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´╗┐Title: The Illustrated Self-Instructor in Phrenology and Physiology
Author: Fowler, O. S., Fowler, L. N.
Language: English
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  Your head is the type of your mentality.
  Self-knowledge is the essence of all knowledge.


  Boston:               } 1857. {Philadelphia:
  No. 142 Washington St.}       {No. 234 Arch Street

  Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 18__ by
  in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern
  District of New York.

  261 William st., cor. of Frankfort, N. Y.

  Conditions           Large Very  Full Aver- Moder- Small Culti-  Re-
                             Large       age   ate          vate  strain

  Vital Temperament      17   17    17    17    17     17    165
  Powerful or Motive     18   18    18    18    18     18    137
  Active or Mental       19   19    19    19    19     19
  Excitability of ditto  20   20    20    20    20     20    157    175
  Constitution           34   34    34    34    34     34
  Organic Quality        47   47    47    47    47     47
  Present state          47   47    47    47    47     47
  Size of head           48   49    49    49    49     50

   1. Amativeness        52   52    53    53    53     54           218
   2. Parental Love      55   55    56    56    56     56    220
   3. Adhesiveness       57   57    58    58    58     58    226
   4. Inhabitiveness     60   60    61    61    61     61    232
   5. Continuity         62   62    62    62    62     62    234

  SELFISH PROPENSITIES   63   64    64    64    64     64
   E. Vitativeness       64   65    65    65    65     65    236    237
   6. Combativeness      66   66    66    66    67     67    239    240
   7. Destructiveness    67   68    69    69    69     69    242    243
   8. Alimentiveness     70   70    70    71    71     71    245    246
   9. Acquisitiveness    72   73    73    73    74     74    249    250
  10. Secretiveness      75   75    76    76    76     77    252    253
  11. Cautiousness       78   78    78    78    79     79    255    256
  12. Approbativeness    79   80    80    80    80     81    258    259
  13. Self-Esteem        82   82    82    83    83     83    261    262
  14. Firmness           84   85    85    85    85     85    265    266

  MORAL FACULTIES        86   86    86    86    86     86    268    270
  15. Conscientiousness  87   88    88    88    89     89    268    270
  16. Hope               89   90    90    90    90     91    272    273
  17. Spirituality       91   92    92    92    90     92    276    277
  18. Veneration         92   93    94    94    94     94    279    280
  19. Benevolence        94   95    96    96    96     96    282    283
  20. Constructiveness   98   97    97    97    97     97    285    286
  21. Ideality           98   98    98    99    99     99    288    289
   B. Sublimity          99  100   100   100   100    100    290    291
  22. Imitation         100  101   101   102   102    102    293    294
  23. Mirthfulness      103  103   103   103   103    104    296    297

  INTELLECTUAL FACULT.  104  104   104   104   105    105

  PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES  105  105   105   105   106    106
  24. Individuality     107  107   107   107   107    108    424
  25. Form              108  108   109   109   109    109    437
  26. Size              109  109   110   110   110    110    441
  27. Weight            110  110   110   110   110    110    446
  28. Color             111  111   111   111   111    111    450
  29. Order             112  112   112   112   112    112    456
  30. Calculation       113  113   113   114   114    114    460
  31. Locality          114  114   114   114   114    115    467

  LITERARY FACULTIES    115  115   115   115   115    115
  32. Eventuality       116  116   116   117   117    117    476
  33. Time              117  117   117   117   117    117    491
  34. Tune              118  118   118   118   118    118    504    506
  35. Language          119  119   120   120   120    120    515

  REASONING FACULTIES   121  121   121   121   121    121
  36. Causality         122  122   123   123   123    123    548
  37. Comparison        123  124   124   124   124    125    536
   D. Human Nature      125  125   125   125   125    125    540
   D. Agreeableness     126  126   126   126   126    126    299    273




   1. AMATIVENESS, Sexual and connubial love.
   2. PHILOPROGENITIVENESS, Parental love.
   3. ADHESIVENESS, Friendship--sociability.
   A. UNION FOR LIFE, Love of one only.
   4. INHABITIVENESS, Love of home.
   5. CONTINUITY, One thing at a time.
   6. COMBATIVENESS, Resistance--defence.
   7. DESTRUCTIVENESS, Executiveness--force.
   8. ALIMENTIVENESS, Appetite, hunger.
   9. ACQUISITIVENESS, Accumulation.
  10. SECRETIVENESS, Policy--management.
  11. CAUTIOUSNESS, Prudence, provision.
  12. APPROBATIVENESS, Ambition--display.
  13. SELF-ESTEEM, Self-respect--dignity.
  14. FIRMNESS, Decision--perseverance.
  15. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, Justice--equity.
  16. HOPE, Expectation--enterprise.
  17. SPIRITUALITY, Intuition--spiritual revery.
  18. VENERATION, Devotion--respect.
  19. BENEVOLENCE, Kindness--goodness.
  20. OBSTRUCTIVENESS, Mechanical ingenuity.
  21. IDEALITY, Refinement--taste--purity.
   B. SUBLIMITY, Love of grandeur.
  22. IMITATION, Copying--patterning.
  23. MINDFULNESS, Jocoseness--wit--fun.
  24. INDIVIDUALITY, Observation.
  25. FORM, Recollection of shape.
  26. SIZE, Measuring by the eye.
  27. WEIGHT, Balancing--climbing.
  28. COLOR, Judgment of colors.
  29. ORDER, Method--system--arrangement.
  30. CALCULATION, Mental arithmetic.
  31. LOCALITY, Recollection of places.
  32. EVENTUALITY, Memory of facts.
  33. TIME, Cognizance of duration.
  34. TUNE, Music--melody by ear.
  35. LANGUAGE, Expression of ideas.
  36. CAUSALITY, Applying causes to effects.
  37. COMPARISON, Inductive reasoning.
   C. HUMAN NATURE, Perception of motives.
   D. AGREEABLENESS, Pleasantness--suavity.


To TEACH LEARNERS those organic conditions which indicate character, is
the first object of this manual; and in order to render it accessible to
all, it condenses facts and conditions, rather than elaborates
arguments--because to EXPOUND Phrenology is its highest proof--states laws
and results, and leaves them upon their naked merits; embodies recent
discoveries; and crowds into the fewest possible words and pages just what
learners need to know; and, hence, requires to be STUDIED rather than
merely read. "Short, yet clear," is its motto. Its numerous illustrative
engravings give the results of very extensive professional observations
and experience.

To RECORD CHARACTER is its second object. In doing this, it describes
those organic conditions which affect and indicate character in SEVEN
degrees of power--large, very large, full, average, moderate, small, and
very small, and refers those who have their physiological and
phrenological conditions correctly marked in the accompanying tables, to
those paragraphs which both describe themselves, and also contain specific
directions how to PERFECT THEIR characters and improve children. Its plan
for recording character is seen at a glance in the following


Those physiological and phrenological conditions marked LARGE have a
powerful and almost CONTROLLING influence over feelings and conduct, both
single and in combination, and engross weaker ones into their service.
VERY LARGE organic conditions are sovereign kings over character and
conduct, and singly and in combination with each other, or with large
organs, direct and sway their possessor. FULL organs play subordinate
parts, yet are seen and felt, and exert more real than apparent influence.
AVERAGE ones have considerable, yet a limited influence, but it is mainly
in COMBINATION with large ones though they affect character more than
they seem to. MODERATE faculties are below par in fact, and still more so
in appearance; exert a limited influence; and leave character defective in
these respects. SMALL organs are so deficient as easily to be perceived;
leave their possessor weak and faulty in these points; and should be
assiduously cultivated; while VERY SMALL ones render him almost idiotic in
these functions.

This table is so constructed as to record the ACTUAL POWER, or quality and
quantity of the physical and mental functions, as deduced from size and
activity combined, and this is done by means of dots or written figures
placed opposite the names of the organs and temperaments, and the printed
figures in the squares thus marked, designate the number of the page in
this work which contains the corresponding description of character; and
these paragraphs, thus referred to in the body of the work, have figures
attached to them, referring to the pages of "Fowler's Phrenology," where
an elaborate description of the several functions are discussed at length,
with numerous combinations which shade and tone the character.

The six left hand columns refer to the pages of this work, while the two
right hand ones refer to those NUMBERED PARAGRAPHS found throughout
"Physiology," "Self-Culture," and "Memory," which contain directions for
cultivating, restraining, and rightly directing whatever physical
functions or mental faculties may require either, both in adults and
children; so that these works, in conjunction with a correct marking in
these tables, furnish a complete directory for obviating faults, supplying
defects, developing excellencies, and perfecting one's self and children.

Faculties marked with an upward curve, thus, [symbol], in the several
squares, are deficient, and require cultivation; while those marked with a
downward curve, thus, [symbol], are liable to excess or perversion, and
should be carefully guarded and rightly directed; while + signifies about
one third larger; and -- one third smaller than a dot would indicate in
the same place, thus rendering one scale equal to twenty-one.


Some persons who record examinations prefer to use numerals to indicate
the size of the organs. We describe the organs in seven degrees of power,
and to indicate those degrees, employ the written figures, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7. When thus used, 1 means VERY SMALL; 2, SMALL; 3, MODERATE; 4,
AVERAGE; 5, FULL; 6, LARGE; 7, VERY LARGE. The signs +, --, [symbol],
[symbol], mean the same as in the above table.





"KNOWLEDGE is power"--to accomplish, to enjoy--and these are the only ends
for which man was created. ALL knowledge confers this power. Thus, how
incalculably, and in how many ways, have recent discoveries in chemistry
enhanced human happiness, of which the lucifer match furnishes a _home_
example. Increasing knowledge in agriculture is doubling the means of
human sustenance. How immeasurably have modern mechanical improvements
multiplied, and cheapened all the comforts of life. How greatly have
steamboats and railroads added to the former stock of human success and
pleasures. Similar remarks apply to all other kinds of knowledge, and as
it increases from age to age will it proportionally multiply all forms of
human happiness. In fact, its inherent _nature_ and legitimate effect is
to promote every species of enjoyment and success. Other things being
equal, those who know most, by a law of things, can both accomplish and
enjoy most; while ignorance instead of being bliss, is the greatest cause
of human weakness, wickedness, and woe. Hence, to ENLIGHTEN man, is _the_
way to reform and perfect him.

But SELF-knowledge is, of all its other kinds, both the most useful and
promotive of personal and universal happiness and success. "Know thyself"
was written, in golden capitals, upon the splendid temple of Delphos, as
the most important maxim the wise men of Greece could transmit to unborn
generations; and the Scriptures wisely command us to "search our own
hearts." Since all happiness flows from obeying, and all pain from
violating, the LAWS OF OUR BEING, to know our own selves is to know these
laws, and becomes the first step in the road of their obedience, which is
life. Self-knowledge, by teaching the laws and conditions of life and
health, becomes the most efficacious means of prolonging the former and
increasing the latter--both of which are _paramount_ conditions of
enjoying and accomplishing. It also shows us our natural talents,
capabilities, virtues, vices, strong and weak points, liabilities to err,
etc., and thereby points out, unmistakably, those occupations and spheres
in which we can and cannot succeed and shine; and develops the laws and
conditions of human and personal virtue and moral perfection, as well as
of vice, and how to avoid it. It is, therefore, the quintessence of all
knowledge; places its possessor upon the very acme of enjoyment and
perfection; and bestows the highest powers and richest treasures mortals
can possess. In short, to know ourselves perfectly, is to know every law
of our being, every condition of happiness, and every cause of suffering;
and to _practice_ such knowledge, is to render ourselves as perfectly
happy, throughout every department of our being, as we can possibly be and
live. And since nothing in nature stands alone, but each is reciprocally
related to all, and all, collectively, form one magnificent whole--since
all stars and worlds mutually act and react upon each other, to cause day
and night, summer and winter, sun and rain, blossom and fruit; since every
genus, species, and individual throughout nature is second or sixteenth
cousin to every other; and since man is the epitome of universal nature,
the embodiment of all her functions, the focus of all her light, and
representative of all her perfections--of course to understand _him_
thoroughly is to know _all_ things. Nor can nature be studied
advantageously without him for a text-book, nor he without her.

Moreover, since man is composed of mind _and_ body, both reciprocally and
most intimately related to each other--since his mentality is manifested
only by bodily organs, and the latter depends wholly upon the former, of
course his mind can be studied only through its ORGANIC relations. If it
were manifested independently of his physiology, it might be studied
separately, but since all his organic conditions modify his mentality, the
two must be studied TOGETHER. Heretofore humanity has been studied by
piece-meal. Anatomists have investigated only his organic structure, and
there stopped; and mental philosophers have studied him metaphysically,
wholly regardless of all his physiological relations; while theologians
have theorized upon his moral faculties alone; and hence their utter
barrenness, from Aristotle down. As if one should study nothing but the
trunk of a tree, another only its roots, a third its leaves, or fruit,
without compounding their researches, of what value is such piecemeal
study? If the physical man constituted one whole being, and the mental
another, their separate study might be useful; but since all we know of
mind, and can do with it, is manifested and done wholly by means of
physical instruments--especially since every possible condition and change
of the physiology correspondingly affects the mentality--of course their
MUTUAL relations, and the laws of their RECIPROCAL action, must be
investigated _collectively_. Besides, every mental philosopher has
deduced his system from his own closet cogitations, and hence their
babel-like confusion. But within the last half century, a new star, or
rather sun, has arisen upon the horizon of mind--a sun which puts the
finger of SCIENTIFIC CERTAINTY upon every mental faculty, and discloses
those _physiological_ conditions which affect, increase or diminish,
purify or corrupt, or in any other way modify, either the mind itself, or
its products--thought, feeling, and character--and thereby reduces mental
study to that same _tangible_ basis of _proportion_ in which all science
consists; leaving nothing dark or doubtful, but developing the true
SCIENCE OF MIND, and the laws of its action. Of this, the greatest of all
discoveries, Gall was the author, and Phrenology and Physiology the
instruments which conjointly embrace whatever appertains to mind, and to
man, in all his organic relations, show how to perfect the former by
improving the latter, and disclose specific SIGNS OF CHARACTER, by which
we may know ourselves and our fellow-men with certainty--a species of
knowledge most delightful in acquisition, and valuable in application.


Throughout universal nature, the structure of all things is powerful or
weak, hard or soft, coarse or fine, etc., in accordance with its
functions; and in this there is a philosophical fitness or adaptation.
What immense power of function trees put forth, to rear and sustain aloft,
at such great mechanical disadvantage, their ponderous load and vast
canvas of leaves, limbs, and fruit or seeds, spread out to all the
surgings of tempestuous winds and storms; and the _texture_ of wood is as
compact and firm as its functional power is prodigious. Hence its value as
timber. But tender vegetables, grains, etc., require little power, and
accordingly are fragile in structure. Lions, tigers, hyenas, and all
powerfully strong beasts, have a correspondingly powerful organic
structure. The muscular strength of lions is so extraordinary, that
seizing wild cattle by the neck, they dash through thicket, marsh, and
ravine, for hours together, as a cat would drag a squirrel, and their roar
is most terrific; and so powerful is their structure, that it took Drs.
McClintock, Allen, myself, and two experienced "resurrectionists," FOUR
HOURS, though we worked with might and main, just to cut off a magnificent
Numidian lion's head. So hard and tough were the muscles and tendons of
his neck, that cutting them seemed like severing wire, and after slitting
all we could, we were finally obliged to employ a powerful purchase to
start them. It took over three hard days' work to remove his skin. So
compact are the skins of the elephant, rhinoceros, alligator, and some
other animals of great muscular might, that rifle-balls, shot against
them, flatten and fall at their feet--their structure being as dense as
their strength is mighty--while feeble animals have a correspondingly soft
structure. In like manner, the flesh of strong persons is dense and most
elastic, while those of weakly ones are flabby, and yield to pressure.

Moreover, fineness of texture manifests exquisiteness of sensibility, as
seen by contrasting human organism and feelings with brutes, or
fine-haired persons with coarse-haired. Of course, a similar relation and
adaptation exist between all other organic characteristics and their
functions. In short, it is a LAW as philosophical as universal, that the
structure of all beings, and of each of their organs, corresponds
perfectly with their functions--a law based in the very nature and fitness
of things, and governing all shades and diversities of organization and
manifestation. Accordingly those who are coarse-skinned are coarse in
feeling, and coarse-grained throughout; while those finely organized are
fine-minded, and thus of all other textures of hair, skin, etc.


Matter, in its primeval state, was "without form, and void," or gaseous,
but slowly condensing, it solidified or CRYSTALLIZED into minerals and
rocks--and all rocks and minerals are crystalline--which, decomposed by
sun and air, form soil, and finally assume organic, or animal and
vegetable forms. All crystals assume _angular_ forms, and all vegetables
and animals those more or less _spherical_, as seeds, fruits, etc., in
proportion as they are lower or higher in the creative scale; though other
conditions sometimes modify this result.

Nature also manifests certain types of character in and by corresponding
types of form. Thus all trees bear a general resemblance to all other
trees in growth and general character, and also in shape; and those most
nearly allied in character approximate in shape, as pine, hemlock, firs,
etc., while every tree of a given kind is shaped like all others of that
kind, in bark, limb, leaf, and fruit. So all grains, grasses, fruits, and
every bear, horse, elephant, and human being bear a close resemblance to
all others of its kind, both in character and configuration, and on this
resemblance all scientific classification is based. And, since this
general correspondence exists between all the divisions and subdivisions
into classes, genera, and species of nature's works, of course the
resemblance is perfect between _all the details_ of outward forms and
inward mental characteristics; for this law, seen to govern nature in the
outline, must of course govern her in all her minutest details; so that
every existing outward shape is but the mirrored reflection of its inner
likeness. Moreover, since nature always clothes like mentalities in like
shapes, as oak, pine, apple, and other trees, and all lions, sheep, fish,
etc., in other general types of form, of course the more nearly any two
beings approximate to each other in mental disposition, do they resemble
each other in shape. Thus, not only do tiger form and character always
accompany each other, but leopards, panthers, cats, and all feline
species resemble this tiger shape more or less closely, according as their
dispositions approach or depart from his; and monkeys approach nearer to
the human shape, and also mentality, than any other animal except
orang-outangs, which are still more human both in shape and character, and
form the connecting link between man and brute. How absolute and
universal, therefore, the correspondence, both in general outline and
minute detail, between shape and character. Hence the shape of all things
becomes a sure index of its mentality.


Moreover, some men closely resemble one or another of the animal species
in both looks and character; that is, have the eagle, or bull-dog, or lion
or baboon expression of face, and when they do, have the corresponding
characteristics. Thus the lion's head and face are broad and stout built,
with a heavy beard and mane, and a mouth rendered square by small front
and large eye teeth, and its corners slightly turning downward; and that
human "Lion of the North"--who takes hold only of some great undertaking,
which he pursues with indomitable energy, rarely pounces on his prey, but
when he does, so roars that a nation quakes; demolishes his victim; and is
an intellectual king among men--bears no slight physiognomical resemblance
in his stout form, square face and mouth, large nose, and open
countenance, to the king of beasts.


TRISTAM BURGESS, called in Congress the "Bald Eagle," from his having the
aquiline or eagle-bill nose, a projection in the upper lip, falling into
an indentation in the lower, his eagle-shaped eyes and eyebrows, as seen
in the accompanying engraving, eagle-like in character, was the most
sarcastic, tearing, and soaring man of his day, John Randolph excepted.
And whoever has a long, hooked, hawk-bill, or common nose, wide mouth,
spare form, prominence at the lower and middle part of the forehead, is
very fierce when assailed, high tempered, vindictive, efficient, and
aspiring, and will fly higher and farther than others.


TIGERS are always spare, muscular, long, full over the eyes,
large-mouthed, and have eyes slanting downward from their outer to inner
angles; and human beings thus physiognomically characterized, are fierce,
domineering, revengeful, most enterprising, not over humane, a terror to
enemies, and conspicuous somewhere.

BULL-DOGS, generally fleshy, square-mouthed--because their tusks project
and front teeth retire--broad-headed, indolent unless roused, but then
terribly fierce, have their correspondent men and women, whose growling,
coarse, heavy voices, full habit, logy yet powerful motions, square face,
down-turned corners of mouth, and general physiognomical cast betoken
their second-cousin relationship to this growling, biting race, of which
the old line-tender at the Newburgh dock is a sample.

SWINE--fat, logy, lazy, good-dispositioned, flat and hollow-nosed--have
their cousins in large-abdomened, pud-nosed, double-chinned, talkative,
story-enjoying, beer-loving, good-feeling, yes, yes, humans, who love some
easy business, and hate HARD work.

Horses, oxen, sheep, owls, doves, snakes, and even frogs, etc., also have
their men and women cousins, together with their accompanying characters.

These resemblances are more difficult to describe than to recognize; but
the forms of mouth, nose, and chin, and sound of voice, are the best basis
of observation.


In accordance with this general law, that shape is as character,
well-proportioned persons have harmony of features, and well-balanced
minds; whereas those, some of whose features stick right out, and others
fall far in, have uneven, ill-balanced characters, so that homely,
disjointed exteriors indicate corresponding interiors, while
evenly-balanced and exquisitely formed men and women have well-balanced
and susceptible mentalities. Hence, women, more beautiful than men, have
finer feelings, and greater perfection of character, yet are less
powerful--and the more beautifully formed the woman the more exquisite and
perfect her mentality. True, some handsome women often make the greatest
scolds, just as the sweetest things, when soured, become correspondingly
sour. The finest things, when perverted, become the worst. These two
extremes are the worst tempered--those naturally beautiful and fine
skinned, become so exquisitely organized, that when perverted they are
proportionally bad, and those naturally ugly-formed, become ugly by

Yet ordinary-looking persons are often excellent dispositioned,
benevolent, talented, etc., because they have a few POWERFUL traits, and
also features--the very thing we are explaining; that is, they have
EXTREMES alike of face and character. Thus it is that every diversity of
character has its correspondence in both the organic texture and
physiognomical form. To elucidate this subject fully we must explain
another law, that of


Every part of every thing bears an exact correspondence to that thing AS A
WHOLE. Thus, tall-bodied trees have long branches and leaves, and
short-bodied trees, short branches and roots; while creeping vines, as the
grape, honey-suckle, etc., have long, slim roots that run under ground as
extensively as their tops do above. The Rhode Island greening is a large,
well-proportioned apple, and its tree is large in trunk, limb, leaf, and
root, and symmetrical, while the gillifleur is conical and its tree long
limbed and even high to a peak at the top, while flat and broad-topped
trees bear wide, flat, sunken-eyed apples. Very thrifty growing trees, as
the Baldwin, fall pippin, Bartlet, black Tartarian, etc., generally bear
large fruit, while small fruit, as the seckle pear, lady apple, bell de
choisa cherry, grow slowly, and have many small twigs and branches.
Beautiful trees that bear red fruit, as the Baldwin, etc., have red inner
bark; while yellow and green-colored fruits grow on trees the inner rind
of whose limbs is yellow or green. Peach-trees, that bear early peaches,
have deeply-notched leaves, and the converse of late ones; so that, by
these and other physiognomical signs, experienced nurserymen can tell what
a given tree is at first sight.

In accordance with this law of unity of structure, long-handed persons
have long fingers, toes, arms, legs, bodies, heads, and phrenological
organs; while short and broad-shouldered persons are short and
broad-handed and fingered, faced, nosed, and limbed, and wide and low
bodied. When the bones on the hand are prominent, all the bones, nose
included, are generally so, and thus of all other characteristics of the
hand and any other part of the body. Hence, let a hand be thrust through a
hole, and I will tell the general character of its owner, because if it is
large or small, hard or soft, strong or weak, firm or flabby,
coarse-grained or fine-textured, even or prominent, rough or smooth,
small-boned or large-boned, or whatever else, his whole body is built upon
the same principle, with which his brain and mentality also correspond.
Hence small-nosed persons have little soul, and large-nosed a great deal
of character of some kind; large nostrils indicate powerful lungs and
bodies; while narrow nostrils indicate weak ones. Flat noses indicate flat
minds, and prominent noses strong points of character; sharp noses, keen,
clear intellects and intense feelings; blunt noses, obtuse minds; long
noses, long heads; hollow noses, tame characters; finely-formed noses,
well-proportioned character, etc.; and thus of every part of the body. And
it is meet philosophical, accordant with the principles of adaptation,
that this should be thus; and renders observations on character easy and
correct. In general, too, tall persons have high heads, and are more
aspiring, aim high, and seek conspicuosity, while short ones have flat
heads, and seek worldly pleasures. Tall persons are rarely mean, though
often grasping; but very penurious persons are often broad built. Small
persons generally have exquisite mentalities, yet less power; while great
men are rarely dwarfs, though great size often co-exists with
sluggishness. To particularize--there are four leading forms which
indicate generic characteristics, all existing in every one, yet in
different DEGREES. They are these:



Thus, Indian ponies are broad built or thick set, and accordingly very
tough, hardy, enduring of labor, and tenacious of life, yet less active
and nimble. Bull-dogs, elephants, and all round-favored animals and men,
also illustrate this law. Rotundity, with a moderate-sized head, indicates
ancestral longevity; and, unless health has been abused, renders it
possessor strong constitutioned, slow to ripen, or better as they grow
older; full of animal life; self-caring; money-making; fond of animal
pleasures; good feeling, yet spirited when roused; impulsive; more given
to physical than mental action; better adapted to business than study, and
talking than writing; more eloquent than argumentative; wide rather than
high or long headed; more glowing than cool in feeling; and more
enthusiastic than logical or deep. The preceding likeness represents this
class, and his ancestors exceeded 100. He has never been sick; can endure
any thing, and can never sit much in doors.


Gives projecting features, bones, noses, eyebrows, etc., with distinctness
of muscle; and renders its possessors strong; tough; thorough-going;
forcible; easy, yet powerful of motion; perhaps slow, but very stout;
strongly marked, if not idiosyncratic; determined; and impressive both
physically and mentally, who stamp their character on all they touch, of
whom Alexander Campbell is a good example.



Gives ACTIVITY. Thus the gazelle, deer, greyhound, weasel, and all long
and slim animals, are sprightly, light-motioned, agile, quick, nimble,
and full of action; and those persons thus formed are restless, wide
awake, always doing, eager, uncommonly quick to think and feel, sprightly
in conversation, versatile in talent, flexible, suggestive, abounding in
idea, apt at most things; exposed to consumption, because their action
exceeds their strength, early ripe, brilliant, and liable to premature
exhaustion and disease, because the mentality predominates over the
vitality; of which Captain Knight, of the ship "New World," who has a
world-wide reputation for activity, enterprise, daring, impetuousness,
promptness, judgment, earnestness of execution, affability, and
sprightliness, furnishes a good example.

[Illustration: LONG, OR ACTIVE. No. 5. CAPT. KNIGHT.]


Have ardent desires; intense feelings; keen susceptibilities; enjoy and
suffer in the extreme; are whole-souled; sensitive; positive in likes and
dislikes; cordial; enthusiastic; impulsive; have their hobbies; abound in
good feeling, yet are quick-tempered; excitable; liable to extremes; too
much creatures of feeling, and have a great deal of what we call SOUL, or
passion, or warmth of feeling. This temperament prevails in BRILLIANT
writers or speakers, who are too refined and sensitive for the mass of
mankind. They gleam in their career of genius, and are liable to burn out
their vital powers on the altar of nervous excitability, and like Pollok,
H. K. White, McDonald Clarke, or Leggett, fall victims to premature death.
Early attention to the physical training of children would spare to the
world the lives and usefulness of some of the brightest stars in the
firmament of science.



These shapes, or structures, called temperaments, however, never exist
separately; yet since all may be strong, or all weak, or either
predominant or deficient, of course their COMBINATIONS with each other and
with the Phrenology exert potent influences over character, and put the
observer in possession of both the outline and the inner temple of

Breadth of organization gives endurance, animal power, and animal
feelings; and sharpness gives intensity of action, along with mind as mind
and the two united, give both that rapidity and clearness of mind and that
intense glow of feeling which make the orator. Accordingly, all truly
eloquent men will be found to be broad built, round-shouldered, portly,
and fleshy, and yet rather sharp-featured. Of these, Sidney Smith
furnishes a sample.

His nose indicates the sharpness of the mental temperament, and his
fullness of face the breadth of the animal--the blending of which gives
that condensation of fervor and intellectuality which make him Sidney
Smith. Intensity of feeling is the leading element of good speaking, for
this excites feeling, and moves the masses. Wirt had this temperament. It
predominates in Preston, and in every man noted for eloquence.


The sharp and broad, combined with smallness of stature, is still more
susceptible, yet lacks strength. Such will be extremely happy, or most
miserable, or both, and are liable to die young, because their action is
too great for their endurance.

The vital mental, or broad and sharp, gives great power of constitution,
excellent lungs and stomach, strong enjoying susceptibilities, intense
love of pleasure, a happy, ease-loving cast of body and mind; powerful
passions, most intense feelings, and a story and song-loving disposition,
and, with large Tune, superior singing powers. This is, PAR EXCELLENCE,
the singing temperament. It also loves poetry and eloquence, and often
executes them. Of this organism, its accompanying character, Dempster,
furnishes an excellent example.



THE VITAL MOTIVE APPARATUS, or powerful and animal temperament, is
indicated by the broad and prominent in shape, and renders its possessor
of good size and height, if not large; well-proportioned;
broad-shouldered; muscular; nose and cheek-bones prominent; visage
strongly marked; features often coarse and homely; countenance stern and
harsh; face red; hair red or sandy, if not coarse; and movements strong,
but often awkward, and seldom polished. He will be best adapted to some
laborious occupation, and enjoy hard work more than books or literary
pursuits; have great power of feeling, and thus require much
self-government; possess more talent than he exhibits to others, manifest
his mind more in his business, in creating resources and managing matters,
than in literary pursuits or mind as such; and improve with age, growing
better and more intellectual as he grows older; and manufactures as much
animal steam as he can work off, even if he works all the time hard. Such
men ACCOMPLISH; are strong-minded; sensible; hard to beat; indomitable;
often impulsive; and strong in passion when once aroused; as well as often
excellent men. Yet this temperament is capable of being depraved,
especially if the subject drinks. Sailors usually have this temperament,
because fresh air and hard work induce it.

[Illustration: PROMINENT AND SHARP. No. 10. DR. CALDWELL.]

THE MOTIVE MENTAL TEMPERAMENT, or the prominent and sharp in structure,
with the motive predominant, and the vital average or full, is of good
size; rather tall and slim; lean and raw-boned, if not homely and awkward;
poor in flesh; bones and features prominent, particularly the nose; a firm
and distinct muscle, and a good physical organization; a keen, piercing,
penetrating eye; the front upper teeth rather large and projecting; the
hands, fingers, and limbs all long; a long face, and often a high
forehead; a firm, rapid, energetic walk; and great ease and efficiency of
action, accompanied with little fatigue.

He will have strong desires, and much energy of character; will take hold
of projects with both hands, and drive forward in spite of obstacles, and
hence is calculated to accomplish a great deal; is not idle or lazy, but
generally prefers to wait upon himself; will move, walk, etc. in a
decided, forcible, and straightforward manner; have strong passions; a
tough and wiry brain and body; a strong and vigorous mind; good judgment;
a clear head, and talents more solid than brilliant; be long-headed; bold;
cool; calculating; fond of deep reasoning and philosophizing, of hard
thinking, and the graver and more solid branches of learning. This is the
thorough-going temperament; imparts business powers; predisposes to hard
work, and is indispensable to those who engage in great undertakings, or
who would rise to eminence.

One having the mental temperament predominant, the motive full or large,
and the vital average to full, will differ in build from the preceding
description only in his being smaller, taller in proportion, and more
spare. He will have a reflective, thinking, planning, discriminating cast
of mind; a great fondness for literature, science, and intellectual
pursuits of the deeper, graver kind; be inclined to choose a professional
or mental occupation; to exercise his body much, but his mind more; will
have a high forehead; good moral faculties; and the brain developed more
from the root of the nose, over to Philoprogenitiveness, than around the
ears. In character, also, the moral and intellectual faculties will
predominate. This temperament is seldom connected with depravity, but
generally with talent, and a manifestation, not only of superior talents,
but of the solid, metaphysical, reasoning, investigating intellect; a
fondness for natural philosophy, the natural sciences, etc. It is also the
temperament for authorship and clear-headed, labored productions. It
predominates in Revs. Jonathan Edwards, Wilbur Fiske, N. Taylor, E. A.
Parke, Leonard Bacon, Albert Barnes, Oberlin, and Pres. Day; Drs. Parish
and Rush; in Hitchcock, Jas. Brown, the grammarian, ex-U.S.
Attorney-General Butler, Hugh I. White, Wise, Asher Robbins, Walter Jones,
Esq., of Washington, D.C., Franklin, Alex. Hamilton, Chief-Justice
Marshall, Calhoun, John Q. Adams, Percival, Noah Webster, Geo. Combe,
Lucretia Mott, Catherine Waterman, Mrs. Sigourney, and nearly every
distinguished author and scholar. The accompanying engraving of William
Cullen Bryant furnishes as excellent an illustration of the shape that
accompanies this temperament, as his character does of its accompanying


THE LONG AND SHARP combine the highest order of action and energy with
promptness, clearness, and untiring assiduity, and considerable power.
Such are best fitted for some light, active business, requiring more
brightness and quickness than power, such as merchants.

outlines of character and drifts of talent go along with certain kinds of
organizations, but certain phrenological developments accompany certain
temperaments. As the pepper secretes the smarting, the sugar-cane
sweetness, castor-beans and whales, oil, etc., throughout nature, so
certain temperaments secrete more brain than others; and some, brain in
particular regions of the head; and others, brain in other regions of the
head--but all form most of those organs best adapted to carry out those
characteristics already shown to accompany the several temperaments. Thus,
the vital or animal temperament secretes brain in the neighborhood of the
ears, so that along with breadth of body goes that width of head which
gives that full development of the animal organs which is required by the
animal temperament. Thus, breadth of form, width of head, and animality of
temperament and character, all go together.

PROMINENCE of organization, or the motive or powerful temperament, gives
force of character, and secretes brain in the crown of the head, and over
the eyes, along with Combativeness, Destructiveness, Appetite, and
Acquisitiveness. These are the very organs required by this temperament;
for they complete that force which embodies the leading element of this
organization. I never saw this temperament unaccompanied with prodigious
Firmness, and great Combativeness and perceptives.

THE MENTAL VITAL.--The finest and most exquisite organization is that
which unites the mental in predominance with the animal, the prominent
retiring. In this case, the person is rather short, the form light, the
face and person full, and the hair brown or auburn, or between the two. It
will sometimes be found in men, but much oftener in women. It is the
feeling, sentimental, exalted, angelic temperament; and always imparts
purity, sweetness, devotion, exquisiteness, susceptibility, loveliness,
and great moral worth.

[Illustration: MENTAL VITAL. No. 12. FANNY FORRESTER.]

The phrenological organs which accompany this temperament, are--smaller
Firmness, deficient Self-Esteem, large or very large Approbativeness,
smaller Destructiveness, Appetite not large, Adhesiveness and
Philoprogenitiveness very large, Amativeness fair; the head wide, not
directly round the ears, but at the upper part of the sides, including
Ideality, Mirthfulness, Sublimity, and Cautiousness; and a fine top head,
rising at Benevolence quite as much as at Firmness, and being wide on the
top, whereas the motive temperament gives perhaps a ridge in the middle of
the head, but not breadth on the top, and leaves the head much higher at
the back part than at Benevolence. Benevolence, however, often accompanies
the animal temperament, and especially that quiet goodness which grants
favors because the donor is too pliable, or too easy, to refuse them. But
for tenderness of sympathy, and whole-souled interest for mankind, no
temperament is equal to the vital mental. The motive mental, however, is
the one most common in reformers. The reason is this. The mentality
imparted by this temperament sees the miseries of mankind, and weeps over
them; and the force of character imparted by it pushes vigorously plans
for their amelioration. The outer portion of Causality, which plans, often
accompanies the animal temperament; the inner, which reasons, the motive
mental and mental.


The more perfect these organic conditions, the better. Greater breadth
than sharpness, or more vitality than action, causes sluggishness,
dullness of feeling, and inertness, while too great action for strength,
wears out its possessor prematurely. More prominence than sharpness,
leaves talents latent, or undeveloped, while predominant sharpness and
breadth, give such exquisite sensibilities, as that many things harrow up
all the finer sensibilities of keen-feeling souls. But when all are
powerful and EQUALLY BALANCED, they combine all the conditions of power,
activity, and susceptibility; allow neither icy coldness, nor passion's
burning heat, but unite cool judgment, intense but well-governed feelings,
great force of both character and intellect, and perfect consistency and
discretion with extraordinary energy; sound common sense, and far-seeing
sagacity, with brilliancy; and bestow the highest order of Physiology and
Phrenology. Such an organization and character were those of WASHINGTON.

Besides these prominent signs of character, there are many others, among


Those who laugh very heartily, have much cordiality and whole-souledness
of character, except that those who laugh heartily at trifles, have much
feeling, yet little sense. Those whose giggles are rapid, but light, have
much intensity of feeling, yet lack power; whereas those who combine
rapidity with force in laughing, combine them in character. One of the
greatest workers I ever employed, I hired just because he laughed
heartily, and he worked just as he laughed. But a colored domestic who
laughed very rapidly, but LIGHTLY, took a great many steps to do almost
nothing, and though she worked fast, accomplished little. Vulgar persons
always laugh vulgarly, and refined persons show refinement in their laugh.
Those who ha, ha, right out, unreservedly, have no cunning, and are
open-hearted in every thing; while those who suppress laughter, and try to
control their countenances in it, are more or less secretive. Those who
laugh with their mouth closed, are non-committal; while those who throw it
wide open, are unguarded and unequivocal in character. Those who,
suppressing laughter for a while, burst forth volcano-like, have strong
characteristics, but are well governed, yet violent when they give way to
their feelings. Then there is the intellectual laugh, the love laugh, the
horse laugh, the Philoprogenitive laugh, the friendly laugh, and many
other kinds of laugh, each indicative of corresponding mental


As already shown, texture corresponds to character, and motion to texture,
and therefore to character. Those whose motions are awkward, yet easy,
possess much efficiency and positiveness of character, yet lack polish;
and just in proportion as they become refined in mind, will their mode of
carriage be correspondingly improved. A short and quick step, indicates a
brisk and active, but rather contracted mind, whereas those who take long
steps, generally have long heads; yet if their step be slow, they will
make comparatively little progress, while those whose step is LONG AND
QUICK, will accomplish proportionately much, and pass most of their
competitors on the highway of life. Their heads and plans, too, will
partake of the same far-reaching character evinced in their carriage.
Those who sluff or drag their heels, drag and drawl in every thing; while
those who walk with a springing, bounding step, abound in mental snap and
spring. Those whose walk is mincing, affected, and artificial, rarely, if
ever, accomplish much; whereas those who walk carelessly, that is
naturally, are just what they appear to be, and put on nothing for outside
show. Those who, in walking, roll from side to side, lack directness of
character, and side every way, according to circumstances; whereas, those
who take a bee line--that is, whose body moves neither to the right nor
left, but straight forward--have a corresponding directness of purpose,
and oneness of character. Those also who tetter up and down when they
walk, rising an inch or two every step, will have many corresponding ups
and downs in life, because of their irregularity of character and feeling.
Those, too, who make a great ado in walking, will make much needless
parade in every thing else, and hence spend a great amount of useless
steam in all they undertake, yet accomplish little; whereas those who walk
easily, or expend little strength in walking, will accomplish great
results with a little strength, both mentally and physically. In short,
every individual has his own peculiar mode of moving, which exactly
accords with his mental character; so that, as far as you can see such
modes, you can decipher such outlines of character.

To DANCING, these principles apply equally. Dr. Wieting, the celebrated
lecturer on physiology, once asked where he could find something on the
temperaments, and was answered, "Nowhere; but if I can ever see you among
men, I will give you a PRACTICAL lesson upon it." Accordingly, afterward,
chance threw us together in a hotel, in which was a dancing-school that
evening. Insisting on the fulfillment of our promise, we accompanied him
into the dancing saloon, and pointed out, first, a small, delicately
moulded, fine skinned, pocket-Venus, whose motions were light, easy,
waving, and rather characterless, who put forth but little strength in
dancing. We remarked--"She is very exquisite in feelings, but rather light
in the upper story, lacking sense, thought, and strength of mind." Of a
large, raw-boned, bouncing Betty, who threw herself far up, and came down
good and solid, when she danced, we remarked--"She is one of your strong,
powerful, determined characters, well suited to do up rough work, but
utterly destitute of polish, though possessed of great force." Others came
in for their share of criticism--some being all dandy, others all
business, yet none all intellect.


Also expresses character. Thus those who give a tame and loose hand, and
shake lightly, have a cold, if not heartless and selfish disposition,
rarely sacrificing much for others--probably conservatives, and lack
warmth of soul. But those who grasp firmly, and shake heartily, have a
corresponding whole-souledness of character, are hospitable, and will
sacrifice business to friends; while those who bow low when they shake
hands, add deference to friendship, and are easily led, for good or bad,
by friends.


Every mouth differs from every other, and indicates a coincident
character. Large mouths express a corresponding quantity of mentality,
while small ones indicate a lesser amount of mentality. A coarsely formed
mouth indicates power of character, while one finely formed indicates
exquisite susceptibilities. Hence small, delicately-formed mouths,
indicate only common minds, but very fine feelings, with much perfection
of character. Whenever the muscles about the mouth are distinct the
character is correspondingly positive, and the reverse. Those who open
their mouths wide and frequently, thereby evince an open soul, while
closed mouths, unless to hide deformed teeth, are proportionately

And thus of the eyes. In travelling west, in 1842, we examined a man who
made great pretension to religion, but was destitute of Conscience, whom
we afterward ascertained to be an impostor. While attending the Farmers'
Club, in New York, this scamp came in, and besides keeping his eyes half
closed half the time, frequently shut them so as to peep out upon those
present, but opened them barely enough to secure vision. Those who keep
their eyes half shut, are peekaboos and eavesdroppers, and those who use
squinting glasses are no better, unless they merely copy a foolish
fashion. The use of quizzing glasses indicates either defective sight or
defective mentalities, but are rarely if ever employed except as a
fashionable appendage.

Those, too, who keep their coats buttoned up, fancy high-necked and closed
dresses, etc., are equally non-communicative, but those who like open,
free, flowing garments, are equally open-hearted and communicative.


Whatever makes a noise, from the deafening roar of sea, cataract, and
whirlwind's mighty crash, through all forms of animal life, to the sweet
and gentle voice of woman, makes a sound which agrees perfectly with its
character. Thus the terrific roar of the lion, and the soft cooing of the
dove, correspond exactly with their respective dispositions; while the
rough and powerful bellow of the bull, the fierce yell of the tiger, the
coarse guttural moan of the hyena, and the swinish grunt, the sweet
warblings of birds, in contrast with the raven's croak, and owl's hoot,
each corresponds perfectly with their respective characteristics. And this
law holds equally true of man--that the human intonations are as superior
to brutal as human character exceeds animal. Accordingly, the
peculiarities of every human being are expressed in his voice, and mode of
speaking. Coarse-grained and powerfully animal organizations have a
coarse, harsh, and grating voice, while in exact proportion as persons
become refined, and elevated mentally, will their tones of voice become
correspondingly refined and perfected. We little realize how much of
character we infer from this source. Thus, some female friends are
visiting me transiently. A male friend, staying with me, enters the room,
is seen by my female company, and his walks, dress, manners, etc., closely
scrutinized, yet says nothing, and retires, leaving a comparatively
indistinct impression as to his character upon my female visitors,
whereas, if he simply said yes or no, the mere SOUND of his voice
communicates to their minds most of his character, and serves to fix
distinctly upon their minds clear and correct general ideas of his

The barbarous races use the guttural sounds, more than the civilized. Thus
Indians talk more down the throat than white men, and thus of those men
who are lower or higher in the human scale. Those whose voices are clear
and distinct have clear minds, while those who only half form their words,
or are heard indistinctly, say by deaf persons, are mentally obtuse. Those
who have sharp, shrill intonations have correspondingly intense feelings,
and equal sharpness both of anger and kindness, as is exemplified by every
scold in the world; whereas those with smooth, or sweet voices have
corresponding evenness and goodness of character. Yet contradictory as it
may seem, these same persons not unfrequently combine both sharpness and
softness of voice, and such always combine them in character. There is
also the intellectual, the moral, the animal, the selfish, the benignant,
the mirthful, the devout, the love, and many other intonations, each
accompanying corresponding peculiarities of characters. In short, every
individual is compelled, by every word he utters, to manifest something of
his true character--a sign of character as diversified as it is correct.


Coarseness of texture indicates a coarseness of function; while a fine
organization indicates a corresponding fineness of mentality. And since
when one part is coarse or fine, all are equally so, so, therefore,
coarseness of skin and hair indicate a coarse-grained brain, and
coarseness of mind; yet since coarseness indicates power, such persons
usually posses a great deal of character of some kind. Hence dark-skinned
nations are behind light-haired in all the improvements of the age, and
the higher, finer manifestations of humanity. So, too, dark-haired
persons, like Webster are frequently possessed of great power, yet lack
the finer and more delicate shadings of sensibility and purity. Coarse
black hair and skin, or coarse red hair and face, indicate powerful animal
propensities, together with corresponding strength of character; while
fine and light hair indicate quick susceptibilities, together with purity,
refinement, and good taste. Fine dark or brown hair, indicates a
combination of exquisite susceptibilities with great strength of
character; while auburn-colored hair, and a florid countenance, indicate
the highest order of exquisiteness and intensity of feeling, yet with
corresponding purity of character and love of virtue, together with the
highest susceptibilities of enjoyment and suffering. And the intermediate
colors and textures indicate intermediate mentalities. Coarse-haired
persons should never turn dentists or clerks, but should seek some
out-door employment; and would be better contented with rough, hard work
than a light or sedentary occupation, although mental and sprightly
occupations would serve to refine and improve them; while dark and
fine-haired persons may choose purely intellectual occupations, and become
lecturers or writers with fair prospects of success. Red-haired persons
should seek out-door employment, for they require a great amount of air
and exercise; while those who have light, fine hair, should choose
occupations involving taste and mental acumen, yet take bodily exercise
enough to tone and vigorate their system.

Generally, whenever skin, hair, or features are fine or coarse, the others
are equally so. Yet some inherit fineness from one parent, and coarseness
from the other, while the color of the eye generally corresponds with that
of the skin, and expresses character. Light eyes indicate warmth of
feeling, and dark eyes power.

The mere expression of eye conveys precise ideas of the existing and
predominant states of the mentality and physiology. As long as the
constitution remains unimpaired, the eye is clear and bright, but becomes
languid and soulless in proportion as the brain has been enfeebled. Wild,
erratic persons, have a half-crazed expression of eye, while calmness,
benignancy, intelligence, purity, sweetness, love, lasciviousness, anger,
and all the other mental affections, express themselves quite as
distinctly in the eye as voice, or any other mode.


Jackson Davis well remarked that, in the spirit land, conversation is
carried on mainly, not by words, but by EXPRESSION OF COUNTENANCE--that
spirits LOOK their thoughts and motions, rather than talk them. Certain it
is that the countenance discloses a greater amount of thought and feeling,
together with their nicer shades and phases, than words can possibly
communicate. Whether we will or no, we cannot HELP revealing the innermost
recesses of our souls in our faces. By what means is this effected?
Clairvoyants say by magnetic centres, called poles; each physical and
mental organ has its pole stationed in a given part of the face, so that,
when such organ becomes active, it influences such poles, and contracts
facial muscles, which express the corresponding emotions. That there
exists an intimate relation between the stomach and one part of the face,
the lungs and another, etc., is proved by the fact that consumptive
patients always have a hectic flush on the cheek, just externally from the
lower portion of the nose, while inactive lungs cause paleness, and
healthy ones give the rosy cheek; and that dyspeptic patients are always
lank and thin opposite the double teeth, while those whose digestion is
good, are full between the corners of the mouth and lower portion of the
ears. Since, therefore, SOME of the states of some of the internal organs
express themselves in the face, of course every organ of the body must do
the same--the magnetic pole of the heart beginning in the chin. Those
whose circulation is vigorous, have broad and rather prominent chins;
while those who are small and narrow-chinned have feeble hearts; and thus
all the other internal organs have their magnetic poles in various parts
of the face.

In like manner have all the PHRENOLOGICAL organs. In 1841, Dr. Sherwood,
La Roy Sunderland, and O. S. Fowler, aided by a magnetic subject, located
the poles of most of the phrenological and physiological organs, some of
which were as follows: Acquisitiveness on each side of the middle portion
of the nose, at its junction with the cheek, causing breadth of nose in
proportion to the money-grasping instincts, while a narrow nose indicated
a want of the speculative turn. Firmness is in the upper lip, midway
between its edge and the nose, giving length, prominence, and a
compression of the upper lip. Hence, when we would exhort to determined
perseverance, we say, "Keep a stiff upper lip." Self-Esteem has its pole
externally from that of Firmness, and between the outer portion of the
nose and the mouth, causing a fullness, as if a quid of tobacco were under
the upper lip. The affections were described as having their poles in the
edges of the lips, and hence the philosophy of kissing. The pole of
Mirthfulness is located externally, and above the outer corners of the
mouth, and hence the drawing up of these corners in laughter.
Approbativeness has its pole directly outward from these corners, and
hence the approbative laugh does not turn the corners of the mouth upward,
but draws them straight back, or outwardly. Like locations were assigned
to nearly all the other organs. That physiognomy has its science--that
fixed and absolute relations exist between the phrenological organs and
given portions of the face is not a matter of question. The natural
language of the organs, as seen in the attitudes of the head, indicate not
only the presence of large and active organs, but also the signs of their
deficiency. Self-Esteem throws the head upward and backward toward the
seat of its organ; Approbativeness, back and toward the side;
Philoprogenitiveness, directly back, but not upward; Firmness draws the
head up, in a stiff, perpendicular position; Individuality thrusts the
head forward toward its organ, and gives the man a staring, gazing aspect;
small Self-Esteem lets the head droop forward. Man was made both to
disclose his own character, and to read that of others. Than this form of
knowledge, none is more inviting or useful. Hence God has caused the
inherent character of every living being and thing to gush out through
every organ of the body, and every avenue of the soul; and also created in
both brute and man a character-reading faculty, to take intuitive
cognizance of the mental operations. Nor will she let any one lie, any
more than lie herself, but compels all to carry the flag of their
character at their mast-heads, so that all acquainted with the signs may
see and read. If we attempt deception, the very effort convicts us. If all
nature's signs of character were fully understood, all could read not only
all the main characters of all they see, but even most thoughts and
feelings passing in the mind for the time being--a gift worth more than
Astor's millions.


Thus far our remarks have appertained to the constant colors of the face,
yet those colors are often diversified or changed for the time being.

Thus, at one time, the whole countenance will be pale, at another, very
red; each of which indicates the existing states of body and mind. Or
thus; when the system is in a perfectly healthy state, the whole face will
be suffused with the glow of health and beauty, and have a red, but never
an inflamed aspect; yet any permanent injury of health, which prostrates
the bodily energies, will change this florid complexion into dullness of
countenance indicating that but little blood comes to the surface or flows
to the head and a corresponding stagnation of the physical and mental
powers. Yet, after a time, this dullness frequently gives way to a fiery
redness; not the floridness of health, but the redness of inflammation and
false excitement, which indicates a corresponding depreciation of the
mental faculties. Very red-faced persons, so far from being the most
healthy, are frequently the most diseased, and are correspondingly more
animal and sensual in character; because physiological inflammation
irritates the propensities more, relatively, than the moral and
intellectual faculties, though it may, for the time being, increase the
latter also. When the moral and intellectual faculties greatly predominate
over the animal, such redness of the face may not cause coarse animality,
because while it heightens the animal nature, it also increases the
intellectual and moral, which, being the larger, hold them in check, but
when the animal about equals the moral and intellectual, this inflammation
evinces a greater increase of animality than intellectuality and morality.
Gross sensualists, and depraved sinners, generally have a fiery, red
countenance. Stand aloof from them, for their passions are all on fire,
ready to ignite and explode on provocations so slight that a healthy
physiology would scarcely notice them. This point can hardly be more fully
intelligible; but let readers note the difference between a healthy
floridness of face, and the fiery redness of drunkards, debauchees,
meat-eaters, etc. Nor does an inflamed physiology merely increase the
animal nature, but gives a far more _depraved_ and sensual cast to it,
thus doubly increasing the tendency to depravity.


Health and disease affects the mind as much as body. Virtue, goodness,
etc., are only the healthy or normal exercise of our various faculties,
while depravity and sin are only the sickly exercise of these same organs.
Holiness and moral excellence, as well as badness, depend far less upon
the relative SIZE of the phrenological organs, than upon their DIRECTION
or tone and character, and this depends upon the STATE OF THE BODY. Or
thus; a healthy physiology tends to produce a healthy action of the
phrenological organs, which is virtue and happiness; while an unhealthy
physiology produces that sickly exercise of the mental faculties,
especially of the animal propensities, which constitutes depravity and
produces misery. Hence those phrenologists who look exclusively to the
predominant SIZE of the animal organs, for vicious manifestations, and
regard their average size as indicative of virtue, have this great lesson
to learn, that health of body produces health of mind and purity of
feelings, while all forms of bodily disease, in the very nature of things,
tend to corrupt the feelings and deprave the soul. While, therefore,
phrenologists should scrutinize the size of organs closely, they should
observe the STATE OF HEALTH much more minutely, for most of their errors
are explainable on this ground: that the organs described produced vicious
inclinations, not because they were so large but because they were
physically SICK, and hence take on a morally DEFORMED mode of action.
Phrenologists, look ye well to these points, more fully explained in our
other phrenological works.




PHRENOLOGY points out those relations established by nature between given
developments and conditions of BRAIN and corresponding manifestations of
MIND. Its simple yet comprehensive definition is this: every faculty of
the mind is manifested by means of particular portions of the BRAIN called
its organs, the size of which, other things being equal, is proportionate
to its power of function. For example: it teaches that parental love is
manifested by one organ, or portion of the brain; appetite by another,
reason by a third, etc., which are large the stronger these corresponding
mental powers.

Are, then, particular portions of the brain larger or smaller in
proportion as particular mental characteristics are stronger or weaker?
Our short-hand answer is illustrated by the following anecdote. A Mr.
Juror was once summoned to attend court, but died before its sitting. It
therefore devolved upon Mr. Simple to state to the court the reason of his
non-appearance. Accordingly, when Mr. Juror's name was called, Mr. Simple
responded, "May it please the court, I have twenty-one reasons why Mr.
Juror is not in attendance. The first is, he is DEAD. The second is--"
"That ONE will answer," responded the judge. "One such reason is amply
sufficient." But few of the many proofs that Phrenology is true will here
be stated, yet those few are DECISIVE.

First. THE BRAIN IS THE ORGAN OF THE MIND. This is assumed, because too
universally admitted to require proof.

Secondly. Is the brain, then, a SINGLE organ, or is it a bundle of organs?
Does the WHOLE brain think, remember, love, hate, etc.; or does one
portion reason, another worship, another love money, etc.? This is the
determining point. To decide it affirmatively, establishes Phrenology;
negatively, overthrows it. It is proved by the following facts.

talk, remember, love, and many other things all TOGETHER,--the mind
being, in this respect, like a stringed instrument, with several strings
vibrating at a time, instead of like a flute which stops the preceding
sound when it commences succeeding ones; whereas, if it were a single
organ, it must stop thinking the instant it began to talk, could not love
a friend and express that love at the same time, and could do but one
thing at once.

MONOMANIA.--Since mental derangement is caused only by cerebral disorder,
if the brain were a single organ, the WHOLE mind must be sane or insane
together; whereas most insane persons are deranged only on one or two
points, a conclusive proof of the plurality of the brain and mental

DIVERSITY OF TALENT, or the fact that some are remarkable for sense, but
poor in memory, or the reverse; some forgetting names, but remembering
faces; some great mechanics, but poor speakers, or the reverse; others
splendid natural singers, but no mechanics, etc., etc., conducts us to a
similar conclusion.

INJURIES OF THE BRAIN furnish still more demonstrative proof. If
Phrenology be true, to wound and inflame Tune, for example, would create a
singing disposition; Veneration, a praying desire; Cautiousness,
groundless fears; and so of all the other organs. And thus it is. Nor can
this class of facts be evaded. They abound in all phrenological works,
especially periodicals, and drive and clench the nail of proof.

COMPARATIVE PHRENOLOGY, or the perfect coincidence existing between the
developments and characters of animals, constitutes the highest proof of
all. Since man and brute are fashioned upon one great model, those same
great optical laws governing the vision of both, that same principle of
muscular contraction which enables the eagle to soar aloft beyond our
vision, and the whale to furrow and foam the vasty deep, and enabling man
to walk forth in the conscious pride of his strength, and thus of all
their other common functions; of course, if man is created in accordance
with phrenological laws, brutes must also be; and the reverse. If, then,
this science is true of either, it must be true of both; must pervade all
forms of organization. What, then, are the facts?

Phrenology locates the animal propensities at the SIDES of the head,
between and around the ears; the social affections in its BACK and lower
portion; the aspiring faculties in its CROWN; the moral on its TOP; and
the intellectual on the FOREHEAD; the perceptives, which, related to
matter, OVER THE EYES; and the reflectives in the UPPER part of the
forehead. (See cut No. 14.)

Now since brutes possess at least only weak moral and reflective
faculties, they should, if Phrenology were true, have little top head, and
thus it is. Not one of all the following drawings of animals, have much
brain in either the reflective or moral region. Almost all their mentality
consists of the ANIMAL PROPENSITIES, and nearly all their brain is BETWEEN
and AROUND THEIR EARS, just where, according to Phrenology, it should be.
Yet the skulls of all human beings rise high above the eyes and ears, and
are long on top, that is, have intellectual and moral ORGANS, as we know
they possess these mental ELEMENTS. Comparing the accompanying human skull
with those of brutes, thus those of snakes, frogs, turtles, alligators,
etc., slope straight back from the nose; that is, have almost no moral or
intellectual organs; tigers, dogs, lions, etc., have a little more, yet
how insignificant compared with man, while monkeys are between them in
these organs and their faculties. Here, then, is INDUCTIVE proof of
Phrenology as extensive as the whole brute creation on the one hand,
contrasted with the entire human family on the other.

[Illustration: No. 14. GROUPING OF ORGANS.]

[Illustration: No. 15. HUMAN SKULL.]

[Illustration: No. 16. SNAKE.]

[Illustration: No. 17. TURTLE.]

Again, Destructiveness is located by Phrenology over the ears, so as to
render the head wide in proportion as this organ is developed.
Accordingly, all carnivorous animals should be wide-headed at the ears;
all herbivorous, narrow. And thus they are, as seen in tigers, hyenas,
bears, cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc., compared with rabbits, sheep, etc.
(Cuts 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30).


[Illustration: No. 18. TIGER--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 19. HYENA--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 20. HYENA--BACK VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 21. BEAR--TOP VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 22. BEAR--BACK VIEW.]


[Illustration: No. 23. SHEEP--TOP VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 24. RABBIT--SIDE VIEW.]

To large Destructiveness, in cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc., add large
SECRETIVENESS, both in character and head.


[Illustration: No. 25. FOX--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 26. ICHNEUMON--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 27. DO.--BACK VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 28. CAT--BACK VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 29. CAT--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 30. LION--TOP VIEW.]

Fowls, in like manner, correspond perfectly in head and character. Thus,
owls, hawks, eagles, etc., have very wide heads, and ferocious
dispositions; while hens, turkeys, etc., have narrow heads, and little
Destructiveness in character (cuts 31, 32, and 33).


[Illustration: No. 31. OWL--TOP VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 32. HAWK--TOP VIEW.]

[Illustration: No. 33. HEN--TOP VIEW.]


[Illustration: No. 34. CROW.]

[Illustration: No. 35. INTELLIGENT MONKEY.]

[Illustration: No. 36. DO.--SIDE VIEW.]

The crow (cut 34) has very large Secretiveness and Cautiousness in the
head, as he is known to have in character.

Monkeys, too, bear additional testimony to the truth of phrenological
science. They possess, in character, strong perceptive powers, but weak
reflectives, and powerful propensities, with feeble moral elements.
Accordingly they are full over the eyes, but slope straight back at the
reasoning and moral faculties, while the propensities engross most of
their brain.


[Illustration: No. 37. JACO THE ORANG-OUTANG.]

The ORANG-OUTANG has more forehead than any other animal, both perceptive
and reflective, with some moral sentiments, and accordingly is called the
"half-reasoning man," its Phrenology corresponding perfectly with its


THE VARIOUS RACES also accord with phrenological science. Thus, Africans
generally have full perceptives, and large Tune and Language, but retiring
Causality, and accordingly are deficient in reasoning capacity, yet have
excellent memories and lingual and musical powers.

[Illustration: No. 38. AFRICAN HEAD.]

[Illustration: No. 39. INDIAN CHIEF.]

Indians possess extraordinary strength of the propensities and
perceptives, yet have no great moral or inventive power; and, hence, have
very wide, round, conical, and rather low heads.

Indian skulls can always be selected from Caucasian, just by these
developments; while the Caucasian race is superior in reasoning power and
moral elevation to all the other races, and, accordingly, have higher and
bolder foreheads, and more elevated and elongated top heads.

Finally, contrast the massive foreheads of all giant-minded men--Bacons,
Franklins, Miltons, etc., with idiotic heads.

In short, every human, every brutal head, is constructed throughout
strictly on phrenological principles. Ransack air, earth, and water and
not one palpable exception ever has been, ever can be adduced. This
WHOLE-SOUL view of this science precludes the possibility of mistake.


[Illustration: No. 43. BACON.]

[Illustration: No. 44. IDIOT.]


All truth bears upon its front unmistakable evidence of its divine origin,
in its philosophical consistency, fitness, and beauty, whereas all untruth
is grossly and palpably deformed. All truth, also, harmonizes with all
other truth, and conflicts with all error, so that to ascertain what is
true, and detect what is false, is perfectly easy. Apply this test,
intellectual reader to one after another of the doctrines, as presented in
this science. But enough on this point of proofs. Let us proceed to its


The brain is not only the organ of the mind, the dome of thought, the
palace of the soul, but is equally the organ of the _body_, over which it
exerts an all-potent influence for good or ill, to weaken or stimulate, to
kill or make alive. In short, the brain is the organ of the body in
general, and of all its organs in particular. It sends forth those nerves
which keep muscles, liver, bowels, and all the other bodily organs in a
high or low state of action; and, more than all other causes, invites or
repels disease, prolongs or shortens life, and treats the body as its
galley-slave. Hence, healthy cerebral action is indispensable to bodily
health. Hence, too, we walk or work so much more easily and efficiently
when we take an _interest_ in what we do. Therefore those who would be
happy or talented must first and mainly keep their BRAIN vigorous and

The brain is subdivided into two hemispheres, the right and left, by the
falciform process of the dura mater, a membrane which dips down one to two
inches into the brain, and runs from the root of the nose over to the nape
of the neck. This arrangement renders all the phrenological organs DOUBLE.
Thus, as there are two eyes, ears, etc., that when one is diseased, the
other can carry forward the functions, so there are two lobes to each
phrenological organ, one on each side. The brain is divided thus: the
feelings occupy that portion commonly covered by the hair, while the
forehead is occupied by the intellectual organs. These greater divisions
are subdivided into the animal brain, located between and around the ears;
the aspiring faculties, which occupy the crown of the head; the moral and
religious sentiments, which occupy the top; the physico-perceptives,
located over the eyes; and the reflectives, in the upper portion of the
forehead. The predominance of these respective groups produces both
particular shapes, and corresponding traits of character. Thus, when the
head projects far back behind the ears, hanging over and downward in the
occipital region, it indicates very strong domestic ties and social
affections, a love of home, its relations and endearments, and a
corresponding high capacity of being happy in the family, and of making
the family happy. Very wide and round heads, on the contrary, indicate
strong animal and selfish propensities, while thin, narrow heads, indicate
a corresponding want of selfishness and animality. A head projecting far
up at the crown, indicates an aspiring, self-elevating disposition,
proudness of character, and a desire to be and to do something great;
while the flattened crown indicates a want of ambition, energy, and
aspiration. A head high, long, and wide upon the top, but narrow between
the ears, indicates Causality, moral virtue, much practical goodness, and
a corresponding elevation of character; while a low or narrow top head
indicates a corresponding deficiency of these humane and religious
susceptibilities. A head wide at the upper part of the temples, indicates
a corresponding desire for personal perfection, together with a love of
the beautiful and refined, while narrowness in this region evinces a want
of taste, with much coarseness of feeling. Fullness over the eyes
indicates excellent practical judgment of matters and things appertaining
to property, science, and nature in general; while narrow, straight
eyebrows, indicate poor practical judgment of matter, its quality,
relations, and uses. Fullness from the root of the nose upward, indicates
great practical talent, love of knowledge, desire to see, and ability to
do to advantage, together with sprightliness of mind; while a hollow in
the middle of the forehead indicates want of memory and inability to show
off to advantage. A bold, high forehead, indicates strong reasoning
capabilities, while a retiring forehead indicates less soundness, but more
availability of talent.


[Illustration: No. 40. WASHINGTON IRVING.]

Phrenology shows that every faculty, when active, throws head and body in
the direction of that faculty. Thus, intellect, in the fore part of the
head, throws it directly forward, and produces a forward hanging motion of
the head. Hence intellectual men never carry their heads backward and
upward, but always forward; and logical speakers move their heads in a
straight line, usually forward, toward their audience; while vain speakers
carry their heads backward. Perceptive intellect, when active, throws out
the chin and lower portions of the face; while reflective intellect causes
the upper portion of the forehead to hang forward, and draws in the chin,
as in the engravings of Franklin, Webster, and other great thinkers.
Benevolence throws the head and body slightly forward, leaning toward the
object which excites its sympathy; while Veneration causes a low bow,
which, the world over, is a token of respect; yet, when Veneration is
exercised toward the Deity, as in devout prayer, it throws the head
UPWARD; and, as we use intellect at the same time, the head is generally
directed forward. Ideality throws the head slightly forward, and to one
side, as in Washington Irving, a man as gifted in taste and imagination
as almost any living writer; and, in his portraits, his finger rests upon
this faculty; while in Sterne, the finger rests upon Mirthfulness. Very
firm men stand straight up and down, inclining not a hair's breadth
forward or backward, or to the right or left; hence the expression, "He is
an up-and-down man." And this organ is located exactly on a line with the
body. Self-Esteem, located in the back and upper portion of the head,
throws the head and body upward and backward. Large feeling, pompous
persons, always walk in a very dignified, majestic posture, and always
throw their heads in the direction of Self-Esteem; whilst approbative
persons throw their heads backward, but to the one side or both. The
difference between these two organs being comparatively slight, only the
practical Phrenologist's eye can perfectly distinguish them.

[Illustration: No. 45. A CONCEITED SIMPLETON.]

There is, moreover, a natural language of money-loving, and that is a
leaning forward and turning of the head to one side, as if in ardent
pursuit of something, and ready to grasp it with outstretched arms; while
Alimentiveness, situated lower down, hugs itself down to the dainty dish
with the greediness of an epicure, better seen than described. The shake
of the head is the natural language of Combativeness, and means no, or I
resist you. Those who are combating earnestly upon politics, or any other
subject, shake the head more or less violently, according to the power of
the combative feeling, but always shake it slightly inclining _backwards_;
while Destructiveness, inclining forward, causes a shaking of the head
slightly forward, and turning to one side. When a person who threatens you
shakes his head violently, and holds it partially backward, and to one
side, never fear--he is only barking; but whenever he inclines his head to
one side, and shakes it violently, that dog will bite, whether possessed
of two legs or four. The social affections are located in the _back_ part
of the head; and, accordingly, woman being more loving than man, when not
under the influence of the other faculties, usually inclines her head
backward toward the neck; and when she kisses children, and those whom she
loves, always turns the head directly backward, and rolls it from side to
side, on the back of the neck. Thus it is that all the various postures
assumed by it individually, are expressive of the present or the permanent
activity of their respective faculties.

[Illustration: No. 44. JONATHAN EDWARDS.]


This condition modifies character more than any other. It is, indeed, the
summing up of all. It consists of two kinds, original and acquired. The
former, inherited from parents, embraces the pristine vigor and power with
which the life principle was started, and gives what we will call SNAP;
while the latter embraces the _existing_ states of the organism as
affected by health or debility, artificial habits--such as dyspeptic and
other affections, caused by injurious qualities and quantities of food, by
artificial stimulants, as tea, coffee, tobacco, or alcoholic drinks--the
deranged or healthy states of the nervous system; too much or too little
exercise, labor, sleep, breath, etc., etc.; and whatever other conditions
are embraced in health and disease, or in any way affect them. Of course,
the parental may be good, but acquired poor, or the reverse, according as
the subject is strengthening or enfeebling, building up or breaking down
his physical constitution, by correct or erroneous physiological habit.
Yet, in most persons, the parental is many hundred per cent. better than
the acquired.

PARENTAL GOOD, OR VERY GOOD, gives corresponding innate vigor and energy,
or that heart and bottom which wears like iron, and bends, willow-like,
without breaking, and performs more with a given size, than greater size,
and less inherent "snap;" and gives thoroughness and edge to the
mentality, just as good steel, well tempered, does to the tool.

PARENTAL FAIR gives a good share of the presiding qualities, yet nothing
remarkable; with acquired good endures and accomplishes much; without it,
soon breaks down.

PARENTAL POOR leaves its subject poorly organized, bodily and mentally,
and proportionally low in the creative scale.

[Illustration: No. 45. EMERSON, AN IDIOT.]

ACQUIRED GOOD enables whatever of life power there is, to perform all of
which it is capable; with parental good, furnishes a full supply of vital
power, and that activity which works it all up in mental or physical
labor. With parental very good, puts forth a most astonishing amount of
effort, and endures wonders without injury; possesses remarkable clearness
and wholeness of mind; thinks and feels directly to the purpose; gives
point and cogency to every thing; and confers a superior amount of healthy
intellectuality, morality, and mentality, in general.

ACQUIRED FAIR, with parental average, gives fair natural talents, and
mental and physical vigor, yet nothing remarkable; will lead a commonplace
life, and possess an every-day character, memory, etc.; will not set the
world on fire, nor be insignificant, but, with cultivation, will do well.

ACQUIRED POOR will be unable to put forth its inherent power; is weak and
inefficient, though desirous of doing something; with parental good, may
take hold resolutely, but soon tires, and finds it impossible to sustain
that powerful action with which it naturally commences.


A good nervous condition enables its possessor to put forth sound and
healthy mental and physical efforts; gives a calm, quiet, happy, contented
frame of mind, and a strong tendency to enjoy every thing--even the bad;
makes the most of life's joys, and the least of its sorrows; confers full
possession of all its innate powers; and predisposes to a right exercise
of all the faculties.

Disordered nerves produce an irritated, craving, dissatisfied state of
mind, and a tendency to depravity in some of its forms, with a half
paralyzed, lax, inefficient state of mind and body.


SIZE of head and organs, other things being equal, is the great
phrenological condition. Though tape measurements, taken around the head,
from Individuality to Philoprogenitiveness, give some idea of the size of
brain, the fact that some heads are round, others long, some low, and
others high, so modifies these measurements that they do not convey any
very correct idea of the actual quantity of brain. Yet these measurements
range somewhat as follows. Least size of adults compatible with fair
talents, 20-1/4; 20-3/4 to 21-1/4, moderate; 21-1/4 to 22, average; 22 to
22-3/4, full; 22-3/4 to 23-3/4, large; above 23-3/4, very large. Female
heads, 1/2 to 3/4 below these averages.

LARGE.--One having a large sized brain, with activity _average_, will
_possess_ considerable energy of intellect and feeling, yet seldom
manifest it, unless it is brought out by some powerful stimulus, and will
be rather too indolent to exert, especially his _intellect_: with activity
_full_, will be endowed with an uncommon amount of the mental power, and
be capable of doing a good deal, yet require considerable to awaken him to
that vigorous effort of mind of which he is capable; if his powers are not
called out by circumstances, and his organs of practical intellect are
only average or full, he may pass through life without attracting notice,
or manifesting more than an ordinary share of talent: but if the
perceptive faculties are strong, or very strong, and his natural powers
put in vigorous requisition, he will manifest a vigor and energy of
intellect and feeling quite above mediocrity; be adequate to undertakings
which demand originality of mind and force of character, yet, after all,
be rather indolent: with activity _great, or very great_, will combine
great _power_ of mind with great activity; exercise a commanding influence
over those minds with which he comes in contact; when he enjoys, will
enjoy intensely, and when he suffers, suffer equally so; be susceptible of
strong excitement, and, with the organs of the propelling powers, and of
practical intellect, large or very large, will possess all the mental
capabilities for conducting a large business; for rising to eminence, if
not to pre-eminence; and discover great force of character and power of
intellect and feeling: with activity _moderate_, when powerfully excited,
will evince considerable energy of intellect and feeling, yet be too
indolent and too sluggish to do much; lack clearness and force of idea,
and intenseness of feeling; unless literally driven to it, will not be
likely to be much or to do much, and yet actually _possess_ more vigor of
mind, and energy of feeling, than he will manifest; with activity small,
or very small, will border upon idiocy.

VERY LARGE.--One having a very large head, with activity _average_ or
_full_, on great occasions, or when his powers are thoroughly roused, will
be truly great; but upon ordinary occasions, will seldom manifest any
remarkable amount of mind or feeling, and perhaps pass through life with
the credit of being a person of good natural abilities and judgment, yet
nothing more; with _great_ activity and strength, and large intellectual
organs, will be a natural genius, endowed with very superior powers of
mind and vigor of intellect; and, even though deprived of the advantages
of education, his natural talents will surmount all obstacles, and make
him truly talented; with activity _very great_, and the organs of
practical intellect and of the propelling powers large, or very large,
will possess the first order of natural abilities; manifest a clearness
and force of intellect which will astonish the world, and a power of
feeling which will carry all before him; and, with proper cultivation,
enable him to become a bright star in the firmament of intellectual
greatness, upon which coming ages may gaze with delight and astonishment.
His mental enjoyment will be most exquisite, and his sufferings equally

FULL.--One having a full-sized brain, with activity _great, or very
great_, and the organs of practical intellect and of the propelling powers
large, or very large, although he will not possess _greatness_ of
intellect, nor a deep, strong mind, will be very clever; have considerable
talent, and that so distributed that it will show to be _more_ than it
really is; is capable of being a good scholar, doing a fine business, and,
with advantages and application, of distinguishing himself somewhat; yet
he is inadequate to a great undertaking; cannot sway an extensive
influence, nor be really great; with activity _full, or average_, will do
only tolerably well, and manifest only a common share of talent; with
activity _moderate, or small_, will neither be nor do much worthy of

AVERAGE, with activity great, manifests a quick, clear, sprightly mind and
off-hand talents; and is capable of doing a fair business, especially if
the stamina is good; with activity _very great_, and the organs of the
propelling powers and of practical intellect large, or very large, is
capable of doing a good business, and may pass for a man of fair talent,
yet will not be original or profound; will be quick of perception; have a
good practical understanding; will do well _in his sphere_, yet never
manifest greatness, and out of his sphere, be common-place; with activity
only _average_, will discover only an ordinary amount of intellect; be
inadequate to any important undertaking; yet, in a small sphere, or one
that requires only a mechanical routine of business, may do well; with
_moderate or small_ activity, will hardly have common sense.

MODERATE.--One with a head of only moderate size, combined with _great_
or _very great activity_, and the organs of the propelling powers and of
practical intellect large, will possess a tolerable share of intellect,
yet be more showy than sound; with others to plan for and direct him, will
execute to advantage, yet be unable to do much alone; will have a very
active mind, and be quick of perception, yet, after all, have a contracted
intellect; possess only a small mental calibre, and lack momentum, both of
mind and character; with activity only _average, or fair_, will have but a
moderate _amount_ of intellect, and even this scanty allowance will be too
sluggish for action, so that he will neither suffer nor enjoy much; with
activity _moderate or small_, will be idiotic.

SMALL OR VERY SMALL.--One with a small or very small head, no matter what
may be the activity of his mind, will be incapable of much intellectual
effort; of comprehending even easy subjects; or of experiencing much pain
or pleasure; in short, will be mentally imbecile.


Most great men have great heads. Webster's head measures over 24 inches,
and Clay's considerably above 23; and this is about Van Buren's size;
Chief Justice Gibson's, the greatest jurist in Pennsylvania, 24-1/4;
Napoleon's reached nearly or quite to 24, his hat passing easily over the
head of one of his officers, which measured 23-1/2; and Hamilton's hat
passed over the head of a man whose head measured 23-1/2. Burke's head was
immense, so was Jefferson's; while Franklin's hat passed over the ears of
a 24-inch head. Small and average sized heads often astonish us by their
brilliancy and learning, and, perhaps, eloquence, yet they fail in that
commanding greatness which impresses and sways mind. The phrenological law
is that size, other things being equal, is a measure of power; yet these
other conditions, such as activity, power of motive, wealth, physiological
habits, etc., increase or diminish the mentality, even more than size.




[Illustration: No. 45. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 46. SMALL.]

Conjugal love; attachment to the opposite sex; desire to love, be loved,
and marry; adapted to perpetuate the race. It causes those mutual
attractions which exist between the sexes; creates love; induces marriage;
eventuates in offspring; renders woman winning, persuasive, urbane,
affectionate, loving, and lovely; and develops all the feminine charms and
graces; and makes man noble in feeling and bearing; elevated in
aspiration; tender and bland in manner; affectionate toward woman; pure in
feeling; highly susceptible to female charms; and clothes him with that
dignity, power, and persuasiveness, which accompanies the masculine.
Perverted, it occasions a grossness and vulgarity in expression and
action; licentiousness in all its forms; a feverish state of mind; and
depraves all the other propensities; treats the other sex merely as a
minister to passion; now caressing, and now abusing them; and renders the
love-feeling every way gross, animal, and depraved.

LARGE.--Is strongly attracted toward the opposite sex; admires and loves
their beauty and excellencies; easily wins their affectionate regards, or
kindles their love; has many warm friends, if not admirers, among them;
loves young and powerfully, and wields a potent influence for good or evil
over the destinies of its subject, according as it is well or ill placed;
with Adhesiveness and Union for Life large, will mingle pure friendship
with devoted love; cannot flourish alone, but must have its matrimonial
mate, with whom it will be capable of becoming perfectly identified, and
whom it will invest with almost superhuman perfections, by magnifying
their charms and overlooking their defects; in the sunshine of whose love
it will be perfectly happy, but proportionally miserable without it; with
Ideality and the mental temperament large, will experience a fervor and
intensity of first love, amounting almost to ecstacy or romance; can marry
those only who combine refinement of manners with correspondingly strong
attachments; with Philoprogenitiveness and Benevolence also large, will be
eminently qualified to enjoy the domestic relations; to be happy in home,
and render home happy; with Inhabitiveness also large, will set a high
value on house and place, long to return home when absent, and consider
family and children as the greatest treasures of its being; with large
Conscientiousness, will keep the marriage relations inviolate, and regard
unfaithfulness as the greatest of sins; with Combativeness large, will
defend the objects of its love with great spirit, and resent powerfully
any indignity offered to them; with Alimentiveness large, will enjoy
eating with the family dearly; with Approbativeness large, cannot endure
to be blamed by those it loves; with Cautiousness and Secretiveness large,
will express love guardedly, and much less than it experiences; but with
Secretiveness small, will show, in every look and action, the full,
unveiled feeling of the mind; with Firmness and Self-Esteem large, will
sustain interrupted love with fortitude, yet suffer much damage of mind
and health therefrom; but with Self-Esteem moderate, will feel crushed and
broken down by disappointment; with the moral faculties predominant, can
love those only whose moral tone is pure and elevated; with predominant
Ideality, and only average intellectual faculties, will prefer those who
are showy and gay, to those who are sensible yet less beautiful; but with
Ideality less than the intellectual and moral organs, will prefer those
who are substantial and valuable more than showy; with Mirthfulness, Time,
and Tune, will love dancing, lively society, etc.: p. 57.

VERY LARGE.--Confers the strongest possible inclination to love; exercises
an absolute influence over character and conduct; must always have a
congenial spirit whom to love, and by whom to be loved; is capable of the
highest order of love, and is proportionally beautified thereby; can love
with complete devotedness, even under unfavorable circumstances, and has a
most important element for conjugal happiness and a matrimonial partner;
its combinations will be somewhat the same as those under Amativeness
large, allowance being made for the increased power of this faculty: p.

FULL.--Possesses rather strong susceptibilities of love, and conjugal
affinity and unity to a congenial spirit; is capable of much purity,
intensity, and cordiality of love; with Adhesiveness and Benevolence
large, will render good service in the family; with Secretiveness large,
will manifest less love than it feels, and show little in promiscuous
society; with a highly susceptible temperament, will experience great
intensity of love, and evince a good degree of masculine or feminine
excellence: p. 59.

AVERAGE.--Is capable of fair sexual attachments, and conjugal love,
provided it is properly placed and fully called out; experiences a greater
or less degree of love in proportion to its activity; renders the son
quite attached to mother and sisters, and fond of female society, and
endowed with a fair share of the masculine element, yet not remarkable for
its perfection, makes woman quite winning and attractive, yet not
particularly susceptible to love; renders the daughter fond of father and
brothers, and desirous of the society of men, yet not extremely so; and
capable of a fair share of conjugal devotedness under favorable
circumstances; combined with an ardent temperament, and large Adhesiveness
and Ideality, gives a pure and platonic cast of love, yet cannot
assimilate with a coarse temperament or a dissimilar Phrenology; is
refined, and faithful, yet has more friendship than passion; can love
those only who are just to its liking; with Cautiousness and Secretiveness
large, will express less love than it feels, and that equivocally and by
piecemeal, nor then till its loved one is fully committed; with
Cautiousness, Approbativeness and Veneration large, and Self-Esteem small,
will be diffident in promiscuous society, yet enjoy the company of a
select few of the opposite sex; with Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and
Conscientiousness large, and Self-Esteem small, will be kind and
affectionate in the family, yet not particularly fond of caressing or
being caressed; and will do much to make family happy, yet will manifest
less fondness and tenderness; with Order, Approbativeness, and Ideality
large, will seek in a companion personal neatness and polish of manners;
with full intellectual and moral faculties, will base its conjugal
attachments in the higher qualities of the affections, rather than their
personal attractiveness or strength of passion; but with a commonplace
temperament, and not so full moral and intellectual faculties, will be an
indifferent companion: p. 56.

MODERATE.--Will be rather deficient, though not palpably so in the love
element; show little desire to caress or be caressed; will love the mental
excellences of the other sex more than personal beauty, and find it
difficult to sympathize with a conjugal partner, unless the natural
harmony between the parties is well-nigh perfect; cares less for marriage,
and could live an unmarried life without inconvenience; can love but once,
and should marry only the first love, because the love-principle will not
be sufficiently strong to overcome the difficulties incident to a second
love, or the want of a congenial companion, and find more pleasure in
other things than in the matrimonial relations; with an excitable
temperament, will experience greater warmth and ardor, than depth and
uniformity of love; with Approbativeness large, will soon become alienated
from a lover by rebukes and fault-finding; with Adhesiveness and the moral
and intellectual faculties large, can become strongly attached to those
who are highly moral and intellectual, yet experiences no affinity for any
other, and to be happy in marriage, must base it in the higher faculties:
p. 59.

SMALL.--Feels little conjugal or sexual love, and desire to marry; is
cold, coy, distant, and reserved toward the other sex; experiences but
little of the beautifying and elevating influence of love, and should not
marry, because incapable of appreciating its relations and making a
companion happy: p. 59.

VERY SMALL.--Is passively continent, and almost destitute of love: p. 60.


[Illustration: No. 47. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 48. SMALL.]

Parental love; attachment to one's own offspring; love of children, pets,
and animals generally, especially those young or small; adapted to that
infantile condition in which man enters the world, and to children's need
of parental care and education. This faculty renders children the richest
treasure of their parents; casts into the shade all the toil and expense
they cause, and lacerates them with bitter pangs when death or distance
tears them asunder. It is much larger in woman than in man; and nature
requires mothers to take the principal care of infants. Perverted, it
spoils children by excessive fondness, pampering, and humoring.

LARGE.--Loves its own children devotedly; values them above all price;
cheerfully endures toil and watching for their sake; forbears with their
faults; wins their love; delights to play with them, and cheerfully
sacrifices to promote their interests; with Continuity large, mourns long
and incessantly over their loss; with Combativeness, Destructiveness, and
Self-Esteem large, is kind, yet insists on being obeyed; with Self-Esteem
and Destructiveness moderate, is familiar with, and liable to be ruled by
them; with Firmness only average, fails to manage them with a steady hand;
with Cautiousness large, suffers extreme anxiety if they are sick or in
danger; with large moral and intellectual organs, and less Combativeness
and Destructiveness, governs them more by moral suasion than physical
force--by reason than fear--is neither too strict nor over-indulgent; with
Approbativeness large, values their moral character as of the utmost
importance; with Veneration and Conscientiousness large, is particularly
interested in their moral improvement; with large excitability,
Combativeness, and Destructiveness, and only average Firmness, will be, by
turns, too indulgent, and over-provoked--will pet them one minute, and
punish them the next; with larger Approbativeness and Ideality than
intellect, will educate them more for show than usefulness--more
fashionably than substantially--and dress them off in the extreme of
fashion; with a large and active brain, large moral and intellectual
faculties, and Firmness, and only full Combativeness, Destructiveness, and
Self-Esteem, is well calculated to teach and manage the young. It renders
farmers fond of stock, dogs, etc., and women fond of birds, lap-dogs, etc.;
girls fond of dolls, and boys of being among horses and cattle; and
creates a general interest in young and small animals: p. 62.

VERY LARGE.--Experiences the feeling above described with still greater
intensity and power; almost idolizes its children, grieves immeasurably at
their loss, and, with large Continuity, refuses to be comforted; with very
large Benevolence and only moderate Destructiveness, cannot bear to see
them punished, and, with only moderate Causality, is liable to spoil them
by over-indulgence; with large Approbativeness added, indulges parental
vanity and conceit; with large Cautiousness and disordered nerves, is
always cautioning them, and indulges a world of groundless apprehensions
about them with Acquisitiveness moderate, makes them many presents, and
lavishes money upon them, but with large Acquisitiveness lays up fortunes
for them; with large moral and intellectual organs, is indulgent, yet
loves them too well to spoil them, and does his utmost to cultivate their
higher faculties, etc.,: p. 63.

FULL.--Loves its children well, yet not passionately--does much for them,
yet not more than is necessary--and with large Combativeness,
Destructiveness, and Self-esteem, is too severe, and makes but little
allowance for their faults; but with Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and
Conscientiousness large, does and sacrifices much, to supply their wants
and render them happy. Its character, however, will be mainly determined
by its combinations: p. 63.

AVERAGE.--Loves its own children tolerably well, yet cares but little for
those of others; with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, likes them
better as they grow older, yet does and cares little for infants--is not
duly tender to them, or forbearing toward their faults, and should
cultivate parental fondness, especially if Combativeness, Destructiveness,
and Self-Esteem are large, and conscience only moderate: p. 61.

MODERATE.--Is not fond enough of children; cannot bear much from them;
fails to please or take good care of them, particularly of infants; cannot
endure to hear them cry, or make a noise, or disturb his things; and with
an excitable temperament, and large Combativeness, is liable to punish
them for trifling offences, find much fault with them, and be sometimes
cruel; yet, with Benevolence and Adhesiveness large, may do what is
necessary for their comfort: p. 64.

SMALL.--Cares little for its own children, and still less for those of
others; and with Combativeness and Destructiveness large, is liable to
treat them unkindly and harshly, and is utterly unqualified to have charge
of them: p. 64.

VERY SMALL.--Has little or no perceptible parental love, or regard for
children, but conducts toward them as the other faculties dictate: p. 64.


Friendship; social feeling; love of society; desire to congregate,
associate, visit, seek company, entertain friends, form and reciprocate
attachments, and indulge friendly feelings. When perverted, it forms
attachments for the low, vulgar, or vicious, and leads to bad company.
Adapted to man's requisition for concert of action, co-partnership,
combination, and community of feeling and interest, and is a leading
element of his social relations.

LARGE.--Is a warm, cordial, ardent friend; readily forms friendships, and
attracts friendly regards in return; must have society of some kind; with
Benevolence large, is hospitable, and delights to entertain friends; with
Alimentiveness large, loves the social banquet, and sets the best before
friends; with Approbativeness large, sets the world by their commendation,
but is terribly cut by their rebukes; with the moral faculties large,
seeks the society of the moral and elevated, and can enjoy the friendship
of no others; with the intellectual faculties large, seeks the friendship
of the intelligent; with Language large, and Secretiveness small, talks
freely in company; and with Mirthfulness and Ideality also large, is full
of fun, and gives a lively, jocose turn to conversation, yet is elevated
and refined; with Self-Esteem large, leads off in company, and gives tone
and character to others; but with Self-Esteem small, receives character
from friends, and, with Imitation large, is liable to copy their faults as
well as virtues; with Cautiousness, Secretiveness, and Approbativeness
large, is apt to be jealous of regards bestowed upon others, and exclusive
in its choice of friends--having a few that are select, rather than many
that are common-place; with large Causality and Comparison, loves
philosophical conversation, literary societies, etc.; and is every way
social and companionable: p. 65.

VERY LARGE.--Loves friends with tenderness, and intense friendship, and
will sacrifice almost any thing for their sake; with Amativeness large, is
susceptible of the highest order of conjugal love, yet bases that love
primarily in friendship; with Combativeness and Destructiveness large,
defends friends with great spirit, and resents and retaliates their
injuries; with Self-Esteem moderate, takes character from associates; with
Acquisitiveness moderate, allows friends the free use of its purse but
with Acquisitiveness large, will do, more than give; with Benevolence and
Approbativeness moderate, and Acquisitiveness only full, will spend money
freely for social gratification; with Self-Esteem and Combativeness large,
must be first or nothing; but with only average Combativeness,
Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem, large Approbativeness, Benevolence,
Conscientiousness, Ideality, Marvellousness, and reasoning organs, will
have many friends, and but few enemies--be amiable and universally
beloved; with large Eventuality and Language, will remember, with vivid
emotions, by-gone scenes of social cheer, and friendly converse; with
large reasoning organs, will give good advice to friends, and lay
excellent plans for them; with smaller Secretiveness and large moral
organs, will not believe ill of friends, and dreads the interruption of
friendship as the greatest of calamities, and willingly makes any
sacrifice required by friendship, and evinces a perpetual flow of that
commingling of soul, and desire to become one with others, which this
faculty inspires: p. 65.

FULL.--Makes a sociable, companionable, warm-hearted friend, who will
sacrifice much on the altar of friendship, yet offer up friendship on the
altar of the stronger passions; with large or very large Combativeness,
Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, Approbativeness and Acquisitiveness, will
serve self first, and friends afterward; form attachments, and break them,
when they conflict with the stronger faculties; with large Secretiveness,
and moderate Conscientiousness, will be double-faced, and profess more
friendship than possess; with Benevolence large, will cheerfully aid
friends, yet it will be more from sympathy than affection; will have a few
warm friends, yet only few, but perhaps many speaking acquaintances; and
with the higher faculties generally large, will be a true, good friend,
yet by no means enthusiastic; many of the combinations under Adhesiveness
large, apply to it when full, due allowance being made for its diminished
power: p. 66.

AVERAGE.--Is capable of tolerably strong friendships, yet their character
is determined by the larger faculties; enjoys present friends, yet
sustains their absence; with large Acquisitiveness, places business before
friends, and sacrifices them whenever they conflict with money-making;
with Benevolence large, is more kind than affectionate, relishes friends,
yet sacrifices no great deal for their sake; with Amativeness large, loves
the presence of the other sex more than their minds, and experiences less
conjugal love than animal passion; with Approbativeness large, breaks
friendships when ridiculed or rebuked, and with Secretiveness large, and
Conscientiousness only average, cannot be trusted as a friend: p. 64.

MODERATE.--Loves society somewhat, and forms a few, but only few
attachments, and these only partial; has more speaking acquaintances than
intimate friends; with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, is easily
offended with friends, and seldom retains them long; with large
Benevolence, will bestow services, and, with moderate Acquisitiveness,
money, more readily than affection; and with the selfish faculties strong,
takes care of self first, and makes friendship subservient to interest: p.

SMALL.--Thinks and cares little for friends; dislikes copartnership; is
cold-hearted, unsocial, and selfish; takes little delight in company, but
prefers to be alone; has few friends, and, with large selfish faculties,
many enemies, and manifests too little of this faculty to exert a
perceptible influence upon character: p. 67.

VERY SMALL.--Is a perfect stranger to friendship: p. 67.


Attachment to ONE, and BUT ONE conjugal partner for life. Adapted to the
pairing principle in man and animals, and is located between Adhesiveness
and Amativeness. Some birds, such as geese, eagles, robins, etc., pair for
life, and remain true to their connubial attachment; while hens, turkies,
sheep, horses, and neat cattle, associate promiscuously, which shows that
it is a faculty distinct from Amativeness and Adhesiveness.

LARGE.--Seeks one, and but one sexual mate; experiences the keenest
disappointment when love is interrupted; is perfectly satisfied with the
society of that one, and can truly love no other, and retains that love
even after its object is dead; may love and marry another, but it will be
more from motives of policy than pure conjugal union; and should exert
every faculty to win the heart and hand of the one beloved; nor allow any
thing to alienate their affections, because certain ruin to mind and body
is consequent thereon.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses the element of conjugal union, and flowing together
of soul, in the highest degree, and, with Continuity large, becomes
broken-hearted when disappointed, and comparatively worthless in this
world; seeks death rather than life; regards this union as the gem of
life, and its loss as worse than death; and should manifest the utmost
care to bestow itself only where it can be reciprocated for life.

FULL.--Can love cordially, yet is capable of changing its object,
especially if Continuity be moderate; will love for life provided
circumstances are favorable, yet will not bear every thing from a lover or
companion, and, if one love is interrupted, will form another.

AVERAGE.--Is disposed to love but one for life, yet is capable of changing
its object, and, with Secretiveness and Approbativeness large, and
Conscientiousness only full, is capable of coquetry, especially if
Amativeness is large, and Adhesiveness only full, and the temperament more
powerful than fine-grained; such should cultivate this faculty, and not
allow their other faculties to break their first love.

MODERATE.--Is somewhat disposed to love only once, yet allows other
stronger faculties to interrupt first love, and, with Amativeness large,
can form one attachment after another with comparative ease, yet is not
true as a lover, nor faithful to first love.

SMALL.--Cares but little for first love, and seeks the promiscuous society
and affection of the opposite sex, rather than a single partner for life.

VERY SMALL.--Manifests none of this faculty, and experiences too little to
be cognizable.


[Illustration: No. 49. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 50. SMALL.]

The HOME feeling; love of HOUSE, the PLACE where one was born or has
lived, and of home associations. Adapted to man's need of an abiding
place, in which to exercise the family feelings; patriotism.
Perversion--homesickness when away from home.

LARGE.--Has a strong desire to locate young, to have a home or room
exclusively to itself; leaves home with great reluctance, and returns with
extreme delight; soon becomes attached to house, sleeping-room, garden,
fields, furniture, etc.; and highly prizes domestic associations; nor is
satisfied till it has a place on which to expend this home instinct; with
Philoprogenitiveness, Adhesiveness, Individuality, and Locality large,
will love to travel, yet be too fond of home to stay away long at a time;
may be a cosmopolite in early life, and see much of the world; but will
afterward settle down in one spot; but with Approbativeness and
Combativeness large, will defend national honor, praise its own country,
government, etc.; and defend both country and fireside with great spirit;
with Ideality large, is well adapted to beautify home; with Friendship
large, will delight to see friends at home, rather than abroad; with
Alimentiveness large, will enjoy food at home better than elsewhere, etc.:
p. 68.

VERY LARGE.--Is liable to be homesick when away from home, especially for
the first time, and the more so if Philoprogenitiveness and Adhesiveness
are large; will suffer almost any inconvenience, and forego bright
prospects rather than leave home; and remain in an inferior house or
place of business, rather than change. Its combinations will be analogous
to those under Inhabitiveness large: p. 68.

FULL.--Prefers to live in one place, yet willingly changes it when
interest or the other faculties require it; and with large
Philoprogenitiveness, Adhesiveness, and Amativeness, will think more of
family and friends than of the domicile: p. 69.

AVERAGE.--Loves home tolerably well, yet with no great fervor, and changes
the place of abode as the other faculties may dictate; takes no great
interest in house or place, as such, or pleasure in their improvement, and
is satisfied with ordinary home comforts; with Acquisitiveness large,
spends reluctantly for its improvement; with Constructiveness moderate,
takes little pleasure in building additions to home; with Individuality
and Locality large, loves traveling more than staying in one place, and is
satisfied with inferior home accommodations: p. 68.

MODERATE OR SMALL.--Cares little for home; leaves it without much regret;
contemplates it with little delight; takes little pains in its
improvement; and with Acquisitiveness large, spends reluctantly for its
improvement: p. 69.

VERY SMALL.--Experiences almost none of this faculty, and manifests still
less: p. 69.


[Illustration: No. 51. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 52. SMALL.]

A patient DWELLING upon one thing till it is finished; CONSECUTIVENESS and
CONNECTEDNESS of thought and feeling. Adapted to man's need of doing one
thing at a time. Perversion--prolixity, repetition, and excessive

LARGE.--Gives the whole mind to the one thing in hand till it is finished;
completes as it goes; keeps up one common train of thought, or current of
feeling, for a long time; is disconcerted if attention is directed to a
second object, and cannot duly consider another; with Adhesiveness large,
pores sadly over the loss of friends for months and years; with the Moral
faculties large, is uniform and consistent in religious exercises and
character; with Combativeness and Destructiveness large, retains grudges
and dislikes for a long time; with Ideality, Comparison, and Language
large, amplifies figures of speech, and sustains figurative expressions;
with the intellectual faculties strong, cons and pores over one thing, and
imparts a unity and completeness to intellectual investigations; becomes
thorough in whatever study it commences, and delays rather than commences
mental operations: p. 70.

VERY LARGE.--Fixes the mind upon objects slowly, yet cannot leave them
unfinished; has great application, yet lacks intensity or point; is
tedious, prolix, and thorough in few things, rather than an amateur in
many: p. 70.

FULL.--Dwells continuously upon subjects, unless especially called to
others; prefers to finish up the matter in hand, and can, though with
difficulty, give attention to other things; with the business organs
large, makes final settlements; with the feelings large, fixes their
action, yet is not monotonous, etc.: p. 71.

AVERAGE.--Can dwell upon things, or divert attention to others, as
occasion requires; is not confused by interruption, yet prefers one thing
at a time; with the intellectual organs large, is not a smatterer, nor yet
profound; with the mental temperament, is clear in style, and consecutive
in idea, yet never tedious; with Comparison large, manufactures
expressions and ideas consecutively, and connectedly, and always to the
point, yet never dwells unduly: p. 70.

MODERATE.--Loves and indulges variety, and change of thought, feeling,
occupation, etc.; is not confused by them; rather lacks application; with
a good intellectual lobe, and an active temperament, knows a little about
a good many things, rather than much about any one thing; with an active
organization thinks clearly, and has unity and intensity of thought and
feeling, yet lacks connectedness; with large Language and small
Secretiveness, talks easily, but not long at a time upon one thing; does
better on the spur of the moment, than by previous preparation; and should
cultivate consistency of character and fixedness of mind, by finishing as
he goes all he begins: p. 71.

SMALL.--With activity great, commences many things, yet finishes few;
craves novelty and variety; puts many irons into the fire; lacks
application; jumps rapidly from premise to conclusion, and fails to
connect and carry out ideas; is a creature of impulse; lacks steadiness
and consistency of character; may be brilliant, yet cannot be profound;
humming-bird like, flies rapidly from thing to thing, but does not stay
long; has many good thoughts, yet they are scattered; and talks on a great
variety of subjects in a short time, but fails sadly in consecutiveness of
feeling, thought, and action. An illustrative anecdote. An old and
faithful servant to a passionate, petulant master, finally told him he
could endure his testiness no longer, and must leave, though with extreme
reluctance. "But," replied the master, "you know I am no sooner mad than
pleased again." "Aye, but," replied the servant, "you are no sooner
pleased than mad again:" p. 71.

VERY SMALL.--Is restless, and given to perpetual change; with activity
great, is composed of gusts and counter-gusts of passion, and never one
thing more than an instant at a time: p. 72.


[Illustration: No. 53. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 54. SMALL.]

These provide for man's ANIMAL wants; create those desires and instincts
which relate more especially to his animal existence and habitual wants.

LARGE.--Gives strong animal desires; creates that selfishness which takes
good care of number one; is strongly attached to this world and its
pleasures; and, with activity great, uses vigorous exertions to accomplish
worldly and personal ends; with the moral organs less than the selfish,
connected with bodily disease, is liable to the depraved and sensual
manifestation; but with the moral and intellectual organs large, and a
healthy organization, gives force, energy, determination, and that
efficiency which accomplishes much.

VERY LARGE.--Experiences these animal impulses with still greater
intensity; enjoys animal existence and pleasures with the keenest relish;
and with great excitability or a fevered state of body, produces a strong
tendency to sensual gratification, and sinful desires; yet when properly
directed, and sanctified by the higher faculties, gives tremendous force
of character, and energy of mind.

FULL.--Creates a good share of energy and physical force, yet no more than
is necessary to cope with surrounding difficulties; and, with large moral
and intellectual faculties, manifests more mental than physical force.

AVERAGE.--Gives a fair share of animal force, yet hardly enough to grapple
with life's troubles and wrongs; with large moral and intellectual
faculties, has more goodness than efficiency, and enjoys quiet more than
conflict with men; and fails to manifest what goodness and talent are

MODERATE.--Rather lacks efficiency; yields to difficulties; wants
fortitude and determination; fails to assert and maintain rights; and with
large moral organs, is good-hearted, moral, etc.; yet borders on tameness.

SMALL, OR VERY SMALL.--Accomplishes little; lacks courage and force, and
with large intellectual organs, is talented, yet utterly fails to manifest
that talent; and with large moral organs, is so good as to be good for


TENACITY of life; resistance to death; love of existence as such; dreads
annihilation; loves life, and clings tenaciously to it for its own sake.

LARGE.--Struggles resolutely through fits of sickness, and will not give
up to die till it is absolutely compelled to do so. With large animal
organs, clings to life on account of this world's gratifications; with
large moral organs, to do good--to promote human happiness, etc.; with
large social faculties, loves life both for its own sake and to bless
family; with very large Cautiousness, dreads to change the present mode of
existence, and with large and perverted Veneration and Conscientiousness,
and small Hope, has an indescribable dread of entering upon an untried
future state; but with Hope large, and a cultivated intellect, expects to
exist hereafter, etc.

VERY LARGE.--Shrinks from death, and clings to life with desperation;
struggles with the utmost determination against disease and death; nor
gives up to die till the very last, and then by the hardest; with
Cautiousness very large, and Hope moderate, shudders at the very thought
of dying, or being dead; but with Hope large, expects to live against hope
and experience. Combinations like those under large, allowance being made
for the increase of this faculty.

FULL.--Loves life, and clings tenaciously to it, yet not extravagantly;
hates to die, yet yields to disease and death, though reluctantly.

AVERAGE.--Enjoys life, and clings to it with a fair degree of earnestness,
yet by no means with passionate fondness; and with a given constitution
and health, will die easier and sooner than with this faculty large.

MODERATE OR SMALL.--Likes to live, yet cares no great about existence for
its own sake; with large animal or domestic organs, may wish to live on
account of family, or business, or worldly pleasure, yet cares less about
it for its _own sake_, and yields up existence with little reluctance or

VERY SMALL.--Has no desire to live merely for the sake of living, but
only to gratify other faculties.


[Illustration: No. 55. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 56. SMALL.]

requisition for overcoming obstacles, contending for rights, etc.
Perversion--anger; contrariety; fault-finding; contention; ill-nature; and

LARGE.--Imparts a bold, resolute, fearless, determined spirit; disposes to
grapple with and remove obstacles, and drives whatever it undertakes;
loves debate and opposition; gives great coolness, intrepidity, and
presence of mind in time of danger, and nerves one for encounter; with
large Philoprogenitiveness, takes the part of children; with large
Inhabitiveness, defends country; with a powerful muscular system, enhances
the strength in lifting, working, and all kinds of manual labor; with
great Vitativeness and Destructiveness, defends life with desperation;
with large Acquisitiveness maintains pecuniary rights, and drives
money-making plans; with large Approbativeness, resents insult, and large
Adhesiveness added, defends the character of friends; with full or large
Self-Esteem, defends personal interest, takes its own part with spirit,
and repels all aggressions; with Self-Esteem small, and Benevolence and
Friendship large, defends the interest of friends more than of self; with
large Conscientiousness, prosecutes the right, and opposes the wrong; with
large intellectual organs, imparts vigor, power, and impressiveness to
thoughts, expressions, etc.; with disordered nerves, is peevish, fretful,
fault-finding, irritable, dissatisfied, unreasonable, and fiery in anger,
and should first restore the nerves to health, and then restrain this
fault-finding disposition, by remembering that the cause is IN THEM,
instead of in what they fret at: p. 75.

VERY LARGE.--Manifests those functions ascribed to Combativeness large,
only in a still higher degree; and with a fevered stomach, is afflicted
and torments others with an ungovernable temper, together with unqualified
bitterness and hatefulness: p. 77.

FULL.--Evinces those feelings described under large, yet in a less degree,
and is modified more by the larger organs; thus, with large moral and
intellectual faculties, evinces much more moral than physical courage,
maintains the right and opposes the wrong--yet, with Firmness large, in a
decided rather than in a combative spirit, etc.: p. 78.

AVERAGE.--Evinces the combative spirit according to circumstances; when
vigorously opposed, or when any of the other faculties work in conjunction
with Combativeness, shows a good degree of the opposing, energetic spirit;
but, when any of the other faculties, such as large Cautiousness or
Approbativeness work against it, it evinces irresolution, and even
cowardice; with an active temperament, and disordered nerves, especially
if dyspeptic, has a quick, sharp, fiery temper, yet lacks power of
anger--will fret and threaten, yet will mean but little; with a large
brain, and large moral and intellectual organs, will evince some
intellectual and moral force, when once thoroughly roused, which will be
but seldom; with large Approbativeness, and small Acquisitiveness, will
defend character, but not pecuniary rights; with large Cautiousness, may
be courageous where there is no danger, yet will run rather than fight;
with smaller Cautiousness, will show some resentment when imposed upon,
but submit rather tamely to injuries; with very large Philoprogenitiveness,
and only average friendship, will resent any injuries offered to children
with great spirit, yet not resent indignities offered to friends, etc.: p.

MODERATE.--Rather lacks efficiency; with only fair muscles, is a poor
worker, and fails to put forth even what little strength is possessed;
with good moral and intellectual organs, possesses talent and moral worth,
yet is easily overcome by opposition or difficulty; should seek some quiet
occupation, where business comes in of itself, because it cannot urge
itself unbidden upon the attention of others; is too good to be energetic;
with weak Acquisitiveness, allows virtual robbery without resentment; with
large Cautiousness, is tame and pusillanimous; with large Approbativeness,
cannot stand rebuke, but will endure it; with moderate Self-Esteem and
Hope, is all "I can't, it's hard," etc., and will not do well in life: p.

SMALL.--Is inefficient; can accomplish little; never feels its own
strength; and with large moral and intellectual organs, is too gentle and
easily satisfied; with large Cautiousness, runs to others for protection,
and is always complaining of its bad treatment: p. 79.

VERY SMALL.--Possesses scarcely any energy, and manifests none: p. 79.


destroying whatever is prejudicial to his happiness; performing and
enduring surgical operations; undergoing pain, etc. Perversion--wrath;
revenge; malice; disposition to murder, etc.

LARGE.--Imparts that determination, energy, and force which removes or
destroys whatever impedes its progression; with Firmness large, gives that
iron will which adheres till the very last, in spite of every thing, and
carries its points any how; with large Combativeness, imparts a harsh
rough mode of expression and action, and a severity, if not fierceness, to
all its encounters; with large Acquisitiveness and Conscientiousness, will
have every cent due, though it costs two to get it, yet wants no more, and
retains grudges against those who have injured its pockets; with large
Approbativeness and Combativeness, experiences determination and hostility
toward those who trifle with reputation or impeach character; with large
Self-Esteem, upon those who conflict with its interests, or detract from
its supposed merits; with large Adhesiveness, when angry with friends, is
very angry; with large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, employs a harsh
mode of showing kindness; with large Comparison and Language, bestows very
severe and galling epithets upon those who rouse it; with large Ideality,
polishes and refines its expression of anger, and puts a keen edge upon
its sarcasms, yet they are none the less cutting or efficient, etc. Such
should avoid and turn from whatever provokes it: p. 82.

[Illustration: No. 57. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 58. SMALL.]

VERY LARGE.--Feels the most powerful indignation, amounting even to rage
and violence, when thoroughly provoked; and with large or very large
Combativeness, acts like a chafed lion, and feels like rushing into the
midst of perilous dangers. Such persons should never strike, for they will
strike harder than they mean to, because it nerves the arm with unwonted
strength. This faculty tears up and destroys whatever is in its way; is
harsh and often morose in manner, and should cultivate pleasantness; with
large Combativeness, Firmness, Self-Esteem, and Approbativeness moderate,
is exceedingly repulsive, hating and hateful when angry, and is much more
provoked than occasion requires; with large intellectuals, puts forth
tremendous mental energy; and should offset this faculty by reason and
moral feeling, and cultivate blandness instead of wrath: p. 83.

FULL.--Evinces a fair degree of this faculty, yet its tone and direction
depend upon the larger organs; with large propensities, manifests much
animal force; with large moral organs, evinces moral determination and
force; with large intellectual organs, possesses intellectual might and
energy, and thus of its other combinations; but with smaller
Combativeness, is peaceful until thoroughly roused, but then rather harsh
and vindictive; in boys, attacks only those it knows it can conquer, yet
is then harsh; with smaller Self-Esteem, exercises this faculty more in
behalf of others than of itself; with large Cautiousness and moderate
Combativeness, keeps out of danger, broils, etc., till literally compelled
to engage in them, but then becomes desperate, etc.: p. 83.

AVERAGE.--Manifests itself in a similar manner as when full, due allowance
being made for diminished power: p. 82.

MODERATE.--Evinces but little harshness or severity; with large
Benevolence, is unable to witness suffering or death, much less to cause
them; will possess but little force of mind, or executiveness of
character, to drive through great obstacles; with large moral organs
added, will be more beloved than feared, and manifest extreme sympathy,
amounting sometimes even to weakness, and secure ends more by mild than
severe measures; with moderate Combativeness and Self-Esteem, is
irresolute, unable to stand its ground, or to take care of itself; flies
to others for protection; can do little, and feels that it can do still
less; fails to realize or put forth its strength; and with large
Cautiousness added, sees a lion where there is none, and makes mountains
of mole-hills; and with small Hope added is literally good for nothing;
but with large Hope and Firmness, and full Self-Esteem and Combativeness,
accomplishes considerable, yet in a quiet way, and by perseverance more
than force, by siege rather than by storm, and with large intellectual and
moral faculties added, will be a good, yet not a tame, citizen; exert a
good influence, and that always healthful, and be missed more when dead
than prized while living. Those combinations under this organ large,
reversed, apply to it when moderate: p. 84.

SMALL.--With large moral faculties, possesses too tender a soul to enjoy
our world as it is, or to endure hardships or cruelties; can neither
endure nor cause suffering, and show so little as to provoke a smile or
ridicule, and should cultivate hardness and force: p. 82.

VERY SMALL.--Experiences little, and manifests none of this faculty.


APPETITE; the FEEDING instinct; RELISH for food; HUNGER; adapted to man's
need of food, and creating a disposition to eat. Perverted, it produces
gormandizing and gluttony, and ends in dyspepsia and all its evils.

[Illustration: No. 59. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 60. SMALL.]

LARGE.--Has a hearty relish for food; sets a high value upon table
enjoyments, and solid, hearty food; with Acquisitiveness large, lays up
abundance of food for future use--perhaps keeps so much on hand that some
of it spoils; with Ideality large, must eat from a clean plate, and have
food nicely cooked; with large Language and intellect, enjoys table-talk
exceedingly, and participates in it; with large social faculties, must eat
with others; is a good cook, if practiced in culinary arts; and with
larger Approbativeness and Ideality than Causality, is apt to be
ceremonious and over-polite at table, etc. Such should restrain this
faculty by eating less, more slowly, and seldom: p. 86.

VERY LARGE.--Often eats more than is requisite; enjoys food exceedingly
well; and hence is liable to clog body and mind by over-eating; should
restrain appetite; will feel better by going without an occasional meal,
and is liable to dyspepsia. This faculty is liable to take on a diseased
action, and crave a much greater amount of food than nature requires, and
hence is the great cause of dyspepsia. Its diseased action may be known by
a craving, hankering, gone sensation before eating; by heart-burn, pain in
the stomach, belching of wind, a dull, heavy, or painful sensation in the
head, and a desire to be always nibbling at something; lives to eat,
instead of eating to live, and should at once be erased by omitting one
meal daily, and, in its stead, drinking abundantly of cold water.
Abstemiousness will rectify this depraved appetite, while over-eating will
only re-inflame both the stomach and its diseased hankering: p. 87.

FULL.--With a healthy stomach, eats freely what is offered, asking no
questions; enjoying it, but not extravagantly; rarely over-eats, except
when the stomach is disordered, and then experiences this hankering above
described, which light eating alone can cure. For combinations, see
Alimentiveness large: p. 87.

AVERAGE.--Enjoys food well, and eats with a fair relish; yet rarely
over-eats except when rendered craving by dyspeptic complaints: p. 86.

MODERATE.--Rather lacks appetite; eats with little relish, and hence
requires to pamper and cultivate appetite by dainties, and enjoying rich
favors; can relish food only when other circumstances are favorable; feels
little hunger, and eats to live, instead of lives to eat; with Eventuality
small, cannot remember from one meal to another what he had at the last:
p. 87.

SMALL.--Eats with long teeth, and little relish; hardly knows or cares
what or when he eats; and should pay more attention to duly feeding the
body: p. 88.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost wholly destitute of appetite.

This faculty is more liable to perversion than any other, and excessive
eating occasions more sickness, and depraves the animal faculties more
than all other causes combined. Properly to feed the body, is of the
utmost importance. Whenever this faculty becomes diseased, the first
object should be to restore its natural function by abstinence. Medicines
can never do it.


FONDNESS for LIQUIDS; desire to DRINK; love of WATER, washing, bathing,
swimming, sailing, etc. Adapted to the existence and utility of water.
Perversion--drinking in excessive quantities; drunkenness; and
unquenchable thirst.

LARGE.--Loves to drink freely, and frequently; experiences much thirst;
enjoys washing, swimming, bathing, etc., exceedingly, and is benefited by
them; with Ideality large, loves water prospects.

VERY LARGE.--Is exceedingly fond of water, whether applied internally or
externally; with large Adhesiveness and Approbativeness, and small
Self-Esteem and Acquisitiveness, should avoid the social glass, lest he be
overcome by it.

FULL.--Enjoys water well, but not extravagantly; drinks freely when the
stomach is in a fevered state, and is benefited by its judicious external

AVERAGE.--Likes to drink at times, after working freely or perspiring
copiously, yet cares no great about it.

MODERATE.--Partakes of little water, except occasionally, and is not
particularly benefitted by its external application, further than is
necessary for cleanliness; dislikes the shower or plunge baths, and rather
dreads than enjoys sailing, swimming, etc., especially if Cautiousness is

SMALL.--Cares little for this element in any of its forms, or for any
liquid food, and, with large Cautiousness, dreads to be on or near the
water; with Alimentiveness large, prefers solid hard food to puddings or
broth, etc.

VERY SMALL.--Has an unqualified aversion to water.


[Illustration: No. 61. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 62. SMALL.]

UP OF SURPLUS, and allowing nothing to be WASTED; desire to POSSESS and
OWN; the MINE AND THINE FEELING; claiming of one's own things; love of
TRADING AND AMASSING PROPERTY. Adapted to man's need of laying up the
necessaries and comforts of life against a time of future need.
Perversion--a miserly, grasping, close-fisted penuriousness.

LARGE.--Saves for future use what is not wanted for present; allows
nothing to go to waste; turns every thing to a good account; buys closely,
and makes the most of all it gets; is industrious, economical, and
vigorously employs means to accumulate property and desires to own and
possess much; with large, social organs, industriously acquires property
for domestic purposes, yet is saving in the family; with very large
Adhesiveness and Benevolence, is industrious in acquiring property, yet
spends it too freely upon friends; with large Hope added, is too apt to
endorse for them; with small Secretiveness, and with activity greater than
power, is liable to overdo, and takes so much work upon itself in order to
save, as often to incur sickness, and thus loses more than gains; with
large Approbativeness and small Secretiveness, tells how much property it
possesses, but with large Secretiveness, keeps its own pecuniary affairs
to itself; with large Constructiveness, inclines to make money by engaging
in some mechanical branch of business; with large Cautiousness, is
provident; with large Ideality, keeps its things very nice, and is
tormented by whatever mars beauty; with large intellectual organs, loves
to accumulate books, and whatever facilitates intellectual progress; with
large Veneration and Self-Esteem, sets great store on antique and rare
coins, and specimens, etc.: p. 89.

VERY LARGE.--Hastens to be rich; is too eager after wealth; too close in
making bargains; too small and close in dealing; with large Cautiousness,
is penny wise, but pound foolish; holds the sixpence too close to the eye
to see the dollar further off, and gives its entire energies to amassing
property; with smaller Secretiveness and large Conscientiousness, is
close, yet honest, will have all its own, yet wants no more, and never
employs deception; but, with large Secretiveness and but average
Conscientiousness, makes money any how; palms off inferior articles for
good ones, or at least over-praises what it wants to sell, and runs down
what it buys; and with large Philoprogenitiveness and Perceptives added,
can make a finished horse-jockey; with small Self-Esteem, is small and
mean in deal, and sticks for the half cent; with very large Hope, and only
full Cautiousness, embarks too deeply in business, and is liable to fail;
with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, will do for friends more than
give, and circulate the subscription paper rather than sign it; with large
Hope and Secretiveness, and only average Cautiousness, buys more than it
can pay for, bases more in promises than in money, and should adopt a cash
practice, and check the manifestations of this faculty by being less
penurious and industrious, and more liberal: p. 92.

FULL.--Takes good care of what it possesses, and uses vigorous exertions
to enhance them; values property for itself and its uses; is industrious,
yet not grasping; and saving, without being close; with large Benevolence,
is too ready to help friends; and with large Hope added, too liable to
endorse; and with an active temperament, is too industrious to come to
want; yet too generous ever to be rich. For additional combinations, see
Acquisitiveness large: p. 93.

AVERAGE.--Loves property; yet the other faculties spend quite as fast as
this faculty accumulates; with Cautiousness large or very large, loves
property in order to be safe against future want; with large
Approbativeness, desires it to keep up appearances; with large
Conscientiousness to pay debts when it has the means; with large
intellectual organs, will contribute to intellectual attainments; yet the
kind of property and objects sought in its acquisition, depend upon other
and larger faculties: p. 89.

MODERATE.--Values and makes property more for its uses than itself; seeks
it as a means rather than an end; with Cautiousness large, may evince
economy from fear of coming to want; or with other large organs, to secure
other ends; yet cares no great for property on its own account; is rather
wasteful; does not excel in bargaining, or like it; has no great natural
pecuniary tact, or money-making capability, and is in danger of living
quite up to income; with Ideality large, must have nice things, no matter
if they are costly, yet does not take first-rate care of them; disregards
small expenses; purchases to consume as soon as to keep; prefers to enjoy
earnings now to laying them up; with large domestic organs, spends freely
for family; with strong Approbativeness and moderate Cautiousness, is
liable to be a spendthrift, and contract debts to make a display; with
Hope large, runs deeply in debt, and spends money before it is earned; and
thus of the other combinations: p. 94.

SMALL.--Holds money loosely; spends it often without getting its full
value; cares little how his money goes; with Hope very large, enjoys his
money to-day without saving for to-morrow; and with large Approbativeness
and Ideality added, and only average Causality, is prodigal, and spends
money to poor advantage; contracts debts without providing for their
payment, etc. For additional combinations, see Acquisitiveness moderate:
p. 95.

VERY SMALL.--Neither heeds nor knows the value of money; is wasteful;
spends all it can get; lacks industry, and will be always in want: p. 95.

The back part of this organ, called Acquisition, accumulates property; the
fore part, called Accumulation, saves; the former large and latter small,
encompasses sea and land to make a dollar, and then throws it away, which
is an American characteristic; and gets many things, but allows them to go
to waste. Properly to spend money, implies a high order of wisdom. Every
dollar should be made an instrument of the highest happiness.


[Illustration: No. 63. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 64. SMALL.]

RESERVE; EVASION; DISCRETION; CUNNING. Adapted to man's requisition for
controlling his animal nature. Perverted, it causes duplicity,
double-dealing, lying, deception, and all kinds of false pretensions.

LARGE.--Throws a veil over the countenance, expression, and conduct;
appears to aim at one thing while accomplishing another; loves to surprise
others; is enigmatical, mysterious, guarded, foxy, politic, shrewd,
managing, employs humbug, and is hard to be found out; with Cautiousness
large, takes extra pains to escape detection; with Conscientiousness also
large, will not tell a lie, yet will not always tell the truth; evades the
direct question, and is equivocal in character; and though honest in
purpose, yet resorts to many little cunning devices; with large
intellectual organs and Cautiousness, expresses its ideas so guardedly as
to lack distinctness and directness, and hence is often misunderstood;
with large Approbativeness, takes many ways to secure notoriety, and
hoists some false colors; with large Acquisitiveness, employs too much
cunning in pecuniary transactions, and unless checked by still larger
Conscientiousness, is not always strictly truthful or honest; with large
social organs, forms few friendships, and those only after years of
acquaintance, nor evinces half the attachment felt; is distant in society,
and communicates, even with friends, only by piecemeal; divulges very few
plans or business matters to acquaintances, or even to friends; lacks
communicativeness, and has little or no fresh-hearted expression of
feeling, but leaves an impression of uncertainty as to what they are and
mean: p. 96.

VERY LARGE.--Is non-committal; cunning in the extreme; with only average
Conscientiousness, is deceptive, tricky, double-dealing, and unworthy to
be trusted; with large Acquisitiveness added, will cheat as well as lie;
with large Cautiousness, is unfathomable even by acknowledged friends;
with very large Conscientiousness and large moral organs, and only average
or full propensities, is not dangerous, and has a good moral basis, yet
instinctively employs many stratagems, calculated to cast off suspicions
on its motives; and should cultivate openness and sincerity: p. 98.

FULL.--Evinces much self-government; yet, if temperament be active, when
the feelings do break forth, manifest themselves with unusual intensity;
with large Acquisitiveness and Cautiousness, communicates but little
respecting pecuniary affairs; with large Approbativeness, takes the
popular side of subjects, and sails only with the current of public
opinion; with Conscientiousness large, is upright in motive, and tells the
truth, but not always the whole truth; and, though it hoists no false
colors, it does not always show its own. For additional combinations, see
Secretiveness large: p. 99.

AVERAGE.--Maintains a good share of self-government, except when under
excitement, and then lets the whole mind out fully; with large
Combativeness and an active temperament, though generally able to control
resentment, yet, when once provoked, shows the full extent of its
resentment; with large Cautiousness, sees that there is no danger before
it lets the feelings fly; but with an excitable temperament, and
especially a deranged stomach, shows a general want of policy and
self-government, because the feelings are too strong to be kept in check;
but if this faculty is manifested in connection with larger faculties, it
evinces considerable power, yet is wanting when placed in opposition to
them: p. 96.

MODERATE.--Expresses feelings with considerable fullness; pursues an open,
direct course; is sincere and true; employs but little policy, and
generally gives vent to thoughts and feelings; with Cautiousness large,
evinces prudence in deeds, but imprudence in words; expresses opinions
imprudently, yet is safe and circumspect in conduct; with large
Acquisitiveness and Conscientiousness, prefers the one-price system in
dealing, and cannot bear to banter; with large Adhesiveness, is a sincere,
open-hearted friend, and communicates with perfect freedom; with large
Conscientiousness, and Combativeness added, is truthful, and speaks its
whole mind too bluntly; with fine feelings, and a good moral organization,
manifests the higher, finer feelings, without restraint or reserve, so as
to be the more attractive; is full of goodness, and shows all that
goodness without any intervening veil; manifests in looks and actions what
is passing within; expresses all its mental operations with fullness,
freedom, and force; chooses direct and unequivocal modes of expression;
discloses faults as freely as virtues, and leaves none at a loss as to the
real character; but with the harsher elements predominant, appears more
hating and hateful than it really is because it blows all its dislikes
right out: p. 100.

SMALL.--Is perfectly transparent; seems to be just what, and all that, it
really is, disdains concealment in all its forms; is no hypocrite, but
passive and unequivocal in all it says or does; carries the soul in the
hands and face, and makes its way directly to the feelings, because it
expresses itself so unequivocally; with large Cautiousness, is guarded in
action, but unguarded in expression; frees its mind regardless of
consequences, yet shows much prudence in other respects; with
Conscientiousness large, loves the truth wherever it exists, and opens its
mind freely to evidence and conviction; is open and above board in every
thing, and allows all the mental operations to come right out, unveiled
and unrestrained, so that their full force is seen and felt: p. 101.

VERY SMALL.--Conceals nothing, but discloses every thing: p. 101.


[Illustration: No. 65. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 66. SMALL.]

prospective evils; the sentinel. Adapted to those dangers which surround
us, and those provisions necessary for our future happiness.
Perversion--irresolution; timidity; procrastination; indecision.

LARGE.--Is always on the look-out; takes ample time to get ready; provides
against prospective dangers; makes every thing safe; guards against losses
and evils; incurs no risk; sure binds that it may sure find; with large
Combativeness, Hope, and an active temperament, drives, Jehu-like,
whatever is undertaken, yet drives cautiously; lays on the lash, yet
holds a tight rein, so as not to upset its plans; with Large
Approbativeness, is doubly cautious as to character; with large
Approbativeness and small Acquisitiveness, is extra careful of character,
but not of money; with large Acquisitiveness and small Approbativeness
takes special care of all money matters, but not of reputation; with large
Adhesiveness and Benevolence, experiences the greatest solicitude for the
welfare of friends; with large Conscientiousness, is careful to do nothing
wrong; with large Causality, lays safe plans, and is judicious; with large
Combativeness and Hope, combines judgment with energy and enterprise, and
often seems reckless, yet is prudent; with large intellectual organs and
Firmness, is cautious in coming to conclusions, and canvasses well all
sides of the question, yet, once settled, is unmoved; with small
Self-Esteem, relies too much upon the judgment of others, and too little
upon itself; with large Philoprogenitiveness and disordered nerves,
experiences unnecessary solicitude for children, and takes extra care of
them, etc.: p. 104.

VERY LARGE.--With an excitable nervous system, procrastinates, puts off
till to-morrow what ought to be done to-day; lacks promptness and
decision, and refuses to run any risk; with only average or full
Combativeness, Self-Esteem, and Hope, and large Approbativeness,
accomplishes literally nothing, but should always act under others; with
large Acquisitiveness, prefers small but sure gains to large but more
risky ones, and safe investments to active business. For additional
combinations, see Combativeness large, etc.: p. 105.

FULL.--Shows a good share of prudence and carefulness, except when the
other faculties are powerfully excited; with large Combativeness and very
large Hope, has but little prudence for his energy; is tolerably safe
except when under considerable excitement; with large Acquisitiveness, is
very careful whenever money or property are concerned; yet with only
average Causality, evinces but little general prudence, and lays plans for
the present rather than future, etc.: p. 105.

AVERAGE.--Has a good share of prudence, whenever this faculty works in
connection with the larger organs, yet evinces but little in the direction
of the smaller organs; with large Combativeness and Hope, and an excitable
temperament, is practically imprudent, yet somewhat less so than
appearances indicate; with large Causality, and only average Hope and
Combativeness, and a temperament more strong than excitable, evinces good
general judgment, and meets with but few accidents; but with an excitable
temperament, large Combativeness and Hope and only average or full
Causality, will always be in hot water, fail to mature his plans, begin
before he is ready, and be luckless and unfortunate in every thing, etc.:
p. 103.

MODERATE.--With excitability great, acts upon the spur of the moment,
without due deliberation; meets with many accidents caused by imprudence;
with large Combativeness, is often at variance with neighbors; with large
Approbativeness, seeks praise, yet often incurs criticism; with average
Causality and large Hope, is always doing imprudent things, and requires a
guardian; with small Acquisitiveness keeps money loosely, and is easily
over-persuaded to buy more than can be paid for; with large
Philoprogenitiveness, loves to play with children, yet often hurts them;
with large Language and small Secretiveness, says many very imprudent
things, etc., and has a hard row to hoe; and with large Combativeness, has
many enemies, but few friends, etc.: p. 106.

SMALL.--Is rash, reckless, luckless; and with large Hope, always in
trouble; with large Combativeness, plunges headlong into difficulties in
full sight, and should assiduously cultivate this faculty: p. 106.

VERY SMALL.--Has so little of this faculty, that its influence upon
conduct is rarely ever perceived: p. 107.


DESIRE to be ESTEEMED; regard for CHARACTER, APPEARANCES, etc.; love of
DISPLAY and show off; sense of HONOR; desire for a GOOD NAME, for
of character; SENSITIVENESS to the speeches of people; and love of
POPULARITY. Adapted to the reputable and disgraceful. Perversion--vanity;
affectation; ceremoniousness; aristocracy; pomposity; eagerness for
popularity; outside display, etc.

LARGE.--Loves commendation, and is cut by censure; is keenly alive to the
smiles of public opinion; minds what people say; strives to show off to
advantage, and is affable, courteous, and desirous of pleasing; loves to
be in company; stands on etiquette and ceremony; aspires to do and become
something great; sets much by appearances, and is mortified by reproach;
with large Cautiousness and moderate Self-Esteem, is careful to take the
popular side, and fears to face the ridicule of others; yet with
Conscience and Combativeness large, sticks to the right, though it is
unpopular, knowing that it will ultimately confer honor; with large
Benevolence, seeks praise for works of philanthropy and mercy; with large
intellectual organs, loves literary and intellectual distinctions; with
large Adhesiveness, desires the good opinion of friends, yet cares little
for that of others; with large Self-Esteem, Combativeness, and
excitability, is very touchy when criticised, seeks public life, wants all
the praise, and hates rivals; with large perceptives, takes a forward part
in literary and debating societies; with large Combativeness, Hope, and
activity, will not be outdone, but rather work till completely exhausted,
and liable to hurt itself by feats of rivalry: p. 108.

VERY LARGE.--Sets every thing by the good opinion of others; is
ostentatious, if not vain and ambitious; loves praise, and is mortified by
censure inordinately; with moderate Self-Esteem and Firmness, cannot
breast public opinion, but is over fond of popularity; with only average
Conscience, seeks popularity without regard to true merit; but with large
Conscience, seeks praise mainly for virtuous doings; with large Ideality,
and only average Causality, seeks praise for fashionable dress and outside
appearance rather than internal merit; and is both vain and fashionable as
well as aristocratic, and starves the kitchen to stuff the parlor; with
large Acquisitiveness, boasts of riches; with large Adhesiveness, boasts
of friends; with large Language, is extra forward in conversation, and
engrosses much of the time, etc. This is the main organ of aristocracy,
exclusiveness, fashionableness, so-called pride, and nonsensical outside
show: p. 110.

FULL.--Values the estimation of others, yet will not go far out of the way
to get it; seeks praise in connection with the larger organs, yet cares
little for it in the direction of the smaller ones; is not aristocratic,
yet likes to make a fair show in the world; with large Adhesiveness, loves
the praise and cannot endure the censure of friends; with large
Conscientiousness, sets much by MORAL character, and wishes to be praised
for correct MOTIVES; yet, with moderate Acquisitiveness, cares little for
the name of being rich; with large Benevolence and intellectual organs,
desires to be esteemed for evincing talent in doing good, etc.: p. 110.

AVERAGE.--Evinces only a respectable share of this faculty, except when
it is powerfully wrought upon by praise or reproach; is mortified by
censure, yet not extremely so, and calls his other faculties to his
justification; is not sufficiently ambitious to incur injury, yet is by no
means deficient in this respect; and is not insensible to compliments, yet
cannot well be inflated with praise: p. 107.

MODERATE.--Feels some, but no great, regard for popularity; and evinces
this faculty only in connection with the larger faculties; with large
Self-Esteem and Firmness, is inflexible and austere; and with large
Combativeness and small Agreeableness, lacks civility and complaisance to
others; disdains to flatter, and cannot be stuffed and should cultivate a
pleasing, winning mode of address: p. 112.

SMALL.--Cares little for the opinions of others, even of friends; is
comparatively insensible to praise; disregards style and fashion; despises
etiquette and formal usages; never asks what will persons think, and puts
on no outside appearances for their own sake; with large Self-Esteem,
Firmness, and Combativeness, is destitute of politeness, devoid of
ceremony, and not at all flexible or pleasing in manners; with large
Combativeness and Conscientiousness, goes for the right regardless of
popularity, and is always making enemies; says and does things in so
graceless a manner as often to displease; with large Acquisitiveness and
Self-Esteem, though wealthy, makes no boast of it, and is as commonplace
in conduct as if poor, etc.: p. 112.

VERY SMALL.--Cares almost nothing for reputation, praise, or censure as


[Illustration: No. 67. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 68. SMALL.]

SELF-appreciation and valuation; self-RESPECT and RELIANCE; MAGNANIMITY;
of liberty and power; an ASPIRING, SELF-ELEVATING, RULING instinct; PRIDE
of character; MANLINESS; LOFTY-MINDEDNESS, and desire for elevation.
Adapted to the superiority, greatness, and exalted dignity of human
nature. Perversion--haughtiness; forwardness, overbearing; tyranny;
egotism, and superciliousness.

LARGE.--Puts a high estimate upon itself, its sayings, doings, and
capabilities; falls back upon its own unaided resources; will not take
advice, but insists upon being its own master; is high-minded; will never
stoop or demean itself; aims high; is not satisfied with moderate success,
or a petty business, and comports and expresses itself with dignity, and
perhaps with majesty, and is perfectly self-satisfied; with large
Philoprogenitiveness, prides itself in its children, yet with
Combativeness large, requires implicit obedience, and is liable to be
stern; with large Adhesiveness, seeks society, yet must be its leader;
with large Acquisitiveness added, seeks partnership, but must be the head
of the firm; with large Firmness and Combativeness, cannot be driven, but
insists upon doing its own will and pleasure, and is sometimes contrary
and headstrong; with large Hope, thinks that any thing it does cannot
possibly fail, because done so well; with large moral organs, imparts a
tone, dignity, aspiration, and elevation of character, which commands
universal respect; and with large intellectual faculties added, is
desirous of, and well calculated for public life; is a natural leader, but
seeks moral distinction, and leads the public mind; with large
Combativeness, Destructiveness, Firmness, and Approbativeness, loves to be
captain or general, and speaks with that sternness and authority which
enforce obedience; with large Acquisitiveness aspires to be rich, the
richest man in town, partly on account of the power wealth confers; with
large Language, Individuality, Firmness, and Combativeness, seeks to be a
political leader; with large Constructiveness, Perceptives, Causality, and
Combativeness, is well calculated to have the direction of men, and
oversee large mechanical establishments; with only average brain and
intellect, and large selfish faculties, is proud, haughty, domineering,
egotistical, overbearing, greedy of power and dominion, etc.: p. 114.

VERY LARGE.--Evinces the characteristics of large, only in a still higher
degree; is very apt to be pompous, supercilious, proud, and imperious;
will do nothing except it be on the largest scale; yet, unless Causality
be large, is apt to fail, because ambition is too great for the calibre;
with large Firmness, Approbativeness, and Hope, is a real aristocrat, and
puts himself above every body else; with only average Approbativeness and
Agreeableness, takes no pains to smooth off the rougher points of
character, but is every way repulsive; with average Philoprogenitiveness,
is very domineering in the family, and insists upon being waited upon,
obeyed, etc.; and should carry his head a little lower, and humble his
proud soul: p. 116.

FULL.--Evinces a good degree of dignity and self-respect, yet is not proud
or haughty; with large Combativeness, Firmness and Hope, relies fully
upon its own energies in cases of emergency, yet is willing to hear advice
though seldom takes it; conducts becomingly and secures respect; and with
large Combativeness and Firmness, and full Destructiveness and Hope,
evinces much power of this faculty, but little when these faculties are
small: p. 116.

AVERAGE.--Shows this faculty mainly in combination with those that are
larger; with large Approbativeness and Firmness, and a large brain and
moral organs, rarely trifles or evinces meanness; yet is rarely conceited,
and thinks neither too little nor too much of self, but places a just
estimate upon its own capabilities; with large Adhesiveness, both receives
and imparts character to friends, yet receives most; with large
Conscientiousness, prides itself more on moral worth than physical
qualities, wealth, titles, etc.; and with large intellectual and moral
organs, values itself mainly for intellectual and moral excellence: p.

MODERATE.--Rather underrates personal capabilities and worth; feels rather
inferior, unworthy, and humble; lacks dignity and manliness, and is rather
apt to say and do trifling things, and let itself down; with large
intellectual and moral organs, leads off well when once placed in a
responsible position, yet at first distrusts its own capabilities; with
large Conscientiousness, Combativeness, and activity, often appears
self-sufficient and positive, because certain of being right, yet it is
founded more on reason than egotism; with large Approbativeness, loves to
show off, and make others satisfied with its capabilities, yet is not
satisfied with itself; goes abroad after praise, rather than feels
internally conscious of its own merits; is apt to boast because it would
make others appreciate its powers, while, if it were fully conscious of
them, it would care less about the estimation of others; with large moral
and intellectual powers, has exalted thoughts and aspirations, and
communicates well, yet often detracts from them by commonplace phrases and
undignified expressions; will be too familiar to be respected in
proportion to merit, and should vigorously cultivate this faculty by
banishing mean and cultivating high thoughts of self: p. 116.

SMALL.--Feels diminutive in its own eyes; lacks elevation and dignity of
tone and manner; places a low estimate on self; and, with Approbativeness
large, is more anxious to appear well in the eyes of others than in its
own; with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, shows some
self-reliance when provoked or placed in responsible positions, yet lacks
that dignity and tone which commands universal respect, and gives a
capability to lead off in society; lacks self-confidence and weight of
character; shrinks from responsible and great undertakings, from a feeling
of unworthiness; underrates itself, and is therefore undervalued by
others, and feels insignificant as if in the way, or trespassing upon
others, and hence often apologizes; and should feel constantly "I'm a

VERY SMALL.--Feels little, and manifests none of this faculty.


[Illustration: No. 69. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 70. SMALL.]

and aversion to change. Adapted to man's requisition for holding out to
the end. Perversion--obstinacy; willfulness; mulishness; stubbornness;
unwillingness to change, even though reason requires.

LARGE.--Is set in its own way; sticks to and carries out what it
commences; holds on long and hard; continues to the end, and may be fully
relied upon; with full Self-Esteem and large Combativeness, cannot be
driven, but the more it is forced the more it resists; with large
Combativeness and Destructiveness, adds perseverance to stability, and not
only holds on, but drives forward determinedly through difficulties; with
large Hope, undertakes much and carries it all out; with large
Cautiousness and Causality, is careful and judicious in laying plans and
forming opinions, yet rarely changes when once decided; may seem to waver
until the mind is fully made up, but is afterward the more unchanging;
with Hope very large, and Cautiousness and Causality only average, decides
quickly, even rashly, and refuses to change; with Adhesiveness and
Benevolence large, is easily persuaded, especially by friends, yet cannot
be driven; and with large Cautiousness, Combativeness, Causality,
perceptives, activity, and power, will generally succeed, because wise in
planning and persevering in execution; with Combativeness and Self-Esteem
large, and Causality only average, will not see the force of arguments
against himself, but tenaciously adheres to affirmed opinions and
purposes, yet is less firm than he seems to be; with large
Conscientiousness and Combativeness, is doubly decided wherever right or
justice are concerned, and in such cases will never give one inch, but
will stand out in argument, effort, or as a juryman till the last: p. 119.

VERY LARGE.--Is well-nigh obstinate, stubborn, and with large
Combativeness and Self-Esteem, is unchangeable as the laws of the Medes
and Persians, and can neither be persuaded nor driven; with large
activity, power, brain, and intellectual organs, is well calculated to
carry forward some great work which requires the utmost determination and
energy; with large Causality, can possibly be turned by potent reasons,
yet by nothing else: p. 120.

FULL.--Like Firmness large, shows a great degree of decision, when this
faculty works with large organs, but not otherwise; with Combativeness and
Conscientiousness large, shows great Fixedness where right and truth are
concerned, yet with Acquisitiveness moderate, lacks perseverance in money
matters; with moderate Combativeness and Self-Esteem, is easily turned;
and with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, too easily persuaded, even
against its better judgment; with Cautiousness and Approbativeness large,
or very large, often evinces fickleness, irresolution, and
procrastination; and with an uneven head, and an excitable temperament,
often appears deficient in this faculty: p. 131.

AVERAGE.--When supported by large Combativeness, or Conscientiousness, or
Causality, or Acquisitiveness, etc., shows a good degree of this faculty;
but when opposed by large Cautiousness, Approbativeness, or Adhesiveness,
evinces its deficiency, and has not enough of this faculty for great
undertakings: p. 119.

MODERATE.--Rather lacks perseverance, even when his larger faculties
support it, and when they do not, evinces fickleness, irresolution,
indecision, and lacks perseverance; with Adhesiveness large, is too easily
persuaded and influenced by friends; with large Cautiousness and
Approbativeness and moderate or small Self-Esteem, is flexible and fickle,
and goes with the current: p. 132.

SMALL.--With activity great, and the head uneven, is fitful, impulsive,
and, like the weather-vane, shifts with every changing breeze, and is
ruled by the other faculties; and as unstable as water: p. 122.

VERY SMALL.--Is changed by the slightest motives; is a perfect creature of
circumstances, and accomplishes nothing requiring perseverance: p. 122.


These render man a moral, accountable, and religious being, humanize,
adorn, and elevate his nature; connect him with the moral nature of
things; create his higher and nobler sentiments; beget aspirations after
goodness, virtue, purity, and moral principle, and ally him to angels and
to God.

[Illustration: No. 71. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 72. SMALL.]

LARGE.--Create a high regard for things sacred and religious; give an
elevated, moral, and aspiring cast of feelings and conduct; create right
intentions, and a desire to become good, holy, and moral in feeling and
conduct; and, with weak animal feelings, is a rose in the shade.

VERY LARGE.--Give a most exalted sense and feeling of the moral and
religious, with a high order of practical goodness, and the strongest
aspirations for a higher and holier state, both in this life and that
which is to come.

FULL.--Has a good moral and religious tone, and general correctness of
motive, so as to render feelings and conduct about right; but with strong
propensities and only average intellectual faculties, is sometimes led
into errors of belief and practise; means right, yet sometimes does wrong,
and should cultivate these faculties, and restrain the propensities.

AVERAGE.--Surrounded by good influences, will be tolerably moral and
religious in feeling, yet not sufficiently so to withstand large
propensities; with disordered nerves, is quite liable to say and do wrong
things, yet afterward repents, and requires much moral cultivation.

MODERATE.--Has a rather weak moral tone; feels but little regard for
things sacred and religious; is easily led into temptation; feels but
little moral restraint; and, with large propensities, especially if
circumstances favor their excitement, is exceedingly liable to say and do
what is wrong.

SMALL.--Has weak moral feeling; lacks moral character; and, with large
propensities, is liable to be depraved, and a bad member of society.

VERY SMALL.--Feels little, and shows no moral tone.


[Illustration: No. 73. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 74. SMALL.]

MORAL PRINCIPLE; INTEGRITY; PERCEPTION and love of right; innate sense of
ACCOUNTABILITY and obligation; love of JUSTICE and truth; regard for DUTY;
desire for moral PURITY and excellence; disposition to fulfill PROMISES,
agreements, etc.; the internal MONITOR which approves the right and
condemns the wrong; sense of GUILT; CONTRITION; desire to REFORM;
PENITENCE; FORGIVENESS. Adapted to the rightness of right, and the
wrongness of wrong, and to the moral nature and constitution of things.
Perverted, it makes one do wrong from conscientious scruples, and torments
with undue self-condemnation.

LARGE.--Loves the right as right, and hates the wrong because wrong; is
honest, faithful, upright in motive; means well; consults duty before
expediency; feels guilty when conscious of having done wrong; desires
forgiveness for the past, and to do better in future; with strong
propensities, will sometimes do wrong, and then be exceedingly sorry
therefor; and, with a wrong education added, is liable to do wrong,
thinking it to be right, because these propensities warp conscience, yet
means right; with large Cautiousness, is solicitous to know what is right,
and careful to do it; with weaker Cautiousness, sometimes does wrong
carelessly or indifferently, yet afterward repents it; with large
Cautiousness and Destructiveness, is severe on wrong doers, and
unrelenting until they evince penitence, and then cordially forgives; with
large Approbativeness, keeps the moral character pure and spotless--values
others on their morals more than wealth, birth, etc., and makes his word
his bond; with large Benevolence, Combativeness, and Destructiveness,
feels great indignation and severity against oppressors, and those who
cause others sufferings by wronging them; with large Ideality, has strong
aspirations after moral purity and excellence; with large reasoning
faculties, takes great pleasure, and shows much talent in reasoning upon,
and investigating moral subjects, etc.: p. 126.

VERY LARGE.--Places moral excellence at the head of all excellence; is
governed by the highest order of moral principle; would on no account
knowingly do wrong; is scrupulously exact in all matters of right;
perfectly honest in motive; always condemning self and repenting; makes
duty every thing; very forgiving of those who evince penitence, but
inexorable without; with Combativeness large, evinces the utmost
indignation at the wrong, and drives the right with great force; is
censorious, and makes but little allowance for the faults and follies of
mankind, and shows extraordinary moral courage and fortitude; with small
Secretiveness and an active temperament, is liable to denounce evil doers;
with large Friendship, cannot tolerate the least thing wrong in friends,
and is liable to reprove them; with large Philoprogenitiveness, exacts too
much from children, and with large Combativeness, is too liable to blame
them; with large Cautiousness, is often afraid to do lest it should do
wrong; with large Veneration, reasoning faculties, and Language, is a
natural theologian, and takes the highest pleasure in reasoning and
conversing upon all things having a moral and religious bearing; with
Veneration average, and Benevolence large or very large, cannot well help
being a thorough-going reformer, etc.: p. 129.

FULL.--Has good conscientious feelings, and correct general intentions,
yet is not quite as correct in action as intentions; means well, yet with
large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Amativeness, etc., may sometimes
yield to these faculties, especially if the system is somewhat inflamed;
with large Acquisitiveness, makes very close bargains, and will take such
advantages as are common in business, yet does not intend to wrong others
out of their just dues, still, has more regard for money than justice;
with large intellectual organs, loves to reason upon subjects where right
and duty are involved, yet too often takes the ground of expediency, and
fails to allow right its due weight; and should never allow conscience to
be in any way weakened, but should cultivate it assiduously: p. 130.

AVERAGE.--When not tempted by stronger faculties does what is about right;
generally justifies itself, and does not feel particularly indignant at
the wrong, or commendatory of the right; with large Approbativeness and
Self-Esteem, may do an honorable thing, yet where honor and right clash,
will choose the former; with only average Combativeness and
Destructiveness, allows many things that are wrong to pass unrebuked, or
even unresented, and shows no great moral indignation or force; with
moderate or small Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, and large
Approbativeness, Benevolence, and Ideality, will do as nearly right, and
commit as few errors as those with Secretiveness, Acquisitiveness and
Conscientiousness all large, and may be trusted, especially on honor, yet
will rarely feel guilty, and should never be blamed, because
Approbativeness will be mortified before conscience is convicted; with
large propensities, especially Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, and only
full Benevolence, is selfish; should be dealt with cautiously, and
thoroughly bound in writing, because liable to be slippery, tricky, etc.;
and should cultivate this faculty by never allowing the propensities to
overcome it, and by always considering things in the moral aspect: p. 124.

MODERATE.--Has some regard for duty in feeling, but less in practice;
justifies self; is not very penitent or forgiving; even temporizes with
principle, and sometimes lets interest rule duty. The combinations under
average apply still more forcibly here: p. 131.

SMALL.--Has few conscientious scruples; has little penitence, gratitude,
or regard for moral principle, justice, duty, etc.; and is governed mainly
by his larger faculties; with large propensities and only average
Veneration and Spirituality, evinces a marked deficiency of moral
principle; with moderate Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, and only full
Destructiveness and Combativeness, and large Adhesiveness,
Approbativeness, Benevolence, Ideality, and intellect, and a fine
temperament, may live a tolerably blameless life, yet, on close scrutiny,
will lack the moral in feeling, but may be safely trusted because true to
promises; that is, conscience having less to contend with, its deficiency
is less observable. Such should most earnestly cultivate this faculty: p.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost wholly destitute of moral feeling, and wholly
controlled by the other faculties: p. 133.

16. HOPE.

EXPECTATION; ANTICIPATION of future success and happiness. Adapted to
man's relations with the future. Perverted, it becomes visionary and

LARGE.--Expects much from the future; contemplates with pleasure the
bright features of life's picture; never desponds; overrates prospective
good, and underrates and overlooks obstacles and evils; calculates on more
than the nature of the case will warrant; expects, and hence attempts a
great deal, and is therefore always full of business; is sanguine, and
rises above present trouble by hoping for better in future, and though
disappointed, hopes on still; builds some air castles, and lives in the
future more than in the present; with large Combativeness, Firmness, and
Causality, is enterprising, never gives up the ship, but struggles
manfully through difficulties; and with large Approbativeness, and full
Self-Esteem added, feels adequate to difficulties, and grapples with them
spiritedly; with large Self-Esteem, thinks that every thing it attempts
must succeed, and with large Causality added, considers its plans
well-nigh perfect; with large Acquisitiveness lays out money freely in
view of future gain; with large Approbativeness and Self-Esteem, hopes for
renown, honor, etc.; with large Veneration and Spirituality, hopes to
attain exalted moral excellence, and should check it by acting on only
half it promises, and reasoning against it: p. 137.

VERY LARGE.--Has unbounded expectations; builds a world of castles in the
air; lives in the future; enjoys things in anticipation more than in
possession; with small Continuity, has too many irons in the fire; with an
active temperament added, takes on more business than it can work off
properly; is too much hurried to do things in season; with large
Acquisitiveness, is grasping, counts chickens before they are hatched, and
often two to the egg at that; with only average Cautiousness, is always in
hot water; never stops to enjoy what it possesses, but grasps after more,
and will never accomplish much because it undertakes too much, and in
taking one step forward slips two steps back: p. 138.

FULL.--Expects considerable, yet realizes more; undertakes no more than it
can accomplish; is quite sanguine and enterprising, yet with Cautiousness
large, is always on the safe side; with large Acquisitiveness added,
invests money freely, yet always safely, makes good bargains, if any, and
counts all the cost, yet is not afraid of expenses where it knows they
will more than pay; with larger animal faculties than moral, will hope
more for this world's goods than for another, and with larger moral than
animal, for another state of being than this, etc.: p. 139.

AVERAGE.--Expects and attempts too little, rather than too much; with
large Cautiousness, dwells more on difficulties than encouragements; is
contented with the present rather than lays out for the future; with large
Acquisitiveness added, invests his money very safely, if at all, and
prefers to put it out securely on interest rather than risk it in
business, except in a perfectly sure business; will make money slowly, yet
lose little, and with large intellectual organs, in the long run may
acquire considerable wealth: p. 136.

MODERATE.--With large Cautiousness, makes few promises; but with large
Conscientiousness, scrupulously fulfills them, because it promises only
what it _knows_ can be performed; with small Self-Esteem, and large
Veneration, Conscientiousness, and Cautiousness, if a professed Christian,
will have many fears as to his future salvation; with only average
propensities, will lack energy, enterprise, and fortitude; with large
Firmness and Cautiousness, is very slow to embark, yet once committed,
rarely backs out; with large reasoning faculties, may be sure of success,
because it sees _why and how_ it is to be brought about; with large
Acquisitiveness, will hold on to what money it gets, or at least spend
very cautiously, and only where it is sure to be returned with interest;
should cheer up, never despond, count favorable but not unfavorable
chances, keep up a lively, buoyant state of mind, and "hope on, hope
ever:" p. 139.

SMALL.--Expects and undertakes very little; with large Cautiousness, puts
off till it is too late; is always behind; may embark in projects after
every body else has succeeded, but will then be too late, and in general
knocks at the door just after it has been bolted; with large Cautiousness,
is forever in doubt; with large Approbativeness and Cautiousness, though
most desirous of praise, has little hopes of obtaining it, and therefore
is exceedingly backward in society, yet fears ridicule rather than hopes
for praise; is easily discouraged; sees lions in the way; lacks
enterprise; magnifies obstacles, etc.: p. 140.

VERY SMALL.--Expects next to nothing, and undertakes little: p. 140.


and feeling of the SPIRITUAL; interior perception of TRUTH, what is BEST,
what is about to transpire, etc. Adapted to a spiritual state of mind and
feeling. Perversion--superstition; witchcraft; and with Cautiousness
large, fear of ghosts.

LARGE.--Perceives and knows things independent of the senses or intellect,
or as it were by spiritual intuition; experiences an internal
consciousness of what is best, and that spiritual communion with God which
constitutes the essence of true piety; loves to meditate; bestows a
species of waking clairvoyance, and is as it were "forewarned of God;"
combined with large Veneration, holds intimate communion with the Deity,
for whom it experiences profound adoration; and takes a world of pleasure
in that calm, happy, half-ecstatic state of mind caused by this faculty;
with large Causality, perceives truth by intuition, which philosophical
tests prove to be correct; with large Comparison added, has a deep and
clear insight into spiritual subjects, and embodies a vast amount of the
highest order of truth; with vigorous propensities, gives them a
sanctified cast and spiritual direction; and clearly perceives, and fully
realizes, a spiritual state of being after death: p. 142.

VERY LARGE.--Experiences the same functions as large, only in a higher
degree; unless well regulated by reason, is liable to fanciful credulity,
fanaticism, and superstition, and to a thousand whims, visions, dreams,
etc.: p. 143.

FULL.--Has a full share of high, pure, and spiritual feeling; has many
premonitions, or interior warnings and guidings, which, implicitly
followed, would conduct to success and happiness through life; and has an
inner test or touchstone of truth, right, etc., in a kind of inner
consciousness which is independent of reason, yet, unperverted, in harmony
with it; is quite spiritual-minded, and as it were "led by the spirit."
For combinations, see large: p. 143.

AVERAGE.--Has some spiritual premonitions and guidings, yet they are not
always sufficiently distinct to secure their being followed; but, when
followed, they lead correctly; sees this light within, and feels what is
true and best, with tolerable distinctness, and should cultivate this
faculty by following its light: p. 141.

MODERATE.--Has some, but not very distinct perception of spiritual things;
rather lacks faith; believes mainly from evidence and little from
intuition; with large Causality, says "Prove it," and takes no man's
say-so unless he gives good _reasons_: p. 144.

SMALL.--Perceives spiritual truths so indistinctly as rarely to admit
them; is not guided by faith, because so weak; like disbelieving Thomas,
must see the fullest PROOF before it believes; has very little credulity,
and doubts things of a superhuman origin or nature; has no premonitions,
and disbelieves in them: p. 145.

VERY SMALL.--Has no spiritual guidings or superstitions: p. 146.


DEVOTION; ADORATION of a Supreme Being; reverence for religion and things
sacred; disposition to PRAY, WORSHIP, and observe religious rites. Adapted
to the existence of a God, and the pleasures and benefits experienced by
man in worshiping him. Perverted, it produces idolatry, bigotry, religious
intolerance, etc.

LARGE.--Experiences an awe of God and things sacred; loves to adore the
Supreme Being, especially in his works; feels true devotion, fervent
piety, and love of divine things; takes great delight in religious
exercises; has much respect for superiority; regards God as the centre of
hopes, fears, and aspirations; with large Hope and Spirituality, worships
him as a spirit, and hopes to be with and like him; with large Ideality,
contemplates his works with rapture and ecstacy; with large Sublimity,
adores him as infinite in every thing; with large reasoning organs, has
clear, and, if the faculties are unperverted, correct ideas of the Divine
character and government, and delights to reason thereon; with large
Philoprogenitiveness, adores him as a friend and father; and with large
Benevolence, for his infinite _goodness_, etc.; with large Causality
added, as securing the happiness of sentient beings by a wise institution
of _law_, and as the great first CAUSE of all things; with large and
perverted Cautiousness, mingles fear and dread with worship; with large
Constructiveness and Causality, admires the system of his architectural
plans, contrivances, etc.: p. 148.

[Illustration: No. 75. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 76. SMALL.]

VERY LARGE.--Experiences these feelings in a still higher degree; places
God as supreme upon the throne of the soul, and makes his worship a
central verge; manifests extreme fervor, anxiety, and delight in divine
worship, and is pre-eminently fervent in prayer; with moderate
Self-Esteem, and large Conscientiousness and Cautiousness, and a
disordered temperament, experiences the utmost unworthiness and guiltiness
in his sight, and is crushed by a sense of guilt and vileness, especially
before God, yet should never cherish these feelings; is always dreading
the wrath of Heaven, no matter whether the actions are good or ill; and
should cultivate religious cheerfulness and hope of future happiness. For
additional combinations, see large: p. 149.

FULL.--Experiences a good degree of religious worship, whenever
circumstances excite this faculty, yet allows the larger faculties
frequently to divert it, and prays at least internally; with large or very
large Conscience or Benevolence, will place his religion in doing right
and doing good, more than in religious observances; will esteem duties
higher than ceremonies; with large propensities, may be devout upon the
Sabbath, yet will be worldly through the week, and experience some
conflict between his religious and his worldly aspirations: p. 149.

AVERAGE.--Will adore the Deity, yet often makes religion subservient to
the larger faculties; with large Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and
Conscience, may love religious meetings because it meets friends, and
prays for the good of mankind, or because duty requires their attendance;
yet is not habitually and innately devotional, except when this faculty is
excited: p. 147.

MODERATE.--Will not be particularly devout or worshipful; with large
Benevolence and Conscientiousness, if religiously educated, may be
religious, yet will place religion more in works than faith, in duty than
in prayer, and be more moral than pious; in his prayers will supplicate
blessings upon mankind; and with Conscientiousness large, will confess sin
more than express an awe of God; with large reflectives, can worship no
further than it sees a _reason_; with moderate Spirituality and
Conscientiousness, cares little for religion as such, but with large
Benevolence, places religion mainly in doing good, etc.; and is by no
means conservative in religion, but takes liberal views of religious
subjects; and is religious only when this faculty is considerably excited:
p. 150.

SMALL.--Experiences little devotion or respect, and is deficient in
fervor; cares little for religious observances, and is not easily
impressed with the worshiping sentiment: p. 150.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost destitute in feeling and practice of this


spirit. Adapted to man's capability of making his fellow-men happy.
Perversion--misplaced sympathies.

LARGE.--Delights to do good; makes personal sacrifices to make others
happy; cannot witness pain or distress, and does what it well can to
relieve them; manifests a perpetual flow of disinterested goodness; with
large Adhesiveness, Ideality, and Approbativeness, and only average
propensities and Self-Esteem, is remarkable for practical goodness; lives
more for others than self; with large domestic organs, makes great
sacrifices for family; with large reflectives, is perpetually reasoning on
the evils of society, the way to obviate them, and to render mankind
happy; with large Adhesiveness is hospitable; with moderate
Destructiveness cannot witness pain or death, and disapproves of capital
punishment; with moderate Acquisitiveness, gives freely to the needy, and
never exacts dues from the poor; with large Acquisitiveness, helps others
to help themselves rather than gives money; with large Combativeness,
Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, and Firmness, at times evinces harshness,
yet is generally kindly disposed: p. 155.

[Illustration: No. 77. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 78. SMALL.]

VERY LARGE.--Is deeply and thoroughly embued with a benevolent spirit;
with large Adhesiveness and moderate Acquisitiveness, is too ready to help
friends; and with large Hope added, especially inclined to endorse for
them, which he should forswear not to do; with large Acquisitiveness,
bestows time more freely than money, yet will also give the latter; but
with only average or full Acquisitiveness freely bestows both substance
and personal aid; with large Veneration and only full Acquisitiveness,
gives freely to religious objects; with large Combativeness and
Destructiveness, is more severe in word than deed, and threatens more than
executes; with larger moral than animal organs, literally overflows with
sympathy and practical goodness, and reluctantly causes others trouble;
with large reasoning organs, is a true philanthropist, and takes broad
views of reformatory measures; with large Adhesiveness and
Philoprogenitiveness is pre-eminently qualified for nursing; with large
Causality, is an excellent adviser of friends, etc., and should not let
sympathy overrule judgment. See Benevolence large for additional
combinations: p. 157.

FULL.--Shows a good degree of kind, neighborly, and humane feeling, except
when the selfish faculties overrule it, yet is not remarkable for
disinterestedness; with large Adhesiveness, manifests kindness toward
friends; and with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, is unrelenting
toward enemies; with large Acquisitiveness, is benevolent when it can make
money thereby; with large Conscientiousness, is more just than kind, and
with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, is unrelenting toward the
offending: p. 158.

AVERAGE.--Manifests kindness only in conjunction with Adhesiveness and
other large faculties; and with only full Adhesiveness, if kind is so for
selfish purposes; with large Acquisitiveness, gives little or nothing, yet
may sometimes do favors; with large Veneration, is more devout than
humane; and with only full reasoning organs, is no philanthropist or
reformer: p. 153.

MODERATE.--Allows the selfish faculties to infringe upon the happiness of
others; with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, and
Firmness, is comparatively hardened to suffering; and with Acquisitiveness
and Secretiveness added, evinces almost unmitigated selfishness.

SMALL.--Cares little for the happiness of man or brute, and does still
less to promote them; makes no disinterested self-sacrifices; is callous
to human woe; does few acts of kindness, and those grudgingly, and has
unbounded selfishness: p. 159.

VERY SMALL.--Feels little and evinces none of this sentiment, but is as
selfish as the other faculties will allow him to be: p. 159.


The MAKING instinct; the TOOL-using talent; SLEIGHT of hand in
constructing things. Adapted to man's need of things made, such as houses,
clothes, and manufacturing articles of all kinds. Perverted, it wastes
time and money on perpetual motion, and other like futile inventions.

LARGE.--Loves to make; is able to, and disposed to tinker, mend, and fix
up, build, manufacture, employ machinery, etc.; shows mechanical skill
and dexterity in whatever is done with the hands; with large Causality
and perceptives, is given to inventing; and with large Imitation added,
can make from a pattern, and both copy the improvements of others, and
supply defects by its own inventions, as well as improve on the mechanical
contrivances of others; with the mental temperament, and large
intellectual organs and Ideality, employs ingenuity in constructing
sentences and arranging words, and forming essays, sentiments, books,
etc.: p. 161.

VERY LARGE.--Shows extraordinary ingenuity, and a perfect passion for
making every thing; with large Imitation, Form, Size, and Locality, has
first-rate talents as an artist, and for drawing, engraving, etc.; and
with Color added, is an excellent limner; with Ideality, adds niceness to
skill; with large Causality, adds invention to execution, etc.: p. 162.

[Illustration: No. 79. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 80. SMALL.]

FULL.--Can, when occasion requires, employ tools and use the hands in
making, tinkering, and fixing up, and turn off work with skill, yet has no
great natural passion or ability therein; with practice, can be a good
workman; without it, would not excel: p. 163.

AVERAGE.--Like full, only less gifted in this respect: p. 160.

MODERATE.--Is rather awkward in the use of tools, and in manual operations
of every kind; with large Causality and perceptives, shows more talent in
inventing than executing, yet no great in either; with the mental
temperament, evinces some mental construction, yet no great physical
ingenuity: p. 163.

SMALL.--Is deficient in the tool-using capability; awkward in making and
fixing up things; poor in understanding and managing machinery; takes hold
of work awkwardly and wrong end first; writes poorly, and lacks both
mental and physical construction: p. 163.

VERY SMALL.--Can make nothing, except in the most awkward manner: p. 168.


[Illustration: No. 81. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 82. SMALL.]

Perception and admiration of the BEAUTIFUL and perfect; good TASTE and
refinement; PURITY of feeling; sense of PROPRIETY, ELEGANCE, and
GENTILITY; POLISH and IMAGINATION. Adapted to the beautiful in nature and
art. Perverted, it gives fastidiousness and extra niceness.

LARGE.--Appreciates and enjoys beauty and perfection wherever found,
especially in nature; is graced by purity and propriety of expression and
conduct; by gracefulness and polish of manners, and general good taste; is
pure-minded; enjoys the ideal of poetry, elegance, and romance; longs
after perfection of character, and desires to obviate blemishes, and with
Conscientiousness large, moral imperfections; with large social organs,
evinces a nice sense of propriety in friendly intercourse; with large
Alimentiveness, eats in a becoming and genteel manner; with large moral
organs, appreciates most highly perfection of character, or moral beauties
and excellences; with large reflectives, adds a high order of sense and
strength of mind to beauty and perfection of character; with large
perceptives, is gifted with a talent for the study of nature, etc.: p.

VERY LARGE.--Has a rich and glowing imagination and a very high order of
taste and love of perfection; is disgusted with whatever is gross, vulgar
or out of taste; with only average Causality, has more outside polish than
solidity of mind; and more exquisiteness than sense: p. 167.

FULL.--Evinces a good share of taste and refinement, yet not a high order
of them, except in those things in which it has been vigorously
cultivated; with large Language, Eventuality, and Comparison may compose
with elegance, and speak with much natural eloquence, yet will have more
force of thought than beauty of diction; with large Constructiveness, will
use tools with considerable taste, yet more skill; with large
Combativeness and Destructiveness, shows general refinement, except when
provoked, and is then grating and harsh; with large moral organs evinces
more moral beauty and harmony than personal neatness; with large
intellectual organs, possesses more beauty of mind than regard for looks
and outside appearances, and prefers the sensible to the elegant and nice,
etc.: p. 168.

AVERAGE.--Prefers the plain and substantial to the ornamental, and is a
utilitarian; with large intellectual organs, prefers sound, solid matter
to the ornament of style, and appreciates logic more than eloquence; with
Benevolence and Adhesiveness large, is hospitable, and evinces true
cordiality, yet cares nothing for ceremony; with Approbativeness large,
may try to be polite, but makes an awkward attempt, and is rather
deficient in taste and elegance; with Constructiveness large, makes things
that are solid and serviceable, but does not polish them off; with
Language large, talks directly to the purpose, without paying much
attention to the mode of expression, etc.: p. 160.

MODERATE.--Rather lacks taste in manners and expression; has but little of
the sentimental or finished; should cultivate harmony and perfection of
character, and endeavor to polish up; with large propensities, evinces
them in rather a coarser and grosser manner, and is more liable to their
perverted action than when this faculty is large, and is homespun in every
thing: p. 163.

SMALL.--Shows a marked deficiency in whatever appertains to taste and
style, also to beauty and sentiment: p. 163.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost deficient in taste, and evinces none: p. 164.


Perception and appreciation of the VAST, ILLIMITABLE, ENDLESS, OMNIPOTENT,
and INFINITE. Adapted to that infinitude which characterizes every
department of nature. Perverted, it leads to bombast, and a wrong use of
extravagant ideas.

LARGE.--Appreciates and admires the grand, sublime, vast, magnificent, and
splendid in nature and art; admires and enjoys exceedingly mountain
scenery, thunder, lightning, tempests, vast prospects, and all that is
awful and magnificent, also the foaming, dashing cataract, a storm at sea;
the lightning's vivid flash, and its accompanying thunder; the commotion
of the elements, and the star-spangled canopy of heaven, and all
manifestations of omnipotence and infinitude; with large Veneration, is
particularly delighted by the infinite as appertaining to the Deity, and
his attributes and works; and with large Time added, has unspeakably grand
conceptions of infinitude as applicable to devotion, past and future, and
to the character and works of the Deity; with large intellectual organs,
takes a comprehensive view of subjects, and gives illimitable scope to his
investigations and conceptions, so that they will bear being carried out
to any extent; and with Ideality large, adds the beautiful and perfect to
the sublime and infinite.

VERY LARGE.--Has a passion for the wild, romantic, and infinite. See

FULL.--Enjoys grandeur, sublimity, and infinitude quite well, and imparts
considerable of this element to his thoughts, emotions, and expressions;
evinces the same qualities as large, only in a less degree.

AVERAGE.--Possesses considerable of this element, when it is powerfully
excited, yet under ordinary circumstances, only an ordinary share of it.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in the conception and appreciation of the
inimitable and infinite; and with Veneration moderate, fails to appreciate
this element in nature and her Author.

SMALL.--Shows a marked deficiency in this respect, and should earnestly
cultivate it.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost destitute of these emotions and conceptions.


Ability and disposition to COPY, TAKE PATTERN, and IMITATE. Adapted to
man's requisition for doing, talking, acting, etc., like others.
Perverted, it copies even their faults.

[Illustration: No. 83. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 84. SMALL.]

LARGE.--Has a great propensity and ability to copy and take pattern from
others; do what is seen done; describes and acts out well; with large
Language, gesticulates much; with large perceptives, requires to be shown
but once; with large Constructiveness easily learns to use tools, and to
make things as others make them; and with small Continuity added, is a
jack-at-all-trades, and thorough in none; begins many things, but fails
to finish; with large Causality, perceptives, and an active temperament
added, may make inventions or improvements, but never completes one till
it makes another, or is always adding to them; with large Approbativeness,
copies after renowned men; with large Adhesiveness, it takes pattern from
friends; with large Language, imitates the style and mode of expression of
others; with large Mirthfulness and full Secretiveness, creates laughter
by taking off the oddities of people; with large Form, Size, and
Constructiveness, copies shape and proportions; with large Color, imitates
colors, and thus of all the other faculties: p. 170.

VERY LARGE.--Can mimic, act out, and pattern after almost any thing; with
large Mirthfulness, relates anecdotes to the very life; has a theatrical
taste and talent; gesticulates almost constantly while speaking; and, with
large Language, imparts an uncommon amount of EXPRESSION to countenance,
and every thing said; with large Individuality, Eventuality, Language,
Comparison, and Ideality, can make a splendid speaker; and with large
Mirthfulness, and full Secretiveness added, can keep others in a roar of
laughter, yet remain serious; with an uneven head, is droll and humorous
in the extreme; with large Approbativeness, delights in being the
sport-maker at parties, etc., and excels therein; with large
Constructiveness, Form, Size, Locality, and Comparison, full Color, and a
good temperament, and a full-sized brain, can make a very superior artist
of almost any kind; but with Color small, can engrave, draw, carve, model,
etc., better than paint: p. 171.

FULL.--Copies quite well, yet not remarkably so; with large Causality,
would rather invent a new way of doing things than copy the ordinary mode,
and evinces considerable imitating talent when this faculty works in
conjunction with large organs, but little otherwise: p. 171.

AVERAGE.--Can copy tolerably well when this faculty is strongly excited,
yet is not a mimic, nor a natural copyist; with only full
Constructiveness, evinces little manual dexterity; yet with large
Causality, can originate quite well, and evinces no great disposition or
ability to copy either the excellences or deficiencies of others, but
prefers to be original: p. 169.

MODERATE.--Has little inclination to do what, and as, others do; but with
large Causality, prefers to strike out a new course, and invent a plan of
its own; with large Self-Esteem added, has an excellent conceit of that
plan; but if Causality is only fair, is full of original device, yet they
do not amount to any great things: p. 171.

SMALL.--Copies even commonplace matter with extraordinary difficulty and
reluctance; is original, and generally does every thing in its own way: p.

VERY SMALL.--Possesses scarcely any, and manifests no disposition or
ability to copy any thing, not even enough to learn to talk well: p. 172.


[Illustration: No. 85. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 86. SMALL.]

Intuitive perception of the absurd and ridiculous; disposition and ability
to joke and make fun, and laugh at what is improper, ill-timed, or
unbecoming; pleasantness; facetiousness. Adapted to the absurd,
inconsistent, and laughable. Perverted, it makes fun on solemn occasions,
and where there is nothing ridiculous at which to laugh.

LARGE.--Enjoys a hearty laugh at the expressions and absurdities of others
exceedingly, and delights to make fun out of every thing not exactly
proper or in good taste, and is always ready to give as good a joke as it
gets; with large Amativeness, loves to joke with and about the other sex,
and with large Imitation and Language added, to talk with and tell stories
to and about them; with large Combativeness and Ideality added, makes fun
of their imperfections in dress, expression, manners, etc., and hits them
off to admiration; with large Adhesiveness, Language, and Imitation is
excellent company; with large Causality, Comparison, and Combativeness,
argues mainly by ridicule or by showing up the absurdity of the opposite
side, and excels most in exposing the fallacy of other systems than in
propounding its own; with large Ideality, shows taste and propriety in its
witticisms, and with this faculty average or less, is often gross, and
with large Amativeness added, vulgar in jokes; with large Combativeness
and Destructiveness, makes many enemies; and with large Comparison added,
compares those disliked to something mean, disgusting, and ridiculous: p.

VERY LARGE.--Shows an extraordinary disposition and capability to make
fun; is always laughing and making others laugh; with large Language,
Comparison, Imitation, Perceptives, and Adhesiveness, with moderate
Self-Esteem and Secretiveness, is "the fiddle of the company;" with only
average Ideality added, is clownish, and often says undignified and
perhaps low things to raise a laugh, and with only moderate Causality,
things that lack sense, etc.: p. 175.

FULL.--Possesses and evinces considerable of the fun-making disposition,
especially in the direction of the larger organs; with large or very large
Comparison, Imitation, and Approbativeness, and moderate Self-Esteem,
manifests more of the laughable and witty than is really possessed; may
make much fun and be called a wit; yet it will be owing more to what may
be called drollery than pure wit; with moderate Secretiveness and
Self-Esteem, and an excitable temperament, lets fly witty conceptions on
the spur of the moment, and thus increases their laughableness by their
being well timed, sudden, etc.: p. 175.

AVERAGE.--Is generally serious and sedate, except when this faculty is
excited, yet then often laughs heartily, and evinces considerable wit;
with large Individuality and Language, often says many laughable things,
yet they owe their wit more to argument or the criticism they embody, than
to this faculty: p. 172.

MODERATE.--Is generally serious, sedate, and sober, and with large
Self-Esteem, stern and dignified, nor companionable except when
Adhesiveness is large, and in company with intimate friends; with only
average Ideality and Imitation, is very poor in joking, has to expand
witticisms, and thereby spoils them; has some witty ideas, yet lacks in
perceiving and expressing them; fails to please others in witticisms, and
with large Approbativeness and Combativeness, is liable to become angry
when joked, and should cultivate this faculty by laughing and joking more:
p. 176.

SMALL.--Makes little fun; is slow to perceive, and still slower to turn
jokes; seldom laughs, and thinks it foolish or wrong to do so; with only
average Adhesiveness, is uncompanionable; with large reflectives and
Language, may do well in newspaper diction, yet not in debate: p. 177

VERY SMALL.--Has few, if any, witty ideas and conceptions: p. 177.


CAPABILITY and desire. Adapted to the physical and metaphysical.
Perverted, they apply their respective power to accomplish wrong ends.

LARGE.--Confer sufficient natural talent, and intellectual capability to
take a high stand among men; give strength of mind, superior judgment, and
power both of acquiring knowledge easily, and reasoning profoundly. Their
direction depends upon the other faculties; with large animal organs and
weak morals, they make philosophical sensualists; with large moral and
weaker animal organs, moral and religious philosophers, etc.

VERY LARGE.--Give natural greatness of intellect and judgment, and a high
order of natural talents; confer superior judgment and a high order of
sound sense, with an original, capacious, comprehensive mind which can
hardly fail to make its mark.

FULL.--Has good intellectual capabilities and much strength of mind,
provided it is well cultivated; with large Acquisitiveness, a talent for
acquiring property; with large moral organs, enlighten and improve the
moral character; with large Constructiveness, give mechanical
intelligence, etc.

AVERAGE.--Evinces fair mental powers, provided they are cultivated,
otherwise only moderate intellectual capabilities; with an excitable
temperament, allow the feelings and larger faculties to control judgment;
with large moral organs, has more piety than talents, and allows religious
prejudices and preconceived doctrines to prevent impartial intellectual
examination; with moderate Acquisitiveness, will never acquire property;
with average Constructiveness, will be a poor mechanic, etc.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in sense and judgment, yet not palpably so;
can be easily imposed upon; is deficient in memory, and rather wanting in
judgment, comprehension, and intellectual capacity.

SMALL.--Is decidedly deficient in mind; slow and dull of comprehension;
lacks sense, and has poor powers of memory and reason.

VERY SMALL.--Is a natural idiot.

These faculties are divided into the three following classes, which, when
large, confer three kinds of talent.


These bring man into direct intercourse with the physical world; take
cognizance of the physical qualities of material things; give practical
judgment, and a practical cast of mind.

LARGE.--Judges correctly of the various qualities and relations of matter;
with Acquisitiveness large, forms correct ideas of the value of property,
goods, etc., and what kinds are likely to rise in value, and makes good
bargains; with large Constructiveness, render important service in
mechanical operations, and give very good talents for building machinery,
superintending workmen, etc.; with the mental temperament and large
intellectuals added, confer a truly scientific cast of mind, and a talent
for studying the natural sciences, and are useful in almost every
department and situation in life; with an active temperament and good
general advantages, know a good deal about matters and things in general;
give quickness of observation and perception and matter-of-fact,
common-sense tact, and will show off to excellent advantage, appear to
know all that they really do, perhaps more; confer a talent for acquiring
and retaining knowledge with great facility, and attending to the details
of business; becoming an excellent scholar, etc.; and give a strong thirst
after knowledge.

VERY LARGE.--Are pre-eminent in these respects; know by intuition the
proper conditions, fitness, value, etc., of things; power of observation,
and ability to acquire knowledge, and a natural taste for examining;
collecting statistics, studying the natural sciences, etc. For
combinations see large.

FULL.--Confer fair perceptive powers, and a good share of practical sense;
learns and remembers most things quite well; loves reading and knowledge,
and with study can become a good scholar, yet not without it; with large
Acquisitiveness, judge of the value of things with sufficient correctness
to make good bargains, but with moderate Acquisitiveness, lacks such
judgment; with large Constructiveness, aided by experience, confer a good
mechanical mind, but without experience or only moderate Constructiveness
are deficient in this respect, etc.

AVERAGE.--Confer only fair perceptive and knowing powers, but, well
cultivated, know considerable about matters and things, and learn with
tolerable ease; yet without cultivation are deficient in practicability of
talent, and capability of gathering and retaining knowledge. For
combinations see full.

MODERATE.--Are rather slow and dull of observation and perception, require
some time to understand things, and even then lacks specificness and
detail of knowledge; are rather deficient in matter-of-fact knowledge, and
show off to poor advantage; learn slowly and fail in off-hand judgment and
action; with only average Acquisitiveness, are deficient in judging of the
value of things, and easily cheated; and with moderate Language, are
rather wanting in practical talent, and cannot show advantageously what is

SMALL.--Is very deficient in remembering and judging; lacks practical
sense, and should cultivate the knowing and remembering faculties.

VERY SMALL.--Sees few things, and knows almost nothing about the external
world, its qualities, and relations.


[Illustration: No. 87. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 88. SMALL.]

OBSERVATION; desire to SEE and EXAMINE; cognizance of individual OBJECTS.
Adapted to individual existence, or the THINGNESS of things; and is the
door through which most forms of knowledge enter the mind. Perverted it
makes the starer and the impudently observing.

LARGE.--Gives a great desire to see, know, examine, experience, etc.; is a
great and practical observer of men and things; sees whatever is
transpiring around, what should be done, etc.; is quick of perception,
knowing; with large Acquisitiveness, is quick to perceive whatever
appertains to property; with large Philoprogenitiveness, whatever concerns
its children; with large Alimentiveness, whatever belongs to the flavor or
qualities of food, and knows what things are good by looking at them; with
large Approbativeness or Self Esteem, sees quickly whatever appertains to
individual character, and whether it be favorable or unfavorable; with
large Conscientiousness, perceives readily the moral, or right and wrong
of things; with large Veneration, "sees God in clouds, and hears him in
the winds;" with large Ideality, is quick to perceive beauty, perfection,
and deformity; with large Form, notices the countenances and looks of all
it meets; with small Color, fails to observe tints, hues, and shades; with
large Order and moderate Ideality, perceives disarrangement at once, yet
fails to notice the want of taste or niceness. These and kindred
combinations show why some persons are very quick to notice some things,
but slow to observe others: p. 184.

VERY LARGE.--Has an insatiable desire to see and know every thing,
together with extraordinary powers of observation; cannot rest satisfied
till it knows the whole; individualizes every thing, and is very minute
and particular in its observation of things; with large Ideality, employs
many allegorical and like figures; with large Human Nature and Comparison,
observes every little thing which people say and do, and reads character
correctly from what smaller Individuality would not notice: p. 185.

FULL.--Has good observing powers, and much desire to see and know things,
yet is not remarkable in these respects; with large Acquisitiveness, but
moderate Ideality, is quick to notice whatever appertains to property, yet
fails to observe instances of beauty and deformity; but with large
Ideality and moderate Acquisitiveness, quickly sees beauty and deformity,
yet does not quickly observe the qualities of things or value of property;
with large Philoprogenitiveness and Ideality, sees at once indices of
beauty and perfection in children; but if Ideality and Language be
moderate, fails to perceive beauty of expression or sentiment etc.: p.

AVERAGE.--Observes only the more conspicuous objects around it, and these
more in general than in detail, and what especially interests the larger
faculties: p. 183.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in observing disposition and capability,
and should cultivate this faculty; with large Locality, may observe places
sufficiently to find them again; with large Order, observes when things
are out of place; with large Causality, sees that it may find materials
for reasoning, etc.: p. 185.

SMALL.--Observes only what is thrust upon his attention, and is quite
deficient in this respect: p. 186.

VERY SMALL.--Sees scarcely any thing: p. 186.

25. FORM.

[Illustration: No. 89. LARGE. FORM, SIZE, AND COLOR.]

[Illustration: No. 90. SMALL. FORM, SIZE, AND COLOR.]

Cognizance and recollection of SHAPE; memory of COUNTENANCES and the LOOKS
of persons and things seen; perception of RESEMBLANCES, family likenesses,
etc. Adapted to shape. Perverted, sees imaginary shapes of persons,
things, etc.

LARGE.--Notices, and for a long time remembers, the faces, countenances,
forms, looks, etc., of persons, beasts, and things once seen; knows by
sight many whose name is not remembered; with Individuality large, both
observes and recollects persons and things, but with Individuality
moderate, fails to notice them, and hence to remember them, unless
business or something special draws attention to them; with large
Philoprogenitiveness, notices and recollects children, favorite animals,
etc.; with large Acquisitiveness, Individuality, and Locality, readily
detects counterfeits, etc.: p. 187.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this capability in an extraordinary degree;
recognizes persons not seen for many years; with large Ideality, takes
extreme delight in beautiful forms; with large Spirituality, sees the
spirits of the departed; with disordered nerves, sees horrid images,
etc.: p. 188.

FULL.--Has a good recollection of the countenances of persons and shape of
things, yet not remarkably good unless this faculty has been quickened by
practice, or invigorated by some strong incentive to its action; with
large Ideality, will recollect beautiful shapes; with large Locality and
sublimity, beautiful and magnificent scenery, etc.; and should impress the
recollection of shape upon the mind: p. 188.

AVERAGE.--Has only a fair natural recollection of shapes, countenances,
etc.; yet with much practice may do tolerably well, but without practice
will be comparatively deficient in these respects; and should cultivate
this faculty: p. 186.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in recognizing persons before seen; fails
to recognize by their looks those who are related to each other by blood,
and should cultivate this faculty by trying to remember persons and
things: p. 189.

SMALL.--Has a poor recollection of persons, looks, etc.; often meets
persons the next day after an introduction, or an evening interview,
without knowing them; with Eventuality large, may remember their history,
but not their faces; with Locality large, where they were seen, but not
their looks, etc.: p. 189.

VERY SMALL.--Manifests scarcely any of this faculty: p. 189

26. SIZE.

Cognizance of BULK, MAGNITUDE, QUANTITY, PROPORTION, etc.; ability to
measure by the EYE. Adapted to the absolute and relative magnitude of
things. Perverted, it is pained by slight departures from proportion, or
architectural inaccuracies.

LARGE.--Has an excellent eye for measuring angles, proportions,
disproportions, and departures therefrom; and with large Constructiveness,
gives a good mechanical eye, and judges correctly of quantity in general;
loves proportion, and is pained by disproportion; and is necessary to
artisans, mechanics, all kinds of dealers, students, etc.: p. 190.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this capability in an extraordinary degree, and is
pained in the extreme by the sight of disproportion; can tell how wide,
how far, how long, how much, etc., with very great accuracy; detects at
once the texture and quality or fineness or coarseness of goods, and
excels in judgment of property where bulk and value are to be estimated by
the eye, and can dispense with instruments in measuring: p. 191.

FULL.--Possesses a good share of this eye-measuring power, yet is not
remarkable; with practice, does well; without it, rather poorly; and does
well in its accustomed business: p. 191.

AVERAGE.--Has a fair eye for judging of bulk, weight, by the size, etc.,
and with practice would do tolerably well in this respect: p. 190.

MODERATE.--Measures by the eye rather inaccurately, and has poor judgment
of bulk, quantity, distance, and whatever is estimated by this faculty: p.

SMALL.--Is obliged always to rely on actual measurements, because the eye
is too imperfect to be trusted: p. 191.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost destitute of this faculty: p. 192.


Intuitive perception and application of the laws of GRAVITY, MOTION, etc.
Adapted to man's requisition for motion. Perverted, it runs imminent risk
of falling.

LARGE.--Has an excellent faculty for preserving and regaining balance;
riding a fractious horse; skating; carrying a steady hand, etc.; easily
keeps from falling when aloft, or in dangerous places; throws a stone,
ball, or arrow straight; is pained at seeing things out of plumb; judges
of perpendiculars very exactly; loves to climb, walk on the edge of a
precipice, etc.; with Form and Size large, is an excellent marksman; with
Constructiveness large, possesses an excellent faculty for understanding
and working machinery; with Approbativeness large, is venturesome etc., to
show what risks it can run without falling: p. 193.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses these capabilities in an extraordinary degree; is a
dead shot; rarely ever falls, or is thrown from a horse: p. 194.

FULL.--Has a good degree of this faculty, and with practice excels, yet
without it is not remarkable: p. 194.

AVERAGE.--Like full, only less gifted in this respect; with only average
Constructiveness and perceptives, should never engage in working
machinery, because deficient in this talent: p. 192.

MODERATE.--Can keep the balance under ordinary circumstances, yet has
rather imperfect control over the muscles in riding a fractious horse or
walking a narrow beam aloft; with large Cautiousness, is timid in
dangerous places, and dare not trust itself far; is not first-rate in
skating, throwing, etc., unless rendered so by practice, and should
cultivate this faculty by climbing, balancing, throwing, etc.: p. 194.

SMALL.--Is quite liable to sea-sickness, dizziness when aloft, etc., and
naturally clumsy; with large Cautiousness, is afraid to walk over water,
even on a wide plank, and where there is no danger; never feels safe while
climbing, and falls easily: p. 195.

VERY SMALL.--Can hardly stand erect, and has very little control over the
muscles: p. 195.

28. COLOR.

Perception, recollection, and application, of COLORS, and DELIGHT in them.
Adapted to that infinite variety of coloring interspersed throughout
nature. Perverted, is over-particular to have colors just right.

LARGE.--Can discern and match colors by the eye with accuracy; with
Comparison large, can compare them closely, and detect similarities and
differences; with Constructiveness, Form, Size, and Imitation large or
very large, can excel in painting; but with Form and Size only average,
can paint better than draw; with Ideality large, is exceedingly delighted
with fine paintings, and disgusted with imperfect coloring; with large
Form and Size, manages the perspective of painting admirably: p. 195.

VERY LARGE.--Has a natural taste for painting; and with a large brain and
very large Constructiveness, Imitation, Form, and Size, and large Weight,
has a genius and passion for painting, and takes the utmost delight in
viewing harmonious colors: p. 196.

FULL.--Possesses a good share of coloring ability and talent provided it
has been cultivated; takes much pleasure in beautiful flowers, variegated
landscapes, beautifully colored fruits, etc.: p. 196.

AVERAGE.--Possesses a fair share of this talent, yet is not extraordinary:
p. 195.

MODERATE.--With practice, may judge of colors with considerable accuracy,
yet without it will be somewhat deficient in this respect; with large
Form, Size, Constructiveness, Ideality, and Imitation, may take an
excellent likeness, yet will fail somewhat in the coloring: p. 197.

SMALL.--Can tell the primitive colors from each other, yet rarely notices
the color of dress, eyes, hair, etc.; cannot describe persons and things
by them, and evinces a marked deficiency in coloring taste and talent: p.

VERY SMALL.--Can hardly tell one color from another, or form any idea of
colors: p. 197.

29. ORDER.

METHOD, SYSTEM, ARRANGEMENT. Adapted to Heaven's first law. Perverted, it
overworks, and annoys others to keep things in order, and is tormented by

LARGE.--Has a desire to conduct business on methodical principles, and to
be systematic in every thing; with large Acquisitiveness and Causality,
has good business talents; with large Locality, has a place for every
thing, and every thing in its place; with large Time, has a time for every
thing, and every thing in season; with large Continuity, Comparison, and
the mental temperament, has every idea, paragraph, and head of a subject
in its proper place; with large Constructiveness, has its tools where it
can always lay hands upon them in the dark; with large Combativeness, is
excessively vexed by disarrangement; with large Language, places every
word exactly right in the sentence; with large Approbativeness, is
inclined to conform to established usages; with large Size, must have
every thing in rows, or straight; and with large Ideality must have every
thing neat and nice as well as methodical, etc.: p. 199.

VERY LARGE.--Is very particular about order, even to old maidishness;
works far beyond strength to have things just so; and with large Ideality,
and an active temperament, and only fair Vitality, is liable to break down
health and constitution by overworking in order to have things extra nice,
and takes more pains to keep things in order than this order is worth;
with large Ideality, is fastidious about personal appearance, and extra
particular to have every little thing very nice; and with Acquisitiveness
added, cannot bear to have garments soiled, and is pained in the extreme
by grease spots, ink blots, and like deformities: p. 199.

FULL.--If educated to business habits, evinces a good degree of method,
and disposition to systematize, but without practice, may sometimes show
laxity; with a powerful mentality, but weaker muscles, likes to have
things in order, yet does not always keep them so; with large Causality
added, shows more mental than physical order; with large moral organs,
likes to have religious matters, codes of discipline, etc., rigidly
observed, and has more moral than personal method; with Acquisitiveness
and perceptives large, is sufficiently methodical for all practical
business purposes, yet not extra particular: p. 200.

AVERAGE.--Likes order, yet may not always keep it, and desires more than
it practically secures: p. 198.

MODERATE.--Is very apt to leave things where they were last used, and
lacks method; with Ideality moderate, lacks personal neatness, and should
cultivate this desirable element by being more particular: p. 201.

SMALL.--Has a very careless, inaccurate way of doing every thing; leaves
things where it happens; can never find what is wanted; takes a long time
to get ready, or else goes unprepared, and has every thing in perpetual
confusion: p. 201.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost wholly destitute of this arranging power and
desire: p. 201.


[Illustration: No. 91. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 92. SMALL.]

Cognizance of NUMBERS; ability to reckon figures IN THE HEAD; MENTAL
arithmetic. Adapted to the relations of numbers.

LARGE.--Excels in mental arithmetic, in adding, subtracting, multiplying,
dividing, reckoning figures, casting accounts, etc., in the head; with
large perceptives, has excellent business talents; and large Locality and
Causality added, excels as a mathematician: p. 202.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this calculating capability in a most extraordinary
degree; can add several columns at once very rapidly and correctly, and
multiply and divide with the same intuitive powers; loves mental
arithmetic exceedingly well: p. 203.

FULL.--Possesses good calculating powers; with practice can calculate in
the head or by arithmetical rules easily and accurately, yet without
practice is not remarkable; with large Form, Size, Comparison, Causality,
and Constructiveness, can be a good geometrician or mathematician, yet
will do better in the higher branches than merely arithmetical: p. 204.

AVERAGE.--Can learn arithmetic and do quite well by practice, yet is not
naturally gifted in this respect: p. 202.

MODERATE.--Adds, subtracts, divides, and calculates with extreme
difficulty; with large Acquisitiveness and perceptives, will make a better
salesman than book-keeper: p. 204.

SMALL.--Is dull and incorrect in adding, subtracting, dividing, etc.;
dislikes figuring; is poor in arithmetic, both practical and theoretical,
and should cultivate this faculty: p. 205.

VERY SMALL.--Can hardly count, much less calculate: p. 205.


Cognizance of PLACE; recollection of the LOOKS of places, roads, scenery,
and the LOCATION of objects; WHERE on a page ideas are to be found, and
position generally; the GEOGRAPHICAL faculty; desire to SEE places, and
the ability to FIND them. Adapted to the arrangement of space and place.
Perverted, it creates a cosmopolitic disposition, and would spend every
thing in traveling.

LARGE.--Remembers the whereabout of whatever it sees; can carry the points
of the compass easily in the head, and is lost with difficulty either in
the city, woods, or country; desires to see places, and never forgets
them; studies geography and astronomy with ease; and rarely forgets where
things are seen; with Constructiveness, remembers the arrangement of the
various parts of a machine; with Individuality, Eventuality, and Human
Nature, loves to see men and things as well as places, and hence has a
passion for traveling: p. 205.

VERY LARGE.--Always keeps a correct idea of the relative and absolute
position, either in the deep forests or the winding street; cannot be
lost; is perfectly enamored of traveling; has literally a passion for it:
p. 206.

FULL.--Remembers places well, yet not extraordinarily so; can generally
find the way, yet may sometimes be lost or confused; with large
Eventuality, remembers facts better than places: p. 207.

AVERAGE.--Recollects places and positions seen several times, yet in city
or on roads is occasionally lost; has no great geographical talent, yet by
study and practice can do tolerably well: p. 205.

MODERATE.--Recollects places rather poorly; dare not trust itself in
strange places or large cities; is not naturally good in geography, and to
excel in it must study hard; should energetically cultivate this faculty
by localizing every thing, and remembering just how things are placed: p.

SMALL.--Is decidedly deficient in finding places, and recollects them with
difficulty even when perfectly familiar with them: p. 208.

VERY SMALL.--Must stay at home unless accompanied by others, because it
cannot find the way back: p. 208.


These collect information, anecdotes, and remember matters of fact and
knowledge in general, and give what is called a good memory. Adapted to
facts, dates, and the communication of ideas and feelings.

LARGE.--Render their possessor smart, knowing, and off-hand; enable him to
show off to good advantage in society; with large Ideality, give
brilliancy to talent.

VERY LARGE.--Is extraordinarily well informed, if not learned and
brilliant; according to his means is a first-rate scholar; has a literal
passion for literary pursuits, and a strong cast of mind.

FULL.--Give a fair, matter-of-fact cast of mind and knowing powers, fair
scholarship, and a good general memory.

AVERAGE.--If cultivated, give a good general memory and store considerable
knowledge; yet without cultivation only a commonplace memory, and no great
general knowledge.

MODERATE.--Know much more than they can think of at the time, or can tell;
with large reflective faculties, has more judgment than memory, and
strength of mind than ability to show off.

SMALL OR VERY SMALL.--Has a poor memory of most things, and inferior
literary capabilities.


Memory of FACTS; recollection of CIRCUMSTANCES, NEWS, OCCURRENCES, and
historical, scientific, and passing EVENTS; what has been SAID, SEEN,
HEARD, and once KNOWN. Adapted to ACTION, or those changes constantly
occurring around or within us.

LARGE.--Has a clear and retentive memory of historical facts, general
knowledge, what has been seen, heard, read, done, etc., even in detail;
considering advantages, is well informed and knowing; desires to witness
and institute experiments; find out what is and has been, and learn
anecdotes, particulars, and items of information, and readily recalls to
mind what has once entered it; has a good general matter-of-fact memory,
and picks up facts readily; with Calculation and Acquisitiveness,
remembers business matters, bargains, etc.; with large social feelings,
recalls friends to mind, and what they have said and done; and with large
Locality, associates facts with the place where they transpired, and is
particularly fond of reading, lectures, general news, etc., and can become
a good scholar: p. 210.

[Illustration: No. 93. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 94. SMALL.]

VERY LARGE.--Possesses a wonderfully retentive memory of every thing like
facts and incidents; with large Language and Imitation, tells a story
admirably, and excels in fiction, etc.; has a craving thirst for
knowledge, and literally devours books and newspapers, nor allows any
thing once in the mind to escape it: p. 211.

FULL.--Has a good general memory of matters and things, yet it is
considerably effected by cultivation, that is, has a good memory if it is
habitually exercised--if not, only an indifferent one; with large
Locality, recollects facts by associating them with the place, or by
recollecting where on a page they are narrated; with large reflectives,
remembers principles better than facts, and facts by associating them with
their principles; and with large Language, tells a story quite well: p.

AVERAGE.--Recollects leading events and interesting particulars, yet is
rather deficient in memory of items and details, except when it is well
cultivated: p. 209.

MODERATE.--Is rather forgetful, especially in details; and with moderate
Individuality and Language, tells a story very poorly; and should
cultivate memory by its exercise: p. 212.

SMALL.--Has a treacherous and confused memory of circumstances; often
forgets what is wanted, what was intended to be said, done, etc.; has a
poor command of knowledge, and should strenuously exercise this
remembering power: p. 213.

VERY SMALL.--Forgets almost every thing, both generals and particulars: p.

33. TIME.

Cognizance and recollection of DURATION and SUCCESSION; the LAPSE of time,
WHEN things occurred, etc., and ability to carry the time of the day in
the HEAD PUNCTUALLY. Adapted to periodicity. Perverted, it is excessively
pained by bad time in music, not keeping steps in walking, etc.

LARGE.--Can generally tell when things occurred, at least the order of
events and the length of time between one occurrence and another, etc.;
tells the time of day without timepiece or sun, well; and keeps an
accurate chronology in the mind, of dates, general and particular; with
large Eventuality, rarely forgets appointments, meetings, etc.; and is a
good historian: p. 215.

VERY LARGE.--Can tell the time of day almost as correctly as with a
timepiece, and the time that transpired between one event and another, and
is a natural chronologist: p. 216.

FULL.--With cultivation, can keep time in music, and also the time of day
in the head quite correctly; yet not exceedingly so: p. 216.

AVERAGE.--With practice, has a good memory of dates and successions, yet
without it is rather deficient: p. 214.

MODERATE.--Has a somewhat imperfect idea of time and dates; with moderate
Individuality, Eventuality, and Language, is a poor historian: p. 216.

SMALL.--Has a confused and indistinct idea of the time when things
transpired, and forgets dates: p. 217.

VERY SMALL.--Is almost wholly destitute of this faculty: p. 217.

34. TUNE.

Ability to learn and remember tunes BY ROTE; the MUSIC instinct and
faculty. Adapted to the musical octave. Perversion--excessive fondness for
music to the neglect of other things.

LARGE.--Loves music dearly; has a nice conception of concord, discord,
melody, etc., and enjoys all kinds of music; and with large Imitation,
Constructiveness, and Time, can make most kinds, and play well on musical
instruments; with large Ideality, imparts a richness and exquisiteness to
musical performances; has a fine taste and is tormented by discord, but
delighted by concord, and takes a great amount of pleasure in the exercise
of this faculty; with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, loves
martial music; with large Veneration, sacred music; with large
Adhesiveness and Amativeness, social and parlor music; with large Hope,
Veneration, and disordered nerves, plaintive, solemn music, etc.: p. 218.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses extraordinary musical taste and talent, and is
literally transported by good music; and with large Imitation and
Constructiveness, fair Time, and a fine temperament, is an exquisite
performer; learns tunes by hearing them sung once; sings in spirit and
with melting pathos; shows intuitive taste and skill; sings _from_ the
soul _to_ the soul: p. 219.

FULL.--Has a good musical ear and talent; can learn tunes by rote quite
well; and with large Ideality, Imitation, and Firmness, can be a good
musician, yet will require practice: p. 220.

AVERAGE.--Has fair musical talents, yet, to be a good musician, requires
considerable practice; can learn tunes by rote, yet with some difficulty;
with large Ideality and Imitation, may be a good singer or player, yet is
indebted more to art than nature, shows more taste than skill, and loves
music better than can make it: p. 217.

MODERATE.--Has no great natural taste or talent for music, yet, aided by
notes and practice, may sing and play quite well, but will be rather
mechanical; lacks that pathos and feeling which reaches the soul: p. 220.

SMALL.--Learns to sing or play tunes with great difficulty, and that
mechanically, without emotion or effect: p. 221.

VERY SMALL.--Has scarcely any musical idea or feeling, so little as hardly
to tell Yankee Doodle from Old Hundred: p. 221.


[Illustration: No. 95. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 96. SMALL.]

Expression of ideas and feelings by words, written or spoken, gesture,
looks, and action; the COMMUNICATIVE faculty and instinct in general.
Adapted to man's requisition for holding communication with man.
Perverted, it creates garrulity, excessive talkativeness, telling what
does harm, etc.

LARGE.--Expresses ideas and feelings well, both verbally and in writing;
can learn to speak languages easily; recollects words and commits to
memory well; gives freedom, copiousness, and power of expression; with
large Amativeness, uses tender, winning, persuasive words; with large
Combativeness and Destructiveness, severe and cutting expressions; with
large moral faculties, words expressive of moral sentiments; with large
Acquisitiveness, describes in glowing colors what is for sale; with large
Ideality, employs richness and beauty of expression, and loves poetry and
oratory exceedingly; with large Imitation, expresses thoughts and emotions
by gesticulation; with activity great and Secretiveness small, shows in
the looks, thoughts, and feelings what is passing in the mind; with large
reflective faculties, shows thought and depth in the countenance; with
large Comparison, uses just the words which convey the meaning intended;
with large mentality, activity, Ideality, Individuality, Eventuality, and
Comparison, can make an excellent editor or newspaper writer; and with
large Causality added, a philosophical writer: p. 224.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses the communicative disposition and faculty in an
extraordinary degree; with activity and intellectuality great, throws an
extraordinary amount of feeling and soul into every expression and action;
is a natural linguist, and as fond of talking and writing as of eating;
with activity great, average Causality, large Combativeness, and a nervous
temperament, will be a scold: p. 226.

FULL.--Says well what it has to say, yet is not garrulous; with small
Secretiveness, says without qualification, and also distinctly and
pointedly; expresses the manifestations of the larger faculties with much
force, yet not of the smaller ones; with large Secretiveness and
Cautiousness, does not always speak to the purpose, and make itself fully
understood, but uses rather non-committal expressions; with large
Comparison, Human Nature, Causality, Ideality, activity, mentality, and
power, has first-rate writing talents, and can speak well, yet large
Secretiveness impairs speaking and writing talents by rendering them wordy
and non-committal: p. 227.

AVERAGE.--Has fair communicating talents, yet not extra; with activity
great and Secretiveness small, speaks right out and to the purpose, yet is
not eloquent, and uses commonplace words and expressions; with large
Individuality, Eventuality, and Comparison, and moderate Secretiveness,
can make an excellent writer by practice; uses none too many words, but
expresses itself clearly and to the point; with large Causality, has more
thought than language; with moderate Individuality and Eventuality, finds
it difficult to say just what it would, and is not fully and easily
understood; with large Ideality, has more beauty and elegance than
freedom: p. 222.

MODERATE.--Is not particularly expressive in words, actions, and
countenance, nor ready in communicating ideas and sentiments; with large
Ideality, Eventuality, Comparison, activity, and power, can succeed well
as a writer, yet not as a speaker; with large Causality and moderate
Eventuality, has abundance of thoughts, but finds it quite difficult to
cast them into sentences, or bring in the right adjectives and phrases; is
good in matter, yet poor in delivery; commits to memory with difficulty,
and fails to make ideas and feelings fully understood, and to excite like
organs in others; with large Eventuality, Locality, Form, and Comparison,
may be a fair linguist, and learn to read foreign languages, yet learns to
speak them with difficulty, and is barren in expression, however rich in
matter: p. 228.

SMALL.--Has poor lingual and communicative talents; hesitates for words;
speaks with extreme difficulty and very awkwardly, and should cultivate
this faculty by talking and writing much: p. 228.

VERY SMALL.--Can hardly remember or use words at all, or even remember
their meaning: p. 229.


of mind; ascertain CAUSES and abstract RELATIONS; CONTRIVE, INVENT,
ORIGINATE ideas, etc. Adapted to the first principles or laws of things.

LARGE.--Confer the higher capabilities of intellect; reason clearly and
strongly on whatever data is furnished by the other faculties; give
soundness of understanding, depth of intellect, and that weight which
carries conviction, and contribute largely to success in every thing; with
perceptives small, possess more power of mind than can be manifested, and
fails to be appreciated and understood, because more theoretical than

VERY LARGE.--Possess extraordinary depth of reason and strength of
understanding; and with large perceptives, extraordinary talents, and
manifests them to good advantage; with perceptives small, gives great
strength of understanding, yet a poor mode of manifesting it; are not
appreciated, and lack balance of mind, and are more plausible than
reliable, and too dark to be clear.

FULL.--Possess fair reflective powers, and reason well from the data
furnished by the other faculties; and with activity great, have a fair
flow of ideas and good general thoughts.

AVERAGE.--Reason fairly on subjects fully understood, yet are not
remarkable for depth or clearness of idea; with cultivation, will manifest
considerable reasoning power, without it only ordinary.

MODERATE.--Are rather deficient in power and soundness of mind; but with
large perceptives, evince less deficiency of reason than is possessed.

SMALL.--Have inferior reasoning capabilities.

VERY SMALL.--Are almost wholly deficient in thought, idea, and
comprehensiveness of mind.


Perception and application of CAUSES; adaptation of ways and means to
ends. Adapted to the institution in nature of causes and effects.
Perverted by selfishness, it reasons in favor of untruth, and attains
injurious ends.

[Illustration: No. 97. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 98. SMALL.]

LARGE.--Desires to know the WHY and WHEREFORE of things, and to
investigate their LAWS; reasons clearly and correctly from causes to
effects, and from facts to their causes; gives uncommon capabilities of
planning, contriving, inventing, creating resources, and making the head
save the hands; kills two birds with one stone; predicts results, and
arranges things so as to succeed; synthetizes, and puts things together
well; with large Combativeness, loves to argue; with large perceptives,
will be quick to perceive facts and conditions, and reason powerfully and
correctly from them; with Comparison and Conscientiousness large, reasons
forcibly on moral truths; with the selfish faculties strong, will so adapt
ways and means as to serve personal purposes; with moderate perceptives,
will excel more in principles and philosophy than facts, and remember laws
better than details; with Comparison and Human Nature large, is
particularly fond of mental philosophy, and excels therein; with
Individuality and Eventuality only moderate, will be guided more by reason
than experience, by laws than facts, and arrive at conclusions more from
reflection than observation; with large perceptives, possesses a high
order of practical sense and sound judgment; with large Comparison and
moderate Eventuality, remembers thoughts, inferences, and subject matter,
but forgets items; with the mental temperament and Language moderate, will
make a much greater impression upon mankind, by action than expressions,
by deeds than words, etc.: p. 233.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this cause-seeking and applying power in an
extraordinary degree; perceives by intuition those deeper relations of
things which escape common minds; is a profound philosopher and a deep
and powerful reasoner, and has great originality of mind and strength of
understanding: p. 236.

FULL.--Has good cause-seeking and applying talents; reasons and adapts
ways and means to ends well; with large perceptives, Comparison, activity,
and thought, possesses excellent reasoning powers, and shows them to
first-rate advantage; with moderate perceptives and large Secretiveness,
can plan better than reason; with large Acquisitiveness and moderate
Constructiveness, lays excellent money-making, but poor mechanical plans,
etc.: p. 236.

AVERAGE.--Plans and reasons well in conjunction with the larger faculties,
but poorly with the smaller ones; with moderate Acquisitiveness, lays poor
money-making plans; but with large Conscientiousness, reasons well on
moral subjects, especially if Comparison be large, etc.: p. 231.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in discerning and applying causes;
perceives them when presented by other minds, yet does not originate them;
with activity and perceptives large, may do well in the ordinary routine
of business, yet fails in difficult matters: p. 237.

SMALL.--Is deficient in reasoning and planning power; needs perpetual
telling and showing; seldom arranges things beforehand, and then poorly;
should work under others; lacks force of idea and strength of
understanding: p. 238.

VERY SMALL.--Is idiotic in reasoning and planning: p. 238.


INDUCTIVE reasoning; ability and disposition to CLASSIFY, COMPARE, DRAW
INFERENCES from analogy, etc. Adapted to those classifications which
pervade universal nature. Perverted, is too redundant in proverbs, fables,
and figures of speech.

LARGE.--Reasons clearly and correctly from conclusions and scientific
facts up to the laws which govern them; discerns the known from the
unknown; detects error by its incongruity with facts; has an excellent
talent for comparing, explaining, expounding, criticising, exposing, etc.;
employs similes and metaphors well; puts this and that together, and draws
inferences from them; with large Continuity uses well-sustained figures of
speech, but with small Continuity, drops the figure before it is
finished; with large Individuality, Eventuality, activity, and power,
gives scientific cast of mind; with large Veneration, reasons about God
and his works; with large Language uses words in their exact
signification; with large Mirthfulness, hits the nail upon the head in all
its criticisms, and hits off the oddities of people to admiration; with
large Ideality gives beauty, taste, propriety of expression, etc.: p. 241.

[Illustration: No. 99. LARGE.]

[Illustration: No. 100. SMALL.]

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this analyzing, criticising, and inductive faculty
in a truly wonderful degree; illustrates with great clearness and facility
from the known to the unknown; discovers the deeper analogies which
pervade nature, and has an extraordinary power of discerning new truths;
with large Individuality, Eventuality, and activity, has a great faculty
of making discoveries; with large Language, uses words in their exact
meaning, and is a natural philologist; with full Language, explains things
plausibly and correctly: p. 243.

FULL.--Possesses a full share of clearness and demonstrative power, yet
with large Causality and only moderate Language, cannot explain to
advantage; with large Eventuality, reasons wholly from facts; with
moderate Language, fails in giving the precise meaning to words; and makes
good analytical discriminations: p. 243.

AVERAGE.--Shows this talent in a good degree in conjunction with the
larger faculties; but is rather wanting in reference to the smaller ones:
p. 239.

MODERATE.--Rather fails in explaining, clearing up points, putting things
together, drawing inferences, and even uses words incorrectly; with
Individuality and Eventuality moderate, shows much mental weakness; with
large Causality, has good ideas, but makes wretched work in expressing
them, and cannot be understood; with Mirthfulness full or large, tries to
make jokes, but they are always ill-timed and inappropriate: p. 244.

SMALL.--Has a poor talent for drawing inferences; lacks appropriateness in
every thing, and should cultivate this faculty: p. 244.

VERY SMALL.--Has little, and shows almost none of this element: p. 244.


Discernment of CHARACTER; perception of MOTIVES; INTUITIVE physiognomy.
Adapted to man's need of knowing his fellow-men. Perverted, it produces

LARGE.--Reads men intuitively from their looks, conversation, manners, and
walk, and other kindred signs of character; with Individuality and
Comparison large, notices all the little things they do, and founds a
correct estimate upon them, and should follow first impressions touching
persons; with full Secretiveness and large Benevolence added, knows just
how to take men, and possesses much power over mind; with Mirthfulness and
Ideality large, sees all the faults of people, and makes much fun over
them; with Comparison large, has a turn for metaphysics, etc.

VERY LARGE.--Possesses this faculty in an extraordinary degree; reads
every body right through at first sight. For combinations see large.

FULL.--Reads character quite well from the face or external signs, yet is
sometimes mistaken; may generally follow first impressions safely; loves
to study character; with Ideality and Adhesiveness large, the excellences
of friends; with Philoprogenitiveness large, of children; with
Combativeness large, all the faults of people; and with only average
Adhesiveness, forms few friendships, because it detects so many blemishes
in character, etc.

AVERAGE.--Has fair talents for reading character, yet is not extra in this
respect, and may safely cultivate it.

MODERATE.--Fails somewhat in discerning character; occasionally forms
wrong conclusions concerning people; should be more suspicious, watch
people closely, especially those minor signs of character dropped when off
their guard; has ill-timed remarks and modes of addressing people, and
often says and does things which have a different effect from that

SMALL.--Is easily imposed upon by others; with large Conscientiousness and
small Secretiveness, thinks every body tells the truth; is too confiding,
and fails sadly in knowing where and how to take things.

VERY SMALL.--Knows almost nothing about human nature.


PERSUASIVENESS, PLEASANTNESS, BLANDNESS. Adapted to please and win others.

LARGE.--Has a pleasing, persuasive, conciliatory mode of addressing
people, and of saying things; with Adhesiveness and Benevolence large, is
generally liked; with Comparison and Human Nature large, says unacceptable
things in an acceptable manner, and sugars over expressions and actions.

VERY LARGE.--Is peculiarly winning and fascinating in manners and
conversation, and wins over even opponents.

FULL.--Is pleasing and persuasive in manner, and with Ideality large,
polite and agreeable, except when the repelling faculties are strongly
excited; with small Secretiveness and strong Combativeness and activity,
is generally pleasant, but when angry is sharp and blunt; with large
Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and Mirthfulness, is excellent company.

AVERAGE.--Has a good share of pleasantness in conversation and appearance,
except when the selfish faculties are excited, but is then repulsive.

MODERATE.--Is rather deficient in the pleasant and persuasive, and should
by all means cultivate this faculty by sugaring over all it says and does.

SMALL.--Says even pleasant things very unpleasantly, and fails sadly in
winning the good graces of people.

VERY SMALL.--It almost totally deficient in this faculty.


PRE-EMINENTLY is Phrenology a science of FACTS. Observation discovered
it--observation must perfect it; observation is the grand instrumentality
of its propagation. To be convinced of its truth, nine hundred and
ninety-nine men out of every thousand require to SEE it--to be convinced
by INDUCTION, founded upon experiment. Hence the importance of giving
definite RULES for finding the organs, by which even disbelievers may test
the science, and believers be confirmed in its truth, and advanced in its

The best mode of investigating its truth, is somewhat as follows: You know
a neighbor who has extreme Firmness in character; who is as inflexible as
the oak, and as obstinate as the mule. Now, learn the location of the
phrenological organ of Firmness, and apply that location to his head--that
is, see whether he has this organ as conspicuous as you know him to have
this faculty in character; and if you find a coincidence between the two,
you have arrived at a strong phrenological fact.

You know another neighbor who is exceedingly cautious, timid, safe wise,
and hesitating; who always looks at the objections and difficulties in the
way of a particular measure, instead of at its advantages; who always
takes abundant time to consider, and is given to procrastination. Learn
the location of Cautiousness, and see whether he has this phrenological
organ as conspicuous as you know this faculty to exist in his character.
By pursuing such a course as this, you can soon arrive at a sure knowledge
of the truth or falsity of phrenological science; and this is altogether
the best mode of convincing unbelievers of its truth, by means of the
marked coincidence between the Phrenology and character of those they
know; and it is not possible for the human mind to resist proof like this.

To promote this practical knowledge--the application of this science--we
give the following RULES FOR FINDING the organs, fully assured that we can
fill our pages with nothing more interesting or useful. Follow these rules
exactly, and you will have little difficulty in finding at least all the
prominent organs.

Your first observation should be made upon TEMPERAMENT, or organization
and physiology, with this principle for your basis: that when bodily
texture or form is coarse, or strong, or fine, or soft, or weak, or
sprightly, the texture of the brain will correspond with that of body, and
the mental characteristics with that of brain. Still, it is not now our
purpose to discuss the influence of various temperaments upon the
direction of the faculties.

The second observation should be to ascertain what faculties CONTROL the
character, or what is the dominant motive, desire, object, or passion of
the person examined; in phrenological language, what faculties predominate
in action; and it should here be observed, that the relative size of
organs does not always determine this point. Some faculties, though very
dominant in power, cannot, in their very nature, constitute a motive for
action, but are simply executive functions, simply carrying into effect
the dominant motives. For example, Combativeness rarely ever becomes a
distinct motive for action. Few men love simply to wrangle, quarrel, and
fight for fun, but they exercise Combativeness merely as a means of
obtaining the things desired by the other dominant faculties. Few men have
for their motive the mere exercise of will--that is, Firmness is generally
exercised to carry into effect the design of the other faculties; and
instead of subjecting the other faculties to itself, simply keeps them at
their work, whatever that work may be. And thus of some other faculties.
But Amativeness, Friendship, Appetite, Acquisitiveness, Benevolence,
Veneration, Conscientiousness, or Intellect, Constructiveness, Ideality,
or the observing faculties, may all become dominant motives. And it
requires much phrenological shrewdness to ascertain what single faculty,
cluster, or combination of faculties, leads off the character.

Let us take, then, for our starting point, the outer angle of the eye, and
draw a line to the middle of the top of the ears, and DESTRUCTIVENESS is
exactly under this point, and it extends upward about half an inch above
the top of the ears, and in proportion to its size will the head be wide
between the ears. And if Secretiveness be small and Destructiveness large,
there will be a horizontal ridge extending forward and backward, more or
less prominent, according to the size of this organ.

Three quarters of an inch above the middle of the top of the ears,
SECRETIVENESS is located. When this organ is large, it rarely gives a
distinct projection, but simply fills and rounds out the head at this
point. When the head widens rapidly from the junction of the ears as you
rise upward, Secretiveness is larger than Destructiveness; but when the
head becomes narrower as you rise, it is smaller than Destructiveness.

To find these two organs, and their relative size, place the third fingers
of each hand upon the head just at the top of the ears; let the lower side
of the third finger be even with the upper part of the ear; that finger
then rests upon Destructiveness. Then spread the second finger about one
eighth of an inch from the other, and it will rest upon Secretiveness.
Let the end of your longest finger come as far forward as the fore part of
the ears, and they will then rest upon these two organs.

Take, next, this same line, starting from the outer angle of the eye, to
the top of the ears, and extend it straight backward an inch and a half to
an inch and three quarters, and you are on Combativeness. This organ
starts about midway to the back part of the ears, and runs upward and
backward toward the crown of the head. To ascertain its relative size,
steady the head with one hand, say the left, and place the balls of your
right fingers upon the point just specified letting your elbow be somewhat
below the subject's head, which will bring your fingers directly ACROSS
the organ. Its size may be ascertained partly from the general fullness of
the head, and partly from its sharpness, according as the organ is more or
less active; yet observers sometimes mistake this organ for the mastoid
process directly behind the lower part of the ears. Remember our rule,
namely: a line drawn from the outer angle of the eye to the top of the
ear, and continued an inch and a half or three quarters straight back.
Follow that rule, and you cannot mistake the position of this organ; and
will soon, by comparing different heads, be able to arrive at those
appearances when large or small.

To find PHILOPROGENITIVENESS, extend this line straight back to the middle
of the back head, and you are on the organ; and in proportion as the head
projects backward behind the ears at this point, will Philoprogenitiveness
be larger or smaller.

About an inch, or a little less, directly BELOW this point, is the organ
which controls MUSCULAR MOTION; and in proportion as this is more or less
prominent, will the muscular system be more or less active. Those who have
this prominence large, will be restless, always moving a hand or foot when
sitting, and even when sleeping; will be light-footed, easy-motioned, fond
of action, and willing to work, and possessed of a first-rate
constitution. But when that prominence is weak, they will be found less
fond of physical action and labor.

To return to Philoprogenitiveness. Three fourths of an inch ABOVE this
point, INHABITIVENESS is located. When this organ is large, and Continuity
is moderate, there will be found a prominence somewhat resembling an angle
of a triangle, with the angle at the middle of the head, together with a
sharp prominence at this point. But when Inhabitiveness is small, there
will be a depression just about large enough to receive the end of a
finger, with the bow downward. An inch on each side of this point is
ADHESIVENESS. Or thus: taking the backward termination of that line
already drawn, erect upon it a right-angle triangle; let the right angle
be on Philoprogenitiveness, and the two sides which inclose this angle be
about an inch and a half or three quarters each, and the other two angles
will be on the two lobes of Adhesiveness--the hypothenuse, or long side,
being about two inches, or two and a half inches, in length. When
Adhesiveness is large--especially if Inhabitiveness and Continuity be
small--there will be found two swells, somewhat resembling the larger end
of an egg; but if small, the head will retire at this point.

Directly above Inhabitiveness and Adhesiveness, CONTINUITY is located.
When small, a depression resembling a new moon, with the horns turning
DOWNWARD, surrounding the organs of Inhabitiveness and Adhesiveness, will
be found. When Continuity is large, however, there will be no depression,
nor any swell, but simply a FILLING OUT of the head at this point.

AMATIVENESS may be found thus: Take the middle of the back part of the
ears as your starting point; draw a line backward an inch and a half, and
you are upon this organ. Yet the outer portion next to the ear probably
exercises the more gross and animal function of this faculty, while the
inner portion takes on a more spiritual tone.

To find CAUTIOUSNESS, take the back or posterior part of the ears as your
starting point; draw a perpendicular line, when the head is erect, from
the extreme back part of the ear, straight up the side of the head, and
just where the head begins to round off to form the top, Cautiousness is
located. This organ is generally well developed in the American head, and
those swells, generally seen at this point, are caused by a full
development of this faculty.

To find ALIMENTIVENESS, take the upper and forward junction of the ear
with the head as your starting point; draw a line half an inch forward,
inclining a little downward, and you are upon this organ. Then rise three
quarters of an inch straight upward, and you are on that part of
ACQUISITIVENESS which gets property. Yet a better rule for finding it is
this: Find Secretiveness in accordance with the rule already given, and
Acquisitiveness is three quarters of an inch FORWARD of the point, and
about an inch above the middle of the tip of the ear. Or thus: Take the
middle of the top of the ear as your starting point; draw a perpendicular
line three quarters of an inch upward, and you are on Secretiveness; and
then about an inch forward, and you are on Acquisitiveness. The back part
of Acquisitiveness seeks partnership and ACQUIRES, while the fore part
HOARDS money. When the head widens rapidly as you pass from the outer
angles of the eyes to the top of the ears, Acquisitiveness is large; but
when the head is thin in this region, Acquisitiveness is small.

SUBLIMITY, IDEALITY, and CONSTRUCTIVENESS, can be found by the following
rule: First find Cautiousness by applying the rule already laid down for
that purpose, then pass directly forward an inch, and you are on
Sublimity; extend this line on another inch, and you are on Ideality; then
an inch downward brings you upon Constructiveness.

It should be remembered that Cautiousness, Sublimity, and Ideality are
just upon the turning of the head, or between the top and the sides of the
head. Usually the head is much wider at Cautiousness than at Sublimity,
and at Sublimity than Ideality. When, however, the head is as wide at
Ideality as at Cautiousness, the subject will be found possessed of
unusual good taste, purity, refinement, elevation, and personal
perfection. Half an inch forward of Ideality is the organ which appertains
to dress, and secures personal neatness. In those who care but little what
they wear, or how they appear, this organ will be found small.

FIRMNESS can best be found by the following rule: Let the subject sit or
stand erect, and hold the head in a line with the spinal column; then take
the opening of the ear as your starting point, draw a line straight upward
till you reach the middle line on the top of the head, and you are on the
fore part of Firmness. When this organ is large, and Veneration is small,
you will find its forward termination to resemble, in shape, the fore part
of a smoothing-iron, rapidly widening as it runs backward; the organ is
usually about an inch and a half long.

To find SELF-ESTEEM, take the junction of this perpendicular line with the
middle line of the head, and an inch and a half backward will be found the
upper part of Self-Esteem, which gives a lofty, aspiring air, magnanimity,
and a determination to do something worthy of itself; while half an inch
farther back will be found another part of Self-Esteem, which gives WILL,
love of liberty, and a determination not to be ruled.

On the two sides of Self-Esteem, about an inch outwardly, APPROBATIVENESS
is located. These two lobes run backward toward Adhesiveness, and upward
toward Conscientiousness.

The relative size of Approbativeness and Self-Esteem may be found thus:
Place one hand, say the left, upon the forehead, and steady the head;
point the finger from above directly down upon Firmness; then move it two
inches directly backward, and place the balls of the second and third
fingers upon the points just found. If Self-Esteem be small, these balls
will fall into the hole which indicates its deficiency, while the ends of
the fingers will strike upon the swells caused by Approbativeness, if this
organ be large; and the middle of the second joint of these fingers will
apprehend the size of that lobe of Approbativeness which is next to it. Or
thus: Stand behind the patient, and so place your fingers upon his head
that the second finger shall reach upward to the back part of Firmness,
then lay the first and second joints of that finger evenly with the head,
and place the first and third fingers upon the head alongside of it. If
Self-Esteem be larger than Approbativeness, the second finger will be
pushed up farther than the others; but if the two lobes of Approbativeness
be larger than Self-Esteem, the second finger will fall into a hollow
running up and down, while the first and third fingers will rest upon the
two lobes of Approbativeness. Or thus: In nineteen females out of every
twenty, Self-Esteem will be found small and Approbativeness large, and by
applying this rule to their heads, a hollow will generally be found at
Self-Esteem and a swell at Approbativeness, by which you can localize
these organs; and a few applications will soon enable you to form correct
ideas of their appearance when large or small.

HOPE and CONSCIENTIOUSNESS are found thus: That line already drawn to find
Firmness passes over the back part of Hope, which is on each side of the
fore part of Firmness, while Conscientiousness is just back of that line,
on the two sides of the back part of Firmness, joining Approbativeness

As these two organs run lengthwise from Firmness down toward Cautiousness,
and are near together, it is sometimes difficult to say which is large and
which small. The upper part of Conscientiousness, next to Firmness,
experiences feelings of obligation to God, or sense of duty to obey his
laws; while the lower part creates a feeling of obligation to our

Near the middle of the top of the head is VENERATION; or about an inch
forward of the point already described for finding Firmness; while
BENEVOLENCE is about an inch forward of Veneration. When, therefore, the
middle of the top head rounds out and rises above Firmness and
Benevolence, Veneration is larger than either of these organs; but when
there is a swell at Benevolence, and a depression as you pass backward in
the middle of the head, and another rise as you pass still farther back to
Firmness, Veneration is smaller than Benevolence or Firmness. The back of
Benevolence experiences a desire to do good and to remove evil, while the
fore part bestows minor gifts in the family and neighborhood. The fore
part of Veneration gives respect for our fellow-men, while the back part
supplicates and depends upon a Deity. The fore part of Firmness, working
with Conscientiousness, gives moral decision; while the latter, acting
with Self-Esteem, gives physical decision, determination to accomplish
material objects, and what we commonly call perseverance.

On each side of Veneration, SPIRITUALITY is located. It may be found by
the following rules: Standing behind the subject, who should be seated, so
place your fingers that the first fingers of each hand shall be about an
inch apart--that the ends of your second fingers shall be about three
quarters of an inch forward of a line drawn across the middle of the head
from side to side, and the balls of your fingers will be on Spirituality.
Or reversing your position, so as to stand in FRONT of the subject, so
place your hands that the first fingers of each hand shall be as before,
about an inch apart, and the ends of your longest fingers shall just touch
the fore part of Hope, and the balls of your second and third fingers will
rest on Spirituality. This organ is generally small, so that it may
usually be found by that depression which indicates its absence. When it
is large, the head is filled out in this region, instead of sloping
rapidly from Veneration. Its two lobes are about an inch on each side of
Veneration, and directly above Ideality.

IMITATION is upon the two sides of Benevolence, directly forward of
Spirituality. The best rule for finding it is this: Standing in front of
the subject, place your hands so that the first fingers of each hand shall
be separated about three quarters of an inch, and that the end of your
longest finger shall reach a line drawn through Veneration and
Spirituality--that is, through the middle of the head from side to
side--and the balls of your fingers will be on Imitation. It will be found
large, or very large, in almost all children; so that the ridge usually
found in their heads at this point, may be taken as the location of this
organ. It runs from Benevolence downward toward Constructiveness. The
upper part, toward Benevolence, mimics; the lower part, toward
Constructiveness, is the organ for making after a pattern, copying, etc.

We are now brought to the intellectual lobe. Take the root of the nose as
your starting point; the first organ we meet in passing upward is
INDIVIDUALITY. It is between the eyebrows, and when large, causes them to
arch DOWNWARD at their inner termination.

Three quarters of an inch upward, and slightly below the centre of the
forehead is EVENTUALITY, which in children is usually large, and in adults
generally small. From this centre of the forehead, COMPARISON extends
upward to where the head begins to slope backward to form the top of the
head; at which point, or between Benevolence and Comparison, HUMAN NATURE
is located, which is usually large in the American head, as is also
Comparison. AGREEABLENESS is located about an inch on each side of the
organ of Human Nature, and is usually small; so that we can ascertain its
location by observing its deficiency. When both of these organs are large,
the forehead will be wide and full as it rounds backward to form the top
head, or where the hair makes its appearance. CAUSALITY is located about
an inch on each side of Comparison; and MIRTHFULNESS about three quarters
of an inch still farther outwardly toward Ideality. FORM is located
internally from Individuality, just above and partly between the eyes, so
as to set them wider apart, in proportion as it is larger or smaller.

SIZE is located just in the turn between the nose and eyebrows, or beneath
the inner portion of the eyebrows; and when large, causes their inner
portions to project outward over the inner portion of the eyes like the
eaves of a house, giving to the eyes a sunken appearance. Size can
generally be observed by sight, yet if you would test your sight by touch,
proceed as follows: Place the end of your thumb against the bridge of your
nose, with the lower part of your hand turned outward, and your thumb
lying nearly parallel with the eyebrows, and the balls of your thumb will
be upon Size. And if this organ be large, you will observe a fullness in
this region, as if half a bean were beneath your thumb.

To find WEIGHT and COLOR, proceed as follows: Let the eyes be directed
straight forward, as if looking at some object; draw an imaginary line
from the middle of the eye to the eyebrow; internally from this line
beneath the eyebrows Weight is located, while Color is located beneath
the eyebrows just outwardly from this line. ORDER is located just
externally to Color; and TIME is located partly above and between Color
and Order. This organ is small in most heads.

CALCULATION is located beneath the outer termination of the eyebrows, and
in proportion as they are long and extend backward to the eye, will this
organ be more or less developed. Three fourths of an inch ABOVE the outer
angle of the eyebrow, TUNE is located. Spurzheim's rule for finding it is
this: Stand directly before the subject, and if the head widens over the
outer eyebrow as you rise upward, Tune is large; but if you observe a
hollow at this point, Tune is small. I have generally found this organ
small in adults, so that it is difficult to find its relative size, but in
children it is very easily found; its decline is consequent on its
non-exercise. Time and Tune join each other, while Time, Tune, and
Mirthfulness occupy the three angles of a triangle, nearly equilateral,
the shortest side being between Time and Tune.

LANGUAGE is located partly above and partly behind the eyes. When it is
large, it pushes the eyes downward and outward, and of course shoves them
forward, which gives them a full and swollen appearance, as if they were
standing partly out of their sockets, and causes both the upper and under
eyelids to be wide and broad. When the eyes are sunken, and their lids
narrow, Language will be found small.

By following these rules exactly and specifically, the precise location of
the organs can be ascertained, and a few observations upon heads will soon
teach you the appearance of the respective organs when they are large,
small, or midway in size. Some slight allowances are to be made, however,
in calculating the size of the head, or the relative size of the organs.
Thus, the larger Combativeness is, the longer the line from Combativeness
to the ear; yet large and small Combativeness do not vary this line over
from a quarter to half an inch; so that there will be but little
difficulty in finding the precise location of this organ.

Probably the most difficult point of discrimination is between Hope and
Conscientiousness, and it should be distinctly borne in mind, that Hope is
generally placed too far forward. Between Hope, Cautiousness, and
Approbativeness, there probably exists an organ, the natural functions of
which has not yet been fully established. There are doubtless other organs
yet undiscovered, especially in the middle line of the head, between
Benevolence and Philoprogenitiveness, and also between Imitation and
Causality. Phrenology is yet in its infancy. Though it is perfect in
itself, yet our KNOWLEDGE of it is not yet perfected. As every successive
generation make advances upon one another in Astronomy, Chemistry, and
other departments of science, so Gall and Spurzheim have discovered only
the landmarks of this science and have left much to be filled up by us and
those who come after us.

Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

Punctuation has been corrected without note.

The following misprints have been corrected:
  "exquisitensess" corrected to "exquisiteness" (page 25)
  "charcter" corrected to "character" (page 47)
  "47" corrected to "27" (page 50)
  "Secretivness" corrected to "Secretiveness" (page 53)
  "two" corrected to "too" (page 55)
  "faculties: etc.," corrected to "faculties, etc.,:" (page 56)
  "Destructivness" corrected to "Destructiveness" (page 56)
  "the the" corrected to "the" (page 78)
  missing "on" added (page 114)
  "respcet" corrected to "respect" (page 125)
  "the the" corrected to "the" (page 133)

Other than the corrections listed above, printer's inconsistencies in
spelling and hyphenation usage have been retained.

The scans of the original text were difficult to read in several places.
Thus, the following points are noted:

  The date on the title page reverse is illegible and has been noted as

  On page 34, in the phrase "are all on fire, ready to ignite," "on" is a
  best guess as the intended wording. Based on the original scans, "on"
  might also be interpreted as "of."

  On page 40, in the image caption "JACO THE ORANG-OUTANG," "Jaco" is a
  best guess as the intentional wording. Based on the original scans,
  "Jaco" might also be interpreted as "Jaso."

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allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.