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Title: Applied Design for Printers - A Handbook of the Principles of Arrangement, with Brief Comment on the Periods of Design Which Have Most Strongly Influenced Printing - Typographic Technical Series for Apprentices #43
Author: Gage, Harry Lawrence, 1887-1982
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES--PART VII. NO. 43


  APPLIED DESIGN
  FOR PRINTERS

  A HANDBOOK OF THE PRINCIPLES OF
  ARRANGEMENT, WITH BRIEF COMMENT
  ON THE PERIODS OF DESIGN WHICH
  HAVE MOST STRONGLY INFLUENCED
  PRINTING

  BY
  HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE

  PUBLISHED BY THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION
  UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
  1920



  Copyright, 1920
  United Typothetae of America
  Chicago, Ill.

  Composition and electrotypes contributed by
  STATE JOURNAL COMPANY
  Lincoln, Neb.



FOREWORD


This primer of design is an earnest effort to make intelligible to the
apprentice student certain fundamental principles of arrangement and of
ornamentation whose use is instinctive to the accomplished typographer.

It has been often written that there are no rules in Art, and equally
often that the master artist (or craftsman) is he who can skillfully
break all rules. It must be inevitable that the apprentice shall adhere
too closely to each newly observed principle before his work can be a
well-rounded embodiment of them all. To him is commended this exact
procedure, recognizing, as his perception grows, that there are good
reasons why traditions are emphasized here and all-embracing rules and
formulae are not to be found.

Due credit must be paid to Mr. Ernest Allen Batchelder, who first
devoted his pen and brush directly to the printer's problem in design,
and who in turn gives honor to the influence of Mr. Denman Ross. Neither
has expressed a method but has graphically analyzed the attitude of
mankind during successive epochs toward those matters which deal with
beauty.

It is to be hoped that this little book may serve as a simple guide and
as a stimulant toward an extended study of the larger attributes of
printing which are not concerned with utility alone. H. L. G.



CONTENTS

                                                        PAGE

INTRODUCTORY                                               7

THE SURFACE                                                8

THE MATERIALS OF DESIGN                                   10

THE QUALITIES OF DESIGN                                   12

PROPORTION                                                19

BALANCE                                                   24

SYMMETRY                                                  28

VARIETY                                                   31

MOTION                                                    31

ORNAMENT                                                  34

THE PERIODS OF DESIGN WHICH HAVE MOST AFFECTED PRINTING   43

SUPPLEMENTARY READING                                     64

REVIEW QUESTIONS                                          65

GLOSSARY                                                  68



APPLIED DESIGN FOR PRINTERS



_Introductory_


Raw material may be made into a finished product which will have the
quality of usefulness alone. Utility is the first purpose of most of the
works of man. But when the maker is moved by pride in his work and a
desire for beauty to make his handiwork pleasing in appearance as well
as useful a second purpose is fulfilled. All civilization and most forms
of savagery demand that the equipment of routine life shall be pleasing
to the eye after its prime purpose of usefulness has been developed.

If an article be pleasing in appearance its making will have involved
some of the elements of design. The relationship of its parts, the lines
of its construction, its coloring, the manner in which it is ornamented
will depend first upon its purpose, but will be guided by a group of
recognized traditions which we call the _principles of design_.

Design governs the arrangement of masses, lines, and dots to secure the
qualities of beauty and fitness.

Any piece of work which is definitely arranged with consideration for
its various parts and their relationship is called, in the abstract, a
"design." Thus we speak of a poster, a decorated wall, a building, or a
printed page as "a design."

Any successful design will have the qualities of fitness and beauty.
Fitness to purpose is largely a mechanical factor. An ugly building may
protect its occupants from the weather, and an ugly printed page may be
entirely legible. Beauty depends upon esthetic qualities; that is, upon
the characteristics of the design which will appeal to the eye and mind
through the consideration of--

     Harmony (of shape, tone, color, and conception).

     Balance and proportion (of mass, shape, and color).

     Rhythm (of shape, line, tone, and color).

This conception of the elements of design covers all of the many things
that mankind makes--buildings, or railroad trains, or sculpture, or
paintings, or pottery, or furniture, or the printed page alike. In each,
different though they be, the purpose of design is to relate the various
surfaces, masses, and structural lines and to decorate or ornament the
finished whole. Countless materials may be used and all the varied
purposes of the equipment of mankind must be satisfied, but the
application of the principles of design will be similar throughout. This
point is emphasized so that the student of printing may find a common
ground with the workers in all the fine and useful arts.


_The Surface_

In the printed page, design is concerned with the arrangement of masses
and lines on a flat surface--the face of the sheet of paper. Hence
design in printing considers two dimensions only, width and length. The
third dimension, depth, which must be treated in all but flat surfaces,
can only be _represented_ on the printed page and the means of showing
depth is really an illusion by which the eye sees various colors and
tones which convey a pictorial impression.

It is important to note that _design_ and _pictorial representation_
serve each a different purpose in printing. Yet they are similar
mechanically in that each requires a printing surface (type, borders,
ornaments, and engravings) which may be prepared by the same mechanical
procedures. The picture exists for its own interest or as an
illustration for the text. As such it is merely an element in the design
of the page. Decoration or ornament may be used to embellish the page,
as a pattern on its flat surface, and may be related to the text, but
need not serve as an illustration to it.


[Illustration: Fig. 1. A design of flat surfaces and a realistic pen
sketch of the same subject.]


As an example: Much of the material devised for the decoration of the
printed page (ornaments and borders) is derived from natural forms; i. e.,
leaves, flowers, etc. The leaves, stems, and flowers which are adapted to
form the ornament shown in Fig. 1 are a flat pattern of black and white.
The same material is rendered pictorially in the pen sketch accompanying
the ornament. It will be observed that the flat treatment of the
ornament depends upon arrangement of interesting flat masses for its
significance. The pen sketch not only conveys an impression of the form
of the natural objects, but it also suggests depth. A photograph of the
natural objects, reproduced by a printing plate, would be still more
realistic.

The preceding points have been given emphasis as a warning against a
tendency to use pictures, however pleasing, as decorative material; or
to allow design in printing to be concerned with a representation of
depth. The same masses of shadow and light which express roundness or
depth in a picture may be formed into decorative flat masses and thus
embodied in the design of the page. In Fig. 2, A is a picture which
might be used as an illustration or for its own interest. B is a flat
rendering whose arrangement of masses suggests the pictorial interest of
A without denying the flat surface upon which it is printed.


_The Materials of Design_

Since design is a matter of arrangement, its materials are the _masses_,
_lines_, and _dots_ which make up the whole form.

A dot theoretically has no dimensions. And a line (being the path of a
dot in motion) theoretically has length but no width. While if a line be
moved sideways it produces a _mass_ which has area and shape.

Practically, a dot may be larger than a pin point and may have definite
shape--a square dot or a round dot. Also in the common terms of design a
line may have width (often called weight). Thus we speak of a narrow or
light line as contrasted with a wide or heavy line.


[Illustration: Fig. 2, A. Halftone engraving from a photograph,
retaining full pictorial effect of depth, expressed in various gray
tones and soft edges. This is an illustration.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2, B. Decorative pen drawing from the same subject,
telling the story of the photograph in flat surfaces of black and white.
Suitable to decorate a type page.]


A mass will have shape, which is the impression conveyed to the eye by
its general contour. It will have size or measure, which will be its
actual or relative area. It will further have tone or color, its general
relation in appearance to black and white or to the colors of the
spectrum. Embodying these terms in an example: We may specify a mass
square in shape, having an area of four square inches, and being gray
in tone. These three characteristics, then, will identify and describe
any mass.

In printing, the successive lines of type which form a paragraph, block,
or connected series of paragraphs or blocks, are considered as a mass.
An initial letter may be another mass; a head-band still another; and
ornaments or illustrations may form other masses. All must be considered
as mass elements in the design of the page, with rule borders as
surrounding lines, or heavier designed borders as surrounding masses.

Thus all the component parts of the printed page are reduced to elements
or materials of design, and with these materials an arrangement is to be
made, for the sake of beauty, which will have the qualities of harmony,
balance, proportion, and rhythm.


_The Qualities of Design_

The dictionary defines _harmony_, in art, as "a normal state of
completeness in the relation of things to each other." This "state of
completeness" in a harmonious scheme is such that we have no desire to
change or modify any detail or characteristic.

_Balance_ is defined as "the state of being in equilibrium." In design
this refers to the equilibrium or balance of attraction to the eye
between the various masses.

_Proportion_ is "the comparative relation of one thing to another" with
respect to size.

_Rhythm_, in design, "is a movement characterized by regular recurrence
of accent."

Let us discover the embodiment of these qualities of design with a
simple experiment. Cut from black, dark gray, and light gray cover paper
a miscellaneous assortment of small pieces as shown in Fig. 3. This
group of squares, oblongs, triangles, diamonds, circles, and whatnot
has none of the qualities of design as it appears in Fig. 3.


[Illustration: Fig. 3. A group of miscellaneous masses having various
measures, shapes, and tones. Arranged without thought of design.]


Choose from Fig. 3 certain pieces which seem to have a definite
similarity of shape. Combine them with another rectangle, as in Fig. 4,
and the result is certainly more orderly and pleasing than the unrelated
tangle in Fig. 3. In Fig. 4 we have developed the quality of _shape
harmony_.

But we note that in spite of the harmony of shapes in Fig. 4 some of the
pieces of paper seem unduly prominent because of their blackness. They
do not seem harmonious with the gray tone of the others. If we replace
them with other pieces gray in color, as in Fig. 5, the result will be a
more pleasing relationship of tone throughout the design. Thus we have
made a simple demonstration of _tone harmony_.

If our pieces of paper were of various colors we could make another
arrangement to express a _color harmony_. The problem of color, however,
has so many phases that it is considered separately in this series.

If rhythm is to give us a "regular recurrence" of various features of a
design, it will be possible to choose a combination of pieces of paper
which will show a rhythmic arrangement, Fig. 6. It will be noticeable
here that the shapes occur in successive groups which repeat an idea.

We may also arrange a series of pieces in which the tones are rhythmic,
progressing from light to dark in repeated groups. This will be a simple
example of _tone rhythm_, Fig. 7.

Summing up the experiment thus far the following definitions may be
noted:

_Shape harmony_ will exist when masses similar in contour or shape are
used to form a design.

_Tone harmony_ results from the use of tones in a design which carry a
feeling of relationship.


[Illustration: Fig. 4. Units selected from Fig. 3, having a common
similarity of shape. But they are not harmoniously related in tone.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. The same shapes used in Fig. 4, substituting
equal tones of gray as needed to produce harmony throughout.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Simple development of shape and measure rhythm
such as might occur on a printed page. Masses should be related in
measure as well as in shape.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Simple illustration of tone rhythm as it may
occur on a type page. The tones progress from the white of the margins
through the light gray masses of type, to the darker grays of
decorations.]


_Shape rhythm_ is the regular recurrence of similar shapes in a design
or a rhythmic increase or decrease in the size of shapes used in a
design.

_Tone rhythm_ is a recurrence of similar tones or a regular progression
of related tones from light to dark or the reverse through a design.

The four qualities above are so closely related that there is often no
definite dividing line between them; indeed, a successful design will
embody them all.


_Proportion_

Our definition of proportion as a comparative relationship of size is so
broad that any sizes may be in proportion. The quality of proportion in
design is always assumed to be a _pleasing_ relationship of sizes. It
thus becomes necessary to determine what relationship of sizes will be
most pleasing.

The use of equal masses in a design is monotonous. The eye finds variety
of size more interesting. But to determine what form of variety is most
interesting we must find, if possible, the ideal area relationship
between masses in a design. This problem has of necessity been solved by
the designers of all nations and all periods, and it is interesting to
note that the result has everywhere been practically the same.

Let us arrive at the expression of good proportion by the simple means
of dividing a rectangle into two parts which will have the most
interesting relationship. This rectangle is A in Fig. 8. B shows a
division into equal parts, the result being uninteresting and
monotonous. In C the division gives a feeling that the lower part is too
large; it is crowding the upper and the result is not pleasing. The
relationship in D is so nearly equal that the division seems to have
been an inaccurate effort to locate the center. Somewhere between the
division point in C and that in D will probably be the best point.
Repeated trials will locate the point about as in E, which will be found
to lie about two-fifths of the distance down from the top. This will
give the upper area in E an area of 2 and the lower an area of 3. Hence
the relationship or proportion is said to be as 2 is to 3. By the term
"good proportion," or merely the word "proportion," in speaking of
design this ratio of 2 to 3 is assumed.


[Illustration: Fig. 8. The division of a rectangle, A, to secure spaces
of interesting relationship. Equal division in B. Overbalanced effect in
C. Too nearly equal in D. More interesting in E, where the relationship
of spaces is as 2 is to 3.]


It is interesting to note that when a space has been divided into the
ratio of 2 to 3, the relationship of the smaller to the larger is
practically the same as the relationship of the larger to the original
whole. Or, mathematically, if the original, having an area of 5, is
divided into parts of 2 and 3, then 2 is to 3 as 3 is to 5,--a ratio
which is approximately true.

The student of architecture finds the most careful consideration of
proportion in the relationship of spaces throughout all the
architectural orders. In printing, the designer must be guided by the
same traditions.


[Illustration: Fig. 9. "Spotting" a single line on a page so that it
makes an interesting division of space. There are 2 parts of white space
above and 3 parts below.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Placing a single line so that it will appear to
be centered. The dotted lines show the mathematical center of the
vertical side. The straight lines show the center of the type line.]


The most simple application of proportion to the division of a printed
page occurs when a single type line or compact group of lines is to be
placed on the page (Fig. 9).

It is unfortunate that it is so easy to divide space mechanically in a
type page by using identical measures of furniture or slugs above and
below. When, in certain instances (as in a business card), tradition
demands that a line be "centered" vertically, it will be found that the
exact centering of the line will make it appear a bit low. An optical
illusion demands that such a line be raised slightly if it is to appear
in the vertical center (Fig. 10). This apparent center is called "the
optical center."

The same condition makes it necessary when an apparent square is to be
used that the width of the "square" be slightly greater than the height.
(Fig. 11.)


[Illustration: Fig. 11. A true square above and an optically corrected
square below. Psychologists explain that the eyes find it more difficult
to judge the length of vertical lines, hence are inclined to exaggerate
them.]


_Balance_

The physical equilibrium which exists in the balanced "seesaw" of our
childhood and the optical balance which is the result of the proper
adjustment of masses within the confining edges of a design are similar,
in that each is an equalizing of forces of attraction. In the former the
force is gravity; in the latter, the attraction to the eye, which varies
with the size and tone of the mass. While the force of gravity usually
brings balancing masses to a horizontal alignment, optical balance may
bring the masses in a design into equilibrium on any desired line,
horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.

The attraction which a mass possesses varies directly with its size and
tone. Thus a mass of four square inches, solid black, will be twice as
strong in attraction value as a mass of two square inches, solid black.
It will also be twice as strong in attraction value as a mass of four
square inches, neutral gray (the gray being half the value of black).
The attraction value of gray tones particularly affects the
consideration of blocks of type which vary in depth of tone according to
the blackness of the type face, closeness of spacing, etc.

Since the "seesaw" must have its sawhorse and the weighing scale its
point of support, it follows that any condition of equilibrium, physical
or optical, demands a point of balance. In design, this point will
determine the location of the related masses. It will be apparent upon
further thought that the point of balance should have some relationship
to the edge or confines of the design.

The confining edge of the design is usually a rectangle, on the printed
page. The location of a point of balance within this rectangle tends to
divide it. How shall it be divided in the most interesting way? By
applying the ratio of good proportion. So the point of balance may be
located usually on a line which divides the page into parts of 2 and 3.

When equal masses are to be balanced it is obvious that they will be
equidistant from the point of balance. (Fig. 12.)


[Illustration: Fig. 12. Equal masses balanced at equal distance from the
center point.]


When the masses are unequal the point is at unequal distances from the
centers of the masses. These unequal distances have the same ratio as
the masses themselves, but the larger mass is always the shorter
distance from the point. If 1 pound is to balance 4 pounds it is
obvious that the 1-pound mass must be 4 times as far from the point of
balance as the 4-pound mass.


[Illustration: Fig. 13. Mass of 4 units balanced by 1 unit.]


Hence, to balance two masses in a rectangle, the point of balance will
be found by proportion, placing it on a line which divides the
rectangle into parts of 2 to 3. The balancing of the masses across this
point will then be a matter of determining their relative distances from
it. It is apparent that the larger of two masses may be far enough from
the point of balance so that it will force the smaller entirely out of
the rectangle. It is of course easy to move the larger closer to the
point which automatically brings in the smaller. What constitutes a
proper distance from the edge of the rectangle will be discussed under
"Margins," in the book on Typographical Design.


[Illustration: Fig. 14. Mass of 3 units balanced by mass of 1 unit,
taking the point of balance upon the line which divides the space in
good proportion.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Measures of 3 and 1 balanced by a measure of 2,
the point of balance dividing the space in good proportion.]


The balance of three or more masses within a rectangle involves the
consideration of two at a time, balancing the pair or pairs with the
remaining mass or masses.

In Fig. 15, masses 1, 2 and 3 are to be balanced within the rectangle.
Balancing 3 with 1 gives the balancing point P. Taking 3 plus 1 from the
point P, we locate the mass 2 to balance them across the line AB which
divides the rectangle in good proportion. The point _p_ then becomes the
balancing point for the entire group. Mathematically, 3 plus 1 equal 4;
4 is twice 2; therefore the mass 2 must be twice as far from the point
_p_ as the balanced masses 3 plus 1.

Two other combinations might have been worked out with the masses in
Fig. 15: 3 plus 2, balanced by 1, the mass 1 being placed five times as
far from the point _p_ as would the point P. Or 2 plus 1 might have been
balanced by 3, in which case the distances would have been equal.

The application of these principles of balance to the problems of
typography is largely a matter of influence. The typographer should be
guided by them but he need not make mathematical calculations if his
eyes be trained to judge relative attraction values so that he can
arrange his various masses to secure balance.


_Symmetry_

When two parts of a design are equal in every respect so that if the
design were folded over one-half would superimpose in every detail with
the other half, then a state of _symmetry_ exists and the design is said
to be _symmetrical_. The line upon which such a design would be folded,
or, in other words, the line which bisects a symmetrical design, is
called its _axis_.

The printed page is often symmetrical with respect to its vertical axis
(Fig. 16).

In Fig. 16 the line AB is the vertical axis of the page.


[Illustration: Fig. 16. Type page, symmetrical with respect to its
vertical axis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Page arranged for variety. Not symmetrical on
either axis. This arrangement is frequently used in advertising display,
but is rare in book work.]


It is rarely possible that the printed page can be symmetrical with
respect to its horizontal axis. Such a state would involve a division
of the page below its optical center and would also have an
uninteresting division of its spaces, with equal masses above and below.
It should be noted that symmetry on the vertical axis permits full
variety in the size of the masses used.


_Variety_

The absence of symmetry in a design gives it the character of _variety_,
which may be defined as a state of inequality in the arrangement of the
parts of a design.

In Fig. 17, neither the horizontal axis nor the vertical axis divides
the page so that its units are symmetrically arranged.


_Motion_

In any arrangement, pictorial or decorative, the eye of the observer is
attracted to various parts in succession, depending on their character
and position with respect to each other. This quality, called motion,
will be more pronounced as the several units tend to lead more
definitely from one to another. Fig. 18 shows the path which the eye
follows as it looks at the ornament. In pictorial composition the same
quality is employed to emphasize the story to be told or the character
of the arrangement used by the painter. Then it is called "line." This
quality of design is not to be confused with "action," which is the
depiction of a figure in motion, as shown in Fig. 19.


[Illustration: Fig. 18. The diagram shows the motion of the eye as it
perceives the design above. This motion is due to line entirely, not to
accents of tone.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Showing action in the figure depicted, without
motion in design.]


On the printed page the eye may be definitely directed from one unit to
another through this quality of motion, which forms a very valuable
resource for the printer. Fig. 20 is a diagram of a simple use of
motion, the eye progressing as indicated by the arrows through the
masses which make up the page.


[Illustration: Fig. 20. Diagram of motion as employed in advertising
to lead the eye progressively through a page.]


_Ornament_

While the elements of design concern all the parts of a proposed scheme
(on the printed page, its masses of type, decorative border, head-band,
initial letters, tail-piece, etc.) certain parts will be used solely to
beautify the whole design. They ornament or decorate it. "Ornament is a
means by which Beauty or Significance is imparted to Utility."

Ornament may be either Symbolic or Esthetic.

Symbolic ornament consists of elements or forms chosen because they are
significant of the purpose of the design.

In Fig. 22, the ornament is symbolic in its close connection with the
message conveyed by the type.

Esthetic ornament consists of forms chosen for their beauty alone. In
Fig. 23, the head-band and initial are pleasing in design and they
beautify the page without having the slightest relation to the text of
the page.

Esthetic ornament characterizes the periods of design which have had the
most important influence in the development of printing: the Greek,
Roman, and Renaissance.

Symbolic ornament is found in Egyptian, Assyrian, Byzantine,
Scandinavian, Celtic, Persian, Indian, Gothic, Chinese, and Japanese
design. For intimate study of these various styles and periods the
reader is referred to the various books listed in the bibliography.


[Illustration: Fig. 21. Ornament designed with natural forms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22. House-organ cover design by Mr. F. W. Goudy, in
which the ornament is symbolic of the message of the page.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Type page decorated with esthetic ornament. Much
of the decorative material available to printers is of this character.
Since the printer need not study its symbolic significance he may choose
such decoration for its qualities of tone and good drawing.]


Ornament may be natural or inventive. Natural ornament confines itself
to the rendition in decorative design of forms chosen from nature,
either animate of inanimate. Inventive ornament consists of elements not
derived from any natural source. It is usually geometric in character;
that is, it is rendered in patterns and masses expressed in geometric
shapes.


[Illustration: Fig. 24. Type border used as geometric ornaments.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Further use of type border to make a flat
pattern or "all-over" design. Compare the effect with that shown in the
facing illustration.]


In the artistic development of the various races, geometric design has
often been the result of religious restrictions upon the imitation of
any animate forms. The Mahometans have developed it to its highest type
of expression. Arabian and Moorish architecture and handicrafts are the
best examples, with the crystal beauty of the Alhambra, the wonderful
palace built by the Moors in Spain, as the supreme achievement of
geometric design.


[Illustration: Fig. 26. A niche in the Alhambra, at Granada, Spain.
Showing characteristic Moorish ornamentation.]


Geometrical design uses simple materials, being the oldest of the
elements of decoration. The implements of savages and the tattooing of
the Indians prove this. From the first crude expressions of the original
squares, circles, zigzag lines, and sundry simple combinations, gradual
development led finally to the delicate forms of Moorish design. The
elaboration of this style involves deep mathematical problems and
careful draftsmanship.

The majority of geometrical ornaments may be divided into three groups.
As we find them in typographical material these groups are bands or
borders, made up visually of repeated units or spots; enclosed spaces or
panels; and unlimited flat patterns or "all-over" designs.


[Illustration: Fig. 27. The development of a motif (stems, leaves, and
berries) into a decorative spot. Diagram in the upper corner shows the
geometrical arrangement of the material. The spot has been repeated to
form a band.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Development of the motif used in Fig. 27 into a
natural ornament. The forms and growth are not distorted but the
rendering is in flat surfaces to hold the decorative quality.]


In nearly every style and period of design the plant-world has been the
biggest source of material for adaptation. The direct imitation of
natural forms, keeping as much as possible of their shape, color,
formation, etc., is called naturalistic design. A departure from the
exact details of the natural form, forming the design according to the
rules of rhythm and symmetry, with strict attention to regularity leads
to a result more artificial in character.

Whether the ornament you consider be naturalistic or artificial, the
original source, which is the plant-form or other natural form from
which the design was made, is called the _motif_ of the design. It is
interesting to survey the world about you and note here and there a
recognizable motif in the design of wallpaper, hangings, furniture,
rugs, books, and so on all through the works of man.

The development of a motif into ornament or decoration calls for the use
of all the principles thus far established, plus familiarity with the
medium to be used and the inventiveness that comes only with some
experience. If the reader lacks this experience and is interested in
undertaking to devise ornament or decoration with pen, pencil, or brush,
he is advised to consult some one or more of the books on the subject
which are listed in the bibliography. If he has facility with his pencil
and enthusiasm for the work he will find it a most fascinating
undertaking.


[Illustration: Fig. 29. Initial letter decorated with natural ornament
and a pen sketch treating the motif in a more realistic way. Further
emphasis of the essential flatness of surface in material that is to
decorate a flat sheet of paper.]


_Periods of Design Which Have Most Affected Printing_

The student of design finds that historical study of his subject carries
him through the entire history of art, from the crude expressions of
prehistoric man down the long and varied centuries to the styles and
fancies of the present day. He will find his theme closely interwoven
with the story of the development of races, the rise and fall of
nations, the whole thrilling drama of ancient and modern history.

Printing, as a means of making records and of embodying and illustrating
thought, has given us the wide field of literature on design. But in the
making of books as an application of design, and in the making of all
other forms of printed matter, printers since Gutenberg have been
influenced by relatively few of the many distinct periods through which
art has come. And those few have usually been the artistic feeling which
prevailed at the time the printers lived.

To trace the periods of design that have most influenced printing is to
tell in part the history of the craft. Since that subject is developed
elsewhere in this series, suffice it to follow briefly the steps through
which the making of books has passed.

Since the invention of movable types came opportunely to meet the desire
for enlightenment by means of books, it was natural that printed books
should be planned closely to imitate the hand-written or lettered books.
These latter, having been produced for centuries by the men of the
church to whom had been given training in the arts, had been brought to
a high state of perfection in design. It has often been said that
Gutenberg's forty-two line Bible, one of the first books printed from
type, has never been surpassed in pure beauty of design and in the
rich quality of its type masses.


[Illustration: Fig. 30. A reproduction, greatly reduced, of a page from
a Manuscript Bible of the early 14th Century. Entirely the product of
the quill and brush of the writer and illuminator. Such books were
usually done in black ink on parchment or vellum and decorated in water
colors and gold leaf.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31. A page from an illuminated Flemish manuscript of
the middle 15th Century, showing characteristic treatment of
illustration and decoration. This and the preceding example are shown
for comparison with Figs. 32 and 33. They demonstrate the effect of the
writing of books upon the development of printing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Type of the Mazarin Bible (exact size).]


But the first books printed from type were all of religious character,
and the type itself was designed to imitate the black, condensed "text"
letter forms which had been developed by the scribes. The elaborate
initial letters which marked the sundry divisions of thought were
repeated by the early printers, sometimes to be illumined by hand and
later as engravings on wood or metal. There was no distinct departure
from the ecclesiastical style of the monks save as was necessitated by
the mechanical limitations of the new process of printing. Hence came a
style which marked the first years of printing with the influence of the
church. And that style today can be embodied in modern work by means
of typographic material, black text types, missal initials, and liberal
use of color. But it will always be associated by the power of tradition
with church literature and ecclesiastical printing.


[Illustration: Fig. 33. Reproduction of a page from Gutenberg's 42-line
Bible, of which it has been said that no later book has been more
beautifully designed. In completing this book and for some years after,
the illuminating and decoration were done by hand, only the type being
set and printed on the press.]


Perhaps it was fortunate for the future of the printing art that the
upheaval in Mainz drove printers out of the restricted atmosphere in
which their craft was growing. For with the spread of printing into
Italy, where printers sought freer fields, there straightway came a
marked change in its use. The first Roman type was cut and the printers
grew under the influence of the most splendid period in the history of
art, the Italian Renaissance, the revival and further development of the
arts which had well-nigh perished through the dark centuries. The purity
of line and form, the severe dignity, and the almost too perfect
proportion which had been developed by the Greeks over a thousand years
before were revived and interpreted with more human feeling by the
Italians of the fifteenth century.

Just as Gutenberg, Fust and Schoeffer set a standard in ecclesiastical
printing with their first efforts, so Nicholas Jenson in cutting his
first Roman type established a precedent which has lived to the present
day.

Designers of today find inspiration in the classic expression of the
Greeks for printed work which is to be similarly restrained and
dignified. Type faces have been developed which are distinctly classic
in feeling, echoing the letter-forms of the inscriptions which were cut
in stone by Greek and Roman artisans. (Figs. 35-6.)

The design of the Renaissance has been embodied in the books of many
nations. Indeed, it may be said that modern book design dates from the
start of printing in Italy. But, just as the fine arts have never since
flourished as they did in that resplendent period, so has the progress
of design in printing been a matter of the work of individuals or
limited groups rather than the character of a period or a national
expression.


[Illustration: Fig. 34. Ecclesiastical style in modern typography.]


The voluptuous vagaries of the successive French periods of design gave
little lasting distinction to contemporary printing.

Type faces were cut at various times and by men of different
nationalities which have marked characteristics, but they are not to be
noted as establishing periods or styles in printing.


[Illustration: Fig. 35. An inscription in Classic Roman. Study opposite
illustration.]


In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries printing in England grew
into forms of expression which have been recognized under the term of
"Georgian" or "colonial." The first editions of Shakespeare typify the
earlier development of this style, which was marked by poor
typographical materials that were nevertheless arranged in a direct and
interesting manner. (Fig. 37.)

A few years later the growth of printing in the American colonies
brought this form of typographic expression into most of the printed
matter which has been preserved. The museums of printing and the
literature dealing with the times are rich with examples. See Figs. 39
to 41.

Through the ensuing decades printing developed mechanically, but it
lapsed into styles which had little or no relationship to design. It is
interesting historically to follow the efforts of the printers who rode
on the first steamboats and railroad trains; who recorded the rise and
fall of slavery and secession; who bent their rules and jumbled their
type faces during the "early Pullman days" that marked the start of many
modern successful printers. The history of the craft through all these
times has been picturesque and closely identified with the growth of the
country. But it has little or no significance for the designer.


[Illustration: Fig. 36. Forum, a Classic Roman type, designed by Mr. F.
W. Goudy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Title page, much reduced, of a Shakespeare first
folio, showing the Georgian style of typography. The types were poorly
fitted and of uncertain alignment. The "stock" ornaments, cut on wood,
were often bruised and worn. Yet there is undeniable charm in the
result.]

[Illustration: Fig. 38. An early American page, dated 1685, showing the
influence of the Georgian style upon the Colonial printers. An
improvement in mechanical quality may be noted. Large capitals, a
profusion of italics, and frequent use of cross rules mark this period
of printing.]


Design in printing has suffered through the marvelous mechanical
development of machines and devices whose sole purpose has been to
multiply gross output. Necessary as sheer volume of production has been,
it has remained for very recent years to witness a renewal of interest
in the beauty of printing, as determined by the principles of design.

William Morris, in England, devoted a very few years, toward the end of
his life, to a protest against the commonplace and mechanical qualities
which had dominated printing previously. He revived many of the old
traditions and marked his books with his strong personality. We owe much
of our present wide-spread reverence for good design in printing to his
influence, even as we are similarly indebted to him for the
well-designed and useful appurtenances of our daily life which have
supplanted twisted and distorted furniture, stuffed birds under glass
jars, and all the atrocities of a generation or two ago. See Figs.

Among the present-day designers of printing whose work shows an intimate
study of the principles and the traditions of the craft are such men as
Rogers, Updike, Goudy, Cleland, and Currier. The product of their work
may frequently be seen in reproductions in the trade publications. It
should be studied by younger designers, for it shows the results of
earnest and understanding effort to make modern printing reach and even
pass the artistic standards which were established nearly five hundred
years ago.


[Illustration: Fig. 39. Page from Poor Richard's Almanack, one of the
best known of the Colonial publications. Its style is typical of that
period.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Illustrating the period of transition from the
true Colonial style. Type and material are obviously improved in
mechanical qualities, but the compositor must have been seeking for
"something new" in typography.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Showing a typical title page composed at the
beginning of the decline of typography in America. During almost the
entire 19th Century there was neither reason nor design in most of the
printing produced.]

[Illustration: Figs. 42 and 43. Facing pages from "The Tale of Beowulf,"
as designed and printed by William Morris. The small reproductions give
but a suggestion of the Morris conception of book-making.

After a century or more of the most haphazard printing, Morris revived
the traditions of the first book-makers, thereby stimulating a
world-wide renewal of interest in typography and design.]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Page designed by Mr. Bruce Rogers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Title page by Mr. F. W. Goudy.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Folder cover arranged by Mr. T. M. Cleleand.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47. Catalogue page by Mr. D. B. Updike.]



SUPPLEMENTARY READING


The Principles of Design. By Ernest Allen Batchelder. Inland
     Printer Company, Chicago.

Design in Theory and Practice. By Ernest Allen Batchelder.
     MacMillan Company, New York.

A Manual of Historic Ornament. By Richard Glazier. B. T. Batsford,
     94 High Holburn, London.

Line and Form. By Walter Crane. G. Bell and Sons, London.

The Bases of Design. By Walter Crane. G. Bell and Sons, London.

A History of Ornament. By A. D. F. Hamlin. Century Company, New York.

Ornament and Its Application. By Lewis F. Day. Scribner's, New York.

Nature in Ornament. By Lewis F. Day. B. T. Batsford, 94 High
     Holburn, London.



REVIEW QUESTIONS


SUGGESTIONS TO STUDENTS AND INSTRUCTORS

The following questions, based on the contents of this pamphlet, are
intended to serve (1) as a guide to the study of the text, (2) as an aid
to the student in putting the information contained into definite
statements without actually memorizing the text, (3) as a means of
securing from the student a reproduction of the information in his own
words.

A careful following of the questions by the reader will insure full
acquaintance with every part of the text, avoiding the accidental
omission of what might be of value. These primers are so condensed that
nothing should be omitted.

In teaching from these books it is very important that these questions
and such others as may occur to the teacher should be made the basis of
frequent written work, and of final examinations.

The importance of written work cannot be overstated. It not only assures
knowledge of material but the power to express that knowledge correctly
and in good form.


QUESTIONS

1. What purpose in the works of mankind is served by design?

2. In what manner does design influence man's handiwork?

3. What is design?

4. What is "a design"?

5. What is the difference between beauty and fitness to purpose?

6. What are the elements of design?

7. What relationship has a printer to a sculptor, an architect, a
painter, a decorative designer?

8. How does the printed page limit its design?

9. What is the difference between a printed picture and a printed design
based upon that picture?

10. Why are pictures unsuitable to decorate a printed page?

11. What are the materials of design?

12. Analyze a well-designed typographical ornament into the materials
which compose it.

13. When the materials of design are put to use, what conditions must be
satisfied in their arrangement?

14. What is harmony?

15. What is balance?

16. What is proportion?

17. What is rhythm?

18. How may the foregoing qualities be demonstrated?

19. What shapes should be used in combination?

20. What further relationship should they have?

21. On a type page 20 picas wide by 30 picas deep would a panel 18 picas
wide by 8 picas deep be proper? What, if anything, would be preferable?

22. Would a rule line 6 points wide be suitable to surround a mass of 18
point Caslon old style caps? Why?

23. If the printed page is to be other than black and white, what
further consideration of harmony is involved?

24. What must we consider in related areas with respect to their size or
measure?

25. What relationship of sizes is often most interesting?

26. Place a single line on a cover page in a desirable position.

27. Is the eye always to be trusted in the judgment of space
relationships?

28. Should mathematical measurements or the effect upon the eye be the
guiding factor in arrangement? Why?

29. What is the effect of the surrounding edge or border upon the masses
of a design?

30. How should the masses in a design be arranged with respect to the
surrounding edge?

31. What mathematical principles influence this arrangement?

32. How is equality in the halves of a printed page sometimes desirable
and sometimes not?

33. When there is no equality in the halves of a design, what condition
exists and what principles must guide such an arrangement?

34. What is ornament?

35. What qualities may ornament possess? Define them.

36. In what periods of design does each quality appear most
pronouncedly?

37. How is ornament related to nature? To inventiveness or ingenuity?

38. How is ornament related to mathematics?

39. What are the important divisions of mathematical ornament?

40. What happens when an ornament is developed from a natural source?

41. What is the source called?

42. What periods of design have most affected printing? Why?

43. Explain how each of the above periods influences modern typography.

44. What should be the typographer's attitude toward the activities of
designers of every age and period?

45. What has been the effect of mechanical development in printing upon
typographic design?

46. Name some of the modern men whose work is of interest to the
typographer.



GLOSSARY

TERMS OF DESIGN AS APPLIED TO PRINTING

ASSYRIAN (Art)--The Assyrian Empire lay in Southwestern Asia between the
Tigris and the Euphrates, now part of Turkey in Asia. Its art was
largely expressed in the treatment of flat surfaces, using enameled
bricks, painted stuccoes, figured bronzes, etc. Bricks were the only
building material. The period dates from 4000-3000 B.C. to about 500
B.C.

ATTRACTION--The force exercised upon the eye by a mass through its tone,
color, size, or shape.

AXIS--A line dividing a surface for purpose of comparison or
construction.

BALANCE--An apparent state of rest between the various attractions in a
design. To balance the elements of a design is to arrange them so that
they are set at rest with one another.

BYZANTINE (Art)--The art of Eastern Christendom, from the time when
Byzantium (now Constantinople) became the capital in 330 A.D. until the
taking of the city by the Turks in 1453 and even later. Byzantine art
embodied Asiatic luxury in splendor and in profusion of color and
gilding. Its forms of design were purely geometrical and conventional,
with no use of the human figure.

CELTIC (Art)--Particularly active in the fourth century among the people
of what are now the British Isles. It was influenced by Central Asia and
Persia, and is thus somewhat oriental.

CHINESE (Art)--Characterized by the use of fantastic forms and brilliant
color. Best exemplified in porcelains, lacquers, and carvings in wood
and semi-precious stones. The source of inspiration of the Japanese who
have commercialized and cheapened it in everything save wood-block
cutting and printing.

CLASSIC--The period of early Greece and Rome.

COLONIAL (Art)--Found in the printing and other applied design of the
early American colonies and during the first years of the American
Republic. Derived from England and sometimes called "Georgian."

COLOR--The kind of light reflected by a surface.

CONCEPTION--The process of forming an idea or scheme.

DECORATION--Any thing or group of things that embellishes or adorns.

DESIGN (In general)--An arrangement of forms or colors, or both,
intended to be executed in hard substances or pliable material or to be
applied to a fabric or other surface for ornament.

(In printing)--The arrangement of masses, lines, and dots to secure the
qualities of beauty, and fitness.

(Specific)--"A design": any piece of work into which the elements of
design have been incorporated.

EGYPTIAN (Art)--Includes the period of art activity in Egypt dating from
about 4000 B.C. through successive steps to 500 B.C. It was highly
conventionalized, richly decorated, making use of material forms
interpreted with vigorous color. In architecture its chief
characteristic was durability.

ESTHETIC--Pertaining to beauty as manifested in the fine arts. "The
esthetic imagination differs from the scientific.... The difference is
seen in the fact that the end is no longer knowledge but beauty."

ECCLESIASTICAL (Style)--That which characterized the books and
manuscripts of the early churches, usually in black text letter forms
with elaborate ornamentation and illumination.

GEOMETRICAL (Design)--Based upon spots, bands, or all-over patterns made
up of straight and curved lines developed geometrically.

GEORGIAN (Period)--Included the English and Colonial American design of
the 17th and 18th centuries. Similar to "Colonial."

GOTHIC (Art)--Developed in the architecture and applied design in Europe
from 1200 A.D. to 1500 A.D. Characterized by vertical lines, pointed
arches, and decorative material based directly upon nature.

GREEK (Design)--That of early Greece, dated from about 620 B.C. to about
350 B.C., developed under the influence of Egypt and Assyria but rising
far above either in purity and expression. "The Greek artisan had the
unerring taste of the artist and sought his inspiration from the same
sources."

HARMONY (In art)--A state of completeness in the relationship to things
to each other.

HEADBAND--The horizontal strip of decoration used to ornament or to set
off a type page.

INDIAN (Art)--That of the East Indies or India, which have several
styles, all oriental in character. American Indian art was manifested in
geometric ornament, raw colors, and crude representation of animate
forms.

INITIAL LETTER--A large letter, unornamented or decoratively designed,
used to mark the beginning of a chapter, an important change in the
text, or to decorate a single mass of type.

JAPANESE (Design)--Derived from the Chinese and usually commercialized
in its application. Of chief interest to printers in the arrangement and
rendering of wood-block prints.

MAHOMETANS--Followers of the Prophet Mahomet, including Arabian, Indian,
Moorish, Persian, and other nations.

MASS--One of the main portions of a design, readily distinguished and
having some unity in itself, yet remaining in proper relationship to the
whole scheme.

MATERIALS OF DESIGN--Masses, dots, and lines which compose the completed
design.

MOTIF--The original source for a decorative scheme or element.

NATURAL FORMS--Motifs of design chosen from nature, either animate or
inanimate.

NATURALISTIC (Design)--The direct imitation of forms taken from nature,
retaining as much as possible of their original shape, color, etc.

OPTICAL ILLUSION--An error, normal to the average eye, in the perception
of certain lines, angles, and spaces. Recognized by the designers of
type and of typography.

ORNAMENT--Similar to decoration.

PERSIAN (Art)--Covered by the period from about 550 B.C. to 330 B.C.
Derived from Assyrian art but strongly influenced by the Greek.

POINT OF BALANCE--The point, unindicated in the finished design, upon
which the various attractions of the design are balanced in appearance.

PROPORTION--The comparative relationship between the various elements in
a design.

RENAISSANCE--The period of art activity in the 14th and 15th centuries
in Italy. A revival of the classic arts but developed and enriched
beyond former heights.

RHYTHM--Movement, characterized by the regular recurrence of accent or
motion.

ROMAN (Design)--A transplanted development of Greek design, influenced
by Roman habits and character. More realistic in the treatment of
natural forms than the Greek.

SHAPE--The contour or appearance of an area.

SCANDINAVIAN (Design)--That of the nations Denmark, Norway, and Sweden,
characterized by rich interlacements, and many symbolic devices.

SYMBOLIC--Typifying or representing the idea or purpose of a design.

SYMMETRY--Regular arrangement of parts across a given axis, so that a
division through that axis will give similar halves.

TONE--The amount (not kind) of light reflected from a given surface--"a
light tone" or "dark in tone."

VARIETY--An intermixture of elements in a design different in form or
color and not arranged symmetrically.



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL
SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the
Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in
trade classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of
authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers
of the United States--employers, journeymen, and apprentices--with a
comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable,
up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the
printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5 x 8 inches. Their
general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as
practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the
particular contents and other chief features of each volume will be
found under each title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in
each publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary
information and essential facts necessary to an understanding of the
subject. Care has been taken to make all statements accurate and clear,
with the purpose of bringing essential information within the
understanding of beginners in the different fields of study. Wherever
practicable, simple and well-defined drawings and illustrations have
been used to assist in giving additional clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use
in trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is
accompanied by a list of Review Questions covering essential items of
the subject matter. A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the
subject or department treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, UNITED
TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U. S. A.


PART I--_Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials_

1. =Type: a Primer of Information=                      By A. A. Stewart

     Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes,
     font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture.
     44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

2. =Compositors' Tools and Materials=                   By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads,
     brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.;
     illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

3. =Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture=               By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets,
     case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.;
     illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

4. =Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances=             By A. A. Stewart

     Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the
     press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59
     pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

5. =Proof Presses=                                      By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the customary methods and machines
     for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review
     questions; glossary.

6. =Platen Printing Presses=                             By Daniel Baker

     A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical
     construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand
     press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on
     automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review
     questions; glossary.

7. =Cylinder Printing Presses=                       By Herbert L. Baker

     Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types
     of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review
     questions; glossary.

8. =Mechanical Feeders and Folders=               By William E. Spurrier

     The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines;
     with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

9. =Power for Machinery in Printing Houses=             By Carl F. Scott

     A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and
     allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53
     pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

10. =Paper Cutting Machines=                           By Niel Gray, Jr.

     A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever
     cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting
     paper. 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

11. =Printers' Rollers=                                 By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and
     care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions;
     glossary.

12. =Printing Inks=                                     By Philip Ruxton

     Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by
     permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of
     Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the
     everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review
     questions; glossary.

13. =How Paper is Made=                      By William Bond Wheelwright

     A primer of information about the materials and processes of
     manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated;
     62 review questions; glossary.

14. =Relief Engravings=                             By Joseph P. Donovan

     Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of
     engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for
     reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

15. =Electrotyping and Stereotyping=  By Harris B. Hatch and A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and
     stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions;
     glossaries.


PART II--_Hand and Machine Composition_

16. =Typesetting=                                       By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying,
     spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

17. =Printers' Proofs=                                  By A. A. Stewart

     The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with
     observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

18. =First Steps in Job Composition=                   By Camille DeVéze

     Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first
     jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make
     good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions;
     glossary.

19. =General Job Composition=

     How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and
     miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

20. =Book Composition=                                 By J. W. Bothwell

     Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition,"
     revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W.
     Bothwell of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of
     pages. Part II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525
     review questions; glossary.

21. =Tabular Composition=                               By Robert Seaver

     A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples
     of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review
     questions.

22. =Applied Arithmetic=                                By E. E. Sheldon

     Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade,
     calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard
     tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with
     examples and exercises. 159 pp.

23. =Typecasting and Composing Machines=            A. W. Finlay, Editor

    Section I--The Linotype                         By L. A. Hornstein
    Section II--The Monotype                        By Joseph Hays
    Section III--The Intertype                      By Henry W. Cozzens
    Section IV--Other Typecasting and Typesetting
                Machines                            By Frank H. Smith

     A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their
     mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART III--_Imposition and Stonework_

24. =Locking Forms for the Job Press=                  By Frank S. Henry

     Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and
     about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

25. =Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press=           By Frank S. Henry

     Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods
     of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART IV--_Presswork_

26. =Making Ready on Platen Presses=                     By T. G. McGrew

     The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive
     features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan,
     regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting
     gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

27. =Cylinder Presswork=                                 By T. G. McGrew

     Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers,
     ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and
     overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

28. =Pressroom Hints and Helps=                     By Charles L. Dunton

     Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with
     directions and useful information relating to a variety of
     printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

29. =Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts=          By A. W. Elson

     A primer of information about the distinctive features of the
     relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing.
     84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.


PART V--_Pamphlet and Book Binding_

30. =Pamphlet Binding=                            By Bancroft L. Goodwin

     A primer of information about the various operations employed in
     binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated;
     review questions; glossary.

31. =Book Binding=                                     By John J. Pleger

     Practical information about the usual operations in binding books;
     folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case
     making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and
     blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART VI--_Correct Literary Composition_

32. =Word Study and English Grammar=                   By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about words, their relations, and their
     uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

33. =Punctuation=                                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their
     use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review
     questions; glossary.

34. =Capitals=                                         By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical
     typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review
     questions; glossary.

35. =Division of Words=                                By F. W. Hamilton

     Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks
     on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review
     questions.

36. =Compound Words=                                   By F. W. Hamilton

     A study of the principles of compounding, the components of
     compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

37. =Abbreviations and Signs=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with
     classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review
     questions.

38. =The Uses of Italic=                               By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the history and uses of italic
     letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

39. =Proofreading=                                     By Arnold Levitas

     The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking,
     revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by
     examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

40. =Preparation of Printers' Copy=                    By F. W. Hamilton

     Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in
     preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

41. =Printers' Manual of Style=

     A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions
     relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization,
     abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

42. =The Printer's Dictionary=                          By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about
     various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical
     terms explained. Illustrated.


PART VII--_Design, Color, and Lettering_

43. =Applied Design for Printers=                       By Harry L. Gage

     A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on
     the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats of
     harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and
     variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46
     review questions; glossary; bibliography.

44. =Elements of Typographic Design=                    By Harry L. Gage

     Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building
     material of typography: paper, types, ink, decorations and
     illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book,
     treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units.
     Illustrations; review questions, glossary; bibliography.

45. =Rudiments of Color in Printing=                    By Harry L. Gage

     Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster
     effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with
     process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and
     chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value,
     intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory
     of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full
     color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

46. =Lettering in Typography=                           By Harry L. Gage

     Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect.
     Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on
     type design. Classification of general forms in lettering.
     Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully
     illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

47. =Typographic Design in Advertising=                 By Harry L. Gage

     The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which
     advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis,
     legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising
     typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

48. =Making Dummies and Layouts=                        By Harry L. Gage

     A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a
     proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout.
     Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy
     envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


PART VIII--_History of Printing_

49. =Books Before Typography=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the
     history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.;
     illustrated; 64 review questions.

50. =The Invention of Typography=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about.
     64 pp.; 62 review questions.

51. =History of Printing=--Part I                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the
     development of the book, the development of printers' materials,
     and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

52. =History of Printing=--Part II                     By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry
     from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship,
     internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review
     questions.

53. =Printing in England=                              By F. W. Hamilton

     A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present
     time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

54. =Printing in America=                              By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes
     on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.;
     84 review questions.

55. =Type and Presses in America=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and
     press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.


PART IX--_Cost Finding and Accounting_

56. =Elements of Cost in Printing=                    By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

57. =Use of a Cost System=                            By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

58. =The Printer as a Merchant=                       By Henry P. Porter

     The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing.
     The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of
     the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

59. =Fundamental Principles of Estimating=            By Henry P. Porter

     The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for
     estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

60. =Estimating and Selling=                          By Henry P. Porter

     An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their
     relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

61. =Accounting for Printers=                         By Henry P. Porter

     A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary
     books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


PART X--_Miscellaneous_

62. =Health, Sanitation, and Safety=                  By Henry P. Porter

     Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new;
     practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and
     rules for safety.

63. =Topical Index=                                    By F. W. Hamilton

     A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic
     Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

64. =Courses of Study=                                 By F. W. Hamilton

     A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for
     classroom and shop work.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid
co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the
printing business and its allied industries in the United States of
America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under
whose auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges
its indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many
authors, printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of
those contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a
group list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have
co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting
the first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the
Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee
hopes will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each
volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many
subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.

  COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION,
  UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA.
    HENRY P. PORTER, _Chairman_,
    E. LAWRENCE FELL,
    A. M. GLOSSBRENNER,
    J. CLYDE OSWALD,
    TOBY RUBOVITS.
    FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, _Education Director_.



CONTRIBUTORS


=For Composition and Electrotypes=

  ISAAC H. BLANCHARD COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
  S. H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  J. S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass.
  THE DEVINNE PRESS, New York, N. Y.
  R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill.
  GEO. H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass.
  EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich.
  FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
  GAGE PRINTING CO., Ltd., Battle Creek, Mich.
  F. H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass.
  STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  WILLIAM GREEN, New York, N. Y.
  W. F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill.
  FRANK D. JACOBS CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  WILSON H. LEE CO., New Haven, Conn.
  J. B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  MACCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa.
  THE PATTESON PRESS, New York.
  THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass.
  POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill.
  REMINGTON PRINTING CO., Providence, R. I.
  EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  THE STONE PRINTING & MFG. CO., Roanoke, Va.
  STATE JOURNAL COMPANY, Lincoln, Neb.
  THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.


=For Composition=

  BOSTON TYPOTHETAE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, Boston, Mass.
  WILLIAM F. FELL CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  THE KALKHOFF COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
  OXFORD-PRINT, Boston, Mass.
  TOBY RUBOVITS, Chicago, Ill.


=Electrotypers=

  BLOMGREN BROTHERS CO., Chicago, Ill.
  FLOWER STEEL ELECTROTYPING CO., New York, N. Y.
  C. J. PETERS & SON CO., Boston, Mass.
  ROYAL ELECTROTYPE CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  H. C. WHITCOMB & CO., Boston, Mass.


=For Engravings=

  AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS CO., Boston, Mass.
  C. B. COTTRELL & SONS CO., Westerly, R. I.
  GOLDING MANUFACTURING CO., Franklin, Mass.
  HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Mass.
  INLAND PRINTER CO., Chicago, Ill.
  LANSTON MONOTYPE MACHINE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
  MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
  GEO. H. MORRILL CO., Norwood, Mass.
  OSWALD PUBLISHING CO., New York, N. Y.
  THE PRINTING ART, Cambridge, Mass.
  B. D. RISING PAPER COMPANY, Housatonic, Mass.
  THE VANDERCOOK PRESS, Chicago, Ill.


=For Book Paper=

  AMERICAN WRITING PAPER CO., Holyoke, Mass.
  BRYANT PAPER CO., Kalamazoo, Mich.
  THE MIAMI PAPER CO., West Carrollton, Ohio.
  OXFORD PAPER COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
  WEST VIRGINIA PULP & PAPER CO., Mechanicville, N. Y.


=For Book Cloth=

  INTERLAKEN MILLS, Providence, R. I.



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _underscore_.

Passages in bold are indicated by =bold=.

The following misprints have been corrected:
  "Gutenburg's" corrected to "Gutenberg's" (page 47)
  "realstic" corrected to "realistic" (page 71)

Other than the corrections listed above, printer's inconsistencies in
spelling and punctuation have been retained.





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