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Title: Better Meals for Less Money
Author: Green, Mary
Language: English
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BETTER MEALS FOR LESS MONEY


BY
MARY GREEN


[Illustration]


NEW YORK
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
1917


COPYRIGHT, 1917,
BY
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY



PREFACE


With the steadily increasing cost of all staple foods the need of
intelligent buying, cooking, and serving is greater than ever before:
more money must be spent for food, or more consideration must be given
to selecting and using it. For those who would continue to serve their
households well, and whose allowance for food has not kept pace with
prices, there is only one alternative, and that is, to use more of the
cheaper foods, and to prepare and combine them so skilfully that economy
shall not be a hardship. Good meals depend not so much upon expensive
material as upon care and good judgment in the use of ordinary material.
The time-worn boarding-house jokes about prunes and hash mean simply
that these foods, in themselves excellent, are poorly prepared and too
frequently served.

It is the plan of this book to include a variety of (1) recipes which
require only a small amount of meat; (2) recipes for vegetable dishes
which can take the place of meat; (3) recipes for the economical use of
cereals, dairy products, and other common inexpensive foods; (4) recipes
for breads, cakes, and desserts requiring only a small amount of butter
and eggs; and (5) recipes for a few relishes, condiments, and other
accessories which lend variety and interest. The General Suggestions for
Economy (Chapter I) are not all new, but are liable, through disuse, to
be forgotten by the present generation. Spasmodic economy counts for
little in the long run; only systematic and continued watchfulness is
really worth while.

Economy, however, ought not to necessitate the total elimination of
one's favorite cuts of steak, nor all of the little luxuries, because by
the skilful planning of the majority of the meals the occasional use of
these luxuries can be made possible.

This book is not intended as a complete guide to cookery; it presupposes
an elementary knowledge of the care and preparation of food.

The study of Tables D and E in the Appendix is especially recommended as
an aid to the better understanding of food values.

  M. G.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                           PAGE
       I. GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR ECONOMY                              1
      II. COMMON WAYS OF COOKING FOOD                                 15
     III. APPETIZERS AND RELISHES                                     17
      IV. BEVERAGES                                                   23
       V. SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT                                          27
      VI. SOUPS AND STEWS WITH MEAT OR FISH                           35
     VII. CHOWDERS                                                    43
    VIII. FISH                                                        47
      IX. MEATS                                                       57
       X. SAUCES AND STUFFINGS FOR FISH AND MEATS                     80
      XI. EGGS                                                        88
     XII. CHEESE AND NUTS                                             95
    XIII. VEGETABLES                                                 100
     XIV. CEREALS, MACARONI, AND RICE                                113
      XV. CROQUETTES AND FRITTERS                                    120
     XVI. SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS                                 126
    XVII. YEAST BREADS, MUFFINS, AND ROLLS                           138
   XVIII. BAKING POWDER BREADS, MUFFINS, AND BISCUIT                 146
     XIX. SHORTCAKES AND ROULETTES                                   160
      XX. SANDWICHES AND TOASTS                                      163
     XXI. GRIDDLE CAKES, WAFFLES, AND SIRUPS                         170
    XXII. CAKES AND COOKIES                                          174
   XXIII. ICINGS AND FILLINGS                                        184
    XXIV. HOT DESSERTS                                               189
     XXV. COLD DESSERTS                                              196
    XXVI. FROZEN DESSERTS                                            203
   XXVII. SAUCES FOR DESSERTS                                        209
  XXVIII. PASTRIES                                                   213
    XXIX. FRUITS, COOKED AND UNCOOKED                                224
     XXX. CANDIES                                                    232


APPENDIX

  A. Table of Weights and Measures                                   239
  B. Time Table for Cooking                                          240
  C. Temperature Table                                               243
  D. Table of Caloric Values of Average Portions of Food             245
  E. Table of Caloric Values of Raw Food Materials                   250
  F. Table of Normal Weights for Men and Women                       253
  G. List of Government Publications on Foods and Cooking            254

  Index                                                              257

Before using recipes see _Special Notice_ on Page 14.



CHAPTER I

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR ECONOMY


PLANNING MEALS

In order to buy, prepare, and serve food to the best possible advantage,
an elementary knowledge of the composition and nutritive value of foods,
and the necessary food requirement of the family, is essential. Many
books are published on these subjects, but from the government
publications alone (see page 255) an excellent working knowledge may be
obtained. Only the merest outline can be given here, and this should be
supplemented by further reading.

Briefly stated, food is divided into three chief classes:[1]
(1) _Protein_, which builds and repairs the tissues.[2] It is furnished
chiefly by meats, fish, cheese, milk, eggs, cereals, and legumes.
(2) _Fats_, which furnish heat and energy, but are chiefly valuable for
storing a reserve supply of fat in the body. They are furnished largely
by butter, cream, olive and similar vegetable oils, bacon and other fat
meats. (3) _Carbohydrates_, which furnish heat and energy. They are
supplied chiefly by potatoes and other vegetables, cereals, fruits, and
sugars.

People who are eating the proper amount and kind of food should
approximate the normal weight[3] for their sex, age, and height. For the
proper maintenance of the body, a man of average height and weight, of
sedentary life,[4] requires daily food which will yield about 2,500
calories;[5] a woman of average height and weight, about 2,300 calories
(more or less according to activity). Children between two and five
years require from 1,200 to 1,400 calories; between five and ten years,
from 1,400 to 1,900 calories; and from ten to fourteen years, from 1,900
to 2,500 calories. Girls between fourteen and seventeen years require
from 2,200 to 2,600 calories; and boys between fourteen and seventeen
years, from 2,500 to 3,000 calories. Of the total number of calories
furnished ten per cent. should be protein, approximately 30 per cent.
fat, and 60 per cent. carbohydrates.

Before planning meals the consideration of these caloric requirements
and the study of the "Caloric Value of Average Portions of Food" (Table
D, page 245) and of the "Fuel Value of Raw Materials" (Table E, page
250) will help in the selection of foods to yield approximately the
desired amount of nutrition. It is not necessary or desirable that the
exact amount of each class of foods should be reckoned daily; but by the
general study of foods and their nutritive value, and the food
requirements of the body, which vary with age, sex, and conditions, the
housekeeper may serve her family with the kinds and amount of food best
suited to their needs. She should plan to use in a week as large a
variety of food as possible, and to avoid an excess of any one class.
With a definite idea of the needs of the family, she should take account
of the stock in the ice-box and pantry, and see that every bit of food
is utilized to advantage. Meals should be planned in detail at least one
day in advance, and, if possible, outlined for several days ahead;
though these plans must, of course, be varied slightly, at times,
according to the amount of left-over material and the exigencies of
supply and demand. Each day's programme should be plainly written; any
special recipes to be used noted; and a list made of supplies to be
ordered. To have the meals planned well in advance and the order list
ready saves a deal of nervous energy, time, and money.


MARKETING

If possible, attend personally to your marketing and consider carefully
the quality, quantity, and cost of your purchases in relation to the
needs of your purse and your household. Ask for what you want, and try
hard to get it; but in trying to buy supplies at lowest prices be sure
that the time and nervous energy spent are not out of proportion to the
amount of money saved.


MEAT

In considering the price of meat, the amount of bone, fat, gristle, and
so forth should be taken into account. Many of the coarser and cheaper
parts contain as much nutriment as the more expensive cuts, and can, by
proper cooking, be made fully as palatable. See that every bit of
left-over meat is used to advantage and in a variety of ways; the rinds
of bacon and salt pork when cooked with spinach or other greens, or in
soups of peas or beans, add both flavor and richness.


THE STOCK POT

All trimmings and bones, both cooked and uncooked, and any left-over
bits of meat or gravy that are not needed for other dishes, should be
put into the stock pot, covered with cold water, and _simmered_ (_not
boiled_) with soup vegetables and savory herbs for three or four hours.
Almost any left-over vegetable can be added, including macaroni, rice,
and the scrapings of the cereal cooker. If the family is small, the
cereal cooker itself makes an excellent stock pot: to the remnants of
breakfast cereal, add any soup material at hand; cover with cold water;
cook slowly; strain; and, if necessary, add one or two bouillon cubes,
and a few drops of kitchen bouquet. When soup stock is lacking in
richness a small amount of gelatine improves the quality.

The water in which vegetables, macaroni, rice, or any meats, either
fresh or salt, are cooked contains valuable mineral matter as well as
flavor, and should be added wholly or in part to the stock pot. Order
corned meats lightly salted so that all of the stock may be used. Be
sure that all fat is removed from soup stock before using. Do not serve
greasy soups. When stock must be used before the fat has had time to
harden, skim off as much as possible, and remove what remains with clean
blotting paper, or a lump of ice wrapped in cheesecloth.


FISH

Fresh fish is offered in variety at all seasons of the year, and is a
valuable and comparatively inexpensive food; salted and smoked fish
contain much protein in a concentrated form; the canned varieties are
important, too, especially for the emergency shelf, as they furnish a
substantial, inexpensive food which can be served in many ways at short
notice.


GROCERIES

Groceries in sealed packages are, as a rule, slightly more expensive
than those sold in bulk; but they are cleaner, often fresher, and more
convenient to store and use.

BUTTER AND OTHER SHORTENING

To the taste of the average person, there is no real equivalent for the
flavor of fine creamery butter, but, for cooking, excellent results may
be obtained by the use of cheaper shortening, beginning with the common
household fats which are so often discarded. All drippings from the
roasts and fat from boiled meats should be carefully strained and saved;
beef and chicken fat may be used in many recipes, including those for
cookies, cakes, meat sauces, soups, and made dishes; bacon fat is
excellent for corn cake, meat sauces, and soups of peas, beans, or
lentils; sausage fat may be used for gingerbread, cookies, poultry
stuffing, and also for frying potatoes and other vegetables, for in
these the spicy flavoring is not objectionable. Both bacon and sausage
fat and that from soup stock are useful for basting lean roasts, fish,
or meat loaf. Any surplus fat, including that of lamb and mutton, should
be clarified and added to that in the frying kettle. Fat which cannot
be utilized for cooking should be made into kitchen soap.


COOKING FATS--OILS

There are many excellent brands of wholesome cooking fats and oils on
the market, including peanut, corn, and cottonseed oil, and compound
vegetable fats. Almost any of these costs less than butter.


OLEOMARGARINE

The best oleomargarine is wholesome and economical, and much to be
preferred to inferior grades of butter.


MILK

Milk, even at present prices, gives good return in food value.
Unsweetened evaporated milk, which is absolutely sterile and clean,
costs no more, and in some places costs less, than fresh milk, and can
be used to advantage to supplement the supply. Because of its
consistency it is an excellent substitute for cream in frozen desserts.


CREAM

When eggs are relatively cheaper than cream, the stiffly beaten white of
an egg may be used to advantage to mix with beaten cream. Thin cream
whipped with a whip churn is lighter and less expensive than heavy cream
beaten.


EGGS

Unless the winter's supply of eggs has been preserved in water glass,
guaranteed cold storage eggs will be found satisfactory, and much
cheaper than hennery eggs. Only enough for a few days should be bought
at a time, however, and they should be kept in a cold place until used.
Wash eggs before breaking, and save the shells for clearing boiled
coffee, soup, and aspic. For coating croquettes, dilute each beaten egg
with one-fourth cup of water or one-third cup of milk; cover unused
yolks with water to prevent drying, and pour off water before using.
Have both yolk and white of egg cold, so that they may be beaten more
quickly; add a pinch of salt to whites of eggs which are to be beaten
stiff, and beat in a current of air. Soft-boiled or dropped eggs not
used at table should be put back in boiling water, cooked hard, and used
for garnishing, egg sauce, etc.


CHEESE

Cheese is nutritious and, even at present prices, economical, as it
contains a large proportion of protein in concentrated form. It can be
successfully combined with many other foods, and every left-over bit
should be so used; when partly dry it should be put through the food
chopper, using a fine cutter; when very dry it should be grated and used
in sauces, soufflés, soups, and many other dishes. Cheese is more
readily digested if a pinch of baking soda is cooked with it. To keep
cheese moist and fresh, brush the cut surface with melted paraffin. Save
left-over Welsh rarebit for sandwich filling. The shells of Edam or
pineapple cheeses should not be thrown away, but be filled with creamed
macaroni, spaghetti, or rice, covered with crumbs, and baked in a hot
oven.


FRESH VEGETABLES

A variety of vegetables should be served daily, and those which contain
a large amount of protein, such as beans, lentils, and peas, should be
used not only as an accompaniment to meat, but, in combination with
other vegetables, sauces, bacon or other fats, as the substantial dish
of the meal.


DRIED VEGETABLES

Dried vegetables should be soaked in cold water for twelve hours or
longer, and then cooked slowly until tender; dried julienne should be
soaked for twenty-four hours before cooking.


MACARONI, NOODLES, RICE, CEREALS

Macaroni, noodles and similar pastas, rice, and the cereals furnish much
nutriment at low cost; oatmeal and corn meal are among our cheapest
foods.

Ready cooked cereals, though they are convenient and give variety to the
diet, are more expensive than raw cereals well cooked; not only do they
yield less food value, but, being dry, they require more cream or milk
to make them palatable.


LEFT-OVER VEGETABLES

Left-over vegetables and cereals, even in small quantities, should be
saved for use in entrées, desserts, salads, sauces, and soups. Celery
tops should be saved for flavoring and garnishing, the root stalk
chopped and added to the stock pot, and the outside stalks stewed,
creamed, or used for cream soup. The outside leaves of lettuce should be
shredded for salad, or, for any large quantity, cooked the same as
spinach.


CANNED VEGETABLES

The flavor of canned vegetables is improved if, before being cooked,
they are rinsed with cold water and exposed to the air. Parsley and
chives may be kept growing in pots in the kitchen window to be used as
needed.


SALADS

Salads should be freely used at all seasons, and be made light or
nourishing according to the foods served with them. They offer an
opportunity to the housekeeper to exercise her ingenuity in combining
various vegetables, meats, and fruits, especially left-over bits. Crisp
white cabbage, shredded, may be used in place of celery.


SALAD DRESSINGS

Salad dressings need not necessarily be made of olive oil, for there are
other good and less expensive vegetable oils well worth using, and many
of the cooked salad dressings without oil are excellent.


BREAD

Various kinds of bread should be freely used, especially whole wheat and
other cereal breads, and those containing raisins, dates, and prunes.
Watch the bread-box, and see that every bit of bread is used in some
way; the unused crusts should be dried, rolled, sifted, and kept in a
covered jar for stuffing, crumbing croquettes, brown bread, puddings, or
other dishes in which the color is not objectionable; cold toast or cut
slices should be made into croutons, or used for canapés or French
toast; other pieces should be used for croustades, or made into crumbs,
both coarse and fine, for use in fondues, griddle cakes, omelets,
sauces, and soups. Bits of crackers should be dried, rolled, and used
the same as bread crumbs.

None of the recipes for cake require more than two eggs; many, only one;
and some, none at all. Water may always be used in place of milk, and
any clean, fresh shortening may be substituted for butter, especially in
the recipes which include molasses and spices. These cakes will not keep
moist like richer cakes, however, and should be used soon after making.

Slices of stale cake and crumbs should be utilized in making other
desserts in combination with custards, ices, preserves, etc.


BAKING POWDER

Do not use more baking powder than is necessary for good results; two
_level_ teaspoons to each cup of flour is the usual allowance, but one
and one-half teaspoons each to each cup will be sufficient if the
muffins, biscuits, or cake are quickly and lightly handled and properly
baked.


FLAVORING EXTRACTS

When volatile flavoring extracts are used in cake, much of their
strength is wasted during baking; grated rind or spices could well be
used in their place, or only the icing or filling flavored. All
desserts, whenever practicable, should be flavored when cold.


COLORING

The small package of red coloring which comes with gelatine is useful
for coloring cakes, icings, and other desserts as well as jellies.


FRUITS

Fruits, either fresh, dried, or preserved, should be served at least
once a day; dried fruits, such as apricots, peaches, and prunes, should
be soaked in cold water for twelve hours or longer and then cooked
slowly until tender. Raisins, dates, and figs yield a large food value
at comparatively low cost. Bananas, which contain more nutriment than
most fresh fruits, should be used for salads or desserts when the other
courses are light. In cooking acid fruits, such as cranberries, plums,
and cherries, less sugar is required if added after cooking. Parings and
cores from quinces and apples can be made into excellent jelly; the
rinds of watermelons are the foundation of a delicious sweet pickle;
orange and grape fruit peel, when candied, are well worth the trouble of
making. Surplus orange, lemon, and grape fruit peels, when dried, are
not only useful for flavoring, but make an interesting and aromatic fuel
for the fire-place; the nut meat found in prune stones tastes much like
that of bitter almonds and can be used in place of them.

When making jelly remember that the pulp of the fruit after the juice
has dripped from it may be made into excellent marmalade: cover with
water, heat to boiling point, press through a sieve, add three-quarters
of the amount of sugar, and cook until thick.


CANDIES

In spite of its cost, candy is now classed by many with the necessities
rather than with the luxuries. After a little practice even the most
elaborate candies can be successfully made at home, and the difference
between the cost of a pound of the best ready-made candy and the cost of
the raw materials is astonishing. For those who can spare the time,
candy-making will prove both fascinating and economical. Recipes for a
few after-dinner candies are given.


CONDIMENTS

A small supply of condiments and relishes, including kitchen bouquet,
ketchup, and sweet herbs, and one or two table sauces, should be kept in
stock, as they make possible a greater variety of flavors. Many
home-made sauces and relishes can be easily and quickly prepared and are
usually much cheaper than the ready-made varieties.


CANDLE STUBS

Candle stubs should be melted, strained through cheesecloth, and used
for sealing ketchup, jellies, and preserves.


GARNISHINGS

Any dish, attractively garnished and served, pleases the eye, stimulates
the appetite, and often lifts a simple meal out of the commonplace.
Parsley, mint, celery tops, red and green peppers, olives, pickles,
capers, cooked beets and carrots, hard-cooked egg, lemon cut in various
shapes, nuts, cherries, and other small fruits are all effective if not
too lavishly used.


UTENSILS

A reasonable equipment of kitchen utensils and a convenient, systematic
arrangement of them will save time and strength. Kitchen scales are
almost indispensable, and a cooking thermometer eliminates guesswork,
especially in boiling sugar and heating fat for frying. Pans, molds, and
cutters of various shapes prevent monotony; suitable baking dishes and
covered casserole dishes simplify both cooking and serving; and food
cooked or served in individual dishes is often more attractive. When
the cogs of the egg beater slip, do not discard it, but tighten the
rivet; keep knives well sharpened. Cream jars, jugs, bottles, or any
other containers for which a charge is made, should be promptly returned
to be credited.


FUEL

Do not waste fuel; concentrate your cooking; when a hot oven is needed
for roasting meat or baking bread, plan to cook at the same time other
things which require a high temperature; potatoes can be cooked in the
pan with the meat; other vegetables and fruits can be cooked in the
oven; and if a coal fire is used, a variety of food can be cooked in a
steamer on top of the range without extra fuel.

Have the ashes sifted and save the _cinders_, which yield a quick top
heat.

Economize _gas_ by using the minimum amount necessary to keep food
cooking at the desired temperature. When the boiling point is reached a
small supply of gas will maintain the temperature.

_Fireless cookers_ save much fuel and unnecessary heat, and are
especially useful for any food which requires long, slow cooking, or for
those foods of strong odor which so often scent up the whole house.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Water and mineral salts are also necessary for the proper
maintenance of the body, but these are yielded chiefly in combination
with the other foods.

[2] Protein can also furnish energy, but this is more easily and cheaply
supplied by the fats and carbohydrates.

[3] See Table F, page 253.

[4] People of sedentary life require daily approximately sixteen
calories for each pound of their weight. So if the normal weight of such
persons is multiplied by sixteen, the result will be the approximate
number of calories needed.

[5] A Calorie is the amount of heat required to raise one kilogram of
water 1° Centigrade or one pound of water 4° Fahrenheit.



SPECIAL NOTICE


All ingredients in these recipes should be measured level, and the
standard teaspoon, tablespoon, and half-pint measuring cup should be
used.

Unless otherwise stated, one apple, onion, orange, etc., means one of
medium size.

Sift flour before measuring, and fill cup lightly. Use pastry flour,
unless otherwise directed, for thickening soups and sauces, and in all
recipes where baking powder is used; use bread flour in all recipes
where yeast is used.

The majority of these recipes are planned to serve four persons; those
for chowders and other dishes which form the substantial part of the
meal are sufficient for second helpings; those for cakes, muffins, and
other breads are large enough to be served more than once.



CHAPTER II

COMMON WAYS OF COOKING FOOD


_Baking_ is cooking in confined heat in the oven. Examples: bread, cake,
meat. This method when applied to meat is commonly called roasting.
Before baking, see that the oven is clean and heated to the desired
temperature.

_Boiling_ is cooking by immersion in water at 212° F. Examples:
potatoes, cabbage, macaroni.

_Braising_ is a combination of stewing on the top of the range, and
baking in the oven, with or without vegetables. Examples: tough meats,
fowl, whole liver.

_Broiling or Grilling_ is cooking over or under direct heat, as over
glowing coals or under a gas flame. Examples: steak, chops.

_Fricasseeing_ is commonly a combination of stewing and sautéing.
Examples: fowl, forequarter of lamb or veal.

_Frying_ is cooking by immersion in hot deep fat. Examples: doughnuts,
croquettes.

_Pan-baking or Pan-broiling_ is cooking in a lightly greased or
ungreased hot frying pan or griddle. Examples: steak, English muffins,
griddle cakes.

_Pot Roasting_ is cooking in an iron kettle or earthen pot in a small
amount of water, after meat has been quickly browned in a small amount
of fat in the frying pan or kettle. Cook slowly until very tender, with
or without vegetables.

_Roasting_ is cooking before an open fire. This method is seldom used in
small households, although the baking of meats is commonly called
roasting.

_Sautéing_ is cooking in a small amount of fat in a shallow pan on top
of range. Examples: sliced fish, meat, potatoes, eggs.

_Simmering_ is cooking in liquid at 185° F. The bubbles should always be
below the surface. Examples: ham, corned beef, soups.

_Steaming._ _Dry Steaming_ is cooking by heat of steam, as in double
boiler or tin, over or surrounded by boiling water. Examples: rice,
brown bread. _Moist Steaming_ is cooking by direct contact with steam as
in a steamer or colander, over boiling water, closely covered. Examples:
fowl, puddings, dumplings.

_Stewing_ is cooking slowly in a small amount of water (about 160° F.)
until food is very tender. Examples: beef, lamb, vegetables.



CHAPTER III

APPETIZERS AND RELISHES


1.--COCKTAIL SAUCE

  1/4 cup tomato ketchup                 1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon bottled horseradish       1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  2 tablespoons vinegar                  Dash of cayenne

Mix, and serve in four small glasses or lemon shells, with six small
clams or oysters in each. Shrimps, prawns, or lobster may be used
instead of clams or oysters.


2.--ASHEVILLE CANAPÉS

Peel and cut small tomatoes in quarter-inch slices; cut thin rounds of
bread the same size as tomatoes; toast bread, spread with Mustard Butter
(see No. 459), or salad dressing, and cover with a slice of tomato;
season lightly with salt and pepper, and cover with thin slices of
cooked chicken livers. Garnish with parsley.


3.--CLUB CANAPÉS

Mix devilled ham with a little grated cheese; spread on thin rounds of
brown bread, and mark into quarters with finely chopped pickle. Chop
fine the white of a hard-cooked egg, and cover two opposite quarters;
press the yolk through a sieve, and cover the remaining quarters.


4.--CRAB MEAT CANAPÉS

  1 cup crab meat            1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/4 teaspoon paprika       1 tablespoon lemon juice
  1/2 teaspoon salt          1/2 teaspoon horseradish
  1/4 teaspoon mustard

Chop crab meat, mix well with seasonings, and spread on thin rounds of
untoasted brown bread. Garnish with small cube of lemon.


5.--MOCK CRAB CANAPÉS

  1 cup canned corn          1 teaspoon anchovy paste
  1/4 teaspoon salt          2 tablespoons grated cheese
  1/3 teaspoon paprika

Use one cup of corn which has been drained from its juice; put through
food chopper, using the finest cutter; add seasonings and cheese, and
spread on small rounds of toast. Garnish with small pickles sliced
lengthwise.


6.--GLOUCESTER CANAPÉS

Cook a small haddock roe in boiling salted water for fifteen minutes,
remove skin, mash, add a tablespoon of butter, half a teaspoon of
anchovy paste, one-fourth teaspoon of paprika, and enough cream to
moisten; add salt if necessary. Mound on small rounds of toast, and
garnish with sliced pickles and parsley.


7.--TUNA CANAPÉS

  1 cup tuna fish                   1/2 tablespoon olive oil
  1 tablespoon tomato ketchup       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon lemon juice          1/4 teaspoon paprika

Chop fish, add seasonings, and spread on small rounds of lightly toasted
bread. Garnish with sliced pimolas.


8.--CELERY RELISH

Cut large white stalks of celery in two-inch lengths, fill with cream
cheese which has been seasoned with salt, pepper, and Worcestershire
sauce. Garnish with a small piece of celery top.


9.--CHEESE AND APPLE RINGS

  1 large tart apple                 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/2 cup soft cheese cut fine       Dash of cayenne
  1/8 teaspoon salt                  2 tablespoons cream

Pare and core apples, and cut in one-third-inch slices; mix cheese with
seasonings and cream, beat to a paste, and spread or force through a
rose tube on apple rings. Dust with paprika.


10.--SPANISH CHEESE

Cook together one and a half cups of soft or grated cheese with
one-fourth cup of chili sauce until the cheese is melted. Serve
immediately on toasted crackers or rounds of toast, as an appetizer or
savory.


11.--CANTALOUPE COCKTAIL

  2 cups cantaloupe              Juice of 1/2 lemon
  1/3 cup preserved ginger       2 tablespoons powdered sugar

Cut melon in small cubes, or in balls (using a potato cutter). Add
chopped ginger, lemon juice, and sugar, and serve very cold.


12.--FRUIT COCKTAIL

  2 tart apples        1 teaspoon lemon juice
  1 large banana       4 tablespoons powdered sugar
  2 oranges

Cut apples and bananas in small cubes; remove pith and seeds from
oranges, cut pulp in small pieces, and add with juice to apples and
bananas; add lemon juice and sugar, place in a shallow dish, and put
directly on ice for ten minutes to chill; serve in glasses, and garnish
with a Preserved Cranberry (see No. 670), or a spoonful of Mock
Bar-le-Duc (see No. 666). Peeled Tokay or Malaga grapes and a little
grated pineapple may be added to advantage.


13.--WINTER CHILI SAUCE

  1 can tomatoes                1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 onions finely chopped       1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/3 cup brown sugar           1/4 teaspoon clove
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt          1/3 cup vinegar
  1 teaspoon paprika

Mix, and simmer about half an hour or until thick.


14.--PICCALILLI

  3 quarts green tomatoes       2 quarts vinegar
  3 quarts ripe tomatoes        1 quart sugar
  2 red peppers                 1 teaspoon cinnamon
  3 onions                      1/2 teaspoon clove
  1/2 cup salt                  4 tablespoons white mustard seed

Put vegetables through the food chopper, using coarse cutter; sprinkle
with salt, let stand over night, and drain; add other ingredients, and
cook about forty-five minutes.


15.--TABLE SAUCE

  12 ripe tomatoes             1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 onion                      1 cup vinegar
  3 green peppers              1 teaspoon ground clove
  2 tablespoons sugar          1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  1-1/2 tablespoons salt       2 teaspoons mustard
  1 teaspoon paprika

Wipe tomatoes, cut in halves, and put in a clean, smooth preserving
kettle; add onion and peppers sliced, and seasonings; simmer two hours,
and press through a sieve; return to kettle, simmer one hour, and seal
in jars or bottles; when cool, dip tops in paraffin. This may be used in
place of ready-made sauce.


16.--TOMATO KETCHUP

  1 peck ripe tomatoes        1/2 cup whole mixed spices
  3 onions                    1 clove of garlic
  1/2 cup salt                1/3 cup dry mustard
  2 teaspoons cayenne         1 quart vinegar
  2 tablespoons paprika       1 cup brown sugar

Wipe tomatoes, cut in halves, and put in a smooth, clean preserving
kettle; add onions sliced, cook slowly for one hour, and press through a
sieve; add salt, cayenne, and paprika; tie mixed spices, garlic, and
mustard in double cheesecloth, add to tomatoes, and cook rapidly until
mixture begins to thicken; boil vinegar and sugar together while
tomatoes are cooking; add them to strained tomato; cook until ketchup is
thick, or until water will not separate from it when tried on a plate.
Remove spice bag, seal in sterilized jars or bottles, and when cool dip
tops in melted paraffin.


17.--SMALL CUCUMBER PICKLES (Gherkins)

Wash thoroughly, count, and for every hundred cucumbers allow one cup of
salt. Cover with boiling water. Let stand twenty-four hours; then drain.
Fill quart preserve jars with cucumbers, then add two tablespoons of
mixed whole spices, a piece of alum the size of a pea, and boiling
vinegar to fill the jar. Seal, and let stand a week before using. The
boiling water should be measured, as an equal amount of vinegar will be
needed.


18.--PEPPER HASH

  6 green peppers             1 quart vinegar
  6 red peppers               1 cup brown sugar
  6 onions                    2 tablespoons salt
  1 small white cabbage       2 tablespoons mustard seed

Remove seeds from peppers and chop fine with the onion and cabbage. Put
in cheesecloth, scald with boiling water, and squeeze dry; heat vinegar,
sugar, salt, and mustard seed, add vegetables, and bring to the boiling
point. When cool, put in a stone crock or small jars.


19.--PICKLED NASTURTIUM SEEDS

Into one quart of cider vinegar put three tablespoons salt and five or
six slices of horseradish root. Pour into a jar and cover closely. Add
the seeds as they ripen. Use in salads, sauces, or for garnishing as a
substitute for capers.



CHAPTER IV

BEVERAGES


20.--COFFEE, EGG, AND MILK

  2 eggs                        1-1/2 teaspoons instantaneous coffee
  2-1/2 tablespoons sugar       3 cups milk
  Few grains salt

Beat the eggs until light; add the other ingredients, and strain into
glasses. Serve very cold. (This recipe fills four tumblers.)


21.--GRAPE JUICE (Unfermented)

Pick over and wash grapes, barely cover with water, and cook until soft
and white; drain through cheesecloth, and to each quart of juice add one
cup each of water and sugar; bring to boiling point, skim, bottle, and
cork tightly. When cold, dip corks into melted paraffin.


22.--GRAPE EGGNOG

  1 egg                          1/4 cup milk
  1/3 cup grape juice            Nutmeg
  1 teaspoon powdered sugar

Beat egg until very light, add grape juice and sugar, and beat again,
add milk, beat well, pour into a glass, and dust with nutmeg.


23.--GINGER PUNCH

  1-1/4 cups sugar            2 teaspoons Jamaica ginger
  1 quart boiling water       1/2 cup orange juice
  Grated rind 1 lemon         1/3 cup lemon juice

Boil sugar and water with the lemon rind for ten minutes; when cool, add
ginger and fruit juice, and strain over cracked ice.


24.--GINGER ALE PUNCH

  1/2 cup mint leaves       1 cup boiling water
  1-1/4 cups sugar          2 pints ginger ale
  Juice of 3 lemons         1 pint grape juice

Pour boiling water over mint leaves, sugar, and grated rind of one
lemon, and let stand until cool; strain into a punch bowl containing
ice, add ginger ale, grape juice, and strained lemon juice; garnish with
sprigs of mint.


25.--MINT JULEP (Ginger Ale)

  3/4 cup sugar            4 sprigs mint
  1 cup water              1 pint ginger ale
  Juice of 3 lemons

Boil sugar and water ten minutes, and cool; add strained lemon juice,
mint leaves bruised, and ginger ale; half fill glasses with crushed ice,
add julep, and garnish with a sprig of mint.


26.--MINT LEMONADE

  1 cup sugar        1 cup mint leaves
  6 cups water       Juice of 3 lemons

Boil sugar and water twenty minutes; add mint, and let stand until cold;
add lemon juice, and strain into glasses half filled with cracked ice.
Garnish with sprigs of mint.


27.--TEA

Tea should be made from freshly drawn, freshly boiled water, poured over
the dry tea, which has been put into a clean, scalded teapot. Cover with
a cozy or stand on back of range for three or four minutes. Allow from a
half to a full teaspoon of tea to each cup, according to the variety
used. The finer varieties made from the first pickings require less than
the coarser kinds. Be sure that tea does not boil. Serve with sugar,
cream, lemon, cloves, mints, ginger, or bits of candied fruit.


28.--ICED TEA

Fill a large glass two-thirds full with cracked ice, add two thin slices
of lemon with seeds removed, two teaspoons of powdered sugar, and fill
with freshly made hot tea. One or two mint leaves may be added.


29.--FILTERED COFFEE

  1/2 cup pulverized coffee       4 cups boiling water

Put coffee into bag or filter, add boiling water gradually; pour through
a second time, or even a third time if liked strong. Do not boil. Serve
with hot milk and cream. Wash coffee pot and bag thoroughly, and dry in
the sun if possible; renew bag often.


30.--AFTER-DINNER COFFEE

  1/2 cup pulverized coffee       2 cups boiling water

Put coffee into a filter coffee pot, add boiling water, and filter three
times. Serve very hot.


31.--CAFÉ AU LAIT

To recipe for After-dinner Coffee (see No. 30) add one and a half cups
of hot milk.


32.--COCOA

  4 teaspoons cocoa         2 cups boiling water
  2 tablespoons sugar       2 cups hot milk
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Mix cocoa, sugar, salt, and boiling water, and boil five minutes; add
hot milk, and beat with egg beater until frothy.


33.--CHOCOLATE

  1-1/2 squares chocolate       2 cups boiling water
  1/4 cup sugar                 2 cups hot milk
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Melt chocolate in a saucepan over hot water; add sugar, salt, and
boiling water; stir well, and boil five minutes; add hot milk, and beat
with egg beater until frothy. Evaporated milk makes excellent chocolate
or cocoa. For marshmallow chocolate put two marshmallows in each cup and
pour hot chocolate over them.



CHAPTER V

SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT


34.--ASPARAGUS SOUP

When fresh asparagus is served as a vegetable, cook the tough ends in
the same water, which should be lightly salted. Press through a sieve,
add the water, and for each three cups add one-half teaspoon of onion
juice and one cup of hot milk. Thicken with one tablespoon of butter and
two tablespoons of flour blended together. Add pepper, and salt if
necessary.


35.--PURÉE OF BLACK BEANS

  1 cup black beans           1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 quart cold water          1 tablespoon bacon fat
  1 slice bacon               1 tablespoon flour
  1/2 onion                   1 hard-cooked egg
  1 teaspoon salt             Lemon slices
  1/2 teaspoon paprika

Soak beans over night in cold water; drain; add one quart of water,
bacon, and onion, and cook three hours or until beans are soft,
replacing water which cooks away; press through a sieve; add seasonings,
and thicken with bacon fat and flour blended together. Serve with a thin
slice of egg and lemon in each plate. Corned beef stock is an excellent
substitute for water, but if it is used salt should be omitted.


36.--BAKED BEAN SOUP

  2 cups cold baked beans       2 tablespoons flour
  1-1/2 cups tomatoes           1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 slices onion                1/8 teaspoon pepper
  4 cups cold water             1 tablespoon tomato ketchup
  1 tablespoon butter

Simmer beans, tomatoes, onion, and water for half an hour, and press
through a sieve; thicken with butter and flour blended together; add
seasonings, and serve with fried croutons.


37.--PURÉE OF RED KIDNEY BEANS

Follow recipe for Purée of Black Beans (see No. 35), using red kidney
beans in place of black beans.


38.--DRIED LIMA BEAN SOUP

  1 cup lima beans           1 cup milk
  6 cups cold water          1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 onion sliced           1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/2 carrot sliced          1 tablespoon bacon fat
  1/2 bay leaf               2 tablespoons flour

Soak beans over night; drain; add cold water, onion, carrot, and bay
leaf, and simmer an hour and a half or until beans are soft; press
through a sieve, add milk and seasonings, and thicken with bacon fat and
flour blended together. Serve with croutons.


39.--CAULIFLOWER SOUP

To three cups of the water in which cauliflower has been cooked add
one-half teaspoon of onion juice and one cup of hot milk. Thicken with
one tablespoon of butter and two tablespoons of flour blended together.
Season with cayenne, and salt if necessary. Add a few left-over bits of
cauliflower, and serve with croutons or crisp crackers.


40.--CREAM OF CELERY SOUP

  1 cup celery tops            1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup chopped celery       3-1/2 cups boiling water
  2 slices onion               1-1/2 cups hot milk
  1/4 cup rice                 1/2 tablespoon butter
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt

Cook celery, onion, rice, seasonings, and boiling water for half an
hour; press through a sieve; add hot milk and butter, and serve with
crisp crackers.


41.--CREAM OF CORN SOUP

  1 can corn                 1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 onion                  1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 cups boiling water       1 tablespoon butter
  2 cups hot milk            2 tablespoons flour

Chop corn and onion, add water, and simmer twenty minutes; press through
a sieve, forcing through all the corn possible; add milk and seasonings,
and thicken with butter and flour blended together.


42.--CHEESE SOUP

  2 cups milk                2 tablespoons flour
  2 cups boiling water       1/2 cup grated cheese
  1 onion sliced             1 egg well beaten
  1/2 bay leaf               1 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon butter        Dash of cayenne

Scald milk, water, onion, and bay leaf twenty minutes; skim out onion
and bay leaf, thicken milk with butter and flour cooked together; add
cheese, egg, and seasonings, and stir until cheese melts.


43.--FRUIT SOUP

  3 pears                             Juice of 1/2 lemon
  3 apples                            1/8 teaspoon cinnamon
  4 cups boiling water                3 tablespoons honey or sugar
  1 tablespoon granulated tapioca

Chop fruit, add water, cook until tender, and press through a sieve; add
tapioca, and cook until clear; add lemon juice, cinnamon, and honey.
Serve hot or cold with toast sticks.


44.--OATMEAL SOUP

  3/4 cup cooked oatmeal       2 cups hot milk
  1/2 onion sliced             1 teaspoon salt
  2 cloves                     1/8 teaspoon celery salt
  1/2 bay leaf                 1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 cups boiling water         1/2 tablespoon butter

Cook oatmeal, onion, cloves, and bay leaf in boiling water for twenty
minutes, and press through a sieve; add milk, seasonings, and butter,
and serve with croutons.


45.--POTATO SOUP

  3 potatoes sliced          1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup celery tops        2 cups hot milk
  1/2 onion                  1 tablespoon butter
  2 cups boiling water       2 tablespoons flour
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt

Cook potatoes, celery, onion, and water twenty minutes; press through a
sieve; add seasonings and hot milk, and thicken with butter and flour
blended together.


46.--CREAM OF PEA SOUP

  1 can peas             1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 slice onion          2 cups boiling water
  Bit of bay leaf        2 cups hot milk
  Sprig of parsley       1 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon sugar       2 tablespoons flour
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt

Rinse the peas with cold water, and reserve one-fourth cup; simmer the
remainder with seasonings and hot water for twenty minutes, and press
through a sieve; thicken the milk with butter and flour blended
together, and add to peas. Add the whole peas just before serving.


47.--PURÉE OF SPLIT PEAS

  1/2 cup split peas              1/8 teaspoon pepper
  4 cups water or ham stock       1 tablespoon bacon fat
  2 slices onion                  1 tablespoon flour
  1 cup hot milk

Soak peas over night in cold water, and drain; add water or stock, and
onion, and simmer about three hours or until peas are soft; press
through a sieve; add milk and pepper, and thicken with bacon fat and
flour blended together. Serve with croutons. If water is used in place
of stock, add two slices of bacon and one and a quarter teaspoons of
salt.


48.--RICE AND TOMATO SOUP

  1 can tomatoes             1 tablespoon sugar
  1/2 onion                  2 cups boiling water
  1/2 bay leaf               1/8 teaspoon soda
  3 cloves                   2 tablespoons bacon fat
  1 teaspoon salt            2 tablespoons flour
  1/4 teaspoon paprika       1/2 cup cooked rice

Simmer tomatoes, seasonings, and water half an hour; press through a
sieve, and add soda; melt bacon fat, and cook with flour until brown;
add to soup, and stir until smooth; add rice, and serve.


49.--TOMATO BISQUE

  2 cups tomatoes               1 teaspoon sugar
  1 slice onion                 1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  Bit of bay leaf               1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 cloves                      3 cups hot milk
  1 cup boiling water           2 tablespoons butter
  1/4 teaspoon soda             3 tablespoons flour

Simmer tomatoes, onion, bay leaf, cloves, and water for twenty minutes,
and press through a sieve; add soda, sugar, salt, and pepper; thicken
milk with butter and flour blended together, and add to tomato just
before serving. Serve with croutons.


50.--TOMATO BOUILLON

  1 can tomatoes          1/2 bay leaf
  2 cups water            1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/2 cup onion           Dash of cayenne
  1/2 cup carrot          1 teaspoon sugar
  1 cup celery tops       2 tablespoons tomato ketchup
  6 cloves

Simmer all ingredients except tomato ketchup for half an hour, strain
through double cheesecloth, add ketchup, and serve either very hot or
very cold. The tomato pulp should be pressed through a sieve and used
for flavoring other soups or sauces.


51.--TOMATO AND OATMEAL SOUP

  1/2 can tomatoes          1 teaspoon salt
  3 cups hot water          1 teaspoon sugar
  2 slices onion            1/8 teaspoon soda
  1/4 bay leaf              1/8 teaspoon pepper
  3 cloves                  1 teaspoon butter
  1/2 cup rolled oats

Heat tomatoes, water, onion, bay leaf, and cloves to boiling point; add
oatmeal gradually, and cook for forty-five minutes; press through a
sieve; add seasonings and butter, and serve with croutons.


52.--TOMATO AND PEANUT SOUP

  1-1/2 cups stewed and strained tomatoes      1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/2 cup peanut butter                        2-1/2 cups boiling water
  3/4 teaspoon salt

Add tomatoes gradually to peanut butter, and when smooth add seasonings
and water; simmer ten minutes, and serve with croutons. Well seasoned
soup stock may be substituted for the water; if so, use less salt.

53.--WINSOR SOUP

  2 potatoes                     1 tablespoon butter
  1 white turnip                 2 tablespoons flour
  1/4 cup celery tops            1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  2 slices onion                 1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2-1/2 cups boiling water       2 tablespoons tomato ketchup
  1-1/2 cups hot milk

Pare and slice potatoes and turnip, add celery tops, onion, and boiling
water, cook half an hour, and press through a sieve; add hot milk,
thicken with butter and flour blended together, season, and serve with
croutons.


54.--VEGETABLE SOUP

  1/2 cup leeks                      1 cup half-inch potato cubes
  1/2 cup carrots                    1 cup hot milk
  1 cup cabbage                      1 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons beef drippings       1/4 teaspoon pepper
  3 cups boiling water               1 tablespoon chopped parsley

Cut leeks into slices, carrots and cabbage into small pieces, or put
through the food chopper, and cook in beef drippings for ten minutes,
stirring often; add boiling water and potatoes, and cook twenty minutes,
or until vegetables are tender; add milk and seasonings, and serve with
croutons.



CHAPTER VI

SOUPS AND STEWS WITH MEAT OR FISH


55.--CREAM OF CHICKEN SOUP

  3 cups chicken stock       Salt
  1 slice onion              1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup celery tops        2 tablespoons chicken fat or butter
  1 cup hot milk             3 tablespoons flour

Cook stock, onion, and celery for fifteen minutes, and strain; add hot
milk and seasonings, and thicken with chicken fat and flour blended
together. The amount of salt will depend upon the quantity in the stock.
Celery salt may be used in place of celery tops.


56.--CHICKEN AND OKRA SOUP

  1 quart chicken stock           1 cup tomatoes
  1 tablespoon grated onion       1/2 can okra
  1/8 teaspoon celery salt        2 tablespoons rice
  1/2 green pepper chopped

Heat stock to boiling point, add other ingredients, and simmer half an
hour or until rice is tender. Add salt if necessary. Ham stock in place
of chicken stock makes an excellent soup.


57.--CLAM BISQUE

  1 pint clams                   1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup water                    2 cups hot milk
  1 slice onion                  1 tablespoon butter
  1/8 teaspoon soda              2 tablespoons flour
  1/4 teaspoon celery salt       1 teaspoon chopped parsley
  1 teaspoon salt

Remove necks and gills from clams, and chop fine; simmer with the soft
part of clams, water, and onion for fifteen minutes; add soda and
seasonings; thicken the milk with the butter and flour cooked together;
add to clams, sprinkle with parsley, and serve at once.


58.--CLAM BOUILLON

  1 pint clams            1/4 teaspoon celery salt
  2 cups cold water       Dash of cayenne
  3/4 teaspoon salt

Chop clams, add cold water, and simmer fifteen minutes; add seasonings,
and strain through double cheesecloth. Serve in cups with or without
whipped cream; or pour over the stiffly beaten white of one egg.


59.--CLEAR SOUP

  1/4 cup chopped carrot       1 quart boiling water
  1/4 cup chopped onion        1 teaspoon beef extract
  1/4 cup chopped turnip       1 teaspoon salt
  2 cloves                     Dash of cayenne
  Small bit bay leaf           Few drops kitchen bouquet

Cook vegetables, cloves, bay leaf, and water for half an hour, and
strain through double cheesecloth. Add extract, salt, cayenne, and
kitchen bouquet. Four bouillon cubes may be used in place of extract,
and the salt, cayenne, and bouquet omitted.


60.--JULIENNE SOUP (Bouillon Cubes)

  2 tablespoons onion              1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons carrot             4 cups boiling water
  2 tablespoons white turnip       3 bouillon cubes

Cut vegetables into fine shreds an inch long, add salt and boiling
water, and cook until tender; add bouillon cubes, and salt if necessary.
Two tablespoons of tomato ketchup may be added.


61.--MOCK TURTLE SOUP

  2 pounds knuckle of veal       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 pound liver                2 tablespoons beef drippings
  1 onion                        4 tablespoons flour
  1 carrot                       1 teaspoon sugar
  1/2 bay leaf                   1 tablespoon vinegar
  1/2 cup celery tops            1/4 teaspoon kitchen bouquet
  2 quarts water                 1 hard-cooked egg
  2 teaspoons salt

Wash meat, add vegetables cut fine, and boiling water, and cook slowly
for four hours; remove meat, strain stock, remove fat, and add salt and
pepper; cook drippings, flour, and sugar together until brown; add to
stock, and stir until smooth; add vinegar, kitchen bouquet, and one-half
cup each of liver and veal cut in small pieces. Serve a slice of egg in
each plate. The left-over meat may be used for hash, croquettes, etc.


62.--MUSHROOM SOUP

  1/4 pound mushrooms       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  3 cups stock              Salt
  1 slice onion             2 tablespoons butter
  1 cup hot milk            4 tablespoons flour

Wash mushrooms, chop stems, simmer with stock and onion for twenty
minutes, and press through a sieve, reserving two or three whole caps;
add milk, pepper, and salt if necessary; thicken with butter and flour
blended together. Cut mushroom caps into bits, and add to soup.


63.--ONION SOUP

  1 slice bacon                       2 cups hot milk
  3 onions sliced                     1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 green pepper chopped fine       Dash of cayenne
  1 sprig parsley                     1 tablespoon bacon fat
  1 clove                             2 tablespoons flour
  2 cups boiling water                2 tablespoons grated cheese

Cut bacon in small pieces and cook with onions and green pepper five
minutes; add parsley, clove, and boiling water; simmer half an hour, and
press through a sieve; add milk and seasonings, and thicken with bacon
fat and flour blended together; add cheese just before serving.


64.--OYSTER STEW

  1 quart oysters            1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 quart milk               2 tablespoons butter
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt

Pick over oysters to remove bits of shell, and cook in their own liquor
until plump, skimming when necessary; scald milk, add seasonings and
butter, and mix with oysters. Serve with oyster crackers.


65.--OYSTER AND CELERY BOUILLON

  1 cup chopped celery tops       1 pint small oysters
  1 slice onion                   1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 bay leaf                    1/4 teaspoon paprika
  3 cups boiling water            White of 1 egg

Simmer celery, onion, bay leaf, and water for fifteen minutes; add
oysters finely chopped, and simmer ten minutes; strain through double
cheesecloth; season with salt and paprika, and pour over the stiffly
beaten white of egg. Serve in cups. Or serve without the egg, put a
spoonful of whipped cream in each cup, and sprinkle with paprika.


66.--SALMON BISQUE

  1 small can salmon       1 tablespoon butter
  2 cups water             2 tablespoons flour
  1 slice onion            1 teaspoon salt
  Bit of bay leaf          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 cups hot milk

Separate salmon into flakes, add water, onion, and bay leaf; simmer for
fifteen minutes, and remove onion and bay leaf; scald milk, thicken with
butter and flour blended together; add seasonings, and mix with salmon.
Serve with oyster crackers.


67.--SOUP STOCK

Use the liquid in which any meat has been cooked. Season well with
vegetables; if brown stock is wanted, add a small amount of kitchen
bouquet or caramel, and a little beef or vegetable extract. (See
suggestions for the Stock Pot, page 4.)


68.--TOMATO TAPIOCA SOUP

  2 cups tomato          1-1/4 teaspoons salt
  3 cups hot water       1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 slice onion          1 teaspoon sugar
  1/2 bay leaf           2 cubes beef extract
  4 cloves               2 tablespoons granulated tapioca

Mix the tomato and seasonings with the hot water; simmer for fifteen
minutes, and rub through a sieve; add beef extract and tapioca, and cook
fifteen minutes. Serve with croutons.


69.--TUNA FISH SOUP

  2 tablespoons grated carrot       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 tablespoon grated onion         1 teaspoon chopped parsley
  2 cups boiling water              1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  2 cups hot milk                   1 cup tuna fish
  1/4 cup sifted crumbs             1/2 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon salt

Cook vegetables, water, and milk in the double boiler for twenty
minutes; add crumbs, seasonings, tuna fish separated into flakes, and
butter; cook five minutes.


70.--BEEF STEW

  2 pounds shoulder trimmings       3 potatoes sliced
  2 quarts boiling water            1 cup tomatoes
  1 onion                           2-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 carrot                          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 white turnip                    1/3 cup flour

Cut beef in pieces for serving, add water, and simmer two hours; put
onion, carrot, and turnip through the food chopper, using coarse cutter,
and add to meat; add potatoes, tomatoes, and seasonings, and cook
forty-five minutes; thicken with flour mixed to a paste with cold water.
Serve with Dumplings (see No. 72).


71.--IRISH STEW WITH DUMPLINGS

  2 pounds forequarter lamb       1 carrot
  2 quarts boiling water          1 small white turnip
  2 teaspoons salt                4 potatoes
  1/8 teaspoon pepper             4 tablespoons flour
  1 onion

Cut meat in small pieces, and trim off most of fat; cover with boiling
water, and simmer for one hour; add salt and pepper, onion, carrot, and
turnip cut in small cubes, and cook one hour; pare and slice potatoes,
add to stew, and cook twenty minutes; thicken with flour mixed to a
paste with cold water; add Dumplings (see No. 72), cover, and cook
twelve minutes.


72.--DUMPLINGS

  1 cup flour             2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/4 teaspoon salt       1/2 cup milk or water

Sift flour, salt, and baking powder, and mix to a soft dough with milk;
drop by spoonfuls upon boiling stew; cover closely, and cook twelve
minutes.


73.--LAMB BROTH WITH SPAGHETTI

  1 quart lamb stock               1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup tomato                   1/3 cup spaghetti
  1 tablespoon chopped onion       1 cup bits of lamb
  1 tablespoon chopped carrot

Remove fat from stock; add vegetables, pepper, and (if necessary) salt;
heat to boiling point, add spaghetti, and cook half an hour. Add meat
just before serving.


74.--SCOTCH BROTH

  2 pounds neck of mutton       2 white turnips
  2-1/2 quarts cold water       2 carrots
  1/4 cup pearl barley          2 teaspoons salt
  2 onions                      1/4 teaspoon pepper

Wash mutton, cover with cold water, heat to boiling point, and simmer
slowly for two hours; let stand over night. Soak barley in cold water
over night. In the morning, remove fat from stock, remove meat from
bones, and strain stock; if water has evaporated, add enough to make
two and a half quarts; heat stock to boiling point, add seasonings,
barley, and vegetables, which have been pared and cut into small cubes.
Cook for one hour, add meat, and cook slowly one hour longer.



CHAPTER VII

CHOWDERS


75.--CLAM CHOWDER

  1/3 cup half-inch cubes salt pork            1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 onion sliced                               1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 cups boiling water                         3 cups hot milk
  4 cups potatoes cut in half-inch cubes       1/4 cup sifted crumbs
  1 quart clams

Cook salt pork and onion slowly for ten minutes; add boiling water, and
strain into chowder kettle; add potatoes, and cook twenty minutes;
remove necks of clams, chop fine, add with the soft part to the
potatoes, and cook ten minutes; add seasonings, hot milk, and crumbs,
and serve with pilot crackers. The salt pork and onion may be served in
the chowder if preferred.


76.--CORN CHOWDER

  1/3 cup half-inch cubes salt pork       1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 onion sliced                          1/4 teaspoon paprika
  3 cups boiling water                    1 can corn chopped
  3 cups thinly sliced potatoes           2 cups hot milk
  1/4 teaspoon celery salt                6 common crackers split

Cook salt pork and onion together slowly for ten minutes; add boiling
water, and strain into chowder kettle; add potatoes and seasonings, and
cook about fifteen minutes or until potatoes are tender; put corn into a
strainer, drain the juice into the kettle, and chop the corn, using
finest cutter; add to chowder; add hot milk and crackers; and cook five
minutes. The bits of pork and onion may be left in the chowder if
desired.


77.--CORN AND TOMATO CHOWDER

  1/4 pound salt pork chopped fine       1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 onion chopped fine                   1/2 can corn
  1 green pepper shredded                2 cups hot milk
  3 cups boiling water                   1 tablespoon butter
  1/2 can tomatoes                       2 tablespoons flour
  3 potatoes sliced                      6 common crackers split
  2 teaspoons salt

Cook pork, onion, and pepper slowly for ten minutes; add water,
tomatoes, potatoes, salt, and pepper, and cook until potatoes are
tender; add corn and milk, and thicken with butter and flour blended
together. Add crackers (which have been moistened in cold water), and
simmer for five minutes.


78.--FISH CHOWDER

  3 pounds haddock                        1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup half-inch cubes salt pork       1 tablespoon butter
  1 onion sliced                          3 tablespoons flour
  1 quart cold water                      2 cups hot milk
  4 cups thinly sliced potatoes           6 common crackers split
  2 teaspoons salt

Order skin and bones removed from fish at market, and have them
delivered with fish and head; cook salt pork and onion together slowly
for ten minutes; add fish head, skin, and bones, cover with cold water;
cook for twenty minutes, and strain into chowder kettle; add the fish
(cut in two-inch pieces), potatoes, salt, and pepper, and cook twenty
minutes; thicken milk with butter and flour blended together, and mix
with chowder; add crackers (which have been moistened in cold water),
and cover for five minutes. Cod, hake, white fish, or any firm fish may
be used in place of haddock.


79.--OYSTER CHOWDER

  3 potatoes cut in half-inch cubes       1 pint small oysters
  1 onion chopped fine                    1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 cup celery chopped fine             1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 tablespoons bacon fat                 2 cups hot milk
  3 cups boiling water                    1/4 cup sifted crumbs

Cook potatoes, onion, celery, and bacon fat in boiling water for fifteen
minutes; add oysters, salt and pepper, and cook five minutes; skim; add
hot milk and crumbs, and serve with pilot crackers.


80.--POTATO CHOWDER

Follow recipe for Corn Chowder (see No. 76), cooking one-half cup of
finely chopped carrot with the potatoes, and leaving out the corn.


81.--SALMON CHOWDER

  1/3 cup half-inch cubes salt pork       3 cups hot milk
  1 onion sliced                          1 can salmon
  3 cups boiling water                    2 tablespoons sifted crumbs
  4 potatoes cut in half-inch cubes       1 beaten egg
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt                    1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon paprika                    1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/3 cup flour                           1/4 teaspoon onion juice

Cook salt pork and onion slowly for ten minutes; add boiling water, and
strain into chowder kettle; add potatoes and seasonings, and cook
twenty minutes; mix flour to a smooth paste with cold water; add to
milk, cook five minutes, and add to potatoes. Chop the salmon, add
crumbs, egg, salt, pepper, and onion juice, and mix well; shape into
balls about an inch in diameter, add to chowder, and cook ten minutes.
Serve with pilot crackers.


82.--SALT FISH CHOWDER

Follow recipe for Corn Chowder (see No. 76), using one cup flaked salt
fish in place of corn. The fish should be soaked in cold water for one
hour, drained, and simmered in the chowder five minutes.


83.--VEGETABLE CHOWDER

  1/3 cup half-inch cubes salt pork       1 quart boiling water
  1 onion finely chopped                  3 cups hot milk
  1-1/2 cups half-inch potato cubes       2 teaspoons salt
  1 cup half-inch parsnip cubes           1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup carrot chopped                  1/4 cup dried bread crumbs
  1/2 cup white turnip chopped            1 teaspoon chopped parsley

Cook pork and onion five minutes; add vegetables and water, and cook
about twenty minutes or until vegetables are tender; add milk,
seasonings, crumbs, and parsley. Four common crackers, split, may be
used in place of bread crumbs.



CHAPTER VIII

FISH[6]


84.--BAKED COD STEAKS

Wash and dry four slices of cod steak, season with salt and pepper, put
in baking pan, and pour around them one-half cup of water and one
tablespoon of shortening; bake twenty-five minutes, basting often.
Remove skin and bone, and pour over fish either Cheese Sauce (see No.
188) or Egg Sauce (see No. 195). Sliced halibut may be baked in the same
way.


85.--BAKED STUFFED HADDOCK

Wash and dry a three-pound fish, fill with Fish Stuffing (see No. 210),
and sew together. Place on a rack in a dripping pan, season with salt
and pepper, dredge with flour, and cover with thin slices of salt pork;
bake in a hot oven forty-five minutes, basting often. Until pork begins
to try out, baste with two tablespoons of drippings melted in quarter of
a cup of boiling water. Serve with Egg Sauce (see No. 195) and French
Fried Potatoes (see No. 270).


86.--BOILED HALIBUT

Order two pounds of halibut cut near the tail; wash, cover with boiling
water, add one tablespoon each of salt and vinegar, and boil about
twenty-five minutes, skimming when necessary; drain, remove skin, and
serve with Egg Sauce (see No. 195) or Cheese Sauce (see No. 188).


87.--FRIED FILLETS OF FLOUNDER

Have skin and bone removed from two medium-sized flounders; divide each
piece of fish lengthwise, making eight fillets; wash and dry, brush with
melted butter, and season with salt and pepper; roll, fasten with
skewers, roll in flour, dip in egg, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat
from five to seven minutes. Serve with Sauce Tartare (see No. 202).


88.--FISH SAUTÉED WITH SALT PORK

Cut one-quarter pound of salt pork in thin slices, try out in frying
pan, and remove scraps to platter. Cut cod, haddock, white fish, or any
similar fish into one-inch slices; wash, season with salt and pepper,
dip in corn meal, and sauté on each side in pork fat about seven
minutes, or until brown.


89.--BROILED OYSTERS

Select large oysters, season lightly with salt and pepper, dip in melted
butter, and then in cracker crumbs. Place on a well-greased oyster
broiler, and broil about three or four minutes, turning often. Serve
very hot with lemon butter.


90.--OYSTERS WITH BROWN SAUCE

  1 pint oysters                1/8 teaspoon celery salt
  3 tablespoons bacon fat       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  5 tablespoons flour           1/4 teaspoon kitchen bouquet
  Stock or milk                 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Cook oysters until edges ruffle; drain, and save the liquor; melt bacon
fat, add flour, and stir until brown; to the oyster liquor add enough
milk or stock to make two cups; add to flour and fat, and stir until
smooth; add seasonings and oysters, stir until hot, and serve on toast
or in Croustades (see No. 473) or Patty Shells (see No. 621).


91.--CREAMED OYSTERS

  1 pint small oysters           3/4 teaspoon salt
  2-1/2 tablespoons butter       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  5 tablespoons flour            1/4 teaspoon celery salt
  Milk

Cook oysters in their own liquor until plump; drain, and measure the
liquor; melt butter, add flour, and blend well; add oyster liquor, and
enough milk to make two cups; stir until smooth, add seasonings and
oysters, and serve on toast. Garnish with toast points and sliced
pickles.


92.--CREAMED OYSTER PIE

Bake a Pie Shell (see No. 622), fill with Creamed Oysters (see No. 91),
and cover with a meringue made of the stiffly beaten whites of two eggs,
one teaspoon sugar, one-eighth teaspoon salt, two small sour pickles,
and one canned sweet pepper (pickles and pepper wiped dry and chopped
fine). Bake in a moderate oven about ten minutes, or until meringue is
well risen and brown.


93.--OYSTERS AND MACARONI

Arrange two cups of cooked macaroni and one pint of small oysters in
layers in a buttered baking dish; season each layer with salt and
pepper, and dredge with flour; cover with Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472),
and bake in a hot oven twenty minutes. One-fourth cup of grated cheese
may be added.


94.--OYSTER SHORTCAKE

Follow recipe for Shortcake (see No. 441); fill, and cover top with
Creamed Oysters (see No. 91). Garnish with parsley and thin slices of
lemon.


95.--PANNED OYSTERS

Heat and butter individual egg shirrers, or other fireproof dishes which
can be sent to the table; put in a piece of buttered toast, cover with
oysters, season lightly with salt and pepper, and bake in a hot oven
about ten minutes, or until the edges ruffle. Garnish with toast points
and lemon, and serve very hot.


WARMED-OVER FISH


96.--CREAMED FISH

  1 cup milk                2 tablespoons flour
  1 slice onion             1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 slice carrot            1/8 teaspoon pepper
  Bit of bay leaf           1-1/2 cups flaked fish
  1 tablespoon butter       1/2 cup buttered crumbs

Scald milk with onion, carrot, and bay leaf for fifteen minutes; strain;
melt butter, add flour, and blend well; add milk, and stir until smooth;
add seasonings and fish; turn into a greased baking dish, cover with
crumbs, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. Or arrange a border of
mashed potato on a platter, and turn the creamed fish into the center,
omitting the crumbs.


97.--FISH AND POTATO PIE

Line a deep greased dish with well-seasoned mashed potato to a thickness
of one inch; fill to within one inch of the top with Creamed Fish (see
No. 96); cover with potato, brush with melted butter, and bake in a hot
oven until brown. Garnish with parsley and lemon.


98.--FISH TIMBALES

  1-1/2 cups hot milk                       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon butter                       1/2 teaspoon grated onion
  4 cup dried and sifted bread crumbs       1 beaten egg
  1/4 teaspoon paprika                      1-1/2 cups cold flaked fish

Scald milk, add other ingredients in order given; turn into greased
individual molds and bake in a slow oven until firm; turn out upon
serving dish and pour around them Cheese Sauce (see No. 188).


99.--CREOLE SALMON

  2 tablespoons bacon fat             1 cup hot milk
  1 green pepper finely chopped       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 onion finely chopped              1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup tomato                      1 can salmon
  1/8 teaspoon soda

Cook pepper and onion in bacon fat for five minutes; mix tomato and
soda, and add to vegetables; bring to boiling point, and add seasonings
and milk; add salmon, which has been rinsed with hot water and separated
into flakes. Serve with a border of boiled rice.


100.--DUTCH SALMON

  2 tablespoons bacon fat               1 teaspoon salt
  4 cups cabbage coarsely chopped       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup boiling water                 1 can salmon

Heat bacon fat in frying pan, add cabbage, and cook five minutes,
stirring frequently; add water and seasonings, and cook fifteen minutes
or until cabbage is tender. Rinse salmon with hot water, separate into
flakes, and add to cabbage.


101.--SALMON LOAF

  1 cup dried bread crumbs       1 cup boiling water
  1 teaspoon salt                1 beaten egg
  1/4 teaspoon pepper            1 can salmon flaked
  1 teaspoon onion juice

Mix in order given, put in greased mold, and steam one-half hour. Serve
with white sauce to which has been added the juice of half a lemon. To
free salmon of the oily taste, place in a sieve, and rinse with hot
water before flaking. Tuna fish may be used in place of salmon.


102.--SALMON AND PEAS SOUFFLÉ

  1 cup hot milk                  1/4 teaspoon paprika
  3/4 cup soft bread crumbs       1-1/2 cups flaked salmon
  1 tablespoon butter             1/2 cup peas
  1/2 teaspoon salt               Whites of 2 eggs

Cook crumbs, butter, and seasonings in the hot milk for three minutes;
add the salmon and peas; fold in the whites of the eggs, which have been
beaten very stiff; put in a greased baking dish, and bake about
twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven.


103.--FRIED SCALLOPS

Wash one pint of deep sea scallops, and cut each scallop into quarters;
scald with boiling water, drain, season with salt and pepper, dredge
with flour, dip in egg, and then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat about
two minutes; drain on soft paper, and serve with Sauce Tartare (see No.
202).


104.--LOUISIANA SHRIMPS AND RICE

  2 tablespoons beef drippings        1 teaspoon salt
  1 onion finely chopped              1/4 teaspoon paprika
  3 tablespoons flour                 2 cups cooked rice
  1 cup stewed and strained tomato    1 cup cooked shrimps cut in pieces
  1-1/2 cups stock or water

Cook onion in fat for five minutes, add flour, and stir until well
blended; add tomatoes and stock, and stir until smooth; add seasonings,
rice, and shrimps.


SALT AND SMOKED FISH


105.--FINNAN HADDIE BAKED IN MILK

Wash fish, and soak in lukewarm water for half an hour; put in baking
pan, add one-half cup each of milk and water, and bake about twenty-five
minutes, basting often. Remove to platter, spread with butter, and
strain liquid in the pan over fish.


106.--BAKED HERRING

Arrange smoked, boned herring on pieces of entire wheat bread; place on
platter, and pour hot milk over them, allowing three-quarters of a cup
for six slices of bread. Brown in a hot oven.


107.--BAKED SALT MACKEREL (Spiced)

Soak mackerel in cold water for twelve hours; drain, and rinse with cold
water. Place in a granite baking pan, sprinkle with one-fourth teaspoon
each of clove, allspice, cinnamon, and pepper; add one-half cup each of
vinegar and water; bake in a moderate oven one hour, basting
frequently.


108.--SALT FISH BAKED WITH CRACKERS

  1 cup flaked fish            2 cups milk
  4 butter crackers            1 tablespoon butter
  Cold water                   A few grains pepper
  1 egg slightly beaten

Split crackers, put with fish in a baking dish, cover with cold water,
and soak over night or for several hours; drain, press out water, add
other ingredients, and bake about twenty-five minutes in a moderate
oven.


109.--BROILED FINNAN HADDIE

Wash well, and soak in lukewarm water half an hour; dry, brush with
melted butter, and broil for fifteen minutes, turning often; spread with
butter, sprinkle with lemon juice, and serve very hot.


110.--BROILED SALT CODFISH

Select thick pieces of fish, and soak over night in cold water; drain,
dry, brush with melted butter, and broil over a moderate fire ten
minutes, turning often. Spread with soft butter.


111.--BROILED SMOKED HERRING

Soak herring in cold water half an hour; drain, pour boiling water over
skin side, and soak for ten minutes; remove skin, place on a greased
broiler, and cook over a clear fire about eight minutes, turning
frequently; spread with a little Mustard Butter (see No. 459), and
sprinkle with lemon juice.


112.--BROILED SMOKED SALMON

Soak salmon in cold water for twenty-four hours, changing the water
once; drain, dry, place on a greased broiler, and broil over a moderate
fire about five minutes on each side, turning often. Spread with soft
butter and sprinkle with lemon juice.


113.--CREAMED CODFISH

  1-1/2 cups hot milk       1 cup salt codfish flaked
  3 tablespoons flour       1/2 tablespoon butter
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Thicken milk with flour which has been mixed to a paste with cold water,
add pepper, and cook fifteen minutes; soak codfish for two hours in
lukewarm water, separate into small flakes, add to sauce, and simmer
five minutes; add butter just before serving. One beaten egg or one
hard-cooked egg chopped may be added. Serve with baked potatoes.


114.--FISH CAKES WITH PORK SCRAPS

  1 package shredded codfish       1 egg well beaten
  2 cups hot mashed potato         2 tablespoons milk
  1/8 teaspoon pepper              1/4 pound salt pork

Soak fish in lukewarm water fifteen minutes; drain, and squeeze in
cheesecloth; add potato, pepper, egg, milk, and salt if necessary; beat
well, shape into small flat cakes, and roll in flour; cut pork in thin
slices, and try out in frying pan; when crisp, but not burnt, remove to
platter; cook fish cakes in fat in pan until brown, and serve with a
piece of pork on each.


115.--FISH BALLS

Follow recipe for Fish Cakes (see No. 114), but shape slightly with a
tablespoon, and cook in deep fat one minute.


116.--FISH HASH

Follow recipe for Fish Cakes (see No. 114), but omit the egg and add
double the quantity of milk. Try out pork and remove scraps to platter;
spread hash in frying pan with the fat, and stir well; cook slowly until
well browned. Fold double, and serve with pork scraps.


117.--SALT CODFISH SOUFFLÉ

  1 cup shredded codfish                   2 tablespoons butter
  2 cups mashed potato (hot or cold)       Dash of pepper
  Yolks of 2 eggs                          Whites of 2 eggs

Soak the fish in lukewarm water for ten minutes; drain and dry
thoroughly; mix with the potato; add egg yolks, which have been beaten
very light, and the butter and pepper. Beat well, and fold in the whites
of the eggs, which have been beaten stiff and dry. Put in a greased
baking dish, and bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Half of a
green pepper and a slice of onion may be chopped and cooked in the
butter, and added to the potato and fish.


118.--SPANISH CODFISH

  1 onion                       1-1/2 cups tomatoes
  1 green pepper                3/4 cup salt codfish
  2 tablespoons bacon fat       1/4 teaspoon salt

Chop onion and pepper, and cook in the bacon fat about five minutes; add
the tomatoes and simmer ten minutes; add codfish, which has been flaked
and freshened in lukewarm water, and salt if necessary. Simmer two
minutes and serve with border of boiled rice.

FOOTNOTES:

[6] For cooking fish for which recipes are not given in this Chapter,
see Time Table for Cooking (page 240).



CHAPTER IX

MEATS[7]


119.--PRESSED BEEF

Wash a four-pound piece of beef flank or any other of the cheaper cuts.
Cover with boiling water, bring to boiling point, and skim; slice and
add two carrots, two onions, and one white turnip; cook slowly for four
hours or until meat is very tender; add two teaspoons of salt when half
cooked; pack meat solidly into a deep bread pan, putting the grain of
the meat lengthwise; place pan in a shallow pan to catch the overflow,
put an empty bread pan on top of meat, and press with two heavy
flatirons; let stand in a cool place over night. Strain the stock, and
use for soups or sauces.


120.--PRESSED CORNED BEEF

Select a four-pound piece of shoulder or lean end of brisket lightly
corned; wash well, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly for four
hours; pack and press as for Pressed Beef (see No. 119). The heat should
not be above the simmering point (185° F.): if the water boils the meat
will be tough.


121.--ROAST BEEF

The most economical cuts of beef for roasting are the shoulder, the face
of the rump, and the chuck ribs; they are all of good flavor and fairly
tender. When ordering a shoulder roast, have an inch slice cut off to
broil. The chuck roast should be ordered boned and rolled, and the bones
sent with it. Wipe beef with cheesecloth, place skin side down on a rack
in a roasting pan suitable for the size of the roast; dust with salt and
pepper, dredge with flour, and cook in a hot oven, basting every ten
minutes. When half roasted, turn over, dredge with flour, and finish
cooking. For a medium-cooked roast allow seventeen minutes for each
pound of meat. The oven should be very hot for the first fifteen
minutes, after which the heat should be reduced.


122.--POT ROAST OF BEEF

A small aitchbone or a solid piece from the shoulder weighing about five
pounds makes an economical roast. Wash, dry, season with salt and
pepper, dredge with flour, and brown quickly in a hot frying pan or
Scotch kettle; place in kettle, half cover with water, cover closely,
and cook slowly four hours; when half cooked, season with salt and
pepper; add four small onions, two carrots, and one white turnip cut in
quarters; when cooked place meat on platter with vegetables around it;
remove fat from gravy, and thicken with flour mixed to a paste with cold
water, allowing one-fourth cup of flour to two cups of gravy. Color with
a few drops of kitchen bouquet if necessary.


123.--SHIN OF BEEF WITH CREOLE SAUCE

  4 pounds shin of beef        1/2 onion chopped
  1/2 onion sliced             1/4 teaspoon celery salt
  1/2 carrot sliced            1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 cups tomato                1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 green pepper chopped       4 tablespoons dried bread crumbs

Wash meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper; put into an iron kettle or
earthen crock; add onion and carrot; cover closely, and bake in a slow
oven four hours. Remove meat from the bone; skim fat from stock. Cook
tomatoes, pepper, onion, and seasonings twenty minutes; add stock,
crumbs, and meat. The meat cooks in its own juice and will be very
tender.


124.--STUFFED SHIN OF BEEF

  4 pounds shin of beef       1 small white turnip
  1 onion                     1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 carrot                    1 quart boiling water

Have the bone removed and cracked; finely chop vegetables and stuff into
beef; place on a trivet in kettle with the bone; add boiling water, and
cook slowly for four hours. Skim when necessary. Remove meat, and
thicken gravy with flour mixed to a paste with cold water, allowing
one-fourth cup flour to two cups gravy. Color with a few drops of
kitchen bouquet.


125.--TO BROIL STEAK

Wipe steak, trim off superfluous fat, place on a greased broiler with
fat towards the handle, and broil over a clear fire or under a gas
flame. Turn four or five times during the first minute, and then
occasionally. For steak an inch and a half thick, medium cooked, allow
twelve minutes to broil. Season with salt and pepper, and spread with
soft butter. A slice from the shoulder is a good and inexpensive cut.


126.--BROILED FLANK STEAK

Follow directions for broiling steak (see No. 125), but, as flank steak
is thinner, broil only seven or eight minutes. Season with salt and
pepper, spread with one tablespoon of soft butter and one tablespoon of
tomato ketchup.


127.--STEAK COUNTRY STYLE

  1-1/2 pounds flank steak       1/3 teaspoon salt
  4 onions                       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 tablespoon flour             1/4 cup boiling water

Pound the steak with a meat pounder or a wooden potato masher to break
the tough fibers. Sear quickly on each side in a very hot frying pan;
peel and chop onions, dredge with flour, and put in pan with the steak;
add salt and pepper; cover closely, and cook slowly an hour and a half.
Put steak on platter, add boiling water to onions, and pour around
steak. Serve with hashed brown potatoes.


128.--BROILED CHOPPED BEEF

Put one pound and a half of any of the cheaper cuts of beef through the
meat chopper; season with pepper and salt, and pat lightly into a flat
cake an inch thick; place carefully on a greased broiler, and broil
about eight minutes for a medium-cooked steak. Spread with soft butter.


129.--HAMBURG MEAT CAKES

  1 pound beef                 1 teaspoon salt
  1 thin slice salt pork       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup dried crumbs         1/2 cup milk

Use any of the cheaper cuts of beef; put through the meat chopper with
the salt pork, add crumbs, seasoning, and milk; mix well, shape into
small flat cakes, roll in flour, and sauté slowly in beef drippings
until brown, allowing ten minutes for each side. Remove meat to platter;
add two tablespoons of flour to the fat in the pan, and stir until
brown; add one-fourth teaspoon each of mustard, salt, and paprika, and
one cup of boiling water. Stir until smooth, and pour around meat cakes.
One teaspoon of grated onion may be added to meat.


130.--BEEF AND BACON CAKES

  1 pound flank of beef            1/2 cup water
  3 slices bacon                   1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup dried bread crumbs       Dash of cayenne

Put meat and bacon through chopper; add crumbs, water, and seasonings;
mix well, form into small flat cakes, and sauté in bacon fat.


131.--BEEF LOAF

  2 pounds shoulder trimmings chopped      1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 pound salt pork chopped              3 common crackers rolled fine
  1/2 teaspoon pepper                      1 cup milk

Mix in order given and bake in a deep pan about two hours in a slow
oven. Serve hot with Tomato Sauce (see No. 203) or Creole Sauce (see No.
191), or serve cold, sliced. One teaspoon of poultry seasoning may be
added if desired.


132.--CASSEROLE OF BEEF

  1 pound of shoulder trimmings       1 tablespoon pearl tapioca
  1 tablespoon flour                  1-1/4 teaspoons salt
  2 potatoes                          1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 carrot                            1 tablespoon tomato ketchup
  1 onion                             Cold water

Cut beef into inch pieces, sear quickly in hot frying pan, dredge with
flour, and put into casserole; cut potatoes into cubes or balls; put
carrot and onion through meat chopper; mix vegetables, and add to meat;
add tapioca and seasonings, cover with cold water (a little of the water
should be put into the frying pan to obtain all the flavor of the meat,
and then added to the rest). Cover, and bake slowly two and a half
hours. Any of the other cheaper cuts of meat may be used. Serve with
spinach or cold slaw.


133.--CREAMED DRIED BEEF WITH CHEESE

  1/4 pound dried beef           1 cup milk
  1-1/2 tablespoons butter       2 tablespoons grated cheese
  2 tablespoons flour            2 tablespoons ketchup

Cut beef in small pieces, cover with boiling water, let stand five
minutes, and drain; melt butter, add beef, and stir until hot; add flour
and milk, and stir until smooth; add cheese and ketchup, and stir until
cheese is melted. Serve with baked potatoes.


134.--AMERICAN CHOP SUEY

  2 tablespoons bacon fat                 1 cup cooked spaghetti
  1 onion finely chopped                  1/2 teaspoon salt
  3/4 pound flank beef chopped fine       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 can condensed tomato soup

Cook onion and beef in fat until brown; add tomato, spaghetti, and
seasonings, and simmer ten minutes.


135.--BROWN FRICASSEE OF LAMB

  2 pounds forequarter lamb       2 white turnips
  2 quarts boiling water          2 carrots
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt            5 tablespoons flour
  2 onions                        1/4 teaspoon kitchen bouquet

Cut lamb in pieces the size of a chop, trim off nearly all fat, add
boiling water, heat to boiling point, and skim; add salt and vegetables
(left whole), and simmer for two hours; remove meat, season with salt
and pepper, dredge with flour, and sauté with two tablespoons of fat in
a hot frying pan until brown; to the fat in the pan add the flour, and
stir until brown, add two cups of stock, and stir until smooth; color
with kitchen bouquet, add pepper, and salt if necessary. Slice
vegetables, and serve with meat. Use left-over stock for soups or
sauces.


136.--CASSEROLE OF LAMB

  1-1/2 pounds forequarter lamb            2 tablespoons rolled oats
  1/2 cup each white turnip, carrot,       1/4 teaspoon pepper
    and onion finely chopped               1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 cup tomato                             3 cups hot water

Remove fat and cut meat into inch pieces; put into a casserole with
vegetables, oats, seasonings, and water, and cook in a moderate oven two
hours.


137.--LAMB CHOPS

Chops from the forequarter are much cheaper than loin or kidney chops.
They contain more bone, but are tender and of good flavor, if well
cooked. Cook the same as Lamb Cutlets (see No. 138). The time of cooking
may vary slightly according to the thickness of the meat.


138.--LAMB CUTLETS

Have a small forequarter of lamb cut in pieces for serving; select the
best pieces, trim, and skewer into shape. Season lightly with salt and
pepper, dip in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat about seven minutes;
or dip in flour, and sauté on each side about ten minutes; or broil on
each side about five minutes. The rest of the forequarter can be used
for fricassee, Scotch broth, croquettes, and many other dishes.


139.--ROLLED ROAST OF LAMB

Order a small forequarter of lamb boned and rolled; have the bones sent
with the meat; wash bones and meat, put bones in kettle, put meat on
top; add one sliced onion, one sliced carrot, one bay leaf, and a sprig
of thyme. Cover with two quarts of boiling water, and simmer for two
hours, skimming when necessary; add two teaspoons of salt after meat has
cooked one hour. Remove meat to a roasting pan, sprinkle with salt and
pepper, dredge with flour, and roast in a hot oven about half an hour.
To the drippings in the pan add four tablespoons of flour and stir until
brown; add one and a half cups of stock which has been strained and had
fat removed; stir until smooth and serve with meat. The left-over stock
should be used for soups and sauces. The forequarter of lamb, although
quite fat, is tender and of good flavor, and costs much less than a leg
of lamb.


140.--BROWN FRICASSEE OF FOWL

Clean, singe, and cut up a four-pound fowl, place in a kettle, cover
with boiling water, add one whole onion, and one carrot cut in halves,
and cook slowly for three hours, or until tender; add two teaspoons of
salt when half cooked; remove fowl, season with salt and pepper, dredge
with flour, and brown in one-quarter of a pound of fat salt pork tried
out in the frying pan. Remove fowl to platter, and make a sauce in the
pan with four tablespoons of fat, five tablespoons of flour browned
together, and two cups of stock. Pour over fowl, and garnish with toast
points or small, thin baking powder biscuit. The remainder of the stock
may be used for soup or sauce, or for Celery Toast (see No. 462).


141.--ROAST FOWL

Clean and singe a five-pound fowl; stuff with Bread Stuffing (see No.
208), truss, place on a trivet in a pan suited to the size of the fowl,
dredge with flour, cover with thin slices of fat salt pork, and bake in
a slow oven three hours, basting every fifteen minutes. Put into the pan
the chicken fat (which was removed when cleaning) and use for basting.
Dredge with flour twice while cooking. Cook the giblets in boiling water
one hour, and chop fine; make a gravy in the pan, allowing four
tablespoons each of fat and flour, and the water in which giblets were
cooked, with enough boiling water added to make two cups; season with
salt and pepper, and add the giblets. If cooked slowly and basted often,
a fowl will be as tender as a chicken.


142.--CHICKEN PIE

Use the remnants of cold roast or fricasseed fowl. If roast fowl is
used, make stock by covering bones and left-over gravy with cold water
and simmering an hour or more; to three cups of stock add one-half onion
chopped, two potatoes cut in half-inch cubes, one teaspoon salt, and
one-eighth teaspoon pepper, and boil fifteen minutes; thicken with
one-half cup of flour mixed to a paste with cold water; put chicken in a
baking dish, add stock and potato, and cover with small biscuit made by
Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424) or Shortcake (see No. 441) recipes.
Bake in a hot oven about twenty minutes or until biscuit are done. If
the amount of chicken is scant, add one or two hard-cooked eggs sliced.


143.--POTTED PIGEONS

  4 pigeons                          1/2 teaspoon salt
  Bread Stuffing (see No. 208)       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  4 tablespoons bacon fat            2 cups boiling water
  1/2 onion sliced                   3 tablespoons flour
  1/2 carrot sliced                  4 tablespoons cold water
  1 cup celery tops

Clean pigeons, wipe dry, stuff, and truss neatly into shape. Brown in
hot bacon fat in the frying pan, and place in a casserole dish or bean
pot; add vegetables, seasonings, and boiling water. Cover, and bake in a
slow oven three hours. Remove pigeons to serving dish, thicken the stock
with the flour mixed to a paste with cold water; cook ten minutes,
strain, and pour over pigeons. The giblets may be cooked in boiling
salted water about ten minutes, chopped, and added to the sauce.


144.--COUNTRY CLUB RABBIT

Cut a young rabbit in pieces for serving; sprinkle with salt and pepper;
dip in flour, then in egg, and coat thickly with crumbs; put into a
well-greased baking pan, and bake in a hot oven about half an hour,
basting often with bacon fat. Arrange rabbit on serving dish, and make
a brown sauce in the pan, using three tablespoons each of bacon fat and
flour, one teaspoon of grated onion, and one and one-half cups of stock,
milk, or boiling water. Season with one-half teaspoon of salt,
one-fourth teaspoon paprika, and two tablespoons tomato ketchup.


145.--CASSEROLE OF RABBIT AND OKRA

  3 slices bacon               1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 rabbit                     2 cups boiling water
  1 onion finely chopped       1 cup tomatoes
  3 tablespoons flour          1 pint okra sliced
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt

Cut bacon into one-inch pieces, and cook in frying pan until brown;
remove bacon; cut rabbit in pieces for serving and soak half an hour in
cold salted water; drain, dredge with flour, brown in bacon fat, and put
with cooked bacon in a casserole dish; cook onion in bacon fat until
brown; add flour, salt, pepper, and boiling water; stir until smooth,
and pour over rabbit; add tomato and okra, sprinkle with salt; cover,
and bake in a moderate oven one hour and a half.


146.--ROAST PORK

Have the bone removed from a six-pound fresh shoulder of pork; wash,
dry, and stuff with Bread Stuffing (see No. 208) or Peanut Stuffing (see
No. 211); season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and roast in a
moderate oven about two and three-quarters hours. Baste often, and be
sure oven is not too hot, as pork must cook slowly. This is an excellent
cut, and less expensive than the loin or fresh leg. Strain the fat and
add it to the frying fat, or use in place of lard. Have the bones sent
and use for stock. Serve with Dark Red Apple Sauce (see No. 663).


147.--PORK CHOPS BAKED WITH POTATOES

Pare potatoes, and cut in thin slices; wash, drain, season with salt and
pepper, and put into a baking dish; cover with small pork chops from
which part of the fat has been removed; dust with salt, pepper, and
flour; add half a cup of boiling water, and bake in a hot oven about
forty minutes. Turn chops when half cooked.


148.--SAUSAGE CAKES

  1/2 pound sausage meat        1/3 cup hot water
  1 teaspoon grated onion       1/3 cup sifted crumbs
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix well, shape into small flat cakes, roll in crumbs, and bake in a hot
oven about twenty minutes, or until brown.


149.--SAUSAGE CAKES BAKED WITH APPLE

  1 pound sausage meat       4 apples

Shape meat into small flat cakes, and put in the center of a dripping
pan; core apples, cut into half-inch slices, and put around sausage.
Bake in a hot oven until brown, basting frequently with the fat from the
sausage.


150.--SAUSAGES WITH OYSTERS AND EGGS

  4 small sausages              2 eggs slightly beaten
  1 teaspoon grated onion       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup small oysters

Cut sausages into half-inch bias slices, and cook with onion in a hot
frying pan until brown; add oysters, and cook until edges ruffle; add
eggs and salt, and scramble until firm.


151.--BREAKFAST BACON

Lay slices of bacon close together on a fine wire broiler, place broiler
over a dripping pan, and bake in a hot oven about ten minutes or until
bacon is brown and crisp. Avoid burning. Save fat for cooking.


152.--BROILED HAM

Ham for broiling should be cut in very thin slices. Trim off superfluous
fat, cover ham with lukewarm water, and stand on back of range for
fifteen minutes; dry, and broil over clear fire until fat is brown.


153.--BAKED SLICED HAM

Order a small slice of ham cut an inch and a half thick; cover with warm
water, and place on the back of the range for an hour. Drain ham, cover
with a mixture of two tablespoons of flour, two tablespoons of brown
sugar, one-half teaspoon of mustard, and a dash of cayenne. Put a few
small bits of the fat on top, and bake twenty-five minutes in a moderate
oven. Place ham on platter, pour off fat in the pan, add one-fourth cup
of cider or weak vinegar; bring to boiling point, and pour around ham.


154.--HAM LOAF

  1 pound raw ham           2 beaten eggs
  1 cup dried crumbs        1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 cup boiling water       1/4 teaspoon salt

Put ham, including the fat, through meat chopper; add crumbs, water,
eggs, and seasonings; mix well, and bake in a small bread pan, in a slow
oven, an hour and a half; or cook in steamer two hours.


155.--ROAST BREAST OF VEAL STUFFED

Have a pocket cut in veal, wash, dry, and stuff with Crust Stuffing (see
No. 209); skewer neatly into shape, dredge with flour, season with salt
and pepper, and cover with two thin slices of fat salt pork; place on
rack in dripping pan, and roast in a moderate oven two hours, basting
often. Serve with gravy made from drippings in the pan, three
tablespoons of flour, and one and one-half cups of water. Season with
salt and pepper, and strain.


156.--VEAL WITH VEGETABLES

  3 pounds knuckle of veal                    2 cups hot water
  1/2 cup each of finely chopped onion,       1-1/4 teaspoons salt
    carrot, turnip, and celery                1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 cup pearl barley

Order veal cut in three-inch lengths; remove meat from bone, and put in
a casserole dish; add vegetables, barley (which has been soaked for an
hour in cold water), hot water, and seasonings; place the pieces of
bone, cut edge down, on top; cover closely, and bake in a moderate oven
two and a half hours. Remove the bones before serving.


157.--VEAL LOAF (Baked)

  2-1/2 pounds raw veal       1 cup dried and sifted crumbs
  1/4 pound salt pork         1/2 cup boiling water
  1/2 teaspoon pepper         1/2 cup milk
  2 teaspoons salt
Put veal and pork through the meat chopper; add pepper, salt, crumbs,
water, and milk. Mix well, press into a deep pan, cover with paper, and
bake slowly for two hours. Serve hot or cold. A teaspoon each of
poultry seasoning and grated onion may be added.


158.--VEAL LOAF (Boiled)

  4 pounds knuckle of veal       4 cups hot water
  1 onion                        1/2 package gelatine
  1 bay leaf                     1/4 cup cold water
  4 cloves                       Juice of 1 lemon
  2-1/2 teaspoons salt           1 hard-boiled egg
  1/2 teaspoon pepper            2 gherkins

Cook veal with seasonings in hot water until meat is very tender;
strain, remove fat and bone, and chop meat; soak gelatine in cold water,
add to strained stock in which meat was cooked, add meat and lemon
juice, cool, and turn into deep pan which has been garnished with slices
of hard-boiled egg and pickles sliced lengthwise. Put in the ice-box for
several hours before serving.


159.--POTTED HEAD

  1 calf's head                 1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1 pound lean fresh pork       1 teaspoon onion juice
  6 cups boiling water          1 teaspoon poultry seasoning
  1-3/4 teaspoons salt

Have head split and dressed at the market; singe, wash well, put in
kettle with pork and boiling water, cover, and simmer three hours.
Remove bones, and put meat through chopper; reduce stock to one and
one-half cups, strain, and add, with seasonings, to the meat. Press into
a bread pan and put in a cold place. Serve sliced cold, or dip slices in
egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat.


160.--BRAISED LIVER

  3 pounds liver                      1/2 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2-inch cube salt pork           1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/3 cup onion finely chopped        2 cups boiling water
  1/3 cup celery finely chopped       1/4 cup flour
  1/3 cup carrots finely chopped

Soak liver in cold salted water for half an hour, scald, remove skin,
and dredge with flour; cut pork in thin slices, and try out in frying
pan; brown liver in pork fat, and place in an earthen dish or kettle,
add vegetables, seasonings, and water which has first been put in the
frying pan; cover closely, and bake three hours in a slow oven, adding
water if necessary; remove liver, and thicken gravy and vegetables with
one-fourth cup of flour mixed to a paste with cold water.


161.--BROWN FRICASSEE OF LIVER

  1 pound liver                   4 tablespoons flour
  2 cups boiling water            3/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons bacon fat         1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 tablespoon grated onion       6 slices of toast

Cut liver into half-inch cubes, and soak in cold salted water fifteen
minutes; drain; cover with the boiling water, and simmer six minutes;
cook bacon fat, onion, and flour until brown; add seasonings, and stock
in which liver was cooked; stir until smooth; add liver, and pour over
toast or small, thin baking powder biscuit.


162.--CHICKEN LIVERS AND BACON

Cook chicken livers in boiling salted water fifteen minutes; put each
liver on half of a slice of bacon, fold other half over liver, and bake
in a hot oven until bacon is crisp; moisten slices of toast with the
stock in which livers were cooked, and serve two pieces of bacon and
livers on toast for each person.


163.--FRIED LAMB'S LIVER AND BACON

Cut liver in one-third-inch slices; soak in cold water for half an hour;
drain, dry, and cook in hot deep fat, with six slices of bacon, until
brown.


164.--LAMBS' KIDNEYS IN BROWN SAUCE

  6 lambs' kidneys               1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1-1/2 cups boiling water       1/2 teaspoon onion juice
  1-1/2 tablespoons butter       1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  3 tablespoons flour            Few drops kitchen bouquet
  1/2 teaspoon salt              6 slices of toast

Split kidneys and soak in cold water half an hour; drain; cover with
boiling water, and simmer five minutes; skim out of water, and cut in
small dice; brown the butter, add the flour, and brown well; add the
water in which the kidneys were cooked, and stir until smooth; add
kidneys and seasonings, and serve on toast.


165.--DEVILLED KIDNEYS

  6 lambs' kidneys, split          1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
  3 tablespoons drippings          1 teaspoon mustard
  1 tablespoon chopped onion       1/4 teaspoon salt
  3 tablespoons flour              Dash of cayenne
  1 cup water or stock

Scald, skin, and split kidneys; cook with fat and onion five minutes,
and remove from the pan. To the fat in the pan add flour, and stir until
brown; add liquid, and stir until smooth; add seasonings and kidneys.
Serve on toast or with mashed potato border.


166.--SPANISH TRIPE

  1 pound fresh boiled tripe       1/2 cup chopped white cabbage
  1/2 can tomatoes                 3/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 onion chopped                Few grains cayenne
  1/2 green pepper chopped         2 slices bacon

Cut tripe in small pieces for serving and put in greased casserole dish;
scald tomatoes, add onion, pepper, cabbage, and seasonings; pour over
tripe; cut bacon into bits, put on top, and bake in a moderate oven one
hour.


167.--TRIPE FRIED IN BATTER

  1 pound fresh boiled tripe       1 cup flour
  1 slice onion                    1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  2 cloves                         1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 bay leaf                     1 egg well beaten
  1 tablespoon vinegar             1/3 cup water

Cut tripe in pieces the size of a large oyster, cover with boiling
water, add seasonings, simmer fifteen minutes, and drain. Make a batter
of flour, baking powder, salt, egg, and water. Dry each piece of tripe,
dip in batter, and fry in deep fat for one minute. Serve with Sauce
Tartare (see No. 202) or Russian Dressing (see No. 341).


168.--TRIPE FRIED IN CRUMBS

Prepare tripe as for Tripe Fried in Batter (see No. 167); dip each piece
of tripe first in tomato ketchup, then in crumbs, then in beaten egg,
and then in crumbs again. Fry in deep fat for one minute, and drain on
soft paper.


WARMED-OVER MEATS


169.--SAVORY BEEF

  1-1/2 cups tomatoes       1-1/2 cups cold roast beef
  1/3 cup beef gravy        2 cups cooked spaghetti
  1/2 onion                 1/2 cup bread crumbs
  4 cloves                  2 tablespoons beef drippings
  1 teaspoon salt           1 tablespoon butter
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Simmer tomatoes, gravy, and seasonings for fifteen minutes, and press
through a sieve; add beef cut in small pieces, and spaghetti, and pour
into a greased baking dish; cover with crumbs which have been mixed with
the drippings and butter melted together. Bake in a moderate oven about
fifteen minutes. A can of condensed tomato soup may be used in place of
the tomato sauce. Any meat may be used.


170.--SCALLOPED CORNED BEEF

  2 tablespoons beef drippings     1 cup corned beef stock
  5 tablespoons flour              3/4 cup hot milk
  1 teaspoon grated onion          1-1/2 cups corned beef
  1/4 teaspoon paprika                 cut in half-inch cubes
  1/4 teaspoon celery salt         1/2 cup Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472)

Melt drippings, add flour, onion, and seasonings, and cook two minutes;
add stock and milk, and stir until smooth; add meat, and put into a
greased baking dish; cover with crumbs, and bake until crumbs are
brown.


171.--BAKED HAM AND POTATO

  3 cups well-seasoned mashed potato       6 pimolas chopped
  1 cup chopped cooked ham                 1/2 cup hot milk
  1 teaspoon grated onion                  1/4 cup crumbs
  1 teaspoon chopped parsley               1 tablespoon bacon fat
  1/2 teaspoon mustard

Mix potato, ham, seasonings, and milk, put into a greased baking dish,
cover with crumbs which have been mixed with melted bacon fat, and bake
in a hot oven until brown; or prepare half of mixture, spread in egg
shirrers, make a depression with the back of a spoon, and into it
carefully break an egg; cover with crumbs, and bake until egg is set.


172.--HAM MOUSSE

  1-1/2 cups chopped cooked ham       1 teaspoon mixed mustard
  1/2 cup soft bread crumbs           1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 tablespoon gelatine               Whites of 2 eggs
  1 cup hot milk

Mix ham with bread crumbs; dissolve the gelatine in the hot milk, and
add to crumbs with mustard and paprika; beat the whites of eggs very
stiff and fold lightly into mixture. Put into a deep pan or mold, and
place on ice until firm. A little salt may be needed.


173.--CORNED BEEF HASH WITH BEETS

  1-1/2 cups corned beef        3/4 teaspoon salt
  2 cups cooked potatoes        1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/2 cup cooked beets          1/4 cup stock or water
  1 teaspoon grated onion       2 tablespoons beef drippings

Have meat, potatoes, and beets coarsely chopped; add seasonings and
stock; melt fat in frying pan, and, when very hot, add hash; cook
slowly until a rich brown crust is formed; fold, and serve on a hot
platter. If meat is very fat, use less fat in frying pan.


174.--SAVORY HASH (Baked)

  1 cup cold meat cut fine          1 cup tomatoes
  2 cups cold cooked potatoes       3/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 onion finely chopped          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 stalks celery chopped, or       2 tablespoons melted bacon fat
  1/4 teaspoon celery salt              or beef drippings

Mix, and bake in casserole in moderate oven forty-five minutes.


175.--SOUTHERN HASH

  4 raw potatoes           3/4 cup stock or water
  2 green peppers          1-1/2 cups cold chopped beef
  2 tomatoes               Salt and pepper
  1 onion                  Toast points

Put vegetables through the meat chopper, using coarse cutter; cook in
the stock, covered, until tender; add beef, salt, and pepper, and when
hot turn on a platter and garnish with toast points. If corned beef and
stock are used, use salt with care.


176.--LIVER PATTIES

  2 cups chopped cooked liver               Salt and pepper
  2 cups mashed potato                      Coarse stale bread crumbs
  2 tablespoons finely chopped pickles

Mix liver, potato, and pickles, and season with salt and pepper. Grease
patty pans or cups; sprinkle with crumbs, and fill with mixture. Bake
fifteen minutes in a hot oven, turn out on serving dish, and serve with
Brown Sauce (see No. 185) or Tomato Sauce (see No. 203).


177.--MEAT AND TOMATO PIE

  2 cups cooked meat cut in inch pieces  1/2 cup gravy or stock
  1 can tomatoes drained                 1/2 teaspoon onion juice
  Salt and pepper                        1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/4 cup fine crumbs                    Quick Drop Biscuit (see No. 429)

In a deep dish arrange in alternate layers meat and tomatoes cut in
pieces; season each layer with salt and pepper, and sprinkle with
crumbs; add onion and Worcestershire sauce to gravy, and pour over all;
bake twenty minutes in a hot oven; remove from oven, and drop biscuit
mixture by spoonfuls on top; bake about fifteen minutes longer. Use
tomato juice for soup or sauce.


178.--MEAT SOUFFLÉ

  1/2 cup dry bread crumbs                        1/2 onion chopped fine
  1-1/2 cups hot stock or milk                    1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 tablespoon butter                             1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1-1/2 cups chopped meat                         Yolks of 2 eggs
  1 cup celery or white cabbage chopped fine      Whites of 2 eggs

Mix in the order given, beating the yolks until thick and light, and the
whites until very stiff. Bake in a moderate oven about half an hour. Any
left-over meat may be used.


179.--MEAT SHORTCAKE

  1-1/2 cups cooked meat chopped     1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/2 cup celery tops chopped        1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
  1 teaspoon grated onion            1 cup meat gravy or thickened stock
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix ingredients, simmer for fifteen minutes, and put between layers of
Shortcake (see No. 441).

FOOTNOTES:

[7] Recipes for using only the cheaper cuts of meat are given in this
Chapter. For cooking poultry, game, and other cuts of meat, see Time
Table for Cooking (page 240).



CHAPTER X

SAUCES AND STUFFINGS FOR FISH AND MEATS


180.--ANCHOVY SAUCE

Add to Drawn Butter (see No. 194) one and one-half teaspoons of anchovy
paste and one tablespoon of lemon juice.


181.--BANANA SAUCE

  2 bananas                 Few grains cayenne
  1 tablespoon butter       Few grains salt
  1 teaspoon sugar          2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
  Juice of 1/2 lemon        1 teaspoon horseradish

Peel and scrape bananas, and force through coarse sieve; melt butter,
add sugar, lemon juice, seasonings, and bananas; stir until hot, and
serve with cold roast beef.


182.--BECHAMEL SAUCE

  1 cup white stock            2-1/2 tablespoons flour
  1 slice onion                1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 slice carrot               Few grains cayenne
  Sprig of parsley             1 teaspoon butter
  1 tablespoon shortening

Simmer stock, onion, carrot, and parsley fifteen minutes, and strain;
melt shortening, add flour, and blend well; add stock and seasoning, and
stir until smooth; add butter just before serving.


183.--BLACK BUTTER

  1/3 cup butter                 1/4 teaspoon Worcestershire or
  2 tablespoons vinegar              Brand's A 1 sauce
  1/4 teaspoon onion juice

Cook butter until brown, but do not burn; simmer vinegar, onion juice,
and sauce five minutes, and add to butter. Serve with cauliflower,
celery, fried eggs, or fish. A tablespoon of chopped capers or parsley
may be added.


184.--BREAD SAUCE

  1-1/2 cups milk       Sprig of parsley
  1/2 onion             1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 cloves              1/2 teaspoon salt
  Bit of bay leaf       1/3 cup soft bread crumbs

Scald milk and seasonings, except salt, in double boiler half an hour,
strain, add salt and soft crumbs, and simmer ten minutes.


185.--BROWN SAUCE

  1 cup brown stock            1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 slice onion chopped        1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 slice carrot chopped       1-1/2 tablespoons butter
  1 sprig parsley              2-1/2 tablespoons flour
  2 cloves

Simmer stock, vegetables, and seasonings for fifteen minutes, and
strain; brown the butter, add flour, and brown, add stock, and beat
until smooth. Any stock may be colored with a few drops of kitchen
bouquet, and used; or beef cubes or extract may be used with water
instead of stock, but in that case less salt and pepper should be used.


186.--CAPER SAUCE

To recipe for Drawn Butter (see No. 194) add one-fourth cup of capers.


187.--CELERY SAUCE

  1 cup celery chopped          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 teaspoon grated onion       1/2 cup milk
  1 cup boiling water           1 tablespoon butter
  1/4 teaspoon salt             2 tablespoons flour

Simmer celery, onion, water, and salt for half an hour; add pepper and
milk, and thicken with butter and flour creamed together.


188.--CHEESE SAUCE

  1 tablespoon butter           1/4 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2 tablespoons flour       1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 cup milk                    1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/3 cup cheese cut fine

Melt butter, add flour, and blend well; add milk and stir until smooth;
add cheese and seasonings, and stir until cheese is melted.


189.--CHEESE SAUCE WITH CHIVES

Follow directions for Cheese Sauce (see No. 188), and just before
serving add one tablespoon of finely chopped chives. Serve with any
white fish, or with plain omelet.


190.--CIDER SAUCE

  2 tablespoons bacon fat       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons flour           1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup cider                   1/8 teaspoon mustard

Blend bacon fat and flour, add cider, and stir until boiling point is
reached; add seasonings and simmer one-half hour. Serve with roast pork
or ham.


191.--CREOLE SAUCE

  1/2 can tomatoes              1 tablespoon flour
  2 tablespoons bacon fat       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 onion                     1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1 green pepper

Cook tomatoes until reduced to one cup; peel and finely chop onion;
remove seeds and veins from pepper, chop, and cook with onion in bacon
fat for ten minutes; add flour, salt, and Worcestershire sauce, and stir
well; add tomato, and simmer five minutes.


192.--CROQUETTE SAUCE

  3 tablespoons shortening       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/3 cup bread flour            1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup milk

Proceed as for White Sauce (see No. 207). Stock may be used in place of
milk, and the seasonings may be varied according to the croquette
material, using a few drops of onion juice, a dash of nutmeg, cayenne,
paprika, or a small quantity of table sauce or ketchup.


193.--CUCUMBER SAUCE

Pare and grate two small cucumbers, drain, and season with salt, pepper,
and vinegar. Serve with fish.


194.--DRAWN BUTTER

  2 tablespoons butter       1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons flour        1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup hot water            1 teaspoon butter

Cook butter until it bubbles, stir in flour, add hot water, salt, and
pepper, and beat until smooth; add butter in small pieces just before
serving.


195.--EGG SAUCE

Add to Drawn Butter (see No. 194) or White Sauce (see No. 207) one
hard-cooked egg coarsely chopped.


196.--HOLLANDAISE SAUCE

  1/4 cup butter           1/2 cup hot water
  1 tablespoon flour       1 egg yolk
  1/2 teaspoon salt        1 tablespoon lemon juice
  Few grains cayenne

Cream half of the butter with flour, salt, and cayenne; add hot water,
and cook over hot water for ten minutes, stirring constantly until
thickened; add egg yolk slightly beaten, lemon juice, and remainder of
butter; cook about two minutes, or until thick; beat well, and serve at
once.


197.--HORSERADISH SAUCE

To recipe for Bread Sauce (see No. 184) add one-third cup grated
horseradish and the juice of half a lemon.


198.--MINT SAUCE

  1 bunch mint                2 tablespoons sugar
  1/4 cup boiling water       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup vinegar             Few grains cayenne

Wash and dry mint, pick leaves, and chop very fine, add other
ingredients, put on back of range, and keep warm for half an hour.


199.--MUSHROOM SAUCE

Wash six mushroom caps, cut in small pieces, and simmer with one
teaspoon of butter for ten minutes. Add to recipe for Brown Sauce (see
No. 185), or to recipe for White Sauce (see No. 207). If the mushrooms
are fresh and tender the stems may be used also.


200.--MUSTARD PICKLE SAUCE

To Drawn Butter (see No. 194) add two tablespoons of mixed mustard
pickles chopped.


201.--ORANGE MINT SAUCE

  1/4 cup vinegar               1 tablespoon sugar
  4 cups orange juice           1/4 cup mint leaves chopped
  1/4 teaspoon orange rind

Let stand on back of range for half an hour, and serve cold.


202.--SAUCE TARTARE

To one cup Mayonnaise Dressing (see No. 339) add three tablespoons
finely chopped mixed pickles and one tablespoon finely chopped parsley.


203.--TOMATO SAUCE

  1-1/2 cups tomatoes       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup hot water         1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 slice onion             2 tablespoons bacon fat
  1 clove                   4 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon sugar

Simmer tomatoes, water, and seasonings for fifteen minutes, and press
through a sieve; thicken with bacon fat and flour blended together, and
cook five minutes. If tomatoes are very acid, add a pinch of soda.


204.--SAUCE FOR ROAST PORK OR GOOSE

Pour off most of fat in the pan, leaving two tablespoons; add three
tablespoons of flour and one and a half cups of boiling water, and stir
until smooth. Season with one-third teaspoon salt and one teaspoon each
of mixed mustard, vinegar, and Brand's A 1 sauce.


205.--SHARP SAUCE

  1-1/2 cups vinegar              1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1 tart apple chopped fine       1-1/2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
  1 onion chopped fine            1-1/2 cups brown sugar
  1/4 teaspoon salt               1-1/2 teaspoons cornstarch

Heat vinegar, add apple, onion, and seasonings; when boiling stir in the
sugar and cornstarch mixed together; cook fifteen minutes. Serve cold
with ham or pork.


206.--SOUBISE SAUCE

Follow recipe for White Sauce (see No. 207), and add one-fourth cup of
stock, and three onions which have been cooked until tender in boiling
salted water and then drained and chopped.


207.--WHITE SAUCE

  2 tablespoons shortening       1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons flour            1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup milk

Melt shortening, add flour, and stir until well blended; add milk and
seasonings, and beat with wire whisk until smooth. For a thin sauce, use
one and one-half tablespoons flour.


208.--BREAD STUFFING

  1/4 cup beef drippings or bacon fat      1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 teaspoon grated onion                  2 teaspoons poultry seasoning
  2 cups soft stale bread crumbs           1/2 cup boiling water
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Melt fat in the frying pan, add onion and crumbs, and stir until crumbs
begin to brown; add seasonings and boiling water; cool slightly before
using.


209.--CRUST STUFFING

  3 cups bread crusts broken       1 cup boiling water
    and dried in oven              1 tablespoon grated onion
  1/2 teaspoon salt                1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup sausage fat              1 tablespoon poultry seasoning

Put crusts in a bowl, add salt, sausage fat, and boiling water; let
stand ten minutes; mix well, and add seasonings.


210.--FISH STUFFING (Bread)

  2 tablespoons shortening            1 teaspoon grated onion
  1 cup soft stale bread crumbs       1 teaspoon chopped parsley
  1/4 teaspoon salt                   1 tablespoon chopped pickles
  1/8 teaspoon pepper                 1/4 cup boiling water

Melt shortening, add crumbs, and stir until crumbs are golden brown,
then add seasonings and water. The pickles may be omitted, or capers may
be used in place of them.


211.--PEANUT STUFFING

  1 cup dried bread crumbs       1/2 teaspoon salt
  2/3 cup boiling water          1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons bacon fat        1 teaspoon grated onion
  3/4 cup shelled peanuts

Mix bread crumbs with boiling water and bacon fat, add peanuts finely
chopped, and seasonings.



CHAPTER XI

EGGS


212.--BOILED EGGS

For a soft-boiled egg, place egg in rapidly boiling water and boil from
three to five minutes. For hard-boiled eggs, place in rapidly boiling
water and boil twenty minutes, or cover with boiling water and cook in
the double boiler one hour. For a soft-cooked egg, not boiled, place egg
in a small saucepan of boiling water, cover, and let stand on back of
range from six to eight minutes, when the albumen should be evenly
coagulated throughout. The time for cooking in this way will depend upon
the number of eggs to be cooked, the size of the saucepan, and the
amount of boiling water. For uniform results, use medium-sized eggs,
cook in the same pan, and measure the quantity of water each time. Thus
you can find the exact time required to cook the eggs as desired.


213.--CREAMY EGGS ON TOAST

  4 eggs                    2 cups hot milk
  2/3 teaspoon salt         1 teaspoon butter
  1/8 teaspoon pepper       4 slices toast

Beat eggs slightly, add salt and pepper, and stir into the hot milk;
cook over hot water, stirring constantly until mixture is thick and
creamy. Add butter, and serve on toast.


214.--CREOLE EGGS

  1 tablespoon butter                    1 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon chopped onion             1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1 tablespoon chopped green pepper      3 eggs
  2 cups tomato                          2 tablespoons cheese

Cook onion and pepper in butter for five minutes; add tomato and
seasonings, and when thoroughly heated add the eggs unbeaten; pick up
with a fork until eggs are nearly cooked; add cheese, and cook about one
minute. Serve on toast, or with a border of boiled rice.


215.--EGGS WITH CHEESE AND SPAGHETTI

  2-1/2 tablespoons butter       1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  4 tablespoons flour            1/2 teaspoon onion juice
  2 cups hot milk                1/2 cup cheese cut fine
  1/4 teaspoon paprika           1 cup cooked spaghetti
  1/2 teaspoon salt              3 hard-cooked eggs sliced

Melt butter, add flour; when well blended add milk gradually and stir
until smooth; add seasonings and cheese, and stir until cheese melts;
add spaghetti and eggs, cook two minutes, and serve on toast or
crackers.


216.--EGGS WITH HAM AND TOMATO

  1/2 can tomatoes               3 beaten eggs
  1 slice onion                  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  4 cloves                       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup chopped cooked ham

Cook tomatoes, onion, and cloves fifteen minutes, and rub through a
sieve; add ham, eggs, and seasonings, and cook three or four minutes,
stirring all the time. Serve on toast or crackers.


217.--BREAD OMELET

  2 tablespoons bacon fat               1/2 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup soft stale bread crumbs       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  3/4 cup hot milk                      3 eggs

Melt fat in frying pan, add bread crumbs, and stir until crumbs begin to
brown; add hot milk, and let stand five minutes; add salt and paprika,
and the yolks beaten until thick and light; fold in the stiffly beaten
whites, pour into a hot greased omelet pan, and cook the same as Light
Omelet (see No. 222).


218.--CREAMY OMELET

  3 eggs                                1/3 teaspoon salt
  1 cup White Sauce (see No. 207)       1/8 teaspoon pepper

Beat yolks until thick and light; add to sauce and mix well; add salt
and pepper to whites of eggs, beat until stiff and dry, and fold into
sauce; pour into a hot greased omelet pan, and cook slowly until well
risen and firm; put on oven grate for a minute or two to dry the top;
fold, and turn on a hot platter.


219.--FRENCH OMELET

  1 tablespoon butter or bacon fat       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  4 eggs                                 1/3 cup hot water
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Heat fat in the omelet pan; beat the eggs until yolks and whites are
well mixed, but not light; add seasonings and hot water, pour into hot
pan and cook slowly; pick up with fork while cooking, letting the
uncooked mixture run into the place of the cooked; when firm and lightly
browned, fold double, and serve plain on a hot platter; or spread
before folding with left-over bits of meat chopped, such as ham, bacon,
or sausage, or with grated cheese or jelly.


220.--FRENCH CHEESE OMELET

  4 eggs slightly beaten       1/2 cup hot water
  1/2 teaspoon salt            1/2 cup grated cheese
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Mix in order given, pour into a hot greased omelet pan; as mixture
thickens, pick up with a fork, letting the uncooked part take the place
of the cooked; when firm, fold, and serve on a hot platter.


221.--HAM OMELET

  1/2 cup stale bread crumbs       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup hot milk                 3 eggs
  1 tablespoon butter              1/2 cup cooked ham finely chopped
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix crumbs, milk, butter, and seasonings, and let stand five minutes;
add egg yolks beaten until thick and light; add the meat, and fold in
the whites of eggs beaten stiff; pour into a hot greased omelet pan and
cook slowly until firm; fold, and serve at once. A white sauce or tomato
sauce may be served around it. A few pieces of cooked bacon chopped fine
may be used instead of ham.


222.--LIGHT OMELET

  1 tablespoon bacon fat       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  Yolks of 4 eggs              1/3 cup hot water
  1/2 teaspoon salt            Whites of 4 eggs

Put fat in omelet pan; beat yolks until light and thick, add seasonings
and hot water; fold in the stiffly beaten whites, and pour into the hot
omelet pan; cook slowly until well risen and firm, or about twelve
minutes, placing the pan on the upper grate in the oven for the last
two minutes. When firm in the center, fold double, turn on a hot
platter, and serve at once, either plain or with sauce. The omelet must
be cooked slowly so that it will be firm throughout, and not fall.

White Sauce (see No. 207), either plain or with bits of cold meat,
oysters, peas, or other left-over vegetables, or Brown Sauce (see No.
185) with a few mushrooms or chopped kidneys (see No. 164), or almost
any savory sauce, improves an omelet, and also makes it go further.


223.--SALMON OMELET

  1 tablespoon butter       1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons flour       1/2 can salmon
  1/2 cup milk              2 eggs

Melt butter, stir in flour, add milk, and stir until smooth; add salt;
rinse salmon with hot water; flake, and add to sauce; beat yolks of eggs
until light and thick, and add to sauce; fold in whites of eggs beaten
very stiff. Pour into a hot greased omelet pan, and cook slowly until
well risen and firm; finish cooking on top grate of oven for a minute or
two; fold, and serve on a hot platter.


224.--SCALLOPED EGGS WITH CHEESE

  4 hard-cooked eggs               1/2 cup cheese cut fine
  2 cups White Sauce (see No. 207) 1/2 cup Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472)

Cut eggs in eighths lengthwise; put half of them into a greased baking
dish, cover with half of sauce, and sprinkle with half of cheese;
repeat; cover with crumbs, and bake about fifteen minutes, or until
crumbs are brown. Bacon or sausage fat may be used in making the white
sauce.


225.--SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH SAUSAGES

  4 small sausages       1/4 teaspoon salt
  3 eggs                 1/3 cup water

Cut sausages in half-inch bias pieces, and cook in a frying pan until
brown; beat eggs until light, add salt and water, pour over sausages,
and scramble until firm. Garnish with toast points and parsley.


226.--SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH TOMATO

  1/2 can condensed tomato soup       4 eggs slightly beaten
  1/8 teaspoon soda                   6 slices buttered toast

Heat soup in an omelet pan; add soda, and stir while foaming; add eggs,
scramble slowly with a fork until firm, and serve on toast. Garnish with
toast points.


227.--SHIRRED EGGS

Grease individual egg shirrers or a platter which can be put in oven;
cover bottom of dish with white sauce or left-over gravy, sprinkle with
left-over vegetables or bits of meat chopped; carefully break an egg
into dish for each person, dust with salt and pepper; sprinkle with
buttered crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven until egg is set.


228.--SHIRRED EGGS WITH HAM

  1 cup finely chopped cooked ham  1/2 cup Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472)
  1 cup soft bread crumbs          4 eggs
  1/2 cup milk                     Salt and pepper

Mix ham, soft crumbs, and milk, and spread in four buttered egg
shirrers; make a hollow in the middle, break an egg into it, season
lightly with salt and pepper, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until
egg is set.


229.--SOUFFLÉED EGG WITH HAM TOAST

For each person cut a round of bread three inches in diameter; spread
with finely chopped ham moistened with milk, stock, or gravy; add a few
grains of salt to the white of an egg, and beat very stiff; mound on
ham, make a depression in the center, put in the yolk, dust lightly with
salt and pepper, and bake in a moderate oven until egg is firm. When
several pieces of toast are to be made, keep the yolks in separate
dishes until needed, but beat the whites together.


230.--SHIRRED EGGS WITH POTATO AND HAM

See recipe for Baked Ham and Potato (No. 171).



CHAPTER XII

CHEESE AND NUTS


231.--CHEESE CROUSTADES

  1-1/2 cups cheese cut fine       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 teaspoon salt                1 teaspoon Brand's A 1 sauce
  1/4 teaspoon mustard             3 tablespoons milk or cream

Mix in order given; fill Croustades (see No. 473), and put in a hot oven
until cheese melts. Serve immediately, before cheese toughens.


232.--CHEESE CUSTARD

  1 cup soft bread crumbs       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup cheese cut fine         1/8 teaspoon soda
  1/4 teaspoon mustard          1 egg slightly beaten
  1/2 teaspoon paprika          1 cup hot milk

Mix in order given, turn into a greased baking dish, and bake in a slow
oven twenty-five minutes.


233.--CHEESE FONDUE

  1/2 cup dried bread crumbs       1/3 teaspoon paprika
  3/4 cup boiling water            1 teaspoon mustard
  1 tablespoon butter              1/2 cup milk
  1 cup cheese cut fine            Yolks of two eggs
  1/3 teaspoon salt                Whites of two eggs

Mix in the order given, beating the yolks until thick and light, and the
whites until very stiff; pour into a greased baking dish, bake
twenty-five minutes in a slow oven, and serve at once.


234.--COTTAGE CHEESE

  1 quart thick sour milk       1/2 tablespoon soft butter
  1 quart boiling water         1/3 teaspoon salt

Put milk in a large bowl, add boiling water, and let stand five minutes;
pour into cheesecloth bag, and drain over night or for several hours.
Mix cheese with butter and salt, press into a small bowl, and chill. A
sweet red pepper (canned) may be pressed through a sieve and mixed with
cheese.


235.--CRACKERS AND CHEESE BAKED IN MILK

Split butter crackers, spread with butter and grated cheese, sprinkle
with salt and pepper, put in a buttered baking dish, cover with milk,
and bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven.


236.--CHEESE PASTE

  1/2 pound American cheese       2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
  1 cake cream cheese             1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 pimientos                     1/4 cup cream

Chop American cheese and pimientos, using the finest cutter in the food
chopper; add cream cheese and seasonings, and blend with cream until
smooth.


237.--BAKED RICE WITH CHEESE

  2 cups cooked rice          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  3/4 cup grated cheese       3/4 cup hot milk
  1/3 teaspoon salt

Arrange rice and cheese in layers in a greased baking dish; sprinkle
with salt and pepper, cover with milk, and bake in a moderate oven about
fifteen minutes.


238.--SCALLOPED TOAST AND CHEESE

  4 slices of toast           1 egg beaten
  1 cup cheese cut fine       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2 cups milk             1/4 teaspoon mustard

Butter toast, cut each slice into four pieces, and arrange in a baking
dish in layers sprinkled with cheese; mix milk, egg, and seasonings,
pour over toast, and let stand fifteen minutes. Bake in a moderate oven
about twenty minutes.


239.--TOMATO RAREBIT

  1 can condensed tomato soup       1/2 pound cheese cut fine
  1/2 cup soft bread crumbs         1/4 teaspoon mustard

Heat soup, add bread crumbs, cheese, and mustard; stir until cheese
melts, and serve on toast or crackers.


240.--WELSH RAREBIT

  1 tablespoon butter             1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 tablespoon flour              1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup hot milk                  1/8 teaspoon soda
  1/2 pound cheese cut fine       Dash of cayenne
  1/2 teaspoon mustard            1 beaten egg

Melt butter, add flour, and when well mixed add milk, and stir until
smooth; add cheese and seasonings, and cook until cheese is melted; add
egg, cook two or three minutes, and serve on hot toast or crisp pilot
crackers. The egg may be omitted.


241.--SALTED ALMONDS

  1 cup almonds (shelled)       1 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon butter

Cover almonds with boiling water and let stand on back of range for ten
minutes; slip off the skins, and dry for several hours, or over night;
melt butter, add almonds and salt, and mix well; spread in a dripping
pan, and bake in a slow oven fifteen or twenty minutes, stirring
occasionally. When prepared in this way nuts will keep crisp.


242.--PEANUT BUTTER

  2 quarts lightly roasted peanuts       Cream or melted butter
  1 teaspoon salt

Remove shells and skins of peanuts, and put through the food chopper
twice, using first a coarse cutter, and then the finest cutter; add
salt, and enough cream or melted butter to make a smooth paste.


243.--TO SHELL CHESTNUTS

Cover with boiling water, boil ten minutes, drain, and cover with cold
water. Remove the shell with a knife, beginning at top of nut. The inner
skin will come off with the shell.


244.--BAKED CHESTNUTS

  1 pint chestnuts               1 tablespoon butter
  1-1/2 cups hot ham stock       1/8 teaspoon pepper

Shell chestnuts, put in baking dish with stock, butter, and pepper;
cover, and bake in hot oven about half an hour, or until soft; remove
cover, and brown. If stock is very salt, dilute with water or milk.


245--CELERY, NUT, AND POTATO LOAF

  2 cups celery cut in half-inch pieces       1 egg slightly beaten
  1/2 cup chopped nut meats                   1 teaspoon salt
  2 cups hot mashed potato                    1/2 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons butter                        1 teaspoon grated onion

Cook celery in boiling salted water about half an hour, or until tender,
and drain; add other ingredients in order given; mix well; pack in deep
greased pan, and bake in a moderate oven about half an hour. Turn out on
platter, and serve with Creole Sauce (see No. 191) or Tomato Sauce (see
No. 203).


246.--NUT LOAF

  2 cups soft stale bread crumbs     1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 cup nut meats finely chopped     1 egg slightly beaten
  1 teaspoon salt                    3 tablespoons sausage fat or butter
  1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning     1/2 cup boiling water

Mix in order given; pack in a deep greased pan, and bake in a moderate
oven half an hour. Turn out on platter, and serve with Cheese Sauce (see
No. 188).



CHAPTER XIII

VEGETABLES[8]


247.--BOSTON BAKED BEANS

  1 quart pea beans            1/4 teaspoon soda
  1 tablespoon salt            1/4 cup molasses
  1 teaspoon dry mustard       1/2 pound fat salt pork

Soak beans in cold water over night; drain, cover with cold water, heat
to boiling point, and simmer until beans are very tender but not broken;
place in an earthen bean pot, add seasonings and pork (which has been
scalded, scraped, and scored in half-inch squares); fill pot with
boiling water, cover, and bake slowly for eight hours. Uncover for the
last hour. Replenish water as needed.


248.--THICK PURÉE OF BLACK BEANS

  2 cups beans               1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 onion                    1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 carrot                   3 tablespoons bacon fat
  1/2 bay leaf               1 quart boiling water
  1/4 teaspoon mustard

Soak beans over night in cold water; drain, add seasonings, bacon fat,
and water, and simmer two hours; remove onion, carrot, and bay leaf, and
press through a sieve. Beat well, and serve with lamb or mutton.


249.--LIMA BEAN LOAF

  1 cup dried Lima beans       1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1 onion                      1 egg slightly beaten
  1 carrot                     2 tablespoons sausage fat or butter
  1 cup dried sifted crumbs    1/2 cup boiling water
  1 teaspoon salt              6 pimolas
  4 teaspoon mustard

Soak beans over night in cold water, and drain; cover with boiling
water, add onion and carrot, and cook until beans are tender; drain, and
put through the food chopper with carrot and onion; add crumbs,
seasonings, egg, and sausage fat melted in boiling water; add pimolas
cut in small pieces, mix well, pack in a greased bread pan, and bake in
a moderate oven half an hour. Serve with Tomato Sauce (see No. 203).


250.--BAKED CABBAGE

Cut a small white cabbage in inch pieces, soak in cold water half an
hour, and drain; parboil ten minutes, place in greased baking dish,
cover with one cup of White Sauce (see No. 207), and one-half cup of
Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472); bake in a moderate oven half an hour.


251.--CABBAGE COOKED IN MILK

Put a small white cabbage through the food chopper, using the coarse
cutter; soak in cold water half an hour, drain, cover with equal parts
of milk and water, and cook uncovered about twenty-five minutes, or
until cabbage is tender. Season with salt and pepper.


252.--BRAISED CELERY

  1 quart celery cut in 2-inch lengths       2 tablespoons flour
  2 tablespoons bacon fat                    2 cups stock
  1 tablespoon grated onion

Cook celery, bacon fat, and onion in the frying pan for ten minutes;
dredge with flour, put in baking dish, add stock (first rinsing frying
pan with a little of it), cover, and bake in a moderate oven an hour and
a half. Serve on toast. Add salt to stock if necessary.


253.--CREAMED CELERY ROOT (Celeriac) WITH CHEESE

Peel celery root, cut in half-inch cubes, and cook until tender in
boiling salted water, to which a tablespoon of vinegar has been added.
To three cups of root add one and one-half cups of White Sauce (see No.
207); put into a baking dish, sprinkle with a third of a cup of grated
cheese, and place in a hot oven until cheese melts. Celery may be used
in place of celery root.


254.--SOUTHERN CORN PUDDING

  1 tablespoon bacon fat                 1 egg well beaten
  1/2 green pepper chopped               1 cup milk
  1 slice onion chopped                  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 can corn chopped                     1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons dried bread crumbs       2 slices bacon chopped fine

Cook pepper and onion in bacon fat five minutes; add corn, crumbs, egg,
milk, and seasonings; pour into a greased baking dish, sprinkle with the
chopped bacon, and bake in a slow oven until firm, or about twenty-five
minutes.


855.--CUCUMBERS SAUTÉED

Peel two cucumbers, cut in halves crosswise, slice in one-third-inch
slices lengthwise, and soak in salted water for one hour; drain, dry,
dip in flour seasoned with salt and pepper, and sauté in hot fat until
brown. Serve on toast.


256.--CARROTS SAUTÉED

Select very small carrots; wash, scrape, and cook until tender in
boiling salted water. Drain, dredge with flour, and sauté in fat until
brown.


257.--CARROTS VINAIGRETTE

  4 cups carrots cut in half-inch cubes       3/4 cup brown sugar
  1/2 cup vinegar                             1 tablespoon shortening

Cook carrots in boiling salted water until tender, and drain; heat
vinegar, sugar, and shortening to the boiling point, add carrots, and
cook slowly half an hour, stirring occasionally.


258.--BAKED EGG PLANT

  1 small egg plant                   1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 onion finely chopped              1/2 cup boiling water
  1 cup soft stale bread crumbs       2 tablespoons butter
  1 teaspoon salt

Pare and slice egg plant, cut into half-inch cubes, soak in cold salted
water half an hour, and drain; mix with onion, crumbs, and seasonings,
and put into a greased baking dish; add boiling water, dot over with
butter, and bake one hour in a moderate oven.


259.--FRIED EGG PLANT

Cut a small egg plant in one-third-inch slices; pare; cut each slice in
quarters; soak in cold salted water for half an hour; drain; season
with pepper and salt, dip in crumbs, then in egg, and then in crumbs
again; and fry in deep fat about three minutes. Or dip in flour and
sauté in butter.


260.--EGG PLANT JULIENNE

Cut egg plant in two-inch slices, and pare; cut into quarter-inch
vertical slices, and cut slices into quarter-inch strips; soak in cold
salted water for half an hour; drain; dry, and fry in deep fat about
three minutes.


261.--CREAMED LEEKS

Cut off tops of two bunches of leeks, and soak in cold water ten
minutes; drain, and cook in boiling salted water about twenty minutes,
or until tender; drain, and serve with White Sauce (see No. 207). The
tops may be used for flavoring soups.


262.--ONIONS IN POTATO NESTS

  1 quart small white onions       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 tablespoon butter              1 tablespoon butter
  6 potatoes                       1/4 cup hot milk
  1/3 teaspoon salt                1 tablespoon chopped parsley

Peel onions and cook in boiling salted water about one hour, or until
tender; drain, and add butter. Pare, boil, and mash potatoes, season
with pepper and salt, add butter and hot milk, and beat until light;
shape potato into small nests with a spoon, or force through a bag and a
rose tube. Fill with onions and sprinkle with parsley.


263.--GREEN PEAS (Canned)

Remove from can and rinse with cold water; put in saucepan, cover with
cold water, bring to boiling point, and drain. Season with one-half
teaspoon salt, one-fourth teaspoon pepper, one tablespoon butter, and
two tablespoons of milk.


264.--PEAS AND LETTUCE

  1 head lettuce               1 tablespoon butter
  1/2 cup stock or water       1 tablespoon flour
  3/4 teaspoon salt            1 can peas
  1/8 teaspoon pepper          1 sprig mint
  1 teaspoon sugar

Wash lettuce, drain, and chop; add stock and salt, and simmer half an
hour; add pepper and sugar, and thicken with butter and flour blended
together; add peas drained from their liquor, and mint, and simmer ten
minutes. Remove mint before serving.


265.--STUFFED GREEN PEPPERS

  6 green peppers               1/2 cup tomatoes
  2 tablespoons bacon fat       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon grated onion       1/4 cup buttered crumbs
  1 cup cooked rice

Cut off one inch of the tops of peppers, and chop the tops; remove seeds
and veins from peppers, scald with boiling water, and drain; cook
chopped pepper with onion in the bacon fat for five minutes; add rice,
tomatoes, and salt; fill peppers, cover with crumbs, place in a baking
dish or in individual ramekins, and bake in a moderate oven half an
hour.


266.--BOILED POTATOES

Wash potatoes, pare as thin as possible, remove the eyes, and soak in
cold water from fifteen minutes to one hour, according to the age of the
potato; cook in boiling salted water about half an hour, or until
tender, allowing one tablespoon of salt to two quarts of boiling water.
Drain, and dry on the back of the range or in the front of the oven with
the door open. Serve very hot in an uncovered dish.


267.--BAKED POTATOES

Select medium-sized potatoes, scrub well, place in tin pan, and bake in
a hot oven for about forty minutes.


268.--CREAMED POTATOES

  2 cups raw potato balls       1 cup White Sauce (see No. 207)
       or half-inch cubes       1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley
  1 slice onion

Cook potatoes with the onion in boiling salted water until tender;
drain; remove the onion, mix with sauce, and sprinkle with parsley. If
potato balls are used, cover unused potato with water and save for soup.


269.--POTATO CROUTONS

Cut potatoes in one-third-inch cubes, rinse with cold water, dry in a
towel, and fry about two minutes in deep fat.


270.--FRENCH FRIED POTATOES

Wash and pare medium-sized potatoes, cut in eighths lengthwise, and soak
in cold water for half an hour; drain, dry, and fry in deep fat about
seven minutes; drain on soft paper, and sprinkle with salt. Cook only
one layer in the basket at a time.


271.--HASHED BROWN POTATOES

Melt in the frying pan four tablespoons sausage fat, beef drippings, or
other fat; add two cups chopped boiled potatoes, season, and cook
slowly twenty minutes, or until well browned; fold double, and garnish
with parsley.


272.--LYONNAISE POTATOES

  4 boiled potatoes       2 tablespoons sausage fat
  1/2 teaspoon salt       2 slices onion finely chopped
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Cut potatoes in half-inch cubes, and season with salt and pepper; put
fat in frying pan, add onion, and cook slowly for ten minutes; add
potatoes, stir well, and cook for ten minutes without browning.


273.--PAN-ROASTED POTATOES (Franconia)

Prepare potatoes as for boiling (see No. 266), boil ten minutes, drain,
and cook in roasting pan with meat about forty minutes; baste often with
fat in pan.


274.--SCALLOPED POTATOES WITH CHEESE

Wash and pare four potatoes, cut in very thin slices, put half of them
in a greased baking dish; dredge with flour, sprinkle with salt, pepper,
and two tablespoons grated cheese; repeat; cover with hot milk, and bake
in a moderate oven one hour, or until potatoes are tender. Very old
potatoes should not be used in this way.


275.--SCALLOPED POTATOES WITH PEPPERS AND CHEESE

  1 quart half-inch potato cubes       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 onion chopped                      1/2 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons bacon fat              2 canned red peppers
  4 tablespoons flour                  1/2 cup grated cheese
  2 cups hot milk                      1/2 cup buttered crumbs

Cook potatoes and onion in boiling salted water twenty minutes, and
drain; melt bacon fat, add flour, and blend well; add milk and stir
until smooth; add salt, paprika, peppers chopped, and cheese; mix with
potatoes; turn into a greased baking dish, cover with Buttered Crumbs
(see No. 472), and bake fifteen minutes, or until brown.


276.--STUFFED POTATOES WITH CHEESE AND BACON

  4 large potatoes                  1/4 teaspoon paprika
  4 tablespoons grated cheese       1/4 cup hot milk
  3/4 teaspoon salt                 4 slices bacon

Wash potatoes and bake in a hot oven forty-five minutes; cut in halves
lengthwise, remove potato, and force through potato ricer; add cheese,
seasonings, and hot milk, beat vigorously, and refill potato skins;
place half a slice of bacon on top of each, and put on the upper grate
of a hot oven until bacon is crisp.


277.--STUFFED POTATOES WITH NUTS AND CHEESE

  4 hot baked potatoes            1/2 tablespoon butter
  1/4 cup nuts chopped fine       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup grated cheese           1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup milk                    Butter and paprika

Cut potatoes in halves, lengthwise, remove potato, and mash; add nuts,
cheese, milk, butter, and seasonings, and beat until very light; refill
shells, heaping mixture in the center, make a slight depression with
spoon, put in a small bit of butter, sprinkle with paprika, and brown in
a hot oven.


278.--FRENCH FRIED SWEET POTATOES

Cut cold boiled sweet potatoes into eighths lengthwise, fry in deep fat
until brown, drain on soft paper, and sprinkle with salt.


279.--GLAZED SWEET POTATOES

Cut cooked sweet potatoes in one-third-inch slices lengthwise, put in a
greased dripping pan, brush with melted butter or drippings, sprinkle
thickly with brown sugar, and bake in a hot oven until glazed with
melted sugar.


280.--SWEET POTATO CUSTARD

  3 cooked sweet potatoes       1/4 nutmeg grated
  2 eggs                        1/4 cup brown sugar
  1/3 teaspoon salt             1 quart milk

Force potatoes through a ricer; beat the eggs and milk with potato; add
other ingredients, pour into buttered baking dish or cups, and bake in a
slow oven until firm.


281.--STUFFED SWEET POTATOES

  3 medium-sized baked sweet potatoes       1 tablespoon butter
  1/2 teaspoon salt                         1/4 cup milk
  1/8 teaspoon pepper                       Powdered sugar

Cut baked potatoes in halves lengthwise; mash potatoes, add salt,
pepper, butter, and milk, and beat well; fill potato shells lightly,
sprinkle thickly with sugar, and bake in a hot oven until brown. Sliced
marshmallows may be used instead of sugar.


282.--CREAMED SALSIFY (Oyster Plant)

Cut off the tops of a bunch of salsify; scrape, cut in quarter-inch
slices, and keep white by putting in cold water with a tablespoon of
vinegar in it until ready to cook; drain; cook in boiling salted water
about twenty-five minutes, or until tender; drain, and mix with one cup
of White Sauce (see No. 207).


283.--SPINACH

Pick over spinach, and wash well in several waters; put in kettle
without water, cover, and cook about half an hour, or until tender; chop
fine and season with salt, pepper, and butter. A thin slice of fat salt
pork or a tablespoon of bacon fat may be cooked with spinach if
preferred. In that case, omit butter. Or cook in ham or corned beef
stock, drain, and season only with pepper. Garnish with thin slices of
hard-cooked egg, or sprinkle with the yolk of egg pressed through a
sieve.


284.--BAKED WINTER SQUASH

Cut half a small squash into four pieces, scrape out seeds and stringy
part, put in a pan, shell side up, and bake in a hot oven about forty
minutes. Remove from shell with a spoon, press through a sieve, season
with salt, pepper, and butter, and serve. Or put in a greased baking
dish, cover with Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472), and bake until crumbs
are brown.


285.--PLYMOUTH SUCCOTASH

  1/2 cup dried Lima beans       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  Corned beef stock              3/4 cup corned beef cut in small pieces
  1/2 can corn

Soak beans over night, drain, cover with cold water, and cook one hour;
drain, cover with stock, and cook until tender; add corn, pepper, and
meat, and simmer ten minutes. Add salt if necessary. Any stock or
left-over bits of meat may be used.


286.--BAKED TOMATOES

Cut four tomatoes in halves crosswise, sprinkle with salt and pepper,
and cover with buttered crumbs; bake in a hot oven about twenty minutes,
and serve with Mustard Pickle Sauce (see No. 200) or cooked salad
dressing.


287.--TOMATO CUSTARD

  1 can tomatoes             4 cloves
  1 cup water                1/2 bay leaf
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt       2 tablespoons sugar
  1/4 teaspoon pepper        1/4 cup cracker dust
  2 slices onion             2 eggs

Simmer tomatoes, water, and seasonings for fifteen minutes, and press
through a sieve; add crumbs and slightly beaten eggs, and bake in
greased custard cups about twenty minutes, or until firm; turn out on
platter and pour Cheese Sauce (see No. 188) around them.


288.--FRIED GREEN TOMATOES

Wipe tomatoes, cut in thick slices, season with salt and pepper, dip
first in flour, then in egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat until
brown. Or season, dip in flour only, and sauté in butter.


289.--STEWED TOMATOES

  1 can tomatoes, or       1/4 teaspoon pepper
  6 ripe tomatoes          1/4 teaspoon soda
  1 teaspoon salt          1 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon sugar         1/2 cup bread crust crumbs

Put tomatoes in a stew pan; if fresh tomatoes are used, scald, peel, and
cut in pieces. Add seasonings, except pepper, and cook slowly for thirty
minutes; add butter and crumbs just before serving.


290.--STUFFED TOMATOES

Select six medium-sized tomatoes; cut a thin slice from the top of each,
and remove the pulp; rub slices through a sieve, and add to pulp; add
one cup soft stale bread crumbs, one teaspoon salt, one teaspoon
Worcestershire sauce, and one tablespoon tomato ketchup; mix well, fill
tomatoes, cover with Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472), and bake in a
moderate oven half an hour.


291.--CREAMED WHITE TURNIPS

Cook two cups of half-inch cubes of white turnip in boiling salted water
half an hour, or until tender; drain, and mix with one cup of White
Sauce (see No. 207).


292.--VEGETABLE HASH

  2 cups cooked cabbage          1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup cooked potatoes          1 teaspoon salt
  1 cup cooked turnips           2 tablespoons beef drippings
  1 cup cooked beets             1/3 cup stock or water
  1 tablespoon grated onion

Mix vegetables and seasonings; melt fat in frying pan, add vegetables
and stock; cook slowly half an hour. Fold, and serve on a hot dish. If
vegetables are left from a boiled dinner, omit salt.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] For cooking common vegetables for which recipes are not given in
this chapter, see Time Table for Cooking (page 240).



CHAPTER XIV

CEREALS, MACARONI, AND RICE


293.--CORN MEAL MUSH

  3-1/2 cups boiling water       1 cup fine corn meal
  1 teaspoon salt

Add meal to boiling salted water by sifting it slowly through the
fingers, while stirring rapidly with the other hand. Boil for ten
minutes, and cook over hot water for two hours. Serve hot as a cereal.
Or pour into one-pound baking powder boxes to cool; slice, dip in flour,
and sauté in butter; or dip in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat.
Serve either for breakfast, or as an accompaniment to roast pork, or,
with sirup, for dessert.


294.--STEAMED HOMINY

  4 cups boiling water       1 cup fine hominy
  1 teaspoon salt

Put salt and boiling water in top of double boiler, place in direct
contact with range, sift in hominy slowly, and boil for ten minutes,
stirring often; cover, and cook over hot water two hours.


295.--SCALLOPED MACARONI AND CHEESE

  1-1/2 cups elbow macaroni        1/2 cup cheese cut fine
  1 onion                          1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 cup White Sauce (see No. 207)  1/3 cup Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472)

Cook macaroni and onion in boiling salted water until tender, and drain;
remove onion, add cheese and mustard to sauce and mix with macaroni;
turn into a greased baking dish, cover with crumbs, and bake in a
moderate oven until crumbs are brown.


296.--NOODLE PASTE

  1 egg                    1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon water       Bread flour

Beat egg slightly, add water, salt, and flour enough to make a very
stiff dough; knead well for three minutes, adding flour if necessary.
Roll out as thin as possible; cut in fancy shapes with small vegetable
cutter; or roll like a jelly roll and cut thin slices from the end. Cook
in soup, or in boiling salted water. If served as a vegetable, season
with butter, salt, and pepper, or serve with White Sauce (see No. 207).


297.--NOODLE BALLS (for Soup)

Roll Noodle Paste (see No. 296) very thin, fold double, and cut with
small round vegetable cutter, or end of pastry tube; fry in deep fat
until puffed into balls. Drain on soft paper.


298.--SCOTCH OATMEAL

  4 cups boiling water       1 cup oatmeal
  1 teaspoon salt

Put water and salt in top of double boiler, place in direct contact with
range, sift in oatmeal slowly, and boil for five minutes, stirring
often; cover, and cook over hot water four hours, or cook on back of
range over night.


299.--POLENTA WITH CHEESE

  2 cups boiling water      1 cup corn meal
  2 cups milk               1 cup cheese grated, or soft cheese cut fine
  1 teaspoon salt

Heat water and milk to the boiling point, add salt, and sift in corn
meal very slowly. Cook over hot water two hours, or put into a fireless
cooker for three hours. When cooked, add cheese, pour into a shallow pan
until half an inch thick. When cold, cut into two-inch squares, dip in
crumbs, then in egg, and then again in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Or
roll in flour and sauté in butter. Mustard, cayenne, Worcestershire
sauce, etc., may be added if desired.


300.--POLENTA WITH DATES

Prepare recipe for Polenta with Cheese (see No. 299), using in place of
the cheese one and a half cups of dates, which have been washed, stoned,
and cut in pieces. Serve hot as a cereal or dessert, or in any way in
which mush is served. Cooked dried peaches, apricots, prunes, or figs
may be substituted for dates.


301.--FRENCH FRIED POLENTA

Prepare recipe for Polenta with Cheese (see No. 299); pour into a
shallow pan until two-thirds of an inch thick; cool; cut into strips
about three inches long; dip first in crumbs, then in egg, and then
again in crumbs; and fry in deep fat.


302.--SPANISH POLENTA

  4 cups boiling water       1 green pepper
  1 teaspoon salt            1 cup corn meal
  1 onion                    1 cup cheese cut fine

Add salt to boiling water; add onion and pepper chopped fine; sift in
corn meal very slowly, stirring all the time. Cook over hot water for
two hours; add cheese, and serve hot with Tomato Sauce (see No. 203).


303.--BAKED RICE AND HAM

  1/2 cup rice                    1/2 cup cooked ham finely chopped
  2-1/2 cups stock or water       1 tablespoon onion finely chopped
  2 cups milk                     2 tablespoons carrot finely chopped

Wash rice, place in greased baking dish; add liquid, ham, vegetables,
and salt if necessary. Bake slowly for three hours, stirring
occasionally during the first hour. Ham stock or corned beef stock may
be used, and any cooked meat substituted for ham. Serve with boiled
spinach or dressed lettuce.


304.--BOILED RICE

Wash one cup rice, and add slowly to two quarts of boiling salted water,
allowing one tablespoon of salt; cook until tender, pour into strainer,
rinse with boiling water, and put in oven or on back of range for a few
minutes, until the grains separate. Very old rice is improved by soaking
in cold water for an hour or two before cooking. Corned beef or ham
stock may be used in place of salted water.


305.--RICE AND COCONUT LOAF

  2 cups cooked rice                      1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1 cup stewed and strained tomatoes      1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 tablespoon grated onion               1 can grated coconut
  2 teaspoons salt                        2 tablespoons melted bacon fat
  1 egg slightly beaten

Mix all ingredients except the bacon fat; put into a deep greased pan,
cover with bacon fat, and bake in a slow oven one hour.


306.--RISOTTO

  1/2 cup rice                  1 onion chopped
  1 cup boiling water           1 green pepper chopped
  1 teaspoon salt               1/2 can tomatoes
  3 tablespoons bacon fat       1/4 teaspoon paprika

Cook rice with boiling water and salt in top of double boiler twelve
minutes, cook onion and pepper in bacon fat ten minutes, stirring often;
add tomatoes and paprika, mix with rice, and cook forty-five minutes.


307.--STEAMED SAMP

  1/2 cup samp                    3/4 teaspoon salt
  2-1/2 cups boiling water

Wash samp, soak over night in cold water, and drain; put boiling water
and salt in top of double boiler, and place directly on the range; add
samp slowly, and boil five minutes; place over hot water and cook for
four hours.


308.--CORN MEAL AND BEEF SCRAPPLE

  3-1/2 cups corned beef stock     1 cup corned beef cut in small pieces
  1 cup corn meal

Cook meal in stock as directed in Corn Meal Mush (see No. 293), add
meat, and pour into a deep bread pan; when cold, either slice and serve
cold, or dip in flour and sauté in butter, or dip in crumbs, then in
egg, and then again in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. If stock is very
salt, dilute with water or milk. Any kind of stock or meat may be used
in place of corned beef.


309.--WHEAT AND SAUSAGE SCRAPPLE

  3-3/4 cups boiling water       1 cup Cream of Wheat
  1 teaspoon salt                1/2 pound link sausage

Stir wheat slowly into boiling salted water, cook five minutes, place
over hot water, and cook half an hour. Cook sausages in frying pan until
brown, cut into half-inch pieces, add to mush, and pour into deep pan to
cool. Serve sliced cold, sautéed, or fried.


310.--BAKED SPAGHETTI AND HAM

  2 cups cooked spaghetti           1-1/2 cups White Sauce (see No. 207)
  3/4 cup cooked ham finely chopped 2 tablespoons tomato ketchup
  1 hard-cooked egg chopped         1/2 cup Buttered Crumbs (see No. 472)

Put half of spaghetti into a greased baking dish; mix ham and egg, and
add half of it to spaghetti; mix sauce and ketchup, and pour half of it
over ham; repeat; cover with crumbs, and bake in a hot oven about
fifteen minutes.


311.--CREOLE SPAGHETTI

  2 cups spaghetti broken in 2-inch pieces       1 cup tomatoes
  1 onion chopped fine                           1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 green pepper chopped fine                    1/2 teaspoon paprika
  3 tablespoons bacon fat

Cook spaghetti in boiling salted water until tender, and drain; cook
onion and pepper in bacon fat for ten minutes, stirring often; add
tomatoes and seasonings, put in top of double boiler, add spaghetti, and
cook half an hour. Macaroni may be used in place of spaghetti.


312.--ITALIAN SPAGHETTI

  2 cups spaghetti broken in 2-inch pieces   1/2 bay leaf
  1/2 onion                                  1 can condensed tomato soup
  4 cloves                                   1/4 cup grated cheese

Cook spaghetti in boiling salted water with the onion, cloves, and bay
leaf until tender; drain, remove onion, cloves, and bay leaf; add soup
and cheese, and heat to boiling point. One-half can tomatoes seasoned,
stewed until thick, and pressed through a sieve, may be used in place of
soup. Macaroni may be used in place of spaghetti.



CHAPTER XV

CROQUETTES AND FRITTERS[9]


313.--TO CLARIFY FAT

Melt fat, add one pared and sliced raw potato, a pinch of soda, and a
tablespoon of water; heat slowly, and cook until fat stops bubbling;
strain through double cheesecloth.


314.--TO TRY OUT FAT

Cut any surplus fat into pieces, put into double boiler, cover, cook
slowly until fat is extracted, and strain through double cheesecloth.


315.--CRUMBS FOR FRIED FOOD

Dry left-over bits of bread in a slow oven, put through food chopper,
using finest cutter, and sift through a coarse sieve. Keep in covered
jars.


316.--EGG FOR DIPPING FRIED FOOD

Break egg into a soup plate or similar shallow dish, beat enough to mix
yolk and white, and add one-fourth cup of cold water or one-third cup of
milk. Coat food thoroughly to prevent soaking fat.


317.--CHEESE BALLS

  1-1/2 cups cheese cut fine       1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 tablespoon flour               1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 teaspoon salt                Whites of 2 eggs beaten stiff

Mix in order given, shape in balls about one inch in diameter, roll in
sifted crumbs, and fry in deep fat until brown. Drain on soft paper,
and serve hot. Serve with the salad course or as a savory.


318.--CHEESE CROQUETTES

  3 tablespoons shortening       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/3 cup bread flour            1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 cup hot milk                 Few grains cayenne
  1/4 teaspoon salt              1 cup cheese cut fine

Melt shortening, add flour; add hot milk, and stir until smooth and
thick; add seasonings and cheese, and pour into a shallow dish to cool.
Shape into small pyramids, roll in sifted crumbs, dip in egg, and again
in crumbs, and fry in deep fat until brown. Serve immediately.


319.--FISH CROQUETTES

  2 cups cold flaked fish        Salt and cayenne
  1 tablespoon lemon juice       1 cup Croquette Sauce (see No. 192)
  Few drops onion juice

Use remnants of baked or boiled fish, sprinkle with lemon and onion
juice, dust lightly with salt and cayenne, and mix with sauce. When
cold, shape into small croquettes or cutlets, dip in crumbs, egg, and
again in crumbs, and fry in hot deep fat one minute.


320.--MEAT CROQUETTES

To two cups of cooked meat cut in small pieces add one teaspoon of
Worcestershire sauce and a few drops of onion juice; mix with one cup of
Croquette Sauce (see No. 192) and put on ice until cold. Shape into
small croquettes or cutlets, roll in crumbs, dip in egg, and again in
crumbs, and fry in hot deep fat. Any left-over meat may be used.


321.--POTATO AND BEAN CROQUETTES

  2 cups cold baked beans       1 tablespoon Worcestershire or
  1 cup mashed potato               Brand's A 1 sauce
  1/4 teaspoon paprika          Salt if needed

Press beans through a sieve, add potato and seasonings, mix well, and
shape into small pyramids. Roll in crumbs, dip in egg, roll in crumbs
again, and fry in hot deep fat. Drain on soft paper, and serve with
Tomato Sauce (see No. 203).


322.--RICE CROQUETTES

  1 egg slightly beaten            1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1/4 teaspoon salt                2 tablespoons cold water
  1/4 teaspoon onion juice         2 cups cooked rice
  1 tablespoon tomato ketchup

Mix in order given; shape into small pyramids, dip in crumbs, egg, and
again in crumbs, and fry in hot deep fat.


323.--RICE AND RAISIN CROQUETTES

  1/2 cup rice              1 cup hot milk
  1 cup boiling water       1 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon salt           2 tablespoons sultana raisins

Wash rice, stir into boiling salted water, and boil five minutes, add
milk, butter, and raisins, and cook over hot water about twenty-five
minutes, or until rice is tender. Shape into small pyramids, dip in egg
and crumbs, and fry in hot deep fat. Serve with Currant Jelly Sauce (see
No. 608) or Lemon Sauce (see No. 613).


324.--SALMON AND POTATO CROQUETTES

Rinse a can of salmon with boiling water, and separate into flakes; mix
with two cups of hot, well-seasoned mashed potatoes, and a tablespoon
of finely chopped mixed pickles. Shape into small croquettes, dip in
crumbs, egg, and then in crumbs again, and fry in hot deep fat one
minute.


325.--SLICED APPLE FRITTERS

  1 cup flour              1 egg well beaten
  1/4 teaspoon salt        1/2 cup cold water
  1 tablespoon sugar       3 tart apples

Mix and sift flour, salt, and sugar; add egg and water, and beat well;
pare, core, and cut apples into half-inch slices; dip in batter until
well coated, and fry in hot deep fat; drain on soft paper, and dust with
powdered sugar. Serve with roast pork or sausage, or serve with a liquid
sauce as an entrée or a dessert.


326.--BANANA FRITTERS

  1 cup flour                         1 egg well beaten
  1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder       1/4 cup cold water
  1/4 teaspoon salt                   2 bananas
  1 tablespoon powdered sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add egg and water, and beat well; press
bananas through a sieve, add to batter, and drop from a tablespoon into
hot deep fat; drain on soft paper, dust with powdered sugar, and serve
with Currant Jelly Sauce (see No. 608), or Lemon Sauce (see No. 613),
either as an entrée or as a dessert.


327.--CORN FRITTERS

  1 can corn                            1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup dried and sifted crumbs       1 teaspoon baking powder
  1 egg well beaten                     1 tablespoon flour
  1/2 cup milk

Chop the corn, and add other ingredients in order given. Drop from a
tablespoon into hot deep fat and fry until brown. Or sauté in a hot
greased frying pan.


328.--CRANBERRY FRITTERS

  1 egg well beaten         1 cup flour
  1/4 teaspoon salt         1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  2 tablespoons sugar       1/2 cup chopped cranberries
  1/4 cup water

Mix in order given; drop from a tablespoon into hot deep fat, cook about
three minutes, drain on soft paper, and dredge with powdered sugar.


329.--RICE AND CURRANT FRITTERS

  1 cup flour                         1 egg well beaten
  1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder       1/3 cup cold water
  1/3 teaspoon salt                   1 cup cooked rice
  2 tablespoons sugar                 2 tablespoons washed currants
  1/4 teaspoon nutmeg

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg and water, and beat well; add rice
and currants, and drop from a tablespoon into hot deep fat; drain on
soft paper, and serve with Currant Jelly Sauce (see No. 608), Orange
Marmalade Sauce (see No. 616), or Lemon Sauce (see No. 613).


330.--SALMON FRITTERS

  1-1/3 cups flour                2/3 cup water
  1/4 teaspoon salt               1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 teaspoons baking powder       1/4 teaspoon onion juice
  1 egg well beaten               1/2 can salmon chopped fine

Sift flour, salt, and baking powder; add egg, water, and seasonings, and
beat well; add salmon, and drop from a tablespoon into hot deep fat;
cook until brown, drain on soft paper, and serve with Sauce Tartare (see
No. 202) or Tomato Sauce (see No. 203).


331.--DOUGHNUTS

  2 cups flour                        1/2 cup sugar
  2-1/2 teaspoons baking powder       1 egg well beaten
  3/4 teaspoon salt                   1/2 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon nutmeg                 1 tablespoon melted shortening

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg, milk, and shortening, and mix
well; chill, and roll out on a floured board until half an inch thick;
cut, and fry in hot deep fat. A little more flour may be necessary, but
the dough should be as soft as can be handled easily.


332.--SMALL TEA DOUGHNUTS

Follow recipe for Doughnuts (see No. 331), roll mixture very thin, cut
with a two-inch doughnut cutter, fry, and dust with powdered sugar. Or
fry the cut-out centers of large doughnuts, and roll in powdered sugar.


333.--FRIED JAM CAKES

Roll doughnut mixture very thin, and cut with a three-inch cookie
cutter; put a teaspoon of jam on one half, moisten the edges with water,
fold double, press edges firmly together, and fry in hot deep fat. Dust
with powdered sugar.

FOOTNOTES:

[9] See Temperatures for Frying (page 242).



CHAPTER XVI

SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS


334.--COOKED SALAD DRESSING

  1-1/2 cups hot milk       2 tablespoons sugar
  2 beaten eggs             2 teaspoons mustard
  1 tablespoon salt         Dash of cayenne
  3 tablespoons flour       1/2 cup hot vinegar

Mix dry ingredients, add to egg, and stir into the hot milk; add vinegar
slowly, and cook over hot water for ten minutes, stirring constantly at
first. Cool, put into a preserve jar, cover, and keep in a cool place.
Whipped cream may be added, if desired, before using. Allow one cup for
the whole recipe. Two tablespoons of melted butter or salad oil may be
added, but recipe is very good without either.


335.--COOKED SALAD DRESSING (Evaporated Milk)

  1/2 teaspoon salt           1 beaten egg
  1 teaspoon mustard          1 tablespoon melted butter
  1-1/2 teaspoons sugar       1/3 cup evaporated milk
  1-1/2 teaspoons flour       2/3 cup hot water
  Few grains cayenne          1/4 cup vinegar

Mix in order given, and cook over hot water for ten minutes, stirring
constantly at first.


336.--CURRANT JELLY DRESSING

  1/4 cup currant or any other tart jelly       Juice of 1/2 lemon
  2 tablespoons candied ginger chopped          Dash of cayenne
  4 tablespoons oil

Melt the jelly, add ginger, cool slightly; add oil, lemon juice, and
cayenne.


337.--DEVILLED HAM DRESSING

  1 egg                          1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 small can devilled ham       1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup vinegar                1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1/4 cup water                  1/4 teaspoon cornstarch

Beat egg, add ham, vinegar, and water; mix salt, pepper, mustard, and
cornstarch; add to ham mixture; and cook over hot water ten minutes.


338.--FRENCH DRESSING

  2/3 cup oil                1/2 teaspoon pepper
  1/3 cup vinegar            1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt       1 teaspoon powdered sugar

Put the ingredients in a pint preserve jar; fasten the cover, chill, and
shake well before using. Keep in the ice-box and use as needed. For use
with fruit salad, omit mustard. Curry, Brand's A 1 sauce, Worcestershire
sauce, tomato ketchup, or similar condiments may be added in small
amounts to vary the flavor.


339.--MAYONNAISE DRESSING

  Yolk of 1 egg                     1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1 teaspoon salt                   1 cup salad oil
  1/2 teaspoon powdered sugar       2 tablespoons vinegar
  1 teaspoon mustard                1 tablespoon lemon juice

Beat the egg yolk; add the seasonings; add oil, a few drops at a time,
until mixture thickens; mix vinegar and lemon juice, and add in small
quantities, alternating with the oil; as the oil thickens the dressing,
dilute with the acid, leaving the finished dressing thick. It is
important to have ingredients and utensils cold.


340.--POTATO MAYONNAISE

  1/2 cup mashed potatoes       1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  2 tablespoons oil             1/4 teaspoon salt
  3 tablespoons vinegar         1/4 teaspoon mustard
  1 teaspoon horseradish        1/4 teaspoon sugar

Mix in order given and serve with vegetable salad or cold meat.


341.--RUSSIAN DRESSING

To Mayonnaise Dressing (see No. 339) add one-third cup of thick chili
sauce. Cooked salad dressing may be used in place of mayonnaise.


342.--SOUR CREAM DRESSING

  1/2 cup sour cream       1 teaspoon powdered sugar
  1/4 teaspoon salt        3 tablespoons chili sauce

Beat cream until stiff; add salt, sugar, and chili sauce.


343.--QUICK MAYONNAISE

  3 tablespoons butter       1/2 teaspoon sugar
  1/2 teaspoon salt          3 tablespoons oil
  1/2 teaspoon mustard       1 tablespoon vinegar
  1/4 teaspoon paprika       1 egg

Cream butter, add seasonings, and when well mixed add oil all at once;
mix well, add vinegar; mix well, add the well-beaten egg yolk, and fold
in the stiffly beaten white of egg. Do not chill.


344.--UNCOOKED SALAD DRESSING (Condensed Milk)

  2 eggs beaten               1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 can condensed milk        1-1/2 teaspoons mustard
  1/4 cup melted butter       Dash of cayenne
  1 cup vinegar

Mix, and beat with egg beater until thickened.


345.--CHICKEN SALAD

  2 cups cold cooked chicken       Lettuce
  2 cups celery cut fine           1 hard-cooked egg
  Salad dressing

Cut remnants of chicken in small pieces and mix with celery and salad
dressing; arrange on lettuce leaves and garnish with dressing and egg
thinly sliced. Cabbage and a little celery salt may be used in place of
celery.


346.--CORONADO SALAD

  1 can tuna fish                       Cooked Dressing (see No. 334)
  2 cups shredded cabbage               2 tablespoons tomato ketchup
  1 green pepper cooked and shredded

Flake fish; shred cabbage very fine; cut pepper in halves, remove seeds,
cook in boiling water ten minutes, and shred in inch lengths; mix,
arrange on lettuce, and dress with boiled dressing, to which the ketchup
has been added. Garnish with parsley or pimiento.


347.--MEAT AND POTATO SALAD

  1-1/2 cups cooked meat cut fine    1/2 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2 cups cooked potato cut fine  2 tablespoons finely chopped pickle
  1/2 cup celery cut fine            Salad dressing

Mix in order given, cover with dressing, and garnish with sliced pickles
and celery tops. White cabbage may be used in place of celery.


348.--SALMON SALAD

  1 can salmon                    2 finely chopped pickles
  1 cup cooked potato cubes       Cooked Dressing (see No. 334)
  1 cup shredded lettuce          Lettuce

Rinse salmon with boiling water, and separate into flakes; mix with
potato, lettuce, and pickles, arrange on lettuce, and cover with
dressing. Garnish with sliced hard-cooked egg and parsley.


349.--SHRIMP SALAD

  1 pint cooked shrimps             3/4 cup salad dressing
  1 cup chopped white cabbage       1 head lettuce
  2 tablespoons capers

Clean shrimps and break in pieces, reserving a few of the largest; mix
with cabbage, capers, and dressing, and serve in lettuce nests. Garnish
with whole shrimps. Canned shrimps may be used.


350.--TUNA FISH SALAD

  1 can tuna fish                  Salad dressing
  2 cups cooked potato cubes       Lettuce
  1/2 cup cooked beet

Flake tuna fish, mix with potatoes cut into fine cubes, and the beet cut
into inch shreds; arrange on lettuce or any crisp salad green; and dress
with Cooked Dressing (see No. 334) or Mayonnaise (see No. 339).


351.--BAKED BEAN SALAD

  2 cups cold baked beans           1 cup Cooked Dressing (see No. 334)
  1 cup cooked potato cubes         2 tablespoons tomato ketchup
  1/2 cup chopped cooked beet       2 tablespoons chopped pickle

Mix beans, potato, and beets; add ketchup and pickle to dressing, mix
with vegetables, and serve on lettuce or any crisp salad green. Garnish
with radishes.


352.--BERMUDA ONION SALAD

  6 Bermuda onions              1/2 bay leaf
  2 quarts boiling water        Small piece lemon peel
  1 dozen pepper corns          Lettuce
  4 cloves                      French Dressing (see No. 338)
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Peel and quarter onions, and cook in boiling water with seasonings until
tender; drain, cool, arrange on lettuce, and cover with dressing.
Garnish with red radishes.


353.--CABBAGE AND BEET SALAD

  3 cups shredded cabbage       2 tablespoons vinegar
  3 beets finely chopped        1/4 teaspoon white mustard seed
  1/4 teaspoon salt             Cooked Dressing (see No. 334)

Mix cabbage, beets, salt, vinegar, and mustard seed; arrange on small
white cabbage leaves, and dress with cooked dressing. Garnish with
parsley.


354.--CABBAGE AND CRANBERRY SALAD

  3 cups finely shredded white cabbage       1/2 cup chopped cranberries
  1/2 cup finely shredded celery

Mix with Cooked Dressing (see No. 334), and garnish with celery tops and
whole cranberries.


355.--CELERY ROOT SALAD

  2 cups Creamed Celery Root (see No. 253)  1 cup shredded white cabbage
  1 cup chopped apple

Mix, and serve on lettuce with Cooked Dressing (see No. 334) or
Mayonnaise Dressing (see No. 339).


356.--DUTCH POTATO SALAD

  6 boiled potatoes              1/4 teaspoon celery seed
  1/2 onion finely chopped       1/4 teaspoon white mustard seed
  1 teaspoon salt                1/4 cup bacon fat
  1/4 teaspoon pepper            1/2 cup hot vinegar

Cut potatoes into half-inch cubes; add onion, salt, pepper, celery, and
mustard seed; heat bacon fat, add vinegar, and pour over potatoes; let
stand until cold, and serve on any crisp salad green. Garnish with
pickled beet.


357.--LEEK SALAD

Cut leeks in half-inch slices and cook in boiling salted water until
tender; drain, chill, and serve on lettuce with French Dressing (see No.
338); sprinkle with chopped parsley and paprika.


358.--PEPPER AND CABBAGE SALAD

  1/2 small white cabbage       1 red pepper
  1 green pepper                Salad dressing

Shred cabbage into fine inch shreds; remove seeds and veins from
peppers, and cut into fine shreds. Mix with dressing and arrange on
small inner cabbage leaves. Garnish with parsley and strips of red
pepper.


359.--POTATO SALAD

  6 potatoes                     1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 onion                        1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1/2 teaspoon celery seed       Salad dressing
  1/4 teaspoon mustard seed

Pare potatoes, cut in halves, and cook in boiling salted water with the
onion until tender; cool, cut in half-inch cubes, add seasonings, and
mix with dressing. Cover with dressing, and garnish with parsley, red
beets, or cooked carrot. Devilled Ham Dressing (see No. 337) is
excellent with potato salad.


360.--SWEET POTATO SALAD

  3 cups of cooked sweet potato cubes  4 tablespoons oil
  1 cup white cabbage or celery        1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
      finely chopped                   1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons vinegar

Mix and serve on heart cabbage leaves, and garnish with parsley and
pickles.


361.--SAMOSET SALAD

Arrange lettuce in salad bowl, cover with slices of pickled beets, and
sprinkle thickly with cottage cheese. Cover with dressing made of three
tablespoons each of beet vinegar and oil, one-fourth teaspoon salt, and
one-eighth teaspoon pepper.


362.--SPANISH SALAD

  1 head of lettuce                        3 tomatoes quartered
  2 cups of half-inch cubes of bread       French Dressing (see No. 338)
  1 Spanish onion chopped fine             2 sliced pickles
  1 cucumber sliced

Shred the coarser leaves of the lettuce, and arrange in salad bowl on
heart leaves; cover with bread cubes, sprinkle with onion, add cucumber
and tomatoes, and pour French dressing over all. Garnish with pickles.


363.--SPANISH ONION AND TOMATO SALAD

  1 head lettuce          1 green pepper
  4 mild onions           French Dressing (see No. 338)
  2 ripe tomatoes

Wash and dry lettuce, and arrange in salad bowl; peel onions, cut in
very thin slices, and put on lettuce; peel and slice tomatoes, and place
on onions; cut pepper in thin slices, remove seeds and veins, and place
on tomatoes; cover with French dressing, and serve very cold with brown
bread sandwiches.


364.--TOMATO JELLY SALAD

  1 can tomatoes         1/8 teaspoon soda
  1/2 onion              Dash of cayenne
  4 cloves               1/2 bay leaf
  1 teaspoon salt        1/2 box gelatine
  1 teaspoon sugar       1/2 cup cold water

Cook tomatoes and seasonings for twenty minutes; soak gelatine in cold
water for a few minutes; add to tomato, and stir until dissolved; press
through a sieve, and fill individual molds, which have been garnished
with a slice of hard-cooked egg. Serve on lettuce with any dressing
preferred. A small amount of clear jelly may be made by allowing mixture
to drip through a jelly bag. Put into very small molds, and use as a
garnish for cold meat or salads. The pulp left in the bag will make
excellent soup.


365.--VEGETABLE SALAD (Cooked)

  1-1/2 cups potatoes        French Dressing (see No. 338)
  1 cup beets                1/4 teaspoon onion juice
  3/4 cup white turnip       1 bouillon cube
  1/2 cup peas

Cut potatoes, beets, and turnips into half-inch cubes, and mix with
peas; dissolve bouillon cube in one tablespoon of boiling water, and
add with onion juice to dressing. Arrange vegetables on any crisp salad
green, and pour dressing over them.


366.--APPLE AND MINT SALAD

  2 cups finely cut apple          4 tablespoons oil
  2 tablespoons chopped mint       Few grains cayenne
  2 tablespoons lemon juice        1 head lettuce
  Few gratings lemon rind

Mix the mint, lemon juice, and rind, cover, and let stand for half an
hour; add oil and cayenne, and pour over apple. Serve on lettuce and
garnish with sprigs of mint.


367.--BANANA AND APPLE SALAD

Peel and slice three bananas; pare, core, and slice four apples; arrange
on lettuce, and cover with Currant Jelly Dressing (see No. 336).


368.--BANANA AND PEANUT SALAD

Peel and scrape bananas, cut crosswise into three pieces, roll in finely
chopped peanuts, and serve on lettuce with French Dressing (see No.
338).


369.--BELLEVUE SALAD

  1 cup cottage cheese        1/4 cup French Dressing (see No. 338)
  1/2 cup peanut butter       1 large red apple
  1/2 teaspoon salt           Lettuce leaves

Mix cheese, butter, salt, and dressing until well blended; core apples,
cut in one-third-inch slices, and cover each slice with cheese mixture
forced through a rose tube; arrange on lettuce, and serve with French
dressing.


370.--CREAM CHEESE SALAD

Force cream cheese through potato ricer, arrange lightly on lettuce
leaves, and dress with a French Dressing (see No. 338), to which two
tablespoons of chili sauce have been added.


371.--FROZEN CREAM CHEESE

Mash a cream cheese, season with paprika and salt, moisten with cream,
and beat until smooth; pack into individual paper cases, put into a
tightly covered tin, and pack in equal parts of salt and ice for three
hours. Serve on lettuce with French Dressing (see No. 338), and garnish
with bits of currant jelly or Mock Bar-le-Duc Currants (see No. 666).


372.--JELLIED WALDORF SALAD

  1/2 package gelatine       1 cup celery shredded
  1/2 cup cold water         1/2 cup nut meats chopped
  1 cup boiling water        Lettuce
  1/4 cup sugar              6 pimolas sliced
  1/4 cup lemon juice        Mayonnaise
  2 cups apple chopped

Soak gelatine in cold water five minutes, add boiling water, sugar, and
lemon juice; chill until it begins to stiffen; add apples, celery, and
nuts; turn into individual molds, and chill. Serve on lettuce, and
garnish with pimolas and mayonnaise.


373.--ORANGE AND CRESS SALAD

  1 bunch water cress       4 seedless oranges
  1 head romaine            French Dressing (see No. 338)

Pick over, wash, and dry cress; wash and dry romaine, and arrange in
salad bowl; peel and cut oranges in thin slices, and arrange over
romaine; put cress around edge of bowl, and cover all with French
dressing made with lemon juice instead of vinegar.


374.--PEAR SALAD

  5 pears                         1 teaspoon Jamaica ginger
  Lettuce                         1 teaspoon powdered sugar
  4 tablespoons oil               1/2 teaspoon paprika
  2 tablespoons lemon juice

Pare, quarter, and core fruit; wash and dry lettuce; shred finely the
outer leaves, and arrange on the heart leaves; cut quarters of pears
lengthwise, place on lettuce, and cover with dressing made of oil, lemon
juice, and seasonings. The pears should not be too ripe.


375.--PINEAPPLE, CHEESE, AND DATE SALAD

For each person allow two lettuce leaves, one slice of pineapple, and
three dates stuffed with cream cheese. Cut the pineapple in cubes and
place on the lettuce; cut dates in halves lengthwise, remove stones,
stuff with cream cheese, and arrange on pineapple; sprinkle cheese with
paprika, and dress all with French Dressing (see No. 338).


376.--PINEAPPLE AND COTTAGE CHEESE SALAD

Arrange slices of pineapple on crisp lettuce; in the center of each
slice place a cottage cheese ball rolled in chopped nut meats; dress
with French Dressing (see No. 338).



CHAPTER XVII

YEAST BREADS, MUFFINS, AND ROLLS


377.--WHITE BREAD

  1 cup scalded milk             2-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 cup boiling water            1/2 yeast cake
  1 tablespoon sugar             1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons shortening       6 to 7 cups flour

Put liquid, sugar, shortening, and salt in the mixing bowl; when
lukewarm add the yeast cake (which has been dissolved in lukewarm
water); add flour and knead well. The exact amount of flour will depend
upon the quality; but enough should be used to make a smooth, soft dough
which after kneading is not sticky. Cover, and let rise in a warm room
until double in bulk; cut down, knead well, and shape into loaves;
cover, let rise until double in bulk, and bake in a hot oven about fifty
minutes. To hurry the rising of the bread increase the quantity of
yeast. Bread mixed with two yeast cakes may be made and baked in about
three hours.


378.--BRAN BREAD (Yeast)

  1/2 cup boiling water          1/2 yeast cake
  1/2 cup scalded milk           1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons shortening       1 cup entire wheat flour
  2 tablespoons molasses         1 cup white flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt           2 cups bran

Mix water, milk, shortening, molasses, and salt; when lukewarm add yeast
cake dissolved in lukewarm water, add flour sifted, and bran, and mix
with liquid to a soft dough; let rise until light, cut down, and knead
into small loaves, using more bran if necessary to prevent sticking; let
rise until nearly double, and bake in hot oven about fifty minutes.


379.--ENTIRE WHEAT BREAD

Follow recipe for White Bread (see No. 377), using four cups of entire
wheat flour and two or more cups of white flour. Molasses may be used in
place of sugar.


380.--DATE BREAD (Not Kneaded)

  1 cup scalded milk             1/2 yeast cake
  1 cup boiling water            1/4 cup lukewarm water
  4 cup molasses                 4 cups entire wheat flour
  2 tablespoons shortening       1-1/4 cups white flour
  2 teaspoons salt               1 cup dates cut in pieces

Mix milk, water, molasses, shortening, and salt; when lukewarm, add
yeast, dissolved in lukewarm water, and flour; mix, and beat well; let
rise until double in bulk; add dates, beat well, turn into two greased
bread pans, let rise until light, and bake one hour. The oven should be
hot for the first fifteen minutes, and then the heat should be reduced.


381.--FRIED BREAD

Cut raised bread dough into pieces the size of a small egg, flatten with
the rolling pin, cover, let rise until light, and fry in deep fat about
three minutes.


382.--GRAHAM AND CORN BREAD

  1 cup corn meal                1/4 cup molasses
  1 cup boiling water            1/2 yeast cake
  1 cup scalded milk             1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons shortening       4 cups Graham flour
  2-1/2 teaspoons salt

Pour boiling water over corn meal; mix well, add milk and shortening;
when lukewarm add salt, molasses, and yeast dissolved in lukewarm water;
add flour, beat well, and let rise until double in bulk; beat again,
pour into two greased bread pans, let rise until light, and bake about
fifty minutes. The oven should be hot for the first fifteen minutes, and
then the heat reduced.


383.--IRISH BREAD

  1 quart bread dough       1/4 cup sugar
  1/3 cup shortening        1 cup raisins seeded and chopped

Knead shortening, sugar, and raisins into dough; shape into two round
loaves, let rise, brush with milk, and bake in hot oven about forty
minutes.


384.--OATMEAL BREAD

  1 cup rolled oats             1/2 yeast cake
  1/2 cup corn meal             1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt          1/2 cup molasses
  1 tablespoon shortening       4 cups flour
  2 cups boiling water

Mix oats, corn meal, salt, and shortening; add boiling water, and let
stand one hour; add yeast dissolved in lukewarm water, molasses, and
flour. Mix well, cover, and let rise until double in bulk; beat well,
turn into two greased pans, let rise, and bake in a hot oven about
fifty minutes.


385.--RYE BREAD

  1 cup scalded milk             1/2 yeast cake
  1 cup boiling water            1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons shortening       3 cups rye flour
  3 tablespoons molasses         3 to 4 cups white flour
  2 teaspoons salt

Mix; let rise and bake the same as White Bread (see No. 377).


386.--SHREDDED WHEAT BREAD

  2 shredded wheat biscuit       1 tablespoon shortening
  1 cup hot milk                 1/2 yeast cake
  1 cup hot water                1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1/2 cup molasses               6 cups entire wheat flour
  1 tablespoon salt

Crumble the biscuit; add milk, water, molasses, salt, and shortening;
when lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and sifted
flour; knead well, cover and let rise until double in bulk; cut down,
shape into loaves or biscuit, put into greased pans, let rise until
light, and bake in a hot oven about fifty minutes for loaves, and
twenty-five minutes for biscuit. This makes one loaf and one pan of
biscuit. A little more or less flour may be needed.


387.--BUNS

  1 cup scalded milk       1/2 yeast cake
  1/3 cup shortening       1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1/4 cup sugar            1/2 cup currants
  1 teaspoon salt          3-1/2 cups flour

Mix milk, shortening, sugar, and salt; when lukewarm, add yeast
dissolved in lukewarm water; add currants, and flour enough to knead (a
little more or less than the three and one-half cups may be required);
let rise until double in bulk; knead, and shape into small round buns;
place in a greased baking pan two inches apart, and let rise until
light; brush with milk, dust with powdered sugar, and bake in a hot oven
about twenty minutes.


388.--CRESCENTS

Use Parker House Roll mixture (see No. 389) or any bread dough into
which more shortening has been kneaded; roll out half an inch thick, cut
into four-inch squares, and cut squares in halves diagonally; brush with
melted shortening, and roll firmly, beginning with the diagonal edge.
Curve into crescent shape, place on greased baking sheet, let rise until
light, and bake in a hot oven about fifteen minutes.


389.--PARKER HOUSE ROLLS

  2 cups milk              1 yeast cake
  1/3 cup shortening       1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1 teaspoon salt          6 to 7 cups flour
  2 tablespoons sugar

Scald milk; add shortening, salt, and sugar; when cool add yeast
dissolved in water; stir in two cups of flour, cover, and let rise until
double in bulk; add enough flour to form a soft dough; knead well, and
let rise again; cut down with a knife; roll out on lightly floured bread
board until about half an inch thick; cut with small round cutter, brush
with butter, and fold double; put on baking sheet, cover, and let rise
until light, brush with milk, and bake in hot oven about twelve
minutes.


390.--SHAMROCK ROLLS

To one quart of bread dough add one-fourth cup of melted shortening and
two tablespoons of sugar. Knead well, and shape into small balls about
the size of a pecan nut; grease muffin tins, put three balls in each,
let rise until light, and bake in a hot oven about fifteen minutes.


391.--SWEDISH COFFEE ROLLS

  1 cup scalded milk       1/2 yeast cake
  1/3 cup shortening       1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1 teaspoon salt          3-1/2 cups flour
  1/4 cup sugar            1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 egg well beaten        2 tablespoons sugar

Scald milk, add shortening, salt, and sugar; when lukewarm add egg,
yeast dissolved in water, and flour, of which a little more or less may
be required; knead well, cover, and let rise until double in bulk; knead
again; roll on a floured board until about one-fourth of an inch thick,
brush with melted shortening, and sprinkle with cinnamon mixed with
sugar; fold dough into three layers, cut in strips three-quarters of an
inch thick; twist each strip, and shape like a figure eight, pressing
the ends firmly in place; put on a greased baking sheet, let rise until
light, and bake in a hot oven twenty minutes. Spread with a thin coating
of plain icing.


392.--RAISED MUFFINS

  1/2 cup boiling water           1 egg
  1/2 cup scalded milk            1/4 yeast cake
  1 teaspoon salt                 1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons sugar             2-1/2 cups flour
  2 tablespoons shortening

Pour water and milk over salt, sugar, and shortening; when cool add
beaten egg, yeast dissolved in water, and flour; beat well and let rise
over night; beat again; fill greased muffin pans two-thirds full, let
rise, and bake in a hot oven thirty minutes. Or place greased muffin
rings on a hot greased griddle, fill two-thirds full, and cook on top of
range about twenty minutes, turning when half cooked.


393.--RAISED CORN MUFFINS

  1 cup scalded milk             1/4 yeast cake
  4 tablespoons shortening       1/4 cup lukewarm water
  4 tablespoons sugar            1 cup corn meal
  1 teaspoon salt                1-1/2 cups flour

Add shortening, sugar, and salt to milk; when lukewarm add yeast
dissolved in water, corn meal, and flour; beat well, let rise over
night; beat well, half fill greased muffin rings, let rise until nearly
double, and bake in hot oven half an hour.


394.--RAISED DATE MUFFINS

Follow recipe for Date Bread (see No. 380); half fill greased muffin
tins, let rise until light, and bake in a hot oven twenty-five minutes.
Figs cut in small pieces may be used instead of dates.


395.--RAISED OATMEAL MUFFINS (Uncooked Oats)

  1 cup rolled oats              1 egg
  1 cup scalded milk             1/4 yeast cake
  2 tablespoons shortening       1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1 teaspoon salt                2-1/2 cups flour
  1/4 cup molasses

Pour hot milk over oats, add shortening; when lukewarm add salt,
molasses, egg well beaten, and yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water;
beat well, and add flour; beat well, and let rise over night; beat
again, and half fill greased muffin pans; let rise until nearly double,
and bake in a hot oven half an hour.


396.--RAISED ROULETTES

Roll out to one-half inch thickness any roll or soft raised bread
mixture; brush with melted butter, and spread with cinnamon and sugar,
fruit, or any of the fillings used for Baking Powder Roulettes (see No.
447). Roll like a jelly roll until dough is about two and one-half
inches in diameter, cut in half-inch slices with a sharp knife, place on
greased sheet two inches apart, let rise until light, and bake in a hot
oven twenty minutes.



CHAPTER XVIII

BAKING POWDER BREADS, MUFFINS, AND BISCUIT[10]


397.--BAKING POWDER

  1 pound 2 ounces _pure_ cream of tartar       1/4 pound cornstarch
  1/2 pound cooking soda

Mix and sift thoroughly four times, and store in closely covered jars.


398.--BARLEY BREAD

  2 cups barley meal       1 teaspoon salt
  1 cup Graham flour       6 teaspoons baking powder
  1 cup white flour        2 cups milk
  2 tablespoons sugar

Sift dry ingredients together, and mix well with milk; turn into a
greased bread tin, let stand fifteen minutes, and bake in a moderate
oven fifty minutes. Raisins, dates, figs, or nuts may be added.


399.--BRAN BREAD

  2 cups bran                     5 teaspoons baking powder
  2 cups entire wheat flour       1/2 cup molasses
  1 teaspoon salt                 3/4 cup water
  1/2 teaspoon soda               3/4 cup milk

Sift flour, salt, soda, and baking powder, and add to bran; add molasses
and liquid, and beat well; turn into a greased bread pan; let stand
fifteen minutes, and bake in a moderate oven one hour.


400.--DATE BREAD

  1 cup corn meal                1/4 cup molasses
  1 cup entire wheat flour       1 cup dates stoned and cut in pieces
  1 cup white flour              1/2 cup nut meats chopped
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt           1 egg well beaten
  1/4 teaspoon soda              1-1/4 cups milk
  5 teaspoons baking powder

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add other ingredients in order given; mix
well, turn into a greased bread pan, cover with a cloth, let stand
fifteen minutes; bake in a moderate oven fifty minutes.


401.--DARK NUT BREAD

  1/4 cup sugar                   1 cup bread flour
  3/4 cup hot water               5 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 cup molasses                1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  3/4 cup milk                    1/2 teaspoon soda
  2 cups entire wheat flour       3/4 cup nut meats finely chopped

Mix in order given, sifting dry materials together before adding. Turn
into a greased bread pan, let stand fifteen minutes, and bake in a
moderate oven one hour.


402.--QUICK RAISIN BREAD

  2-1/2 cups entire wheat flour       1/4 cup sugar
  1/2 cup fine corn meal              1 beaten egg
  6 teaspoons baking powder           1-1/4 cups milk
  1 teaspoon salt                     1 cup seeded raisins cut in halves

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg, milk, and raisins, and mix well;
put into a greased bread pan, cover, and let stand fifteen minutes;
bake in a moderate oven about fifty minutes. One cup of finely chopped
nuts may be added.


403.--BREAD CRUMB BROWN BREAD

  1-1/2 cups dried sifted crumbs       1/2 cup corn meal
  1 cup boiling water                  1 cup Graham flour
  1/2 cup molasses                     3/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk                           1-1/2 teaspoons soda

Put crumbs in mixing dish, add boiling water, and let stand ten minutes;
add molasses, milk, and the dry ingredients sifted together. Steam the
same as Steamed Indian Date Bread (see No. 404).


404.--STEAMED INDIAN DATE BREAD

  1-1/2 cups corn meal       2/3 cup molasses
  1 cup rye meal             1 cup water
  1/2 cup flour              1 cup milk
  1-1/2 teaspoons soda       1 cup dates
  1 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, liquid, and dates which have
been stoned and cut in pieces. Pour into greased one-pound baking powder
boxes, and steam steadily for one and three-quarters hours. Or pour into
a large greased mold and steam for three hours.


405.--CORN BREAD (without Eggs)

  3/4 cup corn meal         1/2 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup flour             3/4 teaspoon soda
  2 tablespoons sugar       1-1/2 cups buttermilk or sour milk


Mix and sift dry ingredients, add buttermilk gradually, and beat well;
pour into well-greased shallow pan, and bake in hot oven twenty
minutes.


406.--COUNTRY CORN BREAD

  3/4 cup corn meal               1/3 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup flour                   1 beaten egg
  3 teaspoons baking powder       3/4 cup milk and water mixed
  1 tablespoon sugar              2 tablespoons melted bacon fat

Mix in order given, beat well, and bake in a well-greased shallow pan in
a hot oven about twenty minutes. Half of the egg will make a very good
corn bread. Left-over pieces may be split, lightly buttered, and browned
in the oven.


407.--CORN MUFFINS

  1 cup corn meal                 2 tablespoons sugar
  1 cup flour                     1 beaten egg
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 cup milk and water mixed
  1/2 teaspoon salt               4 tablespoons melted shortening

Mix in order given, beat well, and bake in greased gem pans in hot oven
twenty minutes.


408.--CORN AND RICE MUFFINS

  1 cup cooked rice             1 tablespoon sugar
  2/3 cup hot milk              1 egg
  1/2 cup corn meal             1/2 cup flour
  2 tablespoons bacon fat       3 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Pour hot milk over rice, and work with a fork to separate grains; add
corn meal, bacon fat, salt, and sugar; when cool add egg well beaten,
flour, and baking powder; beat well; bake in well-greased muffin pans in
hot oven twenty minutes.


409.--CUSTARD CORN CAKE

  1/2 cup corn meal         1 cup sour milk
  1/2 cup flour             1 egg
  2 tablespoons sugar       2 tablespoons melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt         1/2 cup sweet milk
  1/2 teaspoon soda

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add sour milk and egg well beaten, and
beat thoroughly; melt shortening in an earthen baking dish, pour in
batter, pour the sweet milk over it, and bake in a hot oven twenty-five
minutes. Cut in wedge-shaped pieces for serving.


410.--MOLASSES CORN BREAD

  1 cup corn meal                 1 egg
  1 cup flour                     1/4 cup molasses
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 cup water
  1/2 teaspoon salt               2 tablespoons melted bacon fat

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg well beaten, molasses, water, and
bacon fat; beat well, pour into a well-greased shallow pan, and bake
about twenty minutes in a hot oven.


411.--RHODE ISLAND CORN CAKE

  1 cup white corn meal           2 tablespoons sugar
  1 cup flour                     1 egg
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1/4 cup melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt               1 cup milk

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg yolk well beaten, shortening, and
milk; beat well; fold in the stiffly beaten white of egg, and bake in a
greased, shallow pan in hot oven about twenty minutes.


412.--BLUEBERRY MUFFINS

Follow recipe for Cambridge Muffins (see No. 414); add one cup of
blueberries just before putting into the pans. If canned blueberries are
used, drain, and dredge with flour before adding to batter.


413.--BRAN MUFFINS

  2 cups bran             1/2 cup molasses
  1 cup flour             1-3/4 cups milk
  1/2 teaspoon salt       1 tablespoon melted shortening
  1 teaspoon soda

Mix in order given; beat well, and bake in moderate oven about
twenty-five minutes. These muffins are moist, keep well, and may be
reheated successfully in a covered pan, either over steam or in the
oven.


414.--CAMBRIDGE MUFFINS

  1/4 cup shortening       2 cups flour
  1/4 cup sugar            4 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg                    1/4 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup milk

Cream the shortening; add the sugar and egg well beaten; beat well, add
the milk, flour, baking powder, and salt, which have been sifted
together; beat again, and bake in hot greased muffin pans twenty minutes
in a moderate oven.


415.--CHEESE MUFFINS

Use recipe for Plain Muffins (see No. 419) or any muffin recipe,
omitting the sugar; cut cheese in half-inch cubes, and place three or
four pieces on top of each muffin before baking.


416.--CRANBERRY MUFFINS

Follow recipe for Cambridge Muffins (see No. 414), and add one cup of
cranberries coarsely chopped.


417.--CRUMB MUFFINS

  1 cup dried and sifted bread crumbs       1 egg
  1 tablespoon shortening                   1/2 cup milk
  1 tablespoon sugar                        3/4 cup flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt                         3 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 cup boiling water

Mix crumbs, shortening, sugar, salt, and boiling water; when cool add
the egg well beaten, the milk, flour, and baking powder; beat well and
bake in greased muffin pans twenty minutes in a moderate oven.


418.--DATE MUFFINS

To recipe for Plain Muffins (see No. 419) or Cambridge Muffins (see No.
414) add one cup dates, stoned and cut in small pieces.


419.--PLAIN MUFFINS

  2 cups flour                    1 egg
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon salt               2 tablespoons melted shortening
  2 tablespoons sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg well beaten, milk, and shortening;
beat well, and bake in greased muffin pans in moderate oven twenty
minutes. For fruit muffins add one cup of figs, dates, or cooked prunes
cut in pieces.


420.--RYE MUFFINS

  1 cup rye flour                 2 tablespoons molasses
  1 cup white flour               1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon salt               2 tablespoons melted shortening
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 cup milk

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, egg well beaten, shortening,
and milk; beat well, half fill greased muffin tins, and bake in moderate
oven twenty minutes.


421.--SOUR MILK MUFFINS

  1-1/2 cups flour         1 egg
  1 tablespoon sugar       1 cup thick sour milk
  1/2 teaspoon soda        2 tablespoons melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg well beaten, sour milk, and
shortening; beat quickly, and bake in greased muffin pans in moderate
oven twenty minutes.


422.--BUTTERMILK MUFFINS

Follow recipe for Sour Milk Muffins (see No. 421), using buttermilk
instead of sour milk.


423.--SALLY LUNN

  2 cups flour                    2 eggs
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon salt               1/4 cup melted shortening
  2 tablespoons sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add eggs well beaten, milk, and
shortening; beat thoroughly, pour into shallow greased pan, and bake in
a moderate oven twenty minutes.


424.--BAKING POWDER BISCUIT

  2 cups flour                    2 tablespoons shortening
  4 teaspoons baking powder       3/4 cup milk
  1 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift dry ingredients, rub in shortening until fine and crumbly,
and add milk to form a soft dough; a little more or less may be
required, according to the brand of flour used. Roll out on a slightly
floured board until three-fourths of an inch thick, cut with small
cutter, place on greased pan an inch apart, and bake in hot oven twelve
minutes. For soft biscuit with little crust, place close together in the
pan, and bake five minutes longer. Left-over biscuit may be split,
lightly buttered, and browned in the oven.


425.--CORN MEAL ROLLS

  1 cup corn meal                 1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup flour                     3 tablespoons bacon fat
  4 teaspoons baking powder       3/4 cup milk

Mix and sift dry ingredients; rub in shortening with finger tips; add
milk, and mix thoroughly; roll lightly, on a floured board, to a
thickness of one-half inch; cut with biscuit cutter, brush with milk or
water, and fold double. Bake in hot oven fifteen minutes.


426.--BACON SANDWICH ROLLS

Follow recipe for Corn Meal Rolls (see No. 425), putting a piece of
cooked bacon on half of roll before folding.


427.--DATE ROLLS

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424), roll out one-half
inch thick, and cut in rounds with three-inch cutter; spread with soft
butter, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar, and put a date, split
lengthwise and stoned, on half of each roll; fold over, press edges
firmly together, brush with milk, and bake in hot oven fifteen minutes.
Allow one-half teaspoon cinnamon to two tablespoons sugar. Cooked and
stoned prunes or chopped figs may be used instead of dates.


428.--QUICK COFFEE CAKE

  1/4 cup shortening               2-1/2 cups flour
  1/4 cup sugar                    5 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg                            1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk and water mixed       2 tablespoons sugar
  1/2 cup seedless raisins         1 teaspoon cinnamon

Cream the shortening and sugar; add egg well beaten, milk, raisins,
flour, baking powder, and salt; spread in a greased shallow pan, brush
with melted butter, and sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar; bake in hot
oven fifteen to twenty minutes.


429.--QUICK DROP BISCUIT

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424), increasing the milk
to one cupful; drop from a tablespoon on a greased pan two inches apart,
and bake in a hot oven ten minutes; or half fill greased muffin tins,
and bake twelve minutes.


430.--ENTIRE WHEAT BISCUIT

Follow directions for Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424), using entire
wheat flour in place of white flour, and adding one tablespoon of
molasses.


431.--FRUIT TEA BISCUIT

To recipe for Quick Drop Biscuit (see No. 429) add one chopped apple,
one-half cup of seeded and chopped raisins, two tablespoons of washed
currants, and two tablespoons of sugar. Put into hot greased muffin
pans, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. Serve for tea, or with a
hot liquid sauce for dessert.


432.--GRAHAM BISCUIT

  1 cup Graham flour              1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup fine corn meal          2 tablespoons shortening
  1/2 cup bran                    1 tablespoon molasses
  4 teaspoons baking powder       3/4 cup milk


Mix dry ingredients without sifting; rub in shortening with finger tips;
add molasses and milk; mix well; roll, cut, and bake as directed for
Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424).


433.--JAM ROLLS

  2 cups flour                    2 tablespoons shortening
  4 teaspoons baking powder       1 egg
  1 teaspoon salt                 2/3 cup milk
  1 tablespoon sugar

Sift together flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar; rub in shortening
with finger tips until mealy; add beaten egg and milk, and mix with a
knife to a soft dough; roll out one-third of an inch thick, and cut with
a round cutter; put a teaspoon of jam on each, moisten the edges with
water, fold over, and press firmly together; make two cuts on top so
that jam will show, brush with milk, and bake in hot oven fifteen
minutes.


434.--POTATO SCONES

  2 cups flour                      1 cup mashed potato
  1/2 teaspoon salt                 2 tablespoons shortening
  4 tablespoons baking powder       3/4 cup milk

Sift flour, salt, and baking powder; add potato and shortening, and work
in with finger tips; add milk, and mix to a soft dough with a knife;
roll out three-quarters of an inch thick on floured board, cut with
biscuit cutter, and cook on hot greased griddle about twenty minutes,
turning over when half cooked. Split, butter, and serve hot.


435.--SCOTCH SCONES

  1 cup fine oatmeal             4 teaspoons baking powder
  3/4 cup scalded milk           1 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons shortening       2 tablespoons sugar
  1 cup flour

Pour hot milk over oatmeal, mix well, add shortening, and let stand
until cold; mix and sift flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar; add to
oatmeal, and mix well; roll out three-fourths of an inch thick, cut in
rounds, and cook on a greased griddle about twenty minutes, turning when
half cooked.


WITHOUT BAKING POWDER OR YEAST


436.--POPOVERS

  1 cup flour             1 cup milk
  1/4 teaspoon salt       1 teaspoon melted butter
  1 egg

Sift flour and salt; beat egg very light, and mix with milk; mix
gradually with flour; add melted butter, and beat two minutes with a
strong egg beater; pour into hot greased popover cups or pans, and bake
in a hot oven twenty to thirty minutes, according to size of pans. The
mixture should be very cold, and the pans and oven very hot.


437.--ENTIRE WHEAT POPOVERS

  3/4 cup entire wheat flour       1 cup milk
  1/4 cup corn meal                1 egg
  1/4 teaspoon salt                1 teaspoon melted butter

Follow directions for mixing and baking Popovers (see No. 436).


438.--GRAHAM POPOVERS

Follow recipe for Entire Wheat Popovers (see No. 437), except that
Graham flour should be used in place of entire wheat.


439.--BREAKFAST PUFFS

  1 cup entire wheat flour       1 cup ice water
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Sift flour and salt, add ice water gradually, and beat three minutes
with strong egg beater; bake in hot iron pans in very hot oven twenty
minutes.


440.--MARYLAND BEATEN BISCUIT

  2 cups flour            2 tablespoons shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt       Cold water

Sift flour and salt, rub in shortening with tips of fingers, and add
enough cold water to make a stiff dough; knead until smooth, and beat
with the rolling-pin fifteen minutes, or until dough blisters; roll out
about one-third of an inch thick, cut with a small round cutter, prick
with a fork, place on a greased baking pan, and chill in the ice-box for
half an hour; bake about twenty-five minutes, having the oven very hot
for the first ten minutes. A biscuit brake may be used instead of
rolling-pin.

FOOTNOTES:

[10] Recipes for breads made light chiefly by soda and an acid
(gingerbread, etc.) and for those made light by the expansion of air and
moisture (popovers, etc.) are also included in this chapter.



CHAPTER XIX

SHORTCAKES AND ROULETTES


441.--SHORTCAKE

  1-1/2 cups flour                3 tablespoons shortening
  3 teaspoons baking powder       2/3 cup milk
  1/3 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt; rub in shortening with
finger tips; add milk, and mix well with a knife. Spread in two greased
layer-cake pans, patting with the back of a tablespoon until pans are
evenly filled. Bake in a hot oven twelve minutes. If individual
shortcakes are preferred, roll, cut with a biscuit cutter, and bake
quickly about fifteen minutes; split, and put filling between and on
top.


442.--APPLE AND CRANBERRY SHORTCAKE

  4 apples                  2 teaspoons cornstarch
  1/2 cup cranberries       2 tablespoons sultana raisins
  1/2 cup water             A few gratings of orange peel
  1/2 cup sugar

Core and slice apples, add cranberries and water; cook ten minutes, and
press through a sieve; mix sugar and cornstarch, stir into fruit; add
raisins and grated rind, and simmer ten minutes; spread between and on
top of shortcake, and garnish with a few raisins.


443.--BANANA SHORTCAKE

Prepare Shortcake (see No. 441), slice two small bananas over layer of
hot shortcake, and sprinkle with lemon juice and powdered sugar; put on
upper layer, cover with two more sliced bananas, sprinkle with lemon
juice and sugar, and garnish with bits of jelly.


444.--DATE AND APPLE SHORTCAKE

  1/2 pound dates       1/3 cup sugar
  4 tart apples         1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  1/2 cup water

Wash and stone dates, and cut in pieces; pare, core, and slice apples;
simmer with dates, water, sugar, and nutmeg until thick enough to
spread. Spread between and on top of Shortcake (see No. 441).


445.--PRUNE AND APPLE SHORTCAKE

  1-1/2 cups prunes                2 teaspoons cornstarch
  2 apples pared and chopped       Grated rind of 1/2 lemon
  1/3 cup sugar

Wash prunes and soak over night in cold water to cover; cook in same
water until tender; remove stones and return to water in which they were
cooked; add apple, and heat to boiling point; add sugar mixed with
cornstarch, and grated rind; cook about ten minutes, or until thick.
Prepare recipe for Shortcake (see No. 441), and put sauce between and on
top.


446.--STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE

Prepare Shortcake (see No. 441); hull one box of berries, and save out a
few of the largest; mash the remainder, and add about one-half cup of
sugar; pour half of berries over hot shortcake, put on second layer, and
cover with remaining berries; garnish with large whole berries, and
serve with or without plain cream. Blackberry, Raspberry, Currant, or
Blueberry Shortcake may be made in the same way, the amount of sugar
necessary depending upon the acidity of the fruit.


447.--ROULETTES

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424), turn on floured
board, roll out one-half inch thick, brush with soft butter, and spread
with any of the following mixtures; then roll firmly like a jelly roll
until dough is about two and one-half inches in diameter; cut in
one-half-inch slices with a sharp knife, place on a greased sheet two
inches apart, and bake in a hot oven twelve minutes.

_Cheese Roulettes:_ Spread with four tablespoons of grated cheese
seasoned with salt and cayenne.

_Devilled Ham Roulettes:_ Spread lightly with devilled ham, or any
finely chopped and well-seasoned meat.

_Marmalade Roulettes:_ Spread lightly with any marmalade or jam.

_Peanut Butter Roulettes:_ Spread with peanut butter and dust lightly
with salt; sprinkle with salt before baking.

_Raisin and Nut Roulettes:_ Spread with mixture of one-half cup of
seeded and chopped raisins and one-fourth cup finely chopped nut meats.

_Fruit Roulettes:_ Spread with currants, chopped citron, figs, dates,
prunes, or candied ginger.



CHAPTER XX

SANDWICHES AND TOASTS


448.--BAKED BEAN AND LETTUCE SANDWICHES

Press cold baked beans through a sieve; spread bread with butter, cover
with a lettuce leaf, cover lettuce with beans, and sprinkle beans with
chopped mustard pickle. Cover with a second piece of buttered bread.
Brown bread or any dark bread may be used.


449.--CELERY AND EGG

  1 cup chopped celery       1/4 cup mayonnaise
  1 hard-cooked egg

Put celery and egg through the food chopper, using finest cutter; add
mayonnaise, and salt if necessary; spread between thin slices of
buttered brown bread.


450.--CHEESE AND NUT SANDWICHES

Mix equal parts of grated American cheese and chopped nut meats; season
with salt and cayenne, moisten with cream, and spread between thin
buttered slices of bread.


451.--CHEESE CLUB SANDWICHES

Cut bread in half-inch slices, remove crusts, spread with Mustard Butter
(see No. 459), cover with a lettuce leaf, spread with salad dressing,
cover with cheese cut in thin slices, sprinkle with chopped mixed
pickles, and cover with a second slice of bread spread with mustard
butter. Cut in quarters diagonally.


452.--CHICKEN SANDWICHES (Open)

  1 cup finely chopped chicken       Dash of celery salt
  1/2 teaspoon salt                  1/4 cup salad dressing
  Dash of cayenne

Season the chicken, add the dressing, and beat well. Butter circles of
white bread, and spread with the chicken, mounding it in the center.
Garnish with slices of pimolas.


453.--GIBLET SANDWICHES

Cook giblets until tender, put through food chopper, and mix with salad
dressing. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread. A lettuce leaf
may be added.


454.--HAM AND CHEESE SANDWICH (Hot)

Spread thin buttered slices of stale bread with finely chopped ham;
cover with thin slices of American cheese; cover with another slice of
bread spread with ham, and sauté in a little butter until brown. These
sandwiches may be toasted if preferred.


455.--MARSHMALLOW SANDWICHES

Toast marshmallows and press while hot between ginger snaps, vanilla
wafers, or butter thins.


456.--MOCK CRAB SANDWICHES

  1 cup young America cheese cut fine       1 teaspoon anchovy paste
  3 tablespoons milk                        1/2 teaspoon paprika

Mix cheese to a paste with milk, anchovy, and paprika; spread between
thin buttered slices of brown bread.


457.--PEANUT SANDWICH FILLING

Put freshly roasted peanuts through the food chopper, using the finest
cutter, season with salt, and mix to a smooth paste with cream; or
dilute peanut butter with a little milk until of consistency to spread
easily.


458.--RAISIN BREAD AND CHEESE SANDWICHES

Cut raisin bread in thin slices, and spread with Cottage Cheese (see No.
234) mixed to a paste with a little fruit juice or cream. Trim neatly
and cut in triangles.


459.--MUSTARD BUTTER

  1/4 cup butter                   A few drops of vinegar or lemon juice
  1 teaspoon dry English mustard   A few grains of cayenne

Cream the butter, add the mustard and seasonings, and beat well.


460.--BREWIS

  1 cup brown bread crumbled       1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup white bread crumbled       1 tablespoon butter
  1 cup milk

Put crumbled bread in a shallow pan in a slow oven until browned; put in
a saucepan with milk, salt, and butter, and cook about ten minutes,
beating well. Serve as cereal or dessert. Left-over corn bread or
muffins may be used.


461.--BROWN BREAD TOAST WITH CHEESE AND BACON

Toast brown bread, or crisp in the oven, dip quickly into hot salted
water, and arrange on serving dish. Make a Sauce for Cream Toast (see
No. 464), add to it one-half cup of cheese cut fine, pour over toast,
and put a piece of crisp bacon on each piece.


462.--CELERY TOAST

  2 cups celery cut in half-inch pieces       1/3 cup flour
  3 cups hot stock or water                   1/4 cup milk
  Salt                                        6 slices toast
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Cook celery in stock or water about half an hour, or until tender; add
salt (if necessary), pepper, and flour mixed to a paste with the milk;
stir until thickened, and simmer fifteen minutes; pour over toast, and
garnish with toast points and celery tips. Use the coarser unbleached
pieces of celery for cooking.


463.--CREAM TOAST

Cut six slices of bread in halves, toast slowly, or put into a moderate
oven until light brown and crisp, dip each piece into Sauce for Cream
Toast (see No. 464), and put into a covered serving dish; pour over
remaining sauce, and cover for two or three minutes before serving.


464.--SAUCE FOR CREAM TOAST

  2 cups milk               1/2 teaspoon salt
  3 tablespoons flour       1 tablespoon butter
  1/4 cup cold water

Scald the milk; mix the flour to a smooth paste with water, add to milk
and stir until thickened; cook over hot water fifteen minutes, stirring
occasionally; add salt and butter, and pour over toast.


465.--CHEESE TOAST

To recipe for Cream Toast (see No. 463) add one-half cup of either soft
cheese cut fine or grated cheese.


466.--CINNAMON TOAST

Cut stale bread into thin slices, remove crusts, and cut in halves;
toast evenly, and spread first with butter, then with honey, and dust
with cinnamon. Serve very hot.


467.--FRENCH TOAST

  1 egg slightly beaten       3/4 cup milk or coffee
  1/4 teaspoon salt           4 slices bread
  1 tablespoon sugar

Mix egg, salt, sugar, and liquid in a shallow dish; soak bread in
mixture, and cook on a hot, greased griddle until brown, turning when
half cooked. Serve plain or spread with jam.


468.--GOLDENROD HAM TOAST

Follow recipe for Cream Toast (see No. 463); to the sauce add one-half
cup finely chopped ham and the finely chopped whites of two hard-cooked
eggs. When toast is in the serving dish, sprinkle with the hard-cooked
yolks rubbed through a sieve.


469.--SUNDAY TOAST

Cut whole wheat bread into four one-inch slices, remove crusts, butter,
and cut bread into three strips; mix one-third cup of brown sugar, one
teaspoon of cinnamon, two tablespoons of seeded and chopped raisins, and
a tablespoon of milk; spread paste on bread, and bake in a hot oven
until brown. Serve hot.


470.--TOMATO CREAM TOAST WITH EGG

  1/2 can tomato            1/3 cup cold water
  1/3 teaspoon salt         2/3 cup hot milk
  1/3 teaspoon soda         1 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon sugar          2 hard-cooked eggs
  4 tablespoons flour       6 slices toast

Simmer tomato for fifteen minutes and press through a sieve; add salt,
soda, and sugar; heat to boiling point, and thicken with flour mixed to
a smooth paste with cold water; cook five minutes, and add hot milk and
butter. Dip toast in sauce, place on platter, cover with remaining
sauce, and garnish with egg cut into eighths lengthwise.


471.--TO FRESHEN STALE LOAF BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, OR DOUGHNUTS

Dip quickly into cold water, put in a paper bag, fold top of bag firmly,
and place in a hot oven until heated through.


472.--BUTTERED CRUMBS

Melt two tablespoons of butter, stir in one-half cup of coarse, dried
bread crumbs until butter is absorbed.


473.--CROUSTADES

Cut stale bread in slices about an inch and a half thick, remove crusts,
and cut in rounds, squares, triangles, or any shape desired; remove the
centers, using a small, sharp knife, and leaving a wall one-third of an
inch thick; brush with melted butter, and brown in oven; or fry,
inverted, in hot, deep fat.


474.--CROUTONS

Cut stale bread in one-third-inch slices, cut slices into cubes, and
brown in the oven or fry in deep fat. Cold toast may be used instead of
bread.


475.--CRISP STICKS

Cut stale bread in half-inch slices, remove crusts, spread lightly with
butter, cut in half-inch sticks, and put in slow oven until light brown
and crisp.



CHAPTER XXI

GRIDDLE CAKES, WAFFLES, AND SIRUPS


476.--PLAIN GRIDDLE CAKES

  1-1/2 cups flour                1 egg well beaten
  3 teaspoons baking powder       1 tablespoon melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt               1/2 cup milk
  1 tablespoon sugar              3/4 cup water

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg well beaten, shortening, and
liquid; beat well, and cook on a hot griddle. The cakes should be small
and should be served very hot with butter and sirup.


477.--SOUR MILK GRIDDLE CAKES

  2 cups flour            2 teaspoons sugar
  1/2 teaspoon salt       2 cups thick sour milk
  1 teaspoon soda         1 egg well beaten

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add milk and egg, and beat well; cook the
same as Plain Griddle Cakes (see No. 476).


478.--CORN MEAL GRIDDLE CAKES

  1-1/2 cups corn meal            1 egg well beaten
  1/2 cup flour                   3/4 cup milk
  4 teaspoons baking powder       3/4 cup water
  3/4 teaspoon salt               1 tablespoon melted shortening
  1 tablespoon molasses

Mix in order given, beat well, and cook on a hot, greased griddle. If
all of the batter is not needed at once, cover what is left, and keep
in a cold place; add one-half teaspoon of baking powder, and beat
vigorously before using; or half of the recipe may be used and the extra
half egg used in some other way.


479.--DRIED CRUMB GRIDDLE CAKES

  1 cup dried and sifted bread crumbs       2 tablespoons sugar
  1 cup flour                               1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon salt                         1-1/4 cups milk
  4 teaspoons baking powder

Mix and cook according to directions for Plain Griddle Cakes (see No.
476). Half milk and half water may be used.


480.--RICE GRIDDLE CAKES

  1 cup cooked rice       2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg well beaten       1 tablespoon sugar
  1 cup milk              1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup flour             Few gratings nutmeg

Mix rice and egg thoroughly with a fork, add milk, and dry ingredients
mixed and sifted together; beat well, and cook the same as Plain Griddle
Cakes (see No. 476).


481.--RAISED BUCKWHEAT CAKES

  1 cup boiling water         1/4 cup lukewarm water
  1/2 teaspoon salt           1 cup buckwheat flour
  1 tablespoon molasses       1/4 cup white flour
  1/2 yeast cake              1/2 teaspoon soda

Mix boiling water, salt, and molasses, and when lukewarm add yeast
dissolved in lukewarm water; add gradually to flour, and beat well; let
rise over night, add soda, beat well, and cook the same as Plain Griddle
Cakes (see No. 476).


482.--WAFFLES

  1-1/2 cups flour                1 egg well beaten
  1/2 teaspoon salt               1 cup milk
  3 teaspoons baking powder       3 tablespoons melted shortening
  1 teaspoon sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add egg, milk, and shortening, and beat
well; cook in a hot, well-greased waffle iron.


483.--CORN MEAL WAFFLES

Follow recipe for Oatmeal Waffles (see No. 484), using one cup of corn
meal mush in place of oatmeal.


484.--OATMEAL WAFFLES

  1 cup cooked oatmeal                  2 teaspoons baking powder
  Yolks of 2 eggs                       1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk                            1 tablespoon sugar
  2 tablespoons melted shortening       Whites of two eggs
  1 cup entire wheat flour

Mix oatmeal and yolks of eggs (which have been beaten very light) until
there are no lumps in the mixture; add milk, shortening, and dry
ingredients sifted together; beat well, and fold in the stiffly beaten
whites of eggs. Cook in a hot, well-greased waffle iron.


485.--RICE WAFFLES

To recipe for Waffles (see No. 482) add one-half cup of cooked rice,
mixing the rice thoroughly with the beaten egg before adding.


486.--BROWN SUGAR SIRUP

Boil one cup of brown sugar and one-half cup of water until the
consistency of thick maple sirup. Serve hot or cold.


487.--CIDER SIRUP

  1-1/2 cups cider       1 cup sugar

Heat cider, add sugar, and boil until a thick sirup is formed, skimming
when necessary. Serve hot or cold.


488.--LEMON SIRUP

Boil one cup of sugar, one-half cup of water, and one tablespoon of
lemon juice until the consistency of thick maple sirup; add one teaspoon
of butter, and serve hot.


489.--ORANGE SIRUP

  3/4 cup orange juice       Grated rind 1/2 orange
  1 cup sugar

Boil orange juice and sugar until mixture has the consistency of thick
maple sirup, add rind, and serve hot or cold.



CHAPTER XXII

CAKES AND COOKIES[11]


490.--APPLE SAUCE CAKE (without Butter, Eggs, or Milk)

  1 cup unsweetened apple sauce       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup melted shortening           1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 cup sugar                         1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 teaspoon soda                     1/4 teaspoon clove
  2 cups flour                        1 cup raisins seeded and chopped

Mix in order given, sifting dry ingredients together, beat well, pour
into a deep pan, and bake about one hour in a slow oven.


491.--CANADA WAR CAKE (without Butter, Eggs, or Milk)

  1 cup brown sugar           1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/4 cup shortening          1/2 teaspoon mace
  1 cup boiling water         1/4 teaspoon clove
  2 cups seeded raisins       1 teaspoon soda
  1/2 teaspoon salt           2 cups flour

Mix sugar, shortening, water, raisins, and salt; boil five minutes;
cool, and add spices, soda, and flour sifted together; beat well; pour
into a greased, paper-lined bread pan, and bake in a slow oven one
hour.


492.--DATE CAKE

  1/3 cup melted shortening       1-3/4 cups flour
  1-1/4 cups brown sugar          3-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg unbeaten                  1/2 teaspoon mace
  1/2 cup milk                    1 cup dates stoned and chopped

Mix in order given, and beat vigorously for three or four minutes; bake
in two layer-cake pans in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes; when
partly cool spread with tart jelly, and sprinkle top layer with powdered
sugar.


493.--FUDGE CAKE

  1/4 cup shortening       1/2 cup milk
  1 cup brown sugar        1-1/2 cups flour
  1 square chocolate       3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg well beaten        1/4 teaspoon salt

Cream shortening, add sugar, and beat well; add chocolate melted and
egg; beat again; add milk; add flour, baking powder, and salt sifted
together; beat for two minutes. Pour into two greased layer-cake pans,
and bake in a moderate oven about eighteen minutes. Fill, and spread top
with Fudge Filling (see No. 533).


494.--OLD-FASHIONED PORK CAKE

  1/2 pound fat salt pork       1/4 pound citron shredded
  1 cup boiling water           1 nutmeg grated
  1 cup molasses                2 teaspoons cinnamon
  1 cup sugar                   1/2 teaspoon cloves
  2 eggs beaten                 1/2 teaspoon allspice
  1/2 pound raisins             1 teaspoon soda
  1/2 pound currants            4 cups flour

Put pork through meat chopper, using finest cutter; add boiling water
and let stand fifteen minutes; add molasses, sugar, eggs, and fruit, and
mix well; add dry ingredients, which have been sifted together; beat
well; pour into two deep greased and paper-lined pans; and bake in a
slow oven two hours. This cake keeps well if stored in a covered stone
crock. It may be reheated in the top of double boiler, and served hot
with pudding sauce.


495.--ONE-EGG CAKE

  2 tablespoons butter       1-1/2 cups flour
  1/2 cup sugar              2-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg                      Grated rind of 1 lemon
  1/2 cup milk

Cream the butter, add the sugar and the well-beaten egg; beat
thoroughly, add the other ingredients in the order given, and bake in a
moderate oven about half an hour.


496.--ORANGE CAKE

  1/4 cup shortening       1-1/2 cups flour
  1 cup sugar              2-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg                    Grated rind 1/2 orange
  1/2 cup milk

Cream the shortening, add sugar and egg well beaten; add milk, flour,
baking powder, and rind; beat well, and bake in two layer pans about
twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Fill and cover top with Orange Icing
(see No. 527).


497.--PLAIN CAKE

  1/3 cup shortening       1-2/3 cups flour
  1 cup sugar              3 teaspoons baking powder
  2 eggs                   Few grains salt
  1/2 cup milk             1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Beat shortening and sugar until light and creamy; add eggs well beaten,
flour, baking powder, salt, and extract; beat well, pour into a greased
and papered cake pan, and bake about half an hour in a moderate oven, or
in two layer-cake pans about twenty minutes. This is an excellent
foundation cake for use with various flavorings, icings, and fillings.


498.--SPICE CAKE (without Eggs)

  1/3 cup shortening       1-1/2 teaspoons cinnamon
  1 cup sugar              3/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 cup sour milk          1/4 teaspoon cloves
  2 cups flour             1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon soda          1 cup raisins seeded and chopped

Cream shortening and sugar, add sour milk; add dry ingredients sifted
together; beat well; add raisins, pour into a greased shallow pan, and
bake half an hour in a moderate oven. Dust with confectioners' sugar or
cover with plain icing.


499.--WHITE CAKE

  Whites of 2 eggs       3 teaspoons baking powder
  Melted butter          7/8 cup sugar
  Milk                   1/2 teaspoon almond extract
  1-1/2 cups flour

Break the whites of eggs into a measuring cup; add melted butter to half
fill cup; add milk to fill cup. Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and
sugar; combine mixtures, add flavoring, and beat for five minutes. Bake
in a shallow cake pan half an hour, or in muffin tins about twenty
minutes, in a moderate oven.


500.--SPONGE CAKE (Hot Water)

  Yolks of 2 eggs           Whites of 2 eggs
  1/4 cup hot water         1 cup flour
  7/8 cup sugar             2 teaspoons baking powder
  Grated rind 1 lemon       1/4 teaspoon salt

Beat the yolks of eggs until thick and light, add the water and sugar,
and beat three minutes with the egg beater; add the lemon rind and the
whites stiffly beaten; sift flour, baking powder, and salt, and fold in
carefully. Pour into a shallow greased pan, and bake in a moderate oven
twenty-five minutes.


501.--VELVET SPONGE CAKE

  2 eggs                     1/2 cup pastry flour
  1 cup sugar                2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/8 teaspoon salt          Grated rind 1 lemon
  1/4 cup potato flour       1/3 cup hot milk

Beat eggs until very light, add sugar gradually, and continue beating
with the egg beater; mix and sift salt, flour, and baking powder; add
half to the eggs and sugar, and beat well; add rest of flour, and beat
again; add rind and milk, and beat hard; pour into a deep pan, and bake
forty minutes in a slow oven.


502.--CREAM PIE

Follow rule for Jelly Roll Cake (see No. 503); bake in two layers, and
fill with Cream Filling (see No. 531).


503.--CAKE FOR JELLY ROLL OR CHARLOTTE RUSSE

  2 eggs                     1 cup flour
  1 cup powdered sugar       1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/3 cup hot water          1/4 teaspoon salt

Beat the eggs very light, add sugar gradually, and continue beating; add
water, flour, baking powder, and salt. Pour into a greased, paper-lined
dripping pan and bake in a moderate oven about fifteen minutes. The cake
should be about half an inch thick when baked. Trim off the edges,
spread with jam or jelly, and roll firmly; wrap in a paper napkin to
keep in shape. For Charlotte Russe cut cake into pieces to fit paper
cases, and fill with Charlotte Russe Mixture (see No. 562).


504.--CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOW ROLL

To recipe for Jelly Roll (see No. 503) add two squares of melted
chocolate. Bake as for jelly roll, trim edges, spread with Marshmallow
Filling (see No. 534), and roll the same as jelly roll.


505.--HOT WATER GINGERBREAD (without Egg)

  1/4 cup shortening          1 teaspoon soda
  1 cup dark molasses         1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup boiling water       1-1/2 teaspoons ginger
  2 cups bread flour          1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

Mix shortening, molasses, and water; add dry ingredients sifted
together, and beat well. Pour into greased muffin pans and bake in a
moderate oven twenty minutes; or pour into a greased shallow pan and
bake twenty-five minutes.


506.--HOT WATER GINGERBREAD (with Egg)

  1/3 cup beef drippings       2-3/4 cups flour
  2/3 cup boiling water        1 teaspoon soda
  1 cup dark molasses          1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 egg well beaten            1-1/2 teaspoons ginger

Pour boiling water over shortening, add molasses and egg; mix and sift
dry ingredients, add to first mixture, and beat well. Pour into a
shallow, greased cake pan, and bake in a moderate oven twenty-five
minutes.


507.--SOUR MILK GINGERBREAD

  2 cups flour                1 cup molasses
  1-1/2 teaspoons soda        1 cup thick sour milk
  1 teaspoon ginger           1 egg well beaten
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, milk, and egg, and beat
well; pour into a greased pan, and bake in a moderate oven twenty-five
minutes.


508.--GINGER APPLE CAKE

Follow any recipe for gingerbread, bake in two layers, and put Apple
Filling (see No. 529) between layers and on top.


509.--GINGER GEMS

  1/2 cup molasses            1-1/2 cups flour
  1/4 cup brown sugar         1 teaspoon soda
  1/4 cup shortening          1 teaspoon ginger
  1/2 cup boiling water       1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 beaten egg                1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix in order given, sifting the dry ingredients together; beat well,
pour into greased muffin tins, and bake in a moderate oven twenty
minutes.


510.--BRAN DROP COOKIES

  1 cup bran                  1/4 teaspoon clove
  1/2 cup flour               1/4 cup molasses
  1/4 teaspoon salt           1/4 cup sugar
  1/4 teaspoon soda           1/4 cup melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon       1/4 cup milk

Mix in order given, drop from tablespoon, two inches apart, on greased
pan, and bake in a hot oven twelve minutes.


511.--CHEESE DROPS

  2 tablespoons butter                  1/8 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 cup grated cheese                 1/8 teaspoon mustard
  1/4 cup dried and sifted crumbs       Few grains cayenne
  1/4 teaspoon salt                     Whites of 2 eggs

Cream butter and cheese together; mix crumbs with seasonings and add to
cheese; fold in the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Drop from a teaspoon
on a greased baking sheet about two inches apart, and bake in a moderate
oven about twelve minutes. Serve with soup or salad.


512.--CHEESE WAFERS

  1 cup flour                1 tablespoon shortening
  1/4 teaspoon salt          1/2 cup grated cheese
  1/2 teaspoon paprika       1/4 cup cold water

Mix and sift flour, salt, and paprika; rub in shortening with finger
tips; add cheese and mix to a stiff paste with cold water; roll out very
thin, cut with a small round cutter, place on a greased baking sheet,
and bake in a moderate oven five or six minutes. Serve with salad or
soup.


513.--CHOCOLATE COOKIES

  2 squares chocolate       2 cups flour
  1/2 cup shortening        2-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 cup brown sugar         1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 egg well beaten         1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/4 cup milk

Put chocolate with shortening in mixing bowl and place over hot water
until melted; add other ingredients in order given. Chill, roll thin,
and cut with fancy cutter. Bake in a moderate oven about ten minutes.


514.--GINGER WAFERS

  1/2 cup shortening           1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup brown sugar            1-1/4 teaspoons ginger
  2-1/4 cups bread flour       1/2 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon soda

Cream shortening and sugar; sift soda, salt, and ginger with flour, and
add alternately with milk; chill; roll thin on baking sheet; mark in
squares, and bake in a moderate oven eight or ten minutes. Remove from
pan while warm.


515.--MARSHMALLOW WAFERS

Arrange thin crackers or wafers on a baking sheet, place a marshmallow
on each one, and bake in a moderate oven for a few minutes until
marshmallows melt; into each one press half a nut meat, raisin, cherry,
or a bit of candied fruit.


516.--MOLASSES BROWNIES

  1/3 cup shortening               1 beaten egg
  1/3 cup sugar                    1/2 teaspoon baking powder
  1/3 cup molasses                 1 cup flour
  2 squares melted chocolate       3/4 cup chopped nut meats

Cream the shortening, add other ingredients in order given, drop from
spoon on greased pan, and bake about twelve minutes in a moderate oven.


517.--OATMEAL MACAROONS

  1 egg                            1 cup rolled oats
  1/2 cup sugar                    1/3 cup shredded coconut
  1 tablespoon melted butter       1/2 teaspoon salt

Beat egg until light, add other ingredients in order given, beat well,
and drop from spoon on greased pan; bake about fifteen minutes in a
moderate oven.


518.--PEANUT MACAROONS

  White of 1 egg          1 cup powdered sugar
  1/8 teaspoon salt       1 cup finely chopped peanuts

Add salt to the egg, and beat until stiff; add sugar and nuts, and mix
well; drop from a teaspoon on a greased baking sheet two inches apart,
and bake in a slow oven about fifteen minutes.


519.--RAISIN DROP COOKIES

  3 tablespoons shortening       1 cup flour
  1/2 cup brown sugar            2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg well beaten              1 teaspoon cinnamon
  2 tablespoons milk             1/2 cup raisins seeded and chopped

Cream the shortening and sugar; add egg and milk, and beat well; add
flour, baking powder, and cinnamon sifted together; add raisins; beat
well, drop from a teaspoon two inches apart on a greased baking sheet,
and bake in a moderate oven about twelve minutes.


520.--WALNUT WAFERS

  2 eggs                    1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup brown sugar         1/4 teaspoon baking powder
  1/2 cup flour             3/4 cup chopped nut meats
  1/4 teaspoon cinnamon

Beat eggs until light; add sugar, and beat well; add dry ingredients
sifted together; beat well, add nuts, pour into a greased dripping pan,
and bake in a moderate oven about ten minutes. Cut in squares while hot.
Mixture may be baked in tiny scalloped tins if preferred.

FOOTNOTES:

[11] The amount of soda in these recipes is based upon the use of
old-fashioned jug molasses; canned molasses varies greatly in acidity
and, especially when freshly opened, requires little or no soda. If
canned molasses is used, therefore, baking powder should wholly or
partly take the place of soda.



CHAPTER XXIII

ICINGS AND FILLINGS


521.--BOILED ICING[12]

  1/3 cup boiling water             White of 1 egg
  1 cup sugar                       1 teaspoon vanilla
  1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

Boil water and sugar to 240° F., or until the sirup forms soft ball when
tried in cold water; add cream of tartar and vanilla, and pour slowly
upon the stiffly beaten white of egg, beating constantly until thick
enough to spread without running. For caramel flavor melt one-third of
the sugar first.


522.--CARAMEL ICING

  1 cup brown sugar       1 teaspoon butter
  1/3 cup milk            Few grains salt

Put ingredients in saucepan, and boil to 240° F., or until a soft ball
can be formed when tested in cold water. Beat until creamy, and spread
while warm. Chopped nut meats may be added.


523.--CHOCOLATE ICING

  2 squares chocolate         Confectioners' sugar
  1/4 cup boiling water       1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Melt chocolate, add boiling water, and mix well; add confectioners'
sugar until of right consistency to spread; add vanilla and beat well.
Coffee may be used in place of water.


524.--COCOA ICING

  1 tablespoon butter       2 tablespoons cocoa
  2 tablespoons milk        Confectioners' sugar

Heat butter and milk in a saucepan, remove from fire, add cocoa, and
enough confectioners' sugar to thicken. About one cup of sugar will be
required.


525.--COFFEE ICING

Follow directions for Boiled Icing (see No. 521), using strong coffee in
place of water. Or to recipe for Quick Icing (see No. 528) or Cream
Icing (see No. 526) add one teaspoon of instantaneous coffee.


526.--CREAM ICING

  1-1/4 cups confectioners' sugar       1/4 teaspoon vanilla
  Heavy cream

Sift sugar and add cream until of right consistency to spread (about two
tablespoons); add flavoring, and beat well.


527.--ORANGE ICING

  Juice of 1/2 orange            Confectioners' sugar
  Grated rind of 1/4 orange

Mix sugar with orange juice and rind until icing is firm enough to
spread.


528.--QUICK ICING

  1 tablespoon butter               Confectioners' sugar
  2 tablespoons boiling water       1/4 teaspoon flavoring

Pour boiling water over butter; stir in sugar enough to thicken; add
extract, and beat well before spreading. (A little more than one cup of
sugar will usually be required.)


529.--APPLE FILLING

  3 baked apples          1 cup confectioners' sugar
  White of 1 egg

Press apples through a sieve; beat white of egg until stiff; add half of
sugar, and beat well; add apple and remaining sugar gradually, and beat
until very light. Spread between layers and on top of cake. Two
tablespoons of tart jelly may be beaten with the apple.


530.--COFFEE CREAM FILLING

Follow recipe for Cream Filling (see No. 531), but use one-half cup
strong coffee in place of one-half cup of milk. Or add one teaspoon of
instantaneous coffee to the recipe.


531.--CREAM FILLING

  1-1/2 cups milk          1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup sugar              1 egg slightly beaten
  1/4 cup cornstarch       1 teaspoon flavoring

Scald milk, mix sugar, cornstarch, salt, and egg; add to milk, and cook
over hot water, stirring constantly until mixture thickens; cook fifteen
minutes, stirring occasionally. Cool and flavor before spreading.


532.--DATE AND FIG FILLING

  1 cup figs              1/2 cup boiling water
  1 cup dates             Juice 1/2 lemon
  1/2 cup sugar

Wash, dry, and chop figs; wash, dry, stone, and chop dates; mix fruit
with sugar, water, and lemon juice, and cook over hot water until thick
enough to spread.


533.--FUDGE FILLING

  1-1/2 cups brown sugar       1/3 cup milk
  1 tablespoon butter          Few grains salt
  1 square chocolate           1/2 cup nut meats chopped

Put sugar, butter, chocolate, milk, and salt in a saucepan; heat slowly
to boiling point, and boil to 240° F., or until a soft ball can be
formed when tested in cold water; remove from fire, add nuts, and beat
until smooth and creamy.


534.--MARSHMALLOW FILLING

  1 cup sugar                    1/2 pound marshmallows
  1/3 cup boiling water          1 teaspoon vanilla

Boil sugar and water to 240° F., or until a soft ball can be formed when
tested in cold water; soften marshmallows over hot water, add sirup, and
when partly cooled add vanilla and beat until stiff enough to spread.
Chopped nuts, dates, figs, raisins, or candied fruits may be added.


535.--MOCHA FILLING

  2 tablespoons hot black coffee       1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  1 tablespoon butter                  1 cup confectioners' sugar
  2 tablespoons cocoa

Mix coffee, butter, cocoa, and vanilla, and add sugar enough for mixture
to spread without running.


536.--ORANGE FILLING

  1/2 cup sugar                1/2 cup orange juice
  3 tablespoons flour          1 beaten egg
  Grated rind 1/2 orange       1 teaspoon butter

Mix sugar, flour, and rind in the top of double boiler, add orange
juice, egg, and butter, and cook over hot water for twelve minutes,
stirring often.


537.--PRUNE FILLING

To recipe for Boiled Icing (see No. 521) add two-thirds of a cup of
cooked prunes which have been stoned and cut in small pieces, and the
chopped meats from six of the prune stones. Spread between layers of
cake.

FOOTNOTES:

[12] The sirup should be boiled in a small saucepan; otherwise the bulb
of the thermometer will not be covered.



CHAPTER XXIV

HOT DESSERTS


538.--APPLE ROULETTES

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit (see No. 424); roll dough very
thin, brush with melted butter, and spread with one cup of chopped
apple, mixed with one-fourth cup of sugar, and one teaspoon of cinnamon;
roll firmly like a jelly roll, cut in three-fourths-inch slices, place
in buttered pan, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. Serve with hot
liquid sauce.


539.--DUTCH APPLE CAKE

  1-1/2 cups flour                1/2 cup milk
  3 teaspoons baking powder       2 tablespoons melted shortening
  1/2 teaspoon salt               3 apples
  3 tablespoons sugar             2 tablespoons sugar
  1 egg                           1/4 teaspoon cinnamon

Sift together flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar; add egg well
beaten, milk, and shortening; beat well, and spread in a greased pan,
having mixture about an inch deep; core, pare, and quarter apples, cut
in thick slices, and arrange in rows on top of cake; sprinkle with sugar
and cinnamon, and bake in hot oven half an hour. Serve with liquid
sauce.


540.--STEAMED APPLE PUDDING

  6 apples                  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 cup sugar             1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon nutmeg       2 tablespoons shortening
  1-1/2 cups flour          3/4 cup milk

Pare, core, and slice apples; place in a greased pudding dish, and
sprinkle with sugar and nutmeg mixed. Sift flour, baking powder, and
salt; rub in shortening with finger tips, and mix with milk; spread over
apples, and steam for one hour. Turn out of dish, and serve with apples
on top. Serve with Soft Sauce (see No. 617).


541.--BANANA TOAST

Mash and sweeten bananas, heap on rounds of buttered toast, and heat in
oven. Serve hot with cream or rich milk. Garnish with split cherries,
nuts, or bits of jelly.


542.--BLACKBERRY PUDDING

Add one cup of blackberries to recipe for Cottage Pudding (see No. 549)
and serve with Blackberry Sauce (see No. 618).


543.--BLUEBERRY PUDDING

To recipe for Cottage Pudding (see No. 549) add one cup of blueberries.


544.--BROWN BETTY

  2 cups soft bread crumbs       1/4 teaspoon clove
  4 tablespoons butter           1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  4 apples                       2 tablespoons molasses
  1/3 cup brown sugar            2 tablespoons hot water
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon          1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix crumbs with melted butter; pare, core, and slice apples; mix sugar
and spices; arrange crumbs and apple in layers in a greased baking
dish, sprinkle each layer with sugar; mix molasses, water, and salt, and
pour over all. Bake slowly for an hour and a half.


545.--BAKED CRANBERRY PUDDING

  2 cups soft bread crumbs        1 cup sugar
  1/4 cup butter                  1/2 cup sultana raisins
  1 cup chopped cranberries       1/4 cup boiling water

Mix crumbs with melted butter; add cranberries, sugar, and raisins, and
put into a greased baking dish; add water, and bake in a slow oven one
hour. Serve with Soft Sauce (see No. 617).


546.--BAKED INDIAN PUDDING

  2 cups boiling water               3 cups hot milk
  1 teaspoon salt                    1/4 cup molasses
  5 tablespoons fine corn meal       1/2 teaspoon ginger

Add salt to boiling water, sift in corn meal very slowly, and boil ten
minutes, stirring often; add milk, molasses, and ginger, pour into a
greased earthen dish, and bake very slowly for three hours. Serve with
rich milk, cream, or Ginger Sauce (see No. 611).


547.--CARAMEL TOAST PUDDING

  3/4 cup sugar         1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 slices toast        1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  2 cups hot milk       1 egg
  1 tablespoon butter

Caramelize sugar; cut each slice of toast in quarters, dip in caramel,
and arrange in baking dish; add milk to caramel remaining in pan, and
stir until dissolved; add butter, salt, nutmeg, and egg slightly
beaten; pour over toast, and bake in slow oven about half an hour. Serve
with cream, rich milk, or liquid sauce.


548.--STEAMED CHOCOLATE PUDDING

  1/2 cup sugar                    1 cup flour
  1 tablespoon melted butter       1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 beaten egg                     1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 cup milk                     1 square melted chocolate
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Mix in order given, put in pudding mold, cover closely, and steam one
hour. Serve with cream or Soft Sauce (see No. 617).


549.--COTTAGE PUDDING

  1/4 cup shortening       2 cups flour
  1/2 cup sugar            4 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg                    1/4 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup milk

Cream the butter; add the sugar and the well-beaten egg, and beat well;
add the milk and then the flour, baking powder, and salt, which have
been sifted together; beat again, and bake in hot oven in pudding dish
about half an hour, or in individual tins about twenty minutes. Serve
with hot liquid sauce.


550.--STEAMED FIG PUDDING

  1/2 cup shortening             1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 cup sugar                  1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 egg well beaten              1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk                     1 pound figs chopped
  1/2 cup molasses               1/4 cup currants
  2-1/2 cups flour               1/2 cup flour
  5 teaspoons baking powder

Mix shortening and sugar, and beat until creamy; add egg, milk, and
molasses, add two and a half cups of flour sifted with baking powder,
spices, and salt; beat well; add figs and currants mixed with one-half
cup of flour. Pour into a greased mold, and steam three hours, or pour
into greased one-pound baking powder boxes, and steam an hour and
three-quarters. Serve with Cranberry Sauce (see No. 606) or Currant
Jelly Sauce (see No. 608). This pudding keeps well and can be reheated
in the top of the double boiler.


551.--STEAMED FRUIT PUDDING

  1 egg well beaten                   1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 cup molasses                      1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 cup water                       1/4 teaspoon clove
  2 tablespoons melted shortening     1/2 teaspoon mace
  1-1/2 cups flour                    3/4 cup raisins seeded and chopped
  1/2 teaspoon soda                   1/4 cup currants

Mix egg, molasses, water, and shortening; add dry ingredients sifted
together; add fruit; mix well, pour into greased one-pound baking powder
boxes, and steam an hour and three-quarters. Serve with a tart sauce.
One cup of dates, stoned and cut in pieces, may be used instead of
raisins and currants.


552.--MOCK INDIAN PUDDING

  2 slices bread buttered       1/3 cup sugar
  2 cups milk                   1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 cup molasses              1/4 teaspoon salt

Butter two slices bread cut three-quarters of an inch thick, put into
buttered baking dish, and pour over the bread the rest of the
ingredients mixed together. Bake one and a half hours in a slow oven.


553.--INDIAN TAPIOCA PUDDING

  1/3 cup pearl tapioca       1/2 cup molasses
  2 cups boiling water        1 tablespoon butter
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt        1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/4 cup corn meal           3 cups hot milk

Soak tapioca in cold water for one hour, and drain; add salt to boiling
water, sift in corn meal, and boil ten minutes, stirring often; add
tapioca and other ingredients, pour into a greased earthen dish, and
bake slowly for two hours.


554.--PEACH DUMPLINGS

Cover halves of preserved peaches with Shortcake Dough (see No. 441)
rolled thin; bake in hot oven, and serve with hot peach sirup and hard
sauce.


555.--BAKED RICE CUSTARD

  1 cup cooked rice       Pinch of salt
  2 eggs                  1-1/2 cups milk
  1/3 cup sugar           1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Mix in order given and bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven.
Serve hot or cold with cream or rich milk.


556.--BAKED RICE PUDDING

  1/2 cup rice               1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 cups milk                1/2 nutmeg grated
  2 cups boiling water       1 cup raisins seeded and chopped
  1/4 cup sugar

Wash rice, mix with other ingredients, pour into a greased baking dish,
and bake slowly for three hours. Stir occasionally during first hour of
baking to prevent rice and fruit from settling. Serve with rich milk or
cream.


557.--MULLED RICE

  1/2 cup rice              1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 cups hot milk           1 egg
  1 tablespoon butter       1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  2 tablespoons sugar       2 tablespoons grape juice

Wash rice, and cook with milk, butter, sugar, and salt in double boiler
until tender; beat egg, add nutmeg and grape juice, stir into rice, and
cook five minutes. Serve with cream or rich milk.



CHAPTER XXV

COLD DESSERTS


558.--BANANA ROYAL

  4 bananas                   4 slices of French Toast (see No. 467)
  1/4 cup currant jelly           or stale sponge cake
  1/4 cup powdered sugar

Force bananas and jelly through potato ricer or a sieve, add sugar, and
heap on French toast or sponge cake. Or line individual glasses with
lady fingers and fill with banana mixture.


559.--BANANA WHIP

  4 bananas                                4 tablespoons powdered sugar
  4 tablespoons grape juice or jelly       Whites of 2 eggs

Peel and scrape bananas, force through a sieve; add grape juice, sugar,
and stiffly beaten whites of eggs; pile lightly in individual glass
dishes, garnish with bits of jelly, and serve at once. All materials
should be very cold.


560.--BANANA AND GRAPE JUICE JELLY

  1/2 box gelatine               1/4 cup strained lemon juice
  1/2 cup grape juice            3/4 cup sugar
  2-1/2 cups boiling water       2 large bananas

Soak gelatine in grape juice five minutes; dissolve in boiling water,
add lemon juice and sugar. When jelly begins to stiffen, beat with egg
beater, and add the bananas pressed through a sieve.


561.--BLACKBERRY MOLD

  1 quart blackberries       2 cups water
  1/2 cup sugar              3/4 cup farina
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Heat berries, sugar, salt, and water, and when boiling add farina
slowly. Cook over hot water half an hour, turn into a mold, and serve
cold with cream. Blueberries, either fresh or canned, may be used in
place of blackberries.


562.--CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING

  1-1/2 cups thin cream          1/4 cup hot milk
  1-1/2 teaspoons gelatine       3 tablespoons powdered sugar
  2 tablespoons cold milk        1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Whip the cream with a whip churn; skim off the froth as it rises, and
place in a fine sieve to drain; soak gelatine in cold milk, dissolve in
hot milk, add sugar and flavoring. Stir occasionally until mixture
begins to stiffen; then fold in the whip from the cream.


563.--CHOCOLATE BLANCMANGE

  2 cups hot milk                1/4 cup sugar
  4 tablespoons cornstarch       1-1/2 squares chocolate melted
  1/4 teaspoon salt              Whites 2 eggs
  1/4 teaspoon cinnamon

Scald milk; mix cornstarch, salt, cinnamon, and sugar; add slowly to
milk, and cook over hot water until thickened, stirring constantly; add
chocolate and cook for fifteen minutes, stirring occasionally; fold in
the stiffly beaten whites of eggs, and turn into individual molds to
chill.


564.--COCONUT AND ORANGE JELLY

  1/2 box gelatine               1/3 cup sugar
  1/2 cup cold water             1 can coconut
  1 cup hot milk                 Cold milk
  1/4 cup orange marmalade

Soak gelatine in cold water for five minutes; dissolve in hot milk; add
marmalade and sugar; drain one can of coconut, and add to coconut milk
enough cold milk to make one and a half cups; mix with jelly, add
coconut, and pour into a mold to chill.


565.--COFFEE CARAMEL CUSTARDS

  1/2 cup sugar             2 eggs
  1 cup milk                Few grains salt
  1 cup strong coffee

Put sugar in smooth saucepan, and stir over fire until a light-colored
caramel is formed. (Avoid burning.) Heat milk and coffee, add to
caramel, and keep over hot water until caramel is dissolved; add eggs
slightly beaten and salt; strain into cups, and bake in slow oven until
firm.


566.--COFFEE JUNKET

  2 cups lukewarm milk                  Few grains salt
  1/4 cup sugar                         1/2 junket tablet
  1 teaspoon instantaneous coffee       1 teaspoon cold water


Mix milk, sugar, coffee, and salt; stir until sugar is dissolved;
dissolve junket tablet in cold water, add to milk, and pour into
glasses. If milk is overheated junket will not be firm.


567.--CRANBERRY WHIP

Follow recipe for Prune Whip (see No. 574), using one cup of strained
cranberry sauce instead of prunes.


568.--SOFT CUSTARD

  2 cups milk           Few grains salt
  Yolks of 2 eggs       1 teaspoon cornstarch
  1/4 cup sugar         1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Scald the milk; mix sugar, salt, and cornstarch, add to beaten egg
yolks, and stir into the hot milk; cook over hot water ten minutes,
stirring constantly until thickened; beat with egg beater; strain, cool,
and add vanilla. To vary the flavor, the sugar may be caramelized, or
other extracts may be used. Serve in glasses with a meringue made of the
whites of eggs beaten stiff and sweetened with two tablespoons of sugar.
Garnish with dots of red jelly.


569.--COFFEE AND RICE JELLY

  1/2 box gelatine               1 cup milk
  1/2 cup cold coffee            3/4 cup sugar
  2 cups hot strong coffee       1 cup cooked rice

Soak gelatine in cold coffee five minutes; add hot coffee and stir until
dissolved; add milk and sugar; chill, and, when beginning to stiffen,
beat with egg beater, add rice, and turn into a mold.


570.--FRUIT CREAM

  2 bananas                      1 tablespoon granulated gelatine
  1 orange                       1/4 cup boiling water
  1/2 lemon                      1 cup cream whipped
  1/3 cup powdered sugar

Press bananas through a sieve; add juice and pulp of orange, juice of
lemon, sugar, and gelatine which has been dissolved in hot water. Stir
over ice water until mixture begins to stiffen, then fold in the cream.
Put in mold and chill.


571.--SPICED FRUIT JELLY

  6 apples                    1 tablespoon gelatine
  1/2 cup cranberries         1/4 cup cold water
  3/4 cup boiling water       1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 cup sugar                 1/4 teaspoon clove

Core and slice apples, and cook with cranberries and boiling water
fifteen minutes; press through a sieve, add sugar, gelatine dissolved in
cold water, and spice. Stir until sugar is dissolved, pour into a mold,
and put in a cool place until firm.


572.--FRUIT WHIP (Uncooked)

  4 tart apples grated            2 tablespoons fruit jelly
  4 figs chopped                  Whites of 2 eggs
  8 dates stoned and chopped

Mix fruit; mash jelly with a fork; add to fruit, and fold in the stiffly
beaten whites of eggs. Serve in glasses, and garnish with bits of jelly.


573.--PINEAPPLE PUDDING

Follow recipe for Chocolate Blancmange (see No. 563), omitting chocolate
and cinnamon, and adding one-half can of grated pineapple.


574.--PRUNE WHIP

Press cooked and stoned prunes through a sieve; to one cup of prune pulp
add two tablespoons of sugar; beat the whites of two eggs very stiff;
add prune mixture gradually, and beat well with a strong egg beater;
when light turn into a small greased baking dish or into four individual
dishes, and bake in a slow oven about twenty minutes, or until firm.
Serve plain or with a custard sauce made from the yolks of the eggs.


575.--PRUNE AND WHEAT MOLD

  1 cup prunes        1/4 teaspoon salt
  Boiling water       1/2 cup Cream of Wheat

Wash prunes, soak over night; cook in same water until tender, and
remove the stones; measure prunes and juice, and add boiling water to
make one quart; add salt; slowly sift in wheat, and cook over hot water
for half an hour, stirring often at first; turn into a mold to cool.


576.--JELLIED PRUNES AND CRANBERRIES

  1 cup prunes                    1 cup sugar
  Boiling water                   1/2 box gelatine
  1 cup cranberries chopped       1/2 cup cold water

Wash prunes, and soak over night in water to cover; cook until soft in
same water; drain, measure juice, and add enough boiling water to make
three cups; put cranberries in a colander and rinse off the seeds with
running water; drain, and add to water; add sugar, and cook ten minutes;
add the gelatine soaked in cold water; stone the prunes, cut in
quarters, and add to cranberries; turn into a mold, and chill.


577.--RICE MOLD

  1 cup rice                   Grated rind of 1/2 orange
  2 quarts boiling water       3/4 cup powdered sugar
  1 tablespoon salt            2 tablespoons grape juice
  Juice of 1 orange

Cook rice in boiling salted water until tender; drain; mix with orange,
sugar, and grape juice; press into a mold, and chill; turn out of mold,
and serve with cream.


578.--SEA MOSS BLANCMANGE

  1/4 cup sea moss       1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 quart milk           1 teaspoon vanilla
  1/4 cup sugar

Soak moss in lukewarm water for ten minutes; lift carefully from the
water so as not to disturb any sand which may have settled; rinse moss,
drain well, add to hot milk, and cook in double boiler for half an hour.
Strain through a fine sieve, add sugar, salt, and vanilla, and turn into
a mold until firm. Serve with crushed berries, sliced bananas, or stewed
fruit.



CHAPTER XXVI

FROZEN DESSERTS


579.--TO FREEZE ICES

Use one measure of freezing salt to three measures of finely cracked ice
for ice cream, sherbet, and all mixtures which are to be churned. Freeze
slowly, remove dasher, pack solidly, add fresh salt and ice, and let
stand for an hour before serving. To freeze mousse, bombe, and all
unchurned mixtures, pack in equal parts of salt and ice, and let stand
three hours.


580.--FROZEN CUSTARD

  1 quart milk       2 teaspoons cornstarch
  2 eggs             1 tablespoon vanilla
  1 cup sugar        Few grains salt

Scald milk; beat eggs slightly, add sugar mixed with cornstarch, and
stir into milk; cook over hot water for twelve minutes, stirring
constantly at first. Cool, add vanilla and salt, and freeze. Part cream
may be used to advantage, or one can of evaporated milk with enough
fresh milk added to make one quart.


581.--CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM

Follow recipe for Vanilla Ice Cream (see No. 589), adding two and a half
squares of chocolate to the custard before cooking.


582.--COCOA ICE CREAM

  1 pint milk                    1 teaspoon cornstarch
  2 inches stick cinnamon        1 egg beaten
  1 cup sugar                    1 pint cream
  1/2 cup cocoa                  1 teaspoon vanilla
  Few grains salt

Scald milk with cinnamon; mix sugar, cocoa, salt, cornstarch, and egg,
and cook with milk until slightly thickened; cool, remove cinnamon, add
cream and vanilla, and freeze.


583.--COFFEE ICE CREAM

  1 can evaporated milk       1/2 cup sugar
  1 cup boiling water         2 teaspoons instantaneous coffee

Add boiling water to milk, and cool; add sugar and flavoring, and
freeze. Serve in glasses and garnish with whipped cream.


584.--MINT ICE CREAM

  1 quart thin cream              White of 1 egg
  1/2 pound mint stick candy

Put half of cream in double boiler with candy, and heat until candy is
dissolved. Cool, add the remainder of cream whipped, and the white of
egg beaten stiff; freeze; and serve in glasses garnished with small
green mint candies.


585.--ORANGE VELVET CREAM

  1 cup sugar            1 cup orange juice
  1 cup water            Juice of 1 lemon
  Whites of 2 eggs       1 pint cream whipped

Boil sugar and water until it threads; cool slightly and add gradually
to the stiffly beaten whites of eggs, beating steadily for three
minutes; add fruit juice, and when cool fold in cream. Freeze, and serve
in glasses garnished with candied orange peel and a few mint leaves.


586.--PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM

  1 quart thin cream       Few grains salt
  3/4 cup sugar            1 tablespoon flavoring

Mix and freeze.


587.--PRUNE ICE CREAM

  1-1/2 cups hot milk          1 cup cream
  2 eggs slightly beaten       2 cups cooked prunes
  1/2 cup brown sugar

Cook milk, eggs, and sugar over hot water until thickened, stirring
constantly; when cool add cream, prunes stoned and pressed through a
sieve, and freeze. Undiluted, unsweetened, evaporated milk may be used
in place of cream.


588.--STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM

  1 quart strawberries       1 quart thin cream
  1-1/2 cups sugar

Mash strawberries, add sugar, let stand an hour, and press through a
sieve; add cream, and freeze.


589.--VANILLA ICE CREAM

  1 pint milk       Few grains salt
  1 cup sugar       1 pint cream
  2 eggs            1 tablespoon vanilla

Scald milk, add sugar, salt, and eggs slightly beaten; cook over hot
water until mixture coats spoon; cool; add cream and vanilla, and
freeze.


590.--CANTON GINGER SHERBET

  1/2 cup Canton ginger          Juice of 1 orange
  1 cup sugar                    Juice of 1/2 lemon
  3-1/2 cups boiling water       White of 1 egg

Put ginger through the food chopper, using finest cutter; add sugar and
water, and boil fifteen minutes; add fruit juice; cool, and freeze. When
nearly frozen, add the stiffly beaten white of egg.


591.--CIDER FRAPPÉ

  1 quart sweet cider       Juice of 3 oranges
  1 cup sugar               Juice of 1 lemon

Mix cider, sugar, and strained fruit juice; freeze to a mush, and serve
in frappé glasses with the roast.


592.--CRANBERRY AND RAISIN SHERBET

  3 cups cranberries         1-1/2 cups sugar
  1 cup seeded raisins       White of 1 egg
  1-1/2 cups water

Cook cranberries, raisins, and water ten minutes; press through a sieve,
add sugar, and freeze; when nearly frozen add the stiffly beaten white
of egg, and continue freezing until stiff and smooth.


593.--FRUIT SHERBET

  1 cup sugar                    Juice of 1 orange
  1 cup water                    Juice of 1 lemon
  1 teaspoon gelatine            3/4 cup grated pineapple
  2 tablespoons cold water       1 banana peeled and mashed

Boil sugar and water five minutes, add gelatine soaked in cold water,
and stir until dissolved; add fruit; cool, and freeze.


594.--GRAPE BOMBE

Line a mold with Grape Sherbet (see No. 595), fill with Charlotte Russe
Filling (see No. 562) to within one inch of top, cover with sherbet, and
pack in salt and ice for three hours.


595.--GRAPE SHERBET

  1 cup sugar               2 tablespoons water
  1 cup water               1 cup grape juice
  1 teaspoon gelatine       Juice of 1 lemon

Boil sugar and water five minutes; soak gelatine in cold water five
minutes and add to sirup; add fruit juice, cool, and freeze. Serve in
glasses with or without whipped cream garnish.


596.--JELLY SHERBET

  1 teaspoon gelatine       1-1/2 cups boiling water
  1/2 cup cold water        White of 1 egg
  2 glasses jelly

Put gelatine and cold water in the top of double boiler; let stand five
minutes; add jelly and boiling water, and stir until jelly is dissolved;
when cool, freeze; when nearly frozen add the stiffly beaten white of
egg. This is economical if home made jelly can be used.


597.--PINEAPPLE SHERBET

  2/3 cup sugar                Juice of 1 lemon
  2 cups boiling water         White of 1 egg
  1/2 can grated pineapple

Boil sugar and water for fifteen minutes, add pineapple, and lemon
juice; when cool, freeze; when nearly frozen add the stiffly beaten
white of egg, and finish freezing.


598.--SOMERSET SHERBET

  1 banana                               1 cup sugar
  1/2 can apricots, or                   1 teaspoon gelatine
  1-1/2 cups stewed dried apricots       1/4 cup cold water
  1 lemon                                1 cup boiling water
  1 orange

Press banana and apricots, with their juice, through a sieve; add juice
of lemon and orange, and sugar; soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in
boiling water, add to fruit, cool, and freeze.


599.--STRAWBERRY SHERBET

  2 cups water       1 box strawberries
  1 cup sugar        White of 1 egg

Boil sugar and water five minutes; mash berries, add to sirup, cool, and
freeze; when nearly frozen add the stiffly beaten white of egg. If
preferred, strain before freezing.


600.--FROZEN WATERMELON

Scoop out the inside of a watermelon with a large spoon; put in the
freezer without the dasher, sprinkle with powdered sugar and lemon
juice, and pack in equal parts of salt and ice for three hours.



CHAPTER XXVII

SAUCES FOR DESSERTS


601.--CARAMEL SAUCE

Melt one cup of sugar in a smooth, clean saucepan, add three-fourths cup
of boiling water, and simmer fifteen minutes. Take care that sugar does
not burn. Strong coffee may be used instead of water, and, if desired,
one-half cup of chopped nut meats may be added.


602.--CHOCOLATE SAUCE (Hot)

  3/4 cup sugar               2 teaspoons boiling water
  1/3 cup boiling water       1 teaspoon butter
  1/8 teaspoon salt           1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  1 square chocolate

Cook sugar, one-third cup water, salt, and chocolate until sirup
threads; remove from fire, add two teaspoons water, butter, and vanilla.


603.--CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOW SAUCE

  1 square chocolate          1/4 cup sugar
  1/2 tablespoon butter       1 cup boiling water
  1 tablespoon flour          8 marshmallows cut in pieces
  Few grains salt             1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Melt chocolate; add butter, flour, salt, sugar, and mix well; add water
and boil two minutes; add marshmallows and beat well; add vanilla and
serve hot. One tablespoon of shredded almonds may be added; or the
marshmallows may be omitted and two tablespoons each of chopped nuts and
raisins added.


604.--CINNAMON SAUCE

Use recipe for Lemon Sauce (see No. 613); but omit the lemon flavoring,
and add one teaspoon cinnamon and one tablespoon of molasses.


605.--COFFEE SAUCE (Evaporated Milk)

  1 cup evaporated milk        1 teaspoon soluble coffee, or
  1/4 cup sugar                2 tablespoons clear black coffee

Place milk on ice for a few hours; beat with a rotary egg beater until
stiff, add sugar and flavoring.


606.--CRANBERRY SAUCE (Pudding)

  1/4 cup butter             2 tablespoons boiling water
  1 cup powdered sugar       1/2 cup strained cranberry sauce

Cream butter, add sugar and water gradually and alternately; beat well,
and add cranberry sauce. The stiffly beaten white of one egg may be
added. Serve with cottage or steamed puddings.


607.--CUSTARD SAUCE

Make the same as Soft Custard (see No. 568).


608.--CURRANT JELLY SAUCE (Pudding)

  1 tablespoon cornstarch       2 tablespoons currant jelly
  1/4 cup sugar                 1 teaspoon butter
  1 cup boiling water           Juice of 1/2 lemon

Mix cornstarch and sugar in a saucepan, add water gradually, when
thickened add jelly, simmer ten minutes; add butter and lemon juice just
before serving.


609.--DATE SAUCE

To Lemon Sauce (see No. 613) add eight dates, which have been washed,
stoned, and cut in small pieces. Serve with Cottage Pudding (see No.
549).


610.--FRUIT SAUCE

Heat one cup of sirup of preserved or canned fruit, thicken with one
teaspoon of cornstarch moistened with one tablespoon of cold water, and
cook ten minutes; add a few grains of salt, a teaspoon of butter, a few
drops of red coloring, and serve hot.


611.--GINGER SAUCE

  1/2 cup sugar           2 tablespoons water
  1/4 cup molasses        2 tablespoons vinegar
  1 teaspoon butter       1/2 tablespoon ginger

Mix in order given, boil for five minutes, and serve hot with Indian
Pudding (see No. 553) or Steamed Fruit Pudding (see No. 551).


612.--HARD SAUCE

  1/4 cup butter             1 teaspoon vanilla, or
  1 cup powdered sugar       1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 teaspoon milk

Cream butter, add sugar and milk gradually, and beat until very light;
add flavoring, and chill before serving.


613.--LEMON SAUCE

  3/4 cup sugar                1 teaspoon butter
  2 teaspoons cornstarch       Juice and rind of 1/2 lemon, or
  1/8 teaspoon salt            1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
  1-1/2 cups hot water

Mix sugar, cornstarch, and salt; add hot water, stir constantly until
boiling point is reached, and simmer ten minutes; add butter and
flavoring. One teaspoon of vanilla or one-half nutmeg grated may be used
instead of lemon.


614.--MARSHMALLOW SAUCE

  1 cup sugar                 1 cup marshmallows
  1/2 cup boiling water       1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Boil sugar and water five minutes, add marshmallows, beat until they are
melted, and add vanilla. Beat well before serving. Serve hot or cold.


615.--MOCHA SAUCE

  1/4 cup butter or Crisco       1 teaspoon powdered soluble coffee
  1 cup powdered sugar           1 tablespoon cocoa
  2 tablespoons milk

Cream shortening, add sugar and milk gradually, and beat until light;
add coffee and cocoa, and blend well.


616.--ORANGE MARMALADE SAUCE

  1/2 cup orange marmalade       1/2 cup boiling water
  1/2 tablespoon butter

Mix and serve hot with Cottage Pudding (see No. 549), steamed puddings,
or griddle cakes.


617.--SOFT SAUCE

To Hard Sauce (see No. 612) add two tablespoons of hot milk, a few drops
at a time; beat well, and do not chill.


618.--STRAWBERRY SAUCE

  2 tablespoons butter         2 tablespoons boiling water
  3/4 cup powdered sugar       1 cup crushed strawberries

Cream butter, add half of sugar gradually; add remaining half of sugar
alternately with the water; beat well, and add strawberries.
Blackberries or raspberries may be used instead of strawberries.



CHAPTER XXVIII

PASTRIES


619.--PLAIN PASTE

  1-1/2 cups flour                 1/4 cup shortening
  1/4 teaspoon salt                1/3 cup ice water
  1/4 teaspoon baking powder       1/4 cup butter

Sift flour, salt, and baking powder; rub in shortening with finger tips
until mixture is like fine meal; add water gradually until a soft but
not sticky dough is formed, mixing with a knife; when dough is mixed,
the side of the bowl should be clean, neither sticky nor dry with flour.
Slightly more or less water may be needed. Roll paste, on a lightly
floured board, into an even rectangular shape; divide butter into three
parts; cover two-thirds of paste with dots of butter, using one part;
fold first the unbuttered third, then the remaining third, so that there
will be three layers of paste with butter between; roll out again, dot
with butter as before, and fold; repeat for third time. Put paste on ice
until thoroughly chilled. Any good shortening may be used in place of
butter, but the butter flavor will be lacking. This is enough for one
pie with two crusts; double the amount of paste can be made with the
same amount of labor. It keeps well if wrapped in cheesecloth and put in
a cool place.


620.--RICH PASTE

  3 cups flour            1-1/4 cups shortening
  1 teaspoon sugar        1 tablespoon lemon juice
  1/2 teaspoon salt       Ice water

Sift flour, sugar, and salt; add shortening, and rub in with finger tips
or chop with a knife in each hand until mixture is like fine meal; add
lemon juice and enough water to form a stiff paste (about two-thirds of
a cup); roll out into a thin sheet and fold in four layers; roll out and
fold three times. Chill before using. This rule makes two pies. It is
less expensive than puff paste, and yet is a very good substitute for
it.


621.--PATTY SHELLS

Roll paste one-eighth of an inch thick, cover inverted tin patty pans or
individual pie dishes, trim paste evenly, and press down the edge
firmly; prick with a fork, place on a baking sheet, and bake in a hot
oven about twelve minutes. Remove pans, and fill with any cooked fruit
mixture, berries, or creamed meats or vegetables.


622.--PIE SHELL

Roll paste one-quarter inch thick, cover an inverted tin pie plate,
trim, and press the edges firmly; prick with a fork, place on a baking
sheet, and bake in a hot oven about fifteen minutes. Fill with cooked
pie mixtures and cover with a meringue, or garnish with bits of pastry
which have been cut in fancy shapes and baked.


623.--TART SHELLS

Roll Rich Paste (see No. 620) one-third of an inch thick, cut into small
rounds, moisten the edges of half of them with cold water, cut out the
centers of the other half with a small cutter, place upon whole rounds,
and press firmly together; chill, and bake in a hot oven about twenty
minutes. Fill with jelly, jam, or fruit paste. When shells are to be
filled with creamed meats, etc., cut with a larger cutter.


624.--MINCE MEAT

  4 cups cooked beef chopped       1 pound citron shredded
  2 cups chopped suet              2 tablespoons salt
  8 cups chopped apples            1 tablespoon cinnamon
  1 cup brown sugar                1 tablespoon mace
  2 cups molasses                  1 teaspoon clove
  1 glass tart jelly               1 teaspoon allspice
  1-1/2 pounds seeded raisins      1/2 teaspoon pepper
  1 pound washed currants          1 quart boiled cider

Mix, and cook slowly about two hours, stirring frequently. One cup of
chopped cranberries may be substituted for the jelly. Store in jars or
in a stone crock. If mince meat grows dry by standing, moisten with a
little coffee.


625.--MOCK MINCE MEAT (Uncooked)

  1-1/2 cups chopped apples                1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/4 cup raisins seeded and chopped       1/2 teaspoon mace
  1/4 cup cranberries chopped              1/4 teaspoon clove
  1/4 cup currants                         3/4 cup brown sugar
  1 tablespoon citron shredded             1/4 cup vinegar
  1/4 cup beef fat melted                  1/2 cup coffee
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix in order given and let stand a few hours before using. (Fills one
large pie.)


626.--GREEN TOMATO MINCE MEAT

  1-1/2 cups green tomatoes chopped        1/4 cup water
  1-1/2 cups apple chopped                 3/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  3/4 cup raisins seeded and chopped       1/2 teaspoon mace
  1 cup brown sugar                        1/4 teaspoon clove
  1/4 cup beef fat melted                  3/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons vinegar       1/2 cup jelly, fruit sirup, or grape juice

Mix and cook slowly for one hour. (Fills two pies.)


627.--MERINGUE FOR TARTS AND PIES

  Whites of 2 eggs       1/4 cup granulated sugar

Beat the whites of eggs very stiff; add sugar gradually, spread over
tarts or pies, mounding in the center; put in a slow oven, and bake
about ten minutes for tarts and fifteen minutes for pies. If baked
slowly, meringue will not settle.


628.--ONE-EGG MERINGUE

  White of 1 egg                 1 teaspoon baking powder
  1/2 cup granulated sugar       1/4 teaspoon extract

Beat the egg until stiff, add gradually sugar mixed with baking powder,
flavor, spread on tarts or pies, and bake in a moderate oven ten
minutes.


629.--SLICED APPLE PIE

  3-1/2 cups pared and sliced apples     1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup sugar                          1/3 teaspoon nutmeg or cinnamon

Line a plate with paste, fill with apples, mounding them in the center;
mix sugar, salt, and seasoning, and cover apples; moisten edge of paste
with water; roll out paste for top crust, cut one-half inch larger than
plate, and cut a few small gashes in the center; cover pie, turn edge
under the lower crust, and press firmly. Brush with milk, and bake about
forty minutes. The oven should be hot for the first fifteen minutes, and
then the heat should be reduced.


630.--BLUEBERRY PIE

  2-1/2 cups blueberries       2-1/2 tablespoons flour
  2/3 cup sugar                1 teaspoon butter

Line a pie plate with paste; fill with berries, add sugar and flour
mixed, and dot butter over top. Cover, and bake the same as Apple Pie
(see No. 629).


631.--CHERRY PIE

Follow recipe for Blueberry Pie (see No. 630), using stoned cherries in
place of blueberries and adding one-fourth cup more sugar.


632.--MOCK CHERRY PIE

  1-1/2 cups cranberries chopped and rinsed       1 cup sugar
  1/2 cup raisins seeded and chopped              1/2 cup water
  2 tablespoons sifted crumbs or flour

Mix, and bake in two crusts, the same as Apple Pie (see No. 629).


633.--CRANBERRY PIE

  2 cups cranberries       2 tablespoons sifted crumbs
  1-1/4 cups sugar         1/2 cup hot water

Chop cranberries, rinse, and mix with sugar, crumbs, and water. Roll
paste one-quarter inch thick, cover a perforated tin plate, trim the
edge evenly, and moisten edge with water; fill with cranberries, cover
with half-inch strips of paste placed half an inch apart to form a
lattice top; trim the edges neatly, moisten, and finish with a half-inch
strip of paste around the edge. Bake about forty minutes. The oven
should be hot for the first fifteen minutes, and then the heat should be
reduced.


634.--OPEN CRANBERRY PIE

  1-1/2 cups cranberries       2/3 cup water
  1 cup sugar                  2 tablespoons sifted crumbs

Mix berries, sugar, and water, and cook for ten minutes, stirring
frequently to break the berries; add crumbs, and when nearly cool pour
into a baked pie shell. Garnish with bits of baked pastry.


635.--CUSTARD PIE (Cake Crumbs)

  2 cups hot milk               1 egg slightly beaten
  1/2 cup dry cake crumbs       1/8 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons sugar           Nutmeg

Mix crumbs and milk, let stand for five minutes, and press through a
sieve; add sugar, egg, and salt; line a deep plate with paste rolled
thin; build up a firm edge of crust, fill with custard, and dust with
nutmeg. Bake about forty minutes. The oven should be hot for the first
ten minutes, and then the heat should be reduced.


636.--GOOSEBERRY PIE

To recipe for Gooseberry Patties (see No. 648) add two tablespoons of
dried and sifted crumbs. Prepare and bake the same as Cranberry Pie (see
No. 633).


637.--LEMON PIE

  1 slice bread one inch thick       Yolks 2 eggs
  1 cup boiling water                1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup sugar                        Rind and juice 1 lemon

Remove crusts from bread; cover bread with boiling water, let stand a
few minutes, and press through a sieve; add sugar, egg yolks slightly
beaten, salt, lemon rind, and lemon juice. Prepare paste, fill, and bake
the same as Custard Pie (see No. 635). Make a Meringue (see No. 627) of
the whites of eggs.


638.--MARLBOROUGH PIE

  6 apples                   Grated rind and juice 1 lemon
  1/3 cup sugar              1 teaspoon cinnamon
  2 macaroons rolled         1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons butter       2 eggs slightly beaten

Pare and slice apples, add one-quarter cup of water; cook until soft,
and rub through a sieve; add other ingredients in order given. Line a
deep plate or patty tins with rich paste, fill, and bake about forty
minutes. Cake crumbs may be substituted for macaroons.


639.--MINCE PIE

Line a perforated tin plate with paste, rolled one-fourth inch thick;
fill with mince meat, moisten edges with water, and cover with an upper
crust with a few small gashes cut in it; turn the edge under lower crust
about half an inch, press firmly, and trim edges of paste with a knife,
slanting toward the center; brush with milk, and bake in a hot oven
about half an hour.


640.--ORANGE PIE

  1-1/2 cups hot milk            Juice of 1 orange
  1/2 cup cake crumbs            1 egg slightly beaten
  1/2 cup sugar                  1/8 teaspoon salt
  Grated rind of 1/2 orange

Mix milk and crumbs, let stand five minutes, and press through a fine
sieve; add other ingredients. Prepare paste, fill, and bake the same as
Custard Pie (see No. 635).


641.--PINEAPPLE PIE

  1 can grated pineapple        Few grains salt
  1 cup sugar                   1 egg
  2-1/2 tablespoons flour       1/2 tablespoon butter

Mix sugar, flour, and salt, add beaten egg, and mix with pineapple; pour
into a deep pie plate lined with paste, add butter in small pieces,
cover with strips of paste, and bake in a hot oven about forty minutes,
reducing the heat during second half of baking.


642.--PRUNE PIE

  2 cups cooked prunes       1 tablespoon flour
  1/2 cup sugar              Grated rind of 1/2 orange

Stone prunes, cut in quarters, and put into a paste-lined plate; cover
with sugar, flour, and rind mixed. Cover with upper crust, brush with
milk, and bake in a hot oven half an hour, reducing the heat during
second half of baking.


643.--PUMPKIN PIE

  1-1/2 cups baked pumpkin       1/2 teaspoon ginger
  1 egg well beaten              1 teaspoon cinnamon
  2/3 cup brown sugar            1/2 teaspoon cornstarch
  1/2 teaspoon salt              1-1/2 cups milk

Cut pumpkin in pieces and bake in a hot oven; mash and strain, and to
one and a half cups add the other ingredients in order given. Prepare
paste and bake the same as Custard Pie (see No. 635).


644.--RAISIN PIE

  1/2 cup raisins seeded and chopped       1/4 cup vinegar
  1-1/2 cups hot water                     2 tablespoons butter
  1 cup brown sugar                        1/2 cup sifted crumbs

Mix, and cook for ten minutes; cool; and bake the same as Cranberry Pie
(see No. 633).


645.--RHUBARB PIE

  2 cups rhubarb                      1 cup sugar
  2 tablespoons sultana raisins       Grating of nutmeg
  1/4 cup sifted crumbs               Few grains salt

Cut rhubarb in half-inch pieces, place in a strainer, and scald with
boiling water; drain, put into a paste-lined plate, cover with raisins,
crumbs, sugar, and nutmeg and salt mixed; cover with an upper crust, and
bake the same as Apple Pie (see No. 629).


646.--SQUASH PIE

  1-1/2 cups cooked squash       1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 cup sugar                    1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  3/4 teaspoon salt              1 egg beaten
  1/4 cup sifted crumbs          1-1/2 cups milk

Mix in order given. Prepare paste, fill, and bake the same as Custard
Pie (see No. 635).


647.--BANBURY TARTS

  1 cup raisins       Juice and rind of 1 lemon
  3/4 cup sugar       1/4 cup sifted crumbs

Seed and chop raisins, and mix with sugar, lemon, and crumbs. Roll paste
one-eighth inch thick, and cut in three-inch rounds; put half a
tablespoon of raisin mixture on half of each round, moisten edges with
water, fold double, and press edges firmly together. Prick with a fork,
and bake in a hot oven about fifteen minutes.


648.--GOOSEBERRY PATTIES

Remove tops and stems from one pint of gooseberries; wash, add one-half
cup water, and cook about fifteen minutes, or until soft and well
broken; add one cup of sugar, and cool; line patty pans with paste, fill
with gooseberries, cover with narrow strips of paste to form a lattice.
Bake in a hot oven twenty-five minutes.


649.--PRUNE AND APPLE TART FILLING

Use recipe for Prune and Apple Shortcake (see No. 445), fill cooked
paste shells, and garnish with bits of cooked paste.


650.--PRUNE PATTIES

Line patty pans with paste; prepare filling as for Prune Pie (see No.
642); mix, and fill pans; cover with a lattice-work of narrow strips of
paste, and finish with a narrow strip of paste around the outer edge.
Bake in a hot oven about twenty-five minutes.


651.--INDIVIDUAL RASPBERRY PIE

Roll paste one-eighth inch thick, cut into circles two and a half inches
in diameter. Put a tablespoon of raspberry jam on half of them, and
moisten the edges with water. With a small round cutter make three holes
in each remaining circle, place on top of jam, press edges firmly
together, and bake about fifteen minutes in a hot oven. Bake the small
cut-out pieces of paste, and serve with soup.


652.--RHUBARB MERINGUE PATTIES

  2 cups rhubarb       1 egg yolk beaten
  1/4 cup water        3 tablespoons sifted crumbs
  1 cup sugar          1 teaspoon butter

Cut rhubarb in half-inch pieces and cook with water ten minutes; add
sugar, egg yolk, crumbs, and butter, and cook five minutes; when cool,
fill Patty Shells (see No. 621), cover with One-egg Meringue (see No.
628), and bake ten minutes in a moderate oven.


653.--SQUASH PATTIES (without Eggs)

  2 cups cooked and sifted squash   1 tablespoon dried and sifted crumbs
  1/2 cup sugar                     1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
  2/3 teaspoon salt

Mix in order given. Line patty pans with paste, fill with squash, and
bake in a hot oven about twenty-five minutes.


654.--CHEESE STRAWS

  1/2 cup flour                 1/8 teaspoon mustard
  1 tablespoon shortening       1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 cup grated cheese         1/4 teaspoon baking powder
  1/8 teaspoon salt             Ice water

Rub shortening into flour with finger tips; add cheese, seasonings, and
baking powder, and mix to a stiff dough with ice water. Roll out, fold
in four layers, roll out again and fold as before; put on ice to chill;
roll out one-third inch thick, and cut into four-inch straws. Bake in a
hot oven about twelve minutes.


655.--CHEESE STRAWS (Left-over Paste)

Roll trimmings of pastry into a thin sheet, sprinkle with grated cheese
and paprika; fold in four layers; repeat; chill, cut into straws, and
bake in a hot oven about twelve minutes.


656.--CHEESE WAFERS

Prepare paste as for Cheese Straws (see No. 654); roll out very thin,
cut with a two-inch cutter, and bake in a hot oven about six minutes.


657.--CINNAMON HEARTS

Roll Rich Paste (see No. 620) very thin in an even rectangular shape;
sprinkle with powdered sugar mixed with a little cinnamon. The paste
should be about twelve inches long. Fold each end toward the center two
inches; fold each end again toward the center; fold double, and chill.
Cut in one-third-inch slices, place flat side down on a baking sheet two
inches apart, and bake in a hot oven about eight minutes.



CHAPTER XXIX

FRUITS, COOKED AND UNCOOKED[13]


658.--TO COOK DRIED FRUIT

Wash thoroughly in two or three cold waters; put in granite kettle,
cover with water, and soak twenty-four hours; cook very slowly two or
three hours until tender; add sugar, and simmer half an hour.


659.--BAKED APPLES WITH DATES

Wipe and core apples, and place in baking dish (not tin); in each cavity
put a stoned date, a tablespoon of sugar, and two tablespoons of boiling
water; bake in a moderate oven about half an hour, basting often. Apple
jelly may be used in place of dates, or sugar may be mixed with a little
cinnamon or nutmeg.


660.--GRAPE AND APPLE JELLY

  1/2 peck grapes       Sugar
  3 tart apples

Pick over, stew, and mash grapes, put in kettle with apples, which have
been coarsely chopped, but not pared or cored; heat to boiling point,
mash, and boil thirty minutes; strain through a jelly bag; measure
juice, return to kettle, and boil five minutes; add an equal amount of
heated sugar, and boil three minutes. Skim well and pour into glasses.


661.--SPICED APPLE JELLY

Wash apples, cut in quarters, cover with equal parts of water and
vinegar, and cook half an hour; drain; and to each quart of juice add
one-third cup of mixed spices (tied in a bag), and boil twenty minutes.
Remove spices. Add heated sugar, allowing one quart for each quart of
juice. Boil ten minutes, and pour into glasses. When cold and firm cover
with melted paraffin.


662.--GRAPE JUICE AND APPLE SAUCE

  1 cup grape juice       4 apples
  1/2 cup sugar           4 slices sponge cake or toast

Boil grape juice and sugar for five minutes; pare, core, and slice
apples, and cook in grape juice until tender; cool, and serve on toast
or cake. Two cups of grapes cooked with one-half cup of water and
pressed through a sieve may be used in place of juice.


663.--DARK RED APPLE SAUCE

  8 tart apples       1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 cup sugar         1/2 cup hot water

Pare and core apples, and cut into eighths; put into an earthen dish;
add sugar, nutmeg, and hot water; cover closely, and bake in a slow oven
three hours.


664.--BAKED BANANAS

Peel, scrape, and slice six bananas; put into a greased baking dish in
layers, and sprinkle each layer with brown sugar; dot a tablespoon of
butter over the top, and sprinkle with the juice of half a lemon. Bake
in a moderate oven half an hour.


665.--BANANAS WITH FIGS AND NUTS

  4 bananas       2 tablespoons powdered sugar
  4 figs          1/4 cup chopped nut meats

Peel, scrape, and slice bananas; wash, dry, and chop figs; spread over
bananas; sprinkle with sugar and nut meats, and serve with cream. Grape
nuts may be used in place of nut meats.


666.--MOCK BAR-LE-DUC CURRANTS

  1/2 cup large, hard cranberries       1/2 cup boiling water
  1 cup sugar

Cut cranberries in quarters, place in colander, and wash under running
water to remove the seeds; heat sugar and water slowly to the boiling
point, and boil seven minutes; add cranberries, and boil seven minutes.
Seal in small glasses.


667.--RED CURRANT CONSERVE

  2 pounds red currants       1 cup raisins
  2 oranges                   1-1/2 pounds sugar

Wash currants; grate rind of oranges and remove pulp; seed raisins and
cut in halves; put in preserving kettle with sugar, heat gradually to
boiling point, and simmer until as thick as marmalade.


668.--CRANBERRY CONSERVE

  1 quart cranberries             1 cup raisins seeded and chopped
  1 cup water                     2-1/4 cups sugar
  Grated rind 1 orange            1/2 cup nut meats chopped
  Pulp and juice of 2 oranges

Wash cranberries and chop rather coarsely; put in colander and rinse
with running water to remove seeds; add water, oranges, and raisins;
cook fifteen minutes; add sugar and boil two minutes; add nut meats and
pour into glasses.


669.--SPICED CRANBERRIES

  1 quart cranberries       2 teaspoons cinnamon
  2 cups brown sugar        1/4 teaspoon clove
  1/2 cup vinegar           1/4 teaspoon allspice
  1/4 cup water

Mix in order given, heat slowly to the boiling point, and simmer half an
hour. Serve with cold meats.


670.--PRESERVED CRANBERRIES

  1/2 cup water       1 cup cranberries
  1 cup sugar

Heat water and sugar to the boiling point, and cook five minutes; add
berries, and simmer for fifteen minutes, skimming when necessary. The
berries should be unbroken. (Useful for garnishing.)


671.--CRANBERRY SAUCE

  1 pint cranberries       1 cup sugar
  1/2 cup water

Pick over and wash berries, add the water, and cook until very soft.
Mash with a wooden spoon, add the sugar, and cook until sugar is
dissolved. For thick cranberry jelly, press through a sieve and pour
into glasses.


672.--FIG PASTE (Laxative)

  1 pound prunes             1/2 pound figs
  1 ounce senna leaves       Cold water

Soak prunes over night in cold water to cover, add the senna leaves tied
in cheesecloth, and cook slowly until prunes are tender. Stone the
prunes, and chop fine; add figs chopped fine, put in top of double
boiler, remove senna, add prune juice, and cook until thick.


673.--CANDIED GRAPE FRUIT PEEL

Cut grape fruit peel into thin strips, and soak twenty-four hours in
salted water, allowing one teaspoon of salt to each quart of water;
drain, cover with cold water, and boil about one hour, or until tender,
changing the water once; drain, weigh peel, and add an equal weight of
sugar; heat slowly, and cook until sugar is almost absorbed; spread on a
platter to dry for five or six hours; roll in powdered sugar. If put in
airtight jars it will keep indefinitely. Orange or lemon peel may be
used in the same way.


674.--BAKED PEARS

  8 hard pears        1/2 cup boiling water
  3/4 cup sugar       4 cloves

Wipe pears, remove stems, and put in an earthen dish; add sugar, water,
and cloves; cover, and bake in a slow oven for four hours, basting
occasionally. Serve cold.


675.--PEAR AND GINGER MARMALADE

  8 pounds hard pears        1/4 pound preserved ginger
  Grated rind 4 lemons       6 pounds sugar
  Juice of 4 lemons

Quarter and core pears, and put through food chopper; add lemon rind,
juice, and ginger (chopped); mix fruit with sugar, heat gradually to
boiling point, and cook slowly about two hours, or until thick.


676.--SPICED PRUNES

  2 cups cooked prunes              Juice of 1 orange
  1/4 cup chopped cranberries       Few gratings orange rind
  1/2 cup prune juice               1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  2 tablespoons sugar               1/4 teaspoon paprika

Stone prunes, cut in small pieces, add other ingredients, and simmer
twenty minutes. Serve with cold meats.


677.--QUINCE HONEY

  6 quinces                 1 quart water
  3-1/2 pounds sugar

Pare, quarter, and core quinces; to the cores and parings add one pint
of water, simmer half an hour, and press through a sieve. Chop quinces,
using the finest cutter, add a pint of water, and simmer while cores are
cooking; add pulp and juice from cores and boil ten minutes; add sugar
and boil about five minutes, or until it jellies.


678.--BAKED RHUBARB AND BANANAS

  2 cups rhubarb       3/4 cup sugar
  3 bananas            1 tablespoon butter

Wash rhubarb and cut, unpeeled, into one-inch pieces; peel and slice
bananas, and arrange in a baking dish in alternate layers with the
rhubarb; add sugar and butter, cover, and bake in a slow oven two hours.
Serve hot or cold.


679.--RHUBARB AND ORANGE MARMALADE

  4 cups rhubarb                       Juice 1/2 lemon
  4 oranges                            6 cups sugar
  1 tablespoon orange rind grated

Cut rhubarb in half-inch pieces; add pulp and juice of oranges, rind,
lemon juice, and sugar. Cook slowly until juice will "jell" when tried
on a cold plate.


680.--RHUBARB AND FIG MARMALADE

  3 pounds rhubarb       1 teaspoon ginger
  1 pound figs           1/4 teaspoon clove
  3 pounds sugar         1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 lemon

Cut rhubarb unpeeled into inch pieces; wash figs and put through food
chopper; put in preserving kettle with half of sugar and let stand over
night; in the morning boil until clear, then add remaining sugar, juice
and grated rind of lemon, and seasonings. Cook slowly until thickened.


681.--THREE-IN-ONE MARMALADE

Cut in halves one grape fruit, one orange, and one lemon; remove pulp
with a teaspoon, saving juice and discarding seeds; remove the membrane
from peels, and put peel through the food chopper, using medium cutter;
mix peel, pulp, and juice; measure, and to each cup add three cups of
cold water; let stand over night; heat slowly to the boiling point, and
cook one hour, or until peel is tender; measure, add an equal amount of
sugar; boil about forty minutes, or until a little will "jell" when
tried on a cold plate.


682.--RED TOMATO JAM

  3 pounds ripe tomatoes       1 teaspoon ginger
  3 pounds sugar               1/4 teaspoon salt
  2 lemons

Scald and peel tomatoes; cut in halves crosswise and discard seeds; put
in preserving kettle with sugar, lemon juice, and ginger; cook slowly
about two hours, stirring often with a wooden spoon. Skim when
necessary. This may be kept in a stone crock or sealed in glasses.


683.--SWEET PICKLED WATERMELON RIND

  Rind of 1/2 watermelon       1-1/2 tablespoons cinnamon
  3 pounds brown sugar         1 tablespoon cloves
  1 quart vinegar              1 tablespoon allspice

Pare melon rind, cut in inch squares, wash, and drain; put sugar and
vinegar in a preserving kettle, add spices tied in a bag, and boil one
hour; add melon rind, and cook about one hour, or until tender; put
melon rind into a stone crock, boil sirup hard for fifteen minutes, and
pour over melon.

FOOTNOTES:

[13] For standard recipes for jellies and preserves, see Farmers'
Bulletin No. 203.



CHAPTER XXX

CANDIES


684.--PLAIN FONDANT

  4 cups granulated sugar       1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
  1 cup boiling water

Put sugar in a smooth, clean saucepan, add boiling water, and stir until
dissolved; heat slowly to boiling point, add cream of tartar, and boil
without stirring to 240° F., or until sirup will form a soft ball when
tested in cold water. As sirup granulates around the sides of saucepan,
wash down with a clean brush which has been dipped quickly into cold
water; pour out upon a slightly oiled slab or large platter; as the
edges begin to harden, turn them toward the center, and when the mixture
is partly cooled work with a wooden spatula or butter paddle until
creamy; when it begins to lump, knead with the hands until smooth. Let
stand a few hours before using, or keep in a covered jar until needed.


685.--COFFEE FONDANT

Follow recipe for Plain Fondant (see No. 684), using strong, clear
coffee in place of water. Or, if only a small quantity is needed, melt
plain fondant over hot water and add one teaspoon of instantaneous
coffee to each cup. This may be used melted for mints, or for dipping,
or, when cooled, for centers.


686.--BONBON CENTERS

Cut candied fruits or nuts into small pieces, and work with a bit of
fondant into small balls; let stand a few hours before dipping. Keep
centers small so that bonbons will not be too large when finished.


687.--FONDANT BONBONS

Melt fondant over hot water; flavor and color as desired; dip bonbon
centers one at a time, and remove with a fork or confectioners' dipper;
place on an oiled slab or platter until cold.


688.--CHOCOLATE BONBONS

Melt bitter chocolate in a cup over hot water, and dip centers the same
as for Fondant Bonbons (see No. 687). Dot chocolate (sweetened) may be
used if preferred. Confectioners' chocolate is best for dipping, but
cooking chocolate is satisfactory if half a teaspoon of butter is melted
with each four squares.


689.--FONDANT MINTS

Put Plain Fondant (see No. 684) in cups, melt over hot water, and flavor
with a few drops of oil of spearmint, wintergreen, orange, lime, or any
desired flavor; color lightly if desired, and drop from a teaspoon upon
an oiled slab or platter.


690.--QUICK FONDANT

Break the white of an egg into a bowl, add a tablespoon of water and
about two cups of confectioners' sugar, or enough to knead. Flavor with
oil, extracts, or grated orange or lemon rind, and color as desired.
Use for mints (rolled and cut), stuffing dates, prunes, cherries or
nuts, or for bonbon centers.


691.--QUICK MINTS

  1 cup sugar                 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
  1/2 cup boiling water       3 drops oil of spearmint

Put sugar into a smooth, clean saucepan, add boiling water, and stir
until dissolved; add cream of tartar, and boil to 234° F., or about five
minutes; cool slightly, add flavoring, beat until creamy, and drop from
a teaspoon on an oiled slab or platter. If mixture thickens before all
is used, add a few drops of boiling water. Oil or essence of
wintergreen, lime, orange, etc., may be used instead of spearmint, and
mixture may be colored lightly to correspond with flavoring.


692.--AFTER-DINNER MINTS

  2 cups sugar           1/2 cup boiling water
  1/4 cup molasses       4 drops oil of spearmint

Put sugar and molasses into a smooth, clean saucepan, add boiling water,
heat gradually to the boiling point, and boil to 258° F., or until candy
becomes brittle when tested in cold water; add flavoring, pour on an
oiled slab or platter, and when cool enough to handle pull until nearly
white; pull into long strips about half an inch in diameter, and cut in
small pieces with scissors; roll in powdered sugar, and keep in a
covered jar for several days before using.


693.--APRICOT PASTE

Follow recipe for Mint Paste (see No. 694), omitting spearmint and
coloring, and adding one cup of stewed and strained dried apricots
(without juice); roll in confectioners' sugar, or dip in melted fondant
or chocolate.


694.--MINT PASTE

  1 box granulated gelatine       1/4 cup lemon juice
  2/3 cup cold water              Grated rind 1 orange
  1 cup boiling water             5 drops oil of spearmint
  2 cups sugar                    Green coloring

Soak gelatine in cold water five minutes; dissolve in boiling water; add
sugar, and stir until dissolved; add lemon juice, and boil twenty
minutes; add rind, flavoring, and coloring; pour into a small pan and
let stand for several hours; cut into cubes and roll in confectioners'
sugar. Oil of wintergreen, cloves, or cinnamon may be used in place of
spearmint, and other coloring may be used.


695.--TURKISH DELIGHT

  1 box granulated gelatine           3 tablespoons lemon juice
  2/3 cup strained orange juice       Grated rind 1 orange
  1 cup boiling water                 1/4 cup nut meats cut fine
  2 cups sugar                        1/2 cup candied fruit cut fine

Soak gelatine in orange juice five minutes; dissolve in boiling water,
add sugar and lemon juice, and stir until sugar is dissolved; boil
twenty minutes; add rind, and, when nearly cold, add nuts and fruit and
pour into a small pan; let stand several hours, cut in cubes, and roll
in confectioners' sugar. Paste may be colored pink by adding red
gelatine to the orange juice.


696.--FRUIT WAFERS

  1/2 pound prunes       Juice and grated rind 1/2 lemon
  1/2 pound figs         Confectioners' sugar
  1/2 pound dates

Soak prunes and figs in cold water over night, drain and wipe dry; cut
prunes from stones, stone dates, and put all fruit through food chopper,
using finest cutter; add lemon rind, juice, and sugar enough to knead to
a firm paste; roll on a sugared board to one-fourth-inch thickness, and
cut in small rounds, squares, or diamonds. Or form paste into small
balls, and roll in coconut or chopped nut meats. One-half cup of finely
chopped nut meats may be added to the paste. This is an excellent
filling for stuffed dates.


697.--SPICED RAISINS

  2 cups large raisins seeded       1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 tablespoon butter             1/2 teaspoon mace
  2 tablespoons vinegar             1/4 teaspoon clove
  2 tablespoons water

Cook very slowly until raisins are plump and liquid has evaporated.
Cool, and roll in granulated sugar.


698.--STUFFED DATES

Wash one pound large dates, dry, and remove stones; stuff with plain
fondant, or fondant mixed with candied fruits or nuts; or stuff with a
seeded raisin, or a piece of date, fig, or pineapple. Roll in
confectioners' sugar.


699.--STUFFED PRUNES

  1 pound large prunes       1/2 cup confectioners' sugar
  1/2 pound dried apricots

Wash fruit, soak over night, drain and dry; remove stones from prunes
with a knife; put apricots through food chopper, mix with sugar, and
fill prunes; roll in confectioners' sugar.


700.--MARRONS GLACÉS

  2 cups sugar           1 tablespoon corn sirup
  1-1/2 cups water       1 pint chestnuts

Shell one pint of chestnuts (see No. 243) and simmer in a sirup made of
sugar and water until chestnuts are tender but not broken. Drain from
sirup; cook the sirup with the corn sirup to 310° F., or until sirup
begins to discolor. Remove saucepan from fire, place in a saucepan of
hot water, put chestnuts on a dipping needle or long pin, and dip in
sirup until thoroughly coated; place on an oiled platter.


701.--NUTS AND FRUITS GLACÉ

  2 cups sugar       1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
  1 cup water

Boil sugar, water, and cream of tartar to 310° F. Follow directions for
dipping Marrons Glacés (see No. 700). Cherries, strawberries, orange
sections, grapes, or mint and rose leaves may be dipped in the same
way.



APPENDIX


A.--TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

  1 teaspoon                             = 60 drops
  3 teaspoons                            = 1 tablespoon
  16 tablespoons                         = 1 cup
  1 cup                                  = 1/2 pint
  2 pints                                = 1 quart
  Butter, 2 tablespoons solidly packed   = 1 ounce
  Butter, 2 cups solidly packed          = 1 pound
  Chocolate, 1 square                    = 1 ounce
  Coffee, 4-1/3 cups                     = 1 pound
  Eggs, 9 in shells                      = 1 pound
  English Walnuts, chopped, 5 cups       = 1 pound
  Flour, 4 tablespoons                   = 1 ounce
  Flour, Pastry, 4 cups                  = 1 pound
  Flour, Bread, 4 cups                   = 1 pound
  Flour, Entire Wheat, 3-7/8 cups        = 1 pound
  Flour, Graham, 4-1/2 cups              = 1 pound
  Meat, 2 cups finely chopped            = 1 pound
  Oatmeal, 2-2/3 cups                    = 1 pound
  Oats, Rolled, 5 cups                   = 1 pound
  Rice, 1-7/8 cups                       = 1 pound
  Rye Meal, 4-1/3 cups                   = 1 pound
  Sugar, Brown, 2-2/3 cups               = 1 pound
  Sugar, Confectioners', 3-1/2 cups      = 1 pound
  Sugar, Granulated, 2 cups              = 1 pound
  Sugar, Powdered, 2-2/3 cups            = 1 pound
  Sugar or Salt, 2 tablespoons           = 1 ounce



B.--TIME TABLE FOR COOKING


BAKING

  Beans, Boston Baked                               8 hours
  Biscuits, Baking Powder (according to size)       12-15 minutes
    Raised (according to size)                      12-20 minutes
  Bread (ten-cent loaf)                             50 minutes
  Breads, Baking Powder Muffins (according to size) 18-30 minutes
    Corn Bread (shallow pan)                        15-20 minutes
    Gingerbread (shallow pan)                       25 minutes
    Popovers (according to size)                    25-30 minutes
    Yeast Muffins (according to size)               20-30 minutes
  Cake, Fruit                                       1-1/4 to 2 hours
    Layer                                           15-20 minutes
    Loaf (shallow pan)                              30 minutes
    Sponge (deep pan)                               40 minutes
  Cookies and Wafers                                6-15 minutes
  Cup Custards                                      25 minutes
  Fish, whole, 4 pounds                             1 hour
    Fillets, or whole small                         20-30 minutes
  Meats, Fillet of Beef (medium)                    45-60 minutes
    Rump of Beef (medium) per pound                 17 minutes
    Sirloin or Rib of Beef (medium) per pound       15 minutes
    Chicken, per pound                              18 minutes
    Duck, Domestic                                  1 to 1-1/4 hours
    Duck, Wild                                      15-20 minutes
    Goose, Domestic, per pound                      20 minutes
    Leg of Lamb, per pound                          18 minutes
    Pork Chops                                      30 minutes
    Loin of Pork, per pound                         22 minutes
    Turkey, per pound                               20 minutes
    Loin of Veal, per pound                         22 minutes
  Pies                                              35-45 minutes
  Rice or Tapioca Pudding, Cooked                   45 minutes
  Rice or Tapioca Pudding, Uncooked                 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 hours

BOILING

  Cereals
    Corn Meal                                       2 hours
    Hominy                                          2-3 hours
    Macaroni                                        20-30 minutes
    Oatmeal                                         4 hours
    Rice                                            20-30 minutes
    Rolled Oats                                     1/2 hour
    Spaghetti                                       20 minutes
    Granulated or Rolled Wheat                      1/2 hour
  Eggs
    Soft-cooked                                     3-5 minutes
    Hard-cooked                                     20 minutes
  Fish
    Bass, per pound                                 12 minutes
    Bluefish, per pound                             12 minutes
    Cod, per pound                                  6 minutes
    Halibut, per pound                              12 minutes
    Lobster, whole                                  20 minutes
    Salmon, per pound                               12 minutes
    Small fish                                      6-10 minutes
  Meats
    Corned Beef                                     3-4 hours
    Fresh Beef                                      3 hours
    Fowl, per pound                                 30 minutes
    Ham, per pound                                  25 minutes
    Mutton (leg), per pound                         25 minutes
    Corned Tongue                                   3-1/2 hours
    Fresh Tongue                                    2-1/2 hours
  Vegetables
    Artichokes                                      30-45 minutes
    Asparagus                                       20-30 minutes
    Dried Beans                                     3-4 hours
    Lima and other Shell Beans                      1 to 1-1/4 hours
    String Beans                                    1-2 hours
    Beets, old                                      2-4 hours
    Beets, young                                    45 minutes
    Brussels Sprouts                                20 minutes
    Cabbage                                         20-30 minutes
    Cauliflower                                     25 minutes
    Green Corn                                      10 minutes
    Onions                                          1 to 1-1/2 hours
    Oyster Plant (whole)                            45 minutes
    Parsnips                                        45-60 minutes
    Peas, Fresh                                     20-60 minutes
    Peas, Dried                                     3 hours
    Potatoes, White                                 20-30 minutes
    Potatoes, Sweet                                 20-25 minutes
    Spinach                                         25-30 minutes
    Tomatoes (stewed)                               20-30 minutes
    Turnips, Yellow                                 1-1/2 to 2 hours
    Turnips, White                                  1 to 1-1/2 hours

BROILING

  Bacon and Ham, sliced thin                        4 minutes
  Chicken, Spring                                   20 minutes
  Chops, Lamb or Mutton                             6-10 minutes
  Fish, Slices Cod, Halibut, Salmon, Swordfish      12-15 minutes
  Fish, whole small, Smelt, Trout                   8-10 minutes
  Fish, whole split, Bluefish, Scrod,
    Shad, Whitefish                                 18-22 minutes
  Oysters                                           3-4 minutes
  Steak, 1 inch thick (medium)                      8 minutes
  Squab                                             10-12 minutes
  Tripe and Liver                                   6 minutes

FRYING

  Chops or Cutlets, Breaded                         5-8 minutes
  Croquettes and Fishballs                          1 minute
  Doughnuts, Drop Cakes, Fritters, Muffins          3-5 minutes
  Fish, rolled fillets and slices                   5-7 minutes
  Fish, whole small, Smelt, Trout, Whitebait        2-7 minutes
  Potatoes, Straws, Chips                           3-4 minutes
  Potatoes, French Fried                            6-8 minutes



C.--TEMPERATURE TABLE

                                                        Fahrenheit
  Freezing point                                           32°
  Lukewarm Water or Milk, not over                         98°
  Albumen begins to coagulate                             134°
  Milk, Pasteurized, keep for 1/2 hour at                 145°
  Simmering point                                         185°
  Boiling point, Water (sea level)                        212°
  Boiling point, Milk (sea level)                         214°
  Milk, scalded in double boiler                          196°
  Baking, Apples                                          300°
  Baking, Bananas                                         400°
  Baking, Biscuit (baking powder)                         450°
  Baking, Biscuit (yeast)                                 425°
  Baking, Loaf Bread                                      400°
  Baking, Muffins                                         380°
  Baking, Popovers                                        450°
  Baking, Cake: Cookies                                   400°
  Baking, Cake: Gingerbread                               375°
  Baking, Cake: Fruit and Pound                           300°
  Baking, Cake: Layer                                     380°
  Baking, Cake: Plain (shallow pan)                       375°
  Baking, Cake: Sponge (shallow pan)                      350°
  Baking, Meats, Beef and Mutton, for 15 minutes          450°
    then reduce to                                        350°
  Baking, Meats, Chicken and Turkey, for 1/2 hour         400°
    then reduce to                                        300°
  Baking, Meats, Goose and Lamb, for 1/2 hour             400°
    then reduce to                                        300°
  Baking, Meats, Pork and Veal, for 1/2 hour              350°
    then reduce to                                        260°
  Baking, Pastry: Pies, for 1/4 hour                      450°
    then reduce to                                        350°
  Baking, Pastry: Tart or Patty Shells                    450°
  Baking, Potatoes                                        450°
  Frying:[14] Breaded Chops, Oysters                      380°
  Frying: Croquettes, Fishballs                           390°
  Frying: Doughnuts, Fritters                             360°-370°
  Frying: Potatoes, French Fried                          380°
  Frying: Potato Chips or Straws                          400°
  Fruit Jelly                                             222°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, large thread                     217°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, feather                          232°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, soft ball                        240°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, hard ball                        250°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, for glacéd fruits and nuts       310°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, for spun sugar                   300°
  Sugar and Water Sirup, caramel                          350°
  A very hot oven                                         450°-550°
  A hot oven                                              400°-450°
  A moderate oven                                         350°-400°
  A slow oven                                             250°-350°

FOOTNOTES:

[14] To test fat without a thermometer, drop a bit of white bread into
hot fat; it should brown in
    60 seconds for uncooked mixtures (Doughnuts, Fritters, etc.)
    40 seconds for cooked mixtures (Croquettes, Fishballs, etc.)
    20 seconds for Chops, French Fried Potatoes, etc.



D.--TABLE OF CALORIC VALUES OF AVERAGE PORTIONS OF FOOD.


The following table gives the approximate number of calories and the
approximate percentage of protein, fat, and carbohydrate in an average
portion of food.[15] Unless otherwise stated an egg, orange, potato,
etc., means one of average size.

                                                    Percentage of
                                        Number of
  Kind of Food            Amount         Calories Protein Fat Carbohydrates

  _Beverages_
    Buttermilk (see Dairy Products)
    Chocolate[16]         1 cup            200      10      49       41
    Cocoa[16]             1 cup            140      14      39       47
    Eggnog                1 cup            225      21      48       31
    Grape Juice          1/2 cup           100       0       0      100
    Milk (See Dairy Products)
    Orange Juice         1/2 cup            50       0       0      100
  _Breads_
    Baking Powder Biscuit 1 small
                          biscuit           50      11      27       62
    Boston Brown Bread    1 slice
                         3/4 in. x
                       3 in. diameter      100      10      10       80
    White Bread           1 slice
                       1/2 in. x 4 in.
                         x 2-1/2 in.        50      14       6       80
    Corn Bread         1 piece 2 in. x
                        2 in. x 1 in.      100      10      24       66
    Crackers, Graham         1              50       9      20       71
    Crackers, Soda           1              25      10      20       70
    Croutons (fried)   12 half-in. cubes    80       7      49       44
    Croutons (toasted) 12 half-in. cubes    45      14       4       82
    Griddle Cakes      2 cakes 4-1/2 in.
                          in diameter      200      14      25       61
    Muffins, Corn Meal       1             133      13      25       62
    Muffins, One-egg         1             125      12      24       64
    Popovers                 1             100      18      27       55
    Sandwich (Club)          1             500      15      69       16
  _Cake_
    Apple Sauce Cake     slice 1/2 in.
                        x 1-1/2 in. x
                           3-3/4 in.       128       4      23       73
    Doughnuts                1             200       6      45       49
    Fruit Cake         slice 1/2 in. x
                        2 in. x 4 in.      300       6      26       68
    Hot Water Gingerbread 1 piece 2 in.
                         x 2 in. x 2 in.   200       8      22       70
    Hot Water Sponge   Slice 1-1/2 in. x
                       1-1/2 in. x 2 in.   100       7       7       86
    Macaroon                 1              50       6      33       61
    One-Egg Cake       Slice 1/2 in. x
                        2 in. x 4 in.      225       8      32       60
  _Candy and Sugar_
    Bitter Chocolate        1 oz.          200       8      72       20
    Chocolate Fudge      1 cubic inch       89       2      20       78
    Sweet Milk Chocolate    1 oz.          143       7      58       35
    Molasses             1 tablespoon       66       3       0       97
    Sugar, Granulated    1 tablespoon       55       0       0      100
    Sugar             1 full-sized lump     28       0       0      100
  _Cereals_
    Corn Flakes             1 cup           80       6       4       90
    Corn Meal Mush        1/2 cup           75      10       5       85
    Grape Nuts            1/3 cup          200      12       2       86
    Macaroni (cooked)     3/4 cup           75      15       2       83
    Oatmeal (cooked)      1/2 cup           50      17      16       67
    Rice (steamed)        1/2 cup           64       9       1       90
    Shredded Wheat Biscuit   1             100      13       5       82
    Wheat Meal Mush       1/2 cup           67      12       4       84
  _Cheese Dishes_
    Cheese Fondue         3/4 cup          180      17      70       13
    Welsh Rarebit       1/2 cup and 1
                       thin slice toast    350      22      57       21
  _Dairy Products_
    Butter              1 tablespoon       113       1      99        0
    Buttermilk              1 cup           88      33      13       54
    Cheese, American   1-1/2 cubic inches  100      26      71        3
    Cheese, Cottage      2 cubic inches     50      76       9       15
    Cream, Thin           1/4 cup          100       5      86        9
    Milk, Unskimmed        1 cup           160      20      52       28
    Milk, Skimmed          1 cup            88      37       7       56
  _Desserts_
    Brown Betty           1/2 cup          250       3      35       62
    Chocolate Blancmange  1/2 cup          312       9      48       43
    Cup Custard          1 custard         200      17      39       44
    Lemon Jelly           1/2 cup          100       9       0       91
    Pie, Apple          1 piece[17]        300       3      41       56
    Pie, Custard         1 piece           256       9      32       59
    Pie, Lemon Meringue  1 piece           367       5      27       68
    Pie, Mince           1 piece           450       8      39       53
    Pie, Raisin          1 piece           445       5      36       59
    Pie, Squash          1 piece           360      10      25       65
    Rice Custard         1/2 cup           100      18      32       50
    Indian Tapioca       1/2 cup           400      11      20       69
    Vanilla Ice Cream
       (custard)         1/2 cup           200       6      55       39
  _Eggs_
    Boiled                   1              75      36      64        0
    Scrambled            1/3 cup           133      20      76        4
  _Fats and Salad Dressings_
    Bacon fat          1 tablespoon        132       0     100        0
    Beef Drippings     1 tablespoon        113       0     100        0
    Butter (See Dairy Products)
    Cream (See Dairy Products)
    Crisco             1 tablespoon        134       0     100        0
    Lard               1 tablespoon        132       0     100        0
    Oleomargarine      1 tablespoon        113       1      99        0
    Olive Oil          1 tablespoon        132       0     100        0
    French Dressing    1 tablespoon         88       0     100        0
    Mayonnaise Dressing 1 tablespoon       105       1      97        2
    Cooked Dressing    1 tablespoon         25      10      64       26
  _Fruits_
    Apple, baked
      (with sugar)       1 large           200       1       3       96
    Bananas              1 large           100       5       6       89
    Cantaloupe             1/2              50       6       0       94
    Cranberry Sauce      1/4 cup           100       0       1       99
    Dates                   1               25       2       7       91
    Figs, dried             1               67       5       1       94
    Grape Fruit          1 medium          100       7       4       89
    Olives, Green        2 medium           30       1      83       16
    Orange               1 large           100       6       3       91
    Peach                   1               40       7       2       91
    Prunes, Stewed       1/4 cup           200       2       0       98
    Raisins              1/4 cup           100       3       9       88
  _Meats and Fish (cooked)_
    Bacon             1 thin slice          25      13      87        0
    Dried Beef (creamed) 1/3 cup           100      16      65       19
    Hamburg Steak
      (broiled)       cake 7/8 in.
                    thick 2-1/2 in.
                       diameter            100       55     45        0
    Roast Beef       slice 5 in. x
                  2-1/2 in. x 1/4 in.      100       46     54        0
    Stewed Beef
      with Dumpling      1 cup             290       14     24       62
    Lamb Chops       1 kidney chop         125       24     76        0
    Pork Chops        1 loin chop          200       18     82        0
    Sausage             2 small            100       20     78        2
    Clams (raw)             8               50       56      8       36
    Codfish Balls      1, 2 inches
                       in diameter         100       14     65       21
    Creamed Codfish      1/2 cup           100       32     46       22
    Oysters (raw)           6               50       49     22       29
    Salmon (canned)      1/2 cup           100       45     55        0
  _Sauces_
    Brown Sauce       2 tablespoons         37       14     49       37
    Lemon Sauce       2 tablespoons         70        0     30       70
    Tomato Sauce      2 tablespoons         40        5     70       25
    White Sauce       2 tablespoons         55        8     70       22
  _Soups_
    Bouillon            3/4 cup             19       84      8        8
    Cream of Corn       3/4 cup            150       12     38       50
    Corn Chowder        3/4 cup            185       12     43       45
    Split Pea           3/4 cup            125       26      2       72
    Tomato (canned)     3/4 cup            100       12     12       76
  _Vegetables_
    Asparagus           7 stalks            33       32      8       60
    Beans, Baked        3/4 cup            225       21     18       61
    Beans, Lima (fresh) 1/2 cup            100       23      5       72
    Beans, String       1/2 cup             20       22      7       71
    Beets             1 beet, 2 in.
                        diameter            25       14      2       84
    Corn (canned)       1/2 cup            150       11     11       78
    Peas (canned)       1/2 cup             67       26      3       71
    Potatoes
      Mashed            1/2 cup            110        7     48       45
      Sweet, Baked         1               200        6      5       89
      White, Baked         1               100       11      1       88
    Spinach             1/2 cup             20       12      8       80
    Squash, winter      1/2 cup             55        9      7       84
    Tomatoes (canned)   1/2 cup             30       12      8       71

FOOTNOTES:

[15] This table is based chiefly on food analyses as determined in
Bulletin 28 of the U. S. Experiment Stations (_Chemical Composition of
American Food Materials_); _How to Live_, by Professor Irving Fisher and
Dr. E. L. Fisk; and _Feeding the Family_, by Professor Mary S. Rose.

[16] Made of half milk and half water.

[17] One piece equals one-sixth of a pie 9 inches in diameter.



E.--APPROXIMATE CALORIC VALUE OF RAW FOOD MATERIALS AND THE APPROXIMATE
PERCENTAGE OF PROTEIN, FAT, AND CARBOHYDRATE.

By means of this table the fuel value of nearly all recipes may be
computed.[18]

                                                     Percentage of
                                        Number of
   Material              Quantity        Calories Protein Fat Carbohydrates

  _Cereals_
    Barley, Pearl         1 cup            755      10       3       87
    Bran                  1 cup            218      14       6       80
    Bread Crumbs, dried   1 cup            373      14       4       82
    Bread Crumbs, soft    1 cup            147      14       4       82
    Corn Meal             1 cup            504      10       5       85
    Corn Starch           1 cup            459       0       0      100
    Flour, Graham         1 cup            508      15       6       79
    Flour, White, sifted  1 cup            395      12       4       84
    Macaroni, broken      1 cup            355      15       2       83
    Oatmeal               1 cup            636      17      16       67
    Rolled Oats           1 cup            280      17      16       67
    Rice                  1 cup            867       9       1       90
    Chocolate, bitter    1 square          173       8      72       20
    Cocoa, dry            1 cup            634      17      53       30
    Crackers, Boston     1 pound          1885      13       9       78
  _Dairy Products_
    Butter, See Fats
    Cheese, American
      (fresh)          { 1 cup             498 }    26      71        3
                       { 1 pound          1993 }
    Condensed Milk,
      sweetened          1 cup            1067      11      23       66
    Condensed Milk,
      unsweetened        1 cup             427      23      51       26
    Skimmed Milk[19]
    Whole Milk[19]
    Cream[19]
    Eggs[19]
    Egg, White             1                14      97       3        0
    Egg, Yolk              1                56      20      80        0
  _Fats_
    Butter             { 1 cup            1802 }     1      99        0
                       { 1 pound          3605 }
    Crisco             { 1 cup            2136 }     0     100        0
                       { 1 pound          4273 }
    Lard               { 1 cup            2110 }     0     100        0
                       { 1 pound          4220 }
    Oleomargarine      { 1 cup            1492 }     1      99        0
                       { 1 pound          3410 }
    Olive Oil            1 cup            1600       0     100        0
    Suet               { 1 cup             749 }     3      97        0
                       { 1 pound          3424 }
  _Fruits_
    Apricots, dried      1 pound          1260       7       3       90
    Blackberries         1 cup             200       9      16       75
    Concord Grapes     1 large bunch       100       5      15       80
    Cranberries          1 cup              46       4      11       85
    Currants, dried      1 cup             502       3       5       92
    Dates, dried
      (unstoned)       { 1 cup             508 }     2       7       91
                       { 1 pound          1416 }
    Figs, chopped      { 1 cup             507 }     5       1       94
                       { 1 pound          1437 }
    Lemon Juice         1/2 cup             44       0       0      100
    Pineapple (canned,
      grated)           1 cup              369       1       4       95
    Other fruits[19]
    Gelatine            1 ounce            106     100       0        0
    Maple Sirup         1 cup              976       0       0      100
  _Meats and Fish_ (Edible portion)
    Beef, Sirloin Steak 1 pound           1143      31      69        0
    Beef, Round         1 pound            950      54      46        0
    Beef, Tongue        1 pound            727      47      53        0
    Chicken, young      1 pound            500      79      21        0
    Clams, long         1 pint             240      56       8       36
    Cod                 1 pound            326      95       5        0
    Fowl                1 pound           1050      35      65        0
    Goose               1 pound           1818      16      84        0
    Halibut             1 pound            571      61      39        0
    Ham                 1 pound           1940      29      71        0
    Lamb, forequarter   1 pound           1430      25      75        0
    Liver               1 pound            605      61      39        0
    Lobster             1 pound            390      78      20        2
    Mackerel            1 pound            645      50      50        0
    Mutton, Leg         1 pound           1105      41      59        0
    Oysters             1 pint             230      49      22       29
    Salt Pork, fat      1 pound           3670       2      98        0
    Shad                1 pound            762      46      54        0
    Turkey Veal, Breast 1 pound           1333      29      71        0
    Other Meats
      and Fish[19]      1 pound            840      47      53        0
  Molasses              1 cup              976       3       0       97
  _Nuts_ (shelled)
    Almonds             1 cup              734      13      76       11
    Peanuts             1 cup              663      19      63       18
    Peanut Butter      1/3 cup             640      19      69       12
    Pecans              1 cup             1145       5      87        8
    Walnuts, English    1 cup              600      11      82        7
  _Sugar_
    Brown               1 cup              625       0       0       100
    Granulated          1 cup              840       0       0       100
    Powdered            1 cup              672       0       0       100
  _Vegetables_
    Beans, dried        1 cup              684      26       5        69
    Beans, Lima, dried  1 cup              541      21       4        75
    Cabbage             1 pound            145      20       9        71
    Carrots             1 pound            210      10       5        85
    Celery (cut in
      1/4-inch pieces)  1 cup               24      24       5        71
    Corn, canned        1 cup              255      11      11        78
    Lentils (dried)     1 cup              640      29       3        68
    Lettuce         1 large head            50      25      14        61
    Mushrooms           1 pound            211      31       8        61
    Onions             { 1 onion            25 }    13       6        81
                       { 1 pound           225 }
    Parsnips             1 pound           291      10       7        83
    Peas, canned
      (drained)          1 cup             134      26       3        71
    Peas, dried          1 cup             675      28       3        69
    Tapioca              1 cup             640       0       0       100
    Tomatoes, fresh      1 pound           100      21       8        71
    Tomatoes, canned     1 cup              60      21       8        71
    Turnip       1 cup 1/2-inch cubes       50      13       5        82
    Other Vegetables[19]

FOOTNOTES:

[18] See Note 1 on page 245.

[19] See Table D on page 245.



F.--NORMAL WEIGHTS FOR MEN AND WOMEN[20]


WHAT MEN SHOULD WEIGH

      Ages:    15-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64

  5 ft.  0 in.  120   125   128   131   133   134   134   134   131
  5 ft.  1 in.  122   126   129   131   134   136   136   136   134
  5 ft.  2 in.  124   128   131   133   136   138   138   138   137
  5 ft.  3 in.  127   131   134   136   139   141   141   141   140
  5 ft.  4 in.  131   135   138   140   143   144   145   145   144
  5 ft.  5 in.  134   138   141   143   146   147   149   149   148
  5 ft.  6 in.  138   142   145   147   150   151   153   153   153
  5 ft.  7 in.  142   147   150   152   155   156   158   158   158
  5 ft.  8 in.  146   151   154   157   160   161   163   163   163
  5 ft.  9 in.  150   155   159   162   165   166   167   168   168
  5 ft. 10 in.  154   159   164   167   170   171   172   173   174
  5 ft. 11 in.  159   164   169   173   175   177   177   178   180
  6 ft.  0 in.  165   170   175   179   180   183   182   183   185
  6 ft.  1 in.  170   177   181   185   186   189   188   189   189
  6 ft.  2 in.  176   184   188   192   194   196   194   194   192


WHAT WOMEN SHOULD WEIGH

      Ages:    15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64

  4 ft. 11 in.  111   113   115   117   119   122   125   128   128   126
  5 ft.  0 in.  113   114   117   119   122   125   128   130   131   129
  5 ft.  1 in.  115   116   118   121   124   128   131   133   134   132
  5 ft.  2 in.  117   118   120   123   127   132   134   137   137   136
  5 ft.  3 in.  120   122   124   127   131   135   138   141   141   140
  5 ft.  4 in.  123   125   127   130   134   138   142   145   145   144
  5 ft.  5 in.  125   128   131   135   139   143   147   149   149   148
  5 ft.  6 in.  128   132   135   139   143   146   151   153   153   152
  5 ft.  7 in.  132   135   139   143   147   150   154   157   157   155
  5 ft.  8 in.  136   140   143   147   151   155   158   161   161   160
  5 ft.  9 in.  140   144   147   151   155   159   163   166   166   165
  5 ft. 10 in.  144   147   151   155   159   163   167   170   170   169
  5 ft. 11 in.  149   153   155   158   162   166   170   174   174   172
  6 ft.  0 in.  154   157   159   162   165   169   173   177   177   175

FOOTNOTES:

[20] Based upon statistics furnished by the Mutual Benefit Life
Insurance Company of Newark, New Jersey.



G.--LIST OF GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ON FOODS AND COOKING[21]


  Beans, Peas, and other Legumes as Food          Farmers' Bulletin, 121
  Bread and Bread Making                          Farmers' Bulletin, 389
  Canned Fruit, Preserves, and Jellies            Farmers' Bulletin, 203
  Canning Tomatoes; Home and Club Work            Farmers' Bulletin, 521
  Canning Vegetables in the Home                  Farmers' Bulletin, 359
  Care of Food in the Home                        Farmers' Bulletin, 375
  Cereal Breakfast Foods                          Farmers' Bulletin, 249
  Cheese; Economical Uses in the Home             Farmers' Bulletin, 487
  Chemical Composition of American
    Food Materials                      Experiment Stations Bulletin, 28
  Corn Meal as a Food and Ways of Using It        Farmers' Bulletin, 565
  Eggs and Their Uses as Food                     Farmers' Bulletin, 128
  Fireless Cooker, Hay Box, or                    Farmers' Bulletin, 296
  Fish as Food                                     Farmers' Bulletin, 85
  Food for Young Children                         Farmers' Bulletin, 717
  Food Customs and Diet in
    American Homes                     Experiment Stations Circular, 110
  Fruit, Use of, as Food                          Farmers' Bulletin, 293
  Functions and Uses of Food            Experiment Stations Circular, 46
  Grape Juice, Unfermented,
    Manufacture and Use of                        Farmers' Bulletin, 644
  Honey and Its Uses in the Home                  Farmers' Bulletin, 653
  Household Equipment,
    Selection of               Department of Agriculture Year Book, 1914
  Measurements for the Household                  Standards Circular, 55
  Meat: Economical Use of in the Home             Farmers' Bulletin, 391
  Meats: Composition and Cooking                   Farmers' Bulletin, 34
  Milk, The Care of and Its Use in the Home       Farmers' Bulletin, 413
  Milk, The Uses of as Food                       Farmers' Bulletin, 363
  Mushrooms and Other Common Fungi             Agriculture Bulletin, 175
  Mushrooms, Preserving Wild                      Farmers' Bulletin, 342
  Nutrition of Man in U. S.,
    Investigation on                          Experiment Stations Office
  Nutrition, Principles of, and
    Nutritive Value of Food                       Farmers' Bulletin, 142
  Nuts and Their Use as Food                      Farmers' Bulletin, 332
  Olive Oil and Its Substitution                  Chemistry Bulletin, 77
  Oysters: The Food that has not "Gone Up"       Department of Commerce,
                                                    Bureau of Fisheries,
                                                Economic Circular No. 18
  Peanut Oil                                      Farmers' Bulletin, 751
  Popcorn for Home Use                            Farmers' Bulletin, 553
  Raisins, Figs, and Other Dried Fruits,
    and Their Use                           Agriculture Year Book, 1912;
                                                           Separate, 610
  Sugar as Food                                    Farmers' Bulletin, 93
  Vegetables, Preparation of, for the Table       Farmers' Bulletin, 256

FOOTNOTES:

[21] Many of these bulletins are furnished free upon application to
one's Congressman. A list of Farmers' Bulletins, and a price list of
other government publications on foods and cooking, will be sent on
application to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.



INDEX



INDEX

  NO.                                                               PAGE
   30    After-dinner Coffee                                          25
  241    Almonds, Salted                                              97
  180    Anchovy Sauce                                                80
         Appetizers and Relishes
    2       Asheville Canapés                                         17
   11       Cantaloupe Cocktail                                       19
    8       Celery Relish                                             19
    9       Cheese and Apple Rings                                    19
    3       Club Canapés                                              17
    1       Cocktail Sauce                                            17
    3       Crab Meat Canapés                                         18
   17       Cucumber Pickles                                          21
   12       Fruit Cocktail                                            19
    6       Gloucester Canapés                                        18
    5       Mock Crab Canapés                                         18
   18       Pepper Hash                                               22
   14       Piccalilli                                                20
   19       Pickled Nasturtium Seeds                                  22
   10       Spanish Cheese                                            19
   15       Table Sauce                                               20
   16       Tomato Ketchup                                            21
    7       Tuna Canapés                                              18
   13       Winter Chili Sauce                                        20
  442    Apple and Cranberry Shortcake                               160
  366    Apple and Mint Salad                                        135
  539    Apple Cake, Dutch                                           189
  508    Apple Cake, Ginger                                          180
    9    Apple, Cheese and, Rings                                     19
  529    Apple Filling                                               186
  325    Apple Fritters                                              123
  540    Apple Pudding, Steamed                                      190
  538    Apple Roulettes                                             189
  490    Apple Sauce Cake                                            174
  659    Apples, Baked with Dates                                    224
  693    Apricot Paste                                               234
    2    Asheville Canapés                                            17
   34    Asparagus Soup                                               27

  162    Bacon and Chicken Livers                                     72
  163    Bacon and Lamb's Liver, Fried                                73
  151    Bacon, Breakfast                                             69
  426    Bacon Sandwich Rolls                                        154
   36    Baked Bean Soup                                              28
  448    Baked Bean and Lettuce Sandwiches                           163
  351    Baked Bean Salad                                            130
  247    Baked Beans                                                 100
  546    Baked Indian Pudding                                        191
  674    Baked Pears                                                 228
  678    Baked Rhubarb and Bananas                                   229
  555    Baked Rice Custard                                          194
  556    Baked Rice Pudding                                          194
         Baking defined                                               15
         Baking Powder                                                10
  397    Baking Powder                                               146
  424    Baking Powder Biscuit                                       154
  367    Banana and Apple Salad                                      135
  560    Banana and Grape Juice Jelly                                196
  368    Banana and Peanut Salad                                     135
  326    Banana Fritters                                             123
  558    Banana Royal                                                196
  181    Banana Sauce                                                 80
  443    Banana Shortcake                                            161
  541    Banana Toast                                                190
  559    Banana Whip                                                 196
  664    Bananas, Baked                                              225
  665    Bananas with Figs and Nuts                                  226
  666    Bar-le-Duc Currants, Mock                                   226
  398    Barley Bread                                                146
  248    Beans, Black, Thick Purée of                                100
   35    Beans, Black, Purée of                                       27
   37    Beans, Red Kidney, Purée of                                  28
  440    Beaten Biscuit, Maryland                                    158
  182    Bechamel Sauce                                               80
  134    Beef, American Chop Suey                                     62
  130    Beef and Bacon Cakes                                         61
  128    Beef, Broiled Chopped                                        60
  126    Beef, Broiled Flank Steak                                    60
  132    Beef, Casserole of                                           62
  120    Beef, Corned                                                 57
  173    Beef, Corned, Hash                                           76
  170    Beef, Corned, Scalloped                                      75
  133    Beef, Creamed Dried, with Cheese                             62
  129    Beef, Hamburg Meat Cakes                                     61
  131    Beef, Loaf                                                   61
  122    Beef, Pot Roast                                              58
  119    Beef, Pressed                                                57
  121    Beef, Roast                                                  58
  169    Beef, Savory                                                 75
  123    Beef, Shin of, with Creole Sauce                             59
  127    Beef Steak, Country Style                                    60
   70    Beef Stew                                                    40
  124    Beef, Stuffed Shin                                           59
  369    Bellevue Salad                                              135
         Beverages
   31       Café au Lait                                              26
   33       Chocolate                                                 26
   32       Cocoa                                                     26
   30       Coffee, After-dinner                                      25
   20       Coffee, Egg, and Milk                                     23
   29       Coffee, Filtered                                          25
   24       Ginger Ale Punch                                          24
   23       Ginger Punch                                              24
   22       Grape Eggnog                                              23
   21       Grape Juice                                               23
   25       Mint Julep (Ginger Ale)                                   24
   26       Mint Lemonade                                             24
   27       Tea                                                       25
   28       Tea, Iced                                                 25
  424    Biscuit, Baking Powder                                      154
  440    Biscuit, Beaten, Maryland                                   158
  430    Biscuit, Entire Wheat                                       155
  431    Biscuit, Fruit Tea                                          156
  432    Biscuit, Graham                                             156
  429    Biscuit, Quick Drop                                         155
  183    Black Butter                                                 81
   56    Blackberry Mold                                             197
  542    Blackberry Pudding                                          190
  563    Blancmange, Chocolate                                       197
  578    Blancmange, Sea Moss                                        202
  412    Blueberry Muffins                                           151
  630    Blueberry Pie                                               216
  543    Blueberry Pudding                                           190
  212    Boiled Eggs                                                  88
  521    Boiled Icing                                                184
         Boiling defined                                              15
  686    Bonbon Centers                                              233
   50    Bouillon, Tomato                                             32
         Braising defined                                             15
  399    Bran Bread (Baking Powder)                                  146
  378    Bran Bread (Yeast)                                          138
  510    Bran Drop Cookies                                           180
  413    Bran Muffins                                                151
         Bread                                                         9
         Bread, Baking Powder
  398       Barley                                                   146
  399       Bran                                                     146
  403       Brown, Bread Crumb                                       148
  428       Coffee Cake, Quick                                       155
  405       Corn                                                     148
  409       Corn Cake, Custard                                       150
  411       Corn Cake, Rhode Island                                  150
  406       Corn, Country                                            149
  401       Dark Nut                                                 147
  400       Date                                                     147
  404       Indian Date, Steamed                                     148
  410       Molasses Corn                                            150
  402       Quick Raisin                                             147
         Bread, Yeast
  378       Bran                                                     138
  387       Buns                                                      14
  388       Crescents                                                142
  380       Date                                                     139
  379       Entire Wheat                                             139
  381       Fried                                                    139
  382       Graham and Corn                                          140
  383       Irish                                                    140
  384       Oatmeal                                                  140
  396       Roulettes                                                145
  385       Rye                                                      141
  386       Shredded Wheat                                           141
  377       White                                                    138
  403    Bread Crumb Brown Bread                                     148
  217    Bread Omelet                                                 90
  184    Bread Sauce                                                  81
  471    Bread, Stale to freshen                                     168
  208    Bread Stuffing                                               86
  439    Breakfast Puffs                                             158
  460    Brews                                                       165
         Broiling defined                                             15
  544    Brown Betty                                                 190
  403    Brown Bread, Bread Crumb                                    148
  461    Brown Bread Toast                                           165
  185    Brown Sauce                                                  81
  486    Brown Sugar Sirup                                           172
  387    Buns                                                        141
         Butter                                                        5
  472    Buttered Crumbs                                             168
  422    Buttermilk Muffins                                          153

  353    Cabbage and Beet Salad                                      131
  354    Cabbage and Cranberry                                       131
  250    Cabbage Baked                                               101
  251    Cabbage Cooked in Milk                                      101
   31    Café au Lait                                                 26
         Cake                                                         10
         Cake
  490       Apple Sauce                                              174
  491       Canada War                                               174
  503       Charlotte Russe                                          178
  504       Chocolate Marshmallow Roll                               179
  502       Cream Pie                                                178
  492       Date                                                     175
  493       Fudge                                                    175
  508       Ginger Apple                                             180
  506       Gingerbread, with Egg                                    179
  505       Gingerbread, without Egg                                 179
  507       Gingerbread, Sour Milk                                   180
  509       Ginger Gems                                              180
  503       Jelly Roll                                               178
  494       Old-Fashioned Pork                                       175
  495       One-Egg                                                  176
  496       Orange                                                   176
  497       Plain                                                    176
  498       Spice                                                    177
  500       Sponge                                                   177
  501       Velvet Sponge                                            178
  499       White                                                    177
         Caloric Value, Tables of                               245, 250
         Calorie defined                                               2
         Calories, Daily Requirement                                   2
  414    Cambridge Muffins                                           151
  491    Canada War Cake                                             174
    2    Canapés, Asheville                                           17
    3    Canapés, Club                                                17
    4    Canapés, Crab Meat                                           18
    6    Canapés, Gloucester                                          18
    5    Canapés, Mock Crab                                           18
    7    Canapés, Tuna                                                18
  673    Candied Grape Fruit Peel                                    228
         Candies                                                      11
         Candies
  693       Apricot Paste                                            234
  686       Bonbon Centers                                           233
  688       Chocolate Bonbons                                        233
  687       Fondant Bonbons                                          233
  685       Fondant, Coffee                                          232
  689       Fondant, Mint                                            233
  684       Fondant, Plain                                           232
  690       Fondant, Quick                                           233
  696       Fruit Wafers                                             236
  700       Marrons Glacés                                           237
  694       Mint Paste                                               235
  692       Mints, After-dinner                                      234
  691       Mints, Quick                                             234
  701       Nuts and Fruits Glacé                                    237
  697       Spiced Raisins                                           236
  698       Stuffed Dates                                            236
  699       Stuffed Prunes                                           236
  695       Turkish Delight                                          235
         Candle Stubs                                                 12
         Canned Vegetables                                             8
   11    Cantaloupe Cocktail                                          19
  590    Canton Ginger Sherbet                                       206
  186    Caper Sauce                                                  81
  522    Caramel Icing                                               184
  601    Caramel Sauce                                               209
  547    Caramel Toast Pudding                                       191
         Carbohydrates                                                 1
         Carbohydrates, Uses                                           1
         Carbohydrates, Sources                                        1
         Carbohydrates, Daily Requirement                              1
  256    Carrots Sautéed                                             103
  257    Carrots Vinaigrette                                         103
   39    Cauliflower                                                  28
  449    Celery and Egg Sandwiches                                   163
  252    Celery, Braised                                             102
   40    Celery, Cream of                                             29
  245    Celery, Nut, and Potato Loaf                                 98
    8    Celery Relish                                                19
  253    Celery Root, Creamed                                        102
  355    Celery Root Salad                                           131
  187    Celery Sauce                                                 82
  462    Celery Toast                                                166
         Cereals                                                       8
  308       Corn Meal and Beef Scrapple                              117
  293       Corn Meal Mush                                           113
  294       Hominy, Steamed                                          113
  295       Macaroni and Cheese, Scalloped                           113
  297       Noodle Balls (for Soup)                                  114
  296       Noodle Paste                                             114
  298       Oatmeal, Scotch                                          114
  301       Polenta, French Fried                                    115
  302       Polenta, Spanish                                         116
  299       Polenta with Cheese                                      115
  300       Polenta with Dates                                       115
  305       Rice and Cocoanut Loaf                                   117
  303       Rice and Ham, Baked                                      116
  304       Rice, Boiled                                             116
  306       Risotto                                                  117
  307       Samp, Steamed                                            117
  310       Spaghetti and Ham, Baked                                 118
  311       Spaghetti, Creole                                        118
  312       Spaghetti, Italian                                       119
  309       Wheat and Sausage Scrapple                               118
  503    Charlotte Russe, Cake for                                   178
  562    Charlotte Russe Filling                                     197
         Cheese                                                        7
    9    Cheese and Apple Rings                                       19
  450    Cheese and Nut Sandwiches                                   163
  237    Cheese, Baked Rice with                                      96
  317    Cheese Balls                                                120
  451    Cheese Club Sandwiches                                      163
  234    Cheese, Cottage                                              96
  235    Cheese, Crackers and, Baked                                  96
  318    Cheese Croquettes                                           121
  231    Cheese Croustades                                            95
  232    Cheese Custard                                               95
  511    Cheese Drops                                                181
  233    Cheese Fondue                                                95
  415    Cheese Muffins                                              151
  236    Cheese Paste                                                 96
  188    Cheese Sauce                                                 82
  189    Cheese Sauce with Chives                                     82
  238    Cheese, Scalloped, Toast and                                 97
   42    Cheese Soup                                                  29
   10    Cheese, Spanish                                              19
  654    Cheese Straws                                               223
  655    Cheese Straws (Left-over Paste)                             223
  465    Cheese Toast                                                167
  239    Cheese Tomato Rarebit                                        97
  656    Cheese Wafers                                               223
  512    Cheese Wafers                                               181
  240    Cheese Welsh Rarebit                                         97
  631    Cherry Pie                                                  217
  632    Cherry Pie, Mock                                            217
  244    Chestnuts, Baked                                             98
  243    Chestnuts, to Shell                                          98
   56    Chicken and Okra Soup                                        35
   55    Chicken, Cream of                                            35
  162    Chicken Livers and Bacon                                     72
  345    Chicken Salad                                               129
  452    Chicken Sandwiches                                          164
   13    Chili Sauce, Winter                                          20
   33    Chocolate                                                    26
  563    Chocolate Blancmange                                        197
  688    Chocolate Bonbons                                           233
  513    Chocolate Cookies                                           181
  581    Chocolate Ice Cream                                         203
  523    Chocolate Icing                                             184
  504    Chocolate Marshmallow Roll                                  179
  603    Chocolate Marshmallow, Sauce                                209
  602    Chocolate Sauce                                             209
         Chowders
   75       Clam                                                      43
   76       Corn                                                      43
   77       Corn and Tomato                                           44
   78       Fish                                                      44
   79       Oyster                                                    45
   80       Potato                                                    45
   81       Salmon                                                    45
   82       Salt Fish                                                 46
   83       Vegetable                                                 46
  591    Cider Frappé                                                206
  190    Cider Sauce                                                  82
  487    Cider Sirup                                                 173
         Cinders                                                      13
  657    Cinnamon Hearts                                             223
  604    Cinnamon Sauce                                              210
  466    Cinnamon Toast                                              167
   57    Clam Bisque                                                  36
   58    Clam Bouillon                                                36
   75    Clam Chowder                                                 43
   59    Clear Soup                                                   36
    3    Club Canapés                                                 17
   12    Cocktail, Fruit                                              19
   11    Cocktail, Cantaloupe                                         19
    1    Cocktail Sauce                                               17
   32    Cocoa                                                        26
  582    Cocoa Ice Cream                                             204
  524    Cocoa Icing                                                 185
  564    Coconut and Orange Jelly                                    198
  113    Codfish, Creamed                                             55
  118    Codfish, Spanish                                             56
   84    Cod Steaks, Baked                                            47
   30    Coffee, After-dinner                                         25
  569    Coffee and Rice Jelly                                       199
  428    Coffee Cake, Quick                                          155
  565    Coffee Caramel Custards                                     198
  530    Coffee Cream Filling                                        186
   20    Coffee, Egg, and Milk                                        23
   29    Coffee, Filtered                                             25
  583    Coffee Ice Cream                                            204
  525    Coffee Icing                                                185
  566    Coffee Junket                                               198
  605    Coffee Sauce                                                210
         Coloring                                                     10
         Condiments                                                   12
         Cookies
  510       Bran Drop                                                180
  511       Cheese Drops                                             181
  512       Cheese Wafers                                            181
  513       Chocolate                                                181
  514       Ginger Wafers                                            182
  517       Macaroons, Oatmeal                                       182
  518       Macaroons, Peanut                                        183
  515       Marshmallow Wafers                                       182
  516       Molasses Brownies                                        182
  519       Raisin Drop                                              183
  520       Walnut Wafers                                            183
         Cooking, Kinds of, defined                                   15
         Cooking Fats                                                  6
         Cooking, Time Tables for                                    240
   77    Corn and Tomato Chowder                                      44
  406    Corn Bread, Country                                         149
  410    Corn Bread, Molasses                                        150
  405    Corn Bread, without Eggs                                    148
  409    Corn Cake, Custard                                          150
  411    Corn Cake, Rhode Island                                     150
   76    Corn Chowder                                                 43
   41    Corn, Cream of                                               29
  327    Corn Fritters                                               123
  308    Corn Meal and Beef Scrapple                                 117
  478    Corn Meal Griddle Cakes                                     170
  293    Corn Meal Mush                                              113
  425    Corn Meal Rolls                                             154
  483    Corn Meal Waffles                                           172
  407    Corn Muffins                                                149
  393    Corn Muffins, Raised                                        144
  254    Corn Pudding                                                102
  408    Corn and Rice Muffins                                       149
  346    Coronado Salad                                              129
  234    Cottage Cheese                                               96
  549    Cottage Pudding                                             192
    5    Crab Canapés, Mock                                           18
    4    Crab Meat Canapés                                            18
  235    Crackers and Cheese, Baked                                   96
  668    Cranberry Conserve                                          226
  328    Cranberry Fritters                                          124
  416    Cranberry Muffins                                           152
  633    Cranberry Pie                                               217
  634    Cranberry Pie (Open)                                        217
  545    Cranberry Pudding, Baked                                    191
  671    Cranberry Sauce                                             227
  606    Cranberry Sauce (Pudding)                                   210
  592    Cranberry Sherbet                                           206
  567    Cranberry Whip                                              199
         Cream                                                         6
  370    Cream Cheese Salad                                          136
  371    Cream Cheese Salad, Frozen                                  136
   40    Cream of Celery Soup                                         29
   55    Cream of Chicken Soup                                        35
   41    Cream of Corn Soup                                           29
   46    Cream of Pea Soup                                            31
  531    Cream Filling                                               186
  526    Cream Icing                                                 185
  502    Cream Pie                                                   178
  463    Cream Toast                                                 166
  464    Cream Toast, Sauce for                                      166
   96    Creamed Fish                                                 50
  213    Creamy Eggs on Toast                                         88
  218    Creamy Omelet                                                90
  214    Creole Eggs                                                  89
  191    Creole Sauce                                                 83
  388    Crescents                                                   142
  475    Crisp Sticks                                                169
         Croquettes
  192    Croquette Sauce                                              83
  318       Cheese                                                   121
  317       Cheese Balls                                             120
  319       Fish                                                     121
  320       Meat                                                     121
  321       Potato and Bean                                          122
  322       Rice                                                     122
  323       Rice and Raisin                                          122
  324       Salmon and Potato                                        122
  473    Croustades                                                  168
  231    Croustades, Cheese                                           95
  474    Croutons                                                    169
  417    Crumb Muffins                                               152
  472    Crumbs, Buttered                                            168
  315    Crumbs for Fried Food                                       120
  209    Crust Stuffing                                               87
   17    Cucumber Pickles                                             21
  193    Cucumber Sauce                                               83
  255    Cucumbers Sautéed                                           103
  608    Currant Jelly Sauce                                         210
  555    Custard, Baked Rice                                         194
  232    Custard, Cheese                                              95
  565    Custard, Coffee Caramel                                     198
  635    Custard Pie                                                 218
  607    Custard Sauce                                               210

  663    Dark Red Apple Sauce                                        225
  444    Date and Apple Shortcake                                    161
  532    Date and Fig Filling                                        186
  380    Date Bread                                                  139
  400    Date Bread                                                  147
  404    Date Bread, Steamed                                         148
  492    Date Cake                                                   175
  394    Date Muffins, Raised                                        144
  418    Date Muffins                                                152
  427    Date Rolls                                                  154
  609    Date Sauce                                                  211
         Desserts, Cold
  558       Banana Royal                                             196
  559       Banana Whip                                              196
  560       Banana and Grape Juice Jelly                             196
  561       Blackberry Mold                                          197
  562       Charlotte Russe Filling                                  197
  563       Chocolate Blancmange                                     197
  564       Coconut and Orange Jelly                                 198
  569       Coffee and Rice Jelly                                    199
  565       Coffee Caramel Custards                                  198
  566       Coffee Junket                                            198
  567       Cranberry Whip                                           199
  568       Custard, Soft                                            199
  570       Fruit Cream                                              199
  571       Fruit Jelly, Spiced                                      200
  572       Fruit Whip                                               200
  573       Pineapple Pudding                                        200
  575       Prune and Wheat Mold                                     201
  574       Prune Whip                                               200
  576       Prunes and Cranberries, Jellied                          201
  577       Rice Mold                                                202
  578       Sea Moss Blancmange                                      202
         Desserts, Frozen
  579       Ices, to Freeze                                          203
  590       Canton Ginger Sherbet                                    206
  581       Chocolate Ice Cream                                      203
  591       Cider Frappé                                             206
  582       Cocoa Ice Cream                                          204
  583       Coffee Ice Cream                                         204
  592       Cranberry and Raisin Sherbet                             206
  580       Frozen Custard                                           203
  600       Frozen Watermelon                                        208
  593       Fruit Sherbet                                            206
  594       Grape Bombe                                              207
  595       Grape Sherbet                                            207
  596       Jelly Sherbet                                            207
  584       Mint Ice Cream                                           204
  585       Orange Velvet Cream                                      204
  586       Philadelphia Ice Cream                                   205
  597       Pineapple Sherbet                                        207
  587       Prune Ice Cream                                          205
  598       Somerset Sherbet                                         208
  588       Strawberry Ice Cream                                     205
  599       Strawberry Sherbet                                       208
  589       Vanilla Ice Cream                                        205
         Desserts, Hot
  539       Apple Cake, Dutch                                        189
  508       Apple Cake, Ginger                                       180
  540       Apple Pudding, Steamed                                   190
  538       Apple Roulettes                                          189
  541       Banana Toast                                             190
  542       Blackberry Pudding                                       190
  543       Blueberry Pudding                                        190
  544       Brown Betty                                              190
  547       Caramel Toast Pudding                                    191
  548       Chocolate Pudding, Steamed                               192
  549       Cottage Pudding                                          192
  545       Cranberry Pudding, Baked                                 191
  550       Fig Pudding, Steamed                                     192
  551       Fruit Pudding, Steamed                                   193
  546       Indian Pudding, Baked                                    191
  553       Indian Tapioca Pudding                                   194
  552       Mock Indian Pudding                                      193
  557       Mulled Rice                                              195
  554       Peach Dumplings                                          194
  555       Rice Custard, Baked                                      194
  556       Rice Pudding, Baked                                      194
  331    Doughnuts                                                   125
  332    Doughnuts, Small Tea                                        125
  471    Doughnuts, Stale, to Freshen                                168
  194    Drawn Butter                                                 83
  479    Dried Crumb Griddle Cakes                                   171
  658    Dried Fruit to cook                                         224
   38    Dried Lima Bean Soup                                         28
  429    Drop Biscuit, Quick                                         155
         Dry Steaming defined                                         16
   72    Dumplings                                                    41
  554    Dumplings, Peach                                            194
  356    Dutch Potato Salad                                          132

         Economy, General Suggestions for. See Chapter I               1
   22    Eggnog                                                       23
         Eggs                                                          6
         Eggs, see also Omelets                                       90
  212       Boiled                                                    88
  213       Creamy, on Toast                                          88
  214       Creole                                                    89
  316       Egg for Dipping Fried Food                               120
  224       Scalloped, with Cheese                                    92
  225       Scrambled, with Sausages                                  93
  226       Scrambled, with Tomatoes                                  93
  227       Shirred                                                   93
  228       Shirred, with Ham                                         93
  230       Shirred, with Potato and Ham                              94
  229       Souffléed, with Ham Toast                                 94
  215       with Cheese and Spaghetti                                 89
  216       with Ham and Tomatoes                                     89
  258    Egg Plant, Baked                                            103
  259    Egg Plant, Fried                                            103
  260    Egg Plant, Julienne                                         104
  195    Egg Sauce                                                    84
  430    Entire Wheat Biscuit                                        155
  379    Entire Wheat Bread                                          139
  437    Entire Wheat Popovers                                       158
         Extracts, flavoring                                          10

         Fat                                                           5
         Fat, Temperatures for Frying                                244
  313    Fat, To Clarify                                             120
  314    Fat, To Try Out                                             120
         Fats as Food, Chief Uses                                      1
         Fats as Food, Chief Sources                                   1
         Fats as Food, Daily Requirement                               1
         Fats as Food, Cooking                                         6
  672    Fig Paste                                                   227
         Fillings
  529       Apple                                                    186
  530       Coffee Cream                                             186
  531       Cream                                                    186
  532       Date and Fig                                             186
  533       Fudge                                                    187
  534       Marshmallow                                              187
  535       Mocha                                                    187
  536       Orange                                                   187
  537       Prune                                                    188
   29    Filtered Coffee                                              25
  105    Finnan Haddie, Baked in Milk                                 53
  109    Finnan Haddie, Broiled                                       54
         Fireless Cooker                                              13
         Fish                                                          5
         Fish,
   84       Cod Steaks, Baked                                         47
  113       Creamed Codfish                                           55
   96       Creamed                                                   50
  105       Finnan Haddie, Baked                                      53
  109       Finnan Haddie, Broiled                                    54
   87       Flounder, Fried Fillet                                    48
  103       Fried Scallops                                            52
   85       Haddock, Baked Stuffed                                    47
   86       Halibut, Boiled                                           47
  106       Herring, Baked                                            53
  111       Herring, Broiled                                          54
  107       Mackerel, Baked Salt, Spiced                              53
   92       Oyster Pie, Creamed                                       49
   94       Oyster Pie Shortcake                                      50
   93       Oysters and Macaroni                                      49
   89       Oysters, Broiled                                          48
   91       Oysters, Creamed                                          49
   95       Oysters, Panned                                           50
   90       Oysters, with Brown Sauce                                 48
  102       Salmon and Peas, Soufflé                                  52
  112       Salmon, Broiled Smoked                                    54
   99       Salmon, Creole                                            51
  100       Salmon, Dutch                                             51
  101       Salmon Loaf                                               52
  108       Salt Codfish Baked with Crackers                          54
  110       Salt Codfish, Broiled                                     54
  117       Salt Codfish, Soufflé                                     56
   88       Sautéed with Salt Pork                                    48
  104       Shrimps and Rice, Louisiana                               53
  118       Spanish Codfish                                           56
   98       Timbales                                                  51
            Warmed over                                               50
   97    Fish and Potato Pie                                          50
  115    Fish Balls                                                   55
  114    Fish Cakes with Pork Scraps                                  55
   78    Fish Chowder                                                 44
  319    Fish Croquettes                                             121
  116    Fish Hash                                                    56
  210    Fish Stuffing                                                87
         Flavoring Extracts                                           10
   87    Flounder, Fried Fillet of                                    48
  687    Fondant Bonbons                                             233
  685    Fondant, Coffee                                             224
  689    Fondant Mints                                               233
  684    Fondant, Plain                                              232
  690    Fondant, Quick                                              233
  233    Fondue, Cheese                                               95
         Food Classified                                               1
         Food Daily Requirement                                        2
         Food Government Publications                                254
  140    Fowl, Brown Fricassee                                        64
  220    French Cheese Omelet                                         91
  338    French Dressing                                             127
  301    French Fried Potatoes                                       115
  219    French Omelet                                                90
  467    French Toast                                                167
         Fricasseeing defined                                         15
  381    Fried Bread                                                 139
         Fritters
  325       Apple, Sliced                                            123
  326       Banana                                                   123
  327       Corn                                                     123
  328       Cranberry                                                124
  329       Rice and Currant                                         124
  330       Salmon                                                   124
  580    Frozen Custard                                              203
         Fruit
  663       Apple Sauce, Dark Red                                    225
  659       Baked Apples, with Dates                                 224
  664       Baked Bananas                                            225
  674       Baked Pears                                              228
  678       Baked Rhubarb and Bananas                                229
  665       Bananas, with Figs and Nuts                              226
  666       Bar-le-Duc Currants, Mock                                226
  673       Candied Grape Fruit Peel                                 228
  668       Cranberry Conserve                                       226
  671       Cranberry Sauce                                          227
  658       Dried, to Cook                                           224
  672       Fig Paste, Laxative                                      227
  660       Grape and Apple Jelly                                    224
  662       Grape and Apple Sauce                                    225
  682       Jam, Red Tomato                                          230
  675       Marmalade, Pear and Ginger                               228
  680       Marmalade, Rhubarb and Fig                               230
  679       Marmalade, Rhubarb and Orange                            229
  681       Marmalade, Three in One                                  230
  670       Preserved Cranberries                                    227
  677       Quince Honey                                             229
  667       Red Currant Conserve                                     226
  661       Spiced Apple Jelly                                       225
  669       Spiced Cranberries                                       227
  676       Spiced Prunes                                            229
  683       Watermelon Rind, Sweet Pickled                           231
   12    Fruit Cocktail                                               19
  570    Fruit Cream                                                 199
  610    Fruit Sauce                                                 211
  593    Fruit Sherbet                                               206
   43    Fruit Soup                                                   30
  431    Fruit Tea Biscuit                                           156
  696    Fruit Wafers                                                236
  572    Fruit Whip                                                  200
         Fruits                                                       10
         Frying defined                                               15
  493    Fudge Cake                                                  175
  533    Fudge Filling                                               187
         Fuel                                                         13

         Garnishings                                                  12
         Gas                                                          13
   17    Gherkins                                                     21
  453    Giblet Sandwiches                                           164
   24    Ginger Ale Punch                                             24
  508    Ginger Apple Cake                                           180
  509    Ginger Gems                                                 180
   23    Ginger Punch                                                 24
  611    Ginger Sauce                                                211
  514    Ginger Wafers                                               182
  507    Gingerbread, Sour Milk                                      180
  506    Gingerbread, with Egg                                       179
  505    Gingerbread, without Egg                                    179
    6    Gloucester Canapés                                           18
  468    Goldenrod Ham Toast                                         167
  648    Gooseberry Patties                                          221
  636    Gooseberry Pie                                              218
         Government Publications on Food                             254
  382    Graham and Corn Bread                                       140
  432    Graham Biscuit                                              156
  438    Graham Popovers                                             158
  594    Grape Bombe                                                 207
   22    Grape Eggnog                                                 23
   21    Grape Juice                                                  23
  662    Grape Juice and Apple Sauce                                 225
  595    Grape Sherbet                                               207
         Griddle Cakes
  478       Corn Meal                                                170
  479       Dried Crumb                                              171
  476       Plain                                                    170
  481       Raised Buckwheat                                         171
  480       Rice                                                     171
  477       Sour Milk                                                170
         Grilling defined                                             15
         Groceries                                                     5

   85    Haddock, Baked Stuffed                                       47
   86    Halibut, Boiled                                              47
  454    Ham and Cheese Sandwiches                                   164
  171    Ham and Potato, Baked                                        76
  153    Ham, Baked Sliced                                            69
  152    Ham, Broiled                                                 69
  172    Ham Mousse                                                   76
  221    Ham Omelet                                                   91
  129    Hamburg Meat Cakes                                           61
  612    Hard Sauce                                                  211
  173    Hash, Corned Beef, with Beets                                76
  116    Hash, Fish                                                   56
   18    Hash, Pepper                                                 22
  174    Hash, Savory, Baked                                          77
  175    Hash, Southern                                               77
  292    Hash, Vegetable                                             112
  106    Herring, Baked                                               53
  111    Herring, Smoked Broiled                                      54
  196    Hollandaise Sauce                                            84
  294    Hominy, Steamed                                             113
  677    Honey, Quince                                               229
  197    Horseradish Sauce                                            84

   28    Iced Tea                                                     25
         Ices, See Frozen Deserts
         Icings
  521       Boiled                                                   184
  522       Caramel                                                  184
  523       Chocolate                                                184
  524       Cocoa                                                    185
  525       Coffee                                                   185
  526       Cream                                                    185
  527       Orange                                                   185
  528       Quick                                                    185
  553    Indian Tapioca Pudding                                      194
  383    Irish Bread                                                 140
   71    Irish Stew with Dumplings                                    40

  682    Jam, Red Tomato                                             230
  333    Jam Cakes, Fried                                            125
  433    Jam Rolls                                                   156
  576    Jellied Prunes and Cranberries                              201
         Jelly
  560       Banana and Grape                                         196
  564       Coconut and Orange                                       198
  569       Coffee and Rice                                          199
  660       Grape and Apple                                          224
  661       Spiced Apple                                             225
  571       Spiced Fruit                                             200
  503    Jelly Roll, Cake for                                        178
  596    Jelly Sherbet                                               207
   60    Julienne Soup                                                37

   16    Ketchup Tomato                                               21
  165    Kidneys, Devilled                                            73
  164    Kidneys in Brown Sauce                                       73
         Kitchen Equipment                                            12

   73    Lamb Broth with Spaghetti                                    41
  135    Lamb, Brown Fricassee                                        63
  136    Lamb, Casserole of                                           63
  137    Lamb Chops                                                   63
  138    Lamb Cutlets                                                 64
  139    Lamb, Rolled Roast                                           64
  357    Leek Salad                                                  132
  261    Leeks, Creamed                                              104
         Left-over Vegetables                                          8
  637    Lemon Pie                                                   218
  613    Lemon Sauce                                                 211
  488    Lemon Sirup                                                 173
   26    Lemonade, Mint                                               24
  222    Light Omelet                                                 91
  249    Lima Bean Loaf                                              101
   38    Lima Bean Soup, Dried                                        28
  163    Liver, Lamb's, and Bacon                                     73
  160    Liver, Braised                                               72
  161    Liver, Brown Fricassee                                       72
  176    Liver Patties                                                77
  131    Loaf, Beef                                                   61
  245    Loaf, Celery, Nut, and Potato                                98
  154    Loaf, Ham                                                    69
  249    Loaf, Lima Bean                                             101
  246    Loaf, Nut                                                    99
  305    Loaf, Rice and Coconut                                      117
  101    Loaf, Salmon                                                 52
  157    Loaf, Veal, Baked                                            70
  158    Loaf, Veal, Boiled                                           71

         Macaroni                                                      8
  295    Macaroni and Cheese, Scalloped                              113
   93    Macaroni, Oysters and                                        49
  517    Macaroons, Oatmeal                                          182
  518    Macaroons, Peanut                                           183
  107    Mackerel, Baked Salt (Spiced)                                53
         Marketing                                                     3
  638    Marlborough Pie                                             218
  675    Marmalade, Pear and Ginger                                  228
  681    Marmalade, Three in One                                     230
  700    Marrons Glacés                                              237
  534    Marshmallow Filling                                         187
  455    Marshmallow Sandwiches                                      164
  614    Marshmallow Sauce                                           212
  515    Marshmallow Wafers                                          182
  339    Mayonnaise Dressing                                         127
         Meals, Planning                                               1
         Meat                                                          3
  347    Meat and Potato Salad                                       129
  320    Meat Croquettes                                             121
         Meats
  134       American Chop Suey                                        62
  171       Baked Ham and Potato                                      76
  153       Baked Sliced Ham                                          69
  130       Beef and Bacon Cakes                                      61
  131       Beef Loaf                                                 61
  160       Braised Liver                                             72
  151       Breakfast Bacon                                           69
  128       Broiled Chopped Beef                                      60
  126       Broiled Flank Steak                                       60
  152       Broiled Ham                                               69
  140       Brown Fricassee of Fowl                                   64
  135       Brown Fricassee of Lamb                                   63
  161       Brown Fricassee of Liver                                  72
  132       Casserole of Beef                                         62
  136       Casserole of Lamb                                         63
  145       Casserole of Rabbit and Okra                              67
  162       Chicken Livers and Bacon                                  72
  142       Chicken Pie                                               65
  173       Corned Beef Hash with Beets                               76
  144       Country Club Rabbit                                       66
  133       Creamed Dried Beef with Cheese                            62
  165       Devilled Kidneys                                          73
  163       Fried Lamb's Liver and Bacon                              73
  154       Ham Loaf                                                  69
  172       Ham Mousse                                                76
  129       Hamburg Meat Cakes                                        61
  137       Lamb Chops                                                63
  138       Lamb Cutlets                                              64
  164       Lambs' Kidneys in Brown Sauce                             73
  176       Liver Patties                                             77
  179       Meat Shortcake                                            79
  178       Meat Soufflé                                              78
  177       Meat and Tomato Pie                                       78
  147       Pork Chops                                                68
  122       Pot Roast of Beef                                         58
  159       Potted Head                                               71
  143       Potted Pigeons                                            66
  119       Pressed Beef                                              57
  120       Pressed Corn Beef                                         57
  121       Roast Beef                                                58
  155       Roast Breast of Veal                                      70
  141       Roast Fowl                                                65
  146       Roast Pork                                                67
  139       Rolled Roast of Lamb                                      64
  148       Sausage Cakes                                             68
  149       Sausage Cakes with Apple                                  68
  150       Sausage with Oysters and Eggs                             68
  169       Savory Beef                                               75
  174       Savory Hash (Baked)                                       77
  170       Scalloped Corned Beef                                     75
  123       Shin of Beef, Creole Sauce                                59
  175       Southern Hash                                             77
  166       Spanish Tripe                                             74
  125       Steak, to Broil                                           59
  127       Steak, Country Style                                      60
  124       Stuffed Shin of Beef                                      59
  167       Tripe Fried in Batter                                     74
  168       Tripe Fried in Crumbs                                     74
  157       Veal Loaf, Baked                                          70
  158       Veal Loaf, Boiled                                         71
  156       Veal with Vegetables                                      70
  627    Meringue for Tarts and Pies                                 216
  628    Meringue, One-Egg                                           216
         Milk                                                          6
   20    Milk, Coffee, Egg, and                                       23
  624    Mince Meat                                                  215
  625    Mince Meat, Mock                                            215
  626    Mince Meat, Green Tomato                                    215
  639    Mince Pie                                                   219
   25    Mint Julep (Ginger Ale)                                      24
   26    Mint Lemonade                                                24
  584    Mint Ice Cream                                              204
  694    Mint Paste                                                  235
  198    Mint Sauce                                                   84
  692    Mints, After-dinner                                         234
  691    Mints, Quick                                                234
  535    Mocha Filling                                               187
  615    Mocha Sauce                                                 212
  666    Mock Bar-le-Duc Currants                                    226
  632    Mock Cherry Pie                                             217
    5    Mock Crab Canapés                                            18
  456    Mock Crab Sandwiches                                        164
  552    Mock Indian Pudding                                         193
   61    Mock Turtle Soup                                             37
         Moist Steaming defined                                       16
  516    Molasses Brownies                                           182
         Muffins, Baking Powder
  412       Blueberry                                                151
  413       Bran                                                     151
  422       Buttermilk                                               153
  414       Cambridge                                                151
  415       Cheese                                                   151
  407       Corn                                                     149
  408       Corn and Rice                                            149
  416       Cranberry                                                152
  417       Crumb                                                    152
  418       Date                                                     152
  419       Plain                                                    152
  420       Rye                                                      153
  423       Sally Lunn                                               153
  421       Sour Milk                                                153
         Muffins, Yeast
  392       Raised                                                   143
  393       Raised Corn                                              144
  394       Raised Date                                              144
  395       Raised Oatmeal                                           144
  471    Muffins, Stale, to Freshen                                  168
  557    Mulled Rice                                                 195
  199    Mushroom Sauce                                               84
   62    Mushroom Soup                                                37
  459    Mustard Butter                                              165
  200    Mustard Pickle Sauce                                         85

   19    Nasturtium Seeds, Pickled                                    22
  297    Noodle Balls (for Soup)                                     114
  296    Noodle Paste                                                114
         Noodles                                                       8
         Normal Weights for Men and Women, Table of                  253
  401    Nut Bread, Dark                                             147
         Nuts
  241       Almonds, Salted                                           97
  245       Celery, Nut, and Potato Loaf                              98
  244       Chestnuts, Baked                                          98
  243       Chestnuts, to Shell                                       98
  246       Loaf                                                      99
  700       Marrons Glacés                                           237
  701       Nuts and Fruits Glacé                                    237
  242       Peanut Butter                                             98

  298    Oatmeal, Scotch                                             114
  384    Oatmeal Bread                                               140
  517    Oatmeal Macaroons                                           182
  395    Oatmeal Muffins, Raised                                     144
   44    Oatmeal Soup                                                 30
  484    Oatmeal Waffles                                             172
         Oleomargarine                                                 6
         Omelets
  217       Bread                                                     90
  218       Creamy                                                    90
  219       French                                                    90
  220       French Cheese                                             91
  221       Ham                                                       91
  222       Light                                                     91
  223       Salmon                                                    92
  495    One-Egg Cake                                                176
  352    Onion Salad                                                 131
   63    Onion Soup                                                   38
  363    Onion, Spanish, and Tomato Salad                            134
  262    Onions in Potato Nests                                      104
  373    Orange and Cress Salad                                      136
  496    Orange Cake                                                 176
  536    Orange Filling                                              187
  527    Orange Icing                                                185
  616    Orange Marmalade Sauce                                      212
  201    Orange Mint Sauce                                            85
  640    Orange Pie                                                  219
  489    Orange Sirup                                                173
  585    Orange Velvet Cream                                         204
   79    Oyster Chowder                                               45
   92    Oyster Pie, Creamed                                          49
  282    Oyster Plant, Creamed                                       109
   94    Oyster Shortcake                                             50
   64    Oyster Stew                                                  38
   65    Oyster and Celery Bouillon                                   38
   93    Oysters and Macaroni                                         49
   89    Oysters, Broiled                                             48
   91    Oysters, Creamed                                             49
   95    Oysters, Panned                                              50
   90    Oysters with Brown Sauce                                     48

         Pan-Baking defined                                           15
         Pan-Broiling defined                                         15
   95    Panned Oysters                                               50
  389    Parker House Rolls                                          142
         Pastry
  629       Apple Pie, Sliced                                        216
  647       Banbury Tarts                                            221
  630       Blueberry Pie                                            216
  654       Cheese Straws                                            223
  655       Cheese Straws (Left-over Paste)                          223
  656       Cheese Wafers                                            223
  631       Cherry Pie                                               217
  632       Cherry Pie, Mock                                         217
  657       Cinnamon Hearts                                          223
  633       Cranberry Pie                                            217
  634       Cranberry Pie (Open)                                     217
  635       Custard Pie                                              218
  648       Gooseberry Patties                                       221
  636       Gooseberry Pie                                           218
  637       Lemon Pie                                                218
  638       Marlborough Pie                                          218
  639       Mince Pie                                                219
  640       Orange Pie                                               219
  621       Patty Shells                                             214
  622       Pie Shell                                                214
  641       Pineapple Pie                                            219
  619       Plain Paste                                              213
  649       Prune and Apple Tart                                     221
  650       Prune Patties                                            222
  642       Prune Pie                                                220
  643       Pumpkin Pie                                              220
  644       Raisin Pie                                               220
  651       Raspberry Pie (Individual)                               222
  645       Rhubarb Pie                                              220
  652       Rhubarb Meringue Patties                                 222
  620       Rich Paste                                               213
  653       Squash Patties                                           222
  646       Squash Pie                                               221
  623       Tart Shells                                              214
   46    Pea Soup, Cream of                                           31
   47    Peas, Purée of Split                                         31
  554    Peach Dumplings                                             194
  242    Peanut Butter                                                98
  518    Peanut Macaroons                                            183
  457    Peanut Sandwich Filling                                     165
  211    Peanut Stuffing                                              87
  374    Pear Salad                                                  137
  264    Peas and Lettuce                                            105
  263    Peas, Green                                                 104
  358    Pepper and Cabbage Salad                                    132
   18    Pepper Hash                                                  22
  265    Peppers, Stuffed Green                                      105
  586    Philadelphia Ice Cream                                      205
   14    Piccalilli                                                   20
   19    Pickled Nasturtium Seeds                                     22
   17    Pickles, Cucumber                                            21
         Pie. See Pastry
  142    Pie, Chicken                                                 65
   97    Pie, Fish and Potato                                         50
  177    Pie, Meat and Tomato                                         78
  627    Pie, Meringue for                                           216
   92    Pie, Oyster                                                  49
  622    Pie Shell                                                   214
  143    Pigeons, Potted                                              66
  376    Pineapple and Cottage Cheese Salad                          137
  375    Pineapple, Cheese, and Date Salad                           137
  641    Pineapple Pie                                               219
  573    Pineapple Pudding                                           200
  597    Pineapple Sherbet                                           207
  497    Plain Cake                                                  176
  419    Plain Muffins                                               152
  619    Plain Paste                                                 213
         Planning Meals                                                1
  301    Polenta, French Fried                                       115
  302    Polenta, Spanish                                            116
  299    Polenta with Cheese                                         115
  300    Polenta with Dates                                          115
  436    Popovers                                                    157
  437    Popovers, Entire Wheat                                      158
  438    Popovers, Graham                                            158
  494    Pork Cake                                                   175
  147    Pork Chops                                                   68
  146    Pork, Roast                                                  67
  321    Potato and Bean Croquettes                                  122
   80    Potato Chowder                                               45
  269    Potato Croutons                                             106
  359    Potato Salad                                                132
   45    Potato Soup                                                  30
  280    Potato, Sweet, Custard                                      109
  267    Potatoes, Baked                                             106
  266    Potatoes, Boiled                                            105
  268    Potatoes, Creamed                                           106
  270    Potatoes, French Fried                                      106
  271    Potatoes, Hashed Brown                                      106
  272    Potatoes, Lyonnaise                                         107
  273    Potatoes, Pan-Roasted                                       107
  274    Potatoes, Scalloped, with Cheese                            107
  275    Potatoes, Scalloped, with Peppers and Cheese                107
  276    Potatoes, Stuffed, with Cheese and Bacon                    108
  277    Potatoes, Stuffed with Nuts and Bacon                       108
  278    Potatoes, Sweet, French Fried                               108
  279    Potatoes, Sweet, glazed                                     109
  281    Potatoes, Sweet, stuffed                                    109
         Pot-Roasting defined                                         15
  159    Potted Head                                                  71
  670    Preserved Cranberries                                       227
         Protein, Chief Uses                                           1
         Protein, Chief Sources                                        1
         Protein, Daily Requirement                                    1
  445    Prune and Apple Shortcake                                   161
  649    Prune and Apple Tart                                        221
  575    Prune and Wheat Mold                                        201
  537    Prune Filling                                               188
  587    Prune Ice Cream                                             205
  650    Prune Patties                                               222
  642    Prune Pie                                                   220
  574    Prune Whip                                                  200
         Publications on Food, List of                               254
  542    Pudding, Blackberry                                         190
  543    Pudding, Blueberry                                          190
  544    Pudding, Brown Betty                                        190
  547    Pudding, Caramel Toast                                      191
  548    Pudding, Chocolate, Steamed                                 192
  549    Pudding, Cottage                                            192
  545    Pudding, Cranberry, Baked                                   191
  550    Pudding, Fig, Steamed                                       192
  551    Pudding, Fruit, Steamed                                     193
  546    Pudding, Indian, Baked                                      191
  553    Pudding, Indian Tapioca                                     194
  552    Pudding, Mock Indian                                        193
  573    Pudding, Pineapple                                          200
  556    Pudding, Rice, Baked                                        194
  439    Puffs, Breakfast                                            158
  643    Pumpkin Pie                                                 220
   24    Punch, Ginger Ale                                            24
   23    Punch, Ginger                                                24
   35    Purée of Black Beans                                         27
   37    Purée of Red Kidney Beans                                    28
   47    Purée of Split Peas                                          31

  528    Quick Icing                                                 185
  677    Quince Honey                                                229

  145    Rabbit, Casserole of, and Okra                               67
  144    Rabbit, Country Club                                         66
  481    Raised Buckwheat Cakes                                      171
  393    Raised Corn Muffins                                         144
  392    Raised Muffins                                              143
  402    Raisin Bread                                                147
  458    Raisin Bread and Cheese Sandwiches                          165
  519    Raisin Drop Cookies                                         183
  644    Raisin Pie                                                  220
  239    Rarebit, Tomato                                              97
  240    Rarebit, Welsh                                               97
  651    Raspberry Pie, Individual                                   222
  667    Red Currant Conserve                                        226
    8    Relish, Celery                                               19
         Relishes, See Appetizers and Relishes
  680    Rhubarb and Fig Marmalade                                   230
  679    Rhubarb and Orange Marmalade                                229
  652    Rhubarb Meringue Patties                                    222
  645    Rhubarb Pie                                                 220
         Rice                                                          8
  305    Rice and Coconut Loaf                                       117
  329    Rice and Currant Fritters                                   124
  303    Rice and Ham, Baked                                         116
  323    Rice and Raisin Croquettes                                  122
   48    Rice and Tomato Soup                                         31
  237    Rice Baked, with Cheese                                      96
  304    Rice Boiled                                                 116
  322    Rice Croquettes                                             122
  480    Rice Griddle Cakes                                          171
  577    Rice Mold                                                   202
  557    Rice, Mulled                                                195
  485    Rice Waffles                                                172
  620    Rich Paste                                                  213
    9    Rings, Cheese and Apple                                      19
  306    Risotto                                                     117
         Roasting defined                                             16
  204    Roast Goose, Sauce for                                       85
  204    Roast Pork, Sauce for                                        85
         Rolls, Baking Powder
  426       Bacon Sandwich                                           154
  425       Corn Meal                                                154
  427       Date                                                     154
  433       Jam                                                      156
         Rolls, Yeast
  389       Parker House                                             142
  390       Shamrock                                                 143
  471       Stale, to Freshen                                        168
  391       Swedish Coffee                                           143
         Roulettes
  538       Apple                                                    189
  447       Cheese                                                   162
  447       Devilled Ham                                             162
  447       Fruit                                                    162
  447       Marmalade                                                162
  447       Peanut Butter                                            162
  396       Raised                                                   145
  447       Raisin and Nut                                           162
  341    Russian Dressing                                            128
  385    Rye Bread                                                   141
  420    Rye Muffins                                                 153

         Salads                                                        8
  366       Apple and Mint                                           135
  351       Baked Bean                                               130
  367       Banana and Apple                                         135
  368       Banana and Peanut                                        135
  369       Bellevue                                                 135
  352       Bermuda Onion                                            131
  353       Cabbage and Beet                                         131
  354       Cabbage and Cranberry                                    131
  355       Celery Root                                              131
  345       Chicken                                                  129
  346       Coronado                                                 129
  370       Cream Cheese                                             136
  371       Cream Cheese, Frozen                                     136
  356       Dutch Potato                                             132
  357       Leek                                                     132
  347       Meat and Potato                                          129
  373       Orange and Cress                                         136
  374       Pear                                                     137
  358       Pepper and Cabbage                                       132
  375       Pineapple, Cheese, and Date                              137
  376       Pineapple and Cottage Cheese                             137
  359       Potato                                                   132
  348       Salmon                                                   130
  361       Samoset                                                  133
  349       Shrimp                                                   130
  362       Spanish                                                  133
  363       Spanish Onion and Tomato                                 134
  360       Sweet Potato                                             133
  364       Tomato Jelly                                             134
  350       Tuna                                                     130
  365       Vegetable                                                134
  372       Waldorf, Jellied                                         136
         Salad Dressings                                               8
  334       Cooked                                                   126
  335       Cooked, Evaporated Milk                                  126
  336       Currant Jelly                                            127
  337       Devilled Ham                                             127
  338       French                                                   127
  339       Mayonnaise                                               127
  340       Potato Mayonnaise                                        128
  343       Quick Mayonnaise                                         128
  341       Russian                                                  128
  342       Sour Cream                                               128
  344       Uncooked, Condensed Milk                                 129
  423    Sally Lunn                                                  153
  102    Salmon and Peas Soufflé                                      52
  324    Salmon and Potato Croquettes                                122
   66    Salmon Bisque                                                39
   81    Salmon Chowder                                               45
   99    Salmon Creole                                                51
  100    Salmon Dutch                                                 51
  330    Salmon Fritters                                             124
  101    Salmon Loaf                                                  52
  223    Salmon Omelet                                                92
  348    Salmon Salad                                                130
  112    Salmon, Smoked Broiled                                       54
  282    Salsify, Creamed                                            109
  108    Salt Codfish Baked with Crackers                             54
  110    Salt Fish, Broiled                                           54
   82    Salt Fish Chowder                                            46
  117    Salt Fish Soufflé                                            56
  361    Samoset Salad                                               133
  307    Samp, Steamed                                               117
         Sandwiches
  448       Baked Bean and Lettuce                                   163
  449       Celery and Egg                                           163
  450       Cheese and Nut                                           163
  451       Cheese Club                                              163
  452       Chicken                                                  164
  453       Giblet                                                   164
  454       Ham and Cheese                                           164
  455       Marshmallow                                              164
  456       Mock Crab                                                164
  458       Raisin Bread and Cheese                                  165
  457    Sandwich Filling, Peanut                                    165
    1    Sauce, Cocktail                                              17
         Sauces for Desserts
  601       Caramel                                                  209
  602       Chocolate                                                209
  603       Chocolate Marshmallow                                    209
  604       Cinnamon                                                 210
  605       Coffee                                                   210
  606       Cranberry                                                210
  608       Currant Jelly                                            210
  607       Custard                                                  210
  609       Date                                                     211
  610       Fruit                                                    211
  611       Ginger                                                   211
  612       Hard                                                     211
  613       Lemon                                                    211
  614       Marshmallow                                              212
  615       Mocha                                                    212
  616       Orange Marmalade                                         212
  617       Soft                                                     212
  618       Strawberry                                               212
         Sauces for Fish and Meat
  180       Anchovy                                                   80
  181       Banana                                                    80
  182       Bechamel                                                  80
  183       Black Butter                                              81
  184       Bread                                                     81
  185       Brown                                                     81
  186       Caper                                                     81
  187       Celery                                                    82
  188       Cheese                                                    82
  189       Cheese with Chives                                        82
  190       Cider                                                     82
  191       Creole                                                    83
  192       Croquette                                                 83
  193       Cucumber                                                  83
  194       Drawn Butter                                              83
  195       Egg                                                       84
  196       Hollandaise                                               84
  197       Horseradish                                               84
  198       Mint                                                      84
  199       Mushroom                                                  84
  200       Mustard Pickle                                            85
  201       Orange Mint                                               85
  204       for Roast Goose                                           85
  204       for Roast Pork                                            85
  205       Sharp                                                     86
  206       Soubise                                                   86
   15       Table                                                     20
  202       Tartare                                                   85
  203       Tomato                                                    85
  207       White                                                     86
   13       Winter Chili                                              20
  148    Sausage Cakes                                                68
  149    Sausage Cakes Baked with Apple                               68
  150    Sausages with Oysters and Eggs                               68
         Sautéing defined                                             16
  224    Scalloped Eggs with Cheese                                   92
  238    Scalloped Toast and Cheese                                   97
  103    Scallops, Fried                                              52
  434    Scones, Potato                                              157
  435    Scones, Scotch                                              157
  298    Scotch Oatmeal                                              114
   74    Scotch Broth                                                 41
  225    Scrambled Eggs with Sausages                                 93
  226    Scrambled Eggs with Tomato                                   93
  308    Scrapple, Corn Meal and Beef                                117
  309    Scrapple, Wheat, and Sausage                                118
  578    Sea Moss Blancmange                                         202
  227    Shirred Eggs                                                 93
  228    Shirred Eggs with Ham                                        93
  230    Shirred Eggs with Potato and Ham                             94
         Shortcakes
  441       Shortcake                                                160
  442       Apple and Cranberry                                      160
  443       Banana                                                   161
  444       Date and Apple                                           161
  179       Meat                                                      79
   94       Oyster                                                    50
  445       Prune and Apple                                          161
  446       Strawberry                                               161
         Shortening                                                    5
  386    Shredded Wheat Bread                                        141
  349    Shrimp Salad                                                130
  104    Shrimps and Rice, Louisiana                                  53
         Simmering defined                                            16
         Sirups
  486       Brown Sugar                                              172
  487       Cider                                                    173
  488       Lemon                                                    173
  489       Orange                                                   173
  629    Sliced Apple Pie                                            216
  568    Soft Custard                                                199
  617    Soft Sauce                                                  212
  598    Somerset Sherbet                                            208
  206    Soubise Sauce                                                86
  178    Soufflé, Meat                                                78
  102    Soufflé, Salmon and Peas                                     52
  229    Souffléed Egg with Ham Toast                                 94
         Soups without Meat
   34       Asparagus                                                 27
   36       Baked Bean                                                28
   35       Black Bean                                                27
   39       Cauliflower                                               28
   42       Cheese                                                    29
   40       Cream of Celery                                           29
   41       Cream of Corn                                             29
   46       Cream of Pea                                              31
   38       Dried Lima Bean                                           28
   43       Fruit                                                     30
   44       Oatmeal                                                   30
   45       Potato                                                    30
   47       Purée of Split Peas                                       31
   37       Red Kidney Bean                                           28
   48       Rice and Tomato                                           31
   50       Tomato Bouillon                                           32
   49       Tomato Bisque                                             32
   51       Tomato and Oatmeal                                        33
   52       Tomato and Peanut                                         33
   54       Vegetable                                                 34
   53       Windsor                                                   33
         Soups and Stews with Meat or Fish
   70       Beef Stew                                                 40
   56       Chicken and Okra                                          35
   57       Clam Bisque                                               36
   58       Clam Bouillon                                             36
   59       Clear                                                     36
   55       Cream of Chicken                                          35
   71       Irish Stew with Dumplings                                 40
   60       Julienne                                                  37
   73       Lamb Broth with Spaghetti                                 41
   61       Mock Turtle                                               37
   62       Mushroom                                                  37
   63       Onion                                                     38
   65       Oyster and Celery Bouillon                                38
   64       Oyster Stew                                               38
   66       Salmon Bisque                                             39
   74       Scotch Broth                                              41
   67       Soup Stock                                                39
   68       Tomato Tapioca                                            39
   69       Tuna                                                      40
  342    Sour Cream Dressing                                         128
  507    Sour Milk Gingerbread                                       180
  477    Sour Milk Griddle Cakes                                     170
  421    Sour Milk Muffins                                           153
  254    Southern Corn Pudding                                       102
  310    Spaghetti and Ham, Baked                                    118
  311    Spaghetti, Creole                                           118
  312    Spaghetti, Italian                                          119
   10    Spanish Cheese                                               19
  302    Spanish Polenta                                             116
  362    Spanish Salad                                               133
  498    Spice Cake                                                  177
  669    Spiced Cranberries                                          227
  571    Spiced Fruit Jelly                                          200
  676    Spiced Prunes                                               229
  697    Spiced Raisins                                              236
  283    Spinach                                                     110
  500    Sponge Cake                                                 117
  501    Sponge Cake, Velvet                                         178
  284    Squash, Baked Winter                                        110
  653    Squash Patties                                              222
  646    Squash Pie                                                  221
  471    Stale Bread, to Freshen                                     168
  125    Steak, to Broil                                              59
         Steaming defined                                             16
  548    Steamed Chocolate Pudding                                   192
  550    Steamed Fig Pudding                                         192
  551    Steamed Fruit Pudding                                       193
         Stewing defined                                              16
         Stock Pot                                                     4
  588    Strawberry Ice Cream                                        205
  618    Strawberry Sauce                                            212
  599    Strawberry Sherbet                                          208
  446    Strawberry Shortcake                                        161
  698    Stuffed Dates                                               236
  699    Stuffed Prunes                                              236
         Stuffings
  208       Bread                                                     86
  209       Crust                                                     87
  210       Fish                                                      87
  211       Peanut                                                    87
  285    Succotash                                                   110
  469    Sunday Toast                                                167
  360    Sweet Potato Salad                                          133

   15    Table Sauce                                                  20
  202    Tartare Sauce                                                85
  647    Tarts, Banbury                                              221
  627    Tarts, Meringue for                                         216
  623    Tart Shells                                                 214
   27    Tea                                                          25
   28    Tea, Iced                                                    25
         Temperatures for Cooking, Table of                          243
   98    Timbales, Fish                                               51
         Toasts
  460       Brewis                                                   165
  461       Brown Bread                                              165
  462       Celery                                                   166
  465       Cheese                                                   167
  466       Cinnamon                                                 167
  463       Cream                                                    166
  464       Cream, Sauce for                                         166
  475       Crisp Sticks                                             169
  473       Croustades                                               168
  474       Croutons                                                 169
  467       French                                                   167
  468       Goldenrod Ham                                            167
  469       Sunday                                                   167
  470       Tomato Cream, with Egg                                   168
   51    Tomato and Oatmeal Soup                                      33
   52    Tomato and Peanut Soup                                       33
   49    Tomato Bisque                                                32
   50    Tomato Bouillon                                              32
  470    Tomato Cream Toast with Egg                                 168
  287    Tomato Custard                                              111
  364    Tomato Jelly Salad                                          134
   16    Tomato Ketchup                                               21
   48    Tomato, Rice and, Soup                                       31
  203    Tomato Sauce                                                 85
   68    Tomato Tapioca Soup                                          39
  286    Tomatoes, Baked                                             111
  288    Tomatoes, Fried Green                                       111
  289    Tomatoes, Stewed                                            111
  290    Tomatoes, Stuffed                                           112
  167    Tripe Fried in Batter                                        74
  168    Tripe Fried in Crumbs                                        74
  166    Tripe, Spanish                                               74
    7    Tuna Canapés                                                 18
  350    Tuna Salad                                                  130
   69    Tuna Soup                                                    40
  695    Turkish Delight                                             235
  291    Turnips, Creamed                                            112

         Utensils, Kitchen                                            12

  589    Vanilla Ice Cream                                           205
  157    Veal Loaf (Baked)                                            70
  158    Veal Loaf (Boiled)                                           71
  155    Veal, Roast Breast, Stuffed                                  70
  156    Veal with Vegetables                                         70
   83    Vegetable Chowder                                            46
  365    Vegetable Salad                                             134
   54    Vegetable Soup                                               34
         Vegetables
  247       Baked Beans                                              100
  250       Baked Cabbage                                            101
  248       Beans, Thick Purée of Black                              100
  252       Braised Celery                                           102
  251       Cabbage Cooked in Milk                                   101
  256       Carrots Sautéed                                          103
  257       Carrots Vinaigrette                                      103
  254       Corn Pudding                                             102
  253       Creamed Celery, Root                                     102
  255       Cucumbers Sautéed                                        103
  258       Egg Plant, Baked                                         103
  259       Egg Plant, Fried                                         103
  260       Egg Plant Julienne                                       104
  292       Hash                                                     112
  261       Leeks, Creamed                                           104
  249       Lima Bean Loaf                                           101
  262       Onions in Potato Nests                                   104
  282       Oyster Plant, Creamed                                    109
  263       Peas, Green                                              104
  264       Peas and Lettuce                                         105
  265       Peppers, Stuffed Green                                   105
  267       Potatoes, Baked                                          106
  266       Potatoes, Boiled                                         105
  268       Potatoes, Creamed                                        106
  270       Potatoes, French Fried                                   106
  271       Potatoes, Hashed Brown                                   106
  272       Potatoes, Lyonnaise                                      107
  273       Potatoes, Pan-Roasted                                    107
  274       Potatoes, Scalloped, with Cheese                         107
  276       Potatoes, Scalloped, with Peppers and Cheese             107
  276       Potatoes, Stuffed, with Cheese and Bacon                 108
  277       Potatoes, Stuffed, with Nuts and Cheese                  108
  279       Potatoes, Sweet, glazed                                  109
  278       Potatoes, Sweet, French Fried                            108
  281       Potatoes, Sweet, Stuffed                                 109
  269       Potato Croutons                                          106
  280       Potato, Sweet, Custard                                   109
  282       Salsify, Creamed                                         109
  283       Spinach                                                  110
  284       Squash, Baked Winter                                     110
  285       Succotash                                                110
  287       Tomato Custard                                           111
  286       Tomatoes, Baked                                          111
  288       Tomatoes, Fried Green                                    111
  289       Tomatoes, Stewed                                         111
  290       Tomatoes, Stuffed                                        112
  291       Turnips, Creamed                                         112
         Vegetables, Canned                                            8
         Vegetables, Dried                                             8
         Vegetables, Fresh                                             8
         Vegetables, Left-over                                         8

  482    Waffles                                                     172
  483    Waffles, Corn Meal                                          172
  484    Waffles, Oatmeal                                            172
  485    Waffles, Rice                                               172
  372    Waldorf Salad, Jellied                                      136
  520    Walnut Wafers                                               183
  600    Watermelon, Frozen                                          208
  683    Watermelon Rind, Sweet Pickled                              231
         Weights and Measures, Table of                              239
  240    Welsh Rarebit                                                97
  309    Wheat and Sausage Scrapple                                  118
  377    White Bread                                                 138
  499    White Cake                                                  177
  207    White Sauce                                                  86
   53    Winsor Soup                                                  33
   13    Winter Chili Sauce                                           20





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