Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts
Author: Girl Scouts of the United States of America
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)Music by Linda Cantoni.



SCOUTING for GIRLS


[Illustration]


THIS BOOK BELONGS TO

___________________________________________________________


MEMBER OF

_____________________________________________________ Troop


MY SCOUT RECORD

Registration Date and Place _______________________________

Passed Tenderfoot Test ____________________________________

Passed Second Class Test __________________________________

Passed ____________________________________________________



SCOUTING _for_ GIRLS


[Illustration]

[Illustration: MAGDELAINE DE VERCHÈRES

The First Girl Scout in the New World. From Statue erected by Lord Grey,
near the site of Fort Verchères on the St. Lawrence.]



SCOUTING _for_ GIRLS


_OFFICIAL HANDBOOK_

OF THE

GIRL SCOUTS

[Illustration]

SIXTH REPRINT

1925


          PUBLISHED BY THE GIRL SCOUTS, INC.
          NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
          670 LEXINGTON AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y.


          _Copyright 1920 by Girl Scouts, Inc._
          _All Rights Reserved._

PRINTED IN NEW YORK CITY



_To_

JULIETTE LOW

THEIR FOUNDER

          in grateful acknowledgment of all that
          she has done for them, the American
          Girl Scouts dedicate this Handbook



FOREWORD

_How Scouting Began_


_"How did Scouting come to be used by girls?" That is what I have been
asked. Well, it was this way. In the beginning I had used Scouting--that
is, wood craft, handiness, and cheery helpfulness--as a means for
training young soldiers when they first joined the army, to help them
become handy, capable men and able to hold their own with anyone instead
of being mere drilled machines._

_You have read about the Wars in your country against the Red Indians,
of the gallantry of your soldiers against the cunning of the Red Man,
and what is more, of the pluck of your women on those dangerous
frontiers._

_Well, we have had much the same sort of thing in South Africa. Over and
over again I have seen there the wonderful bravery and resourcefulness
of the women when the tribes of Zulu or Matabeles have been out on the
war path against the white settlers._

_In the Boer war a number of women volunteered to help my forces as
nurses or otherwise; they were full of pluck and energy, but
unfortunately they had never been trained to do anything, and so with
all the good-will in the world they were of no use. I could not help
feeling how splendid it would be if one could only train them in peace
time in the same way one trained the young soldiers--that is, through
Scoutcraft._

_I afterwards took to training boys in that way, but I had not been long
at it before the girls came along, and offered to do the very thing I
had hoped for, they wanted to take up Scouting also._

_They did not merely want to be imitators of the boys; they wanted a
line of their own._

_So I gave them a smart blue uniform and the names of "Guides" and my
sister wrote an outline of the scheme. The name Guide appealed to the
British girls because the pick of our frontier forces in India is the
Corps of Guides. The term cavalry or infantry hardly describes it since
it is composed of all-round handy men ready to take on any job in the
campaigning line and do it well._

_Then too, a woman who can be a good and helpful comrade to her brother
or husband or son along the path of life is really a guide to him._

_The name Guide therefore just describes the members of our sisterhood
who besides being handy and ready for any kind of duty are also a jolly
happy family and likely to be good, cheery comrades to their mankind._

_The coming of the Great War gave the Girl Guides their opportunity, and
they quickly showed the value of their training by undertaking a variety
of duties which made them valuable to their country in her time of
need._

_My wife, Lady Baden-Powell, was elected by the members to be the Chief
Guide, and under her the movement has gone ahead at an amazing pace,
spreading to most foreign countries._

_It is thanks to Mrs. Juliette Low, of Savannah, that the movement was
successfully started in America, and though the name Girl Scouts has
there been used it is all part of the same sisterhood, working to the
same ends and living up to the same Laws and Promise._

_If all the branches continue to work together and become better
acquainted with each other as they continue to become bigger it will
mean not only a grand step for the sisterhood, but what is more
important it will be a real help toward making the new League of Nations
a living force._

_How can that be? In this way:_

_If the women of the different nations are to a large extent members of
the same society and therefore in close touch and sympathy with each
other, although belonging to different countries, they will make the
League a real bond not merely between the Governments, but between the
Peoples themselves and they will see to it that it means Peace and that
we have no more of War._

                                       _Robert Baden Powell._
          _May, 1919_



PREFACE


The present edition of "Scouting for Girls" is the result of
collaboration on the part of practical workers in the organization from
every part of the country. The endeavor on the part of its compilers has
been to combine the minimum of standardization necessary for dignified
and efficient procedure, with the maximum of freedom for every local
branch in its interpretation and practice of the Girl Scout aims and
principles.

Grateful acknowledgments are due to the following:

Miss Sarah Louise Arnold, Dean, and Miss Ula M. Dow, A.M., and Dr. Alice
Blood, of Simmons College for the Part of Section XI entitled "Home
Economics"; Sir Robert Baden-Powell for frequent references and excerpts
from "Girl Guiding"; Dr. Samuel Lambert for the Part on First Aid,
Section XI, and Dr. W. H. Rockwell for reading and criticizing this;
Miss Marie Johnson with the assistance of Miss Isabel Stewart of
Teachers College, for the Part entitled "Home Nursing" in Section XI;
Dr. Herman M. Biggs for reading and criticizing the Parts dealing with
Public Health and Child Care; Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton and The
Woodcraft League, and Doubleday, Page & Co. for Section XIII and plates
on "Woodcraft"; Mr. Joseph Parsons, Mr. James Wilder, Mrs. Eloise
Roorbach, and Mr. Horace Kephart and the Macmillan Company for the
material in Section XIV "Camping for Girl Scouts"; Mr. George H.
Sherwood, Curator, and Dr. G. Clyde Fisher, Associate Curator, of the
Department of Public Education of the American Museum of Natural History
for the specially prepared Section XV and illustrations on "Nature
Study," and for all proficiency tests in this subject; Mr. David Hunter
for Section XVI "The Girl Scout's Own Garden," and Mrs. Ellen Shipman
for the part on a perennial border with the specially prepared drawing,
in the Section on the Garden; Mr. Sereno Stetson for material in Section
XVII "Measurements, Map Making and Knots"; Mr. Austin Strong for
pictures of knots; Mrs. Raymond Brown for the test for Citizen; Miss
Edith L. Nichols, Supervisor of Drawing in the New York Public Schools,
for the test on Craftsman; Mr. John Grolle of the Settlement Music
School, Philadelphia, for assistance in the Music test; Miss Eckhart for
help in the Farmer test; The Camera Club and the Eastman Kodak Company
for the test for Photographer; Mrs. Frances Hunter Elwyn of the New York
School of Fine and Applied Arts, for devising and drawing certain of the
designs for Proficiency Badges and the plates for Signalling; Miss L. S.
Power, Miss Mary Davis and Miss Mabel Williams of the New York Public
Library, for assistance in the preparation of reference reading for
Proficiency Tests, and general reading for Girl Scouts.

It is evident that only a profound conviction of the high aims of the
Girl Scout movement and the practical capacity of the organization for
realizing them could have induced so many distinguished persons to give
so generously of their time and talent to this Handbook.

The National Executive Board, under whose auspices it has been compiled,
appreciate this and the kindred courtesy of the various organizations of
similar interests, most deeply. We feel that such hearty and friendly
cooperation on the part of the community at large is the greatest proof
of the vitality and real worth of this and allied movements, based on
intelligent study of the young people of our country.

                                         JOSEPHINE DASKAM BACON,
          _Chairman of Publications._

_March 1, 1920._



CONTENTS


  Foreword by Sir Robert Baden-Powell.
  Preface by Josephine Daskam Bacon, _Editor_.

  SECTION:
      I. HISTORY OF THE GIRL SCOUTS                      1
     II. PRINCIPLES OF THE GIRL SCOUTS                   3
    III. ORGANIZATION OF THE GIRL SCOUTS                13
     IV. WHO ARE THE SCOUTS?                            17
      V. THE OUT OF DOOR SCOUT                          35
     VI. FORMS FOR GIRL SCOUT CEREMONIES                44
    VII. GIRL SCOUT CLASS REQUIREMENTS                  60
   VIII. WHAT A GIRL SCOUT SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE FLAG   67
     IX. GIRL SCOUT DRILL                               84
      X. SIGNALLING FOR GIRL SCOUTS                     97
     XI. THE SCOUT AIDE                                105

         Part 1. The Home Maker                        106
         Part 2. The Child Nurse                       157
         Part 3. The First Aide                        164
         Part 4. The Home Nurse                        217
         Part 5. The Health Guardian                   254
         Part 6. The Health Winner                     257

    XII. SETTING-UP EXERCISES                          273
   XIII. WOODCRAFT                                     280
    XIV. CAMPING FOR GIRL SCOUTS                       313
     XV. NATURE STUDY FOR GIRL SCOUTS                  373
    XVI. THE GIRL SCOUTS' OWN GARDEN                   456
   XVII. MEASUREMENTS, MAP-MAKING AND KNOTS            466
  XVIII. PROFICIENCY TESTS AND SPECIAL MEDALS          497
    XIX. REFERENCE READING FOR GIRL SCOUTS             540
         INDEX                                         548



GIRL SCOUTS


Motto--"Be Prepared"

Slogan--"Do a Good Turn Daily"


[Illustration: SYMBOL

TREFOIL: TO INDICATE THREEFOLD PROMISE]



PROMISE

                On My Honor, I will Try:
          To do my duty to God and my Country.
          To help other people at all times.
          To obey the Scout Laws.


LAWS

     I A Girl Scout's Honor is to be Trusted
    II A Girl Scout is Loyal
   III A Girl Scout's Duty is to be Useful and to Help Others
    IV A Girl Scout is a Friend to All and a Sister to every other
         Girl Scout
    V A Girl Scout is Courteous
   VI A Girl Scout is a Friend to Animals
   VII A Girl Scout obeys Orders
  VIII A Girl Scout is Cheerful
    IX A Girl Scout is Thrifty
     X A Girl Scout is Clean in Thought, Word and Deed



SECTION I

HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN GIRL SCOUTS


When Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scout movement in England,
it proved too attractive and too well adapted to youth to make it
possible to limit its great opportunities to boys alone. The sister
organization, known in England as the Girl Guides, quickly followed and
won an equal success.

Mrs. Juliette Low, an American visitor in England, and a personal friend
of the Father of Scouting, realized the tremendous future of the
movement for her own country, and with the active and friendly
co-operation of the Baden-Powells, she founded the Girl Guides in
America, enrolling the first patrols in Savannah, Georgia, in March
1912. In 1915 National Headquarters were established in Washington, D.
C., and the name was changed to Girl Scouts.

In 1916 National Headquarters were moved to New York and the methods and
standards of what was plainly to be a nation-wide organization became
established on a broad, practical basis.

The first National Convention was held in 1915, and each succeeding year
has shown a larger and more enthusiastic body of delegates and a public
more and more interested in this steadily growing army of girls and
young women who are learning in the happiest way how to combine
patriotism, outdoor activities of every kind, skill in every branch of
domestic science and high standards of community service.

Every side of the girl's nature is brought out and developed by
enthusiastic Captains, who direct their games and various forms of
training, and encourage team-work and fair play. For the instruction of
the Captains national camps and training schools are being established
all over the country; and schools and churches everywhere are
cooperating eagerly with this great recreational movement, which, they
realize, adds something to the life of the growing girl that they have
not been able to supply.

Colleges are offering training in scouting as a serious course for
prospective officers, and prominent citizens in every part of the
country are identifying themselves with the Local Councils, in an
advisory and helpful capacity.

At the present writing nearly 107,000 girls and more than 8,000 Officers
represent the original little troop in Savannah--surely a satisfying
sight for our Founder and First President, when she realizes what a
healthy sprig she has transplanted from the Mother Country!



SECTION II

PRINCIPLES OF THE GIRL SCOUTS


The Motto:

=Be Prepared=

A Girl Scout learns to swim, not only as an athletic accomplishment, but
so that she can save life. She passes her simple tests in child care and
home nursing and household efficiency in order to be ready for the big
duties when they come. She learns the important facts about her body, so
as to keep it the fine machine it was meant to be. And she makes a
special point of woodcraft and camp lore, not only for the fun and
satisfaction they bring, in themselves, but because they are the best
emergency course we have today. A Girl Scout who has passed her First
Class test is as ready to help herself, her home and her Country as any
girl of her age should be expected to prove.


The Slogan:

="Do a Good Turn Daily"=

This simple recipe for making a very little girl perform every day some
slight act of kindness for somebody else is the _seed_ from which grows
the larger _plant_ of helping the world along--the steady attitude of
the older Scout. And this grows later into the great tree of organized,
practical community service for the grown Scout--the ideal of every
American woman today.


The Pledge:

          ="I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the
          Republic for which it stands; one nation
          indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."=

This pledge, though not original with the Girl Scouts, expresses in
every phrase their principles and practice. Practical patriotism, in
war and peace, is the cornerstone of the organization. A Girl Scout not
only knows how to make her flag, and how to fly it; she knows how to
respect it and is taught how to spread its great lesson of democracy.
Many races, many religions, many classes of society have tested the Girl
Scout plan and found that it has something fascinating and helpful in it
for every type of young girl.

This broad democracy is American in every sense of the word; and the
Patrol System, which is the keynote of the organization, by which eight
girls of about the same age and interests elect their Patrol Leader and
practice local self-government in every meeting, carries out American
ideals in practical detail.


The Promise:

              =On My Honor I will try:=
          To do my duty to God and my country.
          To help other people at all times.
          To obey the Scout Laws.

This binds the Scouts together as nothing else could do. It is a promise
each girl _voluntarily_ makes; it is not a rule of her home nor a
command from her school nor a custom of her church. She is not forced to
make it--she deliberately chooses to do so. And like all such promises,
it means a great deal to her. Experience has shown that she hesitates to
break it.


THE LAWS OF THE GIRL SCOUTS

=I. A Girl Scout's Honor Is To Be Trusted=

This means that a Girl Scout's standards of honor are so high and sure
that no one would dream of doubting her simple statement of a fact when
she says: "This is so, on my honor as a Girl Scout."

She is not satisfied, either, with keeping the letter of the law, when
she really breaks it in spirit. When she answers you, _she_ means what
_you_ mean.

Nor does she take pains to do all this only when she is watched, or when
somebody stands ready to report on her conduct. This may do for some
people, but not for the Scouts. You can go away and leave her by herself
at any time; she does not require any guard but her own sense of honor,
which is always to be trusted.


=II. A Girl Scout Is Loyal=

This means that she is true to her Country, to the city or village where
she is a citizen, to her family, her church, her school, and to those
for whom she may work, or who may work for her. She is bound to believe
the best of them and to defend them if they are slandered or threatened.
Her belief in them may be the very thing they need most, and they must
feel that whoever may fail them, a Girl Scout never will.

This does not mean that she thinks her friends and family and school are
perfect; far from it. But there is a way of standing up for what is dear
to you, even though you admit that it has its faults. And if you insist
on what is best in people, behind their backs, they will be more likely
to take your criticism kindly, when you make it to their faces.


=III. A Girl Scout's Duty Is To Be Useful and to Help Others=

This means that if it is a question of being a help to the rest of the
world, or a burden on it, a Girl Scout is always to be found among the
helpers. The simplest way of saying this, for very young Scouts, is to
tell them to do a GOOD TURN to someone every day they live; that is, to
be a _giver_ and not a _taker_. Some beginners in Scouting, and many
strangers, seem to think that any simple act of courtesy, such as we all
owe to one another, counts as a good turn, or that one's mere duty to
one's parents is worthy of Scout notice. But a good Scout laughs at this
idea, for she knows that these things are expected of all decent people.
She wants to give the world every day, for good measure, something over
and above what it asks of her. And the more she does, the more she sees
to do.

This is the spirit that makes the older Scout into a fine, useful,
dependable woman, who does so much good in her community that she
becomes naturally one of its leading citizens, on whom everyone relies,
and of whom everyone is proud. It may end in the saving of a life, or in
some great heroic deed for one's country. _But these things are only
bigger expressions of the same feeling that makes the smallest
Tenderfoot try to do at least one good turn a day._


=IV. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to All, and a Sister to Every Other Girl
Scout=

This means that she has a feeling of good will to all the world, and is
never offish and suspicious nor inclined to distrust other people's
motives. A Girl Scout should never bear a grudge, nor keep up a quarrel
from pride, but look for the best in everybody, in which case she will
undoubtedly find it. Women are said to be inclined to cliques and
snobbishness, and the world looks to great organizations like the Girl
Scouts to break down their petty barriers of race and class and make
our sex a great power for democracy in the days to come.

The Girl Scout finds a special comrade in every other Girl Scout, it
goes without saying, and knows how to make her feel that she need never
be without a friend, or a meal, or a helping hand, as long as there is
another Girl Scout in the world.

She feels, too, a special responsibility toward the very old, who
represent what she may be, some day; toward the little children, who
remind her of what she used to be; toward the very poor and the
unfortunate, either of which she may be any day. The sick and helpless
she has been, as a Scout, especially trained to help, and she is proud
of her handiness and knowledge in this way.


=V. A Girl Scout Is Courteous=

This means that it is not enough for women to be helpful in this world;
they must do it pleasantly. The greatest service is received more
gratefully if it is rendered graciously. The reason for this is that
true courtesy is not an affected mannerism, but a sign of real
consideration of the rights of others, a very simple proof that you are
anxious to "do as you would be done by." It is society's way of playing
fair and giving everybody a chance. In the same way, a gentle voice and
manner are very fair proofs of a gentle nature; the quiet,
self-controlled person is not only mistress of herself, but in the end,
of all the others who cannot control themselves.

And just as our great statesman, Benjamin Franklin proved that "honesty
is the best policy," so many a successful woman has proved that a
pleasant, tactful manner is one of the most valuable assets a girl can
possess, and should be practised steadily. At home, at school, in the
office and in the world in general, the girl with the courteous manner
and pleasant voice rises quickly in popularity and power above other
girls of equal talent but less politeness. Girl Scouts lay great stress
on this, because, though no girl can make herself beautiful, and no girl
can learn to be clever, _any girl can learn to be polite_.


=VI. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to Animals=

All Girl Scouts take particular care of our dumb friends, the animals,
and are always eager to protect them from stupid neglect or hard usage.
This often leads to a special interest in their ways and habits, so that
a Girl Scout is likely to know more about these little brothers of the
human race than an ordinary girl.


=VII. A Girl Scout Obeys Orders=

This means that you should obey those to whom obedience is due, through
thick and thin. If this were not an unbreakable rule, no army could
endure for a day. It makes no difference whether you are cleverer, or
older, or larger, or richer than the person who may be elected or
appointed for the moment to give you orders; once they are given, it is
your duty to obey them. And the curious thing about it is that the
quicker and better you obey these orders, the more quickly and certainly
you will show yourself fitted to give them when your time comes. The
girl or woman who cannot obey can never govern. The reason you obey the
orders of your Patrol Leader, for instance, in Scout Drill, is not that
she is better than you, but because she happens to be your Patrol
Leader, and gives her orders as she would obey yours were you in her
place.

A small well trained army can always conquer and rule a big,
undisciplined mob, and the reason for this is simply because the army
has been taught to obey and to act in units, while the mob is only a
crowd of separate persons, each doing as he thinks best. The soldier
obeys by instinct, in a great crisis, only because he has had long
practice in obeying when it was a question of unimportant matters. So
the army makes a great point of having everything ordered in military
drill, carried out with snap and accuracy; and the habit of this, once
fixed, may save thousands of lives when the great crisis comes, and turn
defeat into victory.

A good Scout must obey instantly, just as a good soldier must obey his
officer, or a good citizen must obey the law, with no question and no
grumbling. If she considers any order unjust or unreasonable, let her
make complaint through the proper channels, and she may be sure that if
she goes about it properly she will receive attention. _But she must
remember to obey first and complain afterward._


=VIII. A Girl Scout Is Cheerful=

This means that no matter how courteous or obedient or helpful you try
to be, if you are sad or depressed about it nobody will thank you very
much for your effort. A laughing face is usually a loved face, and
nobody likes to work with a gloomy person. Cheerful music, cheerful
plays and cheerful books have always been the world's favorites; and a
jolly, good-natured girl will find more friends and more openings in the
world than a sulky beauty or a gloomy genius.

It has been scientifically proved that if you deliberately _make_ your
voice and face cheerful and bright you immediately begin to feel that
way; and as cheerfulness is one of the most certain signs of good
health, a Scout who appears cheerful is far more likely to keep well
than one who lets herself get "down in the mouth." There is so much
real, unavoidable suffering and sorrow in the world that nobody has any
right to add to them unnecessarily, and "as cheerful as a Girl Scout"
ought to become a proverb.


=IX. A Girl Scout Is Thrifty=

This means that a Girl Scout is a girl who is wise enough to know the
value of things and to put them to the best use. The most valuable thing
we have in this life is time, and girls are apt to be stupid about
getting the most out of it. A Girl Scout may be known by the fact that
she is either working, playing or resting. All are necessary and one is
just as important as the other.

Health is probably a woman's greatest capital, and a Girl Scout looks
after it and saves it, and doesn't waste it by poor diet and lack of
exercise and fresh air, so that she goes bankrupt before she is thirty.

Money is a very useful thing to have, and the Girl Scout decides how
much she can afford to save and does it, so as to have it in an
emergency. A girl who saves more than she spends may be niggardly; a
girl who spends more than she saves may go in debt. A Girl Scout saves,
as she spends, on some system.

Did you ever stop to think that no matter how much money a man may earn,
the women of the family generally have the spending of most of it? And
if they have not learned to manage their own money sensibly, how can
they expect to manage other people's? If every Girl Scout in America
realized that she might make all the difference, some day, between a
bankrupt family and a family with a comfortable margin laid aside for a
rainy day, she would give a great deal of attention to this Scout law.

In every great war all nations have been accustomed to pay the costs of
the war from loans; that is, money raised by the savings of the people.
Vast sums were raised in our own country during the great war by such
small units as Thrift Stamps. If the Girl Scouts could save such
wonderful sums as we know they did in war, why can they not keep this up
in peace? For one is as much to their Country's credit as the other.

[Illustration: SALUTING THE FLAG IN A GIRL SCOUT CAMP]


=X. A Girl Scout Is Clean in Thought, Word and Deed=

This means that just as she stands for a clean, healthy community and a
clean, healthy home, so every Girl Scout knows the deep and vital need
for clean and healthy bodies in the mothers of the next generation. This
not only means keeping her skin fresh and sweet and her system free from
every impurity, but it goes far deeper than this, and requires every
Girl Scout to respect her body and mind so much that she forces everyone
else to respect them and keep them free from the slightest familiarity
or doubtful stain.

A good housekeeper cannot endure dust and dirt; a well cared for body
cannot endure grime or soil; a pure mind cannot endure doubtful thoughts
that cannot be freely aired and ventilated. It is a pretty safe rule for
a Girl Scout not to read things nor discuss things nor do things that
could not be read nor discussed nor done by a Patrol all together. If
you will think about this, you will see that it does not cut out
anything that is really necessary, interesting or amusing. Nor does it
mean that Scouts _should_ never do anything except in Patrols; that
would be ridiculous. But if they find they _could_ not do so, they had
better ask themselves why. When there is any doubt about this higher
kind of cleanliness Captains and Councillors may always be asked for
advice and explanation.



SECTION III

ORGANIZATION OF THE GIRL SCOUTS


Lone Scout

The basis of the Girl Scout organization is the individual girl. Any one
girl anywhere who wishes to enroll under our simple pledge of loyalty to
God and Country, helpfulness to other people and obedience to the Scout
Laws, and is unable to attach herself to any local group, is privileged
to become a Lone Scout. The National Organization will do its best for
her and she is eligible for all Merit Badges which do not depend upon
group work.


Patrol

But the ideal unit and the keystone of the organization is the Patrol,
consisting of eight girls who would naturally be associated as friends,
neighbors, school fellows or playmates. They are a self selected and,
under the regulations and customs of the organization, a self governing
little body, who learn, through practical experiment, how to translate
into democratic team-play, their recreation, patriotic or community
work, camp life and athletics. Definite mastery of the various subjects
they select to study is made more interesting by healthy competition and
mutual observation.


Patrol Leader

Each Patrol elects from its members a Patrol Leader, who represents them
and is to a certain extent responsible for the discipline and dignity of
the Patrol.


Corporal

The Patrol Leader is assisted by her Corporal, who may be either elected
or appointed; and she is subject to re-election at regular intervals,
the office is a practical symbol of the democratic basis of our American
government and a constant demonstration of it.


Troop

From one to four of these Patrols constitute a Troop, the administrative
unit of the organization. Girl Scouts are registered and chartered by
troops, and the Troop meeting is their official gathering. The Troop has
the privilege of owning a flag and choosing from a list of flowers,
trees, birds, and so forth, its own personal crest and title.


Captain

The leader is called a Captain. She must be twenty-one or over, and
officially accepted by the National Headquarters, from whom she receives
the ratification of her appointment and to whom she is responsible. She
may be chosen by the girls themselves, suggested by local authorities,
or be herself the founder of the Troop. She represents the guiding,
friendly spirit of comradely leadership, the responsibility and
discretion, the maturer judgment and the definite training which shapes
the policy of the organization.


Lieutenants

She may, in a small troop, and should, in a large one, be assisted by a
Lieutenant, who must be eighteen or over, and who must, like herself, be
commissioned from National Headquarters; and if desired, by a Second
Lieutenant, who must be at least sixteen.


Council

The work of the Girl Scouts in any community is made many times more
effective and stimulating by the cooperation of the Council, a group of
interested, public spirited citizens who are willing to stand behind the
girls and lend the advantages of their sound judgment, broad point of
view, social prestige and financial advice. They are not expected to be
responsible for any teaching, training or administrative work; they are
simply the organized Friends of the Scouts and form the link between the
Scouts and the community. The Council is at its best when it is made up
of representatives of the church, school, club and civic interests of
the neighborhood, and can be of inestimable value in suggesting and
affording means of co-operation with all other organizations,
patronizing and advertising Scout entertainments, and so forth. One of
its chief duties is that of finding interested and capable judges for
the various Merit Badges, and arranging for the suitable conferring of
such badges. The Council, or a committee selected from its members, is
known for this purpose as the Court of Awards.

A Captain who feels that she has such a body behind her can go far with
her Troop; and citizens who are particularly interested in constructive
work with young people who find endless possibilities in an organized
Girl Scout Council. The National Headquarters issues charters to such
Councils and cooperates with them in every way.


National Organization

The central and final governing body is the National Council. This is
made up of delegates elected from all local groups throughout the
country, and works by representation, indirectly through large State and
District sub-divisions, through the National Executive Board which
maintains its Headquarters in New York.


National Director

The National Director is in charge of these Headquarters and directs the
administrative work under the general heading of Field, Business,
Publication and Education.


Policy

From the youngest Lone Scout up to the National Director, the
organization is democratic, self-governing and flexible, adjusting
itself everywhere and always to local circumstances and the habits and
preferences of the different groups. It is not only non-sectarian, but
is open to all creeds and has the enthusiastic support of all of them.
It offers no new system of education, but co-operates with the schools
and extends to them a much appreciated recreational plan. It affords the
churches a most practical outlet for their ideals for their young
people. Its encouragement of the intelligent domestic interests is shown
by the stress laid on every aspect of home and social life and by the
great variety of Merit Badges offered along these lines. The growing
interest in the forming of Girl Scout Troops by schools, churches and
parents proves as nothing else could, how naturally and helpfully this
simple organization fits in with the three factors of the girl's life;
her home, her church, her school. And the rapid and never ceasing growth
of the Girl Scouts means that we are able to offer, every year, larger
and larger numbers of healthy and efficient young citizens to their
country.



SECTION IV

WHO ARE THE SCOUTS?


In the early days of this great country of ours, before telephones and
telegrams, railroads and automobiles made communications of all sorts so
easy, and help of all kinds so quickly secured, men and women--yes, and
boys and girls, too!--had to depend very much on themselves and be very
handy and resourceful, if they expected to keep safe and well, and even
alive.

Our pioneer grandmothers might have been frightened by the sight of one
of our big touring cars, for instance, or puzzled as to how to send a
telegram, but they knew an immense number of practical things that have
been entirely left out of our town-bred lives, and for pluck and
resourcefulness in a tight place it is to be doubted if we could equal
them today.

"_You press a button and we do the rest_" is the slogan of a famous
camera firm, and really it seems as if this might almost be called the
slogan of modern times; we have only to press a button nowadays, and
someone will do the rest.

But in those early pioneer days there was no button to press, as we all
know, and nobody to "do the rest": everybody had to know a little about
everything _and be able to do that little pretty quickly_, as safety and
even life might depend upon it.

The men who stood for all this kind of thing in the highest degree were
probably the old "Scouts," of whom Natty Bumpo, in Cooper's famous old
Indian tales is the great example. They were explorers, hunters,
campers, builders, fighters, settlers, and in an emergency, nurses and
doctors combined. They could cook, they could sew, they could make and
sail a canoe, they could support themselves indefinitely in the
trackless woods, they knew all the animals and the plants for miles
around, they could guide themselves by the sun, and stars, and finally,
they were husky and hard as nails and always in the best of health and
condition. Their adventurous life, always on the edge of danger and new,
unsuspected things, made them as quick as lightning and very clever at
reading character and adapting themselves to people.

In a way, too, they had to act as rough and ready police (for there were
no men in brass buttons in the woods!) and be ready to support the
right, and deal out justice, just as our "cow-boys" of later ranch days
had to prevent horse-stealing.

Now, the tales of their exploits have gone all over the world, and
healthy, active people, and especially young people, have always
delighted in just this sort of life and character. So, when you add the
fact that the word "scout" has always been used, too, to describe the
men sent out ahead of an army to gain information in the quickest,
cleverest way, it is no wonder that the great organizations of Boy and
Girl Scouts which are spreading all over the world today should have
chosen the name we are so proud of, to describe the kind of thing they
want to stand for.

Our British Scout-sisters call themselves "Girl Guides," and here is the
thrilling reason for this title given by the Chief Scout and Founder of
the whole big band that is spreading round the world today, as so many
of Old England's great ideas have spread.


WHY "GUIDES"?

          On the North-West Frontier of India there is a
          famous Corps of soldiers known as the Guides, and
          their duty is to be always ready to turn out at
          any moment to repel raids by the hostile tribes
          across the Border, and to prevent them from coming
          down into the peaceful plains of India. This body
          of men must be prepared for every kind of
          fighting. Sometimes on foot, sometimes on
          horseback, sometimes in the mountains, often with
          pioneer work wading through rivers and making
          bridges, and so on. But they have to be a skilful
          lot of men, brave and enduring, ready to turn out
          at any time, winter or summer, or to sacrifice
          themselves if necessary in order that peace may
          reign throughout India while they keep down any
          hostile raids against it. So they are true
          handymen in every sense of the word, and true
          patriots.

          When people speak of Guides in Europe one
          naturally thinks of those men who are mountaineers
          in Switzerland and other mountainous places, who
          can guide people over the most difficult parts by
          their own bravery and skill in tackling obstacles,
          by helpfulness to those with them, and by their
          bodily strength of wind and limb. They are
          splendid fellows those guides, and yet if they
          were told to go across the same amount of miles on
          an open flat plain it would be nothing to them, it
          would not be interesting, and they would not be
          able to display those grand qualities which they
          show directly the country is a bit broken up into
          mountains. It is no fun to them to walk by easy
          paths, the whole excitement of life is facing
          difficulties and dangers and apparent
          impossibilities, and in the end getting a chance
          of attaining the summit of the mountain they have
          wanted to reach.

          Well, I think it is the case with most girls
          nowadays. They do not want to sit down and lead an
          idle life, not to have everything done for them,
          nor to have a very easy time. They don't want
          merely to walk across the plain, they would much
          rather show themselves handy people, able to help
          others and ready, if necessary to sacrifice
          themselves for others just like the Guides on the
          North-West frontier. And they also want to tackle
          difficult jobs themselves in their life, to face
          mountains and difficulties and dangers and to go
          at them having prepared themselves to be skilful
          and brave; and also they would like to help other
          people meet their difficulties also. When they
          attain success after facing difficulties, then
          they feel really happy and triumphant. It is a big
          satisfaction to them to have succeeded and to have
          made other people succeed also. That is what the
          Girl Guides want to do, just as the mountaineer
          guides do among the mountains.

          Then, too, a woman who can do things is looked up
          to by others, both men and women, and they are
          always ready to follow her advice and example, so
          there she becomes a Guide too. And later on if she
          has children of her own, or if she becomes a
          teacher of children, she can be a really good
          Guide to them.

          By means of games and activities which the Guides
          practise they are able to learn the different
          things which will help them to get on in life, and
          show the way to others to go on also. Thus camping
          and signalling, first aid work, camp cooking, and
          all these things that the Guides practise are all
          going to be helpful to them afterwards in making
          them strong, resourceful women, skilful and
          helpful to others, and strong in body as well as
          in mind, and what is more it makes them a jolly
          lot of comrades also.

          The motto of the Guides on which they work is "Be
          Prepared," that is, be ready for any kind of duty
          that may be thrust upon them, and what is more, to
          know what to do by having practised it beforehand
          in the case of any kind of accident or any kind of
          work that they may be asked to take up.


MAGDELAINE DE VERCHÈRES

"THE FIRST GIRL SCOUT"

It is a great piece of luck for us American Scouts that we can claim the
very first Girl Scout for our own great continent, if not quite for our
own United States. A great Englishman calls her "the first Girl Scout,"
and every Scout must feel proud to the core of her heart when she thinks
that this statue which we have selected for the honor of our
frontispiece, standing as it does on British soil, on the American
continent, commemorating a French girl, the daughter of our Sister
Republic, joins the three great countries closely together, through the
Girl Scouts! Magdelaine de Verchères lived in the French colonies around
Quebec late in the seventeenth century. The colonies were constantly
being attacked by the Iroquois Indians. One of these attacks occurred
while Magdelaine's father, the Seigneur, was away. Magdelaine rallied
her younger brothers about her and succeeded in holding the fort for
eight days, until help arrived from Montreal.

The documents relating this bit of history have been in the Archives for
many years, but when they were shown to Lord Grey about twelve years
ago he decided to erect a monument to Magdelaine de Verchères on the St.
Lawrence. It was Lord Grey who called Magdelaine "The First Girl Scout,"
and as such she will be known.

The following is taken from "A Daughter of New France," by Arthur G.
Doughty who wrote the book for the Red Cross work of the Magdelaine de
Verchères Chapter of the Daughters of the Empire, and dedicated it to
Princess Patricia, whose name was given to the famous "Princess Pat"
regiment.

"On Verchères Point, near the site of the Fort, stands a statue in
bronze of the girl who adorned the age in which she lived and whose
memory is dear to posterity. For she had learned so to live that her
hands were clean and her paths were straight.... To all future visitors
to Canada by way of the St. Lawrence, this silent figure of the First
Girl Scout in the New World conveys a message of loyalty, of courage and
of devotion."

Our own early history is sprinkled thickly with brave, handy girls, who
were certainly Scouts, if ever there were any, though they never
belonged to a patrol, nor recited the Scout Laws. But they lived the
Laws, those strong young pioneers, and we can stretch out our hands to
them across the long years, and give them the hearty Scout grip of
fellowship, when we read of them.


THE EXPLORER

If we should ever hold an election for honorary membership in the Girl
Scouts, open to all the girls who ought to have belonged to us, but who
lived too long ago, we should surely nominate for first place one of the
most remarkable young Indian girls who ever found her way through the
pathless forests,--Sacajawea, "The Bird Woman."

In 1806 she was brought to Lewis and Clark on their expedition into the
great Northwest, to act as interpreter between them and the various
Indian tribes they had to encounter. From the very beginning, when she
induced the hostile Shoshones to act as guides, to the end of her daring
journey, during which, with her papoose on her back, she led this band
of men through hitherto impassable mountain ranges, till she brought
them to the Pacific Coast, this sixteen-year-old girl never faltered. No
dangers of hunger, thirst, cold or darkness were too much for her. From
the Jefferson to the Yellowstone River she was the only guide they had;
on her instinct for the right way, her reading of the sun, the stars and
the trees, depended the lives of all of them. When they fell sick she
nursed them; when they lost heart at the wildness of their venture, she
cheered them. Their party grew smaller and smaller, for Lewis and Clark
had separated early in the expedition, and a part of Clark's own party
fell off when they discovered a natural route over the Continental
Divide where wagons could not travel. Later, most of those who remained,
decided to go down the Jefferson River in canoes; but Clark still guided
by the plucky Indian girl, persisted in fighting his way on pony back
overland, and after a week of this journeying, crowded full of
discomforts and dangers, she brought him out in triumph at the
Yellowstone, where the river bursts out from the lower canon,--and the
Great Northwest was opened up for all time!

       *       *       *       *       *

The women of Oregon have raised a statue to this young explorer, and
there she stands in Portland, facing the Coast, pointing to the Columbia
River where it reaches the sea.

These great virtues of daring and endurance never die out of the race;
though the conditions of our life today, when most of the exploring has
been done, do not demand them of us in just the form the "Bird Woman"
needed, still, if they die out of the nation, and especially out of the
women of the nation, something has been lost that no amount of book
education can ever replace. Sacajawea, had no maps to study--she _made_
maps, and roads have been built over her footsteps. And so we Scouts,
not to lose this great spirit, study the stars and the sun and the trees
and try to learn a few of the wood secrets she knew so well. This
out-of-door wisdom and self-reliance was the first great principle of
Scouting.


THE HOMEMAKER

But of course, a country full of "Bird Women" could not be said to have
advanced very far in civilization. Though we should take great pleasure
in conferring her well-earned merit badges on Sacajawea, we should
hardly have grown into the great organization we are today if we had not
badges for quite another class of achievements.

In 1832, not so many years after the famous Lewis and Clark expedition,
there was born a little New England girl who would very early in life
have become a First Class Scout if she had had the opportunity. Her name
was Louisa Alcott, and she made that name famous all the world over by
the book by which the world's girls know her--"Little Women." Her
father, though a brilliant man, was a very impractical one, and from her
first little story to her last popular book, all her work was done for
the purpose of keeping her mother and sisters, in comfort. While she was
waiting for the money from her stories she turned carpets, trimmed hats,
papered the rooms, made party dresses for her sisters, nursed anyone
who was sick (at which she was particularly good)--all the homely,
helpful things that neighbors and families did for each other in New
England towns.

In those days little mothers of families could not telephone specialists
to help them out in emergencies; there were neither telephones nor
specialists! But there were always emergencies, and the Alcott girls had
to know what to put on a black-and-blue spot, and why the jelly failed
to "jell," and how to hang a skirt, and bake a cake, and iron a
table-cloth. Louisa had to entertain family guests and darn the family
stockings. Her home had not every comfort and convenience, even as
people counted those things then, and without a brisk, clever woman,
full of what the New Englanders called "faculty," her family would have
been a very unhappy one. With all our modern inventions nobody has yet
invented a substitute for a good, all-round woman in a family, and until
somebody can invent one, we must continue to take off our hats to girls
like Louisa Alcott. Imagine what her feelings would have been if someone
had told her that she had earned half a dozen merit badges by her
knowledge of home economics and her clever writing!

And let every Scout who finds housework dull, and feels that she is
capable of bigger things, remember this: the woman whose books for girls
are more widely known than any such books ever written in America, had
to drop the pen, often and often, for the needle, the dish-cloth and
the broom.

To direct her household has always been a woman's job in every century,
and girls were learning to do it before Columbus ever discovered
Sacajawea's great country. To be sure, they had no such jolly way of
working at it together, as the Scouts have, nor did they have the
opportunity the girl of today has to learn all about these things in a
scientific, business-like way, in order to get it all done with the
quickest, most efficient methods, just as any clever business man
manages his business.

We no longer believe that housekeeping should take up all a woman's
time; and many an older woman envies the little badges on a Scout's
sleeve that show the world she has learned how to manage her cleaning
and cooking and household routine so that she has plenty of time to
spend on other things that interest her.


THE PIONEER

But there was a time in the history of our country when men and women
went out into the wilderness with no nearer neighbors than the Indians,
yet with all the ideals of the New England they left behind them; girls
who had to have all the endurance of the young "Bird Woman" and yet keep
up the traditions and the habits of the fine old home life of Louisa
Alcott.

One of these pioneer girls, who certainly would have been patrol leader
of her troop and marched them to victory with her, was Anna Shaw. In
1859, a twelve-year old girl, with her mother and four other children
she traveled in a rough cart full of bedding and provisions, into the
Michigan woods where they took up a claim, settling down into a log
cabin whose only furniture was a fireplace of wood and stones.

She and her brothers floored this cabin with lumber from a mill, and
actually made partitions, an attic door and windows. They planted
potatoes and corn by chopping up the sod, putting seed under it and
leaving it to Nature--who rewarded them by giving them the best corn
and potatoes Dr. Shaw ever ate, she says in her autobiography.

For she became a preacher and a physician, a lecturer and organizer,
this sturdy little Scout, even though she had to educate herself,
mostly. They papered the cabin walls with the old magazines, after they
had read them once, and went all over them, in this fashion, later. So
eagerly did she devour the few books sent them from the East, that when
she entered college, years later, she passed her examinations on what
she remembered of them!

They lived on what they raised from the land; the pigs they brought in
the wagon with them, fish, caught with wires out of an old hoop skirt,
and corn meal brought from the nearest mill, twenty miles away. Ox teams
were the only means of getting about.

Anna and her brothers made what furniture they used--bunks, tables,
stools and a settle. She learned to cut trees and "heart" logs like a
man. After a trying season of carrying all the water used in the
household from a distant creek, which froze in the winter so that they
had to melt the ice, they finally dug a well. First they went as far as
they could with spades, then handed buckets of earth to each other,
standing on a ledge half-way down; then, when it was deep enough, they
lined it with slabs of wood. It was so well made that the family used it
for twelve years.

Wild beasts prowled around them, Indians terrified them by sudden
visits, the climate was rigorous, amusements and leisure scanty. But
this brave, handy girl met every job that came to her with a good heart
and a smile; she learned by doing. The tests and sports for mastering
which we earn badges were life's ordinary problems to her, and very
practical ones. She never knew it, but surely she was a real Girl Scout!

It is not surprising to learn that she grew up to be one of the women
who earned the American girl her right to vote. A pioneer in more ways
than one, this little carpenter and farmer and well-digger worked for
the cause of woman's political equality as she had worked in the
Michigan wilderness, and helped on as much as any one woman, the great
revolution in people's ideas which makes it possible for women today to
express their wishes directly as to how their country shall be governed.
This seems very simple to the girls of today, and will seem even simpler
as the years go on, but, like the Yellowstone River, it needed its
pioneers!

In the Great War through which we have just passed, the Scouts of all
countries gave a magnificent account of themselves, and honestly earned
the "War Service" badges that will be handed down to future generations,
we may be sure, as the proudest possessions of thousands of
grandchildren whose grandmothers (think of a Scout grandmother!) were
among the first to answer their Country's call.

Let us hear what our British sisters accomplished, and we must remember
that at the time of the war there were many Girl Guides well over Scout
age and in their twenties, who had had the advantage, as their book
points out, of years of training.

          This is what they have done during the Great War.

          In the towns they have helped at the Military
          Hospitals.

          In the country they have collected eggs for the
          sick, and on the moors have gathered sphagnum moss
          for the hospitals.

          Over in France a great Recreation and Rest Hut for
          the soldiers has been supplied by the Guides with
          funds earned through their work. It is managed by
          Guide officers, or ex-Guides. Among the older
          Guides there are many who have done noble work as
          assistants to the ward-maids, cooks, and laundry
          women. In the Government offices, such as the War
          Office, the Admiralty, and other great departments
          of the State, they have acted as orderlies and
          messengers. They have taken up work in factories,
          or as motor-drivers or on farms, in order to
          release men to go to the front.

          At home and in their club-rooms they have made
          bandages for the wounded, and warm clothing for
          the men at the Front and in the Fleet.

          At home in many of the great cities the Guides
          have turned their Headquarters' Club-Rooms into
          "Hostels." That is, they have made them into small
          hospitals ready for taking in people injured in
          air-raids by the enemy.

          So altogether the Guides have shown themselves to
          be a pretty useful lot in many different kinds of
          work during the war, and, mind you, they are only
          girls between the ages of 11 and 18. But they have
          done their bit in the Great War as far as they
          were able, and have done it well.

          There are 100,000 of them, and they are very
          smart, and ready for any job that may be demanded
          of them.

          They were not raised for this special work during
          the war for they began some years before it, but
          their motto is "Be Prepared," and it was their
          business to train themselves to be ready for
          anything that might happen, even the most unlikely
          thing.

          So even when war came they were "all there" and
          ready for it.

          It is not only in Great Britain that they have
          been doing this, but all over our great Empire--in
          Canada and Australia, West, East and South Africa,
          New Zealand, the Falkland Islands, West Indies,
          and India. The Guides are a vast sisterhood of
          girls, ready to do anything they can for their
          country and Empire.

          Long before there was any idea of the war the
          Guides had been taught to think out and to
          practise what they should do supposing such a
          thing as war happened in their own country, or
          that people should get injured by bombs or by
          accidents in their neighborhood. Thousands of
          women have done splendid work in this war, but
          thousands more would have been able to do good
          work also had they only Been Prepared for it
          beforehand by learning a few things that are
          useful to them outside their mere school work or
          work in their own home. And that is what the
          Guides are learning in all their games and camp
          work: they mean to be useful in other ways besides
          what they are taught in school.


          WHAT THE GUIDES DO

          As a Guide your first duty is to be helpful to
          other people, both in small everyday matters and
          also under the worst of circumstances. You have to
          imagine to yourself what sort of things might
          possibly happen, and how you should deal with them
          when they occur. Then you will know what to do.

          I was present when a German aeroplane dropped a
          bomb on to a railway station in London. There was
          the usual busy scene of people seeing to their
          luggage, saying good-bye and going off by train,
          when with a sudden bang a whole carriage was blown
          to bits, and the adjoining ones were in a blaze;
          seven or eight of those active in getting into the
          train were flung down--mangled and dead; while
          some thirty more were smashed, broken, and
          bleeding, but still alive. The suddenness of it
          made it all the more horrifying. But one of the
          first people I noticed as keeping her head was a
          smartly dressed young lady kneeling by an injured
          working-man; his thigh was smashed and bleeding
          terribly; she had ripped up his trousers with her
          knife, and with strips of it had bound a pad to
          the wound; she found a cup somehow and filled it
          with water for him from the overhead hose for
          filling engines. Instead of being hysterical and
          useless, she was as cool and ready to do the right
          thing as if she had been in bomb-raids every day
          of her life. Well, that is what any girl can do if
          she only prepares herself for it.

          These are things which have to be learnt in
          peace-time, and because they were learnt by the
          Guides beforehand, these girls were able to do
          their bit so well when war came.


          FIRST AID.

          When you see an accident in the street or people
          injured in an air raid, the sight of the torn
          limbs, the blood, the broken bones, and the sound
          of the groans and sobbing all make you feel sick
          and horrified and anxious to get away from it--if
          you're not a Girl Guide. But that is cowardice:
          your business as a Guide is to steel yourself to
          face it and to help the poor victim. As a matter
          of fact, after a trial or two you really get to
          like such jobs, because with coolheadedness and
          knowledge of what to do you feel you give the
          much-needed help.

          _The Value of Nursing._--In this war hundreds and
          hundreds of women have gone to act as nurses in
          the hospitals for the wounded and have done
          splendid work. They will no doubt be thankful all
          their lives that while they were yet girls they
          learnt how to nurse and how to do hospital work,
          so that they were useful when the call came for
          them. But there are thousands and thousands of
          others who wanted to do the work when the time
          came, but they had not like Guides, Been Prepared,
          and they had never learnt how to nurse, and so
          they were perfectly useless and their services
          were not required in the different hospitals. So
          carry out your motto and Be Prepared and learn all
          you can about hospital and child nursing, sick
          nursing, and every kind, while you are yet a Guide
          and have people ready to instruct you and to help
          you in learning.

In countries not so settled and protected as England and America, where
the women and girls are taught to count upon their men to protect them
in the field, the Girl Scouts have sometimes had to display a courage
like that of the early settlers. A Roumanian Scout, Ecaterina Teodorroiu
actually fought in the war and was taken prisoner. She escaped, traced
her way back to her company, and brought valuable information as to the
enemy's movements. For these services she was decorated "as a reward for
devotion and conspicuous bravery" with the Order of Merit and a special
gold medal of the Scouts, only given for services during the war. At the
same time she was promoted to the rank of Honorary Second Lieutenant.

Can we wonder that she is known as the Joan of Arc of Roumania?

During the Russian Revolution the Girl Scouts were used by the
Government in many practical ways, as may be seen from the following
letter from one of them:

          "The Scouts assisted from the beginning, from
          seven in the morning until twelve at night,
          carrying messages, sometimes containing state
          secrets, letters, etc., from the Duma to the
          different branches of it called commissariats, and
          back again. They also fed the soldiers that were
          on guard. The Scout uniform was our protection,
          and everywhere that uniform commanded the respect
          of the soldiers, peasants and workingmen.

          "As great numbers of soldiers came from the front,
          food had to be given them. It was contributed by
          private people, but the Scouts had lots of work
          distributing it. All the little taverns were
          turned into eating houses for the soldiers, and
          there we helped to prepare the food and feed them.
          As there were not enough Boy Scouts, the Girl
          Scouts helped in the same way as the boys.

          "The Scouts also did much First Aid work. In one
          instance I saw an officer whose finger had been
          shot off. I ran up to him and bandaged it up for
          him. (All of us Scouts had First Aid kits hanging
          from our belts.)

          "It was something of a proud day for us Scouts
          when the Premier after a parade, called us all
          before the Duma and publicly thanked us for our
          aid."

Indeed it was and we heartily congratulate our Sister Scouts! But if we
do our duty by our Patrol and the Patrols all do their duty by their
Troop, that proud moment is going to come to every single Scout of us,
when the town where we live tells us by its smiles and applause, when we
go by in uniform, what it thinks of us.

We Scouts shall be more and more interested, as the years go on, to
remember that in the great hours of one of the world's greatest crises
we helped to make its history. Instances like these are very
exceptional; they could not occur to one in ten thousand of us; but we
stay-at-homes can always remind ourselves that it was the obedience, the
quickness, and the skill learned in quiet, every-day Scouting that made
these few rise to their opportunity when it came.

War and revolution do not make Scouts either brave or useful; they only
bring out the bravery and the usefulness that have been learned, as we
are all learning them, every day!

All we have to do is to fix Scout habits in our hearts and hands, and
then when our Country calls us, we shall be as ready as these little
Russian Scouts were.

In France the Scouts, known as the Eclaireuses, have agreed with us that
the "land Army" is the best army for women. Rain or shine, in heat and
cold, they have dug and ploughed and planted, and learned the lesson
American girls learned long ago--that team work is what counts!

A bit of one of their reports is translated here:

          "The crops were fine--potatoes, radishes, greens
          and beans were raised. The crop of potatoes,
          especially, was so good that the Eclaireuses were
          able to supply their families with them at a price
          defying competition, and they always had enough
          besides for their own use on excursions. (Our
          hikes.)

          "Such has been the reward of the care, given so
          perseveringly and intelligently to the gardening.

          "And what an admirable lesson! Not a minute was
          lost in this out-of-door work; chests and muscles
          filled out; and at the same time the girls learned
          to recognize weather signs; rain or sun were the
          factors which determined the success or
          non-success of the planting. And each day, there
          grew in them also love and gratitude for the earth
          and its elements, without the assistance of which
          we could harvest nothing.

          "Is this not the best method of preparing our
          youth to return to the land, to the healthy and
          safe life of the beautiful countryside of France;
          by showing them the interest and usefulness that
          lie in agricultural labor?

          "So the Eclaireuse becomes a model of the new
          women, used to sport, possessing her First Aid
          Diploma, able to cook good simple meals, marching
          under orders, knowing how to obey, ready to accept
          her responsibility, good-natured and lively in
          rain or sun, in public or in her home.... They
          continue their courses in sewing, hygiene and
          gymnastics and assist eagerly at conferences
          arranged for them to discuss the duties of the
          Eclaireuses and what it is necessary to do to
          become a good Captain.

          "To make themselves useful--that is the ideal of
          the Eclaireuses. They know that in order to do
          this it is becoming more and more necessary to
          acquire a broad and complete knowledge."

It is quite a feather in the cap of this great Scout Family of ours that
we are teaching the French girl, who has not been accustomed to leave
her home or to work in clubs or troops, what a jolly, wonder-working
thing a crowd of girls, all forging ahead together, can be.

In our own country we were protected from the worst sides of the great
war, but we had a wonderful opportunity to show how we could Be Prepared
ourselves by seeing that our brave soldiers were prepared.

Our War Records show an immense amount of Red Cross supplies, knitting,
comfort kits, food grown and conserved in every way, money raised for
Liberty Loans and Thrift Stamps, war orphans adopted, home replacement
work undertaken and carried through; all these to so great an amount
that the country recognized our existence and services as never before
in our history, the Government, indeed, employing sixty uniformed Scouts
as messengers in the Surgeon General's Department.

Perhaps it is only the truth to say that the war showed our country what
we could Be Prepared to do for her! And it showed us, too.

It has been said that women can never be the same after the great events
of the last few years, and we must never forget that the Girl Scouts of
today are the women of tomorrow.

[Illustration: FLAG RAISING AT DAWN]



SECTION V

THE OUT-OF-DOOR SCOUT


Busy as the Girl Scout may be with learning to do in a clever,
up-to-date way all the things to improve her home and town that the old
pioneer girls knew how to do, she never forgets that the original Scouts
were out-of-door people. So long as there are bandages to make or babies
to bathe or meals to get or clothes to make, she does them all, quickly
and cheerfully, and is very rightly proud of the badges she gets for
having learned to do them all, and the sense of independence that comes
from all this skill with her hands. It gives her a real glow of pleasure
to feel that because of her First Aid practice she may be able to save a
life some day, and that the hours of study she put in at her home
nursing and invalid cooking may make her a valuable asset to the
community in case of any great disaster or epidemic; but the real fun of
scouting lies in the great life of out-of-doors, and the call of the
woods is answered quicker by the Scout than by anybody, because the
Scout learns just how to get the most out of all this wild, free life
and how to enjoy it with the least trouble and the most fun.

One of our most experienced and best loved Captains says that "a camp is
as much a necessity for the Girl Scouts as an office headquarters," and
more and more girls are learning to agree with her every year.

Our British cousins are the greatest lovers of out-of-door life in the
world, and it is only natural that we should look to our Chief Scout to
hear what he has to say to his Girl Guides on this subject so dear to
his heart that he founded Scouting, that all boys and girls might share
his enthusiastic pleasure in going back to Nature to study and to love
her and to gain happiness and health from her woods and fields.


HOW CAMPING TEACHES THE GUIDE LAW

          Last year a man went out into the woods in America
          to try and see if he could live like the
          prehistoric men used to do; that is to say, he
          took nothing with him in the way of food or
          equipment or even clothing--he went just as he
          was, and started out to make his own living as
          best he could. Of course the first thing he had to
          do was to make some sort of tool or weapon by
          which he could kill some animals, cut his wood and
          make his fire and so on. So he made a stone axe,
          and with that was able to cut out branches of
          trees so that he could make a trap in which he
          eventually caught a bear and killed it. He then
          cut up the bear and used the skin for blankets and
          the flesh for food. He also cut sticks and made a
          little instrument by which he was able to ignite
          bits of wood and so start his fire. He also
          searched out various roots and berries and leaves,
          which he was able to cook and make into good food,
          and he even went so far as to make charcoal and to
          cut slips of bark from the trees and draw pictures
          of the scenery and animals around him. In this way
          he lived for over a month in the wild, and came
          out in the end very much better in health and
          spirits and with a great experience of life. For
          he had learned to shift entirely for himself and
          to be independent of the different things we get
          in civilization to keep us going in comfort.

          That is why we go into camp a good deal in the Boy
          Scout and in the Girl Guide movement, because in
          camp life we learn to do without so many things
          which while we are in houses we think are
          necessary, and find that we can do for ourselves
          many things where we used to think ourselves
          helpless. And before going into camp it is just as
          well to learn some of the things that will be most
          useful to you when you get there. And that is what
          we teach in the Headquarters of the Girl Guide
          Companies before they go out and take the field.
          For instance, you must know how to light your own
          fire; how to collect dry enough wood to make it
          burn; because you will not find gas stoves out in
          the wild. Then you have to learn how to find your
          own water, and good water that will not make you
          ill. You have not a whole cooking range or a
          kitchen full of cooking pots, and so you have to
          learn to cook your food in the simplest way with
          the means at your hand, such as a simple cooking
          pot or a roasting stick or an oven made with your
          own hands out of an old tin box or something of
          that kind.


NATURE STUDY

          It is only while in camp that one can really learn
          to study Nature in the proper way and not as you
          merely do it inside the school; because here you
          are face to face with Nature at all hours of the
          day and night. For the first time you live under
          the stars and can watch them by the hour and see
          what they really look like, and realize what an
          enormous expanse of almost endless space they
          cover. You know from your lessons at school that
          our sun warms and lights up a large number of
          different worlds like ours, all circling round it
          in the Heavens. And when you hold up a shilling at
          arm's length and look at the sky, the shilling
          covers no less than two hundred of those suns,
          each with their different little worlds circling
          around them. And you then begin to realize what an
          enormous endless space the Heavens comprise. You
          realize perhaps for the first time the enormous
          work of God.

          Then also in camp you are living among plants of
          every kind, and you can study them in their
          natural state, how they grow and what they look
          like, instead of merely seeing pictures of them in
          books or dried specimens of them in collections.

          All round you, too, are the birds and animals and
          insects, and the more you know of them the more
          you begin to like them and to take an interest in
          them; and once you take an interest in them you do
          not want to hurt them in any way. You would not
          rob a bird's nest; you would not bully an animal;
          you would not kill an insect--once you have
          realized what its life and habits are. In this
          way, therefore, you fulfill the Guide Law of
          becoming a friend to animals.

          By living in camp you begin to find that though
          there are many discomforts and difficulties to be
          got over, they can be got over with a little
          trouble and especially if you smile at them and
          tackle them.

          Then living among other comrades in camp you have
          to be helpful and do good turns at almost every
          minute, and you have to exercise a great deal of
          give and take and good temper, otherwise the camp
          would become unbearable.

          So you carry out the different laws of
          courteousness, of helpfulness, and friendliness to
          others that come in the Guide Law. Also you pick
          up the idea of how necessary it is to keep
          everything in its place, and to keep your kit and
          tent and ground as clean as possible; otherwise
          you get into a horrible state of dirt, and dirt
          brings flies and other inconveniences.

          You save every particle of food and in this way
          you learn not only cleanliness, but thrift and
          economy. And you very soon realize how cheaply you
          can live in camp, and how very much enjoyment you
          can get for very little money. And as you live in
          the fresh, pure air of God you find that your own
          thoughts are clean and pure as the air around you.
          There is hardly one of the Guide Laws that is not
          better carried out after you have been living and
          practising it in camp.

          _Habits of Animals._--If you live in the country
          it is of course quite easy to observe and watch
          the habits of all sorts of animals great and
          small. But if you are in a town there are many
          difficulties to be met with. But at the same time
          if you can keep pets of any kind, rabbits, rats,
          mice, dogs or ponies you can observe and watch
          their habits and learn to understand them well;
          but generally for Guides it is more easy to watch
          birds, because you see them both in town and
          country; and especially when you go into camp or
          on walking tours you can observe and watch their
          habits, especially in the springtime.

          Then it is that you see the old birds making their
          nests, hatching out their eggs and bringing up
          their young; and that is of course the most
          interesting time for watching them. A good
          observant guide will get to know the different
          kinds of birds by their cry, by their appearance,
          and by their way of flying. She will also get to
          know where their nests are to be found, what sort
          of nests they are, what are the colors of the eggs
          and so on. And also how the young appear. Some of
          them come out fluffy, others covered with
          feathers, others with very little on at all. The
          young pigeon, for instance, has no feathers at
          all, whereas a young moorhen can swim about as
          soon as it comes out of the egg; while chickens
          run about and hunt flies within a few minutes; and
          yet a sparrow is quite useless for some days and
          is blind, and has to be fed and coddled by his
          parents.

          Then it is an interesting sight to see the old
          birds training their young ones to fly, by getting
          up above them and flapping their wings a few times
          until all the young ones imitate them. Then they
          hop from one twig to another, still flapping their
          wings, and the young ones follow suit and begin to
          find that their wings help them to balance; and
          finally they jump from one branch to another for
          some distance so that the wings support them in
          their effort. The young ones very soon find that
          they are able to use their wings for flying, but
          it is all done by degrees and by careful
          instruction.

          Then a large number of our birds do not live all
          the year round in England, but they go off to
          Southern climes such as Africa when the winter
          comes on; but they generally turn up here at the
          end of March and make their nest during the
          spring. Nightingales arrive early in April;
          wagtails, turtle doves, and cuckoos come late in
          April; woodcock come in the autumn, and redpoles
          and fieldfares also come here for the winter. In
          September you will see the migrating birds
          collecting to go away, the starlings in their
          crowds and the swallows for the South, and so do
          the warblers, the flycatchers, and the swifts. And
          yet about the same time the larks are arriving
          here from the Eastward, so there is a good deal of
          traveling among the birds in the air at all times
          of the year.

How many of our American Scouts are able to supply from their
observation all of our native birds to take the places of these
mentioned in this lovely paragraph? Everyone should be able to.

          _Nature in the City._--This noticing of small
          things, especially in animal life, not only gives
          you great interest, but it also gives you great
          fun and enjoyment in life. Even if you live in a
          city you can do a certain amount of observation
          of birds and animals. You would think there is not
          much fun to be got out of it in a murky town like
          London or Sheffield, and yet if you begin to
          notice and know all about the sparrows you begin
          to find there is a great deal of character and
          amusement to be got out of them, by watching their
          ways and habits, their nesting, and their way of
          teaching their young ones to fly.


OBSERVATION.

          "_Stalking._--A Guide has to be sharp at seeing
          things if she is going to be any good as a Guide.
          She has to notice every little track and every
          little sign, and it is this studying of tracks and
          following them out and finding out their meaning
          which we include under the name of stalking. For
          instance, if you want to find a bird's-nest you
          have to stalk. That is to say, you watch a bird
          flying into a bush and guess where its nest is,
          and follow it up and find the nest. With some
          birds it is a most difficult thing to find their
          nests; take, for instance, the skylark or the
          snipe. But those who know the birds, especially
          the snipe, will recognize their call. The snipe
          when she is alarmed gives quite a different call
          from when she is happy and flying about. She has a
          particular call when she has young ones about. So
          that those who have watched and listened and know
          her call when they hear it know pretty well where
          the young ones are or where the nest is and so on.

          "_How to Hide Yourself._--When you want to observe
          wild animals you have to stalk them, that is,
          creep up to them without their seeing or smelling
          you.

          "A hunter when he is stalking wild animals keeps
          himself entirely hidden, so does the war scout
          when watching or looking for the enemy; a
          policemen does not catch pickpockets by standing
          about in uniform watching for them; he dresses
          like one of the crowd, and as often as not gazes
          into a shop window and sees all that goes on
          behind him reflected as if in a looking-glass.

          "If a guilty person finds himself being watched,
          it puts him on his guard, while an innocent person
          becomes annoyed. So, when you are observing
          people, don't do so by openly staring at them, but
          notice the details you want to at one glance or
          two, and if you want to study them more, walk
          behind them; you can learn just as much from a
          back view, in fact more than you can from a front
          view, and, unless they are scouts and look around
          frequently, they do not know that you are
          observing them.

          "War scouts and hunters stalking game always carry
          out two important things when they don't want to
          be seen."

          One is _Background_.--They _take care that the
          ground behind them, or trees, or buildings, etc.,
          are of the same colour as their clothes_.

          And the other is "_Freezing_".--If an enemy or a
          deer is seen looking for them, _they remain
          perfectly still without moving so long as he is
          there_.

          _Tracking._--The native hunters in most wild
          countries follow their game by watching for tracks
          on the ground, and they become so expert at seeing
          the slightest sign of a footmark on the ground
          that they can follow up their prey when an
          ordinary civilized man can see no sign whatever.
          But the great reason for looking for signs and
          tracks is that from these you can read a meaning.
          It is exactly like reading a book. You will see
          the different letters, each letter combining to
          make a word, and the words then make sense; and
          there are also commas and full-stops and colons;
          all of these alter the meaning of the sense. These
          are all little signs, which one who is practised
          and has learnt reading, makes into sense at once,
          whereas a savage who has never learned could make
          no sense of it at all. And so it is with tracking.


TRACKING.

          "Sign" is the word used by Guides to mean any
          little details, such as footprints, broken twigs,
          trampled grass, scraps of food, old matches, etc.

          Some native Indian trackers were following up the
          footprints of a panther that had killed and
          carried off a young kid. He had crossed a wide
          bare slab which, of rock, of course, gave no mark
          of his soft feet. The tracker went at once to the
          far side of the rock where it came to a sharp
          edge; he wetted his finger, and just passed it
          along the edge till he found a few kid's hairs
          sticking to it. This showed him where the panther
          had passed down off the rock, dragging the kid
          with him. Those few hairs were what Guides call
          "signs."

          This tracker also found bears by noticing small
          "signs." On one occasion he noticed a fresh
          scratch in the bark of a tree, evidently made by a
          bear's claw, and on the other he found a single
          black hair sticking to the bark of a tree, which
          told him that a bear had rubbed against it.

          _Details in the Country._--If you are in the
          country, you should notice landmarks--that is,
          objects which help you to find your way to prevent
          your getting lost--such as distant hills and
          church towers; and nearer objects, such as
          peculiar buildings, trees, gates, rocks, etc.

          And remember in noticing such landmarks that you
          may want to use your knowledge of them some day
          for telling some one else how to find his way, so
          you must notice them pretty closely so as to be
          able to describe them unmistakably and in their
          proper order. You must notice and remember every
          by-road and foot-path.

          Remembrance of these things will help you to find
          your way by night or in fog when other people are
          losing themselves.


HORSES' TRACKS

[Illustration: Walking.]

[Illustration: Trotting.]

[Illustration: Canter.]

[Illustration: _O.H. = Off Hind, etc._

Galloping.]

[Illustration: Lame Horse Walking: Which leg is he lame in?

_N.B.--The long feet are the hind feet._]

These are the tracks of two birds on the ground. One that lives
generally on the ground, the other in bushes and trees. Which track
belongs to which bird?

          _Using your Eyes._--Let nothing be too small for
          your notice--a button, a match, a hair, a cigar
          ash, a feather, or a leaf might be of great
          importance, even a fingerprint which is almost
          invisible to the naked eye has often been the
          means of detecting a crime.

          With a little practice in observation you can tell
          pretty accurately a man's character from his
          dress.

          How would you recognize that a gentleman was fond
          of fishing. If you see his left cuff with little
          tufts of cloth sticking up, you may be sure he
          fishes. When he takes his flies off the line he
          will either stick them into his cap to dry, or
          hook them into his sleeve. When dry he pulls them
          out, which often tears a thread or two of the
          cloth.

          Remember how "Sherlock Holmes" met a stranger, and
          noticed that he was looking fairly well-to-do, in
          new clothes with a mourning band on his sleeve,
          with a soldiery bearing and a sailor's way of
          walking, sunburns, with tattoo marks on his hands,
          and he was carrying some children's toys in his
          hands. What would you have supposed that man to
          be. Well, Sherlock Holmes guessed correctly that
          he had lately retired from the Royal Marines as a
          sergeant, that his wife had died, and that he had
          some small children at home.

          PRACTICE IN OBSERVATION.--_Instructor can take the
          fingermarks of each girl. Lightly rub the thumb on
          blacklead or on paper that is blacked with pencil,
          then press the thumb on paper and examine with
          magnifying glass. Show that no two persons' prints
          are alike._

          IN TOWN.--_Practice your girls first in walking
          down a street to notice the different kinds of
          shops as they pass, and to remember them in their
          proper sequence at the end._

          _Then to notice and remember the names on the
          shops._

          _Then to notice and remember the contents of a
          shop window after two minutes' gaze. Finally, to
          notice the contents of several shop windows in
          succession with half a minute at each. Give marks
          for the fullest list._

          _The Guides must also notice prominent buildings
          as landmarks, and the number of turnings off the
          street they are using._

          IN THE COUNTRY.--_Take the patrol out for a walk
          and teach the girls to notice distant prominent
          features, such as hills, church steeples, and so
          on; and as nearer landmarks such things as
          peculiar buildings, trees, rocks, gates, by-roads
          or paths, nature of fences, crops different kinds
          of trees, birds, animals, tracks, people,
          vehicles, etc. Also any peculiar smells of plants,
          animals, manure, etc.; whether gates or doors were
          open or shut, whether any smoke from chimneys,
          etc._

          _Send Guides out in pairs._

          _It adds to the value of the practice if the
          instructor makes a certain number of small marks
          in the ground beforehand, or leaves buttons or
          matches, etc., for the girls to notice or to pick
          up and bring in as a means of making them examine
          the ground close to them as well as distant
          objects._

          PRACTICES IN NATURAL HISTORY.--_Take out Guides to
          get specimens of leaves, fruit, or blossoms of
          various trees, shrubs, etc., and observe the shape
          and nature of the tree both in summer and in
          winter._

          _Collect leaves of different trees; let Guides
          make tracings of them and write the name of the
          tree on each._

          _In the country make Guides examine crops in all
          stages of their growth, so that they know pretty
          well by sight what kind of crop is coming up._

          _Start gardens if possible, either a patrol garden
          or individual Guides' gardens. Let them grow
          flowers and vegetables for profit to pay for their
          equipment, etc. Show all the wild plants which may
          be made use of for food. Find yew trees; report if
          any good branches to make archers' bows of._

          _Encourage the keeping of live pets, whether
          birds, animals, reptiles, insects. Show how to
          keep illustrated diary-records of plants, insects,
          birds, etc., giving dates when seen for comparison
          following year and showing their peculiar
          markings, etc._

          _If in a town take your Guides to the Zoological
          Gardens, menagerie or Natural History Museum, and
          show them particular animals on which you are
          prepared to lecture. Not more than half a dozen
          for one visit._

          _If in the country get farmers or shepherd to help
          with information on the habits of farm animals,
          e. g., how a cow lies down and when. How to milk,
          stalk rabbits, water voles, trout, birds, etc.,
          and watch their habits._



SECTION VI

FORMS FOR SCOUT CEREMONIES


1. ENROLLMENT

Before a girl may become enrolled as a regular Girl Scout she must be at
least ten years old, and must have attended the meetings of a Troop for
at least a month, during which time she must have passed her Tenderfoot
Test. The Captain must have prepared the candidate for enrollment by
explaining the meaning of the Promise and the Laws and making sure that
she fully understands the meaning of the oath she is about to make, and
that she also comprehends the meaning of "honor." The following is a
convenient form for enrollments.

          (1) The Scouts stand in the form of a horseshoe
          with the officer who is to enroll at the open
          side, facing Scouts.

          (2) Officer addresses troops on the subject of
          what it means to be a Scout.

          (3) Patrol Leader brings candidate to officer and
          salutes and returns to place.

          (4) Officer addresses candidate in low tone: "What
          does your honor mean?"

          Candidate answers.

          Officer: "Will you on your honor, try: To do your
          duty to God and to your Country; to help other
          people at all times; to obey the Scout Laws?"

          Candidate and officer both salute as candidate
          repeats Promise. Officer: "I trust you on your
          honor to keep this Promise."

          (5) Officer pins Tenderfoot Badge on the new
          scout, explaining what it stands for, that it
          symbolizes her Scout life, and so forth.

          (6) Scout and officer salute each other. Scout
          turns and troop salutes her, scout returning
          salute, and then goes alone to her place.

          (7) All Scouts present repeat Promise and Laws.
          Troop then breaks ranks to take up some Scout
          activity.

When many scouts are to be enrolled, four at a time may be presented to
the officer, but each should singly be asked and should answer the
question: "What does your honor mean?" All four repeat the Promise
together and the officer addresses all together in saying: "I trust you
on your honor to keep this Promise," but speaks to each separately as
she puts on the pin.

A Captain may perform this ceremony or she may ask some higher Scout
officer to do so.


2. _Presentation of Other Badges_

The following form of ceremony was devised for special use in the
presentation of the highest honor attainable by a Girl Scout, the Golden
Eaglet, but the same outline may be followed for giving Merit Badges,
and First and Second Class Badges, or any other medals or honors.

_Presentation of Golden Eaglet._--As the presentation of the Golden
Eaglet is an important occasion in the life of a Scout and her Troop, it
should take place at a public Scout function, such as a District or
Community Rally, a reception to a distinguished guest of the Scouts, or
possibly at the time of a civic celebration.

The Court of Awards is responsible for all details of the meeting, and
it is suggested that it invite parents, friends and other persons
interested in the Scout movement to be present. The medal may be
presented by the Chairman of the Court of Awards, some other member of
that Committee or by a higher Scout officer.

Arrangements for the ceremony should be planned so that during the
presentation of guests, the Court of Awards, the Eaglet's troop and the
Color Guard form a hollow square, with the Captain at her post three
paces in front of the Troop, the Lieutenant at her post "center and
rear" of the Troop. The ceremony should be rehearsed wherever possible,
so that all action and form shall be as smart as possible.

1. The Court of Awards enters and takes its place at right angles to the
assembled guests.

2. The Captain enters, takes post, and gives all commands.

3. The Color Guard (bearer of the American flag, bearer of the Troop
flag, and two guards) followed by Troop to which the Eaglet belongs,
enter and march two paces in front of the Court of Awards. The
lieutenant is at the left of the leading file. The Troop marches in
single file, by twos or in Squad formation according to the number, and
the space available.

When the Troop is very large, or the space restricted, the Eaglet's
Patrol may take the place of the Troop. As the Colors pass, the Court of
Awards should rise, stand at attention, and if Scouts, salute.

4. When the Color Guard at the head of the column has passed the Court
of Awards, the command "Column left, MARCH!" is given. When the last
file has completed the movement, the following commands are given:

          (1) "Scouts, HALT!"

          (2) "Left, FACE," or

          "Squads, left, MARCH, Squads, HALT," according to
          the formation of the column.

          (3) "Right, DRESS, FRONT!"

5. At the command "Left, FACE," or "Squads, left, MARCH, Squads HALT,"
the Color Guard makes a left turn, marches forward until on a line with
the Court of Awards, again makes a left turn, immediately halts and
grounds flags.

6. When the Troop and Color Guard are in position, the Captain gives the
command "Patrol Leader and Eaglet, forward, MARCH!" The Patrol Leader
escorts the Eaglet to the Captain, salutes the Captain and returns to
her position in line.

7. The Chairman of the Court of Awards comes forward, the Captain faces
her, salutes, and presents the Eaglet to her.

8. The Chairman after reading the list of Merit Badges which the Scout
has earned in order to receive the Golden Eaglet, pins the medal on to
the Eaglet's blouse, over the middle of the right pocket. The Eaglet
salutes.

If desired this is the opportunity for the Official presenting the badge
to say a few words.

9. After the presentation, the Eaglet turns, and facing her Captain and
Troop, stands at attention as the Colors are raised, the Scout flag
dipped, and the Troop salutes. The Eaglet returns the salute and then
marches to her position in line.

10. The Captain gives the command "Color Guard forward, MARCH." The
Color Guard marches in front of the Captain and Troop who salute as the
Colors pass, make a right turn two paces in front of the Court of Honor
and march out.

11. After the Colors have left the "square" the Lieutenant takes her
position at the left of the leading file.

The Captain gives the commands:

          "Right, FACE, MARCH!" or "Squads right, MARCH!"

          "Column left, MARCH!"

and the Troop marches out. The Captain turns, salutes the Court of
Awards and passes out.

                 O--LIEUT.
                0000   0000
          Troop--
                0000   0000
                  O--Capt.
                 c      xx
          Color  c      xx Court of
          Guard  c      xx Awards
                 c      xx
                 --------
                 --------
                 --------
                  Guests

Where there is no Local Council or Court of Awards, Captains are asked
to communicate with the National Headquarters concerning the ceremony of
presentation of the Golden Eaglet.


ALTERNATE FORMS FOR SCOUT CEREMONIES

In the case of troops for which this formal procedure is not practical,
and for the better assistance of Captains and Councils who feel the need
of a more definite formulation of the Scout principles on these
occasions, the following ceremonies are suggested. They are designed to
meet the necessity for expressing at each stage of the Scout's progress,
recognition of her achievement up to that point and appreciation of her
future responsibilities.


1. Tenderfoot Enrollment

1. The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls
forward those who have passed the test.

          Captain: "Scout ----, do you think you know what
          it means to be loyal to God and your Country, to
          help other people at all times, and to obey the
          Scout Laws?"

          Scout: "I think I do, and I will try my best not
          to fail in any of them."

          _This is repeated to each Tenderfoot._

          Captain: "Are you ready to make your Promise with
          your Troop?"

          New Scouts (_together_): "Yes."

          Captain: "Scouts of Troop ----, repeat your
          promise."

          _All salute and repeat the Promise._

          Captain: "I trust you on your honor to keep this
          Promise."

          (_Here, when practicable, investiture of hat,
          neckerchief, etc., takes place._)

          _Captain then pins on Tenderfoot pin While
          attaching it, she says:_

          Captain: "This pin makes you a Girl Scout. It is
          yours, so long as you are worthy of it."

          _Captain dismisses recently enrolled Scouts to
          their Troop position._

          (_Here the Captain may add, if she wishes,
          anything in her judgment applicable to the Troop
          as a whole, or to the new Scouts individually._)


2. Conferring Second Class Badges

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls
forward those who have passed the test.

          Captain: "Scout ----, you have learned what is
          necessary for a Second Class Scout to know. Do you
          think you can apply your knowledge, if the
          occasion should arise?"

          Scout: "I think so, and I will always try to =Be
          Prepared=."

          Captain: "Scouts (_reciting the candidates' names
          in order_), do you think that the discipline and
          training you have gone through have made you more
          capable of doing your duty to God and to your
          Country, of helping other people at all times and
          of obeying the Scout Laws, than you were as a
          Tenderfoot?"

          Scouts (_together_): "Yes."

          Captain (_pinning on each badge, and speaking to
          each Scout as she does so_): "You are now a Second
          Class Scout, which means that though you have
          learned much, you have still much to learn."

          _Captain dismisses Second Class Scouts to their
          Troop position._

          (_Here the Captain may address the Troop at her
          discretion._)


3. Conferring First Class Badge

_The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls
forward those who have passed the test and presents them to the
presiding Official._

          Captain: "Commissioner ----, these Scouts of ----
          Troop have passed their First Class Tests. I
          recommend them to you for First Class badges."

          Official (_to each Scout separately, the Captain
          giving her the name_): "Scout ----, you have
          passed the final Scout test. You should thoroughly
          understand by now the meaning of duty to God and
          Country, the privilege of helpfulness to others,
          and the seriousness of the Scout Laws. Are you
          sure that you do."

          Scout: "I am. And I realize that I must help other
          Scouts to see these things as I see them."

          Official: "Scouts ---- (_reading the candidates'
          names in order_), it has taken a great deal of
          thought and time and energy on the part of a great
          many people to enable you to wear this badge. Are
          you prepared to pay this back in generous service,
          when and where you can?"

          Scouts (_together_): "Yes."

          Official (_pinning on each badge and speaking to
          each Scout as she does so_): "You are now a First
          Class Scout. Remember that the world will judge us
          by you."

          Official (to Captain): "I congratulate you,
          Captain ----, Troop ----, and the members of the
          Council, on these First Class Scouts, and I trust
          that the Town of ---- will have every reason to be
          proud of them and to feel that it can depend upon
          them as especially good citizens and loyal
          Americans."

          _Captain acknowledges this in suitable manner and
          dismisses First Class Scouts to Troop position._

          (_Here the Official may address the audience at
          discretion._)


4. Conferring Merit Badges

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls
forward those who have passed the test and presents them to the
presiding Official. (Note--The Merit Badges may be conferred by a member
or members of the Council, if desired.)

          Captain: "Members of the Girl Scout Council of
          ----, these Scouts have passed the various tests
          for their Merit Badges, and I recommend them to
          you for decoration accordingly."

          Official: "Scouts (_reading the list_), you have
          fairly won the right to wear these badges we are
          about to present to you, and we are glad to do
          so. We take this opportunity of reminding you,
          however, that all good Scouts understand that they
          are far from having completely mastered the
          subjects represented by these badges. The symbols
          which you wear on your sleeve mean that you have
          an intelligent interest in the subjects you have
          chosen, understand the principles of them, and can
          give reasonable, practical proof of this. Do you
          realize that the Girl Scout Organization credits
          you with a good foundation and trusts to you to
          continue to build upon it intelligently?"

          Scouts (_together_): "Yes."

          Official (_pinning on badges and speaking to each
          girl separately_): "We congratulate you on your
          perseverance and wish you all success in your
          work."

          (_Note--When more than one badge is to be
          presented to a Scout, they may be attached, for
          the ceremony, to a piece of ribbon and put on with
          one motion._)

          _Captain dismisses Scouts to Troop position._

          (_Here the official may address the audience at
          discretion._)

          _This ceremony being distinctly less formal and
          intimate than the regular class awards, Scout
          songs and cheers are in order._


5. Golden Eaglet Ceremony

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain presents
the Golden Eaglet to the Official who is to make the award.

          Captain: "Commissioner ----, Scout ----, of Troop
          ----, of ----, has not only passed the twenty-one
          Merit Badge Tests required for the honor of the
          Golden Eaglet, but is, in the judgment of her
          Troop, fully worthy of it. We therefore recommend
          her to you for the decoration."

          Official: "What badges does Scout ---- offer?"

          _Captain reads the list Badges earned by the
          Candidate._

          Official: "Troop ----, do you agree that Scout
          ---- has fairly won this decoration and that you
          are willing to have her represent you to your
          National Organization as your Golden Eaglet?"

          Troop (_together_): "Yes."

          Official: "Members of the Council, do you agree
          that Scout ---- has fairly won this decoration and
          that you are willing to have her represent you to
          your community as your Golden Eaglet?"

          Council (_rising if seated_): "Yes."

          Official: "Scout ----, you have won the highest
          honor in the gift of the Girl Scouts."

          "If the Scout life meant nothing more to you than
          a reasonable understanding of certain subjects,
          there would now be nothing more for the Girl
          Scouts to teach you; but I am sure that your
          training has not failed in this respect, and that
          you understand now, even better than the average
          Girl Scout, that your great principles of duty to
          God and Country, helpfulness to others, and
          obedience to the Scout Laws, are lessons that no
          Scout can fully learn as long as she lives. Do you
          agree to this?"

          Golden Eaglet: "I agree to it thoroughly."

          Official (_pinning on badge_): "I have the honor
          of naming you a Golden Eaglet, and in the name of
          the Girl Scouts I congratulate you heartily on
          your fine achievement."

          _Scout salutes or shakes the hand of the Official,
          as desired, and returns to her troop position._

          _(Here the Official may address the audience at
          discretion)._

The accompanying diagram of suggested relative positions in Scout
ceremonies lends itself equally to a small room, theatre, hall or open
field. Whether the Scouts form a troop or even one patrol; whether they
make use of strict military formation or informal grouping; whether the
visiting Scout dignitaries are many or limited to one member of the
local Council, the Scout bodies face each other, and the guest or guests
of honor, equally with the general audience, can observe the Troop and
the candidates easily from the side.

All Troops who are familiar with military drill can take their usual
positions in their usual manner and observe all details of color guard,
salutes, etc., to any desired extent. Troops and Captains not familiar
with such procedure, by accustoming themselves to this general grouping,
will always be able to present a dignified appearance.

Note: These suggestions for the various ceremonials assume that the
regular opening of the Scout meetings has already taken place; therefore
nothing is given but the actual matter of the presentations, etc. In the
case of the Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class awards, the
ceremonies constitute the special business of the meeting, and opening
and closing should proceed as usual. They are distinctly Scout business
and are not, in general, offered to the public.

The awarding of Merit Badges might with advantage be connected with any
local civic ceremony where interest in young people may be created; and
in the case of the Golden Eaglet award it is distinctly desirable thus
to connect it. Any visiting dignitary, national or state, may with
propriety be asked to officiate; and where different organizations are
taking their various parts in a public function, it will not always be
possible to claim the time nor the space for the regular Scout opening
ceremonies, nor would this necessarily be advisable. It is, therefore,
well to be provided with a form like the preceding, where a small
delegation from the Troop, the Captain and a Councillor could, if
necessary, represent the essential units of the organization among a
number of other societies; and the words of the ceremony would explain
the occasion sufficiently without much concerted action, and may be
inserted at the proper place, preceded and followed by any Troop or
local customs preferred.

[Illustration:


                         Guests of honor

     Scout Troop            Candidates    All local and visiting
        with                  with          Scout personnel,
  Captain and Lieutenant     Official    Council, Commissioners, etc.


                         General Audience

PLAN OF ASSEMBLY FOR GIRL SCOUT CEREMONIES]


6. How to Conduct a Scout Meeting

          1. One long whistle blast: Silence, listen for
          orders.

          2. Three short whistle blasts: "Fall In," or
          "Assemble," three paces in front of Captain, Squad
          formation.

         5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8
         * * * * * * * *
         * * * * * * * *
         1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
                 * Captain
  Lieutenant *

          3. "Right Dress," "Front."

          4. Inspection. Captain inspects for posture, and
          for personal appearance which should be neat and
          clean in every particular, and uniform, which
          should be correct as to style, length, placing of
          insignia, etc. All necessary corrections should be
          made in a low tone of voice to the individual
          Scout.

          5. "Color Bearer, Forward--Center" "March." The
          Color Bearer, appointed to carry flag, upon
          receiving order to "March", takes one step
          backward, executes "Right Face," marches out of
          rank, executes "Left Face," marches to point on
          line with flag, executes "Right Face," marches to
          within two steps of flag and comes to "Halt." She
          salutes flag, takes staff in both hands, wheels
          right, and marches to position three paces in
          front of, and facing troop. The captain and
          Lieutenant have moved to position at right angles
          to, and at right of troop. If a color Guard is
          used instead of Color Bearer, two Scouts act as
          guards, their position being on either side of
          bearer. They leave ranks together, form in line at
          right of troop, march shoulder to shoulder and
          always wheel to the right, the Color Bearer being
          the pivot and giving all orders to Guard. After
          Bearer has taken flag and turns, the Guards
          salute, take one step forward, about-face, and all
          march to position in front of troop. The Color
          Guard never takes part in the repeating of the
          Promise, Laws, Pledge of Allegiance or singing of
          Star Spangled Banner.

          6. "Scouts, the flag of your country, Pledge
          Allegiance." The Pledge of Allegiance should be
          followed by one verse of the Star Spangled Banner.

          7. "The Scout Promise," "Salute."

          8. "The Scout Laws, Repeat."

          9. "Color Bearer, Post-March." The Color Bearer,
          turning always to right, returns flag to its post,
          places it in position, salutes, and returns to
          place, entering ranks from rear of line. The Color
          Guard, wheels right, marches to post, Guards stand
          at attention while the Bearer places flag,
          salutes, and about-faces. The Guards step forward,
          about-face, and the Color Guard wheels and returns
          to ranks.

          10. "Fall Out."

          11. Business Meeting.

          12. Scout activities, including work for tests and
          badges, singing games and discussion of Scout
          principles.

          13. Closing Exercises.


Closing Exercises

1. "Fall In."

2. America, or Battle Hymn of the Republic.

3. "Dismissed." Scouts salute Captain.

The form for opening and closing exercises suggested above takes only 20
minutes and is a practical method of ensuring uniformity when groups
from different troops come together. Troops may use more elaborate
forms, depending upon the amount of time which the girls wish to spend
upon this type of work. For instance:

(a) In a troop composed of many patrols each Corporal forms her patrol
and reports to the Lieutenant, who in turn reports to the Captain, "The
company is formed," etc.

(b) In dismissing, troops with a bugler may play "Taps" or may sing the
same to words locally composed.

(c) In some troops Corporals give commands. This is good because it
emphasizes the patrol system.

But the form outlined is given as the minimum requirement, and troops
using it need never feel at a loss in large rallies, for every ceremony
necessary to express the Scout spirit with dignity is there.

No additions made locally should change the essential order of these
exercises, all additions which are made being merely amplifications of
it in detail, which may not be possible nor desirable in every
community.


Business Meeting

The meeting opens with the Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer in place,
with the Secretary at the right and the Treasurer at the left of the
Chairman. The idea is to have every Scout in the troop learn to be the
Chairman so that any and all could act in the capacity of a Business
Chairman at any kind of meeting.

The meeting is called to order by the Chairman. "Will the meeting please
come to order?"

The Chairman asks the Secretary to call the roll. "Will the Secretary
call the roll? And will the Treasurer collect the dues?"

The Chairman calls for the Secretary's report. "Will the Secretary read
the minutes of the last meeting?"

The Chairman calls for corrections of the minutes. "Are there any
corrections?"

If there are none she says: "If not, the minutes stand approved."

If there are corrections the Chairman calls for further corrections,
"Are there further corrections, etc. If not, the minutes stand approved
as corrected."

Form of Secretary's report: "The regular meeting of Pansy Troop No. 5,
held at the club house, on April 4th, was called to order at 3 o'clock.
In the absence of the Chairman, Scout ---- took the chair. The minutes
of the previous meeting were read and approved, dues collected amounted
to ----. After ---- was discussed and voted upon, the meeting
adjourned."

The Chairman calls for the Treasurer's report. "Will the Treasurer give
her report?"

Form of Treasurer's report:

  Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1919                 $2.50
  Members' dues                       $1.00
  Fines                                 .30     1.30
                                               -----
  Total                                        $3.80
  Disbursements--
  Janitor                             $1.00    $1.00
  Balance on hand                               2.80
                                               -----
  Total                                        $3.80

The Chairman calls for corrections as before.

Then the Chairman calls for a discussion of old business, that is,
anything discussed at previous meetings, that has been left undone or
left to be decided at a later date. Any member of the meeting may bring
up this old business, or the Chairman may start the discussion. "The
business before the meeting is ----. What is your pleasure in regard to
this," or "Will anyone make a motion?"

The member who wishes to make the motion says: "Madam Chairman, I move
that--"

Another member who agrees to this says: "I second the motion."

If the motion is not seconded at once, the Chairman says: "Will anyone
second the motion?"

After the motion has been moved and seconded the Chairman immediately
states the question as, "It has been moved and seconded that the troop
have a Rally on May 2. Are you ready for the question?" or "The question
is now open for discussion." If no one rises, the Chairman proceeds to
put the question. "All those in favor say aye, opposed no."

Then the Chairman says, "The motion is carried," or "The motion is not
carried," as the case may be.

After the old business has been attended to, the Chairman calls for new
business, saying, "Is there any new business to be discussed?"

The Chairman then dismisses the meeting by calling for a motion for
adjournment.

Adjournment: "Will some one move that the meeting be adjourned?"

If this is moved and seconded it is not necessary to put it to a vote.

The Chairman says: "The meeting is adjourned."



SECTION VII

GIRL SCOUT CLASS TESTS


1. Tenderfoot Test

Before enrolling as a Tenderfoot a girl must be ten years old and have
attended at least four meetings, covering at least one month in time. In
addition to the material covered by the test, the Captain must have
thoroughly explained to her the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to
the Flag, the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws, and be sure of her
general understanding of them as well as of her ability to respect them.
This test is given by the Troop Captain.


          Tenderfoot Test

          1. What are the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws?


          Head

          Give them as printed in Handbook.

          2. Demonstrate the Scout Salute. When do Scouts
          use the Salute?

          3. What are the Scout Slogan and the Scout Motto?

          4. How is the respect due the American Flag
          expressed? Give the Pledge of Allegiance.

          5. What are the words of the first and last stanza
          of The Star-Spangled Banner?

          6. What is the full name of the President of the
          United States?

          What is the full name of the Governor of your
          State?

          What is the full name of the highest city, town or
          village official where you live?


          Hands

          7. Make or draw an American Flag, using correct
          proportions.

          8. Tie the Reef, Bowline, Clove-hitch and
          Sheep-shank knots according to instructions given
          in Handbook, and tell use of each.

          Whip the end of a piece of rope. Indicate and
          define the three parts of a rope.


          Helpfulness

          9. Present record that you have saved or earned
          enough money to buy some part of the Scout uniform
          or insignia.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises, Scout positions and
Tenderfoot Drill as shown in Handbook.


II. Second Class Test

While it is not necessary to devote any specified length of time to the
training for this test, it is well to remember that if too long a time
is taken, either because of lack of interest on the part of the Troop,
or too inflexible standards on the part of the Captain, the possibility
of winning Merit Badges is delayed and the feeling of steady progress is
likely to be lost. The girls should be urged to keep together as a body,
and reminded that regular attendance and team-work will be fairer to
all. Quick learners can spend their extra time on private or group
preparation for their Merit Badges, for which they become eligible as
soon as they have passed the test, but not before.

This test may be given by the Troop Captain, or at her request by
another Captain or competent authority, such as a registered nurse for
bedmaking, health officer for First Aid, fire chief for fire prevention,
and so forth.


          Second Class Scout Test


          Head

          1. What is the history of the American Flag, and
          for what does it stand?

          2. Describe six animals, six birds, six trees and
          six flowers.

          3. What are the sixteen points of the compass?
          Show how to use a compass.

          4. How may fire be prevented, and what should a
          Scout do in case of fire?

          5. Send and receive the alphabet of the General
          Service or Semaphore Code.

          6. Demonstrate ability to observe quickly and
          accurately by describing the contents of a room or
          a shop window, _or_ a table with a number of
          objects upon it, after looking a short time, (not
          more than ten seconds); _or_ describe a passer-by
          so that another person could identify him; _or_
          prove ability to make a quick rough report on the
          appearance and landmarks of a stretch of country,
          not to exceed one-quarter of a mile and to be
          covered in not more than five minutes. Report
          should include such things as ground surface,
          buildings in sight, trees, animals, etc.

          (Note: This territory must have been gone over by
          person administering the test. The test is not to
          be confused with the First Class requirement for
          map making. It may be made the object of a hike,
          and tested in groups or singly. Artificial hazards
          may be arranged.)


          Hands

          7. Lay and light a fire in a stove, using not more
          than two matches, or light a gas range, top
          burner, oven and boiler, without having the gas
          blow or smoke. Lay and light a fire in the open,
          using no artificial tinder, such as paper or
          excelsior, and not more than two matches.

          8. Cook so that it may be eaten, seasoning
          properly, one simple dish, such as cereal,
          vegetables, meat, fish or eggs in any other form
          than boiled.

          9. Set a table correctly for a meal of two
          courses.

          10. Make ordinary and hospital bed, and show how
          to air them.

          11. Present samples of seaming, hemming, darning,
          and either knitting or crocheting, and press out a
          Scout uniform, as sample of ironing.


          Health

          12. Demonstrate the way to stop bleeding, remove
          speck from eye, treat ivy poisoning, bandage a
          sprained ankle, remove a splinter.

          13. What do you consider the main points to
          remember about Health?

          (Note: This is based on a knowledge of the section
          in the Handbook on Personal Health. It is
          suggested that a good way to demonstrate
          practically a knowledge of the main points is to
          keep for a month the Daily Health Record. This
          will incidentally complete one-third of the
          requirement for Health Winner's Badge.)

          14. What are your height and weight, and how do
          they compare with the standard?


          Helpfulness

          15. Present to Captain or Council the proof of
          satisfactory service to Troop, Church or
          Community.

          16. Earn or save enough money for some part of
          personal or troop equipment.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises and Second Class Drill.


III. First Class Test

Work on this test should not be hurried. It is purposely made more
thorough and more difficult, because it is designed for the older and
longer trained Scout. The work for the Merit Badges, which all Scouts
enjoy, should not be considered as interfering with this period, as such
work is also the preparation for a possible Golden Eaglet degree. As a
general rule, girls under fifteen are not likely to make thoroughly
trained First Class Scouts, nor is the community likely to take their
technical ability in the important subjects very seriously. The First
Class Scout is the ideal Scout, of whom the organization has every right
to feel proud; and ability to grasp a subject quickly and memorize
details is not so important as practical efficiency, reliability and
demonstrated usefulness to the Troop and the community. While the
standard must not be set so high as to discourage the average girl,
impatience to get through in any given time should not be encouraged, as
this is not important.


          First Class Scout Test


          Head

          1. Draw a simple map of territory seen on hike or
          about camping place, according to directions in
          Handbook, using at least ten conventional map
          signs. Area covered must equal a quarter square
          mile, and if territory along road is used it
          should be at least 2 miles long.

          2. Demonstrate ability to judge correctly height,
          weight, number and distance, according to
          directions in Handbook.

          3. Demonstrate ability to find any of the four
          cardinal points of the compass, using the sun or
          stars as guide.

          4. Send and receive messages in the General
          Service or the Semaphore Code at the rate of
          sixteen and thirty letters a minute respectively.

          5. Present the following Badges:

          Home Nurse


          First Aide
          Homemaker

          and any two of the following:

          Child Nurse
          Health Winner
          Laundress
          Cook
          Needlewoman
          Gardener


          Health

          6. Take an overnight hike carrying all necessary
          equipment and rations; _or_

          Take a group of younger girls on a day time hike,
          planning the whole trip, including where and how
          to get the food, assigning to each girl her part
          in responsibility, directing transportation and
          occupation, and so forth; _or_

          Be one of four to construct a practical lean-to;
          _or_

          Demonstrate skating backwards, the outer edge, and
          stopping suddenly; _or_

          Run on skis; _or_

          Show your acquaintance from personal observation
          of the habits of four animals or four birds.

          7. Be able to swim fifty yards, _or_ in case of
          inaccessibility to water, be able to shin up ten
          feet of rope, or in case of physical disability,
          earn any merit badge selected that involves
          out-of-door activity.


          Helpfulness

          8. Present a Tenderfoot trained by candidate.

          9. Present to Captain or Council some definite
          proof of service to the community.

          10. Earn or save one dollar and start a savings
          account in bank or Postal Savings, or buy Thrift
          Stamps.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises. Practice First Class Drill.

[Illustration: AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL

 KATHARINE LEE BATES

 Music by
 WILL C. MACFARLANE,
 Municipal Organist, Portland, Maine

_Maestoso_

          1. O beautiful for spacious skies,
             For amber waves of grain,
             For purple mountain majesties
             Above the fruited plain!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee.
             And crown thy good with brotherhood.
             From sea to shining sea!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee!

          2. O beautiful for pilgrim feet,
             Whose stern, impassion'd stress
             A thoroughfare for freedom beat
             Across the wilderness!
             America! America!
             God mend thine ev'ry flaw.
             Confirm thy soul in self-control,
             Thy liberty in law!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee!

          3. O beautiful for heroes proved,
             In liberating strife.
             Who more than self their country loved.
             And mercy more than life!
             America! America!
             May God thy gold refine,
             Till all success be nobleness,
             And ev'ry gain divine!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee!

          4. O beautiful for patriot dream
             That sees beyond the years
             Thine alabaster cities gleam
             Undimm'd by human tears!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee.
             And crown thy good with brotherhood.
             From sea to shining sea!
             America! America!
             God shed His grace on thee!

Copyright, 1913, by WILL C. MACFARLANE]

FOOTNOTE:

[1] By permission of the author.



SECTION VIII

WHAT A GIRL SCOUT SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE FLAG


          _We take the star from Heaven, the red from our
          mother country, separating it by white stripes,
          thus showing we have separated from her, and the
          white stripes shall go down to posterity
          representing liberty._--_George Washington._

The American flag is the symbol of the one-ness of the nation: when a
Girl Scout salutes the flag, therefore, she salutes the whole country.
The American Flag is known as "Old Glory," "Stars and Stripes,"
"Star-Spangled Banner," and "The Red, White and Blue."

The American flag today consists of red and white stripes, with the blue
field, sometimes known as the Union in the upper left-hand corner, with
forty-eight white stars. The thirteen stripes stand for the thirteen
original States--New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The stars stand
for the States now in the Union.

The colors of the flag are red, representing valor; white, representing
hope, purity and truth; blue, representing loyalty, sincerity and
justice. The five-pointed star, which is used, tradition says, at Betsy
Ross' suggestion, is the sign of infinity.


History of the American Flag

We think of ourselves as a young country, but we have one of the oldest
written Constitutions under which a Nation operates, and our flag is one
of the oldest in existence.

When our forefathers came from Europe to settle in this country, which
is now the United States, they brought with them the flags of their home
countries, and planted them on the new territory in symbol of taking
possession of it in the name of their liege kings and lands. Gradually
the colonies came to belong to England, and the Union Jack became the
flag of all, with the thirteen colonies represented by thirteen stripes
and the Union Jack in the corner. This flag was known as the Grand Union
or Cambridge Flag, and was displayed when Washington first took command
of the army at Cambridge. It was raised on December 3, 1775, on the
_Alfred_, flagship of the new little American Navy, by the senior
Lieutenant of the ship, John Paul Jones, who later defended it gallantly
in many battles at sea.

On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed in
Philadelphia and the United Colonies dissolved all ties that bound them
to England and became an independent nation--the United States. It was
immediately necessary to adopt a new flag, as the new nation would not
use the Union Jack. Tradition says that in the latter part of May, 1776,
George Washington, Robert Morris and Colonel Ross called on Betsy Ross
in Philadelphia to make the first flag, which they designed. They kept
the thirteen stripes of the Colonial flag, but replaced the Union Jack
by a blue field bearing thirteen stars, arranged in a circle.

The birthday of the flag was June 14, 1777, when Congress passed this
resolution: Resolved: That the flag of the thirteen United States be
thirteen stripes; alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen
stars, white on a blue field, representing a constellation.

The first American unfurling the Stars and Stripes over a warship was
John Paul Jones when he took command of the _Ranger_ in June, 1777.
Tradition says that this flag was made for John Paul Jones by the young
ladies of Portsmouth Harbor, and that it was made for him from their own
and their mothers' gowns. It was this flag, in February, 1778, that had
the honor of receiving from France the first official salute accorded by
a foreign nation to the Stars and Stripes.

It was first carried into battle at the Battle of Brandywine in
September, 1777, when Lafayette fought with the Colonists and was
wounded. This was the famous flag made out of a soldier's white shirt, a
woman's red petticoat, and an officer's blue cloak. A famous flag now in
the National Museum in Washington is the Flag of fifteen stars and
stripes, which floated over Fort McHenry--near Baltimore--in the War of
1812, and which Francis Scott Key (imprisoned on a British ship) saw "by
the dawn's early light" after watching through the night "the rocket's
red glare, the bombs bursting in air" as proof that the fort had not
fallen to the enemy. The next day he wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner."

It is said that peace has its victories as well as war, and Scouts will
want to know that our flag flew from the first vessel ever propelled by
steam--Robert Fulton's _Clermont_.

It was carried by Wilbur Wright on his first successful airplane flight
in France.

It was the flag planted at the North Pole by Robert Peary.

It was the National emblem painted upon the first airplane to make the
transatlantic flight, May, 1919.

At first, when states came into the Union, a new stripe and a new star
were added to the flag, but it was soon evident that the added stripes
would make it very unwieldly. So on April 4, 1818, Congress passed this
act to establish the flag of the United States:

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted ... That from and after the 4th of July next, the
flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red
and white; that the union have twenty stars, white on a blue field.

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on admission of every new State
into the Union, one star be added to the union of the flag; and that
such addition shall take effect on the 4th day of July succeeding such
admission."

In 1917 after the United States entered the World War, the Stars and
Stripes were placed with the flags of the Allies in the great English
Cathedral of St. Paul's in London, and on April 20, 1917, the flag was
hoisted beside the English flag over the House of Parliament as a symbol
that the two great English-speaking nations of the world had joined
hands in the cause of human brotherhood.


RESPECT DUE THE FLAG

1. The flag should be raised at sunrise and lowered at sunset. It should
not be displayed on stormy days or left out over night, except during
war. Although there is no authoritative ruling which compels civilians
to lower the flag at sundown, good taste should impel them to follow the
traditions of the Army and Navy in this sundown ceremonial. Primarily,
the flag is raised to be seen and secondarily, the flag is something to
be guarded, treasured, and so tradition holds it shall not be menaced by
the darkness. To leave the flag out at night, unattended, is proof of
shiftlessness, or at least carelessness.

2. At retreat, sunset, civilian spectators should stand at attention.
Girl Scouts, if in uniform, may give their salute.

When the national colors are passing on parade or in review, Scouts
should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at attention.
When the flag is stationary it is not saluted.

An old, torn, or soiled flag should not be thrown away, but should be
destroyed, preferably by burning.

The law specifically forbids the use of and the representation of the
flag in any manner or in any connection with merchandise for sale.

When the "Star-Spangled Banner" is played or sung, stand and remain
standing in silence until it is finished.

The flag should, on being retired, never be allowed to touch the ground.


Regulations for Flying the Flag

1. The flag should not be raised before sunrise, nor be allowed to
remain up after sunset.

2. In placing the flag at half mast, it should be raised first to full
mast, and then lowered to the half mast position, from which it should
again be raised to full mast before lowering.

3. The flag should never be draped.

4. When the flag is hung against a wall, the blue field should be in the
upper left corner if the stripes are horizontal; in the upper right
corners if the stripes are vertical.

5. In the case of flags hung across the street it is necessary to hang
them by the points of the compass instead of right or left, because the
right or left naturally varies according to whether the spectator is
going up or down the street. When the flag is hung across a north and
south street, the blue fields should be toward the east, the rising sun,
when across an east and west street, the field should be toward the
north.

6. The flags of two or more nations displayed together should always be
hung at the same level, and should be on separate staffs or halyards.

7. In the United States, when the American flag is carried with one
other flag, it should be at the right. When it is carried with two other
flags, it should be in the middle.

8. When the American flag is hung against a wall with other flags, it is
placed at the spectator's right, if it is one of two; and in the middle,
if it is one of three.

9. The flag at half mast is a sign of mourning.

10. The flag flown upside down is a signal of distress.

11. On Memorial Day, May 30, the flag is flown at half mast during the
morning, and is raised at noon to full mast for the rest of the day.


Patriotic Songs for Girl Scouts


"The Star-Spangled Banner"

  Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
    What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
  Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
    O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming!
  And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
  Oh! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
    O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?

  On that shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
    Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes.
  What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
    As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses?
  Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
    In full glory reflected now shines on the stream;
  'Tis the star-spangled banner; Oh, long may it wave,
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

  O! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
    Between their loved homes and the war's desolation
  Blessed with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
    Praise the power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
  Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
    And this be our motto--"In God is our trust";
  And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

                                    --_Francis Scott Key_, 1814.

_The Star Spangled Banner_ was written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key at
the time of the bombardment of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the
British. Key had been sent to the British squadron to negotiate the
release of an American prisoner-of-war, and was detained there by the
British during the engagement for fear he might reveal their plans. The
bombardment lasted all through the night. In his joy the following
morning at seeing the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry, Key
wrote the first stanza of the _Star Spangled Banner_ on the back of an
old letter, which he drew from his pocket. He finished the poem later in
the day after he had been allowed to land. The poem was first printed as
a handbill enclosed in a fancy border; but one of Key's friends, Judge
Nicholson, of Baltimore, saw that the tune of _Anacreon in Heaven_, an
old English drinking song, fitted the words, and the two were quickly
united with astonishing success. The old flag which prompted the poem is
still in existence; it was made by Mrs. Mary Pickersgill.


"America"

          My country, 'tis of thee,
          Sweet land of liberty,
              Of thee I sing;
          Land where my fathers died,
          Land of the Pilgrims' pride,
          From every mountain side
              Let freedom ring.

          My native country, thee,
          Land of the noble free,
              Thy name I love;
          I love thy rocks and rills,
          Thy woods and templed hills;
          My heart with rapture thrills
              Like that above.

          Let music swell the breeze,
          And ring from all the trees
              Sweet freedom's song;
          Let mortal tongues awake,
          Let all that breathe partake,
          Let rocks their silence break,
              The sound prolong!

          Our father's God, to Thee,
          Author of liberty,
              To Thee we sing:
          Long may our land be bright
          With freedom's holy light;
          Protect us by Thy might,
              Great God, our King.

                         --Samuel F. Smith, 1832.

"America" was written in 1832 by Samuel Francis Smith, a graduate of
Harvard, at that time studying for the ministry at Andover, Mass. The
circumstances attending the writing of this hymn are told by the author
in the following letter:

                          Newton Centre, Mass., June 5, 1887.

          Mr. J. H. Johnson:

          Dear Sir: The hymn "America" was not written with
          reference to any special occasion. A friend (Mr.
          Lowell Mason) put into my hands a quantity of
          music books in the German language early in the
          year 1832--because, as he said, I could read them
          and he couldn't--with the request that I would
          translate any of the hymns and songs which struck
          my fancy, or, neglecting the German words, with
          hymns or songs of my own, adapted to the tunes, so
          that he could use the music. On a dismal day in
          February, turning over the leaves of one of these
          music books, I fell in with the tune, which
          pleased me--and observing at a glance that the
          words were patriotic, without attempting to
          imitate them, or even read them throughout, I was
          moved at once to write a song adapted to the
          music--and "America" is the result. I had no
          thought of writing a national hymn, and was
          surprised when it came to be widely used. I gave
          it to Mr. Mason soon after it was written, and
          have since learned that he greatly admired it. It
          was first publicly used at a Sabbath school
          celebration of Independence in Park Street Church,
          Boston, on the 4th of July, 1832.

                             Respectfully,
                                        S. F. SMITH.


The tune of "America," which Samuel Smith took from a German song book,
was originally a French air. This French air was borrowed in 1739 by an
Englishman, Henry Carey, who recast it for the British national anthem,
"God Save the King." Switzerland, Prussia and other German States, and
the United States have used the music for their national hymns.

_Letter and facts from The Encyclopedia Americana._


"Battle Hymn of the Republic"

  Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord:
  He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;
  He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword;
                His truth is marching on.

  I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps;
  They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps;
  I can read his righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps:
                His day is marching on.

  I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnish'd rows of steel:
  "As you deal with my contemners, so with you my grace shall deal;
  Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel,
                Since God is marching on."

  He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat;
  He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat:
  Oh, be swift my soul, to answer Him, be jubilant my feet!
                Our God is marching on.

  In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,
  With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me;
  As He died to make men holy, let us die to make them free,
                While God is marching on.

                                              --Julia Ward Howe.


How to Make an American Flag

The exact proportions of the American Flag have been fixed by executive
order; that is to say, by order of the President, as have other
features, such as the arrangement and position of the stars. The exact
size of the flag is variable, though the army has several regulation
sizes. The cut given below shows the dimensions of one of the regulation
army flags. The proportions fixed by executive order on May 26, 1916,
are as follows:

If the width of the flag be taken as the basis and called 1, then

The length will be 1.9,

Each stripe will be 1/13 of 1,

The blue field will be .76 long and 7/13 of 1 wide.

Other features of the officially designed flag are as follows: The top
and bottom stripes are red. Each State is represented by a five-pointed
star, one of whose points shall be directed toward the top of the flag.

Beginning with the upper left-hand corner and reading from left to right
the stars indicate the States in order of their ratification of the
Constitution and their admission to the Union. Find your State's star in
the following list, and remember its number and line.

          _First Row_
           1--Delaware
           2--Pennsylvania
           3--New Jersey
           4--Georgia
           5--Connecticut
           6--Massachusetts
           7--Maryland
           8--South Carolina

          _Second Row_
           9--New Hampshire
          10--Virginia
          11--New York
          12--North Carolina
          13--Rhode Island
          14--Vermont
          15--Kentucky
          16--Tennessee

          _Third Row_
          17--Ohio
          18--Louisiana
          19--Indiana
          20--Mississippi
          21--Illinois
          22--Alabama
          23--Maine
          24--Missouri

          _Fourth Row_
          25--Arkansas
          26--Michigan
          27--Florida
          28--Texas
          29--Iowa
          30--Wisconsin
          31--California
          32--Minnesota

          _Fifth Row_
          33--Oregon
          34--Kansas
          35--West Virginia
          36--Nevada
          37--Nebraska
          38--Colorado
          39--North Dakota
          40--South Dakota

          _Sixth Row_
          41--Montana
          42--Washington
          43--Idaho
          44--Wyoming
          45--Utah
          46--Oklahoma
          47--New Mexico
          48--Arizona

[Illustration]


AN EASY WAY TO DRAW THE FLAG

          The sketch shows the steps in getting a flag drawn
          according to national requirements.

          1. Draw the outline of your flag, making for
          convenience, the width equal an even 10 units
          (such as eighths or quarters or half, etc.) so
          that the length can be made 19 units.

          2. Get the 13 stripes outlined as follows: a) Take
          your ruler and find a place marking 13 units, such
          as 3-1/4 inches, or 6-1/2 or even 9-3/4 inches. b)
          Then draw the 2 lines A B and A' B'; marking off
          the 13 points on each. It does not matter where
          the lines are drawn so long as they extend between
          the top and bottom of the rectangle. c) Through
          these points draw lightly, the lines for the
          stripes, covering the _whole_ flag.

          3. Before making the final lines, block in the
          union in the upper left hand corner, making its
          length equal to 7.6 of the original units used for
          the whole flag. The width of the union is _seven_
          stripes.

          4. Place the stars as follows: The lines marking
          the stripes may be used to mark the 6 lines of
          stars. The eight stars to a line may be determined
          by dividing the length of the union into nine
          parts and dropping eight perpendiculars through
          the six lines already there. In the sketch the
          line, D F and D' F' are guide lines to make the
          new parallel lines. These are made just as in the
          case of A B and A' B' only containing nine units
          and extending between the two sides of the union.

          5. The stars are made at the intersection of the
          lines. It is not necessary to put in more than one
          or two, to show the shape and direction of points.

          6. The stripes may be colored, or if indicated by
          cross hatching, make the cross hatches vertical (I
          I I I I) which is the symbol for red.

                        Band
                       Leader
                         O
                      ------
                     | BAND |
                      ------
                National O President
   Nat'l Field Capt.-> O O O <- National Director
                         |
                   Vice-President
                   ---------------
                   |NAT'L COUNCIL|
                   ---------------
                   State O Com'sioner
    State Field Capt.->O O O<-State Director
                         |
           State Deputy Commissioner
                    -------------
                   |STATE COUNCIL|
                    -------------
                   Local O Com'sioner
  Local Field Captain->O O O<-Local Deputy Com'sioner
                         |
                   Local Director
                   -------------
                  |LOCAL COUNCIL|
                   -------------
                   Troop O Capt.
             O Lieut.
                      ------
                     |SCOUTS|
                      ------
                      ------
                     |SCOUTS|
                      ------
            Color Guard     Color Guard
                      |     |
                      O O O O
                        | |
             Council Flag American Flag
               O Lieut.
                        ______
                       |SCOUTS|
                        ------
                        ______
                       |SCOUTS|
                        ------


[Illustration: (1) SIMPLE PARADE FORMATION]

                      -------------------
                     |      BAND         |
                      -------------------

                Color Guard->O O O<-Color Guard
                               |
                          American Flag

                       Officer O in Charge

                               O Captain
                     O Lieut.
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------
                              O Captain
                     O Lieut.
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------

                               O Captain
                     O Lieut.
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------
                      -----------------
                     |      SCOUTS     |
                      -----------------


[Illustration: (2) SIMPLE PARADE FORMATION]


PARADE FORMATION FOR GIRL SCOUTS

The accompanying Cut 1 indicates a suggested formation for patriotic,
Civic or Girl Scout parades when Scout officials take part in the
parade. It should be noted that the Scouts are represented by a column
of four ranks, the Color Guard marching in the center of the column.
Should a larger number of Scouts participate in the parade, the Color
Guard must be changed to a position in the center of the longer column.

Cut 2 indicates a more simple form of parade which has been found of
service and effectiveness. In this formation the Color Guard follows the
band or Scout buglers. The local director or her representative marches
directly behind the Color Guard and is followed by the Scouts in column
formation, each double rank commanded by a captain, who marches three
paces in front of the front rank, and a lieutenant, who marches at the
extreme left of the double rank one step ahead of the front rank. Front
and rear ranks march forty inches apart.

It is not usually possible, nor is it necessarily advisable, to use one
troop in forming a double rank. The important thing is to have in each
line the number of Scouts designated by the person in charge of the
parade. This number, determined by the width of the street and the
number marching, will be either four, eight, twelve or sixteen. If girls
of the same height march together, the shorter preceding the taller, the
appearance of the column will be more uniform and pleasing.

When Scout troop flags are used, they are carried in the column at the
extreme right.

[Illustration: GIRL SCOUT UNIFORM--TWO PIECE]


SECTION IX

GIRL SCOUT DRILL

Although the simple exercises in opening and closing a meeting are the
only formal work necessary for Scouts, the Scout Drill outlined in this
Handbook is added for Captains as a suggestion for handling one or more
Patrols in the club room, or on the street, in an orderly dignified
manner.

Where the Troop and Captain are interested in this form of activity, it
adds a great variety to the Scout meetings, and its value in giving an
erect carriage, alert habit of obedience, and ability to think and act
quickly are undoubted.

In case of rallies and parades it is practically the only way of
handling large bodies of Scouts from different localities.

Every order and formation here recommended is taken from the United
States Infantry Drill Regulations, and it is now possible for Captains
in all localities to secure the assistance of some returned soldier glad
to give a half hour occasionally to drilling the Scouts.

The simple formations selected have been divided into Tenderfoot, Second
Class and First Class groups entirely for the convenience of the
Captain; none of the work is too difficult for a Second Class Scout and
there is nothing to prevent a Tenderfoot from taking all of it, if the
troop should be particularly interested in drilling.

Commands are divided into two classes:

(a) The preparatory, to tell the Scout _what_ to do, and

(b) The command of execution, to tell _how_ to do it.


Tenderfoot Drill Schedule

"FALL IN"

At this command each Scout immediately takes her position in the Patrol
to which she belongs (the captain having already assigned to each Scout
her exact place), and without further order assumes the position of
"_Attention_" three paces in front of Captain.

The position of _Attention_ is: body and head erect, head, shoulders and
pelvis in same plane, eyes front, arms hanging easily at the sides, feet
parallel and about four inches apart; perfect silence to be maintained.

Patrol formation, two ranks (rows) of four Scouts each, forty inches
between front and rear ranks. The patrol corresponds to the military
unit of the squad.

Other patrols will fall in on the left of patrol No. 1 and on a line
with it, in their numerical order. When assembled a troop of four
patrols will be in the position indicated by the following diagram, and
facing the captain.

          5678   5678   5678   5678
          1234   1234   1234   1234
                Lieut.  Capt.

If the Captain prefers, and where there are only a few Scouts to be
handled, they may be drawn up in a single rank facing the Captain. In
either position they are now ready for the preliminaries of military
drill.

1. _Right_ (or left) _Dress_. 2. _Front._

At the command _"Dress"_ whether to right or left, all Scouts place the
left hand on the hip. Each Scout, except the base file, Scout on right
or left end from whom the other take their alignment, when on or near
the new line, executes "_Eyes Right!_" and taking steps of two or three
inches, places herself so that her right arm rests lightly against the
arm of the Scout on her right, and so that her eyes and shoulders are in
line with those of the Scout on her right; the rear rank Scouts cover in
file. The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right
flank and orders up or back such Scouts as may be in rear or in advance
of the line: only the Scouts designated move.[2]

At the command "_Front,_" given when the ranks are aligned, each Scout
turns her head and eyes to the front and drops the hand at her side.

To march the patrol or troop in column of twos, the preliminary commands
would be as just given: 1. _Fall in._ 2. _Right Dress._ 3. _Front._

The troop is then drawn up facing the Captain in two ranks as described.
The Captain then commands:

1. _Right_ (or left) _Face_ (According to the direction in which the
column is to proceed.)

2. _Forward._ 3. _March._

At the command "_March_," each Scout steps off smartly with the _left_
foot.


Facings

To the flank: "_Right_ (or left) _Face_."

Raise slightly the left heel and the right toe; face to the right,
turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of
the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. "Left Face"
is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner. Right (or
left) Half Face is executed similarly, facing forty-five degrees.

To the rear: _About Face._

Carry the toe of the right foot about half a foot length to the rear and
slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of
the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel
and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left.


Eyes Right or Left

1. _Eyes Right_ (or left). 2. _Front._

At the command "Right," turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed
on the line of Scouts in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At the
command "_Front_" turn the head and eyes to the front.


The Rests

Being at halt, the commands for the different rests are as follows:

FALL OUT, REST, AT EASE and 1 PARADE, 2 REST.

At the command _Fall Out_, the Scouts may leave the ranks, but are
required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former
places, at attention at the command "_Fall In_."

At the command "_Rest_" each Scout keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to keep silence or immobility.

At the command _"At Ease"_ each Scout keeps one foot in place and is
required to keep silence but not immobility.


_1 Parade, 2 Rest._

Carry the right foot six inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly
bent; clasp the hands, without constraint, in front of the center of the
body, fingers joined, right hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the
thumb and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness
of position.

To resume the attention: _1 Squad (or Company) 2 Attention._


Steps and Marchings

All steps and marchings executed from the halt, except right step, begin
with the left foot.

The length of the full step in "_Quick Time_" for a Scout is twenty
inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of
one hundred twenty steps per minute.

The length of the full step in "_Double Time_," for a Scout, is about
twenty-four inches; the cadence is at the rate of one hundred eighty
steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by
calling "One, Two, Three, Four," or "Left, Right, Left, Right," the
instant the left and right foot, respectively, should be planted.

All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in
"Quick Time" unless the squad (or company) be marching in "Double Time."

Quick Time

Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1 _Forward_, 2 _March_.

At the command "_Forward_," shift the weight of the body to the right
leg, left knee straight.

At the command "_March_" move the left foot smartly straight forward
twenty inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without
shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as
above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time; 1
_Double time_, 2 _March_.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the
right leg. At the command "_March_" raise the forearms, fingers closed
to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with
the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion
to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command "_March_," given as either
foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off
in double time.

To resume the quick time: 1 _Quick Time_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance
and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping
the hands by the sides.


To Mark Time

Being in march: 1 _Mark Time_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and continue
the cadence by alternately raising each foot about two inches and
planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command _March_, raise and plant the feet as
described above.


The Half Step

1 _Half Step_, 2 _March_.

Take steps of ten inches in quicktime, twelve inches in double time.
_Forward_, _Half Step_, _Halt_ and _Mark Time_ may be executed one from
the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: _Forward March._


Side Step

Being at halt or mark time: 1 _Right (or left) Step_, 2 _March_. Carry
and plant the right foot twelve inches to the right; bring the left foot
beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.


Back Step

Being at a halt or mark time: 1 _Backward_, 2 _March_. Take steps of
twelve inches straight to the rear. The back step is used for short
distances only and is not executed in double time.


To Halt

To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1 _Squad_ (or if the full
troop is drilling _Company_), 2 _Halt_.

At the command _Halt_, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant
the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the
side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.


To March by the Flank

Being in march: 1 _By the Right (or left) Flank_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching and
step off in the new direction with the right foot.


To March to the Rear

Being in march: 1 _To the Rear_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of
both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps
in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.


Change Step

Being in march: 1 _Change Step_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near
the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command _March_
being given as the left foot strikes the ground.


SECOND CLASS DRILL

_Fall In._ (_Described in Tenderfoot Drill._)

_Count Off._

At this command all except the right file execute _Eyes Right_, and
beginning on the right, the Scouts in each rank count _One_, _Two_,
_Three_, _Four_; each turns her head and eyes to the front as she
counts.

[Illustration: GIRL SCOUT UNIFORM--ONE PIECE]


Alignments

1 _Right (or Left) Dress_, 2 _Front_. (Described in Tenderfoot Drill.)

To preserve the alignment when marching; _Guide Right_ (_or left_). The
Scouts preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, yielding to
pressure on that side and resisting pressure from the opposite
direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out or
closing in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or shortening
the step; the rear rank Scouts cover their file leaders at forty inches.


To Take Distance

(Formation for signalling or for setting-up exercises.)

Being in line at a halt having counted off: 1 _Take Distance at four
paces_, 2 _March_; 3 _Squad (or company), Halt_.

At the command _March_, each Scout in succession starting at four paces
apart and beginning with No. 1 of the front rank, followed by 2, 3, 4
and 1, 2, 3, 4 of the rear rank, marches straight forward until the
order Squad, Halt is given. The command _Halt_ is given when all have
their distances.

(Word to instructors: Where the floor space is limited it is advisable
to have the Scouts take the half step in executing this formation or
move at two paces.)

If more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the movement as
above simultaneously.

Being at distances, to assemble the squad (or company):

1 _Assemble_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other
members move forward to their proper places in the line.


The Oblique March

For the instruction of the recruits, the squad being in column or
correctly aligned, the instructor causes the Scouts to face half right
and half left, points out to them their relative positions, and explains
that these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

1 _Right (or Left) Oblique_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, each Scout steps off in a direction forty-five
degrees to the right of her original front. She preserves her relative
position, keeping her shoulders parallel to those of the guide, and so
regulates her steps that the ranks remain parallel to their original
front.

At the command _Halt_ the Scouts face to the front.

To resume the original directions: 1 _Forward_, 2 _March_.

The Scouts half face to the left in marching and then move straight to
the front.


To Turn on Moving Pivot

Begin in line: 1 _Right (or left) Turn_, 2 _March_.

(This applies to the single squad; if the whole troop is drilling and is
in column of squads, or twos, the command would be: 1 _Column Right_
(_or left_), 2 _March_.)

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the same
ground. At the second command, the pivot Scout of the front rank faces
to the right in marching and takes the half step; the other Scouts of
the rank oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, then
execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving
abreast of the pivot Scout. All glance toward the marching flank while
at half step and take the full step without command as the last Scout
arrives on the line.

_Right_ (_or left_) Half Turn is executed in a similar manner. The pivot
Scout makes a half change of direction to the right and the other Scouts
make quarter changes in obliquing.


To Turn on a Fixed Pivot

Being in line, to turn and march: 1 _Squad Right_ (_or left_), 2
_March_.

At the second command, the right flank Scout in the front rank faces to
the right in marching and marks time; the other front rank Scouts
oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark
time. In the rear rank the third Scout from the right, followed in
column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in the
rear of her front rank Scout, when all face to the right in marching and
mark time; the other number of the rear rank moves straight to the front
four paces and places herself abreast of the Scout on her right. Scouts
on the new line glance toward the marching flank while marking time and,
as the last Scout arrives on the line, both ranks execute _Forward
March_ without further command.

Being in line to turn and halt: 1 _Squad Right_ (_or left_), 2 _March_,
3 _Squad_, 4 _Halt_.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is
executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all
Scouts, on arriving on the new line mark time until the fourth command
is given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last
Scout arrives on the line.

Being in line to turn about and march: 1 _Squad Right (or left) About_,
2 _March_.

At the second command the front rank twice executes Squad Right
initiating the second Squad Right when the Scout on the marching flank
has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third Scout from
the right, followed by the second and first in column, moves straight to
the front until on the prolongation of the line to be occupied by the
rear rank; changes direction to the right; moves in the new direction
until in the rear of her front rank Scout, when all face to the right
in marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching flank. The fourth
Scout marches on the left of the third to her new position; as she
arrives on the line, both ranks execute _Forward March_ without command.


FIRST CLASS DRILL

_On Right (or left) Into Line._

Being in columns of squads, to form line on right or left; 1 _On Right
(or left) Into Line_, 2 _March_, 3 _Company_, 4 _Halt_, 5 _Front_.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands: _Right
Turn._ The leaders of the other units command: _Forward_, if at a halt.
At the second command the leading unit turns to the right on moving
pivot. The command _Halt_ is given when the leading unit has advanced
the desired distance in the new direction; it halts; its leader then
commands: _Right Dress._

The units in the rear continue to march straight to the front; each,
when opposite its place on the line, executes _Right Turn_ at the
command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its
leader, who then commands: _Right Dress._ All dress on the first unit on
the line.

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in double time
until halted.

_Front Into Line._

Being in columns of squads, to form line to the front; _Right (or left)
Front Into Line_, 2 _March_, 3 _Company_, 4 _Halt_, 5 _Front_.

At the first command the leaders of the units in the rear of the leading
one command: _Right Oblique._ If at a halt, the leader of the leading
unit commands: _Forward._ At the second command the leading unit moves
straight forward: the rear units oblique as indicated. The command
_Halt_ is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired distance;
it halts; its leader then commands: _Left Dress_. Each of the rear
units, when opposite its place in line, resumes the original direction
at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command
of its leader, who then commands: _Left Dress_. All dress on the first
unit in line.


To Diminish the Front of a Column of Squads

Being in column of squads: 1 _Right (or left) By Twos_, 2 _March_. At
the command _March_, all files except the two right files of the leading
squad execute _In Place Halt_; the two right files of the leading squad
oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the right files at the
shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads follow successively
in like manner.

Being in columns of twos: (1) _Right (or left) By File_, 2 _March_. At
the command _March_, all files execute _In Place Halt_, except the right
file of the leading two oblique successively to the right when
disengaged and each follows the file on its right at the shortest
practicable distance. The remaining twos follow successively in like
manner.

Being in column of files of twos, to form column of squads; or being in
column of files, to form column of twos: 1 _Squads (Twos) Right (or
left) Front Into Line_, 2 _March_.

At the command _March_, the leading file or files halt. The remainder of
the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with the
leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up and
successively form in the rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered _Right_ or
_Left_, so as to restore the files to their normal relative positions in
the two or squad.

FOOTNOTE:

[2] _All ranks count off beginning with right end: 1, 2, 3, 4._



SECTION X

SIGNALLING FOR SCOUTS


A. GENERAL SERVICE CODE

The General Service Code, given herewith, also called the Continental
Code and the International Morse Code, is used by the Army and Navy, and
for cabling and wireless telegraphy. It is used for visual signalling by
hand, flag, Ardois lights, torches, heliograph, lanterns, etc., and for
sound signalling with buzzer, whistle, etc.

The American Morse Code is used for commercial purposes only, and
differs from the International Morse in a few particulars. A Scout need
not concern herself with it because it would only be used by the Scout
who eventually becomes a telegrapher, and for this purpose the Western
Union Company offers the necessary training.

Wig Wag Signalling

GENERAL SERVICE CODE

The flag used for this signalling is square with a smaller square of
another color in the center. It may be either white with the smaller
square red, or red with the smaller square white. A good size for Scout
use is 24 inches square with a center 9 inches square, on a pole 42
inches long and one-half inch in diameter.

There are but three motions with the flag and all start from, and are
completed by, return to position, which means the flag held
perpendicularly and at rest directly in front of the signaller.

Signaller should stand erect, well balanced on the arches of the feet.
The butt of the flag stick is held lightly in the right hand; the left
hand steadies and directs the flag at a distance from six to twelve
inches above the right on the stick. The length of the stick will
determine the position of the left hand; the longer the stick the
further apart must the hands be placed in order to obtain the best
balance.

[Illustration: POSITION DOT DASH FRONT]

DOT: To make the dot, swing the flag down to the right until the stick
reaches the horizontal and bring it back to Position.

DASH: To make the dash, swing the flag to the left until it reaches the
horizontal and bring it back to Position.

INTERVAL: The third position is made by swinging the flag down directly
in front and returning to Position.

In order to keep the flag from "fouling" when making these motions, make
a sort of figure 8 with the point of the stick. A slight turn of the
wrist accomplishes this result and becomes very easy after a little
practice. Beginners should master the three motions of the flag,
exaggerating the figure 8 motion before they attempt to make letters.
_It is also best to learn the code before attempting to wig wag it, so
that the mind will be free to concentrate upon the technique or correct
managing of the flag._


THE GENERAL SERVICE CODE

(The International Morse or Continental)

Uses: Commercial wireless, submarine cables, Army and Navy. Methods:
flags by day, torches, lanterns, flashlight, searchlight, by night;
whistle, drum, bugle, tapping.

          A .-
          B -...
          C -.-.
          D -..
          E .
          F ..-.
          G --.
          H ....
          I ..
          J .---
          K -.-
          L .-..
          M --
          N -.
          O ---
          P .--.
          Q --.-
          R .-.
          S ...
          T -
          U ..-
          V ...-
          W .--
          X -..-
          Y -.--
          Z --..
          1 .----
          2 ..---
          3 ...--
          4 ....-
          5 .....
          6 -....
          7 --...
          8 ---..
          9 ----.
          0 -----

          Period .. .. ..
          Comma .-.-.-
          Quotation Marks .-..-.
          Colon     ---...
          Semicolon -.-.-.
          Interrogation ..--..

A convenient form for learning the letters is as follows:

DOTS

          E .
          I ..
          S ...
          H ....

DASHES

          T -
          M --
          O ---

OPPOSITES

          A .-        -. N
          B -...    ...- V
          D -..      ..- U
          G --.      .-- W
          F ..-.    .-.. L
          Y -.---  ---.- Q

SANDWICH LETTERS

          K -.-     P .--.
          X -..-     R .-.

LETTERS WITH NO OPPOSITES

          Z --..
          C -.-.
          J .---

Make no pause between dots and dashes in making a letter, but make a
continuous swing from right to left, or left to right. A pause at
Position indicates the completion of a letter.

One Interval (Front) indicates the completion of a word.

Two Intervals indicate the completion of a sentence.

Three Intervals indicate the completion of a message.

_Do not try for speed._ In all signalling, accuracy is the important
thing, for unless the letters are accurately made they cannot be easily
read, and the message will have to be repeated. Fall into a regular easy
rhythm in sending. Speed comes with practice.

Signalling with a Flash Light: Use a short flash for the dot and a long
steady flash for the dash. Pause the length of three dots between
letters, and the length of five dots between words. A still longer pause
marks the end of a sentence.

Signalling by Whistle: Use a short blast for the dot, and a long steady
blast for the dash. Indicate the end of a letter, a word, and a sentence
by the same pauses as explained in Flash Light Signalling.

Signalling with a Lantern: The motions used in signalling with a lantern
are somewhat like those of the wig wag flag. For Position hold the
lantern directly in front of the body; for the dot swing it to the right
and back to Position; for the dash swing it to the left and back to
Position; and for Interval move it down and up in a vertical line
directly in front. A stationary light should be placed on the ground
before the feet as a point of reference for the various motions.


B. SEMAPHORE SIGNALLING

SEMAPHORE CODE

The semaphore is a machine with two arms which may be moved into various
positions to make letters. The semaphore code shown in the accompanying
picture may also be employed by a person using two flags. It is the
quickest method of flag signalling but is available for comparatively
short distances, seldom over a mile, unless extra large flags are
employed or there is some extraordinary condition of background or
atmosphere.

The semaphore code is not adapted to as many uses as is the general
service code, but for quick signalling over comparatively short
distances, it is preferable in every way.

The regulation flag is 18 inches square, either divided diagonally into
two triangles of white and red, or square of white with small square of
red in the center, or red with small square of white. These flags are
fastened on poles 24 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter.

The flags must be carefully held so that the sticks make, as it were, a
continuation of the arm bone; a bent wrist will cause the flags to make
an entirely different angle, and consequently a different letter from
the one intended.

Swing the arms smoothly and without hesitation from one letter to
another. Hold each letter long enough to make it clear to the person
receiving it. Every word begins and ends with "intervals," the hands
crossed downward in front of the body, arms nearly straight, right hand
always over the left.

Indicate the end of a sentence by one "chip-chop" made by holding both
flags to the right, horizontally, and moving them up and down several
times; not altogether, but one flag going down as the other comes up,
making the "chopping" motion.

[Illustration: CODE FOR SEMAPHORE SIGNALLING]

Note: The extended arm should always make a straight line with the flag
staff.

_From the very beginning practice reading as well as sending._ It is
harder to do and requires more practice. Instructors should always face
the class in giving a lesson; in this way the pupil learns to read at
the same time as she is learning to make the letters. This principle
applies to all visual signalling.


Whistle Signals

1. One blast, "Attention"; "Assemble" (if scattered).

2. Two short blasts, "All right."

3. Four short blasts, calls "Patrol Leaders come here."

4. Alternate long and short blasts, "Mess Call."


Hand Signals

These signals are advisable when handling a troop in a street where the
voice cannot be readily heard, or in marching the troop into some
church, theatre, or other building where a spoken command is
undesirable.

_Forward_, _March_:

Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm
horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of the march. (This signal
is also used to execute quick time from double time.)

_Halt_:

Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust hand upward and hold the arm
vertically.

_Double Time_, _March_:

Carry the hand to the shoulder, rapidly thrust the hand upward the full
extent of the arm several times.

_Squads Right_, _March_:

Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical
position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical
and horizontal positions.

_Squads Left_, _March_:

Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side
and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal
positions.

_Change Direction or Column Right (Left) March_:

The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made
is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal;
then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new
direction.

_Assemble_:

Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal
circles.


THE GIRL SCOUT SALUTE.

          =How To Salute.= To salute, a Girl Scout raises
          the right hand to her hat in line with the right
          temple, the first three fingers extended, and the
          little finger held down by the thumb. This salute
          is the sign of the Girl Scouts. The three extended
          fingers, like the Trefoil, represent the three
          parts of the Promise.

          =When To Salute.= When Scouts meet for the first
          time during the day, whether comrades or
          strangers, of whatever rank, they should salute
          each other.

          If in uniform a Girl Scout stands at attention and
          salutes the flag when it is hoisted or lowered,
          and as it passes her in parade. If not in uniform,
          she stands at attention, but does not salute.

          When in uniform and in ranks in public
          demonstration, a Girl Scout stands at attention
          and salutes when the Star Spangled Banner is
          played. But she does not salute when she herself
          is singing.

          In ordinary gatherings when the anthem is played,
          a Girl Scout stands at attention but does not
          salute.

          When Girl Scouts are on parade or marching in
          troop or patrol formation, only the officers
          salute, at the same time giving the command, "Eyes
          right," or "Eyes left," as the case may be, at
          which every Scout turns her eyes sharply in the
          direction ordered till the officer commands, "Eyes
          front."

          When repeating the Promise, a Girl Scout stands at
          salute.

          When in uniform a Girl Scout should salute her
          officers when speaking to them, or when being
          spoken to by them.

          If in uniform, a Girl Scout should return the
          salute of a Boy Scout. She does not salute the
          police or military officers unless they salute her
          first.

          Girl Scouts may salute each other whether they are
          in uniform or not.

          =Pledge of Allegiance.= "I pledge allegiance to
          the flag and to the republic for which it stands;
          one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice
          for all."

          Girl Scouts should stand at attention, bring the
          hand to the full salute at the first word of the
          pledge, and at the word "flag" extend the arm,
          fingers still in the salute position, palm up,
          pointing to the flag.

          =Parades.= Girl Scouts may take part in patriotic
          parades with the permission of the Local Council
          or Commissioner or of the Captain where there is
          no Local Council.



SECTION XI

THE SCOUT AIDE


Introduction.

The six following subjects, Home Economics, Child Care, First Aid, Home
Nursing, Public Health, and Personal Health are grouped together, and
for proficiency in all of them a special badge called "Scout Aide" is
awarded.

This badge will probably be regarded by the outside world as the most
important decoration the Girl Scouts can win, and all Scouts who will
try for it should realize that those who wear it will represent the
organization in a very special sense and will be eager to prove their
practical knowledge and ability in the important subjects it stands for.

No young child could pretend to represent ALL this medal stands for. Any
grown girl or woman should be proud to own it.

Practical knowledge of Personal Health, Public Health and Child Care
will add to the efficiency and happiness of this nation, and the women
of today have a better chance to control these things than ever before.

Home Nursing and First Aid will save lives for the nation in the two
great emergencies of illness and accident.

Household Economics, the great general business and profession of women,
if it is raised to the level of the other great businesses and
professions, and managed quickly, efficiently and economically, will
cease to be regarded as drudgery and take its real place among the arts
and sciences.

When the girls of today have learned to do this, the women of tomorrow
will be spared the criticism of waste and extravagance that our nation
has had to bear. If Girl Scouts make good as far as this medal is
concerned and become real "Scout Aides" the Scout reputation is secure.

[Illustration]


1. THE HOME MAKER

BY SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD

Formerly Dean of Simmons College

_The Keeper of the House._ Every Girl Scout knows that good homes make a
country great and good; so every woman wants to understand home-making.
Of course that means "keeping" a house; and of course that means that
Girl Scouts should try for the Housekeeper Merit Badge, the "Home
Maker."

Now "making a home" doesn't mean just having it, owning it and holding
its key. It means making it a good place to live in, or helping to make
it so. This sounds like the House that Jack built; but all this belongs
to the making of a home.

_Planning Your House._ When you plan a house of your own you must think
what it needs most. You would choose, first of all, to have abundant
air, fresh and clean; a dry spot where dampness will not stay; sunshine
at some time of day in every room of the house, which you can have if
your house faces southeast; and you must be able to get a good supply of
pure water. You will want to make your house warm in the winter and
cool in the summer, so you will look out for windows, doors and porches.

Think what must be done in a house: eating, sleeping, working, resting,
by the whole family. How many rooms must you have? Draw a plan of some
house in your neighborhood that seems good to live in. Make up your mind
what you like best in that house.

_Furnishings._ Then houses must be furnished with the things that the
family needs. The furniture will be for use. You must ask every piece
what it is good for. What will you do with it? Could you get along
without it? Some things you would use constantly, others once in a
while. Which would you get first if you were planning carefully? How
much would it cost to furnish the house for which you have drawn the
plans: to furnish the kitchen, the living room, the bedrooms? Make a
list of the furniture _needed_ (not just _wanted_) for each room with
the cost of each piece.

It is worth while for you to go to look at furniture in stores and to
think about buying it. Then you will discover that a piece of furniture
that looks well in the store might not look at all well in your house,
for furniture must "suit" the house and the room into which it goes. It
must "fit," we say. No other furniture will do. So the Girl Scout will
make up her mind what will fit her house; and of course this means also
what will fit the family purse. For the keeper of the house must not let
into her house one single thing that she cannot afford to buy. She will
take pride in that.

So when you make a list of furniture--with its price--make sure that
everything you choose, suits, or fits, _your_ house.

_The Cellar._ Most houses are built over cellars, for purposes of
sanitation, heating and water supply, as well as for storage.

The Girl Scout who lives in the country probably knows all about cellars
for they are much needed there. The city girl may live in an apartment
and may never think of a cellar.

Look at the cellars of two or three houses. How are they built? Did you
plan for one in your house?

The cellar should be well ventilated, having light as well as air. Its
windows should be screened; the floor should be dry and if possible made
of cement; the walls should be whitewashed. Ashes should be kept in a
galvanized iron barrel, to prevent fire.

A cellar should be a clean place, corners and all.

_The Kitchen._ The kitchen is a work-shop; it should be sunny and airy.

Look out for windows to let in the fresh air and sunshine. And while you
are thinking of windows, be sure that they can open at the top and
bottom to let sweetness in, and drive bad odors out.

Your kitchen should hold things that are necessary, and nothing else. It
should be easy to keep clean, having painted walls, and the floor should
be of hard pine or else covered with linoleum. When a Girl Scout takes
care of the kitchen she is in honor bound to keep all the corners clean
and to leave no dust nor crumbs of food anywhere about. She will take
great pains to keep flies out of the kitchen and so will have her
windows screened.

A good kitchen is provided with a sink and if possible with running
water; and it must have a good stove, with a place for keeping wood or
coal if either is used.

_The Kitchen Floor._ The floor of the kitchen should be made of hard
wood. Maple or hard pine will make a good floor. A hard-wood floor can
be dressed with shellac or with oil. The wood absorbs this dressing so
that water will not soak in. A floor which has been shellacked should be
wiped with warm water. Not much water will be needed. The oiled floor
can be wiped and dried, then oiled lightly from time to time.

Linoleum or oilcloth may be used to cover an old floor. If the floor is
rough it should be made even by planing before the linoleum is put down,
and the cracks should be filled. If you can't get linoleum you can paint
your floor with a hard floor paint. Be sure to get a paint that dries
hard. The linoleum should be frequently washed with warm water and soap
and then rinsed carefully before it is dried.

_The Kitchen Stove._ The chief business of the kitchen stove is to
provide heat for cooking. It must hold a fire, and so must be made of
something which will not burn. Stoves are usually made of iron. Fire
will not burn without air, so a place must be arranged to let air into
the stove, and just enough to make the fire burn clearly and furnish the
right amount of heat. That is what the front dampers or slides are for.
The fuel, wood or coal, is held in the fire-box. The heated air makes
the top of the stove hot for frying, broiling or boiling, and the oven
hot for baking.

The smoke and gases from the fire must not come out into the room to
blind our eyes or suffocate us; the chimney is built to take care of the
smoke and gases, and there must be a way for them to get into the
chimney; the stove pipe is for this. But the game you have to play with
your stove is to let the smoke and gases run up chimney, but to save all
the heat you can for the work to be done. So your stove is supplied with
dampers. When the fire is new, and there is much smoke or gas, you open
the damper into the stovepipe, and in the stovepipe. Try to get a
picture of the way the heated air goes from the fire-box up into the
chimney. We call this direct draft. Of course a great deal of heat runs
away through the chimney, and so your fuel is wasted. Now if you want
to save heat, and particularly if you want to bake, and must have a hot
oven, you will close the oven damper that has made the short easy way
into the stovepipe. Then the heated air must find another way to get to
the chimney, and it has to go around the oven to do this. While the hot
air is finding its way around the oven, it heats it, ready for your
baking. We call this the "indirect draft." Look over your kitchen stove
and see how this happens. Take off the covers, open every door, and
examine every part.

Stoves must be carefully managed. The fires must burn readily and the
cooking must be done with the least possible amount of wood or coal.
This means a clean stove, free from ashes and with a clear draft. Wood
or coal will burn freely in the air. They will stop burning if there is
no draft.

Learn to manage your draft. Remember that stoves are made with a damper,
in order to control the current of hot air. If the oven damper is closed
this heated air _must_ pass over and around the oven before it gets to
the chimney and so heat the oven. If it is open the hot air can
immediately escape up the chimney.

When starting the fire leave the damper open. As soon as it is burning
well, close it so that the oven will be heated. Your stove should also
have a damper in the pipe, to save the heat which would otherwise run up
the chimney. If there is none, have one put in. There are also dampers
or slides in front of the stove to control the amount of air going in.

The housekeeper must learn how to manage her stove; she must get
acquainted with it, for every stove has its own way. Draw a picture or
plan of the stove that you know best. See if you can tell plainly how to
build a fire in your stove. If you use natural gas or a kerosene stove
tell how that should be managed.

_Gas and Oil Stoves._ Cooking may be done on an iron stove with either
coal or wood as fuel, or the stove may be planned for burning gas or
kerosene. The coal fire must be fed several times a day with coal and
the ashes must be removed to keep the fire burning clearly. Wood burns
out quickly and must be replaced often. Both wood and coal stoves mean
almost constant care for the housekeeper.

Gas gives less trouble. It comes in pipes from outside the house. This
means that somebody else--the gas company--provides the supply. You turn
on the gas when you want to use it and turn it off, if you are wise and
thoughtful, the moment it is not needed. The gas company measures the
amount of gas that you use by its meter, and you pay for every bit that
you burn or waste. The important thing, then, is to use as little gas as
possible in order to pay for as little as possible. You would rather pay
twenty-five cents for a thrift stamp, than for gas that had burned
simply because you had forgotten to turn it off. Be sure that gas is
turned completely off at all places and never have a low light burning,
as the flame may be blown out and the unburned gas escape. This would be
dangerous and might even kill persons in the house.

The kerosene stove may be used instead of a gas stove in houses which
are not piped for a gas supply. If wicks are used they must be carefully
trimmed, so that they will be clean and even. A kerosene stove needs
frequent cleaning. It should be kept free from dust and from drippings
of oil.


The Fireless Cooker

When a Girl Scout gets to thinking about all the work to be done in a
kitchen she will ask some very important questions. How much work is to
be done? How long does it take to do it? Can time be saved by doing it
in a better way? How can I save labor? Save time? Save money?

The Girl Scout will find the answers one at a time, if she does her own
work. And if you do your own work you will at once call for a fireless
cooker. The name sounds impossible, for you have always cooked with a
stove, and, of course, a fire. How can you cook without a fire?

The women of Norway taught us how. When they went out to work in the
fields or on the farm they took the hot kettle of soup off the stove and
hid it away in a hay box. The hay kept the heat in the kettle instead of
letting it escape; so the soup kept on cooking, and when the women came
home from their work in the fields there it was, all steaming hot and
ready for dinner.

Everyone has noticed how some things carry or conduct heat and other
things don't. That's why we use a "holder," when handling a hot dish or
stove lifter or tea-pot. The "holder" does not carry the heat to the
hand; it keeps it away. So the hay packed around the hot kettle kept the
heat in the kettle, refusing to "conduct" it away. Therefore the soup
went on cooking.

Your English cousins use a "cosy" to cover the hot teapot or coffee pot.
This "cosy" is made of quilted cotton; and looks like the quilted hood
that your great-grandmother used to have. This keeps the heat in the tea
or coffee, so that you can have a second cup for the asking.

America was slow to learn from her thrifty cousins, but at last she
adopted the fireless cooker; and this is what it does:

The fireless cooker, a case packed with some material which refuses to
conduct heat, is used to continue the cooking of foods after they have
been made hot on the stove. When securely covered in the cooker they
will go on cooking for several hours because the heat is retained by the
protecting case. A Girl Scout may buy a fireless cooker, paying from $5
to $25 for it, or she may make one, which will cost less than one
dollar. Of course this is a challenge to make one. You may be very sure
that if you make a fireless cooker you will understand all about it. To
make a fireless cooker you will need:

(1) _A cooker or container_, which should be an agate pail with a close
fitting cover. The sides should be straight up and down, the bottom just
as big as the top. You can choose a small one holding two quarts, or a
gallon pail which would be large enough for anything an ordinary family
would be likely to cook.

(2) _A case_, which must be at least eight inches wider than your
container, for the packing must extend at least four inches around the
pail on every side. You may use a round case like a big wooden candy
pail, which you can usually get at the ten cent store for ten cents; or
it may be a galvanized iron can with a cover like the one ordinarily
used for garbage; or it may be a box shaped like a cube.

(3) For packing you may use crumpled newspapers tightly packed in; or
ground cork, which is used in packing Malaga grapes, is fine, and you
may be able to get it from a fruit store. Excelsior is good, and perhaps
you will find that in the shed in some packing case; while, if you live
in the country, you may be able to get Spanish moss. This should be
dried, of course. And then there is hay--which our Norwegian cousins
use.

Let us try paper. Pack the box or can four inches deep, with crumpled
paper, making a very even layer. Put a piece of pasteboard much larger
than the bottom of your pail upon this layer and set your pail in the
middle of it. Now pack the paper tightly around the pail up to the very
top, using a stick of wood or mallet to press it down.

Now you must make a cloth cover for your pail in the shape of a tall
hat. The rim of the hat must reach out to the edges of your case and be
tacked there. Take out your pail, fit this cloth cover into the hole and
tack the edge evenly to the box.

You must now make a cushion to fill the rest of the box, packing it full
of the crumpled paper. Make hinges for the lid of your box and put some
sort of fastener on the front to keep the lid down tight.

Now you have your fireless cooker. When your oatmeal or your stew, or
your chicken, or your vegetables have boiled ten or fifteen minutes on
the stove in your agate pail, clap on its cover, set it into the nest,
push the cushion into the top of the cooker, clamp down the lid, and
your work is done, for the cooking will go merrily on all alone by
itself in your fireless cooker.

While you are making your fireless cooker, remember that the thermos
bottle is made on the same principle. And remember, too, that your
non-conducting packing material will keep heat out just as well as it
keeps heat in. In the summer time you may wish to keep your ice cream
cold for a while in your fireless cooker. Perhaps you will see how this
might help on a hot summer's day and what a comfort a fireless cooker
might prove in a sick room.


The Ice Chest. How It Is Made

In taking care of food we must be provided with a cool place, for the
storage of milk, butter, cream, and all cooked food that may spoil. In
summer this is especially important; in an apartment, and in most city
houses the ice chest is needed all the year around; in the country, it
is needed only in the warm months.

The ice chest is built much as the fireless cooker is made. Its case is
usually made of wood, its packing material must be non-conducting, and
its lining must be some smooth surface through which water cannot pass.
Some ice chests are lined with zinc and some with porcelain tiles. In
some ice chests, food and ice are kept in the same box, which usually
opens at the top; in other chests there is a separate chamber for the
ice. From the ice chamber a drain pipe carries away the water which
drips from the melting ice.

Every ice chest must be kept clean and sweet. It should be looked over
every day and washed carefully at least once a week. No crumbs of food
should be left on the shelves. If you spill anything, wipe it up _clean_
at once.

The drain pipe must be kept clean. A long wire brush is used for this.
If you are buying an ice box, get one with removable pipes, which are
easily cleaned. If there is any odor from the chest, scald with water
and soda, a teaspoonful of soda to a quart of water. Rinse with fresh
cold water.

If your ice chest drips into a pan which must be emptied daily, have a
regular time for emptying it. An overflowing pan in an apartment may
damage the ceiling below. If it drips into a pan which drains itself, be
sure that the drain is kept clean and the entrance to the pipe
unclogged. Clean the drip pan whenever you clean the ice chest.

It is a good plan to keep food in closed containers like fruit jars.
Wide dishes take up too much space. Containers should be tall rather
than broad.

Put no hot dishes in the ice box; it wastes the ice.


The Iceless Refrigerator

An "iceless refrigerator" sounds like a "fireless cooker." This is an
arrangement made to keep food cool in the summer when there is no ice. A
wooden cage with shelves is covered with a cloth cover and placed near
a window or out of doors. If in the house it should stand in a large pan
to prevent the dripping of water on the shelf or floor.

A piece of the cloth cover should rest in a pan of water. If this is not
convenient a strip of cloth can be sewed to the cover endwise and this
piece should be placed in a pan or bowl of water which should be set on
top of the cage. This water will be sucked throughout the cloth cover of
the refrigerator until it is wholly wet. As the water evaporates from
the cover the air inside the refrigerator is cooled.

The iceless refrigerator works well on days when dry air is moving
about. It does not do well on damp, quiet days.

Another simple refrigerator which does very well for a little milk or a
pat of butter is a clean, earthen flower pot, turned upside down in a
shallow pan of water. This will keep very cool the food which it covers.


The Kitchen Sink

Next to the stove, the sink is the most important piece of kitchen
furniture.

The best sinks are of enamel or are made of porcelain. They have a fine
wire drainer so that nothing solid will go into the trap and plug the
pipes. The Girl Scout uses boiling water, and plenty of it, to flush the
sink. She takes pains that no grease gets into the drain to harden
there. When grease is accidentally collected, soda and hot water will
wash it away, but it should never collect in the pipes.

The Keeper of the House takes pride in a perfectly clean sink.


Taking Care of the House and the Things in It

Taking care of a house and its furniture means keeping the house clean,
neat, and orderly, and keeping everything in good repair. This means a
great deal of thought on the part of the Keeper of the House. For there
are many sorts of work to be done, and there is a right way of doing
every bit of it. By paying attention a Girl Scout may learn very fast,
and become very helpful and competent.

First, there's the Dish Washing.


Dish Washing

In making ready for dish washing scrape every plate carefully to remove
crumbs that would get into the dish water. Try using crumpled tissue
paper to remove milk, grease, or crumbs before the dishes are put into
the pan. Save tissue paper, and paper napkins for this.

Pile in separate piles, all dishes of each sort; wash first glass, then
silver, then cups, saucers, plates, then the rest; do not put bone,
ivory or wooden handles of knives into the water. Use hot water and soap
for dish washing, then rinse with clean hot water.

Dish towels should be cleansed after every dish washing; wash clean in
hot soapy water, then rinse all the soap away in clean water. Cooking
utensils should soak in cold water until time for dish washing, unless
they can be washed as soon as used.

Use a tray for carrying dishes to the closet or pantry instead of
travelling with a handful back and forth. Strain the dish water before
pouring it down the sink. Be sure that no greasy water is put into the
sink. Let the grease rise and cool; skim it off and dispose of it after
the dishes are washed.


Taking Care of Rooms

Keeping a house in order means having everything in its place in every
room. It means sweet, fresh air in every room; it means removal of dust
and litter. A good housekeeper "tidies" her rooms as she goes along,
always picking up anything that is out of place and putting it where it
belongs. But she also has a method in doing things. Perhaps she sweeps
the entire house every day or every other day, or perhaps she puts one
room in order on one day and another on another and so on. The important
thing is to have a regular plan.

[Illustration: HEIGHT OF SINK]


The Living Room

Taking care of a living room means cleaning the floor and the rugs;
dusting the walls, the pictures; cleaning, dusting, and sometimes
polishing the furniture. Open the windows top and bottom, dust and brush
them inside and out; use a soft brush or a dust mop to take the dust
from the floor. Use a carpet sweeper for the rugs unless you have
electricity and can use a vacuum cleaner; collect the sweepings and burn
them.

Dampen one quarter of your cheese-cloth duster and roll it inside the
rest of the duster, then wring. This makes a dampish cloth for dusting
the base-boards, window sills, and other woodwork as well as the
furniture. Where the furniture is highly polished, or would be injured
by water, use oil on the duster instead. Dust after the dust has
settled, not when it has been stirred into the air. Shake and replace
doilies or covers.

Be sure that the pictures hang straight after dusting and that every
piece of furniture is put in its right place. See how long it takes to
clean the room; then study to find out how the time can be shortened.

Do not keep useless furniture nor have too many things in your room.

_The Bathroom_ and the bath tub require daily cleansing. In the ordinary
family every one who uses the tub should leave it perfectly clean for
the next one who needs it. All the furnishings of the bathroom should be
kept sweet and clean. Use a flush closet brush daily, scalding it after
using it. And remember that fresh air and sunshine are cleansing agents.
Get them to work for you.

_The Bedroom._ Your bedroom needs all the fresh air it can get. The Girl
Scout sleeps with her windows open. As soon as you have dressed in the
morning throw the windows wide open again, if they have been closed.
Open the bed, so that both sheets may be reached by the fresh air. Shake
up your pillows and put them on a chair near the window. Leave your
night clothing spread or hung where it will be well aired. Let your room
have a fresh air bath!

You know already how to make a bed. You will remember that all the
bedclothing must be smooth and even, when the bed is made. You are lucky
if you have a sister to help you make your bed, for this piece of work
is easier for two than for one. You will see that the mattress is lying
straight. Once a week you (the two of you) will turn the mattress, end
over end one week, and side over side the next week. Then your mattress
will wear evenly, and not have a hollow in the middle where you sleep
all the time. Then you two will lay the mattress cover straight, and
tuck it in firmly, so that you will have no hard wrinkles to sleep on.
The under sheet, smooth and straight, must be tucked in all around. You
will make the bed as smooth as the table. Now the upper sheet, which is
the hardest thing to manage in bed making, must be neatly tucked in at
the foot. But you must allow eight inches at the top to be turned over
the blankets and spread. Now the blankets, straight and smooth, and
evenly tucked in at the foot. Then you may choose between tucking in the
sides after folding the top sheet down over the blankets, and afterwards
covering the whole bed with the spread, letting the sides and ends hang
down; and laying the spread even with the blankets, tucking in the
sides, and turning down the sheet over all. Try both ways.

Now, shake and pat the pillows, making them very smooth and quite
square-cornered; then lay them or stand them neatly at the head of the
bed, meeting exactly in the middle; and your bed is fit for a queen, or
a tired Girl Scout after a tramp!

With the bed neatly made, everything must be put in its proper place.
The furniture and window sills must be dusted with a clean cheese-cloth
duster; and the bare floors must be nicely dusted with a dry floor-mop,
or a cloth pinned over a broom. If there are rugs, use a carpet sweeper,
if you have one, or a broom. If you do any broom sweeping, however, you
will do it before you dust.

Now a last look to see that the room is tidy, every chair in place and
the shades even at the windows, and your room is ready for the day. Of
course any Girl Scout who wants a Homemaker's badge will _do_ all these
things;--not guess or suppose how others do them and how long it takes.
That is the honest way to learn. So find out how long it takes to put
your room in order. There is only one way to find out.


Fighting Germs

Keeping clean in these days means keeping free from troublesome germs as
well as visible dirt. Germs thrive in dampness and darkness. They can be
overcome by sunshine. For thorough cleanness, the house needs fresh air
and sunshine as well as sweeping and dusting. The Girl Scout must
remember to let the fresh air blow through every room in the house every
day. She should sleep with her windows open. She is fortunate if she can
sleep out of doors.

Of course she is in honor bound to have no dark, damp, hidden,
dirt-filled corners in any part of her house, not even in shed or
cellar. Let in the light and clean out the dirt.


Fighting the House Fly and Mosquito

House flies carry disease. They breed in filth, human waste, animal
droppings, decayed animal or vegetable matter, and are so made that they
carry filth wherever they go. Since the fly alights wherever it pleases,
it carries dirt from outside and distributes it wherever it CHOOSES.

Clean up all heaps of rubbish where flies may breed. Keep your garbage
pail _absolutely clean_. Disinfect outdoor water-closets and cover with
gravel or slacked lime. Get fly traps to set on your porches. Kill all
flies that come into the house, especially the early ones, in the
spring. Keep your windows and doors screened.

Fight mosquitoes just as you fight flies. Leave no still water even in
an old tin can, for the eggs of mosquitoes are deposited in still water
and hatch there. The mosquito, like many other insects, has an
intermediate stage between the egg and the grown mosquito. During this
stage it swims about in quiet water. Mosquitoes in great numbers may be
growing in old cans or bottles, rain-filled and hidden away under the
bushes in your yard. Watch for such breeding places; clean up your yard
and banish the mosquito.


Taking Care of Waste

All waste must be carefully disposed of. It should never accumulate in
the kitchen; but the important thing is to have _no real waste_. See
that everything is put to the utmost use. If you live in the country,
chickens and pigs will take the parings, the outer leaves of vegetables,
etc., and you can bury or burn waste. If you live in the city the
garbage man will collect all waste.

The garbage can must be kept thoroughly clean. It should be rinsed and
scalded whenever it is empty, so that there will be no bad odors about
the kitchen. Find out how garbage is taken care of in your town. How can
you help to keep your neighborhood clean? What should be done if there
is carelessness about garbage?


Taking Care of Woolen Things

Housekeepers must fight moths as well as flies. The clothes moth loves
to lay its eggs in wool. It is very keen in searching out bits of wool
and finding a place for its baby to thrive. Unless you have a care it
will lay its eggs in your best winter dress which you forgot and left
hanging in the hot summer days.

When the baby worm pokes its head out of the egg, it begins to feed upon
the wool; and when some cold winter morning you get your dress you will
find holes neatly cut where the little worm has gnawed, and beside the
holes the little woven cradle which the tiny creature spun for itself,
and in which the crawling worm changed to the flying, silvery moth.

The housekeeper must therefore, carefully brush and pack away all
woolen things before the moths arrive. After the garment is cleansed and
brushed it may be folded in newspapers carefully pinned at the ends, so
that no crack is left for the moth to get in it, or it may be laid in a
cedar box; or in any plain box with moth balls or camphor. Every box
should be labelled so that you know without opening it what is in it.

Watch edges of carpets and rugs for the carpet beetle and the "Buffalo
bug." The last bothersome creature may eat your cotton dresses in your
closet. All clothing must have care.

Make a list of the woolen things that must be taken care of if the house
is closed in summer and what personal clothing must be packed away for
the summer even if the house is not closed.


Storage of Food

Taking care of food so that it will "keep" well is just as important as
the careful buying of food. Much waste, and therefore loss of money and
labor, comes from carelessness in the storage of food. The bright Girl
Scout will keep her eyes open to see how foods are taken care of in the
house; which foods must be kept in the cellar; which ones must be stored
on the shelves of dry closets; which ones come in sealed parcels; which
in paper bags; which in boxes; which in barrels. There must be a place
in the house for keeping all these things. So you need to think which
foods _must_ be kept in the house and which must be bought from day to
day. And in the house which you plan there must be ample space for
closets and shelves, for keeping properly all that must be stored. No
one can say which things must be kept in the house by every family. If
the Girl Scout happens to live in a crowded city where rents are high,
she will have little storage space, and will not keep so many things on
hand. If she lives in the country, miles from a store, she must have a
"store" of her own. So keep your eyes open, Girl Scout, and see what is
being done in your part of the world. That is what eyes are made for.


Heating the House

A house may be heated by a furnace, by stoves, or even by open fires in
the fireplace, as in old days. Heating the house makes the chimney
necessary. This must be carefully arranged for in planning your house.
Heating by stoves is the most common arrangement. In the large city or
town, the furnace is used. This is merely a big stove in the cellar or
basement, so planned that its heat is distributed through the house. By
this means one big stove does the work of many little ones, and warms
the whole house.

The furnace may use its heat to turn water into hot steam, which is sent
through all the house through the iron pipes and radiators. Or the water
in the boiler may be made quite hot, though not turned into steam, and
sent through the house in the same way, by means of pipes. Or hot air
from around this big stove or furnace may be sent through big pipes
directly to the various rooms. This means dust and dirt, and we are
learning to use steam and hot water instead of the hot air system.

The fireplace is almost a luxury. It is found oftenest in country houses
where wood can easily be got and stored. The town or city home may have
its open fire, however. Everyone loves an open fire; and when you plan
your own house, you must manage to get one if you can. The hearth is the
heart of the house.


Labor Saving

The housekeeper must learn how to do her work in the least possible
time; she must save steps. Look at the house that you have planned and
see whether everything you need to use is within easy reach. Look
carefully at the closets where you keep things. Are they big enough?
Are they in the right place? Suppose your water comes from a well which
is a long way from the house. What difference will it make? What would
you do about it?


The Water Supply

The water supply of every home should be carefully guarded. If the water
is defiled or contaminated by germs of typhoid fever, diphtheria, or
other diseases, whose bacteria may be carried by water, the disease may
be spread wherever the water is used.

No earth closets or human or animal waste should be in the neighborhood
of the well. Water should come from high ground and clean places with no
possibility of gathering infection on the way to the house. Great pains
should be taken to keep drinking water absolutely clean. All drinking
vessels should be washed and scalded and the rims should never be
handled.

In the country every home has a private water supply and takes pains to
guard it. In the city there is a common water supply and everyone is
responsible for keeping it pure. Where does the water come from that
supplies your city or town? How is it kept clean? Who takes care of it?

Whenever there is any question about the purity of common drinking
water, the table supply should be boiled, for safety. Boiling will
destroy any bacteria that could produce disease. This boiled water
should be used for rinsing dishes as well as for drinking.

Girl Scouts will interest themselves in municipal or neighborhood
housekeeping, for that is a responsibility which all share together.

Learning to take care of one's own home is a good beginning, if one is
to share in providing good conditions for the neighborhood.


Little Things Worth Remembering

The stove should be cleaned with crumpled newspaper whenever the kitchen
is put in order. All ashes should be neatly brushed off.

In lifting ashes from the ash pan with a shovel use a newspaper to cover
the pail into which the ashes are poured, so that the dust will not
scatter over the room. Don't dump them and raise dust; and never put hot
ashes into a wooden box or barrel.

Watch the floor of closets and see that no dusty corners are hidden out
of sight.

Air and dry soiled clothing before putting it in the laundry basket. If
damp clothes are hidden away they will mildew.

Learn to make out a laundry list and to check it when the laundry comes
home.

Save the soap chips and use a soap shaker.

Get all the help you can from older housekeepers in your neighborhood.
Ask them how they do things and why. Your mother may know something
better than anybody else does.

The Girl Scout asks questions and learns why things are done as they
are. She may think out a better way some day, but first she must pay
attention to the old way.

Sing at your work; it goes better so. Besides, joy belongs with
housekeeping and your song helps to keep her there. Always sing if the
work drags, but let it be a lively song!


Making Things Clean and Keeping Clean

Making things clean is a most important duty of the Keeper of the House.
But don't forget, Girl Scout, that keeping things clean is a constant
duty. You know many a body who "cleans up" with a lot of stir once in a
while, but who litters and spills and spreads dirt and lets dust collect
in corners all the rest of the time.

"Keeping clean" is the housekeeper's regular business, and "cleaning up"
never need stir up the whole house.

For keeping clean, soap and water must always be had. The soap loves to
wrestle with grease. The water softens and rinses away both dirt and
soap. You will use a scouring soap or powder to clean stained or dirty
metal or glass; and you should cover water-closets and other out-of-door
places for refuse with clean slaked lime now and then to keep them
clean.


Ten Ways of Removing Stains

1. When you have _raspberry_ or _blueberry_ or _strawberry_ stains on
your white handkerchief or blouse or skirt, do not be too much
disturbed. Hold the stained part firmly over an empty bowl, with the
spot well in the centre, and ask some one to pour boiling hot water over
the spot and into the bowl. The stains will disappear like magic. Then
the wet spot may be dried and pressed with a hot iron, and the damage is
repaired.

2. _Peach_ stains are much harder to remove, but they should be treated
just as the others were treated. Often several applications of hot water
are necessary for these stubborn stains. But you must not lose patience.
And you must not use soap. The stain will fade out at last under the hot
water.

3. _Ink_ stains are a great bother, especially to the school girl who
carries a leaky fountain pen. Do not let them get dry. They will be much
harder to remove. Sometimes cold water, applied immediately, will remove
the ink, if the spot is rinsed carefully. Use the cold water just as the
hot water is used for the peach stain. If that does not remove it try
milk. If the milk fails, let the spot soak in sour milk. Sometimes it
must soak a day or two; but it will disappear in the end, with rinsing
and a little rubbing.

4. _Ink_ stains on a carpet are a serious matter. Let us hope that no
Girl Scout will be so unlucky as to upset an ink bottle on a friend's
carpet or rug. If she does, she should know the best way to set about
removing it. This should be done as quickly as possible before the ink
dries, or "sets." Take cotton, or soft tissue paper or blotting paper,
and absorb all that has not soaked in. You will see that the "sooner"
_is_ the "better" in this case. Try not to increase the size of the
spot, for you must keep the ink from spreading. Then dip fresh cotton in
milk, and carefully sop the spot. Do not use the cotton when it is inky;
that will smear the carpet and spread the stain. Use fresh bits of
cotton, dipped in clean milk, until the stain has disappeared. Then
rinse with clean water in the same way, and dry with dry cotton.

5. The _spots_ made on silk or woolen by _acids_ may be removed by
touching with ammonia or baking soda, dissolved in a little water. The
bright yellow spot on a black dress will sometimes run away like
lightning when touched by the wet cork of the ammonia bottle.

6. _Egg stains_ on the napkin, or sometimes, unfortunately, on a dress
front, must be removed before washing. Use cold water alone. The egg
will dissolve and can be rinsed out. Hot water will cook the egg and it
will be hard to remove.

7. _Liquid shoe blacking_ is almost worse than ink. It must be treated
in the same way, _and at once_.

8. _Coffee_ and _tea stains_ will wash out with either warm water or
soap and water. A black coffee stain on a fresh tablecloth may be
removed like the berry stains, by the teakettle and bowl method.

9. _Grease spots_ may be removed from washable fabrics by soap and
water. For silk and woolen, gasoline should be used. Use gasoline in
daytime only, to avoid lamps or gas in the neighborhood; and _never_
near a fire. Use carbona instead of gasoline or benzine when possible,
as it cannot burn. Remember that all grease or sugar spots should be
removed before putting a woolen garment away. Moths always seek them
out, and they will find them if you don't.

10. _Paint_ can be removed by soaking the spot in turpentine. This
dissolves it, and a bit of rubbing shakes it out. A brush helps, when
the paint spot is on a woolen garment, after the turpentine has done its
work.

_Remember_: All spots and stains should be removed before washing the
garment.


GOOD MANNERS AND SOCIAL FORMS

It is easier to meet people socially if we are acquainted with the
simple forms of introductions, meeting and parting, and so forth. A girl
who is entertaining her friends will be more successful in doing so if
she plans ahead how she can welcome them and has all the necessary
preparations for a substantial good time, at hand. This planning also
makes it possible for her to be less occupied when the time comes, and
to have a good time herself.

Stand where guests can see you at once when they enter.

Always introduce a younger person _to_ an older one, as "Mrs. Smith, may
I present Miss Jones, or Mr. Brown?" A man is always presented _to_ a
woman, or a girl, as "Miss Brewster, may I present Mr. Duncan?"

If you have many guests, ask some of your friends to join you in
watching to be sure that no one is left out, so that the evening may be
a success for every one. It is sometimes difficult for a hostess to do
this alone.

If you ask other girls to help you ask each to do a definite thing, as
to arrange for wraps, sing or play, pay special attention to some older
person, etc. This saves confusion, as the Pine Tree patrol does in camp.

A few intimate friends need no plan to make them have a good time, but
with a large number it is usually better to plan games, music, charades,
or some other form of entertainment.

When invited to a house at a certain time, be prompt. Promptness is
always a mark of courtesy, as it means consideration for the time and
convenience of others. One should also watch carefully the time of
leaving, and not stay about unless specially detained.


TABLE MANNERS

Accept what is offered or placed before you, with a quiet "Thank you."
If you are asked what you prefer, it is proper to name it.

Do not drink while food is in the mouth.

Take soup quietly from the side of the spoon, dipping it into the plate
_from_ instead of towards you, to avoid dripping the soup.

Break bread or roll, and spread with butter only the piece which you are
about to eat.

Use knife only as a divider, the fork to take food to the mouth. Where
one can dispense with a knife, and use only the fork to divide food, do
so. When not using either, lay them together across the side of the
plate, not resting on the table cloth.

A spoon should never be allowed to rest in a tall receptacle such as a
cup or glass, as it is likely to overturn the receptacle. Place the
spoon on plate or saucer.

At close of meal, fold napkin, that table may be left in orderly
condition. When napkins are to be washed at once, or when they are paper
napkins, they need not be folded.

Do not begin a course until all are served.

Sometimes it is better to serve the hostess first, and sometimes it is
the custom to serve the guest first, that is the guest of honor who sits
on the hostess' right. When the host or hostess does the serving, the
guest is served first.

Do not be troubled if you use the wrong spoon or fork, and never call
attention to anyone else's doing so. No matter how you feel, or what the
blunder or accident may be, such as spilling something or dropping a
plate, never show displeasure to either servant or guest. Good breeding
and pleasant atmosphere are essential to all entertainment.

Good breeding means first of all thoughtfulness of others, and nothing
shows lack of breeding so quickly as a lack of such politeness to those
who happen to be serving us in hotels, at home, in shops, or when
travelling, or anywhere else.

When acting as waitress, stand at the left of the person to be served,
so that the portion may be taken with the right hand.


Preparing the Meal

Plan the cooking so that the food that is to be served may be kept hot;
for instance, soup may be kept hot on the back of the stove or where
there is less heat, while the meat or vegetables are being cooked. Food
that is to be served cold, should be kept in the ice-box or standing in
water until the last moment and served in chilled dishes. In placing the
food on the dishes and platters care should be taken to make it look
attractive.


Setting the Table

When setting the table keep in mind how many courses there will be, and
therefore, how many knives, forks, and spoons are needed. Have
everything clean, and lay everything straight. Air room well. Wipe
table, and if a tablecloth is used, cover table with a felt silence
cloth. If a tablecloth is used, it should be laid with the fold in the
center of the table. If a centerpiece and doilies are used, they should
be laid at even distances. Clean white oil cloth and paper napkins make
an attractive looking table. At each cover the knife, edge in, is placed
at the right with the spoon, and the glass is placed at the right in
line with the end of the knife. The fork is at the left and bread and
butter plate and small knife are at the left opposite the glass. Put the
napkin between the knife and fork.

[Illustration]

Salt, pepper, water, bread and butter should be on the table, and if
necessary, vinegar, mustard, sugar, pickles, etc.

When possible a few flowers add to the appearance of the table.

Have as much ready as possible before sitting down at the table. See at
least that (1), glasses are filled; (2), butter portioned; (3), chairs
placed.

Hard and fast rules as to table setting do not exist. Local customs, the
amount of service at hand, and common sense must govern this. The
captain, assisted by the council, must be the judges.


THE GIRL SCOUT COOK

BY ULA M. DOW, A. M.

_In charge of Division of Food, Simmons College_

The Girl Scout who has earned the Cooking Badge may be a great help at
home if she has learned to work quickly and neatly and may get much
amusement both at home and on camping parties. If the first trial of a
process is not a success, the Scout should have patience to try again
and again until her result is satisfactory. If she has learned to
prepare a few simple dishes well she should have courage to try
unfamiliar recipes which are found in any good cook book. If she is to
be ready to take responsibility when it is necessary, she should be able
to plan the meals in such a way that nothing is wasted and that the
family is satisfied and well-nourished.

When working in the kitchen the Scout should wear a clean, washable
dress, or a washable apron which covers her dress. She should be sure
that her hair is tidy, and she should remember to wash her hands before
beginning work. She should try to use as few dishes as possible and not
to spill or spatter. She should remember that her cooking is not
finished until she has cleaned up after herself, has washed and put away
the dishes, washed the dish towels and left the kitchen in order.

WHAT TO HAVE FOR BREAKFAST--Breakfast is in most families the simplest
meal of the day and the easiest to prepare. Some people are satisfied
with fruit, cereal, toast or muffins, coffee for the adults, and milk
for the children. Many families, however, like the addition of a
heartier dish, such as boiled or poached eggs, fish hash, or minced meat
on toast. If a hearty dish is served at breakfast this is a good time to
use up such left-overs as potato, fish, or meat.

          SIMPLE BREAKFAST
            Apple sauce or sliced peaches.
            Oatmeal or cornmeal mush.
            Toast or muffins.
            Coffee (for adults).
            Milk (for children).

          HEARTY BREAKFAST
            Apple sauce or sliced peaches.
            Oatmeal or cornmeal mush.
            Toast or muffins.
            Coffee (for adults).
            Milk (for children).
            Poached eggs or minced lamb on toast.

FRUIT--Raw fruit should be carefully washed and prepared in such a way
that it can be easily eaten. Berries may be cooked with no other
preparation than washing. Fruits, such as apples and pears, should be
washed, pared, quartered, and cored before cooking. Any fruit which
becomes dark on standing after it is cut may be kept light colored by
dropping the pieces into a pan of water until they are ready to be
cooked. If this is done most of the water should be drained off before
they are cooked.

Dried fruits, such as prunes, which have a wrinkled skin should be
soaked for a short time in cold water before they are washed. Otherwise
it is impossible to get them clean. After washing they should be covered
with cold water and soaked over night, or until they are plump. They
should be put on to cook in the water in which they are soaked and
cooked until tender. Sugar should then be added if they are not sweet
enough.

The most common method of cooking fresh fruit is to boil it gently with
just enough water to prevent it from burning. Sugar should be added just
before the cooking is finished, the amount depending on the acidity of
the fruit and the taste of the family.

In sampling food, the cook should remember that the rest of the food is
to be eaten by other people. She should never taste from the cooking
spoon, but should transfer her sample to a tasting spoon which is not
returned to the kettle.

CEREAL--Cereals, such as oatmeal, cornmeal, and cracked wheat, should be
cooked in a double boiler. A double boiler can be improvised by setting
a pail or pan into a kettle of boiling water. Cereals for breakfast may
be cooked the day before and reheated in the double boiler, but should
not be stirred while reheating. A tablespoonful or two of cold water on
top will prevent a hard skin from forming while standing. All prepared
cereals are better if cooked for a longer time than the package
directions indicate. It is hardly possible to cook any grain too long.
The fireless cooker is especially valuable for cooking cereals, but a
longer period of time must be allowed than for cooking in a double
boiler. A home-made fireless cooker, described in another place, is
interesting to make. Ready-to-serve cereals are very expensive compared
with those cooked at home.

Cracked wheat, 1/4 cup to 1 cup water; 3-12 hours.

Rolled oats, 1/2 cup to 1 cup water; 1/2-3 hours

Cornmeal, 3 tablespoonfuls to 1 cup water; 1-4 hours.

Use 1/2 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water. Have the water
boiling rapidly. Add the cereal gradually. Let the mixture cook directly
over the fire 5 minutes. Place over boiling water or in the fireless
cooker to cook slowly for a long time. Keep covered and do not stir.
The time of cooking given in the table means that the cereal is eatable
after the shorter time mentioned, but is better if cooked the longer
time.

TOAST--Good toast is worth knowing how to make. The cook should not be
satisfied with toast which is either white or burned.

Toast is most easily made from stale bread, which should be cut in
one-third to one-half inch slices. A single slice of toast may be made
by holding it over the fire on a fork. In camp a forked stick answers
every purpose. The easiest way to make several slices is to put them in
a wire toaster and hold them over hot coals. Begin carefully and hold
the bread some distance away from the fire, turning it often until it
dries. Then hold it nearer the coals until it a golden brown on both
sides. With a new coal fire or wood fire toast must be made on a toaster
on the top of the stove to prevent the bread from being smoked. If the
top of the stove is being used for other things, the drying may be done
in the oven.

MUFFINS--Any good cook book has numerous recipes for muffins, most of
which, can be made easily if the directions are followed exactly.

Cornmeal Muffins (for four persons):

Four tablespoonfuls butter or oleomargarine, 3 tablespoonfuls sugar, 1
egg, 1 cup milk, 1-1/3 cups flour, 2/3 cup cornmeal, 3 teaspoonfuls
baking powder.

Cream the butter, add the sugar and the egg well beaten. Sift the baking
powder with the flour and cornmeal and add to the first mixture,
alternating with milk. Bake in buttered muffin pan 25 to 30 minutes.
This mixture makes good corn bread if baked in a shallow buttered pan.

COFFEE--If the family drink coffee, they will want coffee for breakfast
no matter what other items of the menu may be varied. It should be
served only to the grown-up members of the family. Coffee of average
strength is made as follows:

One-half cup coffee finely ground, 4 cups cold water, 2 eggshells.

Mix the coffee, the crushed eggshell, and 1/2 cupful of cold water in a
scalded coffee pot. Add the remainder of the water and allow the mixture
to come gradually to the boiling point. Boil 3 minutes. Draw to the back
of the range and keep hot for 5 minutes. Add 1/8 cupful of cold water
and let stand 1 minute to settle. Strain into a heated coffee pot in
which the coffee is to be served at the table.

A method for making coffee used by the guides in the White Mountains is
as follows:

Boil the water in an ordinary pail, remove the pail from the fire, pour
the dry coffee gently on the top of the water, cover tightly and move it
near the fire where it will keep warm but will not boil again. In about
thirty minutes the coffee will have become moistened and sunk to the
bottom of the pail. If the coffee is slow in becoming moist, time may be
saved by removing the cover for a moment and pressing gently with a
spoon on the top of the coffee, but the mixture must not be stirred. It
is essential that the water be boiling when the coffee is added, that
the cover be absolutely tight, and that the coffee be kept hot without
boiling. Half a cup of coffee to four cups of water makes coffee of
average strength.

MILK--The little children of the family should have whole milk at every
meal. The older children should have milk at breakfast and supper time.
There is no food so good for children who want to be well and strong. A
part of the family supply of milk is sometimes skimmed to give cream
for use in coffee and on desserts. The cream contains most of the fat in
the milk, but the skimmed milk which is left is still a very valuable
food, containing the substances which make muscle and bone, and every
bit of it should be used in the cooking or for making cottage cheese.
The waste of milk is the worst possible extravagance.

EGGS--Eggs may be prepared in countless ways, and the ambitious cook
will find much amusement in trying some of the suggestions in the cook
books. Eggs are an entirely satisfactory substitute for meat and fish,
and are therefore often served for the main dish at dinner or supper.
Many people like an egg every morning for breakfast, but this is a
rather extravagant habit. If eggs are served for breakfast they are
usually cooked in the shell, poached or scrambled. The men of the family
sometimes prefer their eggs fried, but this is not a good method for the
children. Only fresh eggs can be poached successfully, so that this is a
good test for freshness.

_Poached Eggs_--Oil the skillet and fill it to within a half inch of the
top with water. Break each egg into a saucer and let the water boil
after the egg is placed in it. The egg is done when the white is
jelly-like and a slight film is formed over the yolk. Remove the egg
with a griddle cake turner to a piece of buttered toast. Sprinkle
lightly with salt. If the eggs are not absolutely fresh, the white will
scatter in the water. If the first egg to be cooked shows this tendency
oiled muffin rings may be put in the pan to keep the rest of them in
shape.

_Soft Boiled Eggs_--A soft boiled egg has much the same consistency as a
poached egg. It is easier to manage because the shell is unbroken, but
it is harder to get it of just the right consistency because the
contents of the egg are invisible. Most people are very particular to
have the egg just hard or soft enough to suit them, and it is necessary
for the cook to practice to be sure of uniform results. Drop the eggs
carefully into a kettle of boiling water, draw the kettle back on the
stove so that the water does not boil again and (for a soft egg) allow
the eggs to remain for five minutes. If the eggs are very cold they
should remain longer.

USE OF LEFT-OVERS FOR BREAKFAST--If the family likes a hearty breakfast
this is a good meal at which to use bits of left-over meat which might
otherwise be wasted. Meat may be chopped or ground, reheated in the
gravy which was served with it, and served on toast. Lamb is especially
good minced on toast. To make hash mix equal quantities of meat and
chopped potato and brown nicely in a greased frying pan. Such mixtures
should be tasted to make sure that they are salted enough. Some people
like a very small amount of onion with any of these made-over meat
dishes.


DINNER

WHAT TO HAVE FOR DINNER--If all the members of the family are at home at
noontime it is usually more convenient to have dinner then, but if
members of the family are away or hurried at noontime it may be better
to have dinner at night. Dinner may consist of several courses, but if
the mother or the daughter of the family prepares the meal, the family
is usually perfectly satisfied with two courses.

The main course of a simple family dinner consists of meat, fish, eggs
or a cheese dish served with potato, rice or macaroni, and a vegetable
such as string beans, green peas, carrots, cabbage, tomatoes or corn. If
the family likes salad, the vegetables are often served as a salad. This
is a very good way to use up small amounts of vegetables which are left
from the day before. Often little remainders of two or more vegetables
may be very attractively combined in this way.

Some families like hot bread at dinner, and hot breads, such as baking
powder biscuit (described under supper), or corn bread (described under
breakfast), are particularly good with some combinations. Examples are
baking powder biscuit with meat stew or fricasseed chicken and corn
bread with bacon and eggs or ham. If fish is served in a chowder,
buttered and toasted crackers are usually served. An occasional chowder
for dinner is an excellent way to use up any surplus of skimmed milk
which may be on hand.

The kind of dessert served at dinner, besides depending on the taste of
the family, depends on the amount of money which is spent for food and
whether there are young children in the family. Pie and ice cream, which
are favorite desserts in many families, are expensive. Little children
should not have desserts which contain a good deal of fat, such as pie
or doughnuts, or which are the least bit soggy, as some steamed puddings
are inclined to be. The most economical desserts and those best suited
to the children are baked puddings made with milk and cereal, such as
Indian pudding, rice pudding, and those made with cereal and fruit, such
as Apple Betty or peach tapioca. If there is skimmed milk on hand the
possibility of using it in a milk pudding should be considered.
Chocolate bread pudding and Apple Betty made a very attractive use of
left-over bread. Dessert should always be chosen with reference to the
heartiness of the first course. A main dish which is not very filling
can be balanced by a more substantial dessert.

SIMPLE DINNERS:

  1. Hamburg steak.
     Baked potato.
     Squash or baked tomatoes.
     Apple Betty.

  2. Roast chicken or roast lamb with dressing and currant jelly.
     Mashed potato and gravy.
     Peas or string beans.
    Orange jelly and whipped cream.

MEAT--The best way to learn about cuts of meat is to go often to market
and talk to the butcher whenever he has a minute to spare. Some cuts of
meat are tough with coarse fibers and much connective tissue. They
should be ground if, like Hamburg steak, they are to be cooked by a
short process, such as broiling. If not ground, the tougher meats are
usually cooked a long time with water and made into a stew, a pot roast,
a meat pie, or a meat loaf. These cuts are cheaper, but require more
care in preparation than the more expensive cuts. Examples are the
bottom of the round, the shin, and the flank of beef. The more expensive
cuts, such as the top of the round, tenderloin and sirloin, are more
tender, more delicately flavored, and are used for broiling and
roasting. Some cuts which seem inexpensive really cost more than they
appear to because they contain large amounts of bone or waste fat. The
difference between lamb and mutton is a question of the age at which the
animal was slaughtered. Lamb is much more tender than mutton, is more
delicately flavored and more expensive. There is a similar difference
between chicken and fowl. Fowl is much tougher than chicken and requires
careful and long cooking to make it tender.

_Pan Broiled Hamburg Steak_--Hamburg steak may be bought already ground
at the butcher's, or one of the cheap cuts of beef, such as bottom of
the round or shin, may be bought and ground at home. Many people like a
little salt pork or onion ground with the meat.

Make the meat into small, flat cakes and cook in a smoking hot frying
pan which has been thoroughly rubbed over with a piece of fat. When one
side is seared over nicely turn the cakes (a griddle cake turner or
spatula is helpful) and broil on the other side. Place on a hot platter,
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot with bits of butter and garnish with
a little parsley or watercress.

A rump or sirloin steak may be broiled in a hot frying pan in a similar
way. Wipe and trim the steak, place in a smoking hot frying pan and sear
both sides. Reduce the heat and turn the steak occasionally (about every
2 minutes) until it is cooked, allowing 8 minutes for a rare steak, 10
minutes for medium cooked steak, and 12 minutes for well done steak, for
a steak 1 inch thick. Avoid puncturing the meat with a fork while
cooking.

Many people prefer to broil a steak on a broiler. This is practical with
gas or electricity or over a wood or coal fire which is reduced to clear
coals without smoke or flame. It is very difficult indeed to cook
Hamburg steak on a broiler.

Lamb chops may be broiled in either way.

_Roast Leg of Lamb_--Wash the leg of lamb, place it on the rack in a
roasting pan and put in a hot oven with the roaster uncovered. When the
roast is well seared (15 to 30 minutes), draw from the oven, sprinkle
with salt, pour a little water into the pan, and put on the cover.
Finish cooking at a lowered temperature, allowing 20 or 25 minutes for
each pound.

A dripping pan may be used in place of a roaster, using a pan of similar
size for a cover. A rack may be improvised from a broiler, a toaster or
a cake rack.

Beef is roasted in the same way, but is usually cooked for a shorter
time (15 to 20 minutes for each pound).

BEEF STEW (for four):

          2-1/2 pounds beef shoulder or shin.
          2 cups diced potato.
          1/3 cup turnip cut in half inch cubes.
          1/3 cup carrot cut in half inch cubes.
          1/4 onion chopped.
          2 tablespoons flour.
          Salt and pepper.

Wash the meat, remove from the bone and fat and cut in 1-1/2 inch cubes.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper and dredge with flour. Sear the pieces of
meat in the frying pan in the fat cooked out from the trimmings of fat.
Put the meat in a kettle, and rinse the frying pan with boiling water,
so that none of the juices will be lost. Add the bone, cover with
boiling water and boil five minutes. Lower the temperature and cook
until the meat is tender (about three hours). Add the carrots, turnips,
onions, pepper and salt in an hour, and the potato in 15 minutes before
the steak is to be served. Remove the bone and any large pieces of fat.
Stir two tablespoons of flour to a smooth paste with a little water and
thicken the stew.

Such a stew may also be made with lamb, mutton, or veal, using other
vegetables as desired. Celery and onion are better than turnip and
carrot with veal.

CHICKEN--If a chicken is purchased at the market it is usually delivered
dressed. This means that the head has been cut off, the entrails
removed, and the coarser pinfeathers pulled out. Many times, however, it
is necessary to know how to do this oneself.

_To Dress and Clean a Chicken_--Cut off the head and draw out the
pinfeathers. Remove hair and down by holding the fowl over a flame (a
gas flame, an alcohol flame, or a piece of paper flaming in the wood or
coal range), constantly changing the position until all parts of the
surface have been exposed to the flame. Cut off the feet. Wash the fowl
thoroughly, using a small brush, in water to which a little soda has
been added. Rinse and dry. Make a slit down the back of the neck. Remove
the crop and windpipe. Draw down the neck skin long enough to fasten
under the back. Make a straight cut from 1/2 inch below the tip of the
breastbone to the vent. Cut around the vent. Slip fingers in carefully
around and fully loosen the entrails. Carefully draw out the entrails.
The lungs, lying in the cavities under the breast, and the kidneys, in
the hollow near the end of the backbone, must be taken out separately.
Remove the oil sack and wash the chicken by allowing cold water to run
through it.

To clean giblets (the gizzard, the heart, and the liver) proceed as
follows: Separate the gall bladder from the liver, cutting off any
portion of the liver that may have a greenish tinge. Remove the thin
membrane, the arteries, the veins and the clotted blood around the
heart. Cut the fat and the membranes from the gizzard. Make a gash
through the thickest part of the gizzard as far as the inner lining,
being careful not to pierce it. Remove the inner sack and discard. Wash
the gizzard carefully and boil in water to use for giblet sauce.

If the chicken comes from the market dressed it should be washed
carefully and any pinfeathers removed which were overlooked by the
market man.

_To Stuff, Truss and Roast a Chicken_--When the chicken is clean and
prepared as directed, fill it with stuffing (described later), a little
in the opening at the neck, the rest in the body cavity. Sew up the
opening with a few long stitches. Draw the skin of the neck smoothly
down and under the back, press the wings close against the body and
fold the pinions under, so that they will cross the back and hold down
the skin of the neck. Press the legs close to the body. Thread the
trussing needle with white twine, using it double. Press the needle
through the wing at the middle joint, pass it through the skin of the
neck and back, and out again at the middle joint of the other wing.
Return the needle through the bend of the leg at the second joint,
through the body, and out at the same point on the other side; draw the
cord tight and tie it with the end at the wing joint. Thread the needle
again and run it through the legs and body at the thigh bone and back at
the ends of the drumsticks. Draw the drumstick bones close together,
covering the opening made for drawing the chicken and tie the ends. Have
both knots on the same side of the chicken. When cooked, cut the cord on
the opposite side and draw out by the knots.

Lay the stuffed and trussed chicken on its back on a rack in a roasting
pan. Lay a strip of salt pork on breast. Place in a hot oven until the
chicken begins to brown, then lower the temperature and cook the chicken
until very tender. Baste often with the drippings in the pan. From 3 to
4 hours will be required for a five-pound chicken. If a fowl is used it
should be steamed for 3 or 4 hours and then roasted for 1/2 hour.

_Stuffing_--For a large chicken mix thoroughly 4 cups of finely broken
stale bread, 1-1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/8 teaspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon
of poultry dressing and 4 tablespoons of fat. Pour over the mixture hot
milk or water, stirring lightly until the mixture is moist.

_Giblet Gravy_--If the chicken was properly roasted the drippings in the
pan should be nicely browned, but not burned. Make a gravy from these
drippings and the water in which the giblets were boiled. To do this
pour the water into the pan, set the pan over the fire and stir until
the contents of the pan are dissolved. Thicken with a smooth paste of
flour and water, using two tablespoons of flour for every cup of liquid.
Boil until the flour tastes cooked. Strain. Add the giblets cut in small
pieces.

VEGETABLES--All vegetables should be clean, crisp and firm when ready
for cooking. Vegetables are prepared and cooked in a variety of ways,
but almost all vegetables should be carefully washed as the first
process. It is convenient to keep a small brush for washing the
vegetables, like potatoes, sweet potatoes, and beets, which must be
scrubbed to get them clean. Vegetables which are to be eaten raw, such
as lettuce and celery, should be washed with special care, wrapped in a
clean, wet cloth and put in the ice box to keep them crisp.

_Baked Potato_--Select smooth potatoes of even size. Scrub them
carefully and bake them in a hot oven. The time required is from 45 to
60 minutes, depending on the size of the potatoes and the temperature of
the oven. When the potatoes are done, slash each one with a knife to let
the steam escape, and serve immediately.

_Mashed Potato_--Wash the potatoes, pare, cover with boiling salted
water (1 level teaspoon of salt to a pint of water), and cook until
tender (30 to 45 minutes). Drain off the water and return to the fire a
moment to dry. Mash the potatoes, add butter, salt, pepper and hot milk,
and beat vigorously until light and creamy. For three cups of potato use
2 tablespoons of butter and 4 tablespoons of hot milk. Pile lightly in a
hot dish and serve immediately.

_Steamed Squash_--Wash and cut in one-inch slices. Steam until tender,
scrape from the shell, mash thoroughly, season with salt, pepper and
butter, and serve.

_String Beans_--Snap the ends from the beans, remove any strings, cut
into short pieces, wash, cover with boiling salted water (1 level
teaspoon to a pint) and cook until tender. The time required will vary
from one hour to three hours, depending on the age and kind of bean.
Drain the beans, season with salt and butter, and serve.

Canned string beans should be rinsed, reheated in as little water as
possible, drained, and seasoned.

_Baked Tomatoes_--Select smooth tomatoes of even size. Wash the
tomatoes, cut a thin slice from the stem end and remove a spoonful of
pulp. Sprinkle with salt, pepper and scraped onion, fill the cavity with
buttered crumbs, place in a pan (preferably one which can be used as a
serving dish at the table), and bake in a moderate oven until the
tomatoes are tender. Serve in the dish in which they were cooked or
remove them carefully to the platter on which the Hamburg steak is being
served, arranging them in a ring around the meat.

The buttered crumbs are prepared by melting a tablespoon of butter or
oleomargarine and stirring in six tablespoonfuls of dry bread crumbs.

DESSERTS--Most desserts are easy to make if the directions given in the
cook books are followed exactly. Many people take pride in making
delicious cake or pie, who are careless about making good toast or
baking a potato well.

_Apple Betty_--Prepare well-sweetened apple sauce and thin slices of
lightly buttered bread cut in small triangles. Fill a shallow baking
dish with alternate layers of apple sauce and toast, beginning with
apple sauce and ending with toast. Sprinkle lightly with sugar and
cinnamon and heat in the oven. Serve with cream.

_Orange Jelly_--Swell 1-1/2 tablespoons of powdered gelatin in half
cupful of cold water. Mix 1 cupful of orange juice, 1/4 cupful of lemon
juice, 1/2 cupful of sugar and 1-1/4 cupfuls of boiling water. Add the
gelatin and stir carefully until it is dissolved. Strain into a wet
mould and chill until the jelly is firm. Unmould the jelly and serve
with whipped cream or a custard sauce. To unmould the jelly, run the
point of a knife around the edge of the mould, dip the mould quickly in
warm water, place an inverted serving plate on top of the mould, turn
both over and lift the mould carefully.


SUPPER OR LUNCH

WHAT TO HAVE FOR SUPPER.--Supper shows more variation between families
than other meals of the day. Some men insist upon meat, even though meat
is served for their dinner, but this is rather extravagant unless there
is left-over meat which should be used. Hash and minced lamb on toast,
which were suggested for the hearty breakfast, would be equally well
liked by most families for supper. Many families prefer for supper some
milk dish such as macaroni and cheese or a cream soup served with either
stewed or fresh fruit or followed by a fruit or vegetable salad. Hot
rolls or baking powder biscuits are a very attractive substitute for
plain bread if someone has time to make them at the last minute. If the
mother and daughter do all the work of the family, they usually like to
have on hand cookies or cake, which can be used for supper rather than
to have to prepare some special dessert. Cold meat has the advantage
that it is ready to serve with little preparation, but many other dishes
such as the macaroni and cheese and the creamed soup, suggested in the
menus, may be made when dinner is being prepared and simply reheated
for supper.

A hot drink at night usually seems desirable except on hot days in the
summer. If tea is served for adults, the children should have cocoa or
milk.

If dinner is served at night, luncheon is served in the middle of the
day. The suggestions made in regard to supper apply equally well to
luncheon.

Little children should have their hearty meal in the middle of the day
and a light meal at night no matter what arrangement of meals the rest
of the family may have.


SIMPLE SUPPERS

          1. Macaroni and cheese or cold meat
             Stewed or fresh fruit
             Cookies
             Bread and butter
             Tea (for adults)
             Milk or cocoa (for children)

          2. Cream of potato soup
             Vegetable or fruit salad
             Baking powder biscuit
             Tea (for adults)
             Milk or cocoa (for children).

_Macaroni and Cheese._--For macaroni and cheese the macaroni must be
cooked and white sauce prepared. Break three-quarters of a cup of
macaroni in inch pieces and cook in two quarts of boiling water to which
a tablespoon of salt has been added. The water must be boiling rapidly
when the macaroni is added and must be kept boiling constantly. When the
macaroni is tender, drain it in a strainer and run enough cold water
through it to prevent the pieces from sticking together. To prepare the
sauce, melt two tablespoons of butter or oleomargarine in the top of a
double boiler, stir in two tablespoons of flour and a half teaspoon of
salt and pour over the mixture a cup and a half of cold milk. Cook this
mixture directly over the heat, stirring constantly until it begins to
thicken. Then place the dish over the lower part of the double boiler,
containing boiling water, and let it continue cooking for fifteen
minutes. Put a layer of the boiled macaroni in a buttered baking dish
and sprinkle with cheese, either grated or cut into small pieces. Pour
on a layer of the sauce. Follow this by layers of macaroni, cheese and
sauce until the dish is full. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until
the crumbs are brown. To make the buttered crumbs, melt one tablespoon
of butter or oleomargarine and stir in six tablespoons of crumbs.

The macaroni and cheese may be prepared in the morning if desired and
baked at supper time in a moderate oven. It should be left in the oven
long enough to become thoroughly hot. If there are little children in
the family a dish of creamed macaroni should be made for them without
the cheese.

_Cream of Potato Soup_--

          3 potatoes
          1 quart milk
          2 slices of onion
          3 tablespoons flour
          1-1/2 teaspoons salt
          1/4 teaspoon celery salt
          1/8 teaspoon pepper
          2 tbsp. butter or oleomargarine

Cook the potatoes in boiling salted water. When soft rub through a
sieve. Scald the milk with the onion in a double boiler, remove the
onion, unless the family likes it left in, add the salt, celery salt and
pepper. Melt the butter in a small sauce pan, stir the flour into it and
then add this mixture to the hot milk, stirring briskly. Cook for ten
minutes over boiling water in the double boiler.

A good creamed soup may be made from almost any vegetable, substituting
vegetable pulp for the potato. Celery soup and corn soup are very good.
With these and most other vegetables, the celery salt should be
omitted. Onion salt is very useful.

Creamed soups are very good made from skimmed milk if there is a supply
in the house which should be used.

SALAD--The pleasure in a salad is in its crispness, attractiveness or
arrangement, and pleasant combination of flavors. A salad may be
arranged in a large dish and served at the table if it is the chief dish
of the meal, such as chicken salad or fish salad, but it is usually
arranged in individual portions and made to look as dainty and pretty as
possible. All fresh vegetables and fruits used should be crisp and cold
and thoroughly washed. Canned or leftover vegetables or fruit may often
be used.

_To wash lettuce._--Handle delicately. Remove leaf by leaf from the
stalk, examining for insects. Pass the leaves backwards and forwards
through clean water until all sand is removed. Fold in a wet cloth and
keep in the ice-box until it is used. The lettuce leaves should be dried
when they are used.

_French Dressing._--Mix 3/4 teaspoon of sugar, 1 teaspoon of salt and
1/2 teaspoon of paprika. Add oil and vinegar alternately, beating
constantly with a fork until 5 tablespoons of vinegar and 10 tablespoons
of oil have been used. A quick way to make French dressing is to mix all
the ingredients in a bottle with a tightly fitting stopper and shake
vigorously until the ingredients are blended. Some persons prefer less
vinegar, and reduce the amount to 2-1/2 tablespoons vinegar to 10 of
oil.

_Cooked Salad Dressing._--

          3/4 tablespoon sugar
          1/4 tablespoon butter
          1 egg yolk
          1/4 cup vinegar
          1/4 tablespoon flour
          1/8 teaspoon mustard
          1/4 teaspoon salt
          Dash of red pepper.

Heat the vinegar in the upper part of double boiler over direct heat.
Sift the flour, mustard, salt and pepper thoroughly. Pour the boiling
vinegar gradually upon the mixture, stirring constantly. Return to the
upper part of the double boiler and cook over hot water until the
mixture thickens, stirring constantly. Add the butter and remove from
the fire. Chill before using.

_Mayonnaise._--

  1 egg yolk
  2 tablespoons lemon juice or 2 tablespoons vinegar
  1/2 teaspoon mustard
  2/3 teaspoon salt
  Dash of cayenne pepper
  2/3 cup of oil (olive oil, cotton seed oil or other edible oil).

Have the ingredients chilled, Place the mixing bowl in crushed ice. Mix
the egg yolk, mustard, salt and cayenne pepper. Add a few drops of
vinegar or lemon juice, then a teaspoon of oil, drop by drop, until all
the ingredients are used. Constant beating is necessary throughout.

_Fruit and Vegetable Salads._--Good combinations for salad are (1)
potato and beet, (2) carrot and green peas, (3) tomato and celery, (4)
asparagus and pimento. Combinations of fruit and vegetables are, (1)
apple and celery, (2) orange and green pepper. Combinations of different
kinds of fruit and nuts or cheese are especially good. Examples are, (1)
pineapple and orange, (2) white cherries stuffed with nuts, (3) banana
rolled in chopped nuts or (4) half pears (cooked or raw) with a ball of
cream cheese and chopped nuts in the cavity made by the removal of the
core.

Magazines which devote a page to cooking usually have in their summer
numbers pictures of salads from which suggestions in regard to
arrangement may be taken.

_Baking Powder Biscuit._--

          2 cups flour
          4 teaspoons baking powder
          1 teaspoon salt
          3 tablespoons shortening
          3/4 to 1 cup milk or milk and water.

Sift the flour, baking powder and salt, twice. Put in the shortening,
then add the milk gradually, mixing with a knife. The dough should be as
soft as can be handled without sticking. Turn onto a lightly floured
board, roll lightly 3/4 inch thick and cut with a floured cutter. Bake
in a hot oven 12 or 15 minutes.

_Tea._--People who like tea have very decided ideas about how strong is
should be and how long it should be steeped. The following gives tea of
moderate strength.

Scald the teapot and put in 4 teaspoonfuls of tea leaves. Pour over them
four cups of boiling water, cover and steep 3 minutes. Strain into a
teapot and serve at once.

_Cocoa._--The children of the family should never have tea. On a cold
night cocoa is a very pleasant variant from the usual glass of milk.

Mix 4 tablespoons of cocoa with 3 tablespoons of sugar and a little
salt. Add 1 cup of boiling water and cook until the mixture is smooth
and glossy. Add a quart of milk and heat to boiling. This may be done
more safely in a double boiler. Just before serving beat with an egg
beater.


General Suggestions

If the Girl Scout who is preparing for her examination will look back
over the menus which have been suggested, she will notice that milk is
emphasized. It is absolutely essential that the children in the family
shall have milk. If the family do not like milk to drink, it should be
remembered that every bit which is used in cooking serves the same
purpose as if it were taken from a glass, but little children do not
ordinarily get enough milk unless they drink some. Fruit should be
served at least once a day and better twice, and some vegetable other
than potato should be not only served but eaten by the family. Children
who are not taught to like vegetables when they are little sometimes
never learn to like them, and it is really important to eat vegetables,
not only because they contain important substances for growth, but
because it is only good manners to learn to like all the ordinary foods
which are served. Anyone who has cooked knows how discouraging it is to
feel that some member of the family does not like the food. There is a
temptation in the city where fruit, vegetables and milk are high, to use
too much meat and but little of these foods. It has been suggested
recently that in forming an idea as to whether the money is being spent
to the most advantage, the money spent for fruit and vegetables, for
milk and cheese, and for meat and fish should be compared. In a
well-balanced diet these amounts should be nearly equal. An increasing
number of people are becoming lacto-vegetarians, which means that they
eat no meat or fish, but balance their absence by using more milk, eggs
and cheese.

Before starting to prepare a meal the Scout should not only have her
menu in mind, but should have an idea how long it will take to prepare
each dish so that everything will be ready to serve at the same time
with all the hot dishes very hot and all the cold dishes very cold. If
all the dishes of the meal require about the same length of time in
their preparation the ones should be started first which can be most
easily kept in good condition.

Enjoyment of a meal depends quite as much on neat and comfortable
service as it does upon good food. The table cloth, napkins, dishes and
silver should be clean and the dishes should be arranged so that there
is as little danger as possible of accident. This is the reason, for
example, for the rule that a spoon should never be left in a coffee or
tea cup. This arrangement is usually more comfortable if nothing is
placed on the table which is not going to be actually used at the meal,
except that a few flowers or a little dish of ferns in the center of the
table is very much liked by most people, if there is room for it. It
often happens that the family see more of each other at meal times than
at any other time in the day and everyone should try to make meal time a
pleasant, restful, good-humored time.


HOUSEHOLD WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The careful housewife soon becomes skilled in weighing and measuring the
various goods she buys and uses. At the store she is on guard against
short measures, and if she does not market in person, she has machines
at home to test what is delivered. The following table is given for
frequent reference use by the Girl Scout while earning her badges in
Homecraft. She will also find it useful in learning to judge weights and
distances for her First Class test.

TABLE OF HOUSEHOLD WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

(_Reprinted by permission of publisher from "Housewifery," by L. Ray
Balderston, M. A._ J. B. Lippincott, 1919)

_Linear Measure:_

          12 inches        = l foot
          3 feet           = 1 yard
          5-1/2 yards      = 1 rod
          320 rods         = 1 mile
          1760 yards       = 1 mile
          5280 feet        = 1 mile

          _Square Measure:_

            144 square inches     =  1 square foot
              9 square feet       =  1 square yard
             30-1/4 square yards  =  1 square rod
            160 square rods       =  1 acre
              1 square mile       =  1 section
             36 square miles      =  1 township

          _Avoirdupois Weight:_

             27.3 grains          =  1 dram
             16 drams             =  1 ounce (oz.)
             16 ounces            =  1 pound (lb.)
            100 pounds            =  1 cwt. (hundredweight)
          2,000 pounds            =  1 ton

          _Liquid Measure:_

              4 gills             =  1 pint
              2 pints             =  1 quart
              4 quarts            =  1 gallon
             31-1/2 gallons       =  1 bbl.

          _Dry Measure:_

              2 pints             =  1 quart
              8 quarts            =  1 peck
              4 pecks             =  1 bushel
            105 dry quarts        =  1 bbl. (fruit, vegetables, etc.)

          _Miscellaneous Household Measures:_

              4 saltspoonfuls     =  1 teaspoonful
              3 teaspoonfuls      =  1 tablespoonful
             16 tablespoonfuls    =  1 cupful
              2 gills             =  1 cupful
              2 cupfuls           =  1 pint
              1 cupful            =  8 fluid ounces
             32 tablespoonfuls    =  1 lb. butter
              2 cups of butter    =  1 lb.
              1 lb. butter        = 40 butter balls
              4 cups flour        =  1 lb.
                   2 cups sugar   =  1 lb.
                   5 cups coffee  =  1 lb.
          1 lb. coffee = 40 cups of liquid coffee
          1-7/8 cups rice = 1 lb.
          2-2/3 cups oatmeal = 1 lb.
          2-2/3 cups cornmeal = 1 lb.
          1 cup of liquid to 3 cups of flour = a dough
          1 cup of liquid to 2 cups of flour = a thick batter
          1 cup of liquid to 1 cup of flour = a thin batter
          1 teaspoonful soda to 1 pint sour milk
          1 teaspoonful soda to one cup of molasses
          1 teaspoonful cream of tartar plus 1/2 teaspoonful
          soda = 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder


2. THE CHILD NURSE

There always are and always will be children to be taken care of. There
is no way in which a girl can help her country better than by fitting
herself to undertake the care of children. A Girl Scout thinks for
herself, and knowing the Health Laws, she knows the important things to
consider in caring for children:

          1. The care necessary for the child's bones.
          2. When it should exercise its muscles.
          3. Its rest.
          4. The air, sun and food and water which it needs.
          5. How to keep it clean.

_Bones_--Great care must be taken in handling a baby. Its bones are soft
and easily injured, and for this reason a baby should not be handled
more than necessary. When very young its entire spine should be
supported, and no undue pressure made upon the chest, as often happens
if the baby is grasped under the arms. In lifting a young baby from its
bed, the right hand should grasp the clothing below the feet, and the
left hand should be slipped beneath the infant's body to its head. It is
then raised upon the left arm. An older child should be lifted by
placing the hands under the child's arms, and never by the wrists. If
children are jerked or lifted by the arms, serious injury may be done to
the bones. The bones, when a child is growing, are partly composed of
soft tissue which is easily destroyed, and further growth is prevented.
Many children are brought to the hospitals with injuries done to their
arms from being jerked across the street. Do not let a child walk too
soon, especially a heavy child. Bow legs and knock knees come from
standing and walking when the bones are soft.

_Exercise_--At least twice a day an infant should be allowed for fifteen
or twenty minutes the free use of its limbs by permitting it to lie upon
a bed in a warm room, with all clothing except the shirt and diaper
removed. In cold weather leave on the stockings. Later, when in short
clothes, the baby may be put upon a thick blanket or quilt, laid upon
the floor, and be allowed to tumble at will.

_Rest_--Healthy children never sleep too much. A new born baby should
sleep nine-tenths of the day. A child should have a nap during the day
until four years old, and, if possible, until seven or eight years old.
It should go to bed before six. It should have a crib or bed to itself,
placed where it will have fresh air, but protected from draughts, and
its eyes protected from direct rays of light.

_Air and Sun_--A little child is in its room so much it is very
important that fresh air and sunlight should be brought to it there.
Rooms may be well aired twice or three times a day, removing the baby to
another room while the windows are open. The child may be placed in its
crib or carriage before on open window, dressed as if for the street.
After children are three months old they may be taken out, but the sunny
part of the day should be chosen, between 10 a. m. and 3 p. m. in cold
weather. At night the windows should be partly opened, but care should
be taken that the infant does not become chilled. Be careful that sheet
and blankets do not get over a baby's head. The clothes may be pinned to
the side of the bed.

_Food and Water_--Even little babies should be given water twice a day.
The water should be boiled, cooled and kept covered. It is hardly
possible for children or older persons to drink too much water. During
hot weather a child needs more water than during cold weather.

Mother's milk is the only perfect food for an infant during the first
nine or ten months. If it is necessary to give artificial food from a
bottle, the greatest possible care must be taken. The milk used should
be the best obtainable. To obtain clean milk it is necessary that
everything that touches it be clean, sterilized when possible, and that
the cows, and men who handle the milk be healthy. In New York City all
milk is classified according to its cleanliness and butter fat content.
The cleanest and richest milk is called "certified milk" and is sold
raw. The other milks are classified according to cleanliness. Grade A, B
and C are all pasteurized. Only certified and Grade A should be used for
infant feeding. You know that sterile means free from germs or bacteria.
Milk or water may be made comparatively sterile by boiling. Pasteurized
milk is milk which has been heated to 155° Fahrenheit, kept at that
temperature for thirty minutes and cooled quickly by placing the bottles
in cold running water.

Punctual feeding makes good digestion, and even if the baby takes an
extra nap it is better to wake a healthy baby to give him his meals at
regular hours than to let his digestion get out of order. Between meals
a little water which has been boiled and cooled and kept covered will
wash out its mouth as well as refresh the child. The average infant is
fed every three hours until it is five months old. After that it is fed
every four hours until it is fifteen or sixteen months old, when it is
shifted to three meals a day with perhaps a cup of milk in long
intervals. Solid food, such as zwieback and milk or cereal, is begun at
seven months, and by thirteen or fourteen months the child will be
eating cereal, bread, broth, beef juice, potato, rice, vegetables, etc.
Candy is harmful for children, and even older children should eat candy
only after meals. Raw fruit, except orange juice, is apt to be upsetting
in summer.

Keep the baby and everything around him clean. The baby's food is the
most important thing to keep clean. The cleanliness of the bottle, when
it is necessary to feed the baby from one, is very important. Choose a
bottle of fairly heavy glass with rounded bottom and wide mouth, so that
it may be easily cleaned. Short rubber nipples which clip over the neck
of the bottle and which can be easily turned inside out, should be
selected, and discarded when they become soft, or when the openings
become large enough for the milk to run in a stream instead of drop by
drop. Remove the bottle from the baby's mouth as soon as empty, rinse at
once in cold water and then fill with a solution of bicarbonate of soda
(baking soda), about one teaspoonful to a pint of water. Before rinsing
wash in hot soapsuds, using a bottle brush, rinse well in plain water,
and boil for twenty minutes, placing a clean cloth in the bottom of the
basin to protect the bottle from breaking. Before using new nipples
they should be scrubbed inside and out and boiled for at least five
minutes. After using they should be carefully rinsed in cold water and
kept in a covered glass containing a solution of boric acid (one
teaspoonful dissolved in a pint of boiling water), and at least once a
day be turned inside out and thoroughly washed with soap and water, then
rinsed. Nipples should be boiled twice a week.

_Bath_--A baby should have a bath every day, not sooner than one hour
after feeding. The room should be warm; if possible there should be an
open fire in the room. The temperature of the water for a baby up to six
months old should be 98°. Then it should gradually decrease, next
temperature being 95°, until at the age of two it should range between
85° to 90°. Before a baby is undressed the person who is bathing the
baby must be sure that everything needed for the bath and dressing is at
hand. The hand basin or small tub of warm water, a pitcher of hot water
in case it is needed, castile or ivory soap, soft wash cloths, towels,
brush, powder, fresh absorbent cotton, boric acid solution, and the
baby's clothes laid out in the order in which they will be needed in
dressing the child, the soft flannel bandage, the diapers, the shirt,
flannel petticoat, dress and shawl.

For some people it is easier to handle a baby when laid on a bed or
table than on one's lap, having under the child a soft bath towel or
canton flannel large enough to be wrapped around it. Its nose may be
cleaned with a bit of absorbent cotton rolled to a point, using a fresh
piece for each nostril. To bathe the eyes use fresh pieces of absorbent
cotton dipped in boric acid solution. Wash the baby's face carefully so
that the water does not drip into its ears. Dry the face carefully. Wash
the head gently and thoroughly with soap, being careful to rinse
completely. Soap the baby's body before putting it into the bath. As a
soapy little baby is difficult to hold, support him firmly all the time
he is kicking and splashing, by placing the arm or hand at the baby's
back between its shoulders. Wash particularly, under the arms, the
creases in the back of the neck, between the legs, fingers and toes. The
bath should be given quickly and the baby lifted out in the bath towel
or flannel, covered and dried quickly, using a soft towel. Rub the baby
very slightly. All the folds of the skin should be dried and well
powdered: under the arms, behind the ears, about the neck, legs, etc. Do
not put too much powder on, as it forms a paste. Dress the infant and
lay it on its crib while putting away all the things used for its bath.
It is perfectly proper for a baby to exercise its lungs by crying, so do
not be alarmed, but be sure that its clothing is comfortable and that
the child is clean. Garments worn at night should always be different
from those worn during the day. The garments next to the skin should be
of wool or part wool, except the diaper, which should be soft cotton,
and when new, washed several times before using. Wet diapers should be
rinsed in cold water and dried before using a second time; about every
twenty-four hours diapers should be washed, scalded, rinsed in cold
water and hung in the air to dry.

Daily Routine--Child Under Two Years of Age

6.00 A.M. Feed warm milk.

7.30 A.M. Seat on chair or hold over chamber not more than ten minutes.
If the child has no movement of the bowels at this time, try later.

9.00 A.M. Give bath, and immediately after, feed, then put to bed in a
well ventilated room, darkened, or out of doors in carriage or crib. Be
sure no strong light is in the child's eyes. Child should sleep until
one o'clock.

1.00 P.M. Take up, make comfortable, and feed.

2.00 P.M. Take child out of doors again, but do not stay after 3 P.M. in
winter time. Later in summer. Stormy days keep in house in crib or
carriage, well wrapped up in room with window open.

3 to 5 P.M. Hold child, or let it stay in crib and play or kick.

6.00 P.M. Undress, rub with soft, dry towel, put on nightclothes, feed
and put to bed in well ventilated room.

10.00 P.M. A young baby should be fed at this time, dried, and not fed
again until 6. A.M.

A baby needs to be kept quiet. Do not make loud noises near it. Do not
play with infant too much. Leave it to itself to grow. Keep the baby
clean, everything about it tidy. Do not give a child pointed toys or
playthings small enough to go into the infant's mouth. Tie toys to the
crib or carriage so that they do not fall on the floor.


Things to Remember

Emphasize "tidy as you go," sleep, water, bowel movements, exercise for
older children, especially in cold weather, nothing in mouth, do not use
pacifiers, tying toys to crib or carriage, a baby over two years of age
should not be fed oftener than every four hours.


Bowel Movements

At least once a day.

Should be medium soft, not loose, smooth, and when on milk diet, light
in color.

If child is constipated, give one teaspoonful of milk of magnesia clear,
at night.

See doctor if child is not well.


Feedings

Children from birth to five months should be fed every three hours.

Children over one and a half years old need three meals a day, dinner in
the middle of the day.

Little children need to be kept very quiet. No confusion or loud noises
around them. They will then grow better and stronger.


Colds

Never neglect a cold. Do not "pass it on" to a child by coughing,
sneezing, talking or breathing into its face. Do not kiss anyone when
you have a cold. Never allow the handkerchief used by a person with a
cold to touch a child. If you must handle a child when you have a cold,
wear a piece of gauze over your mouth and nose, and be sure to keep your
hands clean. Be very careful with the handkerchiefs used; see that no
one touches or uses them. It is preferable to use gauze or soft paper
for handkerchiefs and burn them. When a child has a cold put it to bed.
Keep quiet as long as there is any fever. Give a cathartic, such as
castor oil, as soon as cold appears. Reduce the child's diet and give
plenty of drinking water. Consult a doctor. Do not let the child go out
until thoroughly well.


3. THE FIRST AIDE IN ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES

General Rules

The sorrow and unhappiness of the world is increased enormously every
year by injury and loss from accidents, more than half of which might
be prevented if someone had not been careless, or if someone else had
taken a little trouble to correct the results of that carelessness
before they caused an accident.

It therefore becomes the plain duty of Girl Scouts not only to be
careful but to repair, if possible, the carelessness of others which may
result in accident.

Let us review briefly some of the many small things in our daily lives
which cause accidents, and therefore suffering and loss.

1. _Carelessness in the Street._ As, for example, taking chances in
getting across in front of a car or automobile; running from behind a
car without looking to see of some vehicle is coming from another
direction; catching a ride by hanging on to the rear end of cars or
wagons; getting off cars before they stop; getting on or off cars in the
wrong way; being too interested to watch for open manholes, cellarways,
sewers, etc.; reckless roller skating in the street, throwing things
like banana peels on the street or sidewalk where people are likely to
slip on them; teasing dogs, or trying to catch strange ones; many dogs
resent a stranger petting them and use their only means of
defense--biting. Other examples will occur to you of carelessness in the
streets which space does not allow us to mention here.

Wait until the car stops before trying to get off. In getting off cars
you should face in the direction in which the car is going. A simple
rule is to get off by holding a rod with the left hand and putting the
right foot down first. This brings you facing the front of the car and
prevents your being swept off your feet by the momentum of the car.

If you see any refuse in the street which is likely to cause an
accident, either remove it yourself or report it to the proper
authorities to have it removed at once.

2. _Carelessness at Home._ As for example, starting the fire with
kerosene; leaving gas jets burning where curtains of clothing may be
blown into the flame; leaving clothing or paper too near a fire;
throwing matches you thought had been put out into paper or other
material which will catch fire easily; leaving oily or greasy rags where
they will easily overheat or take fire spontaneously; leaving objects on
stairs and in hallways which will cause others to fall; leaving scalding
water where a child may fall into it or pull it down, spilling the
scalding water over himself; leaving rags or linoleum with upturned
edges for someone to fall over; and innumerable other careless things
which will occur to you.

3. _Disobedience_, playing with matches; building fires in improper
places; playing with guns; trying the "medicines" in the closet;
throwing stones; playing with the electric wires or lights; playing
around railroad tracks and bridges: We could multiply the accidents from
disobedience indefinitely. Remember, a caution given you not to do
something means there is danger in doing it, which may bring much sorrow
and suffering to yourself and others.

It is a very old saying that "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of
cure," but it is as true today as it was hundreds of years ago.


After the Accident

When the time for prevention is past, and the accident has happened,
then you want to know what is the best thing to do, and how best to do
it in order to give the most help and relief immediately, before expert
help can arrive, and to have the victim in the best condition possible
for the doctor when he comes, in order that he may not have to undo
whatever has been done before he can begin to give the patient relief
from his suffering.

1. Keep cool. The only way to do this effectually is to learn beforehand
what to do and how to do it. Then you are not frightened and can do
readily and with coolness whatever is necessary to be done.

2. Send at once for a doctor, if you have a messenger, in all except the
minor accidents. This book will help you learn to judge of whether a
doctor will be necessary. If in doubt send for a doctor anyway.

3. Prevent panic and keep the crowd, if there is one, at a distance. The
patient needs fresh air to breathe, and space around him.

4. Loosen the clothing, especially any band around the neck, tight
corsets or anything else that may interfere with breathing.

5. _Keep the patient flat on his back_ if the accident is at all
serious, with the head slightly down if his face is pale and he is
faint, or slightly raised if his face is flushed and he is breathing
heavily, as though snoring.

6. _If there is vomiting_, turn the head to one side in order that the
vomited material may easily run out of the mouth and not be drawn into
the windpipe and produce choking to add to the difficulties already
present.

7. _Remove clothing_, if necessary, gently and in such manner as to give
the patient the least amount of suffering. Move any injured part as
little as possible. At the same time, as a secondary consideration,
injure the clothing as little as possible. If, as often, it becomes
necessary to cut off the clothing, it may be possible to rip up a seam
quickly instead of cutting the cloth, but saving the clothing is always
secondary to the welfare of the patient. Little or no consideration
should be shown for clothing where it is necessary to keep the patient
motionless, or where quick action is needed.

8. _Transportation._ There are three methods for emergency
transportation of accident victims which can be used according to the
degree of the injury:

(a) _Fireman's Lift._ If it is necessary for one person to carry a
patient, it is easily possible to lift and carry quite a weight in the
following manner:

First, turn the patient on his face, then step astride his body, facing
toward his head, and, with hands under his armpits, lift him to his
knees, then clasp your hands over the patient's abdomen and lift him to
his feet; then draw his left arm around your neck and hold it against
the left side of your chest, the patient's left side resting against
your body, and supporting him with your right arm about the waist. Then
drop the patient's left hand and grasp his right wrist with your left
hand and draw the right arm over your head and down upon your left
chest; then stooping, clasp his right thigh with your right arm passed
between the legs (or around both legs) and with a quick heave lift the
patient to your shoulders and seize his right wrist with your right
hand, and lastly, grasp the patient's left hand with your left hand to
steady him against your body. (Work this out with a companion as you
read it.)

(b) A seat made of four arms and hands (which you have no doubt used in
your play), may be used for the lesser injuries. If the patient can, he
supports himself by putting his arms around the necks of his carriers,
each of whom in the meantime grasps one of his own wrists and one of his
partner's. This makes a comfortable seat for carrying. If the patient
needs supporting, a back may be improvised by each carrier grasping the
other's arm below the shoulder to form the back and their other hands
clasped to form the seat. A better seat may be made with three hands
clasping the wrists, while the fourth arm is used as a back, by one
clasping the other's arm below the shoulder. This does not provide a
very secure back, however, as it is not easy to hold the arm against
much of a weight from the patient's body.

(c) _Improvised Stretcher._ When the patient shows any sign of shock, is
unconscious, has a serious fracture of some bone or bones, has a serious
injury to any part of the body, or is bleeding excessively, he must be
carried lying down. It may be that there will be no regular stretcher at
hand. In that case one must be improvised. A serviceable one can be made
from ordinary grain or flour bags by cutting the two corners at the
bottom and running two poles inside the mouth of the bags and through
the holes.

A workable stretcher can be made from coats by turning the sleeves
inside out, passing the poles through the sleeves and buttoning the coat
over the poles. This brings the turned sleeves on the inside. A five-bar
gate or a door, if it can be gotten without delay, also make
satisfactory emergency stretchers.

A stretcher may also be made out of dress skirts, with or without poles.
Put the skirts together, bottoms slipped past each other, and slip the
poles through, as with the bags. If no poles are available, roll the
edges of the skirts over several times to form a firm edge, and carry
with two or four bearers, as the size and weight of the patient make
necessary.


Minor Injuries and Emergencies

Minor injuries may or may not need the aid of a doctor, and you must
learn to use judgment as to the necessity of sending for one. We will
consider these minor injuries in groups to remember them more easily.

1. (a) BRUISES; (b) STRAINS; (c) SPRAINS

(a) A _Bruise_ is produced by a blow which does not break the skin, but
does break the delicate walls of the capillaries and smaller veins, thus
permitting the blood to flow into the surrounding tissues, producing
the discoloration known as "black and blue."

(b) _A Strain_ is produced by the overstretching of muscles or
ligaments, or both, but not tearing them. It may or may not be
accompanied by breaking of capillary walls with discoloration. Any
muscle or ligament may be strained.

(c) _A Sprain_ is produced by the overstretching of the muscles or
ligaments or both about a _joint_. There may also be some tearing of the
fibres or tearing loose from their attachments. This always breaks
capillaries or small veins, making the surface black and blue. This
discoloration usually appears some time after the accident, because the
broken blood vessels are far below the surface.

_Treatment_--For bruises and strains it is seldom necessary to call a
doctor. Apply cold, either by wringing cloths out of cold water and
applying, or by holding the injured part under the cold water tap. Do
this at intervals of several hours, until the pain is lessened. The cold
may be alternated with hot water which must, however, be quite hot, just
enough not to burn, as lukewarm water is almost useless. Some patients
will prefer to use only hot water. The water followed by applications of
tincture of arnica, witch hazel, or alcohol and water, half and half,
and bandaging will be sufficient.

If, however, there has been no black and blue at first, as in a bruise,
but it begins to show later, and the pain continues severe, and there is
a good deal of swelling, then you should send for a doctor, as more than
first aid is needed.

In case of _sprain_, send for a doctor, and in the meantime elevate the
joint and apply hot or cold water, or alternate hot and cold, as patient
prefers. This will give relief by contracting the blood vessels.


2. (a) BURNS; (b) SCALDS; (c) SUNBURN; (d) FROSTBITE

(a) _Burns_ are produced by dry heat, as a fire, acids, alkalis, etc.,
and may be of all degrees, from a superficial reddening of the skin to a
burning of the tissues to the bone.

(b) _Scalds_ are produced by moist heat, and may be of the same degrees
as those produced by dry heat.

(c) _Sunburn_ is produced by the sun, and is usually superficial, but
may be quite severe.

(d) _Frostbite_ is produced by freezing the tissues and is usually not
dangerous. The more severe types will be treated later under Freezing.


_Treatment_--(a) _Burns_; (b) _Scalds_

1. Except in the minor burns and scalds, send for the doctor at once.

2. The first thing to do is allay pain by protecting the injured part
from the air.

3. For a burn produced by fire, cover with a paste made of baking soda
and water, or smear with grease--as lard, carron oil (mixture of linseed
oil and lime water--half and half) or vaseline or calendula cerate.
Cover with a piece of clean cloth or absorbent gauze and bandage loosely
or tie in place. Gauze prepared with picric acid, if at hand, is a most
satisfactory dressing. It can be purchased and kept on hand for
emergencies.

4. In burns from alkalis or acids, wash off as quickly as possible and
neutralize (make inactive the acids with baking soda, weak ammonia or
soapsuds; the alkalis with vinegar or lemon juice). Afterward treat like
other burns.

(c) _Sunburn_ is an inflammation of the skin produced by the action of
the sun's rays and may be prevented by gradually accustoming the skin
to exposure to the sun. It is treated as are other minor burns.

(d) _Frostbite_--_Prevention_--1. Wear sufficient clothing in cold
weather and keep exposed parts, such as ears and fingers, covered.

2. Rub vigorously any part that has become cold. This brings the warm
blood to the surface and prevents chilling.

3. Keep in action when exposed to the cold for any length of time. The
signs of danger are sudden lack of feeling in an exposed part, and a
noticeably white area. Chilblain is an example of frostbite.

_Treatment_--The circulation of the blood through the frozen part must
be restored gradually. This must be done by rubbing the part first with
cold water, which will be slightly warmer than the frozen part, and
_gradually_ warming the water until the circulation and warmth is fully
restored. Then treat as a minor burn. If heat is applied suddenly it
causes death of frozen parts.


3. SPLINTERS, SMALL CUTS, SCRATCHES AND PIN PRICKS

None of these injuries will usually require a doctor if properly treated
in the beginning. The bleeding from any of them is not sufficient to be
dangerous. But whenever there is a break in the skin or mucous membrane
there is danger of infection by germs, and this is what makes the first
aid treatment in these cases so important. A tiny scratch is sometimes
converted into a bad case of blood poisoning by not being properly
treated at first.

Splinters should be removed by using a needle (not a pin) which has been
sterilized by passing it through a flame (the flame of a match will do
if nothing better is at hand). After the splinter is out, the wound is
treated like a cut or scratch.

The germs which produce poisoning do not float in the air, but may be
conveyed by any thing which is not sterile, as, for instance, the
splinter or the instrument that did the cutting, scratching or pricking.
They may be carried to the scratch by our hands, by water, or cloth used
for dressings.

_Treatment_--Wash your own hands thoroughly with soap and water, using a
nail brush. Clean the injured part well with disinfectant, as, for
instance, alcohol and water, half and half, or peroxide of
hydrogen--paint the spot with iodine, and cover with sterile gauze (if
this is not to be had, use a piece of clean cloth that has been recently
ironed), and bandage in place. If the bleeding is severe, a little
pressure with the bandage over the dressing will stop it. Use the same
precautions if the wound has to be re-dressed.


4. STINGS AND BITES OF INSECTS

The poison injected by the sting or bite of an insect is usually acid,
and the part should be washed at once with a solution of ammonia or soda
(washing soda) to neutralize the poison. Then apply a paste of soda
bicarbonate (baking soda) or wet salt and bandage in place. If the sting
is left in the wound it must be pulled out before beginning treatment.


5. FOREIGN BODIES IN THE (a) EYE (Cinder) (b) EAR (Insect), (c) NOSE
(Button)

(a) _Eye_--If a cinder, eyelash, or any tiny speck gets into the eye it
causes acute pain, and in a few minutes considerable redness.

_Treatment_--Do not rub the eye, as this may press the object into the
tender cornea so that it can be removed only with difficulty and by a
physician. First close the eye gently, pull the eyelid free of the
ball, and the tears may wash out the speck. If this is not successful,
close the eye, hold the lid free, and blow the nose hard. You may then
be able to see the speck and remove it with a bit of clean cotton or the
corner of a clean handkerchief. If the object is lodged under the lid,
and the foregoing efforts do not dislodge it, proceed to turn the lid up
as follows:

Ask the patient to look at the floor, keeping the eyeball as stationary
as possible. Take a clean wooden toothpick or slender pencil, wrapped
with cotton, place on the upper lid about one-fourth of an inch from the
edge, grasp the eyelashes with the other hand, give a slight push
downward toward the cheek with the toothpick, a slight pull upward on
the lashes and turn the lid over the toothpick. Remove the speck and
slip the lid back in position. Wash the eye with boric acid solution.

If you are still unable to dislodge the body, discontinue any further
efforts, apply a cloth wet in cold boric acid solution and send for the
doctor. Anything done to the eyes must be done with the greatest
gentleness.

If an acid has entered the eye, neutralize it with a weak solution of
soda bicarbonate in water. If an alkali (lime) is the offending
substance, neutralize by a weak vinegar solution. Follow in each case
with a wash of boric acid solution.

(b) _Ear_ (Insect); (c) _Button in Nose_--Foreign bodies in the ear and
nose are not very common.

But sometimes a child slips a button or other small object into these
cavities, or an insect may crawl in. Drop in a few drops of sweet oil
and if the object comes out easily, well and good. If not, do not keep
on trying to extract it, for fear of greater injury. Send for the
doctor.


6. IVY AND OAK POISONING

There is a poison ivy (or poison oak) which is very poisonous to some
people, and more or less so to all people. The poison ivy has a leaf
similar to the harmless woodbine, but the leaves are grouped in threes
instead of fives. The poison given off by these plants produces a severe
inflammation of the skin. In the early stages it may be spread from one
part of the body to another by scratching.

_Treatment_--Wash the irritated surface gently with soap and water, and
then apply a paste of soda bicarbonate or cover quickly with carbolated
vaseline. Another remedy is fluid extract _grindelia robusta_, one dram
to four ounces of water. Sugar of lead and alcohol have also been found
useful. For severe cases consult a doctor, especially if the face or
neck or hands are affected.

7. (a) FAINTING; (b) HEAT EXHAUSTION

(a) _Fainting_ is caused by lack of blood in the brain, and usually
occurs in overheated, crowded places, from fright or from overfatigue.

_Symptoms_--1. The patient is very pale and partially or completely
unconscious.

2. The pulse is weak and rapid.

3. The pupils of the eyes are normal.

_Treatment_--1. If possible put the patient flat on his back, with the
head slightly lower than the rest of the body.

2. If there is not room to do this, bend the patient over with his head
between the knees until sufficient blood has returned to the brain to
restore consciousness.

3. Then get the patient into the fresh air as soon as possible.

4. Keep the crowd back.

5. Loosen the clothing about the neck.

6. Apply smelling salts to the nose.

7. When the patient has recovered sufficiently to swallow, give him a
glass of cold water, with one-half teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of
ammonia if necessary.

(b) _Heat Exhaustion_ is exhaustion or collapse due to overheating where
there is not sufficient evaporation from the surface of the body to keep
the temperature normal.

_Symptoms_--1. The patient is usually very weak.

2. The face is pale and covered with a clammy sweat.

3. The pulse is weak and rapid.

4. The patient is usually not unconscious.

_Treatment_--1. Remove the patient to a cool place and have him lie
down.

2. Loosen the clothing.

3. Give him a cold drink to sip.

4. Put cold cloths on his head.

5. Send for the doctor.

6. If necessary, give stimulant as in fainting.


8. (a) CHOKING: (b) HICCOUGH

(a) _Choking_--Choking is produced by something lodged in the throat,
does not require artificial respiration, but a smart slap on the back to
aid in dislodging whatever is blocking the air passage. It may be
necessary to have the patient upside down, head lower than feet, to aid
in getting out the foreign body. This is a comparatively simple matter
with a child, but is not so easy with an adult. When the object is not
too far down the throat it may be necessary for someone to use his
fingers to pull out the offending substance to keep the patient alive
until the doctor can arrive. In this case wedge the teeth apart with
something to prevent biting before trying to grasp the object.

(b) _Hiccough_--This is usually due to indigestion or overloading of
the stomach. Holding the breath for one-half minute will usually cure
it, as it holds quiet the diaphragm (the large muscular and fibrous
partition between the chest and abdomen), and overcomes its involuntary
contractions which are causing the hiccoughs. A scare has the same
effect sometimes. If the hiccoughs still continue troublesome after
these simple remedies try to cause vomiting by drinking lukewarm water,
which will get rid of the offending material causing the hiccough, and
relieve the distress.


9. NOSE BLEED

The ordinary nose bleed will soon stop from the normal clotting of the
blood and does not require treatment.

(a) Keep head elevated, with patient sitting up if possible. Do not blow
the nose, as this will dislodge any clot which may have formed, and the
bleeding will begin again. Any tight collar around the neck should be
loosened.

(b) If the bleeding seems excessive, apply cloths wrung out of ice water
to the back of the neck and over the nose.

(c) If the bleeding still continues and is abundant, pack the nostril
with a cotton or gauze plug. Pack tightly (with a blunt end of a pencil
if nothing else is at hand) _and send for the doctor at once_.


=Major Injuries and Emergencies=


1. (a) DISLOCATIONS; (b) FRACTURES

(a) _Dislocations_--In a dislocation the head of a bone is pushed or
pulled out of its socket. A person may be falling and in trying to save
himself catch hold of something in such a way that he feels a sharp,
sudden, severe pain, and may even feel the head of the bone slip out at
the shoulder or elbow.

_Symptoms_--1. When you looked at the injured part it does not look like
the other side.

2. If you attempt to move it you find it will no longer move as a joint
does, but is stiff.

3. There is great pain and rapid swelling usually.

4. There may or may not be black and blue spots around the joint.

_Treatment_--Send for a doctor at once. While waiting for the doctor,
place the patient in the easiest position possible, and apply hot or
cold cloths, frequently changed, to the injured part.

In dislocation of the jaw it may be necessary for someone to try to
replace it before the doctor arrives. The mouth is open and the jaw
fixed. The patient may even tell you he has felt the jaw slip out of its
socket. Wrap your thumbs in cloth to prevent biting when the jaw snaps
back in place. Place the thumbs on the tops of the lower teeth on each
side, with the fingers outside, and push firmly down until the head of
the bone can slip over the edge of the socket into place. As you feel
the bone slipping into place, slide your thumbs out to the inner side of
the cheek to prevent biting when the jaws snap together with the
reducing of the dislocation.

(b) _Fractures_--_Broken bones_--There are two classes of fractures:

1. _Simple_--In a simple fracture the bone is broken, but the skin is
not broken; that is, there is no outward wound.

2. _Compound_--In a _compound_ fracture not only is the bone broken, but
the jagged ends pierce through the skin and form an open wound. This
makes it more dangerous as the possibility of infection by germs at the
time of the accident, or afterward, is added to the difficulty of the
fracture.

_Symptoms_--As in dislocation, you should be familiar with the main
symptoms of a broken bone.

1. When you look at the injured part it may or may not look like its
mate on the other side. In the more severe fractures it usually does
not.

2. When you try to move it you find more motion than there should be, if
the bone has broken clear through; that is, there will seem to be a
joint where no joint should be.

3. The least movement causes great pain.

4. The swelling is usually rapid.

5. The discoloration (black and blue) appears later; not at once, unless
there is also a superficial bruise.

6. The patient is unable to move the injured part.

7. You may hear the grate of the ends of the bone when the part is
moved, but you should not move the injured bone enough to hear this,
especially if the limb is nearly straight; the detection of this sound
should be left for the doctor.

_Treatment_--Send for a doctor at once, and if it will be possible for
him to arrive soon, make the patient as comfortable as possible and wait
for him. However, if it will be some time before the doctor can arrive
you should try to give such aid as will do no harm and will help the
sufferer.

You must handle the part injured and the patient with the utmost
gentleness to avoid making a simple fracture into a compound one, or
doing other injury, and also to give him as little additional suffering
as possible. You will need to get the clothing off the part to be sure
of what you are doing. Rip the clothing in a seam if possible when the
fracture is in an arm or leg, but if this cannot be done, you will have
to cut the material. Do not try to move the broken bone trying to get
off a sleeve or other part of the clothing.

With the greatest gentleness put the injured part, for instance, the arm
or leg, as nearly as possible in the same position as the sound part,
and hold it in that position by splints. Do not use force to do this.
There is no great hurry needed to set a broken bone. The important point
is to get it set right, and this may better be done after complete rest
of several days, allowing for the passing of the inflammation.


_The Most Important "What Not to Do Points" for Fractures Are_:

1. If there is reason to think a bone _may_ be broken try in all ways to
prevent motion at _point_ of fracture lest it be made compound.

2. Do not go hunting for symptoms of fracture (such as the false point
of motion or the sound "crepitus") just to be sure.

3. The best treatment is to try to immobilize the part till the doctor
comes.

_Splints_--Anything that is stiff and rigid may be used for splints.
Shingles, boards, limbs of trees, umbrellas, heavy wire netting, etc.
Flat splints are best, however. All splints should be padded, especially
where they lie against a bony prominence, as for instance, the ankle or
elbow joint.

If the patient is wearing heavy winter clothing this may form sufficient
padding. If not, then other cloth, straw or leaves may be used. Cotton
batting makes excellent padding but if this is not to be had quickly,
other things can be made to do to pad the first rough splints which are
applied until the patient can reach a doctor or the doctor arrives on
the scene of the accident.

In applying splints remember they must extend beyond the next joint
below and the next joint above, otherwise movement of the joint will
cause movement of the broken part.

The splints are tied firmly in place with handkerchiefs, strips of
cloth, or bandages, tied over splints, padding and limb. Do not tie
tight enough to increase the pain, but just enough to hold the splints
firmly. Do not tie directly over the break. There must be an inner and
outer splint for both the arms and the legs.


2. (a) SERIOUS WOUNDS; (b) SERIOUS BLEEDING

Send for the doctor at once, and then stop the bleeding and keep as
clean as possible till he arrives.

_Dangers_--1. In any wound with a break in the skin, there is the danger
of infection or blood poisoning, as you have already learned.

2. In serious wounds through the skin, flesh and blood vessels there is
also the danger of severe bleeding, with the possibility of the
patient's bleeding to death.

_Infection_--You already know how the germs which can cause the blood
poisoning get into the wound.

(a) by the object that makes the wound

(b) from the clothing of the patient through which the wound is made

(c) from the rescuer's hands

(d) from the water which has not been sterilized used in washing the
wound

(e) from dirty dressings, that is, dirty in the sense that they have on
them germs which can get into the wound and cause infection or blood
poisoning.

The first two of these chances the Girl Scout will not be able to
control. The last three she can to some extent prevent. _Do not wash,
touch or put anything into a serious wound_ unless a doctor cannot be
found. Only this sort of thing justifies running risk of infection.
Otherwise just put on a sterile dressing and bandage. In reality washing
wounds only satisfies the aesthetic sense of the operator without real
benefit to the patient in many cases. If a wound has to be cleansed
before the doctor comes use boiled water; if this cannot be had at once,
use water and alcohol half and half.

1. Always wash your hands thoroughly with water, soap and a nail brush,
unless there is necessity for immediate help to stop bleeding which
admits of no time to clean one's hands. Be sure your nails are clean.

2. Try not to touch the wound with your hands unless it is absolutely
necessary.

3. Many wounds do not have to be washed, but dressing may be applied
directly.

4. Having cleansed the wound as best you can, or all that is necessary,
apply sterile cloth for dressing. This may be gotten at a drug store in
a sterile package ready for use immediately, and is very satisfactory.
If, however, these cannot be had, remember any cloth like a folded
handkerchief that has been recently washed and _ironed_ is practically
sterile, especially if you unfold it carefully and apply the inside
which you have not touched, to the wound. Bind the dressing on with a
bandage to keep in place until the doctor arrives.

(b) _Serious Bleeding_:

It is important that you should learn what is serious bleeding and this
will often help you to be cool under trying circumstances.

As you learned in your work in minor emergencies, the bleeding from the
small veins and capillaries is not usually sufficient to be dangerous,
and the pressure of the dressing when put on and bandaged in place will
soon stop it. It may sometimes be necessary to put more dressing outside
of that already on (called re-inforcing it) and bandage again snugly.
But if you have made sure first that there is no large vein or artery
cut, you need not be troubled for fear there will be serious bleeding
before the doctor arrives.

[Illustration: Tourniquet

Showing where stone for pressing against artery is placed

Loop through which stick for tightening is inserted]

_Bleeding from an Artery_: If an artery is cut the blood spurts out, the
size of the stream depending on the size of the artery cut. This is the
most serious bleeding because the heart is directly behind, pumping the
blood through the artery with all its power. If it is a small artery the
pressure with the finger between the cut and the heart for a few minutes
will give the blood time to clot behind the finger and form a plug. This
will stop the bleeding aided by pressure of the bandage. If it is a
larger vessel the force in the heart muscle pumping the blood will force
out any plug formed by the finger there, as the finger tires too easily.

_Tourniquet_: In this case it will be necessary to put on a tourniquet
to take the place of the finger until a clot can form in the vessel big
enough and strong enough to prevent the force of the blood current from
pushing it out. This of course can be used only on the legs or arms.

A tourniquet is something put on to make pressure on a blood vessel to
stop serious bleeding. There are five points to remember about a
tourniquet:

1. It must be long enough to tie around the limb--a big handkerchief,
towel or wide bandage.

2. There must be a pad to make the pressure over the artery greater than
on the rest of the limb--a smooth stone, a darning ball, a large cork,
cloth folded into a large pad or a rolled bandage.

3. The pad must be so placed that the artery lies between pad and the
bone on the limb, in order that the pressure may stop the flow of blood
by forcing the walls of the artery together between the pad and the
bone.

4. Unless the tourniquet is put on tight enough, its application
increases bleeding. It is extremely rare to find a tourniquet put on
tight enough. In almost every such case removing the tourniquet will
stop or partly lessen bleeding. A short stick or handle is needed, about
a foot long, with which to twist the tourniquet sufficiently to stop
the flow of blood. Usually it cannot be twisted tightly enough by hand
alone. Tie the twisted part firmly so it will not slip, after it has
been made tight enough to stop bleeding.

5. Remember, a tourniquet stops most of the circulation below it as well
as in the cut artery, and must not be left in place too long for fear of
injury to the rest of the limb by cutting off the circulation. _Usually
it should not be left on for more than an hour._

_Bleeding from Veins_--Bleeding from the veins is not so dangerous as
from an artery. The blood from the heart has to go through the little
capillaries before it gets into the veins, and therefore the force of
the heart muscle on the blood in the veins is not so great as in the
arteries. The blood does not spurt out, but flows out as it would from a
bottle tipped on its side.

You have already learned what to do to stop the bleeding from the
smaller veins, and that it is not serious. From the larger veins,
however, it can be very serious, and it may be necessary for you to put
on a tourniquet before the doctor arrives in order to save the patient's
life.

Almost always bleeding from a vein can be controlled by clean gauze or
handkerchief pad and pressure by hand directly over the bleeding wound.
Tourniquets are almost never needed in bleeding from a vein. If
necessary, it is wisest to apply them in the same way as for arterial
hemorrhage and stop the circulation in the whole limb.

It is important to know in a general way where the blood vessels are in
order to put the pad over them to stop the bleeding. Roughly speaking,
the artery of the arm runs down about in a line with the inner seam of
the coat. The large vein lies close beside it, carrying the blood back
to the heart. The artery and vein of the leg run about in a line with
the inside seam of a man's trousers.

_Stimulants_--In serious bleeding of any kind do not give stimulants
until the bleeding has been stopped, as the stimulants increase the
force of the heart and so increase the flow of blood. After the
tourniquet is on and bleeding is stopped, if the patient is very weak,
he may have a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in half a glass
of water.


(a) SHOCKS; (b) APOPLEXY; (c) CONVULSIONS

(a) _Shocks_--In any injury, except the slight ones, the ends of the
nerves in the skin are bruised or jarred. They send this jar along the
nerves to the very delicate brain. The blood is drawn from the brain
into the larger blood vessels, and the result produced is called shock.
If you have jammed your finger in a door sometime, perhaps you have felt
a queer sick feeling and had to sit down. A cold sweat broke out all
over you, and you were hardly conscious for a moment or two. This was a
mild case of shock. In more severe injuries a shock to the brain may be
very serious.

_Symptoms of Shock_--1. The patient may or may not be unconscious, but
he may take no notice of what is going on around him.

2. The face is pale and clammy.

3. The skin is cold.

4. The pulse is weak.

5. The breathing is shallow.

In any serious injury the shock is liable to be severe and will need to
be treated before the doctor arrives.

_Treatment_--Send for the doctor if serious.

1. Lay the patient flat on his back with head low, so that the heart can
more easily pump the blood back into the brain.

2. Cover warmly; if they can be gotten, put around him several hot water
bottles or bricks, being extremely careful to have them covered so that
they will not burn him. Persons suffering from shock are more easily
burnt than usual. Do not put anything hot next him unless it can be held
against your own face for a minute without feeling too hot.

3. Rub the arms and legs, toward the body, but under the covers.

4. Give stimulants only after the patient has recovered enough to
swallow, and when there is no serious bleeding.

_Stimulants_--Strong, hot coffee, or a half teaspoonful of aromatic
spirits of ammonia in a half glass of warm water. The latter may be
given if the coffee is not ready.

(b) _Apoplexy_--When a person has a "stroke" of apoplexy send for the
doctor at once.

This condition resembles shock only in that the patient is unconscious.
The blow to the delicate brain does not come from the outside along the
nerves, but from the inside by the breaking of a blood vessel in the
brain, letting the blood out into the brain tissue and forming a clot
inside of the brain, and thus making pressure which produces the
unconsciousness.

_Symptoms of Apoplexy_--1. The patient is unconscious.

2. The face is usually flushed--red.

3. The skin is not cold and clammy.

4. The pulse is slow and full.

5. The breathing is snoring instead of shallow.

6. The pupils of the eye are usually unequally dilated.

_Treatment_--1. Lay the patient flat on his back with head slightly
raised.

2. Do not give any stimulants.

3. Wait for the doctor.

(c) _Convulsions_--This condition resembles the foregoing shock and
apoplexy in that the patient is unconscious.

_Symptoms of Convulsions_--1. The patient is unconscious.

2. The face is usually pale at first, but not so white as in shock, and
later is flushed, often even purplish.

3. The skin is not usually cold.

4. The breathing may be shallow or snoring.

5. There are twitchings of the muscles of the face and body or a
twisting motion of the body.

6. The pulse may be rapid, but is usually regular.

7. The mouth may be flecked with foam.

8. The pupils of the eye may be contracted or equally dilated.

_Treatment_--Convulsions come from various causes, and are always
serious, therefore send for the doctor at once.

1. Put a wedge of some kind between the teeth if possible, the handle of
a spoon protected by a cloth cover, or a rolled napkin does well. This
is to prevent biting the tongue, which the patient is apt to do in
unconsciousness with convulsive movements.

2. Lay the patient flat on his back, and prevent him from hurting
himself in his twisting, but do not try to stop convulsive movement. It
will do no good.

3. No stimulant is needed.


(a) SUNSTROKE; (b) FREEZING

(a) _Sunstroke_--Sunstroke is caused by too long exposure to excessive
heat, or to the direct rays of the sun, and is much more serious than
heat exhaustion, which you have already studied.

_Prevention_--Do not stay out in the direct sunlight too long on a hot
summer day. Wear a large hat which shades the head and face well, if
obliged to be in the hot sun for any length of time. Do not wear too
heavy clothing in the hot weather. Leaves or a wet sponge in the top of
the hat will help to prevent sunstroke. Drink plenty of cool water
between meals.

_Symptoms of Sunstroke_--1. The patient is unconscious.

2. The face is red.

3. The pupils large.

4. The skin very hot and dry, with _no_ perspiration.

5. The pulse is full and slow.

6. The breathing is sighing.

_Treatment_--1. Get the patient into the shade where it is as cool as
possible.

2. Send for the doctor.

3. Remove the greater part of the clothing.

4. Apply cold water or ice to the head, face, chest and armpits.

Often the patient recovers consciousness before the doctor arrives; give
cold water to drink; never stimulants.

(b) _Freezing_--This is a much more serious condition than frostbite,
which you have studied, but only because more of the body is frozen and
the tissues are frozen deeper. Much more care must therefore be taken to
prevent bad effects after the thawing-out process.

_Symptoms of Freezing_--1. The patient may or may not be unconscious.

2. The frozen parts are an intense white and are without any feeling or
motion.

_Treatment_--Send for the doctor at once.

1. Take the patient into a cold room.

2. Remove the clothing.

3. Rub the body with rough cloths wet in cold water.

4. Very gradually increase the warmth of the water used for rubbing.

5. Increase the temperature of the room gradually.

6. When the patient can swallow, give him stimulants.

7. When the skin becomes more normal in color and the tissues are soft,
showing that the blood is once more circulating properly through the
frozen flesh, cover the patient warmly with hot bottles or bricks
outside of the bed clothing, or wraps, and give hot drinks. In using hot
water be sure it is not too hot.


Dog Bite[3]

In the case of the dog bite we have a more or less extensive break in
the skin and sometimes a deep wound in the flesh, through which the
poison of hydrophobia, which is a living virus or animal poison, may be
introduced, to be taken up slowly by the nerves themselves, reaching the
central nervous system in about forty days. The slowness and method of
this absorption renders the use of a ligature useless and unsafe. The
treatment for dog bite is therefore as follows:

_Immediate._ Send for a physician, telling him the reason. While
waiting, treat as any similar wound from any cause. If the skin is not
penetrated, but scratched only, apply iodine and a sterile or wet
dressing. If the skin is penetrated, the treatment should be the same as
for a wound made by a dirty nail: that is, a small stick, such as a
match, whittled to a point, with a little cotton twisted on the point,
should be dipped into tincture of iodine, and twisted down into the full
depth of the wound, and then done a second time.

_Subsequent._ A physician should be consulted immediately, and if there
is any suspicion of the dog being sick it should be kept under
observation. The body of a dog that has been killed under suspicion of
rabies or hydrophobia, should be sent as soon as possible to the proper
authorities.

One of the greatest discoveries in medical science is the Pasteur
treatment for the prevention of hydrophobia after mad dog bite, and
fortunately, provision for this treatment is so widespread that
practically every one in civilized regions needing it, can have it, as
is well known to all physicians. The fact that the period of
development of the disease is so long makes the possibility of
prevention greater.

It is never proper to suck a dog bite, because the merest scratch or
break in the surface, even if too small to notice, will serve as a
portal of entry for the living virus of rabies.

_Snake Bite._ For treatment of snake bite see page 297.


WATER ACCIDENTS

When it is possible, Girl Scouts should learn to swim well. It is fear
when suddenly thrown into the water that causes so many of the deaths by
drowning, and learning to swim well takes away this fear. A Girl Scout
should also learn how to prevent accidents, and how best to help the
victims of accidents in the water.


PREVENTION

Below are five rules for preventing drowning accidents.

1. Do not change seats in a canoe or rowboat.

2. Do not rock the boat.

3. Do not go out alone in a canoe, rowboat or sailboat unless you are
thoroughly competent to manage such a boat, in a sudden squall or storm.

4. Very cold water exhausts a swimmer much quicker than warm water,
therefore do not take any chances on a long swim in cold water unless a
boat accompanies you to pick you up in case of necessity.

5. Be careful not to go too far out when there is a strong undertow;
that is, a strong current below the surface of the water flowing
relentlessly out to sea.

6. Always wade upstream.


RESCUE [Illustration]

When a person gives up the struggle in the water, the body goes down,
and then because of its buoyancy it comes to the surface and some air is
expelled from the lungs, making the body less buoyant. It immediately
sinks again, this time a little lower, and again comes to the surface,
and more air is expelled. This process may be repeated several times,
until sufficient water is taken into the stomach and lungs to overcome
the buoyancy of the body and it no longer appears at the surface; but
the buoyancy is barely overcome, and therefore the body will float
easily. This can easily be utilized in saving the drowning person by
making the water carry most of the weight of the body.

To do this, place the hands on either side of the drowning person's
head, and tow him floating on his back with the face above the surface
of the water, while you swim on your back and keep the body away from
you. Remember, if possible, to go with the current and thus save
necessary strength. In some cases it may be easier and safer to grasp
the drowning person by the hair instead of trying to clasp the head.


EMERGENCIES

_Grips_--A drowning person is always a frightened person, and is
governed by a mad instinct to grab anything which subconsciously he
thinks may save his life. Usually he is past any reasoning. He grabs his
would-be rescuer with a death grip that is hard to break, but remember
he instinctively grabs what is above the surface and will not try to
grab below the shoulders.

_Wrist Grip_--If the drowning person grasps the rescuer's wrists, the
rescuer throws both hands above his head, which forces both low in the
water, and then turns the leverage of his arms against the other's
thumbs and breaks the grip.

_Neck Grip_--To release a grip around the neck and shoulders from the
front, immediately cover the mouth of the other with the palm of the
hand, holding the nose between the first two fingers, and at the same
time pull the other body toward you with the other hand, meanwhile
treading water. Then take a full breath and apply your knee to the
other's stomach quickly, thus forcing him to expel any air in his lungs
and preventing him from getting more air by the hand on mouth and
nostrils.

If the grip of the drowning person does not allow use of the arms, then
try to raise your arms to the level of the shoulder, thus slipping his
arms to the neck and leaving your own arms free to use, as described.

_Back Grip_--This strangle hold is perhaps the most difficult to break,
and it is necessary to break it instantly if the rescuer is not also to
be in the rescued class.

Grasp the wrists of the other and push sharply back with the buttocks
against the abdomen of the other, and thus make room to slip suddenly
out of the encircling arms.

If this is not successful, do not despair, but throw the head suddenly
against the nose of the drowning person and then slip out of the grip
before he recovers from his daze.

It is often necessary to dive from the surface in rescuing a drowning
person, and this requires practice, and should be learned thoroughly
before the necessity for saving a life is presented. Remember that to
dive from the surface to a depth of more than ten feet will usually
require a weight in addition to the weight of the body. Carry a stone or
other heavy object in diving. Then when wishing to rise to the surface,
drop it and push against the bottom with the feet. This will send the
swimmer to the surface in short order.

In carrying a weight in the water, carry it low on the body, close to
the waist line, leaving one hand and both feet free for swimming. Or if
for any reason it is necessary to swim on the back, it leaves both feet
free to use as propellers.


ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

If the apparently drowned person is to be saved, no time must be lost
in the rescue from the water or in getting the water out of him, and
breathing re-established after he is brought to land.

[Illustration]

If there is a messenger handy send for a doctor at once, but in the
meantime lose no time in attempting restoration.

The best method for getting the water out of the lungs and breathing
re-established is the _Schaefer Method_, because it is the simplest,
requiring only one operator and no equipment. It can be kept up alone
for a long time.

1. Every moment is precious. Immediately lay the patient face downwards,
with the arms extended above the head and the face to one side. In this
position the water will run out and the tongue will fall forward by its
own weight, and not give trouble by falling back and closing the
entrance to the windpipe. Be sure there is nothing in the mouth, such as
false teeth, gum, tobacco, etc. Do not put anything under the chest. Be
sure there is no tight collar around the neck.

2. Kneel astride of the patient facing toward his head.

3. Place your hands on the small of the patient's back, with thumbs
nearly touching and the hands on the spaces between the short ribs.

4. Bend slightly forward with arms rigid so that the weight of your body
falls on the wrists, and makes a firm steady pressure downward on the
patient while you count one, two, three, thus forcing any water and air
out of the lungs.

5. Then relax the pressure very quickly, snatching the hand away, and
counting one-two--the chest cavity enlarges and fresh air is drawn into
the lungs.

6. Continue the alternate pressing and relaxing about twelve to fifteen
times a minute, which empties and fills the lungs with fresh air
approximately as often as he would do it naturally.

It may be necessary to work for an hour or two before a gasp shows the
return of natural breathing. Even then the rescuer's work is not over,
as it will be necessary to fill in any gaps with artificial breathing.
When natural breathing is established, aid circulation by rubbing and by
wrapping him in hot blankets and putting hot bottles around him, being
careful that they are protected to prevent burning the patient.

If at any time it is necessary to pull the tongue forward and to hold it
to prevent choking, remember to put a wedge between the teeth to prevent
biting. Do not give anything liquid by mouth until the patient is
conscious and can swallow readily. Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia or
Spirits of Camphor may be used on a handkerchief for the patient to
smell. The patient should be watched carefully for an hour or two even
after he is considered out of danger.


ICE RESCUE

Prevention: Below are two rules for preventing ice accidents:

1. Do not skate or walk on thin ice.

2. Watch for air holes.

Rescue: In trying to rescue a person who has broken through the ice,
always tie a rope around your own body and have this tied to some firm
object on shore. Do not try to walk out to the rescue as the ice will
probably break again under the weight of your body on so small an area
as the size of your feet. Always get a long board, ladder, rail or limb
of a tree, and either crawl out on this, which will distribute the
weight of your body over a larger surface of ice, or lie flat on your
stomach and crawl out, pushing the board ahead of you so that the person
in the water may reach it. If you yourself break through the ice in
attempting a rescue, remember that trying to pull yourself up over the
edge of the ice only breaks it more. If rescuers are near it is much
wiser to support yourself on the edge of the ice and wait for rescue.

After getting the person out of the water use artificial respiration if
necessary and bend every effort to get the patient warm and breathing
properly.


ASPHYXIATION

Prevention: Below are seven rules for preventing asphyxiation:

1. When coal stoves and furnaces are freshly filled with coal, coal gas
may escape if the dampers are not properly regulated. See that all
dampers in coal stoves and furnaces are correctly arranged before
leaving them for any long time, as for the night.

2. Do not go to sleep in a house or room with a gas jet or gas stove
turned low. The pressure in the pipes may change and the flame go out,
or a breeze may blow out the flame leaving the gas leaking into the
room.

3. Do not blow out a gas jet.

4. Be careful to turn off gas jet completely.

[Illustration]

5. Report gas leaks promptly.

6. Charcoal stoves and braziers are especially dangerous from escaping
gas and should not be used in sleeping rooms.

7. Do not go into unused wells or underground sewers without first
lowering a lighted candle which will go out at once if the air is very
impure, because of lack of oxygen to keep it burning.

Rescue: 1. Remove the patient _at once_ to the fresh air. Gas is lighter
than air, and therefore will not be found close to the floor and it will
often be possible to crawl out when one would be overcome by the gas if
he tried to walk out. For this reason it is sometimes best in trying to
rescue anyone already unconscious from gas to tie the wrists together
with a handkerchief, put his arms around your neck, and crawl out on all
fours, dragging the insensible body with you, under your own body. If
you attempt to walk out and carry the patient, cover your mouth and nose
with a wet handkerchief, go very quickly, do not breathe until you reach
the fresh air.

2. If there is a messenger handy, send for the doctor at once, but in
the meantime if necessary, perform artificial respiration as outlined
under the Schaefer System in the preceding paragraphs, until the patient
is restored to normal breathing.


ELECTRIC SHOCK

This is caused by some part of the body coming in contact with a live
electric wire. The seriousness of the shock depends on how heavy a
charge of electricity the wire is carrying at the time.

The patient is usually unable to release himself from the wire. The
first thing to be done, if possible, is to turn off the current by means
of the switch, but if this cannot be done _at once_, the patient must be
rescued by pulling him away from the wire.

Remember his body will easily carry the charge to yours while he is
against the wire. Therefore you must "insulate" yourself--that is, put
on your hands something that will not let the electricity into your
body--or stand on something that will "insulate" you; for instance,
rubber gloves or rubber tobacco pouches, dry silk handkerchiefs, other
silk garments or newspapers used in place of gloves if necessary. Stand
on a rubber mat or on _dry boards_, or glass, or in dire necessity _dry_
clothes can be used to stand on. They must not be wet as then they will
carry the electric current through your body and you must also be
rescued instead of rescuing.

Prevention: 1. Do not touch the "third rail" of electric railways.

2. Do not catch hold of swinging wires, they may be "live wires."

3. Report broken wires to the right authorities.

Treatment:

1. Get patient loose from the current.

2. Send for the doctor.

3. Lay the patient flat on his back.

4. Loosen the clothing, and perform artificial respiration according to
the Schaefer method if necessary.

5. Give first aid treatment to the burns.


FIRE ACCIDENTS

The first thought about a fire is to get it put out before it spreads
any further. There are methods which will do this work effectually and
Girl Scouts should learn these methods beforehand thoroughly, in order
that when the emergency arises they may act quickly, coolly and
effectively.


FIRE IN CLOTHING

If this happens in your own clothing, do not run for help, as the draft
made by the motion of your body will only fan the flames to burn
fiercely.

Grab the nearest thing that will cover you; overcoat, blanket, rug, wrap
it tightly around you at the neck first to prevent flames from burning
the face and lie down and roll over and over. This will smother the
flames quickly. If you can get nothing to wrap around you, lie down and
roll slowly over and beat the fire with your hands covered by some part
of your clothing not on fire.

If the fire is in the clothing of another, wrap him in the nearest thing
available, lay him on the floor and roll him over, smothering the flames
as described before.

Woolen material will not catch fire as easily as cotton, therefore, if
you have a chance to choose, take woolen material for smothering the
flames.


RESULTS

Results of fire in the clothing are sure to be more or less serious
burns.

When you have discovered the extent of the burn, if it is at all
serious, send for the doctor at once, and in the meantime treat the burn
as you have already learned to do in minor burns.


FIRE IN BUILDINGS

Keep cool, in order to remember what to do, and do it quickly.

Turn in a fire alarm at once. Send some one else if possible who may not
know what to do to the fire. The quickest way is by telephone call,
"Fire Department," and tell them the exact address of the building
where the fire is. Or you may go to the nearest alarm box, smash the
glass, open the door, and pull down the hook that sounds the alarm.
(Generally the directions are printed on the box.) If you cannot sound
the alarm alone, call upon the nearest person to help you. _Wait there
until the firemen arrive and direct them to the fire._ When the firemen
come do just as they tell you, for they know exactly what to do.

People trying to escape from a burning building often get frightened and
then there is a panic. Panic kills more people than fire. Keep cool, and
others will follow your example.

Never jump from a window unless the flames are so close that it is your
only means of escape. If outside a burning building put mattresses and
bedding piled high to break the jumper's fall and get a strong hold on a
rug to catch the jumper, and let many people hold the rug.

If the fire is just beginning, it can easily be put out by smothering it
with a rug or blanket; sand, ashes, salt, or a few pails of water will
answer the same purpose.

Keep the doors and windows closed if possible to prevent draughts from
fanning the flames to fiercer effort.

Remember this point when you go into a burning building, and leave some
responsible person guarding the door, in order that it may not be left
open by some one in excitement and the flames fanned beyond control.

If you need fresh air in your search for people in a burning building,
open a window, put out your head and draw your lungs full of fresh air
and then close the window again. In any case it is best to tie a wet
handkerchief or towel over the nose and mouth while in a burning
building, as this will prevent you from breathing a good deal of smoke.

In searching for persons remember always to begin at the top of the
building if possible, and search every room. When on stairs keep to wall
side, where air is relatively free from flames and smoke. If a room is
locked, try to rouse the people by pounding and calling and then break
in the door if unsuccessful in rousing them, and you suspect there is
some one there.

Remember, the air within six inches from the floor is usually free from
smoke, and if the smoke makes breathing too difficult, you can still
accomplish your end by crawling along the floor and dragging the rescued
one with you as you learned to do in gas rescue.

Form a bucket brigade from the fire to the nearest water supply; passing
the filled pails from one to another rapidly, the last throwing the
water on the fire and passing the empty pails back along _another_ line
to be filled again and passed on as before.


FIRES FROM KEROSENE, GASOLINE, BENZINE

_Prevention._--1. Do not light a fire with kerosene.

2. Do not clean gloves or clothing with gasoline or benzine in a room
with a lamp or gas jet lighted.

3. Do not try to dry clothing that has been cleaned with gasoline or
benzine near a hot stove or lighted gas jet.

_Extinction._--Do not use water to put out a fire of kerosene, benzine,
or gasoline, as that only scatters the flames. Smother with blankets,
rugs, sand, ashes, salt, or anything which is at hand and can be used;
remember that woolen will not catch fire as easily as cotton.


COMMON POISON AND ANTIDOTES

_Poisoning_--Cases of poisoning happen most often because people do not
examine the bottles before taking medicines from them.

_Prevention_--Disinfectants, liniments and medicines in bottles and
boxes should be correctly and plainly labelled.

Bottles containing a poisonous substance should be rough outside, or
with notched corks or marked with something beside the label stating
that their contents are poison.

_Treatment_--1. _Send for the doctor at once_, telling him what kind of
poison you think the patient has taken in order that he may bring the
right antidote and the right implements to give the quickest and most
effective relief.

2. Give demulcent or mucilaginous drinks, as for example, milk, raw egg,
one or two tablespoonfuls of salad oil, sweet oil, or barley
water--which can be obtained most readily.

3. Give something to produce vomiting, provided the lips are not burned
or stained as they are with an acid or alkali. A simple but effectual
emetic can be made by mixing two teaspoonfuls of salt or a tablespoon of
mustard in a glass of lukewarm water. This may be repeated if necessary.

4. If the patient seems drowsy, suspect opium and keep patient awake at
all costs till the doctor arrives.

5. If delirium threatens, dash cold water on the patient's head and face
to try to prevent the fit from coming on.

6. When the poison taken has been acid, the antidote should be an
alkali, but different poisons require different antidotes, and it would
be unwise to trust to one's memory as to the proper one to take in each
case. It would be well to have a list of the more common poisons and
their antidotes attached to the First Aid Kit, but do not trust to the
memory. If a Girl Scout does not know, and if the patient's lips are
_not_ stained or burned, give an emetic.


Bandages

Bandages form the most convenient way of keeping dressings on wounds and
for making pressure when necessary. They are also used to correct some
deformities, but you will not need to concern yourselves with the
latter, as this is in the province of doctors.

There are three varieties of bandages which you will need to use and
with which you should be familiar: the roller, triangular and
four-tailed. The materials used for bandages are absorbent gauze,
muslins or flannels. The kind you will use most will be gauze and
muslin. The gauze is best to use in dressing wounds because it is
pliable and absorbent, and muslin, if you may choose, in applying
pressure, because it is firm. In an emergency there will usually be
little chance to choose. Anything at hand, as underclothing, sheets,
blankets, etc., may be torn into strips or triangles and used. Have the
material which is used clean if possible.

The width of the roller bandage depends on the part of the body to be
bandaged, from one inch for the little finger to four inches for the
body. They can be rolled very well by hand with a little practice, and
every Girl Scout should learn to do this or to improvise a bandage
roller by running a very stiff wire through a small wooden box and then
bending one end on the outside of the box like a handle.

A bandage must be rolled sufficiently tight so that the center will not
fall out. By folding one end back and forth a few times to make a core,
and then laying the bandaging over one's knees lengthwise of the thigh
with the core uppermost, it can be rolled quite tightly and answer every
purpose for emergencies.

Learn to put on all bandages smoothly and securely, but not too
tightly.

_Triangular Bandages_--These bandages have advantages for first aid
work. They can be quickly made, easily applied and are not apt to be put
on too tightly even by a beginner.

The size of the piece of cloth varies with the part to be bandaged. Take
a square piece of cloth (it should not be less than 34 to 38 inches),
fold it diagonally from corner to corner and cut across the fold, making
two bandages.

The bandage may be applied unfolded or folded into a narrow strip,
called cravat bandage.

To fold the cravat bandage, the point of the triangle is brought to the
middle of the diagonal side and the bandage folded lengthwise to the
desired width.

The cravat bandage is convenient to use in bandaging the hand, foot,
head, eyes, throat and jaw; for tying on splints; for tying around the
limb in case of snake bite, and in making a tourniquet.

[Illustration]

Always tie the bandage with a square knot to prevent slipping. Care must
be used in applying the triangular bandage to have it smooth and firm,
folding the loose ends into pleats evenly.

_Bandage for Hand_--For wound of the palm, lay cravat in straight line,
place palm across it at the middle. Fold ends over the back of hand,
carry around wrist and tie. Reverse the order for injury to the back of
the hand.

To cover entire hand, unfold cravat, lay flat with point of triangle
beyond the fingers. Fold the point of the bandage over the fingers,
cross the ends, and pass around wrist and tie at the back.

_Bandage for Foot_--Place foot on the smooth triangle with the point
extending beyond the toes several inches. Fold the point back over the
instep, cross the ends, carry around the ankle and tie.

_Bandage for the Head_--The bandage may be used flat or as a cravat,
according to the nature of the injury and the part to be bandaged.

[Illustration]

_For a cap bandage_, fold over the edge of the diagonal edge, place on
the head with the folded edge just above the eyes; pleat the edges
hanging down over the ears into small folds so that the bandage lies
smoothly; carry the ends around the head; cross at the back, and tie in
a square knot in front. The cravat bandage may be used to hold on small
dressings where the whole head does not need to be covered.

_For the eyes, jaw and throat_ the triangular bandage is used by folding
smoothly into a cravat and tying securely over the part to be covered.

_Arm Sling._--The triangular bandage makes the best arm sling to support
the forearm or for supporting injuries to the elbow or shoulder.

An arm sling is firmer and more satisfactory if the triangle is double;
that is, simply fold over the square diagonally, but do not cut it along
the fold. An arm sling will need to be about a yard square before
folding.

To adjust the arm sling, put one end over the shoulder on the uninjured
side; slip the point of the triangle under the injured arm, so that it
will extend beyond the elbow a few inches; then take the end of the
bandage over the arm, carry around the back of the neck on the injured
side, meeting the other end; and tie securely. To prevent slipping, pin
the point of the bandage around the arm just above the elbow.

A temporary sling can be made by pinning the sleeve of the injured arm
to the dress or coat in such a way as to support the arm.

_The Four-tailed Bandage_--This bandage is useful for bandaging the
head, and especially in fracture of the jaw. Use a piece of cloth about
six or eight inches wide and a yard long. Cut each end into two equal
parts, leaving about three or four inches in the middle uncut.

[Illustration]

When the bandage is applied, the split ends are crossed so that they may
be tied over different parts of the head and thus hold the bandage more
securely in place. For instance, in the jaw bandage the uncut middle
part is placed over and under the chin, the ends crossed, and two ends
tied at the back of the neck and two over the top of the head.

_Roller Bandages_--Roller bandages are a little more difficult to put on
so that they will stay on, and at the same time be smooth and have a
uniform pressure on the part of the body bandaged. This last point is
most important.

Rules for applying roller bandages:

1. Lay external surface of bandage against the part to be bandaged,
holding the roll in the right hand, unless you are left-handed,
unrolling it as a roll of carpet unrolls to show you a pattern in the
shops.

2. Hold the loose end with the left hand and catch it with two or three
turns of the bandage before beginning to put on the bandage. Never have
more than four or five inches of the bandage unrolled at once.

3. Be careful to have the same pressure from every turn of the bandage.
This is most important if the bandage is to stay on and be comfortable
and not interfere with the circulation of the blood. Judgment of the
pressure is only acquired by practice, and therefore you should practice
enough to acquire this before the real emergency happens.

4. Do not bandage too tightly. Blueness of the skin above or below the
bandage always means the bandage must be loosened. Remember in applying
a bandage immediately after an injury that considerable swelling may
occur later, and apply your bandage more loosely than if bandaging after
the swelling has gone down. Always loosen a bandage that is tight enough
to cause pain or blueness.

5. Bandage from below upward. That is, from the tip of a finger or toe
toward the hand or foot. From the hand or foot toward the shoulder or
groin. This is in the general direction of the return of the
circulation.

6. Bandage over a splint and not under it.

7. Bandage arms, legs, fingers, etc., in the position the patient is to
keep the part in when the bandaging is completed. For instance, bend the
elbow to a right angle before putting on the arm bandage. This will be
more comfortable for the patient, allowing him to carry the arm easily
in a sling and also permit him to use the hand to some extent if the
nature of the injury will permit. In bandaging a leg both above and
below the knee, the bandage must be put on with a view to the necessary
bending of the knee in walking and sitting, if the patient is expected
to use the leg.

8. Never apply a wet bandage, as you cannot judge of just how much
pressure will be exerted when the bandage dries, because of the
shrinkage of cloth with drying; much greater in some cloth than in
others.

Kinds of roller bandages:

1. Circular for parts uniform in size, as the body.

2. Spiral for conical surfaces, as fingers or toes.

3. Reverse for more conical surfaces, as arms and legs.

_Circular Bandages_--Any part of the body which is of uniform size may
be covered with a circular bandage. Each turn covers about two-thirds of
the previous turn. This holds each turn firmly and prevents slipping and
exposing the dressing or wound underneath. Bandage in general direction
of the return of the blood to the heart. Fasten the bandage with a strip
of adhesive plaster or safety pin. If there is possibility of
restlessness or much activity on the part of the patient, it is best to
run several narrow strips of adhesive plaster along the whole width of
the bandage when finished to prevent possible slipping of the turns of
the bandage when the muscles move under it with the activity of the
patient. This is especially true of a body bandage.

_Spiral Bandage_--A conical part, if not too conical, may be covered
with a spiral bandage. Each turn ascends at a slight angle, with one
edge of the bandage a little tighter than the other. In putting on this
kind of bandage it is necessary to learn to have the tight edges all of
a uniform pressure and each turn overlap the turn below in such a way
that these tight edges make the uniform pressure without regard to the
upper edge underneath, which is covered in each turn by the tighter edge
of the turn above it.

_Reverse Bandages_--The reverse bandage is a modification of the spiral
one, in order to cover the gapping between spirals which occurs when the
surface is very conical, as, for instance, on the leg.

In putting on this bandage the loose end is caught by two or three turns
first as in other bandages. Then start to make a spiral turn, but at the
mid point of the front of the part being bandaged place the thumb of the
left hand, and fold the bandage down so that it lies smoothly and
continue the turn around to that same point. Repeat the process with
each turn. (See illustration.) Each turn covers two-thirds of the one
below in order to hold firmly. The pressure must be uniform when the
bandage is finished. Fasten the ends as described under circular
bandages, or divide the end of the bandage into two parts for several
inches--long enough to wind around the part bandaged. Tie a single knot
at the base to prevent further dividing, and wrap the ends around the
part in different directions; tie in a hard knot to hold firmly.

_Bandaging Fingers and Toes_--In bandaging fingers and toes it is
usually best to bandage the whole of the injured member. Cover the end
of the finger, for instance, by passing the end of the half inch or one
inch bandage several times the whole length of the finger, over the end
and to the base of the other side. Hold this in place with one hand,
start the spiral at the end of the finger, and bandage smoothly toward
the hand. The spiral or the reverse spiral may be used.

_Bandaging Two or More Fingers or Toes_--It is sometimes necessary to
bandage two or more fingers, for instance, at once, as in case of a
burn, where it is necessary always to have the burned fingers separated
while healing to prevent the raw places from growing together.

[Illustration]

Pass a finger bandage twice around the wrist and pass obliquely to the
base of the thumb. Carry to the end of the thumb and bandage as
described above. When the thumb is bandaged, carry the bandage back to
the wrist; pass around the wrist in one or two circular turns, and carry
the bandage to the first finger and bandage as before. Repeat this
until all the fingers are bandaged. Carry the bandage back to the wrist,
after the last finger you wish to bandage is done; make one or two turns
around the wrist and fasten.

[Illustration]

In bandaging the foot, carry the bandage to the ankle to make secure and
hold in place.

_Bandaging Arms and Legs_--The reverse spiral is usually best for
bandaging these, because of the conical shape. Practice alone can teach
you to put this on smoothly, firmly, not too tightly, and at the same
time quickly. A reverse bandage will not stay in place on the leg of the
person walking around unless pinned in many places or stuck by sizing
in the cloth (which has been wet), plaster, etc. Only a figure eight
caught over the top of the calf, in each alternate loop, will do so.

_The Figure Eight Bandage_--The figure eight is a modification of the
spiral used in bandaging over joints in such a way as to permit some
motion and at the same time keep the bandage firm and in place.

The bandage is carried first below and then above the joint; then below
and then above, the turns overlapping the usual two-thirds of the width
of the bandage, leaving the joint free until the last. Then it may be
covered with two or three circular turns of the bandage. This admits of
considerable motion without disturbing the bandage to any extent.


The National Red Cross and Girl Scout Instruction in First Aid

[Illustration]

By special arrangement with the National Red Cross, it is possible for a
Girl Scout completing satisfactorily the requirements for the First Aid
Proficiency Badge to secure with slight additional work the Red Cross
certificate in First Aid. Or the course may be taken entirely under Red
Cross auspices, though arranged by Scout officials, in which case the
Scout may receive both the Proficiency Badge and the Red Cross
certificate. The conditions of this co-operation between the Girl Scouts
and the National Red Cross are as follows:

Classes are to be organized with not less than four or more than
twenty-five in a class. The best size is ten to fifteen. _Scouts must be
at least sixteen years of age to be admitted to these classes._

The instructor must be a physician appointed by the Chairman of the
First Aid Committee of the local Chapter of the Red Cross. He or she may
be supplied upon request by the Chapter, or chosen by the class and the
name submitted to the Chapter for appointment.

The Red Cross class roll must be sent in to the local Chapter early in
the course.

A Secretary to handle the records should be chosen, and where the class
is made up of Scouts, the officials should be preferably a Scout Captain
or Scout Official.

The examiner must be a physician appointed by the local Red Cross
Chapter and is preferably some one other than the instructor, but this
is not necessary. Like the instructor, the examiner may be supplied by
the Chapter or chosen by the class.

The Red Cross examination roll, which may be obtained from the Chapter,
should be used in giving examinations and then returned to the Chapter,
who will issue the certificates. Follow the directions on the roll
carefully.

If a Scout holds a First Aid Proficiency Badge she may complete the
course in seven and one-half hours. If she does not hold a Proficiency
Badge in First Aid then fifteen hours will be required. A Girl Scout
holding a Proficiency Badge in First Aid and taking a school course held
under Red Cross auspices which she passes with a mark of at least
seventy-five per cent, can, when the school principal certifies to this,
get the Red Cross certificate without further examination by applying to
the local Red Cross Chapter.


_Advanced Courses_

Advanced courses are open to those who have the Red Cross certificate.
There must be an interval of at least six months after the elementary
course before an advanced course can be taken, and the same interval
between repetitions of it. The course of instruction is seven and
one-half hours, mainly practical demonstrations. A Red Cross medal is
given on completion of this course. Each time it is repeated, up to
three times, a bar (engraved with year) is given to be added to the
medal.


_Fees_

A fee of fifty cents is required for the elementary course. The local
Red Cross Chapter has the right to reduce this fee.

The fee for the advanced course is one dollar, which covers the cost of
certificate, examination and medal. The fee for bar and engraving is
fifty cents. These fees cannot be reduced.

These fees cover the cost to the Red Cross of postage, certificates,
medals, bars, and so forth, but do not cover that of instructor,
examiner, or classroom supplies, which the Red Cross requires the class
to take care of.


_Information_

Where there is no local Girl Scout organization refer to the local Red
Cross Chapter; or if there is none, either to the Girl Scout National
Headquarters, 189 Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y., or to the
Department of First Aid, American Red Cross National Headquarters,
Washington, D. C.


4. THE HOME NURSE

The Girl Scout who has earned the Home Nurse Badge may be of great help
where there is illness. But, she should remember that only such people
as doctors and trained nurses who have knowledge and skill gained by
special training and thorough practice are fitted to care properly for
those who are very ill.

If the Scout with the badge keeps her head and shows herself steady,
reliable and willing, when called upon for help in illness or
emergencies, she proves herself a true Scout who is living up to the
Scout motto of "BE PREPARED."

To earn the badge she should know:

How to keep the sick room clean and comfortable.

How to make a bed properly.

How to prepare for and help a sick person in taking a bath.

How to make a sick person comfortable in bed, changing position, etc.

How to take temperature, pulse and respiration.

How to prepare and serve simple, nourishing food for the sick.

How to feed a helpless person.

How to prepare and use simple remedies for slight ailments.

How to occupy and amuse the sick.

When helping about the sick, the Scout should wear a wash dress or an
apron which covers her dress. She should be very neat and clean. She
should wash her hands frequently, _always_ before her own meals, and
after coming into contact with the sick person and after handling
utensils, dishes, linen, etc., used in the sick room. Great cleanliness
is necessary not only for her own protection but to prevent illness
spreading.

She should move quickly and quietly, but without bustle or hurry, taking
care not to let things fall, not to bump against the furniture, not to
jar the bed, not to slam doors, in fact not to make any unnecessary
noises, as sick people are not only disturbed but may be made worse by
noises and confusion. If a door is squeaky the hinges should be oiled.
Too much talking, loud talking and whispering are to be avoided. Only
cheerful and pleasant subjects should be talked of, _never_ illnesses
either that of the patient nor of others.

The best nursing aims not only to bring relief and comfort to those
already sick, but to guard against _spreading_ sickness.

We know, now, that many diseases are spread by means of _germs_ which
are carried from person to person by various means, such as air, water,
milk, and other food; discharges from the mouth, nose, bowels, bladder,
wounds; clothing; the hands; the breath, and so forth.

It has been found that great heat, intense cold, sunshine and some
powerful drugs called disinfectants kill germs. Germs thrive and
multiply in dirt, dampness and darkness. That is why it is important to
have fresh air, sunshine and cleanliness in order to keep well, and to
help in curing those who get sick.


The Room, Its Order and Arrangement

The hangings and furniture of a sick room should be of a kind that can
be washed and easily kept clean. Plain wooden furniture is better than
upholstered furniture which collects and holds the dust. If there is a
rocking chair it should be for the use of the sick person only. Seeing
and hearing other people rock may be very disturbing.

If carpets are movable, so much the better, as they can be taken out to
be cleaned.

The room should be bright and attractive. Sick people like flowers and
pretty things, but the flowers should not have a strong perfume, and
there should not be too many ornaments around to collect dust and to
take up too much room. Flowers should be taken out of the room every
night and the water changed before being returned to the room in the
morning. Never have faded flowers around.

The room should be kept neat--a place for everything and everything in
its place.

Neatness and attractiveness are not only pleasing to the sick person and
those who come into the room but may really make the sick person feel
better.

Medicines should not be kept in sight. All dishes and utensils not in
use should be taken away and should be washed immediately after use.


_Ventilating and Lighting the Room_

The room of a sick person should be so situated that it will get plenty
of sunlight and be easily aired. A room that has two or more windows can
be better ventilated than a room with only one. When there is only one
window, it should be opened both top and bottom. If there is not a
screen, one can be made by hanging a shawl or a blanket over a clothes
horse or a high-backed chair, or over a line stretched across the lower
part of the window. A fire place or a stove keeps the air
circulating--the air being constantly drawn up the chimney--and so helps
in ventilating a room.

When "airing" the room great care must be taken to keep the sick person
free from draughts.

Unless special orders have been given to the contrary there should be
plenty of sunshine let in. The eyes of the sick person should be
protected from the glare by a screen.

If possible there should be a thermometer in the room. The proper heat
is between 65 and 70 degrees. If the temperature of the room is as high
as 70 degrees and the sick person is cold, it is better to give her a
hot water bag and to put on more covers than to shut the windows, thus
keeping out the fresh air. Cool air acts as a tonic for the sick.


Cleaning the Room

The carpet should be gone over every day to remove the surface dust. Use
the carpet sweeper, being careful not to knock the furniture nor to jar
the bed. Raise as little dust and make as little noise as possible.
Torn-up wet paper scattered on a small part of the carpet at a time and
lightly brushed up into a dustpan with a whisk broom, or a broom, cleans
the carpet very well without raising dust.

If the carpet cannot be taken out to be swept or beaten but requires
thorough sweeping, an umbrella with a sheet over it may be hoisted over
the head of the sick person to keep the dust from her nose and nostrils.
The bare parts of the floor should be gone over with a damp duster or a
damp mop.

The dusting should be done with a damp or oiled duster also, so that the
dust may not be scattered. A basin of soapy water should be at hand and
the duster washed in it frequently while dusting, so that the dust
collected on it from one surface will not be carried to another. While
dusting special attention should be paid to the doorknobs and that part
of the door around them.

When the dusting is finished the dusters should be thoroughly washed
and scalded and hung out of doors to dry.


The Bed

A metal bedstead is better than a wooden one, as wood holds odors and
moisture, and is apt to have more cracks and crevices for germs or bugs
to lodge in. It should be white, for then it shows when it needs
cleaning and bed bugs keep away from white surfaces which show them up
easily.

If possible, have the bed in a part of the room, where the drafts will
not strike the patient every time a door or window is opened, and where
the light does not shine in the eyes. If it can be placed so that the
patient can see from the window so much the better.


To Make an Unoccupied Bed

Remove pillows and bedclothes, one at a time, being careful not to let
corners drag on the floor, and put to air. Turn the mattress over from
end to end one day, and from side to side next day. If the patient does
not have to return to bed at once leave to air for at least half an
hour.

An old blanket, old spread or a quilted pad, spread over the mattress
not only protects the mattress but prevents the sheets from wearing out,
and may make the bed more comfortable. These should be kept clean.

The bed for a sick person is frequently made with a rubber sheet and a
draw sheet. The draw sheet is so called because its proper use is to be
drawn through under the patient without greatly disturbing her and give
her a cool fresh place to lie on. Therefore it should be long enough to
tuck in sufficiently under one side to allow of this being done. An
ordinary sheet folded in two from top to bottom and placed with folded
edge toward the head of the bed may be used. It should entirely cover
the rubber sheet, which is usually put on between the bottom and the
draw sheet.

[Illustration]

When the mattress is sufficiently aired, put on the protective covering.
Over this spread the lower sheet so that the middle fold of the sheet
lies up and down the centre of the mattress from head to foot. Keep
perfectly straight. The sheet should be long enough to have at least
fourteen inches over at ends and sides to tuck in. Tuck ends under
mattress at head and foot drawing tightly so that it will be smooth and
firm. Now tuck under at one side, folding neatly at corners, so that
they will be mitred when finished. If there is no rubber nor draw sheet
to put on, go to the other side of the bed and tuck in firmly at
corners. Then, pulling the middle of the sheet very tightly with one
hand, push the mattress with the other and tuck the sheet under. This
under sheet should be very smooth without a wrinkle in it. If it is not
long enough to tuck in well at both head and foot, leave plenty at the
head to tuck in securely and tuck in at the sides tightly rather than
risk having it come loose at the head. Be sure, however, that the
mattress is entirely covered.


When Rubber and Draw Sheets Are Used

Before going around to the other side, lay the rubber sheet over the
bed, so that the top edge will be well above where the lower edge of the
pillow will come. Put the draw sheet over it. Tuck both well under the
mattress on that side. Then, go to the other side and tuck in the
corners of the lower sheet as directed, then stretching draw, rubber,
and under sheet very tightly, tuck in separately.

Next spread the upper sheet, wrong side up, leaving as much at the head
to turn back over the blankets as you left in the under sheet to tuck
in. Have the middle fold over that of the lower sheet. Spread the
blankets so that their upper edges will be even with the upper edge of
the mattress. If the blankets are not long enough to reach as far up as
they should, and yet tuck under firmly at the foot, place the lower one
as directed, and the upper one so that there will be enough to tuck
under at the foot, and hold the others in place. Tuck in all at once the
foot and lower corners, mitring the corners as you did those of the
lower sheet. Pull and straighten the sheet at the top and turn back
smoothly over the blankets. If the bed is not to be occupied right away,
tuck in both sides, stretching well so that it will have a smooth
surface. Put on the spread, having the top edge even with the top of
the covers. Tuck in neatly at foot and lower corners, letting the sides
hang. Shake and beat the pillows thoroughly, make smooth and even, and
put in place.


To Change the Under Sheet When the Patient Is in Bed

Loosen the bedclothes, without jarring the bed. Take off covers one at a
time, until only one blanket and sheet remain. (If the patient feels
cold, leave as many blankets as necessary to keep her warm.) Holding
blankets with one hand or having patient hold it by the top, draw off
the upper sheet, being careful not to uncover the patient. Remove the
pillows. Have the patient as near the side of the bed as is safe, on her
side, and facing the side on which she is lying. Roll the under sheets
on the side of the bed close to the patient's back, making them as flat
as possible. Pleat about half of the fresh under sheet lengthwise, and
place close to the soiled sheets. Tuck in the other half, at the head,
foot and side, draw the rubber sheet back over this fresh sheet, arrange
the fresh draw sheet in place, tuck both in at that side and roll the
free part close up to the patient's back. Now lift the patient's feet
over the roll of fresh and soiled linen to the freshly made part, then
have her roll her body over that side. Going to the other side of the
bed, remove all the soiled linen and tuck the fresh sheets in, pulling
tightly, being sure that there are no wrinkles under the patient. All
the time keep the patient well covered. Now, spread the upper sheet and
blankets over the covering the patient has had on while the lower sheets
were being changed and, having the patient hold the coverings you have
just put on, draw off the others, just as you took off the top sheet at
first. Finish making the bed as you would an unoccupied one.


If the Bed Is to Be Occupied at Once

If the bed is to be occupied at once the coverings should be tucked in
only at foot, corners and one side, then turned back diagonally from the
head to foot.

The bed clothes should never be drawn too tightly over a person in bed,
or they may irritate the skin, especially at the knees and toes. Bed
sores may be started in this way. Perhaps the commonest cause of
bedsores is from wrinkles in the under sheets. If the spread is heavy it
should not be used over a patient. Use a sheet instead to protect the
blankets.


Bathing

Bathing is more important for the sick than for the well. It not only
keeps the skin clean and in condition to do its work, but it is soothing
to the nerves, makes the sick person rest better and is refreshing.

If the room is the right temperature and the bath is carefully taken
there is no danger of a sick person taking cold. On the other hand
bathing helps to keep people in condition to _avoid_ taking colds. (See
Red Cross Text Book on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick, page 156.)

When a patient is very sick or helpless, the bath should be given by
someone who is able to do it deftly and quickly, with the least exertion
to the patient.

Very often, however, a person in bed is quite able to bathe herself,
with a little help, if the necessary things are brought to her.


To Prepare For a Bath in Bed

Have the room warm and free from draughts. A good temperature is 70
degrees. An old person or a baby may have it warmer.

Bring into the room everything needed. This will include:

An extra blanket to wrap around the sick person.

Two or more bath towels.

Two wash cloths--one for the face and another for the rest of the body.

Soap--Ivory or castile are good.

Pitcher of good hot water, and slop jar.

Alcohol and toilet powder if you have it.

Nail file and scissors.

Comb and brush.

Clean bed linen and nightgown. In cold weather these may be hung near
the fire or radiator to warm.

A basin of water of a temperature that the sick person finds
comfortable.

When everything is ready the Scout can help by loosening the bedclothes,
arranging the extra blanket, removing the nightgown, and in holding the
basin and towels, in changing the water or in any way that will make the
bath easier for the sick person, perhaps washing the feet and back,
being careful to keep all the rest of the body covered and warm, and in
protecting the bed by bath towels spread under the part being washed.
When doing this the wash cloth should not be so wet that it will drip
and wet the bed. It should be held so that the corners do not touch
against the bedclothes. There should not be too much soap used as it
makes the skin feel sticky. Every part should be rinsed and dried
thoroughly. Warm towels are a great help in this.

When the bath is finished alcohol or witch hazel may be used to rub the
parts where there is most pressure as the back, shoulder blades, hips,
buttocks, elbows, knees and ankles. This not only gives comfort but it
prevents bedsores.

If a sick person gets a bath, so that it does not disturb nor tire her
nor make her chilly she will usually enjoy it. By getting everything
ready, by helping where needed, and by clearing up nicely the Girl Scout
may make the bath a pleasure instead of something to be dreaded.

Sometimes sick people are able to go to the bathroom to take their own
baths, if everything is gotten ready for them beforehand, so that they
will not get tired doing so. People who are not well should never be
allowed to lock themselves in the bathroom alone.


Getting Ready a Tub Bath

The bathroom should be well aired but warm. The water in the bath tub
helps to warm it up. A bath towel or bath mat should be spread beside
the tub on the floor and a chair with a blanket and a bath towel on it
for the person to sit on while she is drying herself. The water should
be about 105 degrees or a temperature that the person finds comfortable.
Always let a patient try it herself with her hand and arm before getting
in. Five to ten minutes is long enough to stay in the water. The towels
should be within easy reach and the bathrobe, night gown and slippers
placed ready to put on.

The bed should be put to air and left as long as possible, but if the
patient has to get back in it immediately after her bath, it should be
made--care being taken that it is warm enough. If necessary put in hot
water bags and spread a blanket over the under sheet to wrap around her
if she needs it. People chill easily after a bath if they are exposed to
sudden cold.


Foot Baths

Foot baths are often used in the home as remedies for colds, headaches,
sleeplessness and to give relief at the monthly period.

If there is not a regular foot tub a pail that is large enough to put
the foot in is better than a basin as it lets the water come up around
the ankles. A person may sit in a chair or on the side of the bed. Have
tub about half full of water and at first of a heat that feels
comfortable, putting more hot water in from time to time, until it is
as hot as it can be stood. When adding hot water the feet should be away
from the part of the tub where the water is poured in, and it should be
added slowly to prevent possibility of burning. A person getting a foot
bath should be kept very warm. Wrap a blanket around the knees so that
the legs will be protected front and back. After fifteen or twenty
minutes the feet should be removed from the water and dried without
rubbing. They should be kept well covered for an hour or more. No one
should go out immediately after a foot bath.

If mustard is to be added, mix it first in a cup and mix it gradually so
that it does not lump. Two tablespoonfuls of mustard to a foot bath is
about enough.

_Changing of position_, and supporting different parts of the body, give
both rest and comfort to anyone in bed. This may be done by turning a
patient and by the proper arrangement of pillows and other supports.

_To turn a patient toward you_ place one hand over her shoulder and the
other hand over her hip and draw toward you. Bend her knees, go to the
other side of the bed, put both hands under her hips and draw toward
you. Place a pillow lengthwise at her back, from her shoulder to waist
for support.

A pillow, placed under or between the knees, often gives much relief and
comfort. Small air pillows that can be placed under or against the small
of the back relieve strain and rest the muscles. Anyone lying on her
back will be rested by arranging pillows lengthwise at the sides to
support arms. Rubber rings and air cushions are also used to relieve
pressure and give support. They should always be covered, using towel or
pillow case, if they have not their own fitted covers.

Rings of any size may be made of cotton wound with bandage. These are
frequently needed under the heels, particularly for a patient lying on
her back.

[Illustration]


Sitting Up in Bed

When a patient is allowed to sit up in bed and a bed-rest is not
available a straight chair placed bottom-up behind the patient makes a
good support for the pillows. If there is no other support, at least six
pillows are needed to make a patient comfortable. The pillows should be
so arranged that the head is not thrown forward and that there is proper
support for the back, and the arms.


Raising a Patient Who Has Slipped Down in Bed

Have the patient draw up the knees until the soles of the feet are
firmly on the bed. Place your right arm under the far shoulder in such a
way that the patient's head rests in your bent elbow. Place the left arm
under the thighs. Hold your back stiff. Have the patient clasp her
hands around your waist. Lift without jerking. When _two_ persons are
doing the lifting, one should stand on either side of the bed. The
person on the left side of the bed should place the right arm as though
she were doing the lifting alone. Place the other arm under the small of
the patient's back.

The person on the right side will place her left arm beside her
companion's, and her right arm under the thighs. If able, the patient
may place a hand on the shoulder of each lifter.

Lift in unison without jerking.

A pillow rolled in a sheet, placed under the body and tied to the head
or sides of the bed will prevent slipping down in bed.

It is usually better to shake up and rearrange the pillows after raising
the patient as the moving disarranges them somewhat.


To Change the Pillows

Slip the right arm under the shoulders in such a way that the neck and
head are supported in your bent elbow; with the left hand gently draw
out one pillow at a time, from above. In replacing, stand the pillows on
the side at the head of the bed, lift the shoulders, and grasping the
pillow by the middle draw down under the patient's head.

Another way is to have the patient near one side of the bed and lifting
in the same way draw the pillows one at a time away from you. In
replacing put the fresh pillows on the far side and again lifting the
head pull them toward you.

The pillow should support the neck and shoulders. A small down or hair
pillow placed under the back of the neck from time to time, rests and
supports.


To Change the Nightgown

The nightgown should be loose enough to change easily. If there is an
opening in the front, this may be made larger or the gown may be split
up the back.

These openings may be sewn up again without in any way damaging the
gown.

Have the gown well drawn up around the shoulders and neck.

Slip one hand through the arm hole of the gown, and bend the patient's
arm. With the other hand draw off the sleeve.

Draw the hand through the corresponding sleeve of the fresh gown and
lifting the head just as for changing the pillow, slip the soiled and
fresh gown over the head at the same time. Pull away the soiled gown.
Put your hand through the sleeve and draw the patient's hand through,
then raising again draw the gown down under the back and hips.


Combing the Hair

The hair should be combed at least once a day. If this is done from the
very beginning of an illness it will not get badly tangled.

Spread a towel over the pillow. Have the patient turn head on one side
so that the back of the head is exposed. Part the hair in the middle
from the forehead to the nape of the neck. Comb only a small strand at a
time. If there are tangles, comb from ends toward the scalp. Avoid
pulling by twisting the strand around the finger and holding loosely
between the comb and the scalp. When the hair on one side has been
combed, braid it, having the top of the braid near the ear. Do the other
side the same way. If very much tangled a little oil or alcohol rubbed
in makes it easier to comb.

Wash the comb and brush in soap and water once a week.

Wash the hands after combing the hair.

Be careful in removing the towel not to scatter the loose hairs and
dandruff it may hold.


Getting Patient Up in Chair

If possible have a chair with arms.

Place beside the bed.

Put cushions on seat and fresh pillow at back.

Throw a blanket over all corner-wise, to wrap around the patient when
she sits down.

While in bed put on stockings, slippers, bath robe (and underdrawers or
flannel petticoat in winter).

Have the patient sit up in bed, and help her to swing her feet over the
edge.

Stand in front of her, and have her place her hands on your shoulders.
Place your hands under her armpits, and let her slip off the bed with
her feet firmly on the floor. Turn and let her sit down slowly.

Place a stool for her feet.

Place the chair so that she will be out of drafts and so that the light
does not shine directly into her face.

When patients become restless and nervous they may often be made more
comfortable by rearranging the bed clothes, by fanning, by changing
position, by rubbing the back and legs, by putting hot water bags at the
feet, back and neck, or small of back. In summer try very cold water
instead of hot water in the bags. Cold compresses may be applied to the
back of the neck, the spine, the forehead, or wherever they may give
comfort. A foot bath, a hot or cool sponging will not only quiet
restlessness but will often make a patient sleepy. In using any wet
application be sure not to get the pillows or bed clothes wet. Continued
rubbing at the back of the neck or stroking of the forehead gently is
soothing and quieting.


Temperature, Pulse, Respiration

The temperature of the average person in health is 98.6° Fahrenheit.
This is called the _normal_ temperature.

A temperature below 98.0 degrees is said to be sub-normal. A healthy
person may have a sub-normal temperature in the early morning. People
with a continuous low temperature, say around 97 (this is often the case
with old people and those who are recovering from illness) need careful
attention. If in bed, they should be kept warmly covered and supplied
with hot water bags. If up, they should be warmly clothed, and protected
from drafts, and sudden changes of temperature. Usually, in the early
morning before daylight, the temperature is at the lowest. That is why
it is important to watch sick people and babies and to put an extra
cover over them at that time.

Any temperature above 100 degrees, if it continues, is serious. A
temperature above 101 degrees is a fairly high one, and 103 degrees or
above is very high.

The temperature is taken with a clinical thermometer placed in the mouth
or in the armpit. For babies, and people who might break the thermometer
if it were placed in the mouth, place the thermometer in the armpit.
Temperatures of babies and very ill people are taken in rectum, but the
Girl Scout should not attempt this. Always wash the thermometer in cold
water before using. Wash in cold water and disinfect by wiping off with
alcohol or ether after using. Hot water will break it. When the
thermometer is being used every day it may be kept in disinfectant.
Never lay down a thermometer that has been used until after it has been
washed and disinfected.


To Take the Temperature in the Mouth

Cleanse the thermometer.

Shake down so that the mercury is below 96 degrees.

Have patient moisten lips.

Place the thermometer with bulb under tongue. Lips must be closed while
holding it.

Hold two or three minutes, in this position.

Be sure that nothing hot or cold has been in the mouth for at least five
minutes before taking temperature.


To Take Temperature in the Armpits

Wipe out armpit.

Insert the thermometer.

Place arm across the chest so that the thermometer is held securely. It
should remain so for four or five minutes.


Pulse

The pulse may be counted on the thumb side of the inside of the wrist,
at the temples, the ankles, and other parts of the body where the
arteries are near the surface.

The pulse shows the number of times per minute which the heart beats or
pumps.

A normal pulse rate for a man is around 72, for a woman 80, for a child
90, and for a baby 100 beats.

A very rapid or a very slow pulse shows that there is something wrong
that should be reported. It takes a good deal of practice to learn to
count the pulse.

Place two or three fingers on the beating artery, just touching firmly
enough to feel the beats, and count for a half minute, then multiply by
two to find the number of beats per minute. Be sure that the patient's
hand is in a comfortable position while counting.


Respiration

Respiration is another word for breathing. An average normal person when
sitting or lying still, breathes from twelve to twenty times per minute,
and when moving about 24 times. We all know that quick moving makes
quick breathing.

Respiration above 40 or below 8 is a danger sign. If the respiration is
very fast, or difficult, or wheezy, or in any way very unusual, we can
tell it at a glance. People who are breathing hard are frequently
relieved by being propped up in bed.

_To count the respiration._ It is better to do this without the person's
knowledge. It may be counted by watching the rise and fall of the chest
or of the shoulders. Another way is to hold the person's hand as though
taking the pulse, having her rest her hand and forearm lightly on the
chest and count the rise and fall.


Dishes

Dishes used by patients with any of the contagious diseases, and this
includes colds and sore throats, should be kept separate, and washed
separately from the family dishes. They should be scalded after washing
and have special dish cloths. Using separate utensils, and a separate
room for the sick person are two of the surest ways to prevent the
spread of the disease.

In such diseases as measles, scarlet fever, colds, mumps, influenza,
dishes should be boiled every day. Put them in a large kettle in cold
water and let them come to a boil. Even the thinnest glass will not
break if treated in this way. Let the dishes stay in the water until
cool enough to handle.

Dish cloths and dish mops should be thoroughly washed in good hot water
and soap, and put in the sun to dry. They should be boiled regularly.

If it is necessary to disinfect linen put it all in a bag and leave in
cold water to soak for some hours before putting it on to boil. Put a
little washing soda in the water. After boiling hard for fifteen or
twenty minutes it may be washed with the other garments.

Stains should be washed out before putting linen in the wash.


Utensils and Their Care

_All utensils should be kept clean and ready for instant use._ The
bedpan should always be warmed before being used. Running warm water in
and on it is usually the easiest way to do this. It should be thoroughly
dried on the outside so that it will not wet the bed. It is a good plan
to have a piece of rubber sheet or several thicknesses of old newspapers
covered with a bath towel to put under the bedpan in bed. When carrying
away, keep covered. Use cold water first, and after washing with soapy
water, rinse and dry before putting away.

Basins in constant use, especially if they are used to hold
disinfectant, need to be well scoured with sapolio from time to time.
Nothing is more shiftless looking than a dark rim of dirt or stain
around a basin.

Hot water bags should be emptied when not in use and hung upside down.
The stoppers should be kept fastened to them.

Ice caps should be dried inside and out and stuffed with cotton or
tissue paper to keep the sides from sticking together.


Hot and Cold Applications

Hot applications are used to relieve pain, to supply heat, and to bring
down temperature. Both moist and dry heat are used. Hot water bags,
metal heaters, electric pads, hot flannels are the commonest forms of
dry heat. Fomentations, poultices, and baths are the simplest forms of
moist heat.

In applying heat, one should be ever on the watch to avoid burning a
patient. The skin of babies, children, old people, and of those who have
been ill a long time, is very easily burned. Again, the same heat that
is easily tolerated by one person, may burn another.

_Hot water bags_ or their substitute, electric pads or metal heaters
should always be wrapped in towels or have their own coverings. Never
fill a hot water bag more than two-thirds full. The water should not be
hot enough to scald a patient if the bag should spring a leak. Before
putting in the cork, expel the air by twisting the upper part between
the neck and the level of the water before putting in the cork. Be sure
to cork tightly. If the bag is to be where the patient will bear the
weight, put in a very little water and renew from time to time. Where
there is no hot water bag, stone bottles may be used, or bags of salt or
sand may be heated in the oven. The practice of using ordinary glass
bottles is an unsafe one, as the corks are not always to be depended on
to stay tight and the glass breaks easily. When bags of salt or sand are
used the coverings should be thick enough to prevent the particles from
sifting through. Pieces of flannel the right size may in some cases
supply all the heat that is necessary. They should be covered with
another flannel to keep in the warmth.

_To make a mustard plaster._ Have ready a piece of old muslin (a piece
of an old nightgown will do) two inches wide and two inches longer than
twice the length of the poultice required. On one end of it, with a
margin of an inch on three sides, place a piece of oiled paper or shelf
paper or a piece of clean paper bag, the size you wish the poultice to
be. Mix one tablespoonful of mustard with 8 tablespoonfuls of flour,
before wetting. Have water about as hot as the hand can stand. Do not
use boiling water. Stir the water into the mustard and flour gradually
so that it will not lump. Make the paste stiff enough to spread thinly
on the paper, about a quarter of an inch thick. Turn the margins of the
cloth over the paste. Fold the long end over so that all the paste is
covered and tuck the end under the turned-in edges of the sides. Fold it
and take it to the patient in a hot towel or between hot plates. The
skin where it is to be placed should be oiled. Test the heat by holding
it against the back of your own hand. Put on slowly and leave for two
minutes. Watch and remove sooner if the skin becomes reddened or if it
is uncomfortable. After removing wipe away the moisture from the skin
and cover with a soft piece of muslin, and place a piece of flannel over
that. A blister after a mustard paste shows very careless nursing. Never
let a patient go to sleep with a mustard plaster on.

[Illustration: ADMINISTERING AN INHALATION]

_Fomentations or stupes_ are pieces of flannel wrung out of very hot
water and placed on the skin. They should be two or three times as large
as the part to be treated, and should be applied as hot as the patient
can bear them, without burning the skin. Have two sets, so that one set
will be ready to put on when the other is taken off. The stupes should
be wrung as dry as possible and as they must be very hot to do any good,
a fomentation wringer is a great protection for the hands. One may be
made by putting halves of a broom handle through the ends of a short
roller towel in the middle of which the fomentation has been placed. By
twisting the sticks in the opposite direction the fomentation can be
wrung very dry. Take it to the bed in the wringer and do not open until
ready to place on the skin, as it will lose its heat very quickly. Put a
little oil or vaseline on the skin and apply the fomentation gradually.
Cover with a dry flannel and put wadding over that. A piece of oiled
skin or oiled paper between the wadding and the dry flannel helps to
keep in the heat and moisture. Hold in place with a towel or binder
pinned tightly.

_Cold_ is applied by means of ice bags and by cold compresses. In
filling an ice bag the ice should be in small pieces, and the bag not
too full. Expel the air as from a hot water bag. Cover with a towel or a
cover for the purpose. Never put the rubber near the skin, it may freeze
if so left. Besides, the cover absorbs the moisture that collects on the
outside as the ice melts.

_Cold compresses_ are a common remedy for headache. Old handkerchiefs
are excellent for this purpose. Fold in frayed edges, two or three
thicknesses will be heavy enough, and have two, large enough to cover
the forehead. Wring one out of ice water so that it will not drip, and
put on the forehead. Keep the other on a piece of ice and change the two
applications frequently. When applied to the neck a dry cloth should be
placed outside to protect the pillow or the patient's clothing. Cold
compresses for inflamed eyes should be of one thickness only, and a
little larger than the eye. Have a number and change very often. Use a
separate compress for each eye. If there is a discharge a compress
should not be used a second time. The discarded compresses should be
collected in a paper bag or wrapped in newspapers and burned.

When cold compresses are applied to the head there should be a hot water
bag at the feet.

_Gargles, sprays, and inhalations_ are often ordered for sore throats
and colds.

Salt or soda added to water in the proportion of a teaspoonful to a pint
makes an excellent gargle.

A very cold gargle or one as hot as can be held without burning is
better than a tepid one.

Do not go out in the cold air directly after using a hot gargle.

Use at least six separate mouthfuls each time you gargle, and hold long
enough at the back of the throat for the gargle to reach every part.

A spray should not be used for the nose without a special order from the
doctor. The liquid sometimes gets into the passage leading to the ear
and causes earache.

Always wipe the nozzle of the atomizer before using. It should be
cleaned after each use and boiled, if another patient is to use it.
Always boil the nozzle and clean out the bottle when the atomizer is to
be put away. Keep it in a box where dust will not reach it.

_Inhalations_ are useful to relieve difficult breathing and for loss of
voice or hoarseness. Fill a pitcher, bowl, or basin, two-thirds full of
boiling water. Wrap with a towel to prevent burning if it should touch a
patient. Usually drugs such as peppermint spirits, oil of eucalyptus, or
tincture of benzoin, in dose of a teaspoonful to the hot water contained
in the receptacle, is enough. If no drug is at hand, the steam itself
may be depended upon to do some good. Pin one end of a bath towel around
the face below the eyes and spread the other over the pitcher inhaling
the steam as it rises. It may not be possible to induce a child to do
this, in which case make a tent of an open umbrella with a sheet thrown
over it at the head of the bed, leaving the front a little open. Place
the pitcher so that the child will get the steam and hold the pitcher
carefully all the time. Do not let the pitcher touch the patient.

Another means of inhalation is to hold a funnel, made of a piece of
folded paper in the nose of a kettle of very hot water, near the patient
so that the steam can be inhaled. Be very careful not to scald the
patient. After a steam inhalation one should not go out in the cold air
nor have the windows opened for an hour or more.


Common Medicines and Other Remedies

It is a very safe rule _never_ to take medicines oneself without a
doctor's orders. Above all, never advise others, even when you know from
experience that certain medicines have helped yourself and others.
Medicines should be taken upon prescription from the physician, should
be measured accurately, and given at the exact hour ordered.

Read carefully the label or box from which you take the medicine before
and after opening or uncorking, and read the name again when putting
back in its place. Many people have been poisoned by not reading the
label. Have all glasses and spoons, etc., thoroughly cleansed before and
after using.

Accuracy, attention, cleanliness, regularity should be watchwords.

In giving either food or medicine, the following measures are helpful:

          1 teaspoonful measures 50 grains.
          2 teaspoonfuls make 1 dessertspoonful.
          2 dessertspoonfuls make 1 tablespoonful.
          2 tablespoonfuls make 1 ounce.
          8 ounces make 1 cupful or glassful.
          16 ounces make one pint, or pound.
              (This applies to either liquid or dry measure.)

In giving pills, capsules, tablets give a drink of water first to
moisten the tongue and throat. This helps them to slip down more easily.

If there is danger of a pill or tablet choking the patient, crush the
pill or tablet between two spoons.

When medicines are taken by spoon, the spoon should be licked by the
patient in order to get the full amount.

Nearly all medicines should be mixed with water, and should be followed
with a drink of water unless orders are given to the contrary.

Keep all medicines tightly corked.

Buy medicines only in small quantities, as most of them lose their
strength in time.

In buying vaseline or cold cream it is better to have it in a tube than
in jars. Being opened and dipped into constantly soon makes the contents
of a jar unclean.


Common Remedies

Such remedies as the following are to be found in many homes.

Castor oil, clove oil, vaseline, baking soda (this is the same thing as
bicarbonate of soda or saleratus), salt, lime water, alcohol,
camphorated oil, spirits of camphor, flaxseed, aromatic spirits of
ammonia. Do not confuse this latter remedy with ammonia water used for
cleansing things.

Castor oil should be taken in these doses:

          Baby: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls.
          Older children: 1 tablespoonful.
          Adult: 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls.

There are many ways of taking castor oil. Heat the glass or spoon, put
in some orange or lemon juice, then the oil, then more juice. Open the
mouth wide and put the oil far back. Have more juice at hand to swallow
immediately after. Chilling the mouth by holding a piece of ice in it
for a few minutes also helps to disguise the taste. A couple of
tablespoonfuls of lemon or orange juice with a quarter of a teaspoonful
of soda mixed thoroughly with the oil will make it effervesce so that it
is not unpleasant to take.

If the dose is vomited, wait a little while, then give another. Do not
give directly before nor directly after a meal.

_Olive oil_ is often taken in doses of one or two teaspoonfuls after
meals to regulate the bowels or to help people gain weight or when the
appetite is small. It is also used to rub into the skin of
under-nourished babies and to rub sick people, especially if the skin is
very dry. After rubbing with oil always wipe the skin with a towel.

_Vaseline_ is used to grease sore and chafed parts. A little may be
inserted into the nostrils for a cold. Camphorated vaseline is
especially good for this. In case of an irritating cough that keeps a
child from sleeping, a little plain pure vaseline may be put in the
mouth, and it will be found very soothing.

Vaseline is also used to grease such utensils as nozzles and to put on
the parts to which poultices or fomentations are to be applied.

_Soda_ may be used for burns (moisten and apply as a paste), as a gargle
(one teaspoonful to a pint of water), as an enema (the same proportion),
for colds (a teaspoonful in a quart of water to be taken internally in
the course of each day), and in bilious attacks, water with this amount
of soda may be given. Also to get a person to vomit, in which case the
water should be slightly warm.

_Salt_ may be used as a gargle in the same way as soda, and even mixed
with soda, also for enemas. Coarse salt, when heated and put into bags,
may be used when there is no hot water bag.

_Lime water_ is used in mixing the baby's milk and is put in the milk
for sick people when they cannot take full strength milk. The usual
proportion is two tablespoons of lime water to a half glass of milk,
which makes about 1 part of lime water to 3 parts of milk.

_Alcohol_ may be used to disinfect the more delicate utensils as the
thermometer. _Most alcohol now obtainable is wood alcohol or
denaturated; that is, mixed with powerful poisons, so that it should
never touch the mouth._ Never place a bottle of alcohol near a flame. If
it is ever necessary to use an alcohol lamp, use the solid alcohol. It
is much safer.

_Camphorated oil_ is often used to rub the chest and neck with in case
of colds. It should be warmed and rubbed in thoroughly. Protect the
bedclothes and the patient's clothes with towels. After rubbing, wipe
and cover the part with a flannel, to prevent chill.

_Spirits of camphor or aromatic spirits of ammonia_, a few drops on a
handkerchief or piece of cotton, held five or six inches from the nose,
relieves faintness. Inhaling the camphor in this way will often make it
easier to breathe through the nose in case of a head cold. Fifteen drops
of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a tablespoonful of water may be given
to anyone recovering from a faint or to relieve nausea.

_Flaxseed tea_ is an old-fashioned remedy for coughs. Pour a quart of
boiling water over two tablespoonfuls of flaxseed and let it simmer for
two or three hours, or until reduced to about a pint of tea. Strain
through a fine strainer several times so that it will not be stringy,
flavor with lemon, and add honey or sugar. Put in a covered jar, and
take a teaspoonful at a time to relieve irritation in the throat.

_The Daily Clean-Out._--People, sick or well, should have a bowel
movement once or twice a day. Taking medicine for this purpose is a very
bad habit. If healthy people have the proper exercise and food, and
drink plenty of good water, medicine is not necessary. Eating coarse
grained food, as bran muffins, corn meal porridge, fruits, and
vegetables, drinking plenty of water, exercising in the open air, and
having a regular time for going to the lavatory (immediately after
breakfast and the last thing at night before retiring are suggested
times) are habits that are usually sufficient to keep the bowels in good
order.

If the waste matter is not carried off by the bowel movements, the body
will in time become poisoned by the decayed substance in the intestines,
and illness follows. Many headaches, "tired feelings," "blues," and even
appendicitis may be caused by constipation.

People who are sick and therefore deprived of taking exercise to help in
keeping their bowels regular, need to have very special attention paid
to their diet and to have plenty of drinking water always at hand. Also
they should have bedpan or whatever other attention they need
_regularly_, and when asked for, _immediately_.

_Chill_, if due to exposure, may be treated by giving a warm bath or a
foot bath, and putting to bed between warm blankets and with hot water
bags. Rub briskly under the covers and give a warm drink such as tea,
coffee, milk, etc.


Some Common Ills and Their Treatment

When a chill is not merely due to being cold, give the same treatment
except the rubbing, take the temperature, and if there is fever, send
for the doctor, as it may be the beginning of an illness.

_Colds or cramps_, or pain in the bowels may be caused by constipation,
by gas, by undigested food, by the monthly period or more serious
causes. Apply heat (hot water bag or fomentation), sip hot water in
which is a little baking soda (one-half teaspoonful to a cup), or a few
drops of peppermint. Try a hot foot bath. Lie down and keep very quiet
with a hot water bag at feet. If pain continues, except in the case of
the monthly illness, empty the stomach either by putting the finger down
the throat or by drinking warm water and soda until vomiting starts.
Take an enema or a dose of castor oil. If the pain still continues, send
for a doctor.

_Convulsions._ Send for a doctor at once. Loosen all clothing, undress
if possible. Watch and prevent patient from hurting herself. Do not try
to restrain. Try to force a spoonhandle wound with a bandage between the
teeth, to prevent biting of tongue. Keep lying down with head slightly
raised. As soon as possible, administer enema or dose of castor oil. Put
ice bag on head and hot water bottle to feet. Keep warm. A child may be
put into a warm bath and held until convulsions subside. Keep very quiet
and handle as little as possible when the convulsion is over, as
handling may cause a repetition of the twitching.

_Croup._ Give steam inhalation. Keep a kettle of very warm water in the
room. If this is not possible, fill the bathroom with steam by turning
on the hot water, and take the patient there. Put hot fomentations to
neck, chest, and abdomen. Send for doctor, who will usually order
medicine to make the child vomit, which brings some relief.

_Earache._ Use hot applications against the ear. A heated glass or a cup
in which there is a cloth wrung in very hot water, held against the ear
may be found very comforting. Never put drops nor anything else into the
ear canal. Either send for the doctor or take the patient to him, as
there may be a developing abscess which needs to be opened.

_Fever._ Patient should go to bed in a well ventilated room and keep
quiet. The bowels should move freely and plenty of water be taken.
Bathing the hands, face and neck or rubbing with alcohol gives relief,
especially if there is restlessness. Only liquid food should be given,
and even that should not be urged.

_Headaches._ The commonest causes of frequent headaches are eye-strain
and indigestion. The cure is being fitted with glasses and taking a
proper diet. Rest and quiet, careful eating, cold compresses to the
head, a hot water bag to the feet, or a foot bath will usually relieve
an ordinary headache. Sometimes, as when there is constipation, a dose
of castor oil is necessary. An enema will often give instant relief.
Never take headache medicines unless a doctor has specially ordered it.
These medicines may contain powerful poisons. The danger of taking them
is that while for the time being they may relieve the headache, the
_cause_ of the headache _remains_, and the headache returns unless the
cause, such as eye-strain or indigestion, is removed.

_Hiccoughs_ can be usually stopped by drinking a glass of water in sips
while holding the breath. They are usually caused by eating too fast or
by some form of indigestion.


Colds, Their Prevention and Care

Everybody knows that colds are "catching." People who are over-tired or
under-fed, who stay too much in either under-heated or over-heated
rooms, or who do not bathe regularly, or who do not get exercise enough
in the open air, are those most likely to catch cold.

If you have a cold yourself, stay away from others if possible, and do
all in your power to prevent others coming close to you. Cover the mouth
when coughing or sneezing, use paper or old rags instead of
handkerchiefs and then burn them; wash your hands before touching things
others are to use, and use separate dishes, which should be kept
entirely apart from the family dishes and washed separately. If such
precautions are taken by the first member of the family to take cold,
it would seldom spread through the family.

When people around you have colds, avoid getting close to them, gargle
often, take deep breaths of fresh air whenever possible, wash your hands
often and keep them away from your nose and mouth.

You do not need to be told that the handkerchief used by anyone with a
cold is full of germs. It should be kept from touching other things and
should never be left lying around.

If, at the first signs of a cold, a good dose of castor oil is taken, a
glass of hot lemonade and a hot bath before going to bed, a cold may be
"broken up," as we say. In mild weather, the windows may be left open,
but if the weather is very cold it is better to air the room from
another room, in order to keep an even temperature, but there should be
good ventilation.

If the throat is sore, gargling and a cold compress to the neck will
bring relief. If there is fever and headache, you have already been told
what to do. Anyone with a cold should eat very lightly and drink plenty
of water. They should be as quiet as possible and get all the rest and
sleep possible.

Camphorated or plain vaseline may be put in the nostrils, and if there
is a cough, plain vaseline may be taken internally--placed on the tongue
at the back of the mouth. A spoonful of flaxseed tea taken as often as
necessary to relieve irritation may bring relief. Inhalations are
helpful in hoarseness. Never give any cough medicines except what are
ordered by a doctor.

If the symptoms continue after the first night it is advisable to call a
doctor, as what seems a slight cold may be the beginning of a serious
illness, as measles, scarlet fever, pneumonia, etc. If there is earache,
rapid breathing, great weakness or sleepiness the doctor should be
called at once.

Any symptom that lasts after a cold, as pain in one part, weakness, or
high temperature, needs a doctor's attention.


Food for the Sick

Food for the sick should be light and easily digested. Generally the
doctor says what may be eaten. Such foods as the following are included
in so-called invalid foods: Milk, milk soups, eggs, raw and soft-cooked,
rennet, custards, ice creams, albumin water, well cooked cereals,
gruels, broths, toasts, milk toast, jellies made with gelatine, such as
lemon and wine jelly; macaroni, spaghetti, well-cooked bread (never
fresh bread), tea, coffee, cocoa.

Sick people should have their meals as regularly as possible, at regular
hours and promptly and attractively served. The tray, the dishes, the
tray-cloth, should be spotlessly clean, and the tray should not be
over-loaded with dishes or food. If it is necessary to bring all the
food for a meal to the room on the tray at once in order to save steps,
remove some of it, perhaps the dessert, until the patient is ready for
it.

Before leaving the room to prepare the tray, arrange everything so that
the patient may eat the food as soon as it is brought. As a rule it is
better for the sick member of the family to have her meals served before
the family sits down to the table, so that she may have her food fresh
and hot, and not get tired waiting.

Try to have food that the patient likes, if possible. If she does not
like what may be served her, it may be served so attractively that her
appetite may be tempted.

All food should be tasted before serving. Serve hot food hot, and cold
food cold.

Milk is the most nourishing of liquid foods. If it is to be heated, do
not let it boil. Always take the chill off milk served to children.

Generally speaking, cooked food is better than uncooked, even fruits.
Baked apples or apple sauce, for example, are safer to give the sick
than raw apples.

Toast is better than bread. Toast upon which the butter has melted
should not be given to a sick person. Have the toast hot, and butter
each mouthful as eaten. Bread should be at least one day old before
being given to a sick person. Hot breads, such as fresh rolls and
biscuits, are not good foods for ill people. Fried foods should be kept
from invalids and children.

The best way to prepare a potato for an invalid is to bake it. It should
be served when it is light and mealy, and never after it has become
soggy.

The best way of cooking meat is to broil it, having the outside well
browned, and the inside soft and juicy, never dry and hard.


A Tray for Liquid and Soft Food

The tray should be large enough to hold two glasses or a cup and saucer
and a glass, as well as salt or sugar. Put two spoons on the tray, and
if the patient is using a tube or a feeder, put that on the tray. One of
the glasses should contain fresh water. Offer a glass of water before
and after the nourishment.

The tray for soft solids. Suppose the meal is to be boiled rice, or
other cereal, and toast. The tray should have a fresh doilie, salt,
sugar (covered), a glass of water, two teaspoons, a knife, if butter is
allowed on the toast, and a small pitcher of milk or cream for the rice.
Put the cereal in a deep saucer or small bowl, cover with a plate or
saucer and rest on another plate. Spread a small napkin on another
plate. Put the toast on it, then wrap the napkin around it to keep hot.

Sick people should have plenty of water to drink. Besides having a
pitcher of fresh water and a glass where it may be easily reached,
always put a glass of fresh cool water on the tray when food or medicine
are brought. While ice water is bad for both sick and well people, the
water should be cool enough to be agreeable and refreshing. Water that
is chilled to the right temperature by being kept in the ice chest,
bottled, is preferable. It should be drunk slowly and not gulped down.
Water standing in the room should be kept covered at all times.


Feeding Helpless Patients

A patient is often so weak that she cannot lift her head in order to
eat. In this case she would be given liquids through straws or by spoon
or "feeder." Sometimes by putting a small quantity of liquid in a glass,
two tablespoonfuls, a patient is enabled to drink without spilling a
drop.

If necessary, slip one hand under the pillow, raise the head a little,
holding the glass to the lips with the other. Anyone lying down should
take food very slowly. If solid, it should be cooked, especially well,
as there is danger of choking.

Tubes should be washed immediately after using. If used continuously
they should be cleaned with a tube brush made for that purpose. Straws
should be burned or destroyed. If feeding with a spoon, be careful that
neither the food nor the spoon burns the lips or mouth. Feed slowly and
a little at a time, allowing plenty of time between mouthfuls.


Occupying and Amusing the Sick

When people are recovering from an illness, or when they are what we
call chronic invalids, they often enjoy and are helped by being amused
or occupied. At this time a Girl Scout may be very helpful. First of
all, she should be cheerful herself. Then she should be able to play
two or three quiet games, such as cards, dominoes, checkers, and be able
to read aloud and to tell cheerful and amusing stories. Children may
often be kept quiet and happy by hearing little rhymes recited. It might
be a good idea for every Girl Scout to be able to tell three short
stories and three funny stories, know three conundrums and three short
poems, play three quiet games of cards, play checkers, play dominoes and
know three puzzles.

Excitement is always bad for sick people and they become tired easily,
so they should not be read to, talked to, nor played with for too long
an interval, even if they seem to wish it themselves. The Scout must
always remember that these things are being done for the pleasure of the
sick person, and she must be very patient, to let the games or stories
be of their own choosing if they wish it, and to avoid being noisy
herself.


Daily Routine

There should be a regular daily routine. Have regular hours for feeding,
bathing, giving treatment and medicines, giving the bedpan, etc. Be
punctual.

Usually the first thing to do in the morning is to close or open the
window as necessary, and to give the patient a bedpan. Have it warm.
Take temperature, pulse and respiration and record them. Bring a basin
of warm water, soap, towel, etc., to wash hands and face, and a glass of
water to brush teeth. Tidy the hair. Straighten up the room a little.
Prepare and serve patient's breakfast. After an hour the bed bath may be
taken, but a tub bath should not be taken until two hours after
breakfast.

Make the bed. Clean up the room. If the patient is well enough, let her
read or see visitors after this. Serve the dinner. After dinner, open
the windows, lower the shades, and let the patient rest and sleep if
possible for at least an hour. Sick people need more rest than well
people and should have a regular hour for rest in the daytime. If they
sleep, so much the better, as it has been proved that patients who take
a nap during the day sleep better at night. After four o'clock give a
drink of some kind of hot or cold substance, as needed or
desired--broth, milk, lemonade. In the late afternoon sick people are
often tired and restless. Change of position, rearrangement of the
pillows or a good rub give comfort and relieve the restlessness.
Diversion of some kind, nothing noisy or exciting, may serve the same
purpose. It may be found wise to delay the bath until this time of day
as bathing has a soothing effect.

Between supper and bedtime the sick person should be kept from
excitement. This is a good time for reading aloud or allowing them to
read for themselves, but a very poor time to see visitors.

_Preparations for the Night._ Bring in all the necessities for washing
the hands and face and brushing the teeth and combing the hair, and help
where needed. Change the nightgown (it is better to have a gown for the
day and one for the night), brush the crumbs from the bed, make the
sheet smooth, shake up the pillows and straighten out the bedclothes,
having extra covers handy in case of need. Fill the hot water bag,
attend to the fire, if there is one, and arrange everything in the room
just as it will be needed for the night. Give a warm drink, and allow
the patient to rinse the mouth (or, if wished, the brushing of the teeth
may be delayed until this time). The last thing to do for the sick
person is to give a good rub, paying special attention to the bony parts
(lower end of spine, shoulder-blades, hips, knees, ankles). Then arrange
the ventilation.

Before settling a sick person for the night, be sure that everything
about the room is done, as any moving about after she is prepared to
sleep may tend to disturb her and prevent her from going to sleep.


5. THE HEALTH GUARDIAN FOR GIRL SCOUTS

Has the town you live in a free swimming pool with instructors and well
arranged hours for little children, older girls and boys and grown-ups?
Can you step out after school and have a couple of hours on a well kept
tennis court? Is there a good golf course reasonably near, with
convenient trolley service? Are there plenty of playgrounds, so that the
children are off the streets? And, since grounds are not enough, are
there friendly young play-leaders connected with them, to get the
children together and teach them all sorts of games and sports?

If none of these things are to be found, or not enough of them, wouldn't
you like to have them?

"Of course I should," you reply, "but what can I do about it? I am only
a girl, and I can't get all these things by just wishing for them!"

But that's just what you can do.

All these things in a town mean that the town is looking out for the
health of its young people. Exercise is one of the most important means
of preserving health, and most of the large cities nowadays are working
hard to see that no child shall be out of reach of a good park, a good
swimming pool and a good playground.

This all comes under the city government and as this is a democratic
form of government, these things are all arranged by vote. That is, the
citizens vote to use the public money for such things and vote for the
officials who shall spend the money for them. Do you see that if you
make up your mind now about the village improvements you want, you can
vote for them later and get them?

Women are naturally interested in all that happens to children, and if
all the women of a community should get together and vote for everything
that concerned the health and happiness and good education of children,
can't you see what happy days their school-days would be?

If you saw "Public Health" at the head of a chapter, you might not think
it looked very interesting; but when you once get the idea that if your
mother had had her say on the Public Health Board you would have had a
fine skating pond with a good skate-house, last winter, and sunny,
well-aired school rooms to study in, with a big gymnasium for basket
ball in bad weather, you may be more interested in the merit badge for
Public Health called "Health Guardian!"

Remember that Public Health is simply good housekeeping, applied to the
community.

It is a subject which women are sure to take up more and more, and a
Girl Scout who has given the matter a little thought and study is going
to make a good citizen later on, and will be certain to have her advice
asked--and taken--in the matter of making her town healthy and happy.

For instance, if the desks in the public schools are not of the right
height and shape, the children are bound to suffer in their health and
hygiene.

It is the business of the State to see that all public buildings,
schools, theatres, factories, etc., have a certain amount of light and
air to the cubic foot, because so much is necessary for health.

It is the business of the State to see that only a certain number of
hours a day should constitute a day's work. This is because a certain
amount of rest is a necessity for all citizens.

It is the business of the State to see that food and water can be
brought into the community. Also that they be kept pure, both in
transportation and after they reach the community. This includes the
policing of all reservoirs and the filtering of the water; the
refrigerating of meat and milk; the condemning of rotten fruit and
vegetables; the collecting and disposal of all garbage and waste.

It is the business of the state to prevent spitting in public places,
(one of the greatest sources of public infection); to prevent the use of
common drinking utensils, towels, etc.; to insist on the isolation of
contagious diseases and the placarding of the houses where they occur.

In order to carry on these great wise policies the state should offer
free clinics where citizens can find out what is the matter with them
and how to prevent it, and trained community nurses for the sick.

Do you see what a wonderful power an intelligent woman can be in the
community she lives in? Women ought to be much better, really, in this
public housekeeping than men, because most of them have had to learn to
do it on a small scale, and know how necessary light, air, rest,
exercise and cleanliness are.

But, you may say, as yet, I am too young to vote, anyway; what can I do?

The answer is very simple: every citizen, whether she is young or old,
whether she has a vote or not, can find out the laws of the town she
lives in and help to enforce them!

And the most important of these laws are those which affect the public
safety and the public health. Whether there is a Public Health
Commissioner or a Town Board or a Village Superintendent or only a
District Nurse to appeal to, there is sure to be somebody whose business
it is to listen to violation of the law.

If every troop of Girl Scouts knew the health laws of their town, _and
helped to get them obeyed_, there would be a wonderful lessening of
epidemics and a wonderful advance in the health and beauty of our towns.

If the Girl Scouts stood, all over the country, for the intelligent
guardianship of the public health and recreation, they would rapidly
become one of the greatest and most respected organizations in America,
for this reason alone.


6. THE HEALTH WINNER

          "_... For since a little self-control, since a
          clean and elementary diet, pure water, openness of
          the body to sun and air, a share of honest work,
          and some degree of mental peace and largesse, are
          the simple conditions of health, and are or ought
          to be, accessible to everybody--_

          "_To neglect these is sheer treason._"

                     _--Toward Democracy, by Edward Carpenter._


Five Points of Health for Girl Scouts

A cheerful Scout, a clean Scout, a helpful Scout, is a well Scout. She
is the only Scout that really _is prepared_. She not only knows the laws
of health, she lives them: she stands tall, she plays daily in the open
air, she rests and sleeps at night, and conserves her energy at all
times, she is careful to get the right amount of air, water, sun and
food each day, and perhaps most important of all, she keeps clean.

1. _Stand Tall_--Every Scout should be recognized a long way off, not
only by her uniform, but by her erect carriage. In sitting, the lower
back should be against the back of the chair. In bending forward to read
or write, bend straight from the hips. At Scout meetings practice
sitting without support for the back. When "at ease" during drill, stand
with feet apart and parallel and with hands hanging free. When resting,
lie flat on the back without pillows. Correct posture is obtained by
balancing the different parts of the body--hips, head, chest in a
straight line, so that the bony framework bears the weight. The muscles
and ligaments will not then be strained, and the bones will not be
forced into an abnormal position. Two rules to remember are: "Stand
tall" and "Keep your spine long."

2. _Take Exercise_--If you have watched soldiers obey commands in drill
you know how quickly their joints and muscles work. The setting-up
exercises given in the Handbook have been planned to preserve the power
of joints and muscles, and to prevent them from becoming like rusty
machines. These exercises should be taken with windows open, if not out
of doors. Clothing should be light and loose, and corsets removed. These
exercises are not to be considered a substitute for vigorous outdoor
work or play, but only as supplementary to or when these are impossible.
The day should be planned to include at least an hour and a half of
vigorous activity in the open air. This will take different forms,
according to the place and season, so that in the summer one may swim,
row or paddle, or play tennis or any other game outdoors, and in the
winter skate, coast or snowshoe. However, the best all year round
exercise, and the simplest and easiest to get is walking. Five miles a
day is an adequate average. Even walking alone is good exercise, but
walking in a group or two and two is better, because keeping step,
singing, whistling and talking and laughing together add enormously to
the exhilaration of motion and of sun, wind or rain in the face.

A Girl Scout should avoid unusual exercise before, during and
immediately following menstruation. However, she should remember that a
reasonable amount of exercise at this time is quite normal and
beneficial, except where there is an actual disorder of some sort. In
this case a physician should be consulted.

3. _Rest and Conserve Energy_--Go to bed early and sleep from eight to
eleven hours, according to age. Sleep with windows open all the year
round. Rest sometime during the day, flat on the back if possible, but
even five minutes sitting quietly with hands in the lap and eyes closed
is better than nothing. The following table shows the number of hours of
sleep that are needed at different ages:

          _Age_                _Hours of Sleep_

          10 and 11 years              9-1/2 to 11

          12 and 13 years              9     to 10-1/2

          14 and 15 years              8-1/2 to 10

          16 and 17 years              8     to 9-1/2

          18 and 19 years              8     to 9

          20 and over                  at least 8


Save Your Eyes

The reason it is important to rest and to sleep enough is because it is
while at rest that the body regains energy lost during activity, and
stores it up for future work and play. There are other ways of saving
energy, and one of them is by keeping the body in such good repair that
like a good machine it does its work with a minimum expenditure of force
and heat. This is the main reason for the setting-up exercises, or
indeed for any sort of exercises. Perhaps the single best way to save
energy is by saving your eyes. There is almost no work or play that does
not involve the use of our eyes. If people are blind they can learn to
do many things without vision, but it is infinitely harder than with it.
Modern life, especially in cities, makes a constant demand on our eyes,
and more than this, the demand is on one part of the eyes--the muscles
concerned in near work. The best way to rest the eyes, and one which not
only rests the tired parts but exercises the parts that are not used, is
by doing things that will involve _distant vision_. Walking and looking
far ahead and far away on every side rests the eyes best of all, and
this is one reason why a good walk will often clear up a headache.
Another way to insure distant vision is by riding backward in a car.
Then as the landscape flows past you, your eye muscles relax to the
position needed for distant vision. If you cannot walk or ride and are
doing close work, like sewing or reading, look up and "at nothing" every
once in a while.

The following are some important rules to remember in saving your eyes:

Rest your "near" eye muscles by looking at distant objects and places.

Do not work facing a light or where the rays from a light cross your
field of vision directly.

Work so far as possible by indirect or reflected light.

If you must work near uncovered artificial lights, wear an eye-shade.

When sewing or writing have the light at your left, unless you are
left-handed. This is to keep the shadow of your hands from the work.

Avoid a glare or light that is in streaks or bars of alternate dark and
bright. Diffused, even light is best.

Have your eyes examined by a competent oculist immediately:

          If you have headaches,

          If the eyes sting or burn after using,

          If print or other objects dance or blur,

          If you must get close to your work to see it,

          If near work tires your eyes or you,

          If there is the slightest irritation or soreness
          about the lids or other parts.


How to Avoid Muscle Strain

Girls and women in attempting to live an outdoor life or indeed when
trying to do many of the things numbered among the Scout activities,
such as First Aid, Home Nursing and Hiking, often give themselves quite
unnecessary pain and fatigue from lifting, pulling and carrying weights
in the wrong way. Ability to carry and lift or move is not so much
dependent upon absolute strength as it is on knowing how. The whole
body, so far as it is a physical mechanism, may be thought of as a
series of levers, of which the muscles, bones, and joints make up the
parts and are fulcrum, power arm or weight arm as the case may be.
Without going into the details of bodily structure or even knowing the
names of the different bones and muscles, it is possible to learn a few
simple things about the right use of these levers that will be useful at
all times.

Certain parts of the body are more able to do heavy work than others,
and the first thing to remember is that the upper part of the back, the
shoulders and the upper arms are stronger than the lower back, the
abdomen and the lower arms. Therefore, whenever you are trying to lift
or move an object, see if you cannot use these stronger parts. If the
arms are held away from the body when lifting, pulling, throwing or
pushing, the muscles of the upper arm, the shoulders and the upper back
will be brought into play. If the arms are held close to the body, the
lower-arm muscles are unduly taxed and in trying to help them out,
pressure is made on the abdominal and pelvic muscles, which are not
fitted to bear this sort of strain. Therefore, in carrying a bag or
suitcase, where this is absolutely unavoidable, try to swing the arm
free from the body, so as to use the upper arm and back muscles for the
weight.

Another important way to save strain is by pushing instead of pulling.
It is almost impossible to push anything so hard as to injure your back
or abdominal muscles. It is almost impossible, on the other hand, to
pull even a relatively light weight without some strain. If you will
think of how a horse in harness actually exerts his strength in drawing
a wagon, you will see that what he does is to _push_ against the straps,
and it is the straps that _pull_ the wagon. Even the strongest horse
could not pull a wagon with his teeth very far, or pull something tied
only to the back leg muscles. _Get behind and push_ is the rule to
remember, and never resort to _pulling_ until you have tried every
device for pushing instead.

If you _must_ pull, try to use heavy muscles, such as _leg_ muscles, to
do it with. Often a weight may be lifted or pulled by getting the foot
under or in back and using the arms only to steer with. This applies
particularly to objects like trunks or bureaus.

Always take advantage of any natural leverage that you can and if you
must move something heavy, do not lift it at once and attempt to carry
it, but lift one end and swing or shove it and then lift the other end
and shove it. If you will watch expressmen at work you will notice that
they roll boxes and trunks, holding them almost on end and tipping them
just enough to turn them along their shortest axis. In this way the
boxes carry themselves, so far as their main weight is concerned.

Carrying a weight on the head or shoulders is another way of converting
a pull into a push, and this is taken advantage of by peasant women in
Europe, who often are seen carrying heavy weights to market in baskets
perched on their heads, while they stride along arm-free. A knapsack
strapped on to the shoulders is not only more convenient because it
leaves the arms and hands free to swing naturally or use for other
purposes, but because the weight is distributed and is carried by means
of heavy muscles pushing up under the strap. A weight should be
distributed over a set of muscles as evenly as possible, and this is the
reason for suspending a knapsack from two shoulders instead of one, when
possible.

Finally, in doing any sort of lifting or pulling, if the muscles that
are to be used are contracted before grasping the weight they will be
able to do their work with far less effort. Try lifting a small weight
like a book in two ways--first, have your hand and fingers relaxed and
limp when you grasp it, and see how heavy it seems and how hard it is to
contract your muscles properly while lifting it. Then drop the book and
go at it again, this time anticipating its weight and contracting your
hand and finger muscles before grasping it. See how easily it comes up.
Try this same thing with heavier weights, and learn _always to contract
the muscle before taking the load_. In carrying a weight for any
distance it is well to shift it from one arm to another, always
preparing the muscles by contracting them before the weight is assumed.

Using the muscles so as to take advantage of their lever-like qualities
in the best way, contracting them before loading, and pushing instead of
pulling, go to make up what is sometimes called "getting a purchase."

4. _Supply Daily Need for Air, Sun, Water and Food_--Besides exercise
and rest there are other controllable factors upon which health depends.
These are air, heat and light of the sun, water and food. To grow and
work properly the body needs plenty of each of these.

_Air_--If you cannot work or play outdoors you can still bring out of
doors in by opening your windows at frequent intervals. You will find
that work goes better, and that you do not tire so easily if you make it
a rule to open the windows and doors and move about the room for five
minutes every hour or two. Sleep with windows open or out-of-doors. Camp
and hike as often as possible. Work in the garden. Play out-of-door
games.

_Heat_--The proper temperature of the body is between 98 and 99 degrees
Fahrenheit. Human life depends upon the maintenance of this temperature
at all times, and very slight changes either up or down interfere
seriously with all the other life processes. The main source of heat is
from food consumed, or really burned, in the body. Artificial heating in
houses helps conserve the body heat, as does clothing. But clothes and
shelter may make you overheated, which is nearly as bad as being cold;
they may also shut out fresh air. Clothes should not be too heavy nor
too tight. Shoes should have soles straight on the inner side, and be
broad enough to allow the toes full play, and have low heels. Shoes that
are comfortable to hike in are apt to be the best for all the time wear.

At night the clothes worn during the day should be aired and dried
thoroughly. This will help much in maintaining the right body
temperature, because clothes become damp from wearing, and dampness uses
up body heat.

_Sunlight_--Sunlight is one of the best health bringers known. Little
children--and grown people, too--suffering from the most serious forms
of tuberculosis, that of the bones, get well if they are kept in the
sunlight. In one of the finest hospitals for children in the world, in
Switzerland, the main treatment is to have the children play outdoors
without clothes in the sunlight, and they do this even when there is
heavy winter snow on the ground. Human beings droop and die without the
sun, just as plants do, though it takes longer to kill them. It is a
gloomy person who does not feel happier in the sun, and a happy and
cheerful person is generally healthy. So get into the sun whenever you
can. Walk on the sunny side of the street, and open your windows to the
sun whenever you can. However, in hot climates and in the warmest summer
days, remember that the sun can injure as well as help, and do not
expose the head or body unnecessarily.

_Water_--As about three-quarters of our body weight is water, the solid
portions of bone, muscle, and so forth, constituting only one-quarter,
and as considerable water is given off each day by evaporation from skin
and lungs and with excreta, the loss must be made up. In addition to the
water taken with meals and contained in the food a Girl Scout should
drink at least six tumblers of water daily. This is a quart and a half.
One glass should be taken on arising and before breakfast, two between
breakfast and lunch, two between lunch and dinner, and one before going
to bed. Be sure the water is pure, and boil any water the purity of
which is doubted in the slightest. Water kept cool in the ice chest, or
in a jar with a moist cover, is better than ice water, both because cool
water actually quenches thirst more easily, being more readily absorbed
than ice cold water, and because it is difficult to control the purity
of ice.

_Food_--Food should be clean and kept clean. Growing girls can tell
whether they are eating enough of the right sort of food, and if they
are getting the best out of it, by seeing whether they are up to the
right weight for their height and age. A chart is given at the end of
this section showing the standard weight for each height at each age.
The following are good rules to follow in making your daily food habits:

          Do not eat between meals.

          Eat slowly and chew food thoroughly.

          Eat freely of coarse cereals and breads.

          Eat meat only once a day.

          Have green vegetables, salad or fruit every day.

          Drink as much milk as possible, but no coffee or
          tea.

If you do not have at least one bowel movement a day it is a sign of
constipation, which means the accumulation of waste material from food
in the intestine. Exercise, especially walking, eating coarse
vegetables, coarse breads and coarse cereals, and fruit, and drinking
enough water will help the bowels to move properly. Constipation is not
only an unclean habit of the body, but it is dangerous, because the
waste matter decays and poison is carried all over the body. Headaches,
indigestion, bad breath and chronic fatigue are some of the results.

5. _Keep Clean_--A Girl Scout should be sure that the air, water and
food that she allows to enter her body are clean. Be sure that they are
pure when they reach her, and keep them so by keeping her body, clothes
and room clean with the help of sun, soap and water. You have probably
heard of germs, microbes and bacteria. These are names for the same
organisms, which are tiny forms of plant life unseen by the eye, and of
which our unaided senses give us no knowledge. They exist everywhere and
in many forms. Most of them are harmless to human life, and many of them
are useful, as, for example, one that grows on the roots of peas and
beans and helps the plants to extract nitrogen from the air. Some
bacteria, however, are harmful, and these are known as disease germs, as
they are active in producing diseases, especially those diseases which
we know as contagious. The dangerous germs nearly all live in dust and
dirt and in dark places. When we clean house and dispose of waste
material and bring air and sunlight into dark and dirty places we are
doing more than removing unpleasant sights and smells, we are
destroying the breeding places of disease.

Every girl wants a clear skin. Proper food, water and exercise give
this; but it is also necessary to keep the surface clean by taking a hot
bath with soap at least twice a week, and a cold or tepid sponge and
rubdown the other days. Besides the loose dirt which comes on the body
from the outside, perspiration and oil come from the inside through the
skin pores, and when accumulated give a disagreeable odor. Special
attention is needed to guard against this odor, particularly under the
armpits, and soap and water should be used daily. A hot bath is relaxing
and opens the pores. A cold bath is stimulating and closes the pores. A
hot bath is best taken at night, or if taken in the morning, follow by a
cool sponge or shower. Do not take a cold plunge bath unless advised to
do so by a physician.

Always wash the hands immediately before handling or preparing food and
before eating. Always wash hands after going to the bathroom. Keep nails
short, and clean with nail brush each time the hands are washed and with
orange stick when necessary.

During menstruation it is particularly important to keep the body and
clothes scrupulously clean, by bathing or washing with plenty of water.

_Hair_--Air and a good brushing every day will keep the hair in good
condition. It should be washed once in two weeks. Wash with hot soapsuds
and rinse thoroughly, using first hot, then cooler, and finally cold
water. Keep the hair brush clean by washing in cold water and soap and a
little ammonia at least once a week. The brush should be dried in the
sun, not by artificial heat.

_Ears_--Keep the outer surfaces of the ears clean, but leave the inner
part alone. Do not poke for wax or put oil in the ear.

_Feet_--Bathe the feet in hot water at night, when tired. In the morning
bathe with cold water after hot, to harden them for walking. Keep the
toenails clean, and cut evenly.

_Teeth_--Next to a fresh, sweet skin the most beautiful feature of a
truly beautiful woman is her teeth. The basis of beautiful teeth is a
clean mouth. Teeth should be brushed at least twice a day. The best
times are after breakfast and the last thing before going to bed. A
brush with medium soft bristles should be used. Clean a new brush
thoroughly with soap and water and soak in cold water to set the
bristles. A toothbrush should be cleansed and aired and if possible
sunned every day. Never use a brush that has begun to lose its bristles,
or which has become caked or yellow. Paste or powder that is not gritty
should be used. Always brush away from the gums; that is, brush the
upper teeth down, and the lower teeth up. Clean the roof of the mouth
and the tongue.

It is a good plan to have the teeth examined at least every six months.
Then any repairs or cleaning that may be needed can be easily attended
to and much future pain, trouble and expense saved.

_Eyes_--Wash eyes carefully for "sleepers" in the morning. Bathing with
alternate hot and cold will rest and strengthen the muscles.

_General Safeguards_--Do not use public towels or drinking cups.

Do not use towels, handkerchiefs or other toilet articles or glasses or
cups or table utensils used by others.

Avoid sneezing or coughing into another person's face.


Measurements

Every Girl Scout should know her measurements, including her height, her
weight, her waist measure, her chest girth and her chest expansion. Not
only are these things convenient to know when ordering uniforms and
buying clothes, but any physical director, gymnasium teacher or doctor
can tell her if these are in good proportion for her age and general
development and advise her as to how she may go about to improve them if
they need it.

The accompanying table (given in the last section of the Health Record)
shows the right height and weight for girls at different ages. The way
to consult it is as follows:

First, find your height by measuring yourself without shoes against a
wall. The best way to do is to have someone lay a ruler on top of your
head so that it extends to the wall and touches it at right angles. Then
the place should be marked and the distance measured with a yard stick
or tape. Count a half inch as the next highest inch; thus if you measure
59-1/2 inches call this 60. If you measure 59-1/4 count it as an even
59. Stand with heels against the wall, and head high: "Stand Tall."

Second, find your weight with only indoor clothes on. Take the weight to
the nearest pound, counting as before a half pound or three-quarters as
the next highest and disregard the amounts less than one-half.

Then take your card and look along the top row for the age to which you
are nearest, counting six months past one year mark as the next year.
Thus, if you are within six months of being 13, count yourself 13.

Then look at the left-hand upright row of figures and find your height
in inches.

Then with a rule or paper find the corresponding number of pounds for
your height and age.

You will see that a girl may be any number of inches tall within wide
limits, but her weight must correspond to her height rather than simply
to her age.

A girl should be within ten per cent of the proper weight for her age
and height. If you find that you are underweight, do not be frightened
or discouraged, as it is quite easy to get up to normal by following the
health rules, particularly those relating to food, water and sleep.
Drink as much milk as possible, and eat fresh vegetables and don't spoil
your appetite by eating too many sweets or nibbling between meals. If
you find that after a month you are still more than ten per cent
underweight, then ask your parents if you can see the doctor or consult
the school physician.


A Health Record Chart for Girl Scouts

Girl Scouts who are working for "The Health Winner" badge should keep an
account of their progress for three months, and a good way to do it is
to have a Health Chart to fill out daily and bring the record for each
week to their Captain, at troop meeting. The chart given below is
suggested as a model, and copies will be obtainable from National
Headquarters, but troops can make up their own.

Every Scout is naturally a Health Crusader, and she can use the blanks
provided by the National Modern Health Crusade if she so desires.

In this case the first two points can be combined, which relate to
washing hands and face, and an additional point inserted in place of the
second, to the effect that "I ate no sweets, candy, cake or ice cream
between meals today."

  DAILY RECORD OF POINTS                  _Scout_..........................

  1. I did my setting-up
  exercises                 _Checks for Week Commencing Monday_    No......

  2. I walked, worked or played | Pt.|Mon.|Tues.|Wed.|Thurs.|Fri.|Sat.|Sun.
  Outdoors at least             |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  a half-hour                   |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
                                |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  2a. Time spent walking        |   1|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2b. Distance walked           |   2|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  3. I went to bed early        |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  last night, and slept         |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  at least 8 hours              |  2a|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4. I slept with my window open|  2b|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  5. I drank six glasses of     |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  water between meals           |   3|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  6. I ate no sweets, candy,    |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  cake, sweet drinks or ice     |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  cream, except as dessert      |   4|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  7. I ate green vegetables     |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  or fruit or salad             |   5|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  8. I drank no tea or coffee   |   6|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  9. I drank milk or had milk   |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  in some other form            |   7|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  10. I had a bowel movement    |   8|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  11. I washed my hands before  |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  eating, and after going to    |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  the bathroom                  |   9|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  12. I had a bath (at least    |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  two a week must be recorded)  |  10|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  13. I brushed my teeth twice  |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  during the day                |  11|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  14. I brushed my hair night   |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  and morning                   |  12|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  15. I shampooed my hair       |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  (at least once every four     |    |    |     |    |      |    |    |
  weeks)                        |  13|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |  14|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |  15|    |     |    |      |    |    |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 _Date handed to Captain_..................

                       _Captain's Comment_.................................

                          THE GIRL SCOUT'S HEALTH RECORD

RECORD FOR WHOLE PERIOD

1. Posture at beginning:
    (Comment by Captain).....................

2. Posture at end:
    (Comment by Captain).....................

3. Total distance walked.....................
     (Must be at least 75 miles)

4. At least three shampoos...............................

5. Any colds during period?..............................

6. Constipation during period?...........................

7. Answered correctly the following questions:
  How do you care for your teeth properly?...............
  Why is it important to care for your eyes?.............
  How can you rest them?.................................
  What are points to remember about light for work?......
  What is the difference in effect between a hot
    and a cold bath?.....................................
  How do you care for feet on a hike?....................

8. Height in inches at beginning of period...............
   Weight in pounds at beginning of period...............
   Standard weight for height and age?...................
   Difference plus or minus in your weight...............
   Height in inches at end of period.....................
   Standard weight for height and age....................
     Difference plus or minus in your weight.............
   If growth is shown what rate is this per month?.......
     Standard?...........................................


  RIGHT HEIGHT AND WEIGHT FOR GIRLS

  Hght.| 10  | 11   | 12  |  13 | 14  |  15 | 16  |  17 | 18
   ins.|yrs. | yrs. |yrs. | yrs.| yrs.| yrs.| yrs.| yrs.| yrs.
   47  | 53  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   48  | 55  |  56  |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   49  | 57  |  58  |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   50  | 59  |  60  | 61  |     |     |     |     |     |
   51  | 62  |  63  | 64  |     |     |     |     |     |
   52  | 65  |  66  | 67  |     |     |     |     |     |
   53  | 68  |  68  | 69  | 70  |     |     |     |     |
   54  | 70  |  71  | 72  | 73  |     |     |     |     |
   55  | 73  |  74  | 75  | 76  | 77  |     |     |     |
   56  | 77  |  78  | 79  | 80  | 81  |     |     |     |
   57  | 81  |  82  | 83  | 84  | 85  | 86  |     |     |
   58  | 85  |  86  | 87  | 88  | 89  | 90  | 91  |     |
   59  | 89  |  90  | 91  | 93  | 94  | 95  | 96  | 98  |
   60  |     |  94  | 95  | 97  | 99  |100  |102  |104  |106
   61  |     |  99  |101  |102  |104  |106  |108  |109  |111
   62  |     | 104  |106  |107  |109  |111  |113  |114  |115
   63  |     | 109  |111  |112  |113  |115  |117  |118  |119
   64  |     |      |115  |117  |118  |119  |120  |121  |122
   65  |     |      |117  |119  |120  |122  |123  |124  |125
   66  |     |      |119  |121  |122  |124  |126  |127  |128
   67  |     |      |     |124  |126  |127  |128  |129  |130
   68  |     |      |     |126  |128  |130  |132  |133  |134
   69  |     |      |     |129  |131  |133  |135  |136  |137
   70  |     |      |     |     |134  |136  |138  |139  |140
   71  |     |      |     |     |138  |140  |142  |143  |144
   72  |     |      |     |     |     |145  |147  |148  |149

PREPARED BY DR. THOMAS D. WOOD

About what a Girl should gain each month
     AGE                      AGE
    8 to 11        8 oz.    14 to 16       8 oz.
   11 to 14       12 oz.    16 to 18       4 oz.

Weights and measures should be taken without shoes and in only the usual
indoor clothes.

Used by courtesy of the Child Health Organization, 156 Fifth Avenue, New
York City.


FOOTNOTE:

[3] Courtesy of William C. Deming, M.D.


SECTION XII

SETTING-UP EXERCISES FOR GIRL SCOUTS

Our bodies are like machines that need frequent oiling and testing to
see that all parts are working right.

Or they are like instruments that must be tuned before they are played.

If this is not done, the machinery gets rusty and clogged, or the
instrument gets out of tune and makes horrid noises.

That is the way it is with our bodies; our muscles and joints should be
bent and stretched every day to take the kinks out, and keep them strong
and flexible.

The best way is to tune up every morning for just a few minutes before
you put on your clothes, and then again at night to rest the tired parts
and exercise the parts that have not been used, so you can even things
up.


=The Right Position=

First of all try to stand in the right position.

[Illustration]

Stand with the feet side by side, a few inches apart and pointed
straight ahead. Many people think you should turn out your toes because
they think it looks better. This is not natural. If you stand on a step
with one foot even with the edge, and let the other foot hang over the
step below, it will hang parallel with the foot you are standing on.
That is the way it is meant to go, and people who turn out their toes do
so much walking sideways that they have to travel much farther than if
they kept their feet pointed in the direction they want to go.

[Illustration]

Then your legs should come up straight from your ankles; don't stand
either on your heels or your toes, but right over the highest part of
the arch, which is the strongest part, and best fitted to bear your
weight when you are standing still, and brings your hips up to just the
right place to hold your body.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the lower part of your body are some big heavy bones shaped somewhat
like a bowl. This bowl is balanced on the top of your legs, and holds
most of your organs. If this bowl is balanced just right, the organs
remain in place, the way they are meant to be, but if it is not balanced
right, the contents are tipped so that they would come tumbling out if
the muscles intended for other work did not hold them in. This is hard
on these muscles which have their own work to do, and if they are used
to hold up things that should keep their own balance, sooner or later
they give way, and there is a sad accident, or a general slump. Then
instead of saying, "That foolish person always stood in the wrong
position and of course her insides got out of place," we say, "Poor dear
so-and-so has given out from overwork and has acute indigestion, or a
'floating kidney,' or 'a bad liver.' How could it have happened?"

If your underpinning is all right it is not difficult to be straight
above.

Let your shoulders hang easily in a straight line under your ears, in
the position they will naturally take if from side stretch (fig. 3) the
arms drop easily to the side. _Don't arch your chest and throw your
shoulders back!_ This is not a slump and does not mean to let your back
bow out. If your shoulders are easy you can straighten your back and
your head will balance itself, and there you are: a straight upstanding
Scout, ready for what comes next.

          Remember: a) Feet pointing straight ahead.

          b) Body balanced on legs coming up straight from
          ankles.

          c) Shoulders easy under ears.

This gives a straight line from top of head through shoulders and hips
to between ankles.


=General Rules=

Stretch to the very tips of your middle fingers--stretching makes your
muscles flexible.

Breathe in as arms rise and out as they fall.

Stand tall.

Sit tall.

Remember the straight line that comes from the top of your head down to
between your ankles.

Keep limber, don't let your knees grow stiff.

Sit crosslegged on the floor. Sit on your heels.

Rise without help from your hands.


=The Exercises=

Now tune up: begin by repeating each exercise four times; then increase
to 8, 12, or 16; never more than 16.

          1. Stretch arms down (fig. 1). Swing them forward
          and stretch up and slightly forward (fig. 2),
          breathing deep. Let them fall breathing out. Do
          this slowly counting, up 1 down 2.

          2. From (fig. 1) swing arms forward and up (fig.
          2) and out to side stretch (fig. 3) coming to full
          deep breath and stretch as far as you can--count
          3. Up 1--side 2--down 3--breathing out. Don't
          hurry, take time to breathe deep.

          3. Stretch arms down, without bending anywhere.
          Two counts; down 1--relax 2.

          4. From arms down (fig. 1) to side stretch (fig.
          3). Two counts; to side 1--down 2. This may be
          done quickly with vigor.

          5. From side stretch palms up to upward stretch
          (fig. 2)--two counts--up 1--side 2.

          6. From arms down roll shoulders and arms out and
          back, stretching arms back and down (fig. 4). Two
          counts out and down 1--back to position 2.

          7. Hands palms down, tips of middle fingers
          touching, thumb touching chest, elbows level with
          shoulders (fig. 5); jerk elbows back keeping them
          up even with shoulders (fig. 6). Two counts,--jerk
          1--back to place 2.

          8. From side stretch (fig. 3) twist body from
          waist up, without moving hips (fig. 7). Twist from
          side to side. Two counts--twist 1--front 2--twist
          1--front 2.

          9. From side stretch (fig. 3) bend body from side
          to side keeping straight line from tip of one
          middle finger to tip of other (fig. 8). Two
          counts--bend 1--back to position 2--alternate
          sides.

          10. Bend right knee and kick yourself (fig. 9);
          left knee same. Two counts--kick right 1--kick
          left 2. Repeat slowly then double quick (running
          in place).

          11. Bend right knee and hip, bringing knee nearly
          up to chest without bending body (fig. 10); left
          same--slowly. Then double quick bringing knee only
          as high as hip.

          12. Place hands at back of neck (fig. 11) and rise
          on toes, bend knees (fig. 12) and rise keeping
          body upright (do not spread knees or touch heels.
          If this exercise is too difficult balance with
          arms side stretch, bring arms down to touch floor
          as you bend, and to upward stretch as you rise).
          Count 4:--on toes 1--bend 2--up on toes
          3--standing position 4.

          13. From upward stretch (fig. 2) bend and touch
          floor in front of toes (fig. 13). Count two
          slowly: down 1--up 2. Breathe out as you come
          down--in as you come up.

14. _Neck Exercises._ Sit crosslegged on floor--hands on knees: head
up--chin parallel with the floor.

          a) turn head to right and then to left--4
          counts--right 1--front 2--left 3--front 4.

          b) droop head from side to side (fig. 14); four
          counts--right 1--up 2--left 3--up 4.

          c) drop chin forward (fig. 15); straighten and
          drop head back (fig. 16). Count 4--down 1--up
          2--back 3--up 4.

          d) turn head and face right (fig. 17) drop chin
          1--up 2--back 3 (fig. 18) up 4; keep looking in
          same direction only up and down; same to left.

          e) goose-neck; facing front stretch chin out as
          far as possible (fig. 19); then down and in and
          up. Count 4--out 1--down 2--in 3--to straight
          position 4.

15. Lie down on your back and raise first one foot and then the other
without bending the knee, two counts--up 1--down 2.

16. Raise both feet without bending knees and touch the floor over your
head (fig. 20). Lower slowly.

17. Raise body without bending back, and (if you can) without helping
yourself with your hand, and touch your toes with your hands, and your
knees with your forehead, without bending your knees (fig. 21).

[Illustration: SETTING-UP EXERCISES (Figs. 1-7)]

[Illustration: SETTING-UP EXERCISES (Figs. 8-21)]


SECTION XIII

WOODCRAFT

The following section is made up of excerpts from the Woodcraft Manual
for Girls, 1918, by Ernest Thompson Seton, copyright by Ernest Thompson
Seton, and the Woodcraft League of America, Inc.; used by the kind
permission of the author, the Woodcraft League of America, and the
publishers, Doubleday, Page & Company.


TWELVE SECRETS OF THE WOODS

Do you know the twelve secrets of the woods?

Do you know the umbrella that stands up spread to show that there is a
restaurant in the cellar?

Do you know the "manna-food" that grows on the rocks, summer and winter,
and holds up its hands in the Indian sign of "innocence," so all who
need may know how good it is?

Do you know the vine that climbs above the sedge to whisper on the wind
"There are cocoanuts in my basement"?

Can you tell why the rabbit puts his hind feet down ahead of his front
ones as he runs?

Can you tell why the squirrel buries every other nut and who it was that
planted those shag-barks along the fence?

Can you tell what the woodchuck does in midwinter and on what day?

Have you learned to know the pale villain of the open woods--the deadly
amanita, for whose fearful poison no remedy is known?

Have you learned to overcome the poison ivy that was once so feared--now
so lightly held by those who know?

Have you proved the balsam fir in all its fourfold gifts--as Christmas
tree, as healing balm, as consecrated bed, as wood of friction fire?

Do you know the wonderful medicine that is in the sky?

[Illustration: 1 Indian Cucumber

2 Rock tripe

3 Bog potato

4 Rabbit

5 For Future use

6 Feb 2

7 Amanita

8 Poison Ivy

9 Balsam

10 (Sun)

11 Jack-o-Pulpit

12 Healing Healing]

Have you tasted the bread of wisdom, the treasure that cures much
ignorance, that is buried in the aisle of Jack-o-Pulpit's Church?

Can you tell what walked around your tent on the thirtieth night of your
camp-out?

Then are you wise. You have learned the twelve secrets of the woods. But
if you have not, come and let us teach you.


WEATHER WISDOM

          When the dew is on the grass,
          Rain will never come to pass.
          When the grass is dry at night,
          Look for rain before the light.
          When grass is dry at morning light,
          Look for rain before the night.
          Three days' rain will empty any sky.
          A deep, clear sky of fleckless blue
          Breeds storms within a day or two.
          When the wind is in the east,
          It's good for neither man nor beast.
          When the wind is in the north,
          The old folk should not venture forth.
          When the wind is in the south,
          It blows the bait in the fishes' mouth.
          When the wind is in the west,
          It is of all the winds the best.
          An opening and a shetting
          Is a sure sign of a wetting.
          (Another version)
          Open and shet,
          Sure sign of wet.
          (Still another)
          It's lighting up to see to rain.
          Evening red and morning gray
          Sends the traveler on his way.
          Evening gray and morning red
          Sends the traveler home to bed.

          Red sky at morning, the shepherd takes warning;
          Red sky at night is the shepherd's delight.

If the sun goes down cloudy Friday, sure of a clear Sunday.

If a rooster crows standing on a fence or high place, it will clear. If
on the ground, it doesn't count.

          Between eleven and two
          You can tell what the weather is going to do.
          Rain before seven, clear before eleven.

Fog in the morning, bright sunny day.

If it rains, and the sun is shining at the same time, the devil is
whipping his wife and it will surely rain tomorrow.

If it clears off during the night, it will rain again shortly.

Sun drawing water, sure sign of rain.

A circle round the moon means "storm." As many stars as are in circle,
so many days before it will rain.

Sudden heat brings thunder.

A storm that comes against the wind is always a thunderstorm.

East wind brings rain.

West wind brings clear, bright, cool weather.

North wind brings cold.

South wind brings heat. (On Atlantic coast.)

The rain-crow or cuckoo (both species) is supposed by all hunters to
foretell rain, when its "Kow, kow, kow" is long and hard.

So, also, the tree-frog cries before rain.

Swallows flying low is a sign of rain; high, of clearing weather.

The rain follows the wind, and the heavy blast is just before the
shower.


OUTDOOR PROVERBS

What weighs an ounce in the morning, weighs a pound at night.

A pint is a pound the whole world round.

Allah reckons not against a man's allotted time the days he spends in
the chase.

If there's only one, it isn't a track, it's an accident.

Better safe than sorry.

No smoke without fire.

The bluejay doesn't scream without reason.

The worm don't see nuffin pretty 'bout de robin's song.--(Darkey.)

Ducks flying over head in the woods are generally pointed for water.

If the turtles on a log are dry, they have been there half an hour or
more, which means no one has been near to alarm them.

Cobwebs across a hole mean "nothing inside."

Whenever you are trying to be smart, you are going wrong. Smart Aleck
always comes to grief.

You are safe and winning, when you are trying to be kind.


WHEN LOST IN THE WOODS

If you should miss your way, the first thing to remember is like the
Indian, "You are not lost; it is the teepee that is lost." It isn't
serious. It cannot be so, unless you do something foolish.

The first and most natural thing to do is to get on a hill, up a tree,
or other high lookout, and seek for some landmark near the camp. You
may be sure of these things:

You are not nearly as far from camp as you think you are.

Your friends will soon find you.

You can help them best by signalling.

The worst thing you can do is to get frightened. The truly dangerous
enemy is not the cold or the hunger, so much as the fear. It is fear
that robs the wanderer of his judgment and of his limb power; it is fear
that turns the passing experience into a final tragedy. Only keep cool
and all will be well.

If there is snow on the ground, you can follow your back track.

If you see no landmark, look for the smoke of the fire. Shout from time
to time, and wait; for though you have been away for hours it is quite
possible you are within earshot of your friends. If you happen to have a
gun, fire it off twice in quick succession on your high lookout, then
wait and listen. Do this several times and wait plenty long enough,
perhaps an hour. If this brings no help, send up a distress signal--that
is, make two smoke fires by smothering two bright fires with green
leaves and rotten wood, and keep them at least fifty feet apart, or the
wind will confuse them. Two shots or two smokes are usually understood
to mean "I am in trouble." Those in camp on seeing this should send up
one smoke, which means "Camp is here."

In a word, "keep cool, make yourself comfortable, leave a record of your
travels, and help your friends to find you."


EDIBLE WILD PLANTS

No one truly knows the woods until he can find with certainty a number
of wild plants that furnish good food for man in the season when food
is scarce; that is, in the winter or early spring.

During summer and autumn there is always an abundance of familiar nuts
and berries, so that we may rule them out, and seek only for edible
plants and roots that are available when nuts and berries are not.

_Rock Tripe._ The most wonderful of all is probably the greenish-black
rock tripe, found on the bleakest, highest rocks in the northern parts
of this continent. There is a wonderful display of it on the cliffs
about Mohonk Lake, in the Catskills. Richardson and Franklin, the great
northern explorers, lived on it for months. It must be very carefully
cooked or it produces cramps. First gather and wash it as clear as
possible of sand and grit, washing it again and again, snipping off the
gritty parts of the roots where it held onto the mother rock. Then roast
it slowly in a pan till dry and crisp. Next boil it for one hour and
serve it either hot or cold. It looks like thick gumbo soup with short,
thick pieces of black and green leaves in it. It tastes a little like
tapioca with a slight flavoring of licorice. On some it acts as a purge.

_Basswood Browse or Buds._ As a child I ate these raw in quantities, as
did also most of my young friends, but they will be found the better for
cooking. They are particularly good and large in the early spring. The
inmost bark also has food value, but one must disfigure the tree to get
that, so we leave it out.

_Slippery Elm._ The same remarks apply to the buds and inner bark of the
slippery elm. They are nutritious, acceptable food, especially when
cooked with scraps of meat or fruit for flavoring. Furthermore, its
flowers come out in the spring before the leaves, and produce very early
in the season great quantities of seed which are like little nuts in the
middle of a nearly circular wing. These ripen by the time the leaves are
half grown and have always been an important article of food among the
wild things.

[Illustration: Wild Food--Plants

Rock tripe

Crinkle-root

Basswood

Slippery Elm

Wapato

Hog Peanut

Calopogon or Grass pink

Prairie Turnip

Indian Cucumber

Bog Potato

Jack-in-a-Pulpit

Solomons Seal

False Solomons Seal]

Many Indian tribes used to feed during famine times on the inner bark of
cedar and white birch, as well as on the inner bark of the slippery elm
and basswood, but these cannot be got without injury to the tree, so
omit them.

When the snow is off the ground the plants respond quickly, and it is
safe to assume that all the earliest flowers come up from big, fat
roots.

A plant can spring up quickly in summer, gathering the material of
growth from the air and soil, but a plant coming up in the early spring
is doing business at a time when it cannot get support from its
surroundings, and cannot keep on unless it has stored up capital from
the summer before. This is the logic of the storehouse in the ground for
these early comers.

_Wapato._ One of the earliest is wapato, or duck potato, also called
common Arrowleaf, or Sagittaria. It is found in low, swampy flats,
especially those that are under water for part of the year. Its root is
about as big as a walnut and is good food, cooked, or raw. These roots
are not at the point where the leaves come out but at the ends of the
long roots.

_Bog Potato._ On the drier banks, usually where the sedge begins near a
swamp, we find the bog potato, or Indian potato. The plant is a slender
vine with three, five, or seven leaflets in a group. On its roots in
spring are from one to a dozen potatoes, varying from an inch to three
inches in diameter. They taste like a cross between a peanut and a raw
potato, and are very good cooked or raw.

_Indian Cucumber._ In the dry woods one is sure to see the pretty
umbrella of the Indian cucumber. Its root is white and crisp and tastes
somewhat like a cucumber, is one to four inches long, and good food raw
or boiled.

_Calopogon._ This plant looks like a kind of grass with an onion for a
root, but it does not taste of onions and is much sought after by wild
animals and wild people. It is found in low or marshy places.

_Hog Peanuts._ In the early spring this plant will be found to have a
large nut or fruit, buried under the leaves or quite underground in the
dry woods. As summer goes by the plant uses up this capital, but on its
roots it grows a lot of little nuts. These are rich food, but very
small. The big nut is about an inch long and the little ones on the
roots are any size up to that of a pea.

_Indian Turnip or Jack-in-the-Pulpit._ This is well known to all our
children in the East. The root is the most burning, acrid, horrible
thing in the woods when raw, but after cooking becomes quite pleasant
and is very nutritious.

_Prairie or Indian Turnip, Bread-root or Pomme-blanche of the Prairie._
This is found on all the prairies of the Missouri region. Its root was
and is a staple article of food with the Indians. The roots are one to
three inches thick and four to twelve inches long.

_Solomon's Seal._ The two Solomon's Seals (true and false) both produce
roots that are long, bumpy storehouses of food.

_Crinkle-root._ Every school child in the country digs out and eats the
pleasant peppery crinkle-root. It abounds in the rich dry woods.


MUSHROOMS, FUNGI OR TOADSTOOLS

We have in America about two thousand different kinds of Mushrooms or
Toadstools; they are the same thing. Of these, probably half are
wholesome and delicious; but about a dozen of them are deadly poison.

There is no way to tell them, except by knowing each kind and the
recorded results of experience with each kind. The story about cooking
with silver being a test has no foundation; in fact, the best way for
the Woodcraft Boy or Girl is to know definitely a dozen dangerous kinds
and a score or more of the wholesome kinds and let the rest alone.

_Sporeprint._ The first thing in deciding the nature of a toadstool is
the sporeprint, made thus: Cut off the stem of the toadstool and lay the
gills down on a piece of gray paper under a vessel of any kind. After a
couple of hours, lift the cap, and radiating lines of spores will appear
on the paper. If it is desired to preserve these, the paper should be
first covered with thin mucilage. The _color_ of these spores is the
first step in identification.

All the deadly toadstools have _white_ spores.

No black-spored toadstool is known to be poisonous.


POISONOUS TOADSTOOLS

The only deadly poisonous kinds are the Amanitas. Others may purge and
nauseate or cause vomiting, but it is believed that every recorded death
from toadstool poisoning was caused by an Amanita, and unfortunately
they are not only widespread and abundant, but they are much like the
ordinary table mushrooms. They have, however, one or two strong marks:
their stalk always grows out of a "_poison cup_" which shows either as a
cup or as a _bulb_; they have _white_ or _yellow_ gills, a ring around
the stalk, and _white spores_.


Deadly Toadstools

All the deadly toadstools known in North America are pictured on the
plate, or of the types shown on the plate.

The Deadly Amanita may be brownish, yellowish, or white.

The Yellow Amanita of a delicate lemon color.

The White Amanita of a pure silvery, shiny white.

The Fly Amanita with cap pink, brown, yellow, or red in the centre,
shaded into yellow at the edge, and patched with fragments of pure white
veil.

[Illustration: Deadly Amanita

Amanita phalloides

Fly amanita

Frosty Amanita

Yellow Amanita

White Amanita]

The Frosty Amanita with yellow cap, pale cadmium in centre, elsewhere
yellowish white, with white patches on warts.

All are very variable in color, etc.

But all agree in these things. They have _gills_, which are _white_ or
_yellow_, _a ring on the stalk_, _a cup at the base_, _white spores_,
and are _deadly poison_.


In Case of Poisoning

If by ill chance any one has eaten a poisonous Amanita, the effects do
not begin to show till sixteen or eighteen hours afterward--that is,
long after the poison has passed through the stomach and began its
deadly work on the nerve centres.

_Symptoms_. Vomiting and purging, "the discharge from the bowels being
watery with small flakes suspended, and sometimes containing blood,"
cramps in the extremities. The pulse is very slow and strong at first,
but later weak and rapid, sometimes sweat and saliva pour out.
Dizziness, faintness, and blindness, the skin clammy, cold, and bluish
or livid; temperature low with dreadful tetanic convulsions, and finally
stupor. (McIlvaine and Macadam, p. 627.)

_Remedy_: "Take an emetic at once, and send for a physician with
instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The dose
is 1/180 of a grain, and doses should be continued heroically until 1/20
of a grain is administered, or until, in the physician's opinion, a
proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is critically ill
the 1/20 of a grain may be administered." (McIlvaine and Macadam XVII.)


Wholesome Toadstools

It is a remarkable fact that all the queer freaks, like clubs and
corals, the cranks and tomfools, in droll shapes and satanic colors, the
funny poisonous looking Morels, Inkcaps, and Boleti are good wholesome
food, but the deadly Amanitas are like ordinary Mushrooms, except that
they have grown a little thin, delicate, and anæmic.

[Illustration: Puffballs

Brain Puffball

Cup Puffball 2 stages

Giant Puffball

Oyster Mushrooms

Moose horn clavaria

Red tipped clavaria

Golden coral mushroom

Gyromitra esculenta

Delicious Morel

Beefsteak mushrooms

Inky coprinus]

All the Puffballs are good before they begin to puff, that is as long as
their flesh is white and firm.

All the _colored_ coral toadstools are good, but the _White Clavaria_ is
said to be rather sickening.

All of the Morels are safe and delicious.

So also is Inky Coprinus, usually found on manure piles. The Beefsteak
Mushroom grows on stumps--chiefly chestnut. It looks like raw meat and
bleeds when cut. It is quite good eating.

So far as known no black-spored toadstool is unwholesome.

The common Mushroom is distinguished by its general shape, its pink or
brown gills, its white flesh, brown spores, and solid stem.


SNAKES GOOD AND BAD

Snakes are to the animal world what toadstools are to the vegetable
world--wonderful things, beautiful things, but fearsome things, because
some of them are deadly poison.

Taking Mr. Raymond L. Ditmars[4] as our authority, we learn that out of
one hundred and eleven species of snakes found in the United States,
seventeen are poisonous. They are found in every State, but are most
abundant in the Southwest.

These may be divided into Coral Snakes, Moccasins, and Rattlers.

The coral snakes are found in the Southern States. They are very much
like harmless snakes in shape, but are easily distinguished by their
remarkable colors, "broad alternating rings of red and black, the latter
bordered with very narrow rings of yellow."

The Rattlesnakes are readily told at once by the rattle.

But the Moccasins are not so easy. There are two kinds: the Water
Moccasin, or Cotton-mouth, found in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Alabama, and Louisiana, and the Copperhead, which is the Highland, or
Northern Moccasin or Pilot Snake, found from Massachusetts to Florida
and west to Illinois and Texas.

[Illustration: Types of Poisonous Snakes

          Coral Snake
          Copperhead
          Moccasin
          Pigmy Rattler
          Timber Rattler
          Diamond-back Rattler]

Here are distinguishing marks: The Moccasins, as well as the Rattlers,
have on each side of the head, between the eye and nostril, a deep pit.

The pupil of the eye is an upright line, as in a cat; the harmless
snakes have a round pupil.

The Moccasins have a single row of plates under the tail, while the
harmless snakes have a double row.

The Water Moccasin is dull olive with wide black transverse bands.

The Copperhead is dull hazel brown, marked across the back with
dumb-bells of reddish brown; the top of the head more or less coppery.

Both Moccasins and Rattlers have a flat triangular head, which is much
wider than the thin neck; while most harmless snakes have a narrow head
that shades off into the neck.

Rattlesnakes are found generally distributed over the United States,
southern Ontario, southern Alberta, and Saskatchewan.


How Does a Snake Bite

Remember, the tongue is a feeler, not a sting. The "stinging" is done by
two long hollow teeth, or fangs, through which the poison is squirted
into the wound.

The striking distance of a snake is about one-third the creature's
length, and the stroke is so swift that no creature can dodge it.

The snake can strike farthest and surest when it is ready coiled, but
can strike a little way when traveling.

You cannot disarm a poisonous snake without killing it. If the fangs are
removed others come quickly to take their place. In fact, a number of
small, half-grown fangs are always waiting ready to be developed.


In Case of Snake Bite

First, keep cool, and remember that the bite of American snakes is
seldom fatal if the proper measures are followed.

You must act at once. Try to keep the poison from getting into the
system by a tight bandage on the arm or leg (it is sure to be one or the
other) just above the wound. Next, get it out of the wound by slashing
the wound two or more ways with a sharp knife or razor at least as deep
as the puncture. Squeeze it--wash it out with permanganate of potash
dissolved in water to the color of wine. Suck it out with the lips (if
you have no wounds in the mouth it will do you no harm there). Work,
massage, suck, and wash to get all the poison out. After thorough
treatment to remove the venom the ligature may be removed.

"Pack small bits of gauze into the wounds to keep them open and
draining, then dress over them with gauze saturated with any good
antiseptic solution. Keep the dressing saturated and the wounds open for
at least a week, no matter how favorable may be the symptoms."

Some people consider whiskey or brandy a cure for snake bite. There is
plenty of evidence that many have been killed by such remedies, and
little that they have ever saved any one, except perhaps when the victim
was losing courage or becoming sleepy.

In any case, send as fast as you can for a doctor. He should come
equipped with hypodermic syringe, tubes of anti-venomous serum and
strychnine tablets.


Harmless Snakes

Far the greatest number of our snakes are harmless, beautiful, and
beneficient. They are friendly to the farmer, because, although some
destroy a few birds, chickens, ducklings, and game, the largest part of
their food is mice and insects. The Blacksnake, the Milk Snake, and one
or two others, will bite in self-defence, but they have no poison fangs,
and the bite is much like the prick of a bramble.


THE STARS AS THE CAMPER SEES THEM

(See Plate of Stars and Principal Constellations)

So far as there is a central point in our heavens, that point is the
pole-star, Polaris. Around this star all the stars in the sky seem to
turn once in twenty-four hours.

It is easily discovered by the help of the Big Dipper, _a part of the_
Great Bear, known to every country boy and girl in the northern half of
the world. This is, perhaps, the most important star group in our sky,
because of its size, peculiar form, the fact that it never sets in our
latitude, and that of its stars, two, sometimes called the Pointers
always point out the Pole Star. It is called the Dipper because it is
shaped like a dipper with a long, bent handle.

Why (_the whole group_) is called the Great Bear is not so easy to
explain. The classical legend has it that the nymph, Calisto, having
violated her vow, was changed by Diana into a bear, which, after death,
was immortalized in the sky by Zeus. Another suggestion is that the
earliest astronomers, the Chaldeans, called these stars "the shining
ones," and their word happened to be very like the Greek _arktos_ (a
bear). Another explanation is that vessels in olden days were named for
animals, etc. They bore at the prow the carved effigy of the namesake,
and if the Great Bear, for example, made several very happy voyages by
setting out when a certain constellation was in the ascendant, that
constellation might become known as the Great Bear's constellation.
Certainly, there is nothing in its shape to justify the name. Very few
of the constellations indeed are like the thing they are called after.
Their names were usually given for some fanciful association with the
namesake, rather than for resemblance to it.

[Illustration]

The pole-star is really the most important of the stars in our sky; it
marks the north at all times; all the other stars seem to swing around
it once in twenty-four hours. It is the end of the Little Bear's tail;
this constellation is sometimes called the Little Dipper. But the
Pole-star or Polaris, is not a very bright one, and it would be hard to
identify but for the help of the Pointers of the Big Dipper.

The outside stars (Alpha and Beta) of the Dipper point nearly to
Polaris, at a distance equal to five times the space that separates
these two stars of the Dipper's outer side.

Indian names for the Pole-star are the "Home Star," and "The Star That
Never Moves," and the Big Dipper they call the "Broken Back."

The great Bear is also to be remembered as the hour-hand of the
woodman's clock. It goes once around the North Star in about twenty-four
hours, the same way as the sun, and for the same reason--that it is the
earth that is going and leaving them behind.

The time in going around is not exactly twenty-four hours, so that the
position of the Pointers varies with the seasons, but, as a rule, this
for woodcraft purposes is near enough. The bowl of the Dipper swings
four-fifths of the width of its own opening in one hour. If it went a
quarter of the circle, that would mean you had slept a quarter of a day,
or six hours.

Every fifteen days the stars seem to be an hour earlier: in three months
they gain one-fourth of the circle, and in a year gain the whole circle.

According to Flammarion, there are about seven thousand stars visible to
the naked eye, and of these twenty are stars of the first magnitude.
Fourteen of them are visible in the latitude of New York, the others
(those starred) belong to the South Polar region of the sky. The
following table of the brightest stars is taken from the Revised Harvard
Photometry of 1908, the best authority on the subject.


THE FIRST TWENTY STARS IN ORDER OF BRIGHTNESS

          1. Sirius, the Dog Star.
          2. *Canopus, of the Ship.
          3. *Alpha, of the Centaur.
          4. Vega, of the Lyre.
          5. Capella, of the Charioteer.
          6. Arcturus, of the Herdsman.
          7. Rigel, of Orion.
          8. Procyon, the Little Dog-Star.
          9. *Achernar, of Eridanus.
          10. *Beta, of the Centaur.
          11. Altair, of the Eagle.
          12. Betelgeuze, of Orion's right shoulder.
          13. *Alpha of the Southern Cross.
          14. Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eye.
          15. Pollux, of the Twins.
          16. Spica, of the Virgin.
          17. Antares, of the Scorpion.
          18. Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish.
          19. Deneb, of the Swan.
          20. Regulus, of the Lion.


OTHER CONSTELLATIONS

Orion (O-ri-on), with its striking array of brilliant stars, Betelgeuze,
Rigel, the Three Kings, etc., is generally admitted to be the first
constellation in the heavens.

Orion was the hunter giant who went to Heaven when he died, and now
marches around the great dome, but is seen only in the winter, because
during the summer, he passes over during daytime. Thus he is still the
hunter's constellation. The three stars of his belt are called the
"Three Kings."

Sirius, the Great Dog-Star, is in the head of Orion's Hound, the
constellation _Canis Major_, and following farther back is the Little
Dog-Star, Procyon, the chief star of the constellation _Canis Minor_.

In old charts of the stars, Orion is shown with his hounds, hunting the
bull, Taurus. This constellation is recognizable by this diagram; the
red star, Aldebaran, being the angry right eye of the Bull. His face is
covered with a cluster of little stars called the _Hyades_, and on his
shoulder are the seven stars, called _Pleiades_.


Pleiades

_Pleiades_ (Ply-a-des) can be seen in winter as a cluster of small stars
between Aldebaran and Angol, or, a line drawn from the back bottom,
through the front rim of the Big Dipper, about two Dipper lengths,
touches this little group. They are not far from Aldebaran, being in the
right shoulder of the Bull. They may be considered the seven arrow
wounds made by Orion.

Serviss tells us that the _Pleiades_ have a supposed connection with the
Great Pyramid, because "about 2170 B.C., when the beginning of spring
coincided with the culmination of the Pleiades at midnight, that
wonderful group of stars was visible just at midnight, through the
mysterious southward-pointing passage of the Pyramid."


Cassiopeia

On the opposite side of the Polar-star from the Big Dipper and nearly as
far from it, is a W of five bright stars. This is called the
_Cassiopeia's Chair_. It is easily found and visible the year round on
clear nights.

Thus we have described ten constellations from which the woodcrafter
may select the number needed to qualify, namely, the Little Bear, or
Little Dipper, the Big Dipper or Big Bear, Cassiopeia's Chair, the Bull,
Orion's Hound, Orion's Little Dog, the Pleiades and the Hyades; the Lyre
(later).


The Moon

The moon is one-fourth the diameter of the earth, about one-fiftieth of
the bulk, and is about a quarter of a million miles away. Its course,
while very irregular, is nearly the same as the apparent course of the
sun. It is a cold solid body, without any known atmosphere, and shines
by reflected sunlight.

The moon goes around the earth in twenty-seven and a quarter days. It
loses about fifty-one minutes in twenty-fours hours; therefore it rises
that much later each successive night on the average, but there are wide
deviations from this average, as for example, the time of the Harvest
and Hunter's moons in the fall, when the full moon rises at nearly the
same time for several nights in succession.

According to most authorities, the moon is a piece of the earth that
broke away some time ago; and it has followed its mother around ever
since.


The Stars as Tests of Eyesight

In the sky are several tests of eyesight which have been there for some
time and are likely to be. The first is the old test of Mizar and Alcor.
Mizar, the Horse, is the star at the bend of the handle of the Dipper.
Just above it is a very small star that astronomers call Alcor, or the
rider.

The Indians call these two the "Old Squaw and the Papoose on Her Back."
In the old world, from very ancient times, these have been used as tests
of eyesight. To be able to see Alcor with the naked eye means that one
has excellent eyesight. So also on the plains, the old folks would ask
the children at night, "Can you see the papoose on the old Squaw's
back?" And when the youngster saw it and proved that he did by a right
description, they rejoiced that he had the eyesight which is the first
requisite of a good hunter.

One of the oldest of all eye tests is the Pleiades. Poor eyes see a mere
haze, fairly good see five, good see six, excellent see seven. The
rarest eyesight, under the best conditions, see up to ten; and,
according to Flammarion, the record with unaided eyes is thirteen.


Vega of the Lyre

If one draw a line from through the back wall of the Dipper, that is,
from the back bottom star, through the one next the handle, and continue
it upward for twice the total length of the Dipper, it will reach Vega,
the brightest star in the northern part of the sky, and believed to have
been at one time the Pole-star--and likely to be again. Vega, with the
two stars near it, form a small triangle. The one on the side next the
North Star is called Epsillon. If you have remarkably good eyes, you
will see that it is a double star.


The Nebula in Orion's Sword

Just about the middle of Orion's Sword is a fuzzy light spot. This might
do for blood, only it is the wrong color. It is the nebula of Orion. If
you can see it with the naked eye, you are to be congratulated.


On the Moon

When the moon is full, there is a large, dark, oval spot on it to the
left, as you face it, and close to the east rim, almost halfway up; this
is the Plain of Grimaldi; it is about twice the size of the whole State
of New Jersey; but it is proof of a pair of excellent eyes if you can
see it at all.

[Illustration: SIGNS AND BLAZES]


Blazes

First among the trail signs that are used by Woodcrafters, Indians, and
white hunters, and most likely to be of use to the traveler, are axe
blazes on tree trunks. Among these some may vary greatly with locality,
but there is one that I have found everywhere in use with scarcely any
variation. That is the simple white spot meaning, "_Here is the trail._"

The Indian in making it may nick off an infinitesimal speck of bark with
his knife, the trapper with his hatchet may make it as big as a dollar,
or the settler with his heavy axe may stab off half the tree-side; but
the sign is the same in principle and in meaning, on trunk, log, or
branch from Atlantic to Pacific and from Hudson Strait to Rio Grande.
"This is your trail," it clearly says in the universal language of the
woods.

There are two ways of employing it: one when it appears on back and
front of the trunk, so that the trail can be run both ways; the other
when it appears on but one side of each tree, making a _blind trail_,
which can be run one way only, the blind trail is often used by trappers
and prospectors, who do not wish anyone to follow their back track.

But there are treeless regions where the trail must be marked; regions
of sage brush and sand, regions of rock, stretches of stone, and level
wastes of grass or sedge. Here other methods must be employed.

A well-known Indian device, in the brush, is to break a twig and leave
it hanging. (_Second line._)

Among stones and rocks the recognized sign is one stone set on top of
another (_top line_) and in places where there is nothing but grass the
custom is to twist a tussock into a knot (_third line_).

These signs are also used in the whole country from Maine to
California.

In running a trail one naturally looks straight ahead for the next sign;
if the trail turned sharply without notice one might easily be set
wrong, but custom has provided against this. The tree blaze for turn "to
the right" is shown in No. 2, fourth row; "to the left" in No. 3. The
greater length of the turning blaze seems to be due to a desire for
emphasis as the same mark set square on, is understood to mean "Look
out, there is something of special importance here." Combined with a
long side chip means "very important; here turn aside." This is often
used to mean "camp is close by," and a third sign that is variously
combined always with the general meaning of "warning" or "something of
great importance" is a threefold blaze. (No. 4 on fourth line.) The
combination (No. 1 on bottom row) would read "Look out now for something
of great importance to the right." This blaze I have often seen used by
trappers to mark the whereabouts of their trap or cache.

Surveyors often use a similar mark--that is, three simple spots and a
stripe to mean, "There is a stake close at hand," while a similar blaze
on another tree nearby means that the stake is on a line between.


Stone Signs

These signs done into stone-talk would be as in the top line of the cut.

These are much used in the Rockies where the trail goes over stony
places or along stretches of slide rock.


Grass and Twig Signs

In grass or sedge the top of the tuft is made to show the direction to
be followed; if it is a point of great importance three tufts are tied,
their tops straight if the trail goes straight on; otherwise the tops
are turned in the direction toward which the course turns.

The Ojibways and other woodland tribes use twigs for a great many of
these signs. (_See second row._) The hanging broken twig like the simple
blaze means "This is the trail." The twig clean broken off and laid on
the ground across the line of march means, "Here break from your
straight course and go in the line of the butt end," and when an
especial _warning_ is meant, the butt is pointed toward the one
following the trail and raised somewhat, in a forked twig. If the butt
of the twig were raised and pointing to the left, it would mean "Look
out, camp, or ourselves, or the enemy, or the game we have killed is out
that way." With some, the elevation of the butt is made to show the
distance of the object; if low the object is near, if raised very high
the object is a long way off.

These are the principal signs of the trail used by Woodcrafters,
Indians, and hunters in most parts of America. These are the
standards--the ones sure to be seen by those who camp in the
wilderness.


Signal by Shots

The old buffalo hunters had an established signal that is yet used by
the mountain guides. It is as follows:

Two shots in rapid succession, an interval of five seconds by the watch,
then one shot; this means, "where are you?" The answer given at once and
exactly the same means "Here I am; what do you want?" The reply to this
may be one shot, which means, "All right; I only wanted to know where
you were." But if the reply repeats the first it means, "I am in serious
trouble; come as fast as you can."


Totems in Town

A totem is an emblem of a man, a group of men, or an idea. It has no
reference to words or letters.

Before men knew how to write they needed marks to indicate ownership.
This mark must be simple and legible and was chosen because of something
connected with the owner or his family. Later some of the trades adopted
a symbol; for instance the barbers in the early days were "blood
letters" and were closely associated with the medical profession. Their
totem indicate their business and we have the red and white barber pole
of today. It was among the Indians along the West coast of America that
the science and art of totems reached its highest development, though
they have a world-wide usage and go back in history to the earliest
times.

Out of this use of totems as owner marks and signs grew the whole
science of heraldry and national flags.

[Illustration: Northern Pacific R. R.]

[Illustration: Salt Lake R. R.]

[Illustration: Santa Fé R. R.]

[Illustration: Traffic Squad]

[Illustration: Bell Telephone]

[Illustration: Pawnshop]

[Illustration: Liberty]

[Illustration: Army]

[Illustration: Druggist]

[Illustration: Ireland]

[Illustration: Woodcraft]

[Illustration: Navy]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Sea Power]

[Illustration: Optician]

[Illustration: Union Pacific R. R.]

[Illustration: Islamism]

[Illustration: Skating]

[Illustration: Star Union Lines]

[Illustration: New York City]

[Illustration: Penna. R. R.]

[Illustration: The Power of the People]

[Illustration: Canadian Pacific R. R.]

[Illustration: Barber]

[Illustration: Scotland]

[Illustration: Totems Often Seen]

Thanks to the fusion of many small armies into one or two big armies,
that is, of many tribes into a nation, and also to modern weapons which
made it possible to kill a man farther off than you could see the totem
on his shield, national flags have replaced the armorial devices, and
are the principal totems used today.

But a new possibility has been discovered in modern times. Totems will
serve the ends of commerce, and a great revival of their use is now
seen.

The totem is visible such a long way off and is understood by all,
whether or not they can read or know our language, is copyrightable and
advertisable, so that most of the great railway companies, etc., now
have totems.

There are not less than one hundred common totems used in our streets
today. Among the familiar ones seen are the American eagle, with white
head and tail, the Austrian eagle with two heads, the British lion, the
Irish harp, the French fleur de lis, etc. Among trades the three balls
of the pawnbroker, the golden fleece of the dry-goods man, the mortar
and pestle of the druggist, and others are well known. Examples of these
and others are given in the illustration but any wideawake Woodcraft
Girl will be able to find many others by careful observation.

[Illustration: Christianity]

[Illustration: Mourning]

[Illustration: Electric Power]

[Illustration: Commercial Success]

[Illustration: "AFOOT AND LIGHT-HEARTED."]

FOOTNOTE:

[4] This article is chiefly a condensation of his pamphlet on "Poisonous
Snakes of the United States," and is made with his permission and
approval.



SECTION XIV

CAMPING FOR GIRL SCOUTS[5]


SONG OF THE OPEN ROAD

  _Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road,
   Healthy, free, the world before me,
   The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose.
   Henceforth I ask not good-fortune--I myself am good-fortune;
   Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,
   Strong and content, I travel the open road...._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Now I see the secret of the making of the best persons,
   It is to grow in the open air, and to eat and sleep with the earth._

                                               --_Walt Whitman._

A Girl Scout likes to hike and camp. She learns to know the stars, and
becomes acquainted with the plants and animals about her. She gains
independence from her ability to help herself, and health and strength
from exercise in the sunshine and fresh air.

These are the good things of camping. The bad things are catching cold
from damp ground, or insufficient bedding, uncomfortable nights, and
weary feet. But a wise Scout does not rough it. She knows how to make
herself comfortable by a hundred little dodges. The aim of camping is to
make things simpler for the Camper. She must make up her mind whether
she is ready for an overnight hike, a week-end trip or a good vacation
in the open air, and plan accordingly.

For a walking trip a Girl Scout must travel light and learn to do with a
minimum amount of clothing, utensils and food. On the other hand, if she
is going to spend the week out, why not be as comfortable as possible?
This requires more of an outfit, but it is worth it. To know how to do
this one must, of course, have first learned the simple rules of camping
in Girl Scout training.


Hiking

Hikes are a good way to get this training. Extreme heat, or a downpour
of rain is the only kind of weather which should interfere with a hike.
Soft rains or snowstorms are very pleasant to hike in.

Skirts are dangerous for cross-country travel on account of brambles,
rock work and climbing over brooks. Knickerbockers or bloomers should be
worn.

_In the city_ when starting off for a hike use squad or double file
formation through the streets, railroad stations, ferries, etc. Silence
is maintained in this formation.

_Hiking Order_--In the country, even along unused roads, hike in single
file on the left side of the road. The advantage of this formation is
that all danger from passing traffic in any direction is averted. It is
_not_ necessary to keep step, and talking, laughing, singing, etc., may
be indulged in. Permission to break this order is only given when in
woods, or fields, where there is no danger.

When returning home use Scout's Pace if weary. This helps to make the
distance seem shorter.

_Scout's pace_ is a walking and running device which serves to increase
endurance when covering a long distance. It consists in taking a certain
number of walking steps followed immediately by the same number of
running steps, returning to the walking steps, and so forth. The number
of steps may vary, according to the place, nature of the road and object
of the walk. Fifty steps walking, fifty steps running and alternating
steadily for twelve minutes will take one a mile, and this is one of the
measures of distance that is useful to know. For ordinary use on hikes
the use of twenty steps running and walking is preferable.


Feet

With a little knowledge as to the care of her feet the city girl can
make a good showing at her first camp. Prepare feet by brushing
vigorously with a dry flesh brush. Strengthen muscles by standing on
toes in bare feet, raising body gradually fifty or seventy-five times.
Frequent changes of stockings, bathing of tired feet in hot water at
night and cold water in the morning, will overcome most of the hiker's
troubles. The cold water hardens the skin. Boric acid powder is good for
naturally damp feet. Blisters should be cleansed with iodine, then
carefully pricked with a sterile needle to let out the water (hold the
needle in the flame of a match), then washed with iodine and covered
with a few layers of sterile gauze fastened with adhesive plaster.

It is desirable to change the stockings every day. Wash them at night
and hang them out to dry and keep them well darned. Two pairs at least
are necessary. Never risk your health by putting on stockings even
slightly damp with dew. A hole will cause a blister. Woolen stockings
are preferable. For very long hikes it helps to wear two or three pairs,
and to lather the outside of the stocking with a cake of soap slightly
moistened.


Shoes

Shoes should be the shape of the feet and have low, wide heels. It rests
the feet to take the shoes off once or twice during a long tramp.
Grease the shoes every few days with mutton fat or other grease. There
is no such thing as waterproof leather, but it can be made so by being
greased. After being wet, shoes should be well dried and greased, but
should not be dried in a hot place, for this would ruin the leather.
These may seem trifling details, but remember, "no army is stronger than
its feet."


Things to Remember

Keep the feet straight when walking. If a Girl Scout notices the tracks
of an Indian, the first hikers in this country, she will find them
invariably straight forward. Scientists have agreed that the dancing
school habit of turning out toes is one of the causes of flat feet,
which disqualified so many men for army service.

Start the walk slowly. Keep the pace of the slowest of the party. "Slow
and easy goes far in a day." Practice deep breathing. Inhale for five
steps, hold your breath for five counts, and let it out, again counting
five.

Take short steps when climbing. Do not run down hill. It causes
stiffness, for which a hot bath and another walk the next day are the
best cure.

When lunch is carried it should be divided among the troop. Each Scout
should carry her knapsack on her back, to leave the hands free. It is a
great mistake to start on a hike with one's arms laden.

Do not plan to go too great a distance in the time at your disposal.
Remember that aside from the time you need for going and coming you
expect to enjoy yourselves cooking and eating, and you need time for
both. For an over-night hike, when you carry your equipment select a
spot not more than two miles distant.

Good things to carry in one's pocket are a drinking cup, a geological
survey map (ten cents), a small pocket compass, a camper's knife, a
small soapstone to sharpen it, a match box, and a note-book and pencil.

Plan a definite object for the hike. Note how many kinds of trees, wild
flowers or birds one can find.

Practice building fires for cooking, or getting material for a bed such
as balsam, etc. Inquire for points of historical interest and make them
the goal of the hike. There is hardly a town that has not some place
connected with the early history of the nation.


Personal Equipment

Spending the nights under the stars is one of the great fascinations of
camping. Each person requires two waterproof ground cloths or ponchos,
two pairs of light wool blankets, safety pins, heavy cord, sleeping
garments, rain coat, and toilet articles, including such things as soap,
toilet paper, sewing kit, electric flashlight, mirror, first aid kit,
provision for mosquitoes or flies, five yards of bar netting, and oil of
citronella.

In order to ensure protection from the rain spread one waterproof
covering or poncho on the ground using half underneath so that the upper
half may be folded over the head in case of rain. Put blankets _under_
as well as _over_ you, and a second waterproof covering over the
blankets.


Clothing

When living out of doors, one may make shift for shelter, or even go
hungry for a space, but there is no substitute for comfortable clothing
that is safe to use if one would keep well. Horace Kephart, the master
camper, devotes much space to this subject, and we can do no better than
to follow his advice from Camping and Woodcraft.

"* * * One soon learns that the difference between comfort and misery,
if not health and illness, may depend on whether he is properly clad.
Proper, in this case does not mean modish, but suitable, serviceable,
proven by the touchstone of experience to be best for the work or play
that is in hand. When you seek a guide in the mountains, he looks first
in your eyes and then at your shoes. If both are right, you are right.

"The chief uses of clothing are to help the body maintain its normal
temperature and to protect it from sun, frost, wind, rain and injuries.
_To help_, mind you--the body must be allowed to do its share.

"Perspiration is the heat-regulating mechanism of the body. Clothing
should hinder its passage from the skin as little as possible. For this
reason one's garments should be _permeable_ to air. The body is cooled
by rapid evaporation, on the familiar principle of a tropical water bag
that is porous enough to let some of the water exude. So the best summer
clothing is that which permits free evaporation--and this means all
over, from head to heel. In winter it is just the same, there should be
free passage for bodily moisture through the underclothes, but extra
layers or thickness of outer clothing are needed to hold in the bodily
heat and to protect one against wind; even so all the garments should be
permeable to air. * * *"

"Underclothing, for any season, should be loosely woven, so as to hold
air and take up moisture from the body. The air confined in the
interspaces is a non-conductor, and so helps to prevent sudden chilling
on the one hand, and over-heating on the other. A loose texture absorbs
perspiration but does not hold it--the moisture is free to pass on to
and through the outer garments. In town we may indure close woven
underwear in summer, if thin enough, because we exercise little and can
bathe and change frequently. In the woods we would have to change four
times a day to keep * * * as dry.

"_Wool versus Cotton_--Permeability also depends upon material. Ordinary
cotton and linen goods do not permit rapid evaporation. They absorb
moisture from the skin, but hold it up to the limit of saturation. Then,
when they can hold no more, they are clammy, and the sweat can only
escape by running down one's skin.

"After hard exertion in such garments, if you sit down to rest, or meet
a sudden keen wind, as in topping a ridge, you are likely to get a
chill--and the next thing is a 'bad cold' or lumbago, rheumatism, or
something worse.

"Wool, on the contrary is permeable. That is why (if of suitable weight
and loose weave) it is both cooler in summer and warmer in winter than
cloth made of vegetable fibre. 'One wraps himself in a woolen blanket to
keep warm--to keep the heat _in_. He wraps ice in a blanket to keep it
from melting--to keep the heat _out_.' In other words, wool is the best
material to maintain an equable normal temperature."

Camp Site

"The essentials of a good camp site are these:

1. Pure water.

2. Wood that burns well. In cold weather there should be either an
abundance of sound down wood, or some standing hard wood trees that are
not too big for easy felling.

3. An open spot level enough for the tent and camp fire, but elevated
above its surroundings so as to have good natural drainage. It must be
well above any chance overflow from the sudden rise of a neighboring
stream. Observe the previous flood marks....

7. Exposure to direct sunlight during a part of the day, especially
during the early morning hours.

8. In summer, exposure to whatever breezes may blow; in cold weather,
protection against the prevailing wind.

9. Privacy.

"Water, wood, and good drainage may be all you need for a 'one-night
stand,' but the other points, too, should be considered when selecting a
site for a fixed camp.

"_Water_--Be particularly careful about the purity of your water supply.
You come, let us say, to a mountain brook, that issues from thick
forest. It ripples over clean rocks, it bubbles with air, it is clear as
crystal and cool to your thirsty throat. 'Surely that is good water.'
But do you know where it comes from? Every mountain cabin is built close
to a spring-branch. Somewhere up that branch there may be a clearing; in
that clearing, a house; in that house, a case of dysentery or typhoid
fever. I have known several cases of infection from just such a source.
It is not true that running water purifies itself.

"When one must use well-water let him note the surrounding drainage. If
the well is near a stable or out house, or if dish water is thrown near
it, let it alone. A well in sandy soil is more or less filtered by
nature, but rocky or clayey earth may conduct disease germs a
considerable distance under ground. Never drink from the well of an
abandoned farm: there is no telling what may have fallen into it.

"A spring issuing from the living rock is worthy of confidence. Even if
it be but a trickle you can scoop out a basin to receive it that soon
will clear itself.

"Sometimes a subaqueous spring may be found near the margin of a lake or
river by paddling close in shore and trailing your hand in the water.
When a cold spot is noted, go ashore and dig a few feet back from the
water's edge. I have found such spring exit in the Mississippi some
distance from the bank, and by weighting a canteen, tying a string to
it and another to the stopper, have brought up cool water from the river
bed.

"Disease germs are of animal, not vegetable origin. Still waters are not
necessarily unwholesome, even though there is rotten vegetation in them.
The water of cedar and cypress swamps is good to drink wherever there is
a deep pool of it, unless polluted from some outside source. Lake water
is safe if no settlements are on its border; but even so large a body as
Lake Champlain has been condemned by state boards of health because of
the sewage that runs into it.

"When a stream is in flood it is likely to be contaminated by decayed
animal matter.

"_Alkaline Water_--When traveling in an alkali country carry some
vinegar or limes or lemons, or (better) a glass stoppered bottle of
hydrochloric acid. One teaspoonful of hydrochloric (muriatic)
neutralizes about a gallon of water, and if there should be a little
excess it will do no harm but rather assist digestion. In default of
acid you may add a little Jamaica ginger and sugar to the water, making
a weak ginger tea.

"_Muddy Water_--I used to clarify Mississippi water by stirring corn
meal in it and letting it settle, or by stirring a lump of alum in it
until the mud began to precipitate, and then decanting the clear water.
Lacking these, one can take a good handful of grass, tie it roughly in
the form of a cone six or eight inches high, invert it, pour water
slowly into the grass and a runnel of comparatively clear water will
trickle down through the small end.

"_Stagnant Water_--A traveler may be reduced to the extremity of using
stagnant or even putrid water; but this should never be done without
first boiling it. Some charred wood from the camp fire should be boiled
with the water; then skim off the scum, strain, and set in water aside
to cool. Boiling sterilizes, and charcoal deodorizes. * * *"

[Illustration: COOKING THE FIRST MEAL]


Arriving at Camp

As soon as the camp site is decided upon locate the tent. (This should
be done in advance when the party is of any size). Each tent should be
about twenty-five feet from the next, on a dry place and easy to drain
in case of rain, and so placed as to have the sun in the morning and the
shade in the afternoon. Each tent should be trenched and placed some
distance from the water supply and from the latrine.


Tents

"For fixed camps, situated where there are wagon roads or other adequate
means of transportation, the best cloth shelter is a wall tent,
rectangular or square, of strong and rather heavy material. * * * The
best all-round size of wall tent for two people, if weight and bulk and
cost are of any consequence, is the so-called 9 × 9 or a 9 × 12, built
with 3-1/2-foot walls, instead of 3-foot, and 8-foot center, instead of
7-1/2-foot. For four persons a 12 × 14 is commonly used; but a 14 × 14
with 4-foot walls and a 9-foot center has double the head-room of the
standard 12 × 14, and 2-1/2 feet more space between cots, if these are
set lengthwise of the tent, two on a side.

"Before selecting a tent, consider the number of people to occupy it and
their dunnage, and the furniture. Then draw diagrams of floor and
elevation of various sizes, putting in the cots, etc., according to
scale; so you can get just what you want, no more, no less.


Camp Sanitation

"Nothing is cleaner, sweeter, wholesomer, than a wildwood unspoiled by
man, and few spots are more disgusting than a "piggy" camp, with slops
thrown everywhere, empty cans and broken bottles littering the ground,
and organic refuse left festering in the sun, breeding disease germs, to
be spread abroad by the swarms of flies. I have seen one of nature's
gardens, an ideal health resort, changed in a few months by a logging
crew into an abomination and a pest hole where typhoid and dysentery
wrought deadly vengeance.

"_Destroy at once all refuse that would attract flies._ Or bury it where
they cannot get at it.

"Fire is the absolute disinfectant. Burn all solid kitchen refuse as
fast as it accumulates. When a can of food is emptied toss it on the
fire and burn it out, then drop it in a sink hole that you have dug for
slops and unburnable trash, and cover it with earth or ashes so no
mosquitoes can breed in it after a rainfall.

"The sink should be on the down hill side of camp, and where it cannot
pollute the water supply. Sprinkle kerosene on it or burn it out
frequently with a brush fire. * * *"


The Latrine

One of the first tasks of the camper is to dig a trench for a latrine
and build a screen around it. The latrine should be on a lower level
than the camp, away from the water supply and in the opposite direction
from which the prevailing winds come toward the camp, two hundred feet
from sleeping and mess tents. Bushes or a tent fly may be used as a
screen and shelter. A small lean-to serves admirably. Dig trenches four
feet long, one foot wide and two feet deep. Allow six inches (length)
per day for a Scout. Cover after using with fresh dirt. It is imperative
to fill and re-sod all trenches dug. Whether you camp only for lunch or
for the summer leave no trace that you have been there. Remember the
animals how they scratch the soil and cover up any waste that they
leave, and be at least as clean as they.

Lime does not keep the flies away. Plenty of fresh dirt is better.


Team Work

Only as each and every member does her part will the camp be a complete
success. The daily tasks should be assigned to individuals or groups, as
in:


The Pine Tree Patrol System

The chief advantage of this system is that whenever the need for work of
any description arises, there is always someone whose duty is to perform
that particular task, thus avoiding the inevitable question of "Who will
do it?" The Pine Tree Patrol system does not in the least interfere with
regular schedule of Scout activities; on the contrary, it saves time
since more than one hand on each spoke of the wheel keeps it in
continual motion. When the system seems too complicated for a small
camp, the captain can simplify it to suit the circumstances.

Each girl in the Patrol is assigned a number which requires of her:

1. Certain well defined duties to perform for her Patrol.

2. Certain specific knowledge expected of her in the exercise of her
"specialty."

3. Proper care of her special "station gear."

4. Willingness to teach her understudy all she knows.

5. Willingness to learn the duties of the next higher numbers.

[Illustration: --THE PINE TREE PATROL--

          REAR RANK: "THE BLUES"

                                  Water       Wood
          Junior      Baker       Scout       Scout

             2          4           6           8

             1          3           5           7

          Senior      Scribe      Lighter     Handy
                                              Scout

          FRONT RANK "THE REDS"]

The front rank (Reds) is in touch with and under the Senior (Patrol
Leader); the rear rank (Blues) is in touch with and under the Junior.
The Senior receives her orders from the Captain and transmits them not
only to 3, 5 and 7, but to Junior as well. The Senior and ranking Patrol
officer keeps an eye on the Junior and her rear rank. The Captain, of
course, is the general overseer, but the Senior has charge of all
routine troop duties, superintends camp details and is virtually a first
Lieutenant to the Captain. The Junior is a second Lieutenant and assists
the Senior in the supervision of the camp.

_The Senior_ (No. 1) looks after the flags, tentage, blankets, equipment
and personal baggage, while the Junior (No. 2) has charge of food,
fires, water, cooking, and kitchen work. They appease the demands of the
outer and inner man.

_The Scribe_ (No. 3)--She is secretary, bookkeeper, log writer,
recorder, correspondent, tent pitcher and First-Aid Scout.

_The Baker_ (No. 4) is the Junior's first aid. She is charged with the
care and use of cereal foodstuffs all the way from corn on the cob to
flap-jacks and "sinkers," and the cooking outfit and kitchen fire.

_The Lighter_ (No. 5) has care of the lamps, lanterns, candles, matches,
oils and all "leaky" stuff. She understands telegraphy and electricity
and is chief signal Scout and assistant tent pitcher. She must keep the
camp well illuminated.

_The Water Scout_ (No. 6) locates water for all purposes and carries it
to camp. She acts as Fire Chief and Fire Watchman. She provides and
cooks meat, vegetables and "greens."

_The Handy Scout_ (No. 7) is field engineer, carpenter, bridge builder,
the general maker, mender, patcher, splicer and tinker; cares for tools
and trek-cart, mends the tents and clothing, and makes the furniture.

_The Wood Scout_ (Patrol Mascot) (No. 8) is usually the youngest girl.
She keeps fires well fed, the rations dry and the garbage burned. She
carries a spade, pick axe and cutting axe.

This system may be used in either a small or large camp; if the latter,
corresponding numbers of each Patrol work together.


TEAM WORK AND DAILY ROUTINE

6:30 A. M. Junior, Baker, Water Scout and Wood Scout report half an hour
before Mess.

8:00 A. M. Tent Inspection.

8:30 A. M. Senior, Scribe, Lighter and Handy Scout report.

8:30-9:30 A. M. Main work for day accomplished by both Senior and Junior
groups.


Caution in Use of Knife and Axe

_The Knife_

1. Always whittle away from you.

2. Keep your fingers behind the blade.

3. Keep saying to yourself: "If this knife slips, can it cut my
fingers?"

4. Learn how to sharpen your knife and keep it sharp.

_The Chopping Block_

"A chopping block is the first thing needed about a camp. The axe, when
not in use, should always be stuck in that particular block, where one
can find it when wanted, and where it will not injure men or dogs."

_The Axe_

"Do not let the axe lie outdoors on a very cold night; the frost would
make it brittle, so that the steel might shiver on the first knot you
struck the next morning...."

The axe is a most dangerous tool, and a glancing blow may cripple one
for life.

1. Do not put your foot on a stick you are chopping.

2. Always have in mind where a glancing blow may throw the axe, and keep
your foot away from that danger.

3. In splitting short sticks for kindling hold them by one end flat on
the chopping block and strike the blade into the other end.

4. Do not hold the stick on end in one hand while splitting it.

5. Cut or split small wood on a chopping block or log. Never let the axe
strike into the ground, as a hidden stone may ruin the edge.


The Camp Fire

"The forest floor is always littered with old leaves, dead sticks and
fallen trees. During a drought this rubbish is so tinder-dry that a
spark falling in it may start a conflagration; but through a great part
of the year the leaves and sticks that lie flat on the ground are too
moist at least on their under side, to ignite readily. If we rake
together a pile of leaves, cover it higgledy-piggledy with dead twigs
and branches picked up at random, and set a match to it, the odds are
that it will result in nothing but a quick blaze that soon dies down to
a smudge. Yet that is the way most of us tried to make our first outdoor
fires.

"One glance at a camper's fire tells what kind of a woodsman he is. It
is quite impossible to prepare a good meal over a heap of smoking
chunks, a fierce blaze, or a great bed of coals that will warp iron and
melt everything else.

[Illustration: LUNCHEON FIRE]

"If one would have good meals cooked out of doors, and would save much
time and vexation; in other words, if he wants to be comfortable in the
woods, he must learn how to produce at will either (1) a quick, hot
little fire that will boil water in a jiffy, and will soon burn down to
embers that are not too ardent for frying; or (2) a solid bed of
long-lived coals that will keep up a steady, glowing, smokeless heat for
baking, roasting or slow boiling; or (3) a big log fire that will throw
its heat forward on the ground, and into a tent or lean-to, and will
last several hours without replenishing.

"_Luncheon Fire_--For a noonday lunch, or any other quick meal, when you
have only to boil coffee and fry something, a large fire is not wanted.
Drive a forked stake into the ground, lay a green stick across it,
slanting upward from the ground, and weight the lower end with a rock,
so that you could easily regulate the height of a pot. The slanting
stick should be notched, or have the stub of a twig left at its upper
end, to hold the pot in place, and to be set at such an angle that the
pot swings about a foot clear of the ground.

"Then gather a small armful of sound, dry twigs from the size of a lead
pencil to that of your finger. Take no twig that lies flat on the
ground, for such are generally damp or rotten. Choose hard wood, if
there is any, for it lasts well.

"Select three of your best sticks for kindling. Shave each of them
almost through, for half its length, leaving lower end of shavings
attached to the stick, one under the other. Stand these in a tripod,
under the hanging pot, with their curls down. Around them build a
_small_ conical wigwam of the other sticks, standing each on end and
slanting to a common center. The whole affair is no bigger than your
hat. Leave free air spaces between the sticks. Fire requires air, and
plenty of it, and it burns best when it has something to climb up on;
hence the wigwam construction. Now touch off the shaved sticks, and in a
moment you will have a small blast furnace under the pot. This will get
up steam in a hurry. Feed it with small sticks as needed.

"Meantime get two bed-sticks, four or five inches thick, or a pair of
flat rocks, to support the frying pan. The firewood will all drop to
embers soon after the pot boils. Toss out the smoking butts, leaving
only clear, glowing coals. Put your bed-sticks on either side, parallel
and level. Set the pan on them, and fry away. So, in twenty minutes from
the time you drove your stake, the meal will be cooked.

"_Dinner Fire_--First get in plenty of wood and kindling. If you can
find two large flat rocks, or several small ones of even height use them
as andirons; otherwise lay down two short cuts off a five or six inch
log, facing you and about three feet apart. On these rocks or billets
lay two four foot logs parallel, and several inches apart, as rests for
your utensils. Arrange the kindling between and under them, with small
sticks laid across the top of the logs, a couple of long ones
lengthwise, then more short ones across, another pair lengthwise, and
thicker short ones across. Then light it. Many prefer to light the
kindling at once and feed the fire gradually; but I do as above, so as
to have an even glow under several pots at once, and then the sticks
will all burn down to coals together.

[Illustration: CAMP CRANE]

"This is the usual way to build a cooking fire when there is no time to
do better. The objection is that the supporting logs must be close
enough together to hold up the pots and pans, and, being round, this
leaves too little space between them for the fire to heat the balance
evenly; besides, a pot is liable to slip and topple over. A better way,
if one has time, is to hew both the inside surfaces and the tops of the
logs flat. Space these supports close enough together at one end for the
narrowest pot and wide enough apart at the other for the frying pan.

"If you carry fire-irons much bother is saved. Simply lay down two flat
rocks or a pair of billets far enough apart for the purpose, place the
flat irons on them, and space them to suit the utensils.

"If a camp grate is used, build a crisscross fire of short sticks under
it.

"Split wood is better than round sticks for cooking; it catches easier
and burns more easily.

"Camp Crane--Pots for hot water, stews, coffee, and so on, are more
manageable when hung above the fire. The heat can easily be regulated,
the pots hanging low at first to boil quickly, and then being elevated
or shifted aside to simmer.

[Illustration: PINE TREE HORSE]

"Set up two forked stakes about five feet apart and four feet to the
crotches. Across them lay a green stick (lug-pole) somewhat thicker than
a broomstick. Now cut three or four green crotches from branches, drive
a nail in the small end of each, or cut a notch in it, invert the
crotches, and hang them on the lug-pole to suspend kettles from. These
pothooks are to be of different length so that the kettle can be
adjusted to different heights above the fire, first for hard boiling,
and then for simmering. If kettles were hung from the lug-pole itself,
this adjustment could not be made, and you would have to dismount the
whole business in order to get one kettle off.

"If forked stakes are not easily found in the neighborhood, drive
straight ones, then split the tops, flatten the ends of the cross poles
and insert them in the clefts of the stakes.

"You do not want a big fire to cook over. Many and many a time I have
watched old and experienced woodsmen spoil their grub, and their
tempers, too, by trying to cook in front of a roaring winter campfire,
and have marveled at their lack of common sense. Off to one side of such
a fire, lay your bed log as above; then shovel from the campfire enough
hard coal to fill the space between the logs within three inches of the
top. You now have a steady, even heat from end to end; it can easily be
regulated; there is level support for every vessel; and you can wield a
short-handled frying pan over such an outdoor range without scorching
either the meat or yourself.

"_Fire for Baking_--For baking in a reflector, or roasting a joint, a
high fire is best, with a backing to throw the heat forward. Sticks
three feet long can be leaned against a big log or a sheer-faced rock,
and the kindlings started under them.

"Often a good bed of coals is wanted. The campfire generally supplies
these, but sometimes they are needed in a hurry, soon after camp is
pitched. To get them, _take sound hardwood_, either green or dead, and
split it into sticks of uniform thickness (say, 1-1/4-inch face). Lay
down two bed-sticks, cross these near the end with two others, and so on
up until you have a pen a foot high. Start a fire in this pen. Then
cover it with a layer of parallel sticks laid an inch apart. Cross this
with a similar layer at right angles, and so upward for another foot.
The free draught will make a roaring fire, and all will burn down to
coals together.

"The thick bark of hemlock, and the hard woods generally, will soon
yield coals for ordinary cooking.

"To keep coals a long time, cover them with ashes, or with bark which
will soon burn to ashes. In wet weather a bed of coals can be shielded
by slanting broad strips of green bark over it and overlapping them at
the edges.

"_Fire in a Trench_--In time of drought when everything is tinder-dry,
or in windy weather, especially if the ground be strewn with dead leaves
or pine needles, build your fire in a trench. This is the best way, too,
if fuel is scarce and you must depend on brushwood, as a trench
conserves heat.

"Dig the trench in line with the prevailing wind. The point is to get a
good draught. Make the windward end somewhat wider than the rest, and
deeper, sloping the trench upward to the far end. Line the sides with
flat rocks if they are to be found, as they hold heat a long time and
keep the sides from crumbling in. Lay other rocks, or a pair of green
poles along the edges to support vessels. A little chimney of flat
stones or sod, at the leeward end, will make the fire draw well. If
there is some sheet-iron to cover the trench a quite practical stove is
made, but an open trench will do very well if properly managed.

"_The Indian's Fire_--Best where fuel is scarce, or when one has only a
small hatchet with which to cut night wood. Fell and trim a lot of
hardwood saplings. Lay three or four of them on the ground, butts on top
of each other, tips radiating from this center like the spokes of a
wheel. On and around this build a small hot fire. Place butts of other
saplings on this, radiating like the others. As the wood burns away,
shove the sticks in toward the center, butts on top of each other as
before. This saves much chopping, and economizes fuel. Build a little
wind break behind you and lie close to the fire. Doubtless you have
heard the Indian's dictum (southern Indians express it just as the
northern ones do): 'White man heap fool; make um big fire--can't git
near; Injun make um little fire--git close. Uh, good.'


Kindling

"The best kindling is fat pine or the bark of the paper birch. Fat pine
is found in the stumps and butt cuts of pine trees, particularly those
that died on the stump. The resin has collected there and dried. This
wood is usually easy to split. Pine knots are the tough, heavy resinous
stubs of limbs that are found on dead pine trees. They, as well as fat
pine, are almost imperishable, and those sticking out of old rotten logs
are as good as any. In collecting pine knots go to fallen trees that are
almost rotted away. Hit the knot a lick with the pole of the axe and
generally it will yield; if you must chop, cut deep to get it all and to
save the axe edge. The knots of old dead balsams are similarly used.
Usually a dead stump of pine, spruce, or balsam, all punky on the
outside, has a core very rich in resin that makes excellent kindling.

"Hemlock knots are worthless and hard as glass--keep your axe out of
them.

"The thick bark of hemlock is good to make glowing coals in a hurry; so
is that of hard woods generally. Good kindling sure to be dry underneath
the bark in all weather, is procured by snapping off the small dead
branches, or stubs of branches, that are left on the trunks of small or
medium-sized trees, near the ground. Do not pick up twigs from the
ground, but choose those among the downwood that are held up free from
the ground. Where a tree is found that has been shivered by lightning,
or one that has broken off without uprooting, good splinters of dry wood
will be found. In every laurel thicket there is plenty of dead laurel,
and, since it is of sprangling growth, most of the branches will be
free from the ground and snap-dry. They ignite readily and give out
intense heat.

"The bark of all species of birch, but of paper birch especially, is
excellent for kindling and for torches. It is full of resinous oil,
blazes up at once, will burn in any wind, and wet sticks can be ignited
with it.

"_Making Fire in the Wet_--It is a good test of one's resourcefulness to
make a fire out of doors in rainy weather. The best way to go about it
depends upon local conditions. If fat pine can be found, the trick is
easy; just split it up, and start your fire under a big fallen log. Dry
fuel and a place to build a fire can often be found under big up-tilted
logs, shelving rocks, and similar natural shelters, or in the core of an
old stump. In default of these, look for a dead softwood tree that leans
to the south. The wood and bark on the under side will be dry; chop some
off, split it fine, and build your fire under the shelter of the trunk.

"_Lighting a Match_--When there is nothing dry to strike it on, jerk the
tip of the match forward against your teeth.

"To light a match in the wind, _face_ the wind. Cup your hands, with
their backs toward the wind, and hold the match with its head pointing
toward the rear of the cup; _i. e._, toward the wind. Remove the right
hand just long enough to strike the match on something very close by;
then instantly resume the former position. The flame will run up the
match stick, instead of being blown away from it, and so will have
something to feed on.

"_Fire Regulations_--On state lands and on national forest reserves it
is forbidden to use any but fallen timber for firewood. Different states
have various other restrictions, some, I believe, not permitting
trampers to light a fire in the woods at all unless accompanied by a
registered guide.

"In New York the regulations prescribe that fires will be permitted for
the purposes of cooking, warmth and insect smudges; but before such
fires are kindled sufficient space around the spot where the fire is to
be lighted must be cleared from all combustible material; and before the
place is abandoned fires so lighted must be thoroughly quenched.

"In Pennsylvania forest reserves no fire may be made except in a hole or
pit one foot deep, the pit being encircled by the excavated earth. In
those of California, no fire at all may be lighted without first
procuring a permit from the authorities.

"Fire regulations are posted on all public lands, and if campers
disregard them they are subject to arrest.

"These are wise and good laws. Every camper who loves the forest, and
who has any regard for public interest, will do his part in obeying them
to the letter. However, if he occupies private property where he may use
his own judgment, or if he travels in the wilderness far from
civilization, where there are no regulations, it will be useful for him
to know something about the fuel value of all kinds of wood, green as
well as dead, and for such people the following information is given:

"The arts of fire building are not so simple as they look. To practice
them successfully in all sorts of wild regions we must know the
different species of trees one from another, and their relative fuel
values, which as we shall see, vary a great deal. We must know how well,
or ill, each of them burns in a green state, as well as when seasoned.
It is important to discriminate between wood that makes lasting coals
and such as soon dies down to ashes. Some kinds of wood pop violently
when burning and cast out embers that may burn holes in tents and
bedding or set the neighborhood afire; others burn quietly, with clear,
steady flame. Some are stubborn to split, others almost fall apart under
the axe. In wet weather it takes a practiced woodsman to find tinder and
dry wood, and to select a natural shelter where fire can be kept going
during a storm or rain or snow, when a fire is most needed.

"There are several handy little manuals by which one who has no
botanical knowledge can soon learn how to identify the different species
of trees by merely examining their leaves, or, late in the season, by
their bark, buds and habit of growth.

"But no book gives the other information that I have referred to; so I
shall offer, in the present chapter, a little rudimentary instruction in
this important branch of woodcraft.

"It is convenient for our purpose to divide the trees into two great
groups, hard woods and soft woods, using these terms not so loosely as
lumbermen do, but drawing the line between sycamore, yellow birch,
yellow pine, and slippery elm, on the one side, and red cedar,
sassafras, pitch pine and white birch, on the other.

"_As a general rule_, hard woods make good, slow-burning fuel that
yields lasting coals, and soft woods make a quick, hot fire that is soon
spent. But each species has peculiarities that deserve close attention.

"_Best Fuel_--Best of all northern fire woods is hickory, green or dry.
It makes a hot fire, but lasts a long time, burning down to a bed of
hard coals that keep up an even, generous heat for hours. Hickory, by
the way, is distinctly an American tree; no other region on earth
produces it. The live oak of the south is most excellent fuel; so is
holly. Following the hickory, in fuel value, are chestnut, oak, overcup,
white, blackjack, post and basket oaks, pecan, the hornbeams
(ironwoods), and dogwood. The latter burns finely to a beautiful white
ash that is characteristic; apple wood does the same. Black birch also
ranks here; it has the advantage of 'doing its own blowing,' as a
Carolina mountaineer said to me, meaning that the oil in the birch
assists its combustion so that the wood needs no coaxing. All of the
birches are good fuel, ranking in about this order: Black, yellow, red,
paper, and white. Sugar maple was the favorite fuel of our old-time
hunters and surveyors because it ignites easily, burns with a clear,
steady flame, and leaves good coals.

"Locust is a good, lasting fuel; it is easy to cut, and, when green,
splits fairly well; the thick bark takes fire readily and the wood then
burns slowly, with little flame, leaving pretty good coals; hence it is
good for night wood. Mulberry has similar qualities. The scarlet and
willow oaks are among the poorest of the hard woods for fuel. Cherry
makes only fair fuel. White elm is poor stuff, but slippery elm is
better. Yellow pine burns well, as its sap is resinous instead of watery
like that of the soft pines.

"In some respects white ash is the best of green woods for campers fuel.
It is easily cut and split, is lighter to tote than most other woods,
and is of so dry a nature that even the green wood catches fire readily.
It burns with clear flame, and lasts longer than any other free-burning
wood of its weight. On a wager, I have built a bully fire from a green
tree of white ash, one match, and no dry kindling. I split some of the
wood very fine and 'frilled' a few of the little sticks with my knife.

"_Soft Woods_--Most of the soft woods are good only for kindling, or for
quick cooking fires, and then only when seasoned. For these purposes,
however, some of them are superior, as they split and shave readily and
catch fire easily.

"Liquidambar, magnolia, tulip, catalpa, and willow are poor fuel.
Seasoned chestnut and yellow poplar make a hot fire, but crackle and
leave no coals. Balsam fir, basswood, and the white and loblolly pines
make quick fires, but are soon spent. The grey (Labrador) or jack pine
is considered good fuel in the far north, where hard woods are scarce.
Seasoned tamarack is good. Spruce is poor fuel, although, being
resinous, it kindles easily and makes a good blaze for 'branding up' a
fire. Pitch pine, which is the most inflammable of all woods when dry
and 'fat,' will scarcely burn at all in a green state. Sycamore and
buckeye, when thoroughly seasoned, are good fuel, but will not split.
Alder burns readily and gives out considerable heat, but is not lasting.

"The dry wood of the northern poplar (large-toothed aspen) is a favorite
for cooking fires, because it gives an intense heat, with little or no
smoke, lasts well, and does not blacken the utensils. Red cedar has
similar qualities, but is rather hard to ignite and must be fed fine at
the start.

"The best green soft woods for fuel are white birch, paper birch, soft
maple, cottonwood, and quaking aspen.

"As a rule, the timber growing along the margins of large streams is
softwood. Hence, driftwood is generally a poor mainstay unless there is
plenty of it on the spot; but driftwood on the sea coast is good fuel.

"_Precautions_--I have already mentioned the necessity of clearing the
camp ground of inflammable stuff before starting a fire on it, raking it
toward a common center and burning all the dead leaves, pine needles and
trash; otherwise it may catch and spread beyond your control as soon as
your back is turned. Don't build your fire against a big old punky log;
it may smoulder a day or two after you have left and then burst out into
flame when the breeze fans it.

"_Never_ leave a spark of fire when breaking camp, or when leaving it
for the day. Make absolutely sure of this by drenching the campfire
thoroughly, or by smothering it completely with earth or sand. Never
drop a lighted match on the ground without stamping it out. Have you
ever seen a forest fire? It is terrible. Thousands of acres are
destroyed and many a time men and women and children have been cut off
by a tornado of flame and burned alive. The person whose carelessness
starts such a holocaust is worse than a fool--he is a criminal, and a
disgrace to the good earth he treads."

[Illustration: HAVERSACK FOR CARRYING KITCHEN UTENSILS]


Cooking Devices

When it is convenient carry a hatchet. Scouts should carry a small
folding grate. The best form of grate is one with folding legs.

After laying the fire the legs of the grate are driven into the ground.
As the fire burns down, the grate may be lowered by driving the legs in
deeper. This is a very useful utensil for supporting hot water pails or
frying pan.

When no forks can be found use the "Pine Tree Horse," as shown in cut.

In order to boil water hard it will only be necessary to slip the kettle
down the pole, holding it in place by graduated notches.

Equipment and supplies for one meal may be carried in one or two
haversacks like the one shown. Indeed, a meal may be cooked without any
equipment whatever other than a knife which every Scout should be
provided with.

_Improvised Grate_--A few sticks 1/2 inch in diameter laid about 2
inches apart and about 2 inches above the coals form a good enough
broiler. Steak and chops cook perfectly well if laid right on the coals.

Cooking kits allow for more variety, as they provide a frying pan, in
which bacon and potatoes can be cooked, and a small pail for boiling
water. It is convenient for each Scout to carry her own cup, knife, fork
and spoon. The cooking kit and supplies can then be divided among the
party.

At a permanent camp a frying board is a great convenience. It is simply
a flat, smooth board with a pointed end which can be driven into the
ground. Fish, meat, game and "Injun" bread can be cooked on this board
better than in any other way, as the food receives the heat without
becoming charred, and is much more wholesome than when fried in a pan.
As long as the board is to windward of the flame, a constant heat is
maintained without smoke. A small fire will cook a very large fish in a
short time. An old canoe paddle may be used for this purpose. The food
is hung on nails driven in the board, a strip of bacon, hung above the
fish and dripping on it would improve the flavor.

[Illustration: THE FOLDING BAKER]

It is a good plan to use a separate frying board when cooking fish, as
the juice from the fish seeps into the board and it is practically
impossible to remove it by cleaning. The flavor of fish is not pleasant
on other food. If it is not practicable to carry two frying boards one
can be careful to reserve the same side of one board for cooking fish.

A long cooking spoon for dishing vegetables out of the pots is very
useful. A roll of paper towels for drying dishes and for use as napkins,
or cloth dish towels and paper napkins are also useful. Other useful
articles are a dish mop with a wooden handle, and a pancake turner.

_The Folding Baker_--The baker may be placed before the blazing fire. It
is a perfect arrangement for baking biscuits and roasting meats.

_Friction Top Cans_--It is well to have these varying in capacity from
one to three quarts. Use one quart size for washing soda, powdered soap,
and sugar. The larger sizes should carry flour, cornmeal, etc. Eggs may
be placed in the one used for the cornmeal.

[Illustration: FRICTION TOP CAN]

Where convenient to provide a large equipment the following utensils are
suggested:

Camp grate, 3 wire toasters (one for meat, one for fish, one for bread),
2 frying boards (one for meat, one for fish), 6-quart pail for reserve
water, 9-quart pail for boiling vegetables, agate or paper plates, agate
or paper cups, knives, forks, spoons, kit knife, paper towels, dish
mops, powdered soap, cotton gloves for handling hot or smoky pots,
candles, matches (in waterproof packages), non-rusting wire 1/8 inch
thick for hanging pots, etc.

A large permanent camp may add greatly to the pleasure of its members,
and make a delightful break in the day, by sending off troops of, say,
eight girls to cook a camp lunch at a place about a mile distant. For
this purpose, when a group plans to do a great deal of camping the above
equipment is suggested. It could all be packed in the pack basket, and
the girls could take turns carrying it.

[Illustration: FOLDING FRYING PAN]

Such a basket without a canvas cover costs about $8 and is extremely
useful in permanent camp equipment.


Utensils Required for a Party of Eight and their Uses

If the group of girls plans for a camping trip of several days and
transport is available, all the following utensils will be found useful.
These may be purchased in any sporting goods store.

_Three Wire Toasters_--One for meat, one for fish, one for toast.

In cooking meat or fish, and in making toast before a blazing fire,
stand the wire toaster upright before the fire and prop it up with a
stick.

A board may be used in the same manner. It is often desirable to do this
in order to avoid the delay of waiting for the fire to burn down.

_Cooking Pots_--Size 5 quarts, for boiling vegetables; size 6-1/2
quarts, for boiling vegetables; size 9 quarts, for hot water; size 15
quarts, for reserve cold water.

Each of these pots nests in the next larger size, making one package. A
cocoa pot of this type nests into the 5-quart pail.

_Two Frying Pans_--The handles fold in and the pans pack in a case with
the nest of cooking pots. In addition to their usual uses, the frying
pans are also used as dish-washing pans, one for the washing and one
for the rinsing.

[Illustration: COMPLETE COOKING OUTFIT FOR EIGHT SCOUTS]

A heaped teaspoon of washing soda dissolved in hot water will so
perfectly clean the frying pans as to permit their use as dish-pans.

Eight agate plates, or aluminum if possible; eight agate cups, or
aluminum if possible; eight knives, forks and spoons; one large,
long-handled cooking spoon.

The complete cooking outfit may be nested together and packed in a
canvas bag and takes up about as much space as a water pail.


Provisions

"When a party camps where fresh meat and farm products can be procured
as they are wanted, its provisioning is chiefly a matter of taste, and
calls for no special comment here. But to have good meals in the
wilderness is a different matter. A man will eat five or six pounds a
day of fresh food. That is a heavy load on the trail. And fresh meat,
dairy products, fruit and vegetables are generally too bulky, too
perishable. So it is up to the woodsman to learn how to get the most
nourishment out of the least weight and bulk in materials that 'keep'
well.

"Light outfitting, as regards food, is mainly a question of _how much
water_ we are willing to carry in our rations. For instance, canned
peaches are 88 per cent. water. Can one afford to carry so much water
from home when there is plenty of it at camp?

"The following table is suggestive:

          More than 3/4 water

          Fresh milk, fruit, vegetables (except potatoes).
          Canned soups, tomatoes, peaches, pears, etc.

          More than 1/2 water

          Fresh beef, veal, mutton, poultry, eggs, potatoes.
          Canned corn, baked beans, pineapple.
          Evaporated milk (unsweetened).

          More than 1/3 water

          Fresh bread, rolls, pork chops.
          Potted chicken, etc.
          Cheese.
          Canned blackberries.

          Less than 1/3 water

          Dried apples, apricots, peaches, prunes.
          Fruit jelly.

          Less than 1/5 water

          Salt pork, bacon, dried fish, butter.
          Dessicated eggs, concentrated soups.
          Powdered milk.
          Wheat flour, cornmeal, etc., macaroni.
          Rice, oatmeal, hominy, etc.
          Dried beans, split peas.
          Dehydrated vegetables.
          Dried dates, figs, raisins.
          Orange marmalade, sugar, chocolate.
          Nuts, nut butter.

"Although this table is good in its way, it is not a fair measure of
the relative value of foods. Even the solid part of some foodstuffs
contains a good deal of refuse (potatoes 20 per cent), while others have
none.

[Illustration: FIVE QUART PAIL TO NEST CANS]

"_Nutritive Values_--The nutritive elements of foodstuffs are protein, a
little mineral matter, fats, and carbohydrates. Protein is the basis of
muscles, bone, tendon, cartilage, skin and corpuscles of the blood. Fats
and carbohydrates supply heat and muscular energy. In other words, the
human body is an engine; protein keeps it in repair; fats and
carbohydrates are the fuel to run it.

"Familiar examples of proteids are lean meat and white of egg. The chief
food fats are fat meat, butter, lard, oil and cream. Carbohydrates are
starchy foods (flour, cereals, etc.) and sugar (sweets of almost any
kind).

"The problem of a well-balanced ration consists in supplying daily the
right proportion of nutritive elements in agreeable and digestible form.
The problem of a campaign ration is the same, but cutting out most of
the water and waste in which fresh foods abound. However, in getting rid
of the water in fresh meats, fruits and vegetables we lose,
unfortunately, much of the volatile essences that give these foods their
good flavor. This loss--and it is a serious one--must be made up by the
camp cook, changing the menu as often as he can by varying the
ingredients and the processes of cooking.

"_Variety_ is quite as welcome at the camp board as anywhere else, in
fact, more so; for it is harder to get. Variety need not mean adding to
the load. It means _substituting_, say, three 5-pound parcels for one
15-pound parcel, so as to have something 'different' from day to day.

"_Digestibility_--We must bear in mind the adage that 'we live not upon
what we eat but upon what we digest.' Some foods rich in protein,
especially beans, peas, and oatmeal, are not easily assimilated, unless
cooked for a longer time than campers generally can spare. A
considerable part of their protein is liable to putrefy in the
alimentary canal, and so be worse than wasted. An excess of meat or fish
will do the same thing. Other foods of very high theoretical value are
constipating if used in large amounts, as cheese, nuts, chocolate.

"_Food Components_--Let us now consider the material of field rations,
item by item.

"_Bacon_--Good old breakfast bacon worthily heads the list, for it is
the campaigner's standby. It keeps well in any climate, and demands no
special care in packing. It is easy to cook, combines well with almost
anything, is handier than lard to fry things with, does just as well to
shorten bread or biscuits, is very nutritious, and nearly everybody
likes it. Take it with you from home, for you can seldom buy it away
from railroad towns. Get the boneless, in 5 to 8 pound flitches. Let
canned bacon alone; it lacks flavor and costs more than it is worth. A
little mould on the outside of a flitch does no harm, but reject bacon
that is soft and watery, or with yellow fat, or with brownish or black
spots in the lean.

"_Smoked Ham_--Small ones generally are tough and too salty. Hard to
keep in warm or damp weather; moulds easily. Is attractive to
blow-flies, which quickly fill it with 'skippers' if they can get at it.
If kept in a cheesecloth bag and hung in a cool, airy place a ham will
last until eaten up and will be relished. Ham will keep, even in warm
weather, if packed in a stout paper bag so as to exclude flies. It will
keep indefinitely if sliced, boiled or fried and put up in tins with
melted lard poured over it to keep out air. * * *

"_Canned Soups_--These are wholesome enough, but their fluid kinds are
very bulky for their meager nutritive value. However, a few cans of
consomme are fine for 'stock' in camp soups or stews, and invaluable in
case of sickness. Here, as in canned meat, avoid the country grocery
kind.

"_Condensed Soups_--Soup powders are a great help in time of
trouble--but don't rely on them for a full meal. There are some that are
complete in themselves and require nothing but 15 to 20 minutes'
cooking; others take longer, and demand (in small type on the label) the
addition of ingredients that generally you haven't got. Try various
brands at home till you find what you like.

"_Cured Fish_--Shredded codfish and smoked halibut, sprats, boneless
herring are portable and keep well. They will be relished for variety's
sake.

"_Eggs_--To vary the camp bill of fare, eggs are simply invaluable, not
only by themselves, but as ingredients in cooking. * * *

"When means of transportation permit, fresh eggs may be carried to
advantage. A hand crate holding 12 dozen weighs about 24 pounds, filled.

"Eggs can be packed along in winter without danger of breakage by
carrying them frozen. Do not try to boil a frozen egg; peel it as you
would a hard-boiled one and then fry or poach.

"To test an egg for freshness, drop it into cold water; if it sinks
quickly it is fresh; if it stands on end it is doubtful; if it floats it
is surely bad.

"To preserve eggs, rub them all over with vaseline, being careful that
no particle of shell is uncoated. They will keep good much longer than
if treated with lime water, salt, paraffine, water-glass or any of the
other common expedients.

"On hard trips it is impracticable to carry eggs in the shell. Some
campers break fresh eggs and pack them in friction-top cans. The yolks
soon break and they keep but a short time. _A good brand_ of desiccated
eggs is the solution of this problem. It does away with all risk of
breaking and spoiling and reduces bulk very much. Desiccated eggs vary a
great deal in quality, according to material and process employed.
Desiccated eggs made of the yolks are merely useful as ingredients in
cooking.

"_Milk_--Sweetened condensed milk (the 'salve of the lumberjacks') is
distasteful to most people. Plain evaporated milk is the thing to
carry--and don't leave it out if you can practicably tote it. The notion
that this is a 'baby food' to be scorned by real woodsmen is nothing
but a foolish conceit. Few things pay better for their transportation.
It will be allowed that Admiral Peary knows something about food values.
Here is what he says in _The North Pole_: 'The essentials, and the only
essentials, needed in a serious Arctic sledge journey, no matter what
the season, the temperature, or the duration of the journey--whether one
month or six--are four: pemmican, tea, ship's biscuit, condensed milk.
The standard daily ration for work on the final sledge journey toward
the Pole on all expeditions has been as follows: 1 lb. pemmican, 1 lb.
ship's biscuit, 4 oz. condensed milk, 1/2 oz. compressed tea.'

"Milk, either evaporated or powdered, is a very important ingredient in
camp cookery.

"_Butter_--This is another 'soft' thing that pays its freight.

"For ordinary trips it suffices to pack butter firmly into pry-up tin
cans which have been sterilized by thorough scalding and then cooled in
a perfectly clean place. Keep it in a spring or in cold running water
(hung in a net, or weighted in a rock) whenever you can. When traveling,
wrap the cold can in a towel or other insulating material.

"If I had to cut out either lard or butter I would keep the butter. It
serves all the purposes of lard in cooking, is wholesomer, and beyond
that, it is the most concentrated source of energy that one can use with
impunity.

"_Cheese_--Cheese has nearly twice the fuel value of a porterhouse steak
of equal weight, and it contains a fourth more protein. It is popularly
supposed to be hard to digest, but in reality it is not so if used in
moderation. The best kind for campers is potted cheese, or cream or
'snappy' cheese put up in tinfoil. If not so protected from air it soon
dries out and grows stale. A tin of imported Camembert will be a
pleasant surprise on some occasion.

"_Bread Biscuits_--It is well to carry enough yeast bread for two or
three days, until the game country is reached and camp routine is
established. To keep it fresh, each loaf must be sealed in wax paper or
parchment paper (the latter is best, because it is tough, waterproof,
greaseproof). Bread freezes easily; for cold weather luncheons carry
toasted bread.

"_Hardtack_ (pilot bread, ship biscuit) can be recommended only for such
trips or cruises as do not permit baking. It is a cracker prepared of
plain flour and water, not even salted, and kiln-dried to a chip, so as
to keep indefinitely, its only enemies being weevils. Get the coarsest
grade. To make hardtack palatable toast it until crisp, or soak in hot
coffee and butter it, or at least salt it.

"Swedish hardtack, made of whole rye flour, is good for a change.

"Plasmon biscuit, imported from England, is the most nutritious
breadstuff I have ever used. It is a round cracker, firm but not hard,
of good flavor, containing a large percentage of the protein of milk,
six of the small biscuits holding as much proteid as a quarter of a
pound of beef.

"_Flour_--Graham and entire wheat flours contain more protein than
patent flour, but this is offset by the fact that it is not so
digestible as the protein of standard flour. Practically there is little
or no difference between them in the amount of protein assimilated. The
same seems to be true of their mineral ingredients.

"Many campers depend a good deal on self-raising flour because it saves
a little trouble in mixing. But such flour is easily spoiled by
dampness, it does not make as good biscuits or flapjacks as one can turn
out in camp by doing his own mixing, and it will not do for thickening,
dredging, etc.

"Flour and meal should be sifted before starting on an expedition. There
will be no sieve in camp."

"_Baking Powder_--Get the best available powder, put up in air and
damp-eight tins, so that your material will be in good condition when
you come to use it in camp. Baking soda will not be needed on short
trips, but is required for longer ones, in making sour-dough, as a
steady diet of baking-powder bread or biscuit will ruin the stomach if
persisted in for a considerable time. Soda also is useful medicinally.

"_Cornmeal_--Some like yellow, some prefer white. The flavor of freshly
ground meal is best, but the ordinary granulated meal of commerce keeps
better, because it has been kiln-dried. Cornmeal should not be used as
the leading breadstuff, for reasons already given, but johnnycake, corn
pancakes, and mush are a welcome change from hot wheat bread or biscuit,
and the average novice at cooking may succeed better with them. The meal
is useful to roll fish in before frying.

"_Breakfast Cereals_--These according to taste, and for variety's sake.
Plain cereals, particularly oatmeal, require a long cooking, either in a
double boiler or with constant stirring, to make them digestible; and
then there is a messy pot to clean up. They do more harm than good to
campers who hurry their cooking. So it is best to buy the partially
cooked cereals that take only a few minutes to prepare. Otherwise the
'patent breakfast foods' have no more nutritive quality than plain
grain; some of them not so much. The notion that bran has remarkable
food value is a delusion; it actually makes the protein of the grain
less digestible. As for mineral matter, 'to build up bone and teeth and
brawn,' there is enough of it in almost any mixed diet, without
swallowing a lot of crude fiber.

"Rice, although not very appetizing by itself, combines so well in stew
or the like, and goes so well in pudding, that it deserves a place in
the commissariat.

"_Macaroni_--The various pastes (pas-tay, as the Italians call them)
take the place of bread, may be cooked in many ways to lend variety, and
are especially good in soups which otherwise would have little
nourishing power. Spaghetti, vermicelli, and noodles all are good in
their way. Break macaroni into inch pieces and pack so that insects
cannot get into it. It is more wholesome than flapjacks and it 'sticks
to the ribs.'

"_Sweets_--Sugar is stored-up energy, and is assimilated more quickly
than any other food. Men in the open soon get to craving sweets.

"Maple sugar is always welcome. Get the soft kind that can be spread on
bread for luncheons. Syrup is easily made from it in camp by simply
bringing it to a boil with the necessary amount of water. Ready-made
syrup is mean to pack around.

"Sweet chocolate (not too sweet) has remarkable sustaining power.

"When practicable, take along some jam and marmalade. The commissaries
of the British Army were wise when they gave jam an honorable place in
Tommy Atkins' field ration. Yes: jam for soldiers in time of war. So
many ounces of it, substituted, mind you, for so many ounces of the
porky, porky, porky, that has ne'er a streak of lean. So, a little
current jelly with your duck or venison is worth breaking all rules for.
Such conserves can be repacked by the buyer in pry-up cans that have
been sterilized as recommended under the heading _Butter_.

"_Fresh Vegetables_--The only ones worth taking along are potatoes and
onions. Choose potatoes with small eyes and of uniform medium size, even
if you have to buy half a bushel to sort out a peck. They are very heavy
and bulky in proportion to their food value; so you cannot afford to be
burdened with any but the best. Cereals and beans take the place of
potatoes when you go light.

"Fresh onions are almost indispensable for seasoning soups, stews, etc.
A few of them can be taken along almost anywhere. I generally carry at
least one, even on a walking trip. Onions are good for the suddenly
overtaxed system, relieve the inordinate thirst that one experiences the
first day or two, and assist excretion. Freezing does not spoil onions
if they are kept frozen until used.

"_Beans_--A prime factor in cold weather camping. Take a long time to
cook ('soak all day and cook all night' is the rule). Cannot be cooked
done at altitudes of 5,000 feet and upward. Large varieties cook
quickest, but the small white navy beans are best for baking. Pick them
over before packing, as there is much waste.

"_Split Peas_--Used chiefly in making a thick, nourishing soup.

"_Dehydrated Vegetables_--Much of the flavor of fresh vegetables is lost
when the juice is expressed or evaporated, but all of their nutriment is
retained and enough of the flavor for them to serve as fair substitutes
when fresh vegetables cannot be carried. They help out a camp stew and
may even be served as side dishes if one has butter and milk to season
them. Generally they require soaking (which can be done over night);
then they are to be boiled slowly until tender, taking about as much
time as fresh vegetables. If cooking is hurried they will be woody and
tasteless.

"Dehydrated vegetables are very portable, keep in any climate, and it
is well to carry some on trips far from civilization.

"_Canned Vegetables_--In our table of food values it will be noticed
that the least nourishing article for its weight and bulk is a can of
tomatoes. Yet these 'air-tights' are great favorites with outdoors men,
especially in the West and South, where frequently they are eaten raw
out of the can. It is not so much their flavor as their acid that is
grateful to a stomach overtaxed with fat or canned meat and hot bread
three times a day. If wanted only as an adjuvant to soups, stews, rice,
macaroni, etc., the more concentrated puree will serve very well.

"Canned corn (better still, 'kornlet,' which is concentrated milk of
sweet corn) is quite nourishing, and everybody likes it.

"A few cans of baked beans (_without_ tomato sauce) will be handy in wet
weather. The B. & M. 3/4 lb. cans are convenient for a lone camper or
for two going light.

"_Nuts_--A handful each of shelled nuts and raisins, with a cake of
sweet chocolate, will carry a man far on the trail or when he has lost
it. The kernels of butternuts and hickory nuts have the highest fuel
value of our native species; peanuts and almonds are very rich in
protein; Brazil nuts, filberts and pecans, in fat. Peanut butter is a
concentrated food that goes well in sandwiches. One can easily make nut
butter of any kind (except almonds or Brazil nuts) for himself by using
the nut grinder that comes with a kitchen food chopper, and can add
ground dates, ground popcorn, or whatever he likes; but such
preparations will soon grow rancid if not sealed airtight. Nut butter is
more digestible than kernels unless the latter are thoroughly chewed.

"_Fruits_--All fruits are very deficient in protein and (except olives)
in fat, but dried fruit is rich in carbohydrates. Fruit acid (that of
prunes, dried apricots, and dehydrated cranberries, when fresh fruit
cannot be carried) is a good corrective of a too fatty and starchy or
sugary diet, and a preventive of scurvy. Most fruits are laxative, and
for that reason, if none other, a good proportion of dried fruit should
be included in the ration, no matter how light one travels; otherwise
one is likely to suffer from constipation when he changes from 'town
grub' to 'trail grub.'

"Among canned fruits those that go farthest are pineapples and
blackberries. Excellent jelly can be made in camp from dried apples.

"There is much nourishment in dates, figs (those dried round are better
than layer figs) and raisins. Pitted dates and seedless raisins are best
for light outfits. And do not despise the humble prune; buy the best
grade in the market (unknown to landladies) and soak over night before
stewing; it will be a revelation. Take a variety of dried fruits, and
mix them in different combinations, sweet and tart, so as not to have
the same sauce twice in succession; then you will learn that dried
fruits are by no means a poor substitute for fresh or canned ones.

"In hot weather I carry a few lemons whenever practicable. Limes are
more compact and better medicinally, but they do not keep well. Lime
juice in bottles is excellent, if you carry it.

"Citric acid crystals may be used in lieu of lemons when going light,
but the flavor is not so good as that of lemonade powder that one can
put up for himself. The process is described by A. W. Barnard: 'Squeeze
out the lemons and sift into the clear juice four to six spoonfuls of
sugar to a lemon; let stand a few days if the weather is dry, or a week
if wet, till it is dried up, then pulverize and put up into capsules.'
Gelatin capsules of any size, from one oz. down, can be procured at a
drug store. They are convenient to carry small quantities of spices,
flavoring, medicines, etc., on a hike.

"Vinegar and pickles are suitable only for fixed camps or easy cruises.

"_Fritures_--Lard is less wholesome than olive oil, or 'Crisco,' or the
other preparations of vegetable fats. Crisco can be heated to a higher
temperature than lard without burning, thus ensuring the 'surprise'
which prevents getting a fried article sodden with grease; it does as
well as lard for shortening; and it can be used repeatedly without
transmitting the flavor of one dish to the next one. Olive oil is
superior as a friture, especially for fish, but expensive.

"_Beverages_--Tea is better than coffee. Even if you don't use it at
home, take along on your camping trip enough for midday meals. Tea
tabloids are not bad, but I advise using the real thing. On a hike, with
no tea-ball, I tie up enough for each pint in a bit of washed
cheesecloth, loosely, leaving enough string attached whereby to whisk it
out after exactly four minutes' steeping.

"Cocoa is not only a drink but a food. It is best for the evening meal
because it makes one sleepy, whereas tea and coffee have the opposite
effect.

"Get the soluble kind if you want it quickly prepared.

"_Condiments_--Do not leave out a small assortment of condiments
wherewith to vary the taste of common articles and serve a new sauce or
gravy or pudding now and then.

"Salt is best carried in a wooden box. The amount used in cooking and at
table is small.

"White pepper is better than black. Some Cayenne or Chili should also be
taken. Red pepper is not only a good stomachic, but also is fine for a
chili (made into a tea with hot water and sugar).

"Among condiments I class beef extract, bouillon cubes or capsules, and
the like. They are of no use as food except to stimulate a feeble
stomach or furnish a spurt of energy, but invaluable for flavoring
camp-made soups and stews when you are far away from beef. The powder
called Oystero yields an oyster flavor.

"Mustard is useful not only at table but for medicinal purposes; cloves,
not only for its more obvious purposes, but to stick in an onion for a
stew, and perchance for a toothache.

"Celery and parsley can now be had in dehydrated form. Some sage may be
needed for stuffing." Onion and celery salt are real additions to the
camp cooking outfit.

"If you aim at cake-making and puddings, ginger and cinnamon may be
required. Curry powder is relished by many; its harshness may be
tempered with sweet fruits or sugar.

"On short trips, salt and pepper will meet all requirements.

"_Packing Food_--Meat of any kind will quickly mould or spoil if packed
in tins from which air is not exhausted.

"Flour should not be carried in the original sacks; they wet through or
absorb moisture from the air, snag easily, and burst under the strain of
a lashrope. Pack your flour, cereals, vegetables, dried fruits, etc., in
the round-bottomed paraffined bags sold by outfitters (various sizes,
from 10 lbs. down), which are damp-proof and have the further merit of
standing up on their bottoms instead of always falling over. Put a tag
on each bag and label it in _ink_. These small bags may then be stowed
in 9-inch waterproof canvas provision bags (see outfitter's catalogues),
but in that case the thing you want is generally at the bottom. * * *

"Butter, lard, ground coffee, tea, sugar, jam, matches, go in pry-up
tin cans, sold by outfitters (small quantities in mailing tubes), or in
common capped tins with tops secured by surgeon's plaster. Get pepper
and spices in shaker-top cans, or, if you carry common shakers, cover
tops with cloth and snap stout rubber bands around them.

"Often it is well to carry separately enough food to last the party
between the jumping-off place and the main camp site, as it saves the
bother of breaking bulk en route.

"When transportation is easy it pays to pack the bread, bags of flour,
etc., in a tin wash-boiler or two, which are wrapped in burlaps and
crated. These make capital grub boxes in camp, securing their contents
from wet, insects and rodents. Ants in summer and mice at all times are
downright pests of the woods, to say nothing of the wily coon, the
predatory mink, the inquisitive skunk, and the fretful porcupine. The
boilers are useful, too, on many occasions to catch rain-water, boil
clothes, waterproof and dye tents, and so forth.

"_A Last Look Around_--Check off every article in the outfit as it is
stowed, and keep the inventory for future reference. Then note what is
left over at the end of the trip. This will help in outfitting for the
next season."


Camp Cooking

Meat and fish are easy to cook and require few utensils. Steaks or chops
require from four to twelve minutes to broil rare over a good bed of
live coals, depending on the thickness of the meat. Place either
directly on the coals in wire broiler and raise only an inch or two
above the fire. Turn after about 1-1/2 minutes, and afterward turn a
little oftener to prevent burning.

Chicken or duck of broiling size takes about 20 minutes to broil and
requires very particular care in frequent turning to prevent burning.
Turn about every 1/2 minute. As portions of the skin show signs of
getting too brown baste them with a few drops of hot water from a large
spoon. This also tends to keep them moist. The poultry may be cooked by
propping the wire broiler upright six to nine inches from a blazing
fire. Often the poultry is started this way and finished over the coals,
as this saves considerable time in waiting for the fire to burn down.
The chicken or duck may be hung close to the fire by a wire from a
slanting pole, revolving frequently. An hour is required to roast
poultry.

_Stew_--Cut meat in small pieces, brown in frying pan (use drippings),
remove and place in stew pan in which there is sufficient water to cover
stew. Cut vegetables in small pieces, place in frying pan a few
minutes--long enough to soften--place in stew pan, season with salt and
pepper, cook one-half hour--add flour thickening (water and flour),
cover with enough water to prevent stew becoming dry and bury in hot
oven for two or three hours.

_Broiled Fish_--Place in wire broiler, rubbing broiler first with salt
pork or lard to prevent sticking, and broil over coals for about 20
minutes. All fish that is broiled should be served with a little butter
sauce.


Frying Pan Dishes

_Fried Fish_--Cut the fish in pieces; that is, serving portions. Roll
fish in cornmeal (this is not absolutely necessary). Fry for about 20
minutes (depending upon thickness of fish) over hot fire, in about 2
tablespoons of heated frying oil. Tried-out bacon, salt pork, lard,
Crisco, or prepared cooking oil may be used.

_Fish Balls_--Fish balls prepared at home and carried along make good
camp food. For group of eight: Ingredients--1 bowl dried codfish soaked
several hours in cold water, 1 egg, 2 raw potatoes cut in pieces, 2
ozs. butter, frying oil, 2 tablespoons milk. Boil codfish and potatoes
together for about 10 minutes, mash, add 1 beaten egg, butter size of
1/2 small egg (about 2 ozs.), 2 tablespoons milk and stir thoroughly.
This mixture should be about the consistency of stiff oatmeal. Heat
small amount of frying oil in pan. Drop batter from large spoon into hot
oil. When brown, turn and cook on other side. Each patty should cook
about three minutes to the side, about six minutes for the whole.

_Fried Ham_--Boil in frying pan for about 5 minutes, then pour off water
and fry about two minutes on each side.

_Fried Bacon_--Fry gently until fat is tried out (Save drippings.) Bacon
may also be fried on a hot rock, or cooked on sharp pointed stick with
forked ends.

_Fried Country Sausage_--Fry sausages over moderate fire for about 15
minutes till they are brown.

_Corn Beef Hash_--Carry with the ingredients already prepared 1 part
corned beef, chopped, 2 parts chopped cold boiled potatoes. Melt butter
or suet into the frying pan. Fry.


Vegetables

_Boiled Potatoes_--Clean and scrape potatoes. Do not peel. Have water
boiling and salted before putting potatoes in pot and keep water boiling
until potatoes are soft. Large ones take about 25 minutes to cook. Plan
to serve the meal about 25 minutes after the potatoes are put on the
fire, for they are best served hot. When potatoes are cooked, drain
water and keep hot until served.

_Fried Potatoes_--Slice cold boiled potatoes uniformly and fry in hot
butter until brown.

_Fried Raw Potatoes_--Slice raw potatoes uniformly, boil in frying pan
5 minutes and then fry in butter until brown.

_Onions_--Boil in salted water 30 minutes until tender. Onions and
potatoes go well together and campers should boil them together.

_Green Peas_--Buy them fresh from a farmer near camp if possible. Reject
over-ripe pods. Shell and boil about 20 minutes in salted water, keeping
peas barely covered. Drain almost all water when cooked and add one
ounce of butter.

_Green Corn_--Boil corn about five minutes in boiling salted water.


Cocoa

One teaspoonful (level) to each person, 1/2 cup of water to each person,
1/2 cup of milk to each person. Cook cocoa in water 5 minutes; add to
warm milk and allow it to reach boiling point. _Do not boil._


Bread

When possible carry along a supply of bread.

_Toast_--Toast may either be made over coals or by propping wire broiler
upright before blazing fire.

"_Biscuit Loaf_--This is a standard camp bread, because it bakes
quickly. It is good so long as it is hot, but it dries out soon and will
not keep. For four: 3 pints flour, 3 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder,
1 heaping teaspoonful salt, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls cold grease, 1
scant pint cold water. Amount of water varies according to quality of
flour. Baking powders vary in strength; follow directions on can. Mix
thoroughly, with big spoon or wooden paddle, first the baking powder
with the flour and then the salt. Rub into this the cold grease (which
may be lard, cold pork fat, drippings) until there are no lumps left and
no grease adhering to bottom of pan. This is a little tedious, but don't
shirk it. Then stir in the water and work it with spoon until you have
a rather stiff dough. Have the pan greased. Turn the loaf into it and
bake. Test center of loaf with a sliver when you think it properly done.
When no dough adheres remove bread. All hot breads should be broken with
the hand, never cut.

"To freshen any that is left over and dried out, sprinkle a little water
over it and heat through. This can be done but once."


Washing Dishes

Every part of the camp work should be a pleasure, and there is no reason
whatever that dish washing should be an exception. If the following
directions for dish washing are followed the work may be so quickly and
perfectly done as to be part of the fun.

1. Each girl should throw scraps from her plate into a trench or
receptacle. Do not throw food scraps on the camp fire, as they make a
disagreeable smoke.

2. Wipe each plate and other utensils as clean as possible with paper
napkin, and throw napkin in the fire.

3. Scrape out all cooking pots. If any material has burned on them, boil
them out with one ounce of washing soda to one quart of water.

4. Pile all dishes thus prepared beside the two dish-pans. Partly fill
the dish-pans with boiling water, putting a heaping teaspoonful of
powdered soap in one.

5. Wash dishes with dish mop, and rinse in other pan of hot water.

If the water is kept hot one girl can keep two busy drying, and the
whole operation for a party of four should not take over ten minutes. If
unskillfully done, without sufficient hot water or preparation, it is a
disagreeable task. Try to make it a pleasant one.

The coffee pot should be frequently boiled out with washing soda.

The wire broilers may be cleaned by rubbing them with ashes from the
camp fire.

In nesting a blackened cooking pail, wrap it in paper to prevent soiling
the inside of the pail into which it fits.

Use the fewest dishes possible in cooking and you will lighten your
labor.

Use the same plates for different courses, rinsing them with hot water.

Be sure to carry in your dish washing outfit, washing soda, powdered
soap and dish mops.

"Dutch Cleanser" is very useful in cleaning dishes, pots and pans.

After washing up for the night, put utensils and provision box together
and cover with rubber cloth to protect them from the weather.


Cleaning Up

_This is important!_ If you leave your camping place littered with tin
cans, paper, etc., you will be spoiling that place for future campers.

Burn all waste paper and string.

Bury tin cans and empty bottles.

Bury food scraps and refuse.

_Be absolutely certain that you have extinguished your fire._

You should take pride in leaving your camp site so clean that not one
evidence of your camping remains except the ashes of the fire.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH BY G. CLYDE FISHER.]

_Climb the mountains and get their good tidings._

_Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The
winds will blow their own freshness into you and the storms their
energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves._

                                                     --_John Muir._


MOUNTAIN CLIMBING

BY ELOISE ROORBACH, GARDEN EDITOR OF "TOUCHSTONE."

Mountain climbing is the final test of a Girl Scout's perseverance in
following a trail, in endurance, courage and woodcraftmanship. Nature
reserves her choicest beauties and secrets for those who know how to
conquer all difficulties. No Girl Scout's education is complete until
she has seen mountain peaks like waves of the sea flashing with white
snow foam, piercing the blue sky as far as the eye can reach; clouds
forming below her feet; breathed rare air found only in high places;
drunk from the pure source of rivers, and heard the mighty roar of
waterfalls. A climb to a high mountain top is an experience that will
enrich and influence the entire after life of whoever has had the
hardihood and wisdom to accomplish it.

Before attempting this last test of scouting the girl must be in perfect
physical trim, be able to sleep on the ground, have learned to live
simply. Girls should train for this experience by taking graduated
hikes. On these hikes the girls can practice using the condensed foods
that must be depended upon in mountain climbing. The rations for those
who wish to climb to high places must necessarily be condensed, for each
Scout must carry her own rations for two weeks.

The foundation of a mountain climber's bill of fare is rice, bacon,
cheese, chocolate, raisins, dates, dried fruits, powdered soups, whole
wheat crackers, and tea. _Tea should be used instead of coffee._ The
eating chocolate is sometimes made into a refreshing drink. Only a small
amount of sugar and salt can be carried. This fare is augmented by
mushrooms, wild fruit and berries and fish. Watercress is a refreshing
addition and a good Scout knows where to find it. Some hardened climbers
add a little "jerky" (dried meats) to this bill of fare.

No definite rule of distance to be covered in a day can be laid down. In
the high mountains ten or twelve miles a day should be considered a
maximum, for part of the benefit to be gained from such trips is the
enjoyment of the trip itself. It is better to go a few miles slowly,
observing keenly all the time, stopping for frequent rests to examine a
flower, to drink at a clear spring, to feast upon the view, than to
cover more ground in a hurried way.

The following is a suggestion for the management of a day in high
mountain altitudes. Arise with the sun or a little before breakfast.
Breakfast consists of rice, dried fruit (put to soak the night before),
bacon, and shredded wheat biscuit. Before packing, make a small package
of cheese, chocolate, raisins and biscuit for the noon lunch that can be
reached without having to unpack equipment. There should be a rest of at
least an hour at noon, eating slowly, throwing off the pack, and if
possible relaxing flat on the back for a while. Then another hike of
three or four miles, making camp early in the evening, about 5 o'clock.
This divides the day into three periods of hikes with a rest in between.
The dinner is like breakfast, with the addition of soup. Soup can be
prepared and eaten while the rice is cooking. Mountain trout can be
fried with bacon.

The equipment must be of the lightest. Clothing should consist of one
pair of stout, high, waterproof, hob-nailed boots; one pair of light
moccasins, to rest the feet in camp; short skirt; middy; riding breeches
or bloomers (for in crossing difficult passes skirts must be discarded);
hat; gauntlet gloves; one change of underclothes; three pairs of wool
stockings; one sweater; one comb (no brush); one small pocket mirror;
ivory soap or soap leaves; one tube of cold cream; compass; fishing rod,
lines and hooks; rope; leather thongs; stout string; note-book and map;
small hatchet; matches (in waterproof case).

[Illustration: GIANT ALASKAN MOOSE

The largest member of the deer tribe. The antlers which are worn only by
the male are shed once a year. Range: This and related forms found in
northern United States, Canada, and Alaska. Courtesy of American Museum
of Natural History.]

No guns, books or cameras can be carried on a high hike, for their
weight is prohibitive. A sleeping bag made of eiderdown, lined with
canton flannel and covered with oiled silk or duck's back can be rolled
and carried across the shoulders. A knife, fork and spoon in addition to
the big sheath knife worn at the belt, one frying pan, tin plate and cup
(aluminum should be used in preference as tin rusts easily), a rice and
a soup kettle are all the cooking utensils needed. If a company of Girl
Scouts attempts a high mountain climb, additional covers of clothing and
food can be carried on a pack mule, but this chapter is for those who
wish to climb unencumbered with pack animals. It is by far the finest
way to see the high mountains, though it must be admitted few have the
hardihood or courage to try it. The new Roosevelt National Park, one of
the most magnificent playgrounds in the world, can be visited in the way
just described.

The writer of this chapter has walked all through this park carrying the
clothing, food and equipment just described. Every day of the journey
found her in better physical trim, vigor, strength, and with keenness of
vision and joy of life increased daily.

[Illustration: BUSY BEAVERS AT WORK

The largest gnawing animal in this country, noted for damming streams
with trees (which they cut down by gnawing), mud, and stones. Range:
This or related races formerly found practically all over this country,
and northward into Canada. Detail from Habitat Group in American Museum
of Natural History.]


THE RED GOD

   Now the Four-way Lodge is opened: Now the hunting winds are loose,
     Now the Smokes of Spring go up to clear the brain;
   Now the young men's hearts are troubled for the whisper of the trues,
     Now the Red Gods make their medicine again!
   Who hath seen the beaver busied? Who hath watched the black-tail
         mating?
     Who hath lain alone to hear the wild goose cry?
   Who hath worked the chosen waters where the ouananiche is waiting?
     Or the sea-trout's jumping crazy for the fly?
   Who hath smelled wood-smoke at twilight? Who hath smelled the birch
         log burning?
     Who is quick to read the noises of the night?
   Let him follow with the others, for the young men's feet are turning
     To the camps of proved desire and known delight!
   Do you know the blackened timber? Do you know that racing stream
     With the raw, right-angled log-jam at the end?
   And the bar of sun-warmed shingle where a man may bask and dream
     To the click of shod canoe-poles round the bend?
   It is there that we are going with our rods and reels and traces
     To a silent, smoky Indian that we know,
   To a couch of new-pulled hemlock with the starlight on our faces,
     For the Red Gods call us out and we must go!
  _He must go--go--go away from here!
    On the other side the world he's overdue.
   'Send your road is clear before you when the old spring-fret comes
         o'er you
     And the Red Gods call for you!_
                                                    --Rudyard Kipling.

[Illustration: LOON WITH NEST

From Group in American Museum of Natural History]

FOOTNOTE:

[5] The passages in this section, from "Camping and Woodcraft," by
Horace Kephart, are used by permission of the author and the publisher,
the Macmillan Company, and are copyrighted, 1916, by the Macmillan
Company.



SECTION XV

NATURE STUDY FOR GIRL SCOUTS


FOREWORD

The following section was specially prepared for the Girl Scouts by Mr.
George H. Sherwood, Curator, and Dr. G. Clyde Fisher, Associate Curator,
of the Department of Public Education of the American Museum of Natural
History. All the illustrations used were supplied by the Museum, and the
tests in the various subjects were devised by the same authors.

The American Museum of Natural History in New York conducts special
courses of lectures in all of the branches of Natural History, and
extends a cordial invitation to all Girl Scouts to visit the Department
of Education if wishing help in preparation for their Nature Study
tests.


_Contents_

          1. Introduction to Nature Study.

          2. Plants: Flowers and Ferns and Trees.

          3. Animals: Mammals
                   Birds
                   Reptiles
                   Amphibians
                   Fishes
                   Invertebrates

          4. Geology.

[Illustration: AN EGRET "ROOKERY" IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

The demand for the nuptial plumes of this bird in the millinery trade
brought it to the verge of extermination. Range: Temperate and tropical
America. Habitat Group in The American Museum of Natural History.]


1. Introduction to Nature Study

                   _To the solid ground
          Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye._
                                               --_Wordsworth._

          _To understand nature is to gain one of the
          greatest resources of life._
                                       --_John Burroughs._

Nature Study means getting acquainted with the multitude of creatures,
great and small, which inhabit the land, the water, and the air, and
with the objects which surround them. Mother Nature has many, many
secrets which she will reveal to sharp eyes and alert minds. It is, of
course, impossible for any one to learn all these secrets, but the
mastering of a few makes it easier to learn others, until finally it
becomes clear that all life is related and that the humblest creature
may be of the greatest importance to the welfare of the highest.

It is for these reasons that the _Girl Scout_ should learn as much as
possible of the Wonders of Nature. This study may begin wherever you
are, but rapid progress will be made by rambles afield and by visits to
the great Natural History Museums. For example, a visit to the
exhibition halls of the American Museum of Natural History in New York
will answer many of your questions about animals you have seen and will
enable you to answer many others for yourself, when you go out into the
country.

Nature Study in its broadest application includes all of the natural
sciences, such as zoology, botany, geology, meteorology, and astronomy.
So, there are many fascinating fields for study and enjoyment, and it
does not matter much where we begin, whether it be Wild Flowers, Trees,
Birds, Butterflies, or Stars.

[Illustration: THE BULLFROG IN ITS NATURAL SURROUNDINGS

See Snake, Turtle and Dragonfly and notice the tongue of the frog.
Habitat Group in Museum of Natural History]

Of the more practical subjects especially suited to the activities of
the Girl Scout are those civic problems which can only be solved by
team-play; that is, by working together. Among these may be mentioned:
The preservation of birds, wild flowers, and forests; control of
mosquitoes, house-flies, rats, weeds; diseases of plants and animals,
including man.

The civic nature of these problems is appreciated when we realize that
it would do little good, for example, for one person to destroy the
breeding-places of mosquitoes on his premises, if his neighbors did not
do likewise about their homes; or for one orchardist to cut out the
blight from his pear-trees or the black-knot from his plum-trees, if his
neighbors did not co-operate with him by ridding their orchards of these
diseases.

These practical questions are so well presented, together with plans for
their solution, in _Civic Biology_, by Clifton F. Hodge and Jean Dawson
(Ginn & Co.), that instead of going into details here, both the _Girl
Scouts_ and their Leaders are referred to this most useful work.

All objects of Nature are either living (organic) or non-living
(inorganic). The non-living bodies include the minerals and rocks. The
living bodies are either plants or animals. Plants may be divided into
two great groups, the flowerless plants and flowering plants. In general
the flowerless plants reproduce by means of spores, like the mushroom
and the ferns, while the flowering plants reproduce by means of seeds.

[Illustration: ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT

This animal is really not a goat, but is more nearly related to the
antelopes. Range: The higher mountains from Alaska south to California.
Group in American Museum of Natural History.]

Animals may be separated into two great groups, those without backbones
(invertebrates) like an oyster, a cricket, or an earthworm, and those
with backbones, e.g., a dog, a fish. In this brief study we shall not go
into much detail about invertebrates, but with the backboned animals or
vertebrates we shall go a little further. These may be divided into five
general groups: (1) Fishes; (2) Amphibians, which include frogs, toads,
and salamanders; (3) Reptiles, which include alligators, crocodiles,
turtles, lizards, and snakes; (4) Birds; (5) Mammals.

This simple analysis may be clearly shown by the following diagram:

                                                   {_Mammals_
                                                   {_Birds_
                                     {_Vertebrates_{_Reptiles_
                                     {             {_Amphibians_
                                     {             {_Fishes_
                           {_Animals_{
                           {         {_Invertebrates_
           {_Living Bodies_{
           { (_Organic_)   {         {_Flowering Plants_
  _Objects_{               {         {_Flowerless Plants_
    _of_   {
  _Nature_ {_Non-living Bodies_
           {  (_Inorganic_)


This classification could be carried further at every point, but this
will be far enough for present purposes. It should be remembered in any
classification that there are no hard and fast lines in Nature. For
example, some creatures are on the border-land between plants and
animals, and again some animals are between the backboned animals and
those without backbones.

[Illustration: GREAT-LEAVED MAGNOLIA

A forest tree with large solitary white flowers. Range: Southern and
Southeastern United States.]


2. Plants

Wild Flowers and Ferns

          _Flower in the crannied wall,
           I pluck you out of the crannies;
           Hold you here, root and all, in my hand.
           Little flower--but if I could understand
           What you are, root and all, and all in all,
           I should know what God and man is._
                                        --_Tennyson._

Do you know the earliest spring flower in your neighborhood? In the
northern United States it is usually found in bloom before all the snow
of winter is gone. In some swamp or along some stream where the snow has
melted away in patches it is possible to find the Skunk Cabbage in
bloom very early in the spring. See how early you can find it. In the
southern United States, one of the earliest spring flowers is the yellow
Jessamine, which twines over bushes and trees thus displaying its
fragrant, golden bells.

[Illustration: TRAILING ARBUTUS

One of our earliest spring flowers, usually growing in patches in sandy
or rocky woods. Range: Eastern United States westward to Michigan.
Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher.]

As the season advances, other flowers appear, and we find the Spring
Beauty, the Trailing Arbutus, the Bloodroot, and the Hepatica. What
delightful associations each of these names brings to our minds! By the
time summer is here we have an entirely different flower-population in
the fields and woods--the Cardinal Flower with its intense red color and
the Pink Lady's-Slipper with its drooping moccasin-shaped lip are to be
found then. In the autumn we have a different group of flowers
still--the Goldenrods, the Asters, and the Fringed Gentian, the season
closing with our latest fall flower, the Witch-hazel.

[Illustration: PINK MOCCASIN-FLOWER

A striking native wild orchid growing in sandy or rocky woods. Range:
Newfoundland to North Carolina westward to Minnesota. Photograph by G.
Clyde Fisher.]

Some flowers and ferns grow best in the shady woods, others in the sunny
fields, some on the rocks and others in the marshes. We soon learn
where to look for our favorites. In taking tramps along the roads,
across the fields, through the woods, and into the swamps, we could
notice along the roadside Bouncing-Bet, Common Yarrow, Dandelion,
Thistles, and Goldenrod; in the fields and meadows, we would see the
Ox-eye Daisy, Black-eyed Susan, Wild Carrot, and the most beautiful fall
flower of the northeastern United States, the Fringed Gentian; in the
woods, Mountain Laurel, Pink Azalea, a number of wild Orchids,
Maidenhair Fern, and Jack-in-the Pulpit; in the marshes, Pink
Rose-mallow, which reminds us of the Hollyhocks of our Grandmother's
garden, Pickerel-weed, Water-lily, and Marsh Marigold.

It is natural to want to know the name of any plant that interests us,
and this is important. As in the subjects of Birds, there are many
helpful books on Flowers and Ferns. Beginners will find "The Flower
Guide," by Chester A. Reed (Doubleday, Page & Co.) to be useful. After a
good start has been made, such books as Gray's _Manual_, or Britton and
Brown's _Illustrated Flora_ should be used.

Our pursuit, however, should not stop with the name of a plant. That is
a mere beginning. Even slight attention will uncover many fascinating
things in the lives of plants. Why cannot a farmer raise a good crop of
clover-seed without the bumble-bees? What devices are there among the
Orchids to bring about cross-pollination? (See "Our Native Orchids," by
William Hamilton Gibson). Examine the flower of the wild Blue Flag, and
see whether you can determine how the bumble-bee cross-pollinates this
plant. Do the Hummingbirds cross-pollinate some flowers? In what plants
is the pollen scattered by the wind? Do these plants produce nectar?

[Illustration: GAILLARDIA OR BLANKET-FLOWER

Daisy family. Range: Hills and plains of western United States and
Canada. Photograph by Albert E. Butler.]


How do the various plants scatter their seeds? How are the Hickory-nuts
and Walnuts scattered? The Dandelion's and Thistle's seeds have
flying-hairs or parachutes and are blown about by the wind. What other
plants can you find whose seeds are scattered in the same way? Can you
discover a plant whose seeds are carried by water? The Witch-hazel
shoots its seeds. What other plants can you find that have explosive
fruits? Cherry-seeds are carried by birds. Mention some other seeds that
are carried in this way. It would take very little observation to learn
how Burdock-burs, Cockle-burs, Stick-tights, Beggar-lice,
Spanish-needles, and such hooked fruits are scattered.

[Illustration: BLACK-EYED SUSAN

A beautiful and abundant flower of the fields. Range: Eastern North
America westward to the Rocky Mountains. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher.]

Learn the names of the principal noxious weeds of the farm and garden,
and also learn the best methods of combating them.

Learn to know the plants in your vicinity which are used in the making
of drugs.

[Illustration: LOCO-WEED

A poisonous plant which produces loco-disease in cattle, sheep, and
horses that eat it. Range: Plains from Montana to Colorado. Photograph
by Albert E. Butler.]

Learn to know the poisonous plants around your home and summer camp. Are
the following to be found there: Poison Ivy, Poison Sumach, Loco-weed,
Bittersweet (_Salanum Dulcamara_), Black Nightshade, Jimsonweed,
Poke-weed, Poison Hemlock?

[Illustration: SHOWY PRIMROSE

Not a true Primrose, but a member of the Evening Primrose Family. Range:
Prairies of western United States and northern Mexico; also naturalized
farther east. Photograph by Mr. and Mrs. Leo E. Miller.]


Trees

          _He who wanders widest lifts
           No more of beauty's jealous veils,
           Than he who from his doorway sees
           The miracle of flowers and trees._
                                    --_Whittier_

The trees of the forest are of two classes, deciduous trees and
evergreen trees. To the former belong those which shed their leaves in
the fall, are bare in the winter, and then grow a new crop of leaves in
the spring, e.g., oaks, elms, maples. The evergreen trees shed their
leaves also, but not all at one time. In fact, they always have a
goodly number of leaves, and are consequently green all the year round,
e.g., pines, spruces, firs.

[Illustration: RHODODENDRON OR GREAT LAUREL

A tall shrub, or sometimes a tree, growing in woods and along streams.
Range: Eastern North America from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Photograph by
Albert E. Butler.]

The uses of wood are so many and various that we can only begin to
mention them. In looking about us we see wood used in building houses,
in making furniture, for railroad ties, and for shoring timbers in
mines. In many country districts wood is used for fuel. And do you
realize that only a short time ago the newspaper which you read this
morning and the book which you now hold in your hand were parts of
growing trees in the forest? Paper is made of wood-pulp, mostly from
Spruce.

[Illustration: CHRISTMAS FERN

An evergreen fern growing in woods and rocky places. Range: Eastern
United States and Canada. Photograph by Mary C. Dickerson.]

Besides the direct uses of wood, we turn to the forest for many
interesting and valuable products, varying in importance from a
balsam-pillow filled with the fragrant leaves or needles of the Balsam
Fir, to turpentine and rosin (naval stores), produced chiefly by the
Long-leaved Pine of the Southeastern States. Spruce gum is obtained from
the Black Spruce and Red Spruce. Canada balsam used in cementing lenses
together in microscopes, telescopes, and the like, comes from the
Balsam Fir. Bark for tanning comes from Oak and Hemlock. The Indians of
the Eastern Woodlands or Great Lakes area made canoes and many other
useful articles of the bark of the Canoe or Paper Birch. Baskets are
made from Willow twigs. Maple sugar comes chiefly from the Sugar Maple.

[Illustration: IN A TURPENTINE GROVE

The long-leaved Pine furnishes most of the turpentine and rosin of
commerce. Range: Virginia to Florida and Texas. Photograph by G. Clyde
Fisher.]

[Illustration: BLACK SUGAR MAPLE

The sap of this tree, as well as the more common Sugar Maple, is the
source of maple sugar. Range: Eastern United States and southeastern
Canada.]

The turpentine industry is the chief one in parts of the South where the
Long-leaved Pine thrives. The United States produces more turpentine and
rosin than any other country in the world. The turpentine is used in
paints and in various arts. The rosin is used in varnish, laundry soap,
etc. These two products come from the sap or "gum" of the pine tree. The
sap is secured by tapping or "boxing" the tree, and then keeping the cut
ducts of the sap-wood open by "chipping" or "pulling," that is, by
putting a new "streak" on the tree. This has to be done once a week from
March 1 to November 1. The sap used to be collected in a "box" or deep
notch cut in the base of the tree, but the modern method is to have it
run into cups made of zinc or of burned clay similar to flower-pots. The
sap is taken to a turpentine still where it is heated over a furnace.
This drives off the turpentine or "spirits" as steam or vapor, which is
condensed to liquid again by passing through the worm of the still
surrounded by cold water. The rosin or resin is left behind.

[Illustration: COMMON FALL MUSHROOM

An excellent article of food growing commonly in old pasture fields.
Range: Temperate and tropical regions all over the world. Photograph by
G. Clyde Fisher.]

The Sugar Maple grows from Florida and Texas northward to Manitoba and
Quebec, but it is only in the northern part of its range that the maple
sugar industry thrives. This delicious food is one of the many that we
learned to utilize from the Indians. The sap is obtained by tapping the
tree in the spring before the leaves come out, the best weather for the
flow of sap being that when it freezes at night and thaws in the
daytime. The sap is boiled down; that is, the water is driven off and
the sugar remains. It takes about three gallons, or a little more, of
sap to make a pound of maple sugar. Three to four pounds of sugar is an
average yield for one tree in a season. Much of the sap, however, is not
boiled down into sugar, but the boiling is stopped while it is in the
form of syrup. If you have ever eaten buckwheat cakes with real maple
syrup you will always esteem the Sugar Maple tree.

The forests perform extremely valuable services for mankind entirely
apart from the products they yield.

First, they prevent erosion, or the washing away of soil by the water
that falls as rain. After the trees have been cut away, very often,
especially upon hillsides, the most productive soil is washed away,
usually clear off of the original owner's farm, and deposited in the
flood-plains or bottoms of creeks and rivers or in river deltas--in
places where it cannot be utilized to any great extent. Thus erosion
causes a tremendous loss to farmers, and it is chiefly due to the
thoughtlessness of the American people in destroying the forests.

Second, and chiefly related to this, is the fact that the floods upon
our rivers, which every year take such heavy toll in property and in
human life, are due to the cutting away of the forests. This allows the
water from rain and melting snow to reach the streams at times faster
than it can be carried off, and so we have a flood. The forest floor,
with its undergrowth and humus, in those localities where the forests
still exist about the headwaters of our rivers, acts like a huge layer
of blotting paper which holds the water back and allows it to escape to
the streams slowly, and so floods are avoided.

Third, and related to the above, is the fact that the water supply of
our cities would be more constant if the forests had not been cut away.
In these cases the summer droughts make much greater the danger from
water-borne diseases.

[Illustration: WESTERN YELLOW PINE

A magnificent tree which furnishes valuable timber. Range: Hills and
mountains of western United States. Photograph by Albert E. Butler.]

[Illustration: ROADS THROUGH THE ASPENS

Range: Northern United States and Canada, south in the Rocky Mountains
to Mexico. Photograph by Albert E. Butler.]


It is only in recent years that the American people have begun to
realize the necessity of the conservation of our forests, and in many
sections much has been done to redeem the criminal thoughtlessness in
destroying our forests and to restore those devastated by forest fires.
Reforestation operations have accomplished a great deal, and the
organization to prevent forest fires emphasizes the old adage that "an
ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Also the people are being
taught correct forestry practices, such as cutting only ripe trees and
allowing the rest to grow, instead of clearing the land entirely, as was
formerly done so universally.

[Illustration: BALD CYPRESS DRAPED WITH SPANISH "MOSS."

This tree is almost entirely hidden by this "moss," which is really a
flowering plant of the Pineapple family. Range: In swamps and along
rivers from Delaware to Florida, west to Texas, north to Missouri and
southern Indiana. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher.]

The life history of every tree is interesting; how it breathes by means
of its leaves, just as the animals do by means of gills or lungs; how it
manufactures starch by means of the green matter in the leaves; how the
starch is changed to sugar and other substances which are carried to
other parts of the tree in the sap; how the sap flows upward in the
vessels in the sap-wood and downward in the vessels of the inner bark;
how the entire heart-wood of a tree is dead and the only living part is
the sap-wood and the innermost bark.

One of the first things we shall want to know when we get out into the
woods is the name of the tree that interests us. For this purpose the
books given as references under "Trees" will be useful.

[Illustration: TIMBER WOLVES ON THE TRAIL

Closely related to foxes and dogs. Range: Formerly over most of North
America. Habitat Group in American Museum of Natural History.]

[Illustration: BABY OPOSSUMS RIDING ON THEIR MOTHER'S BACK

For the first few weeks after they are born the mother carries her
babies in her pocket; later they ride on her back holding on by clinging
to her fur with their paws and by wrapping their tails about that of
their mother. Range: Middle and Southern States. From Group in American
Museum of Natural History.]


3. ANIMALS

Mammals

Mammals differ from birds in that they have hair instead of feathers,
and that they are first fed upon milk produced by the mother.
Unfortunately the mammals are usually called simply _animals_, but the
latter is obviously too inclusive a term and should not be used in this
way. There is no reason why the name _mammal_ should not be commonly
used, just as _birds_, _reptiles_, _amphibians_, and _fishes_ are used
for the other groups of backboned animals.

[Illustration: NEW YORK WEASEL IN SUMMER PELAGE]

[Illustration: OTTER WITH ITS FAVORITE FOOD

The Otter belongs to the Weasel family, and feeds almost entirely upon
fish. Range: This and related varieties over Northern and Eastern North
America. From Group in American Museum of Natural History.]

In the United States the lowest or most primitive mammal is the Opossum.
The baby Opossums--from six to a dozen of them--are born when very small
and undeveloped and are immediately placed by the mother in an
external pouch, where they continue to grow until they are too large to
get into their mother's pocket; then they frequently ride upon their
mother's back, clinging to her fur with their finger-like toes and
wrapping their tails about their mother's tail. The Opossum is the only
animal in this country the young of which are carried around in the
mother's pocket, and the only one which has a prehensile tail; that is,
one used for coiling around and clinging to branches, and the like. Its
food is various, consisting of both animal and plant material--insects,
young birds, pawpaws, persimmons, etc. In the food devoured the Opossum
probably does more good than harm.

[Illustration: NEW YORK WEASEL IN WINTER

A blood-thirsty cousin of the Otter and the Mink. Range: This and
related species found all over United States and Canada. Group in
American Museum of Natural History.]

[Illustration: RACCOON AT ENTRANCE TO ITS DEN IN A HOLLOW TREE

A near relative of the bears. Note the black face-mark and the ringed
tail. Range: This or a related variety occurs in all parts of United
States. Photograph from American Museum of Natural History.]

In their food habits many mammals are decidedly injurious. Rats,
Weasels, Minks, and Foxes destroy poultry; Wolves and Pumas kill
domestic and game animals; Woodchucks or Groundhogs eat clover and
various garden plants; Moles damage the lawns; Rats, Mice, and Gophers
spoil and devour grain; Mice and Rabbits girdle fruit trees, thus
killing them.

On the other hand, many mammals furnish food; _e. g._, Rabbits, Elk, and
Deer. This was more important in pioneer times than at present. Many
furnish furs used as articles of clothing; _e. g._, Raccoon, Fox,
Muskrat, Mink, Otter, Marten, Mole, New York Weasel and other northern
weasels in their winter coats.

[Illustration: POLAR BEAR

An expert swimmer. Feeds upon seals, fish and other animal food. Range:
Arctic regions of the world. Habitat Group in American Museum of Natural
History.]

Many furs are usually sold under trade names that are entirely different
from the true name of the animal. A list of a few fur-bearing mammals of
the United States having trade names differing from the true names
follows:

      _The True Fur_                        _The Trade Name_
  Dark blended Muskrat                    Russian Otter
  Mink blended Muskrat                    Natural River Mink
  Natural Muskrat[6]                      River Mink
  Natural Jersey Muskrat                  River Sable
  Plucked and Seal-dyed Muskrat           Hudson Seal
  Plucked and Seal-dyed Muskrat           Aleutian Seal
  Skunk                                   Black Marten
  Striped Skunk                           Civet Cat
  N.Y. Weasel in winter pelage            Ermine

[Illustration: SKUNKS--MOTHER AND YOUNG HUNTING FOR GRASSHOPPERS AND
CRICKETS

Noted for its ability to emit a most unpleasant odor when disturbed.
Range: Eastern North America. Portion of Group in American Museum of
Natural History.]

[Illustration: MINK

A cousin of the Weasel and Otter, the Mink feeds upon frogs, crayfish,
mice, bird's eggs, etc. Range: This and closely related forms over most
of United States, Canada, and Alaska. From Group in American Museum of
Natural History.]

A few suggestions for observation or study:

1. What peculiar instinct or habit has the Opossum developed?

2. How does the flight of a Bat differ from that of a Flying Squirrel?

3. Can you notice any peculiarity in the Rabbit's track?

4. Mention three mammals that hibernate.

5. Describe the methods of defense in the following mammals: Armadillo,
Porcupine, Skunk.

6. Why do the front teeth of the Squirrel and the Beaver continue to
grow?

The best way to find the answers to these questions is by actual
observation of the animals, but when this is impossible, the references
given under "Mammals" will be found useful.

[Illustration: RED FOX RETURNING TO ITS YOUNG FROM SOME FARMER'S
HEN-ROOST

The Cross Fox, the Silver Fox, and the Black Fox are color phases of the
Red Fox, and not different species. Range: Northern North America south
to Georgia. Habitat Group in American Museum of Natural History.]

[Illustration: BALD-EAGLE

The American Eagle, the Emblem of our Country. Range: United States]


Birds

          _He who takes the first step in ornithology is
          ticketed for the whole trip._--_John Burroughs._

[Illustration: A GREBE COLONY IN SASKATCHEWAN

Showing the Western Grebe and the smaller Grebe. Note the young Grebe
riding on its mothers' back. Another parent is covering its eggs
preparatory to leaving the nest. Range of both these species: Western
North America. Habitat Group in the American Museum of Natural History.]

The love of the beautiful seems to be innate; that is, born in us. And
the birds appeal to this in at least two ways: First, on account of the
beauty of their songs, and second, on account of the beauty of their
plumage.

[Illustration: SCREECH OWL

The Screech Owl feeds largely upon mice and other destructive rodents.
Range: Eastern North America.]

Among the birds that have especially beautiful songs are the Thrushes,
which include the Robin and the Bluebird, the finest singer in this
family probably being the Hermit Thrush. In the Southern States there is
no more popular singer among the birds than the Mockingbird. But it
should be remembered that a bird's song cannot be separated from the
associations which it calls up in one's memory. So that the performance
of an ordinary songster may be more pleasing to one than that of some
finer one because of youthful associations.

[Illustration: SAND HILL CRANES IN FLORIDA

Unlike the Herons, these birds fly with neck fully extended. Their loud,
resonant trumpeting is as characteristic as the honking of Wild Geese.
Range: North America. Habitat Group in The American Museum of Natural
History.]

[Illustration: GREAT HORNED OWL

Rabbits constitute a favorite food when available. Poultry and other
birds are also destroyed by this owl. Range: Eastern North America.]

It seems to be a general law of nature that the finest songsters have
the plainest coats.

[Illustration: BROWN PELICANS IN FLORIDA

The Pelicans nest in colonies, and the young feed from the parents'
throats. Range: Gulf coast of U. S. and southward. Habitat Group in The
American Museum of Natural History.]

[Illustration: EGRETS: PARENT BIRDS]


Among the birds that we enjoy on account of their beautiful plumage are
the Egrets, every feather of their coats being as white as snow, and
the plumes of these birds are so beautiful, and human beings have been
so thoughtless that the Egrets have been almost exterminated in order to
supply the millinery trade. These plumes, known as aigrettes, grow on
the backs between the shoulders of both the male and female birds, and
are worn only during the nesting season. The only time during the
nesting season that the plume hunter finds it profitable to hunt these
birds is when the young are in the nest. At any other time the birds
would be so wild that the plume hunter could not easily shoot them. When
the young are in the nest the parental love is so strong that the adult
birds cannot resist the instinct to return to feed the nestlings when
they are begging for food. In this way both the father bird and the
mother bird become an easy prey for the ambushed plume hunter, and there
is but one thing that can happen to the baby Egrets in the nest after
both of their parents have been killed--they starve to death. This is
one of the most cruel phases of the plume trade, and there is no other
way to secure the aigrette plumes of the Egrets than by killing the
adult birds. Fortunately, in the United States it is against the law to
shoot these birds, and it is against the law to import the plumes. Until
recently it has not been illegal to wear these plumes, and the fact that
there are still a few women who adorn their hats with them has
encouraged the illegal and cruel killing of these birds in our country,
or the smuggling in of the plumes from some other country. In the
latter part of 1919 the federal regulations have been interpreted to
make it illegal to possess aigrette plumes, and henceforth the law will
be so enforced. This is the successful culmination of a long fight by
the Audubon Society.

[Illustration: GOLDEN PLOVER

The Golden Plover makes the longest single flight known to be made by
any bird in migration,--that is, 2,500 miles from Nova Scotia across the
open ocean to South America. Range: North and South America.]

[Illustration: BOBOLINK

During the autumn migration this bird is the Reedbird or Ricebird.
Range: North and South America.]

A few other birds of striking plumage are the Bluejay, the Bluebird, the
Baltimore Oriole, the Scarlet Tanager, the Cedar Waxwing, and Red-winged
Blackbird.

Turning from the esthetic value of birds, which depends, among other
things, upon the beauty of their songs and the beauty of other plumage,
we may consider the value of birds in dollars and cents.

[Illustration: WILD TURKEY IN WEST VIRGINIA

Our most magnificent game-bird. Note how much the young resembles the
dead leaves. Range: Eastern United States west to Nebraska and Texas.
Habitat Group in The American Museum of Natural History.]

[Illustration: NORTHERN SHRIKE IMPALING A HOUSE SPARROW UPON A THORN

The habit illustrated here has given the Shrike the name of
Butcher-bird. It is surprising to find a song-bird with the habits of a
bird of prey. Range: Northern North America.]

[Illustration: DUCK HAWKS ON THE PALISADES OF THE HUDSON

The "Noble Peregrine" of falconry carrying a pigeon to its young. Range:
North and South America. Habitat Group in The American Museum of Natural
History.]

Every farmer and gardener must cultivate his crops and fight the weeds
which are always crowding out the plants he is trying to raise, and in
this fight he is helped by a great many birds of various kinds. Among
these are the Mourning Dove, the Bob-White, and members of the Sparrow
family, such as the Goldfinch, the Junco, and the Song Sparrow. In this
country, in the aggregate, these seed-eating birds destroy every year
tons of seeds of the noxious weeds, and are therefore valuable friends
of the gardener and farmer. For more definite data see bulletins
published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, or "Useful Birds and
Their Protection," by Edward Howe Forbush (Massachusetts Board of
Agriculture).

[Illustration: A KILLDEER FAMILY

This plover is common in meadows, cultivated fields, and about ponds and
lakes. It gets its name from its note. Range: North and South America.]

Thousands of bushels of grain are eaten or spoiled by small mammals,
such as mice, rats, and spermophiles or gophers. To the relief of the
farmer, many birds feed upon these destructive little rodents. The Crow
occasionally captures a mouse, while the Shrikes or Butcher-birds catch
a great many. The Screech Owl feeds largely upon mice. The Red-tailed
Hawk is called the Hen-hawk or Chicken-hawk by most farmers, but this
is very unfair to the bird, for its principal food is mice. In fact,
most of the Hawks and Owls of the United States are really valuable
friends of the farmer because of the injurious rodents which they
devour. (See "_Hawks and Owls of the United States_," by A. K. Fisher.)

[Illustration: STARLING

Introduced 1890 into New York City; since spread over northeastern
states. Western and central Europe, New England and Middle Atlantic
States.]

To be fair, it must be admitted that there are a few exceptions; that
is, that there are a few Hawks and Owls which do more harm than good.
The Sharp-shinned Hawk kills many harmless songbirds and occasionally
young game birds and young chickens. The Cooper's Hawk, which nests
throughout the United States, is a real chicken hawk, and the worst one
in the country. The Duck Hawk, the "Noble Peregrine" of falconry, in
this country feeds largely upon domestic pigeons, but no bird student
would wish to see it exterminated on account of this habit.

There are a number of birds which are valuable friends to all the people
because they are scavengers. The Herring Gull, which is the commonest
gull of the harbors of the United States, and which is also found on
inland lakes and rivers, by feeding upon all kinds of refuse animal and
plant materials makes the waters about our cities more healthful. This
is especially true of the coast cities which dump their garbage into the
waters not far distant. The Turkey Vulture, the Black Vulture or
Carrion-Crow, and the California Condor make the fields and woods of the
country more healthful by devouring the carcasses of animals, and the
first two species eat the offal from slaughter houses and even scraps of
meat from the markets in some of our Southern cities.

[Illustration: COMMON TERN

A close relative of the gulls. Range: Northern Hemisphere, northern
South America and Africa.]

[Illustration: GREAT BLUE HERON

Frequently miscalled Blue "Crane." The long legs indicate that this is a
wading bird. Range: Western Hemisphere.]

The most valuable group of birds from the standpoint of the farmers, the
orchardists, and the gardeners is the insect-eating birds. Among these
are the Wood Pewee, the Phoebe, the Kingbird, and all of the
Flycatchers; the Purple Martin and all of the Swallows; the Nighthawk
and Whip-poor-will. The Yellow-billed and Black-billed Cuckoos and the
Baltimore Oriole feed largely upon tent caterpillars and others
caterpillars which defoliate the fruit and shade trees. The Sparrow
Hawk has been wrongly named, for it eats a thousand times as many
grasshoppers as it does sparrows. The Chickadees, Brown Creepers, and
many of the Warblers feed largely upon insects and insect eggs which
they glean chiefly from the trees. The Rose-breasted Grosbeak and the
Bob-White eat the Colorado potato-beetle. In the West the Franklin's
Gull follows the farmer in the fields and picks up great numbers of
destructive insects.

In learning the value of our feathered friends it is necessary to learn
to know the birds, and in this quest great help can be obtained from
books. Beginners will find the following useful:

"Land Birds East of the Rockies," by Chester A. Reed.

"Water and Game Birds," by Chester A. Reed.

"Western Bird Guide," by Chester A. Reed. (All published by Doubleday,
Page & Co.)

For more advanced students the following are recommended:

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," by Frank M. Chapman (D.
Appleton & Co.).

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," by Florence Merriam Bailey
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.).

Our study of birds should not stop with the name, because we shall find
many things of interest in the home life of birds, many things that seem
to reflect our own lives. (See "Home Life of Wild Birds," by F. H.
Herrick. G. P. Putnam's Sons.)

If we like to hear birds sing, if we enjoy the beauty of their coats,
and if they are valuable neighbors from the standpoint of dollars and
cents, then it is worth while to consider how we may have more of them
about our homes. Every girl can do a great deal to attract birds.

First, by putting up nesting boxes. Since the people of our country have
destroyed so much of our native forests and undergrowth, have drained so
many of our swamps, and have cultivated so much of the grassy prairie,
many birds have difficulty in finding suitable places to nest. This can
be remedied in the case of birds that nest in cavities, such as the
House Wren, Tree Swallow, Purple Martin, Screech Owl, Chickadee, and
Bluebird, by putting up nesting boxes. For those that nest in shrubbery,
like the Catbird and the Brown Thrasher, shrubs and vines may be planted
so that the desirable tangle may be had.

[Illustration: A MOTHER MALLARD AND HER FAMILY

The Wild Mallard is the original of many of the domesticated ducks.
Range: Northern Hemisphere.]

Second, by putting out bird baths. In this improved country of ours,
there are doubtless large areas in which wild birds have difficulty in
finding suitable places to bathe. Artificial bird baths are more
attractive to birds in the summer time than during cold weather, but
they will be used even in winter if kept free from ice. Do not place a
bird bath so close to a shrub, tree, or building that a house cat may
stalk the birds from behind it. The house cat is probably the worst
enemy of our native songbirds.

Third, by establishing feeding stations, especially in winter when snow
covers the natural food of so many birds. When birds have enough to eat
they rarely suffer severely from the cold.

Fourth, by cooperating with the authorities in seeing that the laws
protecting the birds are enforced.

The Audubon Society has done much effective work along these lines, and
a Girl Scout should join this society, whose headquarters are 1974
Broadway, New York City.


Amphibians

          _All nature is so full that that district produces
          the greatest variety which is most examined._
               --_Gilbert White, Natural History of Selborne._

The group of back-boned animals next above the fishes is the Amphibians,
which includes the frogs, toads, salamanders,[7] and their relatives.
The name "amphibian" refers to two modes of life as shown by most of the
frogs and toads. A good example is the Common Toad, whose eggs are laid
in the water. These eggs hatch out not into toads, but into tadpoles,
which have no legs and which breathe by means of gills, as the fishes
do. They grow rapidly, develop a pair of hind legs and then a pair of
front legs, while the tail and gills are absorbed, all within a little
more than a month from the time the eggs are laid. During this change a
pair of lungs is developed, so that the toads breathe air as human
beings do. The eggs of toads and frogs may be collected in the spring in
ponds, and this remarkable change from the egg through the tadpole stage
to the adult form may be observed in a simple home aquarium. Toads' eggs
may be distinguished from those of frogs by the fact that toads' eggs
are laid in strings, while frogs' eggs are laid in masses.

[Illustration: TOAD

A valuable animal in the garden because of the insects which it eats.
Range: Eastern United States. Photograph by Herbert Lang.]

Every Girl Scout should know the song of the toad. William Hamilton
Gibson says it is "the sweetest sound in nature." (_Sharp Eyes_, p. 54.)
If you do not know it, take a lantern or electric flash-lamp after dark
some evening in the spring at egg-laying time, and go to the edge of
some pond and see the toad sing. Notice how the throat is puffed out
while the note is being produced.

[Illustration: BULLFROG

The largest of our frogs, remarkable for its sonorous bass notes. Range:
Eastern United States westward to Kansas. Photograph by Herbert Lang.]

The belief that warts are caused by handling toads has no foundation in
fact.

The toad is a valuable friend of the gardener, for it feeds upon a great
variety of destructive insects.

The life of our Salamanders is very similar to that of the frogs and
toads. The eggs hatch out into tadpoles, then legs are developed, but
the tail is not absorbed. Unlike the frogs and toads, the Salamander
keeps its tail throughout life, and in some kinds of Salamanders which
spend all of their time in the water, the gills are used throughout
life. Salamanders have various common names, some being called newts,
others water-dogs or mud-puppies. The mud-eel and the Congo "snake" of
the Southern States, and the "hell-bender" of the Ohio valley and south
are all Salamanders. The belief that any of the Salamanders is
poisonous is a myth and has no basis in fact.

[Illustration: SPRING PEEPER

The note of this piping hyla is a welcome sound about the ponds and
swamps in early spring. Range: Eastern United States. Photograph by
Herbert Lang.]


Reptiles

Reptiles include Alligators, Crocodiles, Turtles, Lizards and Snakes. It
is commonly said that reptiles are cold-blooded. This means that the
temperature of their blood varies and is the same as the surrounding
medium. The temperature of an Alligator that has been floating with its
nose out of the water is the same as the surrounding water. The
temperature of a turtle in the winter time is the same as the mud in
which it is buried, while in the summer time it is much higher. What is
true of the reptiles in respect to temperature is also true of
Amphibians and Fishes. However, this is not true of Birds and Mammals,
for these have a uniform temperature so high that they are called
warm-blooded.

[Illustration: GILA MONSTER

So called from the Gila River in Arizona. The only member of the lizard
family known to be venomous except the very similar crust-lizard found
in Mexico. Range: Desert regions of southern Arizona and New Mexico.]

In the United States there is but one species of Alligator and but one
species of Crocodile, both limited to the Southeastern States.

There are about fifty kinds of Turtle and Tortoises in North America,
some of which live on the land and feed largely upon plants, _e. g._,
the Common Box Turtle, found from the New England States to South
Carolina and westward to Kansas, and the Gopher Tortoise of the Southern
States. Others are aquatic, like the Painted Turtles, which are found in
one form or another practically all over the United States.

Many of these reptiles are highly prized as food, _e. g._,
Diamond-backed Terrapin, Soft-shelled Turtle, Snapping Turtle and Gopher
Tortoise.

[Illustration: COMMON BOX TURTLE

Range: Eastern United States]

There are about one hundred species of Lizards in North America, the
greatest number being found in the drier parts of the continent. Of this
whole number only two species are poisonous, and only one of these, the
Gila Monster, is found within the United States, being confined in its
range to desert regions of Southern Arizona and New Mexico.

The Blue-tailed Lizard or Skink, which occurs from Massachusetts to
Florida and westward to Central Texas, is commonly believed to be
poisonous in the Southern States, where it is called the Red-headed
"Scorpion," but this is one of the popular myths still too common among
intelligent people.

The Glass "Snake" of the Central and Southern States is a peculiar
lizard in that it has no legs. That it is able, after being broken to
pieces, to collect itself together again and continue to live is another
old myth.

[Illustration: DIAMOND-BACKED TERRAPIN

Range: Salt marshes of the Atlantic Coast and Gulf of Mexico from
Massachusetts to Texas.]

About a dozen kinds of Horned "Toads" are found in the western portions
of the United States. Although toad-like in the shape of their bodies
and in some of their habits, they are really lizards.

The American Chameleon or "Green" Lizard, which ranges in this country
in the coastal regions from North Carolina to the Rio Grande River, has
a remarkable power of changing the color of its skin through shades of
brown, gray, and green. In fact, it is said to rival or possibly excel
the true chameleons of the Old World.

For treatment of the Snakes see Woodcraft, Section XIII.


FISHES

_"It is not all of fishing to fish."_

[Illustration: PADDLE-FISH

So-called from the paddle-like or spoon-shaped snout. Eggs used for
caviar. Range: The Mississippi River and its tributaries.]

The fishes are the lowest of the true vertebrates or animals with
backbones, and all live in the water. They do not have lungs, but
breathe through gills on the sides of the head. They are cold-blooded
animals; i. e., the temperature of the blood is the same as that of the
water in which they are living. Fishes are found in both fresh and
salt water all over the world and have adapted themselves to many
conditions; for example, certain fishes have lived in caves so long that
they are blind; some live in the coldest water, while others can revel
in the heat of the hot springs.

[Illustration: COMMON CATFISH

The barbels which suggest the whiskers of a cat are responsible for the
name. This fish has no scales. Range: Eastern and Central United
States.]

Many fishes are valuable as food and the fisheries are extensive
industries, in which large sums of money are invested.

There are four great groups of fishes:

1. The sharks and rays, with cartilaginous skeletons.

2. The ganoids of which the sturgeon and garpike are examples, with
heavy plates or scales.

3. The bony fishes--salmon, pickerel, mackerel, cod, halibut, etc.

4. The lung fishes, that live partly in air.

[Illustration: SHOVEL-NOSED STURGEON

This fish is covered with bony plates instead of scales. The roe is made
into caviar. _Range_: Upper and middle Mississippi Valley.]

There are many species of sharks. Among the more common ones in Atlantic
waters are the Smooth Dogfish which have pavement-like teeth; the Sand
Shark with catlike teeth; the Hammerhead Shark with its eyes on stalks.
The near relatives of the sharks are the Skates. The most common
example of the ganoid fish is the sturgeon, which is heavily clad with a
bony armor. Most of the fishes that we find, however, belong to the
third group, i. e., bony fishes. Among the salt-water species, the cod,
the halibut, the mackerel, and the bluefish are especially valuable as
food. Of the salt-water fishes that go up the rivers into fresh water to
breed, the salmon and the shad are widely known. Of a strictly
fresh-water fish, the sunfish and catfish are very common. Among the
game-fish are the trout, bass, pickerel, and salmon.

For those who live in cities, a convenient place to begin the study of
fishes is in the fish-market. Here we may learn to know the common
food-fishes by name, and to know many interesting things about them. If
there is a Public Aquarium or a Natural History Museum in your city, you
can use it in connection with the fish-market. Especially valuable in
Museums are the habitat groups of fishes, that is, those in which the
fishes are shown in their natural surroundings. But, best of all, the
place to study fishes, as is true of all other animals, is out-of-doors
in their native haunts. With your dip-net or hook and line, catch the
fish, and then by the aid of one of the books listed below find out what
its name is. Then, by observation of the fish see what is interesting in
its life-history. Find out where the mother-fish lays her eggs. Does
either parents guard them? Has the fish any natural weapons of defense?
If so, what are they? Does either parent care for the young after they
are hatched? What does the fish feed upon? In what way is the fish
protectively colored? In the study of fishes, an interesting means is
the home aquarium. Any Girl Scout can easily learn how to install and
maintain a balanced aquarium, that is, one in which the water does not
have to be changed and in fact should not be changed. In such an
aquarium one may keep and study a great variety of fishes. Some of our
local fishes, such as young catfish and suckers, will prove fully as
interesting as the goldfish and many other animals besides fishes will
thrive in a small aquarium, such as tadpoles of frogs, toads, and
salamanders, adult water-newts, soft-shelled turtles, snails, and
water-beetles and nymphs of dragon-flies.

[Illustration: HAMMERHEAD SHARK

The eyes are on the ends of blunt stalks, or extensions of the sides of
the head, which suggest the name. Range: All warm seas, north to Cape
Cod.]

[Illustration: A GARDEN UNDER WATER

Starfishes, Crabs and Sea-anemones]

[Illustration: SQUID

Member of same family as Octopus, and is related to the Oyster. Has ink
bag for protection.]


Animals Without Backbones

In general the Invertebrates are animals without a backbone; that is,
they do not have an internal supporting skeleton of bone, as does the
dog or cat. Compared with mammals or birds, they are all small and some
are so very tiny that they can be seen only with a very powerful
microscope. Most of them live in the water or in the mud or sand under
the water. Hence the best place to get acquainted with them is along the
seashore or near some lake or stream.

There are several different groups of Invertebrates and between these
groups there are greater differences of structure than there is between
a horse and a hummingbird. The principal groups are:

1. The Protozoa, or one-celled animals (nearly all microscopic).

2. The Sponges.

3. The Jellyfishes, Sea-anemones, and Corals.

4. Worms of several groups.

5. Starfishes, Sea-urchins, and Sea-cucumbers.

6. Segmented Worms.

7. Crabs, Lobsters, etc.

8. Oysters, Snails, and Octopi.

9. Insects and Spiders.

[Illustration: SNAILS AND THEIR TRACKS ON THE BEACH

--_Photograph by Mary C. Dickerson._]


Seashore Life

Because of their connection with our industries or our food supply, some
of the Invertebrates are familiar to all; for instance, sponges,
corals, starfishes, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, clams, and oysters. Others
are seldom seen unless one takes pains to look for them.

[Illustration: JELLY FISH]

All life comes from pre-existing life. So every animal living to-day has
come from some other living animal and every plant living to-day has
come from some other previously living plant. It is believed that the
first forms of life came from the water. At any rate, the oldest and
lowest forms of life to-day, the Protozoa, are found in the water. As
these are nearly all very minute and can be studied only with a
microscope, they are omitted from the suggested field work.

[Illustration: ANIMALS OF THE WHARF-PILES

Habitat Group in the American Museum of Natural History]

All who have access to the seashore have a wonderful opportunity to
study the Invertebrates. The long stretches of sandy beach, the
sections of shore covered with water-rolled pebbles and stones, even the
steep, jagged cliffs, are all pebbled with these animals of the sea.
Twice every twenty-four hours the sea water creeps slowly up the beach
until high water is reached, and twice every twenty-four hours it
recedes again toward the ocean. It is therefore about twelve hours from
one low water to the next. On a gently sloping beach, the distances
between the high water mark and the low water mark may be many hundreds
of feet, while on a steep beach or a straight cliff this area may be
only a few feet in width. It is this area between the high and low water
marks that is the haunt of many Invertebrates. These are animals that
can live if they are not continually covered with water. Here are the
rock barnacles, the soft clams, crabs of many kinds, beach fleas,
numerous sea worms in their special houses, snails, and hermit crabs.
Others will be found in the pools between the rocks or in the crevices
of the cliffs, which as the tide falls becomes great natural aquaria.
Here will be found hydroids, sea-anemones, starfishes, sea-urchins,
barnacles, mussels. In the shallow water, crabs and shrimps are crawling
along the sandy bottom or are lying concealed in the mud, while schools
of little fishes scoot across the pool. If a fine silk net is drawn
through the water and then emptied into a glass dish a whole new world
of creatures will be revealed--jellyfishes, ctenophores, hydroids, eggs
of fish, tiny copepods, the larvae or young of sea-urchins, starfishes,
or oysters. If an old wharf is near by, examine the posts supporting it.
The pilings seem to be coated with a shaggy mass of seaweed. Scrape some
of this off and put in a dish of water. Sea-spiders, starfishes,
hydroids that look like moss, sea-anemones, many varieties of worms,
mussels and crabs are all living here.

[Illustration: UNDER THE SEA BED

Marine Worms, Whelk, Pecten or Scallop and Periwinkle]


Begin your study of these seashore animals with a stroll along the
beach. Examine the windrows of seawrack or seaweed. Whole troops of
sandhoppers rise ahead of you. Oftentimes animals from distant shores or
deep water will be found. The empty shells have many a story to tell.
The papery egg-cases of the periwinkle remind one of a beautiful
necklace. The air bubbles rising from the sand or mud as the wave
recedes mark the entrance to the burrows of worms. Stamp hard on the
sand. A little fountain of water announces the abode of the soft clam.
Watch the sand at the edges of the rippling water. The mole-crab may be
seen scuttling to cover. In the little hollows between rocks a rock-crab
or a green-crab may be found on guard.

[Illustration: WHELK (FULGUR CANALICULATA) AND EGG-CASES

Common Mollusk Found on Sandy Shores Along the Atlantic Coast of the
United States.]

For collecting in the pools and shallow water a fine-meshed net is
desirable. Many of the animals can be caught and placed in glass dishes
of sea water for close observation.

[Illustration: Group showing a starfish attacking an oyster; soft
shelled clams; hermit crabs; fiddler crabs, etc.]

_A few animals that may be found at the seashore:_

_Rocky Shores_--Hydroids on the rock-weed, rock-barnacles, snails,
amphipods, lobsters, and oysters.

_Sandy Shores_--Worms, in tube houses, mole-crab, sand-hopper,
egg-cases, whelks, shrimps.

_Muddy Shores_--Snails, clams, worms of many varieties, mud-crabs,
hermit-crabs, blue crabs, scallops.

_Wharves and Bridges_ (on the piling)--Sponges, hydroids, sea-anemones,
ascidians, starfishes, sea-urchins, worms.

On the shores of lakes, ponds, and streams will also be found many
invertebrates.

[Illustration: HUMMINGBIRD MOTH

Range: Eastern North America. The larvae or caterpillars of this moth
feed upon virburnum, snowberry and hawthorn.]

[Illustration: SEVENTEEN-YEAR CICADA OR SEVENTEEN-YEAR "LOCUST"

Range: Eastern United States. Pupae emerging from the ground. Detail
from Group in the American Museum of Natural History.]


Insects play an important part in Nature's activities. From the point of
view of man some are beneficial and some are destructive. In the former
group may be mentioned the Dragonflies which feed upon mosquitoes, the
Cochineal insects of Mexico, which furnish a dye-stuff, the Lady-bird
beetles, which in the larval stage feed upon plant lice; the scale
insects of India, which furnish shellac; the Bumblebees, which
cross-pollinate the clover, and the Wasps, which fertilize the figs. Dr.
Lutz says that the manna which fed the Children of Israel was honeydew
secreted by a scale insect, and that it is still eaten.

[Illustration: SEVENTEEN-YEAR CICADA OR SEVENTEEN-YEAR "LOCUST"

Range: Eastern United States. The pupa climbing tree trunk. Then it
bursts its horny outer skin and crawls out an adult.]

The Silkworm and the Honey-bee have been domesticated since prehistoric
times, the former supplying a valuable fiber for clothing and the latter
an important article of food.

Among the injurious insects a few may be mentioned: the House Fly or
Filth Fly, which may carry disease germs on its feet to the food that we
eat; the mosquitoes, which transmit yellow fever and malaria, the rat
flea, which carries bubonic plague; the weevils, which destroy rice,
beans, chestnuts, etc., and the plant lice, or aphids, which, by sucking
the juices from ornamental and food plants, are among the most
destructive of all insects.

There are so many insects in the world that we cannot hope to learn of
them all, even if we wanted to do so, but most of us wish to know the
names of those that attract our attention, and to know what they do that
is important or interesting. There are approximately 400,000 species or
kinds of insects known in the world; that is, about three times as many
as there are species or kinds of all the rest of the animals in the
world put together. This fact should not hinder us from making a start
and becoming familiar with the interesting habits of a few of the
insects about us.

The eggs of the Monarch Butterfly may be collected upon the milkweed and
brought in, so that the whole life history or metamorphosis of this
beautiful insect, from the egg through the larva or caterpillar stage
and the pupa or chrysalis stage to the adult butterfly, may be watched.
The larvae or caterpillar must be supplied daily with fresh milkweed
leaves. Other butterflies and moths and many other insects may be reared
in the same way by supplying the larvae with suitable food. If we should
find a caterpillar feeding upon the leaves of a maple tree we should
continue to feed it maple leaves if we wish to rear it. Silkworms will
eat the leaves of Osage-orange, but they seem to prefer mulberry leaves.

Cocoons of moths may be easily collected in winter after the leaves have
fallen, and brought in and kept in a cool place until spring when the
coming out of the adult moths will be an occurrence of absorbing
interest.

[Illustration: "A GATHERING OF MONARCHS"

Monarch Butterflies resting during migration. The Monarch ranges all
over North and South America and it migrates like the birds. Photograph
of group in American Museum of Natural History.]

The spiders, although not insects, are interesting little animals. See
how many types of webs you can find. Mention a few insects which you
know to be preyed upon by spiders. Mention one insect that catches
spiders and stores them away as food for its young.

[Illustration: TRACKS OF THE GLACIER

North America at the time of the maximum stage of the Great Ice Age,
showing area covered by ice. (After Chamberlin and Salisbury).
Photograph used by courtesy of Henry Holt & Co.]

[Illustration: THE KING OF THE NORTHLANDS]


GEOLOGY

     _Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
      Sermons in stones, and good in everything._
                            --_Shakespeare, As You Like It._


The Structure and History of the Earth

There is nothing eternal about the earth except eternal change, some one
has said. It requires only a little looking about us to see that this is
true. The earth is not as it was in the past. Every shower of rain
changes or modifies its surface. And many other and some very great
changes have occurred during the past few millions of years. During one
age, the coal was formed of plants that grew luxuriantly on the earth's
surface. At one period in the development of the earth there were many
kinds of invertebrate animals, but no animals with backbones. Later, the
vertebrates appeared. At one time the whole Mississippi Valley was under
the water of the sea. ("The Story of Our Continent," by N. S. Shaler.
Ginn & Co.). These statements suggest just a few of the things that have
been going on in the history of the earth. By the study of Geology we
can learn much more about it, and we should supplement our study of
books with the more important actual observation of conditions
out-of-doors. To those living in that part of North America, which is
shaded in the map on page 451, the easiest and most natural approach to
the subject of the structure and history of the earth is by studying the
effects of the continental glacier which formerly moved down over this
region.


Tracks of the Glacier

When we see the foot-prints of an animal in the mud or in the snow, we
are sure that an animal has passed that way at some previous time. Those
who live in Canada or northern United States (See map page 451) can be
just as sure that a great glacier or ice-sheet formerly moved down over
northern North America, by the tracks it has left. Although it is
estimated by geologists that between 10,000 and 40,000 years have
elapsed since the Great Ice Age, these tracks or evidences can still be
seen by any one who lives in this region or who can visit it. The
principal ones are: (1) Boulders or Lost Rocks which were brought down
by this glacier; (2) The Glacial Drift or Boulder Clay which covers
nearly all of the glaciated region; (3) Scratches on the bed-rock which
show the direction the glacier moved.

Notice in the field the size and shape of the glacial boulders, where
they are found, evidence of the place where the glacier melted off
(terminal moraine). Do these boulders increase or decrease in size as we
go south over the glaciated area? Can you discover any place where they
can be traced back in their native ledge? Present-day glaciers, like the
Muir Glacier in Alaska, can be seen transporting boulders and drift just
as this great prehistoric ice-sheet must have done.

The drift which consists of clay mixed with pebbles, cobblestones, and
boulders, varies greatly in depth. In some places there is none, while
at St. Paris, Ohio, it is 550 feet deep. It probably averages 100 feet
thick or less.

In your locality note the depth of the drifts in cuts made naturally by
creeks and rivers or those made artificially for railroads. Oil-wells
furnish evidence on this point. Collect a few good examples of scratched
or glaciated pebbles or cobblestones which are abundant in the drift.
These were scratched while frozen in the bottom of the glacier and
pushed along on the bed-rock under the weight of the ice above.

Collect ten different kinds of rock from the glacial boulders and
drift,--there are more than one hundred kinds to be found,--and with the
aid of some such book as "Rocks and Rock Minerals," by Louis V. Pirsson
(John Wiley & Sons) or "Common Minerals and Rocks," by Wm. O. Crosby (D.
C. Heath & Co.) try to identify them.

All soil is composed of disintegrated or decayed rock. And it has been
observed that the soil of northern North America is foreign to the
bed-rock. Therefore it must have been transported from some other place.
The glacier did this huge piece of work. The soil of southern United
States contains no boulders or cobblestones and has been formed by the
disintegration and decay of rocks in place.

Observe glacial scratches and grooves on the bed-rock, those on Kelley's
Island in Lake Erie are famous.

Agassiz was the first to realize that it was a glacier that did this
stupendous piece of work, and this conception or discovery greatly added
to his fame. It is now easy for us to find the evidences and to enjoy
their interpretation.

In fact, the Greenland ice-sheet is a remnant of this prehistoric
continental glacier.

FOOTNOTES:

[6] Muskrat fur is now also sold under its true name.

[7] Unfortunately in the Southern States there is an entirely different
animal commonly called a "Salamander" which is in reality a
pocket-gopher of the group of mammals.



SECTION XVI

GIRL SCOUT'S OWN GARDEN

BY DAVID M. HUNTER

          _A Garden is a lovesome thing, God wot!
               Rose plot
             Fringed pool,
               Fern'd grot--
             The veriest school
             Of peace; and yet the fool
           Contends that God is not--
               Not God! in gardens! when the eve is cool?
           Nay, but I have a sign;
             'Tis very sure God walks in mine._
                                  --_Thomas Edward Brown._


A very old story tells us that when man was created he was put by the
Creator into a garden to dress it and to keep it. He could not have been
put into a better place nor could a more honorable and necessary
occupation have been given to him. No doubt the woman who lived in the
garden with him aided him in this work. Not having a house to care for
or dressmaking and sewing to do, or cooking to take her attention, there
was nothing to prevent her from helping in the dressing and keeping of
the lovely garden. At any rate, that is what Milton thought, for he
makes Adam speak to Eve of "our delightful task to prune these growing
plants and tend these flowers."

Two persons would not need a very large garden, and I will commend this
early example to the beginner in gardening and urge a very small garden
to start with. For it is well to undertake only what can be easily
handled or what can be done thoroughly. There is joy in the
contemplation of a perfect work, even though it be on a small scale,
that never comes from a more ambitious undertaking imperfectly carried
out. Better six square feet of well tilled, weedless, thrifty garden
than an acre poorly cultivated and full of weeds.

A Girl Scout who proposes to make a garden will naturally ask herself
certain questions. If she has the ground, if she knows already where her
garden is to be placed, the next thing, perhaps, that she will wish to
know is, what tools will be needed. Then follows the way to treat the
soil in order to prepare it for planting the seeds. After that comes the
question of seeds and the way to plant them. Then the cultivation of the
crops until they are ready to be gathered.

Here, then, we have material for short sections on (1) tools, (2)
preparation of the soil, (3) selection of seeds, (4) planting, and (5)
cultivation.


(1) Tools

Not many tools will be needed, but some seem to be indispensable. I
would suggest: 1. A spading fork. Some like a long-handled fork, others
prefer a short-handled one. 2. A hoe. 3. A garden or iron-toothed rake.
4. A hand weeder of some kind. 5. A shovel. In addition to these tools
every gardener will find it necessary to have a line for making straight
rows. This should be at least the length of the longest dimension of the
garden and white that it may be easily seen. There should be two pegs to
stick it in with. I should add a board about ten inches wide with
straight edges and as long as the bed is wide, and a pointed stick.


(2) The Preparation of the Seed Bed

The first thing to do, after having determined the location of your
garden, is to measure your bed. If you have a single bed, one twelve
feet long by six feet wide is enough to start with. I should prefer,
however, to have two beds, each three feet wide by twelve feet long with
a narrow path between, say, twelve inches. The reason for thus laying
out the ground in two beds is that it will be easier to reach the whole
bed from either side without stepping or kneeling on the cultivated
soil. All cultivation can be done from the paths.

_The soil_ for flower beds needs most careful preparation. The bed
should be dug out to a depth of two feet, and if the soil is clay, two
feet six inches. In the latter case, put broken stones, cinders or
gravel on the bottom for drainage. The soil should be a mixture of
one-half good sandy loam, one-fourth leaf mould or muck that has been
left out all winter. Mix these thoroughly together before filling the
beds, sprinkle wood ashes over the beds and rake them in before
planting. This is to sweeten the soil. Lime may be used for the same
purpose, but in either case get advice as to the amount needed for the
soil in question.

_Manure._ Next in order will come the enriching of this plot of ground
by spreading upon it a good coating of well rotted cow manure. In case
barnyard manure is not available, a good mixture of commercial
fertilizer consists of four parts ground bone to one of muriate of
potash applied at the rate of four pounds to the square rod. This done,
proceed to fork the whole piece over, thrusting the spading fork into
the ground its full length each time, and turning the forkful of earth
so that the manure will be covered and not lie on top of the ground.

When the spading has been done, then use your rake and spare it not.
Rake until the earth in the beds is finely pulverized and until the
whole bed is as level as you can make it.

Now construct your central or dividing path, throwing the soil moved on
the beds on either side. To do this you will need a shovel.

Next define or limit your beds, making the sides and ends as straight as
possible. You ought now to have two rectangular beds, each three feet by
twelve feet, with a narrow path separating them all ready to put in the
seeds. It would be a good thing to have your beds raised a little, two
or three inches above the general level of the surrounding earth. This
will make them more distinct and will obviate the settling of water on
your beds; in other words, will drain them.


Seeds

The principal counsel to be given here is to use great care in the
selection of seeds because it is a bitter disappointment and a
discouraging experience to find that after all your labor your seeds are
worthless. It would be well to test a sample of your seeds to determine
their germinating power. If you have a reliable friend from whom you can
secure your seeds, you are fortunate, but if you must purchase at the
dealer by all means patronize one of established reputation.

For the first garden I should plant lettuce, radishes, beets and beans
in one of the beds. The other bed may be devoted to flowers.


Planting

Your beds are now supposed to be all ready for the seeds. That is to
say, they are shaped and graded and raked fine. The next thing to do is
to lay your board across the bed, with one edge six inches from the edge
of the bed. Then stand on the board and with a pointed stick make a
shallow furrow on each side of the board close to the board. Here I
should put the lettuce. It is desirable to have the seeds evenly and not
too thickly distributed in the shallow furrows. One way of
accomplishing this is by mixing your seeds with some very fine wood
ashes in a bowl and spreading the mixed ashes and seeds along the
furrows. A better way, I think, in the case of a small quantity of seeds
would be to place each seed at a proper distance from the others. This
distance will vary according to the size of the full grown heads of
lettuce. The smaller varieties might stand six inches apart, while the
largest ones would need to be twice that distance or more.

Having planted your lettuce seeds, turn your board over carefully twice.
That will bring it into position for two more rows of vegetables. Stand
on the board again and proceed as before, making two shallow furrows
with a pointed stick. Here I should put the radish seeds. These may be
sown more thickly, for the reason that as soon as the radishes become
large enough to eat they may be pulled out, leaving room for the rest of
the radishes to develop.

Having planted your radish seeds, repeat the preceding operations,
making two furrows again, this time for beet seeds. These may also be
sown thickly. The plants may be thinned out afterward. The small plants
that are pulled out will make excellent greens. When the thinning is
completed the remaining plants should stand from four to six inches
apart, according to variety; some beets are much larger than others.

The rest of the bed devote to string or butter beans. You will have left
for these a space of eighty-eight inches, or a little more than seven
feet. The rows of beans must be farther apart than the other vegetables
you have planted. Two feet between the rows is not too much. You will
have space enough for three rows. Measure from your last row of beets
one foot six inches at each side of your bed. Now stretch your line
across your bed at this distance from the beets, then with a hoe make a
furrow close to the line. This furrow should be two inches deep at
least. Much deeper, you see, than the shallow furrows for the smaller
seeds. Having made this furrow, measure two feet from it on each side of
the bed and place your line at this point and make a furrow as before.
Repeat the process for a third furrow. You should now have left a space
of eighteen inches between your last furrow and the end of the bed. Into
these three furrows place the beans, spacing them.

Your seeds are now all in. At this juncture take your rake and cover the
seeds, leaving the whole bed level and smooth.

There is nothing more to be done just at present except to leave these
seeds to the forces of nature, to the darkness and the moisture and the
warmth of their earthy bed. They are put to bed not that they may sleep,
but in order to wake them up. Soon the delicate shoots will begin to
appear above the ground, and with them will also appear the shoots of
many weeds whose seeds were in the soil. These weeds constitute a call
to your next operation which is


Cultivation

Declare war on the weeds. Use your hand weeder between the rows of
smaller vegetables and let not a weed escape. If they are in the rows so
near to the seedlings that you cannot use the weeder without danger to
the delicate little plants that you are attending, then employ your
fingers.

For a time you may use the hoe or rake between the rows of beans, but
even here near the paths themselves the weeder or hands should be
preferred.

There is one caution that old gardeners give which is not to work among
beans when they are wet with dew or rain for fear of "rust." Wait till
the sun has dried the foliage.

       *       *       *       *       *

Frequent and thorough cultivation not only destroys the weeds, thus
giving your vegetables a better chance and giving your garden a tidy,
well-kept appearance, but it keeps the soil loose and forms a sort of
mulch whereby the moisture is conserved. The dryer the season the
greater the need of cultivation.

       *       *       *       *       *

It may seem to you that you are obliged to wait long and spend a good
deal of labor without results, but when you have for the breakfast table
some cool, crisp radishes and for dinner a head of fresh lettuce, and
later a dish of sweet, luscious beets or mess of string beans, you will
feel well repaid.

Let us now turn our attention to the other bed, in which you are to grow
flowers. This may be treated as a sort of background for the vegetable
bed. To do this let the rows of plants run the other way. That is to
say, lengthwise of the bed instead of across. It is assumed that the
ground has been treated as in the case of the vegetable bed.

When you have accomplished this work of preparation set your line six
inches from the side of the bed nearest your vegetables, or the patch
between the two beds. Make a shallow furrow the full length of the bed
with your pointed stick. In this furrow sow your flower seeds of some
low-growing plant such as _sweet alyssum_. Then move your line back
toward the other side of the bed one foot. Here you should place some
taller plants, such as _asters_. The aster plants should have been
raised in the house, or purchased from some grower. Again move your line
one foot nearer the rear margin of your bed and in this row plant your
tallest plants. _Dahlias_ or _cosmos_ would be very effective. You must
get the roots for the dahlias somewhere. Cosmos is planted from seeds.
In planting the dahlias it would be well to dig a hole for each plant so
deep that when the root is set it will be two or three inches below the
surface of the ground. Good results will be obtained if before putting
in the roots you put a handful or two of good manure in the hole and
sprinkle a little soil over it.

I have mentioned these particular plants simply as specimens. Other
choices may be made and a suggested list is given at the end of this
section. But whatever the selection, two things should be kept in mind.
First, that the rows should contain plants that vary in height, the
lowest being placed in the front row, the tallest at the back; and
second, that plants should be chosen that will be in bloom at the same
time, for at least a part of the season.

If your work has been well done you ought to have a small bed of
vegetables, thrifty, in straight rows, well cultivated, clean, and back
of that, looking from the side, another bed of flowering plants that
should be a delight to the eye, especially the eye of the possessor and
maker. Of course, the beds will not present this perfect appearance for
a long time because as the vegetables are used the beds will show where
the vegetables have been removed. It should be mentioned, however, that
it is possible to have more than one planting of radishes in a season;
also of lettuce, and these may be replaced after the first planting has
been used.

There are many satisfactions in gardening. The intimacy with nature
furnishes one of them. To be with growing things through all the stages
of their growth, in all weathers and all hours of the day gives a quiet
pleasure that is a healing and soothing influence. To produce something
so valuable, so necessary as food by one's own exertion and care confers
true dignity upon one and a sense of worth. To eat what one has raised
oneself adds a flavor to it.

From the garden as a center path, lead out in every direction, paths for
thought and study.

My wish for every Girl Scout who undertakes a garden is that she may
have all these satisfactions, and may follow all these delightful paths
that lead to knowledge, and through knowledge to joy.


Suggested Flowers for Border

_Biennials_ such as Canterbury Bells, Foxgloves and Sweet William should
be seeded early in the spring in a reserve bed to be ready for the
season's bloom. In order to secure a succession of bloom they should be
taken out after flowering and replaced with annuals.

_Annuals_--Of these some of the most satisfactory are Asters, Calendula,
Lupin, Petunias, Rosy Morn, Snapdragon, Stock and Rose Zinnias.

Take out any plants that are not the right colors. Brown earth is better
than purple annual Larkspur, magenta Petunias, orange Calendulas or red
Zinnias. Keep the color scheme ranging from true blues through rose and
salmon pinks, lavenders and deep blue purples and white yellows. If you
want brilliant reds or magentas have them in a bed apart.

_Bulbs_--Tulips, such as Murillo, or _early varieties_ (La Reine, Pink
Beauty, President Lincoln, Proserpine, Queen of the Netherlands and Rose
Luisante), or _late varieties_ (La Merveille, La Reve, Moonlight, The
Fawn) and Mertensiav Virginica can be along the borders.

Darwin Tulips, such as Clara Butt, Dream, Gretchen, La Tristesse, La
Tulipe Noire, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Philippe de Commines, Psyche, Rev.
Ewbank, Suzon, should be planted in more shaded places.

[Illustration: Plan for a border of Perennials]



SECTION XVII

MEASUREMENTS, MAP MAKING AND KNOTS


1. MEASUREMENTS

Every country has national standards of measures and weights which are
made and kept by the governments as patterns, for measuring and
comparing the instruments made for business purposes. The units of
measure have been fixed by law, for it is most important that people and
countries in dealing with each other shall know exactly what is meant by
such words as yard, foot, pint and pound.

The unit of length used in this country is the yard. It is divided into
three feet and each foot into twelve inches. The foot refers to the
length of a man's foot. It is said that the length of the yard was based
upon the length of the arm of an English king, but that sounds like a
fairy tale. Many of our units of distance and weight have been borrowed
from the English and are more complicated than those used by the French,
whose unit of length is the meter. In 1799, or thereabouts, an
international convention met at Paris to decide what the exact length of
a meter should be, for several countries at that time were using what
was known as the Metric System of Weights and Measures. It was finally
agreed that the length of a meter should be equal to one ten-millionth
of the distance on the earth's surface, from the pole to the equator, or
39.37 inches.

At the same convention a unit of weight was determined. Because water is
so important and familiar it was chosen as the basis for this unit. A
cube of water at 40 centigrade, and measuring on each edge 1/100 of a
meter was taken and called a gram, which is about equal to 15 of our
grains.

All peoples find it necessary in the house, out in the open and in
nearly all forms of occupation to measure and weigh in order to
accomplish their work.

It is part of a Scout's preparedness to know how to measure and weigh
and how to judge measurements and numbers without using measures and
weights.

There are rules for determining length and weight, and it is important
to understand them. Measuring a distance means to find out the length of
the straight line from one point to another. To get a straight line in
the open when walking fix the eyes upon two objects directly in front,
one nearer and smaller than the other. With eyes high walk toward these
objects keeping them always in line. When approaching the first one
choose another to take its place in line with it and the second. Always
have two objects in direct line with the eyes.

This method can be used in marching, rowing, swimming, and when staking
out the points of triangles for measuring distance and height, as it
will give the shortest distance between two points.

There are three general methods of measuring distance accurately. (1)
chaining or taping; (2) telemetry, and (3) triangulation. Less accurate
means of measuring are by sound, pacing and timing.

(1) Chaining and Taping. The regulation chain or tape used by surveyors
is 100 feet long. A Scout may use a shorter line but must follow the
same rules.

Three things must be kept in mind when using a line. a. The straight
distance between two points is to be obtained. b. The point where the
end of the line comes each time must be marked. c. The line must be
stretched tight.

This method can be used in measuring off the distance for pacing to
obtain the average length of one's pace, as suggested in a later
paragraph under Useful Personal Measurements.

(2) Telemetry. The second method is used in determining long distances
for artillery practice and in surveying. It is called telemetry and the
use of an instrument is necessary.

(3) Triangulation. This is a long word but one a Scout can learn to know
and use. It means that the length of the distance can be computed by
means of triangles staked out on the ground, when to measure with a line
would be impossible or not satisfactory. It is not necessary to make the
sides of the triangles, only the points need to be indicated as it is
the relative position of the points which make a triangle and not the
lines. These can be marked in the country with poles, stakes or stones;
in the city Scouts could stand in position at the necessary points.

When using triangles where shall a Scout place the points?

If the width of a stream, road or field is wanted choose a place where
its sides are on about the same level and if possible fairly straight.
Then proceed as shown in the accompanying diagram A. Select a
conspicuous object on the farther bank of the stream, such as a tree,
bush or stone and call it X. Stand opposite it at the near edge of the
stream or on the bank, and place a stake A in front of you keeping X and
A in direct line, walk backward a few feet and plant a stake B in direct
line with them. Right or left face--(for a right angle is necessary at
this point). Pace a straight line for say 20 feet and plant a stake C,
one high enough to be plainly seen; continue the straight line for say
10 feet more and plant a stake D. Turn inland, (another right angle is
here necessary) and pace to the point where the object X on the far
side of the stream can be seen in direct line with the stake C. At this
point place stake E. Measure the distance from E to D. With paper and
pencil mark down the example--for such it is--in this way:

               DC : CB :: DE : BX
                       or
    as the length from D to C is to the length of C to B
                       so
    is the length from D to E to the length from B to X
                    or as in this example,

as 10 is to 20 so 8 is to the distance from B to X, which would be 16.
Having discovered the distance between A and B in the case given, to be
4 feet, take this from the distance between B and X and the result will
give the width of the stream, which is 12 feet.

[Illustration: Diagram A. To Measure Width of Stream or Road]

It may not be always necessary to use the line A--B but if the edge of
the stream or road is crooked it is necessary in order to make B--D a
straight line at right angles to A--X.

In calculating a height, as that of a tree, house or tower, the
triangles can again be used, as shown in diagram B. Choose a level strip
of ground; pace the distance in a straight line, from the base of the
tree A, or tower, to a point some distance from the tree, and plant a
pole or stake say 5 feet high B; continue pacing the straight line to
the point where, lying down with eyes level with the tree base, the top
of the tree can be seen on a line with the top of the pole; plant here
stake C. The height of the tree AA' will be to the length of the
distance from C to A as the height of the pole, BB' is to the distance
between B and C. A Scout can stand in the place of the stake B.

[Illustration: Diagram B. To Measure Height of Tree, Etc.]

[Illustration: Diagram C. To Measure Height with a Mirror]

There are other ways of determining height. As shown in the diagram C,
place a mirror (M) horizontally on the ground reflector side up, some
distance from the base of the object to be measured, in this case a
tent. Walk backward from the mirror in a straight line until the top of
the tent pole can be seen in it. The problem will read in this way: the
distance from the mirror to your heels (MS) is to the distance from your
heels to your eyes (GS) as the distance from the mirror to the base of
the object (MT) is to the height of the object (TT'). Water in a dark
pan or tray or a pool on a still day will answer for a mirror.

[Illustration: Diagram D. To Test a Right Angle]

A right angle can be tested by measuring off 3 feet on one side of the
corner and 4 feet on the other side, as shown in diagram d. If the
distance between the two points is 5 feet the angle is true; if not 5
feet move one point as much as is necessary to make 5 feet.

South American natives estimate height fairly correctly by turning the
back to the object, walking straight away from it to the point where the
top of the object can be seen by bending over and looking between the
legs. Plant a peg at this point and the distance from the peg to the
base of the object is roughly equal to the height.

Sound travels at the rate of 365 yards every second, as many yards as
there are days in the year. By counting the seconds between seeing the
flash from a gun, or the steam puff from a locomotive and hearing the
sound of the explosion or whistle it is possible to figure the length of
the distance between yourself and the gun or locomotive.

It is said that the number of seconds between a flash of lightning and
the thunder will give the distance between you and the place where the
lightning struck.

We use weighing machines or scales in buying food, so that we may
compare the actual amount of food we buy with a standard weight,
otherwise there would be much confusion and business could not be
carried on between peoples. For this reason we use pint, quart, peck
and bushel measures, all of which are regulated by law as to the amount
they hold.

There are some people who have a true feeling or sense for weight and
can tell almost to an ounce the weight of a parcel by lifting it. Others
have a good memory and can tell the weight of a quantity by looking at
it. Others know distance and can estimate it correctly without use of
rule or measure, and likewise judge numbers.

Very few people have this ability naturally, but many have acquired it
by practice and patience and a Scout can do so: she will find many times
that this particular form of knowledge whether in or out of doors is of
benefit.

How often a housekeeper wishes she could tell about how much material to
buy for this or that purpose without getting the yard stick and
measuring. The seamstress and dressmaker must judge length and width and
even height, and the cook constantly has need of a sense of quantity and
size. The photographer, the pioneer, the camper, all must know
measurements. This matter of judging is something we are called upon to
do much more than we have realized. The point is how can we learn the
trick? We should start with something we know and compare to it
something whose size we do not know. This is where knowing your personal
measurement will be of value. Always prove when practicing your idea,
otherwise you will not improve your ability. That is, make your
estimate, then see how near right it is by measuring. Learn to know how
an inch, a foot, a yard look. Then work with longer lengths out of doors
with several feet, and several yards. Fences, roads, streets, dooryards,
houses, all can be judged as to length.

Height is less easy to estimate for we are not so accustomed to looking
up and down as we are to looking forward or back and forth, but the
same rules hold good. Learn to know the height of a chair seat, a table,
your own height, a room, a house, trees: by measuring and looking, and
looking and measuring, you will accomplish much.

To learn to judge weight begin by holding in your hand something that
weighs a pound; after holding it a few moments put it down and then take
it up again always trying to sense the weight. Do not use your eyes,
only your hand. Try a two pound weight and so on. Then take up something
else the weight of which you do not know and see if you can tell its
weight. Practice, patience and memory are necessary in this work.

There is another way of judging weight, one in which our eyes help us.
Knowing how a pound of butter looks as to size we can judge the weight
of a mass of butter by looking at it and comparing it mentally with what
we know. We can follow this method in judging the weight of different
goods, but as each kind when put in pound quantities looks more or less
different from every other kind, experience and knowledge of the
character of the goods is necessary. A pound of butter and a pound of
feathers do not make the same size bundle so the weight of each could
not be judged by the same eye standard.

By practice a Girl Scout should be able to do the following things in
the way of judging height, weight and distance:

          (1) Be able to judge within 25 per cent the
          following: Height of a tree, house, pole, etc.,
          not exceeding 50 feet. Material, 1, 3, 15, 18, 27,
          30, 36, 42 and 56 inches. Diameter of the trunk of
          a tree, a pole, water pipe or similar object.
          Distance of 6, 10, 15, 25 and 100 feet. (This is
          useful in camera work.)

          (2) Pick out from a miscellaneous assortment
          bottles of 2, 4, 6 and 8 ounces. Bottles of 1
          pint, 1 quart, 1 gallon. Pails, 1 pint, 1 quart, 2
          quarts, 1 gallon.

          (3) Be able without scales to weigh out specified
          amounts of sugar, flour or other household
          materials, for example, 1, 5 or 10 pounds.

          (4) Be able to pick out from an assortment,
          packages of rice, tea, cornmeal, etc., weighing
          1/2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 pounds.

          (5) Be able to give in the usual measures, either
          avoirdupois or metric, capacity of the standard
          teaspoon, tablespoon, teacup.

          (6) Be able to tell when you have walked a mile in
          open country. This may be done by using Scout's
          Pace for 12 minutes, on a fifty walk, fifty run
          rhythm, or by knowing one's own walking step
          length.

          (7) Be able to judge of spaces between distant
          objects such as the distance between two trees,
          the width of a road, or a brook, by the
          triangulation method.


USEFUL PERSONAL MEASURES

It is sometimes a great convenience to measure a length of ribbon, lace
or other goods without the use of a rule or tape measure; but what shall
we use in their place? Look at your thumb--how long is it from the end
to the first joint? And the middle finger, from the end to the knuckle
on the back of the hand? Isn't it nearly four and one-half inches or
one-eighth of a yard? That is what the average grown person's finger
measures. To get the correct length of your finger, hold the end of a
tape line to the end of the finger with the thumb of the same hand, draw
the tape measure tight over the bent finger to the knuckle. This is a
very useful measure for short lengths.

Another measure for longer lengths is the distance from the end of your
nose, when your head is turned sharply to one side, to the end of your
thumb when your arm is stretched straight out from the shoulder in the
opposite direction. Measure and find out this distance for yourself by
holding the very end of a ribbon, tape or rope with the left hand to the
end of the nose, head turned to the left, and with the right hand run
the fingers along the edge of the ribbon until it is stretched to arm's
length. Marking the ribbon with a pin where the right thumb and
forefinger have held it, measure the distance with a yard measure or
rule from the end of the ribbon to the pin. This length will be about
the same as the standard unit of length used in this country. When
measuring a long length of goods, use the point held by the right hand
as the starting point to be held by left hand.

If you know the distance between the end of your little finger and the
end of your thumb when they are stretched apart, the palm of the hand
being flat, you can measure a distance such as the length of a table,
shelf, pole, etc. When judging the height of a person, remember that the
distance from the top of the head to the chin is about one-ninth of the
height of the body. The distance between the middle fingers when the
arms are stretched straight out from the shoulders is about equal to the
height of the body.

Another personal measure that is of value is the length of one's average
pace or stride; that is, the distance from the toe of one boot to the
toe of the other when walking a natural gait. It is also useful to know
the average number of paces taken in walking a given distance, such as a
mile, and the time required to make them. All of this information can be
obtained in a very simple way. Measure off as accurately as possible 220
yards, which is one-eighth of a mile, or take a known distance, and
pace it back and forth at least eight times, but not all in one day.
Each time keep a record of the number of paces taken and the time
required to pace the distance. Divide the sum of the paces by the number
of times paced and the result will be the average number of paces for
the distance. Then divide the whole distance by the average number of
paces and get the average length of your pace. Divide the sum of the
minutes spent in pacing the distance by the number of times paced, and
get the average length of time required to walk the distance. When the
average length of pace is known, the distance between two points can be
quite accurately estimated by pacing, if the ground is open, level and
solid. If up or down grade, if the ground is muddy or heavy, or there
are other causes which retard the gait, a reduction must be made.

None of the above methods for measuring are scientific, therefore are
not accurate, but they are useful ways of measuring _approximately_
lengths and distances by means of a guide always at hand.


2. MAP MAKING FOR GIRL SCOUTS

The word map calls to our mind a picture of lines, angles, dots and
circles which tell us something about a position of the surface of the
earth. It gives us an idea of distance and direction, indicates heights
and sometimes tells of interesting land conditions. What we see are but
symbols representing a more or less true picture. This method of telling
a story is very old; as long ago as 1370 B. C. it was used to show the
location of the then famous Nubian Gold Mines. This ancient map is now
preserved in the Museum of Turin.

Later, in 611 B. C. the first map of the world was made--the world as
men knew it then. They thought it was like a hollow cylinder and
surrounded by a river. By 276 B. C. maps were used and understood quite
generally.

They were named originally after the material upon which they were
painted or drawn. Map from Mappa, meaning cloth, and chart from charta,
meaning parchment. Even today maps are made on cloth when for use in the
open by cyclists, military men, and so forth, and charts are those maps
filling the needs of seamen. Savage tribes used maps made of horn, bone
and wood.

In the 15th century the first printed maps were made and now many
processes are used in reproducing these valuable and necessary graphic
pictures, every line and dot of which have been made out of someone's
experience. The explorer, the pioneer, the navigator, all contributing
to the store of knowledge of the earth's surface, and many times having
thrilling adventures, surviving terrible conditions that the earth may
be known as it really appears.

Although maps are made to scale and every distance computed most
accurately by the use of very fine instruments, Scouts can accomplish
the real purpose of maps in a small and simple way, for they are after
all, but guides to those who follow.

Knowing a delightful road or trail, one can by a map guide others to it,
or by making a map of a city, or country district helps a stranger to
find his way about. Our maps must contain as the all important features:
Direction, Distance, Points of Identification, and the explanation on
the margin of the map of all symbols or conventional signs used. For
hiking purposes a starting-point and a goal are necessary, all
cross-roads must be indicated--streams, bridges, trails, springs, points
of interest, vantage points for extended views, and so forth.

A city map should note beside streets, the car lines or bus lines,
public buildings, library, churches, hotels, stores, police station,
public telephone booths, a doctor's office, fire alarm box and post
box.

A village map should show in addition the way to the nearest large town
or city, give the railroad station, and so forth.

Direction is shown by symbol, an arrow or a line with an N pointing to
the North, which should be at the top of the map, and all lines and
signs should be made in relation to it.

Distance is shown by what is known as scale. It would be impossible and
unnecessary in making a map to use the exact measurements of distances
existing in any given portion of the country, but we can indicate those
distances by drawing our map even though very small so that lines,
angles, circles and dots will bear the same relation to each other as
the points they represent bear to each other. This is done by using a
small measure to represent a large measure. If 1 inch was used to
represent a mile, a map showing 80 square miles of ground, measuring
8×10 miles could be drawn on a comparatively small piece of paper.
Whatever scale is used must be noted on the map, however.

The true distances are found by pacing or by triangulation. The
interesting, helpful and necessary points are learned by observation.
These are the real guides when using a map and these should be placed
most correctly. Some of the symbols most generally used in map making
are shown in the accompanying cut.

To be able to read a map is quite as important as making one. Signs must
be understood, distances read, and directions known. It will help in
ascertaining the latter point to hold the map so its position will be
true to the points of the compass--the East to the East. This is called
orienting a map.

[Illustration: CONVENTIONAL SIGNS OF MAP MAKING

  Camp                     Post office              Telegraph
                                                    office


  City, Town or            Buildings                Church
  village

  School                   W. W.                       Hos.
                           Water works               Hospital


  Windmill                 cem.                       Ruins
                          Cemetery


  Fence                  Barbed  smooth              Stone
  (any or board)          Wire Fence                  Fence


  Wagon                  Footpath or                Wagon Road
  Road                     Trail                   (unfenced)


  Railroad                Double Track             Trolley
  Station                   R. R.                  Line]


[Illustration:

          general symbol           streams       spring
                                                  or
          Foot                   Falls and
                                   Rapids          or
          Bridges
                                               Telegraph Lines

          Ferries                Grassland      Cultivated
                                                 Fields

          Lake or Pool             Corn           Cotton

          Marshes                          Orchard

          Woods of Any Kind               Pine Woods

MORE CONVENTIONAL SIGNS OF MAP MAKING]

A sketch map, not made to scale or true as to direction or distance, but
giving enough accurate information to serve in guiding a stranger truly,
can be made very quickly and easily if the district sketched has
been observed closely. Observation is at the root of map making.

[Illustration: MAP OF GIRL SCOUT CAMP MADE BY SCOUT]

The reproduced sketch of a map made by Girl Scout, will be a guide to
the Scout who is learning how to tell a story by symbols.


THE COMPASS

          The Mariner's Compass is an instrument which shows
          where the North, and other directions, are. Boxing
          the Compass consists in enumerating the points
          beginning with North and working around the circle
          as follows:

          NORTH
          North by East
          North, Northeast
          Northeast by North
          Northeast
          Northeast by East
          East, Northeast
          East by North

          EAST
          East by South
          East, Southeast
          Southeast by East
          Southeast
          Southeast by South
          South, Southeast
          South by East

          SOUTH
          South by West
          South, Southwest
          Southwest by South
          Southwest
          Southwest by West
          West, Southwest
          West by South

          WEST
          West by North
          West, Northwest
          Northwest by West
          Northwest
          Northwest by North
          North by West

          NORTH


          How to Find Points of Compass Without a Compass

          Every Scout should be able to find the North
          without a compass. By day the sun will tell you
          where the North is, and the stars by night.


          How to Tell the Points of the Compass by the Sun

          The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
          Any time before noon, if you stand facing the sun,
          North is at your left hand: after noon, if you
          face the sun, North is at your right hand.

          The Phoenicians, who sailed round Africa in
          ancient times, noticed that when they started the
          sun rose on their left-hand side--they were going
          south. Then they reported that they got to a
          strange country where the sun got up in the wrong
          quarter, namely on their right hand. The truth was
          that they had gone round the Cape of Good Hope and
          were steering north again up the coast of Africa.

[Illustration: Mariner's Compass]

Probably the most accurate way to find North, if you have no compass, is
to use an open-faced watch. Holding the watch flat, turn it so that the
small or hour hand points directly toward the sun. The South will then
be half way between the hour hand and the figure XII on the dial. Before
noon the halfway point is between the hour hand and XII clockwise, and
after noon it is between the hour hand and XII counter-clockwise.


How to Find North by the Stars

All stars appear to rise in the east and set in the west, which is
really due to our earth turning around under them. But one star never
moves in relation to us, and that is Polaris, the North Star, which
stands still over the north pole to show us where North is.


3. KNOTS AND THEIR USES FOR GIRL SCOUTS

It doubtless seems very strange to you that a Girl Scout should have to
know how to handle a rope and tie knots according to rules. Most people
have never dreamed that there are rules for these things; they have made
knots, when necessary, in a way peculiar to themselves and have been
quite surprised that the knots come out when they are expected to hold
fast and hold fast when they are expected to come out.

Ropes and knots have been in use by all peoples for many years. The
rules concerning them have been developed and perfected as time has
passed until now there is no question as to the usefulness of these
things and the way to handle them correctly.

As the sailors and the engineers have worked with ropes and knots more
than others, it is to them that we go for our information. We need all
we can get, for today in nearly all forms of occupation twine, cord and
rope are used and knots are tied. As the Girl Scout who wants to be a
Golden Eaglet takes up many of these occupations, she needs to know how
to tie knots quickly, in the dark if necessary, and correctly, for then
they will hold fast yet can be readily untied. These are essential
requirements to be remembered, but just as important is the fact that
purposes and uses of knots differ greatly.

Every Scout should have five feet of one-quarter inch Manila rope,
whipped at both ends. With this small piece, which only represents the
much larger rope needed in many cases for practical purposes, all of the
required knots can be made and nearly all of their uses demonstrated.

Have you ever made a blanket roll, put it across your shoulder, hiked
through the woods or over the hills for a sleep in the open? Where would
all your necessary articles have been if you had not tied them snugly
in the roll? Without them you would have been far from happy.

Or have you pulled a sled up a long hill over and over again for the
sake of the slide down? How about the little knots that held the rope in
place--did you ever think of them? There are many things we do for the
sake of a good time where knots and rope are indispensable.

An interesting story is told by a Girl Scout who watched two men trying
to hang a very large and heavy curtain which was to be used as part of
the stage setting for an entertainment. The men tried to tie two ropes
together, one of which was considerably larger than the other. Every
knot they tied was pulled out by the weight of the curtains. Finally the
men were quite ready to say "It cannot be done." It was then that the
Girl Scout offered her services. The men looked at her doubtfully, but
said, "Go ahead." Of course she tied a knot that held fast; then she had
to teach it to the men. You see, she could be helpful, for she knew the
kind of knot that would hold two ropes of unequal thickness together and
knew how to make it.

Did you ever notice how few people know how to tie bundles and packages
securely and neatly? Yet this is a most helpful thing to do. Parcels
that go through the post or by express are handled roughly and unless
tied with special care they are not delivered in good condition.

Sometimes we find ourselves in the midst of unusual surroundings where
we can be of service if we know what to do and how to do it. A Scout is
sometimes called upon to give First Aid, possibly to tie on splints, a
bandage, or a sling; or use a life-line.

Once a boat was swept over one of the lesser falls at Niagara. In it
were three people--a father, mother and their son. A group of men and
women standing on the bridge saw the accident; one of them ran for a
rope and threw the end over the side of the bridge calling to those in
the water to catch it. One succeeded, but the rope slipped through his
hands almost immediately because there was neither a loop nor a knot to
hold on to.

[Illustration: 1. Square or Reef Knot]

These stories, which are true, make us realize the importance of
knowing something of ropes and knots, that we may Be Prepared when our
services are needed.


Parts of a Rope

The three parts of a rope are:

          1. The End, the part used in leading;

          2. The Bight, a loop made by bending the rope back
          on itself and holding it in place;

          3. The Standing Part, the long portion of the rope
          not used when tying a knot.


1. Square or Reef Knot

The name of the knot the purpose of which is to tie together two ends of
equal thickness, either to make them fast or to lengthen a rope, is the
Square or Reef knot. It is made so that the ends come out alongside of
the standing part and the knot will not jam. It is used when tying
bundles, such as the blanket-roll, and packages; for tying on splints,
fastening the ends of a sling or mending broken strings, ropes or cords,
as shoestrings, clotheslines, etc. It is the knot used more commonly
than any other.

To make the Square Knot:

Take an end in each hand;

Cross the end in the right hand over the end in the left hand;

Bend it around the rope in the left hand;

Cross the end in the left hand over the end in the right hand;

Bend it around the rope in the right hand;

Pull tight.


2. Sheet-bend

Another knot that is used for tying two ends together, generally those
of unequal thickness, or for fastening an end to a permanent loop, is
the Sheet-bend.

[Illustration: 2a. Sheet Bend: Loose]

[Illustration: 2b. Sheet Bend: Drawn Tight]

To make a Sheet-bend:

Make in the end of the larger rope a small bight or use the permanent
loop in its place;

Pass the end of the smaller rope up through the bight;

Under the bight;

Over the bight;

Under its own standing part;

Pull the loops tight.

This is the way the Girl Scout tied the rope together for the stage
hands.


3. Bowline-Knot

If the people on the bridge at Niagara Falls had made a Bowline-knot in
the end of the rope before throwing it as a life-line they might have
saved one if not three lives. A Bowline is used chiefly for hoisting and
lowering; it can be used for a halter or with the Sheet-bend in making a
guard-line or fence. It is a knot holding fast a loop which can be made
of any size and which will not jam or give.

To make a Bowline-knot:

Take the end in the right hand;

Draw the rope toward you over the palm of the left hand, measuring off
as much as is needed to make the required size loop;

Drop the end;

Make a small bight in the palm of the left hand by turning the rope
toward the ends of the fingers;

Take the end in the right hand;

Pass it up through the bight;

Back of and around the standing part;

Down through the bight;

Pull the end and the rope forming the loop against the standing part.

When the Bowline is used for hoisting or lowering a person as in case of
fire, the loop should be large enough to be used as a seat; it should be
passed over the head and shoulders, the standing part in front of the
body, to be held on to with both hands.

When using a rope for a life-line:

Fasten securely one end to something that will not give.

Make a Bowline at the other end of the line large enough to go over the
head and shoulders;

Hold the knot in the right hand, the end toward you;

Take the standing part in the left hand, measure off about three feet of
rope;

Draw the rope toward you, pass it over the palm of the right hand and
hold fast.

Again measure off the same amount, draw the rope toward you, pass it
over the palm of the right hand, and hold fast;

Continue this process until enough rope is coiled to more than cover the
distance to the person in the water.

Grasp the coil firmly in the right hand;

Hold the standing part in the left hand;

Draw the right arm back from the shoulder;

[Illustration: 3. Bowline]

Swing the arm forward and throw the coil out over the water to the
person in distress;

Make sure that the person in the water gets a firm grasp on the rope;

Quickly take the standing part in both hands;

Pull on the rope with a hand over hand motion, keep the line taut and
pull the person to safety.

Do not make the mistake of throwing the coil "up"; throw it _out_ over
the water.

The important points to remember when using a rope for rescue work are
to fasten the free end so the rope will not slip out of reach; to coil
the rope properly so it will not kink or knot when let out; and to make
a Bowline large enough to go around the body.

When a group of Scouts make a guard line, each girl makes a Bowline in
the end of her rope, large enough to put her hand through, fasten her
right-hand neighbor's rope to it by means of a Sheet-bend and holds her
portion of the line in place by using the Bowline in her rope for a
handle.


[Illustration: 4. Two Half-Hitches]

Two Half-hitches are used to make fast an end of rope to a pole, post,
etc. It is a knot that can be easily undone. It is used for hauling,
fastening awning ropes, flag ropes, etc.

To make a Half-hitch:

Take the end in the right hand;

Pass the end under and around the pole;

Around the standing part:

Under itself, forming a bight out of which the standing part comes.
Repeat this for the second half-hitch, using standing part in place of
pole.


[Illustration: 5. Clove-Hitch]

The purpose of a Clove-hitch, which is also called the Builders' Knot,
is to make fast an end of rope, generally to a post or tree. This knot
holds securely and does not slip laterally. It is of value when
tethering an animal or tying a boat. It can be used for fastening an
awning rope, tent ropes, for tying on splints or fastening the end of a
bandage when it is used to confine a delirious person.

A fence or guard-line can be made where trees or posts are available by
tying the end of the rope by means of a Half-hitch to the first tree,
and then using a Clove-hitch on the other trees or posts.

To tie the Clove-hitch:

Take the end in the right hand;

Pass it around the post;

Over the standing part;

Continue around the post;

Under the standing part;

Slip the end up through the lower loop;

Pull tight.


[Illustration: 6. Sheep-Shank]

The purpose of a Sheep-shank is to take up slack or shorten a rope
temporarily. It is used on tent ropes, tow lines.

To make the Sheep-shank:

Cross the hands and take hold of the rope;

Take up the slack by drawing the hands past each other;

Hold the two long loops firmly in one hand;

Make a bight in the rope between the loop and the end;

Pass the loop through the bight;

Do the same thing at the other end.

The knot will stay in place so long as the rope is taut.

If it is necessary to shorten a rope when neither end is held fast, make
the Sheep-shank and pass each end through the bight nearest to it.


[Illustration: Ready For Transportation or Storage]

When in uniform a Girl Scout hangs her rope on a belt-hook placed in her
belt or skirt-binding.

_To have the rope in a convenient form:_

Make two loops five or six inches long at one end of the rope;

Leaving a small bight at the top to go over the hook, bind the loops
together by winding the standing part around them;

Hold the end fast by putting it through the remaining bight.

_To serve or whip the ends of a Scout rope so they will not fray:_

Take a piece of soft twine twelve or fourteen inches long;

Make a loop two inches long at one end;

Lay the loop on the rope, the end of the twine extending beyond the rope
end an inch;

Bind the rope and loop together by winding the standing part tightly and
closely around them;

Slip the end down through the loop, which must not be entirely covered
by the binding;

Pull the other end of the twine and draw the loop under the binding.

As the twine will be held fast, the ends can be cut off close to the
rope.

A "knot board," showing the various knots tied perfectly and names
attached, ends of rope whipped, bights, loops and coils, is an
interesting bit of work for a Troop of Girl Scouts to do. The board hung
in the Troop room would be a help to new Scouts, and it could be loaned
to Troops that are not registered, but are learning the Tenderfoot test,
which includes knot-tying.


Glossary

          Belt-hook--A double hook in the form of the letter
          S. Sometimes called S-hook.

          Bight--A loop made by bending a rope back on
          itself and holding it in place.

          Coil--A series of rings, one on top of another,
          into which a rope is wound.

          Cord--A string or small rope composed of several
          strands of thread or vegetable fiber twisted and
          woven together.

          End--One of the terminal points of that which has
          more length than breadth. The part of a rope used
          in leading.

          Hemp--An annual herbaceous plant. The fiber,
          obtained from the skin or rind by rotting the
          stalks of the plant under moisture is prepared in
          various ways for twisting into ropes, cables, and
          weaving coarse fabrics.

          Knot--An interlacement of twine, cord, rope or
          other flexible material formed by twisting the
          ends about each other and then drawing tight the
          loop thus made.

          Life-line--A rope used in rescuing; it should have
          a Bowline in one end and the other end should be
          secured to something that will not give.

          Loop--An opening through which something can be
          passed.

          Manila rope--A rope made from Manila hemp, a
          fibrous material which is obtained from the leaves
          of plants which grow in the Philippine Islands.

          Rope--A cord of considerable thickness,
          technically over one inch in circumference. Ropes
          are made of hemp, manila, flax, cotton or other
          vegetable fiber or of iron, steel or other
          metallic wire. A rope is sometimes called a line.
          They are composed of threads which are spun or
          twisted into strands and the finished ropes have
          special names, according to the number of the
          strands, and the various sizes are indicated by
          the circumference in inches.

          Standing part--The long portion of a rope not used
          when tying a knot.

          String--A slender cord, a thick thread.

          Twine--A double thread; a thread made of two
          strands twisted.



SECTION XVIII

GIRL SCOUT PROFICIENCY TESTS AND SPECIAL MEDALS

For details regarding these badges see the "BLUE BOOK OF RULES FOR GIRL
SCOUT CAPTAINS"


CONTENTS

          I. Introduction to Proficiency Tests.

          II. Proficiency Tests:

            *** Subjects marked thus are specially recommended for First
              Class Scouts or girls at least sixteen years old.

            **** Subjects marked thus are for Scouts eighteen years and
              over.

          Artist
          Athlete***
          Bee-Keeper
          Bird Hunter
          Bugler
          Business Women***
          Canner
          Child Nurse
          Citizen***
          Cook
          Craftsman
          Cyclist
          Dairy Maid
          Dancer
          Dressmaker
          Drummer
          Economist
          Electrician
          Farmer
          First Aide***
          Flower Finder
          Gardener
          Handy Woman
          Health Guardian***
          Health Winner
          Home Maker
          Home Nurse***
          Horsewoman
          Hostess
          Interpreter
          Journalist****
          Laundress
          Milliner
          Motorist****
          Musician
          Needlewoman
          Pathfinder
          Photographer
          Pioneer***
          Rock Tapper
          Sailor***
          Scribe
          Signaller
          Star Gazer
          Swimmer
          Telegrapher
          Zoologist

          III. Group Badge

          IV. Golden Eaglet.

          V. Special Medals:
            Attendance Stars
            Life Saving Medals
              Bronze Cross
              Silver Cross
            Medal of Merit
            Thanks Badge
            Community Service Award
            Scholarship Badge



Proficiency Tests and Merit Badges

1. INTRODUCTION

A girl must be a Second Class Scout before receiving a Merit Badge in
any subject. However, this does not mean that she cannot begin to study
her subject and plan for passing the test at any time.

Proficiency in these tests is to be determined by the Local Council, or
by persons competent (in the opinion of the Council) to judge it. If no
Local Council exists, certificates should be secured from persons
competent to judge each subject, such as teachers of music, dancing or
drawing, riding masters, motorists, electricians, milliners,
dressmakers, artists, craftsmen, scientists and so forth. These
certificates should be sent to the National Headquarters or to the
nearest District Headquarters for inspection. Headquarters will either
pass on these, or indicate the nearest local body competent to deal with
them.

The tests as given are topical outlines of what a Scout should know
about the subject rather than formal questions. Captains and others
giving the tests will adapt the wording to the needs of the particular
case.

With many subjects a list of standard references is given. It is
desirable that a girl should read at least one of these books, not in
order to pass an examination but that she may be familiar with the
general field and the great names and principles associated with it.
Where a whole troop is working on a subject, portions of the books may
be read at troop meetings, or several Scouts can read together and
discuss their impressions.

It is important that every Girl Scout should understand that the winning
of any one of the following Merit Badges does not mean that she is a
finished expert in the subject.

What does it mean then? It means three things:

          1. She has an intelligent interest in the subject

          2. She has a reasonable knowledge of its broad
          principles

          3. She is able to present some practicable proofs
          of her knowledge, so that a competent examiner can
          see that she has not simply "crammed it up" from a
          book. Doing, not talking or writing is the
          principle of the Girl Scouts

One of the great things about these Merit Badges is that they require a
definite amount of perseverance. This is a quality in which women are
sometimes said to be lacking; if this is a fair criticism, the Merit
Badges will certainly test it.

Nobody compels any Scout to earn these Badges; she deliberately chooses
to do so. Therefore, to fail in a task she has voluntarily set herself,
comes straight back to her and shows her what stuff she is made of. For
while it is of no particular importance how many things you start in
this life, it is of great importance how many things you finish! Out OF
GOODNESS of heart, or quick interest, or sudden resolution, a girl will
start out to master a subject, earn a certain sum of money, make
something for herself or someone else, form some good habit or break
some bad one; and after her first enthusiasm has died out, where is she?
So that a great many people laugh at a girl's plans--and with reason.

Now while this may be merely amusing, so long as it affects only the
girl herself, it becomes very annoying when other people's affairs are
involved, and may be positively dangerous if carried too far. If your
life depended upon a Girl Scout's efforts to resuscitate you from
drowning, you would be very glad if she stuck to it. But if she happened
to be a girl who had started to win five different Merit Badges, and had
given them all up, half way through, what sort of chance do you think
you would have?

Girl Scouts are slower to begin than other girls, perhaps, but they
stick to it till they've made good. "She carried that through like a
Girl Scout" ought to become a common saying.


2. PROFICIENCY TESTS

ARTIST SYMBOL--A PALETTE

[Illustration]

Submit a drawing, a painting, or a model of sculpture which in the
judgment of a competent professional represents a sufficiently high
order of ability to merit recognition.

          This badge is offered with the object of
          encouraging a talent already existing, and it is
          not suggested that Girl Scouts should select this
          badge unless they are possessed of sufficient
          natural talent to warrant presenting their work to
          a good judge. The standard required for winning
          the badge is left to the judgment of the
          professional as it is impossible for the
          organization to lay down strict requirements in
          these subjects.

REFERENCES:

"Children's Book of Art," A. E. Conway, Adam and Charles Black.

"Knights of Art," Amy Steedman, George W. Jacobs and Company.

"Gabriel and the Hour Book," Evaleen Stein.

"Apollo," by S. Reinach, from the French by Florence Simmonds,
Scribners.


ATHLETE*** SYMBOL--BASKET BALL

[Illustration]

To qualify for this a Girl Scout must be at least fourteen, and must
hold the badge for personal health, the "Health Winner."

          1. State briefly the value and effect of exercise.

          2. Demonstrate habitual good posture, sitting and
          standing.

          3. Demonstrate (a) marching steps, quick and
          double time, and Scout's Pace.

          (b) Setting-up exercises, (as shown in Handbook).

          4. Present statement from troop Captain, of a hike
          of at least 5 miles.

          5. Demonstrate with basket ball 5 goals out of 7
          trials standing at least 5 feet from basket, OR
          demonstrate with basket ball distance throw of 40
          feet.

          6. Demonstrate with indoor base ball accurate
          pitching for distance of forty feet.

          7. Write brief description of rules for five
          popular games.

          8. Play well and be able to coach in any three of
          the following games: Basket Ball, Battle Ball,
          Bowling, Captain Ball, Dodge Ball, Long Ball,
          Punch Ball, Indoor Baseball, Hockey--field or ice,
          Prisoners' Base, Soccer, Tennis, Golf, Volley Ball
          Newcomb.

          9. Hold swimming badge or bring statement of
          ability to demonstrate three strokes, swim 100
          yards, float and dive. Note: For alternate to
          swimming requirements see First Class Test,
          question 7, page 65.

          10. Demonstrate three folk dances, using any
          nationality, OR be a qualified member of a school
          or society athletic team, playing one summer and
          one winter sport, OR be able to qualify for entry
          in a regular competition in some sport such as
          Tennis, Skating, Skiing. Running, Pitching Quoits,
          etc.

REFERENCES:

"Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium," Jessie H.
Bancroft, Macmillan.

"Summer in the Girls' Camp," A. W. Coale, Century.

"Book of Athletics," Paul Withington, Lothrop.

"Outdoor Sports and Games," C. H. Miller, Doubleday Page.


BEE KEEPER SYMBOL--HIVE

[Illustration]

          1. What constitutes a swarm of bees? How do they
          live? Tell how honey is gathered and stored and
          honeycomb is built, and what part the queen,
          drones and workers play in the life of the colony.

          2. Be able to recognize and describe each of the
          following: queen, drones, workers, eggs, larvae,
          pupae, honey, bee food, wax, pollen, propolis,
          brood-nest, comb, different queen cells.

          3. Have a practicable knowledge of bee keeping and
          assist in hiving a swarm, examining a colony,
          removing the comb, finding the queen, putting
          foundation in sections, filling and removing
          supers, and preparing honey in comb and strained
          for market, and present a certificate to this
          effect.

          4. Know which flowers afford the best food for
          bees, and how honey varies according to the
          flowers in color and flavor.

REFERENCES:

"Productive Bee Keeping," Pellett.

Bulletins from Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of
Agriculture.

"Life of the Bee," Maurice Maeterlinck, Dodd.

"Queen Bee," Carl Ewald, Thomas Nelson and Sons.

"How to Keep Bees," A. B. Comstock, Doubleday Page.


BIRD HUNTER SYMBOL--BLUE BIRD

[Illustration]

To qualify for this badge a Girl Scout should belong to the Audubon
Society[8] and be able to answer the following:

          1. Give list of twenty wild birds personally observed
          and identified in the open and show field notes
          including at least the date seen, markings, food
          habits, nesting habits if known, and migration, if
          any.

          2. Give game-bird laws of her State.

          3. Name five birds that destroy rats and mice.

          4. Give list of ten birds of value to farmers and
          fruit growers in the destruction of insects on
          crops and trees.

          5. (a) Tell what the Audubon Society is and how it
          endeavors to protect the birds.

          (b) Give name and location of two large bird
          refuges; explain the reason for their
          establishment and give names of the birds they
          protect.

          6. (a) Know what an aigret is. How obtained and
          from what bird.

          (b) Tell methods to attract birds winter and
          summer.


          1. GENERAL REFERENCES: (At least one must be read
          to qualify for badge).

"Method of Attracting Wild Birds," Gilbert H. Trafton, Houghton, Mifflin
Co.

"Bird Study Book," T. Gilbert Pearson, Doubleday Page Co.

"Wild Bird Guests," Ernest Harold Baynes, E. P. Dutton Co.

2. HANDBOOKS AND SPECIAL BIRD BOOKS:

"Hawks and Owls of the United States," A. K. Fisher.

"Useful Birds and Their Protection," Edward H. Forbush, Massachusetts
Board of Agriculture.

"Home Life of Wild Birds," F. H. Herrick, G. F. Putnam Co.

"Land Birds East of the Rockies," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.

"Water and Game Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.

"Western Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," Frank M. Chapman, D.
Appleton and Co.

"Bird Life," Frank M. Chapman, D. Appleton and Co.

"Handbook of Birds of Western United States," Florence Merriam Bailey,
Houghton, Mifflin and Co.

"Children's Book of Birds," O. T. Miller, Houghton, Mifflin Co.

"Burgess Bird Book for Children," W. T. Burgess, Little Brown Co.


BUGLER SYMBOL--BUGLE

[Illustration]

Play correctly as to notes and time the following calls and marches and
play at sight any calls selected:

1, First Call; 2, Reveille; 3, Assembly; 4, Mess; 5, Recall; 6, Fire; 7,
Drill; 8, Officers; 9, Retreat; 10, To Colors; 11, To quarters; 12,
Taps.

Reference: Cadet Manual, E. L. Steever, Lippincott.


BUSINESS WOMAN***

SYMBOL--NOTE-BOOK

[Illustration]

          1. Must have a legible and neat handwriting and
          show a knowledge of spelling and punctuation by
          writing from dictation a paragraph necessitating
          use of commas, periods, quotation marks,
          apostrophe.

          2. Must typewrite 40 words a minute, or as an
          alternative write in shorthand from dictation 70
          words a minute as a minimum, and transcribe them
          at the rate of 35 words.

          3. Must show a knowledge of simple bookkeeping and
          arithmetic.

          4. Must show how to make out, and know how and
          when to use receipts, notes and drafts, and money
          orders.

          5. Must know how to write a simple business
          letter, such as asking for employment, or a letter
          recommending a person for employment.

          6. Must show how to keep a check book, make out
          checks and deposit slips, endorse checks, and
          balance checking accounts.

          7. Must keep a simple cash account to show
          receipts and expenditures of personal funds for
          three months, OR the household accounts of the
          family for three months. (This account may be
          fictitious.)

          8. Must be able to write a letter from memory on
          facts given five minutes previously.

REFERENCES:

"Thrift by Household Accounting," American Economics Association,
Baltimore.

"Household Accounts and Economics," Shaeffer, Macmillan.

"What every Business Woman Should Know," Lillian C. Kearney, Stokes.

"Bookkeeping and Accounting," J. J. Klein, Appleton.

"Essential Elements of Business Character," H. G. Stockwell, Revell.


CANNER

SYMBOL--JAR AND FRUIT

[Illustration]

          1. Submit the following specimens of canning work:
          (a) six pint jars of two kinds of vegetables,
          showing the cold pack method; (b) six jars of
          preserved fruit, at least two kinds; (c) six
          glasses of jelly, jam or marmalade.

          2. What are the essential things to be considered
          when selecting vegetables to be canned, fruit to
          be preserved or made into jelly, jam or marmalade?

          3. Give general rules for preparing fruits and
          vegetables for preserving in any way.

          4. What kind of jars are considered best for
          preserving? What other materials are used for
          making holders besides glass? How should all
          utensils and jars, glasses, rubbers, be prepared
          before using?

          5. What is essential regarding the heat?

          6. What are the general rules for preserving
          fruit? Give proportions by measure or weight, time
          of cooking, amount of sugar, water or any other
          ingredient for the fruits that you have preserved,
          and for at least two others.

          7. Give same rules for jams, marmalades and
          jellies.

          8. Give directions for filling and sealing jars.
          How can jars be tested within twenty-four hours
          after filling? If not air tight what should be
          done?

          9. What should be done to all jars, tumblers,
          etc., before storing? How are canned goods best
          stored?


REFERENCES:

Government Bulletin--U. S. Department of Agriculture.

"Canning, Preserving and Jelly Making," J. McK. Hill, Little.


CHILD NURSE

SYMBOL--A MALTESE CROSS

[Illustration]

          1. During a period of three months care for a
          little child, under two years, for a time
          equivalent to two hours daily for four weeks.
          During this period all of the necessary work for
          routine care of a child must be demonstrated,
          including feeding, bathing, dressing, preparing
          for bed, arranging bed and windows, amusing,
          giving the air, and exercise, and so forth,
          according to directions in Handbook.

          2. What are the most necessary things to be
          considered when caring for a child under three
          years of age? Elaborate on these points.

          3. What are some of the results of neglecting to
          do these things? What is the importance of
          regularity in care, to child, to mother, or nurse?

          4. Should a child be picked up or fed every time
          he cries? What is the result of so doing?

          5. What are the important things to remember in
          lifting and handling children?

          6. What things are important in connection with
          their sleeping, either in or out of doors? Up to
          what age should a child have two naps a day? One
          nap? What time should a child be put to bed?

          7. How can a baby be encouraged to move itself and
          take exercise?

          8. What should be done when preparing a baby's
          bath? How should the bath be given to a little
          baby? To an older child?

          9. How is a child prepared for bed? How are the
          bed and room prepared?

          10. What is the best food for a child up to nine
          months? If he cannot have this food, what can take
          its place, and how should it be given? What are
          the principal things to remember concerning the
          ingredients and preparation of this food, and the
          care of utensils?

          11. At what age may a child be given solid food
          with safety? What foods are best and how should
          they be prepared?

          12. When feeding a child either from a bottle or a
          spoon, what precautions should be taken? How
          often should a child under one year be fed? from
          one to two years?

          13. When suffering from a cold what precautions
          should be taken? If it is necessary to continue to
          care for a child in spite of your cold? What is
          the wisest thing to do first if a child is ill?

REFERENCES:

"The Baby, His Care and Training," M. Wheeler, Harper.

"Care and Feeding of Children," Ernest Holt, Appleton.

"The Home and Family," Kinne and Cooley, Macmillan.


[Illustration: THE CITIZEN***

SYMBOL--EIGHT-POINTED STAR]

          1. Who is responsible for the government of your
          country?

          2. Whose business is it to see that the laws are
          enforced?

          3. How can you help make your Government better?

          4. Give the best definition you know of our
          Government.

          5. What are the principal qualifications for the
          vote in your State?

          6. a. Who is a citizen? b. How can a person not a
          citizen become a citizen? c. What is the advantage
          of being a citizen?

          7. Who makes the law for you in your State?

          8. What part will you have in making that law?

          9. What are the duties of the President of the
          United States and of each of his Cabinet?

          10. Name five things on which the comfort and
          welfare of your family depend, which are
          controlled by your Government.

          11. a. What is meant by a secret ballot? b. How
          can anyone tell how you vote?

          12. What is the difference between registering to
          vote and enrolling in a political party?

          13. If you enroll in a political party must you
          vote the straight ticket of that party?

REFERENCES:

"The Woman Movement in America," McClurg and Co., Chicago.

"The Woman Voter's Manual," Forman and Shuler, Century Co., 1918.

"Democracy in Reconstruction," Houghton Mifflin, 1919. Cleveland and
Schafer.

"History of Politics," Edward Jenks, Macmillan Co.

"The Subjection of Women," John Stuart Mill, Frederick Stokes.

"Your Vote and How to Use It," Mrs. Raymond Brown, Harper Bros.

"The Story of a Pioneer," Anna Howard Shaw.

"American Commonwealth," James Bryce.

"Promised Land," Mary Antin, Houghton Mifflin.

"Land of Fair Play," Geoffrey Parsons, Scribner.

"Making of an American," J. A. Rils, Macmillan.

"Peace and Patriotism," E. S. Smith, Lothrop, Lee and Shepard.

"The Children in the Shadow," Ernest Kent Coulter, McBride Nest and Co.

"American Citizenship," Charles and Mary Beard, Macmillan.


[Illustration: COOK

SYMBOL--GRIDIRON]

This test is based on the thorough knowledge of the article on "Cooking"
in the handbook. It may be taken in sections. A certificate may be
presented from a Domestic Science teacher, or from the mother if the
Captain knows her and can testify to her competency to judge.

          1. Build and regulate the fire in a coal or wood
          stove, or if a gas range is used know how to
          regulate the heat in the oven, broiler and top.

          2. What does it mean to boil a food? To broil? To
          bake? Why is it not advisable to fry food?

          3. How many cupfuls make a quart? How many
          tablespoonfuls to a cup? Teaspoonfuls to a
          tablespoon?

          4. Be able to cook two kinds of cereal.

          5. Be able to make tea, coffee and cocoa properly.

          6. Be able to cook a dried and a fresh fruit.

          7. Be able to cook three common vegetables in two
          ways.

          8. Be able to prepare two kinds of salad. How are
          salads kept crisp?

          9. Know the difference in food value between whole
          milk and skimmed milk.

          10. Be able to boil or coddle or poach eggs
          properly.

          11. Be able to select meat and prepare the cuts
          for broiling, roasting and stewing OR be able to
          clean, dress and cook a fowl.

          12. Be able to make two kinds of quick bread, such
          as biscuits or muffins.

          13. Be able to plan menus for one day, choosing at
          least three dishes in which left-overs may be
          utilized.

REFERENCES:

"The Junior Cook Book," Girl Scout Edition, Clara Ingram, Barse and
Hopkins.

"Fun of Cooking," C. F. Benton, Century.

"Boston Cooking School Cook Book," Little.

"Hot Weather Dishes," S. T. Rorer, Arnold and Co.

"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.


[Illustration: CRAFTSMAN

SYMBOL--PRIMITIVE DECORATIVE DESIGN]

To earn this badge a Girl Scout must qualify in at least one of the
following and must read at least one general reference:

          1. Tie-dying: Make a tie-dyed scarf using two
          kinds of tying.

Reference: "Dyes and Dyeing," Charles E. Pellew, McBride.

"Industrial and Applied Art Books, Book 6," Bush.


          2. Block Printing: Make an original design for a
          block print unit using a flower or bird motif.
          Apply to a bag or collar in one color using oil
          paint or dyes.

          3. Stencilling: Make an original stencil design
          for a border, use flower, bird, boat or tree
          motif. Apply in two colors to a bag, collar or
          scarf using oil paint or dyes.

          4. Crochet, Cross-stitch, Darning: Make an
          original border design on square paper using any
          two geometric units, or a conventional flower or
          animal form. Apply the design to a towel in
          crochet, cross-stitch or darning.

          Reference: "Cross-stitch Patterns," Dorothy
          Bradford, "Industrial Art Text Books, Book 6,"
          "Modern Priscilla," Snow.

          6. Weaving, Baskets: Design a basket shape with
          its widest dimension not less than six inches, and
          make the basket of raffia over a reed or cord
          foundation. Use eight stitch or lazy squaw.

          Reference: "How To Make Baskets,"
          White--"Practical Basketry," McKay. "Inexpensive
          Basketry," Marten. "Raffia and Reed Weaving,"
          Knapp.

          Weaving Wool: Weave a girdle, a hat band, or a
          dress ornament use a simple striped or geometric
          design, in three or more colors.

          Reference: "Hand Weaving," Dorothy Bradford.
          "Hand-loom Weaving," Todd.

          Weaving Beads: Design and weave a bead chain or a
          bead band for trimming: use two or more colors.

          7. Appliqué: Design an appliqué unit in a 7-inch
          square that might be applied to a pin cushion top,
          a bag or a square for a patchwork quilt. Use
          geometric units or conventional flower or bird
          forms suggested by cretonnes. Work out in cotton
          materials using two tones of one color or closely
          related colors, as brown and orange; grey and
          violet.

          8. Pottery: Design an original shape for a bowl,
          vase or paper weight, and model shape in clay.

          Reference: "The Potter's Craft," Binns--"Pottery,"
          Cox. "Industrial Work for the Middle Grades," E.
          Z. Worst.

          9. Posters: Design a Girl Scout poster that will
          illustrate some law or activity. Poster to be at
          least 9×12 inches and to consist of a simple
          illustration and not less than three words of
          lettering. Finish in crayon, water color, pen and
          ink, or tempera.

          Reference: "School Arts Magazine," Jan. 1920.
          "Poster Magazine."

          10. China Painting: Make a conventional design for
          a border that can be used on a plate, bowl, or cup
          and saucer. Work out on the object in one color in
          a tinted background.

          References: Keramic Studio--any number.

          11. Decoration: Make an original design for a box
          top or a tray center adapting units found in
          cretonnes. Apply to the object using enamel paints
          and in a color scheme suggested by the same or
          another cretonne.

GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS:

Read regularly: School Arts Magazine, Davis Press. Art Crafts for
Beginners, Frank G. Sanford, Century; Handicraft for Girls,
McGloughlin--See also: "Wood Carving," P. Hasbruck, McKay.


[Illustration: CYCLIST

SYMBOL--WHEEL]

          1. Own a bicycle, and care for it, cleaning,
          oiling, and making minor repairs, readjusting
          chain, bars and seat.

          2. Be able to mend a tire.

          3. Demonstrate the use of a road map.

          4. Demonstrate leading another bicycle while
          riding.

          5. Know the laws of the road, right of way,
          lighting and so forth.

          6. Make satisfactory report to Captain, of a
          bicycle Scouting expedition as to the condition of
          a road with camping site for an overnight hike.

          7. Pledge the bicycle to the Government in time of
          need.

REFERENCES:

"American Girl's Handibook," L. Beard, Scribner.

"For Playground, Field and Forest," D. C. Beard, Scribner.


[Illustration: DAIRY MAID

SYMBOL--MILKING STOOL]

          1. Take entire care of a cow and the milk of one
          cow for one month, keeping a record of quantity of
          each milking.

          2. Make butter at four different times, and submit
          statement of amount made and of the process
          followed in making.

          3. Make pot cheese; give method.

          4. Name four breeds of cows. How can they be
          distinguished? Which breed gives the most milk?
          Which breed gives the richest milk?

          5. What are the rules for feeding, watering and
          pasturing cows? What feed is best for cows? What
          care should be given cows to keep them in perfect
          condition? What diseases must be guarded against
          in cows? Why is it so imperative to have a cow
          barn, all implements, workers and cows
          scrupulously clean?

          6. Of what is milk composed? How is cream
          separated from milk? Name two processes and
          explain each. How and why should milk be strained
          and cooled before being bottled or canned?

REFERENCES:

"Stories of Industry," Vol. 2, A. Chase, Educational Pub. Co.

"How the World is Fed," F. G. Carpenter, American Book Co.

"Foods and their uses," F. G. Carpenter, Scribner.


[Illustration: DANCER

SYMBOL--FOOT IN SLIPPER]

This test is being revised. Following is a Temporary ruling (July 1922).

          1. Demonstrate three folk dances.

          2. Demonstrate three modern social dances in
          correct form. See rules of American Association of
          Dancing Masters. OR

          3. Where social dancing is not given approval by
          parents, three additional folk dances may be
          substituted.

REFERENCES:

"Dances of the People," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schirmer.

"Folk Dances and Singing Games," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schirmer.

"Social Games and Group Dances," J. C. Elsom, Lippincott.

"Country Dance Book," C. J. Sharp, Novello.


[Illustration: DRESSMAKER

SYMBOL--SCISSORS]

          1. Must hold Needlewoman's Badge.

          2. Must know the bias, selvage, and straight width
          of goods.

          3. Must cut and make a garment from a pattern
          following all rules and directions given. It is
          suggested that two girls work together on this.

          4. Be able to clean, oil and use a sewing machine.

          5. Demonstrate on other persons the way to measure
          for length of skirt, length of sleeve, length from
          neck to waist line. Sew on hooks and eyes so they
          will not show. Hang a skirt, make a placket, put
          skirt on belt. Skirt must be hemmed evenly and
          hang evenly.

          6. Know what to do if a waist is too long from the
          neck to the waist line and does not fit well.

REFERENCES:

"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton.

"The Dress You Wear and How to Make It," M. J. Rhoe, Putnam.

"The Dressmaker," Butterick Publishing Co.

"Clothing and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.

"Clothing: Choice, Care, Cost," Mary Schenet Woolman, Lippincott 1920.


[Illustration: DRUMMER

SYMBOL--DRUM AND STICKS]

Be prepared to play all of the following taps and steps and in order
further to show proficiency on the drum, perform any feat selected.

1. "Roll off"; 2. Flam (right and left hand); 3. Five-stroke roll; 4.
Seven-stroke roll; 5. "Taps" step; 6. Six-eight step; 7. two-four step;
8. Single Stroke.

REFERENCES:

"Recollections of a Drummer Boy," H. M. Kieffer, Houghton Mifflin


[Illustration: ECONOMIST

SYMBOL--BEE]

A Girl Scout must qualify for 1 and 2, and either 3 or 4.

          1. Offer record of ten per cent. savings from
          earnings or allowance for three months.

          Show card for Postal Savings, or a Savings Bank
          Account.

          2. Show record from parent or guardian that she
          has:

          a. Darned stockings.

          b. Keep shoes shined and repaired.

          c. Not used safety pins or other makeshift for
          buttons, hooks, hems of skirts, belts, etc.

          d. Kept clothes mended and cleansed from small
          spots.

          3. For girls who have the spending of their money,
          either in allowance or earnings, show by character
          of shoes, stockings and gloves, hair-ribbons,
          handkerchiefs and other accessories that they know
          how to select them for wearing qualities and how
          to keep them in repair.

          4. Show record of one week's buying and menus with
          plans for using food economically, such as
          left-overs, cheap but nourishing cuts of meat,
          butter substitutes, thrifty use of milk such as
          sour, skimmed or powdered milk, and so forth.

REFERENCES:

"Scout Law in Practice," A. A. Carey, Little.

"Thrift and Conservation," A. H. Chamberlain, Lippincott.


[Illustration: ELECTRICIAN

SYMBOL--LIGHTNING]

          1. Explain the use of magnets for attraction and
          repulsion.

          2. Describe the use of electricity for forming
          electro-magnets and their use in: Electric bell;
          Telegraph; Telephone.

          3. What is meant by low and high voltage in
          electric current? Describe the use of current in:
          Dry cell; Storage Battery; Dynamo.

          4. a. Describe how current is sent through
          resistance wire resulting in heat and light, in
          case of Electric lights, Electric stoves,
          toasters, flat irons, etc., and

          b. How it is converted into working energy in
          Motors.

          5. Describe fuses and their use, and how to
          replace a burnt-out fuse.

          6. Connect two batteries in series with a bell and
          push button.

          7. Demonstrate methods of rescuing a person in
          contact with live wires, and of resuscitating a
          person insensible from shock.

          8. Know how electricity is used as motive power
          for street cars, trains, and automobiles.

          9. Know the proper way to connect electric
          appliances such as flat irons, toasters, etc.

REFERENCES:

"Electricity in Every Day Use," J. F. Woodfull, Doubleday Page.

"How to Understand Electrical Work," W. H. Onken, Harper.

"Harper's Electricity Book for Boys," J. H. Adams, Harper.

"Electricity for Young People," Tudor Jenks, Stokes.

"Heroes of Progress in America," Charles Morris, Lippincott.


[Illustration: FARMER

SYMBOL--SICKLE]

This badge is given for proficiency in general farming. A Scout farmer
may have her chief interest in rearing animals but she should know
something about the main business of the farmer which is tilling the
soil. Therefore, the Scout must fulfill four requirements: either A or B
under I, and II, III, and IV.

I. A. Animal Care

A Scout must have reared successfully one of the following:

          a) A brood of at least 12 chickens under hen or
          with incubator.

          b) A flock of at least 12 pigeons, 12 ducks, 12
          geese or 12 guinea-fowl.

          c) A family of rabbits or guinea pigs.

          d) A calf, a colt, or a pig.

A certificate as to the condition of the animals must be presented, made
by some competent judge who has seen them. Wherever possible a chart
should be made by the Scout, showing the schedule of care followed,
including feeding, and notes on the development of the animals.

AND she must also have planted and cultivated a small vegetable garden
like the one described in the Handbook, in the Section "The Girl Scout's
Own Garden" OR

B. Vegetable raising

A Scout may make her main interest the raising of some sort of vegetable
or fruit and may do one of the following:

          1. Plant, cultivate and gather the crop from

          (a) A small truck garden, with at least six
          vegetables, two berries, and two salads or greens,
          OR

          (b) Where the soil is not suitable for a variety
          of plants, she may raise a single vegetable, like
          corn or tomatoes, or tubers.

          2. Tend and gather a fruit crop such as apples,
          peaches, pears, cherries, oranges, or any other
          tree fruit, OR Cultivate and tend a small vineyard
          or grape arbor, and gather the grapes, OR

          Plant and cultivate and gather the berries from
          strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, currant or
          gooseberry plants. Whatever the vegetable or fruit
          chosen a chart should be made and presented,
          showing the schedule of digging, planting, sowing
          and tending, with notes on the time of appearance
          of the first shoots, the size and condition of the
          crop and so forth. Any obstacles met and overcome,
          such as insect pests, drouths or storms should be
          mentioned. No special size is mentioned for the
          garden, as the conditions vary so greatly in
          different parts of the country. The quality of the
          work, and the knowledge gained is the important
          thing.

II. Identify and collect ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of
each.

III. Identify ten common insect pests, tell what plant or animal each
attacks, and how to get rid of each.

IV. Describe four different kinds of soil and tell what is best planted
in each. Tell what sort of fertilizer should be used in each soil.
Explain the value of stable manure.

STANDARD REFERENCES:

Farmers Bulletin, published by the Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C. Write for catalogue and select the titles bearing on
your special interest. The bulletins are free.

The Beginner's Garden Book by Allen French, Macmillan Co.

Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan.

Principles of Agriculture, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan.

Essentials of Agriculture, H. J. Waters, Ginn.


[Illustration: FIRST AIDE***

SYMBOL--RED CROSS IN BLACK CIRCLE]

A Girl Scout should know:

          1. What to do first in case of emergency.

          2. Symptoms and treatment of shock.

          3. How and when to apply stimulants.

          4. How to put on a sling.

          5. How to bandage the head, arm, hand, finger, leg
          ankle, eye, jaw.

          6. What to do for: a. bruises, strains, sprains,
          dislocations, fractures; b. wounds; c. burns,
          frost bite, freezing, sunstroke, heat exhaustion;
          d. drowning, electric shock, gas accidents; e.
          apoplexy, convulsions; f. snake bite; g. common
          emergencies such as: 1. cinders in the eye; 2.
          splinter under the nail; 3. wound from rusty nail;
          4. oak and ivy poisoning; 5. insect in the ear.

          A Girl Scout should demonstrate:

          7. Applying a sterile dressing.

          8. Stopping bleeding.

          9. Putting on a splint.

          10. Making a stretcher from uniform blanket or
          Scout neckerchief and poles.

          11. The Schaefer method of artificial respiration.

REFERENCES:

Section on First Aid in this Handbook.

American Red Cross Abridged Text Books on First Aid, Blakiston.


[Illustration: FLOWER FINDER SYMBOL--FLOWER]

          1. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell
          the difference between plants and animals and the
          difference between the two general types of
          plants.

          2. A Scout must also pass either the test for
          Flowers and Ferns or Trees given below.

A. FLOWERS AND FERNS

          1. Make a collection of fifty kinds of wild
          flowers and ferns and correctly name them or make
          twenty-five photographs or colored drawings of
          wild flowers and ferns.

          2. Why were the following ferns so named:
          Christmas Fern, Sensitive Fern, Walkingleaf Fern,
          Cinnamon Fern, Flowering Fern?

          3. Name and describe twenty cultivated plants in
          your locality.

          4. Be able to recognize ten weeds.

          5. How can you distinguish Poison Ivy from
          Virginia Creeper? What part of Pokeweed is
          poisonous? What part of Jimsonweed is poisonous?
          Be able to recognize at least one poisonous
          mushroom.

B. TREES

          1. Give examples of the two great groups of trees
          and distinguish between them.

          2. Why is forest conservation important? What are
          the laws of your State concerning forest
          conservation?

          3. Mention at least three uses of trees.

          4. Collect, identify and preserve leaves from
          twenty-five different species of trees.

          5. Mention three trees that have opposite
          branching and three that have alternate.

          6. How do the flower-buds of Flowering Dogwood
          differ from the leaf-buds? When are the
          flower-buds formed?

          7. The buds of what tree are protected by a
          natural varnish?

          8. Mention one whose outer bud-scales are covered
          by fine hairs. Can you find a tree that has naked
          buds?

          9. From a Sassafras-tree or from a Tulip-tree
          collect and preserve leaves of as many shapes as
          possible.

          10. Name five trees in this country which produce
          edible nuts.

REFERENCES:

A. FLOWERS AND FERNS

"New Manual of Botany," Asa Gray, American Book Co.

"Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada," (three volumes),
N. L. Britton, Brown and Addison, Scribner.

"Flower Guide," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page.

"Flora of the Southeastern States," John K. Small, published by the
author, New York Botanical Garden.

"Flora of the Rocky Mountain Region," P. A. Rydberg, published by the
author, New York Botanical Garden.

"State Floras."--There are some excellent State Floras, and in order to
keep this list from being too long, it is suggested that the Scout
leader write to the Professor of Botany in her State University and ask
for the name, author and publisher of the best Flora of her State.
Especially is this advisable for those living in sections of the country
not covered by the above references.

"Our Native Orchids," William Hamilton Gibson.

"Wild Flower Book for Young People," A. Lounsberry, Stokes.

"Field Book of American Wild Flowers," F. S. Matthews, Putnam.

"Emerald Story Book," A. M. Skinner, Duffield.

"Mushrooms," George F. Atkinson, Henry Holt Co., (See Handbook,
"Scouting for Girls," Section on Woodcraft.)

B. TREES

REFERENCES:

"Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs," F. S. Matthews, Putnam.

"Trees of the Northern United States," Austin C. Apgar, American Book
Co.

"Manual of Trees of North America," Charles S. Sargent, Houghton Mifflin
Co.

"Handbook of the Trees of United States and Canada," Romeyn B. Hough,
published by the author, Lowville, N. Y.

"Trees in Winter," A. F. Blakeslee, and C. D. Jarvis, Macmillan Co.

"The Book of Forestry," F. F. Moon, Appleton.


[Illustration: GARDENER

SYMBOL--TROWEL]

The test may well be worked for by a patrol or even a troop who can
share expenses for tools, and cultivate together a larger plot of ground
than would be possible for any one girl. Arrangements may frequently be
made through the school garden authorities.

Alternate: For Scouts already members of the Girls' Garden and Canning
Club throughout the country, a duplicate of their reports, sent in for
their season's work, to the State agricultural agents, or agricultural
colleges, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture of the
United States, may be submitted as their test material for this badge,
in place of the Test given.

          1. What are the necessary things to be considered
          before starting a garden? List them in the correct
          order.

          2. What exposure is best for the garden? Why? At
          what season of the year is it best to prepare the
          soil? What care should be given garden tools?

          3. Why is it necessary to fertilize the soil for a
          garden? What kind of fertilizer will you use in
          your garden, and why?

          4. Do all seeds germinate? What precautions must
          be taken when purchasing seed? During what month
          should seed be sown in the ground in your
          locality? What are the rules for sowing seed as
          regards depth?

          5. What does it mean to thin out and to
          transplant? When and why are both done?

          6. What does it mean to cultivate? Why is it very
          important? How is it best done? What should be
          done with pulled weeds?

          7. When is the proper time of day to water a
          garden? Is moistening the surface of the ground
          sufficient? If not, why not?

          8. Name five garden pests common in your locality
          and tell how to eradicate them. Name three garden
          friends and tell what they do.

          9. At what time of day is it best to pick flowers
          and vegetables? Mention two things to be
          considered in both cases.

          10. What are tender and hardy plants? Herbaceous
          plants, annuals, perennials and biennials? Bulbs
          and tubers?

          11. Select a garden site, or if space is lacking
          use boxes, barrels, window boxes, tubs and so
          forth; prepare the soil, choose the seed of not
          less than six flowers, and six vegetables that
          will grow well in the soil and climate in which
          they are planted; take entire care of the garden
          and bring to blossom and fruit at least 75 per
          cent. of the seed planted. Keep and submit a
          record of the garden, including size, time and
          money spent, dates of planting, blooming, and
          gathering of vegetables, or colors of flowers, and
          so forth.

REFERENCES:

"Harper's Book for Young Gardeners," A. H. Verill, Harper.

"Beginner's Garden Book," Allen French, Macmillan.

"Home Vegetable Gardening from A to Z," Adolph Krulm, Doubleday.

"Suburban Gardens," Grace Tabor, Outing Publishing Co.

"The Vegetable Garden," R. L. Watts, Outing Publishing Co.


[Illustration: HANDY-WOMAN

SYMBOL--HAMMER]

          1. Know how to mend, temporarily with soap, a
          small leak in a water or gas pipe.

          2. Know how to turn off the water or gas supply
          for the house and whom to notify in case of
          accident, OR

          Know what to do to thaw out frozen water pipes, OR

          Be able to put on a washer on a faucet, OR

          Cover a hot water boiler neatly and securely to
          conserve the heat, using newspaper and string.

          3. Know the use of and how to use a wrench and
          pliers.

          4. Demonstrate the way to use a hammer,
          screw-driver, awl, saw can-opener, corkscrew.

          5. Locate by sounding, an upright in a plaster
          wall, and know why and when this is necessary to
          be done.

          6. Put up a shelf using brackets, strips of wood
          or both and know under what conditions to use
          either.

          7. Be able to put up hooks for clothes or other
          articles and properly space them.

          8. Be able to measure for and put up a rod in a
          clothes closet, OR

          Be able to repair the spring in a window shade and
          tack the shade on the roller, OR

          Know how to keep clean and care for window and
          door screens.

          9. Must wrap, tie securely and neatly, and label a
          parcel for delivery by express or parcel post.

          10. Be able to sharpen knives using either a
          grindstone, whetstone, the edge of an iron stove,
          or another knife.

          11. Clean, trim and fill an oil lamp, or put on a
          gas mantle, OR Clean, oil and know how to repair
          the belt of a sewing machine, OR Lay a fire in a
          fireplace and tell what to do with the ashes.

          12. Choose a wall space for a picture, measure for
          the wire, fasten the wire to the picture frame and
          give the rule concerning height for hanging
          pictures.

          13. State how brooms, dry mops, dustpans, and
          brushes should be placed when not in use, and be
          able to wash brushes and place them properly for
          drying.

REFERENCES:

"What a Girl Can Make and Do," Lina Beard, Scribner.

"Harper's Handy Book for Girls," A. P. Paret, Harper.

"Handicraft for Handy Girls," A. N. Hall, Lothrop.

"In the Days of the Guild," L. Lamprey, Stokes.


[Illustration: HEALTH GUARDIAN***

SYMBOL--THE CADUCEUS]

          I. Recreation and Health. What is offered to the
          public in the town you live in, or in that part of
          the city in which you live, in the way of Play
          Grounds, Gymnasiums, Baths, Skating Rinks, Tennis
          Courts, Golf Links, Water Sports?

          If there is a public park in or near the town;
          what privileges does it offer, especially for
          young people? Is it well taken care of? Well
          patronized?

          Discuss briefly why you think the Government
          should provide these things and what results may
          be expected when it does not supply them. How does
          the lack of them affect the grown people of a
          town, in the end?

          II. Special Health Facilities in your Locality.

          1. What is the rule as to registering births? What
          is the advantage of this? What is the infant
          mortality rate?

          Of what diseases should the local authorities be
          notified?

          What diseases must be quarantined? Isolated?
          Posted? Reported?

          2. Food Supplies. What are milk stations? Does
          your community control the marketing of milk to
          any degree? Why is the milk question so important?

          Are there any laws for your bakeries?

          What are the regulations as to the storage and
          protection of meat in local markets?

          3. Housing. If three families are willing to live
          in three rooms in your town, may they do so?

          Is there anything to prevent your erecting a
          building of any size and material you wish in any
          place?

          4. Medical Institutions. Is there a public
          hospital in your town? Who has a right to use it?
          Who pays for it?

          Is there a public clinic? Why should there be?

          Is there a public laboratory? How would it benefit
          your community if there were?

          Is there a district nurse? How could Girl Scouts
          assist such a nurse?

          5. Schools. Is there any medical inspection in
          your schools? How did it ever effect you?

          Is its work followed up in the home? How are Girl
          Scouts particularly fitted to help in this?

          Is there a school nurse? Why does it pay the
          community to employ one?

          Are luncheons served in your school free, or at
          low cost? Mention at least two advantages in this
          and one disadvantage.

          Are there school clinics for eyes and teeth? Why
          are some cities providing such clinics?

          6. Baby Hygiene. Is there any place in your town
          where young or ignorant mothers can ask advice and
          instruction in the care of infants? State briefly
          why you think such help would benefit the
          community in the end.

          III. Public Services and Sanitation.

          1. Who is responsible for the cleaning of the
          streets? Dry or wet method used?

          2. What are the laws concerning the public
          collection and disposal of garbage? How much
          responsibility in this line has your family? Can
          you do what you please? Is there any practical use
          for garbage?

          3. What is the source of your local water supply?
          What measures are taken to make and keep it
          pure?--State some of the results of lack of care
          in this matter.

          4. Why should there be regulations about spitting
          in public places? Why are common towels and
          drinking cups forbidden? What are the general
          rules for prevention and treatment of
          tuberculosis?

          5. Trace the life history of the house fly or
          filth fly and tell why it is a menace. How may the
          fly be exterminated? How are mosquitoes dangerous?
          How may they be eliminated?

REFERENCES:

"Democracy in Reconstruction," Frederick A. Cleveland and Joseph
Schafer, Houghton Mifflin.

"A Manual for Health Officers," J. Scott MacNutt, John Wiley and Sons.

"House of the Good Neighbor," Esther Lovejoy, Macmillan.

"Community Civics," J. Field, Macmillan.

"Town and City," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co.

"Good Citizenship," J. Richman, American Book Co.

"Healthy Living," Charles E. Winslow, Merrill Co.


[Illustration: HEALTH WINNER

SYMBOL--THE CADUCEUS IN TREFOIL]

          I. To earn this badge a Girl Scout must for three
          months pay attention to those conditions upon
          which health depends. She should keep a Health
          Record like that shown in the Handbook, which must
          cover at least the following points:

          1. Position of body: Show improvement in posture.

          2. Exercise (a) Walk a mile briskly or walk
          steadily and vigorously for fifteen minutes, or
          take some other active and vigorous outdoor
          exercise for at least thirty minutes. OR in case
          of bad weather, (b) Do setting-up exercises as
          given in Handbook every day. At least twenty
          minutes should be spent on these, either at one
          time, or ten minutes night and morning. To make
          this point will require a record of compliance for
          at least seventy-five days in three months.

          3. Rest. (a) Go to bed early. Be in bed by at
          least 9:30 and sleep from eight to ten hours. Do
          not go to parties, the theatre, movies or any
          other late entertainment on nights before school
          or work.

          4. Supply needs for Air, Water and Food in the
          right way:

          (a) Sleep with window open.

          (b) Drink at least six glasses of water during the
          day, between meals; taking one before breakfast,
          two between breakfast and lunch, two between lunch
          and dinner, and one before going to bed.

          (c) Eat no sweets, candy, cake or ice cream except
          as dessert after meals.

          5. Keep Clean:

          (a) Have a bowel movement at least once every day,
          preferably immediately after breakfast or the last
          thing at night.

          (b) Wash hands after going to the toilet, and
          before eating. Take a daily tub, shower or sponge
          bath, or rub down with a rough towel every day;
          and take a full bath of some sort at least twice a
          week.

          (c) Brush teeth twice a day: after breakfast and
          just before bed.

          (d) Wash hair at least once a month, and brush
          well every day.

          II. In addition to doing the things that make for
          health, the Girl Scout must know the answers to
          the following questions:

          1. What is the best way to care for your teeth?

          2. Why is care for the eyes especially necessary?
          How are the eyes rested? What are the points to
          remember about light for work?

          3. What is the difference in effect between a hot
          and cold bath?

          4. How can you care for your feet on a hike so
          that they will not become blistered or over-tired?

REFERENCES:

"Good Health," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co.

"How to Get Strong and How to Stay So," William Blaikie, Harper.

"Keeping Physically Fit," Wm. J. Cromie, Macmillan.

"Exercise and Health," Woods Hutcheson, Outing Pub. Co.

"Handbook of Health and Nursing," American School of Home Economics,
Chicago.

"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.

"Healthy Living," Chas. E. Winslow, Chas E. Merrill Co.


[Illustration: HOMEMAKER

SYMBOL--CROSSED KEYS]

          1. In planning a house and choosing a site for it
          what things should be considered?

          2. Draw the floor plan of an imaginary house or
          apartment to be built in your locality for a
          family of four, and list the furnishings for each
          room.

          3. Choose a system for heating and state reasons
          for choice.

          4. How will water be furnished? What precautions
          should always be taken about the water supply and
          why?

          5. How will the house be lighted? How will it be
          ventilated?

          6. State how the walls and floors will be finished
          and why?

          7. Describe the cook stove and the ice box; tell
          why they were selected and the best way to keep
          them clean.

          8. List the utensils used in keeping the house
          clean.

          9. State why it is particularly necessary to keep
          the cellar, closets, cupboards, wash basins,
          toilets, sinks, clean. Give ways of cleaning each.

          10. State the proper way to prepare dishes for
          washing and the order in which silver, glass,
          table and kitchen dishes should be washed.

          11. How should rugs, mattresses, pillows,
          upholstered furniture, paper walls, and windows be
          cleaned?

          12. How should winter clothes and blankets be
          stored during the summer? What should be done with
          soiled laundry prior to washing?

          13. What is the most economical way to buy flour,
          sugar, cereals, butter and vegetables? How should
          they be kept in the house?

          14. What is the law in your community concerning
          the disposition of trash, ashes and garbage? How
          will you care for these things in the house? If
          there is no law what will you do with them and
          why?

          15. Under what conditions do germs thrive and
          vermin infest? How can both be kept away?

          16. Plan the work in your house for one week
          giving the daily schedule and covering all
          necessary points.

          17. Tell how to make and use a fireless cooker.
          Explain what it is good for.

          18. Take care of your own bedroom for one month.
          Report just what you do and how long it takes.

REFERENCES:

"Housewifery," L. Ray Balderston, Lippincott.

"The Home and the Family," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, The Macmillan
Co.

"Foods and Household Management," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley,
Macmillan.

"Shelter and Clothing," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, Macmillan.

"Feeding the Family," M. S. Rose, Macmillan.

"Handbook of Food and Diet," American School of Home Economics, Chicago.

MAGAZINES:

"The House Beautiful," "Ladies Home Journal," "Delineator," "Good
Housekeeping."


[Illustration: HOME NURSE***

SYMBOL--GREEN CROSS]

          1. Describe care of the room under following
          points:

          (a) Ventilation heat and sun; (b) Character and
          amount of furniture; (c) Cleanliness and order;
          (d) Daily routine; (e) General "atmosphere."

          2. Demonstrate bed making with patient in bed. Bed
          must be made in fifteen minutes.

          3. (a) Show how to help a patient in the use of a
          bedpan. (b) Care of utensils, dishes, linen and
          their disinfection.

          4. Bodily care of patient. Know all the following
          and be able to demonstrate any two points asked
          for:

          (a) Bathing; (b) Rubbing; (c) Changing of body
          linen; (d) Combing hair; (e) Lifting and changing
          position; (f) Arranging of supports; (g)
          Temperature, pulse and respiration; (h) Feeding
          when helpless.

          5. Local applications, hot and cold,
          (fomentations, compresses etc.) (Demonstrate at
          least one point).

          6. Common household remedies and their use: castor
          oil, soda, olive oil, epsom salts, aromatic
          spirits of ammonia.

          7. First treatment of some common household
          emergencies, cramps, earache, headache, cold,
          chills, choking, nosebleed, and fainting.

          8. How to give an enema.

          9. Proper food for invalids and serving it. Be
          able to prepare and serve five of the following.
          Two foods must be shown to examiner and three may
          be certified to by mother or other responsible
          person.

          1. Cereal, as oatmeal, gruel; cereal water, as
          barley water.

          2. Toast, toast water, milk toast, cream toast.

          3. Plain albumen, albuminized water, albuminized
          milk.

          4. Eggnog, soft cooked egg, poached egg.

          5. Pasteurized milk, junket, custard.

          6. Beef, mutton, chicken, clam or oyster broth.

          7. Fruit beverage, stewed dried fruit, baked
          apple.

          8. Gelatin jellies, chicken jelly.

          9. Tea, coffee, cocoa.

REFERENCES:

"Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick." Red Cross Text by Jane A. Delano,
R. N. Revised by Anne H. Strong, R. N., Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1922.

"What to do Before the Doctor Comes," Frieda E. Lippert, Lippincott.

"Home Nurses Handbook of Practical Nursing," C. A. Aikens, Saunders.

"Home Nursing," Louisa C. Lippitt, World Book Co.


[Illustration: HORSEWOMAN

SYMBOL--STIRRUP]

          1. Demonstrate saddling and bridling a saddle
          horse.

          2. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot and gallop.

          3. Demonstrate harnessing correctly in single
          harness.

          4. Demonstrate driving in single harness.

          5. What are the rules of the road as to turning
          out?

          6. What are the rules for feeding and watering a
          horse, and how do these vary according to
          conditions?

          7. What implements are used for grooming a horse?
          Show how they should be used.

          8. Hitch a horse, using the best knot for that
          purpose.

          9. Know principal causes of and how to detect and
          how to remedy lameness and sore back.

          10. Know how to detect and remove a stone from the
          foot.

          11. Know the principal points of a horse, and the
          different parts of the harness.

REFERENCES:

"Riding and Driving for Women," B. Beach, Scribner.

"Horsemanship," C. C. Fraser.


[Illustration: HOSTESS

SYMBOL--CUP AND SAUCER]

          1. Demonstrate receiving, introducing and bidding
          guests goodbye.

          2. Write notes of invitation for a luncheon,
          dinner party, and write a letter inviting a friend
          to make a visit.

          3. Give an out of door party or picnic planning
          entertainment, and prepare and serve refreshments,
          OR

          Demonstrate ability to plan for an indoor party,
          arranging the rooms, a place for wraps,
          entertainment of guests, serving of refreshments.

          4. Set a table and entertain guests for lunch or
          dinner or afternoon tea and demonstrate the duties
          of a hostess who has no maid, or one who has a
          maid, to serve.

          5. What are the duties of a hostess when
          entertaining a house guest for a few days or more?

          GUESTS:

          6. When entertained as a house guest what are some
          of the necessary things to be remembered?

          7. What is a "bread and butter" letter? Write one.

          8. When invited to a party, luncheon, dinner, or
          to make a visit, how should the invitations be
          acknowledged? Write at least two letters to cover
          the question.

          9. What are the duties of a caller, dinner or
          party guest as concerns time of arrival, length of
          stay and leaving?

REFERENCES:

"Everyday Manners, for American Boys and Girls," by the Faculty of the
South Philadelphia High School for Girls, Macmillan, 1922.

"Dame Courtesy's Book of Novel Entertainments," E. H. Glover, McClurg.

"Hostess of Today," L. H. Larned, Scribner.

"Bright Ideas for Entertaining," H. B. Linscott, Jacobs.


[Illustration: INTERPRETER

SYMBOL--UNITED STATES ARMY EMBLEM]

          1. Show ability to converse in a language other
          than English.

          2. Translate quickly and accurately a conversation
          in a foreign language into English, and English
          into a foreign language.

          3. Be able to write a simple letter in a language
          other than one's own, subject to be given by
          examiner.

          4. Read a passage from a book or newspaper written
          in a language other than one's own.

          5. Write a clear intelligible letter in a foreign
          language.


[Illustration: JOURNALIST****

SYMBOL--BOTTLE AND PEN]

          1. Know how a newspaper is made, its different
          departments, functions of its staff, how the local
          news is gathered, how the news of the world is
          gathered and disseminated--Inquire at newspaper
          office.

          2. What is a news item?

          3. What is an editorial?

          4. Describe briefly the three important kinds of
          type-setting used today.

          5. Write two articles, not to exceed five hundred
          words each, on events that come within the
          observation of the Scouts. For instance give the
          school athletic events or describe an
          entertainment for Scouts in church or school or
          rally.

          6. Write some special story about Scoutcraft such
          as a hike or camping experience.

REFERENCES:

"Newspaper," G. B. Dibble, Holt.

"Handbook of Journalism," N. C. Fowler, Sully.


[Illustration: LAUNDRESS

SYMBOL--FLAT IRON]

          1. What elements are needed to clean soiled
          clothes?

          2. Show a blouse that you have starched and
          folded, OR

          Show a skirt and coat you have pressed.

          3. How is starch made? How is it prepared for use?

          4. What is soap? How is it made? What is soap
          powder?

          5. How can you soften hard water? How are a ringer
          and a mangle used?

          6. Name steps to take in washing colored garments.

          7. Should table linen be starched? Why?

          8. Why do we run clothes through blueing water?
          What is blueing? How made?

          9. Know the different kinds of irons and how to
          take care of irons.

          10. How to remove stains; ink, fruit, rust, grass,
          cocoa and grease. Why must stains be removed
          before laundering?

          11. What clothes should be boiled to make them
          clean? How are flannels washed? What should be
          done to clothes after drying before they are
          ironed?

REFERENCES:

"Saturday Mornings," C. B. Burrell, Dana Estes.

"First Aid to the Young Housekeeper," C. T. Herrick, Scribner.

"Guide to Laundry Work," M. D. Chambers, Boston Cooking School.

"Approved Methods for Home Laundry," Mary Beals Vail, B. S., Proctor
Gamble Co.


[Illustration: MILLINER

SYMBOL--BONNET]

          1. Renovate a hat by removing, cleaning and
          pressing all trimmings and the lining, turn or
          clean the hat and replace trimmings and lining.

          2. Trim a felt hat and make and sew in the
          lining.

          3. Make a gingham, cretonne or straw hat using a
          wire frame.

          4. What is felt and how is it made into hats?

          5. What is straw and how is it prepared for
          millinery purposes?

          6. How is straw braid for hats sold?

          7. What is meant by "a hand made hat?"

          8. Can the shape of a felt or straw hat be
          materially changed? if so by what process?

          9. What kind of thread is best for sewing trimming
          on to a hat?

          10. How is the head measured for ascertaining the
          head size for a hat?

REFERENCES:

"Art of Millinery," Anna Ben Yusef, Millinery Trade Pub. Co.


[Illustration: MOTORIST****

SYMBOL--A WINGED WHEEL]

To qualify for this badge a Scout must be at least eighteen, and must
pass the examination which was required for the Motor Corps of the
National League for Women's Service.

This includes:

          1. A certificate of health from a physician.

          2. Possessing the First Aide Badge.

          3. A diploma from a training course for motorists,
          such as that run by the Y. M. C. A., with a mark
          of at least 85 per cent.

          4. A driver's license from her State, signed by
          the Secretary of State.

          5. Taking the oath of allegiance.

REFERENCE:

"The Gasoline Automobile," by Hobbs, Elliott and Consoliver, McGraw,
Hill Book Co.

Putnam's Automobile Handbook, H. C. Brokaw, Putnam.


[Illustration: MUSICIAN

SYMBOL--HARP]

For pianist, violinist, cellist or singer.

          1. Play or sing a scale and know its composition.

          2. Write a scale in both the treble and bass clef.

          3. Know a half-tone, whole tone, a third, fifth
          and octave.

          4. Be able to distinguish a march from a waltz,
          and give the time of each.

          5. What is a quarter, half and whole note, draw
          symbols.

          6. Name five great composers and one composition
          of each, including an opera, a piano composition,
          a song. Two of the foregoing must be American.

          7. Play or sing from memory three verses of the
          Star Spangled Banner. The Battle Hymn of the
          Republic and America.

          8. Play or sing correctly from memory one piece of
          good music.

          9. For instrumentalist: Be able to play at sight a
          moderately difficult piece and explain all signs
          and terms in it.

          For singers: Show with baton how to lead a group
          in singing compositions written in 3/4 and 4/4
          time.

          10. What is an orchestra: Name at least five
          instruments in an orchestra.

REFERENCES:

"Art of the Singer," W. T. Henderson, Scribner.

"How to Listen to Music," H. E. Krehbiel, Scribner.

"Orchestral Instruments and What They Do," D. G. Mason, Novello.


[Illustration: NEEDLEWOMAN

SYMBOL--SPOOL, THREAD AND NEEDLE]

          1. Know how to run a seam, overcast, roll and
          whip, hem, tuck, gather, bind, make a French seam,
          make buttonhole, sew on buttons, hooks and eyes,
          darn and patch. Submit samples of each.

          2. Show the difference between "straight" and "on
          the bias," and how to make both.

          3. Know the difference between linen, cotton and
          woolen, and pick out samples of each.

          4. Know how thread, silk and needles are numbered
          and what the numbers indicate.

          5. Know how to measure and plan fullness for
          edging or lace.

          6. Know how to lay a pattern on cloth, cut out a
          simple article of wearing apparel and make same.
          Use this article to demonstrate as much of
          question 1 as possible.

          7. Knit, either a muffler, sweater or baby's
          jacket and cap and crochet one yard of lace or
          make a yard of tatting.

          8. Hemstitch or scallop a towel or bureau scarf
          and work an initial on it in cross stitch.

REFERENCES:

"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton.

"Art in Needlework," S. F. Day, Scribner.


[Illustration: PATHFINDER

SYMBOL--A HAND POINTING]

          1. Describe the general plan of the city, town or
          village in which you live, locate the principal
          shopping, business and residence districts and
          know how to reach them from any quarter of the
          city, town or village. Be able to direct a person
          to the nearest place of worship to which they
          desire to go, OR

          Describe in a general way the township or county
          in which you live giving the principal roads,
          naming two of the nearest and largest cities or
          towns, giving their distance from your residence
          and telling how to reach them.

          2. Know the route of the principal surface car and
          subway lines, OR

          The name of the nearest railroad division to your
          residence and four of the principal cities or
          towns through which it passes within a distance of
          one hundred miles.

          3. Know at least three historic points of interest
          within the limits of your city, town or village,
          how to get to them and why they are historic, OR

          Tell of three things of interest concerning the
          history of your own community.

          4. Know the name and location of the Post Office,
          Telegraph and Telephone Stations, Public Library,
          City or Town Hall, one Hospital of good standing,
          one hotel or inn, three churches, one Protestant,
          one Catholic, one Synagogue, and the nearest
          railroad, OR

          Know the name, location and distance from your
          home or village of the nearest Library, Hospital,
          Church, Post Office, Telegraph and Telephone and
          Railroad Stations.

          5. Know the name and location of three buildings
          or places in your city, town or village, of
          interest from a point of beauty either of
          architecture, decoration or surroundings, OR

          Know and locate three places of interest within
          ten miles of your home, because of beautiful views
          or surroundings, OR give directions for taking a
          walk through beautiful woods, lanes or roads.

          6. Draw a map of the district around your home
          covering an area of one quarter square mile,
          noting streets, schools and other public
          buildings, fire alarm boxes, at least one public
          telephone booth, one doctor's office, one drug
          store, one provision store, and four points of the
          compass. Draw to scale, OR

          Draw a map covering a half square mile of country
          around your home noting schools and any other
          public buildings, roads, lanes, points of
          interest, historic or otherwise, streams, lakes
          and four cardinal points of the compass. Map must
          be drawn to scale.

          7. Know how to use the fire alarm, how to consult
          telephone directory, how to call for assistance in
          case of water leak, accident, burglary, forest
          fire and how to call the police for any other
          emergency.

          8. Find any of the four cardinal points of the
          compass by sun or stars, by use of a watch and a
          cane or stick.

REFERENCES:

Sections in Handbook on "Woodcraft," and "Measurements and Map-making,"
and publications of local Historical Societies, Guides and Directories.


[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPHER

SYMBOL--CAMERA ON STANDARD]

          1. Submit six good photographs, interior and out
          of door, taken, developed and printed by self, OR
          twelve good photographs taken by self including
          portraits, animals, out of door and indoor
          subjects.

          2. What constitutes a good picture?

          3. Give three rules to be followed in taking
          interiors, portraits and out of door pictures.

          4. Name and describe briefly the processes used in
          photography.

          5. Tell what a camera is and name and describe the
          principal parts of a camera.

          6. What is a film? What is a negative?

          7. What position in relation to the sun should a
          photographer take when exposing a film?

          8. Should a shutter be operated slowly? If so,
          why?

          9. What causes buildings in a picture to look as
          if they were falling?

          10. What precautions should be taken when
          reloading a camera and taking out an exposed film?

          11. What is an enlargement? How is it made?

          12. What are the results of under exposure and
          over exposure?

          13. What are the results of failing to take the
          proper camera distance, having improper light and
          allowing the camera to move?

          14. If there is more than one method of exposing a
          film what determines the method to be used?

REFERENCES:

"How to Make Good Pictures," Eastman Kodak Company.

"The Photo Miniature," such numbers as appear to be needed.

"Nature and the Camera," A. R. Dugmore, Doubleday.

"Photography for Young People," T. Jenks, Stokes.

"Why My Photographs Are Bad," C. M. Taylor, Jacobs.


[Illustration: PIONEER***

SYMBOL--AXES]

          1. Tell four things that must be considered when
          choosing a camp site.

          2. Know how to use a saw, an axe, a hatchet.

          3. Know how to select and fell a tree for building
          or fuel purposes. Know a fork and sapling and
          their uses.

          4. Build or help three others to build a shack
          suitable for four occupants.

          5. Make a latrine, an incinerator, a cache.

          6. Make a fireplace for heating and cooking
          purposes and cook a simple meal over it.

          7. Know how to tell the directions of the wind.

          8. Know how to mark a trail.

          9. Tell what to do to make water safe for drinking
          if there is any question as to its purity.

REFERENCES:

"Campward Ho!" A Manual for Girl Scout Camps, National Headquarters,
Girl Scouts, Inc.

"Camping and Woodcraft," Horace Kephart, Macmillan.

"On the Trail," L. Beard, Scribner.

"Vacation Camps for Girls," Jeannette Marks, D. Appleton.


[Illustration: ROCK TAPPER[9]

SYMBOL--PICK AND SHOVEL]

          1. Collect and correctly identify ten rocks found
          among the glacial boulders.



          2. Make photograph or make sketch of glacial
          boulders.

          3. Collect two or three scratched glaciated
          pebbles or cobblestones in the drift.

          4. Make a sketch or photograph of an exposed
          section of glaciated or scratched bed-rock and
          note as accurately as you can the direction of the
          scratches or grooves.

REFERENCES:

"The Story of Our Continent," N. S. Shaler, Ginn and Co.

"The Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the Antiquity of Man," D.
Appleton and Co.

"A Text Book of Geology," portion of Chapter XXV entitled "The Glacial
Epoch in North America,"--D. Appleton and Co.

"Physiography for High School," Chapter V entitled, "The Work of Snow
and Ice," Henry Holt and Co.

"An Introduction to Physical Geography," Chapter VI entitled,
"Glaciers," D. Appleton, or any other good text-book of geology or
physical geography.

"Travels in Alaska," John Muir.


[Illustration: SAILOR***

SYMBOL--ANCHOR]

Qualify for questions under A, one to eleven, and one other test on
rowboat, sailboat, canoe or motor boat.

A. GENERAL

          1. Swim twenty-five yards with clothes and shoes
          on, or hold the swimming merit badge.

          2. Know sixteen points of the compass.

          3. Find any one of the four cardinal points of the
          compass by sun or stars.

          4. Know the rules for right of way.

          5. Know how to counteract the effect of current,
          tide and wind.

          6. Demonstrate making a landing, coming along
          side, making fast, pushing off.

          7. What is a calm? What is a squall? What are the
          sky and water conditions that denote the approach
          of the latter?

          8. Why are squalls dangerous?

          9. What are the dangers of moving about or
          standing in a boat?

          10. Tie four knots for use in handling a boat.
          Prepare, tie and throw a life line a distance of
          25 feet.

          11. Which is the "port" and which the "starboard"
          side of the boat, and what color lights represent
          each.

B. ROWBOAT.

          1. Demonstrate correct way to step into a rowboat,
          to boat the oars, feather the oars, turn around,
          row backward, back water, keep a straight course.

          2. Name two types of row boats.

          3. Demonstrate rowing alone on a straight course
          for a period of one-half hour. Keep stroke with
          another person for the same length of time.

          4. Demonstrate sculling or poling.

          5. Bail and clean a boat.

          6. What does it mean to "trim ship?"

C. SAILBOAT.

          1. Demonstrate hoisting a sail, taking in a reef,
          letting out a reef, steering, sailing close to
          the wind, before the wind, coming about, coming up
          into the wind.

          2. What is meant by tacking?

          3. What is the difference between a keel and
          centerboard type of boat? Tell the advantage of
          each.

          4. Coil the ropes on a sailboat.

          5. Name three different types of sailboats.

D. CANOE.

          1. Where and how should a canoe be placed when not
          in use?

          2. Demonstrate putting a canoe into the water,
          stepping into it, taking it out, and the technique
          of bow and stern paddling.

          3. Overturn, right and get back into a canoe.

          4. Name two standard makes of canoes.

          5. What does it mean to make a portage?

E. MOTORBOAT.

          1. Know how to oil the engine and the best kind of
          oil with which to oil it.

          2. Demonstrate cleaning the engine; cranking the
          engine.

          3. Know how to measure gas in tank, how much gas
          the tank holds, and how long the engine will run
          when the tank is full. Know how to judge good
          gasoline.

          4. Why should a motor boat never be left without
          turning off the gas? State reasons.

          5. Be able to rectify trouble with the carburetor.

          6. Know proper weight of anchor for boat; how to
          lower and hoist anchor; how to ground anchor so
          boat will not drag; know the knot to fasten rope
          to anchor and rope to boat, and how to throw out
          anchor.

          7. Demonstrate how to coil rope so it will not
          kink when anchor is thrown out.

          8. Know channels and right of way by buoys and
          lights.

REFERENCES:

"Harper's Boating Book for Boys," C. J. Davis, Harper.

"Boat Sailing," A. J. Kenealy, Outing.


[Illustration: SCRIBE

SYMBOL--OPEN BOOK]

          1. Submit an original short story, an essay or
          play or poem.

          2. Know three authors of prose and their
          compositions.

          3. Mention the names and some works of three
          novelists, two essayists, three poets, two
          dramatists of the present century, at least three
          of them American.


[Illustration: SIGNALLER

SYMBOL--CROSSED FLAGS]

SEMAPHORE

          1. Give alphabet correctly in 30 seconds, or
          less.

          2. Give the following abbreviations correctly;
          AFFIRMATIVE, ACKNOWLEDGE, ATTENTION, ERROR,
          NEGATIVE, PREPARATORY, ANNULLING, SIGN OF
          NUMERALS.

          3. Send message not previously read, of twenty
          words, containing three numerals and sent at the
          rate of 50 letters per minute. Only one error to
          be allowed. Technique is to be considered and
          judged.

          4. Receive unknown message of twenty words,
          containing three numerals at the same rate. Two
          errors to be allowed. Scouts may have someone take
          message down in writing as they read it, and five
          minutes in which to rewrite it afterwards.

WIGWAG

          1. Give alphabet correctly in two and one half
          minutes or less.

          2. Give numerals up to ten correctly.

          3. Send message not previously read, of twenty
          words, containing three numerals, at the rate of
          ten letters per minute. Only one error allowed;
          technique and regularity to be considered and
          judged.

          4. Receive unknown message of twenty words,
          containing three numerals, to be given at the rate
          of 10 letters per minute--Two errors to be
          allowed. Conditions for receiving, the same as in
          Semaphore.

BUZZER

GENERAL SERVICE CODE

          1. Send message of twenty words, not previously
          read, at the rate of ten letters per minute. Two
          errors allowed.

          2. Receive unknown message of twenty words to be
          given at the same rate. Two errors allowed. Scouts
          to be allowed five minutes in which to rewrite
          message, afterwards.

REFERENCES:

"How to Signal by Many Methods," J. Gibson, Gale.

"Cadet Manual," E. Z. Steever, Lippincott.

"Boys' Camp Manual," C. K. Taylor, Century.

"Outdoor Signalling," Elbert Wells, Outing Pub. Co.


[Illustration: STAR GAZER

SYMBOL--STAR GROUP]

          1. What is meant by the Solar System?

          2. Make a diagram showing the relative positions
          and movements of the earth, sun and moon. What
          governs the tide? What causes an eclipse? What is
          a comet, a shooting star, a sun spot?

          3. Name the planets in their order from the sun.
          Which planet is nearest the earth and give its
          distance?

          4. How fast does light travel?

          5. What is the difference between planets and
          fixed stars and name three of the latter.

          6. What is a constellation? Name and be able to
          point out six. Name two constellations which are
          visible throughout the year.

          7. Draw a chart of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia
          and the North Star at intervals of three hours
          through the night using a fixed frame and drawing
          from the same spot.

          8. Observe a sunrise and a sunset.

          9. What is the Milky-Way? Give its course through
          the heavens.

          10. What is a morning star? What is an evening
          star?

          11. Explain zenith and nadir.

          12. What is the Aurora Borealis? Have you seen it?

REFERENCES:

"Field Book of Stars," W. T. Olcott, Putnam.

"The Book of Stars," R. F. Collins, D. Appleton.

"Around the Year With the Stars," Garrett P. Serviss, Harper.

"Monthly Evening Sky Map," Barrett, 360 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

"The Star People," Gaylord Johnson, Macmillan 1921. Especially for
Younger Scouts.

"The Call of the Stars," John, R. Kilfax.


[Illustration: SWIMMER

SYMBOL--LIFE BUOY]

The following is identical with the life-saving test for Juniors of the
American Red Cross. If the test is given by one of the various examiners
of the First Aid Service of the American Red Cross the Scout may wear in
addition to the regular Scout Badge the Junior Life Saving Badge. It is
recommended that Girl Scout troops work toward the establishment of
Junior Life Saving Crews, directions for the formation of which may be
secured from any American Red Cross Division.

I. Pass the swimmer's test for American Red Cross as follows: a. Swim
100 yards, using two or more strokes. b. Dive properly from a take-off.
c. Swim on back 50 feet. d. Retrieve objects at reasonable depth from
surface (at least 8 feet).

II. Life Savers must pass the following test, winning at least 75
points. The value in points for each section of the test is given in
parenthesis after it:

          1. Carry a person of own weight 10 yards, by: a.
          Head carry. (10 points). b. Cross Chest Carry. (10
          points). c. Hair or two point carry, or repeat
          cross chest carry. (9 points). d. Tired Swimmer's
          carry. (5 points).

          2. Break three grips, turning after break, bring
          subject to surface, and start ashore: a. Wrist
          hold. (8 points). b. Front neck hold (10 points).
          c. Back neck hold. (10 points).

          3. Make surface dive and recover object from
          bottom. (10 points).

          4. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of inducing
          artificial respiration. (18 points).

          5. Disrobe in water from middy blouse, skirt or
          bloomers, and camp shoes, and then swim one
          hundred yards, not touching shore from time
          entering water. (10 points).


[Illustration: TELEGRAPHER

SYMBOL--TELEGRAPH POLE]

Either: a. Telegraphy,

          1. Send 22 letters per minute using a sounder and
          American Morse Code.

          2. Receive 25 letters per minute and write out the
          message in long hand or on a typewriter directly
          from sound.

          No mistakes allowed. OR

b. Wireless. Pass examination for lowest grade wireless operator
according to U. S. N. regulations.

REFERENCE:

"Harper's Beginning Electricity," D. C. Shafer, Harper.


[Illustration: ZOOLOGIST

SYMBOL--SEAHORSE]

I. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell in a general way the
differences between plants and animals, the different kinds of animals,
Invertebrates and Vertebrates, and among the Vertebrates to distinguish
between Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals.

II. She must also pass the test on Mammals and the test on at least one
other group: either Invertebrates, Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles or Birds,
(For this see special test under Bird Hunter).

A. MAMMALS

          1. Describe and give life history of ten wild
          mammals personally observed and identified.

          2. Name two mammals that kill fruit trees by
          girdling them.

          3. Mention three mammals that destroy the farmer's
          grain.

          4. State game laws of your State which apply to
          mammals.

          5. Name and locate one great game preserve in the
          United States and mention five game mammals
          protected there.

B. REPTILES

          1. Give the life history of one reptile.

          2. Give names of three Turtles that you have
          identified in the open.

          3. What is the only poisonous Lizard in the United
          States?

          4. Name and describe the poisonous Snakes of your
          State.

C. AMPHIBIANS

          1. Describe the life history of the frog or the
          toad.

          2. Describe the wonderful power of changing color
          shown by the common Tree-frog.

          3. What is the difference in the external
          appearance of a salamander and a lizard?

          4. Give a list of five Amphibians that you have
          identified in the open.

D. FISHES

          1. Describe the habits of feeding and egg-laying
          in one of our native fishes.

          2. Mention a common fish that has no scales, one
          that has very small scales, and one that has
          comparatively large scales.

          3. Name five much-used food fishes of the sea, and
          five fresh-water food-fishes.

          4. What are some necessary characteristics of a
          game-fish? Mention a well-known salt-water game
          fish, and two fresh-water ones.

          5. Describe the nest of some local fish, giving
          location, size, etc.

E. INVERTEBRATES

(EITHER of the following)

a. Insects and Spiders

          1. How may mosquitoes be exterminated?

          2. Collect, preserve and identify ten butterflies,
          five moths, ten other insects, and three spiders.

          3. Describe the habit that certain ants have of
          caring for plant-lice or aphids which secrete
          honey-dew.

          4. Describe the life-history of one of our
          solitary wasps. (See "Wasps Social and Solitary,"
          by George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham; Houghton
          Mifflin Co.)

          5. Describe the life of a hive or colony of honey
          bees. (See "The Life of the Bee," by Maurice
          Maeterlinck, Dodd Mead Co.)

b. Sea Shore Life

          1. Name five invertebrates used as food and state
          where they are found.

          2. What is the food of the starfish? How are
          starfish destroyed?

          3. Name twenty invertebrates which you have seen
          and give the locality where they were found.

          4. Name five invertebrates that live in the water
          only and five that burrow in the mud or sand.

          5. What invertebrate was eaten by the Indians and
          its shell used in making wampum? Where have you
          seen this animal?

GENERAL REFERENCES

A. MAMMALS

"Life-Histories of Northern Animals," 2 vols., Ernest Thompson Seton,
Scribner.

"American Animals," Stone, Witmer and Wm. E. Cram, Doubleday Page.

"American Natural History, Vol. I, Mammals," Wm. T. Hornaday, Scribner.

"Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers," John Burroughs, Houghton, Mifflin.

"Kindred of the Wild," C.G.D. Roberts, Doubleday Page.

"Animals, Their Relation and Use to Man," C.D. Wood, Ginn and Co.

"Popular Natural History," J.G. Wood, Winston.

B. REPTILES

"Reptile Book," Raymond L. Ditmars, Doubleday Page.

"The Poisonous Snakes of North America," Leonhard Stejnegar, Report U.
S. National Museum, 1893.

C. AMPHIBIANS

"The Frog Book," Mary Cynthia Dickerson, Doubleday Page.

"Manual of Vertebrates of the Northern United States," David Starr
Jordon, A.C. McClurg Pub. Co.

"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co.

D. FISHES

"American Food and Game Fishes," David Starr Jordan and Barton W.
Evermann, Doubleday Page.

"The Care of Home Aquaria," Raymond C. Osburn, New York Zoological
Society.

"The Story of the Fishes," James Newton Baskett, D. Appleton and Co.

E. INVERTEBRATES

a. Insects and Spiders

"Butterfly Guide," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.--(For beginners).

"Our Common Butterflies," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet No. 38, American
Museum of Natural History).

"How to Collect and Preserve Insects," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet No.
39, American Museum of Natural History).

"The Moth Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.

"The Butterfly Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.

"The Spider Book," J. H. Comstock, Doubleday Page.

"Moths and Butterflies," Mary C. Dickerson, Ginn and Co.

"Manual for the Study of Insects," J. H. and A. B. Comstock, Comstock
Publishing Co.

"The Wonders of Instinct," Jean Henri Fabre, Century Co.

"Field Book of Insects," Frank E. Lutz, Putnam.

b. Sea Shore Life

"The Sea-Beach at Ebb Tide," A. F. Arnold, The Century Co.

"Sea-Shore Life," A. G. Mayer, (New York Zoological Society 1906).

"Introduction to Zoology," C. B. and G. C. Davenport, Macmillan Co.,
1900.


III. GROUP BADGES

The Scout who follows one line of interest sufficiently long to qualify
in several related subjects may take a Group Badge signifying
proficiency in the general field.

[Illustration: 1. SCOUT NEIGHBOR (any four)

          Citizen***
          Health Guardian***
          Economist
          Business Woman***
          Telegrapher
          Interpreter
          Motorist****
          Canner]


[Illustration: 3. SCOUT AIDE[10]

          First Aide***
          Home Nurse***
          Homemaker
          Health Winner
          Health Guardian***
          Child Nurse*** or Cook]


[Illustration: 4. WOODCRAFT SCOUT (any three)

          Athlete***
          Motorist****
          Horsewoman
          Sailor
          Swimmer
          Pioneer
          Pathfinder]


[Illustration: 5. SCOUT NATURALIST]

To earn this Badge a Scout must have passed three of the tests of Bird
Hunter, Flower Finder, Rock Tapper, Star Gazer or Zoologist. She must
also pass the following brief test:

          1. What sorts of things are included in Nature
          Study?

          2. What are the other names for living and
          non-living objects?

          3. Read one of the following general books on
          Nature Study.

GENERAL NATURE STUDY REFERENCES:

"Handbook of Nature Study," Anna Botsford Comstock, Comstock Publishing
Co. (Manual for Leaders).

"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co.

"The Story Book of Science," J. Henri Fabre, Century Co.

"Leaf and Tendril," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin.

"Wake Robin," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin.

"Natural History of Selbourne," Gilbert White.

"Travels in Alaska," John Muir.

"My First Summer in the Sierras," John Muir.


[Illustration: 6. LAND SCOUT

          Gardener
          Farmer
          Dairy Maid
          Bee Keeper]


IV. GOLDEN EAGLET

SYMBOL--A GOLD EAGLET PIN OR PENDANT

[Illustration]

Qualifications: Only First Class Scouts are eligible for this, the
highest award offered to Girl Scouts. To obtain this a girl must have
been given the Medal of Merit and in addition have won twenty-one
Proficiency Badges, of which fifteen must be:

          Athlete***
          Bird Hunter or Flower Finder or Zoologist
          Citizen***
          Cook
          Dressmaker
          Economist
          First Aide***
          Health Guardian***
          Health Winner
          Homemaker
          Home Nurse***
          Hostess
          Laundress
          Child Nurse***
          Pioneer


V. SPECIAL MEDALS

[Illustration: ATTENDANCE STAR]

To earn this a Scout must attend every troop meeting for a year. A year
is counted as one meeting a week for eight months, or two meetings a
week for four months.

          1. The gold star is given for attendance at all
          regular troop meetings held during a period of one
          year. Punctuality is required and no excuses
          allowed.

          2. The silver star is given for attendance at 90
          per cent of all regular troop meetings.

          3. The attendance badge may be given only to a
          girl who has belonged to the organization for one
          year; the badges therefore denote how many years a
          girl has been a Scout.


[Illustration: LIFE SAVING MEDALS]

          1. The Bronze Cross is given as the highest
          possible award for gallantry, and may be won only
          when the claimant has shown special heroism or has
          faced extraordinary risk of life.

          2. The Silver Cross is awarded for saving life
          with considerable risk to oneself.

          3. These two medals are worn over the right
          pocket.

          4. Applications must be made by the girl's
          Captain, who should send to National Headquarters,
          through the Local Council, if there is one, a full
          account with written evidence from two witnesses
          of the deed.


[Illustration: MEDAL OF MERIT]

          1. The Medal of Merit is designed for the Scout
          who does her duty exceptionally well, though
          without grave risk to herself.

          2. This medal is worn over the right pocket.

          3. Only registered Scouts are entitled to this
          medal.

          4. Application for this medal should be made by
          the girl's Captain, who should send to National
          Headquarters, through the Local Council, if there
          is one, a full account of the circumstances upon
          which the claim is based.


[Illustration: THANKS BADGE]

          1. The Thanks Badge may be given to anyone to whom
          a Scout owes gratitude for assistance in promoting
          Scouting. Every Girl Scout anywhere in the whole
          world when she sees the Thanks Badge, recognizes
          that the person who wears it is a friend and it is
          her duty to salute and ask if she can be of
          service to the wearer of the badge.

          2. The Thanks Badge may be worn on a chain or
          ribbon.

          3. The approval of National Headquarters must be
          obtained before the Thanks Badge is presented to
          anyone. Applications may be sent to National
          Headquarters by any registered Scout (whether
          Captain, Lieutenant, or Girl Scout) giving the
          name of the person to whom the badge is to be
          given and the circumstances which justify the
          award. Unless the badge is to be presented to the
          Captain herself, her recommendation is required.


SCHOLARSHIP BADGE; For this see Blue Book of Rules, Edition, March 1922,
p-4.


VI. GIRL SCOUT OFFICERS AND CLASS INSIGNIA

[Illustration: CAPTAIN'S PIN]

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT'S PIN]

[Illustration: TENDERFOOT PIN]

[Illustration: SECOND-CLASS BADGE]

[Illustration: FIRST-CLASS BADGE]

[Illustration: CORPORAL]

[Illustration: PATROL LEADER]

[Illustration: EX-PATROL LEADER]

[Illustration: VII. FLOWER CRESTS FOR TROOPS]

FOOTNOTES:

[8] Any Captain can form a Junior Audubon Club by applying to "The
National Association of Audubon Societies," 1974 Broadway, N. Y. City.
The club dues are ten cents annually, per member, and must be paid for
by the Club. If 25 or more belong, the Magazine "Bird Lore" will be
sent.

[9] Note: Scouts in non-glacial regions may apply to Headquarters for
other tests in preparation.

[10] This must be passed on by National Headquarters.



SECTION XIX

REFERENCE READING FOR GIRL SCOUTS

The following books have been selected for the Girl Scouts with two
ideas in mind: first, to list some of the best books of the world, with
which all persons should be familiar, and second, to give books that
should easily be available in all parts of the country. In some cities
the Public Libraries have "Girl Scout Shelves." Has your library one? In
some places the Libraries have Reading Clubs for young people, conducted
by the boys and girls themselves under the guidance of specially trained
librarians who know just how to help bring the right book to hand, on
any subject a Scout would be interested in. In Manhattan there are no
less than thirty such clubs in connection with the various district
libraries. Why not have one of these in your town?

The American Library Association, whose headquarters are in Chicago,
Ill., at 78 East Washington Street, will help to bring books to rural
districts and places without regular public libraries. Write to them for
help if you need it.

The Congressional Library may be called upon at any time for
bibliography on any special topic.

The books in this section are in addition to the special references for
Proficiency Tests in Section XVIII.


HANDBOOKS OF ALLIED ORGANIZATIONS

Boy Scouts of America, Handbook for Boys, 200 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C.

Boy Scout Camp Book, Edward Cave, Doubleday and Page.

The Book of the Camp Fire Girls, 31 East 17th Street, New York City.

Girl Guiding, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd., London.

Scouting for Boys, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd.,
London.

Woodcraft Manual for Boys and Woodcraft Manual for Girls by Ernest
Thompson Seton, Doubleday and Page.


ADVENTURE

Robinson Crusoe, Daniel DeFoe.

Jim Davis, John Masefield.

A Woman Tenderfoot: Two Little Savages: Ernest Thompson Seton and Grace
Gallatin.

David Balfour, Kidnapped, Treasure Island, Robert Louis Stevenson.

Around the World in Eighty Days, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea,
The Mysterious Island, Jules Verne.

Swiss Family Robinson, Wyss.


ANIMAL STORIES

Jungle Books, First and Second; Just So Stories; Rudyard Kipling.

The Call of the Wild, Jack London.

Bob, Son of Battle, Ollivant.

Wild Animals I Have Known, Ernest Thompson Seton.

Black Beauty, Sewell.

Lad, a Dog; Albert Payson Terhune.


FAIRY AND FOLK TALES

Fairy Tales, Hans Christian Anderson--Mrs Edgar Lucas' Edition.

Arabian Nights.

Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, James M. Barrie.

Granny's Wonderful Chair, F. Browne.

Davy and the Goblin, Guy Wetmore Carryl.

Celtic Fairy Tales, J. Jacobs.

Norse Fairy Tales, Sir George Dasent.

Folk Tales of Flanders, Jean De Bosschere.

Fairy Tales, Grimm Bros., Mrs. Lucas, Editor.

Uncle Remus, His Songs and Sayings, Joel Chandler Harris.

Mopse the Fairy, Jean Ingelow.

Water Babies, Charles Kingsley.

Wonderful Adventures of Nils, Selma Lagerlöf.

Blue, Red, Green and Brown Fairy Books, Andrew Lang.

Pinocchio, C. Lorenzini.

Back of the North Wind; Double Story; The Princess and Curdie; The
Princess and the Goblin; George MacDonald.

Czecho-Slovak Fairy Tales, Parker Fillmore.

Ting a Ling Tales; The Queen's Museum and Other Fanciful Tales, Frank
Stockton.


HISTORY AND PERIOD NOVELS

The Story of France, Mary MacGregor.

The Little Book of the War, Eva March Tappan.

Story of the World, Elizabeth O'Neill.

Story of the War for Young People, F. A. Kummer, Century 1919.

Story of the Great War, Roland Usher.

Story of a Pioneer, Anna Howard Shaw.

Old Timers in the Colonies, Charles C. Coffin.

The Boys of '76, Charles C. Coffin.

Drum-Beat of the Nation, Charles C. Coffin.

Redeeming the Republic, Charles C. Coffin.

Lafayette, We Come! Rupert S. Holland.

Historic Events of Colonial Days, Rupert S. Holland.

History of England, Rudyard Kipling.

Hero Tales from American History, Lodge and Roosevelt.

Famous Scouts, Charles H. Johnston.

Famous Frontiersmen and Heroes of the Border, Charles H. Johnston.

Boy's Life of Theodore Roosevelt, Herman Hagedorn.

Boy's Life of Abraham Lincoln, Helen Nicolay.

American Hero Stories, Eva March Tappan.

A Gentleman of France, Weyman.

A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens.

Cardigan, Robert Chambers.

Deerslayer, Fenimore Cooper.

Fortunes of Nigel, Walter Scott.

Henry Esmond, William Makepeace Thackeray.

Hugh Wynne, Weir Mitchell.

Ivanhoe, Walter Scott.

Janice Meredith, Paul Leicester Ford.

Joan of Arc, Laura E. Richards.

Last of the Mohicans, Fenimore Cooper.

Maid at Arms, Robert Chambers.

Man Without a Country, Edward Everett Hale.

Master Simon's Garden, Caroline Meigs.

Pool of Stars, Caroline Meigs.

Master Skylark, Bennett.

Merry Lips, Beulah Marie Dix.

Otto of Silver Hand, Howard Pyle.

Quentin Durward, Walter Scott.

Ramona, Helen Hunt Jackson.

Rewards and Fairies, Rudyard Kipling.

Richard Carvel, Winston Churchill.

Soldier Rigdale, Beulah Marie Dix.

The Crisis, Winston Churchill.

The Perfect Tribute, M. S. Andrews.

The Prince and the Pauper, Mark Twain.

The Refugees, Conan Doyle.

The Scarlet Pimpernel, Baroness Orczy.

The Spartan, Caroline Snediker.

The Three Musketeers, Alexandre Dumas.

The White Company, Conan Doyle.

Two Little Confederates, Thomas Nelson Page.

Via Crucis, Marion Crawford.

Westward Ho, Charles Kingsley.

A Yankee at King Arthur's Court, Mark Twain.


MYTH AND LEGEND

Story of Roland, James Baldwin.

The Sampo (Finnish), James Baldwin.

The Story of Siegfried, James Baldwin.

Children of the Dawn, (Greek), Elsie Buckley.

Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan.

The Stories of Norse Heroes, Wilmot Buxton.

Don Quixote, Cervantes.

Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France, A. J. Church.

Greek Tragedies, Church.

Adventures of Odysseus and The Tale of Troy, Padraic Colum.

Undine, De la Motte Fouqué.

Sintram and His Companions, De la Motte Fouqué.

Tanglewood Tales, Nathaniel Hawthorne.

The Wonderbook, Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Rip Van Winkle, Washington Irving.

Heroes, Charles Kingsley.

Robin Hood, Howard Pyle.

The Story of the Champions of the Round Table, Howard Pyle.

The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur, Howard Pyle.

The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, Howard Pyle.

The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions, Howard Pyle.


NONSENSE

Goops, Gillett Burgess.

Inklings for Thinklings, Susan Hale.

Child's Primer of Natural History, Oliver Herford.

The Nonsense Book, Edward Lear.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll.

Through the Looking Glass, Lewis Carroll.

The Hunting of the Snark, Lewis Carroll.

Nonsense Anthology, Carolyn Wells.

Parody Anthology, Carolyn Wells.


NOVELS AND STORIES

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey; Marjorie Daw.

Austen, Jane; Pride and Prejudice.

Bacon, Josephine Daskam; Ten to Seventeen, Madness of Philip.

Barrie, James N.; Little Minister, Little White Bird, Sentimental Tommy.

Bjornson, Bjornstjerne; A Happy Boy, Arne, A Fisher Lassie, Synove
Solbaken.

Blackmore, R. W.; Lorna Doone.

Bronté, Charlotte; Jane Eyre.

Brunner, H. C.; Short Sixes.

Chesterton, Gilbert K.; The Club of Queer Trades, the Innocence of
Father Brown.

Collins, Wilkie; The Moonstone.

Craik, D. M.; (Miss Mulock) John Halifax, Gentleman.

Crawford, Marion; Marietta, Mr. Isaacs, the Roman Singer.

Daskam, Josephine; Smith College Stories, Sister's Vocation.

Davis, Richard Harding; Soldiers of Fortune, Van Bibber.

Deland, Margaret; Tales of Old Chester.

Eliot, George; Mill on the Floss.

Farnol, Jeffrey; The Broad Highway.

Fox, John; Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come, Trail of the Lonesome Pine.

Green, Anna Katherine; The Leavenworth Case, The Filigree Ball.

Haggard, Rider; King Solomon's Mines.

Holmes, Sherlock; Hound of the Baskervilles.

Hope, Anthony; Rupert of Hentzau, The Prisoner of Zenda.

Hornung; Adventures of Raffles, the Gentleman Burglar.

Jacobs, W. W.; Light Freights, Many Cargoes.

Johnson, Owen; The Varmint.

Kipling, Rudyard; Captains Courageous, Soldiers Three, Wee Willie
Winkle, Kim, The Naulakha, The Light That Failed.

Lincoln, Joseph; Captain Erie.

McCarthy, Justin; If I Were King.

Merriman, Henry Seton; Dust, With Edged Tools.

Meredith, Nicholson; In the Bishop's Carriage.

Poe, Edgar Allen; Tales, The Gold Bug.

Reade, Charles; The Cloister and the Hearth, Foul Play.

Rinehart, Mary Roberts; The Amazing Interlude.

Smith, F. Hopkinson; Fortunes of Oliver Horne, Colonel Carter of
Cartersville.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Little Pussy Willow, Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Stockton, Frank; Rudder Grange, The Lady or the Tiger, Casting Away of
Mrs. Leeks and Mrs. Aleshine.

Tarkington, Booth; Monsieur Beaucaire, Gentleman from Indiana,
Seventeen, Penrod, Penrod and Sam.

Wells, Carolyn; The Clue, The Gold Bag, A Chain of Evidence, The Maxwell
Mystery.

White, Edward Stewart; The Blazed Trail.

Wister, Owen; The Virginian.

Woolson, Constance F.; Anne.

Alcott, Louisa M.; Eight Cousins, Little Women, Little Men, Rose in
Bloom, etc.

Burnett, Frances Hodgson; Little Lord Fauntleroy, Sarah Crewe, etc.

Coolidge, Susan; Clover, In the High Valley, What Katy Did and other
Katy Books.

Craik, Mrs.; (Miss Mulock); The Little Lame Prince.

Cummins, Maria Susanna; The Lamplighter.

Dodge, Mary Mapes; Donald and Dorothy, Hans Brinker and the Silver
Skates.

Ewing, Juliana; Jackanapes, Six to Sixteen.

Hale, C. P.; Peterkin Papers.

Hughes, Thomas; Tom Brown's School Days.

Jackson, Helen Hunt; Nelly's Silver Mine.

Jordan, Elizabeth; May Iverson, Her Book.

Nesbit, E.; The Wouldbegoods, The Phoenix and the Carpet.

Ouida (de la Ramee); Bimbi Stories.

Richards, Laura E.; Hildegarde Series, Margaret Montford Series.

Shaw, F. E.; Castle Blair.

Spyri, J.; Heidi.

Twain, Mark; Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, etc.

Warner, Susan; The Wide Wide World.

Wiggin, Kate Douglas; The Birds' Christmas Carol, Polly Oliver's
Problems, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.


GIRL SCOUT STORIES

Abbott, Jane; Keineth, Larkspur.

Blanchard, Amy E.; A Girl Scout of Red Rose Troop.

Widdemer, Margaret; Winona's Way and other Winona Books.


POETRY

Verse for Patriots, Jean Broadhurst and Clara Lawton Rhodes.

Golden Staircase, (An Anthology), L. Chisholm.

Lyra Heroica, William Ernest Henley.

Blue Book of Poetry, Andrew Lang.

Story Telling Poems, F. J. Olcot.

Book of Famous Verse, Agnes Repplier.

Home Book of Verse for Young Folks, Burton Egbert Stevenson.

Child's Garden of Verse, Robert Louis Stevenson.

Children's Book of Ballads, Mary W. Tileston.

Golden Numbers, Kate Douglas Wiggin.


WONDERS OF SCIENCE

Magic of Science, Collins.

The Story Book of Science, Jean Henri Fabre, Century.

Field, Forest and Farm, Jean Henri Fabre, Century.

In the Once Upon a Time, Lillian Gask.

Book of the Ocean, Ingersoll.

Careers of Danger and Daring, Cleveland Moffett.

Science at Home, Russell.

Wonders of Science, Eva March Tappan.

The Book of Wonders.

Magazines: Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, Scientific American, The
National Geographic.


FOR CAPTAINS, LIEUTENANTS, COMMISSIONERS AND OTHER GIRL SCOUT OFFICERS

After a thorough study of Scouting for Girls, the authorized American
Handbook, Scout Captains and Lieutenants are urged to read the following
list of allied Handbooks for Leaders as containing many practical hints
for workers with young people, and emphasizing the essential unity of
these movements.

A study of these manuals will bring out very clearly the fact that
though our methods of approach and phraseology may differ in certain
instances, our ultimate aim and our broad general principles are
precisely the same.

The books in the following list which have been starred are recommended
as particularly practical for all students and friends of young people.
They represent the latest thought of the greatest authorities on the
subjects most closely allied with the sympathetic study of adolescence.
It is impossible to isolate a study of the girlhood of America from the
kindred topics of women in industry and politics, the growth of the
community spirit, the present theories of education, and in general a
brief survey of economics, sociology and psychology.

Many of these titles appear technical and dry, but the books have been
carefully selected with a view to their readable and stimulating
qualities, and no one need be a profound student in order to understand
and appreciate them.

It is especially advisable that Leaders in the Girl Scout organization
should be reasonably well informed as to the principal social movements
of the day so as to relate the effective organization of the young
people of the country with corresponding progress along other lines. The
more broadly cultivated our Captains and Councillors become, the more
vital and enduring will be the work of the Girl Scouts, and this breadth
of view cannot be obtained from the knowledge and practice of what might
be called the "technique of Scouting" alone.


LEADERS' HANDBOOK OF ALLIED ORGANIZATIONS

The Boy Scout Movement Applied by the Church. Richardson-Loomis,
Scribners.

Girls Clubs, Helen Ferris. E. P. Dutton and Co., 1919. Suggestions for
programs, community cooperation, practical methods and helps in
organization. Bibliography.

The Girl Guides. Rules, Policy and Organization, Annual Senior Guides,
Rules, Policy and Organization, 1918. Both official manuals for Guiders.
Nat. Hdqrs. Girl Guides. 76 Victoria Street. London, S. W. 1.

(1) Handbook for Scout Masters, 200 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

(2) Community Boy Leadership--A Manual for Scout Executives.

Model Treasurer's Book for Girls' Clubs. National League of Women
Workers, 25 cents.

Scoutmastership, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Putnam, 1920.

The Girl Reserves. Y. W. C. A. Association Press. 600 Lexington Avenue,
New York City. Manual of Leaders, 1921.


PRACTICAL AND GENERAL READING

Abbott, Edith; Women in Industry, Appleton.

Addams, Jane; Twenty Years at Hull House, Spirit of Youth in the City
Streets, A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil, Macmillan.

*Angell, Emmett D.; Play.

*Bancroft, Jessie H.; Games for the Playground, Home, School and
Gymnasium. Macmillan.

*Burchenal, Elizabeth; Dances of the People--Shirmer.

*Byington, Margaret; What Social Workers Should Know About Their Own
Communities. Russell Sage Foundation, N. Y.

Daggett, Mabel Potter; Women Wanted. George H. Doran. A book about women
in all walks of life, as affected by the war.

*Dewey, John; Schools of Tomorrow, School and Society, E. P. Dutton.
Showing the growth of the "Scout Idea" in our modern educational
methods. Practical and stimulating.

*Douglass, H. Paul; The Little Town, Macmillan. The latest and best
treatment of rural social conditions. Especially recommended for Scout
leaders in localities outside the great cities.

Hall, G. Stanley; Adolescence, 2 Volumes, 1907. See also "Youth",
summary volume, by same author, who did pioneer work in the field.

*Hoerle, Helen, and Salzberg, Florence B.; the Girl and the Job, Henry
Holt, $1.50.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins; Women in Economics, In This Our World, A Man
Made World, Concerning Children--All: Small and Maynard. The most
brilliant American writer on the woman movement. Sound economics and
good psychology cleverly presented.

James, William; Principles of Psychology, 2 vols. The psychologist who
wrote like a novelist. Chapters of special interest: Habit, Instinct,
Will, Emotions and The Stream of Consciousness. Talks to Teachers on
Psychology, and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals. Memories and
Studies, especially essay on the Moral Equivalents of War--All: Henry
Holt and Co.

Key, Ellen; The Century of the Child.

*Lovejoy, Esther; The House of the Good Neighbor, Macmillan, 1919.
Social and Medical Work in France during the war by the President of the
Women's International Medical Association.

*MacDougall, William; Social Psychology, Luce and Co. Study of how
people act and feel in a group.

Mill, John Stuart; The Subjection of Women. Frederick Stokes.

*Norsworthy, Naomi, and Whitley: The Psychology of Childhood, Macmillan,
1919. Best and latest general child psychology.

Parsons, Elsie Clews: Social Control, Social Freedom, The Old Fashioned
Woman, The Family. All: Putnam.

*Patrick, G. T. W.; Psychology of Relaxation. Houghton Mifflin. The
necessity for and guidance of the play instinct.

*Perry, Clarence A.; Community Center Activities. Russell Sage
Foundation, New York City.

Pillsbury, W. B.; Essentials of Psychology, Macmillan. Good, brief
treatment of general psychology for popular reading.

*Playground and Recreation Association of America Publications: What the
Playground Can Do for Girls, Games Every Child Should Know, Folk and
National Dances, The Home Playground. Headquarters 1 Madison Avenue, New
York City.

*Puffer, J. Adam; The Boy and His Gang. Houghton Mifflin.

Putnam, Emily; The Lady.

Schreiner, Olive; Woman and Labour.

Sharp, Cecil J.; One Hundred English Folksongs. Charles H. Ditson and
Co.

*Slattery, Margaret; The Girl in Her Teens, The Girl and Her Religion,
The American Girl and Her Community, The Woman's Press.

*Thorndike, Edward L.; Individuality, Riverside Educational Monographs,
Houghton Mifflin. What constitutes the "average person." The danger of
"sizing up" people too rapidly.

*Terman, Lewis; The Hygiene of the Child, Houghton Mifflin.

Trotter, W.; Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, Fisher Unwin. How
"public opinion" exerts its influence on conduct.

Wallas, Graham; Human Nature in Politics, and The Great Society, Our
Social Heritage, Macmillan.

Ward, Lester F.; Psychic Factors of Civilization and Applied Sociology.
Ginn and Co. Psychological interpretation of civilization.

*Woods, Robert A.; Young Working Girls, Houghton Mifflin.


CAMPING AND HIKING

Campward Ho!, The Camp Manual for Girl Scouts contains a full and
annotated bibliography. The following is an additional list.

The Boy Camp Manual, Charles Keen Taylor.

Camping and Outing Activities, Cheley-Baker. Games, Songs, Pageants,
Plays, Water Sports, etc.

Camp Cookery, Horace Kephart, Macmillan Co.

The Camp Fire Girls' Vacation Book, Camp Fire Girls, New York City.

Camping and Woodcraft (2 vols.) Horace Kephart, Macmillan.

Camp Kits and Camp Life, Charles Stedman Hanks.

Camping Out, Warren Miller, Geo Doran Co.

Caravanning and Camping-out, J. Harris Stone--Herbert Jenkins, Ltd., 12
Arundel Place, London.

Harper's Camping and Scouting, Joseph Adams, Harper Bros.

Shelters, Shacks and Shanties, D. C. Beard, Scribners. Illustrated.

Summer in a Girls' Camp, Anna Worthington Coale, Century.

Swimming and Watermanship, L. de B. Handley, Macmillan Co.

Touring Afoot, Dr. C. P. Fordyce, N. Y. Outing Publishing Co.

Wilderness Homes, Oliver Kamp, Outing Publishing Co.


GOVERNMENT BULLETINS AND HOW TO GET THEM

          1. The publications of all departments of the
          United States Government are in the custody of the
          Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
          Price lists of various subjects are sent free. The
          following list of subjects will be found
          especially useful in preparing for many of the
          proficiency tests. The numbers given are the
          official ones by which the catalogs of prices and
          special titles may be ordered:

          (11) Foods and Cookery. (16) Farmers' Bulletins.
          (31) Education. (38) Animal Industry. (39) Birds
          and Wild Animals. (41) Insects (including
          household and farm pests, and bees). (43)
          Forestry. (44) Plants. (50) American History and
          Biography. (51) Health. (53) Maps. (54) Political
          Science. (55) National Museums and National
          Academy of Science. (67) Immigration. (68) Farm
          Management.

          2. The Children's Bureau of the U. S. Dept. of
          Labor has a special list of articles on Child and
          Infant Care and Health. Write direct to the Bureau
          for these.

          3. For State publications on Health, Education,
          etc., apply to Secretary of State if special
          officer in charge is unknown.

          4. Apply to town hall or special departments for
          city documents on health, child care, education,
          etc.

          5. The following organizations publish bulletins
          and cheap authoritative books and pamphlets for
          general information on health, first aid, child
          care and other topics of interest to Girl Scouts.

          The Red Cross National Headquarters, Washington,
          D. C.

          The Metropolitan Insurance Company, 1 Madison
          Avenue, N. Y. C.

          Child Health Organization, 370 Seventh Avenue,
          Miss Sally Lucas Jean, Director.

          The Posture League of America, 1 Madison Avenue,
          N. Y. C.



INDEX

          Accidents, First Aid for 164 ff
            Water 191 ff

          Act to Establish Flag 69

          Adam 456

          Adventure, books of 540

          Africa 27

          Agassiz 455

          Alaska 454

          Alcott, Louisa 23

          Allied Organizations, Handbooks of 540

          Alignments 92

          Alligator 429

          "America" 74, 75

          "America the Beautiful" 66

          American Museum of Natural History 373 ff

          Amphibians 425

          "Anacreon in Heaven" 74

          Animal Stories 540

          Aphids 449

          Apoplexy, care of 186 ff

          Aquarium 435

          Arnold, Sarah Louise 106

          Artist test 499

          Aspen 395

          Asphyxiation, prevention of 197 ff

          Asters 381

          At ease 87

          Athlete test 499

          Attendance stars 536

          Attention 85

          Audubon Society 425

          Australia 27

          Axe, use of 326 ff

          Azalea 383


          Background 40

          Back step 89

          Baden-Powell 1 ff

          Balsam fir 390

          Bandages, making of 204 ff

          Barnacles 442

          Bathroom, care of 119

          "Battle Hymn of the Republic" 77

          Beach fleas 442

          Beaver 370

          Bedroom, care of 119

          Beekeeper test 500

          Birds 407 ff

          Bird baths 424

          Birds, economic value of 415 ff

          Bird Hunter test 500

          Bird Woman 21

          Biscuit Loaf 363

          Bites, care of 190, ff

          Black Eyed Susan 383, 385

          Blood Root 381

          Blue Bird 409

          Blue Flag 383

          Blue-tailed Lizard 430

          Bobolink 415

          Bog Potato 288

          Border, flowers for 464 ff

          Boulders 453

          Bouncing Bet 383

          Bowline, knot 488 ff

          Box Turtle 430

          Brandywine, battle of 469

          Bread 363

          Breakfast 133 ff

          Broiled Fish 361

          Brown, Thomas Edward 456

          Bubonic Plague 449

          Bugler's test 501

          Bull Frog 376, 427

          Burroughs, John 375, 407

          Business meeting 57

          Business Woman test 502

          Butterfly 449

          Butler, Albert E. 384, 388, 394

          Bumble Bees 447


          Cambridge flag 68

          Camp cooking 360 ff
            recipes 362 ff
            utensils 340, 344, 361

          Camping and the Guide Law 36

          Camping for Girl Scouts 313 ff
            hiking 314 ff
            site 319 ff
            fires 327 ff
            provisions 345 ff

          Camp sanitation 323

          Canada 27

          Canner 502

          Captain 14

          Captain's pin 538

          Cardinal flower 381

          Cassiopeia 302

          Cat fish 433

          Cellar 107

          Ceremonies, Forms for Girl Scouts 44 ff
            Alternate forms 48 ff

          Chaining 467 ff

          Chairman 57

          Chameleon 431

          Change step 90

          Chevrons 538

          Chief Scout 35

          Child, care of 157 ff

          Child Health Organization 547

          Child Nurse 157 ff
            test 503

          Child, routine of 162 ff

          Christmas Fern 389

          Cicada 447

          Citizen's test 504

          Civic biology 377

          Clams 442

          Class test 60 ff

          Cleaning 126

          Clermont 69

          Closing exercises 57

          Clothing for Hiking 317

          Clove hitch 492 ff

          Cochineal 446

          Cocoa 363

          Cod 433

          Colds, care of 247 ff

          Color Guard 46

          "Common minerals and rocks" 454

          Compass 482 ff

          Congressional Library 540

          Conservation of forests 393 ff

          Continental Code 97, 99

          Conventional signs for maps 479

          Convulsions, care of 186 ff

          Cooking devices 340

          Cooking in camp 360

          Cook 133 ff
            test 505

          Coral 439

          Corned beef hash 362

          Corporal 13, 538

          Council 14

          Court of Honor 15, 45

          Crabs 437, 439

          Craftsman test 505

          Crinkle root 289

          Crocodile 429

          Crosby, William O. 454

          Cultivation 461

          Cyclist test 507

          Cypress, bald 396


          Dancer test 518

          Dandelion 383

          Dairy Maid test 507

          Dash, General Service Code 98

          Daughter of New France 20

          Dawson, Jean 377

          Deciduous 387

          Declaration of Independence 68

          Deming, Dr. W. C. 190

          Diamond Back Terrapin 431

          Dickerson, Mary C. 389

          Diminish front 96

          Dinner 139 ff

          Director, National 15

          Dish washing 117

          Dishes, washing in camp 364

          Dislocations, care of 177 ff

          Distance, to take in drill 92

          Direction 478

          Dot, in General Service Code 98

          Double time 88

          Doughty, Arthur G. 20

          Dow, Ula M. 133

          Dragon flies 446

          Dressmaker 508

          Dress, right or left 85

          Drill, Girl Scout 84 ff
            Tenderfoot 84
            Second Class 90
            First Class 95

          Drummer test 509

          Duck hawks 418

          Dutch Cleanser 365


          Eagle 407

          Eclaireuses de France 31

          Economist test 509

          Eel 456

          Egrets 374, 411 ff

          Electrician test 510

          Emergencies, aid for 164 ff

          Erosion 393

          Evergreen 387

          Exercises 275 ff

          Explorer 21

          Eyes, Health of 259 ff

          Eyes right or left 80

          Eyesight, tested by stars 303


          Facings 86

          Fall in 84
            out 87

          Falkland Islands 27

          Fairy Tales 541

          Farmer test 510

          Feet, care of 315

          Fellowship 2

          Fire, control of 199 ff

          Fireless Cooker 111 ff

          Fishes 432 ff

          Fishes, group of 433

          Fishballs 361

          Fisher, G. Clyde 366, 373 ff

          First Aide 164 ff
            test 512

          First Class Badge 538
            Conferring of 50
            Test 64 ff

          First Girl Scout 20

          Flag 67 ff
            Colors 67
            History 67 ff
            How to make 77
            Respect due 70 ff
            Regulations for flying 71 ff

          Flashlight signalling 100

          Floods, causes of 393

          Floor, Kitchen 108

          Flower crests 539

          Flower Finder test 512

          Flower garden 462 ff

          Fly, House, fighting of 121

          Folk Tales 541

          Food for Camps 362 ff

          Food for the Sick 249 ff

          Food furnishing animals 402

          Food Habits 402

          Food, storage of 123 ff

          Foot 466

          Forbush, Edward Howe 419

          Forests, uses of 393 ff
            fires 395

          Fox 406

          Fractures, care of 177 ff

          France 31

          Freezing 40
            care of 188 ff

          Fried bacon 362

          Fried fish 361

          Fried ham 361

          Fried country sausage 362

          Fried potatoes 362

          Fringed gentian 381, 383

          Frying pan 361 ff

          Fulton, Robert 59

          Fungi 289

          Furnishing 107


          Gaillardia 384

          Gamefish 435

          Ganoid 433

          Garden, Girl Scout's Own 456 ff

          Gardener test 514

          Gas stove 110

          General service code 97

          Geology 452 ff

          Germs, fighting of 121

          Gibson, William Hamilton 383, 426

          Gila Monster 429

          Gills 431

          Girl Guides 1, 18 ff

          Girl Scout Stories 544

          Glacial Drift 453

          Glacier 451 ff

          Glass snake 430

          Golden Eaglet 45, 52, 535

          Golden Plover 414

          Goldenrod 381

          Government Bulletins 456

          Grand Union Flag 68

          Great Blue Heron 422

          Great horned owls 411

          Great Ice Age 453

          Grebe 408

          Grey, Lord 20

          Group Badges 533 ff

          Guide, the Flower 383

          Guides, War Service 27


          Half-hitch 491 ff

          Halibut 433

          Half step 89

          Halt 89

          Hammerhead shark 436

          Handbooks of Allied Organizations 540

          "Handbook of Birds in Eastern North America" 423

          "Handbook of Birds of Western United States" 423

          Hand signalling 103

          Handy-woman test 515

          Hawks 420

          "Hawks and Owls of the U. S." 420

          Health Guardian test 516

          Health Winner 257
            test 517

          Heating house 124

          Heights, to estimate 459 ff

          Hemlock 390

          Hepatica 381

          Hermit crab 442

          Hickory nut 383

          Hiking 314 ff

          History novels 541

          History of the American Girl Scouts 1

          Hog peanuts 289

          Hodge, Clifton 377, 534

          "Home Life of Wild Birds" 423

          Hollyhocks 383

          Homemaker, the 23, 106
            test 518

          Home Nurse, the 217 ff
            test 519

          Honeybee 448

          Honeydew 448

          Horsewoman test 520

          Hostess test 520

          House fly 449

          House planning 106

          Howe, Julia Ward 77

          Hummingbird 383

          Hummingbird moth 446

          Hunter, David M. 456

          Hydroids 441

          Hyla 428


          Ice Chest 114 ff

          "Illustrated Flora" 383

          Illnesses, common 245 ff

          India 27

          Indian cucumber 288

          Indian turnip 289

          Injuries, major 177 ff
            minor 169 ff

          Inorganic 377

          Insects 439, 446 ff

          Insect eating birds 421 ff

          Insignia, Scouts and officers 538

          Inspection 56

          Interpreter test 521

          Interval, Gen. Ser. Code 98
            Semaphore 101

          Invertebrate 377, 438 ff


          Jack in the Pulpit 383

          Jean, Sally Lucas 547

          Jelly fish 439

          Jessamine 381

          Jones, John Paul 68

          Journalist test 521

          Judging weights and measures 467 ff


          Kelley's Island 455

          Kephart, Horace 313 ff

          Key, Francis Scott 73

          Kildeer 419

          Kindling 334 ff

          Kipling, Rudyard 376

          Kitchen 108

          Knots 484 ff
            glossary 495


          Labor Saving 124 ff

          Lady Slipper 281

          Lafayette 69

          "Land Birds East of the Rockies" 423

          Land Scout, Group Badge 535

          Lang, Herbert 426

          Lantern, signalling 100

          Latrine in camp 323

          Laundress test 522

          Laws of Girl Scouts 4 ff

          Leader's Handbooks of Allied Organizations 545

          Legends 542

          Lewis and Clark Expedition 21

          Lobsters 439

          Loco Weed 383

          Lone Scout 13

          Loon 372

          Low, Mrs. Juliette, Founder G. S. 1

          Lunch 148 ff

          Lung fishes 433

          Lutz, Dr. 447

          Life Saving Medals 536

          "Little Women" 23

          Living room 118

          Library, American Association 540

          Lieutenants 14


          Mackerel 433

          Magdelaine de Verchères 20

          Magnolia 380

          Maiden Hair Fern 383

          Malaria 449

          Mallard Duck 424

          Mammals 399 ff

          Manna 447

          Manners, good 129 ff

          Manual by Grey 383

          Manure 458

          Map of camp 481

          Maple, black sugar 391

          Mappa 477

          Maps, history, uses, how to make 476 ff

          Marine worms 443

          Mark time 88

          Marsh Marigold 383

          Measurements 268 ff 466 ff

          Medal of Merit 536

          Medals, special 536

          Medicines 241 ff

          Meeting, Girl Scout 55 ff

          Menus 133 ff

          Metre 466

          Metric System 466

          Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 547

          Merit Badges, conferring 51

          Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Leo 387

          Milliner test 522

          Milton 456

          Mink 415

          Minutes 58

          Mississippi Valley 453

          Moccasin Flower 382

          Mocking bird 409

          Mole Crab 444

          Monarch butterfly 449, 450

          Moon 303

          Moose 369

          Morris, Robert 68

          Morse Code
            American 97
            International 97 ff

          Mosquito 449
            fighting of 121

          Motorist test 523

          Motto of Girl Scouts 3

          Mountain Climbing 367 ff

          Mountain Laurel 383

          Mud-eel 427

          Mud puppy 427

          Musician test 523

          Muscular strain, avoiding 261 ff

          Mushrooms 289 ff 392

          Mussels 442

          Muir Glacier 454

          Muir, John 366

          Myths 542


          National Convention 1

          National Director 16

          National Headquarters 1

          National Organization 15

          Nature, classification 379

          Nature in City 39

          Nature Study 36, 43

          Nature Study for Girl Scouts 373 ff

          Naturalist, Scout, group badge 534

          Needlewoman's test 524

          Nesting boxes 424

          Newts 427

          New York 1

          Noble Peregrine 418, 420

          Nonsense 542

          North America 451

          North Pole 69

          Novels 542

          Nubian Gold Mines 476

          Nurse, the Child 157 ff
            home 217 ff


          Oak 390

          Oblique March 93

          Observation 39

          Octopus 439

          Oil stove 110

          One cell animals 431

          Onions 363

          Opossum 399, 401

          Orchids 383

          Organic 377

          Organization 13 ff

          Orion's Sword 304

          Otter 400

          "Our Native Orchids" 383

          Out of Door Scout 35 ff

          Ox Eye Daisy 383

          Oyster 439, 445


          Pace, Scout's 314

          Pacing 475, 478

          Paddle fish 432

          Parade 87

          Parade formation 80 ff

          Pathfinder's test 524

          Patients, amusing of 251
            feeding 251
            routine 252

          Patriotic songs 72

          Patrol system 13

          Peary, Robert 69

          Pecten 443

          Peeper, spring 428

          Pelicans 412

          Periwinkle 442

          Personal measures 474

          Photographer test 525

          Pickerel 453

          Pickerel weed 385

          Pickersgill, Mrs. Mary 74

          Pine, long leaved 389

          Pine tree patrol system 325

          Pine rose mallow 383

          Pioneer 25
            test 526

          Pirsson, Louis V. 454

          Pivot, moving 93
            fixed 94

          Planting 459

          Plants 380 ff

          Plants, edible, wild 285 ff

          Plants poisonous 386 ff

          Pledge 3

          Pleiades 302

          Poetry 544

          Poison, antidotes for 202 ff

          Polar bear 402, 452

          Policy 16

          Position, right 273 ff

          Posture 257 ff, 273 ff
            League 547

          Poultry, destroyed 402

          Preparation of seed bed 457

          Presentation of badges 21, 45 ff

          Princess Pat 21

          Principles of Girl Scouts 3 ff

          Proficiency tests 497 ff

          Promise 4

          Protozoa 439

          Proverbs, outdoor 284

          Provisions for camping 345 ff

          Public Health 257 ff


          Quick time 87

          Quebec 20


          Raccoon 402

          Rat flea 449

          Rally 45

          Rays 433

          Recipes, camp 362 ff
            home 133 ff

          Red Cross, National 214 ff, 547

          "Red Gods," 371

          Reed, Chester A. 383, 423

          Reef knot 487 ff

          Reference reading, Captains' 544
            Scouts 540 ff

          Refrigerator, iceless 115 ff

          Remedies 241 ff

          Reptiles 428 ff

          Rests 86 ff

          Rhododendrons or Great Laurel 388

          Right angle, to test 471

          Robin 409

          Rock crab 444

          "Rocks and Rock Minerals" 454

          Rocky Mountain Goat 378

          Rock Tapper test 526

          Roorbach, Eloise 367

          Ropes, parts of 487

          Ross, Betsy 67
            Colonel 68

          Roumanian Scout 29

          Russian Revolution 29


          Sacajawea 21

          Sailor test 527

          St. Paris, Ohio 454

          St. Paul 70

          Salamander 425

          Salmon 433

          Sandhill cranes 410

          Sand hoppers 442

          Sanitation in Camp 323

          Scale insect 447
            maps made to 478

          Scallop 443

          Scavengers, bird 421

          Science, wonders of 544

          Scout Aide 105 ff
            Group Badge 534

          Scout Cook, the 133 ff

          Scout Naturalist Group Badge 534

          Scout Neighbor Badge 533

          Scout's pace 314

          Scratches glacial 453

          Screech owl 409

          Scribe test 528

          Sea anemone 439
            cucumber 439
            spiders 442

          Seashore animals 439 ff

          Second class Badge 49
            drill 90
            test 61 ff

          Secretary 57

          Seeds 459

          Segmented worms 439

          Semaphore signalling 101 ff
            code 102

          Setting-up exercises for Girl Scouts 273 ff

          Seventeen Year Locust 447 ff

          Shakespeare 452

          Shaler, N. S. 453

          Sharks 433

          Shaw, Anna Howard 25

          Sheep shank 493 ff

          Sheet bend 487 ff

          Sherwood, Geo. H. 373 ff

          Shocks, care of 186 ff

          Shoes, for hiking 315

          Shovel nosed sturgeon 434

          Showy primrose 387

          Shrike 417

          Sick bed 221 ff

          Sick, care of 217 ff

          Sick room 218 ff

          Side step 89

          Signalling 97 ff

          Signal flag, Gen'l Service 97,
            Semaphore 101

          Signaller test 528

          Signs and blazes 305

          Silk worm 448

          Simmons college 106, 133

          Sink 116 ff

          Skink 430

          Skunk 404

          Skunk cabbage 380

          Slogan 3

          Smith, Samuel F. 55

          Snail 439

          Snake bite 297

          Snakes 294 ff

          Social forms 129 ff

          Soft shelled crab 445

          Soil 458

          Solomon's Seal 289

          Song birds 409

          Sounds, measuring distance by 471

          Spanish Moss 396

          Spiders 439, 450 446 ff

          Sponges 439

          Spring Beauty 381

          Spruce, black, red 389

          Square knot 487 ff

          Squid 438

          Stains 127 ff

          Stalking 39

          Stars 78 ff 298 ff

          Starfish 437, 445

          Star Gazer test 529

          Starling 420

          Star Spangled Banner 73 ff

          Steps and marchings 87

          Stew 361

          "Story of Our Country" 453

          Stove 109

          Supper 148 ff

          Sun stroke, care of 188 ff

          Swimmer's test 530


          Table manners 130 ff
            setting 131

          Tadpoles 425

          Taping 467 ff

          Tenderfoot enrollment 44, 48
            pin 538
            test 60 ff

          Tennyson 380

          Tents 322 ff

          Telegrapher test 530

          Telemetry 467, 468

          Teodorroiu, Ecaterina 29

          Timber wolves 398

          Thanks badge 537

          Thistle 383

          Thrushes 409

          Toad 425 ff

          Toadstools 289 ff

          Toast 363

          Tools 457

          Totem 309

          Tracking 40

          Trade names and true names of furs 403

          Trailing arbutus 381

          Trans-Atlantic flight 69

          Treasurer, report of 57 ff

          Trees 387 ff

          Triangulation 467 ff 478

          Troop 14

          Troop crest 539

          Turin 476

          Turpentine 389 ff

          Turtles 429 ff


          Uniform, one piece 83
            two piece 92

          Union, the 70

          Union Jack 68

          Units of measure 466

          "Useful Birds and their Protection" 419

          Vega 304

          Vegetable garden 459 ff

          Vertebrates 377


          Walnuts 383

          Wapato 288

          War service 266 ff

          Water and game birds 423

          Water dog 427

          Water lily 383

          Water, selection 320
            supply 125 ff

          Wasp 447

          Waste 122

          Weasel 400 ff

          Weather wisdom 282 ff

          Weeds 461

          Weevils 449

          Weights and measures 135 ff
            judging 467 ff

          West Indies 27

          "Western Bird Guide" 423

          Wharf pile animals 441

          Whelk 443, 444

          Who are the Scouts 17 ff

          Whistle 100, 103

          White, Gilbert 425

          Whitman, Walt 313

          Whittier 387

          Width, to estimate 468 ff

          Wig Wag 97

          Wild carrot 383

          Wild flowers and ferns 380 ff

          Wild turkey 416

          Witch Hazel 382

          Wood, uses of 388 ff

          Woodcraft 280 ff

          Woodcraft Scout Group Badge 534

          Woods, twelve secrets of the 280 ff

          Woolen things 122 ff
            clothes 317 ff

          Wordsworth 375

          Wounds, care of 181 ff

          Wright, Wilbur 69


          Yard 466

          Yarrow 383

          Yellow fever 449

          Yellow pine 394


          Zoologist test 531



GIRL SCOUTS

(INCORPORATED)


NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS

189 Lexington Ave., New York City


OFFICERS, 1924

          _Founder_
          MRS. JULIETTE LOW

          _Honorary President_
          MRS. CALVIN COOLIDGE

          _Honorary Vice-Presidents_
          MRS. WARREN G. HARDING
          MRS. WILLIAM H. TAFT
          MRS. T. J. PRESTON, JR.
            (_Formerly Mrs. Grover Cleveland_)
          MRS. WOODROW WILSON

          _President_
          MRS. HERBERT HOOVER

          _First Vice-President_
          MRS. ARTHUR O. CHOATE

          _Second Vice-President_
          MRS. JULIUS ROSENWALD

          _Third Vice-President_
          MRS. WILLIAM HOFFMAN

          _Fourth Vice-President_
          MRS. M. E. OLMSTED

          _Treasurer_
          MRS. NICHOLAS F. BRADY

          _Chairman Executive Board_
          MRS. V. EVERIT MACY

          _Counsel_
          MR. DOUGLAS CAMPBELL

          _Director_
          MRS. JANE DEETER RIPPIN



ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON BUSINESS AND FINANCE

          MR. FREDERIC W. ALLEN, _Chairman_
          MR. GORDON ABBOTT
          MR. ROBERT CASSATT
          MR. HERBERT LLOYD
          MR. DUNLEVY MILBANK
          MR. CHARLES E. MITCHELL
          MR. JOHN D. RYAN
          MR. FREDERICK STRAUSS
          MR. FELIX WARBURG


EXECUTIVE BOARD

          MISS SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD
          MRS. LEO ARNSTEIN
          MRS. JOHN T. BAXTER
          MRS. NICHOLAS F. BRADY
          MRS. FREDERICK H. BROOKE
          MRS. FRANCIS K. CAREY
          MRS. LYMAN DELANO
          MR. FRANCIS P. DODGE
          MRS. FREDERICK EDEY
          MRS. ARTHUR W. HARTT
          MRS. V. EVERIT MACY
          MISS E. GWEN MARTIN
          MRS. WILLIAM G. MCADOO
          MISS LLEWELLYN PARSONS
          MRS. WILLIAM L. PHELPS
          MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT
          MRS. W. N. ROTHSCHILD
          MRS. HELEN R. SCUDDER
          MRS. A. CLIFFORD SHINKLE
          MRS. EDWARD A. SKAE
          MRS. PERCY H. WILLIAMS


PERMANENT COMMITTEES

          =Education=   _Chairman_, MISS SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD
          =Field=   _Chairman_, MRS. FREDERICK EDEY
          =Finance=   _Chairman_, MRS. NICHOLAS F. BRADY
          =Policies=   _Chairman_, MRS. FREDERICK H. BROOKE
          =Publication=   _Chairman_, MRS. WILLIAM HOFFMAN
          =Standards=   _Chairman_, MRS. ARTHUR O. CHOATE



GIRL SCOUT PUBLICATIONS

See Latest Price List for Cost

          _Scouting for Girls._ Official Handbook of the
          Girl Scouts. 572 pages, profuse illustrations.
          Bibliography. Khaki cloth cover, flexible.
          Officers' Edition, board.

          _Campward Ho!_ Manual for Girl Scout Camps. 192
          pages. Illustrations. Bibliography, cuts and
          diagrams. Cloth.

          _The Blue Book Of Rules For Girl Scout Captains._
          All official regulations, and Constitution and
          By-Laws. Lefax form. No. 12

          _Introductory Training Course For Girl Scout
          Officers._ Outline of 10 lessons. Equipment and
          references. Lefax form. No. 13.

          _The Girl Scouts' Health Record._ A convenient
          form for recording the points needed to cover for
          badge of "Health Winner." No. 7

          _Girl Scouts, Their Works, Ways and Plays._
          Pamphlet. No. 5

          _Your Girl and Mine_, by Josephine Daskam Bacon,
          Pamphlet. No. 9.

          _Why I Believe in Scouting for Girls._ Mary
          Roberts Rinehart. Pamphlet No. 10

          _Field Note Book For Girl Scout Officers._ Blue
          canvas cover, filler, envelope, for Blue Book of
          Rules, Training Courses, Miscellaneous
          Publications and Notes. Lefax form.

          _The Citizen Scout, A Program for Senior Girl
          Scouts._ Lefax form. No. 14.

          _Why Scouting for Girls Should Interest College
          Women._ Louise Stevens Bryant Pamphlet. Lefax
          form. No. 16.

          _Girl Scout Councils, Their Organization and
          Training._ 20 pp. Lefax form No. 17.

          _Why My Girls are Girl Scouts_ by Rear-Admiral W.
          S. Sims, U. S. N. Pamphlet. No. 15

          _Community Service for Girl Scouts._ Lefax form.
          No. 18.

          _Girl Scouts, Inc., Annual Reports for 1920 and
          1921._ Lefax form. No. 25 and 26.

          _Has She Got Pep? What the Girl Scout Leader
          Needs._ Josephine Daskam Bacon. Pamphlet. No. 21.

          _Educational Work of the Girl Scouts._ Louise
          Stevens Bryant. Written for Biennial Survey,
          1918-1920, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.

          _The American Girl._ A Scouting Magazine for all
          girls. Monthly. 15 cents the copy; $1.50 the year.
          Special Section for Officers, "The Field News."


Other Publications in Stock

          _Scoutmastership._ A Handbook for Scoutmasters on
          the Theory of Scout Training, by Sir Robert
          Baden-Powell. Putnam's Sons, N. Y. 1920.

          _Brownies or Blue Birds._ A Handbook for Young
          Girl Guides, by Sir Robert Baden-Powell, London.
          C. Arthur Pearson. 1920.

          _The Patrol System for Girl Guides._ London. C.
          Arthur Pearson.

          _The Junior Cook Book. Girl Scout Edition._ Clara
          Ingram. Barse and Hopkins.


          Order From
          GIRL SCOUTS, INC.
          National Headquarters
          189 Lexington Ave.
          New York City

The Woodcraft Section of SCOUTING FOR GIRLS gives the Girl Scout a taste
of one of the jolliest, most readable books about the out of door life
that any girl can have: "_The Woodcraft Manual for Girls_," by Ernest
Thompson Seton, published by Doubleday Page and Company for the
Woodcraft League Of America, Inc.

Mr. Seton has long been loved by the young people of many countries for
his marvelous understanding of animals and their homes, and in this book
he has shared his secrets with the boys and girls of America; so that
any Girl Scout who wants to be sure of herself on the trail and equipped
for all emergencies of the woods, could add no better guide book to her
Troop or personal life than this one.

[Illustration: GIRL SCOUTS]

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Page 15, "nieghborhood" changed to "neighborhood" (interests of the
neighborhood)

Page 28, "emeny" changed to "enemy" (by the enemy)

Page 28, "neigborhood" changed to "neighborhood" (in their neighborhood)

Page 30, "Souts" changed to "Scouts" (Scouts have sometimes had)

Page 31, "wherewe" changed to "where we" (town where we live)

Page 35, "counsins" changed to "cousins" (British cousins are the)

Page 52, "oportunity" changed to "opportunity" (take this opportunity)

Page 65, "skiis" changed to "skis" (Run on skis)

Page 66, twice, "Macfarlane" changed to "MacFarlane" (Will C.
MacFarlane)

Page 67, "Pennyslvania" changed to "Pennsylvania" (New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Deleware)

Page 82, "troup" changed to "troop" (use one troop in)

Page 86, "3" changed to "2" ((or left). 2. _Front._)

Page 129, "aquainted" changed to "acquainted" (if we are acquainted)

Page 131, "breding" changed to "breeding" (Good breeding)

Page 139, "like" changed to "likes" (likes a hearty breakfast)

Page 139, "salt" changed to "salted" (are salted enough)

Page 139, "like" changed to "likes" (family likes salad)

Page 140, "big" changed to "bit" (least bit soggy)

Page 146, "carefuly" changed to "carefully" (carefully washed as)

Page 151, "arangement" changed to "arrangement" (arrangement, and
pleasant)

Page 177, "e" changed to "c" ((c) If the bleeding)

Page 182, "satifactory" changed to "satisfactory" (is very satisfactory)

Page 187, "unconcious" changed to "unconscious" (that the patient is
unconscious)

Page 191, "bouyancy" changed to "buoyancy" (because of its buoyancy)

Page 191, "bouyant" changed to "buoyant" (body less buoyant)

Page 193, "buoyance" changed to "buoyancy" (overcome the buoyancy)

Page 196, "of" changed to "or" (an hour or two)

Page 198, "breath" changed to "breathe" (do not breathe until)

Page 205, "trying" changed to "tying" (tying on splints)

Page 219, word "being" inserted into text (before being returned)

Page 235, word "a" inserted into text (and a separate)

Page 238, "Fomentation" changed to "Fomentations" (Fomentations or
stupes)

Page 240, "receptable" changed to "receptacle" (contained in the
receptacle)

Page 250, word "being" inserted into text (before being given)

Page 281, "igorance" changed to "ignorance" (cures much ignorance)

Page 301, "Betelgueze" changed to "Betelgeuze" (Betelgeuze, of Orion's
right)

Page 313, Footnote marker was inserted into text. (FOR GIRL SCOUTS [1])

Page 325, "as" changed to "has" (Senior has charge of)

Page 339, "Syacmore" changed to "Sycamore" (Sycamore and buckeye)

Page 345, "to" changed to "too" (generally too bulky)

Page 350, "peal" changed to "peel" (peel it as you would)

Page 353, "eth" changed to "teeth" (build up bone and teeth)

Page 354, "assimiated" changed to "assimilated" (and is assimilated)

Page 361, "crisco" changed to "Crisco" (Crisco, or prepared cooking)

Page 373, "Hisory" changed to "History" (branches of Natural History)

Page 373, "inviation" changed to "invitation" (extends a cordial
invitation)

Page 376, "pratical" changed to "practical" (These practical questions)

Page 390, "Cylde" changed to "Clyde" (by G. Clyde Fisher)

Page 403, "Artic" changed to "Arctic" (Arctic regions of the)

Page 409, "largly" changed to "largely" (feeds largely upon mice)

Page 426, "Eastrn" changed to "Eastern" (Eastern United States)

Page 427, "gardner" changed to "gardener" (of the gardener)

Page 442, "muscles" changed to "mussels" (barnacles, mussels)

Page 449, "mullberry" changed to "mulberry" (prefer mulberry leaves)

Page 461, "stedlings" changed to "seedlings" (seedlings that you)

Page 462, "you" changed to "your" (set your line six)

Page 463, "vegtables" changed to "vegetables" (bed of vegetables)

Page 473, "accopmlish" changed to "accomplish" (you will accomplish)

Page 501, number 1 inserted into text (1. Give list of)

Page 505, "tieing" changed to "tying" (two kinds of tying)

Page 506, number 5 on the list was omitted. This was retained.

Page 506, "Applique" changed to "Appliqué" (Appliqué: Design an
Appliqué)

Page 507, "Demonsrrate" changed to "Demonstrate" (Demonstrate leading a)

Page 507, "scrupulouly" changed to "scrupulously" (cows scrupulously
clean)

Page 510, "relpace" changed to "replace" (replace a burnt-out)

Page 513, "Three" changed to "There" (There are some excellent)

Page 513, "Published" changed to "published" (Hough, published by the)

Page 516, "employee" changed to "employ" (employ one)

Page 518, original list under "5. Keep Clean:" went from b to d. List
was reordered.

Page 525, "submit" changed to "Submit" (1. Submit six good)

Page 532, repeated word "and" deleted from text (table and kitchen
dishes should)

Page 542, "Twai" changed to "Twain" (Pauper, by Mark Twain)

Page 542, "Forque" changed to "Forqué" (Undine, by De la Motte Forqué)

Page 542, "Predjudice" changed to "Prejudice" (Pride and Prejudice)

Page 544, "the" changed to "The" (The Princess and Curdie)

Page 553, in original text, entry for "Hornung" came after "Johnson,
Owen". This was repaired.

Page 543, "Nalaukha" changed to "Naulakha" (Kim, The Naulakha)

Page 543, the list of books restarts alphabetically after Woolson.

Page 545, "clevely" changed to "cleverly" (psychology cleverly
presented)

Page 546, the entry Woods was originally located between Terman and
Trotter. This was repaired.

Page 546, "Caravaning" changed to "Caravanning" (Caravanning and
Camping-out)

Page 546, "Haris" changed to "Harris" (J. Harris Stone--Herbert)

Page 548, "lizzard" changed to "Lizard" (Blue-tailed Lizard 430)

Page 551, "Kephardt" changed to "Kephart" (Kephart, Horace 313)

Page 551, "Vercheres" changed to "Verchères" (Magdelaine de Verchères
20)

Page 551, "Systm" changed to "System" (Metric System 466)

Page 552, in original text, entry for "Position" came after "Posture".
This was repaired.

Page 552, "Racoon" changed to "Raccoon" (Racoon 402)

Page 552, "Refrigator" changed to "Refrigerator" (Refrigerator, iceless,
115)

Page 552, "Scavangers" changed to "Scavengers" (Scavengers, bird 421)

Page 553, in original text, entry for "Sharks" came after "Shovel". This
was repaired.

Page 553, entries for "Sick bed" and "Sick, care of" were repeated in
the original text. They have been deleted.

Page 553, in original text, entries for "Steps" and "Stew" came before
"Stars". This was repaired.

Page 553, "badeg" changed to "badge" (Thanks badge 537)

Page 553, entries for "Thistle" and "Thrushes" were repeated in the
original text. They have been deleted.

Page 553, "anmes" changed to "names" (Trade names and true)

Page 553, "Unifom" changed to "Uniform" (Uniform, one piece)

Page 554, in original text, entry for "Water dog" came before "Water and
game". This was repaired.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home