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Title: The Candy Maker's Guide - A Collection of Choice Recipes for Sugar Boiling
Author: Fletcher Manufacturing Company
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  THE CANDY MAKER'S GUIDE

  A COLLECTION OF
  CHOICE RECIPES FOR SUGAR BOILING

  COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY
  THE FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.

  MANUFACTURERS OF
  Confectioners' and Candy Makers' Tools and Machines
  TEA AND COFFEE URNS
  BAKERS' CONFECTIONERS AND HOTEL SUPPLIES

  IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
  PURE FRUIT JUICES,
    FLAVORING EXTRACTS,
      FRUIT OILS,
        ESSENTIAL OILS,
          MALT EXTRACT,
            XXXX GLUCOSE, ETC.

  [Illustration]

  Prize Medal and Diploma awarded at Toronto Industrial Exhibition
  1894, for General Excellence in Style and Finish of our goods.

  440-442 YONGE ST.,--TORONTO, CAN.



  TORONTO

  J JOHNSTON PRINTER & STATIONER 105 CHURCH ST

  1896



FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.

TORONTO.


Manufacturers and dealers in Generators, Steel and Copper Soda Water
Cylinders, Soda Founts, Tumbler Washers, Freezers, Ice Breaking
Machines, Ice Cream Refrigerators, Milk Shakers, Ice Shaves, Lemon
Squeezers, Ice Cream Cans, Packing Tubs, Flavoring Extracts, Golden and
Crystal Flake for making Ice Cream, Ice Cream Bricks and Forms, and
every article necessary for Soda Water and Ice Cream business.



INTRODUCTION.


In presenting this selection of choice recipes for Candy Makers we have
endeavored to avoid everything that is not practical and easy to
understand. The recipes given are from the most experienced and notable
candy makers of America and Europe, and are such, that, if followed out
with care and attention will be sure to lead to success. Practice is
only to be had by experiment, and little failures are overcome by
constant perseverance.

After the rudiments have been thoroughly mastered, the reader has ample
scope to distinguish himself in the Candy world, and will do so with
patience and perseverance. We trust our patrons will look upon this
work, not as a literary effort, but as instruction from a practical
workman to a would-be workman.

  FLETCHER MNF'G. Co.,
    440 & 442 Yonge St., Toronto,
      Publishers.

Manufacturers of Candy Makers Tools and Machines, and every article
required in Confectionery and Candy Making.

    ASK FOR OUR CATALOGUE.



SUGAR BOILING.


This branch of the trade or business of a confectioner is perhaps the
most important. All manufacturers are more or less interested in it, and
certainly no retail shop could be considered orthodox which did not
display a tempting variety of this class. So inclusive is the term
"boiled goods" that it embraces drops, rocks, candies, taffies, creams,
caramels, and a number of different sorts of hand-made, machine-made,
and moulded goods. It is the most ancient method of which we have any
knowledge, and perhaps the most popular process of modern times; the
evidence of our everyday experience convinces us that (notwithstanding
the boom which heralds from time to time a new sweet, cooked in a
different manner, composed of ingredients hitherto unused in business),
it is the exception when such goods hold the front rank for more than a
few months, however pretty, tasty, or tempting they may be, the public
palate seems to fall back on those made in the old lines which, though
capable of improvement, seem not to be superceded. Of the entire make of
confectionery in Canada, at least two-thirds of it may be written down
under the name of boiled sugar. They are undoubtedly the chief features
with both manufacturers and retailers, embracing, as they do, endless
facilities for fertile brains and deft fingers for inventing novelties
in design, manipulation, combination, and finish. Notwithstanding the
already great variety, there is always daily something new in this
department brought into market. Many of the most successful houses owe
their popularity more to their heads than their hands, hence the
importance of studying this branch in all its ramifications. The endless
assortment requiring different methods for preparing and manipulating
make it necessary to sub-divide this branch into sections, order and
arrangement being so necessary to be thoroughly understood. _When we
consider the few inexpensive tools required to make so many kinds of
saleable goods, it is not to be wondered at so many retailers have a
fancy to make their own toffees and such like, there is no reason why a
man or woman, with ordinary patience, a willing and energetic
disposition, favored with a fair amount of intelligence, should not be
able to become with the aid of THIS BOOK and a few dollars for tools,
fairly good sugar boilers, with a few months practice._

There are reasons why a retail confectioner should study sugar boiling.
It gives character to the business, a fascinating odour to the premises,
and a general at-homeness to the surroundings. No goods look more
attractive and tempting to the sweet eating public than fresh made goods
of this kind. A bright window can be only so kept by makers. Grainy or
sticky drops may be reboiled; scraps and what would otherwise be almost
waste (at least unsightly) may be redressed in another shape, and
become, not only saleable, but profitable. _There are many advantages
which a maker possesses over one who buys all._ For instance, clear
boiled goods should be kept air tight, and are therefore delivered to
the retailers in bottles, jars, or tins, on which charge is made, these
have to be repacked and returned. Breakages are an important item, so is
freight--the cost of the latter is saved and the former reduced to a
minimum.

Whatever means are adopted to benefit the retailer and advertise the
business by brighter windows, cleaner shops, less faded goods, and
healthier financial conditions must contribute to the general prosperity
of the trade, from the bottom step to the top rung of the ladder.

It should be the aim of all amateurs to study quality rather than price.
Goods well made, carefully flavored, and nicely displayed will always
command a ready sale at a fair price, giving satisfaction to the
consumer and credit to the maker. Give your customers something to
please the eye as well as the palate, so that every sale may be looked
upon as an advertisement. Cheap, bulky, insipid stuff is unprofitable
and damaging to the trade as well as to the seller. I venture to assert
that more would-be makers have come to grief trying to cut each other in
price for rubbishy candies than through any other cause. Look at the
number of firms who have a reputation, whose very name command trade
at good prices, year after year add to the turnover. What is the
talisman? Look at their goods. There is perhaps nothing very striking in
them, but they are _invariably good_, busy or slack they are made with
care, packed with taste, and delivered neatly in a business-like
fashion. Compare this to our makers of cheap stuff; to obtain orders
they sell at unprofitable prices, often at a loss, and try to make up
the difference by resorting to various methods of increasing the bulk,
the result is ultimate ruin to themselves, loss to their creditors, and
injury to every one concerned. Few who read these lines will not be able
to verify all that is stated. The writer's advice has always been to
keep up a _high degree of excellence, try to improve in every direction,
and success is only a matter of patience, energy and civility_.

It is not intended to give a complete list of all kinds of candy known
in the trade, that would be absurd and impossible. To be able to make
any particular kind will require knowledge only to be gained by
experience, so that much depends on the thoughtful endeavor of the
beginner.


THE WORKSHOP.

Sugar boiling, like every other craft, requires a place to do it, fitted
with tools and appliances. The requisites and requirements can be easily
suited to the purse of the would-be confectioner. A work to be useful to
all must cater for all, and include information which will be useful to
the smaller storekeeper as well as the larger maker. To begin at the
bottom, one can easily imagine a person whose only ambition is to make a
little candy for the window fit for children. This could be done with a
very small outlay for utensils. The next move is the purchase of a sugar
boiler's furnace not very costly and certainly indispensable where
quality and variety are required, it will be a great saving of time as
well as money, the sugar will boil a much better color, so that cheaper
sugar may be used for brown or yellow goods, while one can make acid
drops and other white goods from granulated. Dutch crush, or loaf sugar,
which would be impossible to make on a kitchen stove from any sort of
sugar.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.

Steel Candy Furnace.

No. 1--24 in. high, 19 in. diameter. Price, $7.50. No. 2--30 in. high,
23 in. diameter. Price, $12.00.]

[Illustration: Fig. 206 a.

Excelsior Furnace.

Height 26 in., 4 holes, from 9 to 18 in. diameter. Made entirely of cast
iron. Price, $16. Weight 225 lbs.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.

CARAMEL CUTTERS--2 Styles.

Each with Steel Shaft and Screw Handles and two sets Blocks.

No. 2--with 13 Steel Cutters, price      $6.50

We make this Cutter with longer rod and any number of extra cutters at
50c. each cutter.

No. 1--with 13 Tinned Cutters, price       $11.00

With longer rods and any number of extra cutters at 30c. each cutter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.

Copper Candy Boiling Pan.

  15 × 6  $4.50,  16 × 7      $5.50,
  17 × 8  $6.00,  18 × 9      $7.00,
  19 × 10 $8,     20 × 10-1/2 $9.
]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Price 76c. Improved Slide Candy Hook.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.

STEAM JACKET--MADE TO ORDER.]


LIST OF SUGAR BOILING TOOLS REQUIRED FOR A START.

  1 Candy Furnace               Price, $7 50
  1 Copper Boiling pan 15×6        "    4 50
  1 Candy Thermometer              "    1 75
  1 Marble Slab 48×24×2            "    8 00
  1 Caramel Cutter                 "    6 50
  1 Candy Hook                     "      75
  1 Pallette Knife                 "      50
  1 Doz. Taffy Pans                "    2 00
  1 Pair English Candy Shears      "    1 50
                                      ------
           Total                      $33 00

More slab room will be required as trade increases.

We cannot go any further into the mysteries of this art successfully
unless we provide ourselves with a candy machine and rolls to enable us
to make drops. _They are indispensable_, and if we are to go on, we must
have them to enable us to make drops, and every confectioner sells
drops. These machines are made to suit all classes of trade, big and
little. The small ones make just as nice drops as the large ones, and
will turn out in the course of a day 2 or 3 cwt., by constant use, so
that for retail purposes this quantity would generally be sufficient.

[Illustration: Fig. 12-1/2.

Candy Machine and Rollers for Boiled Sugar.

For Fruit Drops, Acid or Cough Drops Imperials, Etc.

These Machines are made to fit a Standard Gauge, and will admit of any
number of Rollers being fitted to one frame. Thus parties having our
frames can at any time order additional rollers which will work
satisfactorily.

The Rollers are 2 in. diameter, 3-5/8 in. long. Almost every conceivable
pattern can be cut on them.

  CANDY ROLL FRAMES,          $ 6 00 each.
  PLAIN DROP ROLLS,            14 00 per pair.
  FANCY DROP ROLLS,       from 16 00    "
]

Having so far got our workshop arranged the next thing is to keep it in
order. Sugar boiling is dirty sticky business, especially on wet days,
unless every part is kept scrupulously clean and dry, slabs and tables
should be washed, no trace of sifting, scraps, or boiled goods, should
be left exposed to the atmosphere during the night, the floor well
swept, and a little clean sawdust put down every night.

The comfort and ease in working in a clean place far more than offsets
the trouble and time it takes to put it in order, besides the goods are
much drier, brighter and easier to bottle or pack. Nothing is more
unpleasant than to work with sticky slabs, slimy machines or dirty
scales. The boil adheres to the slabs, sticks to the rollers, spoiling
the shapes, and become cloudy and spotty in weighing. We are not writing
without knowledge. Any one who has worked or visited small workshops can
endorse the value of these remarks, and call to mind this imaginary
picture. However, there are exceptions, still the hint will be useful in
a good many cases.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.

Steel Candy Shears.

English Candy Shears, $1.50.]

[Illustration: Fig. 201 a. Price, $1.75

Copper Cased Candy Thermometer.]


METHOD OF SUGAR BOILING.

If the learner will study the following instructions, the author
guarantees to place him in a position to boil sugar as correctly as the
most experienced workman. To accomplish this, the reader should provide
himself with the sugar boiler's tools named on the preceding page.
While the sugar is undergoing the process of boiling, it is almost
impossible for a learner to determine the exact degree which the sugar
has attained without a thermometer, and even the journeyman finds it so
useful that you will find very few indeed who boil sugar without it; in
fact many of the larger shops will not allow a sugar boiler to work
without one. For almost any purpose the following degrees will be found
all that is necessary. For instance put into the pan in which you intend
to boil, 7 lbs. granulated sugar together with one quart of water,
placing it on the fire and allow it to boil. Put a cover over the pan
and allow it to boil for ten minutes; then take off the cover and put
the thermometer in the pan, immersing the bottom part of it in the
boiling sugar, and let it remain there until the sugar is boiled to the
degree you require. The following five degrees are those used by
confectioners for different purposes:

[Illustration: Fig. 87.

IRON BELL SHAPED MORTAR.

English Make, Extra Heavy, Tinned inside.

  1    Pint       $1 00
  1-1/2 "          1 50
  1    Quart       2 00
  2     "          3 00
]

1st. The smooth, viz.,--215 to 220 by the thermometer. When the mercury
registers these figures the sugars may then be used for crystalizing
creams, gum goods and liqueurs.

2nd. The Thread, viz., 230 and 235 is the degree which is used for
making liqueurs.

3rd. The Feather, viz., 240 to 245. Only a few minutes elapse between
these degrees, and the sugar must be watched closely during the boiling
at this point. This degree may be used for making fondants, rich creams,
cream for chocolates and fruit candying.

4th. The Ball, viz., 250 to 255. The sugar at this point is used for
making cocoanut and other candies, cocoanut ice, and almost every
description of grain sugar generally.

5th. The Crack, viz., 310 to 315. This is the degree which is used, with
little variation, for all kinds of drops, taffies, and all clear goods,
whether for the purpose of passing through machines or manipulating with
the hands.

These degrees can be tested by an experienced hand without the aid of
the thermometer, and the learner may accustom himself by trying them in
the following manner: Take the stem of a clay pipe and dip it into the
sugar as it boils, draw it out again and pass it through the forefinger
and thumb; when it feels oily you will find by looking at your
thermometer that it has reached the degree of smooth, 215 to 220 by the
glass.

The next degree or thread, may be tried by your taking a little of the
sugar off the pipe between your finger and thumb and part them gently;
if you see small threads hang between your finger and thumb that degree
has arrived.

For the degree of Ball, 250 to 255, you must have by your hand a small
jug of cold water; when you draw the pipe out of the sugar dip it in the
water, and when taken out of the water, if you can work it like a piece
of putty, you have got the degree of ball.

The degree of Crack must be tested the same way, and the sugar must
leave the pipe clean; dip it again into cold water; when off the pipe
break off a piece with your teeth; if it snaps clean in your teeth, pour
your sugar on the slab at once.

NOTE.--This last degree must be tried sharply, in giving the process for
trying it without the thermometer. We caution all beginners to get a
thermometer, as practice alone can instruct you without. It is also
necessary to state that thermometers differ a little, and should be
tested.

During hot weather, it is necessary to bring the sugars up to the full
degree; during winter months, the lower degrees marked will answer the
purpose.


CUTTING THE GRAIN, LOWERING OR GREASING.

Almost all sugar, especially refined, whether loaf, crystalized or
granulated, and most sugars known to the trade as pieces will, if boiled
beyond the degree of ball, or 250 by the thermometer, when turned out of
the pan becomes cloudy, then grainy, and ultimately a solid lump of
hard opaque sugar. To prevent this candying, as it is called several
agents are used, such as glucose, cream of tartar pyroligneous acid,
vinegar &c., the action of which will cause the sugar to boil clear, be
pliable while hot and transparent when cold. It is therefore necessary
to use some lowering agent for all boilings intended for clear goods,
such as drops, taffies, rocks &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 29.

Pyramid Forms.

  No. 1, 22-1/2 inch, 2 rings
    Price,    90c.
  No. 2, 32 inch, 3 rings
    Price,  $1 10.
]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.

CANDY SCRAPER AND SPREADER.

  12 inches long      65c
   6   "      "       30c
]

Experience has taught most of the old hands that two of these agents
possess all the merits necessary for the purpose, and are to be
preferred to others for reasons it is unnecessary to state--they are
cream of tartar and glucose. A great deal could be said in favor of
either or both; cream of tartar is handier and cleaner to use as well as
more exact in its action; goods boiled with it will be a better color
and, some assert, more crisp; for acids and all best and export goods it
is to be recommended--use a proportion of half an ounce to every 14 lbs.
of sugar--we say about, as some strong sugars require a little more,
this is generally measured in a teaspoon, two spoonfuls to every 14 lbs.
of sugar.

_Glucose_, being cheaper than sugar, is valuable to the confectioner,
not only for its lowering qualities, but also as a bulk producer,
_reducing the cost of the product_. On this account there is a tendency
to overdo it by using too much, the result causing goods to become
sticky and turn soft immediately they are exposed to the atmosphere, not
only so, but we have seen drops running to a solid lump in bottles
through being overdosed. If glucose is used in proper proportions, it
makes an excellent lowering agent, and will answer the purpose first
rate for ordinary drops and the like. Use three lbs. of glucose to every
14 lbs. of sugar; keep a panful on the furnace top, so that it will
always be hot and may be easily measured by means of a saucepan or ladle
holding the exact quantity; add the glucose when sugar begins to boil.


FLAVORS AND COLORS.

These form almost as important a part of the trade as the sugar itself,
and it should be the chief object of every workman to try and excel in
these two important features; if you do not use _good flavors_, it is a
moral certainty you cannot produce _good candies_. Flavors for boiled
sugars should be specially prepared, those bought at an ordinary
_chemist shop may do very well for flavoring custards and pastry, but
are of no use for boiled sugars, in fact better use no essence at all,
as they_ are so weak that, to give the drops &c., even a slight taste
the quantity required reduces the degree to which the sugar has been
boiled so much that it works like putty, and sticks to the machine while
being pressed through; the drops when finished look dull, dragged and
stick together when bottled; tons of drops are weekly spoiled by small
makers using such flavors, while a little trouble and less expense would
put them out of their misery, besides giving to the goods that clear
bright dry appearance to be found in the drops of a respectable house.

It must be remembered that the flavor is the very life of the candy.
Color may please the eye, but excellence in that alone is not all that
is required. A buyer may be attracted by the eye, but he does not eat
with it. Neither old or young would knowingly eat only colored sugar. A
sweet taste may be satisfied with sugar alone.

It is the variety of pleasant flavors that is desired and it is the
business of the confectioner to supply it. Flavors for sugar boiling
should be as concentrated as it is possible for it to be. Several large
houses who have confined their attention to the wants and requirements
of the confectionery and mineral water trades have succeeded in
producing fruit essences of quality, which is a pleasure to work with.
Being very powerful, little is required to give the boil rich flavor,
consequently it passes through the machine easily, forming a perfect
drop on which the clear imprint of the engraving characteristic of the
machine used. Essential oils used by confectioners are those having an
agreeable aromatic flavor, and should be used in their original
strength, without being adulterated or reduced. It is absolutely
necessary that they should be pure and fresh, more particularly the oils
of lemon and orange, as when not fresh and pure they partake of the
flavor of turpentine, and are particularly unpleasant to the taste.

Small makers would do well to buy carefully from a good house not more
than would be used up in two or three months, especially the two before
mentioned. Some oils on the contrary, improve by keeping such as
peppermint and lavender. All essences and oils are best kept well corked
in a cool dark place.

These oils being powerful, popular and expensive, they are frequently
adulterated. Cream of tartar and tartaric acid on account of the price
is often increased, the former with different cheap powders, the latter
usually with alum. Many people fail in the process through no fault of
their own, but simply through their being supplied with inferior
ingredients, it is therefore of importance, that colors and flavors
should be purchased at some respectable house; get list of oils'
extracts and essences from Fletcher Mnf'g. Co. who are large dealers in
these goods.

The colors prepared, consisting of several very nice shades of yellow
and red, also coffee brown, jetoline black, damson blue, and apple
green; they are in paste, ready for use, being vegetable, they are
guaranteed strictly wholesome, and may be used with confidence.


WRINKLES WORTH READING ON SUGAR BOILING.

To make an acid drop to perfection, the pan must not only be clean but
bright; use best white sugar, and just enough water to melt it, with a
little extra cream of tartar (no glucose); boil on a sharp fire to 305;
after passing through machine, well dust with icing sugar and bottle.
Beginners should not try to work with less water, as the boil is more
liable to grain, which can be seen by an expert and avoided. Before
putting on the boil see that there is sufficient fuel on the furnace to
carry through the operation. To make up a fire during the process spoils
the color and quality. The sharper the sugar is boiled the better the
appearance and durability.

When boiling common sugars have the pan large enough,--some throw up a
good deal of foam when they reach the boiling point and are liable to
flow over--watch closely, and if unable to beat the foam down, lift the
pan on the side of the fire a few minutes until boiled through.

Many weak sugars burn on a clear fire before they come to a degree of
crack. In this case sprinkle a little fresh fuel or ashes over the fire
and replace the pan again. Should it again catch, repeat the operation
nursing it up to the desired degree. Bad boiling sugar is very
troublesome. A good plan is to make a rule of straining the batch just
after it boils, through a very fine copper wire or hair sieve, this
prevents foreign matter such as grit, saw dust or even nails, which is
often mixed with the sugar getting into the goods. Keep thermometer when
not in use in jar of water standing on the furnace plate by the side of
the pan, wash out the jar and fill with cold water every morning; keep
the thermometer clean, especially the top part, as the sugar which
adheres to it becomes grainy, and might spoil a whole boil. After making
many dark candies thoroughly wash the thermometer before putting into a
light boil.

In using colors for drops and clear goods, use them in the form of a
paste where practicable, then you can mix them in when the boil is on
the slab, thus saving your pan; keep the colors damp in jars, look over
them every night, and, where necessary, add a little cold water to keep
them moist, or the top may get dry and hard, which would make the goods
specky. Use a separate piece of stick for each color to rub in with, and
be careful not to use too much color; a very little goes a long way with
clear boiled goods. Goods are more often spoiled by using too much than
too little; more can always be added if the shades are too light, but
there is no remedy if you have added too much. When coloring taffies,
this must be done in the pan; liquid colors are best; trouble will be
saved if used in the following order. Suppose Raspberry, Everton and
Lemon taffies were wanted, make the Lemon taffy first, add saffron just
before the boil is ready, then the lemon, and pour out; make the Everton
taffy next in the same way, add the butter before the lemon; then make
the Raspberry. In this arrangement there is no necessity of steaming out
the pan. Had the Raspberry taffy been made first, the pan would have to
be cleaned out before the Lemon or Everton taffy could have been made,
because it would have been red.

Measure the flavors in a graduated glass; wash out the glass frequently,
or it will get rancid; weigh the acid and see that it is well ground; if
it has become dry and lumpy, rub it down to a powder with a rolling pin
or heavy bottle on a sheet of paper before using. In using fruit
essences a little powdered tartaric acid throws up the flavor, half the
essences will have a better effect. Put the acid on the boil after it
has been poured on the slab in a little heap, and pour the essence over
it, then thoroughly incorporate the whole.

Use the best oil for the slab with a clean flannel cloth; keep the cloth
in a saucer, if it lies about it falls on the floor and picks up dirt
and carries it to the pouring plate. When it gets hard or gritty burn it
at once and get a new one, or it may be used by mistake and make a mess.
We have seen the beauty of a boil spoilt scores of times by using dirty
rags and rancid oil. A sugar boiler cannot be too careful in these
little details, the success of his work largely depends upon it. It is
easy to inaugurate a good system, and much more comfortable to work to
it than a slovenly "what shall I do next" sort of a method. Know where
to find and put your hand on everything; when the boil is hot there is
no time to look for what you require. "A place for everything and
everything in its place" should be a practical feature in every boiling
shop.


STICKY CANDIES.

Perhaps there is nothing more annoying to the trade than sticky boiled
sugars. All clear goods when exposed to the atmosphere will turn damp,
especially in wet weather. It is a question of degree, some slightly and
some will run almost to syrup; it is impossible to obviate the former
but the latter can be prevented. Great care should be used in adding the
lowering, whether cream of tartar or glucose, too much of either will
cause the goods to run immediately after they are turned out. Weak or
inferior sugars, or not sufficient boiling, has also this effect. We
know of no reliable agent which will altogether prevent this result but
we do know that a careful arrangement of the different proportions,
using good sugar and well boiling greatly mitigate, if not altogether
prevent the grievance. Goods intended for exposure should contain just
sufficient lowering to prevent the boil from growing grainy and boiled
right up to the standard. Of course different sugars will carry more or
less lowering, but this can be easily tested by the workman. A few
experiments will determine the exact quantity for each boil. There is no
excuse for drops sticking in bottles when corked, this should not
occur, if it does, the fault is in the making; the water has a great
deal to do with causing the candies to be sticky. The writer has
experienced this in several country places, where the only supply of
this indispensable ingredient was drawn from the artesian wells. To look
at it, it was all that could be desired--a beautiful, cold, clear and
wholesome beverage. Of its chemical constituents I do not pretend to
give an opinion, but the drops and other clear boils for which it was
used got damp directly after they were exposed, and would have run to a
syrup had they not been covered up. The goods keep all right in bottles,
but it is very annoying, not to speak of the injury and loss to a
business, when this is the position with regard to the water supply. The
only remedy we could suggest, and which was very successful, was
powdered borax. We used this in the proportion of a teaspoonful to every
14 lbs. of sugar adding it just as the sugar began to boil. Borax has
been found useful with any water when making goods to be exposed in the
window or on the counters, such as taffies, rocks and clear boiled
sugars generally. Where the supply of water, as in most large towns is
suitable, given good sugar, cream of tartar or glucose, in proper
proportions, and careful boiling up to the standard, the addition of
borax is unnecessary and should only be resorted to under special
circumstances.


PLAIN TAFFY.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 quarts Water.
  1/2 ounce Cream Tartar.

PROCESS.--This is an easy and capital recipe to begin with. The process
is practically the same as for all other clear goods, but the
ingredients being fewer there is little chance of their getting
complicated. With a thermometer it is hardly possible to make a mistake,
besides it will make the instruction more intelligible: should he not
possess this appliance, we must ask that the instructions "How to boil
sugar" should be committed to memory, as it would be tedious and a great
waste of time and space to keep explaining how to tell the different
degrees through which the sugar passes before it comes to the point
required for the different goods given in this book. For this and other
reasons I will assume the learner to be working with one.

Put the sugar and water in a clean pan, place it on the fire and stir it
occasionally till melted; when it comes to the boil add the cream of
tartar and put a lid on the pan; allow it to boil in this way for ten
minutes, remove the lid and immerse the bottom part of the thermometer
in the boiling liquid and allow it to remain in this position until it
records 310 degrees, then quickly take out the thermometer, lift off the
pan and pour contents into frames, tins, or on a pouring slab, which
have been previously oiled. If on a pouring slab, mark the boil into
bars or squares, while warm, with a knife or taffy cutter: when quite
cold it is ready for sale.


LEMON TAFFY.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  1/2 ounce Cream Tartar.
  Saffron Coloring.
  2 quarts Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Proceed as directed for plain taffy. When the sugar reaches
305 degrees, add a few drops of saffron color; when it reaches 310
degrees, add a few drops of oil of lemon and pour out immediately into
frames or tins; or if on pouring slab, mark out into bars or squares
before it gets cold. The pouring slab should be level so that the sheet
should be all the same thickness.


BUTTER SCOTCH.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  Lemon Flavoring.
  1/4 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  1 quart Water.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water by an occasional stir when the pan
is on the fire, then add the cream of tartar and boil up to 300, lift
the pan on to the side of the furnace and add butter in small pieces
broken off by the hand; slip the pan on the fire again, adding the lemon
flavoring; let it boil through so that all the butter is boiled in then
pour into frames; when partly cold mark with cutter into small squares;
when cold divide the squares; wrap each in wax-paper; sold generally in
one cent packages.

N.B.--There is good butter scotch and better butter scotch, but no bad
butter scotch; this quality may be improved by the addition of a large
proportion of butter: some makers would put 2 lbs. or even 3 lbs. to
this quantity, but that would be regulated by the class of trade and the
size squares. These frames are made to hold 144 squares; a boil this
size will make each square weigh about 1 oz., but any weight of square
may be arranged by the adding or deducting from the boil.


EVERTON TAFFY.

  12 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Dark Sugar.
  2 lbs. Fresh Butter.
  1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  2 quarts Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, add the cream of tartar and boil
the whole to the degree of 300; lift the pan on the side of the fire put
in the butter in small pieces, place the pan again on the fire and let
it boil through; add the lemon and give it time to mix in, then pour out
contents into frame, or on pouring plate to cut up into bars. Everton
taffy and butter scotch are similar, except in color; same remarks as to
quality will apply in both cases; if the fire is very fierce, do not put
the pan down flat on it after adding butter; nurse it gently to prevent
burning; little fresh coke shaken over the fire would assist.


RASPBERRY TAFFY.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  Raspberry Flavor.
  2 quarts Water.
  Brilliant Rose.

PROCESS.--Bring the sugar and water to a boil, add the cream of tartar,
put on the lid for ten minutes, then uncover and immerse the
thermometer; continue to boil to 300; tinge a bright red with liquid,
brilliant rose; add raspberry essence; pour out on frame or pouring
plate and mark into bars or squares of convenient size; when cold the
taffy is ready for packing and sale.


FIG TAFFY.

  10 lbs Good Yellow Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 lbs Figs Chopped Fine.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, water and glucose to a weak crack, 295; lift
the pan partly off the fire, putting a piece of iron under it to prevent
it burning; add the figs, gently letting the whole thoroughly boil
through and mix; pour in oiled tins or on slab, and mark into squares.
When adding the figs let them drop through the fingers, not in a heap.


WALNUT TAFFY.

  5 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  5 lbs. Crystal Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 lbs. Walnuts.
  2 quarts Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Shell the walnuts, peel off the skin chop very fine. Boil the
glucose, sugar and water as before directed to the degree of weak crack,
300. Lift the pan a little from the fire; add the prepared nuts by
letting them run through the finger gently; let the whole boil through,
then add a few drops of the oil of lemon; when thoroughly mixed in, pour
out the boil and mark into bars before too cold. The flavor is improved
by roasting the walnuts a little before putting in the boil.


PEANUT CANDY.

Boil to the crack, 1 quart best New Orleans Molasses, 1 lb. glucose and
1 quart water.

Prepare the meats by removing the thin reddish skin in which they are
enveloped and fill a tray to about the depth of an inch. Pour over them
the hot candy prepared as directed, stirring the meats till each one is
covered. A little less candy should be used than will suffice to
entirely cover the meats, though each separate one should be covered,
the object being to use just enough of the candy to cause the meats to
adhere firmly together, thus forming a large cake, which when nearly
cold may be divided into squares or bars with a sharp knife.

Almonds and other nuts may be used in the same manner above described.


BARCELONA TAFFY.

  5 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  5 lbs. Crystal Sugar.
  3 lbs. Barcelona Nuts.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  2 quarts Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

Prepare the nuts by chopping them fine, boil the sugar, glucose and
water to the degree 300. Remove the pan a little from the fire add the
nuts carefully; when thoroughly boiled through and amalgamated, add a
few drops of lemon and pour out contents into frame or on pouring plate
and mark into bars.


COCOANUT TAFFY.

  6 lbs. Granulated Sugar.
  2 lbs. Desiccated Cocoanut Unsweetened.
  4 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugars in the water, bring it to the boil, add the
glucose and continue to boil to the degree 300; lift the pan a little
way from the fire; let the desiccated cocoanut run gently in the boil;
continue to boil until the lot is well mixed through; add a few drops of
oil of lemon and pour out in frames; use the lemon cautiously, too much
spoils the flavor.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.

  Cocoanut Slicer and Shredder.
  IMPROVED STEEL GRATER.
  Pat. Aug. 30, 1887.

No. 2 we claim to be the best Hand Made Machine in the Market. It is
easily adjusted for cutting, slicing or grating, the several plates
requiring but a moment to adjust to the shaft. It is the only machine
having an outside adjustment.

  No. 2 Machine, Slicer and Shredder      $20 00
  Grater for same                           3 00
]


COCOANUT TAFFY OR STICK JAW.

  6 lbs. Granulated Sugar.
  4 lbs. Brown sugar.
  3 pints Water.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  4 Large Cocoanuts Sliced.

PROCESS.--Boil to crack 310 by the thermometer, the sugar, glucose and
water; have the cocoanut freshly peeled and sliced ready; raise the pan
two or three inches from the fire; slide in the nut, stirring gently
with spatula to keep them off the bottom till well boiled through, then
pour out in tins or frames.

N.B.--Stir gently only the one way or you may grain the boil.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.

Citron and Orange Peel Slicing Machine.

This is a useful Machine for Slicing Peel in thin and regular pieces for
the tops of Maderia Cakes, etc.

It is also made double-action i.e.--with both Slicing and Shredding
Knives, the latter being used to shred or grate Cocoanut, etc., very
fine.

Price, $13 00]

[Illustration: Fig. 202 a. Price $1 00.

New Almond Grater.

One of the Best Almond Graters in the Market.]


EGGS AND BACON.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  1 lb. Nonpareils.
  1 Cocoanut.
  Brilliant Rose Coloring.

PROCESS.--Cut a large cocoanut into slices, dry them and lay them on the
pouring plate in rows about half an inch apart; sprinkle between them
thickly some nonpareil of various colors (hundreds and thousands). Boil
to crack the sugar, glucose and water; tinge with brilliant rose, and
carefully and evenly pour the contents over the pouring plate,
disturbing the nut and nonpareil as little as possible. A good plan is
to have a small shallow ladle with an open spout, into which pour a
little of the boil, run over the plate a small stream from the ladle
first, this will bind the nut, etc., and keep them in their places while
the bulk is being poured out.


ALMOND HARDBAKE.

  10 lbs. Good Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Lemon Flavoring if desired.
  3 lbs. Almonds.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--Split with a sharp knife the almonds, lay them face downwards
on an oiled plate, cover the plate as closely as possible; boil the
glucose, sugar and water to the crack 305; remove the pan from the fire,
and pour the contents carefully and evenly over the almonds; the
addition of a little lemon or almond flavoring will improve it.

N.B.--See remarks re-ladle in previous recipe.


ALMOND ROCK.

  10 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  6 lbs. Sweet Almonds.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--Clean your almonds by blowing out all the dust and grit, pick
out the shells, dissolve the sugar water and glucose; boil the lot up to
crack; pour the contents on oiled plate. Sprinkle the almond all over
the boil, shake over the lot a few drops of oil of lemon; turn up the
edges first, then the whole boil; mix and knead it like dough until all
the almonds are well mixed in; no time must be lost in this process or
the sugar will get too hard; when firm make a long roll of the entire
boil, place it on a hard wood board, and cut it up into thin slices; it
will have to be kept in shape while cutting, by turning over and
pressing the sides as it becomes flat; a special large sharp knife is
used for this purpose. A smaller boil than the above had better be tried
by beginners, say half the quantity. This can be done by halving the
ingredients. Needless to state these remarks apply to other recipes.


FRENCH ALMOND ROCK.

  12 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  6 lbs. Sweet Blanched Almonds.
  4 pints water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, water and glucose in the usual way to the
degree of weak crack, 305 by the thermometer, then ease the pan a little
way off the fire, and let the almonds gently slide into the mass. Use
the spatula a little just to keep the almonds from sticking to the
bottom, stirring lightly only the one way, then watch the boil carefully
till it turns a light golden color; lift off the pan and pour the
contents into the frames. The almond will come to the top better in tins
than in pouring plates.

Of course a better quality is made by adding more almonds, or vice
versa. The almond after being blanched should be spread on a tin and
dried, either on the stove top or in the oven.


RASPBERRY CANDY.

  12 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Raspberry Jam.
  2 quarts water.
  Brilliant Rose Coloring.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in water, and boil to ball 250; add the
raspberry jam, and stir it well in; remove the pan from the fire, add
sufficient coloring to make bright raspberry; rub part of the mixture
with spatula against side of pan until it changes a heavy opaque, then
stir the whole mass until uniform. Pour the contents carefully on a
slab, covered with greased paper; make the sheet about 1/2 inch thick,
mark into bars with a sharp knife, and break up when cold.


APRICOT CANDY.

  6 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Apricot Jam or Pulp.
  2 pints water.
  Saffron Coloring.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water and boil to ball, 250, add the jam
or pulp. Stir well until thoroughly mixed in, remove the pan, rub part
of the contents against the side of the pan with spatula until cloudy
and opaque; color with saffron a bright yellow, then stir the whole
together until uniform cloudy; pour out in frames or on slab covered
with oiled paper. A pinch of tartaric acid would improve the flavor, but
often prevent candying, unless in the hands of an expert. In any case
the acid should be added in a fine powder after the whole has been
thoroughly grained. A pallette knife is a very useful knife for rubbing
the sugar against the sides of the pan.


BROWN COCOANUT CANDY.

  14 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  6 large Cocoanuts Sliced.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, and boil to degree of ball, then
add the sliced cocoanut, stir them in remove the pan from the fire and
rub the sugar against the side of the pan until it becomes cloudy stir
the whole together until the whole becomes cloudy and thick; turn out
the batch into tins or on slabs; mark with a sharp knife into squares or
bars. When cold break it up at marks. Prepare the cocoanuts by cutting
them up into thin slices with a spokeshave or machine. The brown skin is
seldom skinned off for this dark candy.


WHITE COCOANUT CANDY.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  6 Large Cocoanuts Peeled and Sliced.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Peel off all the brown skin from the nuts with a sharp knife;
wash them and cut into thin slices. Melt the sugar in the water and
boil to ball 250, add the sliced nuts, keeping the boil well stirred.
When thoroughly mixed, remove the pan from the fire and commence to
grain with pallette knife or spatula until the whole mass turns an
opaque white. Now turn out the batch into frames, or on the slab, which
has been covered with paper; mark into convenient sized bars, break up
when set hard.


CHOCOLATE COCOANUT CANDY.

  10 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  1 lb. Pure Block Cocoa.
  4 Cocoanuts shredded.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--When cracking the nuts, do so over a basin and save all the
milk: peel all brown skin off and cut the nut into fine shreds with
machine; dissolve the sugar in the pan with the water and cocoanut milk,
boil up to ball, remove the pan a little off the fire, then add the nut
together with the pure block cocoa, stir the whole together, grain on
side of pan as before directed. Stir the whole well up and turn out into
frames or on pouring plates.

N.B.--The pure cocoa should have been previously melted in a saucepan or
chopped up in small pieces. In the latter case there is less waste, and
the heat of the sugar would soon melt it.


FRUIT CANDY.

  7 lbs. White or Brown Sugar.
  1 lb. Currants cleaned and dried.
  1/2 lb. Sultanas.
  1/2 lb. Sweet Almonds.
  2 pints water.
  Saffron Coloring.

PROCESS.--Mix together the fruits, which should have been freed from
grit and dust; boil the sugar and water to the degree of ball, 250;
remove the pan from the fire; gently grain the boil by rubbing a little
of the syrup against the side of the pan until cloudy, then slide in the
fruit and stir the whole together, adding a little saffron to color a
bright yellow. See that the mass has changed to an opaque, then turn the
lot out into frames or on a pouring slab.


CANDIES, VARIOUS.

Fruits green, dried or preserved, almonds and nuts of almost every
description, as well as flavors and colors of a pleasant taste and
pretty hue may be used in making candies. The process is exactly the
same: the ingredients can be arranged to suit the fancy of the maker and
the palate of his customers. The field to select variety from seems
inexhaustible, so that new goods of this class should be introduced ad.
lib. No good purpose could be served by giving a procession of these
simple instructions, when with little thought and judgment anyone could
invent a new candy for themselves. It might be as well to add that a
little glucose or cream of tartar added will make the candies softer,
and may be used, if preferred, in each formula in the proportion of 2
lbs. of glucose or a teaspoonful of cream tartar to every 10 lbs. of
sugar.

[Illustration: ROLLER PATTERNS.

  No.                   To lb.

   1 Tom Thumb Drop      1000
   2 Currant Drop         840
   3 Acid Drop            500
   4 Sour Ball            250
   5 Sour Ball            180
   6 Fish                 200
   7 Fish                 150
   8 Fish                 120
   9 Fish                  60
  10 Fish                  40
  11 Strawberry           200
  12 Raspberry            200
  15 Shell                200
  16 Motto Lump           200
  17 Motto Lump           120
  18 Motto Lump            80
  27 Seal Cough           200
  28 Waffle               180
  33 Cigar                 35
  37 Heart and Hand       100
  38 Acorn                209
  42 Batton               200
  53 Cough                120
  54 Polka                200
  55 Rifle                150
  58 Twist Loaf           200
]


BARLEY SUGAR DROPS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  4 pints water.
  1/4 oz. Oil Lemon.
  Saffron Coloring.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar and water in a pan, place it on the fire, giving
it an occasional stir until the sugar is dissolved, then add the
glucose, or 1/4 oz. cream of tartar--either will do, but do not use
both--place the cover on the pan and let it boil for ten minutes or so,
(the cover is put on to steam the sides of the pan and keep it clean and
free from granulation); take off the cover and put in the thermometer,
immersing the bottom part in the boiling liquid. Let the whole boil
until it reaches the degree of crack, 300; tinge with saffron, then pour
the contents on pouring plate, which has been previously oiled; sprinkle
a few drops of oil of lemon over it, turn the edges as it begins to
cool: then turn it over, knead it up as soon as you can handle it: if it
is on a cool slab you must be pretty smart or it will get too hard. As
soon as it gets stiff enough cut off small convenient pieces and pass
through the barley sugar machine; when cool break up, give them a good
shake in a rough sieve to free them from any machine scraps; the drops
are then ready for bottling. Powdered sugar is not usually mixed with
these drops.


PEAR DROPS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs Glucose.
  1/4 oz. Essence of Pear.
  1 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  2 quarts water.
  Paste, Red Color.

PROCESS.--Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and bring
the whole to the degree of crack, pour the contents on the slab, rub in
a little red paste color in one corner of the boil to color light pink,
turn up the edges, add the powdered acid in a little heap, pour over the
acid the pear essence and thoroughly mix through the entire mass by
kneading: when the batch is stiff enough cut off in small pieces and
pass through the pear drop rollers; when cold sift and mix some icing
sugar amongst them, and bottle.


RASPBERRY DROPS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 quarts water.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  1/2 oz. Essence of Raspberry.
  1 oz. Tartaric.
  Coloring, Brilliant Rose.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, add the glucose and boil the
whole up to crack; pour out the boil on a cold slab, rub in a little of
the cherry paste to color, turn up the edges, put in the powdered acid
in a little heap, pour over the acid the raspberry flavoring and knead
up the batch till thoroughly mixed and fit for the machine. Cut off in
pieces and pass through the raspberry rollers; sift, dust and bottle
when cold.


ALMOND TABLETS.

  14 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  3 lbs Glucose.
  Lemon Flavoring.
  2 lbs. Almonds, Chopped.
  4 pints water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water, as directed, to the degree
of crack; pour the boil on oiled plate, sprinkle the almond over it
with a few drops of oil of lemon, knead the whole together till stiff,
cut off small pieces and pass through tablet rollers.


PINE APPLE DROPS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  4 pints water.
  1 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  Saffron Coloring.
  1/4 oz. Essence Pine Apple.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water, as before directed, to the
degree of crack 310; add to the boil saffron paste after it has been
poured on the slab: when on the slab put in the acid and essence of
pineapple; knead the whole together; when stiff enough, cut off in
pieces and pass through the pineapple roll.


COCOANUT TABLETS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  1 lb. Desiccated Cocoanut.
  4 pints water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, water and glucose to the degree of crack; pour
on slab and sprinkle the desiccated cocoanut over the boil, flavor with
lemon, mix up and pass through tablet rollers.


ACID DROPS AND TABLETS.

  14 lbs. Best White Sugar.
  3/4 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  Lemon Flavoring.
  4 pints water.
  4 oz. Tartaric Acid.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar and water in clean bright pan and bring to the
boil, add cream of tartar, place the lid on the pan and boil for ten
minutes: remove the cover and put in thermometer, boiling on a sharp
fire to the degree of crack: pour out at once on clean, greased slab:
when cool enough, turn up at the edges and fold the boil over, then add
the acid which has been finely powdered, together with a few drops of
lemon; knead up the whole until stiff and pass through drop or tablet
rollers; break up when cold, and dust with powdered sugar, weigh and
bottle.

N.B.--We mean the term "white sugar" to include loaf, dutch crush,
granulated or crystal; any of these of good quality will answer the
purpose.


BROWN COUGH DROPS.

  14 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  3 oz. Acid Tartaric.
  1/2 oz. Oil Aniseed.
  1/4 oz. Oil Cloves.
  1/4 oz. Oil Peppermint.
  2 oz. Herb Horehound.
  5 pints Water.

PROCESS.--First boil the herb horehound in the water ten minutes, then
strain; add the liquor to the sugar and the glucose, and boil as for
other drops to crack 310; pour on oiled slab; turn up the edges and fold
in the boil, then put the tartaric acid in a little heap on the boil,
and pour over it the aniseed, clove and peppermint, knead up the whole,
thoroughly mixing the flavors until stiff enough to pass through machine
cough drop rollers.

N.B.--The brown sugar should be of good boiling quality.


LIGHT COUGH DROPS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Glucose.
  3 oz. Acid Tartaric.
  1/2 oz. Cough Drop Essence.
  1/2 oz. Oil Aniseed.
  4 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water as before directed to the
degree of crack, 310; pour on greased slab; first turn up boil, then add
powdered acid, cough drop essence and oil of aniseed; mix thoroughly
until ready for machine, and pass through cough drop rollers; break up,
sift, and dust with powdered sugar.

N.B.--We have almost said enough about plain machine drops; they are all
practically made alike, the color, flavor and shape alone differing. See
_our_ list for _colors_ and _flavors_, _candy machines_ and _rollers_.


TAR COUGH DROPS.

1 oz. Dried Rose Leaves boil in 1 gallon water to half a gallon, strain
and mix with 10 pounds Sugar, 21 pounds Glucose and 1 oz. strained Tar,
boil to the crack and finish as for other drops.


IMITATION CHOCOLATE STICKS.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Vanilla Flavoring.
  3 pints Water.
  1 oz. Tartaric Acid.

PROCESS.--Place the pan containing the sugar and water on the fire, stir
in the glucose and bring the lot to the degree of weak crack, 300; pour
on the slab, turn up the edges, fold over the boil, and add the acid and
vanilla; when thoroughly mixed and stiff enough to handle, then pull
over the hook until glossy white: remove it to the slab, and roll into
rods about half an inch thick; when cold snip off into short equal
lengths and dip them into melted chocolate paste, composed of 1/2 lb.
pure block cocoa, 1/2 lb. ground sugar and 3 oz. lard or cocoa butter
(no water). Melt these ingredients in a vessel by standing it on the hot
furnace plate (not too near the fire) stir until all is dissolved and
incorporated, then dip sticks in this mixture singly, taking them out
immediately and laying them on wire frames to dry.


CHOCOLATE COCOANUT STICKS.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Desiccated Cocoanut.
  3 pints Water.
  4 oz. Pure Cocoanut.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, water and glucose as directed to degree of
weak crack, 300; pour on oiled slab: cut off one third for pulling; add
to the other two-thirds the pure cocoa and mix it in; pull the smaller
piece over the hook until white and glossy; spread out the solid sugar
and lay the pulled in the centre casing it round evenly then roll into
sticks 1 inch thick; when cold, snip off into lengths make a thin
solution of gum or gelatine, wet the surface of each stick, and roll in
desiccated cocoa nut; when dry they are ready for sale.


ACID STICKS.

Clear white.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  Lemon Flavoring.
  1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar and water in a clean bright pan, add the cream
of tartar and boil up sharply to a weak crack, 300; pour the batch on
oiled slab; turn in the edges, fold the boil over, then put in powdered
acid with a few drops of lemon; knead the whole together, working one
end down to a point; draw it out the required thickness, the full length
of the plate, cut it off, then do another length likewise, repeating the
operation until the boil is worked up; keep the first piece in shape by
occasionally rolling them while the remainder of the boil is being
pulled out and shaped. When the boil is finished, and the sticks cold,
snip them off in lengths with scissors. An assistant is very useful to
keep the sticks in motion while the boil is being worked up or they may
become flat.


PEPPERMINT STICKS.

Dark brown with light stripes.

  8 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  Peppermint Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Bring the sugar, glucose and water to the degree of crack in
the usual way; pour the batch on the slab; work in the flavors; cut off
a piece about 1-1/2 pounds from the boil and pull it over hook until
light and satiny, then roll the pulled sugar out into a long stick, cut
it into six pieces of equal length and lay them on the solid boil
longways and equal distances apart, then roll the boil into shape, bring
down one end to a point; pull out into convenient lengths, twisting
them so that the stripes form a pretty spiral round the stick.

N.B.--For the stripes in this case, white sugar is often used and looks
much better, but to do so two pans are necessary, one may be a small
saucepan to boil two pounds. The white sugar is boiled separately in the
ordinary way, otherwise, process, would be exactly as described.


LEMON STICKS.

  Pulled yellow centre with yellow case.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs Glucose.
  Yellow Paste Color.
  3 pints Water.
  Lemon Essence.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to a weak crack; pour the
batch on oiled slab; work in color and flavor; cut off one-third and
pull over the hook until of a bright yellow satiny appearance; remove it
from the hook; spread out the plain sugar and lay the pulled in the
centre; case it nicely all round with solid, then commence to roll;
bring one end down to required thickness; pull out into sticks as long
as convenient, when cold snip into lengths required.


ORANGE STICKS.

  Pulled white body with one broad red and two narrow orange stripes.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  Red Coloring.
  Oil of Orange.
  Tartaric Acid.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to the weak crack, 300; pour
batch on slab; cut off about one-third of the boil; divide this into two
pieces; color one-part a deep red and the other a deep orange; mix in
the colors quickly and stand them aside on a piece of wood in a warm
place till wanted; now put the acid and flavoring into the larger
portion of the boil and pull over the hook until white and spongey;
remove it to the slab, then take the piece of red sugar and draw it out
about 18 inches long and 2-1/2 inches wide; lay it down the centre of
the pulled sugar, then take the piece of orange sugar and pull it out
about 3 feet, half the thickness of the red, cut in two and place one on
each side of the red, about two inches from it, roll, twist and pull out
the recognized thickness; when cold, snip in lengths.


CINNAMON STICKS.

Clear pink body with four narrow white stripes.

  6 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Cinnamon Flavor.
  3 pints water.
  Cherry Paste Color.

PROCESS.--Bring the sugar, glucose and water to the crack and pour out;
cut off piece and pull it white: color the body light pink, add the
flavor, prepare the four stripes as before directed, lay them on the
clear sugar, equal distance apart, roll out in lengths and snip off when
cold.


CLOVE STICKS.

Almost transparent with a tinge of red, striped with white and red
stripes alternately.

  8 lbs. Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints water.
  Cherry Paste Color.
  Oil of Cloves.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to 300; pour on the oiled
slab; cut off small portion, divide it into two, color one deep red,
pull both stripes and lay them alternately on the solid sugar, form the
boil into a roll, bring down one end, usually the left end, to a point;
pull out in long lengths and twist; when cold snip with scissors to
size.


RASPBERRY STICKS.

Pulled white centre, cased with red and striped with six narrow white
stripes.

  8 lbs. White Sugar
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints water.
  Cherry Red Paste Color.
  Raspberry Essence.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to crack 300; pour the batch
on plate; cut in half and color one half red, then flavor both halves
with essence, (raspberry and a little tartaric acid); pull one half over
the hook and cut off one third of it and lay it aside; put the other two
thirds in the centre of the red solid sugar and case it around; now lay
the remaining piece of pulled sugar in six lengths of equal thickness
and distances apart on the top of the cased boil; roll out the ball to
the required thickness, twist and snip off into lengths when cold.


TWISTED BARLEY SUGAR STICKS.

Hand Made.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints water.
  Lemon Flavoring.
  Saffron Color.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar and water in a clear, bright pan and bring to a
boil, then add the glucose: put on the lid for five minutes, continue
boiling in the usual way till it reaches crack 300; now add sufficient
coloring to tinge a golden color and pour the boil carefully over the
smooth slab, so that the sheet of sugar will not be more than the eighth
of an inch thick. When the sheet has partly set, cut it into strips one
inch wide and the whole length of the sheet with scissors. Let an
assistant take charge of the strips and twist them by taking hold of an
end in each hand and turn them in opposite directions, forming a spiral
column; when cold snip the required lengths and carefully weigh and
bottle. To make these goods the operators must be very quick in their
movements. The slab must be warm on which the sugar is poured, as the
thin sticks cool so fast and get brittle.


PEPPERMINT BULL'S EYES.

For cornered drops cut at angles, black with white stripes.

  8 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs Glucose.
  3 pints water.
  Peppermint Flavor.

PROCESS.--The process is exactly the same as for peppermint stick, viz;
boil the sugar water and glucose to weak crack, 300; pour the boil on
oiled plate, flavor with peppermint and work well up; in a smaller pan
have two pounds of white sugar, with the usual proportion of cream of
tartar and water boiled to the same degree; pull this over the hook
until white and porous; remove it to the plate and work it down into
lengths about one inch thick; lay them longways on the solid boil, equal
distances apart; make the whole boil into a thick roll, bringing one end
down to a point; draw off as for one cent sticks, but thicker; then with
scissors snip them off in pieces about an inch long. Hold the scissors
in the right hand, the sugar in the left; every time you make a clip
turn the sugar half way round, so that the corners of each cushion will
be at opposite angles.


BULL'S EYES, (Various.)

The formula given for the different kinds of sugar sticks will answer
for the variety of bull's eyes. The process and ingredients are
precisely alike. The sticks may or may not be drawn out a little
thicker, according to the size of drop required. Cream of tartar may be
substituted for glucose in all recipes given for boiled goods. The sugar
is not boiled quite so high for hand goods or pulled sugar as it is for
machine drops; being a little lower it works better, keeps longer
pliable, and is less brittle when cold.


ROUND BALLS.

  8 lbs. Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Color.
  3 pints water.
  Flavor.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, water and glucose in the usual way to weak
crack, say 300; pour the boil on the slab, color and flavor to taste;
work the batch up until stiffish, then roll the boil round, getting one
end down to a point as directed for sticks, pull it off in lengths of
about three feet and about one inch thick; cut in pieces with "JACKSON
BALL CUTTER" and roll round with the hand. An expert assistant is
necessary for this operation, as the balls must be shaped while hot and
kept on the move till cold.

[Illustration: JACKSON BALL CUTTERS.

This cut represents our Improved Ball Cutter, or Press, which cuts only
one size ball; the improvement consists of a finger bar, operated by a
cam, so that each time the handle is raised the fingers throw out the
balls from between the knives.

Fig 211 a.

  No. 1 Cuts 8 balls, 1-1/8 inch diameter (with Fingerbar)}
   "  2  "  11 balls, 13-16 in.     "             "       } $15 00
   "  3  "   9 balls, 1 inch        "             "       }
]

[Illustration: Jackson Ball Cutter.

This Machine has two steel knives, and is regulated by a gauge, so that
it will cut Balls of any size.

Fig. 210 a.

Price, $5 00 ]

This general recipe will apply to all balls. For details of pulling,
striping, casing and variety the reader is referred to the various
processes given for sticks and bulls eyes. They are all made and
finished in this way. For small sizes, pull out the lengths thinner; for
large sizes, thicker.

To make the various striped balls nicely, requires practice and a good
deal of it. No amount of book learning will teach those who are quite
ignorant of sugar boiling; but at the same time if the reader has
mastered the simpler process at the beginning of the book, he is quite
capable of understanding this and working out his own ideas in this way;
but hand-made balls should not be attempted until the learner feels
confident he can manage a boil easily and quickly, because there is no
time to think after the sugar is on the slab. The manipulation must now
have been acquired to an extent so as to enable the operator to proceed
as if by instinct.


ROSE BUDS.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 pounds glucose.
  5 or 6 drops Otto of Roses.
  3 pints water.
  Cherry Paste Color.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to the degree of crack 300,
pour on oiled slab, cut off about one third for pulling, color the
larger piece a deep red and flavor with otto of roses; pull the smaller
piece over the hook till white; spread out the larger piece, lay the
pulled sugar in the middle, casing carefully round, pass through small
acid drop rollers.

N.B.--Turn the boil on its edge every time you cut a piece for the
machine, in order to keep the pulled sugar as near the centre as
possible.


RIPE PEARS.

  8 lbs Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints water.
  1 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  Cherry Red.
  Yellow Paste Color.
  1/4 oz. Essence Pear.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, add the glucose and boil to 305;
pour on slab, cut the batch into three equal parts, flavor with essence
of pear, together with a little acid, color one part deep red and one
deep yellow, pull the third portion over the hook and lay it between the
yellow and red pieces so that one side will be yellow and the other
bright red; cut off into convenient sizes and pass through large pear
drop rollers. These goods are sold either plain or crystalized.


BOILED SUGAR TOYS.

See our stock of clear toy moulds, list of which is mailed on
application. They may be had to turn out all kinds of figures, such as
dogs, cats, elephants, etc. They are very popular among the children and
sell well in certain districts, and show a handsome profit. The moulds
are generally made in two parts; they must be well oiled; the sugar
boiled as for drops. Fill the moulds full, and just before the whole
mass sets, pour as much of the sugar out as will run; this will leave
only a thin coating which cling to the sides of the shapes and will
easily come out when the mould is parted, then you have the figures
complete but hollow. Boiled sugar whistles are made exactly the same
way.


TO CRYSTALIZE BOILED SUGAR GOODS.

Several descriptions of boiled sugars are sold crystalized, which look
very pretty and stand exposure to the atmosphere better. The process is
very simple and may be done with little trouble. When the drops have
been made and set, break them up and sift them well in a coarse sieve,
now shake them over a pan which is boiling, so that they get damped by
steam, and throw them in a heap of crystal sugar; mix them well up, so
that the sugar adheres to the drops uniformly: now sift them out of the
sugar again and they will dry in a few minutes and be ready for packing.
Another method is, when the drops have been made and sifted, to have a
thin solution of gum or gelatine and shake it over them and rub them all
together till damp all over; now throw over them sufficient crystal
sugar to coat them and mix them up; when dry sift again and pack.

N.B.---When being crystalized the goods should be warm, not hot, or
they will candy. Large French pears should be crystalized by the latter
process and be almost cold during the operation; being bulky they
retain the heat a long time, and therefore have a great tendency to
grain.


IMITATION INDIAN CORN.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Yellow Color.
  3 pints Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to weak crack, 305; pour the
boil on slab, flavor with lemon and color yellow; cut this boil in two
and pull one-half over the hook; roll the pulled half out in lengths
about the size of a corn pod; now put the plain yellow sugar through the
Tom Thumb drop rollers, loosening the screws a little, and ease the
pulled sugar with sheets from the machine; if done carefully, the result
will be a good imitation of real Indian corn.


POPCORN BALLS.

Roast the corn berries over a smokeless fire in a corn popper (get our
price for corn poppers); keep shaking until every berry has burst; boil
sufficient sugar and water to the degree of feather, 245; add to each 7
lbs. syrup, four ounces of dissolved gum arabic; wet the popped corn in
this syrup, and roll them in fine pulverized sugar until coated all
over, then lay them aside; when dry repeat the coating process in the
same manner until they have taken up the desired thickness of sugar.
Weigh or measure sufficient coated berries, according to size of ball
required, moisten them with thin syrup, partly form the ball by hand,
then put it in a pop corn ball press and press tightly into shape, then
form into balls in the usual way with pop corn ball press.

[Illustration: Pop Corn Ball Press

Makes Balls 3-1/2 inches diameter, has brass cups top and bottom, so
arranged that the ball is pushed out of the cup at each operation.

Any Size Ball made to order.

Price complete any size Ball, $35 00

Fig. 208 a.]


POPCORN BRICKS.

PROCESS.--The corn berries are prepared as for balls; boil brown sugar
in the proportion of 8 lbs. sugar and two pounds molasses to ball, 250;
pour the syrup over the corn and thoroughly mix them; press them
immediately into oiled tins. The process should be done quickly and the
seeds pressed as tightly together as possible; when cold they are ready
for sale and may be cut to size with sharp knife.

[Illustration: POP CORN HAND BALL PRESS.

  2    in. diameter      Price     $4 00
  2-1/2 "    "            "         4 00
  3     "    "            "         4 00
  3-1/2 "    "            "         5 00
  4     "    "            "         5 00
  Egg Shape 3-1/8 × 2-1/4 "         5 00

Fig. 209 a.]


POP CORN CAKES.

PROCESS.--Prepare the corn as for balls and pack them closely into
strong square tins slightly oiled with olive oil of best quality; boil
to crack, sufficient brown sugar and glucose for quantity required and
pour the hot syrup over the pop corns, just enough to make them adhere.
When cold cut them up with a sharp knife the size.

[Illustration: CORN POPPERS--Made Very Strong.

  1/2 Peck         $2 00
  1 Peck            2 75
  1/2 Bushel        3 75
  1 Bushel          4 75

Fig. 523.]


JAP NUGGETS NO. 1.

  2 lbs. White Sugar.
  4 lbs. Glucose.
  4 lbs. Desiccated Cocoanut unsweetened.
  Yellow Coloring.
  1-1/2 lbs. Farina.
  2 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Mix the ingredients in copper pan; boil on a slow fire to
stiff ball, 250, stirring all the time; add coloring to fancy; when
ready, pour carefully on an oiled plate, making the sheet about half an
inch thick; when cold, dust with pulverized sugar and cut up with sharp
knife to size.

N.B.--A few loose iron bars are useful to form a square on the pouring
plate, in proportion to size of boil; that the exact thickness of sheet
may be determined.

[Illustration: PATENT CANDY CUTTER.

For Cutting Caramels, Japanese Cocoanut, and all kind of Bar Candies.

Cuts all thicknesses up to one inch, and all widths up to one and
one-quarter inches.

Moving Bed of Machine is 32 inches long and 9 inches wide. Will cut 1500
pounds of Candy per day.

One of the handiest and most useful all round Machines a man can buy.

Price, $75 00]


JAP NUGGETS NO. 2.

  2 lbs. White Sugar.
  4 lbs. Good Brown.
  5 lbs. Desiccated Cocoanut.
  7 lbs. Glucose.
  2-1/2 lbs. Farina.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar, glucose and water in the pan; place it on a
slow fire; stir in the cocoanut and farina and boil to stiff ball, 255,
keeping it well stirred. Pour on an oiled slab, and cut up to size; when
set, dust with powdered sugar. In large factories where this candy is
made, machinery plays an important part. In fact the manipulation is
practically all done by mechanism. There is the desiccator for preparing
the cocoanuts, the steam pans, which are fitted with beaters revolving
inside, fixed with chains and weights for lifting them out, so that the
cans may be emptied and cleaned without trouble; also plates for rolling
out sheets to size, and cutting machines which cut the nuggets any size,
the machine being so arranged that by simply altering a pawl on a
ratchet wheel the size of the nuggets is determined. Where this
elaborate arrangement exists our formula would neither be desirable nor
necessary, nor do we pretend to suggest or advise. However, many tons
are made in the ordinary boiling shop with the usual appliances and
conveniences, and it is to assist people thus situated is the principal
object of this book.


JAP NUGGETS NO. 3.

  4 lbs. Good Brown Sugar.
  3-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  4 lbs. Desiccated Cocoanut Unsweetened.
  2 lbs. Farina.

PROCESS.--As before, brown coloring should be used if required dark; it
makes goods look richer; when the boil is cut up the nuggets should be
thrown into pulverized sugar.


VANILLA NOUGAT (Common.)

  12 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. glucose.
  1/2 oz. Essence Vanilla.
  4 lbs. Sweet Almonds small.
  3 pints water.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar, glucose and water in a clean pan, place it on a
sharp fire and stir until dissolved; then put on the cover and let it
boil for five or six minutes; now remove the lid and continue to boil to
soft ball degree; now pour the contents on a damp slab (one over which
water has been sprinkled); when cool take a long flat spatula and work
the sugar about until it becomes white and creamy; now add the almonds
(which have been previously blanched and dried), together with the
vanilla essence; keep working up the whole until of uniform consistency;
now spread the mass on wafer paper in sheets one inch thick, cover the
sheets with wafer paper, rolling the top smooth; when set cut into bars.
Should the cream be a little thin add some icing sugar when mixing; if
boiled properly this is not required. Most cheap Nougats now in the
market are made more or less according to this formula, color and flavor
differently for variety.


ICE CREAM CONFECTIONERY.

Boil 7 lbs. of loaf sugar with three pints of water: add a small
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, allow it to boil for 10 minutes, then
add one pound of fresh butter: it will then commence to froth up, and
care must be taken that the pan is large enough, as the syrup will
occupy twice the space than if there had been no butter added; boil this
mixture to the degree of very weak crack, or 285 by the thermometer, at
which point it is done; pour it on the slab, which has been of course
previously greased. As soon as it begins to cool, turn it up and knead
it until it gets stiff enough to pull over the hook. When on the hook
pull it sharp till it gets white as snow. This white is usually flavored
with vanilla or oil of lemon. It may be either pulled out in bars or
left in the heap. It is very easily broken in small pieces for retail
purposes. In the summer or hot weather keep this candy from the air, or
it will be inclined to be sticky. This eats very rich and commands good
sale at best prices.


RASPBERRY AND STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM CONFECTIONERY.

This is made exactly as the last with the addition of a little red color
before the boil is poured out, or it may be colored on the slab; add a
little essence of raspberry or strawberry and a pinch of tartaric acid
just before pulling the boil. Color the raspberry a little deeper than
the strawberry.


CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM.

To make chocolate ice cream, boil the same quantities as before
precisely in the same way in every particular. When the sugar has been
pulled out, work well into it 1/2 lb. powdered chocolate; knead this
well up in order that the chocolate may be well mixed with the sugar.
Put in sufficient chocolate to give the boil a dark brown color,
otherwise it would be too light when pulled.


VANILLA CARAMELS.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  2 Tins Condensed milk.
  2 pints water.
  Vanilla Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to the degree of ball 250;
remove the pan a little from the fire, add the milk and butter, the
latter cut into little pieces and well stir in with wooden spatula until
the whole is thoroughly mixed, then gently bring the mass through the
boil and pour out on greased slab, making the sheet about 1/2 inch
thick; when set cut with caramel cutter, and when cold separate the
squares and wrap in wax paper.


COCOANUT CARAMELS.

  8 lbs. Sugar.
  2 lbs. glucose.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  1-1/2 lbs. Desiccated Cocoanut, unsweetened.
  2 Tins Condensed Milk.
  2 pints water.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, add the glucose and boil up to
ball 250; remove the pan to side, then stir in the butter, milk and
cocoanut, bring through the boil, pour on slab or in frames about 1/2
inch thick; when set mark with caramel cutter; when cold separate and
wrap in wax paper.

[Illustration: CLADS PATTERN COCOANUT GRATER.

Extra Strong, Two Graters. Clamps to Table or Bench, $1 50

Fig. 21.

Citron and Cocoanut Cutter.

No. 1 Large Price, $1 20

A very handy and useful slicer. Durable and cheap.]


RASPBERRY CARAMELS.

  8 lbs. Sugar.
  2 lbs. glucose.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  Brilliant Rose Color.
  1 lb. Raspberry Pulp or Jam.
  2 Tins Condensed milk.
  2 pints water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to weak crack 250; remove
the pan to side of fire, add the milk, butter (cut small) and jam; stir
the whole together, replacing the pan on the fire; add sufficient
coloring; keep stirring all the time until the whole comes through the
boil; pour out, mark with set, divide and wrap when cold.


WALNUT CARAMELS.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  1 lb. Shelled Walnuts broken small.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  Saffron Coloring.
  2 tins Condensed Milk.
  2 pints Water.

PROCESS.--As above, caramels require careful watching and a lot of
stirring, the boil being liable to catch and flow over; fire must not be
too fierce; when too hot put an iron under one side of the pan to keep
it up a little from the fire; keep constantly on the stir after butter
and flavoring ingredients are added.


CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.

  8 lbs. Good Sugar.
  1/2 lb. Pure Chocolate unsweetened.
  2 lbs Glucose.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  Vanilla Flavoring.
  2 pints Water.
  2 tins Condensed Milk.

PROCESS.--When the sugar, glucose and water have been boiled to the
degree of ball, 250, and the milk, butter and chocolate have all
dissolved and incorporated, bring gently through the boil, then pour out
on oiled slab or in frames; when set, mark deeply with caramel cutter;
when cold, separate with sharp knife and wrap in wax paper.


VANILLA CARAMELS NO. 1 Quality.

  6 lbs. Sugar.
  2 quarts Sweet Cream.
  Essence of Vanilla.
  15 lbs. Fresh Butter.
  4 lbs. Glucose.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar, glucose and cream in the pan; put it on a slow
fire and stir constantly; let it boil to a stiff ball, then add the
butter; keep stirring, when it has well boiled through, remove the pan
from the fire; flavor with vanilla extract: pour out on oiled plate;
mark when set with caramel cutter; when cold, divide with sharp knife
and wrap each caramel in wax paper.


VANILLA CARAMELS, No. 2 Quality.

  5 lbs. Sugar.
  1 lb. Fresh Butter.
  3 pints New Milk.
  1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar.
  2 pints water.
  Vanilla Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, milk and water with the cream of tartar on a
slow fire, stir all the time till it reaches a stiff ball, add the
extract of vanilla and stir it gently; remove the pan from the fire and
pour contents on oiled slab; mark deep with caramel cutter when set;
when cold separate with sharp knife. These caramels should be cream
color.


MAPLE CARAMELS.

By using pure maple, maple caramels may be made precisely as vanilla;
the flavor of the maple sugar is sufficient without any artificial
essence. These caramels will of course be dark.


RASPBERRY AND STRAWBERRY CARAMELS.

These flavors may be used in either of the last two recipes--best
quality according to the first, second quality as to the second. Walnut,
cocoanut, etc., may be added for other flavors.


CHOCOLATE CARAMELS No. 1 Quality.

  6 lbs. Best Sugar.
  4 lbs. Glucose.
  1-1/2 lbs. Pure Chocolate, Unsweetened.
  2 quarts Sweet Cream.
  1-1/2 lbs. Fresh Butter.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar and cream in the pan, stir it well together,
then add the glucose; let it boil to a stiff ball, ease the pan off the
fire a little and put in the butter in little pieces, then the
chocolate; keep stirring together; bring the mass through the boil, then
add extract of vanilla; remove the pan and pour contents on oiled slab,
making the sheet about 1/2 inch thick; mark deep with caramel cutter
when set; divide with sharp knife when cold and wrap in paper.


CHOCOLATE CARAMEL, No. 2 Quality.

  5 lbs. Sugar.
  3/4 lb. Fresh Butter.
  1 quart of New Milk.
  3/4 lb. Pure Chocolate, Unsweetened.
  1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the milk, add the cream of tartar and boil
to the degree of ball; ease the pan a little off the fire and stir in
the butter and chocolate; bring the whole to a boil, add extract of
vanilla, then remove the pan and pour contents on the slab; mark and
separate as directed on last.


UNWRAPPED CARAMELS.

Caramels have usually been sold wrapped in wax paper. This is necessary
when the goods are boiled very low and contain a large proportion of
glucose. Like other caramels the ingredients vary, but the following
will answer the purpose:--

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  1/2 lb. Fresh Butter.
  1 Tin Condensed Milk, or one quart Sweet Cream.
  3 pints water.
  Vanilla Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to weak crack 285; remove
the pan from the fire, add the butter and milk, stir gently until
dissolved, add the flavoring just before the stirring is finished, then
pour contents on oiled slab; when cool enough cut with caramel cutter.
If required crinkly on top; run over the sheet with a corded rolling pin
just before cutting.

[Illustration: BUTTERCUP OR MIXED DROP MACHINE.

This Machine is used for Cutting Buttercups, and a large variety of
other Candies. Has saw teeth for making crimped edged buttercups. Very
quick working machine.

Price, $19 00 ]

[Illustration: LATEST THING OUT.

NEW SATINETTE PRESS.

Buttercups and Satinettes will have a very large sale this season.

Purchase one of our Machines and make your own.

The Machine will pay for itself in a short time, besides you can always
have fresh made goods.

Price      $15.00]

[Illustration: Cullums Patent Buttercup Cutter.

No. 1.

No. 2.

Fingers for Buttercup Cutters.

This is a Machine every Confectioner should have for cutting Buttercups,
Drops, &c.

No. 1 Machine is same as No. 2, but is 24 inches long, 3 inches wide,
will cut 70 pieces at one movement, and is the cheapest Machine ever put
on the market. Price, $5 00

No. 2 Machine is 34 inches long, 4 inches wide, cuts 150 pieces, giving
them a fine cushion shape and glossy appearance. Cuts three times as
fast as any roller. Comparatively no waste or cracked Buttercups with
this Machine. Cut represents Lifter, the fingers of which fit into the
knives of the Machine so that the 150 pieces of candy can be removed by
one movement. Price, $14 00

Machine with Teeth to form Buttercup with Stitched Edges. Price, $20 00]


BUTTERCUPS.

These beautiful candies are very popular; they are pleasing both to the
eye and the palate when they are well made, but they must be kept air
tight or they will soon lose all their attractiveness and become a
sticky mass, as they have a great tendency to "sweat." In order to
prevent this as much as possible it is advisable to use a little borax
in each boil. The process is simple enough, but must be worked quickly,
in fact the beauty depends upon the rapid manipulation of the sugar over
the hook; keep the eye fixed on the color; as soon as it becomes a
glossy satin with a close grain it is finished; lift it off the hook
immediately and return to the slab for casing. Do not carry on the
pulling operation until it becomes spongy, and be careful not to use too
much color; the tints should be light and delicate when finished.
Machines are made for cutting buttercups, price $6.00 and $14.00, each
machine. Crimped edge machine, $20.00 each. _Get our price list._


VANILLA BUTTERCUPS.

  7 lbs. Best White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Fondant Paste.
  1 lb. Desiccated Cocoanut, fine.
  Green color.
  1 teaspoonful Cream of Tartar.
  1 quart water.
  Borax.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar in the boiling pan
and boil up to crack 310 in the ordinary way; while the pan is on the
fire, take the fondant paste and work into it the desiccated cocoanut,
with a little essence of vanilla, and lay aside till required. When the
boil has reached the required degree pour the sugar on the slab, color
it light green, and when partly cool, pull over the hook until it
becomes a delicate satin tint; return it to the slab, press the boil
out, lay the fondant paste in the centre and case it all around with the
pulled sugar; now carefully work the one end of the boil down to a point
as for sticks and draw it out in lengths, required thickness: lay them
on the machine and press gently until cut through; the buttercups are
then ready for packing. It is advisable to work small boils of these
goods, as the casing being boiled soon gets brittle; keep turning the
bulk round on the plate so as to keep the fondant paste exactly in the
centre.


RASPBERRY COCOANUT BUTTERCUPS.

  7 lbs. Best White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Fondant Paste.
  1 lb Desiccated Cocoanut.
  1 lb. Raspberry Jam, boiled Stiff.
  1 teaspoonful cream of Tartar.
  1 quart Water.
  Carmine Color.
  Borax.

PROCESS.--Work the jam and cocoanut into the fondant paste; boil the
sugar, water and cream tartar to crack; pour on oiled slab; color light
rose tint: when partly cool, pull and work off as in the preceding
recipe and cut with buttercup machine.


COCOANUT BUTTERCUPS.

  7 lbs. Sugar.
  2 lbs. Fondant Paste.
  1 lb. Desiccated Cocoanut.
  Yellow Color.
  1 teaspoon Cream Tartar.
  1 quart Water with Borax.
  Lemon Flavor.

PROCESS.--As usual, buttercups of any sort or flavor may be made by
following the directions given, and substituting different essences,
jams, chopped nuts or almonds, and color to fancy.


BLACK CURRANT BUTTERCUPS.

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs Fondant Paste.
  1 lb. Black Currant Jam.
  1/2 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  1 teaspoonful Cream Tartar.
  1 quart Water.
  Borax.
  Purple Color.

PROCESS.--Work the jam, acid and color into the fondant paste, boil the
sugar, water and cream tartar to crack, and work off as already
described.


FONDANT CREAM WORK OR BUTTERCUP FILLING.

This branch of the business has developed wonderfully during the last
few years. This cream is not only moulded and worked into every
conceivable shape, size color and flavor by itself, but is used with
chocolate, fruits, etc., to make an endless variety of pleasing and
tasty confections. The smaller goods in this work form the body, and
sometimes the whole, of many beautiful mixtures, and no window can now
be considered orthodox unless they have a good display of these goods.
For our purpose the variety is a matter of detail which we only mention
to remind the reader that he must look for the greater part of it
outside the covers of this guide. The process is practically the same
all through; the mixing, flavors, colors and shapes make whatever
distinction there is. It will only be necessary to give a fair selection
of formulas to enable the reader to imitate anything he sees in this
line, or invent something new.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. a

Asbestos Gas Batch Warmer or Spinning Furnace.--Two Sizes.

32 inches long, price $15.00. Can be used in sections if desired.]


RASPBERRY & VANILLA FONDANTS.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Raspberry and Vanilla Flavor.
  3 pints water.
  Carmine Color.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water in the usual way to the
degree of soft ball; then remove the pan from the fire; damp the
pouring plate with cold water; pour the boil on it and let it remain
till nearly cold. With a long pallette knife or wooden spatula, commence
to work the syrup until it changes to a white glossy cream; then divide
the batch into two; put one part in the pan and remelt it, just enough
to make it a consistency to mould, add vanilla flavor and run it into
rubber moulds; now put the other portion in the pan and remelt; color it
a light pink; flavor with essence of raspberry and mould in the same
shapes; when the goods are set and cold crystalize them with cold syrup.

N.B.--Have everything very clean when making fondants; every speck will
show; a touch of blue will make the white a better color.


CHOCOLATE & VANILLA FONDANTS.

  10 lbs White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Vanilla Flavoring.
  3 pints Water.
  1/2 lb. Pure Chocolate.

PROCESS.--Prepare the fondant creams as in last recipe; when the boil
has been creamed, divide into two, one part being twice the size of the
other, put the small portion in the pan to remelt, adding the chocolate
paste; stir until paste is dissolved and incorporated, but do not let
the cream boil; remove the pan from the fire; run chocolate cream in
rubber moulds filling the impressions only one-third part full; then
melt the white cream, flavor with vanilla and fill up the moulds; when
set crystalize in cold syrup; each fondant will be in two colors, white
tipped with chocolate.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Batch Warmer or Gas Candy Heater. Price $5.00.]


COCOANUT FONDANTS.

  9 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  1-1/2 lbs. Fine Desiccated Cocoanut, Unsweetened.
  Carmine Color.
  3 pints Water.
  Lemon Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Proceed to make the cream as before directed and divide the
batch into two equal parts: remelt one part and stir in half the
desiccated cocoanut with a few drops of lemon; half fill moulds; remelt
the other portion of cream; stir in the remainder of the cocoanut; color
pink, adding a few drops of essence lemon, and fill up the moulds;
crystalize the usual way in cold syrup.


STRAWBERRY FONDANTS.

  9 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Carmine Coloring.
  2 lbs. Strawberry Jam.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to a soft ball degree, pour
the batch on pouring plate, which has been previously damped with cold
water, let the boil remain till nearly cold, then with a wooden spatula
work the syrup about till it becomes cream, then mix in jam; return the
whole to the pan and remelt, add sufficient color to make a bright pink,
then run into moulds; when set, crystalize in cold syrup.


CHERRY FONDANTS.

  10 lbs. Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Cherry Flavor.
  3 pints Water.
  Carmine and Saffron Color.

PROCESS.--Select some large, preserved cherries, cut them in half. Boil
the sugar, glucose and water in the ordinary way to ball degree, pour
the batch on a damp pouring plate; when nearly cold work up the whole
with spatula till it becomes a white glossy cream, working the flavor in
at the same time; then divide into three equal portions, color one
portion a bright pink and another a yellow, leaving the third white;
knead each portion into stiff paste, adding a little icing sugar to make
it tough; pinch off small pieces and form them into balls about the size
of the cherry, make them a little flat on one side; on this flat part
stick a half cherry, squeezing them into shape; place them in canvas
trays and put them in the drying room for a few hours to harden;
afterwards crystalize with cold syrup. Other preserved fruits may be
used in same way.


FONDANTS FOR MIXTURES.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Flavors Various.
  3 pints Water.
  Colors Various.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water as before directed to a
stiff ball and pour the sugar on damp slab; let it stand till nearly
cold, then work it up with spatula till glossy cream; divide the boil
into as many portions as you want colors; then remelt this cream, color
and flavor to fancy; run the batch into moulds of different shapes. When
the fondants are set, crystalize in cold syrup. Fondants for mixture are
made a trifle harder to prevent being crushed with other sweets with
which they are mixed.


TO CRYSTALIZE FONDANTS

  13 lbs. Best White Sugar.
  4 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Boil this quantity of sugar and water for a few minutes, about
220 degrees by the thermometer; stand it aside undisturbed till quite
cold. Pack the fondants in crystalizing tins, putting wire trays between
each layer of say two inches deep; let the wire trays take a bearing on
the ends of the tin; when the tin is full, cover the goods with cold
syrup, putting a damp cloth over the top; stand the tins in a cool place
in the drying room about ten hours; then remove them to a cold place;
about an hour afterwards take out the plugs and drain off the
superfluous syrup; when the fondants are dry, turn the tins on end,
giving them a slight knock and empty them on clean trays; they will be
ready for packing in an hour or so.

N.B.--If a thin skin forms over the top of the syrup, skim it off before
draining the goods; it may tend to granulate them, but the damp cloth
ought to prevent this skin forming.


CHRISTMAS FANCIES--CLEAR TOY MOULDS.

There are a great number of fancies made from grain sugars sold about
Christmas time. Their beauty and attractiveness depends upon the moulds
in which they are moulded, and the taste displayed in painting or
decorating them. The goods themselves are quite a secondary
consideration, being so simple to make.

PROCESS.--Boil 7 lbs. sugar, 1 lb. glucose, 2 pints water in the usual
way to the degree of ball 250, by thermometer; remove it from the fire
and rub the sugar against the side of the pan until thick and white;
stir it all together, then fill the moulds through the runner. Too much
sugar must not be boiled at one time, or it will set before it can be
all run into the moulds; two or three pounds will be enough for a
beginner to practice with. They will be hard enough to be taken out of
the moulds in fifteen to thirty minutes, according to size after being
run, and they will be ready for decorating.


ARTIFICIAL FIGURES.

Fruit, eggs, and any object may be taken from nature by this process, to
be transformed into sugar, afterwards glazed, colored to imitate nature
so exactly as to deceive many persons. Boil the sugar in exactly the
same way as directed in the previous recipe, grain it and fill the
moulds; in a few minutes run out as much sugar as will leave the mould;
this will cause the casting to be hollow in the centre. Allow your
articles to imitate the natural objects which they represent with liquid
colors and camel's hair pencils; if gloss is required the colors should
be mixed with a strong solution of gum arabic or isinglass to the
desired tint.


COMPOSITION CLEAR TOY MOULDS.

Made from Finest Quality of Metal.

The Moulds marked thus X we have always in stock. Any others made to
order.

     No.      Name.            No. in Mould.  No. to Lb.   Price.

  x   1 Horse and Man large           3          16        $2 60
  x   2 Horse, small                  3          48         1 30
  x   3 General on Horse              3          27         1 30
  x   4 Horse                         4          45         1 30
      5 Horse, small                  4          55         1 30
  x   6 Cow                           3          38         1 30
  x   7 Sheep                         4          30         1 30
  x   8 Dog, large                    3          43         1 30
  x   9 Dog, medium                   3          48         1 30
     10 Dog, small                    3          55         1 30
  x  11 Monkey on Horse               3          35         1 30
  x  12 Cat, large                    3          28         1 30
  x  13 Cat, small                    4          32         1 30
  x  14 Rat                           4          32         1 30
     15 Deer, small                   3          32         1 65
     16 Camel                         3          45         1 30
  x  17 Rabbit, large                 3          16         1 30
  x  18 Rabbit, medium                4          24         1 30
  x  19 Rabbit, small                 4          38         1 30
  x  20 Lady on Swan                  3          30         1 30
     21 Chicken                       3          38         1 30
  x  22 Rooster                       3          35         1 30
     23 Eagle                         3          35         1 30
  x  24 Crow                          3          40         1 65
     25 Bear                          4          35         1 30
     26 Baby, large                   3          32         1 65
     27 Baby, small                   3          30         1 30
     28 Jim Crow                      3          64         1 30
  x  29 Man and Wheelbarrow           3          55         1 65
     30 Woman and Churn               4          48         1 30
     31 Hand                          3          38         1 30
     32 Basket and Flowers            3          38         1 30
     33 Acorn                         3          30         1 30
     34 Harp                          3          31         1 30
  x  35 Fireman                       3          24         1 30
  x  36 Tom Thumb                     3          48         1 30
  x  37 Soldier                       4          48         1 30
     38 Steamboat                     3          48         1 30
  x  39 Locomotive                    3          43         1 30
  x  40 Sloop                         3          43         1 30
     41 Flat Iron                     4          48         1 30
     42 Key                           3          35         1 30
     43 Skate                         3          55         1 30
     44 Pistol                        3          48         1 30
  x  45 Shovel                        3          27         1 30
     46 Scissors                      3          43         1 30
     47 Fiddle                        4          38         1 30
     48 Bugle                         3          55         1 30
  x  49 Watch                         3          21         1 30
     50 Basket with handle            3          31         1 30
  x  51 Flower Basket, handle         3          28         1 30
  x  52 Pitcher, small                3          33         1 30
     53 Rocking Horse, small          3          35         1 30
  x  54 Three Figures                 3          48         1 30
  x  55 Rabbit and Basket             4          16         1 65
  x  56 Locomotive, large             3          14         1 30
  x  57 Church on Hill                3          18         1 30
     58 Tea Pot                       3          48         1 30
  x  59 Lion                          3          70         1 30
     60 Sword                         3          27         1 30
     61 Boy and Goat                  3          43         1 30
  x  62 Watch, small                  3          45         1 30
  x  63 Donkey                        3          55         1 30
     64 Elephant                      3          43         1 30
     65 Caught in the Act             3          48         1 30
     66 Ladders                       3          40         1 30
  x  67 Horse and Cart                3          28         1 30
  x  68 Sparrow                       3          19         1 30
     69 Small Boat                    3          43         1 30
     70 Locomotive, small             3          28         1 30
     71 Pitchers                      3          31         1 65
  x  72 Sugar Bowl                    3          21         1 65
     73 Tea Cup                       3          40         1 30
  x  74 Coffee Cup                    3          21         1 30
     75 Saucers                       3          35         1 30
  x  76 Tea Pot                       3          12         2 60
     77 Wine Glass                    3          41         1 65
     78 Wash Tub                      3          33         2 00
     79 Flower Vase                   3          23         1 65
     80 Round Table                   3          31         1 65
     81 Gun                           4          48         1 30
     82 Pistol                        4          32         2 00
     83 Pocket Knife                  4          38         1 30
     84 Dirk                          4          40         1 30
     85 Rooster, small                5          55         1 30
     86 Crucifix                      5          32         2 00
     87 Axe                           4          48         1 30
     88 Pipe                          6          21         2 00
     89 Ass                           5          48         1 30
  x  90 Deer Lying Down               3          25         1 30
     91 Mule                          3          21         1 30
  x  92 Dog, large                    3          12         2 00
  x  93 Dog with Basket               3          12         2 00
  x  94 Dog standing with Basket      3          15         1 65
  x  95 Peacock                       3          21         1 65
     96 Decanter                      3          19         1 65
  x  97 Boots                         5          27         1 65
     98 Plain Basket with Handle      3          23         1 65
     99 Wine Glass, large             3          18         2 00
  x 100 Fire Horn                     3          21         2 00
    101 Squirrel and Box              5          33         1 65
    102 Broom                         3          13         1 65
  x 103 Bust of Napoleon              4          20         2 00
    104 Ladys                         3          28         1 65
  x 105 Cupid                         3          21         1 65
    106 Rabbit                        3          10         2 60
    107 Fish on Plate                 3          19         1 65
  x 108 Rooster                       3          14         1 65
  x 109 Owl                           3          16         1 65
  x 110 Cupid and Basket              8          19         1 65
  x 111 Pony                          3          18         1 65
  x 112 Dog                           3          15         1 65
  x 113 Cat and Dog Fighting          3          18         1 65
    114 Grasshopper                   3          13         2 60
  x 115 Steamboat                     3          19         1 30
  x 116 Sea Lion                      3          12         1 65
  x 117 Rhinoceros                    3          15         1 65
  x 118 Tiger                         3          15         1 65
  x 119 Bear, small                   3          20         1 65
    120 Bear, Medium                  3          16         1 65
  x 121 Bear, large                   3           8         2 60
  x 122 Ape                           3          14         1 65
  x 123 Large Hand                    3          11         1 65
  x 124 Bear sitting up               3          16         1 65
  x 125 Camel                         3          18         1 65
  x 126 Squirrel                      3          13         1 65
    127 Horse Jumping                 3          30         1 65
  x 128 Lamb Lying Down               3          14         1 65
    129 Sugar Bowl                    3          21         1 65
    130 Double Pointed Iron           3          16         1 65
    131 Boy on Rocking Horse          3          19         2 00
    132 Elephant                      6          21         2 00
    133 Captain Jack                  3          18         1 65
    134 Frog Smoking                  3          16         1 65
    135 Swan                          3          18         1 65
    136 Trumpet                       3          16         1 65
    137 Boots                         3          19         1 30
  x 138 Elephant                      3          14         1 65
  x 139 Monkey on Camel               3          20         1 65
  x 140 Cupid on Lion                 3          18         1 65
    141 Rabbit                        4          25         1 65
    142 Monkey Dressed in Soldier
          Clothes                     3          24         1 30
    143 Pipe                          6          33         2 00
  x 144 Sloop                         3          12         2 00
  x 145 Rabbit and Wheelbarrow        3           6         2 60
  x 146 Lamb, large                   4          14         2 60
  x 147 Monkey on Camel               3           8         2 60
  x 148 Boy and Large Lamb            3          11         2 60
  x 149 Pig                           3          18         1 65
    150 Dog in Kennel                 3          15         1 65
  x 151 Fancy Clock                   3          18         1 65
    152 Small Boy                     3          30         1 65
  x 153 Mazeppa                       3          13         2 00
    154 Crane                         3          15         2 00
    155 Squirrel                      3          10         2 00
    156 Boy Riding Dog                3          18         2 00
    157 Goat Jumping                  3          16         1 65
  x 158 Cow and Calf                  3          23         1 65
    159 Organ Grinder with Monkey     3          24         1 65
    160 Chriskingle Deer and Sleigh   2          10         1 65
  x 161 Basket                        3          19         1 65
  x 162 Baby in Cradle                3          16         1 65
  x 163 Horse                         3          20         1 65
  x 164 Soldier Boy                   3          13         1 65
    165 French Lady                   4          15         2 00
    166 Fancy Bottles                 4          12         1 65
    167 Boy Stealing Apples           3          13         2 00
  x 168 Hussar                        3           9         1 65
    169 Scotchman                     3          11         1 65
    170 Rabbit Soldier                3           9         2 00
    171 Rabbit Drummer                3           9         2 00
  x 172 Rabbit Sportsman              3          16         1 65
  x 173 Railroad Car                  3          18         1 30
    174 Fancy Tea Kettle              3          11         1 65
    175 Spread Eagle                  2           7         1 65
  x 176 Chinaman and Dog              3          13         2 00
    177 Rabbit Traveller              3          16         1 65
  x 178 Frog on Bicycle               3          15         2 00
    179 Ostrich                       3          12         2 00
    180 Tramp                         3          12         1 65
    181 Fox                           2          12         1 30
  x 182 Horse and Jockey              3          19         2 00
    183 Piggyback                     3          16         1 65
    184 Fancy Pitcher, large          3          13         2 00
  x 185 Sail Boat                     3          15         2 00
  x 186 Irishman and Pig              3          15         2 00
    187 Monkey and Piggyback          3          15         2 00
    188 Policeman and Boy             3          14         2 00
    189 Dog and Deer                  3          12         2 00
  x 190 Boy and Bicycle               3          18         2 00
    191 Owl on Tree                   3          12         2 00
    192 Puss in Boots                 3          10         2 00
  x 193 Kangaroo                      3          11         2 00
  x 194 Giraffe                       3          12         2 00
  x 195 Fancy Pipe                    2          12         2 00
  x 196 Rifle                         4          38         1 30
    197 Irishman                      3          23         1 30
  x 198 Chinaman                      3          19         1 30
  x 199 Israelite                     2          10         1 30
    200 Uncle Sam                     3          23         1 30
    201 Dutchman                      3          16         1 30
  x 202 Dog Sitting Up                3          12         1 65
    203 Basket                        3          14         2 00
    204 Dog Running                   3          21         1 30
    205 Shears                        3          38         1 30
    206 Shovel                        3          21         1 30


LARGE MOULDS FOR HOLLOW OR CLEAR TOYS.

    No.     Name.                      Size.  No. in Mould.  Price.

     1 Deer                            5 × 7            1    $4 00
     2 Deer                            3 × 7            1     2 60
     3 Horse                           5-1/2 × 5-1/2    1     6 75
  *  4 Horse                           2-1/2 × 2-1/2    1     1 00
     5 Horse                           2-1/2 × 2-1/2    2     2 00
     6 Horse                           3 × 2-1/2        1     1 00
  *  7 Horse                           2 × 2-1/2        3     2 00
  *  8 Camel                           3 × 3            1     1 65
     9 Camel                           5-1/2 × 5-1/2    1     6 75
    10 Elephant                        3 × 5            1     2 00
    11 Elephant and Boy                3 × 3            1     1 30
  * 12 Goat                            3 × 2-3/4        2     2 00
  * 13 Cat                             5 × 4-1/2        1     2 60
    14 Cat                             3 × 4-1/2        1     2 00
    15 Dog                             6 × 4            1     6 75
    16 Dog Lying Down                  3-1/2 × 5-1/2    1     2 60
    17 Dog                             3-1/2 × 4-1/2    2     3 10
    18 Wm. Penn                        5-1/2 high       1     2 00
  * 19 Indian                          5-7/8 high       1     2 00
    20 Rooster                         5 × 3-1/2        1     2 00
    21 Rooster                         3-1/2 × 3        1     1 00
    22 Locomotive                      10 × 5-1/2       1    13 00
    23 Locomotive, Rabbit Engineer     3-1/2 × 3-3/4    1     2 60
    24 Basket                          2 × 6            1     9 25
    25 Basket                          4-1/2 × 4        1     2 60
    26 Priest Blessing Children        2 × 6            1     1 30
    27 Washington                      7 in. high       1     1 30
    28 U. S. Grant                     2-1/4 in. high   1     2 00
    29 Gun                             7 in. long       3     2 00
    30 Gun                             7 in. high       1     1 00
    31 Ship Full Sail                  7-1/2 × 6        1     6 75
    32 Steamboat                       6-1/2 × 4        1     6 75
    33 Rowboat                         9 in. long       1     4 00
    34 Rowboat                         6 in. long       1     1 00
  * 35 Rowboat                         2-1/2 in. long   2     2 00
    36 Whistle                                          4     2 00
    37 Whistle                                          3     1 30
    38 Spread Eagle on Half Globe      4 × 6            1     6 75
    39 Rabbit                          5 × 5            1     2 60
    40 Rabbit                          3 × 3            2     2 00
  * 41 Lamb                            4 × 6            1     2 60
    42 Lamb                            3-1/4 × 3-1/2    2     2 00
    43 Rowboat                         4-1/2 × 2-1/2    1     2 00
    44 Elephant, Jumbo                 8-1/2 × 6        1     6 75
    45 Lion                            8-1/2 × 6        1     6 75
  * 46 Knight on Horseback             3 × 5-1/2        1     1 30
    47 Fire Engine                     5 × 7            1     6 75
    48 Buffalo                         5-1/2 × 8        1     6 75


VANILLA CREAM BARS.

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  Vanilla Flavoring.

PROCESS.--Dissolve the sugar with water in a clean pan; add the glucose
and boil in the usual way to the degree of feather, 243; pour the
contents on a damp slab; let it remain a few minutes to cool; then with
a pallette knife work it up to white cream, adding a tint of blue to
bleach it; when the whole has become a smooth cream, return it to the
pan and melt it just sufficient that it may pour out smooth and level;
stir in the flavor and run on pouring plate 1/2 inch thick; when set
cut into bars.


RASPBERRY OR ROSE CREAM BARS.

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  Raspberry or Rose Flavor.

PROCESS.--Melt the sugar in the water, add the glucose and boil to 243;
pour contents on slab, and when cool divide the boil into three parts;
color one part red, add some pure chocolate to another, and to a third
add a pinch of blue, cream each part by rubbing on slab to a smooth
paste; in rubbing in the pure chocolate, see that you have enough to
make it a rich brown; for red portion use just sufficient to give a
light rose pink. When all finished, melt each portion separately in the
pan just sufficiently soft to run to a level surface; pour out first the
red, then the chocolate on top of red sheet, then the white on top of
chocolate; this will make a cream cake to cut up into bars. Some do not
take the trouble to melt the cream, being satisfied to spread the paste
out, smoothing it on top with a pallette knife; this answers the purpose
but does not look so well.


COCOANUT CREAM.

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 lbs. Cocoanut peeled and sliced.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  Red Coloring.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water in the usual way to the
degree 245; pour contents on slab; divide the boil into two lots; when
cool, color one part light pink and put a small touch of blue in the
other; add the sliced cocoanut, half into each part, then commence to
cream them by rubbing. When both parts have been mixed into a smooth
paste, it is ready for sale, being usually sold by cutting from rough
block.

N.B.--Cut almonds, ground walnuts, etc., are used in the same way as
directed for cocoanuts. The boils may or may not be flavored, but a
little improves it and makes it fragrant.


MAPLE CREAM.

  8 lbs. Yellow Sugar.
  1 quart Sweet Cream.
  2 lbs. Glucose.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and cream to 242 on thermometer,
stirring all the time; when done lift off the fire and let stand till
nearly cold (placing it where it will cool quickly), then stir until it
sets; then melt over a slow fire (stirring constantly) until it becomes
a nice creamy consistency, pour on a well greased tin, lay about one
inch deep, let stand till cold, when by turning over the tin it will
fall out. After the batch is set to cool in the tin, on no account
disturb it as it will make the cream crack into pieces when turning out.
If this is too expensive a recipe use milk instead of cream and add half
a pound of butter.


CHRISTMAS PUDDING (IMITATION).

  7 lbs. White Sugar.
  1 lb. Raisins.
  1/2 lb. Sweet Almonds blanched chopped.
  1 lb. Currants.
  1 lb. Sultanas.
  1/2 lb. Mixed Peel.
  1 oz. Mixed Spice.
  2 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Prepare fruit by washing currants in cold water, afterwards
drying them; stone raisins; blanch and chop almonds; cut the peel in
stripes, then mix them together, adding the spice; boil the sugar and
water to ball degree; remove the pan from the fire: grain the boil by
rubbing the syrup against the side of the pan in the usual way; when it
becomes creamy, add the mixed fruit, carefully stirring the whole until
thoroughly incorporated; have some wet cloths ready, into which divide
the boil; tie them very tight and hang them up until set hard. The
blanched almonds are used to represent suet and should be chopped
accordingly.


BROWN CREAM PUDDING.

  7 lbs. Brown Sugar.
  2 lbs. Glucose.
  1 lb. Currants.
  1/2 lb. Sultanas.
  1/2 lb. Raisins.
  1/2 lb. Mixed Peel.
  1/2 oz. Mixed Spice.
  2 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Dissolve the sugar in the water and put the pan on the fire
and add the glucose; let the whole boil to a stiff ball, then pour the
contents on a damp pouring plate; when nearly cold commence to cream by
rubbing and working it about the slab with pallette knife until it
becomes opaque, stiff and creamy, have the fruit prepared and mix as in
previous recipe, then work them into the boil with spatula; now divide
the boil into small basins, holding about one pound each; press the
cream well down and let them remain till set. Take them out, brush over
them a thin solution of gum and dust them with powdered sugar to
represent frosting. Before putting the cream in the basins, shake a
little icing sugar over the basins, it will keep them from sticking.


RASPBERRY NOYEAU.

  5 lbs. White Sugar.
  1 lb. Glucose.
  2 lbs. Raspberry Jam.
  1 lb. Almonds, blanched and Dried.
  3 pints Water.
  Liquid Brilliant Rose Color.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water to the ball degree, 250;
ease the pan off the fire, add the jam and almonds, with sufficient
color to make the whole a bright red; let the batch boil through,
keeping it stirred gently until thoroughly mixed; now remove the pan
from the fire and see if the batch has turned opaque; if not rub some of
the syrup against the side of the pan and stir until whole boil shows a
little creamy, then pour out on wafer paper, keeping the sheet about
three-quarters of an inch thick; level the top down with pallette knife
and cover with wafer paper; when set remove to a clean board and cut
into bars with a sharp knife. In running sheets to thickness, arrange
the loose bars on the pouring plate to form a square in proportion to
the size of the boil. Almost any kind of jam can be substituted for
flavoring Noyeau.


WHAT TO DO WITH SCRAPS AND SIFTINGS.

It is necessary to know how to use up the scraps, siftings, spoiled boil
candies and otherwise unsaleable goods. People who make jam or
liquorice goods know of course what to do with them; but small makers
often accumulate lots of waste which seems always in the way. This
should be avoided as much as possible, not only on the ground of
economy, but for the good order and general appearance of the workshop.
Keep the acid scraps separate from the others; have two pans
(earthenware will do) and make it a rule, when sweeping down the plates,
to throw the acid scraps into one pan and the others into the second
pan; keep them well covered with water, and, as the syrup then gets too
thick, put in more water in order that the scraps may dissolve. When
making dark goods such as cough candy, cough drops, cocoanut candy,
stick jaw, etc., use a proportion of this syrup in each boil, dipping it
out with a ladle. As a rule a careful workman would use up his scraps
every day. Some use the machine scraps by putting them in the next boil
when sugar is on the slab. The writer's experience is that that method
is objectionable, as it not only causes the boil to be cloudy, but very
often grains it. Melt the acid scraps in water enough to form a thin
syrup; put in some whiting, powdered chalk or lime; put the pan on the
fire and stir until whole boils; see that all the scraps are dissolved;
remove the pan and let it stand for an hour, then strain through
flannel. Use this syrup in the same way as the other for making common
goods.


CREAM FOR CHOCOLATE CREAMS OR BARS.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  3 pints Water.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.

PROCESS.--Put the sugar, glucose and water in a clean pan and boil in
the usual way until the batch reaches the degree of feather 245; (keep
the sides of the pan free from sugar); pour out on damp pouring plate
and let it remain till nearly cold; then with long pallette knife
commence to rub the sugar against the plate and work it about until it
changes from a clear syrup to snow white creamy substance; then knead it
with the hand until of uniform softness and no lumps left in the mass;
it is now ready for use and may be kept covered in stoneware jars until
required for various purposes. In winter the sugar need not be boiled so
high; in hot weather, a little higher. When packing the cream away in
jars it is better to keep the top moist by laying on a damp cloth before
putting in the cork. Seeing that cream keeps so well, of course it is
saving to make much larger batches at a time. This can be easily
arranged by multiplying the proportions according to size of pan and
convenience. These proportions are a guide, but the writer knows of no
absolute must be this or that, although he has made as many cream goods
as most people and with as much success. He has seen as fine a sample
made in the same workshop when the boil was made up a little different.
However, in submitting his own formula, it may be taken for granted he
is not a mile from the bull's eye.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.

Chocolate Melter or Warmer.

  No. 1 Size, 12-1/2 × 14 × 6, price      $2 00
  No. 2 Size, 14-1/4 × 16-1/2 × 6, "       2 25

Made from best quality of Tin Plate.]


CHOCOLATE CREAM BUNS AND CAKES.

  10 lbs. Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  1/2 oz. Vanilla Essence.

PROCESS.--Boil the sugar, glucose and water in the ordinary way to the
strong feather 245, then pour on damp slab, let it remain until nearly
cold, add the flavor, and with pallette knife work up the boil till
white and creamy; shape it with the hands or press into tin moulds;
stand it in a warm place to harden a little on the outside. Melt some
chocolate paste and cover the goods smoothly with it, using either knife
or brush; when dry glaze them by brushing on a solution of shellac
dissolved in alcohol.

N.B.--In this recipe the sugar is boiled higher than the "Cream for
Chocolate Cream," because the goods are so large the soft cream would
not keep in shape. In melting pure chocolate simply put it in a tin
together with a piece of lard or cocoa butter, stand it near the fire,
give it an occasional stir; it will soon dissolve; use no water or it
will run to powder and be spoiled.

  TAFFY PANS.
  Per dozen, $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2.

  SWINGING PANS.
  We make any size to order.

  CRYSTALIZING PANS AND WIRE TRAYS.
  Extra Quality.
  14 × 10 × 2-1/2, complete $5.50.

  COPPER CANDY LADLE.
  No. 1, Fig. 7,      Price, $1.50.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]


CHOCOLATE CREAM BARS No. 1.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Melted Chocolate.
  3 pints Water.
  Vanilla Flavor.

PROCESS.--Prepare the cream as directed in Cream for Chocolate Cream, or
use some of that cream. Have some tins with edges one and one-half
inches deep; grease some paper and fit it neatly round the sides and
bottom. Melt some of the cream on a slow fire; flavor with Vanilla as
soon as cream is sufficiently melted; remove the pan and pour contents
into the tins to make a sheet about one inch thick or less. When set
carefully empty, so as not to break the cake; have some melted chocolate
and with a soft brush coat the cream on both sides; lay them on wires
till cold and set; cut up into bars the required size. The knife for
cutting bars of cream should be good, having a thin polished blade with
a good edge. An old worn-out thing breaks the cream and makes it
irregular.

[Illustration: COPPER CANDY DROP LADLE.

No. 2, Fig. 8,      Price, $2.25.

MINT DROPPERS.

Made from Copper.

  No. 1 Dropper, 1 Lip,      $2 25.
  "   2    "     2  "         3 25.
  "   3    "     3  "         3 75.
]


CHOCOLATE CREAM BARS NO. 2.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  2-1/2 lbs. Glucose.
  Melted Chocolate.
  3 pints Water.
  1/2 oz. Essence Vanilla.

PROCESS.--Prepare the tins by lining with greased paper, fitting them
smoothly; melt some sweet chocolate paste and pour it about a quarter of
an inch thick on the bottom of the tins; when set prepare some cream as
directed for "Cream for Chocolate Cream," or use some of that cream,
melting it over a slow fire (do not allow it to boil); stir in the
extract of vanilla and pour the batch in tins about one inch deep: when
set, coat on top with melted sweet chocolate; when this lot is cold and
quite set, cut up into bars with a sharp knife.

[Illustration: BATCH PANS.

     Made of Heavy Copper with Sheet Iron Rim to allow them to set in
     furnace.

     No. 1, diam. at rims 12 inch, bottom 11 in., $7 50.

     No 2, diam. at rims 13 inch, bottom 12 in., $8 50.
]


CHOCOLATE DROPS, PLAIN.

Warm some sweet chocolate; when it is just sufficiently heated to be
pliable, pinch off little pieces, roll them in the hands to size of a
small marble; place them in rows on sheets of white paper, each row
about an inch apart; when the sheet is covered, take it by the corners
and lift it up and down, letting it touch the slab each time; this will
flatten the balls into drop shapes; they should be about the size of a
ten cent piece on the bottom; when cold they will slip off the paper
without any trouble.

[Illustration: TOY (or Turned Sugar) PANS.

Made of Copper.

  No. 1, 1/2 Gallon,       $3 00
   "  2, 1     "            4 00
   "  3, 1-1/2 "            5 00
]


CHOCOLATE DROPS (NONPAREIL.)

Process exactly as for plain drops. When the drops have been flattened,
cover the sheets of paper entirely over with white nonpareil (hundreds
and thousands); when the drops are dry shake off the surplus ones.


CHOCOLATE CREAMS.

Melt some cream (see "Cream for Chocolate Cream") use the runner and
fill the moulds; in an hour the cream will be set hard enough to be
taken out of the moulds; they are then ready for coating. Warm some
sweet chocolate paste until melted, then drop the creams into the melted
chocolate, two or three at a time; lift them out with a long fork and
place them on glazed paper or sheets of tin to dry; put them in a cool
place to harden; pack carefully in paper lined boxes in such a manner
that they hardly touch each other; if packed roughly like most other
candies, they become spotted and rough, spoiling the appearance
altogether.

Rubber moulds are now largely used for making these goods; being much
cleaner and very much easier used than starch moulds, and for new
beginners are very much better than starch. These moulds are now to be
bought much cheaper than they were a few years ago, the price now being
about $1.40 per lb. These moulds weigh about two pounds each and hold
ninety chocolate drops and can be refilled every half hour. We would
strongly advise the purchase of rubber moulds, as besides the saving of
time, neither starch boards, starch, plaster moulds or bellows are
required. Fletcher Manfg Co., carry a full line of moulds for chocolates
and creams.


CHOCOLATE FOR DIPPING.

This mixing is so often required by confectioners for so many purposes
that a good general recipe will not be out of place. If the instructions
are followed and a little discretion used with the colors, a light
glossy chocolate coating will be the result.

  1 lb. Pure Chocolate.
  3 oz. White Wax.
  Chocolate Brown Color.
  Cochineal.

PROCESS.--Put the chocolate in a saucepan; stand on the furnace plate or
near a fire; break up the wax into little pieces and stir it in until
all is melted; then add the brown color, with a little liquid cochineal,
stirring the whole until thoroughly mixed; it is then ready for use. For
cheap common goods, more wax may be used. When mixing in the color try a
little on a piece of white paper until satisfied with the blend.


GELATINE COCOANUT BARS (YELLOW).

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  6 lbs. Glucose.
  2-1/2 lbs. Gelatine.
  3 lbs. Cocoanut sliced.
  1 oz. Acid Tartaric.
  3 pints Water.
  Saffron Color.
  Lemon Flavor.

PROCESS.--Soak the gelatine in cold water for twelve hours, boil the
sugar, glucose and water to a stiff ball, 255; remove the pan from the
fire; stir in the gelatine till dissolved; let it stand for a few
minutes and remove the scum from the top, then add the acid, flavor and
cocoanut; gently stir the whole until well mixed; tinge a bright yellow
with saffron; pour into oiled tins, making the sheet 1/2 inch thick;
when set, cut up in sticks to sell two or four for a cent.

N.B.--This boil may be divided into two lots, one half colored red and
flavored, raspberry, or a second boil may be made precisely as this one
altering the color and flavor only.


PATENT RUBBER CANDY MOULDS

  New Patterns.

  The best process in the world for making moulded Bon-bons or French
  Creams and grained work, is by using Patent Rubber Candy Moulds. They
  will entirely supplant the use of starch as a mould for manufacturing
  such candies for the following reasons.

  I.--Not alone can all the patterns at present made in starch be
  reproduced in these moulds but also a large variety of others with a
  perfection not before known, and which it would be impossible to use
  in starch.

  II.--A much superior quality of goods is produced, in as much as the
  candies show as perfect a pattern as the moulds themselves.

  III.--A saving at least 33 per cent is accomplished in labor.

  IV.--No starch boards or starch is required, consequently the filling,
  printing, sifting and blowing off are dispensed with--six items of
  expense.

  V.--The moulds specially facilitate the making of cream walnuts, cream
  almonds and cream jellies and other combinations, because the nuts,
  etc., can be pressed on the candy as soon as it has been poured into
  the moulds. This cannot be done with starch moulds, as any pressure on
  those will destroy the pattern.

  VI.--Casting into starch moulds requires considerable experience and
  skill in order to do work well, while any workman can turn out the
  most perfect work with the rubber moulds, without any previous
  experience in such work.

  VII.--A saving of room is effected, as a starch room is not required
  and the capacity of the rubber moulds is so much greater than starch
  boards of equal size that a comparatively less number of moulds are
  required to produce an equal quantity of goods.

  VIII.--No starch being used, the shop will remain much cleaner.

  These moulds are made of Pure Para Rubber and will, with proper usage
  last from twelve to fifteen years, judging from those which have been
  in use for the past four years.

  An objection which naturally suggests itself to a person who has never
  tried these moulds, is that the candies might possibly have some taste
  of the rubber. This is not the case, however.

    NOT THE SLIGHTEST TASTE OF RUBBER

  is discernable. Not one of our many customers, either in this city or
  throughout the country, has made a single complaint. This proves that
  there is absolutely no difference between candies made in rubber
  moulds and candies made in starch moulds.

  The demand for these moulds increases every year.

  WRITE FOR PRICES AND PARTICULARS.

  Cream to be run in these moulds should be cooked one degree lower than
  usual for starch.

  Crystal 1/2 degree lower than usual for starch.

  Before using New Moulds for first time, soak for half an hour in
  strong common washing soda and water.


CHEAP JELLY GOODS.

  14 lbs. White Sugar.
  12 lbs. Glucose.
  3 lbs. Gelatine.
  Flavor.
  2 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  2 pints water.
  Color.

PROCESS.--Soak the gelatine in cold water for twelve hours; bring the
sugar, and water to a boil, then add the glucose and continue boiling
till it reaches the degree of stiff ball; remove the pan from the fire
and stir in the gelatine and acid till dissolved; color and flavor to
fancy; remove the scum and run the batch into tins. Set the goods aside
for twelve hours, then cut up into jubes and crystalize with fine
powdered sugar. This is a cheap line; there is not much body in them,
but they sell at a price and give satisfaction.

[Illustration: Funnel Droppers.

             Tin.  Copper.
  No.   0     40      75
   "    1     60    1.25
   "    2     90    1.50
]

[Illustration: Candy Tongs.

  Tin per thousand,       $4.00
  Brass     "              5.50
  Silvered  "              7.00
]


JELLY FANCIES.

  12 lbs. Sugar.
  7 lbs. Glucose.
  3 pints Water.
  3 lbs. Gelatine.
  2 oz. Tartaric Acid.

PROCESS.--Soak gelatine in cold water for twelve hours. Boil the sugar,
glucose and water in the usual way to the degree of ball; remove the pan
from the fire and stir in the gelatine gradually until dissolved; let
it stand for a few minutes; take off the scum as it rises, then divide
the boil, if required in more than one, color and flavor each portion to
fancy, then run the boil in the moulds; when set put them on clean slab,
sprinkle some cold water over them and roll them about until all are
damped, then cover them with fine crystal sugar and mix them up till
crystalized all over, and spread them out on trays to dry.

The different recipes already given will give the reader a general idea
how gelatine goods are made. By using different colors, flavors and
shapes an infinite variety can be produced. It would serve no good
purpose to further multiply these formulas for small goods.


JAM ROLEY POLEY.

  10 lbs. White Sugar.
  5 lbs. Glucose.
  2 lbs Gelatine.
  Carmine Color.
  1 lb. Raspberry Jam.
  1 lb. Desiccated Cocoanut.
  3 pints Water.

PROCESS.--Soak the gelatine in cold water for twelve hours; boil the
sugar, glucose and water sharply to stiff ball; remove the pan from the
fire, stir in the gelatine, stand aside till scum rises and skim it off;
divide the boil into two portions, (mix together 1 oz. tartaric acid, 1
oz. carbonate of soda, 2 oz. icing sugar); drop this powder and the
desiccated cocoanut into one half of the boil and stir briskly until the
whole rises in a white foam, then run out into tins, on sheet about 1/4
inch thick; now take the other half, color bright red, adding the
raspberry jam; stir till thoroughly mixed and run this on top of the
white sheet about the same thickness; when cold and hard, take out the
sheets and make a roll of each.

N.B.--Let the red portion be cool when run over the white, as the white
being lighter will come to the top if disturbed by the mixture being too
hot.


RASPBERRY JELLIES.

  9 lbs. White Sugar.
  6 lbs. Glucose.
  2 lbs. Apple Jelly.
  2-1/4 lbs. Gelatine.
  3 pints Water.
  2 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  1/2 oz. Essence Raspberry.
  Carmine Color.

PROCESS.--Soak the gelatine as usual; boil the sugar, glucose and water
to a stiff ball; remove the pan from the fire; stir in the gelatine and
let it remain till scum rises; skim it off, then add jelly, acid and
flavor and sufficient color to make a bright red: now mould the batch
into Raspberry shapes and put them in a cold place. When set stiff, put
the goods in thin layers in a crystalizing tin and cover them with cold
syrup. Let them remain undisturbed for twelve hours, then drain off all
the surplus syrup and turn the raspberries on clean trays; when dry,
pack.

N.B.--When putting jelly goods in tins, be careful that the layers are
not thick, as they lay so close that the syrup cannot get in between
them. A good plan is to have wire trays and fix three or four loosely in
each tin, taking their bearings on the ends of the crystalizing tin. By
this means you will get more in a tin with better result. Boil the syrup
in the proportion of six pounds best white sugar to each quart water, to
the degree of smooth 215. It must be quite cold when used for gelatine
work or the goods will come out of the tins in a solid block.


BLACK CURRANT JELLIES.

  9 lbs. White Sugar.
  6 lbs. Glucose.
  2-1/4 lbs. Gelatine.
  Purple Coloring.
  3 pints Water.
  2 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  2 lbs. Black Currant Jelly.

PROCESS.--Soak gelatine as usual, smooth off and mould fondant shapes.
Boil the sugar, glucose and water, as already directed, to a stiff ball;
remove the pan from the fire, drop in the gelatine, a few pieces at a
time, stir till dissolved. Let it remain a short time till the scum
rises; skim it off, then stir in the tartaric acid, jelly and sufficient
color to make the mixture a bright color, then mould the batch. When the
goods are firmly set, place them in layers on wire frames fitted for
crystalizing pan; arrange the frames in the tins and cover with cold
syrup; let them stand for twelve or fourteen hours undisturbed, then
drain off the surplus syrup; take them carefully out of the tins, pack
them on clean trays; when dry they are ready for boxing. These goods
require handling gently; they are very delicate and easily crushed.

[Illustration: Daisy Peanut Warmer.

The most complete Peanut Warmer in the market.

The Nuts are kept warm by a water jacket which surrounds the Pan, and is
heated by a Gas or Oil Stove as desired, has steam whistle which
attracts attention.

Strongly made and nicely ornamented and lettered.

Price complete with either Gas or Oil Stove, f.o.b. Toronto, $10 00.

Size, 29 in. high, 18 in. wide, 12 in. deep.

State when ordering if for Oil or Gas Stove.]


PINEAPPLE JELLIES.

  8 lbs. White Sugar.
  8 lbs. Glucose.
  2-1/4 lbs. Gelatine.
  Pineapple Flavor.
  3 oz. Tartaric Acid.
  3 pints Water.
  Saffron Color.

PROCESS.--Soak the gelatine in sufficient cold water to cover it. Boil
the sugar, glucose and water as usual to stiff ball and remove the pan
from the fire; stir in the gelatine, wait till scum rises and remove it;
then add the acid, flavor and sufficient color to make bright yellow;
pour the mixing into pineapple moulds; keep them in a cold place till
set; pack them in layers in wire frames; put them in the crystalizing
tins and cover with cold syrup; stand aside where they will not be
shaken or disturbed for twelve or fourteen hours; then draw off the
surplus syrup and put them in clean trays to dry. In flavoring these
goods, use the pineapple gently, only a few drops, too much spoils them.

[Illustration: Fig. 213 a.

"Daisy" Peanut Roaster.

Price, $5 00

We make this to fit ordinary Cook Stoves if so ordered at same price.

This Roaster fits your Candy Furnace.]

[Illustration: Fletcher's "UNCLE SAM" Dry Air Peanut Warmer.

Japanned and Ornamented Glass Front.

Size--1 foot 7 in. × 1 foot 5 in., 1 foot 10 in. high.

Price complete $6 50]

[Illustration: Kingery's Perfection Steam Power Coffee and Peanut
Roaster and Warmer.

Size and Style of Machine we carry in stock marked thus*

                                             With Steam
                                              Whistle.
   1 Peck Size, Tin Warmer          $100 00   $104 00
  *1 Peck Size, Copper Warmer        108 00    112 00
   2 Peck Size, Tin Warmer           115 00    119 00
   2 Peck Size, Copper Warmer        124 00    128 00
   1 Bushel Size, Tin Warmer         135 00    139 00
   1 Bushel Size, Copper Warmer      148 00    152 00
]


BEST WAY TO CRYSTALIZE GUM GOODS.

  13 lbs. Best White Sugar.
  2 quarts Water.

PROCESS.--Have the goods cleaned and put in crystalizing tins; bring the
above quantity of sugar and water just to the boil and stand aside until
only milk warm; then pour it gently over the goods until covered; then
slip the hands into the middle of the goods, and with the fingers just
ease this bulk so that the syrup will flow freely between them; withdraw
the hands carefully and cover the tin; do not again disturb it for the
next twelve hours, when the goods will be ready to drain and dry. To an
experienced man, this method may seem a little dangerous and likely to
spoil the crystal; but it will not do so if done carefully. Of course,
it is understood the goods are not to be roughly stirred up, but simply
loosened.


Concentrated Flower and Essence Flavors for Confectioners.

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR FINEST WORK.

Essence Maraschino.
   "    Pistachio.
   "    Ratafia.
   "    Lilly of the Valley.
   "    Dainty.
   "    French Rose.
   "    Ylang Ylang.
   "    Patchouli.
   "    Tuberose.
   "    Carnation.
   "    Heliotrope.
   "    Crabapple.
   "    Jasmine.
   "    Millifleurs.
   "    Hyacinth.
   "    Cachou.
   "    Bon-Tons.
   "    Mirabells.
   "    Sweet Briar.
   "    Locust Flower.
   "    Lilac Blossoms.
   "    Fleur de Raisin.
   "    Apple Blossom.
   "    Violet (True).
   "    Wood Violet.
   "    Orange Blossom.
   "    Hawthorne.
   "    Wild Olive.
   "    Musk.


Flavoring Extracts.

Extract Currant.
   "    Jamaica Ginger.
   "    Gooseberry.
   "    Grape.
   "    Lemon.
   "    Mead.
   "    Nectar.
   "    Orris.
   "    Cinnamon.
   "    Quince.
   "    Rose.
   "    Strawberry.
   "    Anisette.
   "    Apple.
   "    Apricot.
   "    Banana.
   "    Bitter Almonds.
   "    Blackberry.
   "    Catawba.
   "    Cherry.
   "    Plum.
   "    Raspberry.
   "    Sarsaparilla.
   "    Wintergreen.


Essential Oils.

Best Qualities.

     Our Essential Oils will be found equal to anything obtainable.
     Write us for prices on anything you require. We cater especially to
     the candy makers and confectioners.

  FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.
      440 & 442 Yonge Street,
          Toronto, Ont.



FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.

_Importers and Dealers in_

Confectioners Colors, Flavoring Extracts, Concentrated Fruit Oils,
Flower Essences, Fine Essential Oils, Soluble Extracts, etc., for Bakers
and Confectioners.


PURE FRUIT JUICES

prepared by newly discovered process, keep any length of time corked or
uncorked in any temperature.

  FLETCHER Mnf'g Co.
      440 & 442 Yonge St,
          Toronto.



PURE MALT EXTRACT.

Largely used by Bakers to prevent Bread from becoming dry, and to give
it a sweet and nutty Flavor. It ensures shorter and sounder
Fermentation.

BREAD made with it is easily digested, makes larger loaves, golden
tinged crust, general satisfaction to the Consumer and profit to the
Baker.


  AGENTS,

  FLETCHER Mnf'g. Co.
      440 & 442 Yonge St,
          Toronto.



FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.

TORONTO

CANADIAN AGENTS FOR

THE CELEBRATED XXXX BRAND OF GLUCOSE

Guaranteed Equal, if not Superior, to any on the Market.


Its uniform high quality, good color and great specific gravity, has
created for it such a reputation that orders could not be filled, this
season, as fast as required; is now largely used by the best wholesale
and retail confectioners of Canada. With our repeat orders we have some
very flattering testimonials as to its high quality. Our Prices are
Right. The goods when once tried need no other recommendation.

Sold in barrels, half, quarters and pails.

Samples and prices on application.


  FLETCHER MNF'G. CO.
          Toronto.



OUR LEADING SPECIALTY is the manufacture of Soda Fountains and
apparatus. We make both counter and wall fountains.

We make liberal allowances for old apparatus.

EASY TERMS OF PAYMENT.


[Illustration: THE POLAR "D."

Fig. 260 a.

  Fletcher
  Mnf'g. Co.
  440 & 442 Yonge
  St., Toronto.

OUR POLAR. D. SODA FOUNTAIN WITH OUR NEW PNEUMATIC SYRUP JAR.]



Transcriber's Note

Misspelled words have been corrected. Punctuation in this book is
somewhat erratic; in general, this has not been altered from the
original. However, when punctuation clearly follows a specific pattern,
punctuation has been standardized.

In the recipe for ACID DROPS AND TABLETS, the original wording says to
"add the acid which has been finally powdered." Since this seems like a
typo, it has been changed to "finely powdered."

In the table of COMPOSITION CLEAR TOY MOULDS, the ones digit of the "No.
per lb." is unreadable for items 34 (Harp), 35 (Fireman), and 46
(Scissors). The numbers listed in that column for those items are
guesses.

In the recipe for TAR COUGH DROPS, the tar referred to is probably
pine tar.





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