Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: What Shall We Do Now?: Five Hundred Games and Pastimes
Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1958
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "What Shall We Do Now?: Five Hundred Games and Pastimes" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



book was produced from scanned images of public domain


                        WHAT SHALL WE DO NOW?


                  [Illustration: A PUEBLO SETTLEMENT
                                                     (_Frontispiece_)]



                        WHAT SHALL WE DO NOW?

                  _Five Hundred Games and Pastimes_

                      A BOOK OF SUGGESTIONS FOR
                         CHILDREN'S GAMES AND
                             EMPLOYMENTS

                                  BY

                           DOROTHY CANFIELD
                              AND OTHERS


                               NEW YORK
                     FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY
                              PUBLISHERS


                         Copyright, 1907, by
                     FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY
                           _October_, 1907
                        _All rights reserved_



                               PREFACE


This book has been made in the hope that the question which forms its
title, "What shall we do now?" may come to be put less frequently. It
is so easy for children to ask it, so hard for grown-up persons with
many other matters to think about to reply to it satisfactorily.

In the following pages, which have something to say concerning most of
the situations in which children find themselves, at home or in the
country, out of doors or in, alone or in company, a variety of answers
will be found. No subject can be said to be exhausted; but the book is
perhaps large enough. Everything which it contains has been indexed so
clearly that a reader ought to be able to find what he wants in a
moment. Moreover, by way both of supplying any deficiencies and of
giving each copy of the book a personal character, an appendix of
blank and numbered leaves (with a few spaces in the index) has been
added, in which the owner may record such omitted games and
employments as he has found good.

There are, of course, many fortunate girls and boys who do not require
any help whatever, who always know what to do now, and do it. For them
some sections of this book may have little value. It is for that
greater number of less resourceful children who whenever time is
before them really are in need of counsel and hints, that it has been
prepared.



                            ILLUSTRATIONS


                       FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

  A Pueblo Settlement                                 _Frontispiece_

                                                         FACING PAGE
  Outdoor Games for Girls                                        128
  Outdoor Games for Boys                                         138
  Playing Alone                                                  184
  In the Country                                                 202
  The Library and Furniture from "The House that Glue Built"     244
  A Dutch House                                                  264
  An Esquimau Sled                                               266
  Indian Costumes                                                266
  Pets                                                           338
  Reading                                                        368


                        ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

                                                                PAGE
  A Trussed Fowl                                                  37
  Five Dots                                                       48
  Outlines                                                        49
  Drawing Tricks                                                  51
  Picture-Writing                                              52-53
  The Last Man Surveying the Ruins of the Crystal Palace          56
  Patience Card                                                   76
  The Dancing Dwarf                                              106
  Bean-Bag Board                                                 114
  Rope Ring                                                      115
  The Overhand Knot                                              117
  Half-Hitch                                                     118
  Figure of Eight                                                118
  Common Bend                                                    118
  Sailor's Knot                                                  118
  Running Noose                                                  119
  Crossed Running Noose                                          119
  Bowline Knot                                                   119
  Dogshank                                                       120
  Shuffle-Board                                                  121
  Balancing Tricks                                               123
  The Glass Maker                                                125
  Electric Dancers                                               126
  Daisy Chain                                                    135
  Ivy Chain                                                      135
  Hop-Scotch                                                     144
  Prisoner's Base                                                156
  Tit-tat-toe                                                176-177
  Hanging                                                    179-180
  Chinese Gambling                                               181
  Spanish Cup                                                    186
  Cardboard Box Beds                                             223
  Bead Chair                                                     223
  A Doll's Apartments                                            227
  Cork Arm-Chair                                                 228
  Chestnut Chair                                                 229
  Fancy Table                                                    230
  Match-Box Bedstead                                             231
  Match-Box Washstand                                            233
  Towel Rack                                                     233
  Clothes Basket                                                 234
  Cardboard Dolls' House                                         239
  Appearance of House When Complete                              240
  Dog Kennel                                                     241
  Kitchen Table                                                  246
  Kitchen Range                                                  247
  Kitchen Chair                                                  247
  Screen                                                         248
  Various Pots and Pans                                          248
  Dining-Room Table and Cloth                                    249
  Sideboard                                                      250
  Sofa                                                           251
  Arm-Chair                                                      251
  Wooden Bedstead                                                252
  Wardrobe                                                       253
  Dressing Table                                                 254
  Washstand                                                      255
  Rocking-Chair                                                  256
  Towel Rack                                                     256
  Chair                                                          256
  Child's High Chair                                             257
  Child's Cot                                                    257
  Walking Paper Dolls                                            259
  Paper Mother and Child, with Clothes for Each                  260
  A Paper Girl with Six Changes                                  261
  Shadows on the Wall                                            280
  A Cocked Hat                                                   284
  Paper Boats                                                    285
  Paper Darts                                                    286
  Paper Mats                                                     286
  Paper Boxes                                                    287
  A Dancing Man                                                  289
  Hand Dragons                                                   290
  A Kite                                                         293
  Flying A Kite                                                  294
  Toy Boats                                                  296-297
  A Skipjack                                                     300
  A Water-Cutter                                                 300



                          GAMES FOR A PARTY


Blind Man's Buff

"Blind Man's Buff" is one of the best, oldest, and simplest of games.
One player is blindfolded, is turned round two or three times to
confuse his ideas as to his position in the room, and is then told to
catch whom he can. If he catches some one, yet cannot tell who it is,
he must go on again as blind man; but if he can tell who it is, that
person is blindfolded instead. Where there is a fireplace, or where
the furniture has sharp corners, it is rather a good thing for some
one not playing to be on the lookout to protect the blind man.
Sometimes there are two blind men, who add to the fun by occasionally
catching each other. But this is rather dangerous. There is also a
game called "Jinglers" where every one is blind except one player with
a bell, whom it is their object to catch. But this is more dangerous
still.

A good variety of "Blind Man's Buff" is the silent one. Directly the
man is blindfolded, and before he begins to seek, all the players take
up positions in corners, on chairs, or wherever they think most
prudent, and there they must stop without making a sound. The task for
the blind man is thus not catching the others, but, on finding them,
deciding upon who they are. As chuckling or giggling is more likely to
tell him than his sense of touch, it is tremendously important to make
no noise if you can help it. Sometimes this game is played (without
any standing on chairs) by a blind man armed with two spoons, with
which he feels the features of those whom he runs against. In this
case it is practically impossible to avoid laughing. The sensation
produced by the bowls of two spoons being passed over the face in the
attempt to recognize its owner is overwhelming.


French Blind Man's Buff

In French "Blind Man's Buff" the hands of the blind man are tied
behind his back and his eyes are left uncovered. He has therefore to
back on to the players before he can catch them, which increases his
difficulties.


Blind Man's Wand

Here the blind man has a stick, one end of which is grasped by the
other players in turn. The blind man puts three questions to each
player, and his aim is to recognize by the voice who it is that
replies. The aim of the players, therefore, is to disguise their
voices as much as possible. Sometimes, instead of merely asking
questions, the blind man instructs the holder of the wand to imitate
some animal--a cock or a donkey, for example.


Steps

The player who is blindfolded is first placed in the middle. The
others walk from him to various positions all around, carefully
measuring the number of steps (long or short) which take them there.
The blind man is then told how many steps will bring him to a certain
player, and he has to guess the direction toward him, and the length
of step. This player, if found, becomes blind man.


Still Pond! No More Moving

The player who is blindfolded is placed in the middle and all the
other players touch him. He counts out loud as rapidly as possible up
to ten, during which time the players rush as far away from him as
possible. Directly he reaches ten he cries out "Still Pond! No more
moving!" and the players must stand perfectly still. He then says "you
may have three steps," or any number beyond three which he wishes to
give. The players save these steps until he comes dangerously near
them and then try and use them to the best possible advantage, to
escape. It is not a step if one foot remains in the same place. After
a player is caught and identified by the one who is "it" he in turn is
blindfolded.


Shadow Buff

A sheet is stretched across the room. One player stands on one side,
and the rest, who remain on the other, pass one by one between the
sheet and the candle which throws their shadows upon it. The aim of
the single player is to put right names to the shadows on the sheet,
and the aim of the others is, by performing antics, to keep him from
recognizing them. If it is not convenient to use both sides of a
sheet, the single player may sit on a hassock close to it with his
back to the others, while they pass between his hassock and the
candle.


The Donkey's Tail

A good-sized donkey without a tail is cut out of brown paper and fixed
on a screen or on a sheet hung across the room. The tail is cut out
separately and a hat-pin is put through that end of it which comes
nearest the body. Each player in turn then holds the tail by the pin,
shuts his eyes honestly, and, advancing to the donkey, pins the tail
in what he believes to be the right place. The fun lies in his
mistake.


The Blind Feeding the Blind

This is boisterous and rather messy, but it has many supporters. Two
players are blindfolded and seated on the floor opposite one another.
They are each given a dessert-spoonful of sugar or flour and are told
to feed each other. It is well to put a sheet on the floor and to tie
a towel or apron round the necks of the players. The fun belongs
chiefly to the spectators.


Deer Stalking

This is a game in which only two players take part, but it is exciting
to watch. Both "Deer" and "Stalker" are blindfolded. They are then
placed at opposite ends of a large table, and at a given moment begin
to move round it. The stalker's business is, of course, to catch the
deer, and the deer's to avoid it; but neither must run out into the
room. Absolute silence should be kept both by the audience and
players, and if felt slippers can be worn by the deer and its stalker,
so much the better.


Blowing Out the Candle

A very funny blind game. A candle is lighted and placed in position
about the height of a person's head. A player is then placed a few
feet from it, facing it, and, after being blindfolded and turned round
three times, is told to take so many paces (however many it may be)
and blow the candle out.


Apple-Snapping

Another amusing blind game to watch is apple-snapping. An apple is
hung from a string in the middle of the room about the height of the
blind man's head. The blind man's hands are then tied, or he holds
them strictly behind him, and he has to bite the apple.

The same game can be played without blindfolding, but in that case it
requires two players with their hands fixed behind them, each trying
to bite the apple.


Bag and Stick

A good blind game for a Christmas party is "Bag and Stick." A
fair-sized paper bag is filled with candy and hung from a string in
the middle of the room. A player is then blindfolded, turned round
three times, given a stick, and told he may have one, two, or three
shots at the bag, whichever it may be. If he misses it, another one
tries, and so on; but if he hits it the bag breaks, the candy covers
the floor, and the party scramble for it.


Puss in the Corner

Each player save one takes a corner. The other, who is the puss,
stands in the middle. The game begins by one corner player beckoning
to another to change places. Their object is to get safely into each
other's corner before the cat can. Puss's aim is to find a corner
unprotected. If she does so, the player who has just left it, or the
player who was hoping to be in it, becomes puss, according to whether
or not they have crossed on their journey.


Hunt the Slipper

The players sit in a circle on the floor, with their knees a little
gathered up. One stands in the middle with a slipper, and the game is
begun by this one handing the slipper to a player in the circle, with
the remark--

  Cobbler, cobbler, mend my shoe,
  Get it done by half-past two,

and then retiring from the circle for a few moments. The player to
whom it was handed at once passes it on, so that when the owner of the
slipper returns and demands her property again it cannot be found.
With the hunt that then sets in the fun begins; the object of every
player in the circle being to keep the player in the middle from
seeing the slipper, from getting hold of it, or from knowing where it
is, as it rapidly travels under the knees of the players here and
there in the circle. Now and then, if the seeker is badly mystified,
the slipper may be tossed across the circle. The player in whose
possession it is when at last secured changes place with the one in
the middle. Other handy things will do quite as well as a slipper, but
something fairly large should be chosen, or discovery may take too
long; and it ought to be soft in texture, or there may be bruises.


The Whistle

This is partly a trick. A player who does not know the game is put in
the middle of the ring, round which a whistle is moving in the way
that the slipper moves in "Hunt the Slipper." The object of the player
in the middle is to discover the person who blew the whistle last.
Meanwhile some one skilfully fixes another whistle on a string to the
player's back, and that is the whistle which is really blown. As it
must always be behind him when it is blown, nothing but the twitching
of the string is likely to help him to discover the blower (and the
trick); and in a small circle where every one is moving and laughing
it takes some time to notice the twitching at all.


He Can Do Little Who Can't Do This

This is partly a trick. The leader takes a cane in his left hand,
thumps on the floor several times, and passes it to a player saying,
"He can do little who can't do this." The player tries to imitate him
exactly, but if he takes the cane in his right hand he is wrong, the
leader says, "You can do little, you can't do this," and hands the
cane to the next player. The game goes on until every one has guessed
that it is not the thumps which are to be imitated, but the holding
the cane in the left hand.


Thimble

This is a very good game. All the company leave the room save one. He
stays behind with a thimble, which he has to place in some position,
where, _though it is in sight_, it will be difficult to discover. It
may be high or low, on the floor or on the mantelpiece, but it must be
visible. The company then return and begin to look for it. As the
players find it they sit down, but it is more fun to do this very
craftily and not at once, lest a hint be given as to the article's
whereabouts. When every one has found it, or when a long enough time
has been passed in looking for it, the thimble is hidden again, this
time by the player who found it first. The game sounds easy, but it
can be very difficult and very exciting, every one at the beginning of
each search wishing to be first, and at the end wishing not to be
last. Players often stand right over the thimble, staring directly at
it, and still do not see it.


Magic Music

One player goes out. The others then hide something for him to find,
or decide upon some simple action for him to perform, such as standing
on a chair. When he is called in, one of the company seats herself at
the piano and directs his movements by the tone of the music. If he is
far from the object hidden the music is very low; as he gets nearer
and nearer it becomes louder and louder.


Hot and Cold

The same game is played under the name of "Hot and Cold." In this
case the player is directed by words; as he gets nearer and nearer the
object he becomes "warm," "hot," "very hot," "burning"; when quite off
the scent he is "cold."


The Jolly Miller

The one who shall be "it" is decided upon by counting out (see page
134), and he takes his place in the middle of the room. The others,
arm in arm, walk around him in couples, singing,

  There was a jolly miller who lived by himself.
  As the wheel went around he made his wealth;
  One hand on the hopper and the other on the bag:
  As the wheel went around he made his grab.

At "Grab," every one must change partners, and the one in the middle
tries to be quick enough to get one himself. If he does, the one left
alone must take his place in the middle and be the "Jolly Miller."


Going to Jerusalem

Some one sits at the piano, and a long row of chairs is made down the
middle of the room, either back to back, or back and front
alternately. There must be one chair fewer than the number of players.
When all is ready the music begins and the players march round the
chairs in a long line. Suddenly the music stops, and directly it does
so every one tries to sit down. As there is one player too many some
one must necessarily be left without a chair. That player has
therefore to leave the game, another chair is taken away, and the
music begins again. So on to the end, a chair and a player going after
each round. The winner of the game is the one who, when only one chair
is left, gets it. It is against the rules to move the chairs. A piano,
it ought to be pointed out, is not absolutely necessary. Any form of
music will do; or if there is no instrument some one may sing, or read
aloud. But a piano is best, and the pianist ought now and then to
pretend to stop, because this makes it more exciting for the players.


Stir the Mash

This is another variety of "Going to Jerusalem." The chairs are placed
against the wall in a row, one fewer than the players. One of the
players sits down in the middle of the room with a stick and pretends
to be stirring a bowl of mash with it, while the others march round
crying, "Stir the mash, stir the mash." Suddenly the player with the
stick knocks three times on the floor, which is the signal for running
for the chairs, and, leaping up, runs for them too. The one who does
not get a chair has to stir the mash next.


Caterpillar

A circle of chairs is made, and all the players but one sit on them.
This player stands in the middle and his chair is left empty. The game
consists in his efforts to sit down in the empty chair and the others'
attempts to stop him by continually moving one way or the other, so
that the empty chair may this moment be on one side of the ring and
the next on the other.


Honey-Pots

This is a game for several little players and two stronger ones. The
little ones are the honey-pots, and the others the honey-seller and
honey-buyer. The honey-pots sit in a row with their knees gathered up
and their hands locked together under them. The honey-buyer comes to
look at them, asking the honey-seller how much they are and how much
they weigh; and these two take hold of the pots by the arms, one on
each side, and weigh them by swinging them up and down (that is why
the hands have to be tightly locked under the knees). Then the buyer
says he will have them, and the seller and he carry them to the other
end of the room together. Once there the seller returns, but quickly
comes running back in alarm because he has missed his own little girl
(or boy), and he fancies she must be in one of the honey-pots. The
buyer assures him that he is mistaken, and tells him to taste them and
see for himself that they are only honey. So the seller goes from one
to the other, placing his hand on their heads and pretending to taste
honey, until at last, coming to the one he has marked down, he
exclaims, "Dear me, this tastes just like my little girl." At these
words the little girl in question jumps up and runs away, and all the
other honey-pots run away too.


Nuts in May

The players stand in two rows, facing each other and holding hands.
A line is drawn on the carpet (or ground) between them. One row then
step toward the other, singing--

  Here we come gathering nuts in May, nuts in May, nuts in May,
  Here we come gathering nuts in May, on a cold and frosty morning.

They then fall back and the other row advance to them singing in
reply--

  Pray, who will you gather for nuts in May, nuts in May, nuts in May?
  Pray, who will you gather for nuts in May, on a cold and frosty
          morning?

The first row, after settling on the particular player on the opposite
side that they want, reply thus--

  We'll gather Phyllis for nuts in May, nuts in May, nuts in May,
  We'll gather Phyllis for nuts in May, on a cold and frosty morning.

The other row then ask--

  Pray, who will you send to fetch her away, fetch her away, fetch
          her away?
  Pray, who will you send to fetch her away, on a cold and frosty
          morning?

The answer perhaps is--

  We're sending Arthur to fetch her away, fetch her away, fetch
          her away,
  We're sending Arthur to fetch her away, on a cold and frosty
          morning.

Arthur then steps up to the line on one side and Phyllis on the other,
and each tries to pull the other over it. The one that loses has to
join the other row, and the singing begins again.


Old Soldier

All the players, except one, stand in a line. The other, who is the
old soldier, then totters up to the end player, saying--

  Here comes an old soldier from Botany Bay;
  Pray, what have you got to give him to-day?

The player must then say what she will give him, but in doing so must
not use the words "yes," "no," "black," "white" or "scarlet." The old
soldier's object is to try and coax one of these words out of her, and
he may ask any question he likes in order to do so. A mistake usually
means a forfeit.


My Lady's Clothes

A color-barred game for girls is "My Lady's Clothes" or "Dressing the
Lady." The players first decide on what colors shall be forbidden,
perhaps blue, black, and pink. The first one then asks the next, "How
shall my lady be dressed for the ball?" and the answer must contain no
mention of these colors. This question goes round the ring, no article
being allowed to be mentioned twice.


Here I Bake

One player stands in the middle. The others join hands and surround
her, their aim being to prevent her from getting out of the ring. She
then passes round the ring touching the hands, at the first hands
saying "Here I bake," at the second "Here I brew," at the third "Here
I make my wedding-cake," and at the next "And here I mean to break
through." With these last words she makes a dash to carry out the
threat. If she succeeds, the player whose hand gave way first takes
her place in the middle. Otherwise she must persevere until the ring
is broken.


The Cobbler

The cobbler sits in the middle on a stool or hassock, and the others
join hands and dance round him. "Now then, customers," says the
cobbler, "let me try on your shoes," and at the same time--but without
leaving his seat--makes a dash for some one's feet. The aim of the
others is to avoid being caught. Whoever is caught becomes cobbler.


Cushion

The name of this game dates from the period when stiff cylinder-shaped
horsehair sofa-cushions were commoner than they are now. One of these
is placed in the middle of the room and the players join hands and
dance round it, the object of each one being to make one of his
neighbors knock the cushion over and to avoid knocking it over
himself. Whoever does knock it down leaves the ring, until at last
there are only two striving with each other. A hearth-brush, if it can
be persuaded to stand up, makes a good substitute for a cushion. It
also makes the game more difficult, being so very sensitive to touch.


The Day's Shopping

The players sit in a ring, and the game is begun by one saying to the
next, "I've just come back from shopping." "Yes," is the reply, "and
what have you bought?" The first speaker has then to name some article
which, without leaving her seat, she can touch, such as a pair of
boots, a necktie, a watch-chain, a bracelet. Having done so, the next
player takes up the character of the shopper, and so on round the
ring. No article must, however, be named twice, which means that when
the game has gone on for a round or two the answers become very
difficult to find.


Clap In, Clap Out

Half the players go out, and the others stay in and arrange the chairs
in a line so that there is an empty one next to every person. Each
then chooses which of the others he will have to occupy the adjoining
chair, and when this is settled some one tells the outside party that
they can begin. One of them then comes in and takes the chair for
which he thinks it most likely that he has been chosen. If he is
right, everybody claps and he stays there. But if wrong, everybody
hisses and he has to go out again. Another player then comes in, and
so on until all the chairs are filled.


Neighbors

An extension of this game is "Neighbors." In "Neighbors" half the
company are blindfolded, and are seated with an empty chair on the
right hand of each. At a given signal all the other players occupy
these empty chairs, as mysteriously as they can, and straightway begin
to sing, either all to a tune played on the piano or independently.
The object of the blind players is to find out, entirely by the use of
the ear, who it is that is seated on their right. Those that guess
correctly are unbandaged, and their places are taken by the players
whose names they guessed. The others continue blindfolded until they
guess rightly. One guess only is allowed each time.


Oranges and Lemons, or London Bridge is Falling Down

This pleasant old game begins by two of the older or taller
players--one being Oranges and the other Lemons--taking places
opposite each other and joining their hands high, thus making an arch
for the rest to pass under in a long line. The procession then
starts, each one holding the one in front by the coat or dress. As the
procession moves along, the two players forming the arch repeat or
chant these lines:--

  "Oranges and lemons,"
  Say the bells of St. Clement's.
  "You owe me five farthings,"
  Say the bells of St. Martin's.
  "When will you pay me?"
  Say the bells of Old Bailey.
  "When I grow rich,"
  Say the bells of Shoreditch.
  "When will that be?"
  Say the bells of Stepney.
  "I do not know,"
  Says the great bell of Bow.
  Here comes a candle to light you to bed,
  And here comes a chopper to chop off the last man's head.

With these final words the arch-players lower their arms and catch the
head of the last of the procession. In order that the arrival of the
end of the procession and the end of the verses shall come together,
the last line can be lengthened like this--

  And here comes a chopper to chop off the last--last--last--last
          man's head.

Another shorter verse which is often sung is,

  London Bridge is falling down, falling down, falling down,
  London Bridge is falling down. My fair lady.

In this case the two players who make the arch with their arms can
choose any eatables they like--"ice cream" and "oysters." The players
who are caught are asked which they prefer and their places are back
of the one representing their choice. The captured player is then
asked in a whisper which he will be, oranges or lemons? and if he
says oranges, is placed accordingly behind that one of his capturers
who is to have the oranges on his side. The procession and the rhyme
begin again, and so on until all are caught and are ranged on their
respective sides. Then a handkerchief is placed on the floor between
the captains of the oranges and the lemons, and both sides pull, as
in the "Tug of War" (page 38), until one side is pulled over the
handkerchief.


General Post

The players sit round the room in a large circle, and, after
appointing a postmaster to write down their names and call out the
changes, choose each a town. One player is then blindfolded and placed
in the middle. The game begins when the postmaster calls out the first
journey, thus, "The post is going from Putney to Hongkong." The player
who has chosen Putney and the player who has chosen Hongkong must then
change places without being caught by the blind man, or without
letting him get into either of their chairs first. Otherwise the
player who is caught, or who ought to be in that chair, becomes the
blind man. Every now and then "General Post" is called, when all the
players have to change seats at the same time; and this gives the
blind man an excellent chance.


Spin the Platter

A tin plate, to serve as platter, is placed in the middle of the room.
The players sit round it in a large circle, each choosing either a
number by which to be known, or the name of a town. The game is begun
by one player taking up the plate, spinning it, calling out a number
or town belonging to another, and hurrying back to his place. The one
called has to spring up and reach the plate before it falls, and,
giving it a fresh spin, call some one else. So it goes on. On paper
there seems to be little in it, but in actual play the game is good
on account of the difficulty of quite realizing that it is one's own
borrowed name that has been called.


Kitchen Utensils

This is a variety of "Spin the platter." The players sit in a ring and
choose each the name of some kitchen utensil or something used in
cooking, such as meat-chopper or raisins. One player then goes in the
middle with a bunched-up handkerchief, and this he throws at some one,
at the same time trying to say the name of that some one's kitchen
utensil three times before that some one can say it once. If, as very
often happens, the player at whom the handkerchief is thrown is so
completely bewildered as to have lost the power of speech or memory
until it is too late, he must change places with the one in the
middle.


Up Jenkins

The players sit on opposite sides of a table, or in two opposite rows
of chairs with a cloth spread over their laps. A quarter or dime or
other small object is then passed about among the hands of one of the
sides under the table or cloth. At the word "Up Jenkins!" called by
the other side all these hands tightly clenched must be at once placed
in view on the table or the cloth. The first player on the other side
then carefully scans the faces of his opponents to see if any one
bears an expression which seems to betray his possession of the
quarter, and, having made up his mind, reaches over and touches the
hand in which he hopes the quarter is, saying, "Tip it." The hand is
then opened. If the guess is right the guessing side take the quarter
and hide it. If wrong, the same side hide it again, and the second
player on the guessing side tries his luck at discovering its
whereabouts. A score is decided on before the game begins, and the
winning side is that which make the fewest number of wrong guesses.


Another way to play "Up Jenkins" is to have the players, equally
divided, sit opposite each other at a table. A quarter is then passed
along under the table by one side or team. At the command "Up
Jenkins," given by the captain of the other side, chosen beforehand,
all the players on the side having the coin must lift their hands
above the table; and at the command "Down Jenkins," also given by the
captain, all the hands must be brought down flat on the table. The
greater the bang with which this is done, the less chance of detecting
the sound of the metal striking the table. The captain then orders the
players to raise their hands one by one, his object being to leave the
coin in the last hand. If he succeeds, his side takes the coin; if he
fails, the other side score the number of hands still left on the
table, and again hide the coin. Another person then becomes captain.
If the coin can be "spotted" in a certain hand, either by sight or
sound, before a hand has been removed, it has to be forfeited, and the
side that wins it adds double the number of hands of the other side to
their score. If it is "spotted" and is not in that hand, the side
still retains the coin, and also score double the number of hands. If
anybody obeys any one else but the captain, in raising, lowering or
removing his hands, his side loses the coin, no matter who holds it,
but neither side scores.


Hunt the Ring

All the players but one form a circle, with their hands on a piece of
string on which a ring has been threaded. The other player stands in
the middle of the circle. The ring is then hurried up and down the
string from end to end, the object being to keep its whereabouts
hidden from the other player.


Lady Queen Anne

In this game, which is usually played by girls, one player hides her
eyes, while the others, who are sitting in a row, pass a ball from one
to another until it is settled who shall keep it. This done, they all
hide their hands in their laps, as if each one had it; and the other
player is called, her aim being to discover in whose hands the ball is
hidden. She examines the faces of the others very closely until she
makes up her mind which one probably has the ball, and then addresses
that one thus--

  Lady Queen Anne, she sits in the sun,
  As fair as a lily, as brown as a bun,
  She sends you three letters and prays you'll read one.

To this the player replies--

  I cannot read one unless I read all;

and the seeker answers--

  Then pray, Miss [whatever the name is], deliver the ball.

If the ball really is with this player, the seeker and she change
places, but otherwise the seeker hides her eyes again and the ball
changes hands (or not). And so on until it is found.


Another way is for sides to be taken, one consisting of Queen Anne and
her maids and the other of gipsies. The gipsies have the ball first,
and, having hidden it, they advance in a line toward Queen Anne, each
holding up her skirts as if the ball were there, singing--

  Lady Queen Anne, she sits in the sun,
  As fair as a lily, as brown as a bun.
  King John has sent you letters three,
  And begs you'll read one unto me.

Lady Queen Anne and her maids reply--

  We cannot read one unless we read all,
  So pray, Miss [whatever the name of the player chosen may be],
          deliver the ball.

If they have hit upon the right player she goes over to Queen Anne's
side. But if not, the gipsies sing--

  The ball is mine, it is not thine,
  So you, proud Queen, sit still on your throne,
  While we poor gipsies go and come.

They then turn round and hide the ball again.


The Feather

A very exhausting game. The players sit round a table and form sides,
one half against the other, and a little fluffy feather is placed in
the middle. The aim of each side is to blow the feather so that it
settles in the other camp, and to keep it from settling in their own.

The same game can be played with a marble on a table from which the
table-cloth has been removed. In this case you all sink your faces to
the level of the table.


Russian Scandal, or "Gossip"

The players sit in a long line or ring. The first, turning to the
second, whispers very rapidly some remark or a brief story. The
second, who may hear it distinctly, but probably does not, then
whispers it as exactly as he can to the third player; and so on until
the line is finished. The last player then whispers it to the first
player; and the first player repeats his original remark to the
company, and follows it with the form in which it has just reached
him.


Advertisements

All the players sit in a ring, except one, who stands in the middle
holding a soft cushion. This he throws at any one of the players and
begins to count ten. The person at whom the cushion was thrown must
call out the words of a well-known advertisement before ten is
reached. If he fails he must pay a forfeit.


Judge and Jury

The players, or jury, form up in two rows facing each other. The judge
sits at one end, or passes between the two lines, and asks his
questions. These may be of any description. Perhaps he will say, "Miss
A, do you think it will rain to-morrow?" Now although the judge
addresses Miss A and looks at her, it is not she who must answer but
the player opposite to her. And he in his answer is not allowed to say
either "Yes," "No," "Black," "White," or "Gray." If the player who was
addressed answers she becomes judge and the judge takes her seat; or
if the opposite player does not answer before the judge has counted
ten he becomes judge and the judge takes his seat.


Cross Questions

The players sit in a circle, and the game begins by one player turning
to the next and asking a question. Perhaps it will be, "Did you get
very wet this evening?" The answer may be, "Fortunately I had a
mackintosh." The second player then asks the third, and so on round
the circle until it comes to the first player's turn to be asked a
question by the last one. Perhaps this question will be, "I hope your
cousin is better?" All these questions and answers have to be very
carefully remembered, because on the circle being complete each player
in turn has to repeat the question which was put to her and the answer
which she received to the question which she herself put. Thus in the
present instance the first player would announce that the question
was, "I hope your cousin is better?" and the answer, "Fortunately I
had a mackintosh." Another variety of cross question is played as
follows. The company is divided into two parts, and stand facing each
other. A leader is chosen for each side, one to give the questions and
one to give the answers. One goes down his side giving to each player
in a whisper some serious question which he must ask of his opposite
in the other line. The other leader whispers to each of his players an
absurd answer. Then the play begins. The first in line asks his
opponent his question and receives the absurd answer three times. If
either of them smile he is put out of the game. The person who can
keep a straight face to the last, wins the prize. After the whole line
has asked and answered the first set of questions, the first couple
become the leaders, and propound two other sets of questions and
answers. And so on until only two are left.


Ruth and Jacob

One player has his eyes blinded and stands in a circle made by the
other players. They dance silently around him until he points at one,
who must then enter the circle and try to avoid being caught by the
blind man. The pursuer calls out from time to time "Ruth!" to which
the pursued must always answer at once "Jacob!" at the same time
trying to dodge quickly enough to escape the other's immediate rush to
the spot. After the "Ruth" is caught, the "Jacob" must guess who it is
and if he guesses right, the "Ruth" is blindfolded and becomes the
"Jacob," and the game begins anew.


Fly Away!

The player who is chosen as leader sits down and places the first
finger of her right hand on her knee. The others crowd round her and
also place the first finger of their right hands on her knee, close to
hers. The game is for the leader to raise her finger suddenly, saying,
"Fly away [something]." If that something is not capable of flight the
other fingers must not move, but if it can fly they must rise also.
Thus, "Fly away, thrush!" "Fly away, pigeon!" "Fly away, butterfly!"
should cause all the fingers to spring up. But of "Fly away, omnibus!"
"Fly away, cat!" "Fly away, pig!" no notice should be taken. The game
is, of course, to catch players napping.


Hold Fast! Let Go!

This is a very confusing game of contraries for five players. Four of
them hold each the corner of a handkerchief. The other, who stands by
to give orders, then shouts either "Let go!" or "Hold fast!" When "Let
go!" is called, the handkerchief must be held as firmly as ever; but
when "Hold fast!" it must be dropped. The commands should be given
quickly and now and then repeated to add to the anxiety of the other
players.


The Sergeant

In this game one player represents a sergeant and the others are
soldiers whom he is drilling. When he makes an action and says "Do
this" the others have to imitate him; but if he says "Do that" they
must take no notice.


Simon Says Thumbs Up

The players sit about on the floor or on chairs, each holding out on
his knee his clenched fist with the thumb sticking straight up. One
player calls out "Simon says thumbs down." All the thumbs must be
instantly reversed. Then he tries to confuse them by alternating
between up and down for some time until they all get into the way of
expecting the change, and then he gives the same order twice in
succession. Those who make a mistake pay a forfeit. If he calls out
simply "Thumbs up" or "Thumbs down" no attention must be paid to this
order as a forfeit is taken.

The orders are sometimes varied by the command "Simon says wig-wag!"
when all the thumbs must be waggled to and fro.


The Grand Mufti

A somewhat similar game of contraries is "The Grand Mufti." The player
personating the Grand Mufti stands in the middle or on a chair, and
performs whatever action he likes with his hands, arms, head, and
legs. With each movement he says, "Thus does the Grand Mufti," or, "So
does the Grand Mufti." When it is "Thus does the Grand Mufti" the
other players must imitate his movement; but when it is "So does the
Grand Mufti" they must take no notice. Any mistakes may lead to
forfeits.


The Mandarins

There is no contrariness about "The Mandarins." The players sit in a
circle, and the game is begun by one of them remarking to the next,
"My ship has come home from China." The answer is "Yes, and what has
it brought?" The first player replies, "A fan," and begins to fan
herself with her right hand. All the players must copy her. The second
player then turns to the third (all still fanning) and remarks, "My
ship has come home from China." "Yes, and what has it brought?" "Two
fans." All the players then fan themselves with both hands. The third
player, to the fourth (all still fanning), "My ship has come home from
China." "Yes, and what has it brought?" "Three fans." All the players
then add a nodding head to their other movements. And so on, until
when "Nine fans" is reached, heads, eyes, mouth, hands, feet and body
are all moving. The answers and movements of this game may be varied.
Thus the second answer to the question "And what has it brought" might
be "A bicycle," when the feet of all the players would have to move as
if working pedals; the third answer could be a "snuff-box," which
should set all the players sneezing; and so on. A typewriter, a piano,
a barrel-organ, a football, would vary the game.


Buff

This test of self-control is rather a favorite; but it is not so much
a game as a means of distributing forfeits. The players sit in a
circle. One then stands up and, holding out a stick, repeats these
lines--

  Buff says Buff to all his men,
  And I say Buff to you again.
  Buff never laughs, Buff never smiles,
  In spite of all your cunning wiles,
  But carries his face
  With a very good grace,
  And passes his stick to the very next place.

This must be said without laughing or smiling. Each player in turn
holds the stick and repeats the verses, those that laugh or smile
having, when it is over, to pay a forfeit.


The Ditto Game

This is another game in which laughter is forbidden. The players sit
close together in a silent circle. Whatever the leader does the others
have to do, but without smile or sound. Perhaps the leader will begin
by pulling the next player's hair, and pass on to pat her cheek, or
prod her sides, or pinch her nose.


Statues

Another trial of composure. The players choose what positions they
will and become as still and as silent as statues. One player is
judge. It is his business to try and make the statues laugh. All who
laugh pay forfeits; but the one who keeps his face grave longest
becomes "Judge."


Laughter

"Laughter" is just the opposite. The company sit in a circle and the
game is begun by one throwing a handkerchief into the air. Immediately
this is done every one must begin to laugh and continue to laugh
until the handkerchief touches the ground. They must then stop or
leave the circle. Gradually all will leave but one, who must then
perform by himself, if he is willing.


The Concerted Sneeze

One third of the company agree to say "Hish" all together at a given
signal, another third agree to say "Hash," and the rest agree to say
"Hosh." The word of command is then given, and the result is the sound
as of a tremendous sneeze.


Bingo

In "Bingo" the players begin by joining hands and marching round,
singing--

  There was a farmer had a dog
  His name was Bobby Bingo O.
  B, I, N, G, O,
  B, I, N, G, O,
  B, I, N, G, O,
  And Bingo was his name O!

The players then loose hands, the girls go inside the ring and stand
there, and the boys run round them singing the rhyme again. Then the
boys go inside and the girls run round them and sing it. And then
hands are taken once more and all go round in the original circle
singing it a fourth time. If no boys are playing, the girls should
arrange, before the game begins, which shall personate them.


Robin's Alive

A good game for the fireside is "Robin's Alive." There are so few
children nowadays who have fireplaces that this can be modified so
that it is a good evening game for any quiet group of children. Some
one lights a piece of twisted paper or a stick of wood, twirls it
rapidly in the air to keep it burning and says, as fast as he can,

  Robin's alive, and alive he shall be
  If he dies in my hand you may back-saddle me,

and at once passes the paper on to the next player who in turn recites
the verse. The one in whose hand it finally goes out is "back-saddled"
in this way. He lies down on the floor and the others pile cushions
and chairs and books on him while he repeats,

  Rocks and stones and the old horse's bones
  All this and more you may pile upon me.


The Mulberry Bush

The players join hands and go round and round in a ring, singing--

  Here we go round the mulberry bush, the mulberry bush, the mulberry
          bush,
  Here we go round the mulberry bush
  On a fine and frosty morning.

They then let go hands and sing--

  This is the way we wash our clothes, wash our clothes, wash our
          clothes,
  This is the way we wash our clothes
  On a fine and frosty morning,

and as they sing they pretend to be washing. After the verse is done
they join hands again and dance round to the singing of the mulberry
bush chorus again, and so on after each verse. The other verses are--

  (2) This is the way we iron our clothes.
  (3) This is the way we wash our face.
  (4) This is the way we comb our hair.
  (5) This is the way we go to school (_very sadly_).
  (6) This is the way we learn our book.
  (7) This is the way we sew our seams.

And lastly and very gaily--

  (8) This is the way we come from school,

and then the chorus comes again, and the game is done.


Looby, Looby

This is another of the old country games in which the players all
have to do the same things. They first join hands and dance round,
singing--

  Here we dance Looby, looby,
    Here we dance Looby light,
  Here we dance Looby, looby,
    All on a Saturday night.

Then, letting go of hands and standing still, they sing--

  Put your right hands in,
    Put your right hands out,
  Shake them and shake them a little,
    And turn yourselves about,

and at the same time they do what the song directs. Then the dance and
chorus again, and then the next verse, and so on. This is the order--

  (2) Put your left hands in.
  (3) Put your right feet in.
  (4) Put your left feet in.
  (5) Put your noddles in.

And finally--

  Put your bodies in,
    Put your bodies out,
  Shake them and shake them a little,
    And turn yourselves about.


Orchestra

An ear-splitting game that is always great fun. The players stand in
rows before the leader or "conductor," who sings a verse from any
well-known nonsense or other song. Then he says, pointing to one of
the players, "and the first violin played this simple melody,"
whereupon the two sing the verse over again, the player imitating with
his arms the movements of a violin player, and with his voice the
sound of a squeaking fiddle. Then the conductor says, pointing to
another player, "and the big trombone played this simple melody." Then
the three sing together, the second player imitating the sound of a
trombone and the appearance of a trombone player. This is continued
until every one is playing on an imaginary instrument, the conductor,
of course, being the only one who sings the words of the song.


A Good Fat Hen

A nonsensical game, useful in leading to forfeits. The company sit in
a row, and one of the end players begins by saying, "A good fat hen."
Each of the others in turn must then say, "A good fat hen." The first
player then says, "Two ducks and a good fat hen," and the words pass
down the line. Then "Three squawking wild geese, two ducks, and a good
fat hen." And so on until the end is reached, in the following order--

  Fourth round.--Prefix: Four plump partridges.
  Fifth round.--    "    Five pouting pigeons.
  Sixth round.--    "    Six long-legged cranes.
  Seventh round.--  "    Seven green parrots.
  Eighth round.--   "    Eight screeching owls.
  Ninth round.--    "    Nine ugly turkey-buzzards.
  Tenth round.--    "    Ten bald eagles.

The sentence has now reached a very difficult length:--"Ten bald
eagles, nine ugly turkey-buzzards, eight screeching owls, seven green
parrots, six long-legged cranes, five pouting pigeons, four plump
partridges, three squawking wild geese, two ducks and a good fat hen."
Any one making a mistake may be made to pay a forfeit.


John Ball

The same game may be played also with "The House that Jack Built,"
and there are other stories of a similar kind. Among these the most
amusing for a large party would perhaps be the old rhyme of "John
Ball."

  First round.--    John Ball shot them all.
  Second round.--   John Block made the stock,
                          But John Ball shot them all.
  Third round.--    John Brammer made the rammer,
                    John Block made the stock,
                          But John Ball shot them all.
  Fourth round.--   John Wyming made the priming,
                    John Brammer made the rammer,
                    John Block made the stock,
                          But John Ball shot them all.
  Fifth round.--    John Scott made the shot....
  Sixth round.--    John Crowder made the powder....
  Seventh round.--  John Puzzle made the muzzle....
  Eighth round.--   John Farrell made the barrel....
  Ninth round.--    John Clint made the flint....
  Tenth round.--    John Patch made the match....

In the tenth round, then, each player has to say--

  John Patch made the match,
  John Clint made the flint,
  John Farrell made the barrel,
  John Puzzle made the muzzle,
  John Crowder made the powder,
  John Scott made the shot,
  John Wyming made the priming,
  John Brammer made the rammer,
  John Block made the stock,
             But John Ball shot them all.


Chitterbob

There is also the old rhyme of "Chitterbob," but it is usual in
repeating this to say it all at once, in one round, and not prolong
the task. This is the rhyme:--

  There was a man and his name was Cob
  He had a wife and her name was Mob,
  He had a dog and his name was Bob,
  She had a cat and her name was Chitterbob.
    "Bob," says Cob;
    "Chitterbob," says Mob.
  Bob was Cob's dog,
  Mob's cat was Chitterbob,
    Cob, Mob, Bob, and Chitterbob.

In the old way of playing "Chitterbob" a paper horn used to be twisted
into the player's hair for each mistake made in the recitation, and at
the end these horns could be got rid of only by paying forfeits.


The Muffin Man

"The Muffin Man" is another variety. The players sit in a circle,
and the game is begun by one of them turning to the next and asking,
either in speech or in song--

  Oh, do you know the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin man?
  Oh, do you know the muffin man who lives in Drury Lane?

The reply is--

  Oh, yes I know the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin man,
  Oh, yes I know the muffin man who lives in Drury Lane.

Both players then repeat together--

  Then two of us know the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin man,
  Then two of us know the muffin man who lives in Drury Lane.

This done, the second player turns to the third and the same question
and answer are given; but when it comes to the comment--

  Then three of us know the muffin man,...

the first player also joins in. At the end therefore, if there are
eight people playing, the whole company is singing--

  Then eight of us know the muffin man, the muffin man, the muffin
          man,
  Then eight of us know the muffin man who lives in Drury Lane.


Family Coach

In "Family Coach" each player takes the name of a part of a coach, as
the axle, the door, the box, the reins, the whip, the wheels, the
horn; or of some one connected with it, as the driver, the guard, the
ostlers, the landlord, the bad-tempered passenger, the cheerful
passenger, the passenger who made puns, the old lady with the bundle,
and the horses--wheelers and leaders. One player then tells a story
about the coach, bringing in as many of these people and things as he
can, and as often. Whenever a person or thing represented by a player
is mentioned, that player must stand up and turn round. But whenever
the coach is mentioned the whole company must stand up and turn round.
Otherwise, forfeits. A specimen story is here given as a hint as to
the kind of thing needed:--

    "There's the railway, of course," said _Mr. Burly_, "and
    there's the motor wagonette, and you've all got bicycles; but
    let's go to London in the old-fashioned way for once; let's
    go in the _Family Coach_." These words delighted everybody.
    "Oh, yes," they all cried, "let's go in the _Family Coach_."
    It was therefore arranged, and _John the Coachman_ had orders
    to get everything ready. This was no light matter, for the
    _Family Coach_ had not been used for many years, and it would
    need to be taken to the coachbuilder's at once and be
    overhauled. So the next morning it lumbered off, and it did
    not come back for a week; but when it did there was a change
    indeed. The _wheels_ had been painted red, the _axles_ had
    been tested, the _springs_ renewed, the inside re-lined, the
    _roof_ freshly upholstered, and the whole made bright and
    gay. At last the morning came, a clear, sunny day, and
    punctually at nine _John_ rattled up to the door. The
    _horses_ stood there pawing the ground, as if ready to gallop
    all the way. _John_ had a new coat and hat, and Tim and
    Peter, the _grooms_, were also in new livery. Every one was
    ready. First came _Mr. Burly_ in a wonderful great overcoat,
    and then _Mrs. Burly_ in furs. Then _Uncle Joshua_, then
    _Aunt Penelope_, and then the three girls and two boys. How
    they all found room I don't know, but they did. "Are we all
    ready?" said _Mr. Burly_. "All ready," said _Uncle Joshua_.
    So _Tim_ and _Peter_ sprang away from the _horses'_ heads,
    crack went the _whip_, round went the _wheels_, _Uncle
    Joshua_ blew the _horn_, and the old _Family Coach_ was
    fairly on its journey.

    It was a splendid ride. _John_ kept his _horses_ going at a
    grand pace and hardly used the _whip_ at all, the _wheels_
    ran smoothly over the road, and whenever we passed through a
    village _Uncle Joshua_ blew the _horn_. We stopped at
    Thornminster for lunch. _John_ brought us up to the inn door
    in style, and the _landlord_ came out rubbing his hands and
    helped _Mrs. Burly_ and _Aunt Penelope_ down with a flourish.
    "Proud to see you, sir," he said to _Mr. Burly_. "It is
    seldom enough that folks travel nowadays in an old _Family
    Coach_. I wish there were more of them."

    After lunch we went along in the same splendid way until
    suddenly round a corner came a donkey-cart with the donkey
    braying at the top of his voice. _John_ pulled the _horses_
    well over to the side, but the braying was too much for them,
    and they rolled into the ditch. In a moment the old _Family
    Coach_ was overturned. _Mr. Burly_ was shot into the field
    across the hedge, _Uncle Joshua_, grasping the _horn_, landed
    in a pond, _John_ and _Aunt Penelope_, _Mrs. Burly_ and the
    _grooms_ all stuck in the hedge. No one was hurt, but two of
    the _wheels_ were broken to pieces and one _axle_ was bent,
    and that was therefore the last of the old _Family Coach_. So
    we never got to London in the old way after all.

If this story is not long enough, it can be lengthened. The words in
italics are those to be distributed among the company, each player
taking more than one if necessary. When the accident comes they might
all fall down as they are mentioned. In the case of the wheels and the
horses, these may either be taken all four by one player, or eight
players may share them. Thus, when the wheels are mentioned, all four
players who have taken the wheels would stand up and turn round, and
four others when the horses were alluded to.


The Traveler, and the Bicyclist

"The Traveler" is a favorite variety of the "Family Coach." In this
game a player with a ready tongue is chosen as traveler, and the
others are given such names as landlord, bell-boy, clerk, waiter,
chambermaid, electric light, elevator, bed, supper, paper,
sitting-room, bedroom, steam-radiator, slippers, and so on. The
traveler is then supposed to arrive and give his orders. "Can I have a
room to-night? Good. And how soon will _supper_ be ready? Ask the
_bell-boy_ to take my _satchels_ up to my _room_. Show me to my
_room_ and send up the _papers_." And so on, each person named having
to stand up or be booked for a forfeit.

This game lends itself to various new forms. One might be called "The
Bicyclist" and run thus:--A player having been chosen as the
bicyclist, the others take as many bicycling names (or two names each
might add to the fun) as there are players. Thus--lamp, wick, oil,
handle-bars, spokes, tires, chain, pump, nuts, bell, hedges, fields,
sheep, roads, hill, dog. This settled, the bicyclist will begin his
story, something in this style:--

    It looked so fine this morning that I determined to go for a
    long ride. So I got out the _pump_ and blew up the _tires_,
    put the _monkey-wrench_ to a few _nuts_, filled the _lamp_,
    trimmed the _wick_, polished up the _bell_ and the
    _handle-bars_, and started off. The _roads_ were perfect. The
    _fields_ were shining with dew, the _hedges_ were sweet with
    honey-suckle, and I skimmed along like the wind until
    suddenly, at the turn at the foot of Claymore _Hill_, I rode
    bang into a flock of _sheep_ and came down with a smash. You
    never saw such a ruin. The _lamp_ and _bell_ were lost
    completely, the _handle-bars_ were twisted into corkscrews,
    the _tires_ were cut to ribbons, the _spokes_ looked like
    part of a spider's web, my hands and my knees were cut, and
    the worst of it was that the shepherd's _dog_ mistook me for
    an enemy and I had to beat him off with the _monkey-wrench_,
    until the farmer heard the noise and came to the rescue.

During this story all the players named would, in the ordinary way,
stand up for a moment when their adopted names were mentioned, except
at the point when the accident occurs, and then every player bearing
the name of a part of the bicycle--the handle-bars, spokes, tires,
chain, air-pump, lamp, wick, bell, monkey-wrench, pump, nuts--should
fall to the ground.


Drawing-Room Acrobatics

There are various feats which can be performed in a small room without
injury to furniture. To lie flat on the floor on one's back and be
lifted into an upright position by a pair of hands under the back of
the head, keeping stiff all the time, is a favorite accomplishment.
Another is to bend over and touch the floor with the tips of the
fingers without bending the knees. Another is, keeping your feet
behind a line, to see who, by stretching along the ground supported on
the left hand only, can place a penny with the right hand the farthest
distance and get back again to an upright position behind the line
without moving the feet or using the right hand for a support. This
done, the penny must be recovered in the same way.

Another feat is, keeping your feet together and one arm behind you, to
see how far back from the wall it is possible to place your feet
(remembering that you have to get into an upright position again)
while you lean forward supported by the other hand laid flat against
the wall.

Another is to keep the toes to a line, and kneel down and get up again
without using the hands.

Another is to make a bridge of your body from chair to chair, resting
the back of your neck on one and your heels on the other. This is done
by beginning with three chairs, one under the back, and then when you
are rigid enough having the third one removed.


Acrobatic Impossibilities

If you hold your hands across your chest in a straight line with the
tips of the forefingers pressed together, it will be impossible for
any one else, however strong, to hold by your arms and pull those
finger-tips apart.

It is quite safe to stand a person against the wall with his heels
touching it, and, laying a shilling on the floor a foot or so is front
of him, to say it will be his if he can pick it up without moving his
heels from the wall.

Another impossible thing is to stand sideways against the wall with
your left cheek, left heel, and left leg touching it, and then raise
the right leg.


The Trussed Fowls

In this contest two boys are first trussed. Trussing consists of
firmly tying wrists and ankles, bringing the elbows down below the
knees and slipping a stick along over one elbow, under both knees and
over the other elbow, as in the picture. The game is, for the two
fowls to be placed opposite each other with their feet just touching,
and for each then to strive to roll the other over with his toes.

[Illustration: A TRUSSED FOWL]


The Candle-Lighters

Another balancing game. Two boys face each other, each with a candle,
one of which is lighted and the other not. Kneeling on the right knee
only and keeping the left leg entirely off the ground, they have to
make one candle light the other.


Hat and Cards

A tall hat is placed in the middle of the room and a pack of cards is
dealt out to the players seated round it. The game is to throw the
cards one by one into the hat.


Tug of War

This is properly an outdoor game, but in a big room indoors it is all
right. The two sides should be even in numbers, at any rate in the
first pull. In the middle of the rope a handkerchief is tied, and
three chalk lines a yard apart are made on the floor. The sides then
grasp the rope, the captain of each side, whose duty it is to
encourage his men by cheering cries, having his hands about a yard and
a half from the handkerchief. The rope is then trimmed by the umpire
until the handkerchief comes exactly over the middle one of the three
lines. On the word being given, each side has to try and pull the rope
so that the handkerchief passes over the chalk line nearest it. The
best of three decides the victory. For the sake of sport it is better,
if one side is much weaker than the other, to add to it until the
balance of strength is pretty even.


High Skip

The players stand in as wide a circle as the size of the room allows,
with one player in the middle. He has a rope or heavy cord in his hand
with some object, rather heavy but not hard, tied to it, such as a
small cushion or a large bunch of rags. Stooping down, he begins
swinging this around the circle. As it comes to them the players must
jump over the cord. As the cushion is swung faster and faster it goes
higher and is more difficult to jump over. The first one to miss takes
the place of the person swinging the rope, who is not allowed to raise
his hand higher than his knee.


Parlor Football

In this game goals are set up at each end of the room, the players are
provided with fans, and the football is a blown hen's egg, which is
wafted backward and forward along the floor.


Balloon

A string is stretched across the room at a height of about three or
four feet. The players divide into sides and line up on each side of
the string. The balloon is then thrown up, the game being to keep it
in the air backward and forward over the string, so that if it falls
it will fall in the other side's camp. It ought to be tapped with the
back of the fingers and not hit hard.


Tissue-Paper Race

In this game tissue-paper is cut into pieces three or four inches
square. As many squares as there are players are placed in a line at
one end of the room, and at the other are placed two books, or other
objects, a foot or so apart. At the word of command each competitor,
who is armed with a Japanese fire-screen or fan, starts to fan his
square through the goal-posts. For the sake of distinguishing them it
is better to mark the papers or have them of different colors. A
competitor may not fan any other square except by accident.


Walking Spanish

This game should not be played unless there are some older, stronger
players to prevent possible accidents, but it is very amusing. Each
player in turn goes to the end of the room, takes a cane or umbrella,
puts his head down on the handle, closes his eyes and, stooping over
thus, whirls rapidly about six times, not moving the point of the cane
from its original position. Then instantly he straightens up and tries
to walk steadily the length of the room along a string laid down or
line marked. The one who steps nearest to the line all the time is the
winner.


Potato Race

This is a good game for a hall or landing. Two baskets are needed,
which are placed at one end of the hall about two yards apart, and
then in a line from each basket are placed potatoes, at intervals of a
yard or so all down the floor, an equal number to each line. Any even
number of competitors can play, the race being run in heats. Each
competitor is armed with a long spoon, and his task is to pick up all
the potatoes on his line and return them to the basket before his
opponent can. Each potato must be carried to the basket in turn, and
if dropped on the way must be picked up again before another can be
touched, and the spoon only must be used. Any help from the other hand
or from the foot disqualifies.


Fire-Buckets

At a fire in the country, where there is no hose, a line of men
extends from the burning house to the nearest pond, and buckets are
continually being passed along this line. Hence the name by which this
excellent game is called here. It is played thus. A large number of
miscellaneous and unbreakable articles--balls, boots, potatoes, books,
and so on--are divided into two exactly equal groups, and each group
is placed in a clothes basket. The company then forms into two equal
lines, and each chooses a captain. Each captain stands by the basket
at one end of his line, at the other end being a chair and another
player standing by that. At the word "Start," the articles are handed
one by one by the captain to the first player in the line, and passed
as quickly as possible without dropping to the player by the chair. As
they come to him he piles them on the chair (without dropping any)
until all are there, and then returns them with equal speed until the
basket is filled again. The side which finishes first is the winner.
If an article is dropped it must be picked up before any other of the
articles can pass the player who dropped it.


Forfeits

In many of the games already described mention has been made of
"Forfeits." They do not now play quite so important a part in an
evening's entertainment as once they did, but they can still add to
the interest of games. "Paying a forfeit" means giving up to the
player who is collecting forfeits some personal article or other--a
knife, a pencil, a handkerchief--which, at the end of the game, or
later in the evening, has to be recovered by performing whatever
penance is ordered. When the times comes for "crying the forfeits," as
it is called, the player who has them sits in a chair, while another
player, either blindfolded or hiding her eyes, kneels before her, the
remaining players standing all around. The first player then holds up
a forfeit, remarking, "I have a thing, and a very pretty thing. Pray
what shall be done to the owner of this pretty thing?" To which the
blindfolded one replies by asking, "Is it fine or superfine?" meaning,
Does it belong to a boy (fine) or a girl (superfine)? The answer is
either "It is fine," or "It is superfine," and the blindfolded one
then announces what its owner must do to get possession of it again.
Of stock penances there are a great number, most of which are tricks
which, once known, are necessarily very tame afterward. In the case of
those that follow, therefore, something definite and practical is
required.

    Frown for a minute.
    Dance for a minute.
    See how many you can count in a minute.
    Say the alphabet backward.
    Do the exact opposite of three things ordered by the company.
    Crow like a cock.
    Say "Gig whip" ten times very rapidly.
    Say "Mixed biscuits" ten times very rapidly.
    Say rapidly: "She stood on the steps of Burgess's Fish Sauce Shop
  selling shell fish."
    Say rapidly: "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper. A peck
  of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck
  of pickled pepper, where is the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper
  picked?"
    Count fifty backward.
    Repeat a nursery rhyme.
    Hold your hands behind you, and, keeping them there, lie down
  and get up again.
    Hold your hands together and put them under your feet and over
  your head.
    Walk round the room balancing three books on your head without
  using your hands.

                      Smile to the prettiest,
                      Bow to the wittiest,
                  And kiss the one you love the best.

    Yawn until you make some one else yawn.
    Push your friend's head through a ring. (Put your finger through
  a ring and push your friend's head with the tip.)
    Place a straw on the floor so that you can't jump over it. (Very
  close to the wall.)
    Put a chair on a table, take off your shoes and jump over them.
  (Over your shoes.)
    Leave the room with two legs and come in with six. (Bring in a
  chair.)
    Repeat five times without mistake, "A rat ran over the roof of
  the house with a lump of raw liver in his mouth."
    Repeat ten times rapidly, "Troy boat."
    Ask a question to which "no" cannot be answered. (What does y-e-s
  spell?)
    Shake a dime off your forehead. (The coin is wet and some one
  presses it firmly to the forehead of the one to pay the forfeit,
  who must keep his eyes closed. The dime is taken away, but the
  forfeit player still feels it there and tries to shake it off.)
    Repeat a verse of poetry, counting the words aloud. Mary (one)
  had (two) a (three) little (four) lamb (five).
    Dance in one corner, cry in another, sing in another, and fall
  dead in the fourth.

Two forfeits may be redeemed at once by blindfolding two players,
handing them each a glass of water, and bidding them give the other
a drink. This, however, can be a very damp business.

The old way of getting rid of a large number of forfeits was to tell
their owners to hold a cats' concert, in which each sings a different
song at the same time. Perhaps it would be less noisy and more
interesting if they were told to personate a farm-yard.


Auctioning Prizes

A novel way of awarding prizes is to auction them. Each guest on
arrival is given a small bag instead of a tally card. These bags are
used to hold beans, five of which are given to all the players that
progress at the end of each game. After the playing stops the prizes
are auctioned. Of course the person who has the greatest number of
beans can buy the best prizes; so that besides making a great deal of
fun, the distribution is entirely fair.



                            DRAWING GAMES


Many persons, when a drawing game is suggested, ask to be excused on
the ground of an inability to draw. But in none of the games that are
described in this chapter is any real drawing power necessary. The
object of each game being not to produce good drawings but to produce
good fun, a bad drawing is much more likely to lead to laughter than a
good one.


Five Dots

All children who like drawing like this game; but it is particularly
good to play with a real artist, if you have one among your friends.
You take a piece of paper and make five dots on it, wherever you
like--scattered about far apart, close together (but not too close),
or even in a straight line. The other player's task is to fit in a
drawing of a person with one of these dots at his head, two at his
hands, and two at his feet, as in the examples on page 48.


Outlines or Wiggles

Another form of "Five Dots" is "Outlines." Instead of dots a line,
straight, zigzag, or curved, is made at random on the paper. Papers
are then exchanged and this line must be fitted naturally into a
picture, as in the examples on page 49.

A good way to play Wiggles when there are a number of people to play,
is to mark the same line for all the players, either by pressing down
very hard with a hard pencil so that the line can be traced from one
piece of paper to another, or with carbon copy paper between the
sheets. Thus each person has the same line, and the one who uses his
in the most fantastic and unexpected way is the winner. The only rule
about making the line is that a circle shall not be made. The two ends
must be left ready to add the rest of the design. It is well sometimes
to limit the pictures to human faces, as this makes the grotesque
unlikeness of the drawings all the more absurd.

[Illustration: FIVE DOTS]

[Illustration: OUTLINES]


Eyes-Shut Drawings

The usual thing to draw with shut eyes is a pig, but any animal will
do as well (or almost as well, for perhaps the pig's curly tail just
puts him in the first place). Why it should be so funny a game it is
difficult quite to explain, but people laugh more loudly over it than
over anything else. There is one lady at least who keeps a visitor's
book in which every one that stays at her house has to draw an
eyes-shut pig. The drawings are signed, and the date is added. Such a
guest book is now manufactured, bound in pig skin, or in cloth.


"Ghosts of My Friends"

While on the subject of novel albums the "Ghost of My Friends" might
be mentioned. The "ghost" is the effect produced by writing one's
signature with plenty of ink, and while the ink is still very wet,
folding the paper down the middle of the name, lengthwise, and
pressing the two sides firmly together. The result is a curious
symmetrically-shaped figure. Some people prefer "ghosts" to ordinary
signatures in a visitors' book.

The "Book of Butterflies" is on the same order. With the book come
four tubes of paint. The paint is squeezed on the page, which is
doubled and flattened. The effects are very beautiful, and
surprisingly lifelike.

Another guest book is the "Hand-o-graph," in which the outline of the
hand of each guest is kept. The "Thumb-o-graph" is on the same
principle, except that in this case the imprint of the guest's thumb
is preserved, made from an ink pad supplied with the book.

A remarkable collection can be made of ink-blot pictures. A drop of
ink, either round as it naturally falls, or slightly lengthened with a
pen, is dropped on paper which is then folded smartly together and
rubbed flat. The most surprising designs are the result, some of
which, aided a little by the pen, look like landscapes, figures and
complicated geometric designs.


Drawing Tricks

Six drawing tricks are illustrated on this page. One (1) is the
picture of a soldier and a dog leaving a room, drawn with three
strokes of the pencil. Another (3) is a sailor, drawn with two
squares, two circles, and two triangles. Another (5), Henry VIII,
drawn with a square and nine straight lines. Another (6), invented for
this book, an Esquimaux waiting to harpoon a seal, drawn with eleven
circles and a straight line. The remaining figures are a cheerful pig
and a despondent pig (4), and a cat (2), drawn with the utmost
possible simplicity.

[Illustration: DRAWING TRICKS]


Composite Animals

In this game the first player writes the name of an animal at the top
of the paper and folds it over. The next writes another, and so on
until you have four, or even five. You then unfold the papers and
draw animals containing some feature of each of those named.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]


Invented Animals

A variation of this game is for the players to draw and describe a new
creature. On one occasion when this game was played every one went for
names to the commoner advertisements. The best animal produced was the
Hairy Coco, the description of which stated, among other things, that
it was fourteen feet long and had fourteen long feet.

A good guessing contest is to supply every person with a slip of paper
on which is written the name of an animal. He draws a picture of it
and these pictures are all exhibited signed with the artist's name.
The person who guesses correctly the subjects of the greatest number
of them wins.


Heads, Bodies, and Tails

For this game sheets of paper are handed round and each player draws
at the top of his sheet a head. It does not matter in the least
whether it is a human being's or a fish's head, a quadruped's, a
bird's, or an insect's. The paper is then turned down, two little
marks are made to show where the neck and body should join, and the
paper is passed on for the body to be supplied. Here again it does not
matter what kind of body is chosen. The paper is then folded again,
marks are made to show where the legs (or tail) ought to begin, and
the paper is passed on again. After the legs are drawn the picture is
finished.


Pictures to Order

Each player sits, pencil in hand, before a blank sheet of paper, his
object being to make a picture containing things chosen by the company
in turn. The first player then names the thing that he wants in the
picture. Perhaps it is a tree. He therefore says, "Draw a tree," when
all the players, himself included, draw a tree. Perhaps the next says,
"Draw a boy climbing the tree"; the next, "Draw a balloon caught in
the top branches"; the next, "Draw two little girls looking up at the
balloon"; and so on, until the picture is full enough. The chief
interest of this game resides in the difficulty of finding a place for
everything that has to be put in the picture. A comparison of the
drawings afterward is usually amusing.


Hieroglyphics, or Picture-Writing

As a change from ordinary letter-writing, "Hieroglyphics" are amusing
and interesting to make. The best explanation is an example, such as
is given on pages 52 and 53, the subject being two verses from a
favorite nursery song.


Pictures and Titles

Each player draws on the upper half of the paper an historical scene,
whether from history proper or from family history, and appends the
title, writing it along the bottom of the paper and folding it over.
The drawings are then passed on and each player writes above the
artist's fold (or on another sheet of paper) what he thinks they are
meant to represent, and folds the paper over what he has written. In
the accompanying example the title at the bottom of the paper is what
the draughtsman himself wrote; the others are the other players'
guesses.

[Illustration:

Various Descriptions by the Players

    The Abbot of Christchurch, near Bournemouth, surveys the
    scaffolding of the abbey.

    The end of the Paris Exhibition.

    An old man coming back to the home of his childhood, looks
    across the river, where a duck is swimming, to the
    dilapidated cathedral and town which represent the stately
    piles he remembered.

    The building of the Ark.

The Artist's Description

    The Last Man surveying the ruins of the Crystal Palace.]



                            WRITING GAMES


Many of the games under this heading look harder than they really are.
But the mere suggestion of a writing game is often enough to frighten
away timid players who mistrust their powers of composition--although
the result can be as funny when these powers are small as when they
are considerable. The race is not always to the swift, nor the battle
to the strong.


Simple Acrostics

There are "Simple Acrostics" and "Double Acrostics." The simple ones
are very simple. When the players are all ready a word is chosen by
one of them, either from thought or by looking at a book and taking
the first promising one that occurs. Perhaps it is "govern." Each
player then puts the letters forming "govern" in a line down the
paper, and the object of the game is to find, in a given time, words
beginning with each of those letters. Thus, at the end of time, one
player might have--

  G ravy
  O range
  V iolet
  E sther
  R obin
  N umbskull

The players then describe their words in turn, one letter going the
round before the next is reached, and from these descriptions the
words have to be guessed, either by any player who likes or by the
players in turn. The player whose paper we have quoted might describe
his words like this: G---- "Something that makes hot beef nice"; O---- "A
fruit"; V---- "A flower"; E---- "A girl's name"; R---- "A bird"; and
N---- "A name for a silly person." If any one else has the same word
neither of you can score it, and it is therefore important to seek for
the most unlikely words.

Another way of playing "Simple Acrostics" is to insist on each word
being the same length. Thus "govern" might be filled in by one player
thus:--

  G rave
  O ddly
  V erse
  E arth
  R ebel
  N inth


Double Acrostics

In "Double Acrostics" the game is played in precisely the same way,
except that the letters of the word, after having been arranged in a
line down the paper, are then arranged again in a line up the paper,
so that the first letter is opposite the last, and the last opposite
the first. Thus:--

  G   N
  O   R
  V   E
  E   V
  R   O
  N   G

The players have then to fill in words beginning and ending with the
letters as thus arranged. One paper might come out thus:--

  G rai     N
  O rde     R
  V ersatil E
  E ...     V
  R apall   O
  N othin   G

This word is rather a hard one on account of the E and V. As a rule,
words of only three letters are not allowed in "Acrostics," nor are
plurals. That is to say, if the word has to end in "S," one must not
simply add "S" to an ordinary word, such as "grooms" for G----S, but
find a word ending naturally in "S," such as "Genesis."

It is not necessary to invert the same word in order to get letters
for the ends of the words. Two words of equal length can be chosen and
arranged side by side. Thus (but this is almost too difficult an
example):--

  D   K
  I   I
  C   P
  K   L
  E   I
  N   N
  S   G

"Acrostics" may be made more difficult and interesting by giving them
a distinct character. Thus, it may be decided that all the words that
are filled in must be geographical, or literary, or relating to
flowers.


Fives

"Fives" is a game which is a test also of one's store of information.
A letter is chosen, say T, and for a given time, ten minutes perhaps,
the players write down as many names of animals beginning with T as
they can think of. The first player then reads his list, marking those
words that no one else has and crossing off all that are also on other
players' papers. Then the names of vegetables (including flowers,
trees, and fruit) are taken; then minerals; then persons; and then
places. The player who has most marks wins the game.

A variety of this game is to take a long word, say "extraordinary,"
and within a given time to see how many smaller words can be made
from it, such as tax, tin, tea, tear, tare, tray, din, dray, dairy,
road, rat, raid, and so on.


Lists

"Lists" is a variety of "Fives." Paper is provided, and each player in
turn calls out something which the whole company write down. Thus,
suppose there are five players and you decide to go round three times:
the first may say a river; the second, a doctor; the third, a
complaint; the fourth, a play; the fifth, a State in the Union; the
first again, a musical instrument; the second again, a poet; and so
on, until the fifteen things are all written down. Each paper will
then have the same list of fifteen things upon it. One of the company
then opens a book at random, and chooses, say, the first letter of the
third word in the first line. Perhaps it is T. For a given time each
player has to supply his list with answers beginning with T. At the
call of time one of the papers may present this appearance:--

    A river                    Tees
    A doctor.                  Mr. Treves
    A complaint                Tic Doloreux
    A play                     Timon of Athens
    A state in the Union       Tennessee
    A musical instrument       Trombone
    A poet                     Tennyson
    A flower                   Trefoil
    A mineral                  Tin
    A lake                     Tanganyika
    A tree                     Tulip
    A country                  Turkey
    An author                  Trollope
    An artist                  Tadema
    A preacher                 Talmage

Each player in turn reads his list aloud, strikes off those words that
others also have, and puts a mark against the rest. The specimen list
here given is too simple to be called a good one. Players should
reject the first thing that comes into their thoughts, in favor of
something less natural.


Buried Names

The first thing for the players to do is to decide what kind of name
they will bury. The best way is to call out something in turn. Thus,
if there are four players they may decide to bury the name of an
author, a girl, a town, and a river. Each player writes these down and
a fixed time is given for burial, which consists in writing a sentence
that shall contain the name somewhere spelled rightly but spread over
two words, or three if possible. At the end of the time the sentences
are read aloud in turn, while the others guess. Of course, the whole
game may be given up to burying only one kind of name, but variety is
perhaps better. Examples are given:--

  An author: I like to keep the y_ew in g_ood order.
  A girl: The boy was cru_el, laz_y and obstinate.
  A town: Clothes that are _new have n_o need of brushing.
  A river: To see spoil_t ham es_pecially annoys me.

It is permissible to bury the name in the middle of one longer word,
but it is better to spread it over two or three. Perhaps the best
example of a buried English town is this: "The Queen of She_ba sings
to ke_ep her spirits up." This is good, because the sentence is
natural, because of the unusual number of words that are made use of
in the burial, and because in reading it aloud the sound of the buried
town is not suggested.


Letters and Telegrams

In this game you begin with the Letter. The first thing to write is
the address and "My dear ----," choosing whomever you like, but
usually, as in "Consequences," either a public person or some one
known, if possible, to every one present. The paper is then folded
over and passed on. The next thing to write is the letter itself,
which should be limited to two minutes or some short period, and
should be the kind of letter that requires a reply. The paper is
folded and passed on again, and the subscription, "Believe me yours
sincerely," or whatever adverb you choose, and the signature are then
added. (These may be divided into two separate writings if you like.)
The signature should be that of another public person, or friend,
relation or acquaintance of the family. The paper is then passed on
once more, and a reply to the letter, in the form of a telegram, is
written. That is to say, you must say as much as you can in ten words.
Example:--

  THE LETTER

    _The first player writes_:--My dear Buffalo Bill.
    _The second player writes_:--Can you give me any information about
  suitable songs for our village choir?
    _The third player writes_:--Believe me yours slavishly.
    _The fourth player writes_:--Kitchener of Khartoum.

  THE REPLY TELEGRAM

    _The fifth player writes_:--Be with you to-morrow. Have sheets
  aired. Am bringing everything.


Telegrams

There is also the game of "Telegrams." In this the first thing to
write is the name of the person sending the telegram. The paper is
then passed on, and the name of the person to whom it is sent is
written. The papers are then passed on again and opened, and the
players in turn each say a letter of the alphabet, chosen at random,
until there are ten. As these are spoken, each player writes them on
the paper before him, leaving a space after it; so that when the ten
are all written down his paper may look like this:--

  From the DUKE OF YORK
                To BARNUM AND BAILEY.

  H ... A ... P ... N ...
  W ... E ... K ... S ... F ...
  T ...

A period of five minutes or more is then allowed in which to complete
the telegram, the message having to be ten words long, and each word
to begin, in the same order, with these letters. The players should,
as far as possible, make the telegrams reasonable, if not possible.
Thus, the form given above might, when finished, read like this:--

  From the DUKE OF YORK
                To BARNUM AND BAILEY.

  Have       Awning   Prepared  Next
  Wednesday  Evening  Kindly    Send  Five
  Tickets

In calling out the ten letters which are to be used in the telegram,
it is well to avoid the unusual consonants and to have a vowel here
and there.

An amusing variety is for all the players to compose telegrams on the
same subject; the subject being given beforehand. Thus it might be
decided that all the telegrams should be sent from President Roosevelt
to Alice in Wonderland asking for her views on the tariff. Then having
completed these messages, the answers may also be prepared, using the
same letters. But, of course, as in all games, family matters work out
more amusingly than public ones.


Initials

Paper is handed round, and each player thinks of some public person,
or friend or acquaintance of the company, and writes in full his or
her Christian name (or names) and surname. Then, for, say, five
minutes, a character sketch of the person chosen has to be composed,
each word of which begins with the initial letter of each of the
person's names, repeated in their right order until the supply of
thought gives out or time is up. Thus, suppose the person chosen is
Frank Richard Stockton, the story writer. The character sketch might
run:--

    F ancifully R ecounts S trange F reakish R omantic S tories.
    F inds R isibility S urely. F requently R aises S miles.

An occasional "and" and "of" may be dropped in if necessary. Where one
of the names begins with a vowel (such as William _E_wart Gladstone)
the character sketch can be made to run more easily.

It is sometimes more amusing to give every one the same names to work
on; and in some houses the players are not allowed to choose names for
themselves, but must pass the paper on. The characters of towns and
nations may be written in the same way, using all the letters of the
word as the initials.


Riddles

A more difficult game is "Riddles." At the top of the paper is written
anything that you can think of: "A soldier," "A new dress," "A fit of
the blues," "A railway accident"--anything that suggests itself. The
paper is passed on and anything else is written, no matter what. It is
passed on again and opened. Suppose that the two things written on it
are, first, "A school-teacher," and second, "A pair of skates." The
duty of the player is to treat them as a riddle, and, asking the
question either as "Why is a school-teacher like a pair of skates?" or
"What is the difference between a school-teacher and a pair of
skates?" (whichever way one prefers), to supply a reasonable answer.
This game, it will be seen, is suited particularly to clever people.


Rhymed Replies

This is a game that needs a certain amount of readiness and some skill
with words. Each of the party writes at the top of a piece of paper a
question of any kind whatever, such as "How old was Cæsar when he
died?" or "What is your favorite color?" The paper is folded over and
passed on, and the next player writes a word--any word--such as
"electricity," "potato," "courageously," "milk." The papers are then
passed on once more and opened, and the task of each player is to
write a rhyme in which the question on his paper is answered and the
word on his paper is introduced.


Missing Information

Every one is supplied with a piece of paper and pencils and tries to
write down correct answers to questions about everyday things which
we none of us know. A suggestive list is given but any one can add to
it indefinitely.

    1. How big do you think a postage-stamp is, in inches--a five
    dollar bill?

    2. Draw a picture of a clock's face with the hands pointing
    to five minutes of twelve.

    3. How tall do you think a man's silk hat is, a derby?

    4. Draw the design in panels of the door to the room you are
    in. (Of course without looking at it.)

    5. How many holes are there in a high laced shoe--your own?

    6. How many toes has a cat, a dog?

    7. How many legs has a fly?

    8. How does a cow lie down? A horse?

    9. About how many petals has a common daisy? A wild rose? A
    sun flower?

    10. How high from the ground is a street-car?--a railway car?

The person who can answer most correctly the greatest number of
questions is the winner.


Consequences

"Consequences" is always a favorite game when a party has reached its
frivolous mood. The method of playing is this: Sheets of paper and
pencils are handed round, and every one writes at the head (1) an
adjective suitable to be applied to a man, such as "Handsome." This
word is then folded over so that it cannot be read, and each paper is
passed on to the next person. The name of a man (2) is then written,
either some one you know, or a public person, such as the president or
Mr. Carnegie. This in turn is folded over and the papers are passed
on. The word "met" is understood to be inserted at this point. That is
to say, the completed story will tell how Handsome Mr. Carnegie met
some one. The next thing (3) is to put down an adjective suitable to
apply to the woman whom he met, such as "Buxom," and then (4) the
woman's name, again either some one you know, or a public person,--the
papers being folded and passed on after every writing. The remaining
items are these:--(5) The place where they met--say, on the pier. (6)
What he said to her--say, "I hope your neuralgia is better." (7) What
she said to him--say, "There's nothing like rain for the crops." (8)
What the consequence was--say, "They were married." (9) What the world
said--"All's well that ends well."

It must be remembered that unless there are very few players, when it
is less fun, you do not get the chance of writing more than once, or
at most twice, on the same sheet of paper, so that it is of no use to
have a reasonable series of remarks in your mind. The specimen given
above is an average one. In print nothing could be much less funny,
but when the company has the spirit of "Consequences," even so tame a
story as this might keep the room merry. The game is always full of
the unexpected, and the people who meet each other are almost sure to
be laughing-stocks. The results are often better if all the papers are
handed to one player to read.


Consequences Extended

The form of "Consequences" above given is the ordinary one and the
simplest. But in certain families the game has been altered and
improved by other clauses. We give the fullest form of "Consequences"
with which we are acquainted. As it stands it is rather too long; but
players may like to add to the fun of the ordinary game by adopting a
few of these additions:--

  Adjective for a man.
  The man.
  What he was wearing.
  What he was doing.
          (Met)
  Adjective for a woman.
  The woman.
  What she was wearing.
  What she was doing.
  The person he would much rather have met.
  Where they met.
  What he thought.
  What he said.
  What she thought.
  What she said.
  What he gave her.
  What she did with it.
  Where they went.
  What they did.
  What the consequence was.
  What the world said.

Example:--

    The honorable Theodore Roosevelt, who was dressed in a Moiré
    antique bath-towel and was eating walnuts, met coy Aunt
    Priscilla in a Khaki tea-gown playing with her Noah's Ark,
    when he would much rather have met Madame Tussaud. They met
    at South Hampton. What he thought was, "Here's this woman
    again," but he merely said, "That's a very chic costume of
    yours." What she thought was, "I wonder if he's seen Peter
    Pan," but she only said, "That's wet paint you're leaning
    against." He gave her a piercing glance, and she swallowed
    it. So they went to prison together and learned to ride the
    bicycle, and the consequence was they caught influenza, and
    the world said, "It's an ill wind that blows nobody good."


Composite Stories

Another folding-over and passing-on game is "Composite Stories." Paper
is passed round, and for five minutes each player writes the opening
of a story with a title prefixed. The papers are passed on, and each
player reads through as much of the story as has been written and for
five minutes adds to it. And so on, until each player has written once
on each paper. The papers are then passed on once more, with the
result that each paper will be found to be lying before the player who
began it. The next and last five minutes are then spent by each person
in reading through the story and bringing it to an end, sometimes a
difficult enough task. If six persons are playing and allowances of
five minutes have been given, there will be at the end of thirty-five
minutes six complete stories to read aloud.


Another Story Game

A variety of the story game is for each player to write the name of a
well-known person or friend of the family on the top of the paper,
fold it over, and pass it on. This happens, say, five times, which
means that when the papers are opened the names of five persons will
be found on each. A story has then to be written introducing these
people.


Improbable Stories

Another story game is one in which each player attempts to tell the
most improbable or impossible story. In this case the papers are not
passed on, but a certain amount of time is given for the stories to be
written in.


The Newspaper

This is a rather elaborate but really very easy game to play. One
player, who acts as editor, takes as many sheets of paper as there are
players and writes at the head of each the title of a section of a
newspaper. Thus on one he will write, Paris Correspondence; on
another, English Correspondence; on another, Berlin Correspondence; on
a fourth, Political News; on a fifth, Our Fashion Page; on a sixth,
Reviews; on a seventh, Weather Report; and so on. Each player then,
for a given time, writes on the subject allotted to him, more or less
in the manner of the daily press, and at the end the result is read
aloud by the editor.

The plan is easily adapted to family or village life. The heading may
refer to domestic matters, such as Nursery Correspondence, Kitchen
Gossip, Fashions for Gentlemen (an account of father's new suit),
Garden News, Village Chatter, and so on. Or, instead of a newspaper,
a popular magazine may be contributed, with illustrations.


Predicaments

This is a good game for a company of ingenious people, and it will be
found that almost every one is ingenious when confronted with a
difficult situation and given time to think out a solution. Every one
is given paper and pencil (or this is not necessary since the
solutions may be oral). Then one player starts the game by suggesting
some predicament and asking the company "What would you do in such a
case?" Five minutes are given for reflection, and fifteen if the
answers are to be written. Then each in turn must say how he would
have extricated himself from the scrape.

A few suitable subjects are given here. If you found yourself in a
strange city, where you didn't know a soul, with no money and nothing
you could pawn, what would you do?

If you should wake up in the night and see a burglar just entering the
room, what would you do?

If you should look out of your school-room door and see smoke and fire
in the hall, what would you do?

If you should be in a foreign country, not able to speak the language
and wanted to order a room and breakfast, what would you do?



                         TABLE AND CARD GAMES


Card Games and Others

Card games proper, such as Bezique and Cribbage and Whist, do not come
into the scope of this book. Nor do games such as Chess, Draughts,
Halma and Backgammon. It is not that they are not good games, but
that, having to be bought, their rules do not need enumerating again.
The description of a few very old and favorite games with cards, and
one or two new ones, is, however, given, because they can be made at
home.


Letter Games

On page 178 will be found the simplest letter game. Letters can be
used for a round game by one player making a word, shuffling it, and
throwing it face upward into the middle of the table. The winner is
the player who first sees what it spells.

Distribute a box of letters among the players, dealing them face
downward. In turn each player takes up a letter at random and puts it
face upward in the middle of the table. The object of the game is to
make words out of these letters. Directly a player sees a word he
calls it out, and taking the letters places them in front of him,
where they remain until the end of the game, when each player counts
his words and the owner of the greatest number is the winner. If,
however, a word has been chosen which, by the addition of another
letter or so from the middle of the table, can be transformed into a
longer word, the player who thinks of this longer word takes the
shorter word from the other player and places it before himself. Thus,
A might see the word "seat" among the letters, and calling it out,
place it before him; and then B, noticing another "t," might call out
"state," and adding it to A's word, take that to himself. If, however,
A then detected an "e" in the middle and called out "estate" the word
would be his again. These losses and reconquests form the chief fun of
the game. An "s" at the end of a word, forming a plural, is not
allowed.


Patience, or Thirteens

Many games of "Patience" can be played as well with numbered cards as
with ordinary playing cards. It does not matter much what size they
are, but for convenience, in playing on a small table, they may as
well be about an inch wide and two inches long, with the number at the
top. Thus:--

  +------------+
  |            |
  |     12     |
  |            |
  |            |
  |            |
  |            |
  |            |
  |            |
  |            |
  +------------+

A "Patience" set consists of four packs of cards each containing four
sets of thirteen cards numbered from 1 to 13. These can be made at
home perfectly well, and a little bag to hold each pack should also be
made. The simplest game is to arrange the four sets in their right
order. One player empties her four bags into a basket, shakes them up,
and calls them out as she picks them out (at random). The others, who
have the cards spread before them, then arrange them in four rows as
well as may be, until a 1 is called and there is a chance to begin
packing the others upon it. With inexperienced players five rows are
sometimes allowed. We do not give other games of "Patience," for two
reasons. One is that it is not exactly a children's game, and the
other, that it is one of the games which can be properly taught only
by personal instruction. Varieties of "Patience" are very numerous,
and good books can be had on the subject.


Snap

There can be no real need to describe "Snap," but perhaps it may be
useful to have the rules in print here in case of any dispute. A pack
of "Snap" cards is dealt round, any number being able to play; and the
game begins by the players taking their cards one by one from their
hands and in turn laying them face upward on the table before them. If
a card is turned up similar to a card already on view on the table,
the player who turns it up or the player who owns the similar card
cries "Snap," and the cards go to the player who says "Snap" first. As
it is sometimes difficult for the players to distinguish which says
"Snap" first, it is well to have an umpire. In the case of an
undoubted dead-heat the game should go on as if nothing had happened.
The player who won the cards gathers up also into his hand all the
cards which were before him and continues the game. When a player has
transferred all his cards from his hand to the table he waits until
his turn comes and then takes them into his hand again. This is a very
exciting moment, because, if his top card were snapped, then he would
lose everything.

In good "Snap" packs there are several sets of cards which are
intentionally made nearly but not absolutely alike, and it is very
common to say "Snap" by mistake when one of these turns up. In that
case the cards of the player who cried "Snap" are placed in the middle
of the table, where they stay until some one turns up a card exactly
like the top one and "Snap Centre" is called, when both the centre
pack and the pack in front of the turner-up belong to the player who
cried "Snap Centre." It may of course be the turner-up himself, but is
very likely somebody else, because whereas under ordinary conditions
only the owners of similar cards may cry "Snap," when there are cards
is the middle too any one may cry "Snap Centre." (In some houses any
one may cry "Snap" all through the game, but that is not the best
way.)

When a player has lost all his cards he is out of the game until there
are cards in the middle again, when an opportunity comes of
snap-centring them and getting into play again. The game goes on until
one player has all the cards.


Grab

In "Grab," a very rowdy variety of "Snap," a cork is placed in the
middle of the table. The rules are the same as in "Snap," except that,
instead of saying "Snap," you snatch for the cork; in the case of
"Snap Centre," snatching and saying "Centre" too.


Snap Cards

"Snap" cards may just as well be home-made as bought. They either can
be painted, in which case you must be careful that the sets of four
articles are just alike, or you can cut out shapes of different
colored paper and stick them on. A bundle of wall-paper patterns is
splendid material for a pack. The only advantage that bought "Snap"
cards have over home-made ones is that they slip better.


Old Maid

This game can be played by any number, either with a home-made pack or
with ordinary playing cards from which three of the queens have been
taken away; the remaining queen being the old maid. The cards are then
dealt and each player first weeds out all pairs, such as two knaves,
two aces, two fives, and so on. All having done this, the player who
begins offers her hand, with the cards face downward, to her neighbor,
and her neighbor takes one. She then looks through her cards to see if
it pairs with any that she already has, and, if it does, throws the
pair on the table. Having finished her examination she offers her
cards in the same way to the next player, and so it goes on. As the
possessor of the old maid card is, at the end, the loser of the game,
each one who gets it does all in her power to induce the next player
to take it. As the cards get fewer and fewer the excitement grows and
grows.

"Old Bachelor" is played in the same way, except that three of the
kings are then thrown out.


Pig

"Pig" is a very noisy game. It is played with ordinary cards, unless
you like to make a "Pig" set, which would be very easy. Having
discovered how many persons want to play, you treat the pack
accordingly. For instance, if five want to play you throw out all
cards except five sets of four; if six, or three, you throw out all
cards except six sets of four or three sets of four. Thus, if five
were playing, the cards might consist of four aces, four twos, four
threes, four fours, and four fives; or, if you began at the other end,
four kings, four queens, four knaves, four tens and four nines. The
cards are shuffled and dealt round, four each, and the game is for
each player to complete a set of four. You do not, as in "Old Maid,"
select one from the cards that are offered, face downward, but each
player hands whatever card he likes to the next player, who is bound
to accept it. Directly a player has a set of four complete he lays the
cards on the table, either very stealthily or with a bang, whichever
he likes. Immediately a set is laid on the table (or directly the
other players notice it) all other cards have to be laid there, too.
The player who is last in laying them down is Pig. The game is played
for as many rounds as you like, the player who was last the fewest
times being the winner. The word Pig alters with each round. The last
player to lay down his cards in the second round is not merely Pig,
but Little Pig; in the third, Big Pig; in the fourth, Mother (or
Father) Pig; in the fifth, Grandmother (or Grandfather) Pig; in the
sixth, Ancestral Pig; in the seventh, Venerable Pig; in the eighth,
Primeval Pig; in the ninth, Crackling.


Prophecies and Characteristics

This is a memory game and a very amusing one. It is played with two
packs of cards of any sort. One pack is laid in a heap, face down, in
the middle of the table. The other pack is distributed to the players,
who lay them face upward in rows; each person should not have more
than twelve cards since it is practically impossible to remember more
than that number. Any one can begin by giving either a prophecy or a
characteristic--thus: "Who will inherit a fortune inside a year?" or
"Who will be the first in the room to wear false teeth?" at the same
time turning up a card from the centre pile. Whoever has the card
matching this, takes it, lays it face down on his card repeating the
prophecy, "I will be the first to wear false teeth." The next in turn
gives a characteristic, "Who has the worst temper?" or "Who has the
most unselfish disposition?" This process continues around, until all
the centre cards are matched. Then the memory test comes in. Every
player in turn tries to remember and repeat all the prophecies and
characteristics which have fallen to his share, giving them aloud in
rapid succession. He is allowed for deliberation on any one only the
time while ten is being counted. The one who remembers the greatest
number is the winner.


The Old Maid's Birthday

This game is utterly foolish, but it can lead to shouts of laughter.
It has been founded on an old-fashioned card game called "Mr. Punch."
The first thing required is a pack of plain cards on which should be
written the names of articles of food and clothing, household
utensils, and other domestic and much advertised things: such, for
example, as a frock-coat, a round of beef, a foot-warmer, a box of
pills. A story, somewhat on the lines of that which follows, must then
be prepared and copied into a note-book. The company take their places
and the cards are handed round. These should be held face downward.
When all is ready one of the players reads the story, pausing at each
blank for the player whose turn comes next to fill it in by calling
out whatever is on his uppermost card. No matter how often the game is
played (provided the cards are re-shuffled) the unexpected always
happens, and it is usually so absurd as to be quite too much for a
room all ready for laughter. The number of blanks in the story should
be equal to the number of cards, and in order that the story may run
on smoothly it is well for the next player always to glance at his top
card just before his turn, so as to bring it out readily and
naturally. The following story, which makes provision for nearly fifty
cards, should be found serviceable until a better and more personal
one is written. It will add to the amusement if the player who reads
it substitutes the names of real shops and, if he likes, real people:

    Attention. It was Miss Flitters's birthday, and she woke with
    a start and hurried down to see what the postman had brought.
    There were five parcels and a letter. The letter was from
    Miss Bitters. "Dear Miss Flitters," it ran, "I am so sorry to
    hear of your cold, and in the hope that it will do you good,
    I am sending you a ----. I always find it excellent, although
    mother prefers ----. We both wish you many happy returns of
    the day." The other presents were, from Miss Ditters a
    handsome ----, from Miss Glitters a delicate ----, and from
    Miss Hitters a particularly refined ----. "Dear me!" said
    Miss Flitters, "what a useful gift! just exactly what I
    wanted." She then sat down to breakfast, which, this being a
    special day, consisted of ----. "I did my best to do it to a
    turn," said the cook, as she laid it on the table with her
    own hands. "Mary said as how you'd prefer a ----, but, bless
    your 'eart, Miss Flitters, I know your tastes best." "You do,
    indeed," said Miss Flitters. "The thing is perfectly cooked.
    It's delicious. It reminds me of ----. To-day," she added, "I
    am giving a party, and I want you to let us have a very
    charming meal. I will get the things directly after
    breakfast. What do you think we shall need?" "Well, ma'am,"
    said the cook, "you may please yourself about everything
    else, but we've done without a ---- for so long, that I must
    have one." "Quite right," said her mistress.

    She then prepared for going out; and seeing that it looked
    like rain, took a ---- from the cupboard and on her head tied
    a ----. "Bless your 'eart, mum," cried the cook, "you've
    forgot your smelling salts. Suppose you was to feel
    faint--what then? Never mind," she added, "this'll do just as
    well"--handing her a ----. Miss Flitters hurried off at such
    a pace that she ran right into the minister. "I beg your
    pardon," she exclaimed, "I mistook you for a ----." "May I
    come with you?" asked the minister. "Most certainly," said
    Miss Flitters.

    They went first to Buszard's for a ----, and selected two
    particularly juicy ones. Then to Marshall and Snelgrove's for
    a ----. "Is this for the complexion?" asked the minister,
    picking up a ---- from the counter. "La, sir," said Miss
    Flitters, "how little you know of domestic life!" Then they
    went to Fuller's for a ----, and to Jay's for a ----. "It's
    too dear," said Miss Flitters. "Give me a ----instead." At
    the stores they inspected ----. "Haven't you anything
    fresher?" asked Miss Flitters: "I'd as soon buy a ----." None
    the less she bought two and slipped them into her reticule,
    adding as a little gift for the cook a ----.

    The party began at six o'clock. The first to come was Miss
    Kitters. "You don't mind my bringing my work, I know, dear,"
    she exclaimed; "I'm embroidering a ---- for the natives of
    Madagascar, and it must be done soon." Miss Litters came
    next, and being rather short-sighted, sat down on a ----.
    "Never mind," said Miss Flitters. "Oh, I don't," she replied,
    "but it would have been more comfortable if it had been a
    ----." Miss Mitters came just as the clock struck. She was
    wearing a charming ---- trimmed with ----. "What perfect
    taste she has!" the others murmured. Miss Nitters followed.
    Miss Nitters was the exact opposite of Miss Mitters in all
    matters relating to dress. She had no taste at all, and was
    wearing merely a ---- with pompons attached, and in place of
    earrings a couple of ----. "So fast!" whispered Miss Litters.
    Miss Pitters, Miss Ritters, and Miss Titters each brought a
    present. Miss Pitters's present was a silver-plated ----. "So
    useful for the toilet table," she said. Miss Ritters's was a
    Japanese ----, a piece of exquisite workmanship; while Miss
    Titters produced from her pocket a brown paper parcel which
    turned out to contain a very choice ----, an heirloom in the
    Titters family for centuries. "I didn't know whether to bring
    this or a ----," she said; "but father decided me. Father
    always knows best."

    When all were assembled, the guests sat down to supper. But
    here an awkward thing happened. "If you please, mum," the
    cook was heard to whisper in a loud voice, "the ---- hasn't
    come. Shall I get a ---- instead?" "Yes," said Miss Flitters,
    "that will do very well. Don't you think so, Miss Pitters?"
    "I think," was the reply, "I should prefer ----." It was none
    the less an excellent and generous repast. Opposite Miss
    Flitters was a noble ----, flanked by a ---- and a ----. At
    the foot of the table was a dish of ----. "I never tasted
    anything so delicious in my life," said Miss Mitters, taking
    a large helping of ----. "Oh!" said Miss Glitters, "you
    should try the ----. It's yumps." The first course was
    followed by sweets, the most imposing of which was a
    wonderful frosted ---- with Miss Flitters's name in pink
    sugar. "You must all have a piece," said the hostess, "but
    I'm afraid it's rather rich."

    After supper came games, "Blind Man's Buff" and "Hunt the
    Slipper," but as no one cared to lend a slipper, they used
    instead a ----, and it did very well. At midnight the party
    broke up, the guests saying that they never had spent a
    pleasanter evening. As a protection against the cold Miss
    Flitters gave them each a hot ----. She then hurried to bed
    and dreamed all night of ----.



                 THINKING, GUESSING, AND ACTING GAMES


The Ship Alphabet

The players sit in a long row, as if in a class at school. The one
that acts as schoolmaster asks sharply, beginning at one end, "The
name of the letter?" "A," says the player. The schoolmaster turns to
the next player, "the name of the ship?" and straightway begins to
count ten very quickly and sternly. "Andromeda," is perhaps rapped out
before he reaches that number. "The name of the captain?" "Alfred."
"The name of the cargo?" "Armor." "The port she comes from?"
"Amsterdam." "The place she is bound for?" "Antananarivo." "The next
letter?" "B," and so on. If the schoolmaster is very strict and abrupt
with his questions and counting, he can drive every idea from the mind
of the person he points at. If he counts ten before an answer comes,
he passes on to the next, and the next, and the next, until the answer
is given. The one who gives it moves up above those that failed. The
game should be played rapidly.

A variation on this is "When my ship comes in." This is played with a
handkerchief knotted into a ball. Any letter of the alphabet is
chosen; say B. One player throws the handkerchief to another, crying
out, "When my ship comes in it will be laden with ----." The player
who catches the handkerchief must supply a cargo, beginning with B
before ten is counted, bees, butterflies, belts, etc. If he fails to
do this he gives a forfeit. When one letter is exhausted another is
chosen and the game starts over.


I Love My Love

This is not played now as once it was. In the old way the players sat
in a line and went steadily through the alphabet, each one taking a
letter in order. This was the form:--"I love my love with an A,
because he is [a favorable adjective beginning with A]. I hate him
with an A because he is [an unfavorable adjective beginning with A].
He took me to the sign of the [an inn sign beginning with A], and
treated me to [two eatables or an eatable and drinkable beginning with
A]. His name is [a man's name beginning with A], and he comes from [a
town or country beginning with A]." Then B, and so on.

A and B might run thus:--

    I love my love with an A because he is adorable. I hate him
    with an A because he is apish. He took me to the sign of the
    Alderman and treated me to arrowroot and ale. His name is
    Arnold, and he comes from Ayrshire.

    I love my love with a B because he is brisk. I hate him with
    a B because he is bookish. He took me to the sign of the
    Beetle and treated me to biscuits and bovril. His name is
    Brian, and he comes from Boston.

There is no reason why men should always be chosen. For the sake of
variety the love may as well have a woman's name and a woman's
qualities. In that case the inn might perhaps go and some such
sentence as this take its place:--

    I love my love with an A because she is amiable. I hate her
    with an A because she is awesome. We went to Uncle
    Alexander's, and had apricots and Apollinaris. Her name is
    Audrey, and she comes from Annapolis.

As finding seven words beginning with one letter is rather a heavy
task for each player, the words might be taken in turn, as in the case
of the "Ship" game mentioned above.

For a shorter way of playing "I Love my Love" the following form is
used:--"I love my love with an A because he--or she--is [favorable
adjective]. I will send him--or her--to [some place] and feed him--or
her--on [something to eat]. I will give him--or her--an [some article,
the use for which must be mentioned after it], and a bunch of [some
flower] for a nosegay." Thus:--

    I love my love with an A because he is artistic. I will send
    him to Australia, and feed him on asparagus. I will give him
    an alpenstock to climb with, and a bunch of asters for a
    nosegay.


My Thought

The players sit in a row or circle, and one, having thought of
something--of any description whatever--asks them in turn, "What is my
thought like?" Not having the faintest idea what the thought is they
reply at random. One may say, "Like a dog"; another, "Like a
saucepan"; a third, "Like a wet day"; a fourth, "Like a comic opera."
After collecting all the answers the player announces what the thought
was, and then goes along the row again calling upon the players to
explain why it is like the thing named by them. The merit of the game
lies in these explanations. Thus, perhaps the thing thought of was a
concertina. The first player, asked to show why a concertina is like a
dog, may reply, "Because when it is squeezed it howls." The next may
say, "It is like a heavy saucepan because it is held in both hands."
The third, "It is like a wet day because one soon has enough of it";
and the fourth, "It is like a comic opera because it is full of
tunes."


P's and Q's

Another old game of this kind is "P's and Q's." The players sit in a
circle and one stands up and asks them each a question in turn. The
question takes this form, "The King of England [or France, or Germany,
or Africa, or Russia, or India, whatever country it may be] has gone
forth with all his men. Tell me where he has gone, but mind your P's
and Q's." The player who is addressed must then reply, naming, in
whatever country is mentioned, some town that does not begin with P or
Q or with any letter before P in the alphabet. Thus, if the question
refers to England, he may say "Salisbury" but not "Bristol," "Redruth"
but not "Oxford"; or to France, "Toulon" but not "Lyons," "Versailles"
but not "Dieppe."

The game is capable of improvement or, at least, of variety. For
instance, instead of P's and Q's, the questioner may say, "Mind your
K's and L's," or instead of ruling out all letters before P, all
letters after Q may be stopped. And one need not confine the game to
geography, but may adapt it to include animals, or eatables, or books.


The Elements

The players sit in a circle, and the game is begun by one of them
throwing a rolled-up handkerchief to another and at the same time
calling out the name of one of the four elements--air, water, earth,
or fire. If "Air" is called, the player to whom the handkerchief is
thrown must at once mention some creature that flies. Having done so
she throws the handkerchief to some one else, calling perhaps "Earth,"
whereupon that player must mention an animal that inhabits the earth.
And so on. The same animal must not be mentioned twice, and when
"Fire" is called, the player to whom the handkerchief is thrown must
keep silence until she throws it on again. Sometimes each player,
after throwing the handkerchief and calling the element, counts ten as
the limit of time in which the answer must be given. If it is longer
in coming, or if something is mentioned which has been mentioned
before, then a forfeit follows.


Suggestions

This is a game which people either dislike or like very much. The
players sit round the fire or table, and one of them begins by naming
an article of any kind whatever, such as watering-pot. The word
"watering-pot" will immediately suggest something to the next
player--say "gardener." He therefore says "gardener." The next is
perhaps reminded by the word "gardener" of a bunch of violets she saw
the gardener carrying that morning, and she therefore says "violets";
the next at once recollects finding violets when she was in the
country last spring, and she therefore says "Vermont." Thus the game
goes on for, say, ten rounds, by which time, as we have seen already,
the minds of the players have been carried miles away from the
original watering-pot which set them at work. It is now necessary to
trace the series of suggestions back to watering-pot again. This is
done by the last player mentioning, not the last thing that he thought
of, but the thing which suggested that to him. (Thus, the player next
him may have said, in the last round, "an apple-core," which may have
suggested to him "Tom Sawyer." He would not, however, when the task of
retracing begins, say "Tom Sawyer," because to repeat your own words
is too easy, but "an apple-core" and the next player, going backward,
in his turn would repeat the word which suggested "an apple-core" to
him.) The second part of the game, retracing the suggestions, is
naturally more difficult than the first.

In this game two things are very important. One is, that silence
should be maintained; the other, that the word you give should be
suggested to you only by the previous player's remark. Also it is more
fun to be quite honest about it, and really say what was first
suggested, instead of making a choice.


Quotation Games

This is a game which requires some poetical knowledge. The players sit
in a circle and one begins by repeating a line of poetry. The next
caps it by repeating whatever line comes next to it in the poem from
which it is taken. The poem may either be continued or the game may
deal only in couplets or four-lined stanzas. In another quotation game
the first player repeats a line of poetry and the next follows it with
another line of poetry which begins with the last letter of the
previous quotation. Thus, if the first player says--

  It was the schooner _Hesperus_
    That sailed the wintry sea,

the next might cap it with--

  A man's a man for a' that,

and the next with--

  The quality of mercy is not strained.


Two Rhyming Games

Rhyming games require more taxing of brains than most
players care for. The ordinary rhyming game, without using
paper, is for one player to make a remark in an easy metre,
and for the next to add a line completing the couplet. Thus
in one game that was played one player said--

  It is a sin to steal a pin,
    Much more to steal an apple.

And the next finished it by adding--

  And people who are tempted to,
    With Satan ought to grapple.

But this was showing more skill than there is real need for.

An easier rhyming game is that in which the rhyme has to come at the
beginning of the line. The players are seated in a circle and one
begins by asking the next a question of any nature whatever, or by
making any casual remark, the first word of the answer to which must
rhyme with the last word of the question. The game is then started,
each player in turn adding a remark to that made by the one before
him, always observing the rhyming rule. Thus, the original question
may be, "Do you like mince _pies_?" The next player may reply, "_Wise_
people always _do_." The next, "_You_, I suppose, agree with _that_?"
The next, "_Flat_ you may knock me if I _don't_." The next, "_Won't_
you change the subject, _please_?" And the next: "_Eas_-ily; let's
talk of books."


Telling Stories

This is another of those fireside games that need more readiness of
mind than many persons think a game should ask for. The first player
begins an original story, stopping immediately (even in the middle of
a sentence) when the player who is appointed time-keeper says "Next."
The next player takes it up; and so forth until the end comes, either
at the end of the first round or whatever round seems best.

Another way is for each player to contribute only a single word; but
this is rarely successful, because every one is not at the same pitch
of attention. Except on the part of the person who is narrating there
ought to be absolute silence.


Clumps

The company, according to the number of persons, divides up into two
or three or even four groups, or clumps, in different parts of the
room, seated closely in circles. As many players as there are clumps
then go out and decide on some extremely out-of-the-way thing which
the clumps have to guess. In one game, for example, the mine was
thought of from which the iron was taken to lay the first railroad
rails in America. That is the kind of far-fetched and ingenious thing.
When it is decided upon, the players return to the room and take their
places, one in the midst of each clump. Questions are then put to them
the answers to which must be either "Yes" or "No," and the clump that
discovers the thing first is the winner.


Other Yes and No Games

The same game can be played without such keen rivalry, one player
sitting in the midst of a great circle and answering questions in
turn. There is also a game called "Man and Object," in which two
players go out and decide upon a man (or woman) and something
inanimate or not human with which he is associated or which he is
known to have used, such as "Washington and his hatchet," "Whittington
and his cat," "A druid and his mistletoe-knife." They then return and
each player asks them each a question in turn until the problem is
solved.

The same game is sometimes turned inside out, the players that remain
in the room deciding upon some one whom the player that has gone out
has to personate and discover. In this case it is he who puts the
questions. As he is supposed for the time being actually to be the
thing thought of, he ought to frame his questions accordingly: "Am I
living?" "Have I been dead long?" "Am I a man?" and so forth.


My Right-Hand Neighbor

This is a catch game and useless except when one of the company knows
nothing about it. That player is sent out of the room, and after a due
interval is called in again and told to guess what the other players
have thought of. He may ask any questions he pleases that can be
answered by "Yes" or "No." The thing thought of is each player's
right-hand neighbor, who is of course so different in every case as
to lead in time to the total bewilderment of the guesser.


How, When, and Where

One player leaves the room, while the others decide on some word, the
name of a thing for choice (such as tale, tail), which has one
pronunciation but two or three different meanings and perhaps
spellings. They then sit in a circle or line and the other player is
called in, his object being, by means of questions put in turn to each
player, to discover what the word is. His questions must take the
form, "How do you like it?" "When do you like it?" and "Where do you
like it?" Let us suppose that "tale" is the word thought of. "How do
you like it?" he will ask the first of the circle. The answer may be,
"I like it amusing" (tale). "How do you like it?" he may ask the next.
"I like it active" (tail). To the next, "When do you like it?" "I like
it at night" (tale). To the next, "Where do you like it?" "At the end"
(tail). To the next, "Where do you like it?" "In an armchair" (tale).
And so on until he guesses the word.


Coffee-Pot

A similar game is called "Coffee-Pot" or "Tea-Pot." In this case also
the company think of a word with more than one meaning, but instead of
answering questions about it they make a pretense of introducing it
into their answers by putting the word "coffee-pot" in its place. As
the player who is guessing is at liberty to put any kind of question
he likes it is well to choose a word that will go easily into ordinary
conversation. Let us suppose, for instance, that the word is rain,
reign, rein. The questions and answers may run something like
this:--"Are you feeling pretty well to-day?" "I always feel well when
there is no coffee-pot" (rain). "Have you been reading anything
interesting lately?" "Yes, a very interesting book on the present
coffee-pot" (reign). "I hope your toothache is better." "Thank you, I
hope its coffee-pot will soon be over" (reign). "Did you walk here
this evening?" "No; we came with the assistance of the coffee-pot"
(rein). The guesser is allowed to make three guesses aloud, but after
that he must meditate on the word in silence or put questions to test
his theories. If the word is a verb and a past tense or present tense
has to be used in an answer, the player says "coffee-potted" or
"coffee-potting."


Throwing Light

This is much like "How, When, and Where," except that instead of
asking questions the player, or players, that went out sit still and
listen to the others talking to each other concerning the selected
word's various meanings. Thus, if it is "Spring," the first may
remark, "It makes our drives so much more comfortable"; the next, "I
am always happier then than at any other time"; the next, "To drink
there is to know what drinking really is"; and so on.


Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral.

This is also a similar game to "How, When, and Where," except that the
player who goes out of the room has, on his return, to guess something
belonging to one of these three groups. His first question therefore
is, "Is it animal?" Perhaps it is not. "Is it vegetable?" "No." He
knows then that it is mineral, and after that to find out what it is
is only a matter of time.


Proverbs

One or two players go out. The others sit in line and choose a proverb
having as many words as there are players. Thus, if there were eight
players, "They love too much who die for love" would do; or if more
than eight, two short proverbs might be chosen. Each player having
made certain what his word is, the others are called in. It is their
duty to find out what proverb has been fixed upon, and the means of
doing so is to ask each player in turn a question on any subject
whatever, the answer to which must contain that player's word in the
proverb. If the first round of questions does not reveal the proverb,
they go round again and again.


Shouting Proverbs

In this game, instead of answering questions one by one, when the
guesser or guessers come in the players at a given signal shout the
words which belong to them at the top of their voice and all together.
The guessers have to separate the proverb from the din.


Acting Proverbs

This is a very simple acting game. The players should divide
themselves into actors and audience. The actors decide upon a proverb,
and in silence represent it to the audience as dramatically as
possible. Such proverbs as "Too many cooks spoil the broth," and "A
bad workman quarrels with his tools," would be very easy--almost too
easy if any stress is laid upon guessing. But, of course, although the
guessing is understood to be part of the fun, the acting is the thing.


Acting Initials

Two players go out. The others choose the name of a well-known person,
public or private, the letters of whose name are the same in number as
the players left in the room. Thus, supposing there are seven persons
in the room, the name might be Dickens. The letters are then
distributed; each player, as soon as he knows which letter is his,
selecting some well-known living or historical character beginning
with the same letter, whom he has to describe or personate. To
personate is more fun than to describe. The players seat themselves
in the right order to spell the name, and the other two are called in.
When they are ready the first player, D, is called on to describe or
impersonate his letter; and so on in the right order.


Acting Verbs, or Dumb Crambo

In this game the company divides into two. One half goes out, and the
one that remains decides upon a verb which the others shall act in
dumb show. A messenger is then despatched to tell the actors what the
chosen word rhymes to. Thus, if "weigh" were the verb fixed upon, the
messenger might announce that it rhymes to "day." It is then well for
the actors to go through the alphabet for verbs--bay, bray, lay,
neigh, pay, prey, pray, play, stay, say; and act them in order. When
the word is wrong the spectators hiss, but when right they clap. If
the word chosen has two syllables, as "obey," notice ought to be
given.


Guessing Employments

A very simple game. One player goes out. The others decide on some
workman to represent, each pretending to do some different task
belonging to his employment. Thus, if they choose a carpenter, one
will plane, one will saw, one will hammer, one will chisel, and so on.
Their occupation has then to be guessed. It is perhaps more
interesting if each player chooses a separate trade.


Stool of Repentance

One player goes out. The others then say in turn something personal
about him--such as, "He has a pleasant voice"; "His eye is piercing";
"He would look better if he wore a lower collar." Those remarks are
written down by one of the party, and the player is called in and
placed on a chair in the middle. The recorder then reads the remarks
that he has collected, and the player in the middle has to name the
persons who made them.


Eyes

A sheet, or a screen made of newspapers, is hung up, and two holes, a
little larger than eyes and the same distance apart, are made in it.
Half the players retire to one side of it, and half stay on the other.
They then look through the holes in turn, while those on the opposite
side try to name the owner of the eyes. The game sounds tame, but the
difficulty of recognition and the false guesses made soon lead to
laughter.


Making Obeisance

This is a trick. Those in the company who have never played the game
go out of the room. One of the inside players, who is to represent the
potentate, then mounts a chair and is covered with a sheet which
reaches to the ground. At the point where it touches a shoe is placed,
the toe of which is just visible. In the potentate's hand is a sponge
full of water. One of the players outside is then invited in; he is
told to kneel down and kiss the toe; the potentate on the chair leans
forward a little to bring his sponge immediately over the subject's
head; and a shower-bath follows. Then another subject is admitted, but
after a while there is enough water on the floor to make them
suspicious.


Mesmerism

Another trick. The players who are to be mesmerized--among them being
the one or two who do not know the game--stand in a row, each holding
a dinner-plate in the left hand. The mesmerizer, who also has a
dinner-plate, faces them, and impresses on them very seriously the
importance, if they really want to be mesmerized, of doing exactly
what he does and not moving their eyes from him in any direction. He
then holds the plate flat, rubs the first finger of his right hand on
the bottom of it, and makes an invisible cross on his forehead, on
each cheek, and on the tip of his nose. That is all. The trick lies in
the fact that the plates of the players who do not know the game have
been held in the flame of a candle until they are well blacked. This
means that when the mesmerism is over they each have black marks on
their faces, and know nothing about it until they are led to a
looking-glass.


Thought-Reading Tricks

In all thought-reading games it is best that only the two performers
should know the secret. Of these two, one goes out of the room and the
other stays in, after having first arranged on the particular trick
which will be used. Perhaps the company will then be asked to settle
on a trade. Let us say that they decide on a chemist. The other player
is then called in, and his companion puts questions to him in this
way:--"You have to name the trade which we have thought of. Is it a
grocer?" "No." "Is it a draper?" "No." "Is it a goldsmith?" "No." "Is
it a fruiterer?" "No." "Is it a lawyer?" "No." "Is it a chemist?"
"Yes." This will look rather mysterious to some of the company; but
the thing is really simple enough. The questioner merely arranged with
his companion that the trade thought of should follow a profession.

Perhaps on the next occasion the company will be asked to think of an
article in the room. Let us say that they fix on the clock. The
questions will then run something like this:--"You have to name the
article in this room which has been thought of. Is it the piano?"
"No." "Is it the curtain-rod?" "No." "Is it the carpet?" "No." "Is it
the fireplace?" "No." "Is it the sideboard?" "No." "Is it the
armchair?" "No." "Is it the clock?" "Yes." This again is bewildering;
but again the trick is very simple, the questioner having arranged
that the article shall follow something that has four legs.

A third way is for an article to be touched and for the thought-reader
to be asked to name it. "Is it this?" "Is it this?" "Is it this?" is
asked of one thing after another, the answer always being "No." "Is it
that?" "Yes." The secret is that the article touched is always
signified by "Is it that?" But in this case, and in that of the others
already described, the effect of mystification can be increased by
arranging beforehand that the article in question shall not follow the
key phrase immediately, but, say, two questions later.

A fourth way is for the questioner to begin each question in due order
with a letter of the French word for the article touched. Thus, if it
were the bell, he might say, "_C_ome now, was it the table?" "_L_ook,
was it the armchair?" "_O_r the piano?" "_C_ome now, was it this
book?" "_H_ow about this hearth-rug?" "_E_ndeavor to be quick, please.
Was it the clock?" By this time "Cloche" has been spelled, so that the
next question is, "Was it the bell?" "Yes."

In another form of "Thought-reading" the two players who know the
secret remain in the room long enough for the trick to be made sure.
One stands in a corner and the other calls loudly, "Ebenezer, do you
hear?" (Ebenezer is the usual name, but a more attractive one would
do.) Ebenezer says nothing, but listens attentively to hear who among
the company speaks first. The other player repeats the question and
still there is no answer. Soon after that some one will perhaps make a
remark, and then Ebenezer, having got what he was waiting for, says,
"Yes, I hear." "Then leave the room," says the other player, and
Ebenezer goes out. The other player then makes a great show of
choosing some one to touch, but ends by touching the person who spoke
first after the game began. This done, Ebenezer is called in to say
who was touched, and every one is puzzled by his knowledge.


To Guess Any Number Thought of

With these thought-reading tricks may be put one or two arithmetical
puzzles. Here is a way to find out the number that a person has
thought of. Tell him to think of any number, odd or even. (Let us
suppose that he thinks of 7.) Then tell him to double it (14), add 6
to it (20), halve it (10), and multiply it by 4 (40). Then ask him how
many that makes. He will say 40. You divide this in your mind by 2
(20), subtract 6 (14), divide by 2 again (7), and astonish him by
saying that the number of which he thought was 7.


To Guess Any Even Number Thought of

In this case you insist on the number chosen being an even number. Let
us suppose it is 8. Tell him to multiply by 3 (24), halve it (12),
multiply by 3 again (36), and then to tell you how many times 9 will
go into the result. He will say 4. Double this in your mind and tell
him that he thought of 8.


To Guess the Result of a Sum

Another trick. Tell the person to think of a number, to double it, add
6 to it, halve it and take away the number first thought of. When this
has been done you tell him that 3 remains. If these directions are
followed 3 must always remain. Let us take 7 and 1 as examples. Thus 7
doubled is 14; add 6 and it is 20; halved, it is 10; and if the number
first thought of--7--is subtracted, 3 remains. Again, 1 doubled is 2;
6 added makes 8; 8 halved is 4, and 1 from 4 leaves 3.

A more bewildering puzzle is this. Tell as many persons as like to, to
think of some number less than 1,000, in which the last figure is
smaller than the first. Thus 998 might be thought of, but not 999, and
not 347. The amount being chosen and written down, you tell each
person to reverse the digits; so that the units come under the
hundreds, the tens under the tens, and the hundreds under the units.
Then tell them to subtract, to reverse again, and add; remarking to
each one that you know what the answer will be. It will always be
1089. Let us suppose that three players choose numbers, one being 998,
one 500, and one 321. Each sets them on paper, reverses the figures,
and subtracts. Thus:--

  998  500  321
  899  005  123
  ---  ---  ---
  099  495  198

The figures are then reversed and added. Thus:--

   099   495   198
   990   594   891
  ----  ----  ----
  1089  1089  1089


Guessing Competitions

Guessing competitions, which are of American invention, can be an
interesting change from ordinary games. In some the company are all
asked to contribute, as in "Book Teas," where a punning symbolic title
of a book is worn by each guest, and a prize is given to the person
who guesses most, and to the person whose title is considered the
best. Thus, a person wearing a card having the letter R represented
_Middlemarch_, and a person with catkins in his buttonhole, _Hazell's
Annual_. But simpler devices are just as interesting.

In other guessing competitions the preparations are the affair of the
household which gives the party. It is with these that we are
concerned here. Giving prizes certainly adds to the interest of them.


Guessing Quantities

Several articles of number are placed on a table, say a box of
matches, a bag of beans, a reel of cotton or ball of string, a large
stone, a stick, a photograph, and various coins with the date side
turned down. Each of the company is provided with a card on which
these articles are written, and the object is to guess as nearly as
possible something about each; for instance, how many matches there
are in the box, how many beans in the bag, the length of the string,
the weight of the stone, the length of the stick, the age of the
person in the photograph, and the date of each coin. The right answers
are, of course, ascertained beforehand and written on a card in the
hostess's possession.


Observation

The real name of this game may be something else, but "Observation"
explains it. A small table is covered with a variety of articles, to
the extent of some twenty or thirty. It is then covered with a cloth
and placed in the middle of the room. The players stand round it and
the cloth is removed for a minute (or longer). During that time the
aim of each player is to note and remember as many of the things as
possible. The cloth is then put on again and the players have five
minutes in which to write the fullest list they can of the objects
seen.


Scents

A more puzzling competition is to place a row of large bottles on the
table, all numbered, at the bottom of each of which is a small amount
of liquid bearing a noticeable scent. Some may be toilet scents, and
others medicines or essences used in cooking. A card numbered
according to the bottles is given to each player, and the game is to
guess as many of the scents as possible.


The Topsy-Turvy Concert

The performers in this concert, who should be of nearly the same size,
take their places behind a sheet stretched across the room at the
height of their chins. They then put stockings on their arms and boots
on their hands (or this may be done before they come into the room),
and stand looking over the sheet at the company, with their hands and
arms carefully hidden. The concert begins by the singing of the first
verse of a song. Immediately the verse is finished, the singers,
stooping down so that their heads disappear from view, thrust up their
arms and wave them about, the effect being that of a row of people
standing on their heads. The chorus is thus sung. Then they pull down
their arms and put up their heads again and sing the next verse.


The Dancing Dwarf

This is a very amusing illusion and easy to arrange. All the players
but two are sent out of the room and these stand behind a table. One
stands close to the table, his arms in front of him so that the
fingers rest on the table. Boots, or stockings and shoes, are put on
their arms and a long dark cloak is thrown over the shoulders of the
first player covering the one behind him. The one behind furnishes the
arms by thrusting his out in front. The little feet resting on the
table show from the folds of the cloak and give the appearance of a
dwarf. The players are then called back and the dwarf, whose face
should be disguised, performs any feat that they ask for--he sings a
song, or makes a speech or prophesies the future of any one who
desires it, always ending with a wild dance performed by the arms and
hands of the other person. The light should be turned down somewhat
and the audience should be straight in front of the table to keep the
illusion at its best.

[Illustration: THE DANCING DWARF]


Charades

"Charades" can be written in advance and carefully rehearsed, but in
this book we are concerned more nearly with those that are arranged a
few minutes (the fewer the better) before they are performed. As a
rule a word of two or three syllables is chosen, the syllables are
first acted, then the whole word, and then the audience guess what it
was. Sometimes the word is brought in, both in its complete form and
in its syllables; and sometimes--and this is perhaps the better
way--it is acted. Thus, if the word were "Treason," one way would be
to make the acts themselves anything that occurred to you, merely
saying "Tree" with some distinctness in the first; "Son" or "Sun" in
the second; and "Treason" in the third. The other and more interesting
way would be to make the first act relate to tree-felling or tree
planting, or, say, a performance by Mr. Tree; the second to a son or
the sun; and the third to some treasonable situation, such as, for
example, the Gunpowder Plot. On account of the time which is occupied
in preparing and acting it is better to choose two-syllabled
words--which, with the whole word, make three scenes--than three- or
four-syllabled ones; although there are certain four-syllabled words
which split naturally into two halves of two syllables each.
"Parsimony," for example, could be performed: Parsee, money,
parsimony. As a general rule the charades that are arranged during the
evening are better performed in dumb show, with plenty of action, than
with any talking at all. Under the circumstances gestures are so much
easier than words and not any less amusing.


Dumb Performances

Very good fun can be had also from impromptu pantomimes, where the
performers enact some story which every one knows, such as "Aladdin"
or "Red Riding Hood" or "Cinderella"; or a scene from history proper,
or from village or family history. The contrast between the splendor
of Cinderella's carriage in the story and the old perambulator which
has to serve in the charade only adds to the fun. Every one, being
dumb, acts to the utmost. It is sometimes more amusing if all the
parts are turned upside down and a boy plays the heroine and a girl
the hero. Where the scene is too tremendous for any representation to
be given, it is best to meet the case frankly and use, as they did in
Shakespeare's day, written labels, such as "This is Aladdin's Palace."


Dressing Up

It is, of course, much more fun to dress up; but dressing up is not so
important that a charade is spoiled without it. If, on the day of your
party, you know that charades will play a part in it, it is wise to
put in a convenient room a number of things suitable to dress up in.
Then at the last minute there need be no furious running up-stairs to
pull things out of closets and boxes, and the unpleasantness will be
avoided which sometimes follows when you have taken somebody's best
clothes for a rather violent performance.

Almost the best garment there is for dressing-up purposes is a fur
coat. While priceless for Red Riding Hood's wolf it will make also
most of the other animals in the Zoo. A soldier's uniform is a great
possession, and a real policeman's helmet has made the success of many
charades. Most kinds of hat can, however, easily be made on the
morning of a party out of brown paper. Epaulettes and cockades are
also easily made of the same material. Powder or flour for white hair,
some corks for moustaches and beards (you hold them in the candle for
a minute and wait till they are cool enough to use), and a packet of
safety-pins should be in handy places. Cherry tooth-paste makes
serviceable rouge.


Tableaux Vivants

"Tableaux Vivants" are a change from acting, but they need, if done at
all well, a great deal of preparation and rehearsal, and are therefore
perhaps better left to older people. But quickly-arranged groups
representing (not too seriously) scenes in American history might be
good fun.


Remarks on Acting

The drawback to all charades and dressing up at a party is that they
make away with so much valuable time of the players who are out of the
room, and unsettle those who are left in. It should be the first duty
of every one taking part in acting at parties to decide quickly on the
subject or word, and to perform it quickly. Many and many a party has
been spoiled by the slowness of the actors outside. Historical or
family scenes with no dressing up and some action are perhaps better
than much dressing up and absolute stillness. In "Canute and the
Waves," for example, it is better that the incoming tide should be
represented by a boy rolling slowly over the carpet than that there
should be nothing but fixed eyes and stern faces.



                           RAINY-DAY GAMES


This is a chapter written to meet the needs of several children shut
up together in bad weather. The chapter on "Indoor Occupation and
Things to Make" gives suggestions for a single child, but here are a
few suggestions for several occupations for a group of children, which
do not mean the destruction of the furniture.

Any one of the games given in the chapter "In the Train" is suitable
for rainy days.

There are of course many games treated elsewhere in this book which
can be played on rainy days indoors. Many of the parlor and outdoor
games are equally suitable for indoors. All the card games and
back-gammon, checkers, etc., are invaluable resorts in case of a long
dreary day, but there are a few other recreations which, in some
families are saved for such occasions.


Bean-Bags

One of these is the old fashioned game of bean-bag. One rainy morning
can be spent in making the outfit. The girls can be occupied in making
the cloth bags, from six to ten inches square, partly filled with
beans: and the boys in making the board which is shown in the
illustration.

It should be about three feet square of any sort of boards and propped
up at one side so that it forms an inclined plane. Five holes are cut
in it, about seven inches square, all but the centre one which is only
five inches square. The players stand off from six to twelve feet
according as their skill increases with practice and try to throw the
bags through the holes. There are various rules for playing the game
which you can arrange to suit yourself, or to make a change. One way
is have the bags in sets of six, each six being of one color,
different from the others. The players stand in a line and all throw
at once, trying to get their six bags in the holes as soon as
possible. When they have thrown their bags they rush up to the board,
gather up those which have gone wild and run back to the firing line.
The one who gets his six bags in first wins the game. A bag thrown
through the small centre hole counts as two.

[Illustration: BEAN-BAG BOARD]

Another way to play it is to throw in turn, each throwing all his six
bags one after another. The one who gets most in is the winner.


Ring-Toss

Ring-toss is another game in which skill can be acquired only through
practice and it is very good for rainy-days. It is really indoor
quoits, and is a favorite game for shipboard. Any one with a little
patience and care can make the rings which are of rope fastened
together with slanting seam, wound with string so that there is no
bulging, overlapping hump at one side.

[Illustration: ROPE RING]

A stake is nailed upright to a board (the stake can be a section of an
old broom handle, or a smooth, small, straight peeled branch of a
tree) and the outfit for the game is complete. It is played with the
same rules as quoits (see "Outdoor Games for Boys"), and a very
considerable degree of skill can be obtained by practice. As in
pitching quoits, the rings should be thrown with a little level twist
to make them whirl about.


Ring-the-Nail

A variation of this can be played with common large nails and brass
curtain rings. Eight nails are driven into a board in a circle,
leaving about an inch sticking up. In the centre, one is driven,
standing about three inches tall. Small rings, curtain rings, for
instance, are thrown toward this. Each time they encircle one of the
lower nails is counted five, and the centre nail ten.


Soap-Bubbles

A soap-bubble race is easy to arrange and very good fun. An old shawl
or blanket is laid on a table or the floor, goals are made at each end
of it with piles of books, leaving an opening between, and each person
is provided with a pipe for blowing bubbles. One bowl of soap-bubbles
is enough for the company (see page 279 on the best way to make
lasting soap-bubbles). The game is to see who can most quickly blow a
bubble, deposit it on the woolen cloth at one end and blow it through
the goal at the other. Of course you try to direct your puffs so that
you will not only blow your own bubble along but will force your
opponent's back.

Another way is to stretch a cord across the room and divide into two
sides, standing three feet from the cord. At a given signal dip your
pipes in the bowl of soap-suds, blow a bubble, and try to blow it over
the cord. The side which succeeds in landing most bubbles in the
enemy's territory wins.


Jack-Stones

A game which is good, quiet fun for a rainy day is Jack-stones.
Although not played much nowadays it is very interesting and is to
indoors what "mumble-the-peg" is to outdoors. It is played usually
with small pieces of iron with six little feet: but it can also be
played with small pebbles all of a size. All kinds of exercises can be
used, many of which you can invent yourself but a few of the commonest
are given below. 1. The five stones are thrown up and caught on the
back of the hand. 2. Four of the stones are held in the hand while one
is thrown up. They must then be laid on the table, or floor, in time
to catch the stone before it comes down. It is then thrown up again,
and the four stones are picked up either one at a time or all
together, and the stone caught again.

Nearly all the exercises are variations of this. One stone is thrown
up and different things must be done quickly with the others before it
falls again.


Tying Knots

Another occupation for rainy days that will interest several children
(as well as one) is puzzling out the construction of some of the
simplest sailor's knots. This is a useful and a very desirable
accomplishment. Often several together can solve a difficult knot
better than one, and after some proficiency is acquired it is
interesting to have a competition to see who can tie them most quickly
and perfectly. Every one is supplied with a piece of clothes-line (the
best rope for this purpose) and some one calls out "Running Noose," or
"Figure of Eight." Every one must then make this as quickly as
possible.

It is impossible to give directions in words about tying knots. The
best way is to get clear illustrations and then work over them until
you have mastered the intricacies. A few simple knots are shown here,
but there are many books which give an almost endless variety.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. OVERHAND KNOT]

[Illustration: FIG. 2. HALF-HITCH]

[Illustration: FIG. 3. FIGURE OF EIGHT]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. COMMON BEND]

[Illustration: FIG. 5. SAILOR'S KNOT]

[Illustration: FIG. 6. RUNNING NOOSE]

[Illustration: FIG. 7. CROSSED RUNNING NOOSE]

[Illustration: FIG. 8. BOWLINE KNOT]

[Illustration: FIG. 9. DOGSHANK]


Illustrating

A competitive game which is easy to manage is hit-or-miss
illustrating. Any old magazine (the more the better) will furnish the
material. Figures, furniture, landscape, machines--anything and
everything--is cut out from the advertisement or illustrations, and
put in a box or basket in the middle of the table. Every one is given
a piece of paper and a proverb is selected for illustrating. Twenty
minutes is allowed to choose suitable pictures, to paste them on to
sheets of paper and to add, with pencil, accessories that are
necessary: and then results are compared. The variety and excellence
of these patchwork pictures are surprising. This can be played during
convalescence. It is not necessary to select a proverb for
illustrating. Any suggestive title will do. A few that have been found
fruitful of varied and spirited pictures are given here.

  A trying moment.
  Companions in misery.
  This is my busy day.
  "I didn't know it was loaded."
  His proudest moment.
  The unhappy experimenter.
  The best of friends.
  A great scare.
  Fine weather for ducks.
  "Won't you have some?"
  "Don't we make a pretty picture?"
  Too busy to stop.
  No harm done.
  "I didn't mean to do it."
  Stage-struck.
  A great success.
  "See you later."
  A temporary quarrel.
  A narrow escape.
  A happy family.
  The peace-maker.
  A happy mother.


Shuffle-Board

A game which is often played on shipboard can be modified for an
indoor, rainy day game very easily. This is shuffle-board, all the
outfit for which you can easily make yourself. If you can have a long
table that scratching will not injure your board is all ready, but you
can easily procure a common, smooth-finished piece of plank, two feet
wide, if possible, and four feet long. On one end mark a diagram like
the preceding, about ten inches by eight inches. Mark a line at the
other end of the board about four inches from the edge, put your
counters on the line and you are ready to play. The counters may be
checkers (or any round pieces of wood) or twenty-five cent pieces, or
large flat buttons, although discs of lead are the best because the
heaviest. Your pusher should be a little tool made especially, like
the illustration, about a foot long, and anybody with a jack-knife can
whittle a satisfactory "shovel" as it is called.

[Illustration]

But if an impromptu game is desired, your counters may be pushed off
with a common ruler, with a long lead-pencil, or even snapped with the
finger nail, though this is apt to hurt. Each player has six counters
which he plays by three's, thus one person begins by shoving off three
of his counters toward the board on the end, trying to make them fall
on the places that count the highest. The next player then shoots
three of his counters, trying not only to place his own men well but
to dislodge his adversary's men if they are in good places. After all
have played in turn, the first player shoots his other three counters
and so on till all have played again. At the close of each round the
board is inspected and each person is credited with the sum of the
numbers on which his men rest. The game is continued thus, until some
one has reached the limit set, which may be a hundred, or fifty, or
any other number according to the skill of the players.

The counters of each player may be distinguished from the others by
any distinctive sign marked on them. They must not be pushed along but
struck a sharp blow with your shovel. The head of your shovel must not
pass the line marked for the counters. Counters which rest on, or
touch a line do not count. A very considerable degree of skill can be
attained in this game and it is a never failing resource on dull days.

A rainy day is a good time to practice various tricks and puzzles so
as to perfect yourself in performing them.


Balancing Tricks

There are a number of balancing tricks which are easy and ingenious.
The secret of most such tricks is in keeping the centre of gravity
low, and when this idea is once mastered you can invent tricks to suit
yourself. For instance a tea-cup can be balanced on the point of a
pencil thus: put a cork through the handle of the cup (it should be
just large enough to be pushed in firmly) and stick a fork into it,
with two prongs on each side of the handle, and with the handle under
the bottom of the cup. (Fig. 1.) The centre of gravity is thus made
low, and if you experiment a little and have a little skill, and a
steady hand you can balance the whole on a pencil's point.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

Or you can balance a coin edgeway on a needle's point. The needle is
stuck firmly into the cork of a bottle, and the coin is fixed in a
slit cut in a cork, in which two forks are stuck. (Fig. 2.)

The simplest of these tricks is to balance a pencil on the tip of your
finger by sticking two pen-knives in it, one on each side. (Fig. 3.)

A cork with two forks stuck in it can be made to balance almost
anywhere--on the neck of a bottle from which the contents are being
poured for instance. (See fig. 4.)

Amusing toys can be constructed on this principle. Tumbling dolls are
made of light wood or cork, glued to the flat side of a half bullet.
No matter how often they are knocked flat, they rise again at once.


The Dancing Egg

Another good trick that needs a little practice is to make an egg
dance. Boil an egg hard, keeping it in an upright position (between
cups set in the water or in some other way). Then turn a plate bottom
side up and put the egg on it. Turn the plate around, more and more
quickly, always holding it flat and level, and the egg will rise on
its end and stand quite straight while it spins about.


The Dancing Pea

A pea can be made to dance on a column of air as you sometimes see a
rubber ball rising and falling in a fountain of water. Take a piece of
a clay pipe about three inches long, and make one end into a little
rounded cup, by cutting the clay carefully with a knife or file. Then
run two small pins cross-wise through a big, round pea, put the end of
one pin in the pipe and hold the pipe in an upright position over your
mouth. Blow gently through the pipe and the pea will dance up and
down.


The Glass-Maker

Another trick to play with pins is the glass-making pin. Cut an
ordinary rubber band in two, and stick a bent pin through the middle
of this. Now hold an end of the elastic in each hand and whirl it
rapidly around, stretching it a little. The revolving pin will at once
assume the appearance of a tiny glass vase, or tumbler, and the shape
can be varied at will. It is best to have a strong ray of light on the
pin and the rest of the room darkened.

[Illustration: THE GLASS-MAKER]


Electricity

Various tricks can be played by means of the electricity in paper.
Ordinary sealing wax, rubbed briskly on a coat-sleeve until it is warm
will attract bits of tissue paper, or any other soft paper. A
variation on jack-straws can be played by means of this trick. Tiny
scraps of tissue paper, each numbered, are piled in the centre of the
table and each player by means of a piece of sealing wax tries to draw
out the greatest number in the shortest time. This is a fascinating
game and arranged impromptu in a very short time. The pieces of paper
need not be of tissue paper, as any very thin paper will do. They
should be about a quarter of an inch wide by an inch long and numbered
up to twenty. They must be removed from the centre pile and put in
piles before the players without touching with the fingers. It will be
found that shaking them off the sealing wax is often harder than
making them stick to it. Of course an effort should be made to secure
those pieces of paper which have the largest numbers on them, as a few
of these count more than many of the others.

Electric dancers are easy to make. Cut little figures out of tissue
paper and lay them on the table. Put on each side of them two books
and lay a sheet of glass over them about an inch and a half above
them. Rub the glass briskly with a flannel cloth and they will jump up
and down.

[Illustration: ELECTRIC DANCERS]

A rubber comb rubbed with a silk handkerchief will attract small bits
of paper, feathers or wool. Various games and tricks can be devised by
this means, such as "bringing the dead to life," _i. e._, raising
paper figures to an upright position from a grave made of books, or a
box.



                       OUTDOOR GAMES FOR GIRLS


Outdoor games for girls and outdoor games for boys are very often the
same, although they are separated here for the sake of convenience.


Battledore and Shuttlecock

"Battledore and Shuttlecock" is equally good for one player or for
two. The only game to be played is to see how long the shuttlecock can
be kept in the air. If you are alone the best way is to set yourself a
number, say a hundred, and persevere until you reach it. This can be
varied by striving to reach, say, thirty, by first hitting the ball
each time as hard as possible, and then hitting it very gently so that
it hardly rises at all.


Jumping Rope

Ordinary skipping is good enough fun for most of us, but for those who
are not satisfied with it there is skipping extraordinary, one feat of
which is now and then to send the rope round twice before you touch
the ground again. To do this, as it cannot be done with a mere rope,
you must make a new rope of whipcord, in the middle of which you place
a small chain about a foot long. This chain gives the weight necessary
for whirling the rope very swiftly through the air.


Tom Tiddler's Ground

The player who is first going to be Tom Tiddler stands or sits inside
the part of the garden (or room) marked off for him, pretending to be
asleep. The others venture on his ground, crying, "Here we are on Tom
Tiddler's ground, picking up gold and silver." As Tom still sleeps
they grow bolder and bolder until he suddenly awakens and dashes for
them. The one that is caught becomes Tom Tiddler. Tom may not cross
the boundary-line.


Old Stone

Another "Tom Tiddler's Ground." One player crouches down pretending to
be a stone. The others run round about her, gradually, as she shows no
sign of life, getting nearer and more bold. The stone suddenly leaps
up and begins to chase them, and the one caught is the old stone.


Hen and Chickens

Even more exciting than "Tom Tiddler's Ground" is "Hen and Chickens."
In this game one player represents a fox and sits on the ground
looking sly and hungry. The others, who are the hen and chickens, form
a procession, holding each other's skirts or coats by both hands, and
march past the fox, saying in turn--

  Chickany, chickany, crany crow,
  I went to the well to wash my toe,
  And when I came back a chicken was dead.

Then they leave go of each other and stand round the fox, and the
leader, the hen, says, "What are you doing, old fox?" The fox replies,
"Making a fire"; and the conversation goes on like this:--

  The Hen: What for?
  The Fox: To boil some water.
  The Hen: What is the water for?
  The Fox: To scald a chicken.
  The Hen: Where will you get it?
  The Fox: Out of your flock.

With these words the fox springs up and the hen and chickens run in
all directions. The chicken that is caught becomes the new fox, and
the old fox is the new hen, the leader of the procession.

The same game is played by Essex children with an old woman in place
of the fox, and with different words. In this case the hen and
chickens make a procession in front of a player who personates an old
weeping woman. As they march by, the hen sings--

  Chickens, come clock, come clock, come clock,
  Chickens, come clock, come clock, come clock,
  The hawks are away and the crows are asleep,
  It's time that my chickens had something to eat.

Then they leave go of each other and stand round the old weeping
woman, and between her and the hen the following conversation is held:

  The Hen:       What are you crying for, my poor old woman?
  The Old Woman: Because I've lost my needle.
  The Hen:       What do you want a needle for?
  The Old Woman: To sew a bag with.
  The Hen:       What do you want a bag for?
  The Old Woman: To put salt in.
  The Hen:       What do you want salt for?
  The Old Woman: To scour a saucepan.
  The Hen:       What do you want a saucepan for?
  The Old Woman: To boil one of your chickens in.

The old woman then leaps up and tries to catch a chicken, and the hen
tries to stop her.


Other Garden Games

Many of the games described in other parts of this book are good also
for the garden; such as "Still Pond! No More Moving!" (p. 4), "Puss in
the Corner" (p. 7), "Honey-pots" (p. 11), "Nuts in May" (p. 12), "Here
I Bake" (p. 13), "Lady Queen Anne" (p. 20), "The Mulberry Bush" (p.
28), and "Looby, Looby" (p. 29).


Witches

"Witches" is a home-made game played thus, according to the
description of E. H.--"One player is made witch. A good spot is
chosen for home, and here the others wait until the witch has had time
to hide. The idea is that the country round is preyed upon by the
witch, home being the only place where she has no power. The rest of
the children have to explore the witch's country without being caught
by her. It must be a point of honor to leave no suspicious place
unexamined. The child chosen for witch need not be a particularly fast
runner, but she must be clever and a good dodger. Any one that the
witch succeeds in touching is at once turned to stone and may not stir
except as she is moved about by the witch, who chooses a spot to stand
her victim in as far removed from home as possible. The stone can be
released only by some other child finding her and dragging her safely
home, where the spell ceases to act. But until actually home the
victim remains stone, so that if the rescuer is surprised by the witch
and lets go her hold, the stone has to stand where she is left and is
so recovered by the witch. The witch must not, of course, guard her
prisoners too closely. She ought to try and intercept the rescuers on
their way home, rather than spring upon them in the act of finding the
stone. But each time the stone is recovered the witch may place her in
a more inaccessible spot, so that it becomes more and more dangerous
to release her. Sometimes at the end of the game all the children are
turned to stone in different parts of the garden, but sometimes, of
course, a swift runner will outstrip the witch and drag the victim
safely home. A clever witch acts the part too--appearing and
disappearing suddenly, prowling about in a crouching attitude, making
gestures of hate and rage, and so on."


The Ballad Game

Another home-made game is described by E. H. thus:--"The game is taken
from the player's favorite ballads. In our play the eldest of the
four players, who was also the best organizer, represented the cruel
father. The youngest little girl was the fair damsel. The other two
represented the wicked lover and the faithful knight, the part of the
faithful knight being taken by the fleetest of the party to balance
the combination of the father and the wicked lover. The game begins by
the fair damsel being imprisoned in the coach-house because she
refuses to marry the wicked lover. (Of course any shed would do.) Here
she waits until her knight comes to rescue her, and they escape
together, pursued by the other two. If the lovers succeed in getting
away the story has a happy ending; but the more dramatic ending is the
tragic one, when the faithful knight is overtaken, and after killing
the cruel father and the wicked lover, himself dies of his wounds, the
fair damsel slaying herself with his sword over his dead body.

"The interest of this game is greatly increased by having retainers.
These are armies of sticks which are planted at particular corners.
There must be some mark by which your own retainers can be
distinguished from the enemy's. For instance, the faithful knight may
have peeled sticks and the others unpeeled. If, when charging round
the house, you come across a troop of the enemy's retainers, you
cannot go on until you have thrown them all down, as they are set to
guard the pass. So, if the lovers are escaping and they find their way
blocked by the father's retainers (the father and the wicked lover may
have separate sets of retainers, in which case the war is always
bitterest between the two rivals, as the father's retainers are
sometimes spared for the damsel's sake), they have to lose time by
first overcoming the retainers and that gives time to their pursuers
to come up. But if they are so far in advance that they can stop to
set up their own retainers in the place of the enemy, it serves to
give them further time to make good their escape, as the others have
to wait to overthrow the knight's sticks in their turn. In no case are
you allowed to take away your enemy's sticks. If the lovers are
overtaken, the rivals have to fight, and meanwhile the father once
more carries off and imprisons the damsel."


Counting-Out Rhymes

To decide who is to begin a game there are various counting-out
rhymes. All the players stand in a circle, surrounding the one who
counts. At each pause in the rhyme (which occurs wherever a stroke has
been placed in the versions which follow) this one touches the players
in turn until the end is reached. The player to whom the last number
comes is to begin. This is one rhyme:--

  Eena-a, | deen-a, | dine-a, | dust, |
  Cat'll-a, | ween-a, | wine-a, | wust, |
  Spin, | spon, | must | be | done, |
  Twiddlum, | twaddlum, | twenty-one. |
  O- | U- | T | spells | out. |

Others:--

  Intery, | mintery, | cutery | corn, |
  Apple | seed | and | apple | thorn; |
  Wine, | brier, | limber | lock, |
  Five | geese |in | a | flock; |
  Sit and sing | by a spring |
  O- | U- | T | and | in | again. |

  One-ery, | two-ery, |
        Ziccary | zan; |
  Hollowbone, | crack-a-bone, |
        Ninery, | ten; |
  Spittery | spot, |
        Must | be | done, |
  Twiddledum, | twaddledum,
        Twenty-one.

  Ring | around | a ring-pot, |
  One spot | two spot | three spot | san |
  Bob-tailed | winnie-wack | tittero | tan |
  Ham | Scram |
  Fortune | man |
  Singum | sangum | Buck! |


Daisy Chains

The old way of making a daisy chain is to split one stalk and thread
the next through it up to the head, as in this drawing. That is for
out-of-doors. If you are using the chain for decorations indoors, it
is perhaps better to cut off the stalks and thread the heads on
cotton; but there seems to be no great need to use daisies in this way
at all.

[Illustration: DAISY CHAIN]

An ivy chain is made by passing the stalk of one leaf through the
point of another and then bending it round and putting it through the
point of its own leaf, the hole thus made being used for the stalk of
the next, and so on, as in this drawing.

[Illustration: IVY CHAIN]


Flower Show

A flower-show competition is an excellent garden game. A handkerchief
on sticks forms the tent. Underneath this is a bed of sand in which
the flowers, singly or in groups, can be fixed. Some one can easily be
persuaded to come out of the house to act as judge.


Garden Shop

Shop in the garden or out-of-doors is played with various things that
resemble articles of food. Thus you can get excellent coffee from
sorrel, and capital little bundles of rhubarb can be made by taking a
rhubarb leaf and cutting the ribs into stalks. Small stones make very
good imitation potatoes, and the heads of marguerite daisies on a
plate will easily pass for poached eggs.


Flower Symbols

In this place a word might be said about some of the curious things to
be found in flowers and plants. If you cut the stalk of a brake fern
low down, in September, you find a spreading oak tree. The pansy
contains a picture of a man in a pulpit. A poppy is easily transformed
into an old woman in a red gown. The snap-dragon, when its sides are
pinched, can be made to yawn. The mallow contains a minute cheese. By
blowing the fluff on a dandelion that has run to seed you can tell
(more or less correctly) the time of day. An ear of barley will run up
your sleeve if the pointed end is laid just within it; and an apple's
seeds make exquisite little mice.


Summer Houses

If the garden has no summer-house or tent a very good one can be made
with a clothes-horse and a rug.



                        OUTDOOR GAMES FOR BOYS


This book is written for children who need help in amusing themselves.
It is natural that there should be some difficulty about thinking of
games for indoors, or when there is a problem of a large company to
amuse; but it is hard to imagine any healthy boy, turned loose out of
doors, who cannot take care of his own entertainment. The number of
things to do is without limit and the boy so uninventive as to be at a
loss with all outdoors before him must be in a sad way. Hence there
has been no effort made in this chapter to make an exhaustive list of
outdoor games, only those being given which are suggestive, that is,
which can be infinitely varied according to your ingenuity; which are,
so to speak, the first of a series.

Also, the rules of regular games are not given here (such as baseball,
football, hockey, etc.). There are plenty of small manuals, given away
with the outfits for these games, which print in much more detail than
would be possible here, their principles. More than that, most boys
absorb a general knowledge of these games through their pores, and
need a book only to settle some small, knotty, disputed point of
ruling.

One of the best things to have when out of doors is a ball. There is
no end to the uses one can make of it.


Ball Games

The simplest thing to do with a ball is to catch it; and the quicker
one is in learning to catch well the better baseball player one will
become. Ordinary catching in a ring is good, but the practice is
better if you try to throw the ball each time so that the player to
whom you throw it shall not need to move his feet in order to catch
it. This teaches straight throwing too. Long and high throwing and
catching, and hard throwing and catching (standing as close together
as you dare), are important. There is also dodge-catching, where you
pretend to throw to one player and really throw to another and thus
take him unawares. All these games can be varied and made more
difficult by using only one hand, right or left, for catching.


Ball Games Alone

A boy with a ball need never be very lonely. When tired of catching it
in the ordinary way he can practice throwing the ball straight into
the air until, without his moving from his place, it falls absolutely
on him each time. He can throw it up and catch it behind him, and if
he has two others (or stones will do) he can strive for the juggler's
accomplishment of keeping three things in the air at once. Every boy
should practice throwing with his left hand (or, if he is already
left-handed, with his right): a very useful accomplishment. If it is a
solid india-rubber ball and there is a blank wall, he can make it
rebound at different angles, one good way being, in throwing it, to
let it first hit the ground close to the wall's foot. He may also
pledge himself to catch it first with the right hand and then with the
left for a hundred times; or to bat it up a hundred times with a
tennis racket or a flat bit of board. An interesting game for one is
to mark out a golf course round the garden, making a little hole at
intervals of half a dozen yards or so, and see how many strokes are
needed in going round and getting into each hole on the way.


Races

All kinds of races are easy to arrange and these can be repeated from
day to day as your proficiency increases. Here are a few.

The Spanish race, sometimes called the Wheelbarrow race, is played by
forming the boys into two lines, one standing back of the other, and
the front row on their hands and knees. At a signal to begin, each boy
on the back row takes hold of the ankles of the boy is front of him
and lifts his knees off the ground. The boy in front walking on his
hands, and the boy behind trundling him along, make the greatest haste
possible. The pair who first reach the goal are the winners.

Races may be run, hopping on the right foot, or on the left, or with
both together, or with first a hop and then a jump. It is well to
appoint one of the boys umpire during these odd races, to see that
they are run fairly and none of the rules agreed upon are broken.

A sack race is fun. Each boy is tied into a gunny sack and shuffles
his way to the goal. A substitute for this is the three-legged race,
run by two boys. They stand side by side, and the right leg of one is
tied to the left leg of the other and so with three legs between them
they must somehow get to the goal.

Hands and knees races, backward races (run with your back to the
goal), races with burdens on your back, or balancing a pole across
your hand or on the tip of your finger--there is no limit to the ones
you can invent.

But the best ones, after all, are the plain old trials of speed. There
is no more fun than a good running race, and a walking race is next to
it. Bicycle races are apt to be dangerous and a course that is very
wide should always be selected.


Quoits

Quoits is a game not played as much as it should be by American boys.
It is easy to arrange, for although there is an outfit sold in the
toy shops, a home-made one is just as good. It consists of a
collection of horseshoes and a stake driven in the ground--certainly
not a difficult apparatus to assemble. The stake should not project
more than an inch above the ground and the players, according to the
grown-up rules, should stand about fifteen yards away from the stake
(which is usually called "the hub"). But for boys the distance from
the hub can be determined by your skill. You may increase it as you
improve with practice. Every player has a certain number of quoits
(horseshoes) and standing at a fixed distance from the hub he tries to
pitch them so that they will go as near as possible to the hub. Some
very good players can cast a quoit so that it falls about the hub.
This is called a "ringer" and counts ten, but it is a rare shot. Every
one pitches his quoits and then all go to the hub and reckon up the
score. The one whose quoits lie nearest to the hub counts one point
for each quoit, but each quoit entitled to count must be nearer the
hub than any of the opponents' quoits. This continues until the score
is complete. People usually play for eleven. This game can be played
with flat stones instead of horseshoes and with any rules that you
choose to make.


Duck on a Rock

Duck on a Rock is a variation of Quoits which is excellent fun. One of
the players, chosen by counting out, puts a stone (called in this game
the "duck") about as big as his fist, on the top of a smooth rock and
stands near it. All the other players have similar "ducks" and try to
dislodge the one on the rock by throwing their stones, or ducks at it.
As soon as each has thrown his duck he tries to watch his chance to
run up to it and carry it back before the player standing by the rock
can touch him. When some one knocks off the duck from the rock the
"it" (the player by the rock) must put it back before he can tag any
of the players. This is therefore, of course, the great time for a
rush of all the players to recover their ducks and get back to their
own territory before the "it" can tag them. If any player is touched
by the "it" while attempting to rescue his duck he must become "it"
and put his duck on the rock.


Bowling

Bowling is the best of sports but this usually needs too much
apparatus for the average boy to have. Nine pins, however, can be
arranged in a rough sort of a way, by setting up sticks and bowling at
them with round apples. Your own ingenuity will devise ways to use the
materials you find about you.


Hop-Scotch

Hop-scotch is a great favorite which scarcely needs a description,
although there are various ways of marking the boards. The game is
played by any number of persons, each of whom kicks a small stone from
one part to another of the diagram by hopping about on one foot. The
diagram is drawn on a smooth piece of ground with a pointed stick or
on a pavement with a bit of chalk. The most usual figure is given
here.

To begin, a player puts a pebble or bit of wood into the place marked
1, and then, hopping into it with his right foot, he kicks the counter
outside the diagram. Then hopping out himself, he kicks it (with the
foot on which he is hopping) into the part marked 2. He hops through 1
to 2, kicks the counter out again, and follows it out. This continues
until he has kicked the counter in and out of every space in the
diagram, without stepping on a line, or so casting the counter that
it rests on a line. If this occurs he is put back a space, and it is
the turn of the next player. Each one plays until he has made a fault,
and when it is his turn again, he takes up the game where he left off.
The one who first gets through the required figures is the winner.

[Illustration]

There is literally no end to the variations of this game, either in
the diagram used or in the rules. Sometimes when people become very
skilful they play it backward, and sometimes at the end the player is
required to place the pebble on his toe and kick it in the air,
catching it in his hand.


Strength Tests

Various trials of strength are good for boys out of doors, provided
rules are fixed and adhered to. Cane-spreeing is good sport, but
should only be tried by boys pretty well matched in size and
strength. A cane (or broom-stick) about three feet long is held by two
boys facing each other, each with a hand on each end of the cane, the
respective right hands being outside the lefts, that is, nearest to
the end. Then one tries to get the cane away from the other. It sounds
simple, but there are a great variety of strategic tricks to be
learned by practice. No struggle should last more than two minutes by
the watch, when the boys should stop and get breath. The feet are not
used, but it is quite allowable to use your body, if you get down on
the ground in a sort of wrestling.


Hare and Hounds

Hare and Hounds can be played either in the country or the city and is
fine fun, although it should be begun with a short run. In the
excitement of the chase boys are apt to forget, and over-strain
themselves. The "hares" are two players who have a bag of small paper
pieces which they scatter after them from time to time as they run.
They are given a start of five or ten minutes and then all the others,
who are the "hounds," start after them, tracing their course by the
bits of paper. In the city the hares take a piece of chalk and mark an
arrow on the wall thus ----> showing in which direction they have
gone. Good stout shoes should be worn to run in, or you will blister
your feet.


Dog-Stick

A game for city pavements or for smooth country roads has so many
names that it is difficult to say which is its right one, but a common
one is "dog-stick." It is played something like hockey, the aim being
to get a ball or counter over your opponent's goal line. The ball in
this case is not a ball but a piece of wood which you can make
yourself, of an odd shape. It is like a flattened ball with a tail to
it. With a club or stick you strike the tail so that the ball springs
up in the air and then before it falls you strike it with your club
toward your enemy's goal line. The players are divided into sides who
try to defend their goal lines and to send back the ball to the other
side. Make your own rules as experience teaches you is fair.


Other Games

The endless variations of leap-frog should not be forgotten in
devising outdoor games: and tournaments of long or broad jumping and
high jumping are good. Stilts and the games to be arranged with them
are also another great resource. And the seasons bring, as regularly
as flowers and snow, the round of tops, and kites and marbles. Of
these last a very summary account is given here as most boys and
regions have their own rules.


Marbles

The first thing to learn in "Marbles" is the way that the marble
should be held. Of course one can have very good games by bowling the
marble, as if it were a ball, or holding it between the thumb-nail and
the second joint of the first finger and shooting it with the thumb
from there; but these ways are wrong. The correct way is to hold it
between the tip of the forefinger and the first joint of the thumb.
Marbles are divided into "taws," or well-made strong marbles with
which you shoot, and "clays," or the ordinary cheap colored marbles at
which you aim and with which you pay your losses.


Ring Taw

Two or three boys with marbles could never have difficulty in hitting
on a game to play with them, but the best regular game for several
players is "Ring Taw." A chalk ring is made on as level a piece of
ground as there is, and each player puts a clay on it at regular
distances from each other. A line from which to shoot during the first
round is then drawn two yards or so from the ring, and the game begins
by the player who has won the right of leading off (a real advantage)
knuckling down on the line and shooting at one of the marbles in the
ring. If a player knocks a marble out of the ring, that marble is his
and he has the right to shoot again from the place where his taw comes
to a stand; but if in knocking a marble out of the ring his taw
remains in it (or if his taw remains in it under any condition
whatever), he has to put all the marbles he has won into the ring, in
addition to one for a fine, and take up his taw and play no more till
the next game. There is one exception to this rule: If only one marble
is left in the ring, and if, in knocking it out, a player's taw
remains in the ring, he does not suffer, because the game is then
over. The other two rules are these: If a player succeeds in hitting
the taw of another the owner of that taw not only must leave the game
but hand over any marbles he has won. (In no case are taws parted
with.) Also, if it happens that only two players are left, and one of
these has his taw hit, that ends the game, for the player who hit it
not only has the marble of the taw's owner but all the marbles left in
the ring too.

"Ring Taw" can be played by as few as two players; but in this case
they must each put several marbles in the ring.

To decide which player is to begin, it is customary for them all to
aim at the ring from the knuckling-down line, and whichever one places
his taw nearest to the middle of the ring has the right to lead.


Other Games

Other garden games for boys will be found in the Picnic section. We
might mention also "Steps" (p. 4), "Tug of War" (p. 38), and "Potato
Races" (p. 40).



                             PICNIC GAMES


A picnic may be either a complicated affair which has occupied you all
the day before, or the most impromptu expedition which you arrange on
the spur of the minute; and the last kind are often more fun. Any
place out of doors will answer for a picnic, but if possible it should
be near water. Anything will answer for a picnic lunch, but it is
pleasant, if older people are with you, if you are allowed to have
fires to do some outdoor cooking. This is always easier than it sounds
and adds infinitely to the fun of the lunch. Bacon is one of the
easiest things to cook outdoors, all that is needed being a forked
stick which you can cut for yourselves. The strip of bacon is
impaled on the forks and toasted over the fire, each person cooking
his own slice and eating it on bread. Or with two larger forked sticks
a steak can be deliciously broiled for the whole company, or chops can
be cooked. It is the easiest and most delightful task to arrange a
sort of cooking-hole of stones over which the coffee pot may be set
and potatoes may be boiled over another similar hole. You will find
that it is far better to have a number of very tiny little fires
entirely separated from each other, than one big bonfire which is
almost sure to grow unmanageable. It will be seen that it is far
easier to take a big piece of bacon (to be sliced after reaching the
picnic grounds) a loaf or two of bread and raw potatoes than to spend
hours in making sandwiches and packing cake. Beside the things cooked
out of doors always taste so much better. Great care should be taken
to put out every spark of fire before going home, and to leave no
scraps of paper, or egg-shells lying about. These should be burned or
buried.


It, Touch Last, or Tag

For a short time "It" is a good warming game. It is the simplest of
all games. The "It" runs after the others until he touches one. The
one touched then becomes "It."


Touchwood

The name explains the game, which is played as "It" is played, except
that you can be caught only when you are not touching wood. It is a
good game where there are trees. It is, of course, not fair to carry a
piece of wood.


Cross Tag

This is the ordinary "Tag," save that if, while the "It" is chasing
one player, another runs across the trail between him and the pursued,
the "It" has to abandon the player he was at first after and give
chase to the one who has crossed.

A good variety of tag is "French Tag." The first one caught must join
hands with the "It," the next one with him, etc., and so on in a long
line all running together. Any one can catch an opponent, but the
original "It" must touch him before he can take his place in the line.


The Little Dog

The players form a ring, leaving one outside, who passes round it
singing, "I have a little dog and he won't bite you," and as he does
so, touching each player in turn with a knotted pocket-handkerchief.
"And he won't bite you," "And he won't bite you," he calls to one
after the other, and then suddenly changes this to "But he will bite
_you_." The player touched when this is said has to run after the
toucher with all his might. When caught they change places.


Hunt the Squirrel

All the players except one join a ring. This one, with a knotted
handkerchief in his hand, walks round the outside of the ring for a
while, and then, dropping the handkerchief behind one of the players,
runs off crying--

  Hunt the squirrel through the wood.
  Now I've lost him--now I've found him!
  Hunt the squirrel through the wood.

The player behind whom the handkerchief was dropped must
catch the squirrel before he can take up the empty place in
the ring left by the pursuer. It is more fun if, in dropping
the handkerchief, it can be done without the player discovering
it for a little while.

The way in which old-fashioned country children play
this game (called usually "Drop the handkerchief"), is a little
different. As the one with the handkerchief walks around
and around the outside of the ring all join in singing,

  "A tisket! A tasket!
    A green and yellow basket!
  I sent a letter to my love
    And now I find I've lost it.
    I've lost it! I've lost it!
    And where do you think I found it?
    Up in the sky, ever so high
    With angels gathered 'round it."

As the words "I've lost it!" are repeated, the player outside
must drop the handkerchief, but no one must look behind
him until the verse is ended. Then the one who finds the
handkerchief behind him must try to catch the first one, who
in turn tries to slip into the empty place.


Gaps

The players form a ring: all except one, who is "It." This
one runs round the ring and touches one of the players in the
circle. They both set off running immediately in opposite
directions, the object of each being to get first to the gap
made in the circle by the player who was touched. The one
who gets to the gap first remains in the circle, while the other
becomes "It."


Twos and Threes, or Terza

A very good picnic game. All the players except two form a large ring,
standing in twos, one behind another. Of the two who are over, one is
the pursuer and the other the pursued; and the game is begun by the
pursued taking up his position (if he can do so before the pursuer
catches him) in front of one of the couples in the ring, thus making
three. Directly he does this he is safe, and the last player in the
little group at the back of him has to run. Whoever is caught becomes
the pursuer, while the one that caught him becomes the pursued until,
by standing in front of one of the couples, he transfers that office
to another.


Hide and Seek

"Hide and Seek," which is perhaps the best out-of-door
game without implements, needs no explanation. It is usual
to give the player who hides a start of as much time as it
takes the others to count a hundred in. Some boys, instead of
counting from one to a hundred, divide the sum into ten tens,
which are counted thus: 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1; 1, 2, 3, 1, 2,
3, 1, 2, 3, 1; and so on. These can be rattled through so
quickly that your 100 is done and you have started out before,
in the ordinary way, seventy would have been reached.

A customary arrangement to avoid taking the hiders too
much by surprise is for the boy who stays at the base and
counts a hundred to call out when he finishes

  "Bushel of wheat! Bushel of rye!
  All that aren't ready call out 'I'!"

or simply

  "One! Two! Three!
  Look out for me!"


I Spy

"I Spy" combines "Hide and Seek" and "Tag." One player stays in the
base, covers his eyes and counts a hundred, while the others run off
and hide. On finishing the hundred the player shouts "Coming!" and
runs out to look for the others. Directly he catches sight of one of
them (and they are not hidden so carefully as in "Hide and Seek"), he
calls out his name and the place where he has seen him; as, for
instance, "Harry! behind the summer-house!" If there is no mistake and
the name is right (it is very often wrong, in which case the player
does not move), Harry has to run out and try and catch the other
before he reaches the base.

Another way is for as many players to seek as to hide. In this case it
is agreed beforehand as to how many of the seekers must be caught by
the hiders for the game to be won. If the number is given at four and
four are caught, the same side have the privilege of hiding again; but
if only three or a smaller number, then the seekers have won and it is
they who hide next time.


Chevy, or Prisoner's Base

There is no better running game than this. You first
pick sides and then mark off the two camps and take up your
station there. The field is arranged thus:--

  Place for   |                            |  Place for
     A's      |                            |     B's
  prisoners.  |                            |  prisoners.
  ------------+                            +------------



  ---------------------------+--------------------------
                             |
         A's Camp.           |           B's Camp.
                             |
                             |

The game is opened by several of the A side running out to some point
immediately in front of the two camps. When ready they call "Chevy."
As many of the B side then start out to pursue them, each calling his
particular quarry by name. The object of each A man is either to get
back before the B man who is after him can catch him, or to tempt the
B man into ground so near the A camp that he may be caught. In this
aim he is helped by the fact that directly his B pursuer called his
name and started out another A man probably called out the name of the
B man and started to cut him off. No one is allowed to be pursued by
two players at once.

If caught, the A man has to go to the place reserved for B's
prisoners. Directly he gets there he calls "Rescue"; an A man will
then call "Prisoner," and rush out to relieve him; while a B runner is
all ready to intercept this A rescuer if he can.

The game is good both for runners who can keep it up a long time and
for those who can make short, sharp dashes. The first named decoy the
enemy out in pursuit, and the others hold themselves ready to dash
across in front of the enemy's camp and cut off any one who is across
the line. The rule as to shouting the name of the man you have marked
down should be kept.

If there is more than one prisoner they stand just touching hands, in
a line which reaches as far as possible toward their own camp, so that
the distance between the first prisoner and the rescuer may be
shortened. Each new prisoner takes up his place at the back of this
line, farthest from the camp. A prisoner is rescued by being touched.

If one side is much weaker than the other a time comes when it is
nearly all taken prisoner, with none to rescue except by leaving the
camp undefended. Directly a camp is left undefended one of the enemy
steps in and "crowns" it and claims the game. More often than not,
however, a game of "Chevy" is left undecided. It does not matter in
the least, for in this game the fun is more in playing than in
winning.


French and English

For this game the ground must be divided by a path or line into two
territories--French and English. At the further side of each territory
a number of flags--handkerchiefs will do--must be placed at intervals.
The players are then divided into the two nations, and the game
consists in each side trying to get the flags from the other side, to
guard its own, and to catch the enemy when he is off his own ground.
Once a player sets foot upon the enemy's territory he must go on, but
he cannot be caught if he has a flag in his hands. If he is caught he
becomes a prisoner (as in Chevy), and is only released by being
touched by one of his own party. A player cannot redeem a prisoner and
take a flag at the same time. The game ends when all the flags of one
side have been taken.


Black Man

This is rather rough. A line is drawn at each end of the playing place
and one player is told off to stand between these lines. The object of
the others is to run across, from base to base, without being caught
by him: being caught meaning not merely being touched, as in "It," but
being really held and stopped. Each one that is caught has to stay in
the middle to help catch the others, until no one is left to run
across at all.

The player in the middle calls out to the crowd of players, "What'll
you do when the black man comes?" and they answer,

  "Run right through
  And never mind you."

This is the signal to begin each rush across from one line to the
other.


Stagarino

"Stagarino" is similar to "Black Man," except that all
the players who are caught, and whose business it is to catch
the others, join hands. Those that run across have therefore
to avoid them or to try and break through the wall of arms.


Red Rover

"Red Rover" is also similar to "Black Man," except that
instead of all running at the same time, the "Rover" calls
out:--

  "Red Rover! Red Rover!
  Let (mentioning name) come over!"

at which the one named has to run from one base to the other.
If he is caught, he must assist the "Rover" in catching the
others.


Hop, Step, and Jump

This is a change from ordinary racing. The competitors,
instead of running against each other, see which can cover the
most distance in a hop, a step, and a jump, or, say, three hops,
three steps, and three jumps. It needs an umpire to watch
very carefully that the step begins exactly where the hop left
off and the jump where the step finished.


Follow-My-Leader

This needs no explaining. It is nearly always good fun for a while,
and particularly so if the leader has original ideas.



                            OUT FOR A WALK


On country walks, where there is much to see, one should not be in
need of ways to make the time seem shorter. And new walks in the town,
or walks where there are interesting shop-windows, are not dull. But
the same walks again and again can be very tiring; and it is to help
these that the methods which follow have been collected.

A good walking pastime for two is for one to drive the other. Hoops
are a great help (see p. 169) and so are dolls' perambulators. But on
many walks nothing of this kind is allowed, and one has to fall back
on conversation. Telling stories in turns, or making up stories about
passers-by, is useful, but it is not every one that is able to do
this.


Roadside Whist

In the Channel Islands visitors riding about in large wagonettes pass
the time by playing a game called "Roadside Whist." The people on the
left seat of the carriage take the right side of the road, and those
on the right seat take the left. The conductor teaches them the rules
at the beginning of the drive. In our case it is better perhaps to
make them for ourselves, to suit our own particular country. Let us
suppose that--

  If you see
         A baby in arms            you score   1
         A baby in a perambulator      "       3
         A white horse                 "       5
         A ladder against a house      "       2
         A woman in a white apron      "       1
         A butcher's cart              "       1
         A street gate                 "       2
         A postman                     "       5

Then there should be a few things for which marks have
to be taken off. Let us suppose that--

  If you see

         A pug dog                 you lose    2
         A piebald horse               "       4
         An open gate                  "       2
         A flock of sheep              "       3
         A soldier                     "      10

No matter what the score is, whichever side sees a cat on
a window-ledge wins the game.


Counting Dogs

In a town there are other varieties of roadside whist for
two players or sides. Counting dogs is one. In this game
one takes all the streets leading from the left, the other all
from the right.


Guessing Horses' Tails

A good game (writes E. R.) while out for a walk is "when you see a
horse coming, guess what color his tail is before he can reach you,
and then, whoever guesses right, the horse belongs to him."


Shop-Windows

Except in very dull streets shop-windows can be always entertaining.
It is interesting to suppose you have so much money--say five
dollars--to spend, or, if you like, an unlimited sum, and choose what
you would buy as you pass each shop, E. H. writes:--"One little girl
used to suppose that she was the eldest of a large family whom she had
to provide for, and was always on the lookout for things in the shops
that would do for her younger brothers and sisters. For instance, if
she decided that the family must have new winter clothes, she would
first make up her mind how much she could afford and then price the
things in the shop-windows. Sometimes she would set her heart on a
particular cloak for the baby, but could not pretend to buy it till
she had seen whether it would leave her enough money for the other
children. If she could get all the children dressed fairly nicely for
the sum at her disposal she had all the satisfaction of a successful
day's shopping. Sometimes the clothes she wanted were too dear, and
then she had to decide what was most necessary, what she could make at
home, and so on."


Making Sentences

It is rather exciting for each player to take a side of the road where
there are shops and see which can first complete a given sentence or
word from the initial letters of the shopkeepers' names, Christian or
surname. In fixing upon a sentence it is well to be careful not to
have unusual letters, such as Q, or U, or J in it. If this is too
difficult all the letters in the shopkeepers' names may be taken, or
those in every other name.


Collecting Jones's

In Mrs. Meynell's book, _The Children_, one little girl on her walks
collected Jones's--that is, shops with the name of Jones over them. If
any one else cared for this amusement there would be no need to stick
to Jones.


The Love Alphabet

In this game you go through the alphabet, applying adjectives to your
love. "I love my love with an A because he [or she] is so admirable";
"I love my love with a B because she is so beautiful," and so on,
keeping to each letter as long as possible. On pages 88 and 89 will be
found more difficult varieties, less suitable, perhaps, to be played
when walking.


The Cat Alphabet

Another alphabet game requires adjectives to be put before the word
cat. You begin with A. "An artful cat," one player may say; and the
next, "An avaricious cat." Perhaps "An awful cat," "An adhesive cat,"
"An arrogant cat," and "An attractive cat," will follow. A is kept up
until no one can think of any more; or--if you play in that way--until
no one can think of any more while ten is being counted. Then B: "A
bushy cat," "A bruised cat," "A bellicose cat," "A bumptious cat," and
so on.


Spelling

In this game the players each contribute a letter toward the spelling
of a word, their object being never to be the one to complete it, but
to force the next player to do so. Thus (with four players) the first
player may say "p," and the next, thinking of "prim," may say "r," and
the next, also thinking of "prim," may say "i." But the fourth player,
running his thoughts quickly over possible words beginning with "pri,"
may light upon "prism" and say "s." This saves her, but puts the first
player in danger, which is only averted by her thinking of "prison"
and saying "o," in which case the next one is bound to be the loser.


The Grand Mogul

A favorite old game which can be played as well on a walk as indoors
is "The Grand Mogul." "The Grand Mogul does not like E's," says one
player; "what will you give him for dinner?" Each player answers in
turn, but none of the dishes named must contain the letter E, or the
player either stands out, or (indoors) pays a forfeit. Thus, the
answers to the question may be "apricots," "mutton," or "soup," but
not "apples," "beef," or "porridge." On a walk the letter E might be
persevered with until every one failed, and then the other vowels
might be tried.


Buz

This is a counting game in which, whenever the number 7 comes, or a
multiple of 7, such as 14, 21, 28, 35, or a number with 7 in it, such
as 17, 27, 37, the player whose turn it is must say "Buz." Otherwise,
out-of-doors, he loses a round or two, or, indoors, he must pay a
forfeit. When 70 comes you say "Buz" in the ordinary way, but for 71,
72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, and 79 you say "Buz 1," "Buz 2," and so on.
For 77 you say "Buz Buz."


Rhyming Lights

In this game one player thinks of a word and gives the others a rhyme
to it. Thus, she may think of "coal," and she would then say, "I've
thought of a word that rhymes to pole." The others have to guess what
the word is, yet not bluntly, as, "Is it mole?" but like this: "Is it
a little animal that burrows?" "No," says the first player (who thus
has a little guessing to do herself), "No, it is not mole." "Is it a
small loaf of bread?" "No, it is not roll." "Is it something you eat
bread and milk from?" "No, it is not bowl." "Is it something you
burn?" "Yes, it is coal." The player who thought of "coal" then finds
a word for the others to guess.


The Apprentice

The "Apprentice" is an old game for two or any number. One says, "I
apprenticed my son to a [mentioning a tradesman or craftsman], and the
first thing be sold [or made] was a [mentioning, by its initial only,
something peculiar to the trade or craft]." The player who first
guesses what the initial stands for then makes a similar remark. Thus,
one player may say, "I apprenticed my son to a blacksmith, and the
first thing he made was a D. K." (Door Knocker). Another, "I
apprenticed my son to a grocer, and the first thing he sold was S. S."
(Soft Soap). Another, "I apprenticed my son to a gardener, and the
first thing he grew was a C. B." (Canterbury Bell). Another, "I
apprenticed my son to a firework manufacturer, and the first thing he
made was a G. R." (Golden Rain).


Towns and Products

This is a somewhat similar game bearing on geography. Suppose there
are three players. One chooses a well-known place, say Boston, and
begins, "I know a place where they sell boots," or whatever it may be
beginning with B. The next player then knows what letter the place
begins with and at once starts thinking of what place it is likely to
be. Perhaps she settles on Birmingham, in which case she would say, to
indicate that the second letter of the word was "I," "I know a place
where they sell isinglass" (or icicles, or inglenooks). "No," says the
first player, and the third therefore has to try. Perhaps she decides
that the place is Brighton, in which case she will say, "I know a
place where they sell rockets" (or rump-steak or raisins). "No," says
the first player again, and then it being her turn she gives them
another light on the right word by saying, "I know a place where they
sell oranges" (or oil, or ocarinas), and so on, until the place is
spelled through.


Other Games

Other games suitable to be played when walking are "P's and Q's" (p.
89), "Suggestions" (p. 91), "Clumps" (p. 93), "How, When, and Where"
(p. 95), "Coffee-Pot" (p. 95), "Throwing Light" (p. 96), and "Animal,
Vegetable, and Mineral" (p. 96).


Hoops

Iron hoops are the best, but it is a matter of taste whether a stick
or a hook is used for them. If the stick is a stout one you get rid of
the skidding noise made by the hook, and there is more satisfaction in
beating a thing along than in, as it were, pushing it. It should be
every one's aim to make the hoop do as much as possible with as little
treatment as possible. After a very fast run it is equally interesting
to see how slowly a hoop can be made to travel. To make it keep as
straight a course as may be is very absorbing. Bought hoops can be
strong, but to get exactly what one wants it is necessary to go to a
blacksmith. A hoop standing as high as its owner, through which he can
run to and fro as it rolls, is a possession which only a blacksmith or
working-ironmonger can supply.


Two in Hoop Games

Hoop games are few in number, and, with the exception of "Posting,"
not very exciting. With a large hoop and a small hoop two players can
learn to time the pace of a hoop very exactly and then bowl the little
one through the big one as it rolls.

There is also a game called "Turnpikes," in which several players and
one hoop take part. The turnpikes, of which there are as many as the
players, less the one who begins with the hoop, are two stones an inch
or so apart, through which the hoop has to be bowled without touching,
the faster the better. If it touches, or misses, the player who has
been bowling it gives the hoop to the turnpike holder, who then tries
his fortune with it, keeping it until he fails at any of the stones.


Hoop Posting

A very good hoop game for several players is "Posting." The idea is
that a distance is to be covered (as in the old posting days) as
quickly as possible by relays of riders, and the first thing to do is
to station four posts at various points along the route. Then, when
they are ready, each with hoop-stick or hook, the player with the hoop
starts and bowls it as fast as he can to the first post. Immediately
it reaches him that post takes it on, without stopping the hoop for an
instant, to the next, while the first one takes the place left by him;
and so on, as often round the ring as you like. When there is a
time-keeper and you post against time it is even better fun. The
advantage of standing in a large circle is that the hoop need never be
checked; but if the circle is impossible, you can go up and down a
long line, with checks only at each end.



                             IN THE TRAIN
                                  Or
                  DURING A WAIT AT A RAILWAY STATION


A long journey in a train--say from New York to Chicago--can, even if
you have a window seat, be very tiring; but without a window it is
sometimes almost unendurable. The hints which follow are mostly
adapted for two players, but one or two will be found useful if you
are alone with no one to play with.


The Value of a Map

A map of the country which the train passes through is an interesting
thing to have on a long journey. It tells you the names of the hills
and villages you see from the windows and you can very likely fix the
exact moment that you cross from one county or state into another.


Railway Competitions

Two persons can have good competitions. They can agree beforehand that
the game is to go to whichever of them sees the more horses, or cows,
or sheep, or men driving, or bicyclists, or rabbits, between two given
points, say one station and the next. It is not necessary to be at
different windows; in fact a new kind of excitement comes in if both
are at the same window or at windows on the same side, because then in
addition to seeing the things there is the fun of not letting the
other think you have seen them.


Railway Whist

This is a kind of "Roadside Whist," the rules for which will be found
on page 163. As has been said there, most players will prefer to draw
up their own scoring table; but the following things and figures may
be found useful as a foundation:--

  If you see--
         A church               it counts   3
         A field with sheep         "       3
         A field with cows          "       2
         A field with horses        "       4
         A field with rabbits       "       3
         A man                      "       1
         A woman                    "       2
         A stile                    "       4
         An open gate               "       5
         A shut gate                "       2
         An ordinary dog            "       2
         A sheep dog                "       6
         A horse and cart           "       5
         A hay-wagon                "       2
         A pond                     "       4

  If you see--
         A waving handkerchief  you lose    6
         A hay-stack                "       1
         A red barn                 "       5
         A grocer's wagon           "       1
         Children on a gate         "      10

Whichever side first sees a black sheep wins, no matter what the score
is. Otherwise the scorer of the greatest number of marks is the
winner. In "Railway Whist" it is necessary for the players to be on
different sides of the train.


Station Observation

A variety of "Observation" (see page 104) can be played on journeys.
While the train is stopping at a station every one looks out of the
window and notices as many things as possible. When the train starts
again each writes as many of these things as he can remember, and the
one with the best list wins.


Games With a Watch

If you have a watch it is rather interesting to guess the exact time
at which the train will reach the next station. The one who guesses
nearest becomes the holder of the watch until the next guess is
decided. Other things can be done with a watch, particularly if it has
a second hand. Guessing the length of a minute is rather interesting,
or timing the speed of the train by noting how long it takes to go
between the telegraph-poles at the side of the line.


Hot-Hand

This is a primitive game, capital for cold weather, for it is well
named. It is played by two people, one of whom spreads out his hands
flat, palms up. The other puts his, palms down, within about three
inches of the other's, and tries to strike them a smart blow. If the
first player can withdraw his hands quickly enough so that they are
not touched it is his turn to try and strike. As long as the player
whose hands are palms down can strike the other's hands he can go on.
This is an excellent game for cultivating quickness. The player whose
hands are to be struck will find that he can succeed better in
escaping the other's blows, if he watches his eyes rather than his
hands.

This can be arranged among many players as a sort of tournament,
trying out the players by couples until finally the two best
contestants are left to struggle for the championship. This is a good
game to play while getting your breath after skating--or at any time
out of doors when you are obliged to be quiet, and there is danger of
getting chilled.


Pencils and Paper

It is well to take a pencil and paper when you go on a long journey.
If the train rocks a good deal it is interesting to see which can
write a sentence most clearly. There is a way of balancing oneself on
the edge of the seat and holding the paper on one's knees which makes
for steadiness. It is never too shaky for "Noughts and Crosses."


Noughts and Crosses or Tit-tat-toe

"Noughts and Crosses" is playable anywhere; all that is needed is a
piece of paper--a newspaper will do--and a pencil. The framework is
first made. Thus:--

       |     |
       |     |
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
       |     |
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
       |     |
       |     |

One player chooses crosses and the other noughts, and the one who is
to begin puts his mark--say, a cross--in one of the nine squares. The
other puts a nought in another of the squares, and so it goes on until
either three noughts or three crosses are in a straight line in any
direction. Thus, this is the end of a game in which noughts played
first and crosses won:

       |     |
    X  |     |
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
    X  |  O  |  O
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
    X  |     |  O
       |     |

But it often happens that the game is drawn, as in this example, in
which noughts played first:--

       |     |
    X  |  O  |
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
    O  |  O  |  X
       |     |
  -----+-----+-----
       |     |
    X  |  X  |  O
       |     |

A blank book for "Noughts and Crosses," with the framework all ready,
can now be obtained. It has places for the names of the players, and
the date.


Paper French and English

"French and English," another game for two, belongs to the family of
"Noughts and Crosses," and can be played anywhere and on any scrap of
paper. You first decide which will be English and which French. Each
player then takes one-half of the paper and covers it with, say, sixty
dots. It does not matter how many, but there must be the same number
on each side. Then in a corner each draws a cannon, or draws something
that can be called a cannon for the purposes of the game. You then
decide how many turns you will have. The game is played by placing the
pencil on the cannon, shutting your eyes, and dashing the pencil
across your enemy's side of the paper, straight or crooked, in any
direction you like. Then you open your eyes, count how many dots the
pencil line has passed through, and score them down. The player who,
at the end of the number of turns settled upon, has gone through the
greatest number of dots is the winner.


"Letters" and Words

A box of letters is an unfailing help to pass the time. A word will
sometimes keep a player puzzling for hours, which is, of course, too
long. "Pomegranate," "Orchestra," and "Scythe" are good examples of
difficult words.

You can also take words and sentences seen on the journey, such as
"Wait till the train stops," and "Pears' Soap," and see how many words
they will make. A more difficult task is to make anagrams of
advertisements. "Lipton's Teas," for instance, makes "Taste on, lips."


"Letters" With a Pencil

The word-making game has been adapted into a writing competition. Each
of the company is handed a card which has been prepared for the
purpose beforehand by having names of a dozen animals, or towns, or
flowers, or birds, or whatever it may be, written on it in what might
be called twisted spelling. For instance, "butterfly" might be spelled
thus, "trelbyfut," and "Manchester" thus, "Tramschene." A certain
amount of time is given, and the winner is the player who has found
out most words therein.

A version of this game is to dot out all the letters of the word
except the first and the last. You would put "Elephant" on the paper
thus, E......t, and tell your companion it was the name of an animal.
Or you might write "Peppermint" thus, P........t, and tell him it was
the name of a sweet.


Hanging

This is a more difficult game, very suitable for a tiring journey. The
two players sit side by side, and one of them dots out on a piece of
paper the words of a proverb or well-known line of poetry. Thus, "I
met a little cottage girl" would be set down in this way:--

    . ... . ...... ....... ....

Underneath this line a small gallows is erected. Thus:--

  +---------+
  | /       |
  |/        |
  |         |
  |
  |
  |
  |
  |
  |

The game is for the other player to discover the line. In order to do
this he is permitted to ask his opponent for letters. Perhaps he will
begin by asking, "May I have an 'a,'" because there are few sentences
that do not contain an "a." His opponent will then put the first "a"
in. Thus:--

    . ... a ...... ....... ....

Then perhaps another "a" will be asked for, and the line will come out
thus:--

    . ... a ...... ....a.. ....

Then perhaps an "e":--

    . .e. a ...... ....a.. ....

So far all has gone favorably with the guesser, and the gallows is
still untouched. But perhaps he will now venture to ask for a
consonant (which is much more risky than a vowel), and will say, "May
I have an 's'?" As there is no "s" in the line the reply will be
against it, and the opponent will at once append to the rope of the
gallows a small head. Thus:--

  +---------+
  | /       |
  |/        |
  |         |
  |         O
  |
  |
  |
  |
  |

This means that the guesser has lost one out of a possible six points,
the others being his body, his two arms and two legs. For each letter
he asks for in vain he loses one of these, and when all have gone he
has lost the game too. Sometimes, however, the quotation can be
detected very quickly.


Other Games

Many games usually kept for the house can be played in the train. "Old
Maid" (see p. 79) is a good train game; so is "Buz" (see p. 167). A
"Fox and Geese" board, or a draughtboard, will help to pass the time.


Food

Food is a great help toward shortening a long journey. A little picnic
every hour, if it is permitted, is something not too distant to look
forward to, and it may take up ten minutes each time. A larger meal
all at once may, of course, be more convenient, but, if not, the
hourly picnic is worth trying.


Chinese Gambling

This is the simplest game possible but will while away endless hours.
It is played with nothing but your hands, which are made to assume
three positions: one with clenched fist; one spread out flat; and one
with first and second finger spread apart like the blades of scissors.
The first is called "the stone," the second "the paper" and the third
"the scissors." Very rapidly both players strike their right hand
(clenched) into the left palm three times, and then both at the same
instant bring up the right hand in one of the three positions. The
winner is determined by this formula: "Scissors cut paper. Stone
breaks scissors. Paper wraps stone." That is if you have made your
hand "the stone" and your companion "the paper," he wins. But if you
had chosen "the scissors" you would have won. The winner must call out
the formula that fits the case, "Scissors cut paper" for instance, and
count is kept of the number of losses and gains. The one who comes out
ahead after a half-hour's contest is the winner of that bout.

[Illustration: CHINESE GAMBLING]



                   PLAYING ALONE, AND GAMES IN BED


Bricks

Among the best toys with which to play alone are bricks, soldiers,
balls, battledore and shuttlecock, and dolls. No one needs any hints
as how to play with them; but it might be remarked that ordinary
bought bricks being rarely what they should be, it is better, if
possible, to get a carpenter to make some of a more useful size, say
four inches long, one and a half inches wide, and an inch thick. With
a hundred of these you can do almost anything in the way of building,
and if made of tough wood they ought to last forever.


Soldiers

A good game of soldiers is to see how many shots are required from a
cannon to kill the whole regiment. The cannon can either be a spring
cannon or a pop-gun, or a pea-shooter. Just at first it is almost
impossible not to clear off two or three men with each shot, but later
it becomes more difficult and exciting.


Ninepins

With a box of ninepins very much the same game can be played. In wet
weather, in the hall, a box of large ninepins is invaluable.


Spanish Cup and Ball

A good quiet game to play alone is "Spanish Cup and Ball." A long
stick has fastened to it a loop of wire standing out at right angles,
thus. To this is attached by a long string a worsted, or a very light
rubber ball. The game is to see how many times you can throw the ball
up to the ceiling and catch it in the loop of wire as it falls.

[Illustration: SPANISH CUP]


Balancing

All kinds of balancing games are excellent when you are alone and
tired of toys. There is no way to acquire proficiency in these but by
practice, but practice is fascinating work. Try balancing at first a
long pole (an old broom-stick handle will do) on the palm of your
hand, then on your finger, then on your chin and forehead. The longer
the pole, the easier to balance it. Remember one golden rule. _Keep
your eyes on the top of the pole._

Then try balancing a whole broom, or a chair. The practice of
balancing is excellent for training yourself in quickness of eye and
muscle.

Of course bricks and soldiers and ninepins, as well as balls (see p.
139), are more interesting when more than one person plays; but one
can pass the time very well with them.


Bruce's Heart

Where toys become tedious, games have to be made up; and in making up
games no outside help is needed. At the same time, some games which E.
H. describes may perhaps supply a hint or two. "One little girl," she
writes, "used to find endless joy in pretending to be Douglas bearing
the heart of Bruce to the Holy Land. A long stick in the right hand
represented his spear; a stone in the left hand was the casket
containing Bruce's heart. If the grown-ups stopped to talk with some
one they met, or if there was any other excuse for running on ahead,
the little girl would rush forward waving her stick and encouraging
her men (represented by a big dog), and, after hurling her stone as
far forward as possible, and exclaiming, 'Lead on, brave heart,' she
would cast her spear in the same direction in a last effort against
the Moors, and then pretend to fall dead to the ground." This little
girl had found the story of Bruce in _Tales of a Grandfather_, by Sir
Walter Scott. Almost every book will yield people and events to play
at.


The Hotel Camps

Another little girl whom E. H. knew "once spent a short time in a
hotel, and while there divided the other people into camps according
to the floor on which they had rooms. The designs in the windows on
the various floors represented the badges or heraldic signs of each
camp. For instance, one window (they were of colored glass) had a
border with eagles, another had gryphons, another lions, and so on. If
she met some one of another floor coming in or going out of the hotel,
it represented the meeting of two rival bands. If she actually found
herself in the elevator with them, it was a dangerous encounter, in
which, if they got out first, she had driven them off the field, but
if she got out first it was she who was in retreat. If two people of
different floors were seen talking together, a truce had been
declared, and so on."


Block City

The little book called _A Child's Garden of Verses_, by R. L.
Stevenson, has several poems which describe how a lonely little boy
used to play. Thus (in "Block City"):--

  Let the sofa be mountains, the carpet a sea,
  There I'll establish a city for me,
  A kirk and a mill, and a palace beside,
  And a harbor as well where my vessels may ride.


Story-Books

And (in "The Land of Story-Books"):--

  Now, with my little gun, I crawl
  All in the dark along the wall,
  And follow round the forest track
  Away behind the sofa back.

  There, in the night, where none can spy,
  All in my hunter's camp I lie,
  And play at books that I have read
  Till it is time to go to bed.


The Bed Boat

That is ordinary play. There is also a poem describing play in bed:--

  My bed is like a little boat;
    Nurse helps me in when I embark;
  She girds me in my sailor's coat
    And starts me in the dark.


Thinking Games for Bed

When more than one sleep in the same room, the time before sleep can
be very interesting. Many games which have already been described are
suitable for bed, such as "Telling Stories" (p. 99), "I Love my Love"
(p. 88), "Spelling" (p. 166), "The Grand Mogul" (p. 166), "Rhyming
Lights" (p. 167), "The Apprentice" (p. 167), "Towns and Products" (p.
168), "Suggestions" (p. 91), and "Clumps," adapted (p. 93).


Games by Rote

On this subject B. R. L. writes:--"We made a list, which was stuck on
the wall with a different game for each night. One was 'I Love my Love
with an A' (see p. 88), which we steadily made up all through the
alphabet. Another was 'Initials,' in which you take turns in saying
the initials of people you know, while the other guesses the names.
Another was 'Twenty Questions,' in which one thinks of something that
has to be guessed as quickly as possible, only 'yes' and 'no' being
given as answers. One very girlish game was like this: suppose you had
a little girl with golden hair and blue eyes, and she was going on a
visit to London, what sort of frocks would you buy her?"


The Imaginary Family

E. H. recommends for girls the "Imaginary Family" game. This is her
description of it:--"First you have to settle the names, ages, and
characters of your family, and then you can carry on their adventures
every night. One little girl who was devoted to books of travel, and
who loved to pore over maps and charts, used to travel with her family
every night in whatever country she happened to be interested in at
the time. Thus she and a favorite son, Pharaoh, traveled for a long
time in California, crossing every mountain-range by the proper
passes, exploring every valley, tracing each river to its source, and
so on. In the same way she traveled with her family is Central and
South America, the Malay Peninsula, and the South Sea Islands. Another
little girl who was very fond of adventure stories carried her family
through all sorts of perils by land and sea. At one time they were
shipwrecked and lived like the Swiss Family Robinson. At another
time they were exploring Central Africa, and traveled about with three
years' supplies in a gigantic caravan with fifty elephants. Yet
another little girl had for her family any characters out of books
that particularly fascinated her. Thus, when she was reading _The
Heroes_, her family was reduced to one daughter, Medea, a rather
terrible daughter, who needed a great deal of propitiating, and for
whose sake all other children had to be given up. Later on, when the
same child was reading _Tales of a Grandfather_, her family consisted
of three sons, Wallace, Bruce, and Douglas. (It is rather a good
thing, by the way, to have a very heroic family, especially if you are
at all inclined to be afraid in the dark, as they help to keep one's
courage up.) Two little girls, who lived in a clergyman's household,
had an imaginary poor family they were interested in, and they planned
about them every night,--how much the father earned, what their rent
was, whether the mother oughtn't to take in washing, whether the
eldest girl could be spared to go into service, and so on. When they
weren't allowed to talk at night they carried the family history on
independently and compared notes in the morning."


Making Plans

Making plans is always interesting, but particularly so just before
Christmas, when presents have to be arranged for.


For Getting to Sleep

The favorite way is to imagine that you see a flock of sheep
scrambling through a gap in the hedge, and to count them. A variety of
this is a desert with a long train of camels very far off, coming
slowly near, and then passing and gradually disappearing in the far
distance. Counting a million is also a good way.


Games for Convalescents

A good thing to do in bed when getting better from an illness is to
cut out pictures for scrapbooks. Any kind of cutting out can be done,
as the scissors and paper are very light and do not, therefore, tire
the arms. "Patience" (see page 76) is also a good bed game, because it
needs very little thought.


Bed Soldiers

In _A Child's Garden of Verses_ there is a poem called "The Land of
Counterpane," which tells what a little boy did when he was ill, lying
among the pillows with his toys:

  And sometimes for an hour or so
  I watched my leaden soldiers go,
  With different uniforms and drills,
  Among the bed-clothes, through the hills;

  And sometimes sent my ships in fleets
  All up and down among the sheets,
  Or brought my trees and houses out
  And planted cities all about.


China Animals

Dolls are, of course, perfectly at home in bed when you are ill, but
there is even more interest in a menagerie. On this subject it would
be difficult to do better than quote from a letter from E. M. R., who
has 590 china animals, mostly in families and all named. She began
this magnificent collection with a family of monkeys.

    The mother was called Sally, her eldest son Mungo, the next
    Pin-ceri, another, eating a nut, Jock, and the youngest, a
    sweet little girl monkey, Ness. I was soon given a family of
    three foxes, Reynard, Brushtail, and Whitepad, and from that
    time to the present my collection has been growing. I soon
    had enough to fill a shelf in a cabinet, and I turned my
    doll's-house into a boarding-school for the little animals
    with a big pig as headmaster. But when my collection rose to
    400 animals, I had too many children to be all boarders at
    the school, so some had to be day-scholars, and the
    headmaster was changed to a green frog who swam beautifully,
    and who was assisted by two swans, a duck, a fish, two
    crocodiles, and a seal, who all swam. Another frog taught the
    children swimming by tying a piece of string round their
    bodies, and dangling them in the water from the edge of a
    basin.

    The animals' abode was now changed, and they were put into a
    large cabinet containing six small shelves and one big one.

    I called the big shelf a town, and the rest villages. The
    town was called Weybridge: the village where the birds lived,
    Airsbury; and that where the dogs were, Canistown. The rest
    had various other names. At this time an important addition
    was made to the collection, for a big lion was given me,
    which I immediately created king; then came a queen and four
    princesses, and shortly after a crown prince, another prince,
    and three more little princesses.

    The royal family was allowed a village all to itself, which
    was called Kingston, and was given five servants, two nurses,
    a footman, a housemaid, and a cook.

    As I had now two families of several of the kinds of animals,
    I determined that they should be married, so, nominating
    Sally's husband rector, I had several weddings. I built a
    church with some bricks I had, and formed a procession up the
    aisle, to the Wedding March, played on an American organ.

    First came the bride and bridegroom, then the best man and
    the bridesmaids, and last the children of the animals who
    were to be married, two and two. When the ceremony was over,
    I marched them all back to their places on the shelf.

    I now made eight laws, and copied them out in an
    exercise-book, together with the names of all the animals,
    the number of men, women, boys, and girls, and the number of
    married and single families.

    I had had several little separate china animals given me,
    belonging to none of my families, so I made a law that if any
    family of their kind came to the collection they must adopt
    these little orphans.

    I also made two acting companies, one of big animals, and one
    for the children, with a boar-hound called Sir Philip of
    Ravenswood for the manager of the first, and a little black
    and white kid, named Tim, for manager of the second, and at
    the Christmas of the same year that I formed the two
    companies I had two plays, the children acting "Hansel and
    Gretel," and the big animals "The Yeomen of the Guard."

    Being now unable to get any fresh families of small animals,
    I started a collection of big china animals, and soon had
    thirty-five, among whom were a Jersey bull and cow, another
    brown bull and a brown and white cow, two beautiful horses,
    several dogs, two donkeys, and two goats.

    These I kept apart from the small animals, in another
    cupboard; but I still kept the lion king over them as well,
    and gave them two big animals, a bloodhound and a St.
    Bernard, as governors over them.

    Among the small animals I had a very learned-looking pig
    called Orsino, whom I made doctor, while an old bulldog,
    Dimboona, to whom I had been obliged to give two wooden legs,
    was Prime Minister. I also had a treasurer, a rent collector,
    a steward, and an under-steward. I also made a young
    boar-hound, called Panther, the son of Sir Philip, keeper of
    the stables, which consisted of ninety-two horses which I had
    made.

    And this brings the narrative of the growth of my china
    animal collection up to the present time, when I have 555
    small animals and 35 big ones, 590 in all.



                            AT THE SEASIDE


Low Tide

The first thing to do on reaching the seaside is to find out when it
is low tide. In each twelve hours low tide comes twenty minutes later,
and knowing this you can arrange your days accordingly. Nothing is so
saddening as to run down the beach in the belief that the tide is
going out and to find that it is coming in.


Paddling

To boys who wear knickerbockers the preparations for paddling are very
simple; but girls are not so fortunate. Lewis Carroll (who wrote
_Alice in Wonderland_) took their difficulties so seriously that
whenever he went to the seaside to stay he used to have with him a
packet of safety-pins for the use of any children that seemed to be in
need of them. This piece of thoughtfulness on his part might determine
you to carry them for yourselves.


A Cork Ship

Sailing a good boat in the sea is not the best fun, but there is a
kind of boat which is very easily made as you sit on the beach, and
which is useful to play with when wading, and afterward to throw
stones at. You take a piece of cork for the hull. Cut a line down the
middle underneath and wedge a strip of slate in for a keel to keep her
steady. Fix a piece of driftwood for a mast, and thread a piece of
paper on that for a sail.


Wet Clothes

When wading it is just as well not to get your clothes wet if you can
help it. Clothes that are made wet with seawater, which probably has
a little sand in it, are as uncomfortable as crumbs in bed. There is
no reason why you should get them wet if you wade wisely. Sitting
among the rocks, running through the water, and jumping the little
crisping waves are the best ways to get soaked.


Rocks

Seaside places where there are rocks and a great stretch of sand are
the best. Rocks make paddling twice as exciting, because of the
interesting things in the little pools--the anemones, and seaweeds,
and shells, and crabs, and shrimps, and perhaps little fish. Sometimes
these pools are quite hot. To enjoy the rocks properly you want a net.


Sand Castles, and Other Sand Games

To make full use of the sands a spade is necessary and a pail
important. The favorite thing to make is a castle and a moat, and
although the water rarely is willing to stay in the moat it is well to
pour some in. The castle may also have a wall round it and all kinds
of other buildings within the wall. Abbeys are also made, and great
houses with carefully arranged gardens, and villages, and churches.
Railways with towns and stations here and there along the line are
easily made, and there is the fun of being the train when the line is
finished. The train is a good thing to be, because the same person is
usually engineer and conductor as well. Collisions are interesting now
and then. The disadvantage of a railway on crowded sands is that
passers-by injure the line and sometimes destroy, by a movement of the
foot, a whole terminus; it is therefore better at small
watering-places that few people have yet discovered. If an active game
is wanted as well as mere digging and building, a sand fort is the
best thing to make, because then it has to be held and besieged, and
perhaps captured. In all sand operations stones are useful to mark
boundaries.

Burying one another in the sand is good at the time, but gritty
afterward.


Seaweed

Seaweed and shells make good collections, but there is no use in
carrying live fish home in pails. The fun is in catching the fish, not
is keeping it; and some landladies dislike having the bath-room used
as an aquarium. On wet days seaweed can be stuck on cards or in a
book. The best way to get it to spread out and not crease on a card,
is to float the little pieces in a basin and slip the card underneath
them in the water. When the seaweed has settled on it, take the card
out and leave it to dry. The seaweed will then be found to be stuck,
except perhaps in places here and there, which can be made sure by
inserting a little touch of gum. It is the smaller, colored kinds of
seaweed that one treats in this way; and it is well to leave them for
a day in the sun before washing and preparing, as this brings out
their color. The ordinary large kind of seaweed is useful as a
barometer. A piece hung by the door will tell when rain is coming by
growing moist and soft.


Shell Work

A good use for little shells is to cover small boxes with them. The
shells are arranged in a simple pattern and fastened on with glue. If
the shells are not empty and clean, boil them, and scrub them with an
old tooth-brush.


Good Seaside Friends

So many interesting things are to be seen at the seaside that there is
no need to be always at play. Fishermen will come in with their boats,
which need pulling up; or a net that has been dropped near the shore
will be drawn in from the beach, and you can perhaps help. If the town
is not merely a watering-place but also a seaport, it is, of course,
better, because then there will be the life of the harbor to watch. To
be friends with a lighthouse man is almost as good a thing as can
happen; and if there is both a lighthouse and a shipbuilder's you
could hardly be more fortunate.



                            IN THE COUNTRY


This chapter has been written more for readers who live in a town and
visit the country only during the holidays than for those whose home
is always there. Regular country dwellers do not need to be told many
of the things that follow; but none the less there may be a few to
find them useful. The principal special attractions of the country
are--

  In the spring    Birds' nests.
   " June          Bee-swarming and hay-making.
   " July          Sheep-washing and shearing.
   " August        Early windfalls and harvest.
   " September     Blackberries, nuts, hops, mushrooms, and squirrels.


Making Friends

The most important thing to do when staying at a farmhouse is to
make friends with the principal people. The principal people are those
in charge of the chickens and ducks, the cows and the horses. The way
to make friends is to be as little trouble as possible.


Exploration

On reaching the farm, it is well to make a journey of discovery, in
order to learn where everything is. The more one knows about the
things in store--the size of the barn, the height of the haystacks,
the number of horses, the name of the watch-dog, the position and
character of the pond, and so forth--the simpler will it be, on going
to bed, to make plans for the visit.


Finding Hens' Eggs

The farmer's wife usually has charge of the chickens and ducks, but
very often it is her daughter or a servant. No matter who it is, as
soon as she is convinced that you will be careful and thorough she
will let you hunt for eggs. This is very exciting, because hens have a
way of laying in nests in the wood and all kinds of odd places, hoping
that no one will find them and they will thus be able to sit and hatch
out their chickens. The hay in the stable is a favorite spot, and
under the wood-pile, and among the long grass. Sometimes one
overlooks a nest for nearly a week and then finds three or four eggs
in it, one of them quite warm. This is a great discovery. Just at
first it is easy to be taken in by the china nest-eggs, and to run
indoors in triumph with one in your hand. But the farmer's wife will
laugh and send you back with it, and the mistake is not likely to be
made again. After a while one gets to know the hens personally, and to
know the noise which means that they have just laid. Sometimes, if a
hen is going to lay just as you come to her nest, she will run off
clucking and screaming and lay the egg on the ground.


Ducks' Eggs

Ducks' eggs, which are rather larger than hens' eggs, and pale green
in color, are often more difficult to find. They have to be hunted for
in the grass by the pond.


Feeding the Chickens

The farmer's wife also lets her visitors feed the chickens if they are
gentle with them and thoughtful. It needs quite a little thought,
because if you throw down the grain without thinking, many of the
weaker and less greedy ones will get nothing, and many of the stronger
and greedier ones will get too much. After a few handfuls you can see
which are the weaklings, and after that you can favor them
accordingly. A greedy hen is so very greedy that she will always,
whatever you do, get more than her share; but it is possible to snub
her a little. The very little chickens and ducklings do not have
grain, but soft food, which is put in a saucer and placed inside the
coop. It is after they have finished eating that they can most easily
be picked up, but one must be very careful not to squeeze them.


The Dairy

If the farmer's wife makes her own butter there will be an opportunity
to help her. Perhaps she will let you use the skimmer. Turning the
churn is not much fun except just when the butter forms.


Bee-Swarming

Bees swarm on hot days in the early summer, usually in a tree, but
sometimes in a room, if the window is open, and often in a bush, quite
close to the ground. When they swarm in a tree you would think a black
snow-storm was raging all around it. Every moment the cluster of bees
grows larger and larger, until, after half an hour or so, it is quiet.
Then the swarm has to be taken. This is the most interesting part, but
you must be careful not to be too near in case an accident occurs and
the bees become enraged and sting you.

If the farmer has the new wooden hives with a glass covering he will
very likely let you peep in and see the bees at work. Before doing
this you certainly ought to read something about their exceedingly
wonderful ways. One of the best books is Sir John Lubbock's (Lord
Avebury's) _Ants, Bees, and Wasps_, but most encyclopædias contain
very interesting articles on the subject.


The Cows

The man who looks after the cows is a very valuable friend. He may
even let you try to milk, which only specially gifted children ever
succeed in doing at all well; and he will teach you the cows' names
(in some farms these are painted up over each stall--Primrose,
Lightfoot, Sweetlips, Clover, and so on); and perhaps he will give you
the task of fetching them from the meadow at milking time.


Sheep

In a general way sheep are not very interesting, especially in
low-lying farms. But though sheep, as a rule, are dull, there are two
occasions when they are not--at sheep-washing and sheep-shearing. The
washers stand up to their knees, or even their waists, in the brook,
in oilskin clothes, and seizing the struggling sheep one by one by the
wool, plunge them into the water. Shearing is a finer art; but the
sheep is hardly less uncomfortable. He has to be thrown into various
positions (on his back for one, and with his head between the
shearer's knees for another), while the shears clip-clop all over him.
The wool is not taken off in scraps, as our hair is at the barber's,
but the whole fleece is removed in one huge piece.


The Blacksmith

It may be that while you are at the farm the day will come for having
the horses shod, and you may go with them to the blacksmith. The
blacksmith is of course a very important person to be friends with;
and people are very fortunate if their lodgings in the country are
close to a smithy. Some blacksmiths permit their friends to stand
right inside the smithy, instead of just at the door, where strangers
have to stay. Perhaps the blacksmith will ask you to blow his bellows
while he is making a horseshoe, and it may happen that if he has not
much work on hand he will make you a hoop that will be far cheaper
and stronger than a bought one (see p. 169). In hot weather the flies
are so troublesome to horses which are being shod, and make them so
restless, that some one has to stand beside them and brush the flies
away with a green branch. This job might fall to you.


Birds'-Nesting

One of the advantages of being in the country in spring is that that
is the time when birds build. In May the weather is not yet
sufficiently warm to make sitting about out-of-doors very comfortable,
but birds'-nesting can make up for that. It is of no use to say in
this book, "Don't take the eggs," because it is possible only for one
person here and there to be satisfied with merely finding a nest and
then passing on to find another. But it is a pity for any one who is
not a serious collector to take more than one egg. For your purposes
one is enough, and the loss of a single egg rarely causes a bird to
desert her nest. Of course if you know for certain that the nest is
deserted, it is right to take all. You can find out by visiting it two
or three times, and if the eggs remain cold or wet and there is no
sign of the bird you may safely feel that she has abandoned them.
Birds have so many natural enemies to fear that it is hard that we
should harm them too.


Blowing Eggs

For blowing eggs a brass or glass blow-pipe is the proper thing, using
only one hole, which is made at the side with a little drill. But for
your purpose a hole at each end made with a pin is simpler and equally
good. In blowing you must be careful not to hold the egg so tightly in
the fingers that its sides crush in. Before making the holes it is
well to put the egg in a basin of water. If it sinks it is fresh and
can be blown easily; but if it floats it is set--that is to say, the
young bird has begun to form--and blowing will be difficult. In such
cases it is wise, if you are using a blow-pipe, to make a largish hole
and put a little water in and leave the egg to lie for a day or so;
then blowing it will be not much trouble. But if you have no blow-pipe
the best thing to do is to make one good-sized hole in the less
interesting side of the egg, and empty it with a bent pin. Then, when
it is empty, you can put it in the egg box with the broken side
underneath. Country boys often thread birds' eggs on a string which
hangs from the ceiling, but the ordinary way is to put them in
cotton-wool in a box with cardboard compartments. Making this box is a
good country occupation for wet weather.


Butterflies

Butterfly-hunting begins when birds'-nesting is done and the weather
is hot. Here again it is not the purpose of this book to go into
particulars: the subject is too large. It is enough to say that the
needful things are a large net of soft green gauze, a killing-bottle
with a glass stopper, a cork-lined box with a supply of pins in which
to carry the butterflies after they are dead, and setting boards for
use at home. The good collector is very careful in transferring the
butterfly from the net to the bottle, lest its wings are rubbed or
broken; and before taking it out of the bottle and putting it in the
box you should be quite certain that it is dead. The way to get the
butterfly into the bottle is to drive it into a corner of the net and
hold it there, and then slip the bottle inside, remove the stopper,
and shake the butterfly into it. The stopper should be off as short a
time as possible. For handbooks for a butterfly collector see the
"Reading" section.


Collecting Flowers

A quieter pastime, but a very interesting one, and also one that,
unlike egg-collecting and butterfly-collecting, goes on all the year
round, is collecting flowers. For this purpose tin cases are made,
with straps to hold them from the shoulders, in which to keep the
plants cool and fresh; but there is no need to wait for the possession
of one of these. An ordinary box or basket will, if you have not very
far to walk, serve equally well. You will also need a press, which can
be simply a couple of boards about a foot long and six inches wide,
with a good supply of blotting-paper between. The flowers are pressed
by spreading them very carefully, to show their beauty to best
advantage, between the blotting-paper, and then piling a few books on
the boards. The weight need not be very heavy and the blotting-paper
should frequently be renewed. You will soon learn how long the
pressing need continue, but it is of the highest importance that the
flowers are thoroughly dried before you mount them in your album or on
separate sheets of paper. The simplest form of mounting is to glue
little strips of paper here and there across the stems. A botanical
collection is more valuable if the roots of the plants are also
included; and this will make it necessary for you to have a long
trowel. For the collector of flowers a handbook is compulsory. Such a
book as Alice Lounsberry's _The Wild Flower Book for Young People_
gives many details of the growth and nature of plants, told with a
story that makes the book unusually interesting, and will arouse your
enthusiasm to gather wild flowers and see how large a collection of
them you can make.

It is interesting, if you have any skill in painting, to make
water-color copies of all the flowers that you find; another good
occupation for wet days in the country.


Nuts and Blackberries

In nutting you want a hooked stick with which to pull down the
branches. For blackberries a hooked stick is not so important, but it
is well to have leather gloves. The blackberries ought to be dry when
they are picked. Rain takes their flavor away; so you should wait
until the sun comes again and restores it. One thing that you quickly
notice is that all blackberries are not after the same pattern. There
are different kinds, just as there are different kinds of strawberry
and raspberry. Some are hard and very closely built; some are loosely
built, with large cells which squash between the fingers; some come
between these two varieties; and there are still others. For eating on
the spot the softer ones are the best, but for cooking and for jam the
harder ones are equally good.

In picking blackberries you soon find that it is better to have the
sun at your back, because if it shines through the bush into your eyes
you cannot distinguish clearly between the shades of blackness. An
open basket full of blackberries is a radiant sight. Each of the
little cells has a point of light, and thousands of these together are
as gay as jewels.

No one need starve on the open road in September, for there is food on
every hedge--two good courses. Nuts are there as the standby, the
backbone of the meal, and after come blackberries, as pudding or
dessert. To pick the two for an hour, and then, resting beneath a
tree, to eat until all are gone--that is no bad way to have lunch. If
you take advice in this matter, you will not crack the nuts with your
teeth but between stones.


Ponds and Sailing Boats

Near the farm is certain to be either a pond or a stream. If it is a
clean and high pond, not in a hollow surrounded by trees, it will be
good to sail boats on. Sailing boats on inland water is much better
than on the sea, because, with a pond, directly the boat is fairly
started on its voyage you can run round the other side and meet it.
Even with a very poor pond it is still possible to have a very good
time. In buying or making a boat, be sure that the lead along the keel
is heavy enough. So little do toy-shop people think of these things
that they very often put no lead at all on their boats, and more often
than not put too little. Once a boat is properly weighted in this way
you are certain to have fun in sailing her, but otherwise it will be
useless to try. In boat-sailing it is well to have a long stick with a
hook at the end with which to draw the ship to land. For suggestions
as to making a useful and simple sailing-boat see p. 295.


Little Boats on a Stream

Sailing boats in a stream is little good, because there is no
steadiness of wind, but ordinary boats will float along in the current
splendidly. It is interesting to launch one and follow its adventures
from the bank. Sometimes it will be caught in a weed; sometimes an
eddy will sweep it into a back water; sometimes, in shooting the
rapids, it will be overturned. But a long stick can always put things
right. Or one of you will go down the stream to a given point and the
other will send down messengers--pieces of wood, walnut boats (see p.
298), paper boats (see p. 285), or whatever it may be.


A Stream's Fascination

But there is no absolute need for you to have boats in order to enjoy
a stream. There are so many other things to do, not the least
interesting being to make a dam and stop or divert the course of the
water. And when tired of playing it is very good to sit quite still on
the bank and watch things happening: perhaps a water-rat will swim
along suspecting nothing, and then, seeing you make a movement, will
dive and disappear, and suddenly come into view ever so far away on
the other bank. Perhaps a kingfisher will flash by or settle on a
branch overhanging the water. Kingfishers grow more rare every year,
owing to the merciless and unthinking zeal with which they are shot;
and maybe before long there will be no more to be seen anywhere.


Solitary Watchfulness

Indeed, to keep absolutely quiet and watch things happening is for
many people one of the most delightful occupations which the country
holds. When there is no one else to play with it is as good a way of
spending the time as can be found.


Mice and Moles

In a wood or in any place where there are old leaves, as in a dry
ditch, you will usually get through the ear the first tidings of any
moving thing. For instance, you will hear a field-mouse rustling long
before you can see its queer pointed nose pushing its way through the
dead leaves. Or it may be a mole blundering blindly along. If by any
chance a mole is caught in a trap while you are in the country, be
sure to examine its little hands and feel the softness of its fur.
Perhaps the farm boy will skin it for you.


Snakes

Sometimes the rustling is a snake on his way to a sunny spot where he
can bask and sleep. Very slender brown speckled snakes, or
blind-worms, are quite harmless, and so are the large grass-snakes,
which are something like a mackerel in lines and markings. The adder,
however, which is yellowish brown in color with brown markings and a
"V" on his head, is dangerous and should be avoided.


Ants

On p. 205 is given the title of a book about bees. Hardly less
wonderful are ants, concerning whom there is much curious information
in the same work, the reading of which makes it ten times more
interesting to watch an ant-hill than it was before. One sometimes has
to remember that it is as serious for ants to have their camp stirred
up by a walking-stick as it would be for New York if Vesuvius were
tossed on top of it.


Swallows and Hawks

In the flight of birds there is nothing to compare for beauty and
speed with the swift, or for power and cleverness with the hawk. On
moist evenings, when the swifts fly low and level, backward and
forward, with a quaint little musical squeak, like a mouse's, they
remind one of fish that dart through the water of clear streams under
bridges. The hawk, even in a high wind, can remain, by tilting his
body at the needed angle, perfectly still in the air, while his steady
wide eyes search the ground far below him for mice or little birds.
Then, when he sees something, his body suddenly seems to be made of
lead and he drops like a stone on his prey. A hawk can climb the sky
by leaning with outspread wings against the breeze and cork-screwing
up in a beautiful spiral.


Squirrels

The time to see squirrels is September and October, when the beech
nuts and hazel nuts are ripe. In the pictures he sits up, with his
tail resting on his back, holding nuts in his little forepaws; but one
does not often see him like this in real life. He is either scampering
over the ground with his tail spread out behind him or chattering
among the branches and scrambling from one to another. The squirrel is
not seen at his best when he goes nutting. His beautiful swift
movements are checked by the thickness of the hazels. In a beech
grove he has more liberty to run and leap. Sometimes you will see
twenty at once all nibbling the beech nuts on the ground. On hearing
you they make for a tree trunk, and, rushing up it for a yard or two,
stop suddenly, absolutely still, with fearful eyes, and ears intently
and intensely cocked. If you stand equally still the squirrel will
stay there, motionless, like a piece of the tree, for a minute or so,
and then, in a very bad temper, disappear from view on the other side
of the trunk, and probably, though you run round the tree quickly
several times and search every branch with your eyes, never come into
sight again. It is a good thing to sit under a tree some distance from
the beech trees, making as little movement as possible; and by and by
you will cease to be considered as anything but a regular part of the
landscape and the squirrels may come quite close to you.


A Country Diary

If you are fond of writing you might find a good deal of interest in
keeping a country diary: that is to say, a small note-book in which
you set down evening by evening all things seen during the day that
seemed to be sufficiently out of the way to be worth recording.


A Camera in the Country

Nothing is said in this book about amateur photography, because to own
a camera is still the exception rather than the rule, and if once we
began to say anything practical about photography we should have to
say very much more than the scheme of the volume permits. But we might
urge any reader who has a camera to use it in the country in taking
pictures of animal life and old buildings. Old-fashioned farmhouses
and cottages are disappearing so rapidly that we ought to keep as many
records of them as possible, and well-chosen photographs of animals
are not only beautiful pictures, but are also very useful. Mr.
Kearton's work in this way, which may be studied in _With Nature and
a Camera_, is extremely valuable.


Country Books

In the "Reading" chapter will be found the titles of several books
which describe life in the country, and tell you all about the habits
of animals, birds, and insects.



                            DOLLS' HOUSES


The most magnificent ready-made dolls' house in the world, with gables
and windows, stairs, front garden, and the best furniture, cannot
quite make up to its owner for all the delight she has missed by not
making it herself. Of course some things, such as cups and saucers,
glasses and bottles, saucepans and kitchen utensils, must be bought;
but almost all the really necessary things for house-keeping can be
made at home.


Dolls' Gardens

One advantage of making the dolls' house yourself is that you can
arrange for it to have a garden, a provision rarely made by toy-shops.
Grass plots can be made of green baize or other cloth of the right
color; garden paths of sand sprinkled over glue, or of strips of
sand-paper; flower-beds of brown paper, and the flowers of
tissue-paper and wire. A summer-house, and a dog-kennel to hold a
china dog, might also be added (see p. 241), and, if you have room,
stables.


Garden Chairs and Tables

Garden seats and tables can be made of cardboard and cork. For a seat,
take a card two or three inches long and not quite as broad. Mark it
right across, lengthwise, in the middle with a sharp knife, and then
half fold it. This will make the back and seat. Glue the seat to four
slender corks for legs and paint the whole green. To make a table,
glue four cork legs to a strong piece of cardboard.


The House

A dolls' house can be made of almost any kind of box. For the simplest
and smallest kind cigar boxes can be used and the furniture made of
cork, for which directions are given later; or a couple of low shelves
in a bookcase or cupboard will do. Much better, however, is a large
well-made packing-case divided by wooden and strong cardboard
partitions into two, four, or six rooms, according to its size. A
specially made box is, of course, best of all; this should be divided
into four or six rooms, and should have a sloping roof to give attic
room for boxes and odd furniture. The house can be stained outside or
papered a plain dark color. One or two windows should be cut out of
the walls of each room by the carpenter who made the box, and there
must be doors between the rooms. A piece of thin glass cut to the
right size can be fixed on the windows at home. But before this is
done the house must be papered. The best kind of paper is that used by
bookbinders for the insides of the covers, because the patterns used
are so dainty and small; but this is not always easy to get. Any
small-patterned paper will do, or what is called lining paper, which
can be got in every color. The paper must be very smoothly put on with
paste. Always start at the top when pressing it to the wall, and
smooth it downward gently. Dadoes or friezes can be divided off with
the tiny beading which frame-makers use, or with a painted line, which
must be straight and evenly done.


Fireplaces

Fireplaces, which can be bought or made at home, should be put in
next. To make one yourself, take a strong cardboard-box lid about four
inches long and two wide (though the size must depend on the size of
the room). Very neatly cut off a quarter of it. This smaller part,
covered with gold or silver paper, will make the fender. Then cut off
both sides of the remaining piece, leaving the strip at the top to
form the mantelpiece. Glue the back of the cover to the wall, hang
little curtains from the shelf, put some ornaments on it, arrange the
fender in front, and the fireplace is complete. A grate can be
imitated in cardboard painted black and red.


A Furnishing Game

A splendid game of shop can be played while the furnishing is going
on: in fact, from the moment you have the bare house a board or sign
with "_To Let or For Sale_" will quickly attract house-hunting dolls,
and when a couple have taken it they will have their days full of
shopping before it is ready for them. You will, of course, yourself be
the manufacturers and shopkeepers. It is well to make out careful
bills for everything sold, and the more things you can display in your
show-rooms the better. All house-hunting dolls require plenty of
money.


Curtains

Windows have been mentioned, but they are not by any means a
necessity. Yet even if you cannot have windows, you should put up
curtains, for they make the rooms prettier. Shades can be made of
linen, edged at the bottom with a piece of lace, and nailed on the
wall just above the window. During the day these are rolled up and
tied. White curtains should be bordered with lace and run on a piece
of tape, which can be nailed or pinned on both sides of the window.
They will then draw. The heavy inside curtains can be hung on a pencil
(which may be gilded or left its own color) supported by two picture
screws. Fasten these curtains back with narrow ribbons. Some dolls'
houses, of course, are fitted with real doors. But if you do not have
these, it is perhaps well to hang the doorway with curtains, also on
pencils.


Floors

The floors can be stained or painted either all over or round the
edges. Carpets are better not made of ordinary carpet, for it is much
too thick, but of colored canvas, or chintz, or thin felt, or serge. A
rug made of a plain colored material with a cross-stitch or
embroidered pattern around it is very pretty. Fine matting can also be
used, and oil-cloth is excellent for the kitchen.


General Remarks on Furnishing

In another place in this book (pp. 228-233) will be found instructions
for making furniture for very small and simple dolls' houses; but for
a good dolls' house with several good-sized rooms you would probably
prefer, for the most part, to use bought things. Square tables are of
course easy to make (a cardboard-box lid on four legs is practically
the whole thing), and there are other articles which, if you see your
way to devise, are better made at home, instructions for which will be
found as you read on; but chairs and round tables and so forth are
perhaps most satisfactory when they come from the toy-shop. Both in
buying furniture and in making it, it is necessary always to remember
the size of the rooms and of the dolls, and the size of whatever
furniture you may already have, so as to keep everything in
proportion.


Beds

Beds can be made of cardboard-boxes of different sizes. The box turned
upside down makes the bed itself, and the cover should be fixed
upright behind it for curtains to hang from. These curtains and the
frill round the bed should be made of any thin material, such as
muslin. The mattress, bolster, and pillows are best made of
cotton-wool covered with muslin or calico. Sheets may be made also out
of muslin; pillow-cases should be edged with lace; for blankets you
use flannel, button-hole-stitched round with colored silk or wool,
and the quilt will look best if made of a dainty piece of silk, or
muslin over a colored sateen to match the curtains. A tiny nightdress
case should not be forgotten. Beds for doll children can be made in
the same way out of match-boxes; and for cozy little cots for babies
there are walnut shells.

[Illustration: CARDBOARD BOX BEDS]


Bead Furniture

[Illustration: BEAD CHAIR]

Chairs can be made with wire, beads, a little silk or cotton material,
some cardboard and cotton-wool. To make a chair in this way, cut a
piece of cardboard the size that you want the seat to be. Lay a good
wad of cotton-wool over it, and then cover it neatly. On a piece of
strong wire thread enough beads to go round the seat of the chair. Sew
this firmly to the seat. Then thread beads on four pieces of wire the
right length for the legs, and leave a little piece of wire with which
to fasten them to the wire round the seat. Then make the back from a
longer piece of wire, bent into shape and attached to the seat in the
same way, and put a short row of beads across the middle. You will
need a pair of tweezers to cut the wire and to finish the fastening
securely.


Pictures

Pictures for the walls can be made very easily. The picture itself
will be a scrap or tiny photograph. This is pasted on a piece of
cardboard larger than itself, and round the edge of that you place a
strip of whatever colored paper you want for the frame. The picture
cord, a piece of cotton, can be glued on the back. More elaborate
frames are cut out of cardboard and bound round with colored silk and
covered with gold paint. The picture is then stuck into it.


Bookshelves and Books

The simplest bookshelves are those that hang from a nail on the wall.
They are made by cutting two or three strips of cardboard of the size
of the shelves and boring holes at the corners of each. These are then
threaded one by one on four lengths of silk or fine string, knots
being tied to keep the shelves the right distance apart. Care has to
be taken to get the knots exactly even, or the shelf will be crooked.

Books can be made by sewing together a number of tiny sheets of paper,
with a colored cover and a real or invented title. Sometimes these
books contain real stories.


Other Articles

A dolls' house ought to be as complete as possible, and though this
will take a long time it is absorbingly interesting work from start to
finish. It should be the ambition of the mistress of a dolls' house to
have it as well furnished as the house of a grown-up person, and if
she looks round the rooms in her own home carefully she will see how
many things can be copied. There will be cushions to make, fancy
table-cloths for different tables, toilet-covers and towels for the
bedroom, splashers to go behind wash-stands, mats in front of them,
and roll-towels and kitchen cloths for the kitchen.

Everything should be made of the thinnest and finest material, cut
with the greatest care and sewn with the tiniest stitches. Light and
dainty colors are best for a dolls' house. If you have several rooms,
it is a good plan to have a pink room, a blue room, a yellow room, and
in each room to have everything of different shades of that color and
white. Perhaps no material is so useful to the owner of a dolls' house
as art muslin. It is soft, cheap, and very pretty.

Coming to other furniture which can be made at home, we find screens
(made of cardboard and scraps), music for the piano, walking-sticks,
flowers (made of colored tissue-paper and wire), flower-pots (made of
corks covered with red paper), cupboards to keep linen and glass in
(made out of small cardboard boxes, fitted with shelves), and many
other little things which, if you look round your own home carefully,
will be suggested to you. Even bicycles can be imitated in cardboard
and placed in the hall.


The Inhabitants

As to dolls, the more the merrier. They are so cheap and can be
dressed so easily that it seems a great pity not to have a large
family and a larger circle of friends who will occasionally visit
them. There must be a father and a mother, a baby and some children,
servants (in stiff print dresses with caps and aprons), and certainly
a bride, who, if her dress can not be changed for an ordinary one,
ought to be kept carefully hidden, except when there is a wedding.


Dressing Dolls

It is rather difficult to dress these tiny dolls so that their clothes
will take off and on, but it is much better to do so if possible. In
any case they can have capes and hats which take off. The thinnest
materials make the best underclothes, but stiff material for dresses
makes it possible to stand the dolls up. Glove buttons, and the
narrowest ribbons, tapes, and laces, are useful things to have when
you are dressing dolls'-house dolls.


Dolls' Dinner Parties

Dolls occasionally require parties. The food may be real or imitation.
If real,--such as currants and raisins, sugar and candied peel,--it is
more amusing at the moment; but if imitation, you have a longer time
of interest in making it. Get a little flour, and mix it with salt and
water into a stiff paste, like clay. Then mould it to resemble a round
of beef, a chicken, a leg of mutton, potatoes, pies, or whatever you
want, and stand it in front of the fire to dry. When dry, paint (in
water-color) to resemble these things still more. If there is clay in
the garden, you can make all these things from that, and many others
too.


Dolls' Flats

Just as people live not only in houses but in flats, so may there be
dolls' flats as well as dolls' houses. A dolls' flat consists of a
board on which the outline of the rooms is made with single bricks.
For example, a four-roomed flat might be arranged like this--

[Illustration: A DOLL'S APARTMENTS]

To lay the bricks on a board is not necessary. They can be laid on the
floor equally well, except that when you have done playing you will
have then to put them away again, whereas if placed on a board they
can be left till next time. Nor is there any reason why the walls
should not be higher than a single brick; that is merely a matter of
taste. Once the walls are ready the furniture and dolls can be put in
in the ordinary way.


Smaller Dolls' Houses

So far we have been considering larger dolls' houses. But there are
also smaller ones, which naturally require much smaller furniture.
These dolls' houses can be made of cardboard (as described on p. 237
and on), or they can be merely small boxes--even cigar boxes; and the
dolls and furniture in them can be, if you like, all paper, or made of
materials in ways that are now suggested.


Cork and Match-box Furniture

This furniture, if very neatly made, can be very successful, and it
costs almost nothing. Plain pins will do quite well, although the
fancy ones are much prettier. Velvet or thin cloth is best for the
dining-room furniture; silk for the drawing room; and some
light-colored cotton material for the bedrooms.


Materials

You will need--

  Several good-sized corks, or pickle corks, for the larger things.
  Some pieces of fancy silk or velvet.
  A number of strong pins of different sizes. (The fancy pins with
large white, black, and colored heads are best.)
  Some wool, silk, or tinsel which will go well with the silk or
velvet.
  A strong needle and a spool of cotton.


Chairs

[Illustration: CORK ARM-CHAIR]

Cut a round or square piece of cork about quarter of an inch thick and
one inch across. Cover it with a piece of silk or velvet, making all
the stitches on that side of the cork which will be the under side of
the seat. For the legs put a pin firmly into each corner. Wind a
little wool or silk firmly round each leg, finishing it off as neatly
as possible. The back of the seat is made by sticking four pins rather
closely together and winding the wool or silk in and out of them.
Fasten the wool with a tiny knot both when you begin winding and when
you finish. Armchairs are made in the same way, except that they are
rather larger, and arms--made of small pins--are added.


Chestnut Chairs

[Illustration: CHESTNUT CHAIR]

an be made of chestnuts. The flatter
side of the nut is the seat, and in this are stuck pins for the back
(and arms if necessary), which may be bound together with gold or
silver tinsel. Other pins are stuck in underneath for legs.


Sofas

For a sofa a piece of cork about two inches long and half an inch
thick is needed. This must be covered, and then quite short pins stuck
in for legs. Put a row of short pins along one side and the two ends,
and wind the wool neatly in and out of them.


Tables

[Illustration: FANCY TABLE]

Round tables can be made best of different-sized pieces of cork, with
very strong pins for legs; and square ones of the outside of a wooden
match-box, with four little medicine-bottle corks glued under it for
legs. In either case it is most important to have the legs well fixed
on and of exactly the same length. It is not necessary to cover a
table, but a table-cloth of silk, either fringed, or hemmed with tiny
stitches, and a white table-cloth for meals, should be made.

Fancy tables can be made by taking a flat round cork and sticking pins
into it at regular intervals all round. Weave silk or tinsel in and
out of the pins until they are covered. (See above.)


Foot-Stools

Several small pieces of cork may be covered to make foot-stools.


Standard Lamp

A serviceable standard lamp can be made by taking a small empty cotton
spool, gilding or painting it, and fixing the wooden part of a thin
penholder firmly into it. On the top of it glue a round piece of cork,
on which a lamp-shade, made of one of the little red paper caps that
chemists put on bottles, can be placed.


Bedroom Furniture--Materials

You will need--

  Two large wooden match-boxes.
  Several corks of different sizes.
  Some pieces of chintz, of cotton material, flannel, linen,
oil-cloth, and a little cotton-wool.
  An empty walnut shell.
  Several wooden matches with the heads taken off.
  Pins of different sizes.
  Wool, silk or tinsel, for the backs of the chairs.
  A tube of glue.


Beds

[Illustration: MATCH-BOX BEDSTEAD]

To make a bed, take the inside of a match-box and cut away the bottom
of it. Then take two matches and glue them to the two corners at the
head of the bed so that a portion sticks out below the bed for legs
and above the bed for a railing. Cut two more matches to the same
length as these others, less the part of them that serves for legs,
and fasten these at equal distances from each other and from the two
others already glued in position. Along the top of these place another
match for a rail, and the head of the bed is done. For the foot of the
bed repeat these operations exactly, except that all the upright
matches must be a little shorter. Then cut off one end of the bottom
of the box and fit it in to form the part of the bed that takes the
mattress. The bedstead, when made, should be like the one in the
accompanying picture. A little mattress must now be made to fit the
bed exactly; it can be stuffed with cotton-wool or bran. A pillow,
blankets, sheets, and a fancy coverlet may also be made, and a very
thin and tiny frill should be put right round the bed to hide the box.

A very pretty baby's cradle can be made out of half a walnut shell. It
should be lined, and curtains should be hung from a match fastened
upright at one end of the shell.


Dressing-Tables

The outside of the same match-box that was used for the bed will make
a dressing-table. Stand it up on either side of its striking sides,
and glue or sew a piece of light-colored thin material all round it,
and then over this put a muslin frill. Make a little white cloth to
lay on the top of the table. The looking-glass is made by fixing a
square of silver paper in a cardboard frame.


Washstands

Take the inside of another match-box and stand it up on one of its
sides. Then take five or six matches and cut them to that length
which, when they are glued in an upright row at equal distances apart
to the back of the match-box, will cause them to stand up above the
top of it about a third of an inch. On the tops of them then lay
another match to make a little railing. Cover the box as you did the
dressing-table. Put a little mat of oil-cloth on the top of the box,
and make another large one to lay in front of it. Proper jugs and
basins will, of course, have to be bought, but an acorn cup or small
shell makes a very good toy basin.

[Illustration: MATCH-BOX WASHSTAND]


Wardrobes

The wardrobe is made by standing the inside of a match-box on end,
fixing inside several little pegs made of small pieces of match stuck
in with glue, and hanging two little curtains in front of it. If, when
done, it seems too low, it may be raised on four little corks.


Towel-Rack

A towel-horse can easily be made with six long pins and two small
pieces of cork.

[Illustration: TOWEL RACK]


Clothes-Basket

[Illustration: CLOTHES BASKET]

To make a clothes-basket, take a round piece of cork about a quarter
of an inch thick and stick pins closely together all round it, as in
the above picture. Then weave wool in and out of them.



            DOLLS' HOUSES AND DOLLS OF CARDBOARD AND PAPER


A cardboard house, furnished with paper furniture and occupied by
paper dolls, is a very good substitute for an ordinary dolls' house,
and the making of it is hardly less interesting. The simplest way to
make a cardboard house is to cut it all (with the exception of the
partition and the roof) in one piece.

The plan given here is for a two-roomed cottage, the measurements for
which can be multiplied to whatever size you like (or whatever is the
utmost that your sheet of cardboard will permit). The actual model
from which this plan was made (the house was built from a royal sheet
of Bristol board) had a total floor measurement of 8 inches by 14. The
end walls were 5 inches high, the side walls 5 inches, sloping up to 7
in the middle, and the partition was 7 inches. The roof was slightly
wider than the floor, in order to make wide eaves, and as much longer
as was needful not only for the eaves but also to allow for the angle.

The first thing to do is to rule the outline of the cottage. All the
measurements must be most accurately made, as the slightest
incorrectness will keep the house from fitting together properly. Then
cut it out. When this is done, draw the windows and doors. Then lay
your cardboard on a board, and run your knife along each side of the
windows and the three free sides of the doors until the card is cut
through. A ruler held close to the penciled line will make your knife
cut straight. The bars across the windows can be made of strips of
paper glued on afterward. If the doors have a tiny piece shaved off
each of the cut sides, they will open and shut easily.

To make the front door open well, outward, the hinge line of the door
(KK) should be half cut through on the inside. The hinge can be
strengthened by gluing a narrow strip of paper or linen along it. At
the three points marked H make small slits through which to put the
tags, marked G, of the partition wall.

All drawing and painting must be done on both sides while the house is
still flat. The doors inside will need handles and keyholes. Small
pieces of mica can be glued over the windows instead of glass.

Little curtains of crinkly tissue-paper can also be made, and, if you
like, the walls can easily be papered with colored paper pasted on.
This will cause some delay, however, for it must be well pressed.
Instead, wall-paper patterns could be painted on.

Outside--that is, on the underside of the cardboard--there is a great
deal to do. Both walls and roof can be painted, and tiles, bricks, and
creepers imitated. The front door should have a knocker and a
letterbox, and around both the door and the windows should be
imitation framework. As the upright joints of the four walls will be
made of linen painted to imitate brick-work or stone-work, you need
not carry the painting of the walls quite to the edges, because these
will be covered by the joints. It is best to paint the joints before
you stick them on.

Before turning the card over again, run your knife along the four
sides of the floor to assist the bending up of the walls. Do not on
any account cut through; merely make a half cut.

[Illustraton: CARDBOARD DOLL'S HOUSE]

When you have drawn and painted all you can think of to make the house
complete and pretty, take your strips of linen, for the fastening of
the walls, crease them in half, lengthwise, and glue one half to the
outside of the edge of the walls marked CB and DE in the plan. When
this is quite dry, bend the back wall and the two side walls up, and
glue the free sides of the strips to the wall marked AB and EF,
holding the walls firmly together until well stuck. Strengthen the
fold LM, which has to serve as a hinge for the front of the house,
with a strip of linen glued underneath. The sides of the front wall
must remain unattached, as that forms the opening. It can be kept
closed by a strong pin slipped through the roof.

[Illustration: APPEARANCE OF HOUSE WHEN COMPLETE]


The Partition

Now for the partition. Put the three tags G G G through the slits H H
H and glue them firmly down on the outside. (These will have to be
touched up with paint.) The roof must then be put on. Cut out a slit N
an inch long to fit the tag on the partition, also marked N. Run your
knife along the dotted line underneath, and fold it to the necessary
angle to fit the sloping walls. Where the roof touches the end walls
it must be fastened on with strips of linen or paper, which have been
folded in the same way as before and one half fastened securely to the
walls. It is important to let it get quite dry before gluing the other
half to the roof.

[Illustration: DOG KENNEL (Fig. 1) AND ROOF (Fig. 2)]


The Chimney

The chimney, of which the illustration is the actual size, is the last
thing to be made. First paint, and then fold the two side pieces
downward, cut out the three little holes and put into them three
chimneys, made by folding small pieces of paper, painted red, round a
penholder, and gluing their edges together. The chimney is fixed to
the sloping roof with very small pieces of glued paper. Remember that
all the pieces of paper used as fastening ought to be touched up with
paint. The chimney in the drawing of the complete house on page 240 is
put at the side of the roof, but it may even better go in the middle.


The Garden

The cottage can then be fixed to a piece of wood or paste-board, to
form its garden and add to convenience in moving it about. A cardboard
fence and gate can be cut out and painted green. A path to the front
door is made by covering a narrow space of the cardboard with very
thin glue over which, while it is wet, sand is sprinkled to imitate
gravel. Moss will do for evergreens, and grass plots can be made of
green cloth. A summer-house, garden chairs and tables are easily cut
out of cardboard. So also are a rabbit-hutch, pump, dove-cot, and
dog-kennel. A plan of a dog-kennel, actual size, is given.


Another Way

It is, of course, possible to make a house of several pieces instead
of one. The walls and floors can be made separately and joined with
linen strips; but this adds to the difficulty of the work and causes
the houses to be less steady. Cardboard houses can also be made with
two floors.


"The House That Glue Built"

A novel kind of paper house has been gotten out in book form. It is
called _The House That Glue Built_, and consists of pictures of rooms,
without furniture, which is shown on separate sheets. The object is to
cut out the furniture, arrange it and paste it in its proper place.
The illustration shows the library, and the furniture for it. There is
also a sheet of dolls to be cut out, who represent the owners of the
house. Two other books on the same order are _The Fun That Glue Made_
and _Stories That Glue Told_. They are all easily put together, and
are lots of fun.


Paper Furniture

Everything required for the furnishing and peopling of a cardboard
dolls' house can be made of paper; and if colored at all cleverly the
furniture will appear to be as solid as that of wood. After cutting
out and joining together one or two of the models given in the pages
that follow, and thus learning the principle on which paper furniture
is made, you will be able to add all kinds of things to those
mentioned here or to devise new patterns for old articles, such as
chairs and desks.


Glue and Adhesive Tape

Two recent inventions of the greatest possible use to the maker of
paper furniture are fish-glue which gets dry very quickly and is more
than ordinarily strong, and adhesive tape. Glue can be bought for very
little, and adhesive tape, which is sold principally for mending music
and the torn pages of books, is put up in inexpensive spools.


Home-Made Compasses

A pair of compasses is a good thing to have; but you can make a
perfectly serviceable tool by cutting out a narrow strip of cardboard
about four inches long and boring holes at intervals, of a quarter of
an inch, through which the point of a pencil can be placed. If one end
of the strip is fastened to the paper with a pin you can draw a circle
of what size you want, up to eight inches across.


Materials

These are the materials needed when making paper furniture:--

    A few sheets of stiff note-paper or drawing-paper. Scissors.
    A penknife. A ruler (a flat one). A mapping-pen. A box of
    paints. A board to cut out on. Adhesive tape or stamp-paper.
    Glue.


Tracing

If the drawings are to be traced, tracing-paper, or transparent
note-paper, and a sheet of carbon-paper, will also be needed. To trace
a drawing, cover it with paper and draw it exactly. Then cover the
paper or cardboard from which you wish to cut out the furniture with a
piece of carbon-paper, black side down, and over that place your
tracing. Draw over this again with a very sharply pointed pencil or
pointed stick, and the lines will be repeated by the carbon-paper on
the under sheet of paper.

The furniture, for which designs are given in this chapter, can be
made of stiff note-paper, Whatman's drawing-paper, or thin Bristol
board. The drawings can be copied or traced. In either case the
greatest care must be taken that the measurements are minutely correct
and the lines perfectly straight. A slip of paper is a very good thing
to measure with.

Enough designs have been given to show how most different kinds of
furniture can be made. These can, of course, be varied and increased
by copying from good furniture lists; while many little things such as
saucepans, dishes, clocks, and so forth, can be copied from stores
lists and added to the few that are given on p. 248.

[Illustration: THE LIBRARY AND FURNITURE FROM
"THE HOUSE THAT GLUE BUILT"
(_Facing page 244_)]

These small articles are cut out flat, but an extra piece of paper is
left under each, which, when bent back, makes a stand.


General Instructions

The front legs of chairs, the legs of tables, and the backs of
furniture must be neatly joined together by narrow strips of
stamp-paper or adhesive tape. To do this, cut a strip of the right
size, crease it down the middle, and stick one side. Allow this to
dry, before you fix the other.

Wherever in the pictures there is a dotted line, it means that the
paper is to be folded there. It will be easily seen whether it is to
be folded up or down.

Before the furniture is folded it should be painted. Wood, iron,
brass, and silk can all be imitated in color.

In cutting out small spaces of cardboard--as between the bars of a
chair--lay the card on a board, and keeping your knife, which should
be sharp at the point, against a flat ruler, run it again and again
along the lines you want to cut, until you have cut through. If your
furniture is made of paper, the spaces can be cut out with finely
pointed scissors, taking care to start in the middle of the space,
for the first incision is seldom a clean one.

[Illustration: KITCHEN TABLE
(Cut out the oblong parts marked AA.)]

[Illustration: KITCHEN RANGE AND KITCHEN CHAIR
(A is turned up to form a shelf for saucepans; B is glued down over
the back.)]

[Illustration: SCREEN
(To be made of one piece of paper folded into three equal parts and
cut out in accordance with the illustration.)]

[Illustration: VARIOUS POTS AND PANS
(Under part to be folded back for a stand.)]

[Illustration: DINING-ROOM TABLE AND CLOTH]

[Illustration: SIDEBOARD]

[Illustration: SOFA AND ARM-CHAIR
(The corners must be fastened to the sheet by very narrow strips of
paper.)]

[Ilustration: WOODEN BEDSTEAD]

[Illustration: WARDROBE
(Join the sides AB and AB, and then bend the top down, glueing the
flap C to the back of the wardrobe.)]

[Illustration: DRESSING TABLE]

[Illustration: WASHSTAND]

[Illustration: ROCKING-CHAIR, TOWEL RACK, AND CHAIR]

[Illustration: CHILD'S HIGH CHAIR AND COT
(In the chair the lines AB and BA must be cut. In the cot the four
pieces marked A are cut out on their sides and bent down to form
legs.)]


Paper Dolls

Paper dolls are not as good to play with as proper dolls. One can do
much less with them because they cannot be washed, have no hair to be
brushed, and should not sit down. But they can be exceedingly pretty,
and the keeping of their wardrobes in touch with the fashion is an
absorbing occupation. Paper dolls are more interesting to those who
like painting than to others. The pleasure of coloring them and their
dresses is to many of us quite as interesting as cutting out and
sewing the clothes of ordinary dolls.


Making Paper Dolls

The first thing to do is to draw the doll in pencil on the cardboard
or paper which it is to be cut from. If you are not good at drawing,
the best way is to trace a figure in a book or newspaper, and then,
slipping a piece of carbon-paper (which can be bought for a penny or
less at any stationer's) between your tracing-paper and the cardboard,
to go over the outline again with a pencil or a pointed stick. On
uncovering the cardboard you will find the doll there all ready to cut
out. It should then be colored on both sides, partly flesh color and
partly underclothes.


The Dresses

The dresses are made of sheets of note-paper, the fold of which forms
the shoulder pieces. The doll is laid on the paper, with head and neck
lapping over the fold, and the line of the dress is then drawn a
little larger than the doll. A small round nick to form the collar is
cut between the shoulders of the dress, and a slit is made down the
back through which the doll's head can be passed. After the head is
through it is turned round. (Of course, if the dress is for evening
the place which you cut for the neck must be larger, and in this case
no slit will be needed.) All the details of the dresses, which can be
of original design, or copied from advertisements and fashion plates,
must be drawn in in pencil and afterward painted. Hats, trimmed with
tissue-paper feathers or ribbons, are made of round pieces of
note-paper with a slit in them just big enough for the tip of the
doll's head to go through. The illustrations on pp. 260 and
261 should make everything clear.


Other Paper Dolls

Simpler and absolutely symmetrical paper dolls are made by cutting
them out of folded paper, so that the fold runs right down the middle
of the doll. By folding many pieces of paper together, one can cut out
many dolls at once.


Walking Dolls

Walking ladies are made in that way; but they must have long skirts
and no feet, and when finished a cut is made in the skirt--as in the
picture--and the framework thus produced is bent back. When the doll
is placed on the table and gently blown it will move gracefully
along.

[Illustration: WALKING PAPER DOLLS]

[Illustration: PAPER MOTHER AND CHILD, WITH CLOTHES FOR EACH]

[Illustration: A PAPER GIRL WITH SIX CHANGES]


Tissue-Paper Dresses

Dresses can also be made of crinkly tissue-paper glued to a foundation
of plain note-paper. Frills, flounces, and sashes are easily imitated
in this material, and if the colors are well chosen the result is very
pretty.


Rows of Paper Dolls

To make a row of paper dolls, take a piece of paper the height that
the dolls are to be, and fold it alternately backward and forward
(first one side and then the other) leaving about an inch between each
fold. Press the folds together tightly and cut out the half of a doll,
being careful that the arms are continued to the edge of the fold and
are not cut off. Open out and you will have a string of paper dolls.

Other articles to be made from paper and cardboard will be found on
pp. 284-291.



                     PLAYHOUSES OF OTHER PEOPLES


It is not in the least necessary to confine yourself to making
playhouses that are like the houses you live in or see about you, for
with a little ingenuity you can construct bits of all sorts of strange
countries right in your play-room. In one of the schools in New York
City the children study geography and history of certain kinds by
making with their own hands scenes from the places about which they
study.

One of the most valuable materials for making these playhouses is
ordinary modeling clay. You can buy fifty pounds for from fifty cents
to a dollar, and with this you are equipped to make almost anything
you can see in pictures. Put the clay (if bought dry) into a jar, pour
over it clear water, and stir it up with a stick until perfectly
smooth and about the consistency of hard butter. The first thing to do
is to make a supply of bricks for building. This should be shaped like
real bricks and about two inches long. Smaller ones are also possible
if you wish to have your settlement on a very small scale. These
should be made as regularly as possible and as nearly of the same
size. After a little practice one becomes very expert in this simple
art. They should then be dried in the sun and are ready to use, though
they must be handled carefully. If you can obtain terra-cotta clay,
and have it baked hard you will have real bricks that will outlast
your play-time.


A Pueblo Settlement

Suppose now that you have been reading about the life of the Pueblo
Indians in our Southwest, and you have a picture of one of their
singular settlements. The accompanying picture shows what was done in
the way of constructing such a settlement by a class of school
children, none of whom were over eight years old. You can model little
clay Indian inhabitants and paint them as you please, to represent
their brown skins and bright-colored clothes. If you can have a box
with a little earth in it to set before your Pueblo village you can
sow wheat seed, or mustard, and model Indians working in the fields
with their crude plows. Anything of which you can find a picture can
be reproduced. Indian villages and camps are easy to make and
interesting. And once you are started on Indian life it may be fun to
make yourselves Indian costumes. The costumes in the picture shown
were made by the boys who wear them. By looking closely at them you
can copy them.


An Esquimau Village

Another class in the same school painted their bricks white to
represent blocks of snow and made an Esquimau village. This is
fascinating and easy to do. Or, the rounded huts can be modeled all in
one piece directly from the clay. Any book describing the life of
dwellers in the Arctic region will tell you how they make their houses
and you can make tiny imitations of them that will be infinite fun to
construct and the admiration of all your friends when finished.
Cotton-wool can be used for snow (powdered isinglass also is pretty),
and bits of broken mirror for ice-ponds. Little sleds can be made on
which to put your Esquimau hunter, who may be one of the
white-fur-clad dolls so cheaply bought in toy-stores. Or you can model
a little doll just the right size to be entering the door of your tiny
rounded white hut.

[Illustration: AN ESQUIMAU SLED]

[Illustration: INDIAN COSTUMES
(_Facing page 266_)]


A Filipino Village

Or if you get tired of living near the Arctic circle you can sweep
your table clean of Esquimau dwellings and construct a Filipino
village. For these you do not need bricks (which can be given a rest
and put away in a box) but little splints of wood the same size and
length which you can make yourself with a knife. Make a little thin
floor of damp clay (but drier than you use it to model with) and stick
your upright pieces in this in the shape of the house you wish to
make. When the clay has hardened they are held quite firm and you can
make a wattled hut by weaving long straws or grasses in and out to
form your walls. A thatched roof can also be made of long grasses,
tied in little bunches and laid close together all sloping down from
the ridge-pole. Almost every magazine of a few years back has in it
pictures of Filipino villages which will furnish you with models to
copy. According to the size of the table or board on which you make
your settlements you can have more or less extensive tropical country,
surrounding your village. Mountains can be made of the clay, covered
with moss or grasses to represent the jungle and a river with
overhanging trees arranged with bits of broken looking-glass, and
twigs with tiny scraps of green tissue paper glued to them for leaves.
The exercise of your own ingenuity in using all sorts of unlikely
materials which you will find all about you is the best part of this
game.

After you have decided to change the climate and character of your
village, the clay used may be broken up and put back in your jar, wet
again, stirred smooth and is all ready to begin again. Great care
should be taken that it is kept clean, that bits of wood or glass be
not left in it, or you may cut or prick your fingers in handling it.


A Dutch Street

You cannot only wander from one climate and from one nationality to
another, but from one century to another. If you are studying early
American history nothing is more fun than to make a street in an old
Dutch settlement. Your bricks are painted red for this. Almost any
history-book will have pictures of one or two old Dutch houses which
will show you the general look of them. They are harder to construct
than the ruder huts of savages and may need to be held together with a
little use of damp clay. It is interesting to try and reconstruct old
Dutch Manhattan, from the maps and pictures, showing the bay and the
walk on the Battery.

Or if you are interested in Colonial New England, make a settlement of
log-houses with the upper story overhanging the first. On any walk you
can pick up enough small sticks to use as logs after trimming and
measuring.

Other possibilities in this line are suggested below. You will have
more fun in working them out yourself than if you are told just how to
proceed. A Roman arena with gladiators fighting and a curtain which
may be drawn to keep off the sun. A little fishing-village beside the
sea (a large pan of water) with tiny nets spread out to dry and little
walnut shell boats drawn up on the sandy beach.

A farmhouse, barn, pig-pen, dog-kennel, carriage-house and the like. A
very pretty settlement can be made of this with fields of growing
grain, brooks, water-wheels, etc.

All the animals of a farm can be modeled and painted. When they are
skilfully made they are very pretty and add much to the picture and
when they are done unskilfully it is fun to have people guess what
they were meant for. However, with a little practice very presentable
animals can be modeled. It is easier to make them in clay than to draw
them.

A gypsy camp, with tents and open fires (bits of yellow and red
tissue-paper), under a black kettle (made of clay and painted) swung
on a forked stick, can easily be made.

Of course with tin or lead soldiers the number of games one can invent
with these tiny settlements is innumerable. One favorite with some
children is the attack and capture of the Filipino village by American
troops. Sometimes it is burned, and this is always a stirring
spectacle. Indeed with tin soldiers (which are just now unjustly out
of favor) one's range of subjects is unlimited, and one always has
plenty of inhabitants for any settlement. An army post can be made,
with a fort and barracks and a wide green parade ground with the
regiment drawn up in line for dress-parade. A tiny American flag
flutters from the flag-pole and after the sunset gun booms (a
fire-cracker exploded or only some one striking a blow on a tin pan)
it can be lowered to the ground while the best whistler of the company
executes "The Star-Spangled Banner."



                INDOOR OCCUPATIONS AND THINGS TO MAKE


Painting

Painting is an occupation which is within almost everybody's power,
and of which one tires very slowly or perhaps not at all. By painting
we mean coloring old pictures rather than making new ones, since
making new ones--from nature or imagination--require separate
gifts. On a wet afternoon--or, if it is permitted, on Sunday
afternoon--coloring the pictures in a scrapbook is a very pleasant
and useful employment. After dark, painting is not a very wise
occupation, because, in an artificial light, colors cannot be
properly distinguished.

All shops that sell artists' materials keep painting-books. But old
illustrated papers do very well.


Flags

An even more interesting thing to do with a paint-box is to make a
collection of the flags of all nations. And when those are all done,
you will find colored pages of them in any large dictionary, and
elsewhere too,--you might get possession of an old shipping guide,
and copy Lloyd's signal code from it.


Maps

Coloring maps is interesting, but is more difficult than you might
perhaps think, owing to the skill required in laying an even surface
of paint on an irregular space. The middle of the country does not
cause much trouble, but when it comes to the jagged frontier line the
brush has to be very carefully handled. To wet the whole map with a
wet brush at the outset is a help. Perhaps before starting in earnest
on a map it would be best to practice a little with irregular-shaped
spaces on another piece of paper.


Magic-Lantern Slides

If you have a magic lantern in the house you can paint some home-made
slides. The colors should be as gay as possible. The best home-made
slides are those which illustrate a home-made story; and the fact that
you cannot draw or paint really well should not discourage you at all.
A simpler way of making slides is to hold the glass over a candle
until one side is covered with lamp black and then with a sharp stick
to draw outline pictures on it.

Another way is to cut out silhouettes in black paper, or colored
tracing-paper, and stick them to the glass. In copying a picture on a
slide put the glass over the picture and draw the outline with a fine
brush dipped in Indian ink. Then paint. All painting on slides should
be covered with fixing varnish, or it will rub off.


Illuminating

As a change from painting there is illuminating, for which smaller
brushes and gold and silver paint are needed. Illuminating texts is a
favorite Sunday afternoon employment.


Pen and Ink Work

There is also pen and ink drawing, mistakenly called "etching," for
which you require a tiny pen, known as a mapping pen, and a cake of
Indian ink. If the library contains a volume of old wood-cuts,
particularly _Bewick's Birds_ or _Bewick's Quadrupeds_, you will have
no lack of pictures to copy.


Chalks

In place of paints a box of chalks will serve very well.


Tracing

Smaller children, who have not yet learned to paint properly, often
like to trace pictures either on tracing paper held over the picture,
or on ordinary thin paper held over the picture against the window
pane.


Pricking Pictures

Pictures can also be pricked with a pin, but in this case some one
must draw it first. You follow the outline with little pin pricks
close together, holding the paper on a cushion while you prick it.
Then the picture is held up to the window for the light to shine
through the holes.


Easter Eggs

Home-made Easter eggs are made by painting pictures or messages on
eggs that have been hard-boiled, or by merely boiling them in water
containing cochineal or some other coloring material. In Germany it is
the custom for Easter eggs to be hidden about in the house and garden,
and for the family to hunt for them before breakfast--a plan that
might very well be taken up by us.


Spatter-Work

Paper and cardboard articles can be prettily decorated by
spatter-work. Ferns are the favorite shapes to use. You first pin them
on whatever it is that is to be ornamented in this way, arranging them
as prettily as possible. Then rub some Indian ink in water on a saucer
until it is quite thick. Dip an old tooth-brush lightly into the ink,
and, holding it over the cardboard, rub the bristles gently across a
fine tooth comb. This will send a spray of ink over the cardboard. Do
this again and again until the tone is deep enough, and try also to
graduate it. It must be remembered that the ink when dry is much
darker than when wet. Then remove the ferns, when under each there
will be a white space exactly reproducing their beautiful shape. If
you like you can paint in their veins and shade them; but this is not
really necessary. Colored paints can be used instead of Indian ink.


Scrapbooks

Making scrapbooks is always a pleasant and useful employment, whether
for yourself or for children in hospitals or districts, and there was
never so good an opportunity as now of getting interesting pictures.
These you select from odd numbers of magazines, Christmas numbers,
illustrated papers, and advertisements. Scraps are very useful to fill
up odd corners. In choosing pictures for your own scrapbook it is
better to select only those that you really believe in and can find a
reason for using, than to take everything that seems likely to fit. By
choosing the pictures with this care you make the work more
interesting and the book peculiarly your own. But in making a
scrapbook as a present for some one that you know, you will, of
course, in choosing pictures, try to put yourself in his place and
choose as you think that he would.

Empty scrapbooks can be bought; or you can make one by taking (for a
large one) an old business ledger, which some one whom you know is
certain to be able to give you, or (for a small one) an ordinary old
exercise-book, and then cutting out every other page about half an
inch from the stitching. This is to allow room for the extra thickness
which the pictures will give to the book. Or you can sew sheets of
brown paper together.

For sticking on the pictures, use paste rather than gum; and when it
is done, press the book under quite a light weight, with sheets of
paper between the pages.


Scrapbooks for Hospitals

Children that are ill are often too weak to hold up a large book and
turn over the leaves. There are two ways of saving them this exertion
and yet giving them pleasure from pictures. One is to get several
large sheets of cardboard and cover them with pictures and scraps on
both sides, and bind them round with ribbon. These can be enclosed in
a box and sent to the matron. She will distribute the cards among the
children, and when they have looked at each thoroughly they can
exchange it for another. Another way is to use folding books which are
more easy to hold than ordinary turning-over ones, and you can make
them at home very simply by covering half a dozen or more cards of the
same size (post-cards make capital _little_ books) with red linen, and
then sewing them edge to edge so as to get them all in a row. In
covering the cards with the linen--red is not compulsory, but it is a
good color to choose--it is better to paste it on as well as to sew it
round the three edges (a fold will come on one side), because then
when you stick on the pictures they will not cockle up. Pictures for
hospital scrapbooks should be bright and gay. Colored ones are best,
but if you cannot get them already colored you can paint them.
Painting a scrapbook is one of the best of employments.


Composite Scrapbooks

Sometimes it happens that you get very tired of one of the pictures in
your scrapbook. A good way to make it fresh and interesting again is
to introduce new people or things. You will easily find among your
store of loose pictures a horse and cart, or a dog, or a man, or a
giraffe, which, when cut out, will fit in amusingly somewhere in the
old picture. If you like, a whole book can be altered reasonably in
this way, or made ridiculous throughout.


Scrap-Covered Screens

A screen is an even more interesting thing to make than a scrapbook.
The first thing to get is the framework of the screen, which will
either be an old one the covering of which needs renewing, or a new
one made by the carpenter. The next thing is to cover it with canvas,
which you must stretch on tightly and fasten with small tacks; and
over this should be pasted another covering of stout paper, of
whatever color you want for a background to the pictures. Paste mixed
with size should be used in sticking it. After the pictures are all
arranged they should be stuck with the same material, and a coat of
paper varnish given to the whole, so that it can be cleaned
occasionally.


Collecting Stamps

Stamp-collecting is more interesting if money is kept out of it and
you get your stamps by gift or exchange. The best way to begin is to
know some one who has plenty of foreign correspondence and to ask for
all his old envelopes. Nothing but time and patience can make a good
collection. To buy it, is to have little of the collector's joy.


Postage-Stamp Snakes

Old American stamps can be used for making snakes. There is no need to
soak the stamps off the envelope paper: they must merely be cut out
cleanly and threaded together. A big snake takes about 4,000 stamps.
The head is made of black velvet stuffed with cotton wool, and beads
serve for eyes. A tongue of red flannel can be added.


Puzzles

If you have a fret saw, and can use it cleverly, you can make at home
as good a puzzle as any that can be bought. The first thing to do is
to select a good colored picture, and then to procure from a carpenter
a thin mahogany board of the same size. Mahogany is not absolutely
necessary, but it must be some wood that is both soft and tough. Deal,
for instance, is useless because it is not tough, and oak is useless
because it is not soft. On this wood you stick the picture very
firmly, using weak glue in preference to paste or gum. When it is
quite dry you cut it up into the most difficult fragments that you
can. It is best to cut out the border so that each piece locks into
the next. This will then be put together first by the player and will
serve to hold the picture together. After the puzzle is cut up it is
well to varnish each piece with paper varnish, which keeps it clean
and preserves it.

A simple puzzle can be made by pasting the picture on cardboard and
cutting it up with scissors or a sharp knife.


Soap Bubbles

For blowing bubbles the long clay pipes are best. Before using them,
the end of the mouthpiece ought to be covered with sealing-wax for
about an inch, or it may tear your lips. Common yellow soap is better
than scented soap, and rainwater than ordinary water. A little
glycerine added to the soap-suds helps to make the bubbles more
lasting. On a still summer day, bubble-blowing out-of-doors is a
fascinating and very pretty occupation.


Shadows on the Wall

Shadowgraphy nowadays has progressed a long way from the rabbit on the
wall; but in the house, ambition in this accomplishment does not often
extend further than that and one or two other animals, and this is
why only the rabbit, dog, and swan are given here. The swan can be
made more interesting by moving the arm which forms his neck as if he
were prinking and pluming, an effect which is much heightened by
ruffling up and smoothing down the hair with the fingers forming his
beak. To get a clear shadow it is necessary to have only one light,
and that fairly close to the hands.

[Illustration: SHADOWS ON THE WALL]


Skeleton Leaves

Leaves which are to be skeletonized should be picked from the trees at
the end of June. They should be perfect ones of full growth. It is
best to have several of each kind, as some are sure to be failures.
Put the leaves in a big earthenware dish or pan, fill it with
rain-water, and stand it in a warm and sunny place--the purpose of
this being to soak off the green pulpy part. There is a great
difference in the time which this takes: some fine leaves will be
ready in a week, while others may need several months. Look at the
leaves every day, and when one seems to be ready slip a piece of
cardboard under it and shake it about gently in fresh cold water. If
any green stuff remains, dab it with a soft brush and then put it into
another basin of clean water. A fine needle can be used to take away
any small and obstinate pieces of green. It is now a skeleton and must
be bleached according to the following directions:--Pour into a large
earthenware jar a pint of water on half a pound of chloride of lime.
Mix thoroughly, breaking up any lumps with the hand. Add two and a
half quarts of water, cover over, and leave for twenty-four hours.
Then pour off the solution, leaving the sediment behind. Dissolve two
pounds of soda in one quart of boiling water, and pour it, while on
the boil, over the chloride solution. Cover it, and leave for
forty-eight hours; then decant into bottles, being careful to leave
all sediment behind.

Fill an earthenware dish with this solution, lay the leaves in it, and
cover tightly. The leaves will be bleached in six to twelve hours.
They should be taken out directly they are white, as the lime makes
them very brittle. After bleaching, rinse the leaves in cold water,
float them on to cards, and dry between blotting-paper, under a heavy
weight.


Ferns

It should be noted that if you intend to skeletonize ferns, they
should not be picked before August, and they must be pressed and dried
before they are put into the bleaching solution, in which they ought
to stay for three or four days. The solution should be changed on the
second day, and again on the fourth. After bleaching they can be
treated just as the leaves are.


Wool Balls

Cut out two rings of cardboard, of whatever size you like, from one
inch in diameter up to about four inches. A four-inch ring would make
as large a ball as one usually needs, and a one-inch ring as small a
one as could be conveniently made. The rim of the largest rings should
not be wider than half an inch. Take a ball of wool and, placing the
cardboard rings together, tie the end of it firmly round them. Then
wind the wool over the rings, moving them round and round to keep it
even. At first you will be able to push the ball through the rings
easily, but as the wool is wound the hole will grow smaller and
smaller, until you have to thread the wool through with a needle. To
do this it is necessary to cut the wool into lengths, which you must
be careful to join securely. Go on until the hole is completely filled
and you cannot squeeze another needle through. Then slip a pair of
scissors between the two rings and cut the wool all round them; and
follow this up quickly by slipping a piece of string also between them
and tying it tightly round the wool that is in their midst. This is to
keep the loose ends, which were made directly you cut the wool with
the scissors, from coming out. All that is now necessary is to pull
out the cardboard rings and shape the ball a little in your hands. The
tighter the wool was bound round the cards, the smaller and harder the
ball will be and the more difficult will it be to cut the wool neatly
and tie it. Therefore, and especially as the whole purpose of a wool
ball is softness and harmlessness, it is better to wind the wool
loosely and to use thick wool rather than thin.


Wool Demons

To make a "Wool Demon," take a piece of cardboard as wide as you want
the demon to be tall, say three inches, and wind very evenly over it
wool of the color you want the demon to be. Scarlet wool is perhaps
best. Wind it about eighty times, and then remove carefully and tie a
piece round about half an inch from the top to make the neck. This
also secures the wool, the lower looped ends of which can now be cut.
When cut, gather up about twenty pieces each side for the arms, and,
holding them firmly, bind them round with other wool, and cut off
neatly at the proper length. Then tie more wool round to form the
body. The legs and tail are made in the same way as the arms, except
that wool is wound round the legs, beginning from the feet and working
upward, only to the knees, leaving a suggestion of knickerbockers.
Eyes and other features can be sewn on in silk.


Bead-Work

Among other occupations which are not in need of careful description,
but which ought to be mentioned, bead-work is important. It was once
more popular than it now is; but beads in many beautiful colors are
still made, and it is a pity that their advantages should be
neglected. Bead-work lasts longer and is cleaner and brighter than any
other form of embroidery. Perhaps the favorite use to which beads are
now put is in the making of napkin-rings. Bead-flowers are made by
threading beads on wire and bending them to the required shapes. Boxes
of materials are sold in toy-shops.


Post-Office

"Post-Office" is a device for providing the family with a sure supply
of letters. The first thing to do is to appoint a postmaster and fix
upon the positions for the letter-boxes. You then write letters to
each other and to any one in the house, and post them where you like;
and at regular times the postmaster collects them and delivers them.


The Home Newspaper

In "The Home Newspaper," the first thing to do is to decide on which
of you will edit it. As the editor usually has to copy all the
contributions into the exercise-book, it is well that a good writer
should be chosen. Then you want a good title. It is better if the
contributors are given each a department, because that will make the
work more simple. Each number should have a story and some poetry.
Home newspapers, as a rule, come out once a month. Once a week is too
often to keep up. There is a good description of one in a book by E.
Nesbit, called _The Treasure-Seekers_.


Paper and Cardboard Toys--A Cocked Hat

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

To make a cocked hat, take a sheet of stiff paper and double it. Then
fold over each of the doubled corners until they meet in the middle.
The paper will then resemble Fig. 1. Then fold AB AB over the
doubled corners; fold the corresponding strip of paper at the back to
balance it, and the cocked hat is ready to be worn. If it is to be
used in charades, it is well to pin it here and there to make it
secure.


Paper Boats

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

If the cocked hat is held in the middle of each side and pulled out
into a square, and the two sides are then bent back to make another
cocked hat (but of course much smaller); and then, if this cocked hat
is also pulled out into a square, it will look like Fig. 2. If the
sides A and A are held between the finger and thumb and pulled out, a
paper boat will be the result, as in Fig. 3.

[Illustration: FIG 3.]


Paper Darts

[Illustration: PAPER DARTS]

Take a sheet of stiffish paper about the size of this page and fold it
longways, exactly double. Then fold the corners of one end back to the
main fold, one each side. The paper sideways will then look as in Fig.
1. Then double these folded points, one each side, back to the main
fold. The paper will then look as in Fig. 2. Repeat this process once
more. The paper will then look as in Fig. 3. Compress the folds very
tightly, and open out the top ones, so that in looking down on the
dart it will have the appearance of Fig. 4. The dart is then ready for
use.


Paper Mats

[Illustration: PAPER MATS]

Take a square piece of thin paper (Fig. 1), white or colored. Fold it
in half (Fig. 2), and then again in half (Fig. 3), and then again from
the centre to the outside corner, when it will be shaped as in Fig. 4.
If you want a round mat, cut it as marked by the dotted line in Fig.
4; if square, leave it as it is. Remember that when you cut folded
paper the cuts are repeated in the whole piece as many times as there
are folds in the paper. The purpose of folding is to make the cuts
symmetrical. Bearing this in mind cut Fig. 4 as much as you like, as
suggested by Fig. 5. Perhaps it would be well to practice first of all
on a rough piece. The more delicate the cuts the prettier will be the
completed mat.


Paper Boxes

[Illustration: PAPER BOXES]

Take an exactly square piece of paper (cream-laid note-paper is best
in texture), and fold it across to each corner and press down the
folds. Unfold it and then fold each corner exactly into the middle,
and press down and unfold again. The lines of fold on the paper will
now be seen to run from corner to corner, crossing in the middle, and
also forming a square pattern. The next thing is to fold over each
corner exactly to the line of this square on the opposite half of the
paper. When this is done, and the paper is again straightened out, the
lines of fold will be as in Fig. 1. Cut out the triangles marked X in
Fig. 1, and the paper will be as in Fig. 2. Then cut along all the
dotted lines in Fig. 2, and stand the opposite corners up to form the
sides and lid of the box: first A and B, which are fastened by folding
back the little flaps at the tip of A, slipping through the slit at
the tip of B, and then unfolding them again; and then C and D, which
are secured in the same way.


Cardboard Boxes

Cardboard boxes, of a more useful nature than paper boxes, are made on
the same principle as the house described on p. 239, and the furniture
to go in it, as described later in the same chapter. The whole box can
be cut in the flat, out of one piece of cardboard, and the sides
afterward bent up and the lid down. Measurements must of course be
exact. The prettiest way to join the sides is to use thin silk instead
of paper, and the lid may be made to fasten by a little bow of the
same material.


Scraps and Transfers

Paper boxes, when finished, can be made more attractive by painting on
them, gluing scraps to them, putting transfers here and there, or
covering them with spatter-work (see p. 275). Scraps can be bought at
most stationers' in a very great variety. Transfers, which are taken
off by moistening in water, pressing on the paper with the slithery
clouded surface downward, and being gently slipped along, used to be
more common than they now are.

Directions how to make many other paper things will be found on pp.
243-262.


Ink Sea-Serpents

Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt in a glass of water, dip a pen in ink
and touch the point to the water. The ink descends in strange
serpent-like coils.


A Dancing Man

[Illustration: A DANCING MAN]

The accompanying picture will show how a dancing man is made to dance.
You hold him between the finger and thumb, one on each side of his
waist, and pull the string. The hinges for the arms and legs, which
are made of cardboard, can be made of bent pins or little pieces of
string knotted on each side.


Velvet Animals

The fashioning of people and animals from scraps of velvet glued on
cardboard was a pleasant occupation which interested our
great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers when they were children many
years ago. A favorite picture was of a boy and a St. Bernard, in which
the boy's head, hands, collar, and pantaloons, and the dog, were made
of white velvet painted. The boy's tunic was black velvet, and its
belt a strip of red paper. The dog's eye was a black pin-head. The
whole was mounted on a wooden stand with wooden supports at the back,
one running up to the boy's head and the other to the tip of the dog's
tail. With some scraps of white and black velvet, and a little
patience and ingenuity, one could make all the animals on a farm and
many in the Zoo.


Hand Dragons

All the apparatus needed for a "Hand Dragon" consists of a little
cardboard thimble or finger-stall, on which the features of a dragon
have been drawn in pen and ink or color. This is then slipped over the
top of the middle finger, so that the hand becomes its body and the
other fingers and thumb its legs. With the exercise of very little
ingenuity in the movement of the fingers, the dragon can be made to
seem very much alive. The accompanying picture should explain
everything.

[Illustration: HAND DRAGONS]

Various games can be played with the fingers. Tiny caps and hats can
be made, features drawn with ink on the fingers and little tissue
paper dresses made. A whole play can be acted or sung by these tiny
finger marionettes.


Other Uses for Cardboard

Once you have begun to make things out of cardboard, you will find no
end to its possibilities and should be in no more need of any hints.
After building, furnishing, and peopling a dolls' house, a farm or a
menagerie would be an interesting enterprise to start upon. E. M. R.
has a stud of ninety-two horses, each named, and each provided with a
horse-cloth, a groom, and harness. She has also several regiments of
soldiers and a staff of nurses, all cut from cardboard and painted.
She chooses her horses from _Country Life_, or some such paper, and
copies them. Another enthusiast has a cardboard theatre in which plays
and pantomimes are performed.

It might be added that cardboard figures can be made to stand up
either by leaving a strip of cardboard at the bottom, in which teeth
can be cut and bent alternately one way or the other, or by slipping
the feet into grooves cut in little blocks of wood.


Cardboard Cut-Outs

There are a great many cut-outs issued nowadays, which may be bought
for a small sum at any toy shop. Perhaps the best among these are "The
Mirthful Menagerie," "The Agile Acrobats" and "The Magic Changelings."
"The Mirthful Menagerie" when properly cut out and pasted together,
make a lot of animals that have _thickness_ as well as length and
height; "The Agile Acrobats" can be made to assume almost any
position, and in "The Magic Changelings," Little Red Riding Hood,
for instance, can be changed into the wolf, and then back again!

Books of cut-outs are also made, in which the books are intact after
the cut-outs have been removed. "The New Mother Goose" gives
illustrations of many of the Mother Goose rhymes to be cut out and
pasted together, and has a story and other pictures besides. "The
Electric Fire Fighters" is on the same order, only in this case the
pictures to be put together are of the Electric Fire-Engine, the
Electric Water-Tower, etc. They are all easily made, and are
fascinating games for stormy weather, or for indoor games at any time.

Particulars of "Snap" cards and other home-made cards will be found on
pp. 77 and 78.


Kites

In China, and to some extent in Holland, kite-flying is not the
pastime only of boys, but of grave men. And certainly grave men might
do many more foolish things. To feel a kite pulling at your hands, to
let out string and see it climb higher and higher and higher into the
sky--this is a real joy. For good kite-flying you want plenty of room
and a steady wind; hence a big field is the best place, unless you are
at the seaside when there is a wind off the land, in which case you
can fly your kite from the beach. To make an ordinary, serviceable
kite, take two laths (which can be bought for a penny from any
builder), one three feet long (AA in the picture) and the other two
feet (BB). Screw BB with two screws exactly in the middle, at right
angles to AA, at C, a foot from the top. Then take some stout twine of
good quality and make the outline of the kite by tying it securely to
the ends of each of the laths. Next take the thinnest unbleached
calico you can find, stretch it fairly tightly, and sew it over the
strings. (Or strong but light paper will do, pasted over the string.)
Make a hole (D) through the upright lath and calico, midway between
the cross-piece and the top, and another hole (E) about fifteen inches
below the cross-piece, and tie a strong string, two and a half feet
long, to these holes, with a loop (F) in it a foot from the top hole.
To this loop you will tie the string of the kite. The tail (G) is made
of pieces of paper about six inches long, rolled tightly and tied at
distances of a foot. Its exact length will depend on the strength of
the wind and can be determined only by experience, but, roughly
speaking, it should be five times the height of the kite, or, with the
kite which we are making, fifteen feet long. It is best to have the
tail in two or three pieces, and then it can be lengthened or
shortened at will. For instance, if the kite plunges in the air and
will not keep steady, the tail is not long enough; but if it will go
up only a little way, the tail is probably too long. Be sure to have
plenty of string, carefully wound, so that there will be no hitches
in paying it out. When starting a kite you need the help of some one
who will stand about thirty yards away, holding the kite against the
wind, and throw it straight up when you have the line tight and give
the signal. If it does not rise it may be well for you to run a few
yards against the wind. At first you must not pay out line very
rapidly, but when the kite is flying steadily you may give it, also
steadily, all the string it wants.

[Illustration: A KITE]

[Illustration: "TO FEEL A KITE PULLING AT YOUR HANDS--THIS IS REAL
JOY"]


Kite Messengers

A messenger is a piece of cardboard or paper with a good-sized hole in
it, which you slip over the string when the kite is steady, and which
is carried right up to the kite by the wind.


A Simple Toy Boat

The following directions, with exact measurements, apply to one
of the simplest home-made sailing-boats. Take a piece of soft
straight-grained pine, which any carpenter or builder will let you
have, one foot long, four inches wide, and two inches deep. On the top
of the four-inch side draw an outline as in Fig. 1, in which you will
be helped by first dividing the wood by the pencil line AB, exactly in
the middle. Then turn the block over and divide the under four-inch
side with a similar line, and placing the saw an eighth of an inch
each side of this line, cut two incisions right along the wood about a
quarter of an inch deep. The portion between these two incisions forms
the keel. Then carry the line up the middle of the end A, and repeat
the incisions as along the bottom, these making the boat's stem-post.
Next turn to the top again, and make a line, similar to the dotted
line CC in Fig. 1, about three-eighths of an inch inside the outline
of the boat, and then carefully hollow out with a gouge everything
inside this dotted line. It must be very carefully done; it is
better, indeed, to err on the side of not hollowing her out enough,
and then a little more can be removed afterward. Next shape the
outside, first with a saw and then with a chisel, again using the
utmost care. Try to give her a fine bow, or "entry," and a good clean
stern, or "run." If the boat were cut in two crossways in the middle,
the section ought to resemble that in Fig. 2. This flat "floor" will
be graduated away to nothing at bow and stern. Next fix on the lead
keel (see K in Fig. 3), which should be a quarter of an inch thick, a
quarter of an inch deep at the bow, and three-quarters at the stern,
fastened on with four long thin screws. Next make the deck, which
should not be more than an eighth of an inch thick and should fit very
closely at the edges.

[Illustration: A TOY BOAT]

The mast (C), which should be about three-eighths of an inch in
diameter at the foot, and should taper slightly, must stand one foot
above the deck, and pass through the deck four and a half inches from
the bow. First pass it through the hole in the deck and place it in
position, leaning a little back from the bows; then slip up the deck
and mark the place in the bottom of the boat where the mast rests, and
there fix, with four small brass screws, a block of wood with a hole
in it, into which the mast can be firmly "stepped." Then on the upper
side of the deck, just in front of the mast-hole, screw a small
eyelet. This is to hold the line called the foresail sheet (L), but as
the deck is only an eighth of an inch thick you must place a little
block of wood under the deck, into which the eyelet can be screwed.
Directly this is done, the deck is ready to be screwed firmly to the
boat with brass screws. If you are in any doubt as to its being
water-tight, you had better bore a hole in it and put a cork in, so
that you can tip it up and empty it after each voyage.

[Illustration: A TOY BOAT]

The bowsprit (J), a quarter of an inch in diameter, should be three
and a half inches long, two inches of which project beyond the bow.
Screw it firmly to the boat. You have now to shape the boom (F) and
gaff (D), which must have a fork at the end, as in Fig. 4, to embrace
the mast, the ends of this fork being joined by string. The boom
should be eight and a half inches long and three-eighths of an inch in
diameter, and the gaff five inches long and a quarter of an inch in
diameter. The gaff is kept in position, about three inches from the
mast-head, by the throat halyards and peak halyards, to which we now
come. The peak halyards (H), throat halyards (G), and foresail
halyards (F) should be of very fine fishing-line. After being tied
respectively to the gaff and foresail, they pass through small holes
in the mast, down to eyelets screwed into the bulwarks on each side of
the mast.

The foresail sheet (L) and main sheet (M), which are some four inches
long, are hitched to eyelets screwed into the deck amidships, one just
in front of the mast, as already explained, and the other about two
inches from the stern. The sails must be of thin calico, neatly hemmed
round. Both sails should come to about three inches of the head of the
mast. The foresail is fastened only to the tip of the bowsprit, the
foresail halyards, and foresail sheet; the mainsail to the gaff, all
along, and to each end of the boom.

Nothing has been said about a rudder, because a boat built and rigged
in the manner described would balance herself, and so keep on any
course on which she was laid. With a very little wind she ought to
cross and recross a pond without any hitch, all that will be necessary
being to let the sails have plenty of play, by loosening the foresail
sheet and main sheet, and to give her a steady push.


Walnut Shell Boats

To make a boat from a walnut shell, you scoop out the half shell and
cut a piece of cardboard of a size to cover the top. Through the
middle of this piece of cardboard you thrust a match, and then,
dropping a little sealing-wax into the bottom of the shell, and
putting some round the edge, you fix the match and the cardboard to
it. A sail is made by cutting out a square of paper and fastening it
to the match by means of two holes; but the boat will swim much
better without it.


Walnut Fights

Here it might be remarked that capital contests can be had with the
empty halves of walnut shells. A plate is turned upside down, and the
two fighters place their walnuts point to point is the middle. At the
given word they begin to push, one against the other, by steady
pressure of finger and thumb on the stern of the shell. The battle is
over when the prow of one shell crashes through the prow of the other.
This always happens sooner or later, but sometimes the battles are
long and severe. At the end of each contest the number of shells
defeated by the victor should be marked on it, and it should be
carefully kept for the next conflict. At school we used to have
tremendous excitement when two champions met, a walnut with a record
of 520, for instance, and another with 700. The winner in such a
battle as this would, of course, be numbered 1,221, because you always
add not only your defeated adversary to your score, but all his
victims too.


Suckers

A sucker is a round piece of strong leather. Thread a piece of string
through the middle, and knot the string at the end to prevent it being
pulled through. Soak the sucker in water until it is soft, and then
press it carefully over a big smooth stone, or anything else that is
smooth, so that no air can get in. If you and the string are strong
enough, the sucker will lift great weights.


Skipjacks

The wish-bone of a goose makes a good skipjack. It should be cleaned
and left for a day or two before using. Then take a piece of strong
thin string, double it, and tie it firmly to the two ends of the
wish-bone, about an inch from the end on each side. Take a strip of
wood a little shorter than the bone, and cut a notch round it about
half an inch from one end. Then slip it half way between the double
string, and twist the string round and round until the resistance
becomes really strong. Then pull the stick through to the notch, into
which the string will settle, and tie it at each side, so that it is
not likely to slip either way. A little piece of cobblers' wax must be
put on the bone on the other side to that where the stick naturally
touches. Pull the stick right over to stick on the wax, and lay the
skipjack, stick downward, on the ground. In a little while the wax
will give way, and the wish-bone will spring high into the air.

[Illustration: A SKIPJACK]


A Water-Cutter

[Illustration: A WATER-CUTTER]

The cut-water is best made of tin or lead, but stout cardboard or wood
will serve the purpose. First cut the material into a round, and then
make teeth in it like a saw. Thus:--Then bore two holes in it, as in
the drawing, and thread strings through them, tying the strings at
each end. Hold the strings firmly, and twist them a little. Then, by
pulling at them to untwist them, the cut-water will be put in motion,
first one way, while they are being untwisted, and then the other,
while they twist up again. If held just over a basin of water, the
notches will send spray a great distance, but you must be careful to
dip them only when the cut-water is revolving away from you, or you
will be soaked.


Whistles

With a sharp knife a very good whistle can be made of hazel or willow,
cut in the spring or early summer. A piece of wood about three inches
long should be used. Remember what an ordinary tin whistle is like,
and cut the mouthpiece at a similar angle, and also cut a little nick
out of the bark, in the place of the hole immediately beyond the
mouthpiece in the metal instrument. Then cut all round the bark about
an inch from the other end of the stick, hold the bark firmly with one
hand clasped round it, and hold the inch at the opposite end firmly
with the fingers of the other, and pull. The greater portion of bark
should slide off quite easily. You will then have a tube of bark about
two inches long, and a white stick about three inches long, with an
inch of bark remaining on it. Cut from the mouthpiece end of this
stick as much as exactly fits between the end and the little nick in
the bark which you have already made. Shave the top until it is flat
(just as in an ordinary whistle), and place it inside the bark again.
Then cut off from the white part of the stick all but a quarter of an
inch: fit this into the other end of the bark tube, and you ought to
get a good shrill whistle. It will be better if you keep a pea inside.


Christmas--Evergreen Decorations

Getting ready for Christmas is almost as good as Christmas itself. The
decorations can be either natural or artificial or a mixture of both.
In using evergreens for ropes, it is best to have a foundation of real
cord of the required length, and tie the pieces of shrub and ivy to
it, either with string or floral wire. This prevents any chance of its
breaking. For a garland or any device of a definite shape, the
foundation could be a stiffer wire, or laths of wood. Ivy chains are
described on page 135.


Paper Decorations

The simplest form of paper chain is made of colored tissue paper and
glue. You merely cut strips the size of the links and join them one by
one.

For paper flowers, paper and tools are especially made. But for the
purposes of home decoration ordinary tissue paper, wire, glue, and
scissors will serve well enough.


Mottoes

Mottoes and good wishes can be lettered in cotton wool on a background
of scarlet or other colored linen or lining paper. Scarlet is perhaps
the most cheery. Or you can make more delicate letters by sewing holly
berries on to a white background; and small green letters can be made
by sewing box leaves on a white background. For larger green letters
and also for bordering, holly leaves and laurel leaves are good.
Cotton-wool makes the best snow.


Christmas Trees.

In hanging things on the Christmas tree you have to be careful that
nothing is placed immediately over a candle, nor should a branch of
the tree itself be near enough to a candle to catch fire. After all
the things are taken off the tree there is no harm in its burning a
little, because the smell of a burning Christmas tree is one of the
best smells there is. To put presents of any value on the tree is
perhaps a mistake, partly because they run a chance of being injured
by fire or grease, and partly because they are heavy. The best things
of all are candles, as many as possible, and silver balls which
reflect. On the top there should, of course, be either a Father
Christmas, or a Christ child, as the Germans, who understand Christmas
trees even better than we do, always have. For lighting the candles a
long taper is useful, and for putting them out, an extinguisher tied
to a stick.


Bran-Tubs or Jack Horner Pies

Bran-tubs or Jack Horner Pies are not so common as they used to be,
but there is no better way of giving your guests presents at random.
As many presents as there are children are wrapped up in paper and
hidden in a tub filled with bran. This is placed on a dust-sheet, and
the visitors dip their bands in and pull out each a parcel. The
objection to the bran-tub is that boys sometimes draw out things more
suitable for girls. This difficulty could be got over by having two
tubs, one for girls and one for boys. Sometimes the ribbon of each
parcel is long and falls over the edge of the dish. The boys take one
color ribbon, and the girls the other, and all pull at the same time.


Philopenas

Two games with nuts and cherries may as well go at the end of this
section as anywhere else. Almonds sometimes contain double kernels.
These are called Philopenas, and you must never waste them by eating
both yourself, but find some one to share them with. There are several
ways of playing. One is "Yes or No," in which the one who first says
either "yes" or "no" must pay a forfeit to the other. Another is "Give
and Take," in which the one that first takes something that the other
hands him is the loser. Or whichever of you first says to the other
"Good morning, Philopena," on the following day, or the next time you
meet, wins a present. Or this is sometimes played that whoever first
answers a question put to him by the other must pay a forfeit. Of
course this makes great fun in trying to invent and evade plausible
questions.


Cherry Contests

Cherry-eating races can be very exciting. The players stand in a row
with their hands behind them, and a number of long-stalked cherries
are chosen from the basket and placed by the tip of the stalk between
their teeth. At the word of command the players begin their efforts to
draw the cherry up by the stalk into their mouths. All heads must be
held down.



                             CANDY-MAKING


Utensils

For making candy you will need an enamel or earthenware saucepan; a
long wooden spoon; one or two old soup-plates or dishes; a bowl, if
there is any mixing to be done; a cup of cold water for testing; a
silver knife; and, if you are not cooking in the kitchen, a piece of
oil-cloth or several thicknesses of brown paper to lay on the table.


General Directions

Butter the dish into which the candy is to be poured before you begin
to cook. To do this put a little piece of butter on a piece of clean
soft paper and rub it all over the dish.

Always stir round the edge as well as the middle of the saucepan. Stir
slowly but continually, for candy burns very quickly if left alone.

The flavoring should be added just before taking the saucepan off the
fire.

To find out if your taffy or candy has boiled long enough, drop a
little in the cup of cold water. If it at once becomes crisp and hard,
it is done.

Before your candy is quite cold, mark it with a silver knife into
squares. This will make it break up more easily and neatly when cold.


Barley Sugar

  1 lb. powdered sugar.
  The white of an egg.
  1/2 a pint of water.
  1/2 a lemon.

Dissolve the sugar in the water, and add the well-beaten white of an
egg (this must be done before the mixture is heated). Then put on the
fire in a strong saucepan. Remove all scum as it rises, and when the
syrup begins to look clear, take off the fire and strain through
muslin. Put the syrup back into the saucepan and let it boil quickly
until you find by testing it that it is done. Then add the juice of
the lemon and pour on to a buttered dish. Before the mixture sets cut
it into strips and twist.


Chocolate Caramels

  1 tea-cup golden syrup.
  1 tea-cup brown sugar.
  1 tea-cup milk.
  2 oz. butter.
  4 oz. powdered chocolate.
  A pinch of salt.
  16 drops vanilla.

Boil all together for half an hour, stirring continually.

Cocoanut caramels are made in the same way, except that 1 oz. of
grated or desiccated cocoanut is used instead of the chocolate.


Cocoanut Cream

  1-1/2 lb. granulated sugar.
  4 oz. grated cocoanut.

Melt the sugar with as little water as possible. Continue to let it
boil gently until the syrup begins to return to sugar again. Directly
this happens put in the cocoanut and mix thoroughly. Pour the mixture
into a flat dish or tin.


Cocoanut Cream (_another way_)

  1 cocoanut, grated.
  1 lb. granulated sugar.
  1/2 a cup of cocoanut-milk.
  1 oz. butter.

Put the sugar, cocoanut-milk, and butter into a saucepan. When they
boil, add the cocoanut gradually. Boil for ten minutes, stirring all
the time. Pour the mixture into a basin and beat till nearly cold,
then turn out into a dish.


Cocoanut Drops

  1/2 lb. cocoanut, grated.
  1/2 lb. white sugar.
  The whites of 2 eggs, well beaten.

Mix well together and bake in drops on buttered paper for fifteen
minutes.


Cream Caramels

  1 tin Nestlé's milk.
  1 lb. soft white sugar.
  2 oz. butter.
  Vanilla.

Melt the sugar with a very little water, and when boiling add the
butter and Nestlé's milk. Stir continually, as the mixture burns very
easily, for fifteen minutes. Try in water to see if it will set. Add
the vanilla, pour into a dish, and beat until nearly cold.

One ounce of cocoanut or 2 of grated chocolate can be used instead of
vanilla to flavor the above.


Fruit Cream

  1 cocoanut, grated.
  1-1/2 lb. granulated sugar, moistened with a little cocoanut-milk.

Put the sugar in a saucepan and let it heat slowly. Then boil rapidly
five minutes; add grated cocoanut, and boil ten minutes. Stir
constantly. Put a little on a cold plate, and if it makes a firm
paste, take from fire. Pour part of it into a large tin lined with
greased paper; and add to what remains in the saucepan, chopped
blanched almonds, candied cherries, nuts, etc. Pour this over the
other cream, and cut in bars.


Pop-Corn

The corn has to be "popped" over a clear fire in a little iron basket
with a long handle. The corn is put in the basket and shaken
continually, and in time each grain pops suddenly and becomes a little
irregular white ball. These can be eaten with salt, or rolled in a
sweet syrup (colored and flavored as you like it best) made of 1/2 lb.
of white sugar boiled for ten minutes with a very little water.


The Plainest Toffee

  3 oz. butter.
  1 lb. brown sugar.

Stir until done.


Another Toffee

  1 lb. raw sugar.
  1/2 lb. butter.
  2 small tablespoonfuls of syrup.
  The juice of half a lemon.
  Half a teaspoonful of powdered ginger.

Melt the butter in a saucepan, and then add the sugar, syrup, and
ginger. Stir continually, adding a little lemon juice every now and
then. Boil for ten minutes, and then test in cold water.

Two ounces of blanched and split almonds can be added to the above.
The almonds should either be mixed with the toffee just before taking
it off the fire, or else a well-buttered dish should be lined with
them and the toffee poured over.

To blanch almonds, put them in a bowl and cover them with boiling
water. Put a saucer over the bowl to keep the steam in, and leave for
about three minutes. Then take out the almonds one by one and rub off
their brown skins between your fingers.


Everton Toffee

  1 lb. brown sugar.
  1 small cup of water.
  1/2 lb. of butter.

Boil the water and sugar together very gently until the sugar is
melted. Then add the butter and boil all together for half an hour.


Molasses Candy

  1/2 lb. molasses.
  1/2 lb. brown sugar.
  2 oz. butter.

Boil all together for half an hour.


Nut Candy

  1 pint of chopped nuts.
  1/2 lb. brown sugar.
  3 oz. butter.
  Juice of one lemon.
  Tablespoonful of water.

Boil everything, except the nuts, for twenty minutes, stirring all
the time. Test, and if done, add the nuts. Stir them in thoroughly and
pour off into a dish.


Nut Candy (_another way_)

  1 lb. brown sugar.
  6 oz. butter.
  3 oz. chopped nuts.

Melt the butter in a saucepan, then add the sugar. Boil from ten to
fifteen minutes and then add the nuts. Walnuts, Brazil nuts, almonds,
or peanuts (which have been baked) may be used.


Peppermint Candy

  1 lb. syrup.
  2 oz. butter.
  1 small teaspoonful of essence of peppermint.

Boil the butter and syrup very gently until the mixture hardens when
tested in water. Add the peppermint and pour into well-buttered
dishes.


Stuffed Dates, etc.

Very dainty and good sweets can be made without cooking at all. All
that is necessary is to have a certain amount of cream with which to
stuff or surround stoned dates, cherries, and French plums, or walnuts
and almonds.

The cream is made in this way. Put the white of an egg and one
tablespoonful of water into a bowl, and into this stir gradually 1 lb.
of confectioner's sugar (confectioner's sugar or "icing" is the only
kind that will do), working it very smooth with a spoon. This will
make a stiff paste, which can be moulded into whatever shape you
please. The cream can then be divided into different portions, and
each portion flavored as you like best. A few drops of vanilla or
lemon juice, a little grated cocoanut or chocolate, or some pounded
almonds, make excellent flavorings. Part of it can be colored pink
with cochineal, or green with spinach-coloring.

When this is done, stone some dates, French plums, or raisins, or
blanch some almonds and slit them in two, or have ready a number of
the dried walnuts which can be bought at any grocer's. Only the
perfect halves must be used. Form some of the cream into little balls
and put it between two walnut halves or two almond halves, or stuff
the other fruit with it. Trim all the sweets very neatly with a knife
and roll them in granulated sugar. This is prettier when it has been
colored pink or green, but there is no necessity to do so.

To color the sugar, mix about 1 oz. with a few drops of green or pink
coloring; dry it thoroughly, and, if the grains are not quite free,
put the sugar between some paper and roll it, or crush with an iron.

Another richer mixture for filling dates, etc., can be made as
follows:--Mix 1/2 lb. of ground almonds with 1 oz. of ground
pistachios. Beat the whites of 3 eggs to a stiff froth and add the
almonds and 1/2 lb. of confectioner's sugar. Color with green. Almonds
can be bought already ground.



                              GARDENING


Introductory

Although young America is growing more and more fond of out of doors,
the lovely old occupation of gardening is less a favorite than
formerly: and this is a great pity, for if one loves flowers, nothing
so repays labor as gardening. Nor is it necessary to have a large
tract of ground to cultivate. Indeed a tiny piece, well tended, is
both more interesting and more successful. A corner of a city
back-yard--even a window-box can be a source of never-failing
entertainment; although of course a little plot of rich earth in one
part of a lawn or country garden, lends itself to greater and more
extensive plans. The important thing about growing plants is to like
to do it. If you are impatient of routine and neglectful you should
not be intrusted with plants any more than with animal pets, for they
are both entirely dependent on your care.

It is your business, as a gardener, to know everything you can about
your flowers. A gardener should be able to recognize seeds as well as
seedlings; to know what treatment each flower likes best; and to
exercise a special care for tender plants which need protection until
there is no longer any danger of frost. The beauty of a flower depends
very much upon its content. Many flowers need particular soils; some
need dry soil, some moisture, some shade, and some sun; and the
gardener, who is a kind of mother to the flowers, will have to
remember all those things. In return, the flowers, which have a real
sense of gratitude to those who care for them tenderly, will do their
best to grow beautiful.

It is best to begin with a few flowers and to learn all that one can
about these. Annuals will scarcely ever fail if carefully sown in good
soil. In making your choice, choose so that you will have flowers from
spring to autumn. Perennial plants are the most satisfactory of all to
grow; for once planted they need only a very little attention and
increase in size each year. Bulbs produce some of the most beautiful
flowers and are very easy to grow. But great care must be taken not to
dig into them after their blossoms have died down.

Besides those flowers for the growing of which directions are
hereafter given there are many tender ones which must be raised in
frames. This is a part of gardening which can well be left until later
and upon which instructions can be found in any more advanced book on
horticulture.


Color in the Garden

In arranging a garden, select flowers which will keep it full of
blossom from May to October, and remember when planting and sowing
that some colors are more beautiful together than others. The color
arrangement of a garden is always difficult, but one must learn by
experience. Scarlet and crimson, crimson and blue, should not be put
together, and magenta-colored flowers are never satisfactory. Whites
and yellows, and whites and blues, are always suitable together, and
for the rest you must please yourself.


The Use of Catalogues

A good catalogue gives illustrations of most flowers, and in many
cases its cultural directions are very helpful. As an extension of the
notes that follow nothing could be more useful than two or three
catalogues issued by good growers.


Gardening Diaries

It is a good thing for a gardener to keep a diary. At the beginning of
the book he would make a plan of the garden, to scale: that is to say,
allowing one inch, or more, in the plan for every foot of bed. In this
plan would be marked the position of the bulbs and perennial plants.
The diary would take note of everything that happened in the garden.
The sowing of seeds would be recorded; also when the seedlings first
appear; when they are thinned out, and when they blossom: in fact,
everything to do with the life of the plants. A little collection of
drawings of seedlings would be of great use in helping to distinguish
them another year. At the end of the book might be written the names
of any plants that the owner would like to have, or any special
information about the culture of a plant, or the description of some
arrangement which had been admired in another garden.


Flower-Shows

Where several children have gardens in the same big garden, or the
same neighborhood, a flower-show is very interesting to hold now and
then. To do this it is needful first to find some one willing to act
as judge, and--if agreeable--to give several small prizes in addition
to certificates of merit. The different things for which prizes are
offered will depend, of course, upon what the competitors can grow.
There might be prizes for different flowers, for collections of
flowers, and for lettuces or radishes, if there are enough competitors
who grow such things. But the most important prize would go perhaps to
the owner of the best-kept garden. Another for the best arrangement of
bunches of flowers, garden and wild, might lead to some very pretty
bouquets.


Tools

For simple gardening the following tools are needed:--spade, trowel,
hoe, rake, watering-can with a fine rose, syringe. They should all be
strong and good. Besides these tools you will need either wooden
labels or other home-made means of marking seeds, some strong sticks
to use as supports for tall-growing plants, and tape to tie them up
with. A pair of gloves--any old ones will do--is very necessary.


Watering

Plants should never be watered when the sun is shining on them. Early
morning in spring, and late afternoon or early evening in summer, is
the best time. It is best to water with water which has had the chill
taken from it by standing in the sun or in the house. In watering
seedlings and tiny plants, keep the rose on your watering-can; but
with big plants it is better to take off the rose and pour the water
gently, waiting every now and then for it to sink in round their
roots. If the ground is very dry and baked, break up the surface of it
round the plants with a rake, or push a fork carefully into the earth.
This will help the water to sink in.

Water very regularly during hot and dry weather. It is very hard on
your plants to give them a splendid drink one day and to forget all
about them for a week.

Ferns should have a gentle spray bath every afternoon if you want to
keep them fresh and green, and all leaves look the brighter for a
shower from your watering-can.

Perennial plants, annuals, and rose-trees will greatly benefit if
watered with slop-water while they are flowering.


Wall Pockets

If your garden is very small, but is against a sunny wall, the growing
room can be increased by fixing a number of pockets, made of wood or
of flower-pots, against the wall. These should be filled with good
soil, and in them wallflowers, pinks, bulbs of different kinds,
Wandering Jew, and some varieties of wild-flowers, etc., can be
planted.


Borders

The first thing to do when a plot has been given to you, is to mark it
off clearly with a border. There are several ways of doing this.
Gardens are sometimes bordered with escallop shells, which are neat
enough but seem rather out of place among flowers. Tiles make another
tidy artificial border; but the best is made of natural rough stones
from six to twelve inches long. These stones, which should be sunk
into a groove, are soon covered with patches of green moss, and if
between their irregular ends you drop a few seeds of low growing
annuals, such as candytuft; or plant little pieces of thyme, blue
forget-me-not, or any kind of rockfoil or stonecrop, the border will
become one of the prettiest things in the garden. If you prefer a
growing boundary, a very nice stiff little hedge can be made by sowing
endive in a line all round the garden, and, after allowing it to run
to seed, cutting and trimming it. But of course there is no natural
border to compare with box; but to get a good box hedge is a tedious
matter.


Annuals

The seeds of all annuals can be sown from March until June according
to the locality. Any one in the neighborhood who has gardened for some
years can tell you when to plant better than any catalogue. The seeds
of favorite flowers should be sown several times at intervals of a
fortnight, so that you may have a succession of them through summer
and autumn.


Preparations for Sowing

Before sowing any seeds, see that the soil is nicely broken up, and
remove any stones.

When you have decided where to sow the different seeds, take away a
little earth from each place and sow the seeds very
thinly--remembering that each plant must be from four inches to twelve
inches apart; cover lightly with the earth you took out and press it
down firmly with your trowel. Then mark the place with little pieces
of white wood, on which the names of the seeds have been written with
an indelible pencil. It is much easier to sow the tiny seeds thinly if
you first mix them with a little sand. These must be only just covered
by a very fine sprinkling of earth; but sweet-pea and nasturtium must
be sown deeper.


Thinning Out and Transplanting

Begin to thin out the seedlings very soon after they appear, and be
very careful not to pull up too many. It is easiest to thin out when
the soil is wet. When the seedlings are two inches high only those
which you wish to keep should be left in. It is not very easy to say
exactly how much room to leave the different plants, but plants which
will be six inches high should be about three inches apart; those
which will be one foot high about six inches, and so on. Godetia,
nasturtium, love-in-a-mist, sweet-pea, cornflower, and larkspur
seedlings can be transplanted when about two inches high, if you find
you want them where they have not been sown. To do this water the
ground well first, and then pull the seedlings out so gently that none
of their tiny fibrous roots are snapped; and, if possible, bring away
a little earth with each. Re-plant them as quickly as you can, making
for each a little hole big enough for the roots to spread out in. Hold
the seedling in position, and fill in with very moist earth; or else,
after you have made the hole, fill it up with water, then put back
some of the earth and stir it up into a sort of paste, and put the
seedling in this, filling up the hole with the rest of the earth.
Seedlings that have been transplanted must be kept moist until they
have taken a good start, and if possible they should be shaded with a
branch of evergreen, for they droop very quickly in the heat.

All seedlings must be watered gently and often. If you notice how
quickly the sun dries the surface of the ground, you will see how
necessary it is to keep the ground moist until the roots get bigger
and go down deep into the earth.


Weeds and Seedlings

It is most important to know what the baby-plants will look like when
they come up, because one has to weed hard in the warm showery
weather, and if one is not careful, mignonette, sweet-peas, and
poppies may go on the rubbish heap, and chickweed and purseley be left
on the flower-bed; which, although it is what the birds like, will,
later, be very disheartening to you. Of course, if your seeds are well
marked, there will be less difficulty, but even then weeds will come
up amongst them. The only safe way is to get to know the appearance of
all the seedlings, and to help you to remember it is a good thing to
make little drawings of them in your garden note-book.


Autumn Sowing

Some seeds, such as cornflowers, godetias, and poppies, can be sown in
the autumn. They will stand the winter as a rule and will make finer
plants and blossom earlier than if sown in spring. They should be sown
thinly in open ground.

Any good catalogue will give you a list of annuals suitable for your
purposes and with a little advice from an older gardener you will have
no difficulty in selecting wisely.


Biennials

These are best sown in May. If the garden is full they may be sown in
an ordinary wooden box filled with several inches of good earth.
Transplant them to their permanent places later on.

Remember that all plants will flower for a much longer time if the
flowers are kept cut and any faded ones taken off.


Saving Seed

The best seed is saved from plants set apart for that purpose; for
good seed comes from the first and finest flowers and not from those
left over at the end of the flowering season. These plants should be
sown in a little patch by themselves, should be allowed to run to
seed, and carefully tended until the seed-pods are ripe enough to be
gathered. If, therefore, you have not a large garden, it is best to
buy most of your seed each year, using a little of your own, from
which, however, you must not always expect the finest flowers. If you
have no wish to keep any of your flowers merely for seeding purposes
but still want, while getting flowers from them, also to save a few
seeds, the thing to do is to mark one or two of the finest blossoms
with a tiny piece of wool or silk (it is better when it is the color
of the flower) and let it go to seed. Take special care of the plant,
and cut off all other flowers as you wish to gather them. Watch the
seed-pods when they are formed, and when they are ripe--that is, brown
and dry--cut them off, break them open, and spread the seeds out. Look
them over very carefully to see that there are no maggots amongst
them, and if they are at all damp leave them in a warm place until
they are dry. Then make them up in little packets, clearly labeled
with their names, colors, and the date, and put them away in a dry
place until next spring. In saving sunflower seeds choose your best
sunflower, and when the petals have fallen tie it up in muslin, or
else the birds will steal a march on you. In gathering sweet-pea pods
one has to be rather clever, because when they are quite ripe they
burst open and the seeds fly out suddenly, sometimes just as one is
going to cut them. In one poppy pod there are hundreds of seeds,
enough to stock a garden, and the same is the case with the pretty
pods of love-in-a-mist. Nasturtium seeds should be picked up when they
fall on the ground, and spread out until quite brown and dry.
Cornflowers, which have little seeds like shaving-brushes, generally
sow themselves, and marigolds do too, but they are both easy to save.
In choosing a place in which to keep seeds through the winter remember
that damp is not the only danger. Mice enjoy them thoroughly.


Perennials

Perennials are plants which, although they die down in winter, come up
again and blossom every following spring or summer. They can be grown
from seed, but, with a few exceptions, this is a long and troublesome
part of gardening, and it is best to get them from friends or from a
nurseryman.


Planting Perennials

The best months for planting perennials are November, February, and
March. Dig a hole large enough to take the roots when well spread out,
hold your plant in position, with the junction of stem and root just
below the level of the earth, and fill in gently with fine soil,
pressing it down firmly all round the plant, and if there is danger of
frost protect the plants with straw, bracken, or a mulching of manure.
Never water if there is any likelihood of frost.

Here follow some general remarks concerning the treatment of
perennials through the spring, summer, and autumn:--


Slugs

In the spring, slugs, which eat the tender new leaves of many plants,
can be kept away by sprinkling coal-ash around them.


Watering

In hot weather, water perennials regularly and well, breaking up earth
around them so that the water sinks in easily.


Supports

All tall-growing perennials will need stakes to support them. Care
must be taken not to injure the roots when putting these in. The
stalks can be tied with twine.


Dividing

Perennials can be divided if they grow too large. With
summer-flowering plants this should be done in October or November,
and with spring-flowering plants in June. In dividing you simply dig
up the plant and break off as much of it as you want, being careful
not to injure the roots. As, however, there are many plants which, to
be divided, must be cut, and as this is an operation which requires
some skill and knowledge, it would perhaps be better to take advice.


Perennials From Seed

Snapdragon, wallflower, pansies, and hollyhocks are very easily grown
from seed. They can be sown in June (wallflowers are best sown in
April) in boxes, and thinned out and transplanted to permanent places
as soon as they are large enough. They will blossom the following
year.


Seedlings

Seedlings of most perennials can be bought for a few cents a dozen.
They should be planted as quickly as possible and watered well, and
they will flower the following year.

Consult a good nurseryman's catalogue for a list of hardy perennials,
as for the annuals.


Bulbs--General Remarks

A garden that is planted only with bulbs, or with bulbs and a few
ferns, can be kept beautiful all the year round. Many of our loveliest
flowers come from bulbs, and they are easy to grow and interesting to
watch from the moment that the first leaf-tips push through the earth
until they die down. The position of all bulbs should be very
carefully marked on the beds and in your garden-plan, so that you will
not cut or injure them when digging your garden over.

The first bulbs to come--through the snow sometimes--are the
snowdrops, single and double, crocuses--yellow, purple, lilac, and
striped--and then the tiny bright blue squills; and a little later the
yellow daffodil and white narcissus, hyacinths, and tulips of every
kind. Then white, red, and purple anemones, ranunculi, and wax-like
Stars of Bethlehem. In June there are wonderful irises and tall spikes
of summer-flowering gladiolus--red and white--and later still the tall
garden lilies. There are many of these lilies, and all of them are
exceedingly beautiful. Two kinds should be in all gardens--the white
Madonna lily, and the orange tiger lily. All the bulbs that have been
mentioned cost very little and can be grown very simply. And all bulbs
that have been mentioned can remain untouched for many years unless
they exhaust the soil around them (when, instead of increasing as they
should each year, the plants become poorer and smaller).

Never move a bulb when it is in active growth: after the leaves have
died down is the right time.

Leaf-mould mixed with your garden soil will help to give you fine
flowers.

If the leaves of the bulbs are attacked by slugs, as they often are,
sprinkle a little wood-ash all around them.


Planting Bulbs

For planting bulbs choose a day when the earth is dry, and make your
holes with a trowel. If you want to make a clump of bulb-plants, take
away the earth to the right depth from the whole area you wish to
fill, place your bulbs in position, points upward, and cover over,
pressing the earth firmly down.

In planting a bulb in a hole made for it by a trowel, be very careful
to see that it is resting on earth, and is not "hung," that is to say,
kept from touching the earth underneath because of the narrowness of
the hole.

All bulbs may be protected during the winter by laying hay or straw
over them. This must be neatly pegged down, and removed in March.


Cutting Leaves

Never cut all the leaves of plants growing from bulbs, but allow those
that are unpicked to die down naturally. If they look very untidy, as
the leaves of the Star of Bethlehem always do, tie them up tightly.
Seeds of annuals can always be sown among bulbs, and they will hide
dying leaves and fill up the places that are left vacant.


Shades

"Shades" are subterranean gardens: holes in the ground, some eighteen
inches deep and about a foot square (or larger), the sides of which
are covered with moss and little ferns. At the bottom you can sink a
pot or a tin, which must always be kept filled with water. It is more
interesting if a toad or a frog lives there. Over the hole stands a
shade made of glass and wood, which, together with the water, keeps it
cool and moist.


Kitchen Gardens

If you want to grow other things besides flowers, lettuces, radishes,
and mustard and cress are interesting to raise. Strawberries, too, are
easy to cultivate, but they need some patience, as the first year's
growth brings very few berries. In sowing the seeds of lettuce,
radish, and mustard and cress, follow directions given for sowing
flower seeds on page 320. If you want to grow even the few things
mentioned, which need only very simple culture, the soil of the garden
must be good.


Lettuce

Sow a few seeds of lettuce very thinly in a line once every three
weeks. When the seedlings, which should be protected from birds by
netting, are three inches high, thin them out, leaving one foot
between each plant. The seedlings that are pulled up can be
transplanted or eaten. Transplanted lettuces should be shaded during
hot weather and given plenty of water. During dry and hot weather you
may water lettuces every day.


Radishes

Sow a few radish seeds thinly once every three weeks, and cover very
lightly with earth. These seedlings also must be protected by netting
from birds, and must have plenty of water, or the radishes will become
stringy and poor. In summer sow in a shady place.


Mustard and Cress

Mustard and cress seed can be sown at any time and is almost sure to
be successful. In very hot weather sow in the shade, or protect from
the sun in the middle of the day. The cress should always be sown
three days before the mustard. It is a favorite device to sow one's
name in mustard and cress. For other ways of treating it, see page
332.


Strawberries

Plant strawberries carefully in August or September. Dig a hole for
each plant and spread the roots well out. Hold the plant while filling
in the earth, so that that part of it where root and stem join comes
just below the soil. Each plant should be eighteen inches from its
neighbor. Cut off all runners--that is, the long weedy stems which the
plants throw out in spring, and water well if the weather is dry.
Protect the strawberries from birds, and watch very carefully for
slugs, which are greedy strawberry-eaters. When the fruit begins to
form, lay some straw on the earth under and between the plants. This
will keep the berries clean.


Town Gardens

So far, we have been speaking of gardens in the country, or, at any
rate, not among houses. There are many more difficulties to contend
with in town gardening; there is more uncertainty, and often less
reward for the greatest care, than in country gardening; but the
flowers that do grow seem so sweet between dull walls and under smoky
chimneys, that one can forget how much more luxuriant they could be in
other circumstances.


Flowers for Towns

The following list of annuals, perennials, and bulbs which grow well
in the heart of towns, though it is not complete, contains enough
plants to fill a garden:--

    ANNUALS.        PERENNIALS.      BULBS.
    Alyssum.        Jap. Anemones    Crocuses.
    Candytuft.      Campanulas.      Daffodils.
    Collinsia.      Delphiniums.     Hyacinths.
    Coreopsis.      Flags.           Madonna Lillies.
    Mignonette.     Gaillardias.     Squills.
    Nasturtiums.    Pinks.           Spanish Irises.
    Poppies.        Sunflowers.      Tulips.
    Sunflowers.     Wallflowers.     Winter Aconite.

In addition to the plants mentioned above, hardy ferns grow well, and
so do lilies of the valley, and stonecrops and saxifrages. Wandering
Jew will also thrive, and the canary creeper grows as well in town as
in the country.

In summer, geraniums, fuchsias, heliotrope--which must be well
watered--pansies, lemon verbena, and scented geraniums, can be
planted out.

Roses do not do very well in towns; but hardy ones will grow quite
enough flowers to make the possession of them a great delight.


Indoor Gardening and Window Boxes--Precautions

A window full of flowers and green plants makes all the difference to
a room. There are always certain difficulties about growing plants in
a room; but these may, however, be partly overcome. One is the great
change of temperature between day and night in winter; another is the
very evil effect of gas on plants; and a third is the presence of
dust. The difference of temperature is met to a great extent by taking
the flowers away from the window at night and putting them in the
middle of the room. This is specially necessary when there is any
danger of frost. If gas is burned in the room where plants are all
day, it is wise at evening to take the trouble to move them into
another room, for nothing injures them more. As to dust, ferns and
plants which have smooth leaves should be gently sponged with warm
water once a week, or else the pores will be so choked that the plants
will not be able to breathe. Those plants which cannot be sponged,
such as fine-leafed ferns, geraniums, etc., should be gently sprayed
occasionally, or, in warm weather, placed out-of-doors during a soft
shower. When a room is being cleaned, the plants should either be
taken away or covered with soft paper.

The window chosen for your plants should be a sunny one and as
draughtless as may be. It should not be opened unless the day is very
mild. One thing to remember is that wherever the plants are they
should have as much sun, as equal a temperature, and as little draught
as possible.


Watering

No exact rule can be given for watering; but it should be noted that
water ought never to be allowed to stand in the saucers. In winter,
one good watering a week with lukewarm water, applied in the morning,
will be sufficient. In spring, when the plant is more active, more
water will be needed, and in summer constant attention must be given
to watering. Remember, that not only the surface but the whole soil
needs moistening.


Flower-Pots

In spring time, if the plants seem to have outgrown their pots, or if
they are not thriving well, re-pot them in larger pots with the best
earth you can get. Water well after re-potting.

Turn the plants round every day, as the sun always draws them toward
it.


Indoor Plants

A list follows of suitable plants to be grown indoors. Green plants
are mentioned first.

_Aspidistra._--Of all green plants the aspidistra is the best to grow
indoors. (This plant indeed is so hardy that it will stand not only
draught but even a certain amount of gas.) Its smooth, beautiful
leaves should be carefully sponged every week.

_India-rubber Plant._--The india-rubber plant is a very handsome,
smooth, bright-leaved plant. It should not be given too much water.

_Ferns._--Several hardy ferns grow well in a window. The maidenhair is
very beautiful while it lasts, but it is a poor thing the second year
unless it can be put into a greenhouse and cared for.

_Ivy._--Small-leaved variegated ivy will grow under almost any
conditions. Its leaves should be kept clean. If grown up a small
trellis it is very pretty.

_Japanese Fern Balls._--In February and March one can buy Japanese
fern balls. The balls have to be soaked for two or three hours in
water (rainwater if possible) and then drained and hung up in a window
where there is not too much sun. They should be watered three times a
week. Gradually the delicate ferns will grow and unfold until the
whole ball is a mass of green. In November they should be put away in
a cool dark place until the following February, when they can be
started again.

_Miniature Trees._--Fine little trees can be grown from chestnuts,
beechnuts, acorns, and hazel-nuts. Collect the nuts as they fall and
leave them in a dark place, until about two weeks before Christmas,
when you lay them in bowls full of wet moss or in pots filled with
earth, and put them in a warm dark place near hot pipes, or in a warm
cupboard. This warmth will start the root growth. When the root is
two inches long, fill a bowl with moss or pebbles, lay the nuts on the
top so that they are only half covered, with the roots downward, and
keep in a room where they will have plenty of light. Water frequently
but do not let much water stand in the bowl.

_Wheat or Canary Seed._--Wheat or canary seed can be sown in any kind
of dish, the bottom of which is covered with wet moss. Sow the seed
thickly and then keep the dish in a dark cupboard until the seedlings
are about two inches high. Then place it in a sunny window. The seed,
which will take about three weeks to grow, makes a beautiful patch of
clear light green in a room. Keep the moss wet.

_Mustard and Cress_ can be sown in pots or on pieces of wet flannel.

_Campanulas._--Blue and white campanulas are grown in almost every
cottage window, and they are very beautiful and graceful. They can be
grown in pots, but are prettiest in baskets from which to hang down.

_Fuchsias and Geraniums._--Both fuchsias and geraniums are gay and
delightful plants for a room. Good kinds should be bought in early
summer and well watered. In winter the plants should be kept in a cool
dark place, until with the coming of spring they begin to grow again.
Both can very easily be increased by cuttings. To do this take off a
shoot of about four inches long, cutting it off just below a joint.
Then pull off the leaves just above the joint and put it into some
earth in a sunny corner and water it well. In about a month roots will
have formed and it can then be potted.

_Bulbs._--Bulbs, such as tulips, iris, daffodils, crocuses, scillas,
and snowdrops, can be grown in pots or deep earthenware saucers that
have been filled with cocoanut fibre. This can be bought at any
florist's. A little shell, shingle, or sand, can be mixed with the
fibre, and a piece of charcoal should be put at the bottom of the pot
to keep it sweet. The bulbs need only to be covered with a thin layer
of damp fibre. Water regularly, as they must never get dry. If your
pot has no drainage hole it is a good thing a little while after
watering to turn it gently on one side so that any water which has not
been soaked up by the fibre can run off.

Bulbs can also be grown indoors in earth. Plant them in October just
below the soil, and keep them in a cool dark place until they have
made a little growth. Then bring to a sunny window. Horsfieldii
narcissus, polyanthus-flowered narcissus, and yellow jonquils, grow
well, and so do tulips, hyacinths, and crocuses. In a sunny window the
Scarborough lily (_Vallota purpurea_) can be grown. It is a very
gorgeous and imposing red flower which blossoms in August and
September. It should be planted in autumn and plenty of room allowed
for its roots.

The Good-Luck Lily, which is a strong and beautiful polyanthus
narcissus, can be grown in bowls filled with pebbles and water. Fill
the bowl almost to the top with clean pebbles (which can be brought
from the seashore), and among them plant the bulbs and fill up with
water which must be added to as it evaporates. Among the pebbles put
two or three pieces of charcoal.


Bulbs in Glasses

Hyacinths and daffodils can also be grown in glasses filled with
water, either glasses sold for the purpose, or any kind into the necks
of which the bulbs will fit. The bulb should be placed in the glass in
October, and should not quite touch the water. Use good fresh water
and put a little piece of charcoal in the glass. Change the water once
a week. In warm sunny weather the hyacinths can be put out of doors
for a little while every day.


Window Boxes

One cannot grow very many things in a window box, but it is most
interesting to grow a few. In a town it is often all the garden that
many people possess.

The length of a window-box will depend on the size of the window. Its
depth should be ten inches at least. At the bottom of the box some
cinders or other rough material should be put, and then it should be
filled up with the best earth you can get. And because of the
difference it makes to the growth of your flowers it is worth while to
take a great deal of trouble in getting good, rich mould. The earth
may be kept level, or heaped up at one or both ends, and a few stones
added to make a tiny rockery, in which you can grow small saxifrages
and other rock plants.


Flowers for Window-Boxes

Nasturtiums and canary creeper can climb up a little trellis made of
sticks at each end of the box, or they can cling to strings fixed to
the box and nailed high up at the side of the window. Wandering Jew or
ivy-leaved geranium will fall over the front of the box and make it
look very gay. Bulbs, such as winter aconite, squills, snowdrops, a
few daffodils, tulips and irises, will grow well in boxes. These
should be planted rather deep. Then primroses and forget-me-nots can
be planted, and in May a border of lobelia, one or two geraniums,
pansies, fuchsias, a plant of lemon verbena, and some musk.
Mignonette, Virginia stock, collinsia, should be sown in spring in
little patches or lines.

Keep the leaves of all the plants as clean as possible by gentle
watering with a rose. Never let the earth get dry from neglect, or
sodden from too much watering; yet water well, for driblets only
affect the surface, and it is the roots far down in the box that need
moisture.


Cutting Flowers and Packing Them--Flowers for Post

It is best, if possible, to pick flowers the day before you want to
send them off. Pick them in the afternoon, sort them and bunch them
up, and then stand them in water right up to their heads, and keep
them there over night. A basin is the best thing to put the flowers
in, unless the stalks are very long, and a jam-pot or two in the water
will help to keep them from tumbling over and drifting about. Be very
careful that the blooms do not touch the water. Keep the flowers in
water until you are ready to pack them. Tin boxes are best to send
flowers away in; but generally one has to use cardboard ones. Choose
the strongest you can find and line it with two sheets of paper, one
across and one long ways, and each long enough to fold over when it is
full. Then line again with some big cool leaves or moss. Dry the
flowers and pack them as tightly as possible, taking great care not to
crush the petals. Cover them with a few more leaves and fold the paper
over. Then wrap up the box, remembering to write the address on a
label tied at one end of the box, so that the postmark will not be
stamped on the box itself and perhaps break it.


Picking Flowers

When you are picking flowers to send away, never pick old ones. Buds
are best generally, especially in the case of poppies; but they should
be buds just on the point of opening. Always use scissors to cut
flowers with. A very slight tug at a little plant in dry weather pulls
its roots out of the ground. Cut the flowers with long stems and with
some of their green leaves, and at the top of the box that you are
sending away it is pleasant always to put something which smells very
sweetly--lemon verbena, or mignonette--for that first sweet scent is
one of the very best things about receiving a present of this kind.


The Reception of Flowers

When flowers are sent to you, each stem should be cut with a slanting
cut before you put it in water. Flowers with very thick or milky stems
should be slit up about half an inch, and woody stems are best peeled
for an inch or two. Put the flowers deep into water that has had the
chill taken off it. Always put flowers in water as quickly as possible
after they are picked. Change the water every day, and recut the stems
if they look at all brown or dry.



                                 PETS


In no case do the following hints as to the care and character of pets
go so far as they might. But they lay down broadly the most useful
rules. In cases where a dog or bird is really ill, and ordinary
remedies and treatment do not help, the advice of some one who knows
should be asked. It is because all children are in touch with some one
who knows, that this chapter is not longer. The aim of the writer of
most of the notes which follow has been to describe those creatures
which are most commonly kept as pets, with a few suggestions as to
their care in ordinary health.


Dogs: Their Care and Food

All dogs need plenty of exercise; indeed it is scarcely possible to
give them too much when once they are over six months of age. After
twelve months they can follow a horse, but a bicycle as a rule is too
fast for a dog, and the excessive exertion is likely to make them ill.
Plenty of fresh air and freedom are necessary, and your dog should
never be chained except at night, when he should have a snug bed away
from any draught. The house is the best place for a dog to sleep, but
should he live in a kennel it must be a roomy one, filled two or three
times a week with clean straw and raised from the ground about six
inches so that it will keep dry. Kennels with runs in front are the
best, as then the dog need never be chained. In these there should be
a wooden bench for him to lie on, sheltered by a sloping roof. An
earthenware trough of clean water he must always have, and most dogs
will do best if they are fed twice a day: a light breakfast of
biscuit or brown bread and a good dinner of scraps or dog-biscuit
soaked in gravy with vegetables and plenty of rice. A rounded leather
collar is best for dogs with long hair, as it does not show so much or
spoil the coat, but for smooth-coated dogs a flat plain collar is
best.


Washing Dogs

Dogs should not be washed very often, nor will this be necessary if
they are well brushed every day. A stable dandy-brush is best for
short-coated dogs, and a hard hair-brush, or one of those with metal
bristles, which can be bought in most saddlers' shops, for long-coated
ones.

Common yellow soap and soft thick towels should be used when your dog
really needs a bath. Have a pailful of warm water, a pitcher to dip it
up with, a piece of mild yellow soap, and a pail of cold water. Pour a
little warm water over the dog, beginning with his back, shoulders,
and sides, and finish with his head, rubbing the soap into a lather
all over him at the same time. Be careful not to let any water into
his ears, or soap into his eyes. Next rinse the soap well out of his
coat with the warm water, beginning with the head. Then pour the cold
water all over him and let him shake himself well. Rub him dry with
towels and give him a run on grass. Big dogs must be washed in a yard,
but you can put a little one in the tub indoors. All dogs are better
for something to eat after a bath. To swimmers a plunge in a pond or
river is good exercise and a tonic; but dogs should not be thrown in.


Feeding Puppies

Puppies at first need feeding five times a day. At four months old
four meals will do. At twelve months they settle down into grown-up
dogs, and the two meals are sufficient. Do not feed them later than
six o'clock, and always give them a walk after their last meal. A few
dry dog-biscuits when they go to bed will do no harm, and a large
mutton or beef bone now and then will do them good, but small bones
are very dangerous, as they splinter and may kill or seriously injure
the dog.


Distemper

Young dogs are almost sure to have distemper, and if a puppy about six
or eight months old is depressed and quiet, and his eyes look
inflamed, you should put him away by himself at once, sew him up in
thick warm flannel, bathe his eyes with cold tea, and attend very
carefully to his diet. It will be difficult to make him eat, but you
must coax him and even pour strong beef-tea or milk down his throat,
for if he does not eat he will have no strength to fight the disease.
Tripe is the best food for him if he will take it, but try everything
to tempt him, and give him as much as he will take. When you take your
patient for a walk (and he will need exercise) do not take him where
he may meet other dogs, for distemper is very infectious. Put an extra
coat over him, wrapping it well round his throat and chest. Distemper
is a fever, and the risk of chill is very great; it means inflammation
of some sort from which the dog being weak is not likely to recover.
It is always best to call in a veterinary surgeon when a dog shows
symptoms of distemper.


Tricks for Dogs

If your dog is a terrier there is no end to the tricks you can teach
him. Always begin by teaching him to "trust," for it is the foundation
of his training, and he will learn it before he is two months old. Do
not keep him "on trust" for more than a second or two at first, but
gradually make the time longer, until he will let you leave the room
and not touch the biscuit until you return. Then you can teach him to
die, and waltz, sing, ask, box, and beg. Treat him always with
patience and firmness; be quick to reward but never give in to him.
You will, of course, bear in mind the character of the dog in teaching
him tricks. Dogs of dignified nature, such as St. Bernards, mastiffs,
Great Danes, and deer-hounds, for example, you would not labor to
transform into performers. The best dogs of all for teaching
elaborately are poodles.


What is Due to Dogs

Do not overdo your mastership. Remember that a dog needs much liberty
and independence to develop his individuality, and an enterprising
puppy learns more by observation and experience in a week than a
pampered lap-dog does in his whole life; he learns self-reliance, but
he will always run to his master or mistress in any real difficulty,
and you who are his master or mistress must be wary not to
misunderstand or disregard him, for he needs sympathy and love, and if
he does not get them he either becomes cowed and stupid or a
ne'er-do-weel.


Buying Dogs

If you wish to buy a dog, the best way is to get the catalogue of some
big dog show, and find the address of a well-known breeder of the kind
of dog you wish to have. If you write to him and tell him exactly what
you want he will probably send you a suitable puppy at a fair price.
If you think of buying through an advertisement, have the dog on
approval first. Another objection to buying a dog at all casually is
that you will not know either his temper, which is generally
inherited, or his age. In all cases it is best to buy puppies and
train them yourself. This means a good deal of trouble at first, and
takes time and patience, but the younger the puppy the easier he is
to train. The best age is about five weeks old. With constant
attention day and night for a few weeks you will have a perfectly
trained dog who will be a perfect companion to you for years.

Brief descriptions of some of the best known dogs are here given,
beginning with terriers:--


The Bull-Terrier

The bull-terrier is very discriminating in his attachments and does
not easily lose his temper, or, as a rule, fight, unless he is unduly
excited. He is such a nervous dog that if he is roughly treated he is
apt to become a coward, but there is no truer, more faithful friend
than a properly trained terrier of this breed.


The Fox-Terrier

The fox-terrier is often a restless fidgety dog in a house; indeed, to
keep him much in the house seems to affect his intelligence. He fights
readily, but a strong master can alter that. In sharpness and
brightness and hardiness he is not to be beaten, and no dog is more
inquisitive and full of spirits. Perhaps of little dogs he is the
best.


The Irish Terrier

The greatest fault of the Irish terrier is his fondness for barking
unnecessarily; but he is particularly intelligent, active, and
vigorous, and will learn any trick your ingenuity can devise for him.


Other Terriers

There are many other terriers--the Skye, with coat nearly sweeping the
ground; the black and tan, the Welsh terrier, and others less well
known; but for pluck, brains, and fidelity, it is impossible to beat
bull-terriers.


Spaniels

Of all spaniels the Clumber is the most intelligent and beautiful; he
is also, although not a very demonstrative dog, very sincere in his
devotion to his master.

The Cocker is a small spaniel: an active, merry little fellow who can
be taught to retrieve. The black spaniel and the liver-colored Sussex
are, like the Clumber, of the oldest and best breeds, and the Sussex
variety makes an excellent house dog. He is quiet and dignified and
has very good manners. The common Norfolk spaniel is intelligent, a
good water dog, and a faithful companion. A satisfactory puppy should
not cost more than five dollars. He and the Cocker are the best of the
spaniels as pets, although these two breeds are also capable of good
work in the field if carefully trained.


The Retriever

Retrievers occasionally make good companions, but for the most part
they are dogs of one idea--retrieving--and have little interest in
using their intelligence in any other direction.


Setters

The setter is a wise and affectionate animal. He is full of spirit and
needs careful training, but train him well as a puppy and you will be
able to take him everywhere with you, for he is a very gallant and
courteous gentleman. In color the English setter varies with the
different breeds. The Gordon setter is black and tan, and the Irish is
red.


The Collie

The reputation for uncertain temper which collies have is not well
grounded. They are excitable, it is true, and apt to snap if you romp
too long and wildly with them, and they do not take correction kindly;
but people who have owned many specimens of this beautiful breed
testify to having found them always loving and sagacious. A collie
should always belong to one person; many masters make him too
universal in his affections, and under these circumstances he does not
develop intelligently. The collie at work is the wisest of dogs, he
knows each individual sheep in his care, and in snow or mist will
bring every one to the fold before he rests.

Collies may be taught to play hide-and-seek--a game they are very fond
of. First hide a ball in the room and help the dog to find it, and by
degrees he will find anything by himself and will seek all over the
house and garden. Among bad habits many collies have the serious one
of running round and barking at horses. This should be checked by
keeping the dog strictly to heel where he is likely to meet any
traffic.


The Sheep Dog

The old English bob-tailed sheep dog is a bouncing, rough-and-ready
fellow. He is not suitable for a house dog, but he is honest and true
and a good worker, and one can get extremely fond of him.


The Newfoundland

The Newfoundland is one of the grandest of beasts. The true
Newfoundland is black all over, except for a white star on the chest,
and he stands at least twenty-seven inches at the shoulder. The
black-and-white specimens are called Landseer Newfoundlands, on
account of the famous painter's fondness for them. In character these
dogs are dignified and magnanimous, and they are particularly good
with children. Many stories are told of their gallant efforts in
saving life from drowning. The Newfoundland is used for draught in the
island from which he takes his name.


The Mastiff

The mastiff is the best of all guards; it is more pure instinct with
him to guard his master's property than it is with any other breed. He
is honest through and through, and as a rule he is gentle and a good
companion.


The Bull-Dog

The bull-dog is stupid and not particularly affectionate. Although
excitable he is not quarrelsome or savage, and if reasonably treated
no doubt would make a quiet, faithful pet. A not too highly bred
bull-dog is likely to be more intelligent than his very blue-blooded
relations.


The St. Bernard

The most majestic of dogs is the St. Bernard. He is high-couraged and
sagacious and very discriminating in his devotion. Once your friend,
he is always your friend. Although with you he never makes a mistake,
he is apt to growl at strangers, and is not to be relied on to be
polite to visitors. If you have one of the rough-coated variety you
must groom him regularly and take great care of him, as he is a
delicate dog and subject to weakness in the back and hind legs if he
is allowed to get wet or lie on damp ground.


The Great Dane

The Great Dane, or boarhound, is a powerful and active dog. His
appearance is suggestive almost of a wild beast, and he is
particularly well fitted to act as guard. He is gentle and manageable
with those he knows, and his great courage, intelligence, and strength
make him a most desirable companion.


Hounds

Of hounds that hunt by sight we have the English Greyhound, swiftest
of dogs, but neither very intelligent nor affectionate; the Scotch
Deerhound, dignified and very devoted to his master, and a wonderful
jumper over gates and walking-sticks; and the Irish Wolf-hound, bigger
and less graceful than either of the others, but with a great big
heart and noble courage. Gelert was of this breed. There is also the
Borzoi, whose appearance is a combination of greyhound and setter, a
very beautiful but rather stupid animal. Finally, there is the
Bloodhound, remarkable for great intelligence, good temper, and
fidelity. He is one of the finest of dogs, wise and self-reliant and
capable of the truest devotion to his master. He seldom or never
fights, but is full of courage in spite of his naturally nervous
disposition.


Toy Dogs

Toy dogs are fairly intelligent, but noisy and wayward. They cannot be
recommended as interesting pets, since they have little originality;
but they can be taught tricks, and if treated sensibly and not
pampered, no doubt they would develop more intelligence. The best of
the toy dogs are Pugs, toy Pomeranians, the King Charles' Spaniel
(black and tan in color), and the Blenheim spaniel (white and
chestnut).


The Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is a sharp and rather snappy dog, not remarkable for
either great intelligence or amiability; but, as with all breeds,
there are individual exceptions to this rule.


Poodles

Poodles are intelligent and the best of all dogs for learning tricks.
They are also very expensive.


Mongrels

Mongrels can be the best of friends. They are often more original and
enterprising than their too highly-bred cousins, and they are very
self-reliant; but as a rule they are not so courageous nor so
steadfast as a well-bred dog. The chief advantage of possessing a
mongrel is that dog-stealers are less likely to be tempted by him, and
you can give him more freedom, which will make him more interesting
and intelligent than a dog you need to shut up and look after
carefully.


Cats

There is very little to say about cats, except that they need much
petting and plenty of milk and tit-bits. They should always have a
warm bed in a basket or chair. They should never be allowed to stay
out-of-doors at night.


Wild Rabbits

Of all rabbits the brightest and most intelligent, as a pet, is the
wild rabbit. If you can get two or three baby wild rabbits and feed
them on milk, they will grow up very tame. We heard recently of two
small wild rabbits that were taken out of the nest and brought up by
hand. They and their mistress and a collie pup would play together,
and they ran about the room, racing over the floor and furniture. In
the summer one escaped from the coop on the lawn in which they were
shut up, so the other was turned loose too. They would both come out
of the bushes when called, run about over one's dress, and hunt
pockets for oats or bits of apple, and would still play with their old
friend the collie. It is sad to tell of their death, which they met at
the jaws of a strange dog who came marauding. They did not recognize
in him an enemy, and easily fell his victims.


Tame Rabbits

The long-haired Angora variety of rabbit is intelligent and very
handsome. These need regular grooming and great care, or their long
coat gets matted and frowsy. Belgian hares are big, powerful animals,
rather apt to be uncertain in temper, but they have beautiful glossy
coats and are enterprising and amusing. The lop-eared rabbit is a
stately beast and less brisk than his prick-eared relations. The
Himalayan rabbit has no connection with the mountain chain from which
it has its name, is white, with all its extremities--nose, ears, tail,
and feet--black or very dark in color. The Dutch rabbits are small.
The body is colored, but the neck, forelegs, and jaws are white. But
to the ordinary owner of a rabbit in a hutch, particular variety does
not matter very much.


Rabbits' Hutches

A good hutch can be made of a grocer's box, by covering the open front
partly with bars or wire netting and making a door. The hutch should
stand on legs, or at any rate should be raised from the ground, and
holes should be bored in the bottom for drainage. Then put in clean
straw, and it is ready for the rabbit. In cold or wet weather and at
night, it is well to throw a cloth over the hutch for warmth. The
hutch must be well ventilated, and it should be made in two
compartments, one to admit plenty of light, and the other dark. It
should be made so that the animal may be confined in either
compartment while the other is cleaned out.


Food and Exercise

Bran, grain, and vegetables--such as peas, parsley, carrots,
turnip-tops, but not much cabbage--serve for rabbits' food. It is
advisable to vary it occasionally. The leaves should not be wet, but a
dish of clean water may always stand in the hutch.

The animal should be allowed at least half an hour's run every day,
precautions being taken against its burrowing habits, and against its
finding anything poisonous to eat. More than one family should not be
allowed out at the same time, as they are very pugnacious. Most
diseases are the result of neglect in cleaning out the hutch regularly
and thoroughly. Rabbits which most nearly approach the wild in color
are hardiest.


Teaching Rabbits

If you find you have an intelligent rabbit who quickly learns to come
to you when you call him by name, you will find, with patience, you
can teach him that when you say "On trust," he must not touch the
dainty you offer him, and that "Paid for" means he may have it. He
will also learn to "die," and shake hands when you tell him to do so.


Guinea-Pigs

Guinea-pigs need treatment and housing similar to rabbits.


Squirrels

In buying a squirrel make sure it is a young one, because whereas a
young one is difficult enough to tame, an old one is not to be tamed
at all. Unless you can give him a really large cage, with room for a
branch on which he may leap about, it is cruel to keep a squirrel at
all, so beautifully free is his nature. A little side compartment
containing a revolving wheel should be added. Your only chance of
taming him is to be extremely quiet and gentle in all your visits to
the cage and in giving him his food--nuts, acorns, grain, cold boiled
potatoes, dry bread, and now and then a small piece of cooked meat. A
very charming account of what it is possible to do with tame squirrels
will be found in a little book called _Billy and Hans_, by Mr. W. J.
Stillman.


Mice

Mice should have a cage with two compartments, one of which should
have a door in the woodwork but no wires. In this room should be a bed
of hay. The natural food of mice is grain, but in captivity they are
generally fed on bread and milk and slices of apple. They can be tamed
to a small extent, but for the most part they do no more than run
round a wheel, although if other gymnastic contrivances are offered
them they will probably do something with them. Dormice (to whose food
you may add nuts) sleep through the winter months, and are therefore
not very interesting for more than half the year.


Turtles

A turtle is rather an interesting animal to keep, although he will not
do much in return. Even in summer they have a curious way of
disappearing for weeks together, and in winter, of course, you see
nothing of them. An ordinary mud turtle is often seen moving slowly
along the roads after a rain. He can be carried home by turning him
over on his back--but be careful to keep your fingers away from his
snapping mouth. As a rule they can feed themselves, and they also have
the happy knack of doing without food altogether for long periods, so
that you need not be anxious.


Fish

Bowls of goldfish are not uncommon, but few people seem to care for
fish of other kinds. And yet a little aquarium can be stocked for a
small sum and is a most interesting possession. One small tank of
young bream, for example, can be a perpetual and continually fresh
delight. Let the tank have cloisters of rockwork and jungles of weed,
so that hiding may be possible, and then watch the smaller fish at
their frolics. Young trout are hardly less beautiful, and very easy
to keep healthy, in spite of general opinion to the contrary. The
important thing is to maintain a current of water through the tank.
The old way was to carry the overflow down a pipe in the centre
through its surface opening, but an improvement on this system is for
the leakage to be at the bottom of the tank and the inflow at the top.
Young perch are beautiful too,--and tench, and dace, and roach,--and
all are hardy. Feeding them is very simple. The shop from which you
buy the fish will keep you supplied with the proper food. The American
catfish, with its curious antennæ or whiskers, and its gleaming eyes,
set as by a jeweler, is more wonderful, and not a whit more difficult
to keep. But to be amused by such unfamiliar neighbors as a tankful of
fish there is no real need either to stray abroad or to spend any
money. The ordinary minnow, which you can catch in any stream and pop
into a jar, will serve to introduce you to a new world--a world of
silent progressions, of incredible celerities, of amazing
respirations.


Silkworms

Silkworms, if kept at all, ought to be taken seriously and used for
their true purpose. That is to say, you really ought to wind their
silk carefully. Few owners of silkworms in this country seem to
trouble to do this. Silkworms' eggs can be bought of any naturalist,
or some one who keeps silkworms will willingly give you some. The time
is about the end of April. They are usually laid on scraps of paper,
and these you put in shallow paper and cardboard trays covered with
gauze, and place them in the room where the sun can reach them. As the
worms hatch out you must move them--it is done best with a small paint
brush--to another tray or trays and keep them supplied with fresh
mulberry leaves or lettuce. The worms continue to grow for about a
month, and then, when full-sized, they prepare to spin. You may know
that this time is reached by their refusal to eat, and you must then
make a little paper toilet, about two inches deep, for each worm, and
drop it in. You have now nothing to do (except to watch the worms
regularly) for some weeks, in which time the cocoon has been finished
and the worm has become a chrysalis. When the chrysalis inside the
cocoon rattles the time has come to wind the silk, or the moth will
shortly emerge and eat it. The outside of the cocoon is useless and
can be removed by placing the cocoon in warm water. Once that is out
of the way, the silk can be wound on a card. The moth soon afterward
appears and, after growing to its full size, lays its eggs--some two
hundred--and dies. It must be remembered that with silkworms a little
practical demonstration from any one who has kept them is worth much
more than many pages of hints. One thing is of the highest importance,
and that is constant attention. Silkworms must never be neglected.


Other Caterpillars

Silkworms are more useful but not more interesting than many other
caterpillars which can be hatched from eggs. The Privet Hawk Moth, for
example, is very easily bred, and a very beautiful creature it is when
in full plumage. But for information on this subject you must go to
more scientific books.


Pigeons

Pigeons are not exactly pets, for they rarely do more than come to you
for their food, just as chickens do, but they are beautiful creatures
and no country roof is quite complete without them, and a dove-cot is
a very pretty and homely old-fashioned object. Usually, however, the
birds are given a portion of a loft. Whatever the nature of their
home, it must have separate compartments for each pair of pigeons and
must be warm. If a loft is used there should be sand or gravel on the
floor, with a little lime to assist the formation of the shells of the
pigeons' eggs. The place should be kept clean, and you must guard
against rats and cats. Pigeons eat peas and pigeons'-beans and most
kinds of grain. If they fly loose they will find out other food, such
as green meat, for themselves. But if you keep them at home you ought
to give them some. They should have a dish of water in a regular
place. New pigeons should be shut up by wiring in their house for a
fortnight before you give them their liberty, or they will fly away.
They do not care for hay or straw in their boxes, but will make a nest
in their own way when they need one. Pigeons are of many kinds, the
commonest of which is perhaps the Runt, and the prettiest a white
Fantail. Any one who takes up pigeons except merely for the pleasure
of owning one or two should read up the subject carefully.


Doves

Doves, which are happier when kept in pairs, require the same food as
pigeons. As a rule they are kept in wicker cages. They are not very
interesting.


Parrots

Parrots are most companionable pets, and, next to a dog, quite the
most interesting and intelligent. They are always cheerful: whistling,
singing, and talking. The gray parrot is the best talker, and speaks
much more distinctly than any other kind, but the Blue-fronted Amazon
is more amusing and far better-tempered as a rule. These birds are
very beautiful, with bright green plumage and touches of yellow and
red, and a blue patch on the forehead. The best food for parrots is
parrot seed, on which they may be fed entirely, and they should never
be allowed dainties except nuts, fruit, and a little piece of sugar.
In the summer time sprinkle your parrot with water through a fine hose
every morning, but in the winter do so only when he asks for a bath by
trying to get into the water basin. As to talking, parrots will pick
up far more readily any words they hear by accident than any that you
set yourself to teach them. They will also get by heart in this way a
few bars of a whistled tune. When parrots are apparently spiteful it
often proceeds much more from nervousness than from vice. If
frightened they will peck anything near them. It is important to have
a thick baize cover for your parrot's cage, and to put this over it
directly the lamps are lit.


Smaller Cage Birds

Before coming to the different kinds of birds which you can keep, a
few general words about their care ought to be said. Remember that
with them, as with all pets, the most important of all rules is
perfect cleanliness. The best cages are wooden ones with unpainted
wires, and the perches should be of different thicknesses, as, if they
are all one size, the bird is likely to get cramp in his feet. Once in
a week at least the perches and tray should be scrubbed with very hot
water with soda in it, but they must be dried thoroughly before they
are put back into the cage; therefore if possible it is best to have
two sets of perches and to use them alternately. A thick layer of red
sand or shell gravel should be sprinkled on the tray, and occasionally
a pinch of maw-seed thrown on it.


Baths

All birds should have a bath given them. They like best a shallow
glass dish, which should be put in the cage when the tray is out. It
is a good plan to put a biscuit-tin lid on the floor of the cage to
prevent the bird from making the woodwork wet. Other rules in the care
of all birds are--never let them be in a draught, but do not keep
them in a very warm place. Cover them with a white cloth at night, and
in cold weather put a shawl over that.


Food

Seed-eating birds do best if they are fed on canary seed and a little
summer rape, with now and then a few hemp-seeds, some Hartz mountain
bread, and a bit of groundsel or water-cress that has been well
washed. If they look dull and sit in a puffed-up little heap, a drop
of brandy in their water often does good; and, should they show signs
of asthma, try chopped, hard-boiled egg, with a few grains of cayenne
pepper, and a bit of saffron or a rusty nail in the water. These are
also good when the bird is moulting. For insect-eating birds you must
buy meal-worms and ants' eggs, and thrushes and blackbirds need
earth-worms as well.


Tricks

Some birds are easily taught tricks. We remember a red-poll who would
draw his water up from a well in the cage in a little bucket; but if
you teach your bird to do this you must be careful to watch him, in
case the string gets twisted and the bucket does not reach the water,
when your pet will suffer terribly from thirst. He will also learn to
pull his seed-box up an inclined board if you put it day by day a
little farther from him, so that he must draw the string to get his
food. It is better to take a long time in training birds, and tempt
them with any dainty they care most for, such as water-cress,
groundsel, chickweed, or hemp-seed, as otherwise you must starve the
bird first, or he will not trouble to get the seed. This means a
certain amount of cruelty and cannot be right.


Canaries

The favorite cage-bird is the canary, which, though a foreign bird, is
kept in this country in greater numbers than any other bird, and is
also bred here. One has to be very well posted up in the nature of the
bird to be protected against deception when buying it; and you ought
therefore, in getting a canary, to find some one competent to buy what
you want.

Canaries must be kept carefully. They cannot stand much air. Be
particular that the cage does not hang in a draught, and let it be
large enough for comfort. When evening comes it is kinder to take the
cage out of a room in which there will be much light and noise, and
put it somewhere dark and quiet, as the air of a room where gas is
burned is not good for it. But if moving the cage is not convenient,
lower it to a position below the level of the burners and cover it up
with a thick cloth. By day the cage should be hung in the sunshine if
possible, but if the sun is very hot a green gauze cover ought to
protect the bird a little. If the bird's singing is too lusty--as
sometimes happens--a handkerchief thrown over the cage will check it;
but this seems rather hard treatment.

In feeding canaries follow the rules on p. 356, but you may put a lump
of sugar between the bars now and then, or a sprig of groundsel or
water-cress. Do not give them cake; it is no real kindness.

When they are moulting, canaries (and other birds too) need rather
more attention. Give them a little richer food, such as chopped-up
eggs, and put some saffron in the water. There is a kind of insect
called the red mite which often attacks canaries. It is not the rule
by any means that canaries should be thus troubled--many escape--but
it may happen. If you cannot account for the bird's despondency in any
other way, catch it and look at its skin under the feathers of the
breast and the under part of the wings. If there are little red spots,
it means that the red mites have found out the cage, and you must wash
the bird every day with a weak solution of white precipitate
powder--about twelve grains to a small glass of warm water--and either
wash the cage too with a stronger solution, or, if it is a wooden one,
destroy it. Now and then you ought to clip their claws, if they seem
too long.


The Love-Birds

The love-birds feed almost entirely on millet or canary seed, and they
like a sod of grass in their cage. They are bright little birds, but
are naturally very wild and need much petting if you wish to tame
them. Once tamed, however, they are very confiding and amusing.


The Cardinal

One of the most beautiful of cage-birds is the red-crested cardinal.
He is quite hardy and eats seeds and insects impartially, thriving on
canary, millet, and a little hemp-seed, with meal-worms now and then.
He should always have a very large cage, or he will spoil his plumage.
His song is sweet and strong.


Wax-Bills

Wax-bills eat millet-seed, canary seed, and a little soaked bread and
sponge-cake.


Other Foreign Birds

Java sparrows are pretty creatures, although they do very little for
you. Perhaps the most attractive of small foreign birds is the
avadavat, a tiny, perky little soldier. These live quite comfortably
together; and indeed, if it is permitted, you should certainly, for
the non-singing birds, have a large cage and keep many such birds in
it rather than put them in small cages. They will be far happier.


The Chaffinch

The chaffinch has to re-learn his song every spring, and for a
fortnight or more you will hear him trying his voice very sweetly and
softly, but as soon as he has acquired his song in perfection, it will
be so strong and piercing that on fine days he often has to be
banished from the sitting-room. He should not, however, be exposed too
much to sun and wind; a cloth thrown over half the cage will make a
shelter. The chaffinch is another bird that should never be put in a
bell-shaped cage. He should occasionally have flies and other insects
given him. He is lively and hardy and a very gay companion.


The Goldfinch

We remember a goldfinch that became very tame, perching on his owner's
hands and taking seed from her lips. Goldfinches should never be kept
in bell-shaped cages--which make them giddy--but should have one with
a square flat top. Along this they will run head downward. They are
such active birds that they need plenty of space. They chatter all day
long and are very cheery, and they are very beautiful in their brown,
gold, and scarlet coats. In a wild state the goldfinch feeds chiefly
on the seeds of weeds and thistles, groundsel, and dandelion, and he
is therefore a friend to the farmer, but in captivity be will thrive
on canary and German rape with several hemp-seeds daily, and now and
then lettuce, thistle-seed, and fruit.


The Bullfinch

The bullfinch is squarely built, with a black head and pink breast. No
bird can be more affectionate and intelligent. He will learn to pipe
tunes if you put him in the dark and whistle a few bars of some easy
melody to him over and over again; and he soon gets a number of
fascinating tricks. After a while you will be able to let him out of
the cage at meal-times, when he will hop about from plate to plate and
steal little tit-bits. No bird is so fond of sitting on its owner's
shoulder as the bullfinch can be. Also, unhappily, few birds are so
liable to fatal illness. A bullfinch can be apparently quite well one
minute and the next you find him lying at the bottom of the cage.
Over-eating is often the cause of his death, so that one must be
careful. Hemp-seed and apple-pips, for instance, which he loves,
should be given in moderation. Rape and millet, lettuce and ripe fruit
suit him best. Gardeners are great enemies of this sturdy little bird
on account of the damage he does amongst fruit-trees, but he probably
does a great deal more good than he does harm by eating insects which
are fatal to plants.


The Yellow Bunting

The yellow bunting (or yellow hammer) can be a pet; and he has the
sweetest little whispering song. If you have a caged bunting, his seed
should be soaked in cold water for some hours before it is given to
him, and he must have the yoke of a hard-boiled egg, meal-worms, ants'
eggs, and any insects you can catch for him. He must also have plenty
of opportunities for bathing, and as much fresh air without draughts
as possible.


The Blackbird

The blackbird is delicate when caged and must have plenty of
nutritious food, bread and milk, boiled vegetables, ripe fruit,
insects, and snails. He is a thirsty bird and needs plenty of water.

Birds of all kinds especially like cocoanut (though they will come to
the window-sill simply for bread crumbs). The cocoanut should be sawn
in two, and a hole bored through each half, about an inch from the
edge. A strong string is then threaded in and they are hung from the
bough of a tree. They should be hung rather high up, on a bough
reaching as far out from the trunk as possible, so as to avoid all
risk from the cat. The birds frequent elm-trees more than any others,
because the rough bark contains many insects, but you may choose any
kind of tree, as close to your windows as you like. The birds will
keep pecking at the cocoanut all day long and will soon want a new
one. If you have no tree near the house you might fasten a cord across
the outer frame of your window and tie the pieces of nut to that. The
birds would soon find out the cocoa-nut and come to it, and bread
crumbs could also be put on the window-sill to attract them. Or, if
you have a veranda, they could be hung up there, if you could make
them safe from the cat. Mrs. Earle, in her book _More Pot-Pourri from
a Surrey Garden_, gives elaborate directions for an arrangement in a
veranda or balcony of cocoanuts, etc., for the birds. Lumps of fat
will do as well as cocoanut. Some birds also greatly love a bone to
pick at--an uncooked one with plenty of fat on it, which the butcher
will probably be glad to give you if you ask him and explain its
purpose. It can be hung up in a tree or merely laid on the
window-sill.


The Robin

In the ordinary way one would not keep robins at all. They are so tame
and fond of the company of human beings that they will come regularly
to the door for crumbs every morning and never be far off at any time.
But if a wounded robin is found or a nest is abandoned (probably owing
to the death of the mother at the cat's hands) just before the young
birds are ready to fly, you might pop them in a cage. They do not
often thrive long in captivity, even if the confinement does not seem
irksome, but to keep one until it was strong enough to be let loose
would be a kindness. Still there have been many cases of happy tame
robins. The best food for them is bread crumbs, grated carrot, yoke of
egg and sponge-cake mixed together, the carrot making the mixture
moist enough. A few insects daily are advisable. Robins are such
quarrelsome birds that it is impossible to keep two of them in an
aviary, or even to keep one robin with birds weaker than himself.
Perhaps the best way to treat a pet robin is to let him fly all over
the house in the winter. He may one day fly away altogether in the
spring, but if he is alive he is almost certain to come back again
when the cold weather begins.


Garden Robins

Robins in the garden are so pretty, so cheeky, so sweetly musical, and
are so friendly to man (in spite of their arrogance and selfishness
among birds) that they ought to be encouraged. As the only way of
encouraging wild birds is to feed them, we have to try and give them
what they like best. Robins are quite content with bread crumbs only.
They will eat sop if they can get nothing else; but they prefer
crumbs, and not too dry. For an especial treat they like fat bacon
beyond everything: cooked bacon, that has been boiled, not fried. It
should be mixed up very small, and the bread also crumbled into tiny
morsels, for robins like to eat very nicely and daintily. Robins are
pleased to have crumbs given them all the seasons through, though in
the autumn they can very well take care of themselves.

Each robin has his own special domain, which any other robin invades
at his peril. The robins that come to the window for food are those
that belong to that particular side of the house and no other. This
means that there are other robins is different parts of the garden
which will have to be fed in their own special localities. You will
soon find out where these are, even if you have not already been
guided to them by their songs. Robins like their food scattered always
in the same place, or under the same tree, and, as nearly as you can,
at the same time. Then you will find them on the lookout for you, and
if you take always the same basket (a rather shallow flat one which
stands firmly) and, putting it on the ground, go a few steps away, you
will see them hop into it. After a few days they will probably get
tame enough to come into the basket while it is in your hand; only you
must have a little patience at first, and hold it very still, and of
course you must not have previously scattered any food on the ground.


Birds in the Garden

This brings us to the other garden birds which we have no wish to put
in cages, but which it is well to be as kind to as possible. In
winter, when there is a frost, to feed them is absolutely necessary;
but at all times it is well that they should know that you are not
enemies (of which they have so many), but their friends. The following
notes, together with the foregoing passage on feeding robins, on birds
in the garden have been prepared far this book:--

"Birds are grateful all the year through for a shallow pan of water,
which they can drink from and use also as a bath. And the bees, too,
will be glad to come and get a sip of water, for they also are thirsty
things. A small round yellow earthenware pan is excellent for the
thrushes and blackbirds, but it is as well to provide a smaller one,
say an ordinary shallow pie-dish, for the robins and little birds.
These should be refilled twice a day, at least, in summer time. You
can place the pans on the grass or path, where you can see them
comfortably from the house, but not nearer than you can help, because
the blackbirds are rather shy, and it would be a pity to make drinking
too great an adventure for them.

"Birds are thankful for a little feeding right through the spring,
both when the mother bird is sitting on the nest and the father has to
forage for two, and when the young ones are hatched and there are at
once many more mouths to fill. In the summer too, if it should be
unduly wet and cold, or unduly hot and dry, and grubs and insects
scarce, the young birds are pleased to find a meal ready for them. But
in the winter it is a positive duty to feed the birds; for remember
that when the ground is covered with snow, or frozen hard, they can
get no insects, and thus, after all the berries have gone, they will
starve unless they are helped with other food.

"Almost every household has enough waste scraps, if they are collected
carefully, to give the birds a good meal once a day. Bread, of course,
will form the chief part, but nothing comes amiss to them, however
tiny. Morsels of suet, dripping, shreds of fat, meat, and fish, and
cheese rind also, all mixed up together, are an especial treat. The
mince should be well mixed with the bread crumbs, or all may not get a
fair share. Crusts, or any hard, dry bits of bread, can be scalded
into sop (though, unlike chickens, wild birds do not seem to like it
hot), and a little piece of dripping or fat, soaked with the sop,
makes it more tasty for them. If the supply of bread be short, the
birds will be very pleased with chickens' rice. It should be the
'second quality' kind, in the brown husk, which can be procured from
most corn-dealers. But this is hardly necessary excepting in a long
hard frost. Starlings are especially fond of bones, and they will
esteem it a favor if any which have been used in making soup, and are
not required for the dog, are thrown out to them on the ground. Their
joyous chattering over them is quite cheering, even on the dreariest
winter's day. They are also grateful for the rind of a ham or piece of
bacon, after it has been boiled. This should be thrown out to them
whole, not cut up in little pieces. They are equally fond of the bones
and skin remains of a 'dried' haddock.

"For the bolder birds, such as robins, you will like to put some food
on the window-sills, and also on the path or grass close to the house.
But remember the more timid ones, and scatter it in other parts of the
garden as well.

"Sparrows, of course, deserve their food as well as any of the others;
but it is rather hard to see them taking every morning much more than
their share, while the less courageous or impudent birds (who also
sing to you) get none. It seems impossible to prevent this, though Mr.
Phil. Robinson, in his book _Garden, Orchard, and Spinney_ (in the
chapter entitled 'The Famine is my Garden'), recommends scattering
some oatmeal mixed with a few bread crumbs on one side of the house,
to keep the sparrows occupied, whilst you feed the other birds
elsewhere. Sparrows, however, have a way of being on every side of the
house at once. Still, if you feed your birds daily, and as nearly at
the same time as possible (they like it as soon as may be after your
own breakfast), you will find them on the lookout for you, and they
will manage to get a good share, if they all start fair, in spite of
the sparrows. In a hard frost they are thankful for a second meal, but
it should not be later than two o'clock, because birds go to bed very
early in cold weather, and the food would be frozen too hard for them
to be able to eat it next morning.

"One word more. There is great danger of birds being caught by a cat
while they are busy with their food, especially if near the bushes.
The only possible protection against this which you can take is to see
that your own cat is indoors and is therefore not the offender."



                               READING


All persons who care very much for reading will find their way
naturally to the books most likely to please them; left alone in a
library they are never disappointed. For them no advice is necessary.
Nor is advice important to those who have opportunities to compare
notes on reading with friends who have similar tastes. For instance,
two boys may fall to talking of books. "Have you read _David
Balfour_?" one will say. "No; who's it by?" "Stevenson." "What else
did he write?" "Well, he wrote _Treasure Island_." "I've read that. If
_David Balfour_ is anything like that, I must get it." He gets it; and
thus, either by asking others whose taste he can trust, or by going
steadily on through each author who satisfies him, he will always have
as much good reading as he needs.

But there are still other readers--who have no real instinct for
books, or no memory for authors' names, or few opportunities of
comparing notes--for whom a list of books that are worth trying, books
which have been tested and found all right by thousands of readers,
ought to be very useful. In the following pages a list of this kind
has been drawn up. It is very far indeed from anything like
completeness--many good authors are not mentioned at all, and others
have written many more books than are here placed under their
names--but those chosen are in most cases their best, and it will be
very easy for readers who want more to find out other titles. The
books named are for the most part not new. But before children read
new books they read old; the new ones come later. What is suggested
here is a ground-work. Moreover, there are so many ways for new books
to suggest themselves that to attempt the impossible task of keeping
pace with them here was unnecessary.

Girls are such steady readers of what are called boys' books, and boys
are occasionally so much interested in what are called girls' books,
that the two groups have not been separated. All that has been done is
to describe the nature of each division of stories.


Fairy Tales

Nearly all the best old fairy tales are to be found in Mr. Andrew
Lang's collections, of which six are mentioned:--

  The Blue Fairy Book.
  The Red Fairy Book.
  The Pink Fairy Book.
  The Green Fairy Book.
  The Yellow Fairy Book.
  The Orange Fairy Book.

Many families do very well with merely

  Grimm's Fairy Tales.
  The Arabian Nights.
  Andersen's Fairy Tales.
  Æsop's Fables.

These are traditional. First favorites among English whimsical tales
are, of course,

  Alice's Adventures in Wonderland           By Lewis Carroll.
  Through the Looking-glass                   "   "     "

of which there is no need to speak, nor of

  The Water-Babies                           By Charles Kingsley.
  The King of the Golden River                " John Ruskin.
  The Rose and the Ring                       " W. M. Thackeray.

And among other good stories are--

  Fairy Tales                                By Alexandre Dumas.
  Mopsa the Fairy                             " Jean Ingelow.
  Prince Prigio                               " Andrew Lang.
  The Gold of Fairnilee                       "   "     "
  Twenty Best Fairy Tales                     " Lucy Perkins.
  The Bee-Man of Orn                          " Frank R. Stockton.
  The Clocks of Rondaine                      "   "         "
  Old-Fashioned Fairy Tales                   " Mrs. Ewing.

Lewis Carroll's "Bruno's Revenge," the story which was the beginning
of _Sylvie and Bruno_, is perfect in its way.


Legendary Tales

                              CLASSICAL
  The Heroes                                 By Charles Kingsley.
  A Wonder Book                               " Nathaniel Hawthorne.
  Tanglewood Tales                            "     "        "
  The Story of the Odyssey                    " Rev. A. J. Church.
  The Story of the Iliad                      "  "           "
  Stories from Homer                          "  "           "

                              ROMANTIC
  The Morte D'Arthur                         By Sir T. Malory.
  Tales from Shakespeare                      " Charles and Mary Lamb.
  Puck of Pook's Hill                         " Rudyard Kipling.
  Stories from the Faerie Queen               " Mary Macleod.
  Heroes of Chivalry and Romance              " Rev. A. J. Church.
  Stories of the Magicians                    "  "           "
  Olaf the Glorious                           " Robert Leighton.
  Robin Hood                                  " Howard Pyle.
  Men of Iron                                 "   "     "
  Canterbury Tales                            " Chaucer.
  Robin Hood: His Deeds and Adventures        " Lucy Perkins.
  Ballads in Prose                            " Mary Macleod.
  Forgotten Tales of Long Ago                 " E. V. Lucas.
  Old Fashioned Tales                         "   "     "
  Tales from Maria Edgeworth. Introduction    " Austin Dobson.
  Tales from the Canterbury Pilgrims. Retold  " J. H. Darton.
  The Book of King Arthur                     " Mary Macleod.
  Midsummer Night's Dream for Young People    " Lucy Perkins.
  The Wonder Book of Old Romance.

Here also we might place _Gulliver's Travels_.


Verse and Poetry

Our first acquaintance with poetry is made through nursery rhymes.
Many collections of nursery rhymes may be had. And there are also a
number of very charming picture books of simple verse, suitable for
small readers, such as Miss Kate Greenaway's

  Mother Goose.
  Marigold Garden.
  Under the Window.
  A. Apple Pie.

Mr. Walter Crane's

  Baby's Opera,
  Baby's Bouquet,

and various toy books.

Four favorite books of comic verse are Edward Lear's

  Book of Nonsense.
  More Nonsense.
  Nonsense, Songs and Stories.

Four books, more recent, which come nearer to poetry than anything
already mentioned, are--

  Verses for Children                        By Mrs. Ewing.
  Sing Song                                   " Christina G. Rossetti.
  Lilliput Lyrics                             " W. B. Rands.
  A Child's Garden of Verses                  " R. L. Stevenson.

A large collection of verse of the kind already described, with the
addition of ballads, open-air rhymes, animal verses and other
matter--intended to pave the way to real poetry--exists in

  A Book of Verses for Children,
  Another Book of Verses for Children,

compiled by E. V. Lucas. After these, we come to collections
containing real poetry, two excellent ones being

  The Blue Poetry Book                       By Andrew Lang.
  A First [Second and Third] Poetry Book      " M. A. Woods.

There is also

  Lyra Heroica                               By W. E. Henley,

a collection for boys. Selections from Tennyson, Browning, and other
poets, intended for children, have been made, but most young explorers
of poetry like to have the complete works and hunt for themselves.
Other popular books of poetry are--

  The Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics.
  Poems Every Child Should know.
  Mr. C. R. D. Patmore's Children's Garland from the Best Poets.
  Miss Agnes Repplier's Book of Famous Verse.
  H. E. Scudder's American Poems.
  The "Original Poems," and Others           By Jane and Ann Taylor.
  National Rhymes for the Nursery             " George Saintsbury.
  The Ballad Book                             " W. Allingham.
  Lays of Ancient Rome                        " Lord Macaulay.
  Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers              " W. E. Aytoun.
  The Percy Reliques.
  A Thousand and One Gems of Poetry.
  Scott.
  Longfellow.
  Hood.

Many boys also like the humorous stories in _Barham's Ingoldsby
Legends_.


Books About Children

To this section, which is suited more particularly for girls, belong a
large number of stories of a very popular kind: stories describing the
ordinary life of children of to-day, with such adventures as any of us
can have near home. Years ago the favorites were--

  The Fairchild Family                       By Mrs. Sherwood.
  Sandford and Merton                         " Thomas Day.

But these are not read as they used to be, partly because taste has
changed, and partly because so many other books can now be procured.
But fifty and more years ago they were in every nursery library.

  The Swiss Family Robinson,

the most famous family book of all, will be found in the adventure
section, to which perhaps really belong

  Feats on the Fiord,
  The Settlers at Home,

by Harriet Martineau, although these two, and

  The Crofton Boys

may be included here. Here also belong Maria Edgeworth's

  Moral Tales for Young People.
  The Parent's Assistant,

which, although their flavor is old-fashioned, are yet as interesting
as ever they were.

Another writer whose popularity is no longer what it was is Jacob
Abbott, the author of a number of fascinating stories of home life (on
farms and in the country) in America in the middle of last century.
The Franconia stories are these:--

  Beechnut.
  Wallace.
  Madeline.
  Caroline.
  Mary Erskine.
  Mary Bell.
  Stuyvesant.
  Agnes.

And this is the Rollo series, intended by Mr. Abbott for rather
younger readers:--

  The Little Scholar Learning to Talk.
  Rollo Learning to Read.
  Rollo at Play.
  Rollo at Work.
  Rollo at School.
  Rollo's Vacation.

A list of other books, which come more or less rightly under the head
of "Stories about Children" follows, the earlier ones being better
suited to younger readers, and the later ones to older, the age aimed
at in this chapter (and indeed in the whole book), ranging from five
to fifteen.

By Kate Douglas Wiggin:--

  Polly Oliver's Problem.
  Timothy's Quest.

By Louisa M. Alcott:--

  Little Women.
  Good Wives.
  Eight Cousins.
  Rose in Bloom.
  Spinning-Wheel Stories.
  Little Men.
  Jo's Boys.
  An Old-Fashioned Girl.
  Aunt Jo's Scrap Bag.
  Comic Tragedies.

The Little Pepper Series, and the Elsie Books.

By Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett:--

  Little Lord Fauntleroy.
  Editha's Burglar.
  The Captain's Youngest.
  Sara Crew.

By Mrs. Whitney:--

  We Girls.
  Faith Gartney's Girlhood.
  The Gayworthys.
  Leslie Goldthwaite.

By Gelett Burgess:--

  Goops, and How to be Them.
  More Goops, and How Not to be Them.
  Goop Tales.
  The Lively City o'Ligg.
  The Burgess Nonsense Book.

This section is necessarily more incomplete than any of the others,
since it is impossible to keep pace with the great number of stories
of this kind which are published every Christmas. But a few more may
be added:--

  Stories Told to a Child                    By Jean Ingelow.
  The Lost Child                              "  Henry Kingsley.
  Helen's Babies                              "  John Habberton.
  The Treasure-Seekers                        "  E. Nesbit.
  Holiday House                               "  Catherine Sinclair.
  Deeds of Daring done by Girls               "  N. Hudson Moore.
  Children of Other Days                      "        "     "
  Paleface and Redskin                        "  F. Anstey.
  The Silver Skates                           "  M. M. Dodge.
  Molly and Olly                              "  Mrs. Humphry Ward.
  Sweetheart Travelers                        "  S. R. Crockett.
  Sir Toady Crusoe                            "    "      "
  Sir Toady Lion                              "    "      "
  No Relations                                "  Hector Malot.
  Jogging 'Round the World                    "  Edith Dunham.
  A Little Daughter of the Revolution         "  Agnes Sage.
  A Little Colonial Dame                      "    "    "
  The House of the Red Fox                    "  Miriam Byrne.
  The Would-be Witch                          "    "      "
  Little Barefoot                         From the German of Auerbach.
  Indian Boys and Girls                      By Alice Haines.
  Japanese Child Life                         "   "     "
  Little Japs at Home                         "   "     "
  Jap Boys and Girls                          "   "     "
  According to Grandma                        "   "     "
  When Grandma was Little                     "   "     "
  What Grandma Says                           "   "     "

Here also belong many of the stories of Miss Yonge, and we might
perhaps place _Uncle Tom's Cabin_ here too.


Boy and Schoolboy Stories

In this section are placed stories of modern boys, either at home or
at school, and their ordinary home or school adventures. Among the
best are--

  Tom Sawyer                                 By Mark Twain.

and

  Bevis                                      By Richard Jefferies.

Others are--

  The Story of a Bad Boy                     By T. B. Aldrich.
  My Boyhood                                  " H. C. Barkley.
  The Swan and her Crew                       " G. C. Davies.
  Captain Chap                                " Frank R. Stockton.
  The Tinkham Brothers' Tidemill              " J. T. Trowbridge.

The best school story will probable always be

  Tom Brown's School Days                    By T. Hughes.

Among the books of this kind meant rather for grownup readers, but
read also by boys, are--

  Huckleberry Finn                           By Mark Twain.
  Frank Fairlegh                              " F. E. Smedley.
  The Interpreter                             " Whyte Melville.
  The Human Boy                               " Eden Phillpots.
  Vice Versâ                                  " F. Anstey.


Adventure Stories

This is the largest group of books usually described as "for boys,"
although girls often read them too with hardly less interest. The
first place in this class will probably always be held by Defoe's

  Robinson Crusoe,

and it is likely that most votes for second place would go to

  The Swiss Family Robinson.

After these we come to modern authors whose books have been written
especially for boys, first among whom is the late Mr. R. M.
Ballantyne, the author of, among numerous other books,

  The Coral Island.
  The Gorilla Hunters.
  The Dog Crusoe.
  The Pirate City.
  Ungava.
  The Wild Man of the West.
  The Iron Horse.
  Fighting the Flames.
  Erling the Bold.
  Martin Rattler.
  The Fur Traders.
  The Red Man's Revenge.

Many of Ballantyne's readers make a point of going through the whole
series of his books. The other titles can be collected from the
advertisement pages at the end of these volumes. With R. M. Ballantyne
is usually associated the name of the late W. H. G. Kingston
("Kingston and Ballantyne the brave," Stevenson called them in the
verses at the beginning of _Treasure Island_, another book which comes
high in this section). Kingston's stories were also very numerous, but
it will serve our purpose here to mention only the following six:--

  Peter the Whaler.
  The Three Midshipmen.
  The Three Lieutenants.
  The Three Commanders.
  The Three Admirals.
  From Powder-Monkey to Admiral.

Several authors have carried on Ballantyne and Kingston's work. Chief
among these are Mr. G. A. Henty and Mr. G. Manville Fenn. Here are six
of Mr. G. A. Henty's stories:--

  Out on the Pampas.
  The Young Colonists.
  The Young Franc-Tireurs.
  In the Heart of the Rockies.
  Maori and Settler.
  Redskin and Cowboy.

And here are eight of Mr. G. Manville Fenn's:--

  Brownsmith's Boy.
  Bunyip Land.
  Bevon Boys.
  Dick o' the Fens.
  The Golden Magnet.
  Fix Bay'nets.
  Jungle and Stream.
  Menhardoc.

Mr. Max Pemberton, author of

  The Iron Pirate.
  The Impregnable City.

"Q." (Mr. Quiller Couch), author of

  Dead Man's Rock.
  The Silver Spur.

and Mr. David Kerr, author of

  The Boy Slave in Bokhara.
  Lost Among the White Africans.
  The Wild Horseman of the Pampas.
  Cossack and Czar.
  Old Tartar Deserts.
  Prisoner among Pirates.

Jules Verne is a French writer, but his stories have always quickly
been translated into English, many of them by Mr. Henry Frith. Their
titles are a good guide to their subject, for Jules Verne goes to
science for some wonderful invention, such as a submarine boat or a
flying machine, and then surrounds it with extraordinary adventures.
Among his best books are--

  Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea.
  Round the World in Eighty Days.
  Five Weeks in a Balloon.
  The English at the North Pole.
  The Clipper of the Clouds.
  From the Earth to the Moon.
  The Mysterious Island.
  A Journey to the Centre of the Earth.

First of English inventors of fantastic stories of adventure is Mr.
Rider Haggard. His three most popular books are--

  King Solomon's Mines.
  She.
  Allan Quatermain.

The books already named, with the exception of _Robinson Crusoe_,
were written especially for boys. Other books which were not so
intended, but have come to be read more by boys than any one else,
include Fenimore Cooper's Indian stories, of which these are four:--

  The Last of the Mohicans.
  The Pathfinder.
  The Deerslayer.
  The Bee Hunters.

Other Indian stories are those of Gustave Aimard, translated from the
French, among which are these:--

  The Last of the Incas.
  The Trail Hunter.
  The Indian Scout.
  The Gold-Seekers.
  The Red River Half-Speed.
  The Border Rifles.
  The Trappers of Arkansas.

These are, of course, North American tales. Other North American tales
are those of Captain Mayne Reid, which include--

  The Boy Hunters.
  The Boy Slaves.
  Bruin, or The Grand Bear Hunter.
  The Bush Boys.
  The Castaways.
  The White Chief.
  The Desert Home.
  The Forest Exiles.
  The Giraffe Hunters.
  The Headless Horseman.
  The Rifle Rangers.
  The Scalp Hunters.

In this section belong the books of Mr. George Bird Grinnell, author
of

  Jack in the Rockies.
  Jack, the Young Ranchman.
  Jack Among the Indians.
  Jack, the Young Canoeman.
  Jack, the Young Trapper.

Also Harold Bindloss'

  The Young Traders.

And to this section belong also stories of the sea, several of which
have already been mentioned. High among these are Captain Marryat's

  Poor Jack,
  Masterman Ready,

together with many of his tales intended originally for older readers,
such as

  Jacob Faithful.
  Mr. Midshipman Easy.
  Peter Simple.
  Snarleyyow.

Mr. Clark Russell's stories:--

  The Wreck of the "Grosvenor."
  The Golden Hope.
  An Ocean Free-Lance.
  The Frozen Pirate.

Here also belong Mr. Kipling's

  Captains Courageous,

and an old sea favorite--

  Two Years Before the Mast                  By R. H. Dana.

Other good sea books, not fiction:--

  My First Voyage                            By W. Stones.
  The Voyage of the "Sunbeam"                 " Lady Brassey.
  The Cruise of the "Cachalot"                " F. T. Bullen.
  The Cruise of the "Falcon"                  " E. F. Knight.


Historical Stories for Boys

New historical stories are published in great numbers every year. The
most popular author of this kind of book for boys is Mr. G. A. Henty,
among whose very numerous historical tales, all good, are--

  At Aboukir and Acre.
  At Agincourt.
  Bonnie Prince Charlie.
  By Right of Conquest.
  The Dash for Khartoum.
  In the Reign of Terror.
  With Moore at Corunna.
  The Lion of St. Mark.
  Maori and Settler.
  St. Bartholomew's Eve.
  Under Drake's Flag.
  With Clive in India.
  With Frederick the Great.
  With Lee in Virginia.

By Rev. A. J. Church--

  The Chantry Priest of Barnet.
  The Count of the Saxon Shore.
  Stories from English History.
  With the King at Oxford.

Other  historical tales:--

  Stories from Froissart                     By Henry Newbolt.
  The Scottish Chiefs                         " Jane Porter.
  The Children of the New  Forest             " Captain Marryat.
  A Monk of Fife                              " Andrew Lang.
  Grettir the Outlaw                          " Baring Gould.
  The Story of Burnt Njal                     " Sir George Dasent.
  Lorna Doone                                 " R. D. Blackmore.
  In Old Egypt                                " H. P. Mendes.
  An Island Story                             " H. E. Marshall.
  Scotland's Story                            "   "      "

By R. L. Stevenson--

  The Black Arrow.
  Kidnapped.
  David Balfour.

By Charles Kingsley--

  Hereward the Wake.
  Westward Ho!

By Conan Doyle--

  Micah Clarke
  The White Company.
  The Refugees.

By Stanley J. Weyman--

  The House of the Wolf.
  Under the Red Robe.
  The Man in Black.
  A Gentleman of France.

By Mr. Andrew Balfour--

  By Stroke of Sword.
  To Arms!

By Mark Twain

  The Prince and the Pauper.
  Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc.

There are also historical stories more particularly intended by their
authors for grown-up readers, but which boys and girls can, however,
find quite interesting enough, even if much has to be skipped. First
among these are Sir Walter Scott's novels:--

  Ivanhoe.
  Kenilworth.
  Woodstock.
  Quentin Durward.
  Rob Roy.
  The Abbott.
  The Monastery.
  The Talisman.

Other writers and books follow. By Alexandre Dumas--

  The Three Musketeers.
  Twenty Years After.
  The Vicomte de Brageleonne.
  Marguerite de Valois.
  Chicot the Jester.
  The Forty-five Guardsmen.

By Charles Dickens--

  Barnaby Rudge.
  A Tale of Two Cities.

By Lord Lytton--

  Rienzi.
  Harold.
  The Last of the Barons.
  The Last Days of Pompeii.


Animal Books

First among the animal books are Mr. Kipling's two _Jungle Books_. Two
other beast stories by Mr. Kipling are "Moti Guj, Mutineer," the tale
of a truant elephant, which is in _Life's Handicap_ and "The Maltese
Cat," a splendid tale of a polo pony, which is in _The Day's Work_.
Next to these comes Mr. E. Thompson-Seton's _Wild Animals I Have
Known._ The lives of animals by themselves, or by some one who knows
everything about them, are always favorite books with small readers.
Among the best are these:--

  Black Beauty (the story of a horse)        By Mrs. Sewell.
  Conrad the Squirrel                         " the author of
                                               _Wandering Willie_.
  The Story of the Red Deer                   " J. W. Fortescue.
  Every Inch a King (the story of a dog)      " Anon.
  The Lives of the Hunted                     " E. Thompson-Seton.
  The Trail of the Sandhill Stag              "  "        "
  The Adventures of a Siberian Cub            " Leon Golschmann.
  The Autobiography of a Grizzly.             " E. Thompson-Seton.

The best tale of a bear is perhaps Bret Harte's "Baby Sylvester,"
which will be found in one of his volumes of short stories. Good
animal stories are scattered about other collections of short stories.
In Mr. Anstey's _Paleface and Redskin_ are stories of dogs.

Mr. Lang's

  Red Book of Animal Stories

has both dogs and cats in it, and many other creatures too.
Here also should be placed Mr. Warde Fowler's

  Tales of the Birds.

Other very popular animal books are Mr. Joel Chandler Harris's

  Nights with Uncle Remus,
  Uncle Remus and Brer Rabbit (largely illustrations),
  Mr. Rabbit at Home,

and the same author has written also

  The Story of Aaron,
  Aaron in the Wild Woods,

which are stories not only of animals, but of people too; and here,
perhaps, may be placed _Æsop's Fables_.

  Wood Magic                                 By Richard Jefferies

is an attempt to do for English wild life somewhat the same service
that Mr. Kipling performed for India.

Other open air and animal books are:--

By the Rev. J. G. Wood--

  By Back-yard Zoo.
  Pet Land revisited.
  Pet Land
  A Tour Round My Garden.

Also

  Curiosities of Natural History             By Frank Buckland.
  White's Selborne                           Edited by Frank Buckland.
  Wanderings in South America                By Charles Waterton.
  Wild Traits in Domestic Animals             " Louis Robinson.
  The Voyage of the "Beagle"                  " Charles Darwin.
  Ants, Bees, and Wasps                       " Sir John Lubbock.
                                               (Lord Avebury).
  On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence
    of Animals                                "      "     "
  Bob, Son of Battle                          "      "     "

A series of very interesting scientific books, under the general title
"The Romance of Science," is published by the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge. Among these volumes are--

  The Making of Flowers                      By Professor Henslow.
  The Birth and Growth of Worlds              " Professor Green.
  Spinning Tops                               " Professor Perry.
  Time and Tide                               " Sir Robert Ball.

The same publishers also issue a series of "Natural History Rambles,"
including--

  In Search of Minerals                      By D. T. Ansted.
  Lane and Field                              " the Rev J. G. Wood.
  Ponds and Ditches                           " M. C. Cooke.
  Underground                                 " J. E. Taylor.
  The Woodlands                               " M. C. Cooke.
  The Sea-shore                               " Professor Duncan.

There is also a new series, called "The Wonder Books of Science," of
which

  The Wonder Book of Volcanoes and Earthquakes, and
  The Wonder Book of the Atmosphere

are the first.

Other good scientific yet very entertaining books:--

  The Fairyland of Science                   By A. B. Buckley.
  Through Magic Glasses                       "   "      "
  Life and Her Children                       "   "      "
  The Romance of the Insect World             " Miss L. Badenoch.
  The Ocean                                   "    "       "
  Glaucus                                     " Charles Kingsley.
  Madam How and Lady Why                      "    "       "
  The Old Red Sandstone                       " Hugh Miller.
  The Testimony of the Rocks                  "   "     "
  Homes without Hands                         " Rev. J. G. Wood.
  Sun, Moon, and Stars                        " A. Giberne.
  The Story of the Heavens                    " Sir Robert Ball.
  Other Worlds than Ours                      " R. A. Proctor.
  The Orbs around us                          "   "      "
  The Boys Book of Inventions                 " R. S. Baker.
  Extinct Animals                             " E. Ray Lankester.
  Electricity for Young People                " Tudor Jenks.


History

A good deal of more or less truthful history will be found in the
section given to historical tales (see page 380). Here follows a small
list of more serious historical books which also are good reading:--

  Tales of a Grandfather                     By Sir Walter Scott.
  Stories from English History                " Rev. A. J. Church.
  Lives of the Queens of England              " Agnes Strickland.
  Cameos from English History (several series)" C. M. Younge.
  Stories from Roman History                  " Mrs. Beesley.
  Deeds that Won the Empire                   " W. H. Fitchett.
  Fights for the Flag                         "   "      "


Books of Travel

It is not important that travel books should be written especially
for young readers. Almost all records of travel contain some pages
of interest, whatever the remainder may be like. The fact that a
book describes wanderings in a far country is enough.

But the books by Commander Robert E. Peary and his wife deserve
mention.

  Snowland Folk.
  The Snow Baby.
  Children of the Arctic.


The Treatment of Library Books

On this page is given a copy of the book mark which a clergyman, Mr.
Henry Maxson, prepared for the use of the readers in the children's
section of a library in Wisconsin.

    BOOK MARK

    Once upon a time a Library Book was overheard talking to a
    little boy who had just borrowed it. The words seemed worth
    recording, and here they are:--

    "Please don't handle me with dirty hands. I should feel
    ashamed to be seen when the next little boy borrowed me.

    "Or leave me out in the rain. Books can catch cold as well as
    children.

    "Or make marks on me with your pen or pencil. It would spoil
    my looks.

    "Or lean on me with your elbows when you are reading me. It
    hurts.

    "Or open me and lay me face down on the table. You wouldn't
    like to be treated so.

    "Or put in between my leaves a pencil or anything thicker
    than a single sheet of thin paper. It would strain my back.

    "Whenever you have finished reading me, if you are afraid of
    losing your place, don't turn down the corner of one of my
    leaves, but have a neat little Book Mark to put in where you
    stopped, and then close me and lay me down on my side, so
    that I can have a good, comfortable rest.

    "Remember that I want to visit a great many other little boys
    after you have done with me. Besides, I may meet you again
    some day, and you would be sorry to see me looking old and
    torn and soiled. Help me to keep fresh and clean, and I will
    help you to be happy."



                               APPENDIX


_In making a book of this kind, it is impossible to think of all the
things that ought to be mentioned. Every reader is certain to know of
some game or pastime that has been left out. In order that you may
yourself bring this collection nearer completeness, the following
Appendix of blank pages has been added. Some reference to everything
that is written in the Appendix ought to be made, if only in pencil,
in both the body of the book and in the Index._



                                INDEX


A

Acrobatic impossibilities, 36

Acrobatics, drawing-room, 35-41

Acrostics, 59

Acting initials, 97
  games, 97-109
  proverbs, 97
  verbs (Dumb Crambo), 98

Adders, 212

Adhesive tape, 243

Adventure, stories of, 376

Advertisements, 21

Almonds, how to blanch, 310

Alphabet, the cat, 166

Alphabet, the love, 88, 165

Alphabet, the ship, 87

Anemone, 325

Angora rabbits, 348

Animal, vegetable and mineral, 96

Animals, books about, 382
  China, 192
  composite (drawing game), 51
  invented (drawing game), 54
  velvet, 289

Annuals, treatment of, 319-323

Ants, 213

Apple-snapping, 6

Apprentice, the, 167

Arm-chair (model), 251

Aspidistra, 331

Auctioning prizes, 43

Autumn sowing of seedlings, 321

Avadavats, 358


B

Bag and stick, 7

Balancing, 187

Balancing tricks, 122

Ball games, 139
  wool, 282

Ballad game, the, 132

Balloon, 39

Barley Sugar, 307

Baths for birds, 355

Battledoor and shuttlecock, 129

Bead furniture for dolls' houses, 223

Bead-work, 283

Bean bags, 113

Bed boat, the, 189
  games, 185-193
  soldiers, 191
  thinking games for, 189

Beds for dolls' houses, 222
  matchbox, 231

Bedstead (model), 252

Bees, 205

Belgian hares, 349

Bicyclist, the, 34

Biennials, treatment of, 322

Bingo, 27

Birds, large and cage, 355-366
  in the garden, 363-366

Birds'-nesting, 207

Birthday, the old maid's, 81

Blackberrying, 209

Blackbird, the, 360

Black man, 158

Blacksmith, the, 206

Blenheim spaniels, 347

Blind feeding the blind, the, 5

Blind games, 3-5

Blind man's buff, 3
  played with spoons, 3

Blind man's wand, 4

Blind worms, 212

Block city, 188

Bloodhound, the, 347

Blowing eggs, 207

Blowing out the candle, 6

Boat, a simple toy, 295

Boats, paper, 285
  on a stream, 211
  sailing, 210
  walnut shell, 298

Book mark, 385

Books--
  and bookshelves for a doll's house, 224
  about animals, 382
  about boys, 376
  of adventure, 376
  about children, 373
  of fairy tales, 370
  historical, 380-382, 384
  of poetry, 371
  about the sea, 379
  of travel, 385
  of legendary tales, 371

Borders for a garden, 319

Borzoi, the, 347

Bowling, 143

Boxes, cardboard, 288
  for collections of eggs, 208
  for dolls' houses, 220
  paper, 287

Boy and schoolboy stories, 376

Boys' toys, 292-301

Bran-tubs, 303

Bream, 351

Bricks, 185

Bruce's heart, 187

Bubbles, soap, 116, 279

Buff, 26

Buff, blind man's, 3

Buff, shadow, 5

Bulbs, treatment of, 325-326
  in cocoanut fibre, 333
  in glasses, 333
  in pots, 332

Bull dog, the, 346

Bullfinch, the, 359

Bull terrier, the, 343

Bunting, the yellow, 360

Buried names, 63

Butterfly hunting, 208

Butter-making, 205

Buying dogs, 342

Buz, 167


C

Cage birds, 355-366

Cages for birds, 355

Campanulas, 332

Canaries, 357
  seed, 332

Candle-blowing, 6

Candle lighters, the, 38

Candy-making, 307-312

Candy, molasses, 310
  nut, 310
  peppermint, 311

Caramels, 308
  cream, 309

Cardboard and paper furniture:--
  drawings of, 241-257
  arm-chair, 251
  bedstead, 252
  chair, 256
  cot, 257
  cut-outs, 291
  dining-room table, 249
  dressing-table, 254
  high chair, 257
  kitchen chair, 247
    range, 247
    table, 246
    pots and pans, 248
  rocking-chair 256
  screen, 248
  sideboard, 250
  sofa, 251
  towel-rack, 256
  wardrobe, 253
  washstand, 255

Cardboard and paper toys, 284-292

Cardboard boxes, 288
  dolls' houses, 237-243
  uses for, 290

Card games, 77-83

Cardinal, the, 358

Cards for patience, 76
  for snap, 77

Cards, hat and, 38

Catalogues, gardening, 316

Cat alphabet, the, 166

Catching balls, 140

Caterpillar game, 11

Caterpillars, 353

Cat-fish, the American, 352

Cats, 348

Chaffinch, the, 359

Chair (model), 256

Chairs, chestnut, 229
  cork, 228

Chalks, 275

Characteristics, prophecies and, 80

Charades, 106

Cherry contests, 304

Chevy, 156

Chickens, feeding the, 204

_Child's Garden of Verses, A_, 188

Children, books about, 373

China animals, 192
  nest-eggs, 204

Chinese gambling, 181

Chitterbob, 31

Christmas, 302-303
  trees, 302

Clap in, clap out, 15

Clothes-basket, a doll's house, 234

Clothes-horse, summer house, 136

Clumber spaniel, the, 344

Clumps, 93

Coach, family, 33

Cobbler, the, 14

Cocked hat, paper, 284

Cocker spaniel, the, 344

Cocoanut cream, 308
  drops, 308
  fibre for bulbs, 332

Coffee-pot, 95

Collars for dogs, 340

Collecting Jones's, 165

Collections of china animals, 192
  of flags, 273
  of flowers, 208
  of stamps, 278

Collie, the, 344

Color in a garden, 316

Coloring maps, 273
  pictures, 273

Compasses, home-made, 243

Competitions, guessing, 103
  railway, 173

Composite animals (drawing game), 51
  scrap books, 277
  stories, 70

Concerted sneeze, the, 27

Concerts, the topsy-turvy, 105

Consequences, 68
  an extended form of, 69

Contests, cherry, 304

Convalescents, games for, 191

Copying woodcuts, 274

Cork and matchbox furniture, 228-234
  ships, 197

Cot (model), 257

Counting dogs, 164
  a million, 191

Counting imaginary flocks of sheep, 191

Counting-out rhymes, 134

Country books, 215

Country, employment in the, 203-215

Cows, 206

Cradle, a walnut, 232

Cream caramels, 309
  cocoanut, 308
  stuffing for dates, 311

Cress, mustard and, 327, 332

Crocuses, 325

Crosses, noughts and, 176

Cross questions, 22

Cross-tag, 152

Cumulative games, 29-31

Curtains for cardboard dolls' houses, 238
  dolls' house, 221

Cushion, 14

Cutting flowers, 335-336

Cutting out pictures, 191

Cutting leaves, 326


D

Daffodils, 325, 333

Dairy, the, 205

Daisy chains, 135

Dancing dwarf, the, 105

Dancing egg, the, 124

Dancing man, a, 289

Dancing pea, the, 124

Darts, paper, 286

Dates, stuffed, 311

Day's shopping, the, 14

Decorations, evergreen, 302
  paper, 302

Deerhound, the Scotch, 347

Deer Stalking, 6

Demons, wool, 282

Diaries, country, 214
  gardening, 317

Dining-room table (model), 249

Dinner parties, dolls', 226

Distemper, treatment of, 341

Ditto game, the, 26

Dividing perennials, 324

Dog-stick, 145

Dogs, counting, 164
  exercising, 339
  food for, 339
  how to buy, 342
  how to teach tricks, 341
  the various kinds of, 343-348
  treatment of, 339-343
  washing, 340

Dogs' collars, 340
  kennel (cardboard), 241

Dolls for dolls' houses, 225
  dressing, 226
  paper, 258-262
  rows of paper, 262
  walking, 259

Dolls' dinner parties, 226
  flats, 226
  garden seats and tables, 219
  houses, 220
    cardboard, 237-243
    chimney, 242
    partition, 240
    small, 227
  house beds, 222
    bookshelves, 224
    cupboards, 225
    curtains, 221
    fireplaces, 220
    floors, 221
    gardens, 220, 242
    pictures, 224
    screens, 225
    wall papers, 220

Donkey's tail, the, 5

Dots, five, 47, 48

Double acrostics, 60

Doves, 354

Dragons, hand, 290

Drawing games, 47-56

Drawing-room acrobatics, 35-41

Drawings, eyes-shut, 50

Drawing tricks, 51

Dresses for paper dolls, 258

Dressing dolls, 226

Dressing the lady, 13

Dressing-table (model), 254
  table, matchbox, 232
  up for charades, 108

Duck on a rock, 142

Ducks' eggs, 204

Dumb Crambo, 98
  performances, 107

Dutch rabbits, 349

Dutch street, a, 267

Dwarf, the dancing, 105


E

Easter eggs, 275

Eggs, blowing, 207
  ducks', 204
  Easter, 275
  hens', 204

Electricity, 125

Elements, the, 90

Employments, guessing, 98

Esquimau village, a, 266

Evergreen decorations, 302

Everton toffee, 310

Exercising dogs, 339

Exploration, 203

Eyes, 99

Eyes-shut drawings, 50


F

Fairy-tale books, 370

Family coach, 33
  specimen story, 33

Family, the imaginary, 190

Fantail pigeons, 354

Farmyards, 203

Feather, the, 21

Feeding chickens, 204

Fern halls, 331

Ferns, 331
  skeleton, 281

Fights, walnut shell, 299

Filipino village, a, 266

Fire-buckets, 40

Fireplaces for dolls' houses, 220

Fish, 351

Five dots, 47-48

Fives, 61

Flags, collection of, 273

Floors in dolls' houses, 222

Flower pots, 330

Flower shows, 136, 317

Flower symbols, 136

Flowers, collecting, 208
  cutting, 335
  for a doll's house, 225
  packing, 335
  painting, 209
  for town gardens, 328
  for window boxes, 334

Fly away, 23

Follow my leader, 159

Food for birds, 356
  for chickens and ducks, 204
  for dogs, 339
  for puppies, 340
  for rabbits, 349
  for wild birds, 359, 361, 365
  on a railway journey, 180

Football, parlor, 39

Foot-stools, cork, 230

Forfeits, 41

Fowls, trussed, 37

Fox-terrier, the, 343

French and English, 158
  (paper), 177

French tag, 152

French Blind Man's Buff, 4

Fruit cream, 309

Fuchsias, 332

Furnishing dolls' houses, 222

Furnishing game, a, 221


G

Games with a ball, 139
  by rote, 189
  drawing, 47-56
  in bed, 185-193
  with cards, 75-83
  for convalescents, 191
  for a journey, 173-181
  for a party, 3-43
  for a picnic, 151-159
  quotation, 92
  rainy-day, 113-126
  table, 75-83
  thinking, guessing, and acting, 87-109
  for a walk, 163-170
  with a watch, 175
  writing, 59-72
  yes and no, 94-96

Gambling, Chinese, 181

Gaps, 154

Garden, dolls' house, 219, 242
  kitchen, 327
  shop, 136
  town, 328

Gardening catalogues, 316
  diaries, 317
  tools, 318

General post, 17

Geraniums, 332

Ghosts of My Friends, 50

Glasses, bulbs in, 333

Glass-maker, the, 125

Going to Jerusalem, 10

Goldfinch, the, 359

Gold fish, 351

Good fat hen, a, 30

Good luck lily, 333

Gordon setter, 344

Gossip, 21

Grab, 78

Grand Mogul, the, 166

Grand Mufti, the, 25

Grass snakes, 212

Great Dane, the, 346

Greyhound, the, 347

Guessing competitions, 103
  employments, 98
  games, 93-104
  numbers, 102
  quantities, 104
  results, 102
  scents, 104
  the color of horses' tails, 164

Guinea pigs, 350

Gypsy camp, 268


H

Hand dragons, 290

Hanging, 179

Hare and hounds, 145

Hat and cards, 38

Hats, cocked, 284

Hawks, 213

Heads, bodies and tails, 54

He can do little who can't do this, 8

Hen and chickens, 130

Hen, a good fat, 30

Hens' eggs, where to look for, 204

Here I bake, 13

Hide and seek, 154

Hieroglyphics, or picture-writing, 52, 53, 55

High chair (model), 257

High skip, 38

Himalayan rabbits, 349

Hish! hash! hosh! 27

Historical stories, 380-382

History books, 385

Hives, bee, 205

Hold fast! Let go! 24

Home newspaper, the, 284

Honey-pots, 11

Hoop games for two, 169
  posting, 169

Hoops, 169

Hop-scotch, 143

Hop, step, and jump, 159

Hospitals, scrap books for, 277

Hot and cold, 9

Hot hand, 175

Hotel game, an, 188

Hounds, 346

Houses, cardboard, 237-242
  dolls', 220

House that glue built, the, 243

How, when, and where, 95

Hunting for eggs, 204

Hunt the ring, 19

Hunt the slipper, 7

Hunt the squirrel, 153

Hunt the thimble, 9

Hutches, rabbit, 349

Hyacinths, 325, 333


I

Illuminating, 274

Illustrated papers, painting, 273

Illustrating, 120

I love my love, 88, 165

Imaginary family, the, 190

Improbable stories, 70

India-rubber plant, 331

Indoor gardening, 329-334
  occupations and things to make, 273
  painting, 273
  plants, 331

Initials, 65, 189
  acting, 97

Ink sea-serpents, 288

Invented animals (drawing game), 54

Irises, 325

Irish setter, 344
  terrier, 343

I spy, 155

It, 152

Ivy, 331
  chains, 135


J

Jack Horner pies, 303

Jack-stones, 116

Japanese fern balls, 331

Java sparrows, 358

John Ball, 31

Jinglers, 3

Jolly miller, the, 10

Jones's, collecting, 165

Journeys, games to play on, 173-181

Judge and Jury, 22

Jumping Rope, 129


K

Killing butterflies, 208

King Charles spaniel, 347

Kingfishers, 212

Kitchen gardens, 327
  table (model), 246
  chair  "  247
  range "  247
  pots and pans, 248

Kitchen utensils, 18

Kite messengers, 295

Kites, 292

Knots, 117-120


L

Lady Queen Anne, 20

Lamp for small dolls' house, 230

Land of counterpane, the, 191

_Land of Story-books, the_, 188

Laughter, 26

Leaves, skeleton, 280

Legendary tales, 371

Letter games, 75

Letters and telegrams, 63
  and words, 178
  with a pencil, 178

Lettuce, 327

Lights, rhyming, 167

Lists, 62

Little dog, the, 152

Looby, looby, 29

Log Houses, 268

London Bridge is Falling Down, 15

Love alphabet, the, 88, 165

Love-birds, 358

Low-tide, 197

Lubbock, Sir John, on bees, 205


M

Madonna lilies, 325

Magic-lantern slides, 274

Magic music, 9

Making friends, 203

Making plans, 191

Making obeisance, 99

Making sentences, 165

Man, a dancing, 289

Mandarins, the, 25

Maps, coloring, 273
  on a journey, 173

Marbles, 146

Mastiff, the, 346

Mats, paper 286

Menageries, 192

Mesmerism, 99

Messengers, kite, 295

Mice, 212
  pet, 351

Milking cows, 206

Million, counting a, 191

Miniature trees, 331

Minnows, 352

Missing information, 67

Mogul, the Grand, 166

Molasses candy, 310

Moles, 212

Mongrels, 347

Mottoes for Christmas, 302

Moulting, 357

Mounting pressed flowers, 209

Muffin man, the, 32

Mufti, the Grand, 25

Mulberry bush, the, 28

Music, dolls', 225

Music, magic, 9

Mustard and cress, 327, 332

My lady's clothes, 13

My right-hand neighbor, 94

My thought, 89


N

Narcissus, 325, 333

Natural history books, 382

Neighbor, my right-hand, 94

Neighbors, 15

Newfoundland dogs, 345

Newspaper, the, 71

Newspaper, the home, 284

Ninepins, 185

Norfolk spaniel, 344

Noughts and crosses, 176

Numbers, guessing, 102

Nut candy, 310, 311

Nuts in May, 12

Nutting, 209


O

Observation, 104
  for railway journeys, 174

Occupations, indoor, 273-304

Old bachelor, 79

Old maid, 79

Old maid's birthday, the, 81

Old soldier, 13

Old stone, 130

Oranges and lemons, 13

Orchestra, 29

Outdoor games for boys, 139-147

Outdoor games for girls, 129-136

Outlines, 47, 49


P

P's and Q's, 89

Packing flowers, 335

Paddling, 197

Painting, 273
  cardboard dolls' houses, 238
  cardboard furniture, 245
  dolls' house food, 229
  eggs for Easter, 275
  flags, 273
  flowers, 209
  magic-lantern slides, 274
  maps, 273

Paper boats, 285
  boxes, 287
  and cardboard toys, 284-292
  darts, 286
  decorations, 302
  dolls, 258-262
  French and English, 177
  furniture, 243-257
  mats, 286

Papers for dolls' houses, 220

Parlor football, 39

Parrots, 354

Party, games for a, 3-43

Patience or Thirteens, 76

Pen and ink work, 276

Peppermint candy, 311

Perch, 352

Perennials, treatment of, 323

Pets, 339-366

Philopenas, 303

Photography, 214

Picking flowers, 335

Picnic games, 151-159

Pictures and titles, 55

Pictures, coloring, 273
  for dolls' houses, 224
  pricking, 275
  tracing, 275

Pictures to order, 54

Picture-writing, or hieroglyphics, 52, 53, 55

Pig, 79

Pigeons, 353

Ping-pong, 75

Plain toffee, 309

Plans, making, 191

Planting bulbs, 326
  perennials, 323
  seedlings, 320

Plants, window, 329
  indoor, 331

Playhouses of other peoples, 265-269

Poetry books, 371

Pomeranian, the, 347

Ponds, 210

Poodles, 347

Pop-corn, 309

Pop-guns, 185

Postage-stamp collections, 278
  snakes, 278

Post office, the, 283

Potato races, 40

Pots and pans (models), 248

Predicaments, 71

Pressing flowers, 209

Pricking pictures, 275

Prisoner's base, 156

Prize, auctioning, 43

Products, towns and, 168

Prophecies and characteristics, 80

Proverbs, 96
  acting, 97
  shouting, 97

Pueblo settlement, a, 265

Pugs, 347

Puppies, how to feed, 340

Puss in the corner, 7

Puzzles, 279


Q

Quantities, guessing, 104

Queen Anne, Lady, 20

Quoits, 141

Quotation games, 92


R

Rabbits, wild, 348
  tame, 348

Races, 140

Races, potato, 40
  soap-bubble, 116
  Spanish, or wheelbarrow, 141
  tissue-paper, 39

Radishes, 327

Railway competitions, 173

Railway whist, 174

Rainy-day games, 113-126

Reading, 369-385

Red rover, 159

Remarks on acting, 109

Retriever, the, 344

Rhymed replies, 67

Rhymes, counting out, 134

Rhyming games, 92

Rhyming lights, 167

Riddles, 66

Ring, hunt the, 19

Ring taw, 146

Ring-the-nail, 115

Ring-toss, 114

Roadside whist, 163

Robin's Alive, 27

Robin, the, 361

Rocking-chair (model), 256

Rocks, 198

Rows of paper dolls, 262

Runt pigeons, 354

Russian scandal, 21

Ruth and Jacob, 23


S

Sailing boats, 197, 210

Saint Bernard, the, 346

Sand castles, 198
  games, 198

Saving seed, 322

Scandal, Russian, 21

Scarborough lily, 333

Scents, guessing, 104

Schoolboy stories, 376

Science, books about, 383

Scrap-books, 191, 276
  covered screens, 278

Scraps and transfers, 288

Screen (model), 248

Screens covered with scraps, 278
  for dolls' houses, 225

Sea-Serpents, ink, 288

Seaside friends, good, 199

Seaside employments, 197-200

Seaweed, 199

Seedlings, perennials, 325
  general remarks on, 321

Seed, sowing, 322

Sentences, making, 165

Sergeant, the, 24

Setters, 344

Setting-boards for butterflies, 208

Shades, 326

Shadow buff, 5

Shadows on the wall, 279

Shearing sheep, 206

Sheep, 206
  counting imaginary flocks of, 191
  dog, the, 345
  shearing, 206
  washing, 206

Shell work, 199

Ship alphabet, the, 87

Ships, cork, 197

Shop, game of, 221
  in the garden, 136

Shopping, the day's, 14

Shop windows, 164

Shouting proverbs, 97

Shuffle board, 121

Sideboard (model), 250

Silkworms, 352

Simon says thumbs up, 24

Simple acrostics, 59

Skeleton ferns, 281
  leaves, 280

Skipjacks, 299

Skye terrier, the, 343

Sleep, ways of getting to, 191

Slugs, 324

Small dolls' houses, 227

Snakes, 212
  postage stamp, 228

Snap, 77

Snap cards, 78

Sneeze, the concerted, 27

Snowdrops, 325

Soap-bubbles, 116, 279

Sofa (model), 251

Sofas, cork, 229

Soldiers, 185, 191

Solitary watchfulness, 212

Sowing seeds, 320

Spaniels, 344

Spanish cup and ball, 186

Sparrows, 365

Spatter-work, 275

Spelling game, 166

Spin the platter, 17

Spoons, blind man's buff played with, 3

Squills, 325

Squirrels, wild, 213
  tame, 350

Stagarino, 159

Stamps, collecting, 278

Star of Bethlehem, 325

Starlings, 365

Station Observation, 174

Statues, 26

Steps, 4

Stevenson, R. L., 188

Still Pond! No More Moving, 4

Stir the mash, 11

Stool of repentance, 98

Stories, composite, 70
  improbable, 70
  about schoolboys, 376
  telling, 93, 163

Story books, 188

Story for Family coach, 33
  for Old maid's birthday, 82

Story game, 70

Strawberries, 328

Streams, 211

Strength tests, 144

Stuffed dates, 311

Suckers, 299

Sugar, Barley, how to make, 307

Sugar, how to color, 312

Suggestions, 91

Summer-houses, 136

Sussex spaniel, the, 344

Swallows, 213

Swarming of bees, 205

Sweet-making, 307-312


T

Tableaux vivants, 108

Table games, 75-83

Tables, cork, 230

Tag, 152

Teapot, 95

Telegrams, 64

Telling stories, 93
  during walks, 163

Terriers, 343

Terza, 154

Thimble, 9

Thinking games, 87-93
  for bed, 189

Thirteens, or Patience, 76

Thought, my, 89

Thought-reading tricks, 100

Throwing light, 96

Tides, 197

Tiger-lilies, 325

Tissue-paper dresses for dolls, 262
  races, 39

Titles, pictures and, 55

Tit-tat-toe, 176

Toffee, almond, 310
  Everton, 310
  plain, 309

Tom Tiddler's ground, 129

Tools for gardening, 318

Topsy-turvy concert, the, 105

Touch last, 152

Touchwood, 152

Towel-rack, cork, 233
  (model), 256

Town gardens, 328

Towns and products, 168

Toy boats, 295
  dogs, 347

Toys for boys, 292-301

Tracing, 244

Tracing pictures, 275

Train, games to play in the, 173-181

Transfers, 288

Transplanting flowers, 320

Travel, books of, 385

Traveller, the, 34

Trees, miniature, 331
  Christmas, 302

Tricks, how to teach birds, 356
  balancing, 122
  how to teach dogs, 341
  drawing, 51
  thought-reading, 100

Trout, 351

Trussed fowls, 37

Tug of war, 38

Tulips, 325

Turtles, 351

Twenty questions, 189

Twos and threes, or Terza, 154

Tying knots, 117


U

Unison games, 26

Up Jenkins, 18

Utensils, kitchen, 18
  kitchen (models), 248
  for sweet-making, 307


V

Velvet animals, 289

Verse and poetry books, 371


W

Walking dolls, 259
  games to play when out, 163-170

Walking Spanish, 39

Wall-pockets, 318

Walnut fights, 299
  shell boats, 298

Wand, blind man's, 4

Wardrobe, matchbox, 233
  (model), 253

Washing dogs, 340
  sheep, 206

Washstand, 232
  (model), 255

Watch, games to be played with a, 175

Water-cutters, 300

Watering flowers, 318
  perennials, 324
  seedlings, 320
  window boxes, 334
  window plants, 330

Wax-bills, 358

Weeds, 321

Welsh terrier, the, 343

Wet clothes, 197

Wheat, 332

When my ship comes in, 87

Whist, railway, 174

Whist, roadside, 163

Whistle, the, 8

Whistles, 301

Wiggles, 49

Wild birds, feeding the, 361
  rabbits, 348

Window boxes, 329, 354
  plants, 329

Windows, shop, 164

Witches, 131

Wool balls, 282
  demons, 282

Word-making, 178

Writing games, 59-72


Y

Yellow bunting, 360

Yes and no games, 94-96



                 A List of Standard Books for Children

               Published by Frederick A. Stokes Company


                      _Books For Older Children_

Bindloss, Harold
  THE YOUNG TRADERS. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth                    $1.50
    A capital story of two boys in West Africa.

Crockett, S. R.
  THE SURPRISING ADVENTURES OF SIR TOADY LION. Illustrated,
  12mo, cloth.                                                    1.00
  SIR TOADY CRUSOE. Illustrated. Large 12mo, cloth                1.25
    The adventures of two boys and a girl on the Scottish coast.
  SWEETHEART TRAVELLERS. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth                 1.00

Fine Art Juveniles
  Children's classics in artistic form. Beautifully illustrated.
  Each 8vo, cloth                                                 1.50
    1. OLD FASHIONED TALES. E. V. Lucas.
    2. THE "ORIGINAL POEMS" AND OTHERS. Ann and Jane Taylor.
    3. TALES FROM MARIA EDGEWORTH.
    4. TALES OF THE CANTERBURY PILGRIMS. F. J. H. Darton.
    5. FAIRY TALES FROM GRIMM.
    6. FAIRY TALES FROM HANS ANDERSEN.
    7. STORIES FROM THE FAERIE QUEEN. Mary Macleod.
    8. THE BOOK OF KING ARTHUR, Mary Macleod.
    9. THE FAIRCHILD FAMILY. Mrs. Sherwood.
    10. NATIONAL RHYMES OF THE NURSERY.
    11. FORGOTTEN STORIES OF LONG AGO. E. Y. Lucas.
    12. BALLADS IN PROSE. Mary Macleod.
    13. ANOTHER BOOK OF VERSES FOR CHILDREN. E. V. Lucas.
    14. THE WONDER BOOK OF OLD ROMANCE. F. J. H. Darton.

Grinell, George Bird
  The "Jack" Books. Illustrated. Each 12mo, cloth                 1.25
    Good books for boys, full of hunting, adventure and natural
    history.
     JACK THE YOUNG RANCHMAN.
     JACK AMONG THE INDIANS.
     JACK IN THE ROCKIES.
     JACK THE YOUNG CANOEMAN.
     JACK THE YOUNG TRAPPER.

Grinnell Morton
  NEIGHBORS OF FIELD, WOOD, AND STREAM. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth  1.25
    An account of wild creatures not far from civilization.

Houston, Edwin J.
  THE WONDER BOOKS OF SCIENCE. Illustrated. Each 12mo, cloth      1.50
    The wonders of nature described and simply explained by a
    scientist.
  THE WONDER BOOK OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES.
  THE WONDER BOOK OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

Jenks, Tudor
  ELECTRICITY FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth   _net_, 1.50
    The story of the progress of electricity from the earliest
    times.

Lounsberry, Alice
  THE WILD FLOWER BOOK FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. Illustrated, 12mo,
  cloth                                                    _net_, 1.50
    A story of the lives of wild flowers.

Marshall, H. E.
  AN ISLAND STORY. Illustrated in color. Large 8vo, cloth  _net_, 2.50
    A child's history of England.
  SCOTLAND'S STORY. Illustrated in color. Large 8vo, cloth _net_, 2.50
    Stirring events in Scottish history.

Moore, N. Hudson
  DEEDS OF DARING DONE BY GIRLS. Illustrated in color, 12mo,
  cloth                                                           1.50
    Examples of heroism of girls under twenty.

Nesbit, E.
  THE TREASURE SEEKERS. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth                  1.50
    By the author of THE WOULDBEGOODS.
  THE NEW TREASURE SEEKERS. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth              1.50
    Further adventures of the fascinating Bastable children.

Perkins, Lucy F.
  THE DANDELION CLASSICS FOR CHILDREN. Illustrated in color.
  Each 4to, cloth                                                 1.50
    A uniform edition of children's classics, splendidly illustrated.
     ROBIN HOOD.
     MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM FOR YOUNG-PEOPLE.
     THE TWENTY BEST FAIRY TALES.

Sage, Agnes C.
  A LITTLE COLONIAL DAME. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                 1.50
  Same, boards                                                    1.00
    The story of a girl in old New York.
  A LITTLE DAUGHTER OF THE REVOLUTION. Illustrated, 4to, cloth    1.50
  Same, boards                                                    1.00
    Child-life during the exciting period of the War for
    Independence.

Steedman, C. M.
  A CHILD'S LIFE OF JESUS. Illustrated in color, 8vo, cloth,      3.00

Thumb-o-Graph Series
  THUMB-O-GRAPHS. 16mo, cloth, _net_, .50; Leather, boxed,
  _net_, 1.00; Gilt, leather, boxed                        _net_, 1.50
  GHOSTS OF MY FRIENDS. 16mo, cloth, _net_, .50; Leather,
  boxed                                                    _net_, 1.00
  THE BOOK OF BUTTERFLIES. 12mo, cloth, boxed              _net_, 1.00
  NOUGHTS AND CROSSES. 16mo, cloth                         _net_,  .50
  HAND-O-GRAPHS. 4to, cloth                                _net_, 1.00


        _Books For Children From Ten to Fifteen Years of Age_

Ault, Lena and Norman
  THE PODGY BOOK OF TALES. Illustrated in color, 16mo, cloth      1.00
    Full of jolly stories about happenings in the nursery
    and garden.

Bedford, Francis D.
  A NIGHT OF WONDERS. Illustrated in color. Oblong, 16mo, cloth   1.00
    The story of a hunt for Father Christmas.

Carroll, Lewis
  ALICE IN WONDERLAND. Illustrated in color, 8vo, cloth,          1.50
    Contains the original Tenniel drawings, beside twelve new
    ones in color by Maria L. Kirk.
  THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS. Illustrated in color, 8vo, cloth     1.50
    Also has illustrations by Miss Kirk as well as the Tenniel
    drawings.

Children's Library, The
  Illustrated.  Each 16mo, cloth                                   .50
    Stories of all kinds interesting to children.
     THE WOULD-BE WITCH. Miriam Byrne.
     TWO ARE COMPANY. E. M. Field.
     THE OLD OAK CHEST.
     MARY JANE PAPERS. A. G. Plympton.
     COURAGE. Ruth Ogden.
     LITTLE HOMESPUN. Ruth Ogden.
     TOMMY'S TINY TALES. Lady Leigh.
     THE HOUSE OF THE RED FOX. Miriam Byrne.

Cooke, Grace MacGowan
  SON RILEY RABBIT AND LITTLE GIRL. Illustrated, 4to, cloth       1.50
    The adventures of a little girl and a rabbit, with excellent
    photographs.

Dumas, Alexandre
  FAIRY TALES. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                            1.00

Dunham, Edith
  JOGGING ROUND THE WORLD. 4to, cloth                             1.50
    With photographs of curious methods of transportation.

Glen, M. A.
  TWELVE MAGIC CHANGELINGS. Cut-outs in color, 4to,
  boards, .75; paper                                               .50
  MAGIC CHANGELINGS. Cut-outs in color, 4to, boards                .50
  MIRTHFUL MENAGERIE. Cut-outs in color, 4to, boards               .50
  AGILE ACROBATS. Cut-outs in color. 4to, boards                   .35

Harris, Joel Chandler
  UNCLE REMUS AND BRE'R RABBIT. Illustrations in color.
  Oblong, 4to, boards                                             1.00
    Some of Bre'r Rabbit's most amusing adventures told in
    stories, verses and pictures.

Jewett, J. H.
  BUNNY STORIES. Illustrated, 4to, boards                         1.00
    Same, cloth                                                   1.50
  MORE BUNNY STORIES. Illustrated, 4to, boards                    1.00
    Same, cloth                                                   1.50

Mendes, H. P.
  IN OLD EGYPT. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                           1.00

Moore, N. Hudson
  CHILDREN OF OTHER DAYS. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                 1.50
    An art book for children, giving reproductions of famous
    paintings of children.

Ogden, Ruth
  A LITTLE QUEEN OF HEARTS. Illustrated, 4to, boards              1.00
  Same, cloth                                                     1.50
    The account of the visit of a little American girl to England.
  A LOYAL LITTLE RED COAT. Illustrated, 4to, boards               1.00
  Same, cloth                                                     1.50
    A story of a child in New York one hundred years ago.
  LOYAL HEARTS AND TRUE. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth                 1.00
    How "The Dry Dock Club" showed its patriotic spirit during the
    war with Spain.

Outcault, R. F.
  BUSTER BROWN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth  1.50
    With many new adventures.
  BUSTER'S AND MARY JANE'S PAINTING BOOK. Oblong, 4to, boards      .75
    Pictures to be colored, some with colored models.
  TIGE: HIS STORY. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                        1.00
    Tige's adventures, with some of Buster's.
  BUSTER BROWN ABROAD. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                    1.00
    What Buster did in foreign lands.

Peary, Josephine D.
  THE SNOW BABY. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                   _net_, 1.20
    The birth and infancy of Marie Ahnighito Peary, illustrated
    by photographs taken by her parents in the far North.

Peary, Marie Ahnighito and Josephine D.
  CHILDREN OF THE ARCTIC. Illustrated, 4to, cloth          _net_, 1.20
    The Snow Baby's second trip to the Arctic.

Peary, Robert E.
  SNOWLAND FOLK. Illustrated, 4to, cloth                   _net_, 1.20
    True stories about the fascinating land of eternal snow.

Randolph, H. S. F.
  THE NEW MOTHER GOOSE. With cut-out illustrations in color,
  4to, boards                                                     1.00
    An illustrated story remains after removal of the cut-outs.
  THE FIRE FIGHTERS. With cut-out illustrations in color,
  4to, boards                                                     1.00
    Story with models of fire engine, hook and ladder, etc.,
    in drawings and cut-outs.

Selous, Edmund
  TOMMY SMITH'S ANIMALS. Illustrated, 16mo, cloth                 1.00
  TOMMY SMITH'S OTHER ANIMALS. Illustrated, 16mo, cloth           1.00
    Conversations of a little boy with the common country animals.

Williams, Clara Andrew
  THE HOUSE THAT GLUE BUILT. Cut-out pictures in color. Oblong,
  4to, boards                                                     1.00
    Pictures of the rooms of a house with separate sheets
    giving the furniture, to be pasted into place.
  THE FUN THAT GLUE MADE. Cut-out pictures in color. Oblong,
  4to, boards                                                     1.00
    Scenes in bright colors of children at play, to be pasted
    together.
  THE STORIES THAT GLUE TOLD. Cut-out pictures in color. Oblong,
  4to, boards                                                     1.00
    Pictures of well-known stories to be cut out and pasted
    together.


                    _Books For Very Young Children_

Betts, Ethel Franklin
  FAVORITE NURSERY RHYMES. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth       1.50
    The most popular nursery rhymes beautifully illustrated.

Burgess, Gelett
  GOOPS AND HOW TO BE THEM. Illustrated, 4to, cloth               1.50
    The primary rules of good manners in clever rhymes.
  MORE GOOPS AND HOW NOT TO BE THEM. Illustrated, 4to, cloth      1.50
    With many more of Mr. Burgess's whimsical pictures.
  GOOP TALES, ALPHABETICALLY TOLD. Illustrated, 4to, cloth        1.50
    Two alphabets--one of boys and one of girls.
  THE LIVELY CITY O' LIGG. Illustrated in color, 4to, boards      1.00
    Modern fables--a Hans Andersen up to date.
  THE BURGESS NONSENSE BOOK. Illustrated. Small 4to, cloth        2.00
    A collection of Mr. Burgess's nonsense verses and stories.

Deming, E. W.
  RED FOLK AND WILD FOLK. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth _net_, 1.50
    Little Indian people in the forest, with their animal
    playfellows.
  CHILDREN OF THE WILD. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth   _net_, 1.00
  LITTLE BROTHERS OF THE WEST. Illustrated in color, 4to,
  cloth                                                    _net_, 1.00
    Each of these books contains just half the pictures
    and text of "Red Folk and Wild Folk."
  INDIAN CHILD LIFE. Illustrated in color. Oblong, 4to, boards    2.00
    Stories about Indian children.
  LITTLE RED PEOPLE. Illustrated in color. Oblong, 4to, boards    1.25
  LITTLE INDIAN FOLK. Illustrated in color. Oblong, 4to, boards   1.25
    Each containing just half the illustrations and text in the
    preceding volume.

Dumpy Books for Children
  Illustrated in color. Each 32mo, boards                          .50
  Simple stories for very young children.
    THE STORY OF THE TEASING MONKEY. Helen Bannerman.
    BILLY MOUSE. Arthur Layard.
    PAT AND THE SPIDER. Helen Bannerman.
    THE STORY OF LITTLE KETTLE HEAD. Helen Bannerman.
    THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK QUIBBA. Helen Bannerman.
    THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK SAMBO. Helen Bannerman.
    THE BAD MRS. GINGER. Honor C. Appleton.
    THE ALPHABET BOOK. Henry Mayer.
    A CAT BOOK. E. V. Lucas and H. C. Smith.

Haines, Alice Calhoun
  LITTLE FOLK OF BRITTANY. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth       1.50
    Delightful stories and verses about this remarkable land.
  INDIAN BOYS AND GIRLS. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth         1.50
  Indian children in characteristic occupations.
  WHEN GRANDMA WAS LITTLE. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth       1.00
  WHAT GRANDMA SAYS. Illustrated in color, 4to, cloth             1.00
    Stories and verses in which things happen as Grandma says
    they used to.
  BOYS. Illustrated in color. Large 4to, boards                   1.00
  GIRLS. Illustrated in color. Large 4to, boards                  1.00
    Distinctive and beautiful stories and verses of child life.
  LITTLE JAPS AT PLAY. Illustrated in color. Large 4to, boards    1.00



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES

1. Passages in italics are surrounded by _underscores_.

2. Images have been moved from the middle of a paragraph to the
   closest paragraph break.

3. Some of the full-page illustrations listed in the Illustrations are
   missing.

4. The use of periods is not consistent in the original text. Obvious
   errors have been silently corrected.

5. The following misprints have been corrected:
    Comma added at end of verse line "the powder" (page 31)
    Period removed in sentence "three's, thus. one" (page 122)
    "hocky" corrected to "hockey" (page 139)
    "payments" corrected to "pavements" (page 145)
    "hankerchief" corrected to "handkerchief" (Img 174)
    "Train" corrected to "Twain" (Img 381)
    "Eoy" corrected to "Roy" (Img 381)
    "Thomson-Seton" corrected to "Thompson-Seton" (Img 382)
    "Fin" corrected to "Finn" (Img 392)
    Missing page no. 204 added for "Feeding chickens" entry (page 401)

6. Other than the corrections listed above, printer's inconsistencies
   in spelling, punctuation, hyphenation, and ligature usage have been
   retained.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "What Shall We Do Now?: Five Hundred Games and Pastimes" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home