the station the train entered the tunnel, and in four minutes
reached the James Street Station on the Liverpool side. They were raised
to the street level by a hydraulic lift, and the Prince being conducted
to a daïs in the waiting hall, said, "I declare this station opened."
Prolonged cheering greeted the announcement, which was continued
throughout the route as the Princes drove to the Town Hall. In the
Council-chamber an address was read by the Town Clerk from the
Corporation, to which the Prince replied, acknowledging cordially the
welcome given to him, and the kind references to his family, adding:--

    "You rightly observe that I am deeply interested in every
    movement that is calculated to tend to the advantage and
    well-being of the people of this country, and it is a great
    satisfaction to me to think that my name will be associated with
    the memorable enterprise which by completing a connecting link
    in our railway system supplies a want that has been long felt in
    this part of the kingdom."

At the luncheon afterwards given in the ball-room, where about 250
guests had been invited, responding to the toast of his health, the
Prince said that he had received, since his arrival in Liverpool, a
telegram from the Princess, regretting her absence, and saying how
deeply she was interested in the purpose of his visit. He also expressed
his thanks for the reference to his sons, who were much gratified by the
opportunity of visiting this great town.

    "I have been engaged to-day, Mr. Mayor, on an interesting and
    important work, which I feel convinced will be a very great
    benefit, not only to the town of Liverpool, but to the vast
    commercial resources of this and surrounding towns. The
    difficulties in making a subterranean or subaqueous railway are
    only too clear. You have hitherto had means of taking passengers
    and goods over the river by steam ferries. I am aware that this
    right has existed a long time--I believe as far back as the 11th
    century. But it is a remarkable fact that in the last year you
    conveyed across the Mersey, from Birkenhead to Liverpool, on the
    steam ferries 26,000,000 passengers, and 750,000 tons of goods.
    You may say, such being the case, why do you require to have
    this tunnel, and to have your railway to connect Liverpool and
    Birkenhead? The answer is that you have to encounter storms, you
    have to encounter fogs, and you have to encounter ice. Both your
    passengers and your goods are very frequently imperilled.
    Therefore, a great engineering scheme of this kind, which will
    be a very great boon, is one deserving of encouragement. Not
    only will it benefit the commerce of the north-west of England,
    but it will also open up a railway system to Wales and that
    beautiful picturesque country with all its health-giving
    resorts. Great praise is due to Major Isaac for the
    indefatigable manner in which he has carried out this work and
    has found the capital, and we have also to recognize the
    indomitable energies of Mr. Brunlees and Mr. Fox, the engineers,
    and I must not forget to mention the name of Mr. Waddell, the
    contractor. At the head of this company we find my right hon.
    friend, Mr. Cecil Raikes, who has had a long experience in
    railways. Before sitting down, as I know there is no time for
    long speeches, I wish most cordially to drink 'Prosperity to the
    Mersey Railway,' which I am sure you will drink most heartily,
    and to connect with the toast the name of its chairman, Mr.
    Cecil Raikes."

Mr. Raikes, in responding, said he held it as a most happy omen for that
great undertaking whose completion they celebrated, that the heir to the
throne should have come there to take part in completing an enterprise
which would, he believed, be reckoned as one of the most important and
interesting of Her Majesty's reign. His Royal Highness had been good
enough to refer especially to the connection which was now to be
established between Liverpool and his principality of Wales. As a
resident in that principality he could assure His Royal Highness that
the expression of interest would be cordially appreciated and treasured
by the people of Wales.

The Prince of Wales said:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--Although the toast list is closed, I
    have the permission of the Mayor to propose one more toast, and
    I feel sure it is one which will recommend itself to you all, as
    it is the health of the chairman of this entertainment, the
    Mayor. You are aware of the Mayor's great popularity, and his
    deserved popularity; for have you not re-elected him for a
    second term of office as your Mayor? I feel that it is difficult
    to praise him in his presence, but at the same time he will
    forgive me if I say that I know how the inhabitants of Liverpool
    have been grateful to him for the great kindness, generosity,
    and philanthropy he lately evinced at Christmas, when he gave
    that well-known and popular Lancashire dish, the hotchpotch, to
    the poor inhabitants of your town. That kindness will not be
    forgotten by them, and it will be gratifying to him to know the
    good he did and the pleasure he gave on that occasion. As for
    myself, this is not my first visit to Liverpool, and I hope by
    no means it may be my last. I have always been received here
    with the greatest kindness, and I have always looked back to my
    different visits with the greatest pleasure and satisfaction.
    The fact that 100 years ago this town numbered only 40,000
    people, and now, with its suburbs, numbers close upon 700,000,
    speaks for its prosperity. Most cordially do I propose this
    toast, Mr. Mayor, and most sincerely do I wish long life to you,
    and prosperity to your town."

The Mayor briefly replied, and the proceedings terminated; the Prince
and his sons drove in an open carriage to the station, great crowds in
the streets cheering them, and returned to London.


_March 27th, 1886._

Not for the first, nor the second time, the Prince of Wales was
entertained at the Annual Dinner of the Institution of Civil Engineers,
on the 27th of March, 1886. The banquet was held on this occasion in the
hall of Lincoln's Inn, the use of which was kindly granted by the
Benchers. The Prince was accompanied by Prince Albert Victor and the
Duke of Cambridge. A very large company of distinguished men in various
walks of life, as well as the leading engineers of the day, were
present, about two hundred in all.

The President, Sir Frederick Bramwell (the President of the British
Association at Bath in 1888), in giving the usual loyal toasts, took
occasion to mention that of the Royal guests, two, the Prince of Wales
and the Duke of Cambridge, were honorary members of the Institution of
Civil Engineers, and he hoped that the third would before long be added
to the list.

In responding to the toast of "The Prince and Princess of Wales and the
rest of the Royal Family," after expressing his grateful thanks, the
Prince said:--

    "In coming here this evening among you I feel that I am not a
    stranger, as you have paid me the high compliment of enrolling
    me as an honorary member of your Institution. At the same time I
    consider it a high privilege, and I may say a high honour, to
    dine here at this your annual banquet, as I am sure no one will
    gainsay me when I assert that an Institution like this is one of
    the most important in this country, and one for which we have
    the highest respect. I do not know what we should do without the
    civil engineers. How could we cross rivers? How could we go
    under them? Where would be the roads? Where would be the
    railways? And, perhaps, most important of all, where would be
    those great works of sanitation, which are of such vital concern
    to all countries and to all towns? For all these things are left
    in your hands.

    "Some years have elapsed since I last had the pleasure of dining
    here, and in the interval I well know that civil engineers have
    not been idle. I may just mention a few works which have come
    under my own observation, not only in this country but in India,
    works which have been carried out by civil engineers, though all
    may not, perhaps, be members of this Institution. The first that
    occurs to me is the new Eddystone Lighthouse, of which I myself
    had the pleasure to assist in placing the first stone. Then
    there are those great works which will be handed down to
    posterity and of which civil engineers will ever be proud--I
    refer to the Mersey and Severn Tunnels. The former work I had
    the great pleasure of opening two months ago. Then comes the
    Forth Bridge, not yet completed; I visited the works two years
    ago, and I hope in two, or at most three years we may see the
    great bridge in working order. While referring to these great
    works, which will always remain mementoes of the ability of the
    civil engineers of our time, I must not forget to allude to a
    more distant evidence of engineering skill--viz., the Alexandra
    Bridge in India, which was built over the River Chenab, and
    which I had the good fortune to open now ten years ago.

    "I might speak for a long time if I detailed all the important
    works constructed by civil engineers that I have seen, and
    especially if I were to mention also a string of illustrious
    names familiar to every one. But I shall abstain from doing so
    now, first because, as you hear, my voice is not very good, and
    in the second place because it has been agreed upon that there
    are not to be any very long speeches. It is my satisfaction now
    before sitting down to propose a toast which I am sure will be
    most gratefully and sympathetically received by the company, and
    that is 'The Health of your President, Sir Frederick Bramwell.'
    I cannot allude to him in the manner I should like, or enumerate
    all the distinguished services which he has rendered to his
    country; but one thing I will venture to say, and that is that
    his name will always be honourably connected with the
    advancement of technical education. The interest he has taken in
    that great subject, and the labour he has bestowed on it, have
    gained for him the high honour, conferred by his Sovereign, of
    the order of knighthood, and I am sure he will still continue to
    devote his time and energies to a measure which is of the
    greatest importance to this country. For myself I may say that I
    also owe him a deep debt of gratitude for the services he has
    rendered as chairman of the executive committee of the recent
    Inventions Exhibition. I have now the great pleasure of
    proposing the toast of 'Prosperity to the Institution of Civil
    Engineers,' coupled with the name of your President Sir
    Frederick Bramwell."

Sir Frederick Bramwell made an amusing speech, in which he highly
magnified the office of the Civil Engineer as contrasted with every
other profession. The Duke of Cambridge spoke well, as usual, for the
Army, and Lord Charles Beresford gave a supplementary speech, in
response to loud calls, after Admiral Le Hunte Ward had responded for
the Navy. The improvements in both military and naval armaments due to
civil engineers were duly recognized by all the speakers.


_April 29th, 1886._

Sir Henry Holland (now Lord Knutsford), as Secretary of State for the
Colonies, entertained the representatives at the Colonial Conference,
and various gentlemen connected with the Crown Colonies, at a dinner at
the Colonial Office, on the 29th of April, 1886. The Prince of Wales,
the Duke of Abercorn, the Marquis of Lorne, the Earl of Carnarvon, and
the Earl of Rosebery were among those present. The loyal toasts being
given, Sir Henry Holland said that to the hard work and warm sympathy of
the Prince of Wales the success of the Colonial Exhibition was largely
due. The Prince, in acknowledging the toast, said:--

    "Sir Henry Holland, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--When Sir Henry
    Holland was kind enough to invite me here this evening to meet
    the colonial delegates I was under the impression that it was a
    private dinner, in so far that I should not be called upon to
    make a speech. In this respect he has sprung a mine upon me.
    But, notwithstanding, I beg to thank him for the very kind way
    in which he has proposed this toast, and to thank you for the
    cordial manner in which you have received it. I can only assure
    him and you of the very great pleasure it gives me to meet you
    here this evening.

    "In this large gathering there are many gentlemen connected with
    the colonies whom I have had the pleasure of knowing personally,
    and it affords me especial pleasure to make the acquaintance of
    others who have come over in connection with this occasion. I am
    aware that the proceedings of the conferences which have taken
    place have been kept secret from the public in a most marvellous
    way, which is not an easy matter in these days. But from the
    words which have fallen from Sir Henry Holland I am glad to hear
    that everything has been so prosperous, and I hope that the
    important and difficult questions which have been discussed
    during the last few weeks will bear fruit. Nobody wishes more
    sincerely than I do that the good feeling, or, as the French
    say, the _entente cordiale_, between the mother country and our
    great colonies may be established on a still firmer basis. Far
    be it from us, and far distant may the day be, when we shall see
    the colonies separated from us in any way.

    "You have been kind enough to allude to the Colonial Exhibition,
    which is now a matter of the past. I feel sure that in that
    Exhibition, during the few months that it lasted, our own
    countrymen learnt perhaps more of the colonies than they could
    in any other way except by visiting them. No better means could
    have been adopted for bringing the colonies more prominently
    before us. Most sincerely do I hope that that Exhibition may
    bear fruit. I most sincerely trust that the end of the
    Conference may also be successful, and that it may realise all
    that we could wish. It is true, as you have observed, that I
    have not yet had an opportunity of visiting the distant
    colonies, especially the Australian colonies and those of the
    Cape. Much as I may desire to go out to those distant colonies,
    I fear that my duties at home may prevent my doing so. However,
    I assure you that it is my wish to do so, and though I am
    unable, it is through circumstances over which I have no

Lord Rosebery, in giving the toast of their Colonial guests, said, that
whatever questions of home policy divided Englishmen, party feeling
never interfered in those greater Imperial questions. It was a happy
innovation to invite representatives of the colonies to meet in
conference, and he trusted that the result of that meeting would hasten
the welding and uniting of the Empire.


_July 1st, 1886._

A large and most imposing gathering, held in connexion with the Grand
Lodge of Mark Master Masons, took place at the Freemasons' Hall on the
1st of July, 1886. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, whose
installation as Grand Master of English Freemasons, at the Albert Hall,
in April 1875, has been already narrated, was now installed as Grand
Mark Master. There were upwards of 1000 Grand, Past, and Provincial
Grand Officers present, including many distinguished representatives
from India and the Colonies, as well as from all parts of the United
Kingdom. The Earl of Kintore, Grand Master, presided at the ceremony.

When the Prince entered the Grand Lodge, which had been opened by Lord
Kintore, he was accompanied by a large and representative body of Mark
Masons deputed to conduct His Royal Highness to the throne. He then
took the customary obligation, having been proclaimed and saluted on the
throne, to which he was conducted by Lord Kintore. Addressing the
Prince, Lord Kintore expressed the feelings of loyal devotion felt by
every Mark Mason in Great Britain, and in the Greater Britain beyond the
seas, at the step which the Prince was pleased to take that day. He then
gave a few statistics to show the progress of Mark Masonry. In 1876
there were but 5 time-immemorial lodges, and 18 Provincial Grand Lodges.
In 1886 there were 13 time-immemorial lodges, and 375 warranted lodges,
divided into 44 Provincial Grand Lodges, including those in New Zealand,
South Africa, Australia, India, and other parts of the globe. The
consent of the Prince of Wales to be Grand Mark Master was proof of his
zealous personal efforts to unite the Colonies and Dependencies of the
empire with the mother country. The Prince, in his reply, said that--

    He thanked the Past Grand Master most heartily and sincerely for
    the address he had just delivered. He feared that Lord Kintore
    had referred to him in terms far too kind and flattering. He
    assured the brethren he considered it a high honour and
    compliment which had been paid him that day, and he accepted the
    distinguished position of Grand Master of Mark Master Masons
    with a deep feeling of gratitude, and as a high honour to
    himself. He assured the brethren that anything he could do to
    further the interest and welfare of the Mark Degree would be
    done with sincere pleasure. He was most thankful and grateful
    for the kind feeling the brethren had manifested towards him,
    and he appreciated very highly the compliment which had been
    paid by the Mark Masons who had attended from distant parts of
    the kingdom. Lord Kintore had spoken in kind and feeling terms
    of his beloved mother the Queen. It would afford Her Majesty
    sincere gratification to know the kind terms in which her name
    had been mentioned, and the hearty manner in which it was
    invariably received, especially in a meeting of this
    description. Personally he thanked them from his heart, and he
    desired to assure them that all he could do for the welfare of
    Mark Masonry would always be done with very great pleasure.

The Grand Master then appointed the Grand Officers for the ensuing year,
beginning with Lord Kintore as Pro-Grand Master, Lord Egerton of Tatton
Deputy Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught Senior Grand Warden, and
numerous others to the usual offices. The Pro-Grand Master presented the
Prince with a jewel, which he accepted with pleasure, and said it would
be a gratifying memento of the pleasant proceedings of the day.

After the conclusion of the Grand Lodge proceedings, there was a
luncheon at the Holborn Restaurant, at which the Prince presided. After
the customary loyal toasts had been proposed, the Prince regretted that
he had to leave, having to fulfil an engagement at the East-end of


_June 28th, 1886._

There are few who do not know the history, and have not rejoiced in the
success of the People's Palace for East London. The magnificent
spectacle when the Queen went in state, on the 14th of May, 1887, to
open "The Queen's Hall" at the Palace, will long be remembered by the
multitudes who witnessed the ceremony, or who saw the Royal progress
through the crowded streets.

The foundation stone had been laid, with almost equal pomp, and amidst
as great popular enthusiasm, by the Prince and Princess of Wales on the
28th of June in the previous year. On that occasion nearly 10,000 people
were assembled within the space set apart for the ceremony, including
1000 delegates from the various trade, friendly, and temperance
societies in East London, with 2000 or 3000 school-children.

The Lord Mayor in his robes of office, and attended by the officers and
many members of the Corporation, and a vast number of distinguished
persons--among whom were the Chief Rabbi, Dr. Adler, the Bishop of
Bedford, and many of the Clergy of the neighbouring districts, Cardinal
Manning, and Mr. Walter Besant--awaited the arrival of the Royal
visitors. This was announced by a salute by the guard of honour of the
Tower Hamlets Engineers and the 24th Middlesex Volunteers. They were
received by Sir Edmund Hay Currie and the Beaumont Trustees, the Master
and Wardens of the Drapers' Company, and delegates from various
Committees. From the old and well-known "Beaumont Trust," and the
munificent donations of the Drapers' Company, supplemented by public
contributions, the large funds necessary for the People's Palace had
been derived.

The ceremony began by the Archbishop of Canterbury offering a special
prayer, followed by the Lord's Prayer, and the singing of the Old
Hundredth Psalm. Sir E. H. Currie, Chairman of the Committee, then read
and presented an address, to which the Prince replied as follows:--

    "Sir Edmund Hay Currie and Gentlemen,--I thank you, on behalf of
    the Princess of Wales and myself, for your address, and I can
    assure you that we heartily rejoice that an opportunity has been
    afforded us of again visiting this important district of the
    Metropolis. We thoroughly appreciate the endeavour of the
    trustees to promote a scheme which, from the comprehensiveness
    and liberality of its scope, should not fail to prove
    advantageous to the population of the near neighbourhood in
    which the Palace is to be erected, and to the inhabitants of the
    Metropolis at large. We do not doubt that the opportunities for
    healthy recreation so essential in a population that is
    comprised mainly of artisans and mechanics and their families
    will be promptly and properly appreciated by those for whom the
    People's Palace had been provided. The facilities which will be
    afforded for continuous education of all kinds will, we are
    convinced, materially tend to still further develop and perfect
    the various handicrafts of this neighbourhood, and should
    therefore prove of the greatest importance, not only to the
    inhabitants of East London, but to the nation at large, and
    should enable Englishmen to continue to maintain in the future,
    as they have in the past, that supremacy in the arts of peace at
    home which, among civilized nations, must be the invariable and
    necessary accompaniment of power and prosperity abroad. We
    congratulate the trustees upon the success which has already
    attended their efforts in having secured £75,000 of the £100,000
    required, and we sincerely trust that the munificent donations
    of the Drapers' Company, Mr. Dyer Edwardes, Lord Rosebery, and
    the Duke of Westminster will influence others to follow so
    excellent an example. The 'Queen's Hall,' of which I am about to
    lay the first stone, will, I understand from the architect, Mr.
    Robson, be capable of accommodating more than 3000 persons, and
    will be so constructed as to serve the purpose of a winter
    garden, affording a resort for social intercourse and
    entertainment at a period of the year when the summer garden
    will not be available. We humbly join in the prayer of the
    Archbishop of Canterbury that God's blessing may rest upon this
    great work, and that, in the years to come, benefits both
    material and moral will result to the thousands who, we trust,
    will not fail to avail themselves of the facilities which the
    scheme will afford."

The stone was then laid with the usual ceremonies, the Prince's
declaration that it was "well and truly" laid being received with
general cheers. The proceedings were concluded with the benediction,
pronounced by the Archbishop.

       *       *       *       *       *

Long before the time of the People's Palace, visits to the East of
London had not unfrequently been made by members of the Royal Family. On
the 24th of June, 1880, the Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by
their sons, Prince Albert Victor and Prince George, went to open a
Recreation Ground in Whitechapel, for the benefit of the people of that
parish, and of Bethnal Green, Spitalfields, and other adjacent
districts. The ground, above an acre in extent, had formerly been a
burial-ground of the Society of Friends, some of the members of which
had contributed towards its being laid out as a pleasure-garden. The
Rev. J. F. Kitto and the Rev. S. A. Barnett, whose names have long been
associated with good deeds in East London, hoped that the presence of
the Prince and Princess of Wales that day would give new impetus to the
movement for obtaining open spaces in crowded parts of the Metropolis.
The Prince expressed his gratification at being present, and said he was
desired by the Princess to say that she declared the Recreation Ground
now open.


_July 15th, 1886._

To be "President of the Royal Agricultural Society of England" is an
honour which the Prince of Wales gained not merely from his high
position, but from his genuine love and practical knowledge of
agriculture. Old King George III. was proud to be known as "Farmer
George," but his great-grandson, the "Norfolk farmer," knows vastly more
about the subject, and turns his knowledge to more profitable account.
This was shown at the great sale of Shorthorn cattle and Southdown sheep
which the Prince held at Sandringham, at the time of the Royal
Agricultural Show at Norwich, in July 1886.

The idea of holding the sale at that time was a fortunate one, for the
Show had brought to Norwich breeders of stock from every part of the
kingdom, and some from foreign countries. Many of the leading members of
the Royal Agricultural Society were the guests of the Prince at
Sandringham during the week of the Show. Special trains were run to
Wolferton Station from Norwich, so that there had never been seen such
crowds at Sandringham, as on Thursday, the 15th of July, the day of the
sale. Ample provision had been made for their reception, a large marquee
capable of seating 1500 persons being erected in a field adjacent to
the homestead. Among those who sat down to the luncheon were almost all
the agricultural celebrities of England, and some of the most noted
breeders of cattle and sheep in France. The entrance of the Prince and
his family to the tent was received with immense enthusiasm.

After luncheon the Prince proposed the health of the Queen, which was
duly honoured, and then the Duke of Richmond and Gordon gave the toast
of "The Prince and Princess of Wales." He said that two days before it
had fallen to his lot to move a vote of thanks to the Prince in his
capacity as President of the Royal Agricultural Society of England,
which might be deemed the Royal Academy of farming. Now he had to speak
of him in his capacity of a Norfolk farmer. Amid much cheering, the Duke
went on to say that it would be well for Norfolk farmers if all of them
had such a wife as it was the good fortune of the Prince to possess, and
that the high qualities of the Princess had endeared her not less to the
people of Norfolk than to the other inhabitants of her future realm. In
speaking of the sale itself, the Duke said that the quality of the
stock, all of which he had personally examined, was remarkably level and
good, and that the Prince was conferring a distinct benefit upon the
agricultural community in the eastern counties by giving them an
opportunity of obtaining such grand strains of blood as were to be found
in the Sandringham Shorthorns and Southdowns. It is needless to add that
this toast was received with the most enthusiastic cheering, and the
plaudits were so sustained that the Prince had to wait some time before
beginning his reply. He said:--

    "Your Grace, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--The kind way in
    which this toast has been proposed by the Duke of Richmond and
    Gordon and received by you all cannot but give the greatest
    possible pleasure both to the Princess and myself. We derive the
    most genuine satisfaction at seeing so many of the inhabitants
    of Norfolk here in our country home, for I can assure you that
    we take the deepest interest in all that concerns the welfare of
    this county. This has been a week of great agricultural interest
    for the county of Norfolk, and we have among us many men eminent
    as breeders and farmers from other parts of the kingdom, and to
    them also I extend a cordial welcome. As we have a busy
    afternoon before us, I will not detain you long, but before
    sitting down I should like to say a few words with respect to
    the Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution, which has urgent
    need of support, as, owing to the recent depression in
    agriculture, the demands upon it have been so heavy that it is
    unable to do as much as it could a few years ago. In conclusion,
    let me bid you heartily welcome to Sandringham, and ask you to
    bid well at the sale."

This genial speech was received with applause, and its closing words
with cheerful laughter. The Duke of Manchester next proposed the health
of Mr. John Thornton, the auctioneer, who may be regarded as the
Tattersall of the Shorthorn world, and who, in responding, said that he
was more anxious to hear others than others would be to hear him. The
company then broke up, the Prince and Princess of Wales leading the way
to the sale-ring, which had been pitched close to the homestead, with
three covered stands for the Royal party, the auctioneer and his chief
customers, and for the county people, who mustered in great force.

The auctioneer gave much interesting information as to the establishment
of the herd of Shorthorns and the flock of Southdowns at Sandringham.
Since the herd of Shorthorns was formed the Prince of Wales has been in
the habit of exhibiting at the Royal and other shows held within easy
reach of home, and the animals selected for exhibition, but not forced
into extreme condition, as is so often done, have been very successful,
for they have taken sixteen first prizes, twelve seconds, four thirds,
and four special prizes, while it is interesting to note that at the
Royal Agricultural Show at York three years ago the Prince obtained what
is generally regarded as the highest honour of the showyard--viz., the
prize for a family group consisting of mother and several daughters.

The Prince has been not less conspicuously successful with his Southdown
sheep, as this flock, first formed in 1886 by the selection of sheep
from the flocks of the Duke of Richmond at Goodwood, Lord Walsingham at
Merton, Mr. Webb at Babraham, and Mr. Gorringe at Kingston, has won
sixty-eight first and sixty-two second prizes, to say nothing of minor
distinctions, bringing the total of prizes up to 183, while at the
Smithfield Show last winter three Southdowns from Sandringham won the
£50 champion cup and the gold medal as the best pen of sheep in the
hall. These facts being well known to all those who attended the sale,
while they had the further assurance that all the lots offered would be
sold without any of those reservations which mar so many auctions, the
bidding was very brisk; but in spite of this the number of lots was so
great that the sale, commencing at two o'clock, lasted until nearly six.

The detail of the sale only concern those who have to do with buying or
breeding: and the records of the pedigree stock, and the prices
obtained, and other particulars, will be found in the reports of the
meeting. To the general reader of this book the whole proceedings are
full of interest, as being a scene of genuine English country life, and
the Prince of Wales was thoroughly in his element as the centre of the
grand agricultural assemblage. How Washington Irving would have rejoiced
to be there, and what a description he would have given of the scene!


_December 15th, 1886._

Sion College was founded by the Rev. Dr. White, Vicar of St. Dunstan's
in the West, in the time of Charles I. He held several other
preferments, but we forgive him for being a notable pluralist because he
made such good use of his money. By his will he left £3000 for the
purchase of a site in the City of London, for erecting a hospital,
consisting of twenty almshouses, and a college, which he endowed, with
an annual revenue, not large, but sufficient in those times. Dr. White's
intention was to enable the clergy of the City of London, and the
incumbents of outlying parishes, to obtain corporate existence, like
other crafts and professions, and so be legally qualified to hold and to
administer property. This was well carried out by the Rev. Dr. Simpson,
Rector of St. Olave's, Hart Street, one of the executors, who gave
special attention to the library, now so important a feature of the

The College was established by Charter in 1630, and confirmed in 1664 by
Charles II. The site selected was that of the Priory of Elsing Spital,
London Wall, where a spacious building was afterwards erected, and
continued in use till our own day. The library gradually became an
important one, especially after 1710, when the Government conferred upon
it the privilege of being one of the libraries entitled to receive
copies of all books entered at Stationers' Hall. In 1843 this privilege
was commuted for an annual grant, which barely sufficed for the
maintenance of the library and other expenses. At length it was
determined to sell the site in London Wall, the value of which was great
for business purposes, and to remove to a better site, on which more
commodious buildings might be erected. By Acts of Parliament authority
was obtained to sell the old site, which realized thirty-three times the
amount given for it in 1627. Another Act of Parliament authorized the
purchase of a site on the Thames Embankment, the freehold of which cost
£31,625, and on this, at a cost of £25,000, the present magnificent
building, designed by Mr. A. W. Blomfield, was erected. To open this new
Sion College, the Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Princess of Wales,
went to the City on the 15th of December, 1886.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, and several Bishops, the Lord Mayor and
Sheriffs of London, the Lord Chancellor, and many distinguished persons
were present, and a numerous body of the Clergy. The President of the
College (who is elected annually by the Fellows), the Rev. Richard
Whittington, a name of good omen, read an address, the Archbishop having
previously conducted a short religious service. To the address the
Prince replied:--

    "Mr. President and Gentlemen,--I thank you for your address, and
    for the kind terms in which you allude to the Princess of Wales
    and my children. I experience the greatest satisfaction at being
    present on this interesting occasion, when your ancient
    corporation may be said to take a new departure. I are gratified
    to learn that the words of advice which I uttered two or three
    years ago have borne good fruit and have helped on the removal
    of your College from the comparative obscurity of London Wall to
    this central and eligible spot. I congratulate you on the
    completion without any serious drawback of a work which from its
    nature could not but be surrounded by many administrative and
    financial difficulties, only to be overcome by much tenacity of
    purpose, energy, and hard work. Many of you will probably look
    back with some feeling of lingering regret upon a spot hallowed
    by the memories of two centuries and a half, and by the
    recollection that in the same place, for many years before Sion
    College existed, the Augustinian canons devoted themselves to
    the alleviation of suffering, and providing a refuge for the
    homeless and the outcast. Yet, if Sion College was to continue
    its work in the future as it has carried it on in the past, such
    a change as I inaugurate to-day was essential. On this site and
    with this building, upon the beauty and convenience of which
    your architect may well come in for his share of congratulation
    and praise, Sion College may become more than ever a centre
    where the London clergy may meet together to exchange
    experiences and learn by personal intercourse how substantial is
    the tie which results from devotion to one high purpose. Of your
    library I need say little. The high place which it occupies
    among similar institutions is well known, and the extent and
    excellence of its contents are universally acknowledged. I have
    to congratulate the clergy of London upon having at their
    command such a varied collection of the best literature of all
    ages to stimulate their studies and enrich their minds. I will
    only add an expression of my satisfaction at learning that
    those poor persons for whose temporal wants your benevolent
    founder, Dr. Thomas White, made provision have reason to claim a
    full share in the gratification which attends the proceedings

The Lord Mayor said it was a great privilege for him to be called on, as
Lord Mayor, to say a few words on that most interesting occasion. He
congratulated the President and Fellows that Sion College was rebuilt
under such favourable auspices and so happily placed between those
seminaries of the law, the ancient and honourable societies of the
Temple, of which His Royal Highness was so distinguished a member, and
the more modern institution, on which he thought the Corporation might
justly pride itself, the City of London School for the classical and
commercial training of our younger citizens, which His Royal Highness
graciously inaugurated just four years ago.

The Lord Chancellor said there were no words of his which would
adequately express the gratitude and affection which all those present
felt towards His Royal Highness and the Princess. This was only one of a
series of acts by which their Royal Highnesses had exhibited their
sympathy with the people, and there was nothing good, high, and noble
that was not from time to time graced by their presence.

The Prince of Wales then, amid loud cheers, declared the library to be

The procession, having been re-formed, left the library and descended to
the hall, which was also filled with spectators. Here the President
pointed out the ancient panels, the pictures, including portrait of the
founder, and other treasures removed from the old building. The Prince
declared the Hall open, and their Royal Highnesses signed their names in
the Register of Benefactors.

It may be added that it was a hint from the Prince of Wales that
hastened the decision to remove from London Wall. He was viewing from
the roof of the old library the fire in Wood Street, Cheapside, when he
said to the Rev. W. H. Milman (the librarian, son of Dean Milman) that
he thought it was the duty of the Governors to remove their valuable
library to a safer locality.


On the 10th of November, 1884, the Queen issued a Royal Commission to
arrange for holding an Exhibition of the products, manufactures, and
arts of Her Majesty's Colonial and Indian Dominions, in the year 1886.
Of this Commission the Prince of Wales was President, and Sir Philip
Cunliffe-Owen Secretary. The first meeting took place at Marlborough
House on the 30th of March, 1885. In opening the proceedings His Royal
Highness said:--

    "In addressing you for the first time, I would remind you that
    the objects for which Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint
    this Commission are, briefly, to organise and carry out an
    Exhibition by which the reproductive resources of our Colonies
    and of the Indian Empire may be brought before the people of
    Great Britain, and by which also the distant portions of Her
    Majesty's Dominions may be enabled to compare the advance made
    by each other in trade, manufactures, and general material

    "This project, to the realisation of which I have looked forward
    for some years, is essentially one of a National and Imperial
    character, differing in this respect front former Exhibitions,
    in which the elements of trade rivalry and profit largely

    "No such opportunity of becoming practically acquainted with the
    economic condition of our Colonies and the Indian Empire has
    ever been afforded in this country. The attractive display in
    the Indian and Colonial Courts at the Paris Exhibition of 1878
    could only be witnessed by a comparatively small number of the
    population of these Islands, millions of whom may be expected to
    view and profit by the evidence which the Exhibition of 1886
    will afford of the marvellous progress made by their
    fellow-countrymen beyond the seas.

    "I also trust that this gathering may serve even a higher
    purpose, and be the means not only of giving a stimulus to
    commercial interests and intercourse, but of strengthening that
    Bond of Union between Her Majesty's subjects in all parts of the
    Empire, the growth and manifestation of which are most sincerely
    appreciated by us all.

    "Whilst Her Majesty's Government have given their hearty
    approval to the objects for which the Commission has been
    appointed, they have not so far found it desirable to make any
    definite grant towards it. The Commission have, therefore, to
    rely entirely upon the public support of the great purposes
    which the Exhibition is intended to promote; and on the
    attractive form which it will be the endeavour of all concerned
    to give to it.

    "I cannot doubt but that, under such conditions, should no
    untoward events occur, the project will be more than

    "At the same time, it has been thought prudent not to dispense
    with the usual provision of a Guarantee Fund, though I trust no
    circumstances may arise rendering it necessary to make any call
    on the guarantors. To this Fund the Indian and Colonial
    Governments have made liberal contributions, amounting to

The Prince then gave detailed announcements of the responses made to
appeals addressed to corporations, firms, and individuals in Great
Britain, and in the Colonies and India. He also explained the
arrangements for administrative and financial affairs, and for the
reception of foreign representatives.

    "In conclusion, let me express the hope that this great
    undertaking, and the many occasions for friendly intercourse
    with our fellow-subjects from India and the Colonies which it
    will afford, may convey to them the assurance that, while we are
    deeply moved by the spirit of patriotism they have lately shown
    in desiring to bear their share in the graver trials of the
    country, we on our part wish to participate in every effort to
    further and develop their material interests--interests which we
    feel to be inseparably bound up with the prosperity of the
    Empire. We must remember that, as regards the Colonies, they are
    the legitimate and natural homes, in future, of the more
    adventurous and energetic portion of the population of these
    Islands. Their progress, and their power of providing all that
    makes life comfortable and attractive, cannot, therefore, but be
    a matter of serious concern to us all. And, as regards India,
    the increasing knowledge of that vast Empire and the rapid and
    easy means of communication to all parts of it which now exist,
    render its remarkable and varied products and its social and
    political condition a source of yearly increasing interest and
    importance to us.

    "For the attainment of the purposes I have indicated, I am sure
    I may rely on your friendly co-operation and assistance, in your
    several localities, and within the sphere of your individual
    influence. Although it has been impossible from the pressure of
    their duties elsewhere for some members of the Commission to be
    present at this meeting, I am gratified by the assurance from
    them that we may none the less rely on their practical and
    earnest assistance on every occasion in furthering the work
    which has been entrusted to us, and achieving the important ends
    which I trust may flow from its successful accomplishment."

_May 3rd, 1886._

A meeting of the Royal Commission was again held on the 3rd of May, in
the Durbar Hall of the Indian Palace, when the Prince of Wales, as the
Executive President, addressed the audience. He gave an interesting
report on all the chief matters that had engaged the attention of the
Royal Commissioners; and referred to the co-operation received from the
Colonies and India. He stated that the guarantee fund had reached the
amount of £218,430, of which the City of London had voted £10,000. A
vote of thanks was proposed by the Duke of Cambridge, seconded by Lord
Granville, to the Prince of Wales for the able and energetic manner in
which he acted on behalf of the Commission as their President. "It is
not the first time that His Royal Highness has acted as President in
undertakings of this nature, and it is very difficult for any individual
to praise him in his presence without appearing fulsome, but it is not
fulsome to say that he has always devoted his whole energies to bringing
everything to a successful issue with which he is connected."

The Prince, in his reply, said:--

    He hoped that the Exhibition would be not only entertaining to
    the eye, and that it will prove of material benefit to our own
    countrymen, but that it will also tend to strengthen the bond of
    brotherly love between ourselves and the rest of Her Majesty's

_April 30th, 1887._

At the final meeting of the Royal Commission, held at Marlborough House
on the 30th of April, 1887, the minutes of the previous meeting, held on
the 3rd of May, 1886, having been read, the Prince of Wales addressed
the meeting:--

    "Your Royal Highness, my Lords and Gentlemen,--I have asked you
    to meet me to-day, in order that I might submit for your
    approval a Report which I have drawn up upon the work of the
    Royal Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, a
    draft of which has already been forwarded to each of you for

    "The contents of this Report are so exhaustive, and the
    information afforded so full and complete, that it seems
    scarcely necessary that I should detain you with many
    explanatory remarks.

    "You will remember that the last occasion on which I had the
    pleasure of meeting you was on the eve of the opening of the
    Exhibition by Her Majesty the Queen. You are all aware of the
    success of that opening, and you, I am sure, appreciated the
    keen interest which the Queen took in the Exhibition, both by
    performing that imposing ceremony, and by the frequent visits
    which Her Majesty afterwards paid to the various Sections.

    "The great importance attached to the objects of this Exhibition
    was evidenced by the striking manner in which it was visited by
    the public. You will have seen by the Report that it was
    attended by no fewer than 5,550,745 persons. Of this number, a
    large proportion were admitted under schemes in which I took a
    deep personal interest, by means of which admission was granted
    to provincial and metropolitan artisans, with their wives and
    families, at greatly reduced rates.

    "It may safely be asserted that a vast amount of public good has
    arisen from the holding of this Exhibition. No one can have
    failed to notice the earnest attention paid by all classes of
    the visitors to the contents of the Exhibition; and the
    instruction which was derived from an examination of the varied
    objects displayed therein cannot but tend to a better knowledge
    of the outlying portions of the Empire, among the inhabitants of
    the mother country.

    "At a previous Meeting I referred to the appointment of the
    Finance Committee, to its enlargement, and to the manner in
    which its labours were being conducted, and I would now
    specially draw your attention to the Report they have presented
    to me. The accounts now before you, which have been circulated
    for your information, have been subject to a continuous and
    careful audit. They have been made up at the earliest possible
    day consistent with the proper realization of the assets
    belonging to the Royal Commission, and with the settlement of
    the many and varied claims presented after the close of the
    Exhibition, and which the Finance Committee had necessarily to
    adjust. You will see that the fullest information in ample
    detail is given under appropriate heads of the entire receipts
    and expenditure of the Royal Commission up to the 23rd April,
    and I am sure that you will share my satisfaction at the
    gratifying result of a substantial surplus of £35,235 7_s._
    8_d._ remaining in the hands of the Royal Commission.

    "I am anxious that the appropriation of this surplus, and the
    objects to which it should be devoted, should be in harmony with
    the wishes of the entire body of the Royal Commission. I desire,
    therefore, to draw your attention to a paragraph in the Report
    of the Finance Committee, to the effect that in view of the fact
    that this Exhibition, and those which preceded it, have to a
    certain extent been considered as one series, consideration
    might be given to the requirements of any former Exhibition, the
    financial results of which have been less satisfactory than
    those of the present undertaking. In this recommendation I
    entirely concur, and a Resolution in that sense will be
    submitted for your approval.

    "I would also suggest to you the advisability of retaining for
    the present a certain sum for the purpose of meeting any
    unforeseen contingencies; which sum should for the next few
    years remain vested in the names of trustees, but should
    ultimately be applied to the same purpose as that to which the
    residue is devoted.

    "As regards the balance of the surplus, I would commend to your
    consideration the propriety of transferring it to the funds of
    the Imperial Institute of the United Kingdom, the Colonies, and
    India (in the promotion of which the Queen and I both take so
    warm an interest), the more especially as we may regard the
    Institute, to a certain extent, as the outcome of the Exhibition
    which was closed in November last.

    "Before moving resolutions to this effect, I would wish to
    express to you my deep gratitude for the support which you have
    at all times given to me in the duties which I, as your
    Executive President, have had so much pleasure in performing;
    and I am sure you will join with me at this our last Meeting in
    expressing most heartily our appreciation of the co-operation
    which the Royal Commission received from the Colonies and India,
    and of the exertions of the gentlemen representing these
    Governments, which tended in so marked a degree to the success
    of the past Exhibition.

    "The enthusiastic manner in which the proposal for holding this
    Exhibition was received in all portions of Her Majesty's Empire,
    the energy displayed in realising the views of the Royal
    Commission, and the continued support rendered to us by the
    Colonial and Indian Governments and their representatives in
    London, resulted in the achievement of a work of which all those
    who participated in it may be justly proud, and which formed a
    fitting prelude to an undertaking intended to commemorate the
    Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign, by permanently gathering
    together in one building the varied productions of the whole of
    the British Empire, in the interchange of which its past
    prosperity is so much due, and by which its future development
    may be promoted.

    "In closing these observations, I would desire to convey to the
    gentlemen composing the Finance Committee, my warm personal
    acknowledgments for their unremitting attention, and the great
    services they have rendered, at so much sacrifice to their time
    and convenience. I equally desire to acknowledge the admirable
    and efficient arrangements made throughout by the Executive
    Secretary, and to return my thanks to the whole staff employed
    on the Exhibition. Their zeal and readiness at all times to
    promote its success demand special recognition at our hands. In
    all this, I feel assured I give expression to the sentiments of
    every member of the Royal Commission."

In the speeches of those who moved and seconded the resolutions
submitted to the meeting, reference was repeatedly made to the permanent
Imperial Institute, of which the Indo-Colonial Exhibition seemed the
precursor. The Prince, in acknowledging the vote of thanks at the
conclusion of the meeting, said:--"I most truly hope that the words
which fell from Lord Derby and Lord Kimberley with respect to the
Imperial Institute may come true. If I may use the allegory, now that we
have, as it were, burnt the late Exhibition to-day, I hope the Imperial
Institute may be a Phœnix arising out of its ashes. I trust that it
may be a lasting memorial, not only of that but of the Jubilee of Her
Majesty the Queen."

The Exhibition was opened by Her Majesty on the 4th of May, and those
who were present will not readily forget the impressive nature of the
proceedings on that memorable day. The Official Report of the Royal
Commission (printed and published, as all the Exhibition Reports have
been, by W. Clowes & Sons) is a most valuable manual on all matters
relating to the Exhibition--the most imposing and interesting of any
since that of 1851. It was also the most successful as to finance, there
being a surplus of no less than £35,285 7_s._ 8_d._ Of this £25,000 was
voted to the Imperial Institute fund, and the remainder applied to
liquidate the debt remaining from the Inventions Exhibition, and the
formation of a reserve fund connected with other Exhibitions.


_January 12th, 1887._

The Imperial Institute, while it will be the grandest and most enduring
memorial of the Queen's Jubilee, will also be associated in history with
the name of the Prince of Wales. It was by him that the idea was first
entertained, and the proposal first made; and to his zealous and
persevering efforts the successful carrying out of the project is due.
There had been various circumstances preparing this way for the great
undertaking, but it was the success of the Indo-Colonial Exhibition,
held in 1886, that led to the proposal of a permanent Imperial
Institute. It would be a visible emblem of the unity of the Empire, and
a place for illustrating its vast resources; a museum for exhibiting its
manifold products and industries; a centre of information and
communication for all the countries throughout the world under the
British sovereignty; and be helpful to the increase and the distribution
of the wealth of the nation. It would co-operate and not conflict with
older institutions of tried utility, such as Colonial museums and
exchanges, emigration societies, technical colleges, and other
organizations for the welfare of the people. The scheme was worthy of
being adopted as a national memorial of the Jubilee of the Queen's
reign, and was fittingly inaugurated by the heir apparent to the throne.

Of the progress of the movement, and of the home for the Institute at
South Kensington, it is not necessary here to speak, but the following
speech of the Prince of Wales, at St. James's Palace, on the 12th of
January, 1887, gives the best summary of all that is designed and
expected in regard to the Imperial Institute.

Letters had been sent out inviting many influential persons to meet His
Royal Highness as chairman, and the members of the organizing committee
of the Institute. The banqueting room at the old Palace was filled with
an audience such as has rarely been brought together on any occasion in
recent years. Many of the most distinguished men in all departments of
public life, the Lord Mayors of London and York, with nearly 200 Mayors,
Provosts, and Chief Magistrates of English and Scottish boroughs,
Masters and Wardens of City Companies, and Directors of great corporate
bodies and societies were present. The Prince of Wales, on entering the
room, accompanied by Prince Albert Victor, was warmly received; and thus
he addressed the meeting:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--You are doubtless aware of the general
    feeling on the part of the public that some signal proof of the
    love and loyalty of Her Majesty's subjects throughout her widely
    extended Empire should be given to the Queen when she celebrates
    the fiftieth year of her happy reign. In order to afford to the
    Queen the fullest satisfaction, the proposed memorial should not
    be merely personal in its character, but should tend to serve
    the interests of the entire Empire and to promote a feeling of
    unity among the whole of Her Majesty's subjects. The desire to
    find fitting means of drawing our colonies and India into closer
    bonds with the mother country, a desire which of late has been
    clearly expressed, meets, I am sure, with the Queen's warmest
    sympathy. It occurred to me that the recent Colonial and Indian
    Exhibition, which presented a most successful display of the
    material resources of the colonies and India, might suggest the
    basis for an institute which should afford a permanent
    representation of the products and manufactures of the whole of
    the Queen's dominions. I therefore appointed a committee of
    eminent men to consider and report to me upon the best means of
    carrying out this idea.

    "Upon the report of the committee being submitted to me, and
    after giving every clause my full consideration, it so entirely
    met with my approval that I accepted all its suggestions, and I
    therefore directed that a copy of that report should be sent to
    each of you. As I trust you have mastered the suggestions of
    that report, I do not purpose re-stating them to you in detail,
    but I would remind you that I propose that the memorial should
    bear the name of the Imperial Institute of the United Kingdom,
    the Colonies, and India, and that it must find its home within
    buildings of a character worthy to commemorate the Jubilee year
    of the Queen's reign.

    "My proposals also are that the Imperial Institute should be an
    emblem of the unity of the Empire, and should illustrate the
    resources and capabilities of every section of her Majesty's
    dominions. By these means every one may become acquainted with
    the marvellous growth of the Queen's colonial and Indian
    possessions during her reign, and will be enabled to mark by the
    opportunities afforded for contrast how steadily these
    possessions have advanced in manufacturing skill and enterprise
    step by step with the mother country. A representative institute
    of this kind must necessarily be situated in London, but its
    organization will, I trust, be such that benefits will be
    equally conferred upon our provincial communities as well as
    upon the colonial and Indian subjects of the Crown. It is my
    hope that the institute will form a practical means of
    communication between our colonial settlers and those persons at
    home who may benefit by emigration. Much information and even
    instruction may beneficially be imparted to those who need
    guidance in respect to emigration.

    "You are aware that the competition of industry all over the
    world has become keen, while commerce and manufactures have been
    profoundly affected by the recent rapid progress of science and
    the increased facilities of inter-communication offered by steam
    and the electric telegraph. In consequence of these changes all
    nations are using strenuous efforts to produce a trained
    intelligence among their people. The working classes of this
    country have not been slow to show their desire for improvement
    in this direction. They wish to place themselves in a position
    of intellectual power by using all opportunities offered to them
    to secure an understanding of the principles as well as of the
    practice of the work in which they are engaged. No less than
    16,000,000 persons from all parts of the kingdom have attended
    the four exhibitions over which I presided, representing
    fisheries, public health, inventions, and the colonies and
    India, and I assure you I would not have undertaken the labour
    attending their administration had I not felt a deep conviction
    that such exhibitions added to the knowledge of the people and
    stimulated the industries of the country.

    "I have on more than one occasion expressed my own views,
    founded upon those so often enunciated by my lamented father,
    that it is of the greatest importance to do everything within
    our power to advance the knowledge as well as the practical
    skill of the productive classes of the Empire. I therefore
    commend to you as the leading idea I entertain that the
    institute should be regarded as a centre for extending knowledge
    in relation to the industrial resources and commerce of the
    Queen's dominions. With this view it should be in constant
    touch, not only with the chief manufacturing districts of this
    country, but also with all the colonies and India. Such objects
    are large in their scope, and must necessarily be so, if this
    institute is worthily to represent the unity of the Empire.

    "To some minds the scheme may not be sufficiently comprehensive,
    because it does not provide for systematic courses of technical
    instruction in connection with the collections and libraries of
    the proposed institute. I would be the last person to undervalue
    this suggestion. I am well aware that the advantages we have
    enjoyed in the competition of the world by the possession of
    fuel, combined with large mineral resources and by the maritime
    habits of our people, are now becoming of less importance, as
    trained intellect has in other countries been more and more
    applied to productive industry. But I know that this truth has
    already penetrated our centres of manufacturing activity, for
    many of the large towns have founded colleges and schools of
    science and art to increase the intellectual factor of
    production. London, also, has taken important steps in the same
    direction. The Imperial Institute should be a supplement to, and
    not a competitor with, other institutions for technical
    education in science and art both at home and in the colonies.
    At the same time, I trust that the institute will be able to
    stimulate and aid local efforts by directing scholarships for
    the working-classes into suitable channels, and by other similar

    "Though the institute does not engage in the direct object of
    systematic technical education, it may well be the means of
    promoting it, as its purpose is to extend an exact knowledge of
    the industrial resources of the Empire. It will be a place of
    study and resort for producers and consumers from the colonies
    and India when they visit this country for business or pleasure,
    and they, as well as the merchants and manufacturers of the
    United Kingdom, will find in its collections, libraries,
    conference and intelligence rooms, the means of extending the
    commerce and of improving the manufacturing industries of the
    Empire. I trust, too, that colonial and Indian subjects visiting
    this country will find some sort of social welcome within the
    proposed building. This institute will thus be an emblem, as
    well as a practical exponent, of the community of interests and
    the unity of feeling throughout the extended dominions of the

    "From the close relation in which I stand to the Queen, there
    can be no impropriety in my stating that if her subjects desire,
    on the occasion of the celebration of her fiftieth year as
    Sovereign of this great Empire, to offer her a memorial of their
    love and loyalty, she would specially value one which would
    promote the industrial and commercial resources of her dominions
    in various parts of the world, and which would be expressive of
    that unity and co-operation which Her Majesty desires should
    prevail among all classes and races of her extended Empire.

    "My lords and gentlemen, I have invited you to meet on this
    occasion in order that I may appeal to you to give me your
    assistance in establishing and maintaining the Imperial
    Institute. If you approve of the views I have expressed, I am
    certain I may rely upon your strenuous co-operation to carry
    them into effect. I admit that it has not been without anxiety
    that I resolved to make the propositions I submitted to you, but
    confidence and support have come to me in the knowledge that I
    can appeal to you, and through you to the whole country, to give
    your aid to a work which I believe will be of lasting benefit to
    this and future generations."

Resolutions were proposed and speeches made by Earl Spencer, the Lord
Provost of Edinburgh, Viscount Hampden, the Lord Mayor of London, the
Mayor of Newcastle, and the Marquis of Lorne, approving the scheme, and
promising hearty support. The Lord Mayor proposed a vote of thanks to
the Prince, who tendered his thanks for the attendance at the meeting,
and the approval given to the proposal.

    "I am glad, gentlemen, to have this opportunity of expressing to
    you collectively and individually my deep feelings of gratitude,
    in seeing you all here to-day at a time of year when travelling
    is neither easy nor pleasant, considering the distances which
    you have had to come; and also for the kind response which you
    have made to my appeal. It augurs well for the future, and I
    feel convinced you will do all in your power to assist me in
    making this Imperial Institute worthy of the name of our Queen
    and of her Empire. The promotion of this scheme is with me a
    labour of love, and it must, I am sure, strike you all that,
    apart from wishing to do honour to the name of my beloved
    mother, nobody is more desirous than I am that a monument, if I
    may use the term, may be erected worthy of her Empire."

A public meeting was held the same day at the Mansion House, attended by
a large number of the most influential men in the City. The Lord Mayor
(Sir Reginald Hanson), Earl Granville, Mr. Plunket, M.P., Mr. Mundella,
M.P., Mr. Goschen, M.P., and Lord Rothschild, were among the speakers,
and resolutions were passed with an enthusiasm which gave good augury
for the success of the Imperial Institute.


_March 12th, 1887._

The London Orphan Asylum, for the maintenance, clothing, and education
of Fatherless Children, is one of the oldest and best charities of its
class. The Prince of Wales presided at the Jubilee Festival, at the
Hôtel Métropole, on the 12th of March, 1887. Among the numerous friends
of the charity present were the Duke of Abercorn, the Earl of Clarendon,
Sir Donald Stewart, Sir Dighton Probyn, and many distinguished men. The
Prince, in giving the toast of "The Queen," said it was the first public
dinner at which he had presided in the Jubilee year of the Queen, and
this was also the jubilee of her connection with the London Orphan
Asylum, of which she had been for fifty years its patron. The toast was
received with more than usual enthusiasm.

Alderman Sir R. N. Fowler, M.P., in giving the next loyal toast said
that the charity had been already deeply indebted to the Prince of
Wales, who had, along with the Princess of Wales, laid the foundation
stone of this Asylum at Watford.

Other loyal and patriotic toasts having been given, the Prince rose to
propose the toast of the evening. He said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--The London Orphan Asylum is an old
    institution; it was founded in 1813, two years before the battle
    of Waterloo; and it owed its origin to a distinguished
    philanthropist of the time, Dr. Andrew Reed. Of course it began
    on a very small scale, for the old proverb applied in this as in
    so many other cases that you must cut your coat according to
    your cloth. It commenced in the first year of its organization
    with only three children; but in 1822 there were as many as 126
    children in the school. Twenty years later there were as many as
    326; twenty years later still there were 414; and now it affords
    me the greatest pleasure to announce to you that we have upwards
    of 500 children.

    "The first subscription list contained the names of 255
    subscribers, and among them was my grandfather. He was the first
    patron and headed the list with 50 guineas; and in 1823 my
    grand-uncle, the late Duke of York, laid the foundation stone of
    the institution at Clapton; while two years later the late Duke
    of Cambridge, who was always foremost in all great charitable
    undertakings in this country, presided at its annual festival.
    The institution continued to grow and more children had to be
    admitted, until at last there was not sufficient room in the old
    home. A new one was, therefore, instituted at Watford, and in
    1869 the Princess and myself were asked to lay the foundation
    stone of your present home. Having taken part in that ceremony,
    it gives me much gratification to learn in what a flourishing
    condition the institution now is, which is exemplified by the
    presence of upwards of 500 in the home. And when I look at the
    young ladies and the boys before us I think you will come to the
    conclusion that the management of the institution is thoroughly
    good. During the 74 years of the existence of the asylum
    something over 5000 orphan children have been maintained,
    clothed, and educated.

    "The great Duke of Wellington took very great interest in the
    institution, and I believe I am not wrong in stating that he
    presided at its festivals on five different occasions. A
    remarkable and very important fact in connection with the
    institution is that those who have received education and aid
    from the society are those who do all they can to give it
    support at the present time, and part of the institution at
    Watford was built by subscriptions of the old scholars, and I am
    told that there are as many as ten old pupils of the institution
    in one commercial house in the City, while many are present here
    to-night who are prepared to give liberal donations. The
    education they receive is a thoroughly sound and practical one,
    and when they leave every effort is made to find them
    situations, and they are sent out with proper clothing. As a
    proof that it is managed on economical principles I need only
    say that the cost per head in the past year amounted to little
    over £30. The amount disbursed in the 74 years since its
    foundation has reached the large sum of £700,000--all of this
    large sum, with the exception of £1000 a year which you can rely
    upon, having been derived from voluntary contributions.

    "This year being the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign the managers
    are most anxious to mark the epoch in some manner which will
    benefit the institution, and they have resolved to add 100
    scholars, of whom 50 were admitted in January and 50 more will
    be admitted in June. The cost of this will, undoubtedly, be very
    great, the ultimate amount being between £18,000 and £20,000. I
    am here, therefore, as your chairman, to ask you to contribute
    as liberally as you can for the maintenance of this ancient and
    most creditable institution. I am well aware that now and for
    some years past there has been both agricultural and commercial
    depression, but I feel convinced that in the cause of
    charity--and what greater charity can there be than providing
    for orphan children?--I shall not appeal in vain to my
    countrymen to do all in their power as philanthropists to
    support an institution which has been carried out on the best
    and most economical principles."

The toast was drunk with much enthusiasm, and acknowledged by Mr. Capell
(the treasurer). The total amount of the subscriptions announced during
the evening was £5000, including an annual subscription of 20 guineas
from the Queen and 100 guineas from the Prince of Wales.

When the foundation-stone was laid by the Prince and Princess of Wales,
in 1869, 250 purses were laid on it, containing in all about £8000. For
the chapel £5000 was given by one whose early days were spent in the
Asylum. The Grocers' Company contributed £3000 to build one house; the
Countess of Verulam and the Countess of Essex raised another sum of
£3000, as a kind of welcome to the county. The income in 1887 was
£15,000, but the invested funds give little more than £1000, so that
there is constant need of new "voluntary contributions," to maintain the
550 orphans now in the houses.


_March 30th, 1887._

The associated teachers who, under the name of the College of
Preceptors, have for above forty years laboured to raise the standard of
middle-class education, deserve praise and honour for what they have
accomplished. Without Government aid or grant, and unpatronized by
dignitaries of Church or State, these learned and patriotic men have
succeeded, by training teachers, establishing examinations, and granting
certificates, in acquiring a reputation and influence now very generally
recognized. Their work is truly of national importance, and this His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales declared when he readily assented to
formally open the new building of the College, in Bloomsbury Square, on
the 30th of March, 1887. This College is self-supporting, and the cost
of the erection and equipment of the new building was defrayed out of
savings that had accumulated in the hands of the treasurer during the
previous seven years.

A very large number of persons interested in education assembled in the
lecture-hall to witness the ceremony, among whom were Sir Lyon Playfair,
Sir Richard Temple, Mr. Lyulph Stanley, the Dowager Lady Stanley of
Alderley, the Presidents of several societies, and the Head Masters of
Harrow, Charterhouse, and Merchant Taylors' Schools, of Marlborough and
Dulwich Colleges, and of Christ's Hospital.

On the arrival of the Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Princess of
Wales, and their daughters Princesses Victoria and Maud, an address was
presented by the Rev. Dr. T. W. Jex-Blake, President of the Council. The
Prince, in replying, said:--

    "Dr. Jex-Blake, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--It gives the Princess of
    Wales and myself great satisfaction to have been able to accede
    to the request of the council, and to open the new building of
    the College of Preceptors. I am reminded, by your reference to
    the circumstances that this building is opened during the year
    of the Queen's jubilee, of the many and important improvements
    that have taken place in Her Majesty's dominions during the last
    fifty years, and especially in the advancement of education
    among all classes of the people, a share of which progress is
    due to the excellent work undertaken by this self-supported

    "For over forty years the College of Preceptors has exercised a
    marked and growing influence for good upon the education given
    in some of our endowed schools, and more particularly in the
    numerous private schools for boys and girls which are an
    important feature in the educational system of this country. The
    value of your work is sufficiently shown by the high reputation
    of your examinations and by the constantly increasing number of
    your candidates, and I sincerely congratulate you on the results
    you have achieved. In the further development of the work of
    training teachers you have before you a future of great
    usefulness, for there can be no doubt that the provision of
    properly-trained teachers for middle and higher schools is
    almost, if not quite, as necessary as for our public elementary

    "The key of the building which you have presented to me I shall
    retain as a memento of this ceremony, and in declaring this
    building open I fervently hope that the influence and teaching
    which will go forth from it may tend to improve and to raise to
    a yet higher standard the education given in the private and
    secondary schools of our country. I declare this building now

The Royal party were afterwards conducted through the building, the
arrangements of which are justly admired. The entrance corridor is wide
and lofty. On one side of it there is a club-room for members, and on
the other the secretary's and clerks' offices. The council-room is large
and handsome, and the lecture-room occupies the whole of the second
story, and is surrounded by book-cases capable of holding 10,000


_May 3rd, 1887._

The great Exhibition at Manchester during the Queen's Jubilee year is
too recent an event to need any remark prefatory to the statement that
it was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales on the 3rd of May,
1887. Their Royal Highnesses, who were guests at Tatton Hall, drove with
Lord Egerton through the park to Knutsford, where they stopped to
witness the crowning of the May Queen, and other old English May Day
customs which have been revived in that quaint little town. The Prince
gave the permission asked by the Committee to add the title of Royal to
the Knutsford May Day Sports. They then travelled in a saloon carriage
to Manchester, accompanied by Lady Sefton and Lord Egerton.

On arriving at the Town Hall an address was presented, to which the
Prince read the following reply:--

    "It gives me sincere pleasure to be permitted on behalf of the
    Queen, my dear mother, to visit the city of Manchester for the
    purpose of opening the extensive and interesting Exhibition
    which the inhabitants of Manchester have organized with such
    admirable zeal and energy, particularly as it is associated with
    your congratulations on Her Majesty's attaining the fiftieth
    year of her reign. In her name I thank you for your loyal and
    dutiful address. It has been a source of much gratification to
    the Queen to receive assurance of unfaltering attachment to her
    throne and person from all parts of the Empire on the occasion.
    The Princess of Wales and I desire to express our admiration of
    the noble building which you have provided for the conduct of
    your municipal affairs, and we think it worthy of the vast
    wealth and importance of the city of Manchester. It gives us
    great satisfaction to be able to promote and encourage all
    charitable works and institutions designed for the social and
    educational improvement of the community. We thank you for your
    good wishes for the welfare of ourselves and our children, and
    we hope that prosperity and happiness may ever attend on the
    labours of the loyal and industrious inhabitants of this great

The route of the procession from the Town Hall to the Exhibition was a
very long one, being chosen by the Prince in preference to a shorter one
submitted to him, on the ground that he would rather afford pleasure to
a larger number of people than see the finer edifices on the shorter
route. In the Palm House of the gardens luncheon was served, and then
the opening ceremony took place in the nave of the building, in the
position known as the Music Room. Mr. Hallé's orchestra was in front of
the organ, and the National Anthem was performed with fine effect, the
vocal rendering being also given by Madame Albani and the full chorus.
The Bishop of Manchester offered prayer, and the choir sang the Old
Hundredth Psalm. To the address read by Sir Joseph Lee, the Prince

    "I receive with great satisfaction your address on the opening
    of this large and instructive Exhibition. On behalf of Her
    Majesty I declare it open from this day. The illustrations
    which you have collected on engineering and chemical industry,
    and the products of manufacture and useful toil, afford ample
    testimony to the skill and ingenuity and steady perseverance of
    the inhabitants of this district, and prove how justly they hold
    a high and an honourable place in the industrial ranks of the
    Empire. The collection of natural products and manufactures of
    Ireland, and the gratifying display of English works of art, add
    much to the interest and value of this Exhibition, in which I
    recognise a worthy mark of your desire to do honour to an
    occasion so auspicious as the celebration of the fiftieth year
    of Her Majesty's reign. The Princess and I desire to thank you
    heartily for your good wishes on our behalf, and for the cordial
    welcome which you have given us."

The Prince, in the name of the Queen, declared the Exhibition open. A
fanfare of trumpets was then given and a _feu de joie_ fired. The
proceedings closed with a procession through the different departments,
while the "Lobgesang" or "Hymn of Praise" was rendered by the full
orchestra and chorus. At the Exhibition station a special train was
waiting to take the Royal party back to Tatton Hall.


_May 22nd, 1887._

The London Hospital has many and special claims on public sympathy and
support. Its position, in Whitechapel, surrounded by poor and crowded
parts of East London; its small endowments compared with some of the
other great hospitals; the vast number of patients annually relieved,
both in the house and as out-patients; and its being virtually a "free"
hospital, nearly three-fourths of the in-patients being received without
letter or recommendation; all these circumstances appeal to liberal
charity. In 1887 there were 8863 in-patients admitted, of which 6019
were freely received, without letters of subscribers. There are
children's wards where, during the same time, 1717 were admitted; and
Hebrew wards, where 623 received treatment. The total number of
out-patients, treated either at the Hospital or at their homes, was
nearly 100,000, including relief given in less serious and protracted
illness. The income from endowments is little more than £15,000 a year,
while the annual cost of maintenance is £50,000. The Medical School is
supported by the fees of pupils, but for the general maintenance of the
Hospital appeal must be made to the public for voluntary subscriptions
and contributions.

A Nursing Home, to accommodate 100 nurses, a new Library, and other
buildings having been recently added, the Prince and Princess of Wales
were invited by the Governors, of whom the Duke of Cambridge is
President, to inaugurate these additions to the institution. This was
done, with suitable ceremony, on Saturday, the 21st of May, 1887. The
Princesses Louise and Victoria of Wales, and the Crown Prince of Denmark
were also present. The Governors and officers of the Hospital, with many
distinguished persons, were in attendance, and great interest was shown
by the crowds of people who thronged the streets on the occasion. The
Royal party visited several of the wards, where the Princess of Wales
showed kindly sympathy with many of the poor patients, especially in the
children's wards. On arriving at the dining-hall of the nurses and
sisters, who wear a plain and tasteful uniform, a hymn was sung, and a
prayer offered by the Bishop of Bedford, after which, at the request of
the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess of Wales formally declared the
Nursing Home to be open.

The Medical College was then visited, and in the new library an address
was presented by the President. The Prince of Wales, in acknowledging
the address, said:--

    "Your Royal Highness and Gentlemen,--The Princess and myself
    thank you for your address, and can assure you that we have much
    pleasure in coming here to-day to open the nursing home and
    college buildings of this important institution. The Hospital,
    which is the largest civil one in the United Kingdom, which
    contains 800 beds and which supplied medical and surgical
    assistance to 80,000 out-patients last year, may be regarded
    almost in the light of a national institution, as every
    description of case, excepting those of an infectious or
    incurable nature, is admitted. Such a Hospital cannot fail to be
    of inestimable value to the population of over a million persons
    residing in its vicinity, and especially to the labouring class,
    who are so extensively employed in connection with the railways
    and docks. But it has other and additional claims upon public
    sympathy and assistance. First, although its annual expenditure
    amounts to nearly £50,000, it is mainly supported by voluntary
    contributions; secondly, it has undertaken the difficult task of
    improving the system of nursing and of providing a higher class
    of nurses, with better discipline and superior training and
    instruction. To effect this object house accommodation was
    essential, and instead of closely-packed dormitories the new
    home provides separate rooms, a cheerful dining hall, and other
    advantages, all tending to brighten the lives of the inmates,
    while reserving for them the necessary quiet and rest.

    "The new library and buildings which I am now about to declare
    open belong to a college over 100 years old. It was the first in
    the Metropolis in which a complete curriculum was established,
    and being attached to the largest Hospital in the country, and
    situated in the midst of the most populous artisan neighbourhood
    in London, it offers greater facilities for the acquirement of
    medical and surgical knowledge than perhaps any other college of
    a scientific character. I understand that among the important
    duties which the students perform are those of dressers,
    clinical clerks, maternity pupils, and other assistants, and
    from their number the resident officers are selected after
    having become qualified practitioners. The Princess and I most
    earnestly pray that every blessing may attend the labours and
    efforts of all those who are working among the sufferers in the
    Hospital, and you may rest assured that we shall always take the
    warmest interest in the welfare and prosperity of your noble

Dr. Langdon Down, the senior physician, in thanking His Royal Highness
on behalf of his colleagues and the students, explained that the new
buildings did not diminish the funds of the Hospital, as a rent was paid
for them by the teaching staff of the medical school. The Prince then
declared the new buildings and the library to be open. The Duke of
Cambridge then called for three cheers for the Prince and Princess,
which were given with great heartiness, followed by "one cheer more for
the Duke," who has always been a zealous and generous friend of the
London Hospital.


_May 28th, 1887._

The object of the Deaconesses' Institution at Tottenham is "the training
of Christian women to serve as deaconesses"--that is to say, as sisters
trained for working, teaching, and nursing, without being subject to any
obligation or vow of celibacy, as is usual in the sisterhoods of Roman
Catholic communities. The training of nurses is one of the chief
purposes sought, following in this the example of the celebrated
institution of Kaiserwerth, where, under Pastor Fliedner, Florence
Nightingale and other English as well as German nurses were trained. In
fact the full title of the establishment at the Green, Tottenham, is the
"Evangelical Protestant Deaconesses' Institution and Training Hospital."
The Hospital contains 100 beds for the sick poor, and there are also a
few private rooms for paying patients. Thousands of the poor are also
attended every year in the neighbourhood.

From the commencement of the work, in 1867, the late Samuel Morley,
M.P., took warm interest in it, and at his death two of his sons, Howard
and Charles Morley, erected a new wing to the building, as a memorial of
their father. It was to open the "Samuel Morley" memorial wing that the
Princess of Wales, accompanied by the Prince and their three daughters,
visited Tottenham on the 29th of May, 1887. A large number of persons
were assembled, including deputations from foreign countries, Pastor
Fliedner from Kaiserwerth, Pastor Nehmitz from Berlin, and other
Pastors, Lady Superintendents, and Deaconesses from German and Danish

When the Royal party had been conducted to the marquee where the
ceremony was to take place an address was read to the Princess of Wales
by Dr. Laseron, the medical director. The Prince, in replying on behalf
of the Princess, said:--

    "Dr. Laseron, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--The Princess of Wales
    desires me to express her sincerest thanks for the address which
    has just been read to her, and to express to all who take an
    interest in this institution the great pleasure and
    gratification it affords her to take part in to-day's
    proceedings. There can be, I am sure, nothing more noble or more
    praiseworthy than an institution like this, in which women give
    up their lives to the object of philanthropy in order to heal
    and mitigate the sufferings of the sick. An institution like the
    Deaconesses' Institution is one well worthy of the support of
    all. I am sure that the proceeding of to-day, in opening a
    fresh wing of this hospital, is a sincere gratification to the
    Princess, and especially that it should be called after the name
    of one whom I have had the privilege of knowing, and whom you
    all knew, at any rate by name, and whose loss we must all deeply
    deplore--the late Samuel Morley. I am sure no more fitting name
    could be given to the new wing than that it should be called
    after him who, with the members of his family--one of whom I am
    glad to see here to-day--has contributed so much to the
    prosperity of this institution. In the name of the Princess I
    beg to express to you the pleasure it gives us to be present
    here to-day."

Purses were then presented to the Princess by many girls, as gifts to
the funds, and Dr. Laseron handed to her Royal Highness a key to unlock
the new wing. The Royal party were then conducted to the hall, where the
Princess unveiled the "Samuel Morley Tablet," bearing an inscription
commemorative of the occasion.


_June 13th, 1887._

Her Gracious Majesty being the chief patroness of the Order of
Freemasons, and of the Masonic charities, it was deemed fitting that an
address should be presented to her on the occasion of her Jubilee.
Accordingly, the Prince of Wales, with the Duke of Connaught and Prince
Albert Victor, and a vast company of officers and members of the Order,
representatives chosen by lodges in different parts of the empire,
assembled in the Royal Albert Hall on the 13th of June, 1887. The number
present was about 7000. No such scene has been witnessed since that day,
twelve years before, when the Prince was installed as Grand Master of
English Freemasons. The procession which received the Grand Master and
conducted him to the throne was a magnificent affair. The assemblage, we
are told, although "tyled," was not held as a lodge. The business of the
meeting being opened, his Royal Highness the Grand Master said:--

    "Brethren,--This is, I think, one of the greatest gatherings of
    Freemasons I have ever seen, with the exception of the occasion
    when, after election by the craft, I received the honour of
    installation as your Grand Master. It is most gratifying to me,
    as I feel sure it will be to the Queen, that so large a
    gathering has assembled here to-day to do her honour on the
    fiftieth anniversary of her reign--the Jubilee of her accession.
    This gathering will be a proof to her, as it is also to me, of
    the great devotion and loyalty of the craft to the Throne--a
    devotion and loyalty which have ever animated the Free and
    Accepted Masons of England. We are here, brethren, as you are
    aware, for the purpose of moving an address to the Queen,
    congratulating her upon having attained the fiftieth anniversary
    of her reign. You are well aware that my ancestors--some of them
    former Sovereigns of this nation--did much in support of
    Freemasonry, and, though they well knew it to be a secret
    society, they were well assured that it was in no wise a
    dangerous one. Among our tenets of motives 'loyalty' and
    'philanthropy' stand out prominently, and we are proud of the
    fact. I assure you, brethren, that it is most gratifying to me
    to receive so large, important, and influential a gathering as
    this to-day, and I am rejoiced that in the many events which are
    to be the signs of the people's rejoicing at the Jubilee of the
    Queen, this meeting, at the Royal Albert Hall, of the Free and
    Accepted Masons of England will be first on the list. I will now
    call upon Grand Secretary, Colonel Shadwell E. Clerke, to read
    the proposed address, and then our worshipful brother the Earl
    of Carnarven will move its adoption."

The Address and the Speech were on the same lines as most of the Jubilee
addresses, but of course with special reference to the loyalty and the
devotion of Freemasons. The great company having chanted the National
Anthem, the ceremony of giving Jubilee honours was performed, among the
numerous recipients of which were the Maharajah of Kuch-Behar, the Lord
Mayor of London, Sir Francis Knollys, Sir Philip Cunliffe Owen, and Sir
Charles Warren.

The Grand Master announced that the amount paid by the members that day
amounted to upwards of £6000, the whole of which would go to the Masonic
charities for children and the aged, under the rules of the Order.


_June 17th, 1887._

The Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by Prince George and
Princess Louise of Wales, went on the 17th of June, 1887, to lay the
foundation stone of a central building for the "National Refuges for
Homeless and Destitute Children." There are many institutions in London
for similar objects, but this charity is one of old standing, and one of
the most important and best. It was established in 1843 under the
patronage of Lord Shaftesbury, in Great Queen Street. The income of the
Society was only £180 in the first year, and all that could be attempted
was to shelter and teach a few poor children in a "Ragged School," open
two evenings a week. The efforts of Mr. W. Williams, the Secretary, and
zealous coadjutors, were successful in gradually increasing the
operations of the Society, till, in the year of the Queen's Jubilee, the
Committee had the satisfaction of managing seven industrial homes, in
town and country, with more than 1000 children, and two training ships,
the _Chichester_ and the _Arethusa_, with an annual income of about
£20,000. The good work in its various departments continues to prosper.
All this and more was stated in an address by the Earl of Jersey,
Chairman of the Reception Committee. Among the friends of the Society
who had witnessed its progress, and helped it from the beginning, was
Mr. John MacGregor, the founder of the Shoe-black Brigade, and the chief
helper of the Secretary in bringing the _Chichester_ to its high
excellence as a training-ship.

The ceremony was performed in a tent erected on the site of the new
Home, in Shaftesbury Avenue, close to the once notorious Seven Dials.
The building is intended to provide shelter for 100 homeless boys, a
home for 35 working lads, a club for "old boys" trained in the
institution, and the central offices of the Society. After the address
had been read, the Prince of Wales thus spoke:--

    "Lord Jersey, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--In thanking you for the
    address which you have just read, allow me to express to you,
    and to this great assemblage, the very great gratification it
    gives both the Princess and myself to be here to-day, to take
    part in so interesting and what I may also call a most important
    ceremony. You are well aware of the deep interest and solicitude
    we take with regard to all classes of the community in this
    great Metropolis, but we claim that we take especial interest in
    what concerns the well-being and the welfare of the working
    classes and of the poor of London. It is therefore a great
    gratification to us that I should be afforded the opportunity
    to-day of laying the foundation stone of a home to be called
    'The Jubilee Memorial Home,' in commemoration of the fiftieth
    year of the Queen's reign, and, at the same time, I rejoice to
    think that this building is to be named 'The Shaftesbury House,'
    as a memorial of the great and distinguished philanthropist
    whose loss we must always and shall ever deeply deplore. Most
    sincerely do we hope that this home may be the means of bringing
    many of those waifs and strays always existing in so great a
    metropolis as ours; we trust, too, that they may have such an
    education and training that, as they grow older, they may be
    able to go out into the world honest and respectable citizens,
    and have an opportunity of gaining their livelihood. I thank you
    again, Lord Jersey, for this address, and assure you that it
    gives us the greatest pleasure to be here to-day."

The stone was then well and truly laid, and his Royal Highness was
presented with the trowel. A paper was laid by the Prince upon the
stone, and Lord Jersey announced the gift of £50 from his Royal
Highness, £30 from Sir Robert Carden, and other donations. "God bless
the Prince of Wales," and the "National Anthem" were then chanted. The
Royal party left amidst enthusiastic cheering. A large number of the
boys from the country homes were present, and from the training-ships in
their sailor costumes.


_November 3rd, 1887._

The foundation stone of Truro Cathedral was laid in 1879 by the Prince
of Wales, with Masonic ceremony. He was accompanied by the Princess of
Wales, Prince Albert Victor, and Prince George. The Prince was again
asked to be present at the Consecration, when the building was
completed. The ceremony took place on the 3rd of November, 1887. On
arriving at the station, the Mayor of Truro presented an Address, to
which the Prince thus replied:--

    "I thank you for your loyal address and for the kind words with
    which you receive me on this memorable occasion. It affords me
    the most unfeigned satisfaction to be able to attend the great
    religious service which is held here to-day, and to be present
    at the consummation of the important ceremony in which I took a
    leading part more than seven years ago. The interest which the
    Duchess of Cornwall and I have felt in the progress of the work
    has continued unabated since that period, and she commissions me
    to assure you how deep is her regret and disappointment that
    unavoidable causes prevent her from accompanying me to the
    consecration of the first Protestant cathedral erected in
    England since St. Paul's in London. I join most heartily in the
    expression of your hopes that the western part of the building
    may ere long be completed, and I trust that circumstances will
    then allow me once more to visit a town which can boast of
    having been mentioned in Domesday Book 800 years ago. Let me in
    conclusion, gentlemen, express my warm acknowledgments to you
    for the loyal and cordial terms in which you allude to the Queen
    and the Duchess of Cornwall."

The Archbishop of Canterbury, the predecessor of the present Bishop, and
a large number of the Episcopal body, with many of the clergy and laity
of the diocese, were present in the Cathedral. The service, including
the administration of the Holy Communion, occupied nearly four hours.
After the service the Prince drove to the Truro Public Rooms, where
about four hundred of the principal residents of Cornwall assembled for
luncheon, Lord St. Germans, Lord Lieutenant of the County, presiding.

The noble Chairman, after proposing the toast of "The Queen," gave that
of "Their Royal Guest," who, he trusted, felt at home in his ancient
Duchy. The Prince, in reply, said:--

    "Lord Mount-Edgcumbe, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I am deeply
    touched by the very kind manner in which this toast has been
    proposed by our Lord Lieutenant and by the way in which it has
    been received. Although it has not been my good fortune to come
    as often to this ancient Duchy as I could have wished, still
    among the different visits which I have been able to pay you
    none has given me greater pleasure and satisfaction than that
    which I am paying at the present moment. You may rest assured
    that I feel proud of the ancient title that I bear. The interest
    that I take in the welfare of the county will never be
    diminished. Seven years and a half ago I was enabled to lay the
    foundation stone of this cathedral with Masonic honours. To-day
    I have been present at its consecration. The most interesting
    service and religious ceremony at which we have assisted to-day
    are not likely to be forgotten by me, nor by any of you. It is
    the event of a lifetime, and I congratulate you, the Duchy, the
    county, and all connected with it, on the erection of so noble
    an edifice, and I trust that before long we may see the
    completion of the building. It is a real sorrow to me that the
    Princess of Wales and some of my children should not have
    accompanied me on this occasion as they did when the foundation
    stone was laid. Although they are far away, you may feel sure
    that they take a great interest in what is being done here
    to-day. Time is short and we have to leave. If, therefore, the
    words I have uttered to you to-day are few, you must not
    question their sincerity and heartiness. I thank you for the
    kind reception that you always give me when I come among you.
    Before sitting down I wish to give one toast, which I am sure
    you will drink with pleasure. It is 'The Health of our Lord
    Lieutenant.' You know how much is due to him and to your Bishop.
    I am sure that it is a source of great satisfaction to them to
    see so many distinguished prelates around them on this great
    occasion and so large a body of the laity."

The toast was received with enthusiasm, and the company would have
remained standing while the air "God bless the Prince of Wales" was
being played upon the organ, had not the Prince motioned to them to
resume their seats.


_November 4th, 1887._

The visit of the Prince of Wales to the West of England closed with the
ceremony of presenting new colours to the 2nd Battalion Duke of
Cornwall's Light Infantry at Devonport. On his arrival, an address was
presented by the Corporation. The Prince replied:--

    "I have had much satisfaction in receiving your address, and I
    thank you for your kind welcome to a borough in which on more
    than one occasion I have experienced a very cordial reception. I
    have a perfect recollection of the circumstances of my departure
    for Canada to which you allude. It is hardly necessary for me to
    remind you of the many important events which have occurred in
    the history of this kingdom, and in my own life, since the day
    on which I embarked for North America from your port,
    twenty-seven years ago. Let me express to you my warm
    acknowledgments for your gratifying recognition of my earnest
    endeavours to encourage all undertakings tending to promote the
    welfare of this great country. I am well aware that the position
    which I occupy as the eldest son of the Sovereign entails upon
    me the performance of duties which it always has been my most
    earnest desire to fulfil to the utmost of my ability, and I can
    assure my fellow-countrymen that in the future, as in the past,
    they will at all times find me anxious to respond to any call
    which they may make upon me to aid them in the advancement of
    any object either of charity or of public utility."

The Prince then drove to the Raglan Barracks, where the regiment awaited
his arrival.

The usual ceremonies on such occasions were proceeded with, and the old
colours, which had been borne by the 46th, or South Devon Regiment, as
it was formerly called, through the Crimean War and in Egypt, were taken
to the rear to the music of "Auld Lang Syne." The new colours, after the
prayer of consecration by the chaplain of the garrison, were presented
to the lieutenants. The Prince then addressed the troops:--

    "Colonel Grieve, Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Men of
    the 2nd Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry,--You have
    conferred a great pleasure and satisfaction upon me in having
    asked me to give your efficient regiment new colours. I do so
    with the greatest pleasure, because I know that, in giving these
    new colours, I intrust them to the care of a regiment which has
    distinguished itself for many years in every part of the globe,
    and that they are certain to be in safe hands, and will continue
    to do honour to their Sovereign and country as heretofore. I am
    proud to be associated with your regiment as Honorary Colonel of
    the 3rd Battalion. I am aware that, perhaps, the old name of the
    46th is more dear to you; but I feel sure that, whether under
    that name or under the present one, you will continue to bear
    the high state of efficiency which has always existed ever since
    the regiment was raised.

    "Your regiment was raised, as I am aware, in 1741, and you
    distinguished yourselves in the War of Independence. In
    consequence, in 1777, of your Light Company at Dominica having
    gallantly defended General Wayns, you were awarded the privilege
    of wearing red feathers, a distinction which you still bear in
    the shape of red cloth on your helmets, and of which you feel
    very proud. I am also aware that your regiment served with
    distinction in the Crimea, and these old colours, which are to
    be carried by the old regiment no more, were given to you on
    board ship, prior to landing in the Crimea, and have been used
    for many years. You have since served in different parts of the
    Empire, and especially in the recent campaign in Egypt and in
    the Nile Expedition, under the command of the late gallant and
    lamented General Earle. There is much more that I could say in
    connection with your distinguished services, but, owing to the
    want of time and the unfortunate inclemency of the weather, I do
    not wish to detain the regiment longer than is necessary on
    parade. Let me congratulate you, Colonel Grieve, on the smart
    appearance of your regiment and the admirable way in which they
    look. I sincerely hope the regiment, as opportunities offer,
    though I hope they may not, whether in the defensive or
    offensive, will continue as it always has to distinguish itself.
    I can congratulate you, Colonel Grieve, upon the honour of
    commanding so fine and efficient a regiment."


_May 8th, 1888._

On the 8th of May, 1888, the Exhibition at Glasgow was opened by the
Prince and Princess of Wales. There have been many Exhibitions,
international and national, since the famous "World's Fair" of 1851, but
few of them have surpassed, in variety of interest, that which the
Glasgow people have successfully carried out, in the spacious and
picturesque building in Kelvin Grove Park. Certainly, not one of the
national Exhibitions has offered so wonderful a display of the wealth,
enterprise, and versatility in productive industry, of the subjects of
the British Crown. There was at Manchester an unrivalled collection of
art-treasures, and at other places there have been special features of
distinction. But, on the whole, the Exhibition at Glasgow has been one
of most varied excellence, worthy of the Queen's Jubilee year, when the
preparations were made for it, and worthy of the silver-wedding year of
the Prince and Princess, whose presence was welcomed on the opening
day. The experience of other Exhibitions has not been lost, and one of
the most interesting portions of the show has been the antiquarian and
historical collection displayed in the Old "Bishop's Palace," after the
manner of the artificial constructions first made familiar in the
streets of "Old London" at South Kensington.

Before opening the Exhibition, the Prince and Princess were received in
the Corporation Chambers by the Lord Provost, magistrates, and a
distinguished assembly. An address of welcome was read by Dr. Marwick,
the Town Clerk, some of the points of which may be gathered from the
reply of the Prince, which was as follows:--

    "My Lord Provost and Gentlemen,--I have received your address
    with feelings of sincere satisfaction, and I thank you on behalf
    of the Princess of Wales and myself for your cordial words of
    welcome and your kind reference to our Silver Wedding. We have
    come here to-day to celebrate, in one of the most prosperous
    cities of the United Kingdom, the inauguration of a great
    national work of the highest and most varied interest, and one
    altogether worthy of your important city. I can assure you I
    thoroughly understand and appreciate the anxious desire which
    has prevailed among you that an Industrial Exhibition should be
    held this year in Glasgow, and I consider that with the
    commercial, manufacturing, and mercantile eminence which she
    enjoys, such a desire is not only right and proper in the
    highest degree, but natural and commendable. We warmly
    sympathise with you in this feeling, and I would that my
    lamented father were alive now to witness the development of the
    general idea of which he was the originator. The relations of
    this city with all the markets of the civilised world have long
    been well known, but they have been immensely extended during
    the present century by the energy and enterprise of those
    merchants and citizens, who, by deepening the Clyde and
    providing the extensive harbour and dock accommodation which now
    exists, have overcome the natural disadvantages of its position,
    and given it a permanent place among the shipping ports and
    commercial centres of the Kingdom. Let me, my Lord Provost and
    Gentlemen, sincerely thank you for the loyal terms in which you
    alluded to the Queen. I shall have much pleasure in
    communicating to Her Majesty the hope that you have expressed
    that she will visit your magnificent Exhibition, and I will not
    fail to acquaint her likewise with your words of devotion to her
    throne and person."

The Royal party left the Council Chamber for the Lord Provost's
residence, where they partook of luncheon. After the luncheon the Royal
party passed under a triumphal arch at the West-end Park main entrance,
and over the Prince of Wales Bridge, opposite the Exhibition gate. Sir
Archibald Campbell, President of the Executive Committee, here met the
Prince, and a number of gentlemen who have been instrumental in
promoting the Exhibition were introduced to his Royal Highness. Sir A.
Campbell handed to the Prince a gold key, and his Royal Highness, amidst
cheers, opened the east door of the vestibule, and entered the
Exhibition. The Prince and Princess walked to the front of the platform
of the Grand Hall, the Glasgow Choral Union meanwhile singing the
National Anthem, and the Artillery on the neighbouring heights firing a
salute of twenty-one guns. After their Royal Highnesses were seated and
prayers had been read by the Rev. Dr. D. M'Leod, Sir A. Campbell
presented an address.

The Prince of Wales, accepting the address, said:--

    "Sir Archibald Campbell, my Lords and Gentlemen,--I thank you
    for your address, and I can assure you that it affords the
    Princess of Wales and myself very sincere pleasure to be present
    on this important occasion. That gratification is increased by
    the sense of the connection which you have recognised as
    existing between this International Exhibition and that in which
    my revered father took so deep an interest and so active a part.
    The various Exhibitions which have been held since 1851 have
    undoubtedly done much, not only to enlist the sympathy of the
    nations of the world and to engage them in friendly rivalries of
    industrial competition, but largely to extend our knowledge of
    every branch of manufacture, and to afford pleasure to all ranks
    and classes of society in every country in which these
    Exhibitions have been held. Recognising the benefits which they
    have thus conferred, such Exhibitions can never fail to enlist
    the sympathy of the Queen and command the support of the
    Princess and myself. We are here to-day to give personal
    testimony to that feeling, and to express our satisfaction not
    only with the public spirit with which the undertaking has been
    supported financially, but with the enthusiasm with which
    exhibitors from all parts of the world have enriched the
    collections of science, art, and industry gathered within these

    "Nor is it possible to overlook the special appropriateness of
    such an Exhibition in this city, in which the researches and
    discoveries of Black, of Watt, and, in our own day, of Thomson,
    have been productive of world-wide benefits to mankind. In the
    application of science also, Glasgow can point with just pride
    to Bell, whose 'Comet' is still preserved as a memorial of the
    first attempt to apply the forces of steam to the propulsion of
    ships, and to the multifarious industries which have here found
    a home. To the widely different character of these industries,
    which secure to the population of this district immunity from
    many of the risks which necessarily attend devotion to one
    special department of labour, it is only possible to allude in
    general terms. Here there exist and flourish side by side great
    establishments for shipbuilding, the production of marine
    machinery, locomotives, mill machinery, and mechanical
    appliances for the working of iron and coal for the production
    of mineral oil, the manufacture of thread, glass, and pottery,
    carpet-weaving, dyeing and printing. It must not likewise be
    over-looked that Glasgow was the cradle of the steam-carrying
    trade with America and the great mercantile centres of the
    world. It is gratifying to me to learn that, in the
    comprehensive collection to be found here, due regard has been
    paid to the exhibition of works of art, and that the walls of
    your galleries are enriched by many and valuable paintings and
    works of sculpture. Here, as in the Exhibition at Manchester,
    are to be found evidences of the fact that the successful
    prosecution of trade, manufacture, and commerce afford not only
    the means of gratifying, but of developing the taste for art.

    "Not the least interesting of all is the section in which an
    honourable place has been given to the works of artisan
    exhibitors. In every industrial community, and nowhere more so
    than in Glasgow, the development of the taste, skill, and
    handicraft of its operatives must always command a respectful
    consideration and interest. To the Women's Industry Section we
    shall also look with special sympathy, recognising the
    importance of encouraging every means by which women's work may
    be made productive.

    "It is also a gratification to us to observe that the artistic
    building in which the Exhibition is contained occupies an
    appropriate position within, I may almost say, the shadow of the
    University of Glasgow, the second in antiquity of the old
    Universities of Scotland. The site of the University is no doubt
    modern; but it is satisfactory to see the Institution which was
    founded through the influence of King James II. in 1450 in a
    more flourishing state at present than at any previous period of
    its history. It only remains now for the Princess and myself to
    express our earnest hope that this great Exhibition may prove an
    immense success, and that the thousands who, we trust, will
    visit it may derive such instruction from an examination of its
    various sections as will prove of material advantage to them for
    years to come."

After an Inauguration Ode had been sung, the Prince declared the
Exhibition open, amid much enthusiasm. The Hallelujah Chorus was then
given by the choir. The Royal party spent considerable time in
inspecting various parts of the Exhibition, the Princess being specially
interested in the "Women's Industries" Section; after which they
returned to the Central Railway Station, _en route_ to Hamilton Palace.

On the same day, May 8, the Queen, accompanied by the Princess
Christian, and other members of the Royal family, honoured by her
presence the performance of Sir Arthur Sullivan's _Golden Legend_, given
by command at the Royal Albert Hall. Later in the year, on the 22nd
August, she gratified the citizens of Glasgow by visiting the
Exhibition, in response to the loyal invitation from the Corporation and
the Committee given to the Prince on the opening day. The Queen honoured
Sir Archibald Campbell, of Blythswood, Chairman of the Committee, by
being his guest on that occasion. The opportunity of this Royal visit
was taken for opening the new municipal buildings in George Square. It
was nearly forty years since Her Majesty, along with the lamented Prince
Consort, had visited the western capital of Scotland. No city in her
Majesty's dominions has made more wonderful progress than Glasgow, or
made more eager use of its natural advantages. The visit of the Prince
of Wales at the opening of the Exhibition, and the subsequent visit of
the Queen will make the year 1888 ever memorable in the annals of


_June 5th, 1888._

Among the memorials of illustrious men in the gardens of the Thames
Embankment, no one will be honoured more than the statue to Sir Bartle
Frere. It was erected by public subscription, in memory of his private
virtues and of his public services. The grand bronze figure of the
patriotic Englishman is much admired. The likeness is good, and the
whole monument, with its pedestal of Cornish granite, imposing. Many
distinguished men were present to witness the unveiling of the statue by
the Prince of Wales on the 5th of June, 1888. He was accompanied by the
Princess, and their two daughters, the Princesses Maud and Victoria.
Among the company were the Duke of Cambridge, the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Lord Napier of Magdala, and Sir Richard Temple, M.P., who
asked the Prince of Wales to perform the ceremony. The Prince said:--

    "Sir Richard Temple, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--It gave me great
    pleasure, after the lamented death of Sir Bartle Frere, to
    accept the post of President of the Committee, especially when
    we found that a Memorial like this statue was to be erected to
    the memory of a great and valued public servant of the Crown,
    and at the same time to a highly esteemed and dear friend of
    myself." His Royal Highness then briefly recounted the chief
    points in Sir Bartle Frere's long and distinguished career in
    India and Africa, a career with which all present were doubtless
    acquainted. Continuing, His Royal Highness remarked:--"For his
    services in India, whither he first went in the year 1834, in
    the service of the East India Company, Sir Bartle Frere twice
    received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. On his return
    home he successfully conducted negotiations with the Sultan of
    Zanzibar for the suppression of the slave trade, and, later, I
    had the good fortune to have his services during my journey to
    India in 1876. The last, but no means the least, important of
    Sir Bartle Frere's duties was as Governor-General of the Cape of
    Good Hope and Lord High Commissioner to South Africa. There is
    much more that I might say, but the facts are known to history,
    and I will, therefore, in conclusion, merely express my thanks
    for having been asked to perform this ceremony, and remind
    those present that, on this very day four years ago, when the
    late Sir Bartle Frere was laid to his rest, the procession
    passed by the spot where the statue now stands."


_July 6th, 1888._

The Prince of Wales, accompanied by Prince Albert Victor, opened the new
gymnasium connected with the Central Young Men's Christian Association,
on the 6th of July, 1888. The gymnasium is in Long Acre, in what was
formerly the Queen's Theatre. The King of Sweden and Norway, Lord
Aberdeen, President of the Gymnastic Club, Mr. J. Herbert Tritton,
President of the Young Men's Christian Association, Lord Charles
Beresford, Lord Kinnaird, the Earl of Meath, the Bishop of London, Lord
Brassey, Lord Harris, and other distinguished persons were present. The
Bishop of London offered a dedicatory prayer. The Earl of Aberdeen read
an address, in which it was stated that the Young Men's Christian
Association, which had its head-quarters at Exeter Hall, was founded
forty-four years ago, and had at the present time nearly 4000 affiliated
branches scattered throughout the Colonies and the civilised world
(seventy-seven of which are in London), with an aggregate membership of
250,000. It formed a rendezvous for young men, and a centre for the
development of a strong, healthy, religious life among them. In recent
years the value of athletics had been more fully recognised, and the
Committee of the Central Association had availed themselves of that
valuable adjunct in the work. The Exeter Hall Gymnasium Team having won
(in open competition) the 200-guinea Challenge Shield and Gold Medals
offered by the National Physical Recreation Society, it would be deemed
a circumstance of the utmost honour by the recipients to have received
their medals at the hands of the Prince of Wales. Moreover, the
Gymnasium was able to supply voluntary teachers who instructed children
and others of the poorer classes in the exercises which they had
acquired in that place.

The Prince of Wales said:--

    "Your Majesty, Lord Aberdeen, my Lords, Ladies, and
    Gentlemen,--I am most grateful to you, indeed, Lord Aberdeen,
    for the address which you have just read to me. I can assure you
    all that by coming here I receive very great satisfaction, and I
    am glad to take part in a work in which so many of you are
    interested. From the account you, Lord Aberdeen, have given us
    of the Young Men's Christian Association, I have little doubt
    but that it is an association founded upon excellent and
    practical principles, and that it is an association likely not
    only long to continue in existence, but likely to be greatly
    augmented in its usefulness, as well as in the numbers benefited
    by it. I am glad that you combine with Christian education
    healthy recreation, which must, no doubt, tend to be of the
    greatest benefit to the community at large, and especially to
    young men who are exposed to so many temptations in a great city
    like this. It is a great advantage to all young men to have the
    opportunity of enjoying healthy and useful recreation. Thank you
    for asking me to take part in the proceedings of the day. And we
    must all tender our thanks to the King of Sweden and Norway for
    coming here to-day, knowing, as we all do, how deeply interested
    his Majesty must be in work of this kind, and of the important
    part drill has played amongst his people. I have now great
    pleasure in declaring this gymnasium open."

Mr. Herbert Gladstone, M.P., President of the National Physical
Recreation Society, informed the King and Prince that the 200-guinea
challenge shield offered by that Society had this year been won by the
team of eight sent from Exeter Hall Club to the contest in Dundee, and
he asked the Prince of Wales to do them the honour of presenting the
shield and gold medals to the winners. Thereupon Mr. E. Sully, the
instructor, at the head of the victorious team, advanced up the room,
and, after receiving a gold medal each from the Prince, they shouldered
the handsome and massive shield, and, at a run, raced away with the

Then followed an exhibition of drill by thirty members chosen out of 400
members of the Club. These were clad in flannels, and wore red or black
stockings. They went through an exposition of musical drill, accompanied
by the piano, the exercises consisting of those with dumb-bells, clubs,
and bars, Mr. Sully giving the word of command. Occasionally the
athletes sang as they drilled, at other moments they whistled as they
swung their clubs or poles about.

At the close of the exercises the King rose and said:--"Your Royal
Highnesses, I cannot leave this hall without expressing the satisfaction
I have had in witnessing the exercises here. I wish also to add my good
wishes for the progress and prosperity of this Association. I feel great
satisfaction in witnessing the execution of the gymnastic exercises this
morning--exercises which are very highly appreciated in my country."

The Prince of Wales summoned Mr. Sully, shook hands with him, and
congratulated him upon the admirable display made by his pupils. The
King of Sweden did the same, very highly praising the manner in which
the drill had been executed.

The Prince of Wales, Prince Albert Victor, and the King of Sweden then
left the hall amid the cheers of those assembled. The heartiness with
which the Prince spoke, and the interest which he showed in the whole
proceedings, greatly delighted all who were present.


_July 6th, 1888._

The centenary festival of the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls was held
on the 6th of July, 1888, in the Royal Albert Hall, the Prince of Wales,
Grand Master, presiding. Between two and three thousand members of the
Craft were present, amongst them being the King of Sweden and Norway,
Prince Albert Victor, the Earl of Carnarvon, the Earl of Lathom, the
Earl of Zetland, Lord Egerton of Tatton, Lord Leigh, and many other
eminent Masons. The galleries were filled by a large number of ladies.

After dinner, the Prince of Wales gave the first toast, which was that
of "The Queen and the Craft," and was received with the greatest
enthusiasm, the whole of the vast audience rising and joining in singing
the National Anthem.

The Prince of Wales then said:--

    "Your Majesty and Brethren,--A very high honour and a very high
    compliment has been conferred upon us this night. At this great
    and important gathering, probably the largest meeting for a
    charitable object that has ever taken place anywhere, we have as
    our guest his Majesty the King of Sweden. I little doubted the
    manner in which you would receive this toast, because not only
    are we honouring a distinguished guest, but also a brave ally of
    ours, and we are further honouring the Grand Master of the
    Freemasons of Sweden. We all know the deep interest which his
    Majesty takes in our Craft, and what excellent Masons the Swedes
    are. In proposing this toast it is specially gratifying to me,
    for I have looked forward to this occasion for many years,
    because it was through the King and his late brother that,
    twenty years ago, I was initiated into the mysteries of the
    Craft, and I am proud to be one of you, and, still more, to be
    at your head. I am grateful to the King for having made me one
    of us. Brethren, I know you will drink this toast with
    cordiality, and at the same time I feel that it will be right to
    give this toast Masonically, for in doing so we do honour to our
    guest and to ourselves."

The toast was drunk with Masonic honours.

The King of Sweden, who was loudly cheered on rising, said:--"Most
Worshipful Grand Master and Brethren,--The toast I have the honour of
replying to I acknowledge, not only on my own behalf, but on behalf of
all the foreign Lodges and Masonic congregations whose principles and
constitution are in conformity with yours. On their behalf I would also
express the great satisfaction I feel at the honour and distinction
to-day conferred upon me by your Grand Master and by you in constituting
me a member of your honoured body. I feel much satisfaction in being
present at such an enormous gathering as this, and one assembled for
purposes of so noble a kind. Patriotic feelings are always noble and
honourable, and nowhere have they taken deeper root than in this
country, for whose people, ever since my young days, I have felt the
most profound esteem. But there is one feeling still more noble than
patriotism, and that is the feeling which has its foundation in the Word
of God, and unites us in love and charity to mankind. As we sing at
Masonic gatherings in my own country, 'There is one God, our Father, so
be His sons then, brethren.' This is the bond which exists between us,
the rallying cry which unites us, and the lasting tie which binds us. I
have the greatest pleasure in giving you 'The Health of our Grand
Master, the Prince of Wales.'"

The toast was drunk with full Masonic honours. The Prince of Wales, in
reply, said:--

    "Your Majesty and Brethren,--You are well aware that during the
    fourteen years I have held the high office of Grand Master I
    have striven not to be unmindful of your interests and of those
    of the Craft, and, though I am prevented by my many duties from
    meeting you as often as I should like, still I hope that you are
    convinced that your interests are none the less dear to me. We
    have heard an address from the King of Sweden this evening which
    none of us are likely to forget, and I think, if he will allow
    me to say so, that we Englishmen have reason to envy his
    facility in speaking our language. It is, I believe, the first
    time that a foreign Sovereign has honoured a gathering of this
    kind. I think that we may look upon this as a red-letter day,
    and we are not likely to forget the King's presence, or the
    kind and useful words which he has spoken. Our watchword,
    'Religion and Charity,' is one which has been inculcated in us
    ever since we belonged to the Craft, and it is one which we
    shall do well to remember. If we uphold those principles, and,
    above all, that idea of patriotism of which the King has spoken,
    there is little doubt that the Craft will remain as prosperous
    as it is now, and that our lodges and members will increase. I
    do not wish to allude to foreign lodges with whom we are not in
    accord; but I would ask that at any rate we should strive to
    pick out what is good in them, and remember that we are not only
    English Freemasons, but Freemasons of the entire universe. I
    trust that as long as I live, or as long as I may be permitted
    to hold the high office of your Grand Master, I may continue to
    do my duty to the Craft and to my country. I wish now to ask his
    Majesty the King of Sweden to accept the Steward's badge of this

His Majesty was then invested with the badge, amidst loud cheers. The
Grand Master then said he had much pleasure in reading a telegram from
New York to the following effect:--"Grand Lodge in annual communication
congratulates the fraternity in England on the one-hundredth anniversary
of the foundation of the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls."

Again rising, the Prince of Wales said:--

    "Your Majesty and Brethren,--I have now the honour to give you
    the last toast, though it may be safely called the most
    important, as the object with which we have met at this enormous
    and unprecedented gathering is to celebrate the centenary of the
    Royal Masonic Institute for Girls. That an institution should
    have existed a hundred years is one proof that it is a good one,
    and we have every reason to be grateful to those who, from the
    commencement up to the present time, have given their energy and
    their labours to keep going so thoroughly Masonic an

    "As you are aware, the Institution was founded by the Chevalier
    Ruspini. King George IV. and King William IV. were patrons,
    besides many members of the Royal Family, and Her Majesty the
    Queen is patroness now. The school at first contained only
    fifteen children; it now contains 243, and they are educated up
    to a high religious standard, combined with education of a
    general character, including music. Particular attention is
    paid to needlework and cooking and domestic duties. Only a few
    days ago I was present here and saw the girls go through their
    marching exercise, and I never saw anything more satisfactory.
    There are many commanding officers who would be proud to see
    their men march and go through their exercise as we saw them
    performed. I may state the system was established by Miss Davis,
    who was appointed head governess in 1861, and I am glad to think
    that at this moment she retains her post. She has been eminently
    successful, as is manifest by the Cambridge Local, College of
    Preceptors, and the Science and Art Examinations. It is also
    satisfactory to notice that, with the exception of Miss Davis,
    every member of the staff has been educated at the Institution.
    The Head Governess of the Female Masonic School at Dublin and
    the Head Governess of the British Orphan Asylum were educated at
    our school, and during a period of eighty-four years there have
    been but two matrons, one of whom held the appointment over
    fifty-two years.

    "As you are aware, the object we have in view in meeting here
    to-night is to make important additions to the present
    buildings, and provide accommodation for an increased number of
    children. These additions will cost at least £20,000. In 1838,
    on the occasion of the jubilee of the Institution, £1000 was
    subscribed at the annual festival, and in 1871, when I had the
    honour of presiding, as much as £5200 was collected. But I have
    now an announcement to make which I think will interest you
    beyond measure, and that is that I have received the assurance
    of the Secretary that we have obtained at this centenary
    festival over £50,000. I may safely challenge anybody to dispute
    the statement that so large a sum has never been subscribed at a
    charity dinner. It now affords me great pleasure to propose
    'Success to the Institution,' coupled with the name of the
    Deputy Grand Master, the Earl of Lathom, Chairman of the
    Executive Committee, and an old and personal friend of my own."

The Earl of Lathom replied, and the proceedings terminated. The grand
total of the subscription was £50,472, of which London contributed
£22,454, and the Provinces, India, and the Colonies £28,018.


_April 9th, 1888._

Among the many memorial gifts of the Silver Wedding of the Prince and
Princess of Wales was one which would have delighted Sir Roger de
Coverley or the Squire of Bracebridge Hall. The members of the West
Norfolk Fox Hunt presented a handsome silver figure of Reynard in full
gallop, mounted on a dark mahogany stand. A beautifully bound morocco
album contained the names of the subscribers. The presentation was made
on the 8th of April, the day of the Annual Steeplechase at East Winch,
near Lynn. A marquee had been erected, and a large company assembled.
The Prince and Princess of Wales and all the family were present.

Mr. Hamond, for many years Master of the Hunt, made the presentation, he
having been the Chairman of the Committee who had carried on the Hunt
during the past two years, in the temporary absence of the Master, Mr.
A. C. Fountaine. He believed that the West Norfolk were the first pack
of hounds that the Princess hunted with when she came to England. The
Prince and Princess had entered into the sports and recreations of all
classes of Her Majesty's subjects, and the sport which the members of
the Hunt had enjoyed with their Royal Highnesses and their sons and
daughters would long be remembered. He asked the acceptance of their
gift by the Prince and Princess.

The Prince of Wales said:--

    "Mr. Hamond, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--I can assure you that no
    present which has been offered for our acceptance has been
    received by us with more pleasure than the one which you have
    given us to-day--- a model of the wily animal that we are all to
    fond of following. Norfolk has always been considered to be a
    shooting county; that may be so to a great extent, but I feel
    convinced that the hunting is quite as popular, and I sincerely
    hope that it will long remain so. There may be difficulties in
    preserving foxes, but I feel sure that where there's a will
    there's a way. For twenty-five years we have enjoyed hunting
    with the West Norfolk Hunt--both the Princess and myself; and
    our children have been brought up to follow that Hunt. I
    sincerely hope that for many long years we may be able to
    continue to do so. We have grateful memories of the mastership
    of one whose loss we all regretted, the late Mr. Villebois, and
    also of Mr. Hamond, then Mr. Fountaine, and next of the
    gentlemen of the Committee who have of late ably carried on the
    Hunt, whilst Mr. Fountaine was unfortunately away. Most
    sincerely do I thank you again, in the name of the Princess and
    myself, for the kind terms in which you have presented us with
    this handsome and appropriate gift, and most sincerely do I wish
    prosperity to the West Norfolk Foxhounds, which, I trust, may
    long continue to exist in this county."


_May 9th, 1888._

On the return from opening the Exhibition at Glasgow, it was arranged
that the Prince and Princess of Wales should visit Blackburn, for laying
the foundation-stone of the new Technical and Trades School in that
flourishing Lancashire town. The borough was in high festival, the more
so as it was the first time on record that it had been honoured with the
presence of royalty. At the entrance of the town, the Mayor and
Corporation met the Royal party, and conducted them to the marquee which
was to be the scene of the ceremony. Here the Prince was presented with
the freedom of the borough--being the first honorary freeman--and with
an address, to which he replied:--

    "Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I can assure you that the Princess of
    Wales and myself feel very great pleasure in accepting your
    address, and we thank you warmly for the kind and cordial words
    of welcome with which you have received us on the occasion of
    our first visit to the important borough of Blackburn. We thank
    you most sincerely for your congratulations on our Silver
    Wedding, and we desire to take this opportunity of publicly
    stating how infinitely we have been touched by the affectionate
    tokens of attachment and regard which have universally been
    shown towards us throughout the whole country on the occasion of
    that event. We appreciate very highly your allusions to the
    interest which we take in all things related to the progress and
    welfare of the kingdom, and more especially to the interest we
    have taken in the subject of technical education; and I rejoice,
    therefore, to find that I am able to come here to-day to lay the
    foundation-stone of an institution which I trust will afford
    material assistance in maintaining and advancing the industries
    and commercial enterprise of your town. I have very much
    gratification in complying with your request that I would accept
    the honorary freedom of your borough, and I shall experience a
    feeling of pride in signing my name as the first honorary
    freeman of a town so loyal and prosperous, and that, I am
    persuaded, has so great a future before it as Blackburn."

To another address by the Freemasons of Blackburn the Grand Master
expressed his sense of the compliment paid him by their words of
fraternal friendship, and gladly acceded to the wish that the first
stone of so important and useful an institution should be laid with
Masonic honours,--which was done accordingly.

The Mayoress of Blackburn then, on behalf of the ladies of Blackburn,
presented the Princess of Wales with a magnificent diamond brooch
representing Industry. Her Royal Highness said a few happy words in
acknowledgment. The Prince, it should have been mentioned, received the
roll of freedom enclosed in a very handsome gold casket. The Royal
visitors wore afterwards entertained at luncheon in the Town Hall, where
numerous guests were present. In responding to the loyal toasts the
Prince said:--

    "You may be assured that we are not likely to forget our visit
    to Blackburn. The cordial and enthusiastic manner in which you
    have received us, the beautiful way in which your streets and
    houses have been decorated, and the wonderful order that was
    kept throughout will not be forgotten by us. It will afford me,
    also, great gratification and pleasure to acquaint the Queen
    with the loyalty which has been shown to the Princess and
    myself, who are the first members of the Royal families of
    England who have visited your borough. The objects we have had
    in view in coming here are, we are sure, excellent ones; and we
    rejoice that there has been afforded to us the opportunity of
    laying the foundation-stone of an institution which is likely to
    do so much good. As the Mayor has said, I do take a sincere
    interest in all that concerns technical instruction, because I
    feel convinced that, in a vast country like ours, where so many
    trades and different manufactures exist, nothing is of such
    great importance to the well-being of its manufactures and
    trades as a good sound technical education. We cannot erect too
    many schools or institutions of the kind in the various parts of
    the country. The school the foundation-stone of which we have
    laid to-day has been properly started as a remembrance of the
    Queen's Jubilee, and, as the special object of it is for the
    technical education of the operative classes, I sincerely hope
    that they also will show that they take a great interest in it,
    and will thoroughly support it. I am glad to hear that there is
    already existing in this borough a Technical and Art School,
    which for two years has been in existence. I am told that there
    are as many as 300 students, and those students who have gone up
    to London to be examined by the Technical Institute have, I
    understand, passed the very highest and best examinations. The
    interest which this town takes in the subject of technical
    education is a very gratifying one. You must remember that
    improved talent for the production of more varied and artistic
    designs in the staple manufacture is essential for the continued
    prosperity of the town, and the more artisans learn what is
    necessary to beautify the trade to which they belong, and vary
    the different specimens which they bring forward, the more
    likely the town is to flourish. Before sitting down I have a
    toast to propose to you, 'The Mayor and Corporation of
    Blackburn, and success to the Blackburn Technical School.' In
    proposing this toast I am glad to have this opportunity of
    thanking the Mayor for his kind hospitality and the cordial
    welcome he has afforded us. He may be assured we shall never
    forget the kind reception we have received at Blackburn."

The Mayor briefly responded to the toast. The Royal party afterwards
proceeded to the Blackburn Railway Station, and left for London.


_May 14th, 1888._

The Anglo-Danish Exhibition at South Kensington had not the official
origin of some other similar displays, but the nationality of the
scheme, and the promise of its proceeds being applied to a charitable
object, secured the patronage of the Prince and Princess of Wales at its
opening. This ceremony took place in the Albert Hall, on the 14th of
May, 1888.

Their Royal Highnesses were accompanied by the Princesses Louise, Maud,
and Victoria of Wales, the Princess Mary of Cambridge and her daughter
the Princess Victoria, Prince Karl of Denmark, Prince George of Greece,
the Danish Minister, and many distinguished persons. They were received
by Lord Amherst, Chairman of the Committee, who presented an address, to
which--after the musical and other ceremonies, and the formal opening of
the Exhibition by the Princess of Wales--the Prince replied:--

    "Lord Amherst, Ladies, and Gentlemen,--In your address you have
    expressed the hope that the Exhibition will be a success. We
    most sincerely hope it will be a success in every sense of the
    word. The objects, as you are well aware, are, first, to pay a
    compliment to us in respect of the twenty-fifth anniversary of
    our wedding-day; and, secondly, to aid an institution which is
    much in need of funds, and one which is most meritorious and
    useful. You are anxious that money should be obtained in order
    to build a new Home for Incurables. Very appropriately this
    Exhibition has been connected with the institution which was the
    first with which the Princess became connected when she came to
    this country. I sincerely hope that the endeavours you have made
    will be successful, and that the Exhibition will be instructive,
    agreeable, and useful. It must be gratifying to you to see that
    the King of Denmark has sent over one of his war ships, manned
    by all those fine young men who are around us, and it is
    gratifying to all of us, I am sure, to welcome these ladies
    whose costumes lend such picturesqueness to the scene. We thank
    you for your very kind reception of us, and I can only assure
    you that it has given us the greatest pleasure to take part in
    this very interesting ceremony, and that we wish the Exhibition
    the most thorough success."

In the evening, the Duke of Cambridge presided at a special festival, in
aid of rebuilding the British Home for Incurables at Clapham, which was
held in the Conservatory of the Anglo-Danish Exhibition. There was a
numerous attendance, and the donations to the building fund amounted to
nearly £5000. This Institution, founded in 1861, provides home with
every comfort for hopelessly incurable sufferers (except the idiotic,
insane, and the blind, for whom there are other asylums), and also gives
pensions to out-patients of £20 per annum.


_July 17th, 1888._

The Prince of Wales performed the ceremony of opening the new buildings
of the Great Northern Hospital, at Islington, on the 17th of July, 1888.
He was accompanied by the Princess of Wales, and by the Princesses
Louise, Victoria, and Maude. The event caused much interest in the
northern part of London, and vast crowds filled the streets and roads.
The Rev. W. H. Barlow, Vicar of Islington, and many of the clergy, Mr.
Murdoch, M.P., Chairman of the Hospital, and other official persons,
received the Royal visitors in a gaily decorated tent. Their Royal
Highnesses, however, were attired in deep mourning, on account of the
death of the Emperor Frederick of Germany. An address was read, in which
it was stated that Islington is the largest parish in England in
population. At the beginning of the reign of the Queen it had 40,000
inhabitants, now it has 320,000. The Great Northern Hospital was
established in 1857, but in 1882 it was resolved to erect a building
more suitable for the increased population. The wish was to make the new
hospital a thanksgiving memorial of the Jubilee year.

The Prince of Wales, in replying to the address, said:--

    "Ladies and Gentlemen,--I am most anxious, in my own name, and
    also in that of the Princess, to acknowledge the most cordial
    and kind words of the address which we have just heard read by
    the Vestry Clerk, and also for the kind expressions which have
    fallen from Mr. Murdoch. We are very glad to be able to take
    part in so interesting a ceremony as this, and we are glad to
    think that in so large and ever-increasing a population as this
    in the North of London is, the project of commemorating the
    Queen's Jubilee should have been so appropriately celebrated by
    the building of a hospital. We shall shortly have an opportunity
    of visiting the wards, and I have little doubt that we shall
    find everything in the most admirable and efficient state.
    Amongst the many duties we have to perform, none, I assure you,
    ladies and gentlemen, gives us greater gratification and
    pleasure than such a function as this, where we come to give our
    assistance and support to a philanthropic object, and to a cause
    the object of which is to alleviate the sufferings of our
    fellow-creatures. I can only express the pleasure it has given
    us to have it in our power to open this hospital to-day. You
    are well aware how much we regretted that it was not in our
    power to come here and open the hospital on the date originally
    fixed. You are also aware of the cause, and I well know how much
    you all sympathise with us and the other members of our family
    in our sorrow and grief. I am glad to have the opportunity of
    saying, on this public occasion, that my sister has felt deeply
    that, although thirty years have elapsed since she left this
    country, her compatriots have not forgotten her, and that they
    have sympathised with her, that they have felt for her, in the
    great and overwhelming sorrow which it has pleased God to
    inflict upon her, I beg to thank you once more for your kind
    reception of us to-day, and again to assure you of the sincere
    gratification it has given us to be present."

The Prince resumed his seat amidst loud cheers, and a number of children
and young ladies then presented purses to the Princess, the names of the
donors being announced by the Secretary. The total of these
subscriptions was £1050. This ceremony being finished, their Royal
Highnesses left the pavilion to visit the hospital.

       *       *       *       *       *

The opening of the new Northern hospital in London was the last public
function performed by the Prince of Wales before his autumn visit to
Austria and other regions of Southern Europe. With it our record of his
presence at charitable institutions must close. It has been necessary to
make only a selection of his speeches on such occasions. The Hospital
for Sick Children, the Chelsea Hospital for Women, Queen Charlotte's
Lying-in Hospital, Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, the Holloway
Sanatorium at Virginia Water, the Cottage Homes at Weybridge, St. Mary's
Hospital, University and King's College Hospitals, the Fever Hospital;
these, and many other institutions for the help of the poor or the
suffering, have had the advantage of the Prince's advocacy.

There have been also many occasions where he has assisted by his
presence or his voice other institutions for educational and
philanthropic objects, such as the Marine Society's ship "Warspite," and
the training-ship "Worcester," the Windsor and Eton Albert Institute,
the Church for the Deaf and Dumb, the Dwelling Houses for working people
in Soho, the Alexandra Home at Kensington for Pupils at the Schools of
Art and Music; besides more important educational and charitable
establishments, such as the St. Anne's Schools at Redhill, for children
of the Clergy, and of others whose means are not equal to their position
in life. To have given an account of the proceedings, and reports of
the speeches on all these occasions would have required the space of two
volumes instead of one.

For the same reason it is with regret that the Editor has to omit
descriptions of many important and interesting functions both in the
Metropolis and throughout the country. The truth is there are few parts
of England, certainly few of the great centres of population and
industry, which have not been visited by the Prince, generally
accompanied by the Princess of Wales, for some purpose of local and
often of national utility. Now it is at Birmingham, to open a new
Hospital or an Art Gallery. Now it is at Sheffield to open the Park,
which was the munificent gift of its Mayor, Mark Firth. Now it is at
York, for opening the New Institute. Now it is at Leeds, for
inaugurating the Art Exhibition; and at Leeds the Prince addressed an
audience which included the Lord Mayors of London and York, and the
Mayors of almost every town in Yorkshire, in the Town Hall, opened many
years before by the Queen and the Prince Consort. Another year there was
a Royal visit to Lancashire, where a new Infirmary was opened at Wigan,
an institution praised by the Prince as due as much to the gifts of the
working classes as to the liberality of the employers of labour in that
great mining district. At Bolton, for the first time in its history
honoured by a Royal visit, the Prince opened the Town Hall, one of the
finest edifices of the kind in the provinces. At Hull the new Albert
Dock was opened, and new docks at Grimsby. Another time the Prince is
among the agricultural people, at Dorchester for a Cattle Show, or at
Hunstanton for opening a Convalescent Hospital. Or he is at Newcastle,
opening the Coble Dene Dock for the Tyne Commission. Or he is at
Southampton laying the foundation-stone of a new church for Canon
Wilberforce. Another time he is at Worcester, admiring with the Princess
of Wales the splendid Porcelain Works, as well as the Cathedral and
antiquities of the loyal city. Many other expeditions have been made
during these twenty-five years, and it is noteworthy that in places
supposed to be the most democratic and independent, as Birmingham and at
Sheffield, the reception of the Royal visitors was the most hearty and
enthusiastic. Opening the Victoria Hall at Ealing on December the 15th
was the occasion of the latest public appearance in 1888. It adjoins the
Parish building, and the Free Library, to which the Prince alluded in
his brief speech.

Reference has not been made to occasions of a private kind, such as
Regimental and Club Dinners, where the presence of the Prince is always
welcomed, and what he says is remembered, though not reported. Perhaps
it is right to mention the Savage Club, of which many Press reporters
are members, and where the Prince made one of his genial addresses, and
drew from the Club very acceptable aid towards founding the Musical
Scholarships in which he was then interested.

Any one who could see the engagement book of the Prince of Wales during
a season would think there is little exaggeration when it is said he is
one of the most busy and hard-working of public men. If it cannot be
said _nulla dies sine lineâ_, there are few days on which some important
business has not to be attended to, besides his personal or private
affairs in town and country. In one of his early addresses, he said
that, being excluded by his position from taking active part in
political life, he would devote his time to "duties connected with works
of charity and of public utility." How far this resolution has been
carried out, the readers of this volume have the means of judging.

In many of his speeches the Prince has, in grateful and touching terms,
referred to the useful and beneficent services rendered by his revered
and lamented father, whose example he desires to follow. That example
also influenced the character and the life of the late Emperor of
Germany, "Frederick the Noble." In the introduction to the brief
biographical memoir of 'Frederick, Crown Prince and Emperor,' recently
published by Mr. Rennell Rodd, the widowed Empress--our own Princess
Royal--expresses a hope that the book will make his name better known to
the English public, and give him a place in their affections beside that
of her father, the Prince Consort, "for whom he had so great love,
admiration, and veneration." The words of Lord Tennyson are thus
recalled with new power:--

    "Dear to thy land and ours; a Prince indeed
    Beyond all titles, and a household name
    Hereafter through all times--ALBERT THE GOOD."


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The first appearance of the Prince of Wales at the annual dinner of the
Royal Academy, with the short speech made on the occasion, has been
given under the date, May 4th, 1863. In many subsequent years the Prince
has been a welcome and honoured guest, and has been called to address
the company. Instead of giving these speeches in the years when they
were delivered, it seems better to group them together. The guests at
the banquet are in the main the same year by year. After the Royal and
official personages, and notable public men always present, and the
Academicians and their friends, there remains not much room for variety
in the invitations. If any very distinguished stranger is in London at
the time, or some hero of the day, he is pretty certain to be invited,
and the speech of such a guest is a distinctive feature in the yearly
record of the banquets. There is also effort made to secure some
eloquent speakers to reply to some of the toasts given from the Chair.
But on the whole there is considerable sameness in the reports, the same
toasts being always given, and often the same speakers responding. The
Prince of Wales has been more than once complimented for his being able
to find fresh material for his speeches at these dinners. The simple art
in effecting this is that he takes some topic which is before the public
at the time, or refers to his own public acts, which interest the
audience on account of his personal popularity. We cannot give all the
speeches on these occasions, but the following show the general spirit
of them, and the variety of subjects touched by him.


At the banquet of 1866, on the 5th of May, the President, Sir Francis
Grant, then recently elected, for the first time occupied the chair. In
proposing the health of the Prince of Wales, Sir Francis wished to his
Royal guest, "amidst the cares and labours of his exalted station, all
the soothing influences of a love of art. He inherits the enlightened
appreciation of art, which had distinguished both his illustrious
parents. But the title of artist is not confined to the subjects which
occupy the Royal Academicians. In England, especially in the Midland
counties, a gentleman who particularly distinguishes himself in riding
across country after hounds is popularly called an artist. Gentlemen,"
continued the President, himself an artist of high repute in both senses
of the word, "I am able to assure you from my own personal observation,
and I feel sure his Grace the Duke of Rutland will bear me out, that His
Royal Highness in his recent visit to Leicestershire, in two very severe
runs across the Vale of Belvoir, proved himself a first-rate artist in
that particular department of art. Since His Royal Highness has proved
himself in one sense an artist, may I, if His Royal Highness will
forgive my boldness, claim his sympathy for his brother artists of the
brush? Allow me to add, the brush is an important element in both
departments of art. I beg to say on the occasion alluded to His Royal
Highness was most deservedly presented with the brush. I have the honour
to propose 'The health of their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess
of Wales and the other members of the Royal Family."

The Prince, in responding, said:--

    "Sir Francis Grant, your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--I thank you most sincerely for the very kind manner
    in which you have proposed my health, that of the Princess of
    Wales, and the other members of the Royal Family, and for the
    cordial manner in which it has been received. I need hardly
    assure you that it is a source of sincere gratification for me
    to be present a second time at the annual dinner of the Royal
    Academy, more especially as I am enabled to have the opportunity
    of supporting you, Sir Francis, on the first occasion that you
    take the chair as President of the Royal Academy. Although we
    are assembled on a festive occasion, I cannot omit referring to
    the memory of one whose loss we must all deeply deplore. I
    allude to your late President, Sir Charles Eastlake. You Royal
    Academicians all knew him so well, and how justly popular he was
    for his many distinguished qualities, that it would be
    superfluous for me to pass any eulogy on his name. But I cannot
    forbear offering my small tribute to his merits, having always
    considered him as an old friend, and having known him, indeed,
    since my childhood. I now take the opportunity of thanking you,
    Sir Francis, for the very kind manner in which you have adverted
    to me in connection with art. I need not assure you that I shall
    always be most ready to do my little best in assisting to
    promote the welfare of art and science, and thus following the
    bright example of the Queen and my lamented father. I thank you,
    also, for the allusion you made to me as a brother of the
    'brush.' Although, as I observed before, I will do my utmost to
    support art, still I am afraid I shall never be able to compete
    with you as a painter, but at the same time I shall always be
    ready to enter the lists with you in the hunting field as long
    as you do not attempt to ride over me at the first fence. With
    respect to the present Exhibition, it may, I think, be said that
    the pictures in a great measure not only show the progress of
    art, but record the times in which we live. Taken as a whole,
    the Exhibition is one of a peaceful character, and indicative of
    peace. There is only one picture to which I would refer which,
    at the present moment, bears anything of a warlike character--I
    mean 'Volunteers at a firing point,' in which there is a picture
    of a distinguished Highlander (Mr. Ross), a countryman of your
    own, who is represented as shooting for a prize. That is a very
    interesting picture, and it reminds us forcibly that the
    Volunteers who came forward for the protection of their country
    have not been required in that capacity, and are now employing
    their time usefully in the art of rifle shooting. Without
    further trespassing on your time, permit me once more to thank
    you for the manner in which you have proposed and drunk my

The Duke of Cambridge, in responding to the toast of the Army, referred
to the distinction in art attained by the President, the brother of one
already highly distinguished in arms, his friend Sir Hope Grant. Prince
Alfred responded for the Navy.

An interesting fact, not generally known, was mentioned by Sir Francis
Grant, who had been called the successor of Sir Charles Eastlake. Sir
Edwin Landseer had been elected; and, although he could be only
persuaded to retain the office for one week, the Academy had the proud
satisfaction of knowing that his name is registered among its

The other speeches at this banquet were of unusual interest, from the
Archbishop of Canterbury, Earl Russell, and the Earl of Derby. Allusions
were made to the loss of Lord Palmerston, and of Mr. Gibson, the
sculptor, and also to the approaching marriage of the Princess Mary of
Cambridge, for whom the Duke of Teck responded. The Earl of Derby made
special reference to the National Exhibition of Portraits at South
Kensington, interesting alike to the artist and to the student of


After dinner, the customary loyal toasts were proposed and responded to,
the President making special reference to the severe and protracted
illness of the Princess of Wales, which they all deplored, with the
trust that it would please God soon to restore her to perfect health.
The Prince, on rising, was loudly applauded, and spoke with evident
emotion, in witnessing the warm sympathy shown by the assembly:--

    "Sir Francis Grant, your Royal Highness, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--I beg to tender you my warmest thanks for the very
    kind manner in which you have proposed and received the health
    of the Princess of Wales and myself. I feel sure she will be
    deeply gratified for the kind words you have this evening
    uttered, and I am glad to say that, although she has now for
    very nearly two months been kept to her room by a long and
    tedious illness, she is now progressing towards recovery. I know
    I can have no more pleasing announcement to make to her Royal
    Highness than to tell her of the very kind feeling which has
    always been exhibited to her since her first coming to this
    country. I beg also, Sir Francis, to thank you for the very kind
    manner in which you have alluded to the interest I take with
    regard to science and art. I need not tell you that I do take
    such an interest. If I may say so, I take the same interest
    which my parents have always taken, although I may not have the
    same experience or knowledge; still, I hope I shall always tread
    in their footsteps in that respect.

    "I am flattered, Sir Francis, by your statement that I have
    shown an appreciation of art in becoming the possessor of a work
    by so celebrated an artist as Sir Edwin Landseer. I think it
    would be impossible to find at this table any one who would not
    feel the same appreciation of so admirable a work of art. I
    obtained the picture under somewhat peculiar circumstances. It
    had been painted for a private person who was kind enough to
    give it up to me. Sir Edwin Landseer, although he has been
    before the public for many years as a painter, has within the
    last two months achieved great distinction as a sculptor, and
    has produced one of the finest monuments of art that exist in
    this country. He kept us perhaps some time in waiting for his
    lions, but the result has certainly been a most magnificent

    "With reference to the Exhibition now before us, I think I may
    say that for many years we have not seen a finer exhibition. The
    names of Grant, Watts, Millais, and others I need not
    particularise. Last year we had to mourn the loss of Sir C.
    Eastlake, and now we have to lament the departure from among us
    of another Royal Academician, Mr. Philip, to the vivid
    truthfulness of whose pictures from Spanish life I myself, from
    having been in Spain, can amply testify. I beg, my lords and
    gentlemen, again to thank you for the kind manner in which you
    have proposed and received my health, and the still kinder
    manner in which you have received the health of the Princess of


The Royal Academy banquet for 1870 fell on the 30th of April.

Sir Francis Grant, the President, in proposing "The Health of the
Queen," stated that Her Majesty had, in May of the previous year,
conferred on the Academy the honour of visiting the new galleries in
state, and was pleased to express her high approval. At that visit she
gave commissions for pictures to several young artists of rising fame;
and she presented to the Academy the beautiful marble bust of herself,
executed by her accomplished daughter the Princess Louise.

In next proposing "The Health of the Prince and Princess of Wales and
the rest of the Royal Family," the President said that they were all
glad to welcome the Prince, for the first time, in the new galleries.
"Last year His Royal Highness was well employed elsewhere visiting the
historic wonders of ancient Egypt, accompanied by the Princess of Wales,
whom we must all rejoice to see returned to this country in perfect
health. It must be a gratifying circumstance to all Her Majesty's loyal
subjects that the Royal Princes, her sons, are not too delicately
reared, as Princes were of old, but are all manly English gentlemen and
great travellers, who seek to elevate and enlarge their minds by
studying the customs and policy of foreign nations, and to strengthen
the cords of sympathy and loyalty which bind our colonies to the mother
country. I read with pleasure of His Royal Highness recently presiding
at a meeting of the Society of Arts, and the able sentiments he then
expressed on the subject of education. I am glad also to learn that the
Prince has succeeded the late lamented Lord Derby as President of the
Royal Commission of 1851--an institution, if I may so call it, which has
done such great things for the progress of art, especially in connection
with manufactures, and which owes so much, I might say entirely its
great success, to the enlightened genius and active support of the
Prince's illustrious father."

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who was received with much
cheering, said:--

    "Mr. President, your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I
    beg to tender you my warmest thanks for the kind way in which
    this toast has been proposed and received. It has afforded me
    great gratification once more to attend the hospitable board of
    the Royal Academy, and especially as I have this evening for the
    first time had the pleasure of dining in these new rooms. As the
    President has remarked, he was kind enough last year to invite
    me to inaugurate these rooms, but, being abroad, I was
    unfortunately unable to do so. I regret it, especially as that
    was the one hundredth anniversary of the Royal Academy. I think
    I may be allowed to congratulate the President and all the Royal
    Academicians on the Exhibition of this year. Of course, every
    artist strives each succeeding year to produce still better
    pictures and statues, and I think the Academicians have no
    reason to complain on the present occasion. We must regret, as I
    am sure all Academicians will, the death of Mr. Maclise, and it
    is with feelings of sorrow that we shall now for the last time
    see a picture of his adorn these walls. The President has kindly
    alluded to me as having recently presided at a meeting of the
    Society of Arts, and I cannot but thank him for the compliment
    he has paid me in connection with the observations I made upon
    that occasion. It afforded me great pleasure to preside at that
    meeting, and, although my position as President of the Society
    is to a certain extent an honorary one, I promise that I shall
    be ready on every occasion to come forward and give as much time
    as I can in promoting any of its very important objects. I beg
    also to thank the President for having alluded to me as
    President of the Commission of 1851. It is with deep regret that
    I have had to succeed one whose presence we must all miss on
    occasions like these--one whose name can never be forgotten in
    the country's history, and who always took the highest interest
    in the welfare of all our great institutions, and more
    especially those connected with art--I allude to the late
    lamented Lord Derby. My lords and gentlemen, I assure you the
    Princess of Wales will be highly gratified to hear how kindly on
    this, as on every other public occasion, you have received her
    name and health, and I beg to thank you for the kind manner in
    which you have listened to the few remarks I have made."

The usual toasts were afterwards given, and responded to by eminent men,
including Mr. Motley, the American Minister, and Charles Dickens.


At the Royal Academy banquet of 1871, the President, Sir Francis Grant,
in proposing "The Health of Her Majesty the Queen," referred to the
recent opening of the Albert Hall, a proceeding which, in some degree,
tended towards the realisation of the late Prince Consort's constant
efforts for the promotion of Science and Art in this kingdom.

In proposing "The Health of the Prince and Princess of Wales and the
rest of the Royal family," Sir Francis referred to the zeal of the
Prince in the encouragement of Art, and said that he was shortly to
preside on two different occasions in connection with Art, at the
opening of the International Exhibition, and at the dinner of the
Artists' General Benevolent Institution.

The Prince, in responding, said:--

    "I feel very much touched by the kind way in which you, Sir
    Francis, proposed my health, and this company received it, and I
    beg also to thank you for the very kind terms in which you
    alluded to the name of the Princess, who, I am confident, will
    be deeply gratified by the kind way in which you alluded to her
    name and the company have received this toast. You have referred
    to the opening of the International Exhibition next Monday, and
    I sincerely trust that the opening of that series of Exhibitions
    may be as successful as the others which preceded it, and that
    the promotion of science and art may be carried forward by the
    means of these numerous Exhibitions. It is always a great
    pleasure for me to meet you here at this annual gathering, to
    see so many distinguished and celebrated persons, and to be
    surrounded on all sides by the pictures of the most celebrated
    artists of our own country, and also, by the permission of the
    Academicians, by the pictures of the most distinguished foreign
    artists. I feel sure that the artists of this country take it as
    a great compliment that these pictures should be sent here for
    exhibition. With respect to the present Exhibition, it must
    strike all of us on looking around these walls that some
    pictures are wanting--pictures from an artist whose health, I
    fear, is failing, although I am sure we all hope most heartily
    he may yet be spared to us; still we do miss the pictures of Sir
    Edwin Landseer. Gratifying as it must be for distinguished
    artists to see their pictures exhibited, and to hear the remarks
    made on them by critics and others, there are two beautiful
    drawings in this Exhibition of which, alas! the artists will
    never hear the praise that may be bestowed upon them, and I feel
    sure that it will not be considered out of place if on this
    occasion I offer my condolence to the Royal Academicians for the
    absence of one of their number, and the cause of it in the
    terrible bereavement he has sustained (alluding to the death of
    the son of Mr. Goodall, R.A.). My lords and gentlemen, I thank
    you for listening to these few remarks, and as many speeches
    have to be made I will not trespass further upon your attention
    than by again thanking you for the very kind manner in which my
    health and that of the Princess have been received by this
    distinguished assembly."


The chief interest of the evening was in the speech of Sir Garnet
Wolseley, the "hero of Coomassie." His health was proposed by the Prince
of Wales, who said he would have preferred that the toast should have
been given by some one better qualified, but that he felt it a pleasure
and honour to fulfil the duty laid on him by the President.

The Duke of Cambridge, in responding for the Army and Navy, had in very
happy terms also referred to the services of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who in
his speech gave well-merited praise to the Commander-in-Chief, for his
efforts to raise the standard of military education.

Returning to earlier proceedings of the evening, the President of the
Academy, Sir Francis Grant, in proposing "The Health of the Prince and
the Princess of Wales and the other members of the Royal Family,"
said:--"It is a subject of infinite satisfaction to the members of the
Royal Academy to observe the unmistakable and earnest love of art which
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales manifests on all occasions.
Notwithstanding the numerous calls that are made on the time of His
Royal Highness, to which he assiduously responds, we learn through the
Press of his occasionally visiting the studios of some of our leading
artists, thus honouring and encouraging Art in the most gratifying
manner. We have also to thank the Prince for the active assistance he
gave us in promoting the success of the Landseer Exhibition. It was
owing to his personal influence that we are enabled to thank his
Majesty the King of the Belgians for two beautiful pictures sent from
the royal collection at Brussels, and also his Serene Highness the Duke
of Coburg, who sent from Coburg one work of great interest, and besides
several other valuable pictures, one of Van Amburgh and the Lions, the
property of his Grace the Duke of Wellington, a picture that possesses
this special interest, that the subject was suggested and the picture
commissioned by the Duke's illustrious father. I am glad to be able to
announce that the Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by the Duke
and Duchess of Edinburgh and the other members of the Royal Family,
honoured the Exhibition with their presence on Thursday. I hope the
Prince will forgive me for the liberty I take, if I venture to mention
that we members of the Academy always witness with pleasure the honest
and zealous way in which both the Prince and Princess go over the
Exhibition, beginning catalogue with pencil in hand, at No. 1, and
working steadily through all the galleries. It cannot but be gratifying,
even to the humblest artist who is so fortunate as to obtain a place on
these walls, to know that he has good reason to hope that his labours
will not escape the observation of the Prince and Princess of Wales."

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who was received with much
cheering, said:--

    "Mr. President, your Royal Highness, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I
    beg to thank you for the very kind manner in which you, Sir
    Francis, have proposed my health with that of the Princess of
    Wales and the other members of the Royal Family, and for the
    cordial way in which you, my lords and gentlemen, have been
    pleased to receive it. I can assure you, Sir Francis, and the
    members of the Royal Academy, that it affords me the greatest
    pleasure and satisfaction to have been able to accept your kind
    invitation. It is now two years since I had the opportunity of
    partaking of your hospitality, and you may be sure that whenever
    I am able to come to the Royal Academy it will always give me
    the greatest pleasure. Sir Francis Grant has been kind enough to
    allude to me with reference to the Exhibition at the Royal
    Academy of pictures by his late distinguished and
    never-to-be-surpassed colleague, Sir Edwin Landseer. I will only
    say that any efforts of mine--the efforts were but small, but
    such as they were, any efforts I could make--were most
    cheerfully devoted to give the country the opportunity of seeing
    those magnificent works, some of which, having for many years
    been in the possession of their proprietors, had not been
    placed before the eyes of the public. It gave me very great
    pleasure to help in any way such an exhibition. Thanks to the
    efforts of the President and the members of the Royal Academy,
    that exhibition was a great success, and afforded the utmost
    interest and pleasure to all who saw it. I feel assured that you
    must all deeply deplore the loss of that great man. Last year he
    was still living, though, alas! his health was such that it was
    impossible for him to come among his colleagues as he used to
    do. At any rate, he lived to render his name illustrious, and we
    can never hope to see his fame excelled. Sir Francis, I hope you
    will allow me to congratulate you on this most excellent
    Exhibition. When we see these walls surrounded with
    pictures--when we look at the catalogue and see the names of
    yourself, of Messrs. Millais, Leighton, Prinsep, Watts, Ward,
    Frith, Graves, Calderon, Sant, Alma-Tadema, and many others I
    might mention, it is unnecessary to say that we have here a
    collection of pictures of the greatest artists which this
    country can produce. I am glad to take this opportunity of
    saying that I hope those gentlemen who have come to the Royal
    Academy on this occasion have not forgotten to look at one
    picture in the next room, which I think well deserves attention.
    It is numbered 142 in the catalogue, and is entitled 'Calling
    the Roll after an Engagement in the Crimea.' This picture,
    painted by a young lady who, I am given to understand, is not
    yet twenty-three, is deserving of the highest admiration, and I
    am sure she has before her a great future as an artist. In the
    next room, the Lecture Room, is a statue of 'A Horse and his
    Master,' by Boehm, which I am confident all who take an interest
    in sculpture will agree with me is one of the finest pieces of
    sculpture of modern times. The name of the artist is so well
    known that it is superfluous for me to make any remarks upon it.
    I only hope that at no very distant day he will have the
    privilege of writing R.A. after his name. My lords and
    gentlemen, I beg to thank you for the very kind way in which
    this toast has been proposed and accepted by this distinguished

The marked way in which the Prince called attention to the now
celebrated picture of "The Roll Call" was a generous tribute to rising
merit. The young artist thus signalised has more than fulfilled the
anticipations formed of her. The name of Elizabeth Thompson soon became
distinguished in Art, and she continues to excel in depicting military
scenes, now that her name, Lady Butler, is associated with that of a
most gallant and distinguished officer, Sir William Butler, K.C.B. The
praise bestowed on "The Roll Call" by the Duke of Cambridge was equally
hearty, and was a high compliment as coming from the head of the British

_May, 1875._

The President, Sir Francis Grant, in proposing "The Health of the
Queen," referred to Her Majesty's constant and cordial encouragement of
Art. "In carrying out our Winter Exhibition of the Ancient Masters, Her
Majesty has always given us her cordial support; and I hope I may be
allowed to remind you that last year, when we held an exhibition
exclusively of the works of the late Sir Edwin Landseer, the Queen was
so kind as to contribute no fewer than sixty works by that eminent
artist. For that and other gracious acts the Academy desire to record
their grateful acknowledgments."

On giving the toast of "The Prince and Princess of Wales and the other
members of the Royal Family," Sir Francis Grant said:--"I beg to assure
His Royal Highness that the members of the Royal Academy are very
sensible of the honour he confers on us by his presence on this as on
many former occasions. They especially value the compliment as an
additional proof of the interest His Royal Highness has at all times
manifested in the promotion and encouragement of Art. I am glad to say
the Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by the Duke and Duchess of
Edinburgh and other members of the Royal Family, honoured the Exhibition
with their presence on Thursday, and after their usual careful
examination of the works of Art were pleased to express their
approbation. We cannot but be impressed by the cordial and zealous
manner in which both the Princess and the Prince fulfil the many onerous
duties which devolve on their exalted position. We can scarcely take up
a newspaper without reading of their Royal Highnesses performing some
public duty or lending their presence for the support of some charitable
institution, combining as they do this honourable desire to do good with
the most gracious manner--a graciousness which, I venture to say, does
not proceed from mere courtly education, but from the genuine impulses
of good and noble natures."

The toast was drunk with all the honours, and His Royal Highness, who
was received with much cheering, said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--For the exceedingly kind manner in
    which my health and that of the Princess of Wales have been
    proposed by you, Sir Francis, and received by the company here
    present allow me to return my most sincere thanks. The President
    of the Royal Academy and the Royal Academicians may be assured
    that it affords us the greatest pleasure on all occasions to
    come to the Royal Academy, to attend their annual Exhibition. I
    am sure, Sir Francis, that you and your brother Academicians
    have no cause to complain of the Exhibition this year. I am
    certain that all who have any knowledge of Art will agree with
    me that this is a very fine Exhibition, in no way inferior to
    any of its predecessors. For myself, I will only say that it
    affords me the greatest gratification to be present on an
    occasion when one meets with the most distinguished men--men of
    the highest position and talent, surrounded by all that is most
    beautiful in Art. I beg to return my best acknowledgments for
    the kind manner in which you have received the health of the
    Princess of Wales, of myself, and of the other members of the
    Royal Family, and I sincerely hope, that on many future
    occasions I may have the happiness to be present at the annual
    gatherings of the Royal Academy."

In responding for the Army, the Duke of Cambridge referred with high
praise to the picture of "The Last Muster," and also to that of the
young lady who has again distinguished herself by a military picture,
"The Square of the 28th Regiment at the Battle of Quatre Bras," and also
the picture by a foreign artist in another room delineating an historic
"Charge at Waterloo."

In speaking of the Navy, the President said that Mr. Brassey had
presented to the nation the fine picture of the _Devastation_. "I
believe," said Sir Francis, "this is the first representation of an
ironclad that has found a place on these walls--a picture of the
_Devastation_--of which the genius of the talented artist has made quite
a picturesque object by concealing more than half the vessel in smoke,
and adorning what remains with a variety of flags."


After having missed the anniversary festival at Burlington House for
four years, mainly on account of pressing work, partly in connection
with Art, the Prince of Wales honoured the President and Council by his
presence on the 3rd of May, 1879. There was the customary number of
Royal and distinguished guests, but another President now filled the
Chair, and other changes were witnessed among the Academicians.

Sir Frederick Leighton, in proposing "The Health of the Queen," said
that, "as members of the Royal Academy, we acclaim in this toast the
head and immediate patron of this institution--a patron whose patronage
has been for forty years not formal merely, but whose interest in its
well-being has constantly shown and still shows itself in acts of
gracious and enlightened generosity and high examples of support, a
generosity and support the fruits of which were but a few weeks ago
again magnificently evident on our walls. Deep gratitude, therefore,
mingles with loyalty in the toast which I have now the honour to
propose--'The Health of Her Majesty the Queen.'"

The President said of the Prince of Wales, that "his absence for a time
had not been caused by any diminution of the interest which he has ever
evinced in this Academy and in the arts which are its care, but, on the
two last occasions at least, by the performance of self-imposed and
onerous duties in which the furtherance of English Art had no small
share. Those who had the honour to co-operate with His Royal Highness in
the work to which I allude--and not a few are seated at this table--know
by experience with what steadfast zeal and devotion and with what
inexhaustible kindness in his dealings with all he carried it out; but
no one, perhaps, so well as myself knows how desirous the Prince of
Wales has been throughout that English Art should receive at the
International Exhibition that recognition and honour which in his view
it deserved, and which in the event was measured out to it by the
opinion of Europe." The Princess of Wales, as all knew, co-operated with
never-failing grace with the Prince in fulfilling the duties of their
high station. As to the other members of the Royal Family, "all had
grown up in the love of arts, and several of them practise one or other
of those arts with enthusiasm and with marked success. I give 'The
Prince and Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family.'"

The Prince, in responding, said:--

    "Sir Frederick Leighton, your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--I am very grateful for the excessively kind manner
    in which this toast has been proposed and received by this large
    and distinguished company. As the President, Sir Frederick
    Leighton, has said, it is four years since I last had the
    advantage of being present at your annual celebration. It was a
    matter of great regret to me that so long a time should elapse,
    but it has given me great pleasure to come here to-night and
    take part in your proceedings. During those four years events
    have occurred in the history of the Royal Academy which have
    awakened deep regret. The members of the Royal Academy--I may
    say all who sit at these tables--feel that they lost a friend in
    the death of Sir Francis Grant, who so long presided with so
    much geniality and kindness at these anniversaries. But of the
    Academy, as of Royalty, it may be said, '_Le Roi est mort! Vive
    le Roi!_' The President is dead; another President is elected.
    Sir Frederick Leighton is an old friend of mine--a friend of
    upwards of twenty years' standing. I congratulate him most
    cordially and sincerely on the high office he now holds. I may
    also congratulate the Royal Academy on having such a man to
    preside over their meetings.

    "I have to return my thanks, and those of my colleagues, to Sir
    F. Leighton for the able assistance he has rendered during the
    recent International Exhibition in Paris. Your President was
    unanimously elected chairman of the Section of Fine Arts, and he
    presided over a jury of at least forty members, and I think we
    have every reason to congratulate ourselves on the results.

    "Let me now congratulate you, Sir Frederick, and the Royal
    Academy generally, on the magnificent Exhibition which we see
    before us this evening. I have not yet had sufficient time to
    enable me to speak to its merits, but I hope on some future
    occasion to have the opportunity of going over it more
    carefully. I thank you again for the kind way in which my health
    and that of the Princess of Wales have been proposed and for the
    very warm reception you have given me."

The Duke of Cambridge, in responding for the Army, referred to wars now
being carried on in different parts of the world. He also spoke with
praise of two pictures in this year's Exhibition by Miss Thompson. Mr.
W. H. Smith spoke for the Navy. Lord Beaconsfield responded for Her
Majesty's Ministers, Mr. Froude for Literature, the Lord Chief Justice
for the Guests, and the Lord Mayor for the Corporation of London. The
Lord Chief Justice (Sir Alexander Cockburn) gave an eloquent description
of the chief works of Sir Frederick Leighton, beginning with the
"Procession of Cimabue," nearly a quarter of a century ago, from which
men felt that "a new genius had arisen who was to add to the lustre and
renown of British Art." Sir Frederick Leighton, in his concluding
speech, paid a generous tribute to the memory of Sir Francis Grant, and
also of Mr. E. M. Ward, in whom the Academy had lost "one of the few
artists who made the history of our country a constant subject for


At the annual banquet in 1880, the President, Sir Frederick Leighton,
paid to the Prince of Wales a handsome compliment when he said: "Sir,
of the graces by which your Royal Highness has won and firmly retains
the affectionate attachment of Englishmen, none has operated more
strongly than the width of your sympathies; for there is no honourable
sphere in which Englishmen move, no path of life in which they tread,
wherein your Royal Highness has not, at some time, by graceful word or
deed, evinced an enlightened interest." Coming from Sir Frederick
Leighton, this was not the mere language of flattery.

In replying, the Prince, after expressing his sincerest thanks, said:--

    "Year by year the members of my family and myself receive
    invitations to take part in the proceedings at this anniversary
    banquet. You can therefore well understand that I find some
    difficulty in replying to the toast. At the same time I can
    assure the President and the members of the Academy that, though
    year by year we visit these exhibitions and take part at these
    banquets, the interest we take in them does not in any way
    diminish. I may be allowed to congratulate him and his
    colleagues on the very great success of this Exhibition. I had
    the opportunity two or three days ago of going through these
    rooms, and, though I do not profess to be in any way an art
    critic, I am quite sure they have no reason to fear any
    criticism upon the works of art which adorn these walls.

    "I have been charged by my brothers, who generally take part in
    this day's proceedings, to express their great regret that they
    have not been able to be present. My brother, the Duke of
    Edinburgh, has been for the last five or six weeks absent on
    duty in Ireland, where he is employed on an important and, I
    trust, useful mission, not only as Admiral Superintendent of the
    Naval Reserve, but in doing what he can to relieve the distress
    which exists in Ireland. He has lately had the opportunity of
    taking the supplies for distribution on the West Coast from that
    gallant ship the _Constitution_, sent over by our American
    cousins, so nobly and generously, to afford relief to their
    distressed brethren in Ireland. In a letter I received from him
    two days ago he says the distress still exists, and both food
    and clothing are much wanted; in many instances the corn is not
    yet sown. I will not touch more upon this topic, and I should
    not have mentioned it had I not been particularly requested to
    do so."


At the banquet of 1881, the most notable incident was the special toast
in honour of Sir Frederick Roberts. The President, Sir Frederick
Leighton, said that "it was unusual at that table to single out a guest,
however distinguished, when the profession to which he belongs has
already been made the subject of a toast. But the brilliant achievements
of Sir Frederick Roberts, especially the now famous march from Cabul to
Candahar, had stirred all hearts." Sir Frederick, while grateful for the
hearty welcome, spoke of the services of Sir Donald Stewart, and said
that officers and men were all animated by one spirit--to do their duty,
and to uphold the honour of their Queen and country.

Other events, that had occurred since their last assembly, were touched
upon by the Prince of Wales, in responding to the toast with which his
name is usually associated at these banquets. He said:--

    "It is always a great gratification to myself and any other
    members of our family who may be present to come to this annual
    gathering of the Royal Academy, and we greatly regret when any
    cause arises to prevent us being present. It is a matter of
    great interest not only to be surrounded by all that is finest
    in modern art, but also to meet so distinguished an assembly,
    although we who come year by year find that gaps are made which
    we must all deeply regret. One of the most recent of these has
    been occasioned by the death of the great statesman just taken
    from us, who but two years ago made in this room one of his most
    eloquent speeches, which must be in the memory of all who were
    then present, many of whom are here to-night. I will not allude
    to the late Earl of Beaconsfield further than to say how
    gratifying it is to see that fine portrait of him in the next
    room, executed by one of our first artists, Mr. Millais. I might
    also allude to the removal from among us of the late Lord Chief
    Justice of England, opposite to whom I had often the pleasure of
    sitting at this table. The Academy, I am sure, also deplores the
    loss of Mr. Elmore, and Mr. Knight, who was many years
    Secretary, and we must all sympathise with the Academy for the
    loss they have thus sustained.

    "It is not for me on this occasion to offer any criticism on the
    pictures which adorn these walls. I have only had the
    opportunity of taking a very cursory glance at them, and even if
    I were able I should not indulge in any critical remarks. But I
    will say this--neither the President nor the members of the
    Academy have any reason to deprecate fair and just criticism.
    One of the greatest pictures in the Exhibition is the portrait
    of the President, painted by himself. In this he has only
    followed the example of some of the great masters, who painted
    their own portraits. As there are so many more speeches to be
    made--some of the greatest possible interest--I will not weary
    you with more words. I will only again thank you, in my own
    name, in the name of the Princess, and of my brothers who are
    present, for your very kind reception."

The Duke of Cambridge said the Artists' Corps was one of the smartest
and most efficient in the Volunteer Army, and he was glad of the
opportunity of paying this tribute to them.


At the banquet of 1885, the Prince of Wales was accompanied for the
first time by Prince Albert Victor. In the speech in reply to the usual
toast from the Chair, the Prince referred to his being accompanied by
his son in a very different place from the Academy of Art.

    "You, sir" (addressing the President), "have kindly alluded to
    our late visit to Ireland. I can only assure you that, if that
    visit was a labour at all, it was a labour of love. We had for a
    long time past looked forward to a fitting opportunity for once
    more visiting Ireland, and we were glad to avail ourselves of
    the opportunity recently afforded us. I was sure that on going
    there we should meet with a kind and hearty reception, and such
    was the case with very few exceptions. We received as kind and
    loyal a reception as it could be the good fortune of any one to
    meet with. You, sir, have touched upon a subject of interest to
    us. My son and I had the opportunity of visiting, although the
    time allowed us was too short to do all that we could have
    wished to do, those districts of the town of Dublin in which the
    houses, although they might have picturesqueness, were certainly
    not calculated to promote the happiness and welfare of their
    inhabitants. This reminds me that I have had the honour of
    serving for upwards of a year on the Commission which has for
    its object the improvement of the dwellings of the poorer
    classes of this country. I will not anticipate our first report,
    which will be shortly issued. I will only say before sitting
    down that not only has it been to me a sincere pleasure and
    satisfaction to have aided so important and valuable a work, but
    I have had the advantage of working with some of the most
    distinguished of my countrymen, some of whom are here to-night."

The Duke of Cambridge made touching reference to the death of General
Gordon. "I feel that the remarks of the President call for a sympathetic
sentiment on my part and that of the Army. The allusion to General
Gordon is one that touches the heart of every English soldier, from
myself down to the youngest soldier of us all. I can only deplore the
fact that he is no longer among us, and that his brilliant career is now


At the banquet of 1888, the President, Sir Frederick Leighton, after the
toast of "The Queen," in proposing "The Prince and Princess of Wales and
the rest of the Royal Family," referred to this year being the "Silver
Wedding," and also alluded to the anxiety then darkening the home of
"the Princess Royal of England," the Empress of Germany.

The Prince, in reply, said:--

    "Mr. President, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--This toast has been
    proposed in far too flattering terms, but the words which have
    fallen from Sir Frederick Leighton have not failed to touch me
    deeply, as they also will touch the Princess. I thank you,
    therefore, Mr. President, for the kind manner in which you have
    given the toast, and you, gentlemen, for the way in which you
    have received it. My coming here this evening marks, as it were,
    a double anniversary. This is not only the year of my silver
    wedding, which your President has kindly referred to, but it is
    now just a quarter of a century ago since I first had the
    pleasure and gratification of accepting the kind hospitality of
    this great Academy. There have, no doubt, been many changes
    during that interval in this body. Many illustrious and
    distinguished members of the Academy have passed away; but,
    while we cannot but regret them, we know that there has been no
    lack of others to fill their places. When one thinks of the old
    buildings in which we used to assemble, which are now devoted to
    the purposes of the National Gallery, and when one sees this new
    edifice, which has existed now for nineteen years, and the
    beautiful objects that adorn its walls, one can form some idea
    of the great progress that has been made in art in this country.
    It is a remarkable fact that, although many new galleries are
    constantly springing up, there appears to be no difficulty in
    adorning their walls and filling them with pictures and
    sculpture. In 1869, 3000 works of art were offered for
    acceptance by this Academy; but this year, I am told, no less
    than 9300 were sent in. Unfortunately, of that number upwards of
    7000 had to be returned, because you have only room for 2000
    odd. The responsibility which rests upon the President, and
    especially upon that most hard-working and perhaps I may say
    also best-abused body, the hanging committee, is very great, and
    their labours increase as years go on. They, of course, cannot
    give satisfaction to everybody; but those distinguished artists
    who must be disappointed at not seeing their works upon these
    walls may perhaps find some consolation in observing how very
    high is the general standard of excellence attained by their
    more fortunate brethren whose works have been accepted.

    "Before sitting down I wish to acknowledge on behalf of my
    sister and her husband the kind sympathy which you, sir, have
    expressed to-night in such feeling words. I wish it were
    possible for me to give on this occasion greater hopes of the
    life of one so near and dear to me, of one of such value, not
    only to his own country, but, I maintain, to the world at large.
    The recent news which we have received has been rather more
    favourable, and God grant that such news may continue. At any
    rate, as long as there is life there is hope. I thank you once
    more, Mr. President, for the cordial terms in which you have
    proposed my health and the kind way in which you have alluded to
    the members of my family."

The Duke of Cambridge, who has the pleasurable duty every year of
responding to the toast of the Army, must naturally feel increasing
difficulty in varying the subject of his discourses. He was, however,
never more happy in his remarks than at the banquet of 1888. "Every year
that I come here," said the Duke, "I feel more at home among you, and
for this reason, because I believe that there is great sympathy between
artists and military men. It has been said that the services seem to
some extent out of place in a company composed of artists, because
artists are concerned with art and science and peaceful pursuits; but I
believe, on the other hand, that artists derive a great advantage from
observing our profession, because it supplies them with many subjects
which they love to portray. And the military sentiment among artists is
by no means to be considered as effaced. When I see what a splendid
corps of Volunteers the artists supply, I think I may claim them as one
of the elements of strength which we should use should any emergency
arise. God forbid that it should ever arise; but, if it should, may the
services be in a condition to prevent danger from approaching this
country." These last words form the burden of most of the wise and
patriotic speeches which the Duke of Cambridge delivers at the Academy
and elsewhere.


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_July 2nd, 1866._

The Corporation of the Trinity House received its first charter in 1514,
from King Henry VIII. It was then a guild or brotherhood for the
encouragement of the science and art of navigation, and was first
empowered to build lighthouses and erect beacons by an Act passed in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth. This has gradually come to be the chief duty
of the Corporation, and a very important one it is to a nation with such
vast commerce. The Scottish coasts are under a separate Board, but all
others are under the charge of the Trinity House. The Mastership of the
Company has in recent times been an honourable post, held by Princes and
Statesmen. Lord Liverpool was Master in 1816, and was followed by the
Marquis Camden, the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV., the Duke
of Wellington, the Prince Consort, and Lord Palmerston, since whose
death the office has been held by the Duke of Edinburgh. The post was
offered to the Prince of Wales, but was declined by him, in behalf of
his sailor brother, "with graceful delicacy and characteristic
manliness," as Sir Frederick Arrow, the Deputy-Master said, in proposing
his health at the first banquet where he was a guest.

This first festival meeting after the election of the Duke of Edinburgh
as Master took place on the 2nd of July, 1866. Among the guests were the
King of the Belgians, the Prince of Wales, the Premier and several
members of the Cabinet, the Lord Chief Justice, the Lord Mayor, and
other distinguished persons. The guests were received by the Elder
Brethren in the Court Room of the Corporation, a stately apartment,
adorned with portraits of Royal personages and of former Masters.

His Royal Highness the Master proposed the health of "Her Majesty the
Queen," and then that of the "King of the Belgians," who in his reply
warmly thanked a Corporation which rendered important services to all
maritime and commercial nations. In giving the toast of "The Prince of
Wales, the Princess of Wales, and the other members of the Royal
Family," the Master said: "It has never before been my pleasing duty to
propose the health of my brother in his presence, and I should feel very
shy if I were to make any remarks farther than that, as Master of your
Corporation, and as his brother, I beg you to give him a most hearty

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales said:--

    "May it please your Majesty, your Royal Highness, my Lords, and
    Gentlemen,--Under any circumstances it would have been a source
    of gratification to me to be present on such an occasion as
    this, but more especially when I have been invited by my own
    brother and have the pleasure of supporting him on the first
    occasion of his taking the chair as Master of this Company.
    Perhaps you will allow me on this occasion merely to mention
    that, after the death of that distinguished and lamented
    statesman whose loss we must always deplore, the office of
    Master was most kindly offered to me by the Brethren of this
    Company. I begged to decline--at least, I begged to offer the
    suggestion that the office should be offered to my brother, who
    was far more fit to undertake its duties. Among the
    distinguished personages who are present on this occasion it is,
    you will allow me to say, very gratifying to have the honour of
    the presence of his Majesty the King of the Belgians. After the
    very kind manner in which he has spoken of his attachment to
    this country, which I know is a real attachment, and not merely
    a form of words, because I have often heard the same sentiment
    expressed by him in private--after such expressions from his
    Majesty I think I may say that we as Englishmen feel a strong
    attachment to his country--a country distinguished in its own
    position among the nations of the Continent, and a country for
    which his ever lamented father did so much. I beg to thank you
    for the honour you have done me in drinking my own health in
    connection with the health of her Royal Highness the Princess of
    Wales and the other members of the Royal Family."

_July 20th, 1868._

At the banquet of 1868, on the 20th of July, the Prince was formally
installed as one of the "Younger Brethren" of the Trinity House, the
oaths having been administered by the Duke of Edinburgh, as Master. In
proposing the usual loyal toasts, the Master said it gave him much
satisfaction to be supported by his brother, who, however, on this
occasion was present as a member of the Corporation. The Prince, on
speaking to the toast, said:--

    "Your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I return my
    best thanks to my illustrious relative for the kind way in
    which he has proposed this toast, and for coupling with it the
    health of the Princess of Wales and that of the other members of
    the Royal Family. I am very grateful for the reception which has
    been accorded him in this room, and I have great pleasure in
    being here this evening. This is not the first time I have been
    present at the hospitable board of the Trinity House. It is the
    second time I have supported my brother, and I come here now in
    a double capacity, for I have the honour of being present to-day
    as a member of this Corporation and as his 'younger brother.' I
    am sure I may say even in his presence that it is a source of
    the greatest satisfaction to me to be present at the first
    dinner at which he has presided since his return from Australia.
    I know I am only speaking his wishes when I say that, although
    the season is now far advanced, he thought, consistently with
    the duties he had to perform on board the _Galatea_, now off
    Osborne, he could not refrain from taking the chair at the
    anniversary dinner of this ancient Corporation, of which he has
    the honour of being the Master. I thank you for the kind way in
    which this toast has been received."

The Duke of Richmond, as President of the Board of Trade, acknowledged
the great services to the Mercantile Marine rendered by the Trinity
House. Lord Napier of Magdala, in response to the toast of "The
Visitors," spoke of the efficient manner in which the Transport Service
had been carried out during the Abyssinian Expedition.

_July 4th, 1869._

In 1869 the Duke of Edinburgh was absent, and the Prince of
Wales undertook the office of presiding at the dinner on the 4th of
July. Sir Frederick Arrow, Deputy Master, and the Elder
Brethren, among whom were Mr. Disraeli and Mr. Gladstone,
honorary Brethren, received the invited guests, among whom were
Prince Arthur, Prince Christian, Prince Teck, Prince Edward of
Saxe Weimar, and numerous men of high distinction in public life.

The Prince having proposed "The Health of The Queen, the
protectress of this ancient Corporation," Sir Frederick Arrow gave
"The Health of the Prince and Princess of Wales and the rest of
the Royal Family." The Deputy Master referred to the sympathy
of the Prince with naval service in all departments, and especially
his love of yachting. He also referred to his tour in the East,
since they last assembled at their annual festival. The Prince

    "Your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I am gratified
    by the honour you have done me in drinking my health and that of
    the Princess of Wales and the other members of the Royal Family.
    I can assure you it has given me great pleasure to be present on
    this occasion, but I feel I have hardly any right to occupy this
    chair. The last time I was here I was elected a younger member
    of your Corporation. To-day I have become an elder member, and
    Sir Frederick Arrow asked me to take the chair in place of my
    brother, the Master, who is now in a far distant land. You may
    be sure that I shall always be ready to assist in every way I
    can to promote the good of this excellent institution. Sir
    Frederick Arrow has been pleased to allude to my yachting. It is
    true I am fond of yachting, but I cannot claim to be either a
    nautical or a naval man. You may, however, always reckon upon
    any services I can render in any way in which you may think I
    can be useful to your Corporation."

Other customary toasts were then given, and responded to. To the toast
of "The Master of the Corporation," his Royal Highness the Duke of
Edinburgh, "wishing him a happy, prosperous, and safe voyage from the
Southern hemisphere, and a quick return home," the Prince of Wales

    "Your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I feel I am in
    rather a difficult position in having to return thanks for one
    who is absent. At the same time, I feel assured my brother would
    be gratified by my thanking you for the manner in which his
    health has been proposed and welcomed. According to the French
    proverb, '_Les absens ont toujours tort_.' But I hope you will
    think differently, seeing that my brother is a post captain in
    Her Majesty's Navy, and is visiting one of Her Majesty's far
    distant colonies. I am sure if he knew you were drinking his
    health at this time his heart would be with you. Before I sit
    down I have the honour of proposing to you a toast--the
    principal toast of the evening. I call upon you to drink,
    'Prosperity to the Corporation of Trinity House.' It would be
    almost superfluous in me to make any remarks on the Corporation
    or its present or future development. It has existed since the
    time of Henry VIII., and ever since that time to the present the
    community has taken the deepest interest in its prosperity. It
    has also been connected through its honorary Brethren with some
    of the most distinguished men, and many of those honorary
    Brethren are present here this evening. Its object is to protect
    our ships and our sailors, and that object is never forgotten.
    As the First Lord of the Admiralty has just said, while the Navy
    is called upon to protect our commerce, the Corporation of
    Trinity House is called upon to protect our sailors and our
    ships. The first electric light put up in this country was that
    at Dungeness, and the great Wolf Rock, which has long been the
    terror of our sailors, will before long cease to be so. This
    will show you that the Trinity House authorities are anxious to
    do their duty and to maintain their great name, which I am sure
    is honoured here and in other countries. Before I resume my seat
    I give you 'The Health of Sir Frederick Arrow, the Deputy
    Master,' and I am sure you will drink it with enthusiasm,
    knowing as you do how justly he merits your applause. He has
    done his duty in every way to maintain the interests of the
    Corporation, and I think the honour was eminently due which his
    Sovereign conferred in making him Sir Frederick Arrow. I call
    upon you to drink 'Prosperity to the ancient Corporation of
    Trinity House,' coupling with the toast the name of Sir
    Frederick Arrow."

Sir Frederick Arrow, having briefly responded, gave the toast of "Her
Majesty's Ministers," saying that, although politics are unknown at the
Trinity House, it was their duty to mark their respect for the
Government of the day. Mr. Gladstone responded. The toast of "The
Maritime and Commercial Interests of the Country," was coupled with the
name of Mr. Bright, as President of the Board of Trade. Mr. Bright made
an eloquent reply, discoursing on the benefits to this nation, and to
all nations, of the works of the Trinity House Corporation. He said that
he believed that "at this time the merchant ships of England are equal,
or nearly equal--I have heard it said they surpass--in number and
tonnage the seagoing merchant ships of all other countries in the world.
This is an extraordinary thing, if it be true. But, whether it be
exactly true or not, there can be no doubt with regard to foreign
commerce--with regard to ships on the ocean--this country has a position
at this moment which I believe it never held before, and one I think we
may fairly be proud of. I delight, therefore, to dilate on the grandeur
of our merchant navy, and I agree with Mr. Cardwell in hoping that the
time is coming when the resources of this country may not be expended to
an extravagant extent in maintaining our military establishments."

In dilating on the magnitude of British commerce and the number of
British merchant ships, it probably never occurred to Mr. Bright that in
case of war, a few swift armed cruisers would make these ships fly, like
doves before hawks, and the seas be cleared of our now countless
merchant steamers. The _Alabama_ and a few swift rovers speedily swept
all the commerce of the United States from the sea; and the same would
be the fate of the vaster commerce of Great Britain, if there are not
armed vessels, swift, powerful, and numerous, to protect our mercantile
navy in every region of the globe. There is no political question in
this, but the common prudential principle of insurance against possible
peril and disaster. Our coasts may be adequately defended, but there is
need of a naval volunteer service as well as of volunteer riflemen and
gunners on land. It may be one of the future national services rendered
by the Prince of Wales to get the yachting men of the day to form
themselves into naval volunteers, in case of the protection of swift
armed cruisers being needed for protecting the fleets of merchantmen on
which the people of England depend for supplies.

After Mr. Bright's speech, the toast of "The Honorary Brethren" was
responded to by Mr. Disraeli, who was followed by Sir Stafford
Northcote, Sir R. Phillimore, and Sir John Burgoyne. Seldom has the
banqueting hall of the Trinity House been honoured by the presence of so
many illustrious and eloquent guests.

_June 24th, 1871._

In 1871, the Duke of Edinburgh, Master of the Trinity House, had
returned to England, and on the 24th of June took his place as President
at the annual banquet. The Prince of Wales was present, and a
distinguished company.

In proposing the health of the Prince of Wales, the Master thanked him
for having performed the duties of the Mastership during his absence.
Three years before he had jocularly called the Prince his younger
Brother. He had since become an Elder Brother, but, in respect of the
Trinity House, he, as Master, was still the eldest brother. The Prince,
in reply, said:--

    "It is a great pleasure to me to have my health proposed by my
    brother in the kind manner in which he has proposed it. He has
    been pleased to allude to what I call the small duties which I
    have had to perform at the Trinity House in his absence. I think
    all the Brethren are well aware that it gave me great
    satisfaction to be able to do anything during my brother's
    absence; and I only regret that I had not more to do; but the
    real duties were, in fact, performed by a gentleman who now sits
    on my right (the Deputy Master), and I have to thank him and
    all the Brethren for the assistance they rendered during the
    interregnum. My brother is now on half-pay, but the time may
    come when he will again have an important command. In that event
    I shall be glad again to be of any service during his absence,
    and the Trinity House may always count upon my placing myself at
    their disposal."

The usual toasts were given, and responded to. His Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales gave Her Majesty's Ministers, saying:--

    "To whatever party they belonged, so long as they performed
    their duty to the Crown and upheld the dignity and honour of the
    country, they were entitled to the compliment he now asked the
    company to pay to them, and he had great pleasure in coupling
    the toast with the name of his noble and learned friend the Lord

The Lord Chancellor responded, saying that there was not among the
methods of preserving peace any greater or more effective means than
that of maintaining in its full force and activity the great Navy of
England, which must be looked upon by every Government with unmixed
admiration; and he trusted, whatever differences might exist on other
subjects, Her Majesty's Government would show that they had one common
object, the maintenance of the maritime reputation, honour, and dignity
of the country.

Mr. Milner Gibson, by command of the Master, proposed a toast always
given at the Trinity House anniversaries: "The maritime and commercial
interests of the country, and the President of the Board of Trade."
Having himself long held the office of President of the Board of Trade,
Mr. Milner Gibson bore testimony to the efficient administration by the
Trinity House of the funds placed at their disposal. As the funds came
from a tax on the shipping and trade of the country, it is a right and
constitutional thing that the expenditure should be controlled by the
Minister of Commerce, responsible to Parliament. He could say that the
lights on the coast of the United Kingdom were equal, if not superior,
to the lights which existed in any other country in the world. Under the
control of the Board of Trade we had made great improvement in the
system of lighting our coasts, coupled with a reduced charge upon the
trade of the country.

It might have been added that it was when the Prince Consort was Master
that more constitutional relations between the Trinity House and the
Government came into operation, the funds being supplied by the Board of
Trade, and administered by the Corporation, who then had what they
called "new Sailing Orders" for their guidance.

_June 27th, 1874._

The banquet at the Corporation Hall on June 27, 1874, was presided over
by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in the absence of the Master,
the Duke of Edinburgh. The Deputy Master Sir Frederick Arrow, after the
usual loyal and patriotic toasts, gave "The Health of the Prince of
Wales," who responded in brief and appropriate terms, and afterwards
proposed the toast of "Prosperity to the Corporation of the Trinity
House." He said:--

    "Your Royal Highnesses, my Lords, and Gentlemen,--I have now the
    honour of proposing to you a toast which I only wish had been
    placed in better hands than mine. Although I have the honour of
    being connected with this ancient Guild, I do not feel that I
    possess that nautical knowledge which a person ought to have who
    proposes a toast like 'Prosperity to the Corporation of Trinity
    House'; but I am sure it is a toast which will meet with your
    approval this evening. I will begin by stating that the few
    remarks with which I shall preface the toast are not of my own
    knowledge, the facts having been supplied to me by the kindness
    of the Deputy Master, and if I get out of my depth or among the
    quicksands I must trust you will excuse me. I speak with
    sincerity when I say that since we met here last year the duties
    of the Trinity House have been carried on as successfully as on
    any previous occasion, and that the whole of its proceedings
    have been of a highly satisfactory character. There have been
    several new lighthouses built--one, I believe, has been
    completed to-day, and is to be opened on the 1st of July. It is
    on Hartland Point, and, with reference to our commercial
    interests, is considered to be of great importance. It will do
    much to facilitate our trade with the Welsh coal ports. The
    Goodwin Sands is a name which fills every sailor with alarm;
    and, although everything has been done to prevent the fearful
    wrecks with which the name is associated, we have only to read
    the daily newspapers to be aware of the fearful disasters that
    often occur at sea outside those terrible sands. The Trinity
    House has lately put a second lighthouse eastward of Beachy

    "There is another subject in connection with which the Trinity
    House has taken a very active part, and it is one of great
    importance, especially to nautical men. I mean the subject of
    sound-signals in foggy weather. The Trinity House has every
    reason to feel deeply indebted to Professor Tyndall, who, I
    regret to say, could not be with us upon this occasion owing to
    his absence from England. Some most interesting experiments in
    connection with sound-signals have been carried out by him, and
    a most able report has been written by him on the subject. I am
    sure you will all agree with me in thinking this a most
    important matter, and one in which it is natural that the
    Trinity House should take a prominent interest. At a great many
    stations it has been determined to place these fog-signals where
    lights can be of no avail.

    "There is another matter in connection with which the Trinity
    House has every reason for congratulation. I mean the reduction
    of dues to the amount of £80,000, in addition to the reduction
    of £60,000 in 1872. There are many other important facts
    connected with the Trinity House which the Deputy Master has
    been kind enough to place at my disposal, but which I need not
    now detain you by mentioning. In proposing the toast of
    'Prosperity to the Corporation of the Trinity House,' it is my
    pleasing duty to connect it with the health of one who not only
    does everything to make our annual gatherings here most
    agreeable, but who performs the arduous and responsible duties
    which he has to discharge in a most praiseworthy and effective
    manner. I am sure that you will drink most cordially the health
    of the Deputy Master. My Lords and gentlemen, I give you
    'Prosperity to the Corporation of the Trinity House, coupled
    with the name of Sir Frederick Arrow, the Deputy Master.'"

At a later period of the evening His Royal Highness proposed the toasts
of "Her Majesty's Ministers," to which the Lord Chancellor responded,
and the "Distinguished Visitors," coupling with it the name of the Lord
Chief Justice of England (Sir Alexander Cockburn).

_June 2nd, 1875._

In 1875 the Duke of Edinburgh was not abroad, and presided at the annual
dinner on the 2nd of June. The seamen of the _Galatea_ lined the way to
the Hall, on Tower Hill, in honour of the occasion, and of the presence
of their captain. In the room where the guests were received was a
portrait of the Master, painted as a companion picture to those already
on the walls, by a Russian artist, G. Koberwein. Count Shouvaloff, the
Russian Ambassador, was among the guests. In responding to the customary
toast of "The Royal Family," the Prince of Wales expressed his
gratification at his brother Prince Leopold having become a member of
the Corporation. The Duke of Cambridge responded for the Army.


The banquet of 1877 was again presided over by the Prince of Wales, in
the absence of the Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. There was the usual
select company, including Royal and other distinguished guests,
especially General Grant, who, in his travels throughout the old world,
was received with as great honour as any king could be.

In proposing the health of the Prince of Wales, the Earl of Derby
said:--"No one particularly likes to listen to his own panegyric, even
at a public dinner, and therefore I will say nothing with regard to the
illustrious subject of my toast beyond that which you all know to be the
simple and literal truth. His Royal Highness has not only now, but for
many years past, done all that is in the power of man to do, by genial
courtesies towards men of every class, and by his indefatigable
assiduity in the performance of every social duty, to secure at once
that public respect which is due to his exalted position and that social
sympathy and personal popularity which no position, however exalted, can
of itself be sufficient to secure. We regret the absence of the
illustrious Master of the Corporation, the Duke of Edinburgh, but we
regret it the less because he is doing what each of us in our humble
spheres desires and endeavours to do--he is serving his country. I give
you "The Health of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales and the rest
of the Royal Family."

The toast was drunk with all the accustomed honours, and the Prince in
reply said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I return you my sincere thanks for the
    kind way in which the toast of my health has been proposed and
    the manner in which it has been received. I can assure the whole
    company that I feel it a great honour to be present on this
    occasion, especially connected as I have the honour to be with
    your Master. I regret that my brother is not here this evening.
    It is now two years since I was present at this annual
    gathering, and I regret to say I miss the kind and genial face
    of the late Deputy Master, Sir Frederick Arrow; but in Admiral
    Collinson we have an excellent substitute. On the present
    occasion it is a matter of peculiar gratification to us as
    Englishmen to receive as our guest General Grant. I can assure
    him, for myself and for all the loyal subjects of the Queen,
    that it has given us the greatest pleasure to see him as a guest
    in this country. My lords and gentlemen, before resuming my
    seat, it is my privilege to propose to you another toast--one
    which always recommends itself most heartily to the public, and
    that is 'The Army, Navy, and Reserve Forces,' connecting with it
    on this occasion the name of a distinguished officer, Lord
    Strathnairn, and that of the Hon. Sir Henry Keppel."

The toast was received with three times three. Lord Strathnairn and Sir
H. Keppel replied to the compliment, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer
responded to the toast of "Her Majesty's Ministers," proposed by His
Royal Highness the Chairman. Other toasts having been given and
acknowledged, the Earl of Carnarvon proposed "The Health of the Guests,"
coupled with the name of General Grant; saying that "there never has
been one to whom we willingly accord a freer, a fuller, a heartier
welcome than we do to General Grant on this occasion. We accord it to
him, not merely because we believe he has performed the part of a
distinguished General in many a 'well-foughten field,' nor because he
has twice filled the highest office which the citizens of his great
country can fill, but because we look upon him here present to-night as
representing, so to speak, that good-will and that affection which ought
to subsist between us and the United States of America. It is not a
century since there befell this country what we believe to have been the
greatest misfortune that her pages record. Not a hundred years ago the
States of America separated from us; and, great as the loss was, I do
not think that the separation was the greatest part of the calamity. The
disaster lay in this, that the separation on each side was effected amid
the storms of passion, resentment, and animosity. Yet not a century has
rolled by, and I believe, and thank God for believing, that in a great
measure that animosity and resentment have passed away, and we are
entering on a new stage of mutual trust, of mutual sympathy, and of
mutual support and strength. I have had, perhaps, special opportunities
of observing this in the office I have the honour to hold. It has been
my duty to be connected with the great dominion of Canada, stretching,
as it does, several thousand miles along the frontier of the United
States, and during the last three or four years I can truthfully say
that nothing impressed me more or gave me livelier satisfaction than the
interchange of friendly and good offices between the two countries under
the auspices of President Grant."

General Grant was loudly cheered on rising to respond. He spoke in such
a low voice as not to be heard distinctly, but he was understood to say
that he felt more impressed than possibly he had ever felt before on any
occasion. He came there under the impression that this was the Trinity
House, and that the trinity consisted of the Army, the Navy, and Peace.
He therefore thought it was a place of quietude, where there would be no
talk or toasts. He had been therefore naturally surprised at hearing
both one and the other. He had heard some remarks from His Royal
Highness the President of the evening which compelled him to say one
word in response to them. The remarks he referred to were complimentary
to him. He begged to thank His Royal Highness for those remarks. There
had been other things said during the evening highly gratifying to him.
Not the least gratifying among them was to hear that there were
occasionally in this country party fights as well as in America. He had
seen before now as much as a war between the three departments of the
State--the executive, the judicial, and the legislative departments. He
had not seen the political parties of England go so far as that since he
had come to this country. He would imitate their Chairman, who had set
the good example of oratory--that was brevity--and say no more than
simply to thank His Royal Highness and the company for the visitors.

This is one of the longest speeches ever made by General Grant, whose
allusion to party fights was suggested by what had been said by the
Chancellor of the Exchequer: "There have been reports and rumours of
dissensions in the Cabinet, and of them I do not mean to say anything
but this--there is one subject on which there is no dissension. Among
all the ministers who have ever dined at the Trinity House there is no
dissension as to the manner in which they have been received in this
hospitable hall."


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The Royal College of Music has occupied so much of the time and labour
of the Prince of Wales, and promises to be an institution of so great
national importance, that it seems well to present in order the various
movements that led up to the foundation of the College, and to group
together the successive speeches of the Prince on this subject.


_June 15th, 1875._

The need for extending musical education, and for improving musical
taste in England, has long been felt. That there is no lack of musical
genius or skill in our country is sufficiently attested by the great
array of eminent composers and distinguished performers, whether in
vocal or instrumental music, both in former and in recent times. Nor has
the love of the art, and delight in its exercise, ever been wanting.
There was a time when what we now call "old English" rounds and catches,
glees and madrigals, and all kinds of choral compositions, were popular,
in the widest sense of the word. The love of orchestral harmony has also
been great in England, where Handel found his home, and the best field
for his wonderful powers. In those days Ireland was truly one with
England, in appreciation of high classical music. It was in Dublin that
the _Messiah_ was first heard, and best appreciated. Even in the
depressed period of music, in the early decades of this century, there
were always competitions of well-trained choirs and bands, which showed
the love and practice of musical art to be still widely diffused and
ardently cultivated.

Notwithstanding all this, it had come to be necessary to take some
measures for advancing musical art throughout the country, where great
towns and busy centres of industry had multiplied, without the
civilising influence of music being to a corresponding degree diffused.
No one felt this more strongly than the Prince Consort, but the
opportunity of carrying out his ideas did not arise in his lifetime. The
Royal Academy of Music, founded in 1822, and incorporated in 1830, did
good service in its limited way, for training its pupils and awarding a
few scholarships; but some institution was needed, with larger
expansiveness, and capable of diffusing the love and the practice of
music more widely among the people.

It was in furtherance of this national purpose that the Prince of Wales,
who put himself at the head of the movement, held a conference at
Marlborough House, on the 15th of June, 1875.

The immediate object was to promote the establishment of free
scholarships, to be held in the National Training Schools for Music,
then being erected, close to the Royal Albert Hall, at Kensington Gore.
The Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Christian and the Duke of Teck were
present; and representatives of many public bodies in Church and State,
including the Archbishops and several Bishops, the Lord Mayor of London
and the Mayors of many provincial towns, the Masters or Prime Wardens of
the City Companies, the head masters of public schools, the Chairman and
members of the London School Board, the Parliamentary representatives of
the Metropolitan boroughs, and a very numerous company, of the most
distinguished name and position.

The Prince of Wales, in opening the proceedings, expressed his
gratification at the large attendance, which augured well for the object
they all had in view. He then called on the Duke of Edinburgh to move
the first resolution, in introducing which he gave a lucid and
interesting statement of the history of the movement.

In 1854, the Royal Academy of Music made an application to the
Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851 to grant a site upon their
estate for a building in which they could carry on their labours. The
negotiations were not successful, and matters remained in abeyance until
1865, when the Society of Arts appointed a Committee to consider and
report on the whole subject of musical education in this country. Of
this committee the Prince of Wales consented to act as chairman.
Inquiries were made as to the methods employed in the management of
musical academies in Paris, Berlin, Munich, Milan, and other Continental
schools. Reports were drawn up, one of the main points in which dealt
with the necessity for instituting scholarships to be competed for
openly, so as to draw out the best musical talent throughout the
country. Assistance should be given in cases where the scholars were
unable to provide education for themselves.

In 1872 negotiations were reopened with the Royal Academy, with the idea
of removing the head-quarters of the Academy from Tenderden Street to
South Kensington. It became more evident that the purposes contemplated
by the Committee of the Society of Arts could be better accomplished by
the establishment of a new and independent institution as a National
Training School for Music. The foundation-stone of the new institution
had been laid in 1873, at which time a member of the Council, Mr.
Freake, had liberally offered to undertake the whole cost of the
building. At first Mr. Freake intended to give the use only of the
building for some years, but he now requested the acceptance of it as a
free gift. It was further stated by the Duke of Edinburgh that there was
ample accommodation for above 300 students. It only remained to obtain
the foundation of Scholarships in sufficient numbers for the appointment
of a permanent Staff of Professors, and other arrangements for
efficiently carrying on the new training school.

The Duke of Edinburgh then moved a resolution for the appointment of a
Committee for taking steps to found Free Scholarships for the City of
London and the Metropolitan districts. This resolution was seconded by
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and supported by the Lord Mayor and the
Archbishop of York.

    The Prince of Wales, in responding to a vote of thanks for
    having convened and presiding over the meeting, said, "he
    thought the initiative in this matter was really due to his
    brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, who had taken great interest in
    music since his childhood. The same was the case with their
    father, the late Prince Consort, whose name would always be
    remembered with gratitude for the powerful influence he had
    exercised on the intellectual advancement of the country, and to
    whose efforts might be traced in great measure the important
    place which music now held in the estimation of all classes.

    "On the whole, they had reason to congratulate themselves on the
    success of the meeting, and he was glad to have the opportunity
    of returning his thanks to the Lord Mayor and to all the
    gentlemen representing the great City Companies for their
    co-operation on this occasion, feeling that that meeting would
    be the commencement of a movement which he trusted would be a
    success. In conclusion, he wished to move a resolution conveying
    a vote of thanks to Mr. Freake for the handsome and liberal
    manner in which he had so kindly behaved in giving the building
    for the National Training School of Music. It was already a
    great exercise of liberality to offer the use of it rent free
    for five years, and certainly he was sure none present could
    have expected that he would have made them a present of it. He
    was therefore anxious that they should on that occasion record a
    unanimous vote of thanks to him for his great liberality, and
    for the interest he had taken in the welfare of that which they
    had so much at heart."

The Duke of Edinburgh seconded the resolution, which was carried


_February 28th, 1882._

As far back as June, 1875, the Prince of Wales, we have seen, had taken
steps to secure improvement of musical education throughout the kingdom.
With this purpose he had invited many influential persons to a
Conference at Marlborough House, which was held on the 15th of June of
that year, and which resulted in the establishment of the National
Training School of Music, with Sir Arthur Sullivan as its Principal. Ten
years earlier, in 1865, the Prince had induced the Society of Arts to
appoint a Committee to consider and report on the whole subject of
musical education in this country, and of this Committee he gladly
consented to act as President.

In 1878 the Prince summoned a number of gentlemen to a meeting at
Marlborough House, where the proposal to found a National College of
Music, uniting the Academy and the Training School, was first mooted. A
committee was appointed, and the assent both of the Academy and the
School had been obtained, when the Academy withdrew, and declined to
accept the proposals of union. It was not till after the lapse of
several years that the way was clear for the establishment of a new and
truly national institution.

On the 28th of February, 1882, the Prince of Wales presided at a meeting
held in the Banqueting Hall, St. James's Palace, for the purpose of
soliciting public support for founding a "Royal College of Music." This
meeting is destined to be a memorable event, not only in musical annals,
but in the history of the nation. What was the character and influence
of that meeting was stated in eloquent terms by Sir George Grove, in his
speech at the inauguration of the Royal College in the following year.
This statement will be given in full on a subsequent page, the following
words being sufficient to quote here: "A meeting so truly national in
its aspect gave, if I may use a not inappropriate figure, the key-note
of the movement; and the key-note thus struck at St. James's Palace
resounded through the country, and met with a ready and harmonious

Larger meetings the Prince has frequently addressed, but never one more
broadly representative of all the most distinguished and influential
classes in the kingdom. The Ambassadors and Ministers of most of the
Continental Powers were also among the audience.

The Prince of Wales, who on rising was most cordially greeted, opened
the proceedings by reading letters from the Duke of Connaught and Prince
Christian, expressing regret that circumstances prevented them from
being present, and their hearty sympathy with the objects of the
meeting. Prince Christian in his letter briefly recounted the history
of the fruitless attempt which had been made to induce Professor
Macfarren and the directors of the Royal Academy of Music to consent to
a union of their institution with the National Training School of Music,
with a view to form a Royal College of Music on a more extended basis.
The Prince of Wales then said:--

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,--I have called you together to-day, the
    representatives of the counties and towns in England, the
    dignitaries of the Church and other religious and educational
    bodies, distinguished colonists now resident in England, and the
    representatives of foreign Powers, to aid me in the promotion of
    a national object by obtaining contributions for the
    establishment of a Royal College of Music. Were the object less
    than of national importance, I should not have troubled you--the
    heads of social life--to meet me here to-day, and I should not
    myself have undertaken the responsibility of acting as the
    leader and organiser of the movement. I have invited to meet you
    the leading musicians and publishers of music, the most eminent
    musical instrument makers, the most influential amateurs and
    patrons of music, and I trust that by the co-operation and union
    of some of the most powerful elements of society, we may succeed
    in establishing a Royal College of Music on a more extended
    basis than any existing institution in the United Kingdom;
    worthy alike of this meeting and of this country, for whose
    benefit you are asked to give your time, your money, and your

    "I do not propose to trouble you with any proofs of the
    advantages that would be derived from the establishment of a
    National College of Music. That subject has been fully discussed
    by the Duke of Albany at Manchester, and his address is before
    the world. He showed that relatively to foreign countries
    England occupied three centuries ago a higher place in the
    musical world than she does at the present time, and he proved
    that the almost universal establishment of central and national
    musical institutions abroad, and the want of such an institution
    in England, had been one cause why musical progress has not in
    this country kept pace with the increase of wealth and
    population and the corresponding development of science and art.

    "Again, the necessity of public aid formed the groundwork of
    the appeal made at Manchester by the Duke of Edinburgh and
    Prince Christian. Music, as they showed, is far more expensive
    to teach than other arts, and the natural capacity for
    instruction in music is more rare than in almost any other art.
    You are compelled, then, if you would have good musicians, to
    provide means by which those to whom nature has been bountiful
    in giving good ears and good voices, but niggardly in giving
    worldly wealth, may be sought out in their obscurity and brought
    up to distinction by a proper course of instruction.

    "What I have said naturally leads me to deal with free education
    in music, coupled in certain cases with free maintenance of the
    pupil as the first branch of the subject on which I desire to
    engage your sympathies and ask your aid. This system of
    gratuitous education is one of the principal features which will
    distinguish the new college from the Royal Academy and other
    excellent existing schools of music. I do not mean to say that
    we intend to exclude paying pupils. To adopt such a course would
    be to deprive musical ability in the upper classes of any means
    of access to the college, and would stamp it with a narrow and
    contracted character, which is above all to be avoided in a
    national institution intended to include in its corporate
    character all classes throughout the United Kingdom. What I seek
    to create is an institution bearing the same relation to the art
    of music as that which our great public schools--Eton and
    Winchester, for example--bear to general education. On the one
    side you have scholars who are on the foundation and educated by
    means of endowments; on the other side, pupils who derive no
    direct benefit from the foundation. Both classes of pupils
    follow the same course of study; their teachers are the same,
    their rewards are the same. They differ only in the fact that
    the collegers derive aid from the college, while those who are
    not on the foundation pay for the whole of their education. I
    lay great stress on this combination of the two systems of
    education--that by endowment and that by payment. Financially,
    it enables us to have salaried teachers of the greatest
    eminence, who will give so much of their time as they devote to
    teaching exclusively to the instruction of pupils at the
    college. But, more than all, a union of different classes in a
    common and elevating pursuit is the best mode of binding in one
    tie of common enthusiasm the different grades of society,
    varying alike in wealth and social influence. Each has much to
    learn from the other, and this learning is best acquired in an
    institution where all meet on common ground, and on a footing of
    artistic equality. A further object, and one most material, is
    sought to be attained by including in our college persons who do
    not intend to make music their profession. To advance music as
    an art in its highest aspects, resort must be had to those who
    possess the best opportunities for general mental culture. The
    most highly educated classes are those who have the greatest
    power of disseminating the influence of art throughout the
    country. They are the sources from which the civilising stream
    proceeds downwards, and penetrates through every channel of our
    complex social life.

    "I will now proceed to explain the details of the scheme for
    which I ask your support, beginning with the foundation, as
    being that branch of the college for which public money will be
    required. The least number of scholars which would be worthy to
    constitute a foundation for the college would be 100. Of these,
    50 should have their education free and 50 should be maintained
    as well as educated. These scholars will be selected by open
    competition throughout the United Kingdom. A system of
    examination will be organised by which every town--nay, every
    village--in the kingdom may be afforded a chance of
    participating in the public benefaction. Only let eminent
    ability be found in the village choir, the pupil will be brought
    to London and may, if he do but possess the requisite ability,
    become a Beethoven or a Mendelssohn, and any school of music may
    put forward its best pupil as a candidate for collegiate
    honours. The expense of maintenance and education of pupils I
    estimate at about £80 a year; that of education alone at about
    £40 a year. I should hope also that your liberality will grant
    me means to found at least two fellowships, in order that rising
    musicians, who have acquired distinction at the college, may not
    be tempted on commencing their professional career to sacrifice
    the higher aspirations of their art to the necessity of
    providing immediate means of subsistence.

    "Having settled the number of our foundationers, where are we to
    place them? In London, I need not say, land is sold by the
    yard, and not by the acre, and a square yard in a good locality
    is often equal in value to a square acre in a remote district.
    Yet, for the health of a young community, we must have open
    space and pure air, and space is particularly necessary in a
    music school, for, as the Duke of Edinburgh showed in his
    address at Manchester, pupils in an ordinary school may be
    grouped and classified, but musical pupils require space for the
    performance either of vocal or instrumental music, and the
    individual attention of their masters to an extent quite unknown
    in the education of pupils in other branches of knowledge.
    Again, the locality in which a school is placed must be easy of
    access in order to accommodate the staff of teachers, for,
    though I hope to have a resident staff to a greater extent than
    has yet been tried in any other musical school, yet undoubtedly
    extraneous teaching must form a considerable portion of our
    instruction. Now, on the point of site, I am happy to say I can
    give the meeting the most satisfactory assurances without making
    any calls on their liberality. It is due to the foresight of my
    father, the Prince Consort, that at a time when South Kensington
    was comparatively remote from London, the large estate held by
    the Exhibition Commissioners was purchased with a view to
    furnish sites for future public buildings. In the few years that
    have elapsed since that purchase a suburb has been converted
    into a city. The estate lies between two stations of the
    Metropolitan District Railway, and is skirted on the north by
    one of the most frequented roads in the Metropolis. Here already
    we have a nucleus for the college in the building constructed by
    the great liberality of Mr. Freake, and I am enabled to state,
    as Chairman of the Commission of 1851, that in proportion as the
    public contributions enable us to construct our buildings, in
    the same proportion will the Commissioners be prepared to grant
    a sufficiency of site on which to erect them. The Commissioners
    have also a considerable portion of the Albert Hall under their
    control, and, by connecting that hall with the new college by a
    tunnel or a bridge, practising rooms, sitting-rooms,
    dining-rooms, and two small theatres will be immediately at the
    disposal of the college. The Commissioners will also be prepared
    to assist the college with an annual grant of money. To maintain
    the college with 100 pupils on the foundation apart from the
    expense of buildings an income of not less than from £10,000 to
    £12,000 a year will be required. The plan will admit of any
    degree of development in proportion as the munificence of the
    public or the Government supplies the requisite funds. A charter
    for incorporating the college has already been prepared and laid
    before the Privy Council. I have myself undertaken to be
    President. The governing body consist of a council, intrusted
    with the function of making by-laws for the regulation of the
    college, and of an executive committee charged with the details
    of the administration. The names of the gentlemen who form the
    council and the executive committee will be published, and will,
    I am satisfied, command the confidence alike of the public and
    of the musical world.

    "I have now laid my plan before you. I commend it to your
    favourable consideration. A few words I would fain add to
    prevent any misunderstanding of my intentions. I have not
    brought you here to ask your aid for the support only of a
    school calculated to advance music by giving the best
    instruction continued over a course of years. This might be done
    by strengthening existing schools. I have not brought you here
    for the sole purpose of asking for assistance whereby to educate
    young and deserving musicians. Such an institution is but a
    branch of what I desire to found. My object is above and beyond
    all this. I wish to establish an institution having a wider
    basis and a more extended influence than any existing school or
    college of music in this country. It will teach music of the
    highest class; it will have a foundation for the education, and
    in some cases for the free maintenance, of scholars who have
    obtained by merit the right to such privileges. But it will do
    more than this. It will be to England what the Berlin
    Conservatoire is to Germany, what the Paris Conservatoire is to
    France, or the Vienna Conservatoire to Austria--the recognised
    centre and head of the musical world. Why is it that Germany,
    France, Italy have national styles of music? Why is it that
    England has no music recognised as national? It has able
    composers, but nothing indicative of the national life or
    national feeling. The reason is not far to seek. There is no
    centre of music to which English musicians may resort with
    confidence and thence derive instruction, counsel, and
    inspiration. I hope by the breadth of my plan to interest all
    present in its success. You who are musicians must desire to
    improve your art, and such will be the object of the Royal
    College. You who are only lovers of music must wish well to a
    plan which provides for all classes of Her Majesty's subjects a
    pleasure which you yourselves enjoy so keenly. To those who are
    deaf to music, as practical men I would say thus much--to raise
    the people, you must purify their emotions and cultivate their
    imaginations. To satisfy the natural craving for excitement, you
    must substitute an innocent and healthy mode of acting on the
    passions for the fierce thirst for drink and eager pursuit of
    other unworthy objects. Music acts directly on the emotions, and
    it cannot be abused, for no excess in music is injurious.

    "In laying this great national question before you, I have
    followed the example of my father, by offering to place myself
    at the head of a great social movement. I have asked you for
    assistance, I await your answer with confidence. I am sure that
    it will be worthy of the nation of which you are
    representatives. To you, my Lords-Lieutenant, I would address
    myself with an intimation that I trust you will assemble
    meetings throughout your counties, for it is desirable that
    contributions should be received from all parts of the country
    as showing the interest taken by the people in music. My Lord
    Mayor of London and other Mayors who are here,--I am sure I may
    hope that you will assist me by presiding at assemblies of your
    fellow-townsmen, and will urge them to contribute to so national
    an institution. I may, I doubt not, look with confidence to the
    representatives of the Church and of other religious and
    educational denominations who have been good enough to attend
    here, to remind their choirs and their flocks that any
    contributions will be a grateful testimony that the population
    of England are interested in improving an art which, more than
    others, excites devotional feelings, and inspires with
    enthusiasm public and private worship. From those who are
    directly interested in music, either professionally or as
    amateurs, I trust I have a right to expect the greatest measure
    of assistance which they can afford; for on their behalf, and
    with a view to extend the influence of the science to which they
    are devoted, we are met here to-day for the purpose of
    establishing a national central musical institution. I know the
    loyalty of our Colonial brethren; they will not be behindhand in
    aiding the mother country. From foreign countries I have ever
    received so many tokens of regard and sympathy, that I may look
    with confidence to them to give their support to an institution
    the doors of which will be thrown open to all nations. One
    practical observation in conclusion. I trust that those present
    here to-day will each and every one of them from time to time
    communicate to me the steps they are taking to procure
    contributions, and will forward to the honorary secretaries the
    amount of contributions they may receive. For my part, I will
    take care, as soon as I am enabled to form some judgment of the
    extent to which the nation will support this demand, to
    communicate to the contributories and to the public the details
    of the foundation and establishment of the College, of which I
    have only set forth in my address the general outline."

The first resolution was proposed to the meeting by the Duke of
Edinburgh, and seconded by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The speech of
the Duke of Edinburgh was so clear and practical, supplementing and
confirming that of the Prince of Wales, who has always generously
attributed to his brother the initiation in this great national
movement, which, however, could not have been carried out without the
personal aid and influence of the Prince. He thus concluded:--

"I wish to express my own personal hope that the Royal College will not
be a mere teaching institution, but will become a centre for groups of
affiliated colleges, the members of which will, with the Council of the
Royal College, form a musical senate, to which all questions of
importance relating to music and musicians may be referred for
determination. This may perhaps be deemed somewhat Utopian, but I do not
despair of a time when the musical colleges throughout the country will
ally themselves with the Royal College, and form a body united by a
common tie and a general system. I will go one step further, though I do
not conceal from myself that I am treading on somewhat delicate ground,
and possibly trenching on the honoured privileges of the Universities;
yet I will express my personal hope that, as London is the chief City of
the United Kingdom, so the Royal College should be the chief musical
college, invested with the power of conferring musical degrees, and the
source from which all musical honours should legitimately flow.

"In proposing the first resolution, it only remains, my lords and
gentlemen, for me to express my hope that the Prince of Wales will be
supported on the present occasion earnestly and faithfully. A large sum
of money is required for our enterprise. England is rich, and ready at
all times to forward a worthy national undertaking. Why should I say
England only, when we are assured of the generous support of our
Colonial brethren, and when we trust that our American cousins will not
be behind in furthering the foundation of an establishment which may act
as a home to their musical students on this side of the Atlantic? The
representatives of many foreign countries are here also. We look to them
in many cases as examples in our new enterprise, and I feel sure that
their kind advice and co-operation will not be wanting when we have
occasion to seek them. I will now read the resolution intrusted to me:--

"'That this meeting approves of the proposal to establish a Royal
College of Music as a national institution, and undertakes that meetings
shall be called throughout the country, and the utmost exertions used,
individually and collectively, to forward the movement by obtaining the
necessary funds for founding and endowing a College of Music for the
British Empire.'"

The speeches of the Archbishop of Canterbury, of the Earl of Rosebery,
the Lord Mayor, and of Mr. Gladstone all touched upon points
illustrating the importance of the movement, and the national benefits
to be expected from it.

It is a wonder that no reference in this matter has been made to the
great German reformer and patriot, Martin Luther, who was a strenuous
advocate of State education, including music. He placed music as next to
religion in the training of the young. He would have every schoolmaster
a lover of music, and capable of teaching it. This training of teachers
is one of the most important functions of the College, and should be
steadily kept in mind.

When the thanks of the meeting had been moved, by Sir Stafford
Northcote, to the Royal Chairman, and carried with acclamation,--

    The Prince of Wales mentioned, in his reply, that "he had
    received a touching letter from some one who had anonymously
    sent £50 for the Royal College of Music--one whose earliest
    recollection was the singing of the National Anthem on the
    Coronation of the Queen, when as a poor lad he joined in the
    procession of Sunday-school children."

Many munificent donations and subscriptions were announced, but none
more touching and interesting than this.


_March 23rd, 1882._

The meeting at St. James's Palace on the 28th of February, 1882, was
followed up by other important, though subsidiary meetings, at the
instance of the Prince of Wales, who was now fully set on the success of
his grand scheme. As, formerly, he had been ably supported by the
speeches of the Duke of Edinburgh, the lamented Prince Leopold, Duke of
Albany, and Prince Christian, at influential meetings in Manchester, so
now he enlisted the Duke of Connaught in the cause, who addressed, with
great ability and tact, a meeting of Merchants, Bankers, and leading men
in the City, at the Mansion House, on the 20th of March, the Lord Mayor
in the Chair.

Not satisfied with this, the Prince of Wales invited a large number of
influential gentlemen connected with the Colonial Empire to meet him at
Marlborough House, on Thursday, the 23rd of March, 1882, to consider
what steps could be taken to secure the benefits of the Royal College of
Music for all parts of the Empire. The record of the origin of this
great institution would not be complete without giving the speech of His
Royal Highness on that occasion. The following is the address delivered
at that meeting:--

    "You are, doubtless, aware of the efforts at present being made
    to establish a Royal College of Music--a work which, I venture
    to think, is one of national importance.

    "It is intended to place the institution on a broad and liberal
    basis; that its advantages shall not be confined to residents of
    the United Kingdom, but be open to our fellow-subjects in all
    parts of the Empire; and the gratuitous education of scholars,
    selected by competition on the claim of merit only, will be one
    of its principal features.

    "The scheme has been received with marked favour throughout the
    United Kingdom, but I should consider it wanting in one of its
    main objects if I did not succeed in enlisting the sympathy and
    co-operation of our fellow-subjects residing in the Colonial
    portions of the Empire.

    "I have on so many occasions experienced the advantages of their
    ready and earnest concert in promoting schemes of public utility
    in relation to material progress, that I have some confidence
    they will exhibit the like friendly rivalry in furthering our
    efforts in favour of an elevating pursuit, which in all ages and
    among all communities has exercised no slight influence on
    national character, and the promotion of which may constitute a
    bond tending to unite us as strongly in sentiment and feeling as
    we now are in loyalty and material interest.

    "For these reasons I was anxious to meet as many of the leading
    gentlemen connected with the Colonies as might now be
    temporarily in London, as well as those who permanently reside
    here; and I am gratified at the readiness with which so many of
    you have acceded to my invitation.

    "My object is partly to make it understood how much importance I
    attach to the element of Colonial co-operation and sympathy, not
    only as affecting the immediate success of the work, but bearing
    on the higher objects of national unity, by inspiring among our
    fellow-subjects in every part of the Empire those emotions of
    patriotism which national music is calculated so powerfully to

    "I further desired to apprise you of the steps which had been
    and were being taken to carry out this purpose.

    "Immediately after the Meeting at St. James's Palace I directed
    that full reports of the proceedings should be prepared, with
    the view of transmitting them to Lord Kimberley, the Secretary
    of State for the Colonies, to be forwarded by him for the
    information of the Governments of the various Colonies, in the
    hope that the good-will of these Governments might be attracted
    in our favour, and such public encouragement afforded as they
    might feel it becoming to extend.

    "It seemed doubtful, however, whether an official communication
    of this character was calculated to accomplish the full object
    we had in view, viz. to stimulate popular feeling and sympathy
    among our Colonial fellow-subjects. It was thought that such an
    end might be better attained by a direct appeal to themselves
    and by a more general distribution of the reports of our
    proceedings among the various institutions, religious bodies,
    heads of municipalities, and leading persons in the Colonies.

    "I accordingly propose to supplement this communication by a
    further letter, and to send a sufficient number of copies of our
    proceedings to meet the necessary requirements, for transmission
    to the Colonies.

    "I am not insensible to the engrossing nature of the pursuits of
    Colonial life, nor to the claims which material interests have
    on young communities. We must all recognise with pride and
    admiration how much the enlightened enterprise and perseverance
    of our Colonial fellow-subjects have already contributed to the
    greatness and wealth of the Empire; and I am far from suggesting
    any relaxation of these efforts.

    "My purpose is to provide for the leisure hours which must come
    to the busiest among us--no matter where we live or what sphere
    of life we occupy--an elevating source of enjoyment, which is at
    the same time calculated to strengthen those emotions that have
    so much influence in perpetuating a common love of country.

    "I have endeavoured in my further letter to Lord Kimberley to
    convey fully the object I have at heart; and, although its terms
    are in some measure a repetition of what I have now stated to
    you, I think it well you should be apprised of its contents:--

    "'MY LORD,--I am anxious that no possible steps should be
    omitted which may be calculated to bring the proposal to found a
    Royal College of Music under the favourable notice of Her
    Majesty's subjects in the Colonies.

    "'It appears to me that the communication which I request you in
    the accompanying letter to be good enough to transmit for the
    information of the Governments of the various Colonies might
    advantageously be supplemented by a somewhat more general
    distribution within these Colonies of the proceedings which have
    taken place here in connection with the movement.

    "'The objects of such distribution would be to awaken public
    interest among all classes of Her Majesty's subjects more
    thoroughly than even proposals on the part of any of the
    Colonial Governments to extend their practical aid are
    calculated to do.

    "'I have therefore directed further copies of these proceedings
    to be transmitted to you, and would again request that you will
    be good enough to forward these further copies, for distribution
    among such religious or educational institutions, Municipal or
    other Public Bodies, or private persons in the various Colonies,
    as may be thought most likely to help the project.

    "'I trust that the efforts now being made here may meet with
    general support on the part of the Clergy of all denominations
    in the Colonies, and that they, as well as the Heads of Colleges
    and Municipal Bodies, may interest themselves in their several
    localities to make known the advantages offered by the
    establishment of the Royal College of Music, and especially that
    all these advantages (including free instruction) will be open
    as unreservedly to Her Majesty's Colonial subjects as to those
    residing in the United Kingdom.

    "'Her Majesty's Colonial subjects have indeed already shown that
    the possession of musical talent exists among them in as great a
    degree as in any other nation, for they may claim with pride
    that they have produced one of the most accomplished vocalists
    of the present age.

    "'I have in past years had occasion in many ways--especially
    through the medium of the various International Exhibitions over
    which I have presided--to notice the manifold benefits which
    have resulted from the combined action of the Colonies and the
    Mother Country in the development of commerce and the
    advancement of industrial and other material interests, and I
    cannot but think that the friendly rivalry of all portions of
    the Empire will not now be wanting in the effort to cultivate a
    refined and elevating pursuit which in all ages and among all
    nations has exercised so important an influence on national
    character, and done so much to strengthen the common love of

    "'I have the more confidence in making this appeal, from the
    readiness and public spirit which the Colonies have always
    evinced to promote every object tending to strengthen the ties
    that now so happily unite us.

    "'Your Lordship will, I am sure, be glad to learn that I have
    had the advantage of communicating with a number of gentlemen
    resident in several of the Colonies, who are temporarily in
    England, as well as with former Colonists permanently residing
    here, and they have kindly undertaken by their individual
    exertions to further the present more extended movement, which I
    trust will also meet with your Lordship's encouragement and

    "'I have the honour, &c.,


    "I have no doubt but that the different Colonial Governments
    will exercise a judicious discretion in the use of these papers,
    and that we may rely on their hearty co-operation and support in
    applying them to the best advantage.

    "If there are any gentlemen present who may think themselves
    warranted by their connections with the Colonies in aiding to
    insure a friendly reception of my communication there, it will
    be a source of gratification both to me and my colleagues to
    view such efforts, so entirely in unison with our own, and to
    welcome them as fellow-workers in the same cause.

    "I have thus endeavoured to place before you the object we have
    in view, and the means by which we hope to accomplish it, and I
    trust you will find both worthy of your support.

    "I do not, therefore, presume to indicate the precise course
    which it might be expedient to adopt in any of the Colonies,
    believing that this had better be left to the practical sagacity
    and zeal of our friends there, who must be considered to have
    the best knowledge of what plans are most calculated to insure
    local success. I have, however, thought that a brief reference
    to some of the steps which are contributing to our success here,
    as well as an enumeration, in a comprehensive form, of some of
    the advantages which the College offers to Colonists, might be
    attended with advantage, and, at all events, serve as a
    groundwork for their operations.

    "I have, accordingly, directed a memorandum in that sense to be
    prepared, which will be forwarded, with the other papers, to the
    proper quarter.

    "In conclusion, I cannot but again express my cordial thanks to
    the many gentlemen connected with the Colonies who have favoured
    me with their attendance to-day, and repeat the expression of my
    hope, not unmixed with a large measure of confidence, that your
    encouragement and help may not be with-held from an undertaking
    which may, I trust, in the fulness of time prove to be one more
    of the many fibres in the silken cord that binds the Mother
    Country to her Colonial offspring.

    "I would finally say that we shall be most happy to receive any
    practical suggestion from our Colonial friends either here or
    resident in the Colonies."

Lord Kimberley said that, as Colonial Minister, he would give every
assistance in his power, by forwarding papers and information. Private
individuals in the Colonies might be willing to found scholarships, and
have the nomination of students; but any response on the part of the
Colonial Governments must be from their free and spontaneous action.

The Prince of Wales said, at the opening of his speech, that he deemed
this work as "one of national importance." It is because of the high
"imperial" tone and spirit of the address, a spirit which it is pleasant
to witness in all the Prince's public actions, that there is especial
interest attached to this meeting at Marlborough House in 1882.


_May 7th, 1883._

The ceremony of inaugurating the Royal College of Music took place on
the 7th of May, 1883, in the presence of a small but select company. The
building, hitherto used by the National Training School of Music, has
rooms amply sufficient for teaching purposes, but not large enough for a
large assembly. By permission of Her Majesty's Commissioners for the
Exhibition of 1851, the use of rooms in the Albert Hall for choral and
instrumental practice was granted to the College.

The Prince, accompanied by the Princess of Wales, the Duke and Duchess
of Edinburgh, and the Princess Christian, was received by the Trustees,
the Duke of Westminster, Lord Charles Bruce, Sir Richard Wallace, M.P.,
Sir John Rose, Sir George Grove, and the honorary secretary, Mr. Charles
Morley. Among the company were many distinguished persons and eminent
musicians. The Archbishop of Canterbury offered the following special
prayer: "O God, who art the only author of order and beauty, Bless, we
beseech Thee, this College to the perfecting of science and skill in Thy
pure gift of Music; and grant that the good intent of its Founders may
be so answered in the diligence and virtue of its students, that both
the restful delight of man, and the glory of the Divine worship may be
enhanced ever more and more; through Jesus Christ Our Lord. Amen."

The collect, "Prevent us, O Lord," and the Lord's Prayer, closed the
religious service. Sir George Grove, Director, then said: "It is now
almost exactly fourteen months since your Royal Highness held the
remarkable meeting which assembled at St. James's Palace on the 28th of
February, 1882, and in which your proposition of the Royal College of
Music was launched on the country. It may well be called
remarkable--first, because of the place in which it was held; secondly,
because of the lucid and exhaustive statement which your Royal Highness
vouchsafed to address to it; thirdly, because for the first time in
English history music was taken out of the domain of personal and
professional questions to which it is too often relegated, and placed
upon that national basis which its social and civilising powers entitle
it to demand. Your Royal Highness's hearers embraced many of the most
distinguished English musicians of the day, but these were not the main
constituents of the meeting. The bulk of your audience consisted of the
representatives of the counties, cities, and towns of England, the lords
lieutenant, mayors, and town clerks of the United Kingdom, while
surrounding your Royal Highness on the platform were His Royal Highness
the Duke of Edinburgh, the leader of the Government, the leader of the
Opposition, the head of the Established Church, an eminent Scotch peer,
and the Lord Mayor of London. A meeting so truly national in its aspect
gave, if I may use a not inappropriate figure, the key-note of the

"The hope so long entertained by your Royal Highness, and your advisers,
that the chief existing musical institution of the country would join
your movement, was unfortunately dissipated. But the absence of the
Royal Academy of Music from your Royal Highness's project was
counterbalanced by the active adherence of the towns and cities of the
country which through their municipal officers, with hardly an
exception, rallied as if by instinct round a movement so boldly
conceived and so happily inaugurated. The key-note thus struck at St.
James's Palace resounded through the country, and met with a ready and
harmonious response. Meetings were speedily organised by the lords
lieutenant and mayors in the provinces. In the short period of fourteen
months forty-four meetings have been held--from Exeter, Plymouth, and
Hastings, in the South, to Newcastle-on-Tyne in the North; from Swansea
and Shrewsbury, on the one hand, to Lincoln and Norwich on the other;
while the great manufacturing and commercial centres of Nottingham,
Leicester, Leeds, Bradford, Liverpool, and Blackburn, have all testified
their interest in your Royal Highness's new institution. In the City of
London several meetings were held at the Mansion House, and a remarkable
gathering of provincial mayors, under the sympathetic presidency of Sir.
J. Whittaker Ellis, the then Lord Mayor, gave your Royal Highness an
opportunity of again enforcing your views upon your audience. By these
meetings, and by the personal exertions of your Royal Highness and your
illustrious brothers, a sum of money, amounting to over £110,000, has
been raised, of which nearly £5000 was due to the gracious action of Her
Royal Highness the Princess of Wales."

Sir George Grove announced "the foundation already of many scholarships
for tuition, fifteen of which include maintenance. Four of the
scholarships were founded by private liberality, and two by Australian
benefactors." He then announced "the names of the professors selected by
the Prince of Wales for the teaching of the College, who were such as to
give assurance as in the quality and range of the instruction. The piano
is in the hands of Mr. Pauer, Madame Arabella Goddard, Mr. Franklin
Taylor, and Mr.