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Title: The Beauties of the State of Washington - A Book for Tourists
Author: Giles, Harry F.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Beauties of the State of Washington - A Book for Tourists" ***

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THE BEAUTIES

OF THE

STATE OF WASHINGTON

[Illustration]

BY HARRY F. GILES--DEPUTY COMMISSIONER

          STATE BUREAU STATISTICS & IMMIGRATION
          I.M. HOWELL--SECRETARY OF STATE-EX-OFFICIO COMMISSIONER.



[Illustration: THE RHODODENDRON, WASHINGTON'S STATE FLOWER

"_Flowers rich as morning's sunrise hue_"

_Copyright by Asahel Curtis_]



[Illustration: STATE OF WASHINGTON

DEPARTMENT OF STATE

          BUREAU OF STATISTICS & IMMIGRATION
          I.M. HOWELL, SECRETARY OF STATE
          EX-OFFICIO COMMISSIONER

          THE BEAUTIES
          of the
          STATE of WASHINGTON

          A BOOK FOR TOURISTS
          BY HARRY F. GILES, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER]

[Illustration: SEAL OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON]

          OLYMPIA
          FRANK M. LAMBORN, PUBLIC PRINTER
          1915



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                                                        Page
  List of Full Page Illustrations                          3
  The Evergreen State                                      5
  Our Mountains                                            9
  Washington Forests                                      15
  The Climate                                             19
  Puget Sound                                          25-38
    Ideal for Yachting and Cruising                       29
    Hood Canal                                            29
    Other Trips                                           31
    Commerce                                              32
    The East Shores                                       32
    The Islands                                           33
    San Juan Group                                        33
    Whidby Island                                         36
    Other Islands                                         36
    Olympic Peninsula                                     38
  The Harbor Country                                   40-48
    Grays Harbor                                          43
    Willapa Bay                                           46
  Mount Rainier National Park                             49
    The Columbia River                                    54
    The Inland Empire                                  63-80
    Chief Features                                        64
    How to Reach Them                                     64
    The Yakima Valley                                     65
    The Wenatchee Valley                                  67
    Lake Chelan                                           68
    The Okanogan Highlands                                70
    The Spokane Country                                   75
    The Wheat Plateau                                     79
    The Walla Walla Country                               80
    The Columbia River                                    80
  Our Scenic Highways                                  81-89
    The Pacific Highway                                   81
    Sunset Highway                                        84
    Inland Empire Highway                                 86
    Olympic, National Park, and Other Highways            89
  A Sportsman's Paradise                                  91
  Cities and Suggested Trips                              95
  Alaska--Our Ally                                       112
  Map Showing Principal Highways



FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.


  Cover Design (a water color)                    Miss Zola F. Gruhlke
  Engravings             By Western Engraving & Colortype Co., Seattle

  THREE-COLOR HALFTONES.
  Title.                                  Photographer.           Page
  The Rhododendron (C.)                   Asahel Curtis   Frontispiece
  Lake Chelan (C.)                        Kiser Photo Co.           8
  A Forest Stream                         Curtis & Miller          16
  A Puget Sound Sunset                    Webster & Stevens        32
  Mount Rainier and Mirror Lake (C.)      Curtis & Miller          49
  Sunnyside Canal (C.)                    Asahel Curtis            64
  Priest Rapids                                                    80
  Columbia River from White Salmon (C.)   Kiser Photo Co.          96

  ONE-COLOR HALFTONES.
  Deep Lake                               Curtis & Miller           4
  Snoqualmie Falls (C.)                   Romans Photo Co.          6
  Mount Baker (Gr.)                                                10
  Looking Across the Cascades (C.)        Kiser Photo Co.          12
  Principal Trees in Washington           C. H. Ziddell            14
  Lumber Industry (Gr.)                                            18
  Sunset Falls and Mount Index (C.)       Asahel Curtis            21
  Yachting on Puget Sound (Gr.)                                    23
  Bremerton Scenes (Gr.)                                           24
  Tacoma and The Mountain                 Avery & Potter           27
  Eastern Shores of Puget Sound (Gr.)                              28
  Seattle and The Olympics                Curtis & Miller          30
  San Juan Islands (Gr.)                  J. A. McCormick          34
  Olympic Mountain Scenes (Gr.)                                    37
  Lake Crescent                           Curtis & Miller          39
  The Chehalis River (C.)                 Asahel Curtis            41
  Southwest Washington Views (Gr.)                                 44
  Surf on Washington Coast (C.)           Asahel Curtis            47
  Mount Rainier National Park (Gr.)                                51
  Mount Rainier and Lake Washington (C.)  W. P. Romans             53
  Along the Columbia River (Gr.)                                   56
  Salmon Fishing Industry (Gr.)                                    58
  Snake River Country                     Asahel Curtis            60
  Rock Lake                               Curtis & Miller          62
  The Yakima Valley                       Curtis & Miller          66
  The Wenatchee Valley                    Curtis & Miller          69
  The Okanogan and Methow (Gr.)                                    71
  Irrigation Scenes (Gr.)                                          73
  City of Spokane                         Frank Palmer             74
  Wheat Fields (Gr.)                                               76
  Walla Walla Scenes (Gr.)                                         78
  Along the Scenic Highways (Gr.)                                  82
  Olympia, Our Capital City (Gr.)         B. C. Collier            85
  Spokane Falls and Bridge                Frank Palmer             87
  Wild Elk in The Olympics (C.)           Grant Humes              90
  The Angler's Reward                     B. C. Collier            92
  Spokane Scenes (Gr.)                                             94
  Our Leading Educational Institutions (Gr.)                       99
  Our Earliest Pioneers (Gr.)                                     102
  Seattle's Boulevards (Gr.)                                      105
  Tacoma's Parks (Gr.)                                            108
  Alaska, Land of the North (Gr.)                                 111
        Those marked (Gr.) are groups; (C.) means copyright.

[Illustration: DEEP LAKE--A TYPICAL SCENE IN THE CASCADE MOUNTAINS.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]



[Illustration: The EVERGREEN STATE

          "O beautiful and grand,
          My own my Native Land!
              Of thee I boast
          Great Empire of the West,
          The dearest and the best,
          Made up of all the rest,
              I loved thee most."]


The state of Washington, most northwesterly state in the Union, named
for the "Father of His Country" and popularly called the "Evergreen
State," brings greetings.

For all who would behold, at close range, Nature in her most beautiful
expression when all component elements have been harmoniously combined,
these words of welcome are written. You are invited to come and share
the joy that emanates from the satisfaction of living in a country as
nearly perfect as any that earth has to offer.

In the creation of this region nothing was overlooked that might appeal
to the most fastidious. An empire within itself, it is provided with all
things for ministering both to man's physical needs and to his innermost
longings. All forces have contributed towards its glory. More careful
preparation was never made for the coming of man in any clime. Mountains
that reach to heaven and echo the music of celestial choirs in their
innumerable streams and waterfalls; valleys and plateaus that spring
into life when pricked by the harrow of the husbandman; forests of big
trees, perpetually green, to adorn and protect; the greatest of oceans
to temper with its breezes; inland seas and azure lakes to embellish and
attract--such are a few of the elements that make the State of
Washington and provide beauteous homes for its people.


[Illustration: SNOQUALMIE FALLS (268 FEET)--"THE NIAGARA OF THE WEST."

Copyright by Romans Photo Co.]

Have you yet discovered that cozy retreat imagined in your youthful
impressionable days, where true happiness is bound to reign? You can
find it here--a place where wonderful pictures, real and far grander
than the famous paintings of your favorite artist, are constantly
visible from your kitchen window or from your work shop--and they need
no expensive frames to enhance their loveliness and no dusting to
prevent their obscurity.

What are your favorite pastimes? Are you one of the brave mountaineers
who must yearly draw near the Almighty, and dare the elements by
treading dangerous yet entrancing trails to heights where the world
appears at your feet? Do you love to cruise in a little yacht built to
accommodate yourself and a few well chosen friends, or motor over scenic
highways to places of interest both near and far? Do you regard yourself
a mighty hunter and desire so to convince your friends? Or would you be
content to angle for the finny denizens of the deep with a certainty
that you will not in turn be tantalized?

The state of Washington affords unusual opportunity for all these. Its
mountains, glaciers and waterfalls are not excelled by the most boasted
scenes of Switzerland.

[Illustration: MOUNT ADAMS AND FOREST-COVERED FOOTHILLS.]

Almost the year round the waters of Puget Sound and the harbors of the
southwest invite the small craft. Nearly 50,000 miles of scenic highway,
passable for twelve months in succession, are ready for your
automobiles. Game, both large and small, feathered and hoofed, will lure
you through many a jungle of delicate fern and sweet scented bramble;
while countless streams and lakes teem with fish of many species.

Picturesque parks, dazzling sunsets, roaring ocean surf, cozy camping
sites, beach parties and clam bakes, college regattas, midwinter fairs,
roses at Christmas, golf the year round on turf that's always
green--these are a few of the charms that are as common in the state of
Washington as sands in the Sahara, or ice at the Poles.

If you are drawn by none of these, but desire only to satisfy that
exalted yet mysterious feeling which lurks in everyone's breast,
becoming manifest when the greatest works of the firmament are beheld,
then by all means visit this the "Evergreen State" and drink in the
glories which no book, howe'er so well written, and no picture, whoe'er
the artist, can portray with any degree of fullness or accuracy.

Washington is a region of variety and strong contrasts. At one moment
you may be jostled along the streets of some metropolitan center among
people of many nationalities and within a mere hour or so be wafted to a
sequestered spot of transcendent beauty, where no voice but your own is
echoed by the hills and where the existence of any other human being to
share this planet can be completely forgotten.

It is a state of large accomplishments. Big projects are planned:
mammoth irrigation schemes are carried out; lands are reclaimed from the
deep; orchards fill its valleys; wheat plateaus extend for miles; salmon
traps line the shores; its lumber supplies the world; its ships sail all
the seas; monstrous bridges cross the waterways; buildings vie with the
highest anywhere constructed; its schools rank first in the Union; its
men contribute to the world's greatness; its women vote and rear capable
families; the people make their own laws. Loyalty, originality,
enterprise, independence and liberality, all attributes of the western
spirit, are evident throughout the state.

Its population has grown in twenty odd years from 343,000 to over
1,400,000. In the meantime, wildernesses have been converted into
gardens, villages have developed into towns, while towns have grown into
cities, taking their places among the leading marts of the world. From a
frontier state it has come to be one of the greatest and most important
in the Union, adding to the galaxy of stars one of the brightest that
has yet appeared on the horizon.

[Illustration: LAKE CHELAN, ONE OF THE MOST WONDERFUL LAKE RESORTS IN
THE WEST

_"Pride of the waters of the world"_

_Copyright by Kiser Photo Co., Portland, Ore._]



[Illustration: OUR MOUNTAINS


          "Touched with a light that hath no name,
            A glory never sung,
          Aloft on sky and mountain wall
            Are God's great pictures hung."]


Perhaps the most prominent feature which attracts the eye of a visitor
upon his arrival in the Pacific Northwest consists of the mountain
ranges with their towering snowcapped peaks, forming, as it were,
ladders reaching from the green vales of earth to the blue vaults of
heaven. Silhouetted against the sky in the hazy distance, they are noted
by the westward bound traveler as soon as he reaches the highest point
in the divide of the Rockies, while to the mariner groping his way
eastward upon the Pacific Ocean they offer the first evidence of the
nearness of the welcome land.

These mountains mean much to the state of Washington, both for their
scenic grandeur and for the favorable influence they exert on the
climate and on the lives of the people who build their homes in the
valleys below. Their supremacy is reflected by the thermometer, the
barometer, and the aerometer; for they help regulate the temperature,
the rainfall, and the wind's velocity. They form great repositories for
the waters that feed the streams and keep full the cities' aqueducts.
Within their immeasurable depths lie buried huge deposits of precious
and useful metals, besides vast fields of bituminous coal. Their lower
zones provide fertile and safe localities for the growth of Washington's
big timber, while the alpine meadows above secure for the timid deer and
ptarmigan asylums of temporary freedom from too frequent disturbance by
prowling huntsmen. Still higher are the rugged bare prominences,
reserved for the wild goat or mountain sheep, and the snow fields
traversed by the more venturesome seeking to gain the summits.
Everywhere the true sportsman finds ample opportunity for proving his
prowess, while trailing the beast to its lair, and the sight-seeking
mountaineer is fully rewarded for all the struggle required to reach
some dizzy height.

[Illustration: A GLIMPSE FROM PACK CREEK

A CREVASSE

AT THE SUMMIT

SHUKSAN FALLS

LAKE SIX-THOUSAND FEET

MOUNT BAKER FORTY MILES EAST OF BELLINGHAM.]

Within the immense bosoms of these mountains nestle innumerable lakes,
beauteous beyond compare, near whose shady shores is many a sequestered
spot, most tempting to the camper who loves the mountain region; and
many a brook goes trickling over its stony course to join the rivers
below, pausing here and there in some shady dell to create a deep pool
for luring the fisherman, or hurling itself over some lofty precipice as
a waterfall of wonderful magnitude and magnificence.

The mountains are a link connecting us with the past. They remind us
perhaps of the period when volcanoes belched forth their fiery refuse,
or of the era when the sea covered most of what is now land.
Indestructible they stand and their rocky heights are in places
insurmountable. The works of man trespass everywhere else, but these
huge pillars of the ages rise in their majestic splendor and with
sublime dignity seem to say: "Thus far and no further! We will preserve
and guard your water and fuel supply. We will protect you from the
furies of the elements and produce materials for building your palaces.
We will create charming nooks where you may camp under the clear sky,
and shady forests where you may pursue the chase. We will fill the
brooks with swift darting fish; carpet the meadows with myriads of
flowers, ferns, and shrubs; and paint you pictures undreamt of by men
who have scorned our acquaintance. You are permitted to build roads
whereby your Pullmans and your automobiles may cross to the other side,
but not one of our number shall be moved nor its form be changed in the
least, except by that same invisible power at whose mighty will we were
brought into existence."

[Illustration: LOOKING ACROSS THE CASCADE MOUNTAINS.

Copyright by Kiser Photo Co., Portland, Ore.]

Each mountain range possesses its own distinct characteristics. Of least
importance, but none the less beautiful, are the Blue Mountains in the
southeastern corner of the state, providing pleasant summer retreats for
the people in that vicinity. The Olympic range practically envelopes the
Olympic Peninsula and all but encroaches upon the agricultural lands
lying between the foothills and the salt waters on three sides. In
this range are the most rugged mountains in Washington, presenting some
of the wildest and most inspiring scenery anywhere to be found.

Most prominent and of greatest importance in the geography of the state
are the Cascades, having an average altitude of from 5,000 to 8,000 feet
and named for the many hurrying streams that have cut their deep courses
upon the shady slopes. They extend from the British Columbia line
slightly southwest until divided by the Columbia river, whence they
continue through Oregon and become the Sierra Nevadas of California. By
them the state of Washington is separated into two quite distinct parts,
known as Eastern and Western Washington, the former comprising a portion
of the great Inland Empire. Forming a sort of spur on their east side,
north of the Columbia, and extending to the mountains of Idaho are the
beautiful rolling hills known as the Okanogan Highlands from 5,000 to
6,000 feet in altitude without sharp abrupt prominences and bearing on
their higher surfaces forests of pine.

Throughout the Cascade range several prominent peaks tower above the
others like giants among dwarfs. The loftiest by far is Mount Rainier
(or Mount Tacoma), second highest mountain in the United States proper,
14,408 feet in altitude and the chief mountain resort out of Seattle and
Tacoma; Mount Adams, 12,307 feet, on the boundary line of Skamania and
Yakima counties; Mount St. Helens, 9,697 feet high, at the western edge
of Skamania county, reached from Castle Rock or Vancouver; Mount Baker,
10,730 feet, forty miles from Bellingham and one of its main
attractions; Mount Stuart, 9,470 feet, in Chelan county; and Glacier
Peak, 10,436 feet, in Snohomish county. In this latitude 7,500 feet is
the snow-line, but Washington has many peaks above that elevation.
Fifty-seven have already been named and measured.

All these peaks are accessible and, together with Mount Olympus in the
Olympics, constitute the main goals of the mountain loving clubs of the
northwest. Mountain phenomena are displayed in all with a maximum degree
of grandeur, insuring ample reward to those venturing to explore their
many fastnesses.

[Illustration: A FIR, A CEDAR, AND A HEMLOCK--PRINCIPAL TREES IN
WASHINGTON.]

Photo by C. H. Ziddell.



[Illustration: WASHINGTON FORESTS

          "Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branching palm,
            A sylvan scene, and as the ranks ascend
              Shade above shade, a woody theater
                Of stateliest view"]

Dense forests of evergreen trees almost envelop the hills and mountains
of the state of Washington. Scarcely any portions were originally left
bare, excepting the higher peaks, which in a spirit of independence seem
to have pushed their bald heads up and above this beautiful covering
protecting the regions below. Into the fertile valleys and along the
river banks clear to the sea the stately ranks of these forests once
advanced, but such localities are now, for the most part, given over to
the cities and the husbandmen or else in a state of semi-transformation
are awaiting the day when they too will be devoted to the peaceful
pursuits of agriculture; for the broad Columbia plain was the only part
of the state dedicated from the first to the sole task of producing food
supplies rather than fuel and building material.

About ten million acres of these forests have been locked up in eleven
national reserves, and set aside for our future needs, or to insure
permanent haunts where Nature may always be seen in her full pristine
glory--Conservation! Nearly six million acres more are under private
ownership. Investigation reveals evidences that their birth occurred
very many years ago, possibly five hundred or even six hundred years;
for that many rings have been counted on some of the largest trees. The
foliage appears every month in the year just as beautiful as when it
first mingled with the landscape--hence the name "Evergreen State."

The effect produced by this verdant growth upon the scenery of the state
of Washington can be best realized by climbing to one of the heights
overlooking the timber line. From here one can readily see how perfectly
it hides every blemish of the irregular contour, blending beautifully
with the blue waters in the distance and the pale clouds floating above.
Thousands of greenish tints are distinguishable, shading from a light
yellowish tinge to a deep prismatic blue, while occasionally a streak of
bright red or a touch of pure white lends a striking contrast.

Leaving the point of vantage, however, to delve into its midst,
breathing in the aromatic odors from the balsams and cedars, it is easy
to note hundreds of interesting distinctions in size, form, color, and
variety, for

          "No tree in all the grove but has its charms,
           Though each its hue peculiar."

One should know, too, that he is buried in one of the densest forests of
the temperate zone; while standing proudly on every side are individual
giants, which for size can be duplicated nowhere else in the world,
excepting by occasional specimens of the famous Red Woods of California.

These sturdy monarchs have all been honored with names and thoroughly
worthy of their names they are, without a blemish to mar their fame in
spite of the ages through which they have lived. Most prominent is the
Douglas Fir, or Douglas Spruce (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), the giant of the
forest, growing erect as a plumb-line until it ends in a pyramidal crown
two hundred feet or more above the ground. This is the most important
tree of the state, for its product houses the people, and for the past
ten years has insured Washington first place in lumber production in the
United States. Some of the largest trees reach the enormous proportions
of eight, ten, and even twelve feet in diameter, a single one producing
material sufficient to build a palace of huge dimensions.

[Illustration: _Photo by Curtis & Miller_

ONE OF MANY LURING STREAMS

"_O'erhung with wild woods, thickening green_"]

Of great importance also is the "Red Cedar," reaching sometimes a height
of 200 feet and having a diameter in rare cases of over 20 feet;
yielding for the state of Washington two-thirds of all the shingles
produced in the United States. Similar to the Cypress, its sweet
soporific scent is everywhere conspicuous and always pleasing. Other
trees which provide lumber and add grace to the Washington woods are the
hemlocks, spruces, larches, and white firs, in the western part of
the state; and the pines and tamaracs in a number of the eastern
counties.

Many other species, of minor commercial value, are sprinkled throughout
the forest in sufficient plentifulness to complete the artistic design.
There are the wide-leafed maples; the red barked madronas; the pale
barked quivering cottonwoods and their allies, the bitter tasting
willows; the white flowered dogwood, prominent throughout the forests
until late in the spring, and occasionally found blooming in the fall;
the gray barked alder protecting the springs and mountain streams; the
sturdy oaks, skirting the gravelly prairies; the long lived juniper; and
the hardy Scotch broom; besides various other trees and shrubs. Many of
these are so beautiful that landscape gardeners find nothing more
suitable for decorating lawns or lining the city parks and boulevards.

Here and there are many trees, shrubs and vines that seem to have been
destined especially to yield food for the natural wanderers of the
forests; for it is intended that nothing shall be wanted in the state of
Washington. There is probably no other section of the world where wild
berries grow in greater profusion. Very prominent is the wild cherry,
the wild apple, the salmon berry, the thimble berry, the huckleberry,
the salal berry, the Oregon grape, the blackberry, the strawberry, the
wild currant, and the raspberry.

Hiding within the shade of these, playing hide and seek with nature
lovers who enjoy threading the romantic trails for which this section of
the world is noted, is many a modest flower which in some sections
blooms nearly the whole year round, so soft is the climate; while the
pink petaled rhododendron, of bolder nature, Washington's state flower,
is prominent in June tossing its beautiful head among the dry logs and
lining the course of many a pretty driveway.

Penetrating everywhere and saturating the atmosphere with its sweetness,
may be heard the music of some rippling stream winding its happy way
down the mountain side and playing, as it were, an accompaniment to the
duets of soul mated song birds unable to restrain their songs of joy. If
this is a wilderness then a wilderness is a paradise on earth.

[Illustration: ONE INDUSTRY IN WHICH WASHINGTON RANKS FIRST.]



[Illustration: THE CLIMATE

       "Eternal Spring with smiling Verdure here
         Warms the mild Air and crowns the youthful year."]


People considering a change of residence or a vacation trip are always
interested in the climate of the locality attracting their attention,
for they know that absolute contentment in any clime, even for a brief
period, is impossible without a friendly attitude on the part of the
elements. So many regions seem to have been permanently blighted by
conditions opposed to human happiness, or at least to have been
forgotten in certain important essentials when Nature was passing round
her favors.

The state of Washington, however, received a full share of climatic
blessings as well as scenic beauties. Without extremes either of heat or
cold its climate is as temperate as that of southern England--a most
remarkable fact when one realizes that its latitude is higher than that
of the state of Maine and its northern boundary line corresponds to that
of North Dakota and Minnesota. Such equability is caused chiefly by the
protecting mountains and their dense forests together with the breezes
blowing direct from the ocean and warmed by the mysterious Japan
Current.

So uniform is the general temperature, excepting in the mountainous
regions, that the same weight of clothing is by many found sufficient
the year round. In every section there is a long growing season and only
a short mild winter, known on the west side as the "rainy season." There
is never danger from blizzards or intense "cold waves," for these are
deflected to the country east of the Rockies. Trees retain their green
foliage the year round; in most parts there is usually some pasture
available every month; and in certain sections many varieties of
flowers will be found blooming outdoors in January. Cattle may be turned
loose almost any day in the year and the farmer is saved the necessity
of spending all his summer's profits in order that his livestock will
not starve during a long cold period. The lowest monthly normal
temperature, as deduced from a period of years, is for Seattle, 39°;
Spokane, 27°; and Walla Walla, 33°. Contrast these with the normal
temperatures of the following cities for the same month: Duluth, 10°;
St. Paul, 12°; Des Moines, 20°; and Chicago, 24°.

The summers may be considered ideal. A breeze is generally stirring.
There are no sunstrokes, for even in the warmest parts the dryness of
the atmosphere favors evaporation. The nights are everywhere cool. When
millions in other climes are rolling about in their torturous beds,
struggling for the relief that sleep alone can impart, the Washingtonian
doffs his clothes, tucks himself comfortably between his cozy quilts,
and is soon wafted into the land of nod from which he awakes in the
morning refreshed and ready for life's battle.

  MEAN MONTHLY AND SUMMER TEMPERATURE OF WASHINGTON
  CITIES COMPARED WITH THAT OF OTHER U. S. CITIES.

                       _June_  _July_   _Aug._  _Sep._  _Sum'r_

  Puget Sound District   57      62       61      57      59
  Seattle                60      64       63      58      61
  Tacoma                 58      63       63      57      60
  Spokane                63      69       68      59      65

  Chicago                66      72       71      64      68
  New York City          69      74       73      66      70
  Boston                 66      72       70      63      68
  Washington, D. C.      73      77       75      68      73
  Philadelphia           72      76       74      68      72

The summers, too, are particularly free from excessive rainfall, such as
discomforts the people in eastern cities during those months and causes
so many disappointments; for 80 per cent of our precipitation occurs
between October 15th and May 15th, and 75 per cent between sunset and
sunrise, so that the pleasures of the day are seldom marred.

The heaviest fall of moisture occurs on the mountain slopes while the
valleys, where the people make their homes, have no more than enough to
produce a vigorous plant growth. The average for the year on Puget Sound
is about the same as in Chicago and only three-fourths as much as in New
York or Boston. The Cascade Mountains prevent as high a precipitation
in the eastern counties where it corresponds more to that of California.


[Illustration: SUNSET FALLS AND MOUNT INDEX, 40 MILES EAST OF EVERETT.]

The normal annual precipitation during a 36 year period, according to
the government statistics, was for Seattle, 36.6 inches; Spokane, 18.8
inches; Walla Walla, 17.7 inches; Chicago, 33.3 inches; New York, 44.6
inches; Jacksonville, 53.2 inches; Kansas City, 37.4 inches; Boston,
43.3 inches; Los Angeles, 15.6 inches; and San Francisco, 22.3 inches.

  MONTHLY AND SUMMER RAINFALL OF U. S. CITIES.

                             _June_  _July_   _Aug._  _Sep._  _Sum'r_

  Puget Sound District        1.59    0.67    0.74     2.01    5.01
  Seattle                     1.41    0.61    0.46     1.98    4.46
  Tacoma                      1.97    0.69    0.66     2.79    5.91
  Spokane                     1.61    0.67    0.48     1.01    3.8
  Walla Walla                 1.2     0.4     0.4      0.9     2.9

  Chicago                     3.52    3.62    3.02     3.06    13.22
  New York City               3.41    4.08    4.38     3.44    15.31
  Boston                      3.14    3.51    4.15     3.44    14.24
  Washington, D. C.           3.74    4.34    4.98     3.25    16.31
  Philadelphia                3.27    4.14    4.69     3.36    17.46

The same forces that affect the temperature and precipitation also offer
protection against the extraordinary meteorological occurrences that so
often terrorize the people in more exposed regions. "The Weather Bureau
has no authentic record of a real tornado anywhere in the state of
Washington" says G. N. Salisbury, Washington Section Director of the U.
S. Weather Bureau. Violent thunderstorms are in most parts unknown. Loss
of life never occurs from any of these causes. The atmosphere is always
pure and salubrious and the death rate is lowest of all states in the
Union, while its two largest cities have the lowest death rate of all
cities in the United States, having a population of 100,000 or over.

After all has been said it were best to come and see. Spend a season
where no dreary winters will engender melancholy while waiting for a
lingering spring, and where no sizzling heat will threaten prostration.
Come to a state that is as free as possible from the ills of unfriendly
phenomena, and where one beautiful day passes into the next as a
pleasant dream shades into the sweetest realities of life.

[Illustration: YACHTING ON PUGET SOUND.

A Pleasure Fleet

Racing for Lipton Cup

Motor Boating

Idle Hour

A Favorable Breeze]

[Illustration: SCENES AT BREMERTON--ONE OF THE LARGEST U. S. NAVAL
STATIONS.

The Oregon in Drydock

A Naval Fleet in Port

Battleship Nebraska

Drydock]



[Illustration: PUGET SOUND

          "A land locked sea with harbors deep and wide
           Where all the navies of the world could hide"]


One glorious expanse of calm picturesque water is the great inland sea
known as Puget Sound, extending from the Strait of Juan de Fuca far into
the interior of the state of Washington. If the Strait mentioned,
together with Hood Canal and a portion of the Strait of Georgia are
included, and they will be in this article, nearly 2,000 square miles of
mirror like surface are encompassed within the green wooded shore lines
of as many lineal miles. With sinuous arms, these waters reach in every
direction, reflecting in their depths sometimes the lofty mountains, at
other times gardens and farms of unusual attractiveness, and again the
modern cities located upon the shores.

Almost everywhere have been sprinkled pretty emerald isles beckoning
with all the lure of nature, while tree bedecked peninsulas shelter
hundreds of cuddling coves. Near the dividing shore line the "tide
lands" reach out from the sunny beaches and supply a sort of neutral
ground, enjoyed now by the clam diggers or oyster culturists and again
claimed by the enveloping waters.

Rising gently from the water's edge broad areas of fertile lands, which
have been released from their forest burdens, are now devoted to the
pursuits of husbandry and yield liberally to feed the multitudes
dwelling in the neighboring large cities. Here and there patches of
virgin growth in primeval splendor may still be seen, but usually,
excepting in the Hood Canal region, the forests have been forced back to
the foot hills, leaving in their wake the so-called logged-off areas
which are in turn rapidly giving away to meadows and orchards. Further
back to the east and west the mountains stand guard, while innumerable
streams with incalculable water power pierce their sides, transect the
lower levels, and pour the sweets of the mountainous regions out into
the salts of the deep.

Occasionally rocky bluffs or promontories stand boldly out of the water,
and command the view for miles in every direction. Pictures are
everywhere presented which reproduced on canvass would insure the
immortality of any artist. Altogether the region presents the likeness
of one vast kingly garden where every plant that will grow is nurtured
and all wonders combine to enchant the visitor.

[Illustration: SUMMER TIME PLEASURES.]

This beauteous sea is not locked away behind impenetrable bulwarks of
mountain walls, like many of nature's wonders, but is at the very door
of the people and enjoyed by them while going about their daily tasks.
Nearly a million human beings look out upon its placid waters and
rejoice at their good fortune in being permitted to play, as it were,
upon its banks, and to feel the tender caresses of the soft whispering
breezes that make the region such a pleasure ground in summer, and a
haven in winter--and there is room for ten times as many to make their
homes where these same joys may be experienced.

Not in the lifetime of an individual, nor even in the period required
for the most extravagant display of human skill, was this great pleasure
resort created. Ages elapsed, say geologists, between the rising of the
waters that "drowned" the rivers once flowing where now the Sound
reposes and the advent of the glaciers which deposited the fertile
sediment to nourish the luxuriant growth appearing on every hand.

[Illustration: TACOMA, THE CITY WITH A SNOW-CAPPED MOUNTAIN IN ITS DOOR
YARD.

Photo by Avery and Potter.]

[Illustration: Bellingham From Sehome Hill

Skagit River Valley

Everett Cascade Mountains In Distance

Berry Patch In The Puyallup Valley

VIEWS NEAR THE EASTERN SHORES OF PUGET SOUND.]


IDEAL FOR YACHTING AND CRUISING.

One can pass the entire summer on Puget Sound without seeing a bit of
rough weather. The largest ocean liners ride here safe from the storms
that pound sometimes against the outer coast line; for its waters
compose one great harbor, protected by the forests and mountains. One
may see "Uncle Sam's" powerful fighting machines almost any day steaming
toward Bremerton, one of the U. S. Naval Stations, where the largest dry
dock owned by the U. S. Government is located.

But this peaceful body of water is not for the big vessels alone. It
could not have been improved if created especially for the yacht, the
motor launch, the row boat and even the venturesome canoe. Upon its
surface is held many a local speed contest, and the annual power boat
race is run from Ketchikan, Alaska, to Seattle. Conditions here are
ideal for the college regatta and for the difficult feats of the
hydroplane. During festive days many important events are pulled off,
while the happy spectators, dressed in holiday attire, are crowded along
the water's edge or perched on the ridges and house tops above.

For cruising, no waters in the world offer such advantages--never
threatened by tempests and always within reach of some of nature's most
glorious beauty spots. Landing places suitable for camps are easily
found, from which short inland excursions may be made through alpine
meadows by winding trails to the summit of some mountain or to the
shores of some peaceful lake.

Those who are not fortunate enough to have their own craft are not
necessarily deprived of enjoying these waters; for regular passenger
steamers, of ample capacity and stately appearance make regular trips
throughout the year from every city on its shores to nearly every other
part of the Sound; while special summer time excursions are made from
the metropolitan centers to all the principal points of interest on
Puget Sound and to the cities of British Columbia and Alaska.


HOOD CANAL.

The waters that put one in closest touch with the mountains are in the
narrow channel, or fiord, known as Hood Canal, extending southwesterly
and bending back into the heart of the Kitsap Peninsula. Tourists
riding over these waters for the first time are elated with the
splendors, and the frequent visitor never tires of the inspiring scenes
that everywhere greet the eye. The eastern shores reveal the neat farms
and settlements in Kitsap and Mason counties, while the western edge is
at the very foot of the Olympic range, whose white serrated ridges are
continually visible from the deck of a passing steamer. Easily
distinguishable also are the deep canyons cut by the several main
streams working their way towards the canal, plunging over rocky cliffs
and creating falls of exquisite beauty. The Little and Big Quilcene, the
Dusewallips, the Duckabush, the Hamma Hamma, and the Lilliwago, are some
of the mountain streams whose canyons with rugged trails are familiar to
those making frequent pilgrimages thither.

[Illustration: A BUSINESS SECTION IN SEATTLE--ELLIOTT BAY AND THE
OLYMPIC MOUNTAINS BEYOND.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]

Other attractive places are Lake Cushman, a mountain summer resort
reached from Hoodsport, and the rich Skokomish valley containing the
Indian reservation of the same name. At Union City one may take the
stage over a well traveled road through groves and vales to Shelton,
county seat of Mason county, where regular steamers connect with all
Puget Sound points--thus encircling the Kitsap Peninsula.


OTHER TRIPS.

Equally delightful are the little voyages over the main traveled waters
of the Sound from Seattle or Tacoma to Olympia and Shelton, to
Bremerton, Everett, Bellingham, Anacortes, Port Townsend, and Port
Angeles; also out to the ocean or through the San Juan Islands to
Victoria and Vancouver in British Columbia. The mountains are always in
sight although not so close as on the Canal trip, and there passes a
continual procession of groves, hills, pebbly beaches, rocky palisades,
gardens, orchards, green meadows, and summer homes.

Entrancing is the view at the sun's rising or setting when a myriad
shades of reddish and bluish tints are painted on the hovering clouds,
which assume various grotesque shapes above the shimmering waters; and
even at night time when threading the channel marked by the twinkling
beacon lights, or entering the harbor of a city resplendent with
thousands of glittering incandescents.


COMMERCE.

Besides scenes that appeal chiefly to the esthetic are many that suggest
the state's commercial importance, for these waters produce many million
dollars worth of fish each year, and the neighboring shores have the
largest saw mills in the world, supplying a big share of the
4,000,000,000 feet of lumber which is Washington's annual contribution
and insures her first place in the Union. Out from Bellingham and
Anacortes may be observed the rare spectacle of huge fish traps being
raised, with sometimes 50,000 Puget Sound salmon wiggling within their
meshes, soon to be preserved in the largest canneries of the world and
shipped to all corners of the globe. Big ocean liners heavily laden are
seen in the harbors or met upon the waters, carrying away cargoes of
manufactured products which for the entire state approaches the
stupendous sum of $300,000,000 yearly.


THE EAST SHORES.

The loudest buzz of commercialism is to be heard on the east shores,
where fertile valleys and sightly plateaus checkered with farms and
gardens stretch away to the foot hills of the Cascade Mountains,
comprising five of the most densely populated counties in the state.
Here, too, are four of Washington's five largest cities, Seattle,
Tacoma, Everett and Bellingham, each the center of a rich territory
supporting numerous smaller cities. At the southern limit is Olympia,
the state capital.

Without irrigation the region yields liberally of fruits, berries,
vegetables, hay, oats, dairy and poultry products, which go to support
those engaged in the lumbering, fishing, ship building, mining, and
other manufacturing industries, and the diversified business pursuits.

Eight transcontinental railroads operate trains, an almost unbroken
string of electric railways render good local service, while excellent
roads, including the Pacific Highway, crisscross the section and unite
the people with indestructible bonds of friendship and mutual
interests.

[Illustration: _Photo by Webster & Stevens_

A PUGET SOUND SUNSET

          "_When Sol in joy is seen to leave
            The earth with crimson beam._"]

A number of lakes beautify this region, as well as the other parts of
the Puget Sound country. The largest is Lake Washington, one of the
grandest in the west, twenty miles in length, forming the eastern
boundary to Seattle, providing sites for country homes and parks, and
embellishing its boulevard system. Near Bellingham is Lake Whatcom, of
similar importance to that city. Lake Stevens is handy to Everett, and a
number of smaller ones are tributary to Tacoma.


THE ISLANDS.

Puget Sound would not be nearly so interesting without the many
enchanting isles dotting its surface from Olympia to Blaine and within
easy reach of the cities located upon its shores. Some are hidden within
partially concealed bays and others appear like portions of the mainland
until circumnavigation has proved their seclusion. Although a few have
sufficient area and commercial importance to form entire counties, the
larger number are of rather small compass, and a few are tiny gems
suitable only for private resorts away from the busy cities. Nearly all
are clothed in evergreen trees, bespangled with flowers and ferns, and
girdled with gravelly beaches suggesting the real charms of camp life.


SAN JUAN GROUP.

Travelers agree that no islands anywhere are more beautiful than the San
Juan group, blocking the entrance to the Straits of Georgia, rivaling as
they do the Thousand Isles of the St. Lawrence or the classical Grecian
Archipelago. There are 172 of them, including 122 with names suggesting
their own peculiarities and others known chiefly by their location and
shown only on the mariner's chart. The largest are San Juan, Orcas and
Lopez. Apart from them but closer to the mainland are Lummi, Guemes, and
Cypress, similar in formation and of like attractiveness. They are
approachable with almost any kind of craft, no great distances separate
them, and often there is just passage for a steamer. They offer rare
opportunity for playing hide and seek on the water, a game which in days
gone by men played in earnest; for the smuggler stealing away from the
international boundary line found within their shady inlets havens of
safety from the unfriendly eye of "Uncle Sam's" revenue cutter.

[Illustration: THE SUCIA ISLAND

BATTLESHIP ISLAND

WALDRON ISLAND

JAPANESE ISLAND. EAST SOUND

FIRST IRISHMAN IN AMERICA--BLAKELY ISLAND

TURTLEBACK MOUNTAIN, ORCAS ISLAND

AMONG THE SAN JUAN ISLANDS.

Photos by J. A. McCormick.]

And only to think, these islands were nearly lost to us! Had it not been
for the wise decision of William I. of Germany in 1871, the Union Jack
instead of the beloved Stars and Stripes might today be floating over
them. The two distinct camps on San Juan Island where the British "Red
Coats" and the American "Blues" waited and watched from 1860 to 1872,
are still protected as points of interest; the former near Roche Harbor,
and the latter near Friday Harbor, the county seat.

The usual way to reach them is by steamer from Seattle, Bellingham or
Anacortes. The boat stops at all the main towns including Friday Harbor,
where the University Marine Station and two large salmon canneries are
located; Roche Harbor, where one of the largest lime kilns is
prospering; and Deer Harbor, West Sound, East Sound, Rosario, Olga, and
Doebay, attractive as summer resorts.

Many people spend their summers among these isles. The tourist with
limited time should, besides visiting the historic sites on San Juan,
make a trip to Mount Constitution on Orcas Island. Two good wagon roads
lead all the way to the top, the one from East Sound and the other from
Olga. A pleasant day's outing is enjoyed by going up one way and
returning by the other. Its altitude, 2,408 feet, is nothing compared
with the peaks in the Cascades. Nevertheless, few places offer more
comprehensive outlooks. On the descent it will be difficult for the
"wise" to resist the temptation to pass through Rosario, the beautiful
country estate belonging to Robert Moran, a retired Seattle ship
builder, who has harnessed the water power from the lakes lying a few
hundred feet above and equipped a modern mansion with all that man can
desire or money and art can supply. Who would guess that a great pipe
organ might be heard in this seemingly remote spot in the universe,
bursting out in unexcelled magnificence, rendering the masterpieces of
the great composers.


WHIDBY ISLAND.

Extending about fifty miles in front of Skagit and Snohomish counties,
midway in the Sound where the views of the Cascades and the Olympics are
unobstructed, is Whidby Island, the second largest island in the United
States proper and sometimes called "The Long Island of Puget Sound."
With Camano Island on the east and two other very small ones it
constitutes an independent county. Having much water front and its
western shore facing the straits where direct breezes from the ocean are
felt, it draws many campers from the cities. There are no mountains to
climb, although a number of eminences offer views of the distant
landscape.

The largest improvement has been near the southern extremity and between
Coupeville and the northern limits, where the world's record for wheat
production per acre was made. A beautiful road decorated with
rhododendrons leads from Fort Casey to Deception Pass separating it from
Fidalgo Island on the north, which is connected with the mainland by a
first class highway. Near Coupeville is Still Park, where summer
Chautauquas are held and many campers congregate.


OTHER ISLANDS.

A few minutes' ride out of Seattle is Bainbridge Island, having forty
miles of water front lined with summer homes or suitable for camping
sites. Tributary to both Seattle and Tacoma are Vashon and Maury
Islands, practically one, comprising some twenty-three thousand acres,
which yield for these cities berries, fruits, vegetables, and flowers,
and offer some of the most delightful sites for homes along their fifty
miles of attractive shore line.

Fox, Anderson, and McNeils Islands are integral parts of the Bay Island
country, a rich district tributary to Tacoma and offering unlimited
opportunities for campers who are always welcomed by the hospitable
ranchers. Hartstine Island maintains one of the largest vineyards in the
west, yielding delicious grapes which find their way to distant eastern
markets. Numerous smaller islands are scattered about the Sound and
insure pleasant retreats for all that love the simple life.

[Illustration: MT. OLYMPUS

FALLS

BRIDAL VEIL FALLS

OLYMPIC MOUNTAINS FROM HOOD CANAL

WHAT YOU WILL SEE IN THE OLYMPICS.]


OLYMPIC PENINSULA.

Lying between Hood Canal and the Pacific Ocean and extending from the
Strait of Juan de Fuca southward toward the Chehalis river valley is the
vast Olympic Peninsula, whose resources and wonders are probably less
known than almost any other section of the world. The central portion
constitutes one great forest reserve within which is the Olympic
National Monument set apart by the government for the enjoyment of
nature lovers. The population is distributed among the cities and towns
situated on the level lands skirting the waterfront. This Monument
contains the most rugged mountains, the deepest canyons, the most
turbulent rivers and the thickest forests in the state.

The Peninsula is now reached both by steamer and automobile. Highways
lead well up into the foothills from the cities of Port Angeles, Sequim,
Port Townsend, Quilcene, Shelton, Aberdeen, Hoquiam, and Hood Canal
points, and passable trails thread their way to the summits beyond. It
is easy to surprise both deer and elk, confident of safety from the
approach of man. Numerous flowering parks display seas of gorgeous
colors which make the region famous for its beauty.

It also serves as a huge treasure chest. Billions of feet of choicest
timber remain uncut; valuable ore veins and a vast lake of petroleum are
buried within its depths; land well suited for agriculture girdles the
entire peninsula; and the neighboring waters yield liberal quantities of
fish.

Certain beauty spots in the mountains have been supplemented with the
conveniences and luxuries of modern invention. Among these are Sol Duc
Springs, at the headwaters of the Sol Duc river, where a little palace
has been lifted into the mountains, Government Hot Springs, and Lake
Crescent, all reached from Port Angeles; Lake Cushman, approached from
Hoodsport; and Lake Quiniault, north of Grays Harbor. A visit to any of
these resorts or any part of the peninsula will satisfy the most
extravagant expectations of tourist and mountaineer.

[Illustration: LAKE CRESCENT, A POPULAR LAKE RESORT NEAR PORT ANGELES.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]



[Illustration: THE HARBOR COUNTRY

          "We stand on beetling crag or cliff and gaze from farthest west
            To the bounding ocean billows, to the broad free sea,
              We hail the flags of all the earth and welcome here to rest
                Amidst the smiling waters by the tall fir tree."]


Everybody in the state of Washington knows about the "Harbor Country,"
the only part of the state where almost simultaneously one may enjoy the
rare combination of the unobstructed ocean, an inland sea, and trout
streams lined with giant firs and cedars, which all but encroach upon
the dominions of the waters. Here the oyster, the clam and the crab
seemingly try to outdo one another and the mighty forest, in yielding
splendid profits to the people, who lend every encouragement to the
remarkable competition.

Thousands from the larger cities hie themselves to this section, at
least once during the summer, to feast their eyes upon another variety
of scenery, to enjoy its peculiar attractions, and experience again the
pleasure of riding through a valley that appeals alike to the Pullman
passenger and to the automobilist; for it is human nature to love a
change, even if one's home environment approaches perfection itself.

There are two important salt water harbors in southwest Washington, the
more northerly one in Chehalis county, and named Grays Harbor after the
great explorer who discovered it in 1792, and the southern one in
Pacific county bearing an Indian name, Willapa Bay. They are separated
by only a few miles of territory, which is served by no railroad other
than a short logging road. Regular traffic is usually around by
Centralia, excepting that during the summer months auto stages traverse
the beach from Cohasset to Tokeland; for the beach here is level and
broad, and the sands packed so firm, when the tide has receded, that it
is used as a highway, and even as a race track for automobiles and
motorcycles. This is true not only of the portion lying between the
two harbors but also of the twenty-five miles known as "North Beach"
extending from Willapa Bay to the mouth of the Columbia.

[Illustration: ON THE BANKS OF THE CHEHALIS, LEWIS COUNTY.

Copyright by Asahel Curtis.]

The entire region is fraught with charms that can be duplicated nowhere
else. Pacific, Moclips and Cohasset beaches are patronized especially by
people from the Sound cities and from southwest Washington. North Beach
to the south of Willapa Bay attracts as well crowds from Portland and
other Oregon cities. On Sundays or at week ends special excursions are
numerous, when great crowds avail themselves of the opportunity of
visiting the seashore.

[Illustration: POINT GRENVILLE.]

The modes of amusement are numerous. Wading and bathing in the surf or
burrowing in the warm sands; hunting for shells, agates, and Indian
relics; rowing, and trolling for salmon; or searching for the rare
floral specimens abounding in the neighboring woods occupy the time of
many. Others enjoy visiting the canneries, observing the motor races, or
watching the sailing vessels, with canvas inflated, gliding quietly into
the harbor or, heavily laden, being dragged out across the bar by some
fretful yet powerful tug boat. Then there are the clam bakes and, at the
end of the day, the big bonfires, the beach parties and the story
telling, after which one is lulled into sweet slumber by the unceasing
roar of the ocean surf.

So fascinating is this region that its extensive ocean beach will
undoubtedly in time be ornate with one continuous array of summer
resorts reaching from Ilwaco on Baker's Bay, at the mouth of the
Columbia, to Neah Bay at the entrance to the Straits, and interrupted
only by the narrow gaps marking the entrances to the two harbors. Every
manner of dwelling is provided for those who wish to stay several weeks.
Cottages may be rented, camping sites engaged, or board obtained at one
of the homelike hotels looking out upon the sea.


GRAYS HARBOR.

To reach Grays Harbor, unless approaching from the ocean, means a trip
through the wide fertile valley of the Chehalis river, either by auto or
over one of the three transcontinental railroads that serve it. The
entire journey presents a panorama of pretty landscapes. The stream
itself is conspicuous, tracing the valley's boundary on one side and
again on the other, as if choosing the most convenient course to the
sea. Sometimes it disappears from view, but its presence is still marked
by clumps of willows and cottonwoods protecting its banks, and again by
some rustic bridge where the highway crosses.

[Illustration: SCENE ON LOWER GRAYS HARBOR.]

More generously the beauties unfold as the valley widens and the harbor
is neared. Quaint towns are seen, including Oakville, noted for large
shipments of cascara bark; Elma, an industrial center; and Montesano,
the county seat and head of river navigation. Green meadows, wooded
slopes, and cultivated farms on both sides of the river absorb the
attention until Cosmopolis, Aberdeen, and Hoquiam, close by the harbor,
are reached. These cities have experienced a remarkable growth within
the past fourteen years. Aberdeen and Hoquiam have now a combined
population of 29,000 in place of 6,355, the census returns of 1900.
Thoroughly cosmopolitan, they contain the homes of some of the
wealthiest men in the state.

[Illustration: MT. ST. HELENS AND SPIRIT LAKE

SMELT FISHING ON THE COWLITZ

AT THE OCEAN BEACH

THE KALAMA RIVER

A LOAD OF OYSTERS--WILLAPA HARBOR

WHALING STATION ON GRAYS HARBOR

SOUTHWEST WASHINGTON VIEWS.]

Such development has been due largely to the importance of the lumber
industry which in this section of the state has assumed large
proportions. The ravenous mills, the capacious yards, and the huge
vessels loading for foreign ports are common sights within the cities.
Farther away in the logging camps the agility of the lumberjack is
exhibited as he lays low the giants of the forest and trims the logs
ready for the mills.

The harbor may be most thoroughly appreciated by taking a ride upon its
waters. Regular steamers make the round trip each day, stopping at many
points of interest, both in the north and the south bay, including the
North Jetty under construction by the United States government,
Westport, where the life saving station and the wireless telegraph
station are located, and Bay City, one of the largest whaling stations
in the northwest. On the same trip the clam and crab fisheries may be
seen. At the week end it is pleasant to get off at Westport and visit
Cohasset Beach, there to enjoy the modern social pastimes that engage
the evenings of the summer dwellers.

Pacific Beach, Moclips, and a number of other ocean resorts near the
terminus of the Northern Pacific, also deserve visits; while those
desiring more strenuous exercise can make profitable excursions into the
wild Olympic region, exploring the forested hills, visiting the oil
prospects, or hunting and fishing.

Splendid highways lead in different directions. In Chehalis county alone
are 325 miles of gravel roads, every part of which passes near
interesting scenes. One road extends to the south of the harbor and
another to the beach resorts at the north. The Olympic Highway, one of
the state primary highways, leads east to the Sound country, and
northward up the Humptulips Valley, through the big timber to Lake
Quiniault, located in the midst of grand solitude on the edge of the
Quiniault Indian Reservation, making this lake a handy resort for the
people living near Grays Harbor. Those who take the trip should plan
their return so as to include a ride down the Quiniault River in Indian
canoes. The Mountaineers who returned this way from Mount Olympus in
1913, pronounced it the best part of the entire outing:

"The trip down the Quiniault river with its manifold beauties and
experiences beggars description--the swift current, the whirling eddies,
the deep, dark-green water, trout leaping into the air to catch the
flying insects, the banks clothed with magnificent forests, log jams
through which or under which we passed, animated branches marking the
rhythmic motion of the current, the floating canoes gliding into the
deeper, darker water to seek the current that hurried them on and ever
on to the ocean. The Indians skillfully guided the little craft through
the dangerous places, then settled back to rest until the next test of
skill or strength was necessary, in the meantime relating bits of
history or legends which explained names or some natural phenomenon. The
boom of the surf announced the end of the journey. As the Mountaineers
left the canoes on the beach at Taholah, it was agreed that the trip
down the Quiniault marked the red-letter day of the 1913 outing."


WILLAPA BAY.

[Illustration: TWO PATRIARCHS--ONE 65 FEET IN CIRCUMFERENCE.]

The water area of this bay is 100 square miles, composed of two
sections, one extending southward and separated from the ocean by a long
narrow peninsula, nowhere more than two miles in width, and the other
reaching eastward to South Bend and Raymond. Into it flows Willapa
river, besides other short but swift mountain streams teeming with trout
and other game fish. The bar is about a mile wide and the waters
covering it 28 1/2 feet deep at low tide, thus enabling sea-going
vessels to cross without the aid of tugs--a great advantage to ocean
liners and big lumber schooners, which may be seen almost any day either
lying at the docks or loaded to the gunwale passing out to sea.

The southern arm approaches within three miles of the Columbia River.
People in Pacific County say that Uncle Sam plans to dig a canal
through this narrow strip so that vessels may enter the river by way of
Willapa Bay and avoid the Columbia bar, kept open by jetties built at
enormous expense.

[Illustration: SURF ON WASHINGTON COAST

Photo by Asahel Curtis.]

The cities of Raymond and South Bend are other examples of what
lumbering and fishing have done for Washington municipalities. Where a
few years ago was nothing but a wilderness, known only to the Indians or
an occasional fisherman, are now busy marts with extensive waterfront
factory sites. Pretty roads start from these cities and wind along the
harbor front or penetrate the interior. Excursions by water may be made
to Bay Center and Tokeland, summer resorts and fishing stations. Crab
and clam fisheries and the oyster beds may be seen here to advantage,
Tokeland being the place where eastern oysters were first transplanted
for mercantile purposes.

South Bend and Raymond are also starting points for the North Beach
ocean resorts. On this trip one gets a full view of the bay, and the
ocean surf tumbling over the bar. At Nahcotta, a pretty oyster village,
all passengers are transferred to the O.-W. R. & N. train bound for
Ilwaco and Megler, whence regular steamers cross to Astoria. This train
makes frequent stops, permitting close scrutiny of the attractive summer
cottages that face the boundless ocean constantly visible on the right.

Located at almost the southern extremity of the peninsula is the quaint
town of Ilwaco, overlooking the Columbia bar. Near by are the most
extensive cranberry marshes in the state. Another attraction is "North
Head," most southwesterly point in the state of Washington, where an
unobstructed view of the ocean is obtained. From this point may be seen
the waters of the Columbia mixing with the ocean, "Tillamook Head" in
Oregon, the light house, the life-saving station, Fort Canby, the
wireless station, and the "Seal Rocks," where hundreds of sea lions are
usually sunning themselves.

Instead of returning by the same route, the Columbia River may be chosen
to Kalama, whence the Sound Country may be quickly reached by the
Pacific Highway or by rail. Every tourist should make at least one visit
to the Harbor Country and see the ocean from the southwest corner of the
state.

[Illustration: MOUNT RAINIER REFLECTED IN MIRROR LAKE

"_Owning no mightier but the King of kings_"

_Copyright by Curtis & Miller_]



[Illustration: MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK

          "What vastness and sublimity
           Were spread before our eager gaze!
           What wild and varied scenery!
           What pictures for the poets lays!"]


One day, late in summer, I was sitting upon a commanding promontory
nearly 7,000 feet in altitude, entranced by a panoramic view most
wonderful to behold. The sky was clear, the sun's warm rays were
unobstructed, and the air I breathed pure as the nectar of heaven. Only
five hours before I had left the city of Tacoma and a little earlier
Seattle--two great cities throbbing with the activities of nearly a half
million people engaged in manufacturing and mercantile pursuits.

Just beyond the foothills visible towards the west were the green
valleys in which these metropolitan centers lay--the nearest only forty
miles distant by an air line, close to the waters of Puget Sound. Yet
here, almost in sight of them, I was enjoying a quietude known only to
the haunts of nature. More than seven thousand feet above me towered the
majestic dome of the second highest pinnacle in the United States,
reserving observation to the north until its summit should be reached,
while far toward the east and the south extended range upon range of
mountain peaks, like an army of giants gathered around their chief. Here
and there among them appeared the sub-chiefs, Adams and St. Helens in
Washington; and Hood, Jefferson, and the Three Sisters, far beyond, in
Oregon. Between their serrated ranks darker shadows marked the deep
canyons where grows some of the choicest timber in the state.

Near by crawled the huge glacial bodies gnawing their way down the
mountain side and splitting its surface into rugged ridges. Between them
and below were spread the meadowed alpine parks or abandoned
cirques--veritable fairylands--which had been carved out by these
superhuman agencies eons before. Barely distinguishable was the road by
which I had made the circuitous ascent, bending back and forth across
the face of an apparently perpendicular wall, while the glacial streams
glittering in the sunshine, resembled huge serpents lying in the
profound hollows formed by the extending hills.

The hours spent in reaching this favored point were of themselves worth
the effort. Either rail or automobile may be chosen to Ashford where
each train is met by an auto stage. Leaving Tacoma, the highway threads
a picturesque gravelly prairie for thirty miles, ascends the beautiful
canyon road, crosses the Ohop Valley, leads to the brink of the
Nisqually Canyon a thousand feet deep, plunges through dense virgin
forests, reaches Longmire, and zigzags to the snout of the Nisqually
Glacier, whence the ascent to the Camp of the Clouds may be continued
afoot, on horseback, or by horse stage.

This region was only recently set aside as a National Park. Perhaps no
other area in the world brings so many and such varied natural wonders
to the very doors of two great cities. It contains a total of 207,360
acres, or 324 square miles, of which 100 square miles is occupied by
Mount Rainier (or Mt. Tacoma), king of mountains, rising apparently
directly from sea level, and visible from almost every point in the
state.

No grander expression of Nature's sculptural art exists than this mighty
pinnacle, 14,408 feet in altitude, whose glacial area, no less than 45
square miles in extent, exceeds that of any other peak in the United
States. One of the most interesting glaciers is Carbon on the north
slope, reaching down to a lower elevation than any other; the most
readily reached is the Nisqually, five miles in length; and the largest
is the White or Emmon's. Other primary glaciers are the Cowlitz,
Ingraham, Winthrop, North and South Mowich, Puyallup, North and South
Tahoma, and the Kautz. The most important secondary glaciers are Van
Trump, Frying-Pan, Stevens, Paradise, and Interglacier.

[Illustration: PARADISE PARK

ON THE WAY DOWN

AVALANCHE LILIES

THE ASCENT

IN MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK.]

The summit may be reached by five different routes. These are the
Paradise Valley, Indian Henry's, the Kautz Glacier, Ptarmigan Ridge, and
Emmon's or the White Glacier route. The Paradise Valley (known also as
the "Gibraltar") route, on the south side, is by far the most popular,
for it is well provided with hotel accommodations, and both the
government road and Paradise trail lead right up to the Camp of the
Clouds, at the mountain's foot. It is usual to leave this tented village
at midnight, arriving at Muir Camp (10,062 feet elevation) at about
5 a. m., and Columbia Crest, the highest point on the mountain, at about
11 a. m. From this celestial height one may see more than a hundred
miles in every direction, far away to the ocean on the west and into the
great Inland Empire on the east. The snow-capped peaks already noted are
seen toward the south, Mount Olympus to the northwest, and Baker,
Shuksan, Stuart, and Glacier Peak to the north; while the Mother, the
Sluiskin, the Sourdough Mountains, and the Tatoosh Range near by seem
like mere foothills, between eight and nine thousand feet below. No
grander or more inspiring view may be observed anywhere in the world.

Scaling the peak, however, is a feat undertaken by only a few, and
always with the aid of an experienced guide. The largest measure of real
joy is found in the alpine "parks." The best known and most frequented
is along the Paradise River. Tributary to it and reached from Longmire,
are Indian Henry's, Van Trump, Cowlitz and Magnetic Parks. Others
requiring more time to visit are Summerland, one of the largest and most
beautiful, Elysian Fields, and Morain, Saint Andrews and Grand Parks.

Surrounded by rugged peaks and snow fields these natural amphitheaters
present a pleasing contrast. Scarcely any underbrush exists in them but
many beautiful flowers, shrubs, and trees abound; three hundred distinct
plants are said to exist; pretty lakelets gem their surface; and all are
drained by trickling streamlets or cut by raging rivers producing
waterfalls of rare beauty as they go tumbling from the melting glaciers
to the sea. Excellent trails, built by the government, lead to every
point of interest and extend clear around the mountain. Camping places
are plentiful or accommodations may be obtained at comfortable hotels.

[Illustration: MOUNT RAINIER--LOOKING ACROSS LAKE WASHINGTON.]



[Illustration: THE COLUMBIA RIVER

          "Or lose thyself in the continuous woods
                       Where rolls the Oregon."]


This wonderful and majestic river whose history is enhanced with legend,
offers the exploring tourist or curious sight-seer unusual opportunities
to indulge his unbounded imagination and to satisfy his desire for the
spectacular in nature. Upon its banks were enacted events of greatest
importance in northwest history, while interwoven with the
incontrovertible happenings is many a fascinating Indian story and song.
Overlooking its waters were the first settlements of the Pacific
northwest, upon whose sites are now built, within easy hearing of its
persistent dashings, some of the proudest and most prosperous cities of
the country.

One of the largest rivers on the American continent, with many important
tributaries, it drains a territory equal to five times the area of the
state of Washington. By a series of cataracts, falls, cascades, and bold
turns, it flows nearly 1,400 miles with a total drop of 2,500 feet,
before finally delivering the waters gathered from many sources to the
great Pacific ocean.

Like other great rivers, some portions have needed vast expenditures to
increase its value as a navigable stream. Near Stevenson the government
has built locks at a cost of several million dollars, enabling large
vessels to reach The Dalles, at present the head of navigation. At
Celilo, two hundred miles from its mouth, where, in twelve miles
distance, the river falls eighty-one feet at low tide, other locks are
being constructed. When these are completed, merchant vessels can go
direct from the sea as far as Priest Rapids, a distance of over four
hundred miles. As many miles additional are navigable, but broken in
places by rapids and falls.

[Illustration: INDIAN CANOE RACE.]

Important as this river is from a commercial and geographic standpoint,
the greatest interest by far centers in the phenomena that are of its
own creation, visible every mile from its mouth to its source. A journey
upon its surface rivals one along the historic Rhine, the picturesque
Hudson, or the beautiful St. Lawrence. The panorama includes besides the
wilder grandeurs, economic scenes suggesting the fecundity of the earth
and the industry of the husbandman. To enumerate and describe these ever
so briefly would require an entire volume. This short chapter is a
suggestion only that "By reason of scenic grandeur, absorbing interest
of physical features, the majesty and mystery of its flow through some
of the wildest as well as some of the most beautiful regions of the
globe, and at the last by the peculiar grandeur of its entrance into the
greatest of the oceans, this 'Achilles of Rivers' attracts alike
historian, scientist, poet, statesman, and lover of nature."

In many places the natural appearances are the same now as when Gray,
Lewis and Clarke, the Astorians and the Northwest and Hudson's Bay
Company men first viewed its banks, with the exception that the shores
have in places been denuded of their largest timber and either a younger
growth has inherited the dominion or portions have been claimed for the
agriculturist.

[Illustration: "BRIDGE OF THE GODS"

CASTLE ROCK

CAPE HORN AND CIGAR ROCK

PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT LIGHT

ALONG THE COLUMBIA RIVER.]

Here and there may be seen the little fisherman craft, "chugging" away
from their moorings in the early dawn and returning at the setting of
the sun heavily laden with the famous Columbia river salmon that feed
thousands throughout the world. On sandbars or sand islands, of which
there are many in the lower part of the river, the "purse seiners" are
conspicuous and the horses dragging the nets strangled with the products
of the deep. In the deeper waters close to the shore, but far from the
sea, are the fish wheels whirling by the force of the same waters that
conceal the treasures being sought.

Cities appear at frequent intervals, both on the Washington side and in
Oregon. Before the entrance to the Snake River is reached, one will have
passed Ilwaco, Cathlamet, Kalama, Vancouver, Camas, Washougal,
Stevenson, White Salmon, and Wallula on the Washington side, besides
many important cities on the Oregon shores: namely, Astoria, the site of
the first settlement on the Columbia; Portland, the largest city in
Oregon, near the mouth of the Willamette; and The Dalles, for many years
the head of navigation. Kennewick and Pasco are located just beyond the
mouth of the Snake River, ready to derive full benefit from the improved
navigation conditions of the future. Between these larger towns is many
a tiny hamlet, while isolated farms and orchards surrounding pretty
dwellings slope gently towards the river and tend to make the traveler
dissatisfied with his own home.

At times is visible a beautiful waterfall, a palisade of wonderful
basalt, and occasionally some island draped with verdure of many tints.
Further away a murmuring brook or crystal streamlet may be heard
hurrying down a rocky hillside or winding between towering cliffs,
adding its share to the tuneful sound of the powerful orchestra that
seems everywhere to be heard. Constantly shifting color and shade
attract the eye and tones of varying quality please the ear.

When the mouth of the Cowlitz is neared there appear, stretching toward
the north, broad areas where man has mingled his skill with Nature's
works. Green fields, sometimes fringed with willows, near the
waterfront, and dotted with orchards, farm houses, and dairies, are
visible as far as the eye can see. These evidences of man's
encroachments are noted all the way to Vancouver (and beyond), at which
city, the oldest in the state, a tourist should linger long enough to
appreciate the region which arrested the attention of our earliest
settlers and inspired the beginning of the first city in Washington. A
bridge, costing nearly two million dollars, will soon connect it with
the beautiful city of Portland.

[Illustration: READY FOR MARKET

SALMON FISHER'S RETREAT--MOUTH OF COLUMBIA

50,000 AT THE CANNERY

"LIFTING THE BRAIL", PUGET SOUND

THE SALMON FISHING INDUSTRY.]

Cultivated lands are seen on either side as the river is ascended, until
the mountainous region is reached and the roar of the cascades is
distinctly heard. These cascades, according to Indian lore, were created
by the falling of the "Bridge of the Gods," which once extended from
shore to shore and formed the great highway connecting the mountains on
the north and their extension to the south, while beneath a mighty river
peacefully pursued its course to the sea. The perpendicular buttresses
on either hand, the forest areas that apparently fell from above, trees
growing out of the water, petrified logs up in the reddish cliffs within
the vicinity of Stevenson, and many other freaks of nature all seem to
strengthen the evidence on which this story is based.

Throughout the mountainous region are wonderful examples of Nature's
diverse skill. Among the most striking are Castle Rock, or
Wehatpolitan's gravestone, a great basaltic rock 900 feet high; St.
Peter's Dome, a sublime elevation of 2,000 feet, considered one of the
wonders of the American continent; Oneonta Gorge, almost concealed
behind towering rocks; Multnomah Falls, a matchless waterfall with a
sheer drop of 800 feet; Cape Horn, a long palisade of basalt; Rooster
Rock, unsurpassed for beauty of form and variety of color; and Cape
Eternity, a massive precipice 1,000 feet in height.

Thorough appreciation of the surrounding charms necessitates climbing
some of the neighboring hills, or traveling over the wooded river banks
and visiting the rustic towns that lie at the foot of the mountains and
guard the gateway to the alluring valleys. Near Stevenson, county seat
of Skamania county, overlooking the cascade locks, and Carson, are
several hot springs where accommodations for the most particular are
available. From these towns one may follow the Wind River Valley to its
source beyond the headquarters of the rangers where the U. S. forest
nurseries are maintained. A few miles further are the Government Hot
Springs, near which many low peaks, easy for climbing, offer expansive
views of the surrounding country.

[Illustration: THE SNAKE RIVER COUNTRY AROUND CLARKSTON.

Photo by Asahel Curtis.]

A twenty-five mile drive up the famous White Salmon Valley takes one to
Trout Lake, not far from the ice and lava caves in the foothills of
Mount Adams, and near Huckleberry Mountain, a pow-wow place for the
Indians. On the way, hundreds of scientifically developed orchards, and
oat fields yielding over 100 bushels to the acre, are passed; also the
Northwest Electric Company's power plant, which, generating 20,000 horse
power, supplies power to cities seventy-five miles away. From the
massive bluffs of White Salmon a panorama of perfectly blending color
may be seen, formed by the unusual combination of the Columbia River and
the mountains to the east and the west, while the entire Hood River
Valley, with Mount Hood beyond, is visible on the Oregon side.

The trip from Lyle to Goldendale along the Klickitat River is a journey
of surprises. The railroad follows the winding canyon past pretty
waterfalls, crosses hurrying brooks, and emerges finally into a wide,
fertile plain overlooking the Columbia basin. Fields of waving grain and
other products exhibit the richness of the Klickitat valley. Those
desiring can motor from Goldendale into the Yakima valley or return to
the Columbia via Maryhill, where Hon. Samuel Hill has built a $100,000
road across his 6,000-acre farm.

Nor do all the wonders belong to the lower Columbia. Before being joined
by the Snake River, it has drained a region noted for agricultural
superiority and contributed liberally to the needs of irrigation. The
"Big Bend" on the left, and the valleys watered by its tributaries from
the right, are described under the chapter entitled "The Inland Empire."

Following its channel still farther towards the source, wilder scenes
are met with, the gorges are deeper, the cascades noisier, native trees
more plentiful, waterfalls higher, and the course of the stream more
winding. Startling phenomena appear in rapid succession, and scenes
unimagined will astonish the tourist who spends a little time in
re-exploring this great river, for ages a prize eagerly sought by the
searchers for the unknown.

[Illustration: ROCK LAKE, 25 MILES SOUTHWEST OF SPOKANE.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]



[Illustration: THE INLAND EMPIRE

          "See Pan with flocks with fruits Pomona crowned:
           Here blushing flora paints the enameled ground;
           Here Ceres' gifts in waving prospect stand,
           And nodding, tempt the joyful reapers hand."]


Thousands of years ago, scientists tell us, there existed between the
Rocky Mountains and the Cascade range a vast inland sea--the waters left
imprisoned when the ocean had receded. After many ages these pent up
waters burst the restraining barriers and forced their way to the ocean,
creating the deep canyon of the Columbia, but leaving behind a broad
plain, now known as the Inland Empire.

What was once a desolate waste, however, has been transformed into a
"Land of Canaan." Its plateaus unite to form one of the bountiful "bread
baskets of the world" while its valleys yield generously of nearly all
the products of husbandry. Near its borders the mountains, with their
retinue of trees, flowers and grassy meadows, reach as far as the
invisible power permits and then dispatch their emissaries, the rivers,
to wind through and through and distribute the welcome waters that
enkindle the irrigated districts with life and activity.

Far beyond the boundaries of our own state spreads this wonderful plain,
but the brief description contemplated in these few pages must be
confined chiefly to Washington. The curious sight-seer or the serious
homeseeker can well afford to spend many days exploring this region,
marveling at both the mighty forces of creation and the embellishments
of man. Under far more pleasant circumstances can it be traversed now
than when the early pioneers first fought their way over the mountains.
Lewis and Clarke, the Hudson's Bay Company men, and Marcus Whitman,
supplemented their sturdy limbs and indomitable courage with the trusty
saddle horse, the slow prairie schooner or the rude river raft. Today
the palatial cars of four transcontinental lines make daily trips
across the state; branch lines accommodate the territory north and
south; and parts not reached by rail are served by well constructed
thorofares.


CHIEF FEATURES.

In addition to the Columbia river basin, the most important features are
the Yakima and Wenatchee valleys; the Lake Chelan region; the Okanogan
Highlands with the valleys of the Methow, Okanogan, San Poil, Colville
and Pend Oreille; the Spokane Country; the Walla Walla valley; the Snake
River; the Big Bend and Palouse wheat sections with their "coulees"; and
the Blue Mountains. There are also a few low bare ridges of a
semi-mountainous character which relieve the prairie effect and permit
cycloramic views of the surrounding territory. Among these are the
Saddle Mountains, the Simcoe Hills, and the Horse Heaven Plateau; while
a number of spurs from the Cascades, including the Wenatchee Mountains,
help form the fertile valleys to the west of the plain.


HOW TO REACH THEM.

These different sections may be easily reached from almost any city in
the state. Visitors coming by way of Spokane can make a quick yet
comprehensive survey of eastern Washington in two ways. After seeing the
immediate Spokane vicinity and visiting the Pend Oreille Valley to the
north, either automobiles or Great Northern trains will convey them up
the Colville Valley to the junction of the Kettle and Columbia rivers,
whence the trip may be continued to Republic by train, and down the San
Poil by auto. At Republic trains connect for Oroville, whence the
journey may be continued to Wenatchee down the Okanogan Valley, both by
auto and rail. Side trips may be taken up the Methow Valley and the Lake
Chelan canyon, as well as to numerous other places of interest. From
Wenatchee the Great Northern railway or the Sunset Highway insures an
interesting ride back to Spokane through the wheat fields of the Big
Bend. The southern half of the region will be seen by making a tour
through the Palouse to the Snake River and Walla Walla country.
Transportation leads from there direct to the Columbia River, and the
Yakima and Kittitas valleys. The Horse Heaven may be reached from
Kennewick and Pasco, or from Prosser.

[Illustration: _Copyright by Asahel Curtis_

SUNNYSIDE CANAL--MOUNT ADAMS IN DISTANCE

          "_And the old wilderness is changed
            To cultured vale and hill_"]

The other plan reverses the order. After visiting the Palouse, Snake
River, Walla Walla, Yakima, and Kittitas valleys, from Ellensburg a
scenic overland route may be taken direct for Wenatchee, whence a loop
may be made to include Lake Chelan and the Okanogan Highlands, the Big
Bend and the Spokane Country.


THE YAKIMA VALLEY.

Broadly speaking, the Yakima Valley includes all the rich territory
tributary to the Yakima River, reaching from Lakes Keechelus and
Kachees, its sources in the Cascades, to the Columbia--a total distance
of nearly 175 miles with a range of altitude, at the water's edge,
varying from 2,250 down to 340 feet. It embraces, besides the Yakima
Valley proper, the Kittitas and a number of minor valleys, including the
Naches, the Ahtanum, the Cowiche, the Selah, the Wenas, the Satus and
the Toppenish. These last two belong to the rich country just south of
"Union Gap," where Sunnyside and Toppenish are located, two enterprising
cities, vieing for supremacy over the rich south half of Yakima county.
Further south is Prosser, county seat of Benton county. Above the Gap is
North Yakima with a population of 18,000, the metropolis of the region
and home of the State Fair; while Ellensburg, with 6,500 people, is
Queen of the Kittitas Valley. The south half of Yakima county
constitutes the Indian Reservation where the Yakima Tribes dwell
peaceably by the side of the whites, tilling the soil and occasionally
entertaining the people with many a "Round Up," or Wild West Show. At
Fort Simcoe is their school, deserving of a visit from anyone
interested.

[Illustration: THE YAKIMA VALLEY--MOUNT ADAMS IN THE DISTANCE.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]

In this valley, where once was nothing but sage brush and bunch grass,
is irrigable land enough to support a population of a million people;
for the total water capacity as surveyed by the United States Government
is estimated at 927,000 acre feet, sufficient to water 600,000 acres.
Less than a third of this is at present cultivated and watered from
small canals, built by private capital, and from the two largest ones in
the state, constructed by the U. S. Reclamation Service. These latter
are the Tieton, with water sufficient for 34,500 acres, and the
Sunnyside, capable of irrigating 100,000 acres.

A journey along the banks of these canals or the Yakima river unfolds a
panorama of unusual breadth and interest. Instead of the heavy forests
of the west side, the sage brush struggles for existence just above the
main ditches; but the country below is checkered with orchards, farms,
and gardens; and cotton woods protect the banks of the streams.
Impressive is the sight in springtime when fruit trees are all in bloom
and the Blossom Festival, participated in by a hundred-thousand people,
is ushering in the full tide of spring; or in autumn when deeper touches
of color mark an immense crop ready for the harvester.

[Illustration: A HOME NEAR ELLENSBURG.]

From the hills on either side, the picture assumes its most perfect
form. Cities, meadows, orchards, vineyards, hop fields, vegetable
gardens, alfalfa farms, corn fields, and prairies, bisected and
crisscrossed by railroads, highways, canals, and rivers, protected by
the brown hills near by and watched over by the mountains in the
distance, supply composition for pictures that in detail and variety
must discourage all competition.


THE WENATCHEE VALLEY.

Equally beautiful but of smaller dimensions is the Wenatchee Valley,
reaching from the Columbia well up into the foot hills of the Cascades.
This, too, was a desolate brown slope until the effects of irrigation
were felt on its rich volcanic ash soil. After that only ten years were
necessary to convert it into a garden of dazzling splendor. Instead of
the forlorn looking sagebrush, a maze of orchards, extending up the
valley and ascending the hills, presents in springtime a solid mass of
blossoms, varying from purest white to daintiest shades of pink.
Serpentining along the hill sides, as if protecting the gardens below,
are the great viaducts, conducting the precious waters that irrigate the
land; while dodging from one side of the vale to the other, or
paralleling the Great Northern Railroad, the Wenatchee river hastens
onward towards the Columbia.

The north, south, and west are guarded by forest-covered hills, spurs of
the Cascades, over which many trails lead to charming mountain lakes and
streams, where summer homes are maintained, and game awaits the hunter.
The east opens up toward the wheat fields of the Big Bend, while the
Columbia River Valley to the north and south is tributary and joins in
all the enterprises of the district. Every tiny tributary stream in the
vicinity marks the location of a peaceful home supported in affluence by
successful fruit culture or gardening.

Within this valley are several prosperous cities, including Wenatchee,
the metropolis of north central Washington, with a population of about
5,000, at the junction of the Wenatchee and Columbia rivers; Leavenworth
near the head of the valley; and Cashmere, midway between the two. The
pervading spirit is one of optimism and liberality, for the Wenatchee
red apple is famous the world o'er and nets its producers $5,000,000
annually.


LAKE CHELAN.

Chelan, "Beautiful Water," is the name of one of the grandest sheets of
fresh water reposing upon the bosom of the American continent. It is one
of a number of beautiful lakes found throughout the highlands in the
vicinity of the upper Columbia, but on account of its thrilling beauty
and easy approach has become one of the favorite resorts for the entire
northwest.

It is reached usually via the city of Wenatchee, but sometimes from the
Columbia and Okanogan valleys on the north. River boats, automobile
stages, or Great Northern trains allow three principal modes of
transportation, each of which reveals different scenes of interest.
During summer months the overland trip is undoubtedly the most pleasant
and presents the fullest opportunity for appreciating the scenery. The
return might be by river boat or train, necessitating a ride down the
Chelan gorge, where the river drops 400 feet in its brief course of four
miles, and furnishes at low water 125,000 horsepower.

[Illustration: THE WENATCHEE VALLEY--NEAR THE CITY OF WENATCHEE.

Photo by Curtis & Miller.]

Surpassing the canyons of the Yosemite, the Yellowstone, the Columbia,
and the Colorado, the total depth of the Chelan canyon reaches in places
nearly 8,000 feet, while its waters occasionally cover a bottom 1,700
feet below the surface. Throughout the 55 mile ride from Chelan to
Stehekin, views are observed that for immensity, sublimity and color
blending are unexcelled. Right into the heart of the Cascades the
traveler is drawn, while the solemnity and general impressiveness of the
whole increases, as he is gradually brought in closer intimacy with
divine nature. Among features of striking scenic importance are Railroad
Creek, descending 6,000 feet in 20 miles, the Stehekin River, and
Rainbow Falls.


THE OKANOGAN HIGHLANDS.

This region consists of low picturesque mountains, alternating with
fertile valleys and studded with lakes protected by open forests of
spruce, pine, and tamarac. Opportunities for the homeseeker, pleasure
for the sportsman, and continuous scenes of interest for the tourist are
suggested. Here one can yet feel the presence of the true western spirit
of frontiership, for this part of the state was the last to be thrown
open to settlers; and the Indians are still in full possession of the
Colville Indian reservation, comprising some 1,300,000 acres in the
south central part of the section, extending from the Okanogan river to
the eastern boundary of Ferry county. Under irrigation the valleys yield
liberally of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, and the higher lands
are devoted to grain and stock raising. Lumbering plays its part and
mining for precious metals assumes greater importance than elsewhere in
the state.

[Illustration: SIMILKAMEEN RIVER NEAR OROVILLE

FARM SCENE IN THE METHOW

PATTERSON LAKE

METHOW VALLEY

FORT OKANOGAN--FIRST WHITE SETTLEMENT IN WASHINGTON

ORCHARDS IN THE OKANOGAN VALLEY

THE OKANOGAN AND METHOW VALLEYS.]

The valleys of the Pend Oreille, the Colville, the Kettle, and the
Okanogan rivers, are now served by rail; but the San Poil and the Methow
are dependent on highway conveyances. Of extreme interest is the ride
from Spokane up the Colville and Kettle River valleys to Oroville, with
a short side trip to Republic, the leading gold producing city in the
state. The railroad crosses the boundary line several times, enforcing
the unique experience of being at one moment under the dominion of King
George of England and the next back under the Stars and Stripes.
Cultivated valleys, broad wheat fields, and picturesque canyons are
invaded before arriving at the heights from which Oroville appears far
below--requiring an hour for the train to descend by a series of
remarkable switchbacks.

[Illustration: COLVILLE VALLEY, SIX MILES NORTHWEST OF COLVILLE.]

Most of the towns in the Okanogan Highlands are still in their infancy,
for its development has been so recent; but therein lies much of its
charm. In the Pend Oreille Valley the leading city is Newport, the
county seat, prettily located on both sides of the river, half in Idaho
and half in Washington. In Stevens county are Chewelah, a mining town,
and Colville, the largest city in the region, with a population of over
1,500 people. A place that attracts tourists for miles is St. Mary's
Indian Mission on the Colville Indian Reservation near Omak. Other
interesting towns are scattered throughout the four counties.

[Illustration: WINESAP TREE

FIRST WATER ON THE LAND

A VINEYARD

PRUNE ORCHARD IN BLOOM

IRRIGATION SCENES IN EASTERN WASHINGTON.]

[Illustration: THE CITY OF SPOKANE FROM CLIFF PARK--MOUNT SPOKANE IN THE
DISTANCE.

Photo by Frank Palmer.]


THE SPOKANE COUNTRY.

From the city of Spokane all corners of the Inland Empire are easily
reached. Five transcontinental lines enter the city and two others
operate trains; while a network of electric lines serves the immediate
vicinity, penetrating the territory as far south as Colfax, Palouse, and
Moscow; southwest to Medical Lake and Cheney; and eastward to Hayden
Lake and Coeur d'Alene. Highways have been built through the most scenic
sections along the river valleys and up into the mountains. Each mode of
transportation unfolds a different panorama. The hills nearest Spokane
are covered with a dense growth of pine. Farther away are forests of
pine, fir, cedar, and tamarac, concealing many lakes teeming with trout
and black bass. Within a radius of a hundred miles are fifty mountain
lakes, thirty-eight of which are ideally located and supplied with all
necessary equipment for camping. They include Pend Oreille, the second
largest fresh water lake in the United States, fifty miles east; Hayden
Lake, forty miles east in the heart of the Idaho National Forest
Reserve; Chatcolet Lake, thirty-two miles distant; Liberty Lake,
seventeen miles; Priest Lake, seventy-eight miles; Spirit Lake,
forty-three miles; Coeur d'Alene, thirty-two miles; and Twin Lakes,
thirty-three miles.

The mountains are visible either to the north or the east. They are
neither as lofty nor as rugged as the Cascades and Olympics, but they
are nevertheless beautiful. The highest peak in eastern Washington is
Mount Spokane, 5,808 feet, twenty miles northeast of the city. From its
summit one may look out into the three northwestern states of Oregon,
Idaho and Washington, and into the province of British Columbia; and
count seventeen different lakes and rivers.

Towards the north are the Okanogan Highlands with the valleys of the
Pend Oreille and Colville, while the Bitter Root mountains are
approached on the east. The roads westward and southward lead past well
cultivated gardens, green meadows and groves, until finally is spread
before one a sea of grain--continuous wheat fields--the Big Bend to the
west and the Palouse to the south.

[Illustration: WHEAT RANCH

HARVESTING

SEEDING

INLAND EMPIRE WHEAT FIELDS.]

Towards the east the "Apple Way," one of the most remarkable roads in
America on account of the high class material of which it is
constructed, enters the Spokane Valley, crosses the state of Idaho and
connects with roads leading to the National Parks in Montana. This
valley more than thirty miles in length, with an average width of eight
miles, comprises a level irrigated country cut up into intensive garden
and orchard tracts. Thousands are supported in affluence by raising
apples, pears, cherries, small fruits, garden truck, poultry, and live
stock. The advantages of abundant water power, proximity to a great
city, rapid transit facilities, and a healthful climate, are quickly
transforming the region into one of attractive suburban homes.

[Illustration: METALINE FALLS ON THE PEND OREILLE.]

The Spokane River drops 1,280 feet in a distance of 100 miles, and 130
feet within the city limits, falling precipitously 70 feet in the heart
of the business section, over a dam 200 feet wide. On both sides is
built the city sloping towards its waters and overlooking the country
beyond. Extensive economic developments are taking place, there being
seven distinct projects under way which involve expenditures of nearly
$35,000,000. These include railroad construction, power plants,
manufacturing and business blocks, and hotels for tourists. Historical
events are associated with Fort George Wright, named for a famous Indian
fighter; Indian Canyon, tribal home of Spokane Indians; Mount Spokane,
a pow-wow place for Indian tribes; Fort Spokane, one of the first
government Indian posts; Old Block House, a protection for the early fur
traders; and Steptoe Butte, the scene of a famous battle.

[Illustration: A FAMOUS 600 ACRE ORCHARD

PALOUSE FALLS 198 FEET

WHITMAN'S MONUMENT

THE BLUE MOUNTAINS AN HOURS RIDE

126 BOXES A YEAR

SCENES AROUND WALLA WALLA.]


THE WHEAT PLATEAU.

The wheat belt includes principally the area within the big bend of the
Columbia river, the "Big Bend Country," which stretches eastward until
it blends with the rolling Palouse, one of the richest farm regions in
the northwest, and southeast across the Snake River to the Blue
Mountains; although considerable wheat is raised in the country lying
between the Columbia and the Cascades, as well as in the four counties
to the north. The green carpet is visible, in spring, and the waving
heads of yellow grain, in summer, extending away to the horizon. The
combined harvester, drawn by thirty-six horses, is a familiar example of
the immensity of the machinery needed when gathering the mammoth crop,
which for the entire state is in the neighborhood of 50,000,000 bushels
annually.

The Big Bend is broken in places by "coulees" or old river courses,
sometimes 500 to 600 feet in depth, where irrigation is practiced and
where strings of small alkali lakes have been scattered. Two of the most
important are Moses Coulee in Douglas county, and Grand Coulee forming
the boundary line between Douglas and Grant counties, said to be the old
bed of the Columbia. Almost surrounded by the wheat belt lies the Quincy
Valley, containing 435,000 acres of level fertile land to be some day
irrigated by water conducted under the Columbia river from Wenatchee
Lake in Chelan county.

The best known lakes include Soap Lake, a health resort, Moses Lake,
near which irrigation from wells is successfully carried on, and Rock
Lake, a rock bound sheet of water in the Palouse. The most important
river is the Palouse which creates the Palouse Falls just before joining
the Snake River. Near this stream are several prosperous cities,
including Colfax, Palouse, and Pullman, the home of the State College
and Experiment Station.


THE WALLA WALLA COUNTRY.

The Snake river, largest tributary of the Columbia, with a canyon of
1,500 feet, cuts this plateau in two, and forms a natural dividing line
between Whitman and Franklin counties on the north, and Walla Walla,
Columbia, Garfield, and Asotin on the south. Its warm canyon is famous
for early fruits and berries which are shipped in carloads to eastern
and western points.

Fields of wheat, barley or rye extend southward in all four counties to
the Blue Mountains, interrupted occasionally by orchards which assume
their greatest proportions in the beautiful Touchet and Walla Walla
valleys. Over this rich country the fair city of Walla Walla reigns
supreme, her authority being limited only by the Columbia and Snake
rivers, or the Blue Mountains; although Waitsburg, Dayton, Pomeroy and
Clarkston are important centers in their own districts.

Steeped in historical associations is this valley, from Wallula, the
site of the first Hudson's Bay fort, to the city of Walla Walla. When
once seen, no words are needed to tell why these lovely plains, all
ready for the planting and moistened with sufficient rainfall annually,
were so attractive to the early settlers, and inspired the first serious
efforts at colonization.


THE COLUMBIA RIVER.

All waters of eastern Washington reach the ocean through the Columbia
river, uniting the entire region in one spirit of fraternity. The
grandest and most reaching scenic feature of the region, it supplies
unlimited water for successful irrigation and power purposes, and in
places still provides the principal mode of transportation. Between
Kettle Falls and the Snake river are a number of important rapids, chief
of which is Priest Rapids, just below Saddle Gap, ten miles long with a
descent of seventy feet and a possible horse power of half a million.

Just above the mouth of the Snake river are the cities of Kennewick and
Pasco, ready to profit by direct navigation to the sea as soon as the
Celilo locks are completed. At the lowest elevation in the Inland Empire
and surrounded by a large area of irrigable land, they are served by
three transcontinental railroads, permitting rapid transit to any part
of the northwest.

[Illustration: PRIEST RAPIDS--SADDLE MOUNTAINS BEYOND

"_The river rolled in cataract through the cañon_"]



[Illustration: OUR SCENIC HIGHWAYS

          "They build and toil, each road a nervous wedge
              To hew a way where seats of empire wait."]


The state of Washington is rapidly developing a system of roads which,
finally consummated, will rival in skillful engineering and commercial
importance the French highways, and in scenic grandeur the mountain
passes of Switzerland. Easy approaches are being constructed to every
town and hamlet and into every farming community. So vigorously has the
work been pushed that Washington now outranks every other state, except
Colorado, in the facility and directness with which its mountain
recesses may be reached. Upwards of 50,000 miles have been already
completed, presenting altogether a labyrinth of broad thorofares,
boulevards, and country highways. The most important highways built and
maintained at state expense are the Pacific, the Sunset, the Inland
Empire, the Olympic and the National Park.


THE PACIFIC HIGHWAY.

The Pacific Highway extends from the southern limit of the state of
California to Vancouver, British Columbia, twenty-seven miles north of
Washington's boundary line, a total distance of about two thousand
miles. Three hundred and fifty miles is within the state of Washington,
connecting Vancouver on the Columbia with Blaine at the international
line. It traverses nine counties of Washington, containing forty-eight
per cent of the wealth and fifty-five per cent of the population, and
passes through nine county seats, including Olympia, the state capital,
Vancouver, Kalama. Chehalis, Tacoma, Seattle, Everett, Mount Vernon and
Bellingham.

[Illustration: PACIFIC HIGHWAY

NATIONAL PARK HIGHWAY WILLAPA HARBOR

STATE ROAD ALONG THE METHOW

RAINIER NATIONAL PARK ROAD

SUNSET BOULEVARD NEAR SPOKANE

ALONG THE SCENIC HIGHWAYS.]

From Vancouver, Washington, this highway starts northward through the
prune and plum orchards of Clarke county, where more of these trees grow
than in all other parts of the state combined. Along the banks of the
historic Columbia and through the fertile valley of the Cowlitz, it
winds toward Kelso, famous for smelt fisheries; and Castle Rock, the
gateway to Mount St. Helens. Deviating to the right at Vader, the north
fork of the picturesque Chehalis is soon reached, which fertile valley
is followed to the cities of Chehalis and Centralia, two rapidly growing
railroad centers having a combined population of 15,500 people. Groves,
orchards, gardens and prairies line the smooth gravelly road from here
to Olympia, where the first view of Puget Sound is obtained. The desire
to swerve off toward Grays Harbor or the Olympic Peninsula by the newly
completed Olympic Highway, or to try the steamer on the peaceful Sound,
is with difficulty overcome; but the Pacific Highway finally wins and
draws one on toward Tacoma, thirty-two miles northeast. Rising above the
famous Nisqually flats, and descending again to cross the oak moor lands
marking the beginning of Tacoma's playgrounds and reminding one of
southern England, the road soon enters Tacoma, third city in population
in the state.

Along the Puyallup and White river valleys, the course leads, touching
at Puyallup and Sumner, famous for berry culture; at Auburn and Kent,
centers of a rich dairy section; and at Renton, bristling with
manufacturing importance near the southern end of beautiful Lake
Washington. A dozen miles more and you are on the streets of Seattle,
metropolis of the northwest and third city in size west of the Rocky
Mountains.

Northward the course continues. A broad paved road winds along by Lake
Washington to Bothel, passing several pretty lakes, entering green
woods, intersecting meadows, crossing streamlets, rising to sightly
plateaus and descending again to peaceful valleys before it reaches
Everett, a city of 32,000, located on an eminence overlooking the waters
of the Sound.

The next town reached is Marysville, whence the highway skirts the
Tulalip Indian reservation, crosses the Stillaguamish river in the
Sylvan Flats and enters Stanwood where a scenic road branches off to
Camano Island. At Mount Vernon and Burlington, where it intersects the
Skagit county road leading from Anacortes eastward to the mountains, one
may appreciate the famous Skagit Valley, the "Holland of the Northwest,"
where 173 bushels of oats to the acre have been yielded on land
protected from the sea and river by immense dykes.

Within ten miles of Bellingham the Water Front Road is reached, said to
be the most picturesque on the entire route: for the Sound is plainly
seen from the shaded highway which clings to the side of Chuckanut
Mountain, while the electric interurban and the Great Northern railway
traverse the waterfront below. Bellingham, a city of 30,000, has
innumerable attractions to hold the tourist, who still has twenty miles'
journey if he would follow the Pacific Highway to the Washington limit
at Blaine, the most northwesterly municipality in the United States.
Near by is the Whatcom County Government Farm, the only one in the
northwest; where bulb growing rivals the same industry in Holland.


SUNSET HIGHWAY.

The Sunset Highway is the only route at present permitting through
automobile traffic across the Cascade mountains and connecting the
western with the eastern counties. Throughout its full four hundred
miles from Seattle to Spokane it introduces the tourist to scenes which
for diversity and pleasant surprises, varying from rugged mountains and
roaring waterfalls to peaceful irrigated valleys or broad wheat plains,
can nowhere be duplicated. With the exception of a few miles the grades
are never more than five per cent.

Branching off from the Pacific Highway at Renton, it rises northeastward
to the headwaters of the Snoqualmie River. Just below the town of
Snoqualmie appear the wonderful falls of the same name, the "Niagara of
the West." This immense stream of water falling 268 feet, is now
harnessed to supply power and light to the cities and towns of Puget
Sound. Following the banks of this river the highway penetrates
entrancing forests and exposes many a remarkable panorama. Both road and
river are at times clearly visible from the Chicago-Milwaukee trains
puffing towards the summit.

[Illustration: SHOWING THE CAPITAL MT. RAINIER IN THE DISTANCE

A TRAIL

TUMWATER FALLS

PUGET SOUND FROM PRIEST POINT PARK

AROUND OLYMPIA, OUR CAPITAL CITY.]

Descending, the road leads southeast along the headwaters of the Yakima,
and skirts the eastern banks of beautiful Lake Keechelus, where the
government is building a huge dam for storing water to irrigate the
Kittitas and Yakima valleys. Passing the southern extremity of Lake
Kachees, another deep mountain lake, it soon passes Cle Elum, a coal
shipping center, enters the broad Kittitas valley and reaches the
cultured city of Ellensburg, mistress of the section and home of one of
the state normals.

The route is now northeastward over Table Mountain by a 5,200-foot pass,
permitting an excellent view of Mounts Rainier and Hood. The banks of
the Columbia are followed to Wenatchee, the metropolis of north central
Washington and the famous red apple district. Crossing the Columbia it
proceeds along its east bank to Orondo, whence, plunging through a
winding canyon, it rises rapidly to the great wheat plateau of the Big
Bend, which bursts suddenly upon the view. Leaving Waterville, the
county seat of Douglas county, it turns abruptly eastward to continue in
an almost unbroken line through expansive wheat fields towards Spokane,
the metropolitan city of the Inland Empire, over a hundred miles away.

At Coulee City, forty miles from Waterville, it would be worth while to
linger long enough to explore the Grand Coulee, said to be the old bed
of the Columbia. Full of strange features, it has attracted attention
from geographers of international reputation. Wilbur, Davenport, the
county seat of Lincoln county, and Reardan, besides many smaller
settlements, almost lost in the midst of the great wheat fields, appear
before the thin woods shading the approach into Spokane are reached.


INLAND EMPIRE HIGHWAY.

At Ellensburg the Sunset Highway connects with the Inland Empire Road, a
southern route to Spokane via Walla Walla. Following the Wenas Valley to
North Yakima, it continues southeast through the Union Gap and along the
Sunnyside Canal, the largest irrigation ditch in the state, where a
splendid view of the valley, with Mount Hood in the distance appears.
From Prosser, county seat of Benton county and entrance to the Horse
Heaven country, the road drops toward the Columbia river and soon
reaches Kennewick, the home of early strawberries, and Pasco, county
seat of Franklin county.

[Illustration: LOWER SPOKANE FALLS, AND BRIDGE WITH SECOND LARGEST
CONCRETE ARCH IN THE WORLD.

Photo by Frank Palmer.]

From here the Central Washington Highway threads the extensive wheat
fields toward the northeast, passing through Connell, Lind, Ritzville,
and Sprague, all important wheat shipping centers; and Cheney, the site
of another state normal, fifteen miles southwest from the city of
Spokane.

The Inland Empire Highway leads on to the beautiful city of Walla Walla;
but at Dayton, the quaint county seat of Columbia county, it divides,
uniting again near Rosalia, twenty-five miles south of Spokane. The
shorter route trends northeast, crosses the Snake at Pataha and passes
through Colfax, county seat of Whitman county, in the rich Palouse
Valley. The other branch penetrates extensive barley and wheat fields,
enters Pomeroy, county seat of Garfield county, and Clarkston, on the
eastern boundary line, named for the great explorer. Bending northward
it transects irrigated lands and wheat fields; enters Pullman, home of
the State College, Palouse, Garfield and Oakesdale; joins the other
branch at the county boundary line and soon reaches the southern
outskirts of Spokane.

[Illustration: INLAND EMPIRE HIGHWAY, TEN MILES EAST OF WALLA WALLA.]

From Spokane this road presses northward through the Colville Valley to
the Columbia, and thence to the international boundary line, having
previously passed at Deer Park the Arcadia orchard, largest commercial
apple orchard in the world; Loon Lake, a summer resort; Chewelah, a
mining town surrounded by a dairying country; and Colville, county seat
of Stevens county and largest city in this section. A pleasant contrast
is this northern extension, regaining the mountains and evergreen
forests, the swiftly flowing rivers with glorious waterfalls, and the
chains of lakes adorning irrigated vales and green meadows.


OLYMPIC, NATIONAL PARK AND OTHER HIGHWAYS.

The Olympic Highway, when the few miles from Bogachiel to Lake
Quiniault, overlooking the Pacific Ocean, are completed, will form a
complete loop around the Olympic Peninsula, from which it derives its
name. Winding along at the foot of the mountains, it connects the
leading cities of the district and exposes some of the most scenic
features of the Sound country, including Hood Canal, the Strait of Juan
de Fuca, Grays Harbor, and occasionally the Pacific Ocean. The principal
cities touched at are Shelton, Port Townsend, Port Angeles, Hoquiam,
Aberdeen, Elma and Olympia.

[Illustration: ANACORTES ROAD.]

The National Park Highway extends from Tacoma to Rainier National Park,
whence it bears southward to the headwaters of the Cowlitz, crosses to
the Chehalis Valley and, after connecting with Chehalis and Centralia,
leads southwest, over the low coast range to Raymond and South Bend on
Willapa Bay, and from there continues to the mouth of the Columbia.

Other scenic routes are planned to cross the Cascade mountains. Two are
nearly completed, viz., the McClellan Pass Highway, paralleling the
Sunset as far as North Yakima, and one along the north bank of the
Columbia. A third will sometime cross and connect the Skagit Valley with
the Methow.

[Illustration: WILD ELK IN THE OLYMPIC MOUNTAINS.]



[Illustration: A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE

          "The antlered monarch of the waste
              Sprang from his heathery couch in haste"]


This book cannot expect to win the largest measure of approval from the
followers of Nimrod unless a few paragraphs are devoted to the
opportunities for the chase and the plentifulness of game fish and
birds. Of course, the real sportsman would rather discover the prey for
himself. To tell minutely where every prize is to be found would be like
disclosing the end of an interesting story before the beginning had been
read. But even if it were well to do so, every page in this publication
would be needed just to mention each stream and lake containing fish,
every coppice concealing fowl, and every wood protecting the quarry.

That the common species of game are plentiful is superfluous to say. On
holidays and at week ends, during the open season, it is a familiar
sight to witness the khaki-suited brave looking sportsmen, with guns or
fish baskets and rods, clambering onto the trains or hiking to the
nearest point where the welcome woods and the realm of habitation meet.
It is equally common to behold this same army of hunters trailing along
at the close of the holiday, burdened with fish of many species,
vari-colored fowl, or the hides of various game animals.

Game birds are very prolific. Among the most prominent are the Chinese
pheasant, bob white and California quail, Hungarian partridge, and
native prairie chickens; all are found along the streams or in the
clearings and fields of nearly every part of the state. Blue grouse are
quite plentiful in western Washington and in the wooded sections of
eastern Washington. Ruffled grouse are plentiful in the Okanogan
Highlands and in several of the western counties. All species of ducks
are to be found on Puget Sound and along the rivers and lakes tributary
thereto, also along many streams and lakes of the Inland Empire; while
geese infest the Columbia and Snake river regions in eastern Washington.

[Illustration: THE ANGLER'S REWARD.

Photo by B. C. Collier]

Perhaps no state in the Union has as many varieties of real fighting
trout as Washington; including especially the mountain, rainbow, cut
throat, beardsley, crawford, lake, steel head, and eastern brook, in all
lakes and mountain streams. Black bass and perch are very plentiful in
the land-locked lakes; and certain sections produce also many varieties
of white fish, sun fish, croppies and cat fish. The waters of Puget
Sound, the harbors and the Columbia River contain many species of
salmon.

The commonest and most hunted large game is the deer, found chiefly in
the hills and mountains, although in some localities it invades the
domains of domestic animals. The leading varieties noted are the mule
and black tail, there being also a few white tail. In the Olympic region
are large herds of elk and a few in the southwest and northeastern
counties. These, however, are temporarily protected by law. Mountain
goat and sheep are found in the rocky peaks of the Cascades; while the
black and brown bear are found in the wooded hills and mountains; also
occasionally cougars, wild cats, and wolves. These latter, however, keep
themselves far removed from the main traveled roads; only by much care
are they located, so that the timid need have no fear of wandering in
the woods alone.

In order to insure plenty of game at the right season of the year, five
trout hatcheries are supported by the state and a number by separate
counties. The state hatcheries alone planted 4,399,050 trout in 1913.
The common birds are propagated and set free at both public and private
expense.

With nature's already liberal supply, and the state and counties
blending their united efforts to supplement and conserve, the true
sportsman will never regret casting his lot with the state of
Washington, where his outdoor propensities may be encouraged to the
fullest degree.

[Illustration: HAYDEN LAKE

ROSE GARDEN HAYS PARK

MANITOU PARK

WATERFALL, INDIAN CANYON

DOWN RIVER DRIVE

IN AND ABOUT THE CITY OF SPOKANE.]



[Illustration: CITIES AND SUGGESTED TRIPS

          "Spreads now many a stately city;
             Solitude returns no more!
               Happy country! happy people!
               Peace prevails from shore to shore"]


The cities of Washington are all beautiful in their natural setting, and
reflect the originality, the energy and love for artistic design of the
people who dwell within them. In western Washington they are usually
protected by verdure covered hills, and built to overlook the Sound, the
harbors, or the rivers. The smaller towns nestle close to pretty streams
which supply power and water. Snow capped mountains are always visible.

The east side cities are usually near the larger streams and adorned
with trees, both native and cultivated. Forests are lacking in the
Columbia River Plain, and the brown hills are continually in sight. In
the northern counties, however, the native trees and mountains again
become more prominent.

All cities are well provided with spacious and comfortable hotels.
Theaters, business blocks, school houses, churches, and other public
buildings are of modern structure; the streets are generally paved;
practically all have electric lights and pure running water. The homes
are planned both for beauty and comfort, and are often surrounded by
green lawns or gardens where hundreds of species of beautiful flowers
reach perfection.

The following pages are devoted to brief descriptions of the larger
centers, and the more important trips from each. They are arranged to
represent a tour about the state and in the order in which one might
visit all, or certain ones only, with the least expenditure of time. The
cities given have commercial organizations prepared to give further
information regarding their respective localities.


=SPOKANE:= Metropolis of the Inland Empire, and second largest city in
the state. Population about 136,000. Its growth was over 500 per cent
in twenty years. Situated on both sides of the Spokane River with
wonderful waterfalls in heart of city. One of the leading railroad
centers in the west, it has five transcontinental lines operating on
their own tracks and two others over joint tracks. Its hotels, theaters,
public buildings, and homes, are among the most costly in the northwest.
Its fifty-two parks, comprising 1,933 acres valued at more than
$2,000,000, give the largest per capita park area of any city in the
United States. Splendid boulevards within the city connect with broad
highways leading to distant points in the Inland Empire. There is a
boating course two miles long above the city, a municipal bathing pool a
mile from the business center, and a zoo at Manito Park. One may see
large manufacturing establishments, irrigation, wheat fields, and many
big development projects within a limited area. It is the home of the
North Pacific Fruit Distributors, which markets 60 per cent of the
apples of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana.


A few of the more important trips should include the following:

          Mt. Spokane, 20 miles N. E., highest peak in
          Eastern Washington.

          Indian Canyon, 2 miles west (Indian wigwams still
          there).

          Medical Lake, 16 miles S. W., famous for medicinal
          qualities of water; one of state's hospitals here.
          Return by way of Cheney, home of one of state
          normal schools.

          Spokane Valley, fruit section along Apple Way to
          Hayden Lake.

          Reardan, by Sunset Highway, 21 miles, built at
          cost of $194,000.

          Jas. P. Grave's model farm; Country Club on
          Waikiki Road.

          Arcadia Apple Orchard at Deer Park, largest in the
          world.

          Colville Valley, Chewelah and Colville, a rich
          agricultural valley, good roads, mountains in
          sight, many lakes.

          Pend Oreille Valley, Newport, Ione, and Metaline
          Falls; see Box and Grandview Canyons; river falls
          400 feet in 12 miles.

          Steptoe Butte for expansive view of Palouse
          country.

          Through the Palouse to Colfax, Moscow, and State
          College at Pullman, one of the most remarkable
          rides--train, auto, or electric.

          Kellogg, Idaho, to see largest lead and silver
          mine in the world.

          Northern Idaho, through to Fourth of July Canyon.

          Long Lake, 30 miles northwest, $8,000,000 dam.

          See also "Spokane Country" under the "Inland
          Empire."


=WALLA WALLA:= (Many Waters.) The "Garden City," at one time said to
"have more bicycles, more pianos, more flowers, and more pretty girls
than any other city in the Northwest." Population 23,275. One of the
richest farm regions in the world is adjacent. Next to Vancouver, oldest
city in the state, and home of first white woman in the Northwest.
Picturesque hills, with gentle slopes, usually covered with waving
grain, surround it; while many a little stream, protected by cottonwoods
and birches, winds towards the larger rivers. The N. P. and O. W. R. &
N. railways, and Inland Empire Highway pass through. Trees line the well
paved streets and produce a particularly artistic effect. Here is
located Whitman College, on the site where Stevens made his famous
treaty with the Indians; the State Penitentiary; the Blalock Fruit
Company's 1,600-acre fruit farm; old Fort Walla Walla, and the oldest
bank in state.

[Illustration: THE COLUMBIA RIVER, FROM WHITE SALMON

_Copyright by Kiser Photo Co., Portland, Ore._

                              "_Superbly flowing_
          _By piny banks basaltiform, romantic_"]


Trips should include:

          The Blue Mountains and Wenaha Forest Reserve for
          wild and rugged canyons and summer resorts.

          Toll Gate Pass, 15 miles, a resort, and the only
          pass to the Wallowa country in Oregon; Wallowa
          Lake.

          Bingham Hot Springs, 40 miles; Clinker Hot
          Springs.

          The famous Whitman monument at Waiilatpui, about 6
          miles west.

          The Columbia and Snake rivers; Palouse Falls; the
          Little and Big Meadows.

          Vast wheat, barley and rye farms, some of which
          contain 4,000 acres and more; also large stock
          ranches.

          The Touchet Valley, where diversified farming is
          successful.

          Waitsburg, Dayton, Pomeroy, Clarkston and Asotin,
          via Inland Empire Highway.

          Pasco and Kennewick at mouth of Snake.

[Illustration: A SHADY BOULEVARD IN WALLA WALLA.]


=NORTH YAKIMA:= Metropolis of the Yakima Valley, where the largest body
of irrigated land in the state lies. Population about 19,000. All points
in the lower Yakima and in South Central Washington are easily reached.
Business and public buildings are of artistic design. City is
symmetrically laid out with very wide streets, well shaded. It grew from
a village to the metropolis in a few years, keeping pace with the rapid
development evident all up and down the valley. A blossom festival is
held annually in the springtime, and the State Fair in September. A
sight-seeing electric car will take one forty miles through alfalfa
fields and orchards where the results of irrigation are displayed. Good
automobile roads extend in every direction.


Trips should include:

          A climb to West Selah Heights for a comprehensive
          view of valley.

          Up the Atanum, past Old Mission, through the
          narrows to Soda Springs.

          Moxee Valley to see the flowing wells: on the
          return Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams are plainly seen.

          One through Union Gap either by O.-W., gasoline
          motor, automobile, or the N. P. Ry. The towns of
          Sunnyside, Toppenish, Wapato, Mabton, Granger,
          Zillah and Fort Simcoe, of historic interest, will
          be seen; also largest area of sage brush land in
          the state.

          Bumping Lake; Lakes Kachees and Keechelus in the
          Cascades--summer resorts and storage reservoirs.

          Horseshoe Bend, past perpendicular cliffs of
          Basalt, following the American and Bumping rivers
          to the summit of the Cascades.

          Up the Naches Valley on the State Road, past
          "Painted Rocks."

          Into the Tieton basin by pack trains; the mountain
          and glacial scenery here rivals the Canadian
          Rockies.

          Headwaters of the Cowiche and Wenas--good roads
          and scenery.

          Ellensburg via valley of the Wenas--beautiful
          scenery.


=ELLENSBURG:= Metropolis of Kittitas Valley, of which 60,000 acres are
irrigated, while the High Line, proposed, will water 84,000 acres more.
A level country checkered with orchards, oat fields and dairy farms
gradually rises to the foot hills of the Cascades, where grand mountain
scenery is revealed. Estimated population about 6,000. One of the three
State Normals is here. Splendid highways.


Suggested trips:

          Cle Elum, 30 miles through the forest, with a good
          view of Mt. Stewart (9,470 feet).

          North Yakima via Valley of the Wenas.

          Manastash Canyon with its orchards and farms;
          perpendicular cliffs on either side.

          Lakes Keechelus, 50 miles, Kachess, 45 miles, and
          Cle Elum, 40 miles. At these three beautiful lake
          resorts, in the heart of the Cascades, the
          Government is building, at mammoth expense, a
          system of storage dams for watering the Yakima
          Valley.

          Wenatchee by Peshastin Canyon, or over Table
          Mountain, by a 5,200-foot pass from which Mt.
          Rainier, Mt. Hood, and other peaks are visible.


=WENATCHEE:= The metropolis of North Central Washington, and gateway to
the Wenatchee, Columbia, Entiat, Okanogan, Methow and Lake Chelan
regions. Situated at the confluence of Columbia and Wenatchee rivers,
with the foot hills of the Cascades a few miles away. One continuous
orchard is seen up and down both valleys. Auto roads lead in all
directions to innumerable points of interest, and the navigable Columbia
provides transportation for many miles. A labyrinth of lakes and
beautiful farms are within easy reach. The mountain scenery is
impressive. For a commanding view one should climb Saddle Rock. Mounts
Rainier, Hood and Baker, also the smoke of Walla Walla are visible from
some points. Population 5,000.


Suggested trips:

          Lake Chelan, Stehekin river, Chelan Falls and
          Rainbow Falls by Red Apple route and auto stage
          and boat; Lyman Glacier, 20 miles from Lake
          Chelan--a star trip.

          Glaciers at head of Entiat river, 38 miles.
          Horseshoe Basin.

          Myrtle Lake; Dumpke Lake; Emerald Park, a
          beautiful natural park, between Lake Chelan and
          Entiat Valley, reached by Government trail; good
          hotels.

          Waterville by stage along the Columbia, orchards,
          wheat fields.

          Okanogan Valley to Oroville by auto stage or
          train, boat part way if preferred. A week or more
          could be spent to advantage. Historical sights are
          numerous. Near Omak is St. Mary's Indian Mission.
          Near Brewster is site of oldest settlement in
          state. Big irrigation projects are seen. Near
          Oroville are Osoyoos, Wanacut and Epsom Salts
          Lakes, and the Similkameen river. Okanogan, county
          seat, Riverside and Tonasket, are passed.

          Methow Valley, via Pateros, to Twisp and Winthrop;
          irrigation, captivating scenery, splendid roads.

          Colville Indian Reservation in Okanogan and Ferry
          counties.

          Moses and Grand Coulees; Moses Lake and Soap Lake.

[Illustration:

DENNY HALL, U. OF W.

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE

          _Administration Building
          Domestic Science Hall
          State College_

STATE COLLEGE OF WASHINGTON, PULLMAN

OUR TWO LEADING EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.]

          Up the Wenatchee Valley by auto to Leavenworth,
          from which Tumwater Canyon, the G. N. power plant,
          and the government fish hatcheries are easily
          reached; also Icicle River by horseback over
          government trail; Chiwawa River, a fishing stream,
          (auto or horse) and Lake Wenatchee, a favorite
          mountain resort 23 miles northwest.


=SNOHOMISH:= "Garden City," second in importance and oldest in Snohomish
county. Located in the midst of the rich dairy country just east of
Everett, with which city it is connected by interurban and river boats,
as well as by steam trains. See "Everett" for trips.


=EVERETT:= "City of Smokestacks." Population about 32,000. Located on a
sightly peninsula formed by Puget Sound and the Snohomish River. Views
on every side are superb. The Cascades and Olympics are clearly visible,
especially Mounts Baker, Rainier and many lesser peaks, including
Pilchuck, always conspicuous, near by. Parks, boulevards and
playgrounds, and beautiful homes give artistic completeness. The only
arsenic plant in the United States is here. It is an important
manufacturing city, especially in lumber, shingles, machinery and paper.
Beginning at the city limits a rich dairy country extends to the
Cascades. A yearly festival called the "Kla How Ya" is held in July. The
G. N., N. P., C, M. & St. P. railways and three interurbans center here,
while automobile roads, including the Pacific Highway, lead to the
mountains and to lake resorts.


Suggested trips:

          Index, a mountain resort in the Cascades, from
          which may be reached Sunset, Canyon, Eagle, and
          Bridal Veil Falls; Lake Serene, Lake Isabel and
          many scenic peaks easily climbed.

          Gold Bar (on road to Index), to see Wallace and
          Olney Falls.

          Sultan for Sultan Basin and Canyon. Fishing,
          hunting, camping.

          Granite Falls, the Canyon of the Stillaguamish,
          and Mt. Pilchuck.

          Monte Cristo, Snoqualmie Falls, Darrington, Scenic
          Hot Springs.

          Whidbey and Camano Islands with their many lakes
          and resorts; Coupeville, Oak Harbor and other
          towns--some excellent roads.

          Silver Lake, Lake Stevens, and Snohomish and
          Tulalip Indian Reservation.

          Startup Pear Orchards, largest west of Cascades.

          Utsaladdy, via Sylvan and Stanwood passes of lower
          Stillaguamish where lie rich dyked lands.

          Hazel, 30 miles; Stockbridge dairy farm; oat
          fields.

          Seattle 1 1/2 hours to south and Bellingham 2 1/2
          hours to the north, by Pacific Highway.

          Snohomish by river boats, auto or rail. Monroe
          with its large condensery; state reformatory here.

          Skagit Valley, Mount Vernon, Burlington, Sedro
          Woolley and La Conner.


=SKAGIT VALLEY CITIES:= Mount Vernon, county seat, Burlington, Sedro
Woolley and La Conner are important centers in the Skagit Valley, famous
both for its beauty and because it has some of the richest farm land in
the world, extending for miles and level as a table. Dykes are built to
protect the country from being overflowed. Oat yields have been known as
high as 175 bushels to the acre; while dairying is nowhere in the state
more important, two condenseries being supported in Mount Vernon. Two
main railroad lines with branches, besides an interurban, serve the
section. The Pacific Highway and Skagit County Highway cross at
Burlington. Auto trips are made direct to Bellingham, Anacortes, Everett
and east into the mountains, visible from almost every point. Many
beautiful lakes in region.


=ANACORTES:= A seaport town on Fidalgo Island at western extremity of
Skagit county. Population about 6,000. G. N. railway and Sound steamers
supply transportation. The Skagit County Highway starts here. Salmon
canneries, lumber and shingle manufacturing and ship building may be
seen to advantage.


Suggested trips:

          South to Deception Pass by auto; cross by ferry
          and continue to Coupeville and Fort Casey.
          Splendid roads; rhododendrons.

          East to Skagit Valley points. Mountains and water
          always in sight.

          Cypress, Guemes and San Juan islands, and all
          Sound points.


=BELLINGHAM:= Population about 30,000. Metropolis of Northwestern
Washington and fifth in size in state. In vicinity are the largest
salmon cannery in world and one of largest lumber and saw mills on
coast. The Olympics, Selkirks and Cascades crowned by Mount Maker are
visible from its streets. Sehome Hill, where one of the state normal
schools is located, permits a view of Bellingham Bay where the ships of
the world anchor. In front of city lie San Juan Islands; fishing craft
may be seen. 150 acres of parking area have been provided. Pretty roads
lead through big timber in various directions. At its door stands Mount
Baker, one of main tourist objectives of the northwest, and one of the
most interesting mountains on the continent. The annual Marathon races,
participated in by the athletes of the world, are made to its summit and
back to Bellingham.


Suggested tours:

          Mt. Baker, for a two days' trip, or unlimited
          time.

          Olga, East Sound and other points on the San Juan
          islands; boat leaves every morning. See page 33.

          Lummi, Cypress, Guemes and other islands, also
          Deception Pass.

          U. S. Experiment Farm, via Pacific Highway;
          Government bulb farm, in full bloom during April
          and May; Country Club.

          Lake Whatcom, a suburban resort, 20 minutes' ride;
          Nooksack Falls; Lake Samish by Samish road through
          big timber.

          Blaine, most northwesterly city in the United
          States. Birch Bay and Lincoln Park, visiting also
          Custer, Lynden and Ferndale.

          Chuckanut Hill--view of Sound and surrounding
          country.

          Out in a launch to see a fish trap raised--a rare
          sight.

          Port Townsend, Port Angeles, Victoria, Vancouver
          and the ocean--splendid water trips.

          The famous Skagit Valley by trolley or auto.

          Anacortes on Fidalgo Island by water, auto or
          train.


=PORT ANGELES:= Northern gateway to Olympic Peninsula and nearer the
ocean than any other city in the Puget Sound country. Harbor is one of
the best. Railroads are just building in. Extensive improvements are
taking place. It has one of the largest saw and shingle mills in the
world. No prettier scenery anywhere.

[Illustration:

BRINGING IN A WHALE

INDIAN VILLAGE

BURDEN BEARER

CONTENTMENT

CALLING MOTHER

OUR EARLIEST PIONEERS.]


Suggested trips:

          Lake Sutherland, Lake Crescent, and Government Hot
          Springs.

          Sol Duc Hot Springs, the "Karlsbad of America," 45
          miles southwest, in the heart of the Olympics.
          Hotel cost half a million.

          Up the Elwha river into the mountains and on to
          Mt. Olympus.

          Hydro-Electric Power Plant, six miles east, built
          at cost of $2,000,000.00 to furnish light and
          power for entire Olympic Peninsula.

          Sequim and Dungeness, by Olympic Highway, to see
          largest irrigation tracts in Western Washington.
          Mountains and Sound are continually in view. Trip
          may be continued to Port Townsend or along the
          Olympic Highway to Olympia and Grays Harbor.


=PORT TOWNSEND:= "Key city" to Puget Sound. Situated on Quimper
Peninsula with Port Townsend Bay and Admiralty Inlet, Discovery Bay, and
Straits of Juan de Fuca on three sides. From Mountain View Park a broad
outlook is obtained, which includes, besides the waters mentioned, the
Olympic and the Cascade Mountains and hundreds of minor details. Other
beautiful parks are Chetzemoka and Lucinda Hastings. Less rain falls
than elsewhere in Western Washington. Pretty driveways decorated with
rhododendrons, unusual boating possibilities and easy approach to the
Olympics, make the region ideal for summer outings. Adjoining the city
is Fort Worden, headquarters for the Puget Sound system of defenses,
where the 6th Artillery Band, one of the best in the service, renders
daily programs. Several of the fastest passenger steamers on the Sound
stop daily.


Suggested trips:

          Fort Worden by auto and Fort Flagler by water.

          Fort Casey, Coupeville, one of the oldest towns in
          state, and other points on Whidbey Island.

          Deception Pass by water, very pretty scenery.

          Hood Canal and Discovery Bay, by water or auto.

          South through the Chimacum Valley past Quilcene,
          around Mt. Walker to Brinnon and Duckabush on Hood
          Canal, returning via Discovery Bay and Saints
          Rest: from Quilcene the Olympic Highway leads
          clear through to Olympia.


=SEATTLE:= Metropolis of the Northwest, with an estimated population of
325,000. It is a city of hills, occupying the sightly eminences, valleys
and plateaus lying between Lake Washington and Puget Sound, but sloping
gradually to the water's edge in either direction. Its entire area is
94.47 square miles, which includes two large fresh water lakes, Lake
Union and Green Lake, and nearly encompasses the Harbor known as Elliott
Bay. It is gridironed with 237 miles of street car lines while an
elaborate boulevard system of more than thirty miles connects its
thirty-eight parks, which have a total area of 1,428 acres. There are
also a number of children's playgrounds. From nearly all points there is
visible either the Sound with the snow capped Olympics or Lake
Washington and the Cascades.

Seattle is a city marvelous both for its enterprise and for its beauty.
Hills have given way to business blocks and thorofares, and at the same
time have increased the area of the city by supplying material for
filling in the tide flats, now occupied by the most valuable factory
sites. The forty-two story Smith Building is the highest in the world
outside of New York. At Salmon Bay the Government is constructing its
second largest locks in a canal to connect the Sound with Lake
Washington. Six transcontinental lines have their terminals in this city
which is also the gateway to Alaska and the home port of the Great
Circle Route.

[Illustration: SMITH BUILDING, SEATTLE, TALLEST IN THE WORLD OUTSIDE NEW
YORK.]


Within the city one should visit:

          Lake Washington Canal Locks, Fort Lawton, West
          Point Lighthouse, Loyal Height.

          University of Washington and A.-Y.-P. E. grounds,
          overlooking Lake Washington.

          Lookout Tower at Volunteer Park.

          Lookout on forty-two story Smith Building.

          West Seattle and Alki Point--waterfront camping
          sites inside city limits.

          Its many beautiful parks and matchless boulevard
          system.


Outside trips should include:

          Mount Rainier, via Tacoma, 2, 3 or 4 days--auto or
          train.

          Sol Duc, the "Karlsbad of America," and Lake
          Crescent, via Port Angeles, 2 days--steamer and
          auto.

          Snoqualmie Falls (268 feet), 1 day by Snoqualmie
          Pass Road.

          Cedar Falls, Lake and River, 1 day. Mount Si, near
          North Bend.

          Lake Keechelus, in the Cascade Mountains, 1 day.

          Hood Canal, 1 day; San Juan Islands, 3 days. See
          pages 29 and 33.

          Whidbey Island--Coupeville, Oak Harbor and Still
          Park, 1 or 2 days.

          Country Club, Richmond Beach and Edmonds--paved
          road.

          Bremerton, to see largest dry dock in the United
          States, half day. Several good auto trips may be
          taken from here.

          White River Valley, to the south, passing Kent and
          Auburn. A paved road extends all the way to Tacoma
          and beyond.

          Vashon Island, a large agricultural island and
          resort region between Seattle and Tacoma.

          Mt. Baker, via Bellingham, 3 days. Stop at Everett
          on way.

          Index, Gold Bar and Sultan for beautiful mountain
          scenery, fishing and hunting; 1 or 2 days.

          Tacoma, Olympia, Shelton and Lake Cushman in the
          Olympics.

[Illustration: MT. BAKER PARK BOULEVARD AND LAKE WASHINGTON

INTERLAKEN BOULEVARD

TOTEM POLE IN PIONEER SQUARE

VOLUNTEER PARK PORTION OF THE FORMAL GARDENS

HERE AND THERE ALONG SEATTLE'S BOULEVARDS.]

          Renton, a busy city just to the south of Lake
          Washington; go by the Duwamish river route and
          return by Rainier Valley.

          Black Diamond and New Castle coal mines.

          See description of other Puget Sound cities, all
          reached quickly.


=PUYALLUP:= A famous berry center in the rich Puyallup Valley. Over a
quarter million dollars worth of berries are shipped annually. All
Western Washington railroads serve it, while electric interurbans and
auto cars over the Pacific Highway provide several trips per hour to
Tacoma. The Western Washington Experiment Station is here and the
Western Washington Fair is held yearly. It is the transfer point for
Orting, the site of the State Soldiers' Home, and Fairfax, northern
entrance to Mt. Rainier National Park. For trips, see "Tacoma."


[Illustration: TACOMA'S STADIUM. DURING ROOSEVELT'S VISIT. SEATS
38,000.]

=TACOMA:= Population 105,000. Third city in size and importance in the
state. Picturesquely located on Commencement Bay, one of the great
harbors of Puget Sound. The Olympics complete the view toward the west
while the Cascades on the east are overshadowed by Mt. Rainier (or Mt.
Tacoma), which seems to rise from within city limits. A complete system
of parks, play grounds and boulevards add to the natural beauty. The
residence portion of the city overlooks an extensive manufacturing
section which claims the largest meat packing establishment in the west,
the largest grain warehouse in the world, and the largest smelter west
of Butte City, with one of the tallest cement smokestacks in the world.
Tacoma is also the largest flour milling center west of Minneapolis and
the fifth city in exports and imports on the coast. Miles of unsurpassed
highway lead south through a vast natural park consisting of broad
prairies dotted with lakes and covered with groves of oak trees; or
southeast into the famous Puyallup Valley fruit and berry district. Its
improved parks comprise 1,120 acres, 640 of which constitute Point
Defiance park at northern extremity of peninsula, and 30 acres, Wright
Park in center of city, having 3,000 trees and shrubs in 350 different
varieties.

Other remarkable features are a natural amphitheater or stadium, seating
38,000 people; the highest lift bridge in the world and the only one on
a grade; the Northern Pacific shops and a Union passenger depot, model
of its kind; and a speedway of 2 1/10 miles where the motor races of the
northwest are run. A rose carnival is held annually.


Suggested trips outside of city:

          Mt. Rainier-Tacoma in Rainier National Park--see
          page 49.

          Puyallup and Sumner to see large berry and dairy
          farms.

          American Lake, camping headquarters for the
          National Guard.

          Lake Spanaway, Lake Steilacoom and Country Club,
          summer resorts on southern outskirts of city. Some
          of the best natural roads in the world.

          Olympia, Grays Harbor, Shelton, Hood Canal, Lake
          Cushman and the Olympic Mountains--excellent
          roads.

          Electron, Le Grande and Dieringer--immense water
          power plants.

          Eatonville, Ohop Lake, Little Marshall Falls, Wild
          Cat Falls.

          Kapowsin Lake, Twin Lake Farm--dozens of lakes in
          vicinity.

          Parkland, Fawcett Lake, Melville Springs, Clover
          Creek.

          Vashon Island Points; Bay Island points on Fox,
          McNeils, Anderson and other islands.

          See also descriptions of other Puget Sound cities.


=OLYMPIA:= "The Pearl of Puget Sound," the "Salem of the Northwest," and
seat of state government. Three railroads and four state highways
converge here. The waters of Puget Sound reflect the low verdure covered
hills protecting the city and extending out along the shores. The
mountains are seen on every side. At the edge of city, on the north, is
Priest Point Park, of 160 acres. The end of the Oregon trail is marked
by a monument in Capitol Park in the heart of the city. Tumwater, a mile
away, is the site of the first settlement on Puget Sound. In Olympia the
first store was opened for business in the state. The Old New England
Inn, formerly the scene of all territorial functions, is marked forever
by a brass plate embedded in the sidewalk, and the homes of the first
Territorial Governor, Isaac I. Stevens, and General R. H. Milroy are
still to be seen.


Trips should include:

          Tumwater, Nisqually River, Tumwater Falls--trolley
          cars, paved road.

          Clear Lake, 30 miles; Summit Lake, 13 miles; Black
          Lake, 5 miles; Long and Patterson Lakes, 5 miles;
          Talcotts Lake, 8 miles; Bloom's and Hewitt's
          Lakes, 2 miles.

          Tenino Stone Quarry and oil prospects; Bordeaux
          Logging Camps.

          Hartstine, Quaxin, Stretch and many other small
          islands.

          Shelton, Union City, Skokomish River Valley and
          Lake Cushman, 45 miles distant; Olympic Mountains
          and Canal always in sight.

          Grays Harbor and the beach resorts; also all upper
          Sound points.


=ABERDEEN AND HOQUIAM:= Two cities on Grays Harbor, connected by
electric interurban. The gateway to the Olympics by the southern route.
Combined population about 29,000 (over 18,000 in Aberdeen), an increase
of nearly 400 per cent in 14 years, due chiefly to lumbering and fishing
industries, but farming and dairying are gaining. Near by are some of
the largest trees in the state. Splendid highways, including the
Olympic, lead in various directions, while the broad, firm ocean beaches
a short distance away offer miles of excellent motor race tracks. Three
transcontinental trains serve the district.

[Illustration: WRIGHT PARK

A ROSE ARBOR

POINT DEFIANCE PARK AND PUGET SOUND

A SUBURBAN HOME ON AMERICAN LAKE

IN AND ABOUT TACOMA.]


Suggested trips:

          Cosmopolis, a pretty city of 1,200 people, just
          across the Chehalis River. A trolley line connects
          it with Aberdeen.

          Cohasset, Westport, Pacific, Sunset and Moclips
          beaches, by auto, train or boat--ideal summer
          resorts.

          Point Grenville and Cape Elizabeth, bold headlands
          of the Olympics on either side of the Quiniault
          River; near by are sporting grounds of the sea
          lions.

          Montesano, county seat, at junction of Wynooche
          with the Chehalis River (boat, train or auto).
          Land near by produces 125 bushels of oats or 80
          tons of rutabagas to the acre.

          Around the harbor visiting Whaling station,
          Government jetty and light house; see crab
          fisheries; enjoy ocean swell.

          Humptulips Valley and Lake Quiniault in the Indian
          Reservation; returning by canoe down Quiniault
          River to Tahola, near the oil prospects; or
          continue into the Olympics as far as desired.

          Read also "Harbor Country" chapter.

[Illustration: HARBOR COUNTRY BEAUTIES.]


=SOUTH BEND AND RAYMOND:= Two progressive cities in southwestern
Washington on Willapa Bay, one of the best harbors on Coast. Lumbering,
farming, shell and salmon fisheries, and cranberry culture are
sustaining industries. Read also "The Harbor Country."


=CENTRALIA AND CHEHALIS:= Important railroad centers four miles apart,
connected by trolley and half way between Tacoma and Portland. Combined
population about 15,500 (10,000 in Centralia). A rich dairy and farm
country surrounds them, formed by the Chehalis, the Newaukum and
Skookumchuck rivers. About 44 trains leave Centralia daily. Coal mines,
farms and lumber are important. Between cities are Southwest Washington
Fair Grounds. At Chehalis, county seat, is a large condensery. The
Pacific Highway and the Rainier National Park Highway cross near by.


Suggested trips:

          The oldest Temple of Justice in the state--built
          in 1851.

          Old Block House at Fort Borst, junction of
          Skookumchuck and Chehalis Rivers, Territorial Inn
          where Gen. Grant stopped.

          Boy's training school just south of Chehalis.
          Girl's school just north of Centralia.

          Convict Rock Crushing Quarry at Meskill Station.

          Coal Mines at Tono and Mendota; oil wells at
          Tenino.

          Mossy Rock, Sulphur Springs, Sulphur Springs
          Falls, Cowlitz Gorge.

          Cowlitz Valley and Columbia River; stopping at
          Winlock, Napavine, Vader, Castle Rock, Kelso and
          other pretty towns. See smelt fisheries and
          ocean-going cigar shaped raft.

          Mount St. Helens and Spirit Lake via Castle
          Rock--two weeks' trip.


=VANCOUVER:= Oldest city in state; settled in 1824 by the Hudson Bay
Company. It slopes gently towards the Columbia river, visible from all
points. To the north are the prune orchards for which Clarke county is
noted, and the English walnut seems to have found its ideal habitat.
Adjoining city are the Vancouver Barracks, occupying 640 acres of land,
300 of which constitute a natural park with many winding roads. State
schools for the deaf and the blind are located near. What is said to be
the oldest apple tree in the Northwest still thrives. Electric lines
extend to the outlying districts, also to Portland, Oregon, while auto
drives may be made along the river, nowhere more picturesque, or through
the surrounding prosperous farming districts.


Suggested trips:

          Battle Ground Lake, 20 miles (auto or steam cars).

          Washougal River, 20 miles east (auto or steam
          cars).

          Camas, 10 miles east, to see Crown Columbia Paper
          Mills.

          Lake Merrill, costing $25.00 for four or five
          persons.

          Portland, Oregon, the second city in the
          Northwest, soon to be connected by a $1,750,000.00
          bridge across the Columbia.

          North fork of Lewis River for fishing, hunting and
          camping.

          Mount St. Helens and Spirit Lake, 60 miles, via
          Lewis River.

          Mount Adams and Indian Race track in Klickitat
          county, via White Salmon.

          Several hot springs at Stevenson and Carson in
          Skamania county.

          White Salmon Valley (train or boat), a rich
          picturesque region adapted to orchards and
          farming.

          A river trip to the mouth of the Columbia or up to
          Celilo Falls.

[Illustration: A FIG TREE AT VANCOUVER.]


=GOLDENDALE:= County seat of Klickitat county; reached via S. P. & S.
railway. Surrounding country is one immense beauty spot with valleys,
mountains, prairie, and timber. Mounts Hood, Adams, and St. Helens, are
always visible. Many beautiful trips may be taken. Historical sights are
numerous.



[Illustration: BULL SEAL AND HAREM--PRIBILOF ISLANDS

REINDEER HERD ON LOWER YUKON

EXCURSION STEAMER NEAR TAKU GLACIER

HYDRAULIC MINING

RHUBARB AT SKAGWAY

ALASKA, THE LAND OF THE NORTH.]



[Illustration: ALASKA,--OUR ALLY

          "A land of allurement and promise,
           Bold venture and strenuous deed."]


When you have seen Washington, the vast territory of Alaska awaits you.
Alaska, the last of the undeveloped free empires! This region is so
extensive that even the state of Washington would be lost in its midst,
for its area is equal to that of the original thirteen colonies, with
Maine, Vermont, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Kentucky and Michigan thrown
in, or one-fifth of the entire United States. It has a range of latitude
of 1,100 miles, while its extreme longitude would reach from the
Atlantic to the Pacific.

In proportion to its vastness, so are its wonders. Stupendous mountains
reach to three and nearly four miles in height, loftier than any others
in the United States or its possessions. The Yukon River is 2,300 miles
in length and its nearest rival, 1,000 miles. The biggest glaciers in
North America are here, which make those of Europe look like mere
pygmies, and volcanoes still in eruption may be viewed from a safe
point. The scenery produced by the green rock-bound fiords with the
snowy peaks beyond is truly magnificent.

It is also a great treasure house. By the end of 1914 there had been
produced, $540,000,000, or about 75 times the price paid for its
purchase, representing over $15,000.00 for each white person now
inhabiting it. Almost half was from gold mining and within the last
twenty years. The rest was from fisheries, seals, furs, copper and
silver--permanent resources of region.

Alaska is not cold and bleak like Labrador, although its latitude is
similar. The Japan current acts as it does on Washington and as the Gulf
Stream affects England. Both plant and animal life flourish and about
100,000 square miles of land are available for agricultural purposes.

To partially realize its glories take the inside passage trip from
Seattle--a thousand miles of calm sea.

[Illustration: MAP OF WASHINGTON]

[Illustration: SEAL-OF-THE-STATE-OF-WASHINGTON]

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Page 22, "occurences" changed to "occurrences" (occurrences that so
often)

Page 32, "stupenduous" changed to "stupendous" (the stupendous sum)

Page 49, repeated word "of" removed from text. Text now reads (waters of
Puget Sound)

Page 49, "State" changed to "States" (pinnacle in the United States)

Page 67, "panaroma" changed to "panorama" (unfolds a panorama)

Text uses both historic and current spelling of Whidby/Whidbey Island.

This book spells "throroughfare" as "thorofare".





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