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Title: An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists, by the Rules of Evidence administered in Courts of Justice
Author: Greenleaf, Simon, 1783-1853
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists, by the Rules of Evidence administered in Courts of Justice" ***


                       Examination of the Testimony

                                  of the

                            Four Evangelists,

                  by the Rules of Evidence Administered


                            Courts of Justice.

                  With an Account of the Trial of Jesus.

                        By Simon Greenleaf, LL.D.

               Dane Professor of Law in Harvard University

                              Second Edition

                   Revised and Corrected by the Author.


             A. Maxwell & Son, 32, Bell Yard, Lincoln’s Inn;

                       W. Smith, 113, Fleet Street;

            Hodges & Smith, Dublin; T. & J. Clark, Edinburgh.



Contents And Synopsis Of The Harmony.
Advertisement To This Edition.
An Examination, Etc.
Harmony Of The Gospels.
   Part I. Events Connected With The Birth And Childhood Of Jesus.
   Part II. Announcement And Introduction Of Our Lord’s Public Ministry.
   Part III. Our Lord’s First Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions
   Until The Second.
   Part IV. Our Lord’s Second Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions
   Until The Third.
   Part V. From Our Lord’s Third Passover, Until His Final Departure From
   Galilee, At The Festival Of Tabernacles.
   Part VI. The Festival Of Tabernacles And The Subsequent Transactions,
   Until Our Lord’s Arrival At Bethany, Six Days Before The Fourth
   Part VII. Our Lord’s Public Entry Into Jerusalem, And The Subsequent
   Transactions Before The Fourth Passover.
   Part VIII. The Fourth Passover; Our Lord’s Passion; And The
   Accompanying Events Until The End Of The Jewish Sabbath.
   Part IX. Our Lord’s Resurrection, His Subsequent Appearances, And His
Note On The Resurrection.
An Account Of The Trial Of Jesus.
The Jewish Account Of The Trial Of Jesus. By Mr. Salvador.
The Trial Of Jesus Before Caiaphas And Pilate.
   Analysis Of The Chapter Of Mr. Salvador, Entitled “The Administration
   Of Justice” Among The Jews.
   Trial Of Jesus.


In introducing to the notice of the British Public, Mr. Professor
GREENLEAF’S Harmony of the Four Gospels, the publishers have much
satisfaction in announcing, that it has become a Standard Work in the
United States of America: and its intrinsic value has induced them to make
it known, in the hope of promoting its circulation, in this country.

The spirit of infidelity is far more restless and active on the other side
of the Atlantic, than, happily, it has been in our highly-favoured land:
and, in consequence, it has called forth some of the most able and
powerful minds to correct and subdue it. Among these advocates of Divine
Revelation, the profound lawyer, Professor Greenleaf, holds a most
honourable and distinguished place; and his work may justly be regarded as
combining sound and practical knowledge with well-directed zeal and piety.
Its character has been very fairly appreciated in two leading North
American journals, from which the following extracts are made, as
indicative of its contents, and also of the high estimation in which its
learned author is deservedly held in his own country.


    The Author is a lawyer, very learned in his profession, acute,
    critical and used to raising and meeting practical doubts. Author
    of a treatise on the law of evidence, which has already become a
    classic in the hands of the profession which he adorns, and
    teaches in one of the Law Seminaries which do honour to our
    country in the eyes of Europe, he brings rare qualifications for
    the task he assumes. That he should, with the understanding and
    from the heart, accept the Gospel as the truth, avow it as his
    Hope, and seek to discharge a duty to his fellow-men by laying
    before them the grounds on which he founds this acceptance and
    this hope, are cheering circumstances to the Christian, and
    present strong appeals to the indifferent.

    To his profession, to the lawyers of the country, however, this
    work makes a strong appeal. They are a very secular profession.
    Their business is almost wholly conversant with material
    interests. Their time is absorbed in controversies, of passion, or
    of interest. Acute, critical, and disputatious, they apparently
    present a field unpropitious for the acceptance of a religion,
    spiritual, disinterested, and insisting on perfect holiness.
    Still, they necessarily need to know and must enforce the rules of
    finding truth and justice; the principles for ascertaining truth
    and dispensing justice are the great subjects of all their
    discussions, so far as they are discussions of any general
    principle. From this cause it is, that this profession has
    numbered among its members, in every age, Christians of great
    eminence, and in our own day and country, we cannot turn to the
    eminent men of this profession in any large community, without the
    satisfaction of finding our Faith embraced by those whose habits
    of practical as well as speculative investigation render them
    evidently the best able to appreciate its claims and to detect any
    imperfections in its proof.

    So we trust it always may be; and we are assured that the best
    models of the mode of investigating matters of legal controversy
    as the proof of facts, are writings on the evidences. Paley’s
    treatise and that of Chalmers, on the oral testimony in favour of
    Christ’s mission, Paley’s examination of the writings of the
    apostle Paul, are, we are assured, the best models extant for
    forming the habit of examining oral and documentary evidence.
    These are subjects on which it is of vital importance, in a
    secular view, that a lawyer’s habits should be right: in a
    spiritual view the importance is unspeakable. Mr. Greenleaf has
    doubtless felt this truth, and has also felt that his position
    would give to his labours some authority with his brethren and
    with the public. He has given himself honourably to the labour,
    and spread its results before the world.

    It is long since Infidelity has found its advocates among the
    truly learned. Among the guesses and speculations of a small
    portion of unsanctified medical men, she still finds now and then
    a champion. Historians and philosophers have long since discussed
    her pretensions. And now from the Jurists and Lawyers, the
    practical masters of this kind of investigation, works are
    appearing, whereby not only an earnest reception of the Gospel is
    manifested, but the mode and means of action and of credit by
    which all human affairs are governed.

    We lose in respect to our own investigations on this subject by
    its very sacredness. We have an idle dread, that it is not open to
    free investigation: to severe practical tests. We need to be
    invited, to be pressed to examine this subject freely. Dr.
    Chalmers in one department of this inquiry has led the way. Mr.
    Greenleaf in another has also presented an example. And it will
    not be competent, after these men have thus investigated and
    taught the rules and laws of investigation, for any man who is not
    willing to arrogate superior claims to learning and ability, to
    turn aside superciliously from an examination of the Gospels.

    Such are our views of this work, which we commend to all: to the
    legal profession, from the character of its topics and the rank of
    its author: to men desirous of knowledge, in every rank in life,
    because of its presenting this subject under such a treatment as
    every-day practical questions are treated with. It does not touch
    the intrinsic evidences of the Gospel: those which to the believer
    are, after all, the highest proofs. But it is to be remembered,
    that these are proofs which are not satisfactory until an
    examination of the outward evidences has led men to the
    conviction, that the Gospels cannot be false.


    _Professor Greenleaf on the Gospels, and Strauss’ __“__Life of
    Jesus.__”_—Of course we place the titles of these two books
    together only by way of contrast. They relate, it is true, to the
    same general subject; but it is hard to conceive of two works more
    unlike in their scope, character, and purpose. The object of the
    one is to prove, and of the other to disprove, the Christian
    religion. The one is the production of an able and profound
    lawyer, a man who has grown grey in the halls of justice and the
    schools of jurisprudence,—a writer of the highest authority on
    legal subjects, whose life has been spent in weighing testimony
    and sifting evidence, and whose published opinions on the rules of
    evidence are received as authoritative in all the English and
    American tribunals,—for fourteen years the highly respected
    colleague of the late Mr. Justice Story, and now the honoured head
    of the most distinguished and prosperous school of English law in
    the world. The other is the work of a German professor and
    speculatist, also profoundly learned in his way,—an ingenious and
    erring framer of theories of the most striking character, almost
    unheard of till his brain either conceived them or gave them
    currency, though relating to topics with which men have been
    familiar for eighteen centuries,—a subtle controversialist, whose
    work, as he himself avows, is deeply tinged with the most strongly
    marked peculiarities of the philosophy and theology of his
    countrymen. We presume the most ardent admirer of Dr. Strauss will
    not object to our characterising the two works as excellent
    specimens, the one of clear and shrewd English common sense, the
    other of German erudition, laborious diligence, and fertility in
    original speculation. And if the subject of inquiry were one that
    involved his own temporal and immediate interests, and it were
    necessary to determine which of these two writers would give the
    wiser and safer counsel, or the more trustworthy opinion, we
    suppose the same person would agree with us in making the choice.

On the publishers announcing to Professor Greenleaf their wish to
introduce his Harmony to the notice of the British Public, he with equal
promptitude and kindness communicated to them some important additions to
his Introduction, and also numerous valuable notes, more particularly
adapted to the use of Theological Students. These are now printed for the
first time: and at the suggestion of a very eminent and learned clergyman
of the Established Church, the publishers have added in an Appendix an
accurate and elegant translation of the late learned French Advocate, A.
M. J. J. Dupin’s Refutation of the eminent Jewish writer, Joseph
Salvador’s “Trial and Condemnation of Jesus,” executed by the late
distinguished American Lawyer and Statesman, JOHN PICKERING, LL.D.,
Counsellor at Law, and President of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences (sometime Secretary to the American Embassy in this country); who
has most truly characterised M. Dupin’s examination of Salvador, as being
“conducted with an ability, learning, animation, and interest, that leave
nothing to be desired.”



The subject of the following work I hope will not be deemed so foreign to
our professional pursuits, as to render it improper for me to dedicate it,
as I now respectfully do, to you. If a close examination of the evidences
of Christianity may be expected of one class of men more than another, it
would seem incumbent on us, who make the law of evidence one of our
peculiar studies. Our profession leads us to explore the mazes of
falsehood, to detect its artifices, to pierce its thickest veils, to
follow and expose its sophistries, to compare the statements of different
witnesses with severity, to discover truth and separate it from error. Our
fellow-men are well aware of this; and probably they act upon this
knowledge more generally, and with a more profound repose, than we are in
the habit of considering. The influence, too, of the legal profession upon
the community is unquestionably great; conversant, as it daily is, with
all classes and grades of men, in their domestic and social relations, and
in all the affairs of life, from the cradle to the grave. This influence
we are constantly exerting for good or ill; and hence, to refuse to
acquaint ourselves with the evidences of the Christian religion, or to act
as though, having fully examined, we lightly esteemed them, is to assume
an appalling amount of responsibility.

The things related by the Evangelists are certainly of the most momentous
character, affecting the principles of our conduct here, and our happiness
for ever. The religion of Jesus Christ aims at nothing less than the utter
overthrow of all other systems of religion in the world; denouncing them
as inadequate to the wants of man, false in their foundations, and
dangerous in their tendency. It not only solicits the grave attention of
all, to whom its doctrines are presented, but it demands their cordial
belief, as a matter of vital concernment. These are no ordinary claims;
and it seems hardly possible for a rational being to regard them with even
a subdued interest; much less to treat them with mere indifference and
contempt. If not true, they are little else than the pretensions of a bold
imposture, which, not satisfied with having already enslaved millions of
the human race, seeks to continue its encroachments upon human liberty,
until all nations shall be subjugated under its iron rule. But if they are
well founded and just, they can be no less than the high requirements of
Heaven, addressed by the voice of God to the reason and understanding of
man, concerning things deeply affecting his relations to his sovereign,
and essential to the formation of his character and of course to his
destiny, both for this life and for the life to come. Such was the
estimate taken of religion, even the religion of pagan Rome, by one of the
greatest lawyers of antiquity, when he argued that it was either nothing
at all, or was everything. _Aut undique religionem tolle, aut usquequaque

With this view of the importance of the subject, and in the hope that the
present work may in some degree aid or at least incite others to a more
successful pursuit of this interesting study, it is submitted to your kind
regard, by

Your obedient servant,

DANE HALL, _May 1, 1846_.


_The figures in the first column refer to the corresponding Sections in_
NEWCOME’S HARMONY. _Those in the second column to the Sections in this

Sect.   Sect.   Contents.           Matt.      Mark      Luke      John
                Part I.
                EVENTS CONNECTED
                WITH THE BIRTH
                AND CHILDHOOD OF
                OUR LORD.
                TIME: _About
                thirteen and a
                half years._
1       1       Preface to Luke’s                        1, 1-4
3       2       An Angel appears                         1, 5-25
                to Zacharias.
4       3       An Angel appears                         1,
                to Mary.                                 26-38
5       4       Mary visits                              1,
                Elizabeth.                               39-56
6       5       Birth of John the                        1,
                Baptist.                                 57-80
7, 8    6       An Angel appears    1,
                to Joseph.          18-25
8       7       The Birth of                             2, 1-7
10      8       An Angel appears                         2, 8-20
                to the Shepherds.
                _Near Bethlehem._
11,     9       The circumcision                         2,
12              of Jesus, and his                        21-38
                presentation in
                the Temple.
13      10      The Magi.                                2, 1-12
13      11      The flight into     2,                   2,
                Egypt. Herod’s      13-23                39-40
                cruelty. The
14      12      At twelve years                          2,
                of age Jesus goes                        41-52
                to the Passover.
9       13      The Genealogies.    1, 1-17              3,

                Part II.
                ANNOUNCEMENT AND
                INTRODUCTION OF
                OUR LORD’S PUBLIC
                TIME: _About one
15      14      The Ministry of     3, 1-12    1, 1-8    3, 1-18
                John the Baptist.
                The Desert. _The
16      15      The Baptism of      3,         1, 9-11   3,
                Jesus. _The         13-17                21-23
17      16      The Temptation.     4, 1-11    1, 12,    4, 1-13
                _Desert of                     13
2       17      Preface to John’s                                  1, 1-18
18      18      Testimony of John                                  1,
                the Baptist to                                     19-34
                Jesus. _Bethany
                beyond Jordan._
18      19      Jesus gains                                        1,
                Disciples. _The                                    35-52
19      20      The Marriage at                                    2, 1-12
                Cana of Galilee.

                Part III.

                OUR LORD’S FIRST
                PASSOVER, AND THE
                UNTIL THE SECOND.
                TIME: _One year._

20      21      At the Passover                                    2,
                Jesus drives the                                   13-25
                Traders out of
                the Temple.
21      22      Our Lord’s                                         3, 1-21
                discourse with
22      23      Jesus remains in                                   3,
                Judea and                                          22-36
                baptizes. Further
                testimony of John
                the Baptist.
23      24      Jesus departs       4, 12.     1, 14.    4, 14.    4, 1-3
                into Galilee        14, 3-5    6,        3, 19,
                after John’s                   17-20     20.
23      25      Our Lord’s                                         4, 4-42
                discourse with
                the Samaritan
                woman. Many of
                the Samaritans
                believe on him.
                _Shechem_ or
24      26      Jesus teaches       4, 17      1, 14.    4, 14,    4,
                publicly in                    15        15        43-45
24      27      Jesus again at                                     4,
                Cana, where he                                     46-54
                heals the son of
                a nobleman lying
                ill at Capernaum.
                _Cana of
25      28      Jesus at            4,                   4,
                Nazareth; he is     13-16                16-31
                there rejected,
                and fixes his
                abode at
26      29      The call of Simon   4,         1,        5, 1-11
                Peter and Andrew,   18-22      16-20
                and of James and
                John, with the
                draught of
                fishes. _Near
27      30      The healing of a               1,        4,
                Demoniac in the                21-28     31-37
28      31      The healing of      8,         1,        4,
                Peter’s wife’s      14-17      29-34     38-41
                mother, and many
28      32      Jesus with his      4,         1,        4,
                Disciples goes      23-25      35-39     42-44
                from Capernaum
29      33      The healing of a    8, 2-4     1,        5,
                Leper. _Galilee._              40-45     12-16
30      34      The healing of a    9, 2-8     2, 1-12   5,
                Paralytic.                               17-26
31      35      The call of         9, 9       2, 13,    5, 27,
                Matthew.                       14

                Part IV.

                OUR LORD’S SECOND
                PASSOVER, AND THE
                UNTIL THE THIRD.

                TIME: _One year._

32      36      The Pool of                                        5, 1-47
                Bethesda; the
                healing of the
                infirm man; and
                our Lord’s
33      37      The Disciples       12, 1-8    2,        6, 1-5
                pluck ears of                  23-28
                grain on the
                Sabbath. _On the
                way to Galilee?_
34      38      The healing of      12,        3, 1-6    6, 6-11
                the withered hand   9-14
                on the Sabbath.
34      39      Jesus arrives at    12,        3, 7-12
                the Sea of          15-21
                Tiberias, and is
                followed by
                multitudes. _Lake
                of Galilee._
35      40      Jesus withdraws     10,        3,        6,
                to the Mountain,    2-4,       13-19     12-19
                and chooses the
                Twelve; the
                multitudes follow
                him. _Near
36      41      The Sermon on the   5,1,-8,1             6,
                Mount. _Near                             20-49
37      42      The healing of      8, 5-13              7, 1-10
                the Centurion’s
38      43      The raising of                           7,
                the Widow’s son.                         11-17
39      44      John the Baptist    11, 2-19             7,
                in prison sends                          18-35
                Disciples to
                Jesus. _Galilee._
40      45      Reflections of      11,
                Jesus on            20-30
                appealing to his
                mighty Works.
41      46      While sitting at                         7,
                meat with a                              36-50
                Pharisee, Jesus
                is anointed by a
                woman who had
                been a sinner.
42      47      Jesus, with the                          8, 1-3
                Twelve, makes a
                second circuit in
42      48      The healing of a    12,        3,        11, 14,
                Demoniac. The       22-37      19-30     15,
                Scribes and                              17-23
43,     49      The Scribes and     12,                  11, 16,
44              Pharisees seek a    38-45                24-36
                sign. Our Lord’s
45      50      The true            12,        3,        8,
                Disciples of        46-50      31-35     19-21
                Christ his
46      51      At a Pharisee’s                          11,
                table, Jesus                             37-54
                denounces woes
                against the
                Pharisees and
47      52      Jesus discourses                         12,
                to his Disciples                         1-59
                and the
48      53      The slaughter of                         13, 1-9
                Parable of the
                barren Fig-tree.
49      54      Parable of the      13, 1-23   4, 1-25   8, 4-18
                Sower. _Lake of
                Galilee._ _Near
49      55      Parable of the      13,        4,
                Tares. Other        24-53      26-34
                Parables. _Near
50      56      Jesus directs to    8, 18-27   4,        8,
                cross the Lake.                35-41     22-25,
                Incidents. The                           9,
                tempest stilled.                         57-62
                _Lake of
51      57      The two Demoniacs   8,         5, 1-21   8,
                of Gadara. _S. E.   28-34,               26-40
                coast of the Lake   9, 1
                of Galilee._
52      58      Levi’s Feast.       9, 10-17   2,        5,
                _Capernaum._                   15-22     29-39
52      59      The raising of      9, 18-26   5,        8,
                Jairus’s                       22-43     41-56
                daughter. The
                woman with a
                bloody flux.
53,     60      Two blind men       9, 27-34
54              healed, and a
                dumb spirit cast
                out. _Capernaum?_
55      61      Jesus again at      13,        6, 1-6
                Nazareth, and       54-58
                again rejected.
56,     62      A third circuit     9,         6, 6-13   9, 1-6
57,             in Galilee. The     35-38,
58,             Twelve instructed   10, 1,
59              and sent forth.     5-42,
                _Galilee._          11, 1
60,     63      Herod holds Jesus   14, 1,     6,        9, 7-9
61              to be John the      2, 6-12    14-16,
                Baptist, whom he               21-29
                had just before
62,     64      The Twelve          14,        6,        9,        6, 1-14
63              return, and Jesus   13-21      30-44     10-17
                retires with them
                across the Lake.
                Five thousand are
                fed. _Capernaum._
                _N. E. coast of
                the Lake of
64      65      Jesus walks upon    14,        6,                  6,
                the water. _Lake    22-36      45-56               15-21
                of Galilee._
65,     66      Our Lord’s                                         6,
83              discourse to the                                   22-71,
                multitude in the                                   7, 1
                Synagogue at
                Capernaum. Many
                Disciples turn
                back. Peter’s
                profession of

                Part V.

                FROM OUR LORD’S
                THIRD PASSOVER
                UNTIL HIS FINAL
                DEPARTURE FROM
                GALILEE AT THE
                FESTIVAL OF

                TIME: _Six

66      67      Our Lord            15, 1-20   7, 1-23
                justifies his
                disciples for
                eating with
                unwashen hands.
67      68      The daughter of a   15,        7,
                Syrophenician       21-28      24-30
                woman is healed.
                _Region of Tyre
                and Sidon._
68,     69      A deaf and dumb     15,        7,
69              man healed; also    29-38      31-37,
                many others. Four              8, 1-9
                thousand are fed.
                _The Decapolis._
69,     70      The Pharisees and   15, 39,    8,
70              Sadducees again     16, 1-4    10-12
                require a sign.
                (See § 49.) _Near
71      71      The Disciples       16, 4-12   8,
                cautioned against              13-21
                the leaven of the
                Pharisees, etc.
                _N. E. coast of
                the Lake of
72      72      A blind man                    8,
                healed.                        22-26
73      73      Peter and the       16,        8,        9,
                rest again          13-20      27-30     18-21
                profess their
                faith in Christ.
                (See § 66.)
                _Region of
74      74      Our Lord            16,        8,        9,
                foretells his own   21-28      31-38,    22-27
                death and                      9, 1
                resurrection, and
                the trials of his
                _Region of
75      76      The                 17,        9, 2-13   9,
                Transfiguration.    1-13,                28-36
                Our Lord’s
                discourse with
                the three
                _Region of
76      76      The healing of a    17,        9,        9,
                Demoniac, whom      14-21      14-29     37-43
                the Disciples
                could not heal.
                _Region of
77      77      Jesus again         17, 22,    9,        9,
                foretells his own   2          30-32     43-45
                death and
                resurrection (See
                § 74.) _Galilee._
78      78      The tribute-money   17,        9, 33
                miraculously        24-27
79      79      The Disciples       18, 1-35   9,        9,
                contend who                    33-50     46-50
                should be
                greatest. Jesus
                exhorts to
                forbearance, and
                brotherly love.
80      80      The Seventy                              10,
                instructed and                           1-16
                sent out.
81,     81      Jesus goes up the                        9,        7, 2-10
95              Festival of                              51-56
                Tabernacles. His
                final departure
                from Galilee.
                Incidents in
95,     82      Ten Lepers                               17,
96              cleansed.                                11-19

                Part VI.

                THE FESTIVAL OF
                THE TABERNACLES
                AND THE
                UNTIL OUR LORD’S
                ARRIVAL AT
                BETHANY, SIX DAYS
                BEFORE THE FOURTH

                TIME: _Six months
                less one week._

81      83      Jesus at the                                       7,
                Festival of                                        11-53,
                Tabernacles. His                                   8, 1
                public teaching.
82      84      The woman taken                                    8, 2-11
                in Adultery.
83      85      Further public                                     8,
                teaching of our                                    12-59
                Lord. He reproves
                the unbelieving
                Jews, and escapes
                from their hands.
86      86      A lawyer                                 10,
                instructed. Love                         25-37
                to our neighbour
                defined. Parable
                of the Good
                Samaritan. _Near
99      87      Jesus in the                             10,
                house of Martha                          38-42
                and Mary.
87      88      The Disciples                            11,
                again taught how                         1-13
                to pray. _Near
85      89      The Seventy                              10,
                return.                                  17-24
84      90      A man born blind                                   9,
                is healed on the                                   1-41,
                Sabbath. Our                                       10,
                Lord’s subsequent                                  1-21
100,    91      Jesus in                                           10,
101             Jerusalem at the                                   22-42
                Festival of
                Dedication. He
                retires beyond
                _Bethany beyond
102     92      The raising of                                     11,
                Lazarus.                                           1-46
102     93      The counsel of                                     11,
                Caiaphas against                                   47-54
                Jesus. He retires
                from Jerusalem.
103,    94      Jesus beyond        19, 1. 2   10, 1     13,
88              Jordan is                                10-21
                followed by
                multitudes. The
                healing of the
                infirm woman on
                the Sabbath.
                _Valley of
                Jordan._ _Perea._
89      95      Our Lord goes                            13,
                teaching and                             22-35
                Jerusalem. He is
                warned against
                Herod. _Perea._
90      96      Our Lord dines                           14,
                with a chief                             1-24
                Pharisee on the
91      97      What is required                         14,
                of true                                  25-35
92      98      Parables of the                          15,
                Lost Sheep, etc.                         1-32
                Parable of the
                Prodigal Son.
93      99      Parable of the                           16,
                Unjust Steward.                          1-13
93      100     The Pharisees                            16,
                reproved. Parable                        14-31
                of the Rich Man
                and Lazarus.
94      101     Jesus inculcates                         17,
                forbearance,                             1-10
                faith, humility.
97      102     Christ’s coming                          17,
                will be sudden.                          20-37
98      103     Parables. The                            18,
                importunate                              1-14
                Widow. The
                Pharisee and
103     104     Precepts            19, 3-12   10,
                respecting                     2-12
                divorce. _Perea._
104     105     Jesus receives      19,        10,       18,
                and blesses         13-15      13-16     15-17
                little Children.
105     106     The rich Young      19,        10,       18,
                Man. Parable of     16-30,     17-31     18-30
                the Labourers in    20, 1-16
                the Vineyard.
106     107     Jesus a third       20,        10,       18,
                time foretells      17-19      32-34     31-34
                his Death and
                (See § 74, § 77.)
107     108     James and John      20,        10,
                prefer their        20-28      35-45
                request. _Perea._
108     109     The healing of      20,        10,       18,
                two blind men       29-34      46-52     35-43,
                near Jericho.                            19, 1
109     110     The visit to                             19,
                Zaccheus. Parable                        2-28
                of the ten Minae.
110     111     Jesus arrives at                                   11,
                Bethany six days                                   55-57,
                before the                                         12,
                Passover.                                          1.9-11

                Part VII.

                OUR LORD’S PUBLIC
                ENTRY INTO
                JERUSALEM, AND
                THE SUBSEQUENT
                BEFORE THE FOURTH

                TIME: _Five

111     112     Our Lord’s public   21,        11,       19,       12,
                Entry into          1-11,      1-11      29-44     12-19
                Jerusalem.          14-17
112     113     The barren          21, 12.    11,       19,
                Fig-tree. The       13, 18.    12-19     45-48,
                cleansing of the    19                   21,
                Temple. _Bethany,                        37.38
113     114     The barren          21,        11, 20.
                Fig-tree withers    20-22      2
                away. _Between
                Bethany and
114     115     Christ’s            21,        11,       20, 1-8
                authority           23-32      27-33
                Parable of the
                Two Sons.
114     116     Parable of the      21,        12,       20,
                wicked              33-46      1-12      9-19
114     117     Parable of the      22, 1-14
                Marriage of the
                King’s Son.
115     118     Insidious           22,        12,       20,
                question of the     15-22      13-17     20-26
                Tribute to Cæsar.
115     119     Insidious           22,        12,       20,
                question of the     23-33      18-27     27-40
                Sadducees: The
115     120     A lawyer            22,        12,
                questions Jesus.    34-40      28-34
                The two great
115     121     How is Christ the   22,        12,       20,
                son of David?       41-46      35-37     41-44
116     122     Warnings against    23, 1-12   12,       20,
                the evil example               38.39     45.46
                of the Scribes
                and Pharisees.
116     123     Woes against the    23,        12, 40    20, 47
                Scribes and         13-39
                Lamentation over
117     124     The Widow’s mite.              12,       21, 1-4
                _Jerusalem._                   41-44
111     125     Certain Greeks                                     12,
                desire to see                                      20-36
111     126     Reflections upon                                   12,
                the unbelief of                                    37-50
                the Jews.
118     127     Jesus, on taking    24, 1-14   13,       21,
                leave of the                   1-13      5-19
                Temple, foretells
                its destruction
                and the
                persecution of
                his Disciples.
                _Jerusalem. Mount
                of Olives._
118     128     The signs of        24,        13,       21,
                Christ’s coming     15-42      14-37     20-36
                to destroy
                Jerusalem, and
                put an end to the
                Jewish State and
                _Mount of
118     129     Transition to       24,
                Christ’s final      43-51,
                coming at the Day   25, 1-30
                of Judgment.
                Exhortation to
                Parables: The ten
                Virgins. The five
                Talents. _Mount
                of Olives._
119     130     Scenes of the       25,
                Judgment Day.       31-46
                _Mount of
120     131     The Rulers          26, 1-16   14,       22, 1-6   12, 2-8
                conspire. The                  1-11
                supper at
                Treachery of
121     132     Preparation for     26,        14,       22,
                the Passover.       17-19      12-16     7-13

                Part VIII.

                THE FOURTH
                PASSOVER; OUR
                LORD’S PASSION;
                AND THE
                EVENTS UNTIL THE
                END OF THE JEWISH

                TIME: _Two days._

122     133     The Passover        26, 20     14, 17    22,
                Meal. Contention                         14-18,
                among the Twelve.                        24-30
123     134     Jesus washes the                                   13,
                feet of his                                        1-20
124     136     Jesus point out     26,        14,       22,       13,
                the Traitor.        21-25      18-21     21-23     21-35
                Judas withdraws.
125     136     Jesus foretells     26,        14,       22,       13,
                the fall of         31-35      27-31     31-38     36-38
                Peter, and the
                dispersion of the
126,    137     The Lord’s          26,        14,       22,
128             Supper.             26-29      22-25     19.20
127,    138     Jesus comforts                                     14,
129             his Disciples.                                     1-31
                The Holy Spirit
129     139     Christ the true                                    15,
                Vine. His                                          1-27
                Disciples hated
                by the world.
129     140     Persecution                                        16,
                foretold. Further                                  1-33
                promise of the
                Holy Spirit.
                Prayer in the
                name of Christ.
130     141     Christ’s last                                      17,
                prayer with his                                    1-26
131     142     The agony in        26, 30,    14, 26,   22,       18, 1
                Gethsemane.         36-46      32-42     39-46
                _Mount of
132     143     Jesus betrayed,     26,        14,       22,       18,
                and made            47-56      43-52     47-53     2-12
                prisoner. _Mount
                of Olives._
133,    144     Jesus before        26,        14,       22,       18,
134             Caiaphas. Peter     47-56      53.54,    54-62     13-18,
                thrice denies                  66-72               25-27
                him. _Jerusalem._
134     145     Jesus before        26,        14,       22,       18,
                Caiaphas and the    59-68      55-65     63-71     19-24
                Sanhedrim. He
                declares himself
                to be the Christ;
                is condemned and
135     146     The Sanhedrim       27, 1.     15, 1-5   23,       18,
                lead Jesus away     2, 11-14             1-5,      28-38
                to Pilate.                               23,
                _Jerusalem._                             6-12
136     147     Jesus before                             23,
                Herod.                                   6-12
138     148     Pilate seeks to     27,        15,       23,       18, 39.
                release Jesus.      15-26      6-15      13-25     40
                The Jews demand
138     149     Pilate delivers     27,        15,                 19, 1-3
                up Jesus to         26-30      15-19
                death. He is
                scourged and
138     150     Pilate again                                       19,
                seeks to release                                   4-16
139     151     Judas repents and   27, 3-10
                hangs himself.
138,    152     Jesus is led away   27,        15,       23,       19,
140             to be crucified.    31-34      20-23     26-33     16.17
141     153     The Crucifixion.    27,        15,       23,       19,
                _Jerusalem._        35-38      24-28     33.34     18-24
141     154     The Jews mock at    27,        15,       23,       19,
                Jesus on the        39-44      29-32,    35-37,    25-27
                Cross. He                      15,       39-43
                commends his                   33-37
                mother to John.
141     155     Darkness            27,                  23,       19,
                prevails. Christ    45-50                44-46     28-30
                expires on the
142,    156     The vail of the     27,        15,       23, 45,
144             Temple rent, and    51-56      38-41     47-49
                graves opened.
                Judgment of the
                Centurion. The
                Women at the
142     157     The taking down     27,        15,       23,       19,
                from the Cross.     57-61      42-47     50-56     31-42
                The burial.
143     158     The Watch at the    27,
                Sepulchre.          62-66

                Part IX.

                OUR LORD’S
                RESURRECTION, HIS
                APPEARANCES, AND
                HIS ASCENSION.

                TIME: _Forty

144     159     The Morning of      28, 2-4    16, 1
                the Resurrection.
145     160     Visit of the        28, 1      16, 2-4   24, 1-3   20, 1.
                Women to the                                       2
                Sepulchre. Mary
145     161     Vision of Angels    28, 5-7    16, 5-7   24, 4-8
                in the Sepulchre.
145     162     The Women return    28, 8-10   16, 8     24,
                to the City.                             9-11
                Jesus meets them.
146     163     Peter and John                           24, 12    20,
                run to the                                         3-10
147,    164     Our Lord is seen               16,                 20,
148             by Mary Magdalene              9-11                11-18
                at the Sepulchre.
149     165     Report of the       28,
                Watch.              11-15
150     166     Our Lord is seen               16,       24,
                of Peter. Then by              12.13     13-35
                two Disciples on
                the way to
151     167     Jesus appears in               16,       24,       20,
                the midst of the               14-18     36-49     19-23
                Apostles, Thomas
                being absent.
152     168     Jesus appears in                                   20,
                the midst of the                                   24-29
                Apostles, Thomas
                being present.
153     169     The Apostles go     28, 16                         21,
                away into                                          1-24
                Galilee. Jesus
                shows himself to
                seven of them at
                the Sea of
154     170     Jesus meets the     28,
                Apostles and        16-20
                above five
                hundred Brethren
                on a Mountain in
155     171     Our Lord is seen               16,       24,
                of James; then of              19.20     50-53
                all the Apostles.
156     172     The Ascension.                                     20,
                _Bethany._                                         30.31
157     173     Conclusion of                                      21, 25
                John’s Gospel.

Table for Finding Any Passage in the Harmony.


Chap.     Verse.       Sect.
i.        1-17         13
          18-25        6
ii.       1-12         10
          13-23        11
iii.      1-12         14
          13-17        15
iv.       1-11         16
          12           24
          13-16        28
          17           26
          18-22        29
          23-25        32
v.        1-48         41
vi.       1-34         41
vii.      1-29         41
viii.     1            41
          2-4          33
          5-13         42
          14-17        31
          18-27        56
          28-34        57
ix.       1            57
          2-8          34
          9            35
          10-17        58
          18-26        59
          27-34        60
          35-38        62
x.        1            62
          2-4          40
          5-42         62
xi.       1            62
          2-19         44
          20-30        45
xii.      1-8          37
          9-14         38
          15-21        39
          22-37        48
          38-45        49
          46-50        50
xiii.     1-23         54
          24-53        55
          54-58        61
xiv.      1, 2         63
          3-5          24
          6-12         63
          13-21        64
          22-36        65
xv.       1-20         67
          21-28        68
          29-38        69
          39           70
xvi.      1-4          70
          4-12         71
          13-20        73
          21-28        74
xvii.     1-13         75
          14-21        76
          22, 23       77
          24-27        78
xviii.    1-35         79
xix.      1, 2         94
          3-12         104
          13-15        105
          16-30        106
xx.       1-16         106
          17-19        107
          20-28        108
          29-34        109
xxi.      1-11         112
          12-13        113
          14-17        112
          18-19        113
          20-22        114
          28-32        115
          33-46        116
xxii.     1-14         117
          15-22        118
          23-33        119
          34-40        120
          41-46        121
xxiii.    1-12         122
          13-39        123
xxiv.     1-14         127
          15-42        128
          43-51        129
xxv.      1-30         129
          31-46        130
xxvi.     1-16         131
          17-19        132
          20           133
          21-25        135
          26-29        137
          30           142
          31-35        136
          36-46        142
          47-56        143
          57, 58       144
          59-68        145
          69-75        144
xxvii     1, 2         146
          3-10         151
          11-14        146
          15-26        148
          26-30        149
          31-34        152
          35-38        153
          39-44        154
          45-50        155
          51-56        156
          57-61        157
          62-66        158
xxviii.   1            160
          2-4          159
          5-7          161
          8-10         162
          11-15        165
          16           169
          16-20        170


Chap.   Verse.       Sect.
i.      1-8          14
        9-11         15
        12, 13       16
        14           24
        14, 15       26
        16-20        29
        21-28        30
        29-34        31
        35-39        32
        40-45        33
ii.     1-12         34
        13, 14       35
        15-22        58
        23-28        37
iii.    1-6          38
        7-12         39
        13-19        40
        19-30        48
        31-35        50
iv.     1-25         54
        26-34        55
        35-41        56
v.      1-21         57
        22-43        59
vi.     1-6          61
        6-13         62
        14-16        63
        17-20        24
        21-29        63
        30-44        64
        45-56        65
vii.    1-23         67
        24-30        68
        31-37        69
viii    1-9          69
        10-12        70
        13-21        71
        22-26        72
        27-30        73
        31-38        74
ix.     1            74
        2-13         75
        14-29        76
        30-32        77
        33           78
        33-50        79
x.      1            94
        2-12         104
        13-16        105
        17-31        106
        32-34        107
        35-45        108
        46-52        109
xi.     1-11         112
        12-19        113
        20-26        114
        27-33        115
xii.    1-12         116
        13-17        118
        18-27        119
        28-34        120
        35-37        121
        38, 39       122
        40           123
        41-44        124
xiii.   1-13         127
        14-37        128
xiv.    1-11         131
        12-16        132
        17           133
        18-21        135
        22-25        137
        26           142
        27-31        136
        32-42        142
        43-52        143
        53, 54       144
        55-65        145
        66-72        144
xv.     1-5          146
        6-15         148
        15-19        149
        20-23        152
        24-28        153
        29-32        154
        33-37        155
        38-41        156
        42-47        157
xvi.    1            159
        2-4          160
        5-7          161
        8            162
        9-11         164
        12, 13       166
        14-18        167
        19, 20       172


Chap.    Verse.       Sect.
i.       1-4          1
         5-25         2
         26-38        3
         39-56        4
         57-80        5
ii.      1-7          7
         8-20         8
         21-38        9
         39, 40       11
         41-52        12
iii.     1-18         14
         19-20        24
         21-23        15
         23-38        13
iv.      1-13         16
         14           24
         14, 15       26
         16-31        28
         31-37        30
         38-41        31
         42-44        32
v.       1-11         29
         12-16        33
         17-26        34
         27, 28       35
         29-39        58
vi.      1-5          37
         6-11         38
         12-19        40
         20-26        41
         27-30        41
         31           41
         32-36        41
         37-49        41
vii.     1-10         42
         11-17        43
         18-35        44
         36-50        46
viii.    1-3          47
         4-18         54
         19-21        50
         22-25        56
         26-40        57
         41-56        59
ix.      1-6          62
         7-9          63
         10-17        64
         18-21        73
         22-27        74
         28-36        75
         37-43        76
         43-45        77
         46-50        79
         51-56        81
         57-62        56
x.       1-16         80
         17-24        89
         25-37        86
         38-42        87
xi.      1-13         88
         14, 15       48
         16           49
         17-23        48
         24-28        49
         29-36        49
         37-54        51
xii.     1-59         52
xiii.    1-9          53
         10-21        94
         22-35        95
xiv.     1-24         96
         25-35        97
xv.      1-32         98
xvi.     1-13         99
         14-31        100
xvii.    1-10         101
         11-19        82
         20-37        102
xviii.   1-14         103
         15-17        105
         18-30        106
         31-34        107
         35-43        109
xix.     1            109
         2-28         110
         29-44        112
         45-18        113
xx.      1-8          115
         9-19         116
         20-26        118
         27-40        119
         41-44        121
         45-46        122
         47           123
xxi.     1-4          124
         5-19         127
         20-36        128
         37, 38       118
xxii.    1-6          131
         7-13         132
         14-18        133
         19, 20       137
         21-23        135
         24-30        133
         31-38        136
         39-46        142
         47-53        143
         54-62        144
         63-71        145
xxiii.   1-5          146
         6-12         147
         13-25        148
         26-33        152
         33-34        153
         35-37        154
         38           153
         39-43        154
         44-46        155
         45           156
         47-49        156
         50-56        157
xxiv.    1-3          160
         4-8          161
         9-11         162
         12           163
         13-35        166
         36-49        167
         50-53        172


Chap.    Verse.       Sect.
i.       1-18         17
         19-34        18
         35-52        19
ii.      1-12         20
         13-25        21
iii.     1-21         22
         22-36        23
iv.      1-3          24
         4-42         25
         43-45        26
         46-54        27
v.       1-47         36
vi.      1-14         64
         15-21        65
         22-71        66
vii.     1            66
         2-10         81
         11-53        83
viii.    1            83
         2-11         84
         12-59        85
ix.      1-41         90
         1-21         90
         22-42        91
xi.      1-46         92
         47-54        93
         55-57        111
xii.     1            111
         2-8          131
         9-11         111
         12-19        112
         20-36        125
         37-50        126
xiii.    1-20         134
         21-35        135
         36-38        136
xiv.     1-31         138
xv.      1-27         139
xvi.     1-33         140
xvii.    1-26         141
xviii.   1            142
         2-12         143
         13-18        144
         19-24        145
         25-27        144
         28-38        146
         39-40        148
xix.     1-3          149
         4-16         150
         16, 17       152
         18-24        153
         25-27        154
         28-30        155
         31-42        157
xx.      1, 2         160
         3-10         163
         11-18        164
         19-23        167
         24-29        168
         30, 31       173
xxi.     1-24         169
         25           173


The arrangement of the Gospels by Dr. Robinson was adopted in this work,
it being the latest published in the United States, and by a scholar of
the highest reputation. But by comparing his order with that of Archbishop
Newcome, as shown in contiguous columns in the Table of Contents and
Synopsis of the Harmony, it will be found that they differ only in a very
few unimportant particulars, not at all affecting the general scheme or
structure of the Harmony, or the purposes of this examination. I have,
however, in several places omitted their transposition of the verses of
the text, occurring within the limits of a section; it being more
convenient to insert them in the order in which they were written by the

The preliminary Dissertation has been revised and enlarged, and some
further notes added to the text, which is printed conformably to the
common octavo edition of the American Bible Society, except in a few
places, where the article a was accidentally printed instead of _an_, in
the words _an house_, &c.

Cambridge, Massachusetts,
_March_ 1, 1847.


§ 1. In examining the evidences of the Christian religion, it is essential
to the discovery of truth that we bring to the investigation a mind freed,
as far as possible, from existing prejudice and open to conviction. There
should be a readiness, on our part, to investigate with candour, to follow
the truth wherever it may lead us, and to submit, without reserve or
objection, to all the teachings of this religion, if it be found to be of
divine origin. “There is no other entrance,” says Lord Bacon, “to the
kingdom of man, which is founded in the sciences, than to the kingdom of
heaven, into which no one can enter but in the character of a little
child.”(2) The docility which true philosophy requires of her disciples is
not a spirit of servility, or the surrender of the reason and judgment to
whatsoever the teacher may inculcate; but it is a mind free from all pride
of opinion, not hostile to the truth sought for, willing to pursue the
inquiry and impartially to weigh the arguments and evidence, and to
acquiesce in the judgment of right reason. The investigation, moreover,
should be pursued with the serious earnestness which becomes the greatness
of the subject—a subject fraught with such momentous consequences to man.
It should be pursued as in the presence of God, and under the solemn
sanctions created by a lively sense of his omniscience, and of our
accountability to him for the right use of the faculties which he has

§ 2. In requiring this candour and simplicity of mind in those who would
investigate the truth of our religion, Christianity demands nothing more
than is readily conceded to every branch of human science. All these have
their data, and their axioms; and Christianity, too, has her first
principles, the admission of which is essential to any real progress in
knowledge. “Christianity,” says Bishop Wilson, “inscribes on the portal of
her dominions, ‘Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little
child, shall in nowise enter therein.’ Christianity does not profess to
convince the perverse and headstrong, to bring irresistible evidence to
the daring and profane, to vanquish the proud scorner, and afford
evidences from which the careless and perverse cannot possibly escape.
This might go to destroy man’s responsibility. All that Christianity
professes, is to propose such evidences as may satisfy the meek, the
tractable, the candid, the serious inquirer.”(3)

§ 3. The present design, however, is not to enter upon any general
examination of the evidences of Christianity, but to confine the inquiry
to the testimony of the Four Evangelists, bringing their narratives to the
tests to which other evidence is subjected in human tribunals. The
foundation of our religion is a basis of fact—the fact of the birth,
ministry, miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ.
These are related by the Evangelists as having actually occurred, within
their own personal knowledge. Our religion, then, rests on the credit due
to these witnesses. Are they worthy of implicit belief, in the matters
which they relate? This is the question, in all human tribunals, in regard
to persons testifying before them; and we propose to test the veracity of
these witnesses, by the same rules and means which are there employed. The
importance of the facts testified, and their relations to the affairs of
the soul, and the life to come, can make no difference in the principles
or the mode of weighing the evidence. It is still the evidence of matters
of fact, capable of being seen and known and related, as well by one man
as by another. And if the testimony of the Evangelist, supposing it to be
relevant and material to the issue in a question of property or of
personal right, between man and man, in a court of justice, ought to be
believed and have weight; then, upon the like principles, it ought to
receive our entire credit here. But if, on the other hand, we should be
justified in rejecting it, if there testified on oath, then, supposing our
rules of evidence to be sound, we may be excused if we hesitate elsewhere
to give it credence.

§ 4. The proof that God has revealed himself to man by special and express
communications, and that Christianity constitutes that revelation, is no
part of these inquiries. This has already been shown, in the most
satisfactory manner, by others, who have written expressly upon this
subject.(4) Referring therefore to their writings for the arguments and
proofs, the fact will here be assumed as true. That man is a religious
being, is universally conceded, for it has been seen to be universally
true. He is everywhere a worshipper. In every age and country, and in
every stage, from the highest intellectual culture to the darkest
stupidity, he bows with homage to a superior Being. Be it the rude-carved
idol of his own fabrication, or the unseen divinity that stirs within him,
it is still the object of his adoration. This trait in the character of
man is so uniform, that it may safely be assumed, either as one of the
original attributes of his nature, or as necessarily resulting from the
action of one or more of those attributes.

§ 5. The object of man’s worship, whatever it be, will naturally be his
standard of perfection. He clothes it with every attribute, belonging, in
his view, to a perfect character; and this character he himself endeavours
to attain. He may not, directly and consciously, aim to acquire every
virtue of his deity, and to avoid the opposite vices; but still this will
be the inevitable consequence of sincere and constant worship. As in human
society men become assimilated, both in manners and in moral principles,
to their chosen associates, so in the worship of whatever deity men adore,
they “form to his the relish of their souls.” To suppose, then, that God
made man capable of religion, and requiring it in order to the development
of the highest part of his nature, without communicating with him, as a
father, in those revelations which alone could perfect that nature, would
be a reproach upon God, and a contradiction.(5)

§ 6. How it came to pass that man, originally taught, as we doubt not he
was, to know and to worship the true Jehovah, is found, at so early a
period of his history, a worshipper of baser objects, it is foreign to our
present purpose to inquire. But the fact is lamentably true, that he soon
became an idolater, a worshipper of moral abominations. The Scythians and
Northmen adored the impersonations of heroic valour and of bloodthirsty
and cruel revenge. The mythology of Greece and of Rome, though it
exhibited a few examples of virtue and goodness, abounded in others of
gross licentiousness and vice. The gods of Egypt were reptiles, and beasts
and birds. The religion of Central and Eastern Asia was polluted with lust
and cruelty, and smeared with blood, rioting, in deadly triumph, over all
the tender affections of the human heart and all the convictions of the
human understanding. Western and Southern Africa and Polynesia are, to
this day, the abodes of frightful idolatry, cannibalism, and cruelty; and
the aborigines of both the Americas are examples of the depths of
superstition to which the human mind may be debased. In every quarter of
the world, however, there is a striking uniformity seen, in all the
features of paganism. The ruling principle of her religion is terror, and
her deity is lewd and cruel. Whatever of purity the earlier forms of
paganism may have possessed, it is evident from history that it was of
brief duration. Every form, which history has preserved, grew rapidly and
steadily worse and more corrupt, until the entire heathen world, before
the coming of Christ, was infected with that loathsome leprosy of
pollution, described with revolting vividness by St. Paul, in the
beginning of his Epistle to the Romans.

§ 7. So general and decided was this proclivity to the worship of strange
gods, that, at the time of the deluge, only one family remained faithful
to Jehovah; and this was a family which had been favoured with his special
revelation. Indeed it is evident that nothing but a revelation from God
could raise men from the degradation of pagan idolatry, because nothing
else has ever had that effect. If man could achieve his own freedom from
this bondage, he would long since have been free. But instead of this, the
increase of light and civilization and refinement in the pagan world has
but multiplied the objects of his worship, added voluptuous refinements to
its ritual, and thus increased the number and weight of his chains. In
this respect there is no difference in their moral condition, between the
barbarous Scythian and the learned Egyptian or Roman of ancient times, nor
between the ignorant African and the polished Hindu of our own day. The
only method, which has been successfully employed to deliver man from
idolatry, is that of presenting to the eye of his soul an object of
worship perfectly holy and pure, directly opposite, in moral character, to
the gods he had formerly adored. He could not transfer to his deities a
better character than he himself possessed. He must for ever remain
enslaved to his idols, unless a new and pure object of worship were
revealed to him, with a display of superior power sufficient to overcome
his former faith and his present fears, to detach his affections from
grosser objects, and to fix them upon that which alone is worthy.(6) This
is precisely what God, as stated in the Holy Scriptures, has done. He
rescued one family from idolatry in the Old World, by the revelation of
himself to Noah; he called a distinct branch of this family to the
knowledge of himself, in the person of Abraham and his sons; He extended
this favour to a whole nation, through the ministry of Moses; but it was
through that of Jesus Christ alone that it was communicated to the whole
world. In Egypt, by the destruction of all the objects of the popular
worship, God taught the Israelites that he alone was the self-existent
Almighty. At the Red Sea, he emphatically showed them that He was the
Protector and Saviour of his people. At Sinai, he revealed himself as the
righteous Governor who required implicit obedience for men, and taught
them, by the strongly marked distinctions of the ceremonial law, that he
was a holy Being, of purer eyes than to behold evil, and that could not
look upon iniquity. The demerit of sin was inculcated by the solemn
infliction of death upon every animal, offered as a propitiatory
sacrifice. And when, by this system of instruction, he had prepared a
people to receive the perfect revelation of the character of God, of the
nature of his worship, and of the way of restoration to his image and
favour, this also was expressly revealed by the mission of his Son.(7)

§ 8. That the books of the Old Testament, as we now have them, are
genuine; that they existed in the time of our Saviour, and were commonly
received and referred to among the Jews, as the sacred books of their
religion;(8) and that the text of the Four Evangelists has been handed
down to us in the state in which it was originally written, that is,
without having been materially corrupted or falsified, either by heretics
or Christians; are facts which we are entitled to assume as true, until
the contrary is shown.

The genuineness of these writings really admits of as little doubt, and is
susceptible of as ready proof, as that of any ancient writings whatever.
The rule of municipal law on this subject is familiar, and applies with
equal force to all ancient writing, whether documentary or otherwise; and
as it comes first in order, in the prosecution of these inquiries, it may,
for the sake of mere convenience, be designated as our first rule.

    _Every document, apparently ancient, coming from the proper
    repository or custody, and bearing on its face no evident marks of
    forgery, the law presumes to be genuine, and devolves on the
    opposing party the burden of proving it to be otherwise._

§ 9. An ancient document, offered in evidence in our courts, is said to
come from the proper repository, when it is found in the place where, and
under the care of persons with whom, such writings might naturally and
reasonably be expected to be found; for it is this custody which gives
authenticity to documents found within it.(9) If they come from such a
place, and bear no evident marks of forgery, the law presumes that they
are genuine, and they are permitted to be read in evidence, unless the
opposing party is able successfully to impeach them.(10) The burden of
showing them to be false and unworthy of credit, is devolved on the party
who makes that objection. The presumption of law is the judgment of
charity. It presumes that every man is innocent until he is proven guilty;
that everything has been done fairly and legally, until it is proved to
have been otherwise; and that every document, found in its proper
repository, and not bearing marks of forgery, is genuine. Now this is
precisely the case with the Sacred Writings. They have been used in the
church from time immemorial, and thus are found in the place where alone
they ought to be looked for. They come to us, and challenge our reception
of them as genuine writings, precisely as Domesday Book, the Ancient
Statutes of Wales, or any other of the ancient documents which have
recently been published under the British Record Commission, are received.
They are found in familiar use in all the churches of Christendom, as the
sacred books to which all denominations of Christians refer, as the
standard of their faith. There is no pretence that they were engraven on
plates of gold and discovered in a cave, nor that they were brought from
heaven by angels; but they are received as the plain narratives and
writings of the men whose names they respectively bear, made public at the
time they were written; and though there are some slight discrepancies
among the copies subsequently made, there is no pretence that the
originals were anywhere corrupted. If it be objected that the originals
are lost, and that copies alone are now produced, the principles of the
municipal law here also afford a satisfactory answer. For the
multiplication of copies was a public fact, in the faithfulness of which
all the Christian community had an interest, and it is a rule of law,
that, _in matters of public and general interest, all persons must be
presumed to be conversant, on the principle that individuals are presumed
to be conversant with their own affairs_. Therefore it is that, in such
matters, the prevailing current of assertion is resorted to as evidence,
for it is to this that every member of the community is supposed to be
privy.(11) The persons, moreover, who multiplied these copies, may be
regarded, in some manner, as the agents of the Christian public, for whose
use and benefit the copies were made; and on the ground of the credit due
to such agents, and of the public nature of the facts themselves, the
copies thus made are entitled to an extraordinary degree of confidence,
and, as in the case of official registers and other public books, it is
not necessary that they should be confirmed and sanctioned by the ordinary
tests of truth.(12) If any ancient document concerning our public rights
were lost, copies which had been as universally received and acted upon as
the Four Gospels have been, would have been received in evidence in any of
our courts of justice, without the slightest hesitation. The entire text
of the Corpus Juris Civilis is received as authority in all the courts of
continental Europe, upon much weaker evidence of its genuineness; for the
integrity of the Sacred Text has been preserved by the jealousy of
opposing sects, beyond any moral possibility of corruption; while that of
the Roman Civil Law has been preserved only by tacit consent, without the
interest of any opposing school, to watch over and preserve it from

§ 10. These copies of the Holy Scriptures having thus been in familiar use
in the churches, from the time when the text was committed to writing;
having been watched with vigilance by so many sects, opposed to each other
in doctrine, yet all appealing to these Scriptures for the correctness of
their faith; and having in all ages, down to this day, been respected as
the authoritative source of all ecclesiastical power and government, and
submitted to, and acted under in regard to so many claims of right, on the
one hand, and so many obligations of duty, on the other; it is quite
erroneous to suppose that the Christian is bound to offer any further
proof of their genuineness or authenticity. It is for the objector to show
them spurious; for on him, by the plainest rules of law, lies the burden
of proof.(13) If it were the case of a claim to a franchise, and a copy of
an ancient deed or charter were produced in support of the title, under
parallel circumstances on which to presume its genuineness, no lawyer, it
is believed, would venture to deny either its admissibility in evidence,
or the satisfactory character of the proof. In a recent case in the House
of Lords, precisely such a document, being an old manuscript copy,
purporting to have been extracted from ancient Journals of the House,
which were lost, and to have been made by an officer whose duty it was to
prepare lists of the Peers, was held admissible in a claim of peerage.(14)

§ 11. Supposing, therefore, that it is not irrational, nor inconsistent
with sound philosophy, to believe that God has made a special and express
revelation of his character and will to man, and that the sacred books of
our religion are genuine, as we now have them; we proceed to examine and
compare the testimony of the Four Evangelists, as witnesses to the life
and doctrines of Jesus Christ; in order to determine the degree of credit,
to which, by the rules of evidence applied in human tribunals, they are
justly entitled. Our attention will naturally be first directed to the
witnesses themselves, to see who and what manner of men they were, and we
shall take them in the order of their writings; stating the prominent
traits only in their lives and characters, as they are handed down to us
by credible historians.

§ 12. MATTHEW, called also LEVI, was a Jew of Galilee, but of what city is
uncertain. He held the place of publican, or tax-gatherer, under the Roman
government, and his office seems to have consisted in collecting the taxes
within his district, as well as the duties and customs levied on goods and
persons, passing in and out of his district or province, across the lake
of Genesareth. While engaged in this business, at the office or usual
place of collection, he was required by Jesus to follow him, as one of his
disciples; a command which he immediately obeyed. Soon afterwards, he
appears to have given a great entertainment to his fellow-publicans and
friends, at which Jesus was present; intending probably both to celebrate
his own change of profession, and to give them an opportunity to profit by
the teaching of his new Master.(15) He was constituted one of the twelve
apostles, and constantly attended the person of Jesus as a faithful
follower, until the crucifixion; and after the ascension of his Master he
preached the gospel for some time, with the other apostles, in Judea, and
afterwards in Ethiopia, where he died.

He is generally allowed to have written first, of all the evangelists; but
whether in the Hebrew or the Greek language, or in both, the learned are
not agreed, nor is it material to our purpose to inquire; the genuineness
of our present Greek gospel being sustained by satisfactory evidence.(16)
The precise time when he wrote is also uncertain, the several dates given
to it among learned men, varying from A.D. 37 to A.D. 64. The earlier
date, however, is argued with greater force, from the improbability that
the Christians would be left for several years without a general and
authentic history of our Saviour’s ministry; from the evident allusions
which it contains to a state of persecution in the church at the time it
was written; from the titles of sanctity ascribed to Jerusalem, and a
higher veneration testified for the temple than is found in the other and
later evangelists; from the comparative gentleness with which Herod’s
character and conduct are dealt with, that bad prince probably being still
in power; and from the frequent mention of Pilate, as still governor of

§ 13. That Matthew was himself a native Jew, familiar with the opinions,
ceremonies, and customs of his countrymen; that he was conversant with the
Sacred Writings, and habituated to their idiom; a man of plain sense, but
of little learning, except what he derived from the Scriptures of the Old
Testament; that he wrote seriously and from conviction, and had, on most
occasions, been present, and attended closely, to the transactions which
he relates, and relates, too, without any view of applause to himself; are
facts which we may consider established by internal evidence, as strong as
the nature of the case will admit. It is deemed equally well proved, both
by internal evidence and the aid of history, that he wrote for the use of
his countrymen the Jews. Every circumstance is noticed which might
conciliate their belief, and every unnecessary expression is avoided which
might obstruct it. They looked for the Messiah, of the lineage of David,
and born in Bethlehem, in the circumstances of whose life the prophecies
should find fulfilment, a matter, in their estimation, of peculiar value;
and to all these this evangelist has directed their especial

§ 14. Allusion has been already made to his employment as a collector of
taxes and customs; but the subject is too important to be passed over
without further notice. The tribute imposed by the Romans upon countries
conquered by their arms was enormous. In the time of Pompey, the sums
annually exacted from their Asiatic provinces, of which Judea was one,
amounted to about four millions and a half sterling, or about twenty-two
millions of dollars. These exactions were made in the usual forms of
direct and indirect taxation; the rate of the customs on merchandise
varying from an eighth to a fortieth part of the value of the commodity;
and the tariff including all the principal articles of the commerce of the
East, much of which, as is well known, still found its way to Italy
through Palestine, as well as by the way of Damascus and of Egypt. The
direct taxes consisted of a capitation-tax and a land-tax, assessed upon a
valuation or census, periodically taken, under the oath of the individual,
with heavy penal sanctions.(19) It is natural to suppose that these taxes
were not voluntarily paid, especially since they were imposed by the
conqueror upon a conquered people, and by a heathen, too, upon the people
of the house of Israel. The increase of taxes has generally been found to
multiply discontents, evasions and frauds on the one hand, and, on the
other, to increase vigilance, suspicion, close scrutiny, and severity of
exaction. The penal code, as revised by Theodosius, will give us some
notion of the difficulties in the way of the revenue officers, in the
earlier times of which we are speaking. These difficulties must have been
increased by the fact that, at this period, a considerable portion of the
commerce of that part of the world was carried on by the Greeks, whose
ingenuity and want of faith were proverbial. It was to such an employment
and under such circumstances, that Matthew was educated; an employment
which must have made him acquainted with the Greek language, and
extensively conversant with the public affairs and the men of business of
his time; thus entitling him to our confidence, as an experienced and
intelligent observer of events passing before him. And if the men of that
day were, as in truth they appear to have been, as much disposed as those
of the present time, to evade the payment of public taxes and duties, and
to elude, by all possible means, the vigilance of the revenue officers,
Matthew must have been familiar with a great variety of the forms of
fraud, imposture, cunning, and deception, and must have become habitually
distrustful, scrutinizing, and cautious; and, of course, much less likely
to have been deceived in regard to many of the facts in our Lord’s
ministry, extraordinary as they were, which fell under his observation.
This circumstance shows both the sincerity and the wisdom of Jesus, in
selecting him for an eye-witness of his conduct, and adds great weight to
the value of the testimony of this evangelist.

§ 15. MARK was the son of a pious sister of Barnabas, named Mary, who
dwelt at Jerusalem, and at whose home the early Christians often
assembled. His Hebrew name was John; the surname of Mark having been
adopted, as is supposed, when he left Judea to preach the gospel in
foreign countries; a practice not unusual among the Jews of that age, who
frequently, upon such occasions, assumed a name more familiar than their
own to the people whom they visited. He is supposed to have been converted
to the Christian faith by the ministry of Peter. He travelled from
Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, and afterwards accompanied
them elsewhere. When they landed at Perga in Pamphylia, he left them and
returned to Jerusalem; for which reason, when he afterwards would have
gone with them, Paul refused to take him. Upon this, a difference of
opinion arose between the two apostles, and they separated, Barnabas
taking Mark with him to Cyprus. Subsequently he accompanied Timothy to
Rome, at the express desire of Paul. From this city he probably went into
Asia, where he found Peter, with whom he returned to Rome, in which city
he is supposed to have written and published his Gospel. Such is the
outline of his history, as it is furnished by the New Testament.(20) The
early historians add, that after this he went into Egypt and planted a
church in Alexandria, where he died.(21)

§ 16. It is agreed that Mark wrote his Gospel for the use of Gentile
converts; an opinion deriving great force from the explanations introduced
into it, which would have been useless to a Jew;(22) and that it was
composed for those at Rome, is believed, not only from the numerous
Latinisms it contains, but from the unanimous testimony of ancient
writers, and from the internal evidence afforded by the Gospel itself.

§ 17. Some have entertained the opinion that Mark compiled his account
from that of Matthew, of which they supposed it an abridgment. But this
notion has been refuted by Koppe, and others,(23) and is now generally
regarded as untenable. For Mark frequently deviates from Matthew in the
order of time, in his arrangement of facts; and he adds many things not
related by the other evangelists; neither of which a mere epitomizer would
probably have done. He also omits several things related by Matthew, and
imperfectly describes others, especially the transactions of Christ with
the apostles after the resurrection; giving no account whatever of his
appearance in Galilee; omissions irreconcilable with any previous
knowledge of the Gospel according to Matthew. To these proofs we may add,
that in several places there are discrepancies between the accounts of
Matthew and Mark, not, indeed, irreconcilable, but sufficient to destroy
the probability that the latter copied from the former.(24) The striking
coincidences between them, in style, words, and things, in other places,
may be accounted for by considering that Peter, who is supposed to have
dictated this Gospel to Mark, was quite as intimately acquainted as
Matthew with the miracles and discourses of our Lord; which, therefore, he
would naturally recite in his preaching; and that the same things might
very naturally be related in the same manner, by men who sought not after
excellency of speech. Peter’s agency in the narrative of Mark is asserted
by all ancient writers, and is confirmed by the fact, that his humility is
conspicuous in every part of it, where anything is or might be related of
him; his weaknesses and fall being fully exposed, while things which might
redound to his honour, are either omitted or but slightly mentioned; that
scarcely any transaction of Jesus is related, at which Peter was not
present, and that all are related with that circumstantial minuteness
which belongs to the testimony of an eye-witness.(25) We may, therefore,
regard the Gospel of Mark as an original composition, written at the
dictation of Peter, and consequently as another original narrative of the
life, miracles, and doctrines of our Lord.

§ 18. LUKE, according to Eusebius, was a native of Antioch, by profession
a physician, and for a considerable period a companion of the apostle
Paul. From the casual notices of him in the Scriptures, and from the early
Christian writers, it has been collected, that his parents were Gentiles,
but that he in his youth embraced Judaism, from which he was converted to
Christianity. The first mention of him is that he was with Paul at
Troas;(26) whence he appears to have attended him to Jerusalem; continued
with him in all his troubles in Judea; and sailed with him when he was
sent a prisoner from Cæsarea to Rome, where he remained with him during
his two years’ confinement. As none of the ancient fathers have mentioned
his having suffered martyrdom, it is generally supposed that he died a
natural death.

§ 19. That he wrote his Gospel for the benefit of Gentile converts is
affirmed by the unanimous voice of Christian antiquity; and it may also be
inferred from its dedication to a Gentile. He is particularly careful to
specify various circumstances conducive to the information of strangers,
but not so to the Jews; he gives the lineage of Jesus upwards, after the
manner of the Gentiles, instead of downwards, as Matthew had done; tracing
it up to Adam, and thus showing that Jesus was the promised seed of the
woman; and he marks the eras of his birth, and of the ministry of John, by
the reigns of the Roman emperors. He also has introduced several things,
not mentioned by the other evangelists, but highly encouraging to the
Gentiles to turn to God in the hope of pardon and acceptance; of which
description are the parables of the publican and pharisee, in the temple;
the lost piece of silver; and the prodigal son; and the fact of Christ’s
visit to Zaccheus the publican, and the pardon of the penitent thief.

§ 20. That Luke was a physician, appears not only from the testimony of
Paul,(27) but from the internal marks in his Gospel, showing that he was
both an acute observer, and had given particular and even professional
attention to all our Saviour’s miracles of healing. Thus, the man whom
Matthew and Mark describe simply as a leper, Luke describes as _full_ of
leprosy;(28) he, whom they mention as having a withered hand, Luke says
had his _right_ hand withered;(29) and of the maid, of whom the others say
that Jesus took her by the hand and she arose, he adds, that _her spirit
came to her again_.(30) He alone, with professional accuracy of
observation, says that _virtue went out_ of Jesus, and healed the
sick;(31) he alone states the fact that the sleep of the disciples in
Gethsemane was _induced by extreme sorrow_; and mentions the blood-like
sweat of Jesus, as occasioned by the _intensity of his agony_; and he
alone relates the miraculous healing of Malchus’s ear.(32) That he was
also a man of a liberal education, the comparative elegance of his
writings sufficiently show.(33)

§ 21. The design of Luke’s Gospel was to supersede the defective and
inaccurate narratives then in circulation, and to deliver to Theophilus,
to whom it is addressed, a full and authentic account of the life,
doctrines, miracles, death and resurrection of our Saviour. Who Theophilus
was, the learned are not perfectly agreed; but the most probable opinion
is that of Dr. Lardner, now generally adopted, that, as Luke wrote his
Gospel in Greece, Theophilus was a man of rank in that country.(34) Either
the relations subsisting between him and Luke, or the dignity and power of
his rank, or both, induced the evangelist, who himself also “had perfect
understanding of all things from the first,” to devote the utmost care to
the drawing up of a complete and authentic narrative of these great
events. He does not affirm himself to have been an eye-witness; though his
personal knowledge of some of the transactions may well be inferred from
the “perfect understanding” which he says he possessed. Some of the
learned seem to have drawn this inference as to them all, and to have
placed him in the class of original witnesses; but this opinion, though
maintained on strong and plausible grounds, is not generally adopted. If,
then, he did not write from his own personal knowledge, the question is,
what is the legal character of his testimony?

§ 22. If it were “the result of inquiries, made under competent public
authority, concerning matters in which the public are concerned”(35) it
would possess every legal attribute of an inquisition, and, as such, would
be legally admissible in evidence, in a court of justice. To entitle such
results, however, to our full confidence, it is not necessary that they
should be obtained under a legal commission; it is sufficient if the
inquiry is gravely undertaken and pursued, by a person of competent
intelligence, sagacity and integrity. The request of a person in
authority, or a desire to serve the public, are, to all moral intents, as
sufficient a motive as a legal commission.(36) Thus, we know that when
complaint is made to the head of a department, of official misconduct or
abuse, existing in some remote quarter, nothing is more common than to
send some confidential person to the spot, to ascertain the facts and
report them to the department; and this report is confidently adopted as
the basis of its discretionary action, in the correction of the abuse, or
the removal of the offender. Indeed, the result of any grave inquiry is
equally certain to receive our confidence, though it may have been
voluntarily undertaken, if the party making it had access to the means of
complete and satisfactory information upon the subject.(37) If, therefore,
Luke’s Gospel were to be regarded only as the work of a contemporary
historian, it would be entitled to our confidence. But it is more than
this. It is the result of careful inquiry and examination, made by a
person of science, intelligence and education, concerning subjects which
he was perfectly competent to investigate, and as to many of which he was
peculiarly skilled, they being cases of the cure of maladies; subjects,
too, of which he already had the perfect knowledge of a contemporary, and
perhaps an eye-witness, but beyond doubt, familiar with the parties
concerned in the transactions, and belonging to the community in which the
events transpired, which were in the mouths of all; and the narrative,
moreover, drawn up for the especial use, and probably at the request, of a
man of distinction, whom it would not be for the interest nor safety of
the writer to deceive or mislead. Such a document certainly possesses all
the moral attributes of an inquest of office, or of any other official
investigation of facts; and as such is entitled, _in foro conscientiæ_, to
be adduced as original, competent and satisfactory evidence of the matters
it contains.

§ 23. JOHN, the last of the evangelists, was the son of Zebedee, a
fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on the sea of Galilee. His father
appears to have been a respectable man in his calling, owning his vessel
and having hired servants.(38) His mother, too, was among those who
followed Jesus and “ministered unto him(39);” and to John himself, Jesus,
when on the cross, confided the care and support of his own mother.(40)
This disciple also seems to have been favourably known to the high priest,
and to have influence in his family; by means of which he had the
privilege of being present in his palace at the examination of his Master,
and of introducing also Peter, his friend.(41) He was the youngest of the
apostles, was eminently the object of our Lord’s regard and confidence;
was on various occasions admitted to free and intimate intercourse with
him; and is described as “the disciple whom Jesus loved.”(42) Hence he was
present at several scenes, to which most of the others were not admitted.
He alone, in company with Peter and James, was present at the resurrection
of Jairus’s daughter, at the transfiguration on the mount, and at the
agony of our Saviour in the garden of Gethsemane.(43) He was the only
apostle who followed Jesus to the cross, he was the first of them at the
sepulchre, and he was present at the several appearances of our Lord after
his resurrection. These circumstances, together with his intimate
friendship with the mother of Jesus, especially qualify him to give a
circumstantial and authentic account of the life of his Master. After the
ascension of Christ, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit on the day of
Pentecost, John became one of the chief apostles of the circumcision,
exercising his ministry in and near Jerusalem. From ecclesiastical history
we learn that, after the death of Mary the mother of Jesus, he proceeded
to Asia Minor, where he founded and presided over seven churches, in as
many cities, but resided chiefly at Ephesus. Thence he was banished, in
Domitian’s reign, to the isle of Patmos, where he wrote his Revelation. On
the accession of Nerva he was freed from exile, and returned to Ephesus,
where he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and died at the age of one hundred
years, about A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor Trajan.(44)

§ 24. The learned are not agreed as to the time when the Gospel of John
was written, some dating it as early as the year 68, others as late as the
year 98; but it is generally conceded to have been written after all the
others. That it could not have been the work of some Platonic Christian of
a subsequent age, as some have without evidence asserted, is manifest from
references to it by some of the early fathers, and from the concurring
testimony of many other writers of the ancient Christian church.(45)

§ 25. That it was written either with especial reference to the Gentiles,
or at a period when very many of them had become converts to Christianity,
is inferred from the various explanations it contains, beyond the other
Gospels, which could have been necessary only to persons unacquainted with
Jewish names and customs.(46) And that it was written after all the
others, and to supply their omissions, is concluded, not only from the
uniform tradition and belief in the church, but from his studied omission
of most of the transactions noticed by the others, and from his care to
mention several incidents which they have not recorded. That their
narratives were known to him, is too evident to admit of doubt; while his
omission to repeat what they had already stated, or, where he does mention
the same things, his relating them in a brief and cursory manner, affords
incidental but strong testimony that he regarded their accounts as
faithful and true.(47)

§ 26. Such are the brief histories of the men, whose narratives we are to
examine and compare; conducting the examination and weighing the testimony
by the same rules and principles which govern our tribunals of justice in
similar cases. These tribunals are in such cases governed by the following
fundamental rule:—

    _In trials of fact, by oral testimony, the proper inquiry is not
    whether it is possible that the testimony may be false, but
    whether there is sufficient probability that it is true._

It should be observed that the subject of inquiry is matter of fact, and
not of abstract mathematical truth. The latter alone is susceptible of
that high degree of proof, usually termed demonstration, which excludes
the possibility of error, and which therefore may reasonably be required
in support of every mathematical deduction. But the proof of matters of
fact rests upon moral evidence alone; by which is meant not merely that
species of evidence which is employed in cases respecting moral conduct,
but all the evidence which we do not obtain either from our own senses,
from intuition, or from demonstration. In the ordinary affairs of life we
do not require nor expect demonstrative evidence, because it is
inconsistent with the nature of matters of fact, and to insist on its
production would be unreasonable and absurd. And it makes no difference,
whether the facts to be proved relate to this life or to the next, the
nature of the evidence required being in both cases the same. The error of
the sceptic consists in pretending or supposing that there is a difference
in the nature of the evidence, where there is no difference in the nature
of the things to be proved; and in demanding demonstrative evidence
concerning things which are not susceptible of any other than moral
evidence alone, and of which the utmost that can be said is that there is
no reasonable doubt of their truth.(48)

§ 27. In proceeding to weigh the evidence of any proposition of fact, the
previous question to be determined is, _when_ may it be said to be proved?
The answer to this question is furnished by another rule of municipal law,
which may be thus stated:—

    _A proposition of fact is proved, when its truth is established by
    competent and satisfactory evidence._

By competent evidence, is meant such as the nature of the thing to be
proved requires; and by satisfactory evidence, is meant that amount of
proof, which ordinarily satisfies an unprejudiced mind, beyond any
reasonable doubt. The circumstances which will amount to this degree of
proof can never be previously defined; the only legal test to which they
can be subjected is, their sufficiency to satisfy the mind and conscience
of a man of common prudence and discretion, and so to convince him, that
he would venture to act upon that conviction in matters of the highest
concern and importance to his own interest.(49) If, therefore, the subject
is a problem in mathematics, its truth is to be shown by the certainty of
demonstrative evidence. But if it is a question of fact in human affairs,
nothing more than moral evidence can be required, for this is the best
evidence which, from the nature of the case, is attainable. Now as the
facts, stated in Scripture History, are not of the former kind, but are
cognizable by the senses, they may be said to be proved when they are
established by that kind and degree of evidence which, as we have just
observed, would, in the affairs of human life, satisfy the mind and
conscience of a common man. When we have this degree of evidence, it is
unreasonable to require more. A juror would violate his oath, if he should
refuse to acquit or condemn a person charged with an offence, where this
measure of proof was adduced.

§ 28. Proceeding further, to inquire whether the facts related by the Four
Evangelists are proved by competent and satisfactory evidence, we are led,
first, to consider on which side lies the burden of establishing the
credibility of the witnesses. On this point the municipal law furnishes a
rule, which is of constant application in all trials by jury, and is
indeed the dictate of that charity which thinketh no evil.

    _In the absence of circumstances which generate suspicion, every
    witness is to be presumed credible, until the contrary is shown;
    the burden of impeaching his credibility lying on the

This rule serves to show the injustice with which the writers of the
Gospels have ever been treated by infidels; an injustice silently
acquiesced in even by Christians; in requiring the Christian
affirmatively, and by positive evidence, _aliunde_, to establish the
credibility of his witnesses above all others, before their testimony is
entitled to be considered, and in permitting the testimony of a single
profane writer, alone and uncorroborated, to outweigh that of any single
Christian. This is not the course in courts of chancery, where the
testimony of a single witness is never permitted to outweigh the oath even
of the defendant himself, interested as he is in the cause; but, on the
contrary, if the plaintiff, after having required the oath of his
adversary, cannot overthrow it by something more than the oath of one
witness, however credible, it must stand as evidence against him. But the
Christian writer seems, by the usual course of the argument, to have been
deprived of the common presumption of charity in his favour; and reversing
the ordinary rule of administering justice in human tribunals, his
testimony is unjustly presumed to be false, until it is proved to be true.
This treatment moreover, has been applied to them all in a body; and,
without due regard to the fact, that, being independent historians,
writing at different periods, they are entitled to the support of each
other: they have been treated, in the argument, almost as if the New
Testament were the entire production, at once, of a body of men,
conspiring by a joint fabrication, to impose a false religion upon the
world. It is time that this injustice should cease, that the testimony of
the evangelists should be admitted to be true, until it can be disproved
by those who would impugn it; that the silence of one sacred writer on any
point, should no more detract from his own veracity or that of the other
historians, than the like circumstance is permitted to do among profane
writers; and that the Four Evangelists should be admitted in corroboration
of each other, as readily as Josephus and Tacitus, or Polybius and

§ 29. But if the burden of establishing the credibility of the evangelists
were devolved on those who affirm the truth of their narratives, it is
still capable of a ready moral demonstration, when we consider the nature
and character of the testimony, and the essential marks of difference
between true narratives of facts and the creations of falsehood. It is
universally admitted that the credit to be given to witnesses depends
chiefly on their ability to discern and comprehend what was before them,
their opportunities for observation, the degree of accuracy with which
they are accustomed to mark passing events, and their integrity in
relating them. The rule of municipal law on this subject embraces all
these particulars, and is thus stated by a legal text-writer of the
highest repute.

    _The credit due to the testimony of witnesses depends upon,
    firstly, their honesty; secondly, their ability; thirdly, their
    number and the consistency of their testimony; fourthly, the
    conformity of their testimony with experience; and fifthly, the
    coincidence of their testimony with collateral circumstances._(52)

Let the evangelists be tried by these tests.

§ 30. And _first_, as to their _honesty_. Here they are entitled to the
benefit of the general course of human experience, that men ordinarily
speak the truth, when they have no prevailing motive or inducement to the
contrary. This presumption, to which we have before alluded, is applied in
courts of justice, even to witnesses whose integrity is not wholly free
from suspicion; much more is it applicable to the evangelists, whose
testimony went against all their worldly interests. The great truths which
the apostles declared, were, that Christ had risen from the dead, and that
only through repentance from sin, and faith in him, could men hope for
salvation. This doctrine they asserted with one voice, everywhere, not
only under the greatest discouragements, but in the face of the most
appalling terrors that can be presented to the mind of man. Their master
had recently perished as a malefactor, by the sentence of a public
tribunal. His religion sought to overthrow the religions of the whole
world. The laws of every country were against the teachings of his
disciples. The interests and passions of all the rulers and great men in
the world were against them. The fashion of the world was against them.
Propagating this new faith, even in the most inoffensive and peaceful
manner, they could expect nothing but contempt, opposition, revilings,
bitter persecutions, stripes, imprisonments, torments and cruel deaths.
Yet this faith they zealously did propagate; and all these miseries they
endured undismayed, nay, rejoicing. As one after another was put to a
miserable death, the survivors only prosecuted their work with increased
vigour and resolution. The annals of military warfare afford scarcely an
example of the like heroic constancy, patience and unblenching courage.
They had every possible motive to review carefully the grounds of their
faith, and the evidences of the great facts and truths which they
asserted; and these motives were pressed upon their attention with the
most melancholy and terrific frequency. It was therefore impossible that
they could have persisted in affirming the truths they have narrated, had
not Jesus actually risen from the dead, and had they not known this fact
as certainly as they knew any other fact.(53) If it were morally possible
for them to have been deceived in this matter, every human motive operated
to lead them to discover and avow their error. To have persisted in so
gross a falsehood, after it was known to them, was not only to encounter,
for life, all the evils which man could inflict, from without, but to
endure also the pangs of inward and conscious guilt, with no hope of
future peace, no testimony of a good conscience, no expectation of honour
or esteem among men, no hope of happiness in this life, or in the world to

§ 31. Such conduct in the apostles would moreover have been utterly
irreconcilable with the fact, that they possessed the ordinary
constitution of our common nature. Yet their lives do show them to have
been men like all others of our race; swayed by the same motives, animated
by the same hopes, affected by the same joys, subdued by the same sorrows,
agitated by the same fears, and subject to the same passions, temptations
and infirmities, as ourselves. And their writings show them to have been
men of vigorous understandings. If then their testimony was not true,
there was no possible motive for its fabrication.

§ 32. It would also have been irreconcilable with the fact that they were
good men. But it is impossible to read their writings, and not feel that
we are conversing with men eminently holy, and of tender consciences, with
men acting under an abiding sense of the presence and omniscience of God,
and of their accountability to him, living in his fear, and walking in his
ways. Now, though, in a single instance, a good man may fall, when under
strong temptations, yet he is not found persisting, for years, in
deliberate falsehood, asserted with the most solemn appeals to God,
without the slightest temptation or motive, and against all the opposing
interests which reign in the human breast. If, on the contrary, they are
supposed to have been bad men, it is incredible that such men should have
chosen this form of imposture; enjoining, as it does, unfeigned
repentance, the utter forsaking and abhorrence of all falsehood and of
every other sin, the practice of daily self-denial, self-abasement and
self-sacrifice, the crucifixion of the flesh with all its earthly
appetites and desires, indifference to the honours, and hearty contempt of
the vanities of the world; and inculcating perfect purity of heart and
life, and intercourse of the soul with heaven. It is incredible, that bad
men should invent falsehoods, to promote the religion of the God of truth.
The supposition is suicidal. If they did believe in a future state of
retribution, a heaven and a hell hereafter, they took the most certain
course, if false witnesses, to secure the latter for their portion. And
if, still being bad men, they did not believe in future punishment, how
came they to invent falsehoods, the direct and certain tendency of which
was to destroy all their prospects of worldly honour and happiness, and to
ensure their misery in this life? From these absurdities there is no
escape, but in the perfect conviction and admission that they were good
men, testifying to that which they had carefully observed and considered,
and well knew to be true.(54)

§ 33. In the _second_ place, as to their _ability_. The text writer before
cited observes, that the ability of a witness to speak the truth, depends
on the opportunities which he has had for observing the fact, the accuracy
of his powers of discerning, and the faithfulness of his memory in
retaining the facts, once observed and known.(55) Of the latter trait, in
these witnesses, we of course know nothing; nor have we any traditionary
information in regard to the accuracy of their powers of discerning. But
we may well suppose that in these respects they were like the generality
of their countrymen, until the contrary is shown by an objector. It is
always to be presumed that men are honest, and of sound mind, and of the
average and ordinary degree of intelligence. This is not the judgment of
mere charity; it is also the uniform presumption of the law of the land; a
presumption which is always allowed freely and fully to operate, until the
fact is shown to be otherwise, by the party who denies the applicability
of this presumption to the particular case in question. Whenever an
objection is raised in opposition to the ordinary presumptions of law, or
to the ordinary experience of mankind, the burden of proof is devolved on
the objector, by the common and ordinary rules of evidence, and of
practice in courts. No lawyer is permitted to argue in disparagement of
the intelligence or integrity of a witness, against whom the case itself
afforded no particle of testimony. This is sufficient for our purpose, in
regard to these witnesses. But more than this is evident, from the
minuteness of their narratives, and from their history. Matthew was
trained, by his calling, to habits of severe investigation and suspicious
scrutiny; and Luke’s profession demanded an exactness of observation
equally close and searching. The other two evangelists, it has been well
remarked, were as much too unlearned to forge the story of their Master’s
life, as these were too learned and acute to be deceived by imposture.

§ 34. In the _third_ place, as to their _number_ and the _consistency_ of
their testimony. The character of their narratives is like that of all
other true witnesses, containing, as Dr. Paley observes, substantial
truth, under circumstantial variety. There is enough of discrepancy to
show that there could have been no previous concert among them; and at the
same time such substantial agreement as to show that they all were
independent narrators of the same great transaction, as the events
actually occurred. That they conspired to impose falsehood upon the world
is, moreover, utterly inconsistent with the supposition that they were
honest men; a fact, to the proofs of which we have already adverted. But
if they were bad men, still the idea of any conspiracy among them is
negatived, not only by the discrepancies alluded to, but by many other
circumstances which will be mentioned hereafter; from all which, it is
manifest that if they concerted a false story, they sought its
accomplishment by a mode quite the opposite to that which all others are
found to pursue, to attain the same end. On this point the profound remark
of an eminent writer is to our purpose; that “in a number of concurrent
testimonies, where there has been no previous concert, there is a
probability distinct from that which may be termed the sum of the
probabilities resulting from the testimonies of the witnesses, a
probability which would remain, even though the witnesses were of such a
character as to merit no faith at all. This probability arises from the
concurrence itself. That such a concurrence should spring from chance, is
as one to infinite; that is, in other words, morally impossible. If
therefore concert be excluded, there remains no cause but the reality of
the fact.”(56)

§ 35. The discrepancies between the narratives of the several evangelists,
when carefully examined, will not be found sufficient to invalidate their
testimony. Many seeming contradictions will prove, upon closer scrutiny,
to be in substantial agreement; and it may be confidently asserted that
there are none that will not yield, under fair and just criticism. If
these different accounts of the same transactions were in strict verbal
conformity with each other, the argument against their credibility would
be much stronger. All that is asked for these witnesses is, that their
testimony may be regarded as we regard the testimony of men in the
ordinary affairs of life. This they are justly entitled to; and this no
honourable adversary can refuse. We might, indeed, take higher ground than
this, and confidently claim for them the severest scrutiny; but our
present purpose is merely to try their veracity by the ordinary tests of
truth, admitted in human tribunals.

§ 36. If the evidence of the evangelists is to be rejected because of a
few discrepancies among them, we shall be obliged to discard that of many
of the contemporaneous histories on which we are accustomed to rely. Dr.
Paley has noticed the contradiction between Lord Clarendon and Burnett and
others in regard to Lord Strafford’s execution; the former stating that he
was condemned to be hanged, which was done on the same day; and the latter
all relating that on a Saturday he was sentenced to the block, and was
beheaded on the following Monday. Another striking instance of discrepancy
has since occurred, in the narratives of the different members of the
royal family of France, of their flight from Paris to Varennes, in 1792.
These narratives, ten in number, and by eye-witnesses and personal actors
in the transactions they relate, contradict each other, some on trivial
and some on more essential points, but in every case in a wonderful and
inexplicable manner.(57) Yet these contradictions do not, in the general
public estimation, detract from the integrity of the narrators, nor from
the credibility of their relations. In the points in which they agree, and
which constitute the great body of their narratives, their testimony is of
course not doubted; where they differ, we reconcile them as well as we
may; and where this cannot be done at all, we follow that light which
seems to us the clearest. Upon the principles of the sceptic, we should be
bound utterly to disbelieve them all. On the contrary, we apply to such
cases the rules which, in daily experience, our judges instruct juries to
apply, in weighing and reconciling the testimony of different witnesses;
and which the courts themselves observe, in comparing and reconciling
different and sometimes discordant reports of the same decisions. This
remark applies especially to some alleged discrepancies in the reports
which the several evangelists have given of the same discourses of our

§ 37. In the _fourth_ place, as to the _conformity of their testimony with
experience_. The title of the evangelists to full credit for veracity
would be readily conceded by the objector, if the facts they relate were
such as ordinarily occur in human experience. But they also relate events
which were miraculous, or out of the ordinary course of human experience,
and on this circumstance an argument is founded against their credibility.
Miracles, say the objectors, are impossible; and therefore the evangelists
were either deceivers or deceived; and in either case their narratives are
unworthy of belief. Spinosa’s argument against the possibility of
miracles, was founded on the broad and bold assumption that all things are
governed by immutable laws, or fixed modes of motion and relation, termed
the laws of nature, by which God himself is of necessity bound. This
erroneous assumption is the tortoise, on which stands the elephant that
upholds his system of atheism. He does not inform us who made these
immutable laws, nor whence they derive their binding force and
irresistible operation. The argument supposes that the creator of all
things first made a code of laws, and then put it out of his own power to
change them. The scheme of Mr. Hume is but another form of the same error.
He deduces the existence of such immutable laws from the uniform course of
human experience. This, he affirms, is our only guide in reasoning
concerning matters of fact; and whatever is contrary to human experience,
he pronounces incredible.(59) Without stopping to examine the correctness
of this doctrine, as a fundamental principle in the law of evidence, it is
sufficient in this place to remark, that is contains this fallacy; it
excludes all knowledge derived by inference or deduction from facts,
confining us to what we derive from experience alone, and thus depriving
us of any knowledge, or even rational belief, of the existence or
character of God. Nay more, it goes to prove that successive generations
of men can make no advancement in knowledge, but each must begin _de
novo_, and be limited to the results of its own experience. But if we may
infer, from what we see and know, that there is a Supreme Being, by whom
this world was created, we may certainly, and with equal reason, believe
him capable of works which _we_ have never yet known him to perform. We
may fairly conclude that the power which was originally put forth to
create the world is still constantly and without ceasing exerted to
sustain it; and that the experienced connexion between cause and effect is
but the uniform and constantly active operation of the finger of God.
Whether this uniformity of operation extends to things beyond the limits
of our observation, is a point we cannot certainly know. Its existence in
all things that ordinarily concern us may be supposed to be ordained as
conducive to our happiness; and if the belief in a revelation of peace and
mercy from God is conducive to the happiness of man, it is not irrational
to suppose that he would depart from his ordinary course of action, in
order to give it such attestations as should tend to secure that belief.
“A miracle is improbable, when we can perceive no sufficient cause, in
reference to his creatures, why the Deity should vary his modes of
operation; it ceases to be so, when such cause is assigned.”(60)

§ 38. But the full discussion of the subject of miracles forms no part of
the present design. Their credibility has been fully established, and the
objections of sceptics most satisfactorily met and overthrown, by the
ablest writers of our own day, whose works are easily accessible.(61) Thus
much, however, may here be remarked; that in almost every miracle related
by the evangelists, the facts, separately taken, were plain, intelligible,
transpiring in public, and about which no person of ordinary observation
would be likely to mistake. Persons blind or crippled, who applied to
Jesus for relief, were known to have been crippled or blind for many
years; they came to be cured; he spake to them; they went away whole.
Lazarus had been dead and buried four days; Jesus called him to come forth
from the grave; he immediately came forth, and was seen alive for a long
time afterwards. In every case of healing, the previous condition of the
sufferer was known to all; all saw his instantaneous restoration, and all
witnessed the act of Jesus in touching him, and heard his words.(62) All
these, separately considered, were facts, plain and simple in their
nature, easily seen and fully comprehended by persons of common capacity
and observation. If they were separately testified to, by different
witnesses of ordinary intelligence and integrity, in any court of justice,
the jury would be bound to believe them; and a verdict, rendered contrary
to the uncontradicted testimony of credible witnesses to any one of these
plain facts, separately taken, would be liable to be set aside, as a
verdict against evidence. If one credible witness testified to the fact,
that Bartimeus was blind, according to the uniform course of administering
justice, this fact would be taken as satisfactorily proved. So also, if
his subsequent restoration to sight were the sole fact in question, this
also would be deemed established, by the like evidence. Nor would the rule
of evidence be at all different, if the fact to be proved were the
declaration of Jesus, immediately preceding his restoration to sight, that
his faith had made him whole. In each of these cases, each isolated fact
was capable of being accurately observed, and certainly known; and the
evidence demands our assent, precisely as the like evidence upon any other
indifferent subject. The connexion of the word or the act of Jesus with
the restoration of the blind, lame and dead, to sight, and health, and
life, as cause and effect, is a conclusion which our reason is compelled
to admit, from the uniformity of their concurrence, in such a multitude of
instances, as well as from the universal conviction of all, whether
friends or foes, who beheld the miracles which he wrought. Indeed, if the
truth of one of the miracles is satisfactorily established, our belief
cannot reasonably be withheld from them all. This is the issue proposed by
Dr. Paley, in regard to the evidence of the death of Jesus upon the cross,
and his subsequent resurrection, the truth of which he has established in
an argument, incapable of refutation.

§ 39. In the _fifth_ place, as to _the coincidence of their testimony with
collateral and contemporaneous facts and circumstances_. After a witness
is dead, and his moral character is forgotten, we can ascertain it only by
a close inspection of his narrative, comparing its details with each
other, and with contemporary accounts and collateral facts. This test is
much more accurate than may at first be supposed. Every event which
actually transpires, has its appropriate relation and place in the vast
complication of circumstances, of which the affairs of men consist; it
owes its origin to the events which have preceded it, is intimately
connected with all others which occur at the same time and place, and
often with those of remote regions, and in its turn gives birth to
numberless others which succeed. In all this almost inconceivable
contexture, and seeming discord, there is perfect harmony; and while the
fact, which really happened, tallies exactly with every other
contemporaneous incident, related to it in the remotest degree, it is not
possible for the wit of man to invent a story, which, if closely compared
with the actual occurrences of the same time and place, may not be shown
to be false.(63) Hence it is, that a false witness will not willingly
detail any circumstances, in which his testimony will be open to
contradiction, nor multiply them where there is danger of his being
detected by a comparison of them with other accounts, equally
circumstantial. He will rather deal in general statements and broad
assertions, and if he finds it necessary for his purpose to employ names
and particular circumstances in his story, he will endeavor to invent such
as shall be out of the reach of all opposing proof; and will be the most
forward and minute in details, where he knows that any danger of
contradiction is least to be apprehended.(64) Therefore it is, that
variety and minuteness of detail are usually regarded as certain tests of
sincerity, if the story, in the circumstances related, is of a nature
capable of easy refutation if it were false.

§ 40. The difference, in the detail of circumstances, between artful or
false witnesses and those who testify the truth, is worthy of especial
observation. The former are often copious and even profuse in their
statements, as far as these may have been previously fabricated, and in
relation to the principal matter; but beyond this, all will be reserved
and meagre, from the fear of detection. Every lawyer knows how lightly the
evidence of a _non-mi-recordo_ witness is esteemed. The testimony of false
witnesses will not be uniform in its texture, but will be unequal,
unnatural, and inconsistent. On the contrary, in the testimony of true
witnesses there is a visible and striking naturalness of manner, and an
unaffected readiness and copiousness in the detail of circumstances, as
well in one part of the narrative as another, and evidently without the
least regard either to the facility or difficulty of verification or
detection.(65) It is easier, therefore, to make out the proof of any fact,
if proof it may be called, by suborning one or more false witnesses, to
testify directly to the matter in question, than to procure an equal
number to testify falsely to such collateral and separate circumstances as
will, without greater danger of detection, lead to the same false result.
The increased number of witnesses to circumstances, and the increased
number of the circumstances themselves, all tend to increase the
probability of detection if the witnesses are false, because thereby the
points are multiplied in which their statements may be compared with each
other, as well as with the truth itself, and in the same proportion is
increased the danger of variance and inconsistency.(66) Thus the force of
circumstantial evidence is found to depend on the number of particulars
involved in the narrative; the difficulty of fabricating them all, if
false, and the great facility of detection; the nature of the
circumstances to be compared, and from which the dates and other facts are
to be collected; the intricacy of the comparison; the number of the
intermediate steps in the process of deduction; and the circuity of the
investigation. The more largely the narrative partakes of these
characters, the further it will be found removed from all suspicion of
contrivance or design, and the more profoundly the mind will repose on the
conviction of its truth.

§ 41. The narratives of the sacred writers, both Jewish and Christian,
abound in examples of this kind of evidence, the value of which is hardly
capable of being properly estimated. It does not, as has been already
remarked, amount to mathematical demonstration; nor is this degree of
proof justly demandable in any question of moral conduct. In all human
transactions, the highest degree of assurance to which we can arrive,
short of the evidence of our own senses, is that of probability. The most
that can be asserted is, that the narrative is more likely to be true than
false; and it may be in the highest degree more likely, but still be short
of absolute mathematical certainty. Yet this very probability may be so
great as to satisfy the mind of the most cautious, and enforce the assent
of the most reluctant and unbelieving. If it is such as usually satisfies
reasonable men, in matters of ordinary transaction, it is all which the
greatest sceptic has a right to require; for it is by such evidence alone
that our rights are determined, in the civil tribunals; and on no other
evidence do they proceed, even in capital cases. Thus, where a house had
been feloniously broken open with a knife, the blade of which was broken
and left in the window, and the mutilated knife itself, the parts
perfectly agreeing, was found in the pocket of the accused, who gave no
satisfactory explanation of the fact, no reasonable doubt remained of his
participation in the crime. And where a murder had been committed by
shooting with a pistol, and the prisoner was connected with the
transaction by proof that the wadding of the pistol was part of a letter
addressed to him, the remainder of which was found upon his person, no
juror’s conscience could have reproached him for assenting to the verdict
of condemnation.(67) Yet the evidence, in both cases, is but the evidence
of circumstances; amounting, it is true, to the highest degree of
probability, but yet not utterly inconsistent with the innocence of the
accused. The evidence which we have of the great facts of the Bible
history belongs to this class, that is, it is moral evidence; sufficient
to satisfy any rational mind, by carrying it to the highest degree of
moral certainty. If such evidence will justify the taking away of human
life or liberty, in the one case, surely it ought to be deemed sufficient
to determine our faith in the other.

§ 42. All that Christianity asks of men on this subject, is, that they
would be consistent with themselves; that they would treat its evidences
as they treat the evidence of other things; and that they would try and
judge its actors and witnesses, as they deal with their fellow-men, when
testifying to human affairs and actions, in human tribunals. Let the
witnesses be compared with themselves, with each other, and with
surrounding facts and circumstances; and let their testimony be sifted, as
if it were given in a court of justice, on the side of the adverse party,
the witnesses being subjected to a rigorous cross-examination. The result,
it is confidently believed, will be an undoubting conviction of their
integrity, ability, and truth. In the course of such an examination, the
undesigned coincidences will multiply upon us at every step in our
progress; the probability of the veracity of the witnesses and of the
reality of the occurrences which they relate will increase, until it
acquires, for all practical purposes, the value and force of

§ 43. It should be remembered, that very little of the literature of their
times and country has come down to us; and that the collateral sources and
means of corroborating and explaining their writings are proportionally
limited. The contemporary writings and works of art which have reached us,
have invariably been found to confirm their accounts, to reconcile what
was apparently contradictory, and supply what seemed defective or
imperfect. We ought therefore to conclude, that if we had more of the same
light, all other similar difficulties and imperfections would vanish.
Indeed they have been gradually vanishing, and rapidly too, before the
light of modern research, conducted by men of science in our own times.
And it is worthy of remark, that of all the investigations and discoveries
of travellers and men of letters, since the overthrow of the Roman empire,
not a vestige of antiquity has been found, impeaching, in the slightest
degree, the credibility of the sacred writers; but, on the contrary, every
result has tended to confirm it.

§ 44. The essential marks of difference between true narratives of facts
and the creations of fiction, have already been adverted to. It may here
be added that these attributes of truth are strikingly apparent throughout
the gospel histories, and that the absence of all the others is equally
remarkable. The writers allude, for example, to the existing manners and
customs, and to the circumstances of the times and of their country, with
the utmost minuteness of reference. And these references are never
formally made, nor with preface and explanation, never multiplied and
heaped on each other, nor brought together, as though introduced by
design; but they are scattered broad-cast and singly over every part of
the story, and so connect themselves with every incident related, as to
render the detection of falsehood inevitable. This minuteness, too, is not
peculiar to any one of the historians, but is common to them all. Though
they wrote at different periods, and without mutual concert, they all
alike refer incidentally to the same state of affairs, and to the same
contemporary and collateral circumstances. Their testimony, in this view,
stands on the same ground with that of four witnesses, separately examined
before different commissioners, upon the same interrogatories, and all
adverting incidentally to the same circumstances as surrounding and
accompanying the principal transaction, to which alone their attention is
directed. And it is worthy of observation that these circumstances were at
that time of a peculiar character. Hardly a state or kingdom in the world
ever experienced so many vicissitudes in its government and political
relations, as did Judea, during the period of the gospel history. It was
successively under the government of Herod the Great, of Archelaus, and of
a Roman magistrate; it was a kingdom, a tetrarchate, and a province; and
its affairs, its laws, and the administration of justice, were all
involved in the confusion and uncertainty naturally to be expected from
recent conquest. It would be difficult to select any place or period in
the history of nations, for the time and scene of a fictitious history or
an imposture, which would combine so many difficulties for the fabricator
to surmount, so many contemporary writers to confront him with, and so
many facilities for the detection of falsehood.(68)

§ 45. “Had the evangelists been false historians,” says Dr. Chalmers,
“they would not have committed themselves upon so many particulars. They
would not have furnished the vigilant inquirers of that period with such
an effectual instrument for bringing them into discredit with the people;
nor foolishly supplied, in every page of their narrative, so many
materials for a cross-examination, which would infallibly have disgraced
them. Now, we of this age can institute the same cross-examination. We can
compare the evangelical writers with contemporary authors, and verify a
number of circumstances in the history, and government, and peculiar
economy of the Jewish people. We therefore have it in our power to
institute a cross-examination upon the writers of the New Testament; and
the freedom and frequency of their allusions to these circumstances supply
us with ample materials for it. The fact, that they are borne out in their
minute and incidental allusions by the testimony of other historians,
gives a strong weight of what has been called circumstantial evidence in
their favour. As a specimen of the argument, let us confine our
observations to the history of our Saviour’s trial, and execution, and
burial. They brought him to Pontius Pilate. We know both from Tacitus and
Josephus, that he was at that time governor of Judea. A sentence from him
was necessary before they could proceed to the execution of Jesus; and we
know that the power of life and death was usually vested in the Roman
governor. Our Saviour was treated with derision; and this we know to have
been a customary practice at that time, previous to the execution of
criminals, and during the time of it. Pilate scourged Jesus before he gave
him up to be crucified. We know from ancient authors, that this was a very
usual practice among the Romans. The accounts of an execution generally
run in this form: he was stripped, whipped, and beheaded or executed.
According to the evangelists, his accusation was written on the top of the
cross; and we learn from Suetonius and others, that the crime of the
person to be executed was affixed to the instrument of his punishment.
According to the evangelists, this accusation was written in three
different languages; and we know from Josephus that it was quite common in
Jerusalem to have all public advertisements written in this manner.
According to the evangelists, Jesus had to bear his cross; and we know
from other sources of information, that this was the constant practice of
these times. According to the evangelists, the body of Jesus was given up
to be buried at the request of friends. We know that, unless the criminal
was infamous, this was the law or the custom with all Roman

§ 46. There is also a striking naturalness in the characters exhibited in
the sacred historians, rarely if ever found in works of fiction, and
probably nowhere else to be collected in a similar manner from fragmentary
and incidental allusions and expressions, in the writings of different
persons. Take, for example, that of Peter, as it may be gathered from the
evangelists, and it will be hardly possible to conceive that four persons,
writing at different times, could have concurred in the delineation of
such a character, if it were not real; a character too, we must observe,
which is nowhere expressly drawn, but is shown only here and there,
casually, in the subordinate parts of the main narrative. Thus disclosed,
it is that of a confident, sanguine, and zealous man; sudden and
impulsive, yet humble and ready to retract; honest and direct in his
purposes; ardently loving his master, yet deficient in fortitude and
firmness in his cause.(70) When Jesus put any question to the apostles, it
was Peter who was foremost to reply;(71) and if they would inquire of
Jesus, it was Peter who was readiest to speak.(72) He had the impetuous
courage to cut off the ear of the High Priest’s servant, who came to
arrest his master; and the weakness to dissemble before the Jews, in the
matter of eating with Gentile converts.(73) It was he who ran with John to
the sepulchre, on the first intelligence of the resurrection of Jesus, and
with characteristic zeal rushed in, while John paused without the
door.(74) He had the ardour to desire and the faith to attempt to walk on
the water, at the command of his Lord, but as soon as he saw the wind
boisterous, he was afraid.(75) He was the first to propose the election of
another apostle in the place of Judas;(76) and he it was who courageously
defended them all, on the day of Pentecost, when the multitude charged
them with being filled with new wine.(77) He was forward to acknowledge
Jesus to be the Messiah;(78) yet having afterwards endangered his own life
by wounding the servant of the High Priest, he suddenly consulted his own
safety by denying the same Master, for whom, but a few hours before, he
had declared himself ready to die.(79) We may safely affirm that the
annals of fiction afford no example of a similar but not uncommon
character, thus incidentally delineated.

§ 47. There are other internal marks of truth in the narratives of the
evangelists, which, however, need here be only alluded to, as they have
been treated with great fulness and force by able writers, whose works are
familiar to all.(80) Among these may be mentioned the nakedness of the
narratives; the absence of all parade by the writers about their own
integrity, of all anxiety to be believed, or to impress others with a good
opinion of themselves or their cause, of all marks of wonder, or of desire
to excite astonishment at the greatness of the events they record, and of
all appearance of design to exalt their Master. On the contrary, there is
apparently the most perfect indifference on their part, whether they are
believed or not; or rather, the evident consciousness that they were
recording events well known to all, in their own country and times, and
undoubtedly to be believed, like any other matter of public history, by
readers in all other countries and ages. It is worthy, too, of especial
observation, that though the evangelists record the unparalleled
sufferings and cruel death of their beloved Lord, and this too, by the
hands and with the consenting voices of those on whom he had conferred the
greatest benefits, and their own persecutions and dangers, yet they have
bestowed no epithets of harshness or even of just censure on the authors
of all this wickedness, but have everywhere left the plain and
unincumbered narrative to speak for itself, and the reader to pronounce
his own sentence of condemnation; like true witnesses, who have nothing to
gain or to lose by the event of the cause, they state the facts, and leave
them to their fate. Their simplicity and artlessness, also, should not
pass unnoticed, in readily stating even those things most disparaging to
themselves. Their want of faith in their Master, their dulness of
apprehension of his teachings, their strifes for preëminence, their
inclination to call fire from heaven upon their enemies, their desertion
of their Lord in his hour of extreme peril; these, and many other
incidents tending directly to their own dishonour, are nevertheless set
down with all the directness and sincerity of truth, as by men writing
under the deepest sense of responsibility to God. Some of the more
prominent instances of this class of proofs will be noticed hereafter, in
their proper places, in the narratives themselves.

§ 48. Lastly, the great character they have portrayed is perfect. It is
the character of a sinless Being; of one supremely wise and supremely
good. It exhibits no error, no sinister intention, no imprudence, no
ignorance, no evil passion, no impatience; in a word, no fault; but all is
perfect uprightness, innocence, wisdom, goodness and truth. The mind of
man has never conceived the idea of such a character, even for his gods;
nor has history nor poetry shadowed it forth. The doctrines and precepts
of Jesus are in strict accordance with the attributes of God, agreeably to
the most exalted idea which we can form of them, either from reason or
from revelation. They are strikingly adapted to the capacity of mankind,
and yet are delivered with a simplicity and majesty wholly divine. He
spake as never man spake. He spake with authority; yet addressed himself
to the reason and the understanding of men; and he spake with wisdom,
which men could neither gainsay nor resist. In his private life, he
exhibits a character not merely of strict justice, but of overflowing
benignity. He is temperate, without austerity; his meekness and humility
are signal; his patience is invincible; truth and sincerity illustrate his
whole conduct; every one of his virtues is regulated by consummate
prudence; and he both wins the love of his friends, and extorts the wonder
and admiration of his enemies(81). He is represented in every variety of
situation in life, from the height of worldly grandeur, amid the
acclamations of an admiring multitude, to the deepest abyss of human
degradation and woe, apparently deserted of God and man. Yet everywhere he
is the same; displaying a character of unearthly perfection, symmetrical
in all its proportions, and encircled with splendour more than human.
Either the men of Galilee were men of superlative wisdom, of extensive
knowledge and experience, and of deeper skill in the arts of deception,
than any and all others, before or after them, or they have truly stated
the astonishing things which they saw and heard.

The narratives of the evangelists are now submitted to the reader’s
perusal and examination, upon the principles and by the rules already
stated. For this purpose, and for the sake of more ready and close
comparison, they are arranged in juxtaposition, after the general order of
the latest and most approved harmonies. The question is not upon the
strict propriety of the arrangement, but upon the veracity of the
witnesses and the credibility of their narratives. With the relative
merits of modern harmonists, and with points of controversy among
theologians, the writer has no concern. His business is that of a lawyer,
examining the testimony of witnesses by the rules of his own profession,
in order to ascertain whether, if they had thus testified on oath, in a
court of justice, they would be entitled to credit; and whether their
narratives, as we now have them, would be received as ancient documents,
coming from the proper custody. If so, then it is believed that every
honest and impartial man will act consistently with that result, by
receiving their testimony in all the extent of its import. To write out a
full commentary or argument upon the text, would be a useless addition to
the bulk of the volume; but a few notes have been added for illustration
of the narratives, and for the clearing up of apparent discrepancies, as
being all that members of the legal profession would desire.


Part I. Events Connected With The Birth And Childhood Of Jesus.

TIME. _About thirteen and a half years._

§ 1. Preface to Luke’s Gospel.

CH. I. 1-4.
Forasmuch as many have taken
in hand to set forth in order
a declaration of those things
which are most surely believed
among us,
2 Even as they delivered them
unto us, which from the
beginning were eye-witnesses,
and ministers of the word;
3 It seemed good to me also,
having had perfect
understanding of all things
from the very first, to write
unto thee in order, most
excellent Theophilus,
4 That thou mightest know the
certainty of those things
wherein thou hast been

§ 2. An Angel appears to Zacharias. _Jerusalem_.

CH. I. 5-25.
5 There was in the days of
Herod the king of Judea, a
certain priest named
Zacharias, of the course of
Abia: and his wife _was_ of
the daughters of Aaron, and
her name _was_ Elisabeth.
6 And they were both righteous
before God, walking in all the
commandments and ordinances of
the Lord blameless.
7 and they had no child,
because that Elisabeth was
barren; and they both were
_now_ well stricken in years.
8 And it came to pass, that,
while he executed the priest’s
office before God in the order
of his course,
9 According to the custom of
the priest’s office, his lot
was to burn incense when he
went into the temple of the
10 And the whole multitude of
the people were praying
without, at the time of
11 And there appeared unto him
an angel of the Lord, standing
on the right side of the altar
of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw
_him_, he was troubled, and
fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto
him, Fear not, Zacharias: for
thy prayer is heard; and thy
wife Elisabeth shall bear thee
a son, and thou shalt call his
name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and
gladness, and many shall
rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in
the sight of the Lord, and
shall drink neither wine nor
strong drink; and he shall be
filled with the Holy Ghost,
even from his mother’s womb.
16 And many of the children of
Israel shall he turn to the
Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him
in the spirit and power of
Elias,(82) to turn the hearts
of the fathers to the
children, and the disobedient
to the wisdom of the just; to
make ready a people prepared
for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the
angel, Whereby shall I know
this? for I am an old man, and
my wife well stricken in
19 And the angel, answering,
said unto him, I am Gabriel,
that stand in the presence of
God, and am sent to speak unto
thee, and to shew thee these
glad tidings.
20 And behold, thou shalt be
dumb, and not able to speak,
until the day that these
things shall be performed,
because thou believest not my
words, which shall be
fulfilled in their season.
21 And the people waited for
Zacharias, and marvelled that
he tarried so long in the
22 And when he came out, he
could not speak unto them: and
they perceived that he had
seen a vision in the temple;
for he beckoned unto them, and
remained speechless.
23 And it came to pass, that
as soon as the days of his
ministration were
accomplished, he departed to
his own house.
24 And after those days his
wife Elisabeth conceived, and
hid herself five months,
25 Thus hath the Lord dealt
with me in the days wherein he
looked on _me_, to take away
my reproach among men.

§ 3. An Angel appears to Mary. _Nazareth_.

CH. I. 26-38.
26 And in the sixth month the
angel Gabriel was sent from
God unto a city of Galilee,
named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a
man whose name was Joseph, of
the house of David; and the
virgin’s name _was_ Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto
her, and said, Hail, _thou
that art_ highly favoured, the
Lord is with thee: blessed art
thou among women.
29 And when she saw _him_, she
was troubled at his saying,
and cast in her mind what
manner of salutation this
should be.
30 And the angel said unto
her, Fear not, Mary: for thou
hast found favour with God.
31 And behold, thou shalt
conceive in thy womb, and
bring forth a son, and shalt
call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and
shall be called the son of the
Highest; and the Lord God
shall give unto him the throne
of his father David.
33 And(83) he shall reign over
the house of Jacob for ever;
and of his kingdom there shall
be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the
angel, How shall this be,
seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and
said unto her, The Holy Ghost
shall come upon thee, and the
power of the Highest shall
overshadow thee: therefore
also that holy thing which
shall be born of thee, shall
be called the Son of God.
36 And behold, thy cousin
Elisabeth, she hath also
conceived a son in her old
age; and this is the sixth
month with her who was called
37 For with God nothing shall
be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the
handmaid of the Lord, be it
unto me according to thy word.
And the angel departed from

§ 4. Mary visits Elisabeth. _Juttah_.

CH. I. 39-56.
39 And Mary arose in those
days, and went into the
hill-country with haste, into
a city of Juda,
40 And entered into the house
of Zacharias, and saluted
41 And it came to pass, that
when Elisabeth heard the
salutation of Mary, the babe
leaped in her womb: and
Elisabeth was filled with the
Holy Ghost.
42 And she spake out with a
loud voice and said, Blessed
_art_ thou among women, and
blessed _is_ the fruit of thy
43 And whence _is_ this to me,
that the mother of my lord
should come to me?
44 For lo, as soon as the
voice of thy salutation
sounded in mine ears, the babe
leaped in my womb for joy.
45 And blessed _is_ she that
believed: for there shall be a
performance of those things
which were told her from the
46 And Mary said, My soul doth
magnify the Lord,
47 And my spirit hath rejoiced
in God my Saviour.
48 For he hath regarded the
low estate of his handmaiden:
for behold, from henceforth
all generations shall call me
49 For he that is mighty hath
done to me great things; and
holy _is_ his name.
50 And his mercy _is_ on them
that fear him, from generation
to generation.
51 He hath shewed strength
with his arm; he hath
scattered the proud in the
imagination of their hearts.
52 He hath put down the mighty
from _their_ seats, and
exalted them of low degree.
53 He hath filled the hungry
with good things, and the rich
he hath sent empty away.
54 He hath holpen his servant
Israel, in remembrance of
_his_ mercy;
55 As(84) he spake to our
fathers, to Abraham, and to
his seed, for ever.
56 And Mary abode with her
about three months, and
returned to her own house.

§ 5. The birth of John the Baptist. _Juttah_.

CH. I. 57-80.
57 Now Elisabeth’s full time
came that she should be
delivered; and she brought
forth a son.
58 And her neighbours and her
cousins heard how the Lord had
shewed great mercy upon her;
and they rejoiced with her.
59 And it came to pass, that
on the eighth day they came to
circumcise the child; and they
called him Zacharias, after
the name of his father.
60 And his mother answered and
said, not _so_; but he shall
be called John.
61 And they said unto her,
There is none of thy kindred
that is called by this name.
62 And they made signs to his
father, how he would have him
63 And he asked for a
writing-table, and wrote,
saying, His name is John. And
they marvelled all.
64 And his mouth was opened
immediately, and his tongue
loosed, and he spake, and
praised God.
65 And fear came on all that
dwelt round about them: and
all these sayings were noised
abroad throughout all the
hill-country of Judea.
66 And all they that heard
_them_, laid _them_ up in
their hearts, saying, What
manner of child shall this be!
And the hand of the Lord was
with him.
67 And his father Zacharias
was filled with the Holy
Ghost, and prophesied, saying,
68 Blessed _be_ the Lord God
of Israel; for he hath visited
and redeemed his people,
69 And hath raised up a horn
of salvation for us, in the
house of his servant David:
70 As he spake by the mouth of
his holy prophets, which have
been since the world began:
71 That we should be saved
from our enemies, and from the
hand of all that hate us;
72 To perform the mercy
_promised_ to our fathers, and
to remember his holy covenant;
73 The oath which he sware to
our Father Abraham,(85)
74 That he would grant unto
us, that we, being delivered
out of the hand of our
enemies, might serve him
without fear,
75 In holiness and
righteousness before him, all
the days of our life.
76 And thou, child, shalt be
called the Prophet of the
Highest, for thou shalt go
before the face of the Lord to
prepare his ways;
77 To give knowledge of
salvation unto his people, by
the remission of their sins,
78 Through the tender mercy of
our God; whereby the
day-spring from on high hath
visited us,
79 To give light to them that
sit in darkness and _in_ the
shadow of death, to guide our
feet into the way of peace.
80 And the child grew, and
waxed strong in spirit, and
was in the deserts till the
day of his shewing unto

§ 6. An Angel appears to Joseph. _Nazareth._

CH. I. 18-25.
18 Now the birth of Jesus
Christ was on this wise: When
as his mother Mary was
espoused to Joseph, before
they came together, she was
found with child of the holy
19 Then Joseph her husband,
being a just _man_, and not
willing to make her a public
example, was minded to put her
away privily.(86)
20 But while he thought on
these things, Behold, the
angel of the Lord appeared
unto him in a dream, saying,
Joseph, thou son of David,
fear not to take unto thee
Mary thy wife; for that which
is conceived in her is of the
Holy Ghost.
21 And she shall bring forth a
son, and thou shalt call his
name JESUS: for he shall save
his people from their sins.
22 Now all this was done, that
it might be fulfilled which
was spoken of the Lord by the
prophet, saying,
23 Behold,(87) a virgin shall
be with child, and shall bring
forth a son, and they shall
call his name Emmanuel, which
being interpreted is, God with
24 Then Joseph, being raised
from sleep, did as the angel
of the Lord had bidden him,
and took unto him his wife:
25 And knew her not till she
had brought forth her
first-born son: and he called
his name JESUS.

§ 7. The birth of Jesus. _Bethlehem_.

CH. II. 1-7.
And it came to pass in those
days, that there went out a
decree(88) from Cesar
Augustus, that all the world
should be taxed.
2 (And this taxing was first
made when Cyrenius was
governor of Syria.)
3 And all went to be taxed,
every one into his own city.
4 And Joseph also went up from
Galilee, out of the city of
Nazareth, into Judea, unto the
city of David, which is called
Bethlehem, (because he was of
the house and lineage of
5 To be taxed with Mary his
espoused wife, being great
with child.
6 And so it was, that while
they were there, the days were
accomplished that she should
be delivered.
7 And she brought forth her
first-born son, and wrapped
him in swaddling-clothes, and
laid him in a manger; because
there was no room for them in
the inn.

§ 8. An Angel appears to the Shepherds. _Near Bethlehem_.

CH. II. 8-20.
8 And there were in the same
country shepherds abiding in
the field, keeping watch over
their flock by night.
9 And lo, the angel of the
Lord came upon them, and the
glory of the Lord shone round
about them; and they were sore
10 And the angel said unto
them, Fear not: for behold, I
bring you good tidings of
great joy, which shall be to
all people.
11 For unto you is born this
day, in the city of David, a
Saviour, which is Christ the
12 And this _shall be_ a sign
unto you; Ye shall find the
babe wrapped in
swaddling-clothes, lying in a
13 And suddenly there was with
the angel a multitude of the
heavenly host praising God,
and saying,
14 Glory to God in the
highest, and on earth peace,
good will toward men.
15 And it came to pass, as the
angels were gone away from
them into heaven, the
shepherds said one to another,
Let us now go even unto
Bethlehem, and see this thing
which is come to pass, which
the Lord hath made known unto
16 And they came with haste,
and found Mary and Joseph, and
the babe lying in a manger.
17 And when they had seen
_it_, they made known abroad
the saying which was told them
concerning this child.
18 And all they that heard it,
wondered at those things which
were told them by the
19 But Mary kept all these
things, and pondered _them_ in
her heart.
20 And the shepherds returned,
glorifying and praising God
for all the things that they
had heard and seen, as it was
told unto them.

§ 9. The circumcision of Jesus and his presentation in the temple.
_Bethlehem_. _Jerusalem_.

CH. II. 21-38.
21 And when eight days were
accomplished for the
circumcising of the child,(89)
his name was called JESUS,
which was so named of the
angel before he was conceived
in the womb.
22 And when the days of her
purification according to the
law of Moses were
accomplished, they brought him
to Jerusalem, to present _him_
to the Lord;
23 (As it is written in the
law of the Lord,(90) Every
male that openeth the womb
shall be called holy to the
24 And to offer a sacrifice
according to that which is
said in the law of the
Lord,(91) A pair of
turtle-doves, or two young
25 And behold, there was a man
in Jerusalem, whose name _was_
Simeon; and the same man _was_
just and devout, waiting for
the consolation of Israel: and
the Holy Ghost was upon him.
26 And it was revealed unto
him by the Holy Ghost, that he
should not see death, before
he had seen the Lord’s Christ.
27 And he came by the Spirit
into the temple; and when the
parents brought in the child
Jesus, to do for him after the
custom of the law,
28 Then took he him up in his
arms, and blessed God, and
29 Lord, now lettest thou thy
servant depart in peace,
according to thy word:
30 For mine eyes have seen thy
31 Which thou hast prepared
before the face of all people;
32 A light to lighten the
Gentiles, and the glory of thy
people Israel.
33 And Joseph and his mother
marvelled at those things
which were spoken of him.
34 And Simeon blessed them,
and said unto Mary his mother,
Behold, this child is(92) set
for the fall and rising again
of many in Israel; and for a
sign which shall be spoken
35 (Yea, a sword shall pierce
through thy own soul also;)
that the thoughts of many
hearts may be revealed.
36 And there was one Anna, a
prophetess, the daughter of
Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser:
she was of a great age, and
had lived with a husband seven
years from her virginity.
37 And she _was_ a widow of
about fourscore and four
years, which departed not from
the temple, but served _God_
with fastings and prayers
night and day.
38 And she coming in that
instant, gave thanks likewise
unto the Lord, and spake of
him to all them that looked
for redemption in Jerusalem.

§ 10. The Magi. _Jerusalem._ _Bethlehem._

CH. II. 1-12.
Now when Jesus was born in
Bethlehem of Judea in the days
of Herod the king, behold,
there came wise men from the
East to Jerusalem,
2 Saying, Where is he that is
born king of the Jews? for we
have seen his star in the
east, and are come to worship
3 When Herod the king had
heard _these things_, he was
troubled,(93) and all
Jerusalem with him.
4 And when he had gathered all
the chief priests and scribes
of the people together, he
demanded of them where Christ
should be born.
5 And they said unto him, in
Bethlehem of Judea: for thus
it is written by the prophet,
6 And(94) thou Bethlehem, in
the land of Juda, art not the
least among the princes of
Juda: for out of thee shall
come a Governor, that shall
rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had
privily called the wise men,
inquired of them diligently
what time the star appeared.
8 And he sent them to
Bethlehem, and said Go, and
search diligently for the
young child; and when ye have
found _him_, bring me word
again, that I may come and
worship him also.
9 When they had heard the
king, they departed; and lo,
the star, which they saw in
the east, went before them,
till it came and stood over
where the young child was.
10 When they saw the star,
they rejoiced with exceeding
great joy.
11 And when they were come
into the house, they saw the
young child with Mary his
mother, and fell down, and
worshipped him: and when they
had opened their treasures,
they presented unto him gifts;
gold, and frankincense, and
12 And being warned of God in
a dream that they should not
return to Herod, they departed
into their own country another

§ 11. The flight into Egypt. Herod’s cruelty. The return. _Bethlehem.

CH. II. 13-23.
13 And when they were
departed, behold, the angel of
the Lord appeareth to Joseph
in a dream, saying, Arise, and
take the young child and his
mother, and flee into Egypt,
and be thou there until I
bring thee word: for Herod
will seek the young child to
destroy him.
14 When he arose, he took the
young child and his mother by
night, and departed into
15 And was there until the
death of Herod: that it might
be fulfilled which was spoken
of the Lord by the prophet,
saying,(95) Out of Egypt have
I called my Son.
16 Then Herod, when he saw
that he was mocked of the wise
men, was exceeding wroth, and
sent forth, and slew all the
children that were in
Bethlehem, and in all the
coasts thereof, from two years
old and under, according to
the time which he had
diligently inquired of the
wise men.
17 Then was fulfilled that
which was spoken by Jeremy the
prophet, saying,
18 In(96) Rama was there a
voice heard, lamentation, and
weeping, and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her
children, and would not be
comforted, because they are
19 But, when Herod was dead,
behold, an angel of the Lord
appeareth in a dream to Joseph
in Egypt,
20 Saying, Arise, and take the
young child and his mother,
and go into the land of
Israel: for they are dead
which sought the young child’s
21 And he arose, and took the
young child and his mother,
and came into the land of
22 But when he heard that
Archelaus did reign in Judea
in the room of his father
Herod, he was afraid to go
thither:(97) notwithstanding,
being warned of God in a
dream, he turned aside into
the parts of Galilee:
23 And he came and dwelt in a
city called Nazareth: that it
might be fulfilled which was
spoken by the prophets, He
shall be called a

§ 12. At twelve years of age, Jesus goes to the Passover. _Jerusalem_.

CH. II. 41-52.
41 Now his parents went to
Jerusalem every year at the
feast of the passover.
42 And when he was twelve
years old(99), they went up to
Jerusalem after the custom of
the feast.
43 And when they had fulfilled
the days, as they returned,
the child Jesus tarried behind
in Jerusalem; and Joseph and
his mother knew not of it.
44 But they, supposing him to
have been in the company,(100)
went a day’s journey; and they
sought him among their
kinsfolk and acquaintance.
45 And when they found him
not, they turned back again to
Jerusalem, seeking him.
46 And it came to pass, that
after three days they found
him in the temple, sitting in
the midst of the doctors, both
hearing them, and asking them
47 And all that heard him were
astonished at his
understanding and answers.
48 And when they saw him, they
were amazed: and his mother
said unto him, Son, why hast
thou thus dealt with us?
Behold, thy father and I have
sought thee sorrowing.
49 And he said unto them, How
is it that ye sought me? wist
ye not that I must be about my
Father’s business?
50 And they understood not the
saying which he spake unto
51 And he went down with them,
and came to Nazareth, and was
subject unto them: but his
mother kept all these sayings
in her heart.
52 And Jesus increased in
wisdom and stature, and in
favour with God and man.

§ 13. The Genealogies.

CH. I. 1-17.
The book of the generation of
Jesus Christ, the son of
David, the son of Abraham.
2 Abraham begat Isaac; and
Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob
begat Judas and his brethren;
3 And Judas begat Phares and
Zara of Thamar; and Phares
begat Esrom; and Esrom begat
4 And Aram begat Aminadab; and
Aminadab begat Naasson; and
Naasson begat Salmon;
5 And Salmon begat Booz of
Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of
Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;
6 And Jesse begat David the
king; and David the king begat
Solomon of her _that had been
the wife_ of Urias;
7 And Solomon begat Roboam;
and Roboam begat Abia; and
Abia begat Asa;
8 And Asa begat Josaphat; and
Josaphat begat Joram; and
Joram begat Ozias;
9 And Ozias begat Joatham; and
Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz
begat Ezekias;
10 And Ezekias begat Manasses;
and Manasses begat Amon; and
Amon begat Josias;
11 And Josias begat Jechonias
and his brethren, about the
time they were carried away to
12 And after they were brought
to Babylon, Jechonias begat
Salathiel; and Salathiel begat
13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud;
and Abiud begat Eliakim; and
Eliakim begat Azor;
14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and
Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim
begat Eliud;
15 And Eliud begat Eleazar;
and Eleazar begat Matthan; and
Matthan begat Jacob;
16 And Jacob begat Joseph the
husband of Mary, of whom was
born Jesus, who is called
17 So all the generations from
Abraham to David _are_
fourteen generations; and from
David until the carrying away
into Babylon _are_ fourteen
generations; and from the
carrying away into Babylon
unto Christ _are_ fourteen

CH. III. 23-38, INVERTED.(101)
38 _The son_ of God, _the son_
of Adam, _the son_ of Seth,
_the son_ of Enos,
37 _The son_ of Cainan, _the
son_ of Maleleel, _the son_ of
Jared, _the son_ of Enoch,
_the son_ of Mathusala,
36 _The son_ of Lamech, _the
son_ of Noe, _the son_ of Sem,
_the son_ of Arphaxad, _the
son_ of Cainan,
35 _The son_ of Sala, _the
son_ of Heber, _the son_ of
Phalec, _the son_ of Ragau,
_the son_ of Saruch,
34 _The son_ of Nachor, _the
son_ of Thara, _the son_ of
Abraham, _the son_ of Isaac,
_the son_ of Jacob,
33 _The son_ of Juda, _the
son_ of Phares, _the son_ of
Esrom, _the son_ of Aram, _the
son_ of Aminadab,
32 _The son_ of Naasson, _the
son_ of Salmon, _the son_ of
Booz, _the son_ of Obed, _the
son_ of Jesse,
31 _The son_ of David, _the
son_ of Nathan, _the son_ of
Mattatha, _the son_ of Menan,
_the son_ of Melea,
30 _The son_ of Eliakim, _the
son_ of Jonan, _the son_ of
Joseph, _the son_ of Juda,
_the son_ of Simeon,
29 _The son_ of Levi, _the
son_ of Matthat, _the son_ of
Joram, _the son_ of Eliezer,
_the son_ of Jose,
28 _The son_ of Er, _the son_
of Elmodam, _the son_ of
Cosam, _the son_ of Addi, _the
son_ of Melchi,
27 _The son_ of Neri, _the
son_ of Salathiel, _the son_
of Zorobabel, _the son_ of
Rhesa, _the son_ of Joanna,
26 _The son_ of Juda, _the
son_ of Joseph, _the son_ of
Semei, _the son_ of
Mattathias, _the son_ of
25 _The son_ of Nagge, _the
son_ of Esli, _the son_ of
Naum, _the son_ of Amos, _the
son_ of Mattathias,
24 _The son_ of Joseph, _the
son_ of Janna, _the son_ of
Melchi, _the son_ of Levi,
_the son_ of Matthat,
23 _The son_ of Heli, _the
son_ of Joseph,—And Jesus
himself ... being (as was

Part II. Announcement And Introduction Of Our Lord’s Public Ministry.

TIME. _About one year._

§ 14. The Ministry of John the Baptist. _The Desert._ _The Jordan._

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. III. 1-12.                   CH. I. 1-8.
In those days came John the      The beginning of the gospel of
Baptist, preaching in the        Jesus Christ the Son of God:
wilderness of Judea,
2 And saying, Repent ye; for     As it is written in the
the kingdom of heaven is at      prophets,(102) Behold, I send
hand.                            my messenger before thy face,
                                 which shall prepare thy way
                                 before thee;
3 For this is he that was        3 The voice of one crying in
spoken of by the prophet         the wilderness, Prepare ye the
Esaias, saying, The voice of     way of the Lord, make his
one crying in the wilderness,    paths straight.
Prepare ye the way of the
Lord, make his paths straight.
4 And the same John had his      4 John did baptize in the
raiment of camel’s hair, and a   wilderness, and preach the
leathern girdle about his        baptism of repentance, for the
loins; and his meat was          remission of sins.
locusts and wild honey.
5 Then went out to him           5 And there went out unto him
Jerusalem, and all Judea, and    all the land of Judea, and
all the region round about       they of Jerusalem, and were
Jordan.                          all baptized of him in the
                                 river of Jordan, confessing
                                 their sins.
6 And were baptized of him in    6 And John was clothed with
Jordan, confessing their sins.   camel’s hair, and with a
                                 girdle of a skin about his
                                 loins; and he did eat locusts
                                 and wild honey;
7 But when he saw many of the    7 And preached, saying, There
Pharisees and Sadducees come     cometh one mightier than I
to his baptism, he said unto     after me, the latchet of whose
them, O generation of vipers,    shoes I am not worthy to stoop
who hath warned you to flee      down and unloose.
from the wrath to come?
8 Bring forth therefore fruits   8 I indeed have baptized you
meet for repentance:             with water: but he shall
                                 baptize you with the Holy
9 And think not to say within
yourselves, We have Abraham to
our father: for I say unto
you, that God is able of these
stones to raise up children
unto Abraham.
10 And now also the axe is
laid unto the root of the
trees: therefore every tree
which bringeth not forth good
fruit is hewn down, and cast
into the fire.
11 I indeed baptize you with
water unto repentance: but he
that cometh after me is
mightier than I, whose shoes I
am not worthy to bear: he
shall baptize you with the
Holy Ghost, and _with_ fire:
12 Whose fan _is_ in his hand,
and he will thoroughly purge
his floor, and gather his
wheat into the garner; but he
will burn up the chaff with
unquenchable fire.

CH. III. 1-18.
Now in the fifteenth year of
the reign of Tiberius Cesar,
Pontius Pilate being governor
of Judea, and Herod being
tetrarch of Galilee, and his
brother Philip tetrarch of
Iturea and of the region of
Trachonitis, and Lysanias the
tetrarch of Abilene.
2 Annas and Caiaphas being the
high priests,(103) the word of
God came unto John the son of
Zacharias in the wilderness.
3 And he came into all the
country about Jordan,
preaching the baptism of
repentance, for the remission
of sins;
4 As it is written in the book
of the words of Esaias the
prophet, saying,(104) The
voice of one crying in the
wilderness, Prepare ye the way
of the Lord, make his paths
5 Every valley shall be
filled, and every mountain and
hill shall be brought low; and
the crooked shall be made
straight, and the rough ways
shall be made smooth;
6 And all flesh shall see the
salvation of God.
7 Then said he to the
multitude that came forth to
be baptized of him, O
generation of vipers, who hath
warned you to flee from the
wrath to come?
8 Bring forth therefore fruits
worthy of repentance, and
begin not to say within
yourselves, We have Abraham to
_our_ father: for I say unto
you, That God is able of these
stones to raise up children
unto Abraham.
9 And now also the axe is laid
unto the root of the trees:
every tree therefore which
bringeth not forth good fruit,
is hewn down, and cast into
the fire.
10 And the people asked him,
saying, What shall we do then?
11 He answereth and saith unto
them, He that hath two coats,
let him impart to him that
hath none; and he that hath
meat, let him do likewise.
12 Then came also publicans to
be baptized, and said unto
him, Master, what shall we do?
13 And he said unto them,
Exact no more than that which
is appointed you.
14 And the soldiers likewise
demanded of him, saying, And
what shall we do? And he said
unto them, Do violence to no
man, neither accuse _any_
falsely; and be content with
your wages.
15 And as the people were in
expectation, and all men mused
in their hearts of John,
whether he were the Christ, or
16 John answered, saying unto
_them_ all, I indeed baptize
you with water; but one
mightier than I cometh, the
latchet of whose shoes I am
not worthy to unloose: he
shall baptize you with the
Holy Ghost, and with fire:
17 Whose fan _is_ in his hand,
and he will thoroughly purge
his floor, and will gather the
wheat into his garner; but the
chaff he will burn with fire
18 And many other things in
his exhortation preached he
unto the people.

§ 15. The Baptism of Jesus. _The Jordan._

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. III. 13-17.                  CH. I. 9-11.
13 Then cometh Jesus from        9 And it came to pass in those
Galilee to Jordan unto John,     days, that Jesus came from
to be baptized of him.           Nazareth of Galilee, and was
                                 baptized of John in Jordan.
14 But John forbade him,         10 And straightway coming up
saying, I have need to be        out of the water, he saw the
baptized of thee, and comest     heavens opened, and the Spirit
thou to me?                      like a dove descending upon
15 And Jesus answering said      11 And there came a voice from
unto him, Suffer _it to be so_   heaven _saying_, Thou art my
now: for thus it becometh us     beloved Son, in whom I am well
to fulfil all righteousness.     pleased.
Then he suffered him.
16 And Jesus, when he was
baptized, when up straightway
out of the water: and lo, the
heavens were opened unto him,
and he saw the Spirit of God
descending like a dove, and
lighting upon him:
17 And lo, a voice from
heaven, saying, This is my
beloved Son, in whom I am well

CH. III. 21-23.
21 Now, when all the people
were baptized, it came to
pass, that Jesus also being
baptized, and praying, the
heaven was opened,
22 And the Holy Ghost
descended in a bodily shape
like a dove upon him, and a
voice came from heaven, which
said, Thou art my beloved Son;
in thee I am well pleased.
23 And Jesus himself began to
be about thirty years of age.

§ 16. The Temptation. _Desert of Judea_

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IV. 1-11.                    CH. I. 12-13.
Then was Jesus led up of the     12 And immediately the Spirit
Spirit into the wilderness to    driveth him into the
be tempted of the devil.         wilderness.
2 And when he had fasted forty   13 And he was there in the
days and forty nights, he was    wilderness forty days tempted
afterward an hungered.           of Satan; and was with the
                                 wild beasts; and the angels
                                 ministered unto him.
3 And when the tempter came to
him, he said, If thou be the
Son of God, command that these
stones be made bread.
4 But he answered and said, It
is written(105) Man shall not
live by bread alone, but by
every word that proceedeth out
of the mouth of God.
5 Then the devil taketh him up
into the holy city, and
setteth him on a pinnacle of
the temple,
6 And saith unto him, If thou
be the Son of God cast thyself
down, for it is written(106)
He shall give his angels
charge concerning thee: and in
_their_ hands they shall bear
thee up, lest at any time thou
dash thy foot against a stone.
7 Jesus said unto him, It is
written again,(107) Thou shalt
not tempt the Lord thy God.
8 Again, the devil taketh him
up into an exceeding high
mountain and sheweth him all
the kingdoms of the world, and
the glory of them:
9 And saith unto him, All
these things will I give thee,
if thou wilt fall down and
worship me.
10 Then saith Jesus unto him,
Get thee hence, Satan: for it
is written,(108) Thou shalt
worship the Lord thy God, and
him only shalt thou serve.
11 Then the devil leaveth him,
and behold, angels came and
ministered unto him.

CH. IV. 1-13.(109)
And Jesus, being full of the
Holy Ghost, returned from
Jordan, and was led by the
Spirit into the wilderness,
2 Being forty days tempted of
the devil. And in those days
he did eat nothing: and when
they were ended, he afterward
3 And the devil said unto him,
If thou be the Son of God,
command this stone that it be
made bread.
4 And Jesus answered him,
saying, It is written, That
man shall not live by bread
alone, but by every word of
9 And he brought him to
Jerusalem, and set him on a
pinnacle of the temple, and
said unto him, If thou be the
Son of God, cast thyself down
from hence:
10 For it is written, He shall
give his angels charge over
thee, to keep thee:
11 And in _their_ hands they
shall bear thee up, lest at
any time thou dash thy foot
against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering, said
unto him, It is said, Thou
shalt not tempt the Lord thy
5 And the devil, taking him up
into a high mountain, shewed
unto him, all the kingdoms of
the world in a moment of time.
6 And the devil said unto him,
All this power will I give
thee, and the glory of them:
for that is delivered unto me,
and to whomsoever I will, I
give it.
7 If thou therefore wilt
worship me, all shall be
8 And Jesus answered and said
unto him, Get thee behind me,
Satan: for it is written, Thou
shalt worship the Lord thy
God, and him only shalt thou
13 And when the devil had
ended all the temptation, he
departed from him for a

§ 17. Preface to John’s Gospel.

                                 CH. I. 1-18.
                                 In the beginning was the Word,
                                 and the Word was with God, and
                                 the Word was God.
                                 2 The same was in the
                                 beginning with God.
                                 3 All things were made by him;
                                 and without him was not
                                 anything made that was made.
                                 4 In him was life; and the
                                 life was the light of men.
                                 5 And the light shineth in
                                 darkness; and the darkness
                                 comprehended it not.
                                 6 There was a man sent from
                                 God, whose name _was_ John.
                                 7 The same came for a witness,
                                 to bear witness of the Light,
                                 that all _men_ through him
                                 might believe.
                                 8 He was not that Light, but
                                 _was sent_ to bear witness of
                                 that light.
                                 9 _That_ was the true Light,
                                 which lighteth every man that
                                 cometh into the world.
                                 10 He was in the world, and
                                 the world was made by him, and
                                 the world knew him not.
                                 11 He came unto his own, and
                                 his own received him not.
                                 12 But as many as received
                                 him, to them gave he power to
                                 become the sons of God, _even_
                                 to them that believe on his
                                 13 Which were born, not of
                                 blood, nor of the will of the
                                 flesh, nor of the will of man,
                                 but of God.
                                 14 And the Word was made
                                 flesh, and dwelt among us,
                                 (and we beheld his glory, the
                                 glory as of the only begotten
                                 of the Father,) full of grace
                                 and truth.
                                 15 John bare witness of him,
                                 and cried, saying, This was he
                                 of whom I spake, He that
                                 cometh after me, is preferred
                                 before me; for he was before
                                 16 And of his fulness have all
                                 we received, and grace for
                                 17 For the law was given by
                                 Moses, _but_ grace and truth
                                 came by Jesus Christ.
                                 18 No man hath seen God at any
                                 time; the only begotten Son,
                                 which is in the bosom of the
                                 Father, he hath declared

§ 18. Testimony of John the Baptist to Jesus. _Bethany beyond Jordan_.

                                 CH. I. 19-34.
                                 19 And this is the record of
                                 John, when the Jews sent
                                 priests and Levites from
                                 Jerusalem, to ask him, Who art
                                 20 And he confessed, and
                                 denied not; but confessed, I
                                 am not the Christ.
                                 21 And they asked him, What
                                 then? Art thou Elias? And he
                                 saith, I am not. Art thou that
                                 prophet? And he answered,
                                 22 Then said they unto him,
                                 Who art thou? that we may give
                                 an answer to them that sent
                                 us. What sayest thou of
                                 23 He said,(111) I am the
                                 voice of one crying in the
                                 wilderness, Make straight the
                                 way of the Lord, as said the
                                 prophet Esaias.
                                 24 And they which were sent
                                 were of the Pharisees.
                                 25 And they asked him, and
                                 said unto him, Why baptizest
                                 thou then, if thou be not that
                                 Christ, nor Elias, neither
                                 that prophet?
                                 26 John answered them, saying,
                                 I baptize with water: but
                                 there standeth one among you,
                                 whom ye know not.
                                 27 He it is, who coming after
                                 me, is preferred before me,
                                 whose shoe’s latchet I am not
                                 worthy to unloose.
                                 28 These things were done in
                                 Bethabara beyond Jordan, where
                                 John was baptizing.
                                 29 The next day John seeth
                                 Jesus coming unto him, and
                                 saith, Behold the Lamb of God,
                                 which taketh away the sin of
                                 the world!
                                 30 This is he of whom I said,
                                 After me cometh a man which is
                                 preferred before me; for he
                                 was before me.
                                 31 And I knew him not: but
                                 that he should be made
                                 manifest to Israel, therefore
                                 am I come baptizing with
                                 32 And John bare record,
                                 saying, I saw the Spirit
                                 descending from heaven like a
                                 dove, and it abode upon him.
                                 33 And I knew him not: but he
                                 that sent me to baptize with
                                 water, the same said unto me,
                                 Upon whom thou shalt see the
                                 Spirit descending and
                                 remaining on him, the same is
                                 he which baptizeth with the
                                 Holy Ghost.
                                 34 And I saw and bare record,
                                 that this is the Son of God.

§ 19. Jesus gains disciples. _The Jordan. Galilee_.

                                 CH. I. 35-51.
                                 35 Again the next day after,
                                 John stood, and two of his
                                 36 And looking upon Jesus as
                                 he walked, he saith, Behold
                                 the Lamb of God!
                                 37 And the two disciples heard
                                 him speak, and they followed
                                 38 Then Jesus turned, and saw
                                 them following, and saith unto
                                 them, What seek ye? They said
                                 unto him, Rabbi, (which is to
                                 say, being interpreted,
                                 Master,) where dwellest thou?
                                 39 He saith unto them, Come
                                 and see. They came and saw
                                 where he dwelt, and abode with
                                 him that day: for it was about
                                 the tenth hour.
                                 40 One of the two which heard
                                 John _speak_, and followed
                                 him, was Andrew, Simon Peter’s
                                 41 He first findeth his own
                                 brother Simon, and saith unto
                                 him, We have found the
                                 Messias; which is, being
                                 interpreted, the Christ.
                                 42 And he brought him to
                                 Jesus. And when Jesus beheld
                                 him, he said, Thou art Simon
                                 the son of Jona: thou shalt be
                                 called Cephas; which is, by
                                 interpretation, a stone.(112)
                                 43 The day following Jesus
                                 would go forth into Galilee,
                                 and findeth Philip, and saith
                                 unto him, Follow me.
                                 44 Now Philip was of
                                 Bethsaida, the city of Andrew
                                 and Peter.
                                 45 Philip findeth
                                 Nathanael,(113) and saith unto
                                 him, We have found him of whom
                                 Moses in the law, and the
                                 prophets, did write, Jesus of
                                 Nazareth the son of Joseph.
                                 46 And Nathanael said unto
                                 him, Can there any good thing
                                 come out of Nazareth? Philip
                                 saith unto him, Come and see.
                                 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming
                                 to him, and saith of him,
                                 Behold an Israelite indeed, in
                                 whom is no guile!
                                 48 Nathanael saith unto him,
                                 Whence knowest thou me? Jesus
                                 answered and said unto him,
                                 Before that Philip called
                                 thee, when thou wast under the
                                 fig-tree, I saw thee.
                                 49 Nathanael answered and
                                 saith unto him, Rabbi, thou
                                 art the Son of God; thou art
                                 the King of Israel.
                                 50 Jesus answered and said
                                 unto him, Because I said unto
                                 thee, I saw thee under the
                                 fig-tree, believest thou? thou
                                 shalt see greater things than
                                 51 And he saith unto him,
                                 Verily, verily, I say unto
                                 you, Hereafter ye shall see
                                 heaven open, and the angels of
                                 God ascending and descending
                                 upon the(114) Son of man.

§ 20. The Marriage at Cana of Galilee.

                                 CH. II. 1-12.
                                 And the third day there was a
                                 marriage in Cana of Galilee;
                                 and the mother of Jesus was
                                 2 And both Jesus was called,
                                 and his disciples, to the
                                 3 And when they wanted wine,
                                 the mother of Jesus saith unto
                                 him, They have no wine.
                                 4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman,
                                 what have I to do with thee?
                                 mine hour is not yet come.
                                 5 His mother saith unto the
                                 servants, Whatsoever he saith
                                 unto you, do _it_.
                                 6 And there were set there six
                                 water-pots of stone, after the
                                 manner of the purifying of the
                                 Jews, containing two or three
                                 firkins apiece.
                                 7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill
                                 the water-pots with water. And
                                 they filled them up to the
                                 8 And he saith unto them, Draw
                                 out now, and bear unto the
                                 governor of the feast. And
                                 they bare _it_.
                                 9 When the ruler of the feast
                                 had tasted the water that was
                                 made wine, and knew not whence
                                 it was, (but the servants
                                 which drew the water knew,)
                                 the governor of the feast
                                 called the bridegroom,
                                 10 And saith unto him, Every
                                 man at the beginning doth set
                                 forth good wine; and when men
                                 have well drunk, then that
                                 which is worse: _but_ thou
                                 hast kept the good wine until
                                 11 This beginning of miracles
                                 did Jesus in Cana of Galilee,
                                 and manifested forth his
                                 glory; and his disciples
                                 believed on him.
                                 12 After this he went down to
                                 Capernaum, he, and his mother,
                                 and his brethren, and his
                                 disciples; and they continued
                                 there not many days.

Part III. Our Lord’s First Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions Until
The Second.

TIME. _One year._

§ 21. At the Passover Jesus drives the traders out of the Temple.

                                 CH. II. 13-25.
                                 13 And the Jews’ passover was
                                 at hand, and Jesus went up to
                                 14 And found in the temple
                                 those that sold oxen, and
                                 sheep, and doves, and the
                                 changers of money, sitting:
                                 15 And when he had made a
                                 scourge of small cords, he
                                 drove them all out of the
                                 temple, and the sheep, and the
                                 oxen; and poured out the
                                 changers’ money, and overthrew
                                 the tables;
                                 16 And said unto them that
                                 sold doves, Take these things
                                 hence: make not my Father’s
                                 house an house of merchandise.
                                 17 And his disciples
                                 remembered that it was
                                 written,(115) The zeal of
                                 thine house hath eaten me up.
                                 18 Then answered the Jews, and
                                 said unto him, What sign
                                 shewest thou unto us, seeing
                                 that thou dost these things?
                                 19 Jesus answered and said
                                 unto them, Destroy this
                                 temple, and in three days I
                                 will raise it up.
                                 20 Then said the Jews, Forty
                                 and six years was this temple
                                 in building, and wilt thou
                                 rear it up in three days?
                                 21 But he spake of the temple
                                 of his body.
                                 22 When therefore he was risen
                                 from the dead, his disciples
                                 remembered that he had said
                                 this unto them: and they
                                 believed the scripture, and
                                 the word which Jesus had said.
                                 23 Now, when he was in
                                 Jerusalem at the passover, in
                                 the _feast-day_, many believed
                                 in his name, when they saw the
                                 miracles which he did.
                                 24 But Jesus did not commit
                                 himself unto them, because he
                                 knew all _men_.
                                 25 And needed not that any
                                 should testify of man: for he
                                 knew what was in man.

§ 22. Our Lord’s discourse with Nicodemus. _Jerusalem_.

                                 CH. III. 1-21.
                                 There was a man of the
                                 Pharisees named Nicodemus, a
                                 ruler of the Jews:
                                 2 The same came to Jesus by
                                 night, and said unto him,
                                 Rabbi, we know that thou art a
                                 teacher come from God: for no
                                 man can do these miracles that
                                 thou doest, except God be with
                                 3 Jesus answered and said unto
                                 him, Verily, verily, I say
                                 unto thee, Except a man be
                                 born again, he cannot see the
                                 kingdom of God.
                                 4 Nicodemus saith unto him,
                                 How can a man be born when he
                                 is old? can he enter the
                                 second time into his mother’s
                                 womb, and be born?
                                 5 Jesus answered, Verily,
                                 verily, I say unto thee,
                                 Except a man be born of water,
                                 and of the Spirit, he cannot
                                 enter into the kingdom of God.
                                 6 That which is born of the
                                 flesh, is flesh; and that
                                 which is born of the Spirit,
                                 is spirit.
                                 7 Marvel not that I said unto
                                 thee, Ye must be born again.
                                 8 The wind bloweth where it
                                 listeth, and thou hearest the
                                 sound thereof, but canst not
                                 tell whence it cometh, and
                                 whither it goeth: so is every
                                 one that is born of the
                                 9 Nicodemus answered and said
                                 unto him, How can these things
                                 10 Jesus answered and said
                                 unto him, Art thou a master of
                                 Israel, and knowest not these
                                 11 Verily, verily, I say unto
                                 thee, We speak that we do
                                 know, and testify that we have
                                 seen; and ye receive not our
                                 12 If I have told you earthly
                                 things, and ye believe not,
                                 how shall ye believe if I tell
                                 you _of_ heavenly things?
                                 13 And no man hath ascended up
                                 to heaven, but he that came
                                 down from heaven, _even_ the
                                 Son of man which is in heaven.
                                 14 And as(116) Moses lifted up
                                 the serpent in the wilderness,
                                 even so must the Son of man be
                                 lifted up:
                                 15 That whosoever believeth in
                                 him should not perish, but
                                 have eternal life.
                                 16 For God so loved the world,
                                 that he gave his only begotten
                                 Son, that whosoever believeth
                                 in him, should not perish, but
                                 have everlasting life.
                                 17 For God sent not his Son
                                 into the world to condemn the
                                 world, but that the world
                                 through him might be saved.
                                 18 He that believeth on him,
                                 is not condemned: but he that
                                 believeth not, is condemned
                                 already, because he hath not
                                 believed in the name of the
                                 only begotten Son of God.
                                 19 And this is the
                                 condemnation, that light is
                                 come into the world, and men
                                 loved darkness rather than
                                 light, because their deeds
                                 were evil.
                                 20 For every one that doeth
                                 evil hateth the light, neither
                                 cometh to the light, lest his
                                 deeds should be reproved.
                                 21 But he that doeth truth,
                                 cometh to the light, that his
                                 deeds may be made manifest,
                                 that they are wrought in God.

§ 23. Jesus remains in Judea and baptizes. Further testimony of John the

                                 CH. III. 22-36.
                                 22 After these things came
                                 Jesus and his disciples into
                                 the land of Judea; and there
                                 he tarried with them, and
                                 23 And John also was baptizing
                                 in Ænon, near to Salim,
                                 because there was much water
                                 there: and they came, and were
                                 24 For John was not yet cast
                                 into prison.
                                 25 Then there arose a question
                                 between _some_ of John’s
                                 disciples and the Jews, about
                                 26 And they came unto John and
                                 said unto him, Rabbi, he that
                                 was with thee beyond Jordan,
                                 to whom thou bearest witness,
                                 behold, the same baptizeth,
                                 and all men come to him.
                                 27 John answered and said, A
                                 man can receive nothing,
                                 except it be given him from
                                 28 Ye yourselves bear me
                                 witness, that I said, I am not
                                 the Christ, but that I am sent
                                 before him.
                                 29 He that hath the bride is
                                 the bridegroom: but the friend
                                 of the bridegroom, which
                                 standeth and heareth him,
                                 rejoiceth greatly, because of
                                 the bridegroom’s voice: this
                                 my joy therefore is fulfilled.
                                 30 He must increase, but I
                                 must decrease.
                                 31 He that cometh from above,
                                 is above all: he that is of
                                 the earth is earthly, and
                                 speaketh of the earth: he that
                                 cometh from heaven is above
                                 32 And what he hath seen, and
                                 heard, that he testifieth; and
                                 no man receiveth his
                                 33 He that hath received his
                                 testimony, hath set to his
                                 seal that God is true.
                                 34 For he whom God hath sent,
                                 speaketh the words of God: for
                                 God giveth not the Spirit by
                                 measure _unto him_.
                                 35 The Father loveth the Son,
                                 and hath given all things into
                                 his hand.
                                 36 He that believeth on the
                                 Son hath everlasting life: and
                                 he that believeth not the Son,
                                 shall not see life; but the
                                 wrath of God abideth on him.

§ 24. Jesus departs into Galilee after John’s imprisonment.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IV. 12.                      CH. I. 14.
12 Now, when Jesus had heard     14 Now, after that John was
that John was cast into          put in prison, Jesus came into
prison, he departed into         Galilee.
CH. XIV. 3-5.                    CH. VI. 17-20.
3 For Herod had laid hold on     17 For Herod himself had sent
John, and bound him, and put     forth and laid hold upon John,
_him_ in prison for Herodias’    and bound him in prison for
sake, his brother Philip’s       Herodias’ sake, his brother
wife.                            Philip’s wife: for he had
                                 married her.
4 For John said unto him, It     18 For John had said unto
is not lawful for thee to have   Herod, It is not lawful for
her.                             thee to have thy brother’s
5 And when he would have put     19 Therefore Herodias had a
him to death, he feared the      quarrel against him, and would
multitude, because they          have killed him; but she could
counted him as a prophet.        not:
                                 20 For Herod feared John,
                                 knowing that he was a just man
                                 and an holy, and observed him:
                                 and when he heard him, he did
                                 many things, and heard him

Luke.                            John.
CH. IV. 14.                      CH. IV. 1-3.
                                 When therefore the Lord knew
                                 how the Pharisees had heard
                                 that Jesus made and baptized
                                 more disciples than John,
                                 2 (Though Jesus himself
                                 baptized not, but his
14 And Jesus returned in the     3 He left Judea, and departed
power of the Spirit into         again into Galilee.
CH. III. 19, 20.
19 But Herod the tetrarch,
being reproved by him for
Herodias his brother Philip’s
wife, and for all the evils
which Herod had done,
20 Added yet this above all,
that he shut up John in

§ 25. Our Lord’s discourse with the Samaritan woman. Many Samaritans
believe on him. _Shechem_ or _Neapolis_.

                                 CH. IV. 4-42.
                                 4 And he must needs go through
                                 5 Then cometh he to a city of
                                 Samaria, which is called
                                 Sychar, near to the parcel of
                                 ground that Jacob gave to his
                                 son Joseph.
                                 6 Now Jacob’s well was there.
                                 Jesus therefore being wearied
                                 with _his_ journey, sat thus
                                 on the well: and it was about
                                 the sixth hour.
                                 7 There cometh a woman of
                                 Samaria to draw water; Jesus
                                 saith unto her, Give me to
                                 8 (For his disciples were gone
                                 away unto the city to buy
                                 9 Then saith the woman of
                                 Samaria unto him, How is it
                                 that thou, being a Jew, askest
                                 drink of me, which am a woman
                                 of Samaria? for the Jews have
                                 no dealings with the
                                 10 Jesus answered and said
                                 unto her, If thou knewest the
                                 gift of God, and who it is
                                 that saith to thee, Give me to
                                 drink; thou wouldest have
                                 asked of him, and he would
                                 have given thee living water.
                                 11 The woman saith unto him,
                                 Sir, thou hast nothing to draw
                                 with, and the well is deep:
                                 from whence then hast thou
                                 that living water?
                                 12 Art thou greater than our
                                 father Jacob, which gave us
                                 the well, and drank thereof
                                 himself, and his children, and
                                 his cattle?
                                 13 Jesus answered and said
                                 unto her, Whosoever drinketh
                                 of this water, shall thirst
                                 14 But whosoever drinketh of
                                 the water that I shall give
                                 him, shall never thirst; but
                                 the water that I shall give
                                 him, shall be in him a well of
                                 water springing up into
                                 everlasting life.
                                 15 The woman saith unto him,
                                 Sir, give me this water, that
                                 I thirst not, neither come
                                 hither to draw.
                                 16 Jesus saith unto her, Go
                                 call thy husband, and come
                                 17 The woman answered and
                                 said, I have no husband. Jesus
                                 said unto her, Thou hast well
                                 said, I have no husband:
                                 18 For thou hast had five
                                 husbands, and he whom thou now
                                 hast, is not thy husband: in
                                 that saidst thou truly.
                                 19 The woman saith unto him,
                                 Sir, I perceive that thou art
                                 a prophet.
                                 20 Our fathers worshipped in
                                 this mountain; and ye say,
                                 that in Jerusalem is the place
                                 where men ought to worship.
                                 21 Jesus saith unto her,
                                 Woman, believe me, the hour
                                 cometh, when ye shall neither
                                 in this mountain, nor yet at
                                 Jerusalem, worship the Father.
                                 22 Ye worship ye know not
                                 what: we know what we worship,
                                 for salvation is of the Jews.
                                 23 But the hour cometh, and
                                 now is, when the true
                                 worshippers shall worship the
                                 Father in spirit and in truth:
                                 for the Father seeketh such to
                                 worship him.
                                 24 God is a Spirit: and they
                                 that worship him, must worship
                                 him in spirit and in truth.
                                 25 The woman saith unto him, I
                                 know that the Messias cometh,
                                 which is called Christ; when
                                 he is come, he will tell us
                                 all things.
                                 26 Jesus saith unto her, I
                                 that speak unto thee am he.
                                 27 And upon this came his
                                 disciples, and marvelled that
                                 he talked with the woman: yet
                                 no man said, What seekest
                                 thou? or, Why talkest thou
                                 with her?
                                 28 The woman then left her
                                 waterpot, and went her way
                                 into the city, and saith to
                                 the men,
                                 29 Come, see a man which told
                                 me all things that ever I did:
                                 is not this the Christ?
                                 30 Then they went out of the
                                 city, and came unto him.
                                 31 In the meanwhile his
                                 disciples prayed him, saying,
                                 Master, eat.
                                 32 But he said unto them, I
                                 have meat to eat that ye not
                                 know of.
                                 33 Therefore said the
                                 disciples one to another, Hath
                                 any man brought him aught to
                                 34 Jesus saith unto them, My
                                 meat is to do the will of him
                                 that sent me, and to finish
                                 his work.
                                 35 Say not ye, There are yet
                                 four months, and _then_ cometh
                                 harvest? behold, I say unto
                                 you, Lift up your eyes, and
                                 look on the fields; for they
                                 are white already to harvest.
                                 36 And he that reapeth
                                 receiveth wages, and gathereth
                                 fruit unto life eternal: that
                                 both he that soweth, and he
                                 that reapeth, may rejoice
                                 37 And herein is that saying
                                 true, One soweth, and another
                                 38 I sent you to reap that
                                 whereon ye bestowed no labour:
                                 other men laboured, and ye are
                                 entered into their labours.
                                 39 And many of the Samaritans
                                 of that city believed on him
                                 for the saying of the woman,
                                 which testified, He told me
                                 all that ever I did.
                                 40 So when the Samaritans were
                                 come unto him, they besought
                                 him that he would tarry with
                                 them: and he abode there two
                                 41 And many more believed,
                                 because of his own word;
                                 42 And said unto the woman,
                                 Now we believe, not because of
                                 thy saying: for we have heard
                                 _him_ ourselves, and know that
                                 this is indeed the Christ, the
                                 Saviour of the world.

§ 26. Jesus teaches publicly in Galilee.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IV. 17.                      CH. I. 14, 15.
17 From that time Jesus began    preaching the gospel of the
to preach, and to say, Repent:   kingdom of God,
for the kingdom of heaven is
at hand.
                                 15 And saying, the time is
                                 fulfilled, and the kingdom of
                                 God is at hand; repent ye, and
                                 believe the gospel.

Luke.                            John.
CH. IV. 14, 15.                  CH. IV. 43-45.
and there went out a fame of     43 Now, after two days he
him through all the region       departed thence, and went into
round about.                     Galilee.
15 And he taught in their        44 For Jesus himself
synagogues, being glorified of   testified, that a prophet hath
all.                             no honour in his own country.
                                 45 Then when he was come into
                                 Galilee, the Galileans
                                 received him, having seen all
                                 the things that he did at
                                 Jerusalem at the feast: for
                                 they also went unto the feast.

§ 27. Jesus, again at Cana, heals the son of a nobleman lying ill at
Capernaum. _Cana of Galilee_.

                                 CH. IV. 46-54.
                                 46 So Jesus came again into
                                 Cana of Galilee, where he made
                                 the water wine. And there was
                                 a certain nobleman, whose son
                                 was sick at Capernaum.
                                 47 When he heard that Jesus
                                 was come out of Judea into
                                 Galilee, he went unto him, and
                                 besought him that he would
                                 come down, and heal his son:
                                 for he was at the point of
                                 48 Then said Jesus unto him,
                                 Except ye see signs and
                                 wonders, ye will not believe.
                                 49 The nobleman saith unto
                                 him, Sir, come down ere my
                                 child die.
                                 50 Jesus saith unto him, Go
                                 thy way; thy son liveth. And
                                 the man believed the word that
                                 Jesus had spoken unto him, and
                                 he went his way.
                                 51 And as he was now going
                                 down, his servants met him,
                                 and told _him_, saying, Thy
                                 son liveth.
                                 52 Then inquired he of them
                                 the hour when he began to
                                 amend. And they said unto him,
                                 Yesterday at the seventh hour
                                 the fever left him.
                                 53 So the father knew that _it
                                 was_ at the same hour, in the
                                 which Jesus said unto him, Thy
                                 son liveth: and himself
                                 believed, and his whole house.
                                 54 This _is_ again the second
                                 miracle _that_ Jesus did, when
                                 he was come out of Judea into

§ 28. Jesus is rejected at Nazareth, and fixes his abode at Capernaum.

CH. IV. 13-16.
13 And leaving Nazareth, he
came and dwelt in Capernaum,
which is upon the sea-coast,
in the borders of Zabulon and
14 That it might be fulfilled
which was spoken by Esaias the
prophet, saying,(117)
15 The land of Zabulon, and
the land of Napthalim, _by_
the way of the sea, beyond
Jordan, Galilee of the
16 The people which sat in
darkness, saw great light; and
to them which sat in the
region and shadow of death,
light is sprung up.

CH. IV. 16-31.
16 And he came to Nazareth,
where he had been brought up:
and, as his custom was, he
went into the synagogue on the
sabbath-day, and stood up for
to read.
17 And there was delivered
unto him the book of the
prophet Esaias. And when he
had opened the book, he found
the place where it was
18 The Spirit of the Lord _is_
upon me, because he hath
anointed me to preach the
gospel to the poor; he hath
sent me to heal the
brokenhearted, to preach
deliverance to the captives,
and recovering of sight to the
blind, to set at liberty them
that are bruised,
19 To preach the acceptable
year of the Lord.
20 And he closed the book, and
he gave it again to the
minister,(119) and sat
down.(120) And the eyes of all
them that were in the
synagogue were fastened on
21 And he began to say unto
them, This day is the
scripture fulfilled in your
22 And all bare him witness,
and wondered at the gracious
words which proceeded out of
his mouth. And they said, Is
not this Joseph’s son?
23 And he said unto them, Ye
will surely say unto me this
proverb, Physician, heal
thyself: whatsoever we have
heard done in Capernaum, do
also here in thy country.
24 And he said, Verily, I say
unto you, No prophet is
accepted in his own country.
25 But I tell you of a truth,
many widows were in Israel in
the days of Elias, when the
heaven was shut up three years
and six months, when great
famine was throughout all the
26 But unto none of them was
Elias sent, save unto Sarepta,
a _city_ of Sidon, unto a
woman _that was_ a widow.(121)
27 And many lepers were in
Israel in the time of Eliseus
the prophet; and none of them
was cleansed, saving Naaman
the Syrian.(122)
28 And all they in the
synagogue, when they heard
these things, were filled with
29 And rose up, and thrust him
out of the city, and led him
unto the brow of the
hill,(123) (whereon their city
was built,) that they might
cast him down headlong.
30 But he, passing through the
midst of them, went his way,
31 And came down to Capernaum,
a city of Galilee,

§ 29. The call of Simon Peter and Andrew, and of James and John, with the
miraculous draught of fishes. _Near Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IV. 18-22.                   CH. I. 16-20.
18 And Jesus, walking(124) by    16 Now as he walked by the sea
the sea of Galilee, saw two      of Galilee, he saw Simon, and
brethren, Simon called Peter,    Andrew his brother,
and Andrew his brother,
casting a net into the sea;      casting a net into the sea:
for they were fishers.           for they were fishers.
19 And he saith unto them,       17 And Jesus said unto them,
Follow me, and I will make you   Come ye after me, and I will
fishers of men.                  make you to become fishers of
20 And they straightway left     18 And straightway they
_their_ nets, and followed       forsook their nets, and
him.                             followed him.
21 And going on from thence,     19 And when he had gone a
he saw other two brethren,       little farther thence, he saw
James _the son_ of Zebedee,      James the _son_ of Zebedee,
and John his brother, in a       and John his brother, who also
ship with Zebedee their          were in the ship mending their
father,(125) mending their       nets.
nets: and he called them.
22 And they immediately left     20 And straightway he called
the ship, and their father,      them: and they left their
and followed him.                father Zebedee in the ship
                                 with the hired servants, and
                                 went after him.

CH. V. 1-11.
And it came to pass, that as
the people pressed upon him to
hear the word of God, he stood
by the lake of Gennesaret,
2 And saw two ships standing
by the lake: but the fishermen
were gone out of them, and
were washing their nets.
3 And he entered into one of
the ships which was Simon’s,
and prayed him that he would
thrust out a little from the
land. And he sat down, and
taught the people out of the
4 Now, when he had left
speaking, he said unto Simon,
Launch out into the deep, and
let down your nets for a
5 And Simon, answering, said
unto him, Master, we have
toiled all the night, and have
taken nothing; nevertheless,
at thy word I will let down
the net.
6 And when they had this done,
they enclosed a great
multitude of fishes: and their
net brake.
7 And they beckoned unto
_their_ partners, which were
in the other ship, that they
should come and help them. And
they came, and filled both the
ships, so that they began to
8 When Simon Peter saw _it_,
he fell down at Jesus’ knees,
saying, Depart from me; for I
am a sinful man, O Lord.
9 For he was astonished, and
all that were with him, at the
draught of the fishes which
they had taken:
10 And so was also James and
John the sons of Zebedee,
which were partners with
Simon. And Jesus said unto
Simon, Fear not: from
henceforth thou shalt catch
11 And when they had brought
their ships to land, they
forsook all, and followed him.

§ 30. The healing of a demoniac in the Synagogue. _Capernaum_.

Mark.                            Luke.
CH. I. 21-28.                    CH. IV. 31-37.
21 And they went into            and taught them on the
Capernaum; and straightway on    Sabbath-days.
the sabbath-day he entered
into the synagogue and taught.
22 And they were astonished at   32 And they were astonished at
his doctrine: for he taught      his doctrine: for his word was
them as one that had             with power.
authority, and not as the
23 And there was in their        33 And in the synagogue there
synagogue a man with an          was a man which had a spirit
unclean spirit; and he cried     of an unclean devil; and he
out,                             cried out with a loud voice,
24 Saying, Let us alone; what    34 Saying, Let _us_ alone;
have we to do with thee, thou    what have we to do with thee,
Jesus of Nazareth? art thou,     _thou_ Jesus of Nazareth? art
come to destroy us? I know       thou come to destroy us? I
thee who thou art, the Holy      know thee who thou art, the
One of God.                      Holy One of God.
25 And Jesus rebuked him,        35 And Jesus rebuked him,
saying, Hold thy peace, and      saying, Hold thy peace, and
come out of him.                 come out of him. And when the
                                 devil had thrown him in the
                                 midst, he came out of him, and
                                 hurt him not.
26 And when the unclean spirit   36 And they were all amazed,
had torn him,(126) and cried     and spake among themselves,
with a loud voice, he came out   saying, What a word _is_ this!
of him.                          for with authority and power
                                 he commandeth the unclean
                                 spirits, and they come out.
27 And they were all amazed,
insomuch that they questioned
among themselves, saying, What
thing is this? what new
doctrine _is_ this? for with
authority commandeth he even
the unclean spirits, and they
do obey him.
28 And immediately his fame      37 And the fame of him went
spread abroad throughout all     out into every place of the
the region round about           country round about.

§ 31. The healing of Peter’s wife’s mother and many others. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. VIII. 14-17.                 CH. I. 29-34.
                                 29 And forthwith, when they
                                 were come out of the
                                 synagogue, they entered into
                                 the house of Simon and Andrew,
                                 with James and John.
14 And when Jesus was come       30 But Simon’s wife’s mother
into Peter’s house, he saw his   lay sick of a fever; and anon
wife’s mother laid, and sick     they tell him of her.
of a fever.
15 And he touched her hand,      31 And he came and took her by
and the fever left her: and      the hand, and lifted her up;
she arose, and ministered unto   and immediately the fever left
them.                            her, and she ministered unto
16 When the even was come,       32 And at even when the sun
they brought unto him many       did set, they brought unto him
that were possessed with         all that were diseased, and
devils: and he cast out the      them that were possessed with
spirits with _his_ word, and     devils.
healed all that were sick;
17 That it might be fulfilled    33 And all the city was
which was spoken by Esaias the   gathered together at the door.
prophet, saying,(127) Himself
took our infirmities, and bare
_our_ sicknesses.
                                 34 And he healed many that
                                 were sick of divers diseases,
                                 and cast out many devils; and
                                 suffered not the devils to
                                 speak, because they knew him.

CH. IV. 38-41.
38 And he arose out of the
synagogue, and entered into
Simon’s house. And Simon’s
wife’s mother was taken with a
great fever; and they besought
him for her.
39 And he stood over her, and
rebuked the fever; and it left
her: and immediately she arose
and ministered unto them.
40 Now, when the sun was
setting, all they that had any
sick with divers diseases,
brought them unto him: and he
laid his hands on every one of
them, and healed them.
41 And devils also came out of
many, crying out, and saying,
Thou art Christ the Son of
God. And he, rebuking _them_,
suffered them not to speak:
for they knew that he was

§ 32. Jesus with his disciples goes from Capernaum throughout Galilee.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IV. 23-25.                   CH. I. 35-39.
                                 35 And in the morning, rising
                                 up a while before day, he went
                                 out and departed into a
                                 solitary place, and there
                                 36 And Simon, and they that
                                 were with him, followed after
                                 37 And when they had found
                                 him, they said unto him, All
                                 _men_ seek for thee.
                                 38 And he said unto them, Let
                                 us go into the next towns,
                                 that I may preach there also:
                                 for therefore came I forth.
23 And Jesus went about all      39 And he preached in their
Galilee, teaching in their       synagogues throughout all
synagogues, and preaching the    Galilee, and cast out devils.
gospel of the kingdom, and
healing all manner of
sickness, and all manner of
disease among the people.
24 And his fame went
throughout all Syria: and they
brought unto him all sick
people that were taken with
divers diseases and torments,
and those which were possessed
with devils, and those which
were lunatic, and those that
had the palsy; and he healed
25 And there followed him
great multitudes of people
from Galilee, and _from_
Decapolis, and _from_
Jerusalem, and _from_ Judea,
and _from_ beyond Jordan.

CH. IV. 42-44.
42 And when it was day,(128)
he departed, and went into a
desert place; and the people
sought him, and came unto him,
and stayed him, that he should
not depart from them.
43 And he said unto them, I
must preach the kingdom of God
to other cities also, for
therefore am I sent.
44 And he preached in the
synagogues of Galilee.

§ 33. The healing of a leper. _Galilee._

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. VIII. 2-4.                   CH. I. 40-45.
2 And behold, there came a       40 And there came a leper to
leper and worshipped him,        him, beseeching him, and
saying, Lord, if thou wilt,      kneeling down to him, and
thou canst make me clean.        saying unto him, If thou wilt,
                                 thou canst make me clean.
3 And Jesus put forth _his_      41 And Jesus, moved with
hand, and touched him, saying,   compassion, put forth _his_
I will; be thou clean. And       hand, and touched him, and
immediately his leprosy was      saith unto him, I will; be
cleansed.                        thou clean.
                                 42 And as soon as he had
                                 spoken, immediately the
                                 leprosy departed from him, and
                                 he was cleansed.
4 And Jesus saith unto him,      43 And he straitly charged
See thou tell no man:(129) but   him, and forthwith sent him
go thy way, shew thyself to      away;
the priest, and offer the gift
that Moses commanded, for a
testimony unto them.(130)
                                 44 And saith unto him, See
                                 thou say nothing to any man;
                                 but go thy way, shew thyself
                                 to the priest, and offer for
                                 thy cleansing those things
                                 which Moses commanded, for a
                                 testimony unto them.
                                 45 But he went out, and began
                                 to publish it much, and to
                                 blaze abroad the matter,
                                 insomuch that Jesus could no
                                 more openly enter into the
                                 city, but was without in
                                 desert places: and they came
                                 to him from every quarter.

CH. V. 12-16.
12 And it came to pass, when
he was in a certain city,
behold, a man full of leprosy:
who, seeing Jesus, fell on
_his_ face, and besought him,
saying, Lord, if thou wilt,
thou canst make me clean.
13 And he put forth his hand
and touched him, saying, I
will: Be thou clean. And
immediately the leprosy
departed from him.
14 And he charged him to tell
no man: but go, and shew
thyself to the priest, and
offer for thy cleansing,
according as Moses commanded,
for a testimony unto them.
15 But so much the more went
there a fame abroad of him:
and great multitudes came
together to hear and to be
healed by him of their
16 And he withdrew himself
into the wilderness, and

§ 34. The healing of a paralytic. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IX. 2-8.                     CH. II. 1-12.
                                 And again he entered into
                                 Capernaum, after some days;
                                 and it was noised that he was
                                 in the house.
                                 2 And straightway many were
                                 gathered together, insomuch
                                 that there was no room to
                                 receive _them_, no, not so
                                 much as about the door: and he
                                 preached the word unto them.
2 And behold, they brought to    3 And they come unto him,
him a man sick of the palsy,     bringing one sick of the
lying on a bed: and Jesus,       palsy, which was borne of
seeing their faith, said unto    four.
the sick of the palsy, Son, be
of good cheer; thy sins be
forgiven thee.
                                 4 And when they could not come
                                 nigh unto him for the press,
                                 they uncovered the roof where
                                 he was: and when they had
                                 broken _it_ up, they let down
                                 the bed wherein the sick of
                                 the palsy lay.
                                 5 When Jesus saw their faith,
                                 he said unto the sick of the
                                 palsy, Son, thy sins be
                                 forgiven thee.
3 And behold, certain of the     6 But there were certain of
scribes said within              the scribes sitting there, and
themselves, This _man_           reasoning in  their hearts,
7 Why doth this man thus speak
blasphemies? who can forgive
sins but God only?
4 And Jesus, knowing their       8 And immediately, when Jesus
thoughts, said, Wherefore        perceived in his spirit, that
think ye evil in your hearts?    they so reasoned within
                                 themselves, he said unto them,
                                 Why reason ye these things in
                                 your hearts?
5 For whether is easier to       9 Whether is it easier to say
say, _Thy_ sins be forgiven      to the sick of the palsy,
thee; or to say, Arise, and      _Thy_ sins be forgiven thee;
walk?                            or to say, Arise, and take up
                                 thy bed, and walk?
6 But that ye may know that      10 But that ye may know that
the Son of man hath power on     the Son of man hath power on
earth to forgive sins, (then     earth to forgive sins (he
saith he to the sick of the      saith to the sick of the
palsy,) Arise, take up thy       palsy,)
bed, and go unto thy house.
7 And he arose, and departed     11 I say unto thee, Arise, and
to his house.                    take up thy bed, and go thy
                                 way into thy house.
8 But when the multitude saw     12 And immediately he arose,
_it_, they marvelled, and        took up the bed, and went
glorified God, which had given   forth before them all;
such power unto men.             insomuch that they were all
                                 amazed, and glorified God,
                                 saying, We never saw it on
                                 this fashion.

CH. V. 17-26.
17 And it came to pass on a
certain day, as he was
teaching, that there were
Pharisees and doctors of the
law sitting by, which were
come out of every town of
Galilee, and Judea, and
Jerusalem: and the power of
the Lord was _present_ to heal
18 And behold, men brought in
a bed a man which was taken
with a palsy: and they sought
_means_ to bring him in, and
to lay _him_ before him.
19 And when they could not
find by what way they might
bring him in, because of the
multitude, they went upon the
house-top, and let him down
through the tiling with _his_
couch, into the midst before
20 And when he saw their
faith, he said unto him, Man,
thy sins are forgiven thee.
21 And the scribes and the
Pharisees began to reason,
saying, Who is this which
speaketh blasphemies? Who can
forgive sins but God alone?
22 But when Jesus perceived
their thoughts, he, answering,
said unto them, What reason ye
in your hearts?
23 Whether is easier, to say,
Thy sins be forgiven thee; or
to say, Rise up and walk?
24 But that ye may know that
the Son of man hath power upon
earth to forgive sins, (he
said unto the sick of the
palsy,) I say unto thee,
Arise, and take up thy couch,
and go unto thine house.
25 And immediately he arose up
before them, and took up that
whereon he lay, and departed
to his own house, glorifying
26 And they were all amazed,
and they glorified God, and
were filled with fear, saying,
We have seen strange things

§ 35. The call of Matthew. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IX. 9.                       CH. II. 13, 14.
9 And as Jesus passed forth      13 And he went forth again by
from thence, he saw a man        the sea-side; and all the
named Matthew, sitting at the    multitude resorted unto him,
receipt of custom: and he        and he taught them.
saith unto him, Follow me. And
he arose, and followed him.
                                 14 And as he passed by, he saw
                                 Levi(131) the _son_ of
                                 Alpheus, sitting at the
                                 receipt of custom, and said
                                 unto him, Follow me. And he
                                 arose, and followed him.

CH. V. 27, 28.
27 And after these things he
went forth, and saw a publican
named Levi, sitting at the
receipt of custom: and he said
unto him, Follow me.
28 And he left all, rose up,
and followed him.

Part IV. Our Lord’s Second Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions Until
The Third.

TIME. _One year_.

§ 36. The pool of Bethesda; the healing of the infirm man; and our Lord’s
subsequent discourse. _Jerusalem_.

CH. V. 1-47.
After this there was a feast
of the Jews: and Jesus went up
to Jerusalem.
2 Now there is at Jerusalem,
by the sheep _market_, a pool,
which is called in the Hebrew
tongue, Bethesda,(132) having
five porches.
3 In these lay a great
multitude of impotent folk, of
blind, halt, withered, waiting
for the moving of the water.
4 For an angel went down at a
certain season into the pool,
and troubled the water:
whosoever then first after the
troubling of the water stepped
in, was made whole of
whatsoever disease he had.
5 And a certain man was there,
which had an infirmity thirty
and eight years.
6 When Jesus saw him lie, and
knew that he had been now a
long time _in that case_, he
saith unto him, Wilt thou be
made whole?
7 The impotent man answered
him, Sir, I have no man, when
the water is troubled, to put
me into the pool: but while I
am coming, another steppeth
down before me.
8 Jesus saith unto him, Rise,
take up thy bed, and walk.
9 And immediately the man was
made whole, and took up his
bed, and walked: and on the
same day was the sabbath.
10 The Jews therefore said
unto him that was cured, It is
the sabbath-day; it is not
lawful for thee to carry _thy_
11 He answered them, He that
made me whole, the same said
unto me, Take up thy bed, and
12 Then asked they him, What
man is that which said unto
thee, Take up thy bed, and
13 And he that was healed wist
not who it was: for Jesus had
conveyed himself away, a
multitude being in _that_
14 Afterward Jesus findeth him
in the temple, and said unto
him, Behold, thou art made
whole; sin no more, lest a
worse thing come unto thee.
15 The man departed, and told
the Jews that it was Jesus
which had made him whole.
16 And therefore did the Jews
persecute Jesus, and sought to
slay him, because he had done
things things on the
17 But Jesus answered them, My
Father worketh hitherto, and I
18 Therefore the Jews sought
the more to kill him, because
he not only had broken the
sabbath, but said also, hat
God was his Father, making
himself equal with God.
19 Then answered Jesus, and
said unto them, Verily,
verily, I say unto you, The
Son can do nothing of himself,
but what he seeth the Father
do: for what things soever he
doeth, these also doeth the
Son likewise.
20 For the Father loveth the
Son, and sheweth him all
things that himself doeth: and
he will shew him greater works
than these, that ye may
21 For as the Father raiseth
up the dead, and quickeneth
_them_; even so the Son
quickeneth whom he will.
22 For the Father judgeth no
man; but hath committed all
judgment unto the Son:
23 That all _men_ should
honour the Son, even as they
honour the Father. He that
honoureth not the Son,
honoureth not the Father which
has sent him.
24 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that heareth my word,
and believeth on him that sent
me, hath everlasting life, and
shall not come into
condemnation; but is passed
from death into life.
25 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, The hour is coming, and
now is, when the dead shall
hear the voice of the Son of
God: and they that hear shall
26 For as the Father hath life
in himself, so hath he given
to the Son to have life in
27 And hath given him
authority to execute judgment
also, because he is the Son of
28 Marvel not at this: for the
hour is coming, in the which
all that are in the graves
shall hear his voice,
29 And shall come forth; they
that have done good, unto the
resurrection of life; and they
that have done evil, unto the
resurrection of damnation.
30 I can of mine own self do
nothing: as I hear, I judge:
and my judgment is just;
because I seek not mine own
will, but the will of the
Father which hath sent me.
31 If I bear witness of
myself, my witness is not
32 There is another that
beareth witness of me, and I
know that the witness which he
witnesseth of me is true.
33 Ye sent unto John, and he
bare witness unto the truth.
34 But I receive not testimony
from man: but these things I
say, that ye might be saved.
35 He was a burning and a
shining light: and ye were
willing for a season to
rejoice in his light.
36. But I have greater witness
than that of John: for the
works which the Father hath
given me to finish, the same
works that I do, bear witness
of me, that the Father hath
sent me.
37 And the Father himself
which hath sent me, hath borne
witness of me. Ye have neither
heard his voice(133) at any
time, nor seen his shape.
38 And ye have not his word
abiding in you: for whom he
hath sent, him ye believe not.
39 Search the scriptures; for
in them ye think ye have
eternal life: And they are
they which testify of me.
40 And ye will not come to me,
that ye might have life.
41 I receive not honour from
42 But I know you, that ye
have not the love of God in
43 I am come in my Father’s
name, and ye receive me not:
if another shall come in his
own name, him ye will receive.
44 How can ye believe, which
receive honour one of another,
and seek not the honour that
_cometh_ from God only?
45 Do not think that I will
accuse you to the Father:
there is _one_ that accuseth
you, _even Moses_, in whom ye
46 For had ye believed Moses,
ye would have believed me: for
he wrote of me.
47 But if ye believe not his
writings, how shall ye believe
my words?

§ 37. The disciples pluck ears of grain on the Sabbath. _On the way to

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XII. 1-8.                    CH. II. 23-28.
At that time Jesus went on the   23 And it came to pass, that
sabbath-day through the corn,    he went through the
and his disciples were a         corn-fields on the
hungered, and began to pluck     sabbath-day; and his disciples
the ears of corn, and to         began, as they went, to pluck
eat.(134)                        the ears of Corn.
2 But when the Pharisees saw     24 And the Pharisees said unto
_it_, they said unto him,        him, Behold, why do they on
Behold, thy disciples do that    the sabbath-day that which is
which is not lawful to do upon   not lawful?
the sabbath-day.(135)
3 But he said unto them, Have    25 And he said unto them, Have
ye not read what David did       ye never read what David
when he was a hungered, and      did,(136) when he had need,
they that were with him;         and was a hungered, he and
                                 they that were with him?
4 How he entered into the        26 How he went into the house
house of God, and did eat the    of God, in the days of
shew-bread, which was not        Abiathar(137) the high priest,
lawful for him to eat, neither   and did eat the shew-bread,
for them which were with him,    which is not lawful to eat,
but only for the priests?        but for the priests, and gave
                                 also to them which were with
5 Or have ye not read in the
law how that on the
sabbath-days the priests in
the temple profane the
sabbath, and are
6 But I say unto you, that in
this place is _one_ greater
than the temple.
7 But if ye had known what       27 And he said unto them, The
_this_ meaneth,(139) I will      sabbath was made for man, and
have mercy, and not sacrifice,   not man for the sabbath:
ye would not have condemned
the guiltless.
8 For the Son of man is Lord     28 Therefore, the Son of man
even of the sabbath-day.         is Lord also of the sabbath.

CH. VI. 1-5.
And it came to pass on the
second sabbath after the
first, that he went through
the corn-fields; and his
disciples plucked the ears of
corn, and did eat, rubbing
_them_ in _their_ hands.
2 And certain of the Pharisees
said unto them, Why do ye that
which is not lawful to do on
the sabbath-days?
3 And Jesus, answering them,
said, Have ye not read so much
as this, what David did, when
himself was a hungered, and
they which were with him;
4 How he went into the house
of God, and did take and eat
the shewbread, and gave also
to them that were with him,
which it is not lawful to eat
but for the priests alone?
5 And he said unto them, That
the Son of man is Lord also of
the sabbath.

§ 38. The healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath. _Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XII. 9-14.                   CH. III. 1-6.
9 And when he was departed       And he entered again into the
thence, he went into their       synagogue; and there was a man
synagogue.                       there which had a withered
10 And behold, there was a man   2 And they watched him,
which had _his_ hand withered.   whether he would heal him on
And they asked him, saying, Is   the sabbath-day; that they
it lawful to heal on the         might accuse him.
sabbath-days? that they might
accuse him.
11 And he said unto them, What   3 And he saith unto the man
man shall there be among you,    which had the withered hand,
that shall have one sheep, and   Stand forth.
if it fall into a pit on the
sabbath-day, will he not lay
hold of it, and lift _it_ out?
4 And he saith unto them, Is
it lawful to do good on the
sabbath-days, or to do evil?
to save life, or to kill? But
they held their peace.
12 How much then is a man        5 And when he had looked round
better than a sheep? wherefore   about on them with anger,
it is lawful to do well on the   being grieved for the hardness
sabbath-days.                    of their hearts, he saith unto
                                 the man, Stretch forth thy
                                 hand. And he stretched it out:
                                 and his hand was restored
                                 whole as the other.
13 Then saith he to the man,     6 And the Pharisees went
Stretch forth thy hand. And he   forth, and straightway took
stretched _it_ forth; and _it_   counsel with the Herodians
was restored whole, like as      against him, how they might
the other.                       destroy him.

CH. VI. 6-11.
6 And it came to pass also on
another sabbath, that he
entered into the synagogue,
and taught: and there was a
man whose right hand was
7 And the scribes and
Pharisees watched him, whether
he would heal on the
sabbath-day; that they might
find an accusation against
8 But he knew their thoughts,
and said to the man which had
the withered hand, Rise up,
and stand forth in the midst.
And he arose, and stood forth.
9 Then said Jesus unto them, I
will ask you one thing; Is it
lawful on the sabbath-days to
do good, or to do evil? to
save life, or to destroy _it_?
10 And looking round about
upon them all, he said unto
the man, Stretch forth thy
hand. And he did so: and his
hand was restored whole as the
11 And they were filled with
madness; and communed one with
another what they might do to

§ 39. Jesus arrives at the sea of Tiberias, and is followed by multitudes.
_Lake of Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XII. 15-21.                  CH. III. 7-12.
15 But when Jesus knew _it_,     7 But Jesus withdrew himself
he withdrew himself from         with his disciples to the sea:
thence: and great multitudes     and a great multitude from
followed him, and he healed      Galilee followed him, and from
them all.                        Judea,
16 And charged them that they    8 And from Jerusalem, and from
should not make him known:       Idumea, and _from_ beyond
                                 Jordan; and they about Tyre
                                 and Sidon, a great multitude,
                                 when they had heard what great
                                 things he did, came unto him.
17 That it might be fulfilled
which was spoken by Esaias the
prophet,(140) saying,
18 Behold my servant, whom I     9 And he spake to his
have chosen; my beloved, in      disciples, that a small ship
whom my soul is well pleased:    should wait on him, because of
I will put my Spirit upon him,   the multitude, lest they
and he shall shew judgment to    should throng him.
the Gentiles.
19 He shall not strive, nor      10 For he had healed many;
cry; neither shall any man       insomuch that they pressed
hear his voice in the streets.   upon him for to touch him, as
                                 many as had plagues.
20 A bruised reed shall he not   11 And unclean spirits, when
break, and smoking flax,(141)    they saw him, fell down before
shall he not quench, till he     him, and cried, saying, Thou
send forth judgment unto         art the Son of God.
21 And in his name shall the     12 And he straightly charged
Gentiles trust.                  them, that they should not
                                 make him known.

§ 40. Jesus withdraws to the Mountain and chooses the Twelve; multitudes
follow him. _Near Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. X. 2-4.                      CH. III. 13-19.
                                 13 And he goeth up into a
                                 mountain, and called _unto
                                 him_ whom he would: and they
                                 came unto him.
                                 14 And he ordained twelve,
                                 that they should be with him,
                                 and that he might send them
                                 forth to preach.
                                 15 And to have power to heal
                                 sicknesses, and to cast out
2 Now the names of the twelve    16 And Simon he surnamed
apostles are these; The first,   Peter.
Simon, who is called Peter,
and Andrew his brother; James
_the son_ of Zebedee, and John
his brother;
                                 17 And James the _son_ of
                                 Zebedee, and John the brother
                                 of James, (and he surnamed
                                 them Boanerges, which is, The
                                 sons of thunder,)
3 Philip, and Bartholomew;       18 And Andrew, and Philip, and
Thomas, and Matthew the          Bartholomew, and James the
publican;(142) James _the son_   _son_ of Alpheus, and
of Alpheus, and Lebbeus,(143)    Thaddeus, and Simon the
whose surname was Thaddeus;      Canaanite,
4 Simon the Canaanite, and       19 And Judas Iscariot, which
Judas Iscariot, who also         also betrayed him: and they
betrayed him.                    went into a house.

CH. VI. 12-19.
12 And it came to pass in
those days, that he went out
into a mountain to pray, and
continued all night in prayer
to God.
13 And when it was day, he
called _unto him_ his
disciples: and of them he
chose twelve, whom also he
named Apostles;
14 Simon (whom he also named
Peter) and Andrew his brother,
James and John, Philip and
15 Matthew and Thomas, James
the _son_ of Alpheus, and
Simon called Zelotes,
16 And Judas _the brother_ of
James, and Judas Iscariot,
which also was the traitor.
17 And he came down with them,
and stood in the plain; and
the company of his disciples,
and a great multitude of
people out of all Judea and
Jerusalem, and from the
sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon,
which came to hear him, and to
be healed of their diseases;
18 And they that were vexed
with unclean spirits: and they
were healed.
19 And the whole multitude
sought to touch him; for there
went virtue out of him, and
healed _them_ all.

§ 41. The Sermon on the Mount. _Near Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Luke.
CH. V. VI. VII. VIII. 1.         CH. VI. 20-49.
And seeing the multitudes, he
went up into a mountain: and
when he was set, his disciples
came unto him.(144)
2 And he opened his mouth, and   20 And he lifted up his eyes
taught them, saying,             on his disciples, and said,
                                 Blessed _be ye_ poor; for
                                 yours is the kingdom of God.
3 Blessed _are_ the poor in      21 Blessed _are ye_ that
spirit: for theirs is the        hunger now: for ye shall be
kingdom of heaven.               filled. Blessed _are ye_ that
                                 weep now: for ye shall laugh.
4 Blessed _are_ they that        22 Blessed are ye when men
mourn: for they shall be         shall hate you, and when they
comforted.                       shall separate you _from their
                                 company_, and shall reproach
                                 _you_, and cast out your name
                                 as evil, for the Son of man’s
5 Blessed _are_ the meek: for
they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed _are_ they which do
hunger and thirst after
righteousness: for they shall
be filled.
7 Blessed _are_ the merciful:
for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed _are_ the pure in
heart: for they shall see God.
9 Blessed _are_ the
peace-makers: for they shall
be called the children of God.
10 Blessed _are_ they which
are persecuted for
righteousness’ sake: for
theirs is the kingdom of
11 Blessed _are_ ye when _men_
shall revile you, and
persecute _you_, and shall say
all manner of evil against you
falsely, for my sake.
12 Rejoice, and be exceeding     23 Rejoice ye in that day, and
glad: for great _is_ your        leap for joy: for behold, your
reward in heaven: for so         reward _is_ great in heaven:
persecuted they the prophets     for in the like manner did
which were before you.           their fathers unto the
                                 24 But wo unto you that are
                                 rich! for ye have received
                                 your consolation.
                                 25 Wo unto you that are full!
                                 for ye shall hunger. Wo unto
                                 you that laugh now! for ye
                                 shall mourn and weep.
                                 26 Wo unto you, when all men
                                 shall speak well of you! for
                                 so did their fathers to the
                                 false prophets.
13 Ye are the salt of the
earth: but if the salt have
lost his savour, wherewith
shall it be salted? it is
thenceforth good for nothing,
but to be cast out, and to be
trodden under foot of men.
14 Ye are the light of the
world. A city that is set on a
hill cannot be hid.
15 Neither do men light a
candle, and put it under a
bushel, but on a candlestick:
and it giveth light unto all
that are in the house.
16 let your light so shine
before men, that they may see
your good works, and glorify
your Father which is in
17 Think not that I am come to
destroy the law, or the
prophets: I am not come to
destroy, but to fulfil.
18 For verily, I say unto you,
Till heaven and earth pass,
one jot or one tittle shall in
no wise pass from the law,
till all be fulfilled.
19 Whosoever therefore shall
break one of these least
commandments, and shall teach
men so, he shall be called the
least in the kingdom of
heaven: but whosoever shall
do, and teach _them_, the same
shall be called great in the
kingdom of heaven.
20 For I say unto you, That
except your righteousness
shall exceed _the
righteousness_ of the scribes
and Pharisees, ye shall in no
case enter into the kingdom of
21 Ye have heard that it was
said by them of old time, Thou
shalt not kill; and whosoever
shall kill, shall be in danger
of the judgment:
22 But I say unto you, That
whosoever is angry with his
brother, without a cause,
shall be in danger of the
judgment: and whosoever shall
say to his brother, Raca,
shall be in danger of the
council: but whosoever shall
say, Thou fool, shall be in
danger of hell-fire.
23 Therefore, if thou bring
thy gift to the altar, and
there rememberest that thy
brother hath aught against
24 Leave there thy gift before
the altar, and go thy way,
first be reconciled to thy
brother, and then come and
offer thy gift.
25 Agree with thine adversary
quickly, while thou art in the
way with him; lest at any time
the adversary deliver thee to
the judge, and the judge
deliver thee to the officer,
and thou be cast into prison.
26 Verily, I say unto thee,
Thou shall by no means come
out thence, till thou hast
paid the uttermost farthing.
27 Ye have heard that it was
said by them of old time, Thou
shalt not commit adultery:
28 But I say unto you, That
whosoever looketh on a woman
to lust after her, hath
committed adultery with her
already in his heart.
29 And if thy right eye offend
thee, pluck it out, and cast
_it_ from thee: for it is
profitable for thee that one
of thy members should perish,
and not _that_ thy whole body
should be cast into hell.
30 And if thy right hand
offend thee, cut it off, and
cast _it_ from thee: for it is
profitable for thee that one
of thy members should perish,
and not _that_ thy whole body
should be cast into hell.
31 It hath been said,
Whosoever shall put away his
wife, let him give her a
writing of divorcement:
32 But I say unto you, That
whosoever shall put away his
wife, saving for the cause of
fornication, causeth her to
commit adultery: and whosoever
shall marry her that is
divorced, committeth adultery.
33 Again, ye have heard that
it hath been said by them of
old time, Thou shalt not
forswear thyself, but shalt
perform unto the Lord thine
34 But I say unto you, Swear
not at all: neither by heaven;
for it is God’s throne:
35 Nor by the earth; for it is
his footstool: neither by
Jerusalem; for it is the city
of the great King:
36 Neither shalt thou swear by
thy head; because thou canst
not make one hair white or
37 But let your communication
be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for
whatsoever _is_ more than
these cometh of evil.
38 Ye have heard that it hath
been said, An eye for an eye,
and a tooth for a tooth.
39 But I say unto you, That ye
resist not evil: but whosoever
shall smite thee on thy right
cheek, turn to him the other
40 And if any man will sue
thee at the law, and take away
thy coat, let him have _thy_
cloak also.
41 And whosoever shall compel
thee(145) to go a mile, go
with him twain.
42 Give to him that asketh
thee, and from him that would
borrow of thee, turn not thou
43 Ye have heard that it hath
been said, Thou shalt love thy
neighbour, and hate thine
44 But I say unto you, Love      27 But I say unto you which
your enemies, bless them that    hear, Love your enemies, do
curse you, do good to them       good to them which hate you,
that hate you, and pray for
them which despitefully use
you, and persecute you;
                                 28 Bless them that curse you,
                                 and pray for them which
                                 despitefully use you.
                                 29 And unto him that smiteth
                                 thee on the _one cheek_, offer
                                 also the other; and him that
                                 taketh away thy cloak, forbid
                                 not _to take thy_ coat also.
                                 30 Give to every man that
                                 asketh of thee; and of him
                                 that taketh away thy goods ask
                                 _them_ not again.
45 That ye may be the children   31 And as ye would that men
of your Father which is in       should do to you, do ye also
heaven: for he maketh his sun    to them likewise.
to rise on the evil and on the
good, and sendeth rain on the
just and on the unjust.
46 For if ye love them which     32 For if ye love them which
love you, what reward have ye?   love you, what thank have ye?
do not even the publicans the    for sinners also love those
same?                            that love them.
47 And if ye salute your         33 And if ye do good to them
brethren only, what do ye more   which do good to you, what
_than others_? do not even the   thank have ye? for sinners
publicans so?                    also do even the same.
                                 34 And if ye lend _to them_ of
                                 whom ye hope to receive, what
                                 thank have ye? for sinners
                                 also lend to sinners, to
                                 receive as much again.
                                 35 But love ye your enemies,
                                 and do good, and lend, hoping
                                 for nothing again; and your
                                 reward shall be great, and ye
                                 shall be the children of the
                                 Highest: for he is kind unto
                                 the unthankful and _to_ the
                                 36 Be ye therefore merciful,
                                 as your Father also is
48 Be ye therefore perfect,
even as your Father which is
in heaven is perfect.


Take heed that ye do not your
alms before men, to be seen of
them: otherwise ye have no
reward of your Father which is
in heaven.
2 Therefore, when thou doest
_thine_ alms, do not sound a
trumpet before thee, as the
hypocrites do, in the
synagogues, and in the
streets, that they may have
glory of men. Verily, I say
unto you, They have their
3 But when thou doest alms,
let not thy left hand know
what thy right hand doeth;
4 That thine alms may be in
secret: and thy Father which
seeth in secret, himself shall
reward thee openly.
5 And when thou prayest, thou
shalt not be as the hypocrites
_are_; for they love to pray
standing in the synagogues,
and in the corners of the
streets, that they may be seen
of men. Verily, I say unto
you, They have their reward.
6 But thou, when thou prayest,
enter into thy closet, and
when thou hast shut thy door,
pray to thy Father which is in
secret; and thy Father, which
seeth in secret, shall reward
thee openly.
7 But when ye pray, use not
vain repetitions, as the
heathen do: for they think
that they shall be heard for
their much speaking.
8 Be not yet therefore like
unto them: for your Father
knoweth what things ye have
need of before ye ask him.
9 After this manner therefore
pray ye: Our Father which art
in heaven, Hallowed be thy
10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will
be done in earth as _it is_ in
11 Give us this day our daily
12 And forgive us our debts,
as we forgive our debtors.
13 And lead us not into
temptation, but deliver us
from evil. For thine is the
kingdom, and the power, and
the glory, for ever. Amen.
14 For, if ye forgive men
their trespasses, your
heavenly Father will also
forgive you:
15 But, if ye forgive not men
their trespasses, neither will
your Father forgive your
16 Moreover, when ye fast, be
not as the hypocrites, of a
sad countenance: for they
disfigure their faces, that
they may appear unto men to
fast. Verily, I say unto you,
They have their reward.
17 But thou, when thou
fastest, anoint thy head, and
wash thy face;
18 That thou appear not unto
men to fast, but unto thy
Father, which is in secret:
and thy Father, which seeth in
secret, shall reward thee
19 Lay not up for yourselves
treasures upon earth, where
moth and rust doth corrupt,
and where thieves break
through and steal:
20 But lay up for yourselves
treasures in heaven, where
neither moth nor rust doth
corrupt, and where thieves do
not break through nor steal.
21 For where your treasure is,
there will your heart be also.
22 The light of the body is
the eye: if therefore thine
eye be single, thy whole body
shall be full of light.
23 But if thine eye be evil,
thy whole body shall be full
of darkness. If therefore the
light that is in thee be
darkness, how great _is_ that
24 No man can serve two
masters: for either he will
hate the one, and love the
other; or else he will hold to
the one, and despise the
other. Ye cannot serve God and
25 Therefore I say unto you,
Take no thought for your life,
what ye shall eat, or what ye
shall drink; nor yet for your
body, what ye shall put on. Is
not the life more than meat,
and the body than raiment?
26 Behold the fowls of the
air: for they sow not, neither
do they reap, nor gather into
barns; yet your heavenly
Father feedeth them. Are ye
not much better than they?
27 Which of you by taking
thought can add one cubit unto
his stature?
28 And why take ye thought for
raiment? Consider the lilies
of the field how they grow;
they toil not, neither do they
29 And yet I say unto you,
That even Solomon, in all his
glory, was not arrayed like
one of these.
30 Wherefore, if God so clothe
the grass of the field, which
to-day is, and to-morrow is
cast into the oven, _shall he_
not much more _clothe_ you, O
ye of little faith?
31 Therefore take no thought,
saying, What shall we eat? or,
what shall we drink? or,
wherewithal shall we be
32 (For after all these things
do the Gentiles seek) for your
heavenly Father knoweth that
ye have need of all these
33 But seek ye first the
kingdom of God, and his
righteousness, and all these
things shall be added unto
34 Take therefore no thought
for the morrow: for the morrow
shall take thought for the
things of itself. Sufficient
unto the day _is_ the evil
CH. VII.                         CH. VI. 20-49.
Judge not, that ye be not        37 Judge not, and ye shall not
judged.                          be judged: condemn not, and ye
                                 shall not be condemned:
                                 forgive, and ye shall be
2 For with what judgment ye
judge, ye shall be judged: and
with what measure ye mete, it
shall be measured to you
                                 38 Give, and it shall be given
                                 unto you; good measure,
                                 pressed down, and shaken
                                 together, and running over,
                                 shall men give into your
                                 bosom. For with the same
                                 measure that ye mete withal,
                                 it shall be measured to you
                                 39 And he spake a parable unto
                                 them; Can the blind lead the
                                 blind? shall they not both
                                 fall into the ditch?
                                 40 The disciple is not above
                                 his master: but every one that
                                 is perfect, shall be as his
3 And why beholdest thou the     41 And why beholdest thou the
mote that is in thy brother’s    mote that is in thy brother’s
eye, but considerest not the     eye, but perceivest not the
beam that is in thine own eye?   beam that is in thine own eye?
4 Or how wilt thou say to thy    42 Either how canst thou say
brother, Let me pull out the     to thy brother, Brother, let
mote out of thine eye; and       me pull out the mote that is
behold a beam _is_ in thine      in thine eye, when thou
own eye?                         thyself beholdest not the beam
                                 that is in thine own eye? Thou
                                 hypocrite, cast out first the
                                 beam out of thine own eye, and
                                 then shalt thou see clearly to
                                 pull out the mote that is in
                                 thy brother’s eye.
5 Thou hypocrite, first cast
out the beam out of thine own
eye; and then shalt thou see
clearly to cast out the mote
out of thy brother’s eye.
6 Give not that which is holy
unto the dogs, neither cast ye
your pearls before swine, lest
they trample them under their
feet, and turn again and rend
7 Ask, and it shall be given
you; seek, and ye shall find;
knock, and it shall be opened
unto you:
8 For every one that asketh
receiveth; and he that
seeketh, findeth; and to him
that knocketh, it shall be
9 Or what man is there of you,
whom if his son ask bread,
will he give him a stone?
10 Or if he ask a fish, will
he give him a serpent?
11 If ye then being evil know
how to give good gifts unto
your children, how much more
shall your Father which is in
heaven give good things to
them that ask him?
12 Therefore all things
whatsoever ye would that men
should do to you, do ye even
so to them: for this is the
law and the prophets.
13 Enter ye in at the strait
gate; for wide _is_ the gate,
and broad _is_ the way, that
leadeth to destruction, and
many there be which go in
14 Because, strait _is_ the
gate, and narrow _is_ the way,
which leadeth unto life, and
few there be that find it.
15 Beware of false prophets,
which come to you in sheep’s
clothing, but inwardly they
are ravening wolves.
16 Ye shall know them by their
fruits: Do men gather grapes
of thorns, or figs of
17 Even so every good tree       43 For a good tree bringeth
bringeth forth good fruit; but   not forth corrupt fruit;
a corrupt tree bringeth forth    neither doth a corrupt tree
evil fruit.                      bring forth good fruit.
18 A good tree cannot bring      44 For every tree is known by
forth evil fruit, neither can    his own fruit: for of thorns
a corrupt tree bring forth       men do not gather figs, nor of
good fruit.                      a bramble-bush gather they
19 Every tree that bringeth
not forth good fruit is hewn
down, and cast into the fire.
20 Wherefore, by their fruits
ye shall know them.
                                 45 A good man out of the good
                                 treasure of his heart,
                                 bringeth forth that which is
                                 good; and an evil man, out of
                                 the evil treasure of his
                                 heart, bringeth forth that
                                 which is evil: for of the
                                 abundance of the heart his
                                 mouth speaketh.
21 Not every one that saith      46 And why call ye me Lord,
unto me, Lord, Lord, shall       Lord, and do not the things
enter into the kingdom of        which I say?
heaven; but he that doeth the
will of my father which is in
22 Many will say to me in that   47 Whosoever cometh to me, and
day, Lord, Lord, have we not     heareth my sayings, and doeth
prophesied in thy name? and in   them, I will shew you to whom
thy name have cast out devils?   he is like.
and in thy name done many
wonderful works?
23 And then will I profess
unto them, I never knew you:
depart from me, ye that work
24 Therefore, whosoever          48 He is like a man which
heareth these sayings of mine,   built a house, and digged
and doeth them, I will liken     deep, and laid the foundation
him unto a wise man, which       on a rock: and when the flood
built his house upon a rock:     arose, the stream beat
                                 vehemently upon that house,
                                 and could not shake it: for it
                                 was founded upon a rock.
25 And the rain descended, and
the floods came, and the winds
blew, and beat upon that
house, and it fell not: for it
was founded upon a rock:
26 And every one that heareth    49 But he that heareth and
these sayings of mine, and       doeth not, is like a man that
doeth them not, shall be         without a foundation built a
likened unto a foolish man,      house upon the earth, against
which built his house upon the   which the stream did beat
sand:                            vehemently, and immediately it
                                 fell, and the ruin of that
                                 house was great.
27 And the rain descended, and
the floods came, and the winds
blew, and beat upon that
house; and it fell: and great
was the fall of it.
28 And it came to pass when
Jesus had ended these sayings,
the people were astonished at
his doctrine.
29 For he taught them as _one_
having authority, and not as
the scribes.
When he was come down from the
mountain, great multitudes
followed him.

§ 42. The healing of the centurion’s servant. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Luke.
CH. VIII. 5-13.                  CH. VII. 1-10.
5 And when Jesus was entered     Now, when he had ended all his
into Capernaum, there came       sayings in the audience of the
unto him(146) a centurion,       people, he entered into
beseeching him,                  Capernaum,
6 And saying, Lord, my servant   2 And a certain centurion’s
lieth at home sick of the        servant, who was dear unto
palsy, grievously tormented.     him, was sick, and ready to
                                 3 And when he heard of Jesus,
                                 he sent unto him the elders of
                                 the Jews, beseeching him that
                                 he would come and heal his
7 And Jesus saith unto him, I    4 And when they came to Jesus,
will come and heal him.          they besought him instantly,
                                 saying, That he was worthy for
                                 whom he should do this:
                                 5 For he loveth our nation,
                                 and he hath built us a
8 The centurion answered and     6 Then Jesus went with them.
said, Lord, I am not worthy      And when he was now not far
that thou shouldest come under   from the house, the centurion
my roof: but speak the word      sent friends to him, saying
only, and my servant shall be    unto him, Lord, trouble not
healed.                          thyself; for I am not worthy
                                 that thou shouldest enter
                                 under my roof;
9 For I am a man under           8 For I also am a man set
authority, having soldiers       under authority, having under
under me: and I say to this      me soldiers, and I say unto
man, Go, and he goeth; and to    one, Go, and he goeth; and to
another, Come, and he cometh;    another, Come, and he cometh;
and to my servant, Do this,      and to my servant, Do this,
and he doeth _it_.               and he doeth _it_.
10 When Jesus heard _it_, he     9 When Jesus heard these
marvelled, and said to them      things, he marvelled at him,
that followed, Verily, I say     and turned him about and said
unto you, I have not found so    unto the people that followed
great faith, no, not in          him, I say unto you, I have
Israel.                          not found so great faith, no,
                                 not in Israel.
11 And I say unto you, That      7 Wherefore neither thought I
many shall come from the east    myself worthy to come unto
and west, and shall sit down     thee; but say in a word, and
with Abraham, and Isaac, and     my servant shall be healed.
Jacob, in the kingdom of
12 But the children of the
kingdom shall be cast out into
outer darkness: there shall be
weeping and gnashing of teeth.
13 And Jesus said unto the       10 And they that were sent,
centurion, Go thy way; and as    returning to the house, found
thou hast believed, _so_ be it   the servant whole that had
done unto thee. And his          been sick.
servant was healed in the
self-same hour.

§ 43. The raising of the widow’s son. _Nain_.

CH. VII. 11-17.
11 And it came to pass the day
after, that he went into a
city called Nain: and many of
his disciples went with him,
and much people.
12 Now, when he came nigh to
the gate of the city, behold,
there was a dead man carried
out, the only son of his
mother, and she was a widow:
and much people of the city
was with her.
13 And when the Lord saw her,
he had compassion on her, and
said unto her, Weep not.
14 And he came and touched the
bier: and they that bare _him_
stood still. And he said,
Young man, I say unto thee,
15 And he that was dead sat
up, and began to speak: and he
delivered him to his mother.
16 And there came a fear on
all: and they glorified God,
saying, That a great prophet
is risen up among us; and,
That God hath visited his
17 And this rumour of him went
forth throughout all Judea,
and throughout all the region
round about.

§ 44. John the Baptist, in prison, sends disciples to Jesus. _Galilee.

Matthew.                         Luke
CH. XI. 2-19.
2 Now when John had heard in     18 And the disciples of John
the prison the works of          shewed him of all these
Christ, he sent two of his       things.
3 And said unto him. Art thou    19 And John calling _unto him_
he that should come,(147) or     two of his disciples, sent
do we look for another?          _them_ to Jesus, saying, Art
                                 thou he that should come? or
                                 look we for another?
                                 20 When the men were come unto
                                 him, they said, John Baptist
                                 hath sent us unto thee,
                                 saying, Art thou he that
                                 should come? or look we for
                                 21 And in that same hour he
                                 cured many of _their_
                                 infirmities, and plagues, and
                                 of evil spirits; and unto many
                                 _that were_ blind he gave
4 Jesus answered and said unto   22 Then Jesus answering, said
them, Go and shew John again     unto them, Go your way, and
those things which ye do hear    tell John what things ye have
and see:                         seen and heard; how that the
                                 blind see, the lame walk, the
                                 lepers are cleansed, the deaf
                                 hear, the dead are raised, to
                                 the poor the gospel is
5 The blind receive their        23 And blessed is _he_,
sight, and the lame walk, the    whosoever shall not be
lepers are cleansed, and the     offended in me.
deaf hear, the dead are raised
up, and the poor have the
gospel preached to them.(148)
6 And blessed is _he_
whosoever shall not be
offended in me.
7 And as they departed, Jesus    24 And when the messengers of
began to say unto the            John were departed, he began
multitudes concerning John,      to speak unto the people
What went ye out into the        concerning John, What went ye
wilderness to see? A reed        out into the wilderness for to
shaken with the wind?            see? A reed shaken with the
8 But what went ye out for to    25 But what went ye out for to
see? A man clothed in soft       see? A man clothed in soft
raiment? Behold, they that       raiment? Behold, they which
wear soft _clothing_ are in      are gorgeously apparelled, and
kings’ houses.                   live delicately, are in kings’
9 But what went ye out for to    26 But what went ye out for to
see? A prophet? yea, I say       see? A prophet? Yea, I say
unto you, and more than a        unto you, and much more than a
prophet.                         prophet.
10 For this is he of whom it     27 This is _he_, of whom it is
is written,(149) Behold, I       written, Behold, I send my
send my messenger before thy     messenger before thy face,
face, which shall prepare thy    which shall prepare thy way
way before thee.                 before thee.
11 Verily, I say unto you,       28 For I say unto you, Among
Among them that are born of      those that are born of women,
women, there hath not risen a    there is not a greater prophet
greater than John the Baptist:   than John the Baptist: but he
notwithstanding, he that is      that is least in the kingdom
least in the kingdom of          of God, is greater than he.
heaven, is greater than he.
                                 29 And all the people that
                                 heard him, and the publicans,
                                 justified God, being baptized
                                 with the baptism of John.
                                 30 But the Pharisees and
                                 lawyers rejected the council
                                 of God against themselves,
                                 being not baptized of him.
12 And from the days of John
the Baptist, until now, the
kingdom of heaven suffereth
violence, and the violent take
it by force.
13 For all the prophets and
the law prophesied until John.
14 And if ye will receive
_it_, this is Elias which was
for to come.(150)
15 He that hath ears to hear,
let him hear.
16 But whereunto shall I liken   31 And the Lord said,
this generation? It is like      Whereunto then shall I liken
unto children sitting in the     the men of this generation?
markets, and calling unto        and to what are they like?
their fellows.
                                 32 They are like unto children
                                 sitting in the market-place,
                                 and calling one to another,
                                 and saying, We have piped unto
                                 you, and ye have not danced;
                                 we have mourned to you, and ye
                                 have not wept.
17 And saying, We have piped
unto you, and ye have not
danced; we have mourned unto
you, and ye have not lamented.
18 For John came neither         33 For John the Baptist came
eating nor drinking, and they    neither eating bread, nor
say, He hath a devil.            drinking wine; and ye say, He
                                 hath a devil.
19 The Son of man came eating    34 The Son of man is come
and drinking, and they say,      eating and drinking; and ye
Behold a man gluttonous, and a   say, Behold a gluttonous man,
wine-bibber, a friend of         and a wine-bibber, a friend of
publicans and sinners. But       publicans and sinners!
Wisdom is justified of her
                                 35 But Wisdom is justified of
                                 all her children.

§ 45. Reflections of Jesus on appealing to his mighty works. _Capernaum_.

CH. XI. 20-30.
20 Then began he to upbraid
the cities wherein most of his
mighty works were done,
because they repented not.
21 Wo unto thee, Chorazin! wo
unto thee, Bethsaida! for if
the mighty works which were
done in you had been done in
Tyre and Sidon, they would
have repented long ago in
sackcloth and ashes.
22 But I say unto you, It
shall be more tolerable for
Tyre and Sidon at the day of
judgment, than for you.
23 And thou, Capernaum, which
art exalted unto heaven, shalt
be brought down to hell: for
if the mighty works which have
been done in thee, had been
done in Sodom, it would have
remained until this day.
24 But I say unto you, That it
shall be more tolerable for
the land of Sodom, in the day
of judgment, than for thee.
25 At that time Jesus answered
and said, I thank thee, O
Father, Lord of heaven and
earth, because thou hast hid
these things from the wise and
prudent, and hast revealed
them unto babes.
26 Even so, Father, for so it
seemed good in thy sight.
27 All things are delivered
unto me of my Father; and no
man knoweth the Son, but the
Father; neither knoweth any
man the Father, save the Son,
and _he to_ whomsoever the Son
will reveal _him_.
26 Come unto me, all _ye_ that
labour, and are heavy laden,
and I will give you rest.
29 Take my yoke upon you, and
learn of me: for I am meek and
lowly in heart; and ye shall
find rest unto your souls.
30 For my yoke _is_ easy, and
my burden is light.

§ 46. While sitting at meat with a Pharisee, Jesus is anointed by a woman
who had been a sinner. _Capernaum_?

CH. VII. 36-50.
36 And one of the Pharisees
desired him that he would eat
with him. And he went into the
Pharisee’s house, and sat down
to meat.
37 And behold, a woman in the
city, which was a sinner, when
she knew that _Jesus_ sat at
meat in the Pharisee’s house,
brought an alabaster-box of
38 And stood at his feet
behind _him_ weeping, and
began to wash his feet with
tears, and did wipe _them_
with the hairs of her head,
and kissed his feet, and
anointed _them_ with the
39 Now, when the Pharisee
which had bidden him, saw
_it_, he spake within himself,
saying, This man, if he were a
prophet, would have known who,
and what manner of woman _this
is_ that toucheth him: for she
is a sinner.
40 And Jesus answering, said
unto him, Simon, I have
somewhat to say unto thee. And
he saith, Master, say on.
41 There was a certain
creditor, which had two
debtors: the one owed five
hundred pence, and the other
42 And when they had nothing
to pay, he frankly forgave
them both. Tell me, therefore,
which of them will love him
43 Simon answered and said, I
suppose that _he_, to whom he
forgave most. And he said unto
him, Thou hast rightly judged.
44 And he turned to the woman,
and said unto Simon, Seest
thou this woman? I entered
into thine house, thou gavest
me no water for my feet: but
she hath washed my feet with
tears, and wiped _them_ with
the hairs of her head.
45 Thou gavest me no kiss: but
this woman, since the time I
came in, hath not ceased to
kiss my feet.
46 My head with oil thou didst
not anoint: but this woman
hath anointed my feet with
47 Wherefore I say unto thee,
Her sins which are many, are
forgiven; for she loved much:
but to whom little is
forgiven, _the same_ loveth
48 And he said unto her, Thy
sins are forgiven.
49 And they that sat at meat
with him, began to say within
themselves, Who is this that
forgiveth sins also?
50 And he said to the woman,
Thy faith hath saved thee; go
in peace.

§ 47. Jesus, with the Twelve, makes a second circuit in Galilee.

CH. VIII. 1-3.
And it came to pass afterward,
that he went throughout every
city and village, preaching
and shewing the glad tidings
of the kingdom of God: and the
twelve were with him.
2 And certain women, which had
been healed of evil spirits
and infirmities, Mary called
Magdalene, out of whom went
seven devils,
3 And Joanna the wife of
Chuza, Herod’s steward, and
Susanna, and many others,
which ministered unto him of
their substance.

§ 48. The healing of a demoniac. The Scribes and Pharisees blaspheme.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XII. 22-37.                  CH. III. 19-30.
                                 19 —— and they went into a
                                 20 And the multitude cometh
                                 together again, so that they
                                 could not so much as eat
                                 21 And when his friends heard
                                 _of it_, they went out to lay
                                 hold on him: for they said, He
                                 is beside himself.
22 Then was brought unto him
one possessed with a devil,
blind and dumb; and he healed
him, insomuch that the blind
and dumb,(151) both spake and
23 And all the people were
amazed(152) and said, Is not
this the son of David?
24 But when the Pharisees        22 And the scribes which came
heard _it_ they said, This       down from Jerusalem, said, He
_fellow_ doth not cast out       hath Beelzebub, and by the
devils, but by Beelzebub the     prince of the devils casteth
prince of the devils.            he out devils.
25 And Jesus knew their          23 And he called them _unto
thoughts, and said unto them,    him_, and said unto them in
Every kingdom divided against    parables, How can Satan cast
itself, is brought to            out Satan?
desolation; and every city or
house divided against itself,
shall not stand.
26 And if Satan cast out         24 And if a kingdom be divided
Satan, he is divided against     against itself, that kingdom
himself; how shall then his      cannot stand.
kingdom stand?
                                 25 And if a house be divided
                                 against itself, that house
                                 cannot stand.
27 And if I by Beelzebub cast    26 And if Satan rise up
out devils, by whom do your      against himself, and be
children cast _them_ out?        divided, he cannot stand but
therefore they shall be your     hath an end.
28 But if I cast out devils by   27 No man can enter into a
the Spirit of God, then the      strong man’s house and spoil
kingdom of he will first bind    his goods, except he will
the strong man;                  first bind the strong man; and
                                 then he will spoil his house.
29 Or else, how can one enter    28 Verily, I say unto you, All
into a strong man’s house, and   sins shall be forgiven unto
spoil his goods, except he       the sons of men, the
first bind the strong man? and   blasphemies wherewith soever
then he will spoil his house.    they shall blaspheme:
30 He that is not with me is     29 But he that shall blaspheme
against me; and he that          against the Holy Ghost hath
gathereth not with me,           never forgiveness, but is in
scattereth abroad.               danger of eternal damnation:
31 Wherefore I say unto you,     30 Because they said, he hath
All manner of sin and            an unclean spirit.
blasphemy shall be forgiven
unto men: but the blasphemy
_against_ the _Holy_ Ghost
shall not be forgiven unto
32 And whosoever speaketh a
word against the Son of man,
it shall be forgiven him: but
whosoever speaketh against the
Holy Ghost, it shall not be
forgiven him, neither in this
world, neither in the _world_
to come.
33 Either make the tree good,
and his fruit good; or else
make the tree corrupt, and his
fruit corrupt: for the tree is
known by _his_ fruit.
34 O generation of vipers, how
can ye, being evil, speak good
things? for out of the
abundance of the heart the
mouth speaketh.
35 A good man, out of the good
treasure of the heart,
bringeth forth good things:
and an evil man, out of the
evil treasure, bringeth forth
evil things.
36 But I say unto you, That
every idle word that men shall
speak, they shall give account
thereof in the day of
37 For by thy words thou shalt
be justified, and by thy words
thou shalt be condemned.

CH. XI. 14, 15, 17-23.
14 And he was casting out a
devil, and it was dumb. And it
came to pass when the devil
was gone out, the dumb spake;
and the people wondered.
15 But some of them said, He
casteth out devils through
Beelzebub, the chief of the
17 But he, knowing their
thoughts, said unto them,
Every kingdom divided against
itself, is brought to
desolation; and a house
_divided_ against a house,
18 If Satan also be divided
against himself, how shall his
kingdom stand? because ye say
that I cast out devils through
19 And if I by Beelzebub cast
out devils, by whom do your
sons cast _them_ out?
therefore shall they be your
20 But if I with the finger of
God cast out devils, no doubt
the kingdom of God is come
upon you.
21 When a strong man armed
keepeth his palace, his goods
are in peace:
22 But when a stronger than he
shall come upon him, and
overcome him, he taketh from
him all his armour, wherein he
trusted, and divideth his
23 He that is not with me, is
against me: and he that
gathereth not with me

§ 49. The Scribes and Pharisees seek a sign. Our Lord’s reflection.

Matthew.                         Luke.
CH. XII. 38-45.                  CH. XI. 16, 24-36.
38 Then certain of the scribes   And others tempting _him_,
and of the Pharisees answered,   sought of him a sign from
saying, Master, we would see a   heaven.
sign from thee.
39 But he answered and said to   29 And when the people had
them, An evil and adulterous     gathered thick together, he
generation seeketh after a       began to say, This is an evil
sign, and there shall no sign    generation: they seek a sign,
be given(153) to it, but the     and there shall no sign be
sign of the prophet Jonas.       given it, but the sign of
                                 Jonas the prophet.
40 For as Jonas was three days
and three nights in the
whale’s belly,(154) so shall
the Son of man be three days
and three nights in the heart
of the earth.
41 The men of Nineveh shall      30 For as Jonas was a sign
rise in judgment with this       unto the Ninevites so shall
generation, and shall condemn    also the Son of man be to this
it: because they repented at     generation.
the preaching of Jonas,(155)
and behold, a greater than
Jonas _is_ here.
42 The queen of the south        31 The queen of the south
shall rise up in the judgment    shall rise up in the judgment
with this generation, and        with the men of this
shall condemn it: for she came   generation, and condemn them:
from the uttermost parts of      for she came from the utmost
the earth to hear the wisdom     parts of the earth, to hear
of Solomon;(156) and behold, a   the wisdom of Solomon; and
greater than Solomon _is_        behold, a greater than Solomon
here.                            _is_ here
                                 32 The men of Nineveh shall
                                 rise up in the judgment with
                                 this generation, and shall
                                 condemn it: for they repented
                                 at the preaching of Jonas; and
                                 behold, a greater than Jonas
                                 _is_ here.
                                 33 No man when he hath lighted
                                 a candle putteth _it_ in a
                                 secret place, neither under a
                                 bushel, but on a candlestick,
                                 that they which come in may
                                 see the light.
                                 34 The light of the body is
                                 thy eye: therefore when thine
                                 eye is single, thy whole body
                                 also is full of light; but
                                 when _thine eye_ is evil, thy
                                 body also _is_ full of
                                 35 Take heed therefore, that
                                 the light which is in thee be
                                 not darkness.
                                 36 If thy whole body therefore
                                 _be_ full of light, having no
                                 part dark, the whole shall be
                                 full of light; as when the
                                 bright shining of a candle
                                 doth give thee light.
43 When the unclean spirit is    24 When the unclean spirit is
gone out of a man, he walketh    gone out of a man, he walketh
through dry places, seeking      through dry places, seeking
rest, and findeth none.          rest: and finding none, he
                                 saith, I will return unto my
                                 house whence I came out.
44 Then he saith, I will         25 And when he cometh, he
return into my house from        findeth _it_ swept and
whence I came out; and when he   garnished.
is come, he findeth _it_
empty, swept, and garnished.
45 Then goeth he, and taketh     26 Then goeth he, and taketh
with himself seven other         _to him_ seven other spirits
spirits more wicked than         more wicked than himself; and
himself, and they enter in and   they enter in, and dwell
dwell there: and the _last       there: and the _last state_ of
state_ of that man is worse      that man is worse than the
than the first. Even so shall    first.
it be also unto this wicked
                                 27 And it came to pass, as he
                                 spake these things, a certain
                                 woman of the company lifted up
                                 her voice, and said unto him,
                                 Blessed _is_ the womb that
                                 bare thee, and the paps which
                                 thou hast sucked.
                                 28 But he said, Yea, rather
                                 blessed are they that hear the
                                 word of God, and keep it.

§ 50. The true disciples of Christ his nearest relatives. _Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XII. 46-50.                  CH. III. 31-35.
46 While he yet talked to the    31 There came then his
people, behold, _his_ mother     brethren and his mother, and
and his brethren stood           standing without, sent unto
without, desiring to speak       him, calling him.
with him.
47 Then one said unto him,       32 And the multitude sat about
Behold, thy mother and thy       him; and they said unto him,
brethren stand without,          Behold, thy mother and thy
desiring to speak with thee.     brethren without seek for
48 But he answered and said      33 And he answered them,
unto him that told him, Who is   saying, Who is my mother, or
my mother? and who are my        my brethren? and who are my
brethren?                        brethren?
49 And he stretched forth his    34 And he looked round about
hand toward his disciples, and   on them which sat about him,
said, Behold my mother and my    and said, Behold, my mother
brethren!                        and my brethren!
50 For whosoever shall do the    35 For whosoever shall do the
will of my Father which is in    will of God, the same is my
heaven, the same is my           brother, and my sister, and
brother, and sister, and         mother.

CH. VIII. 19-21.
19 Then came to him _his_
mother and his brethren, and
could not come at him for the
20 And it was told him _by
certain_, which said, Thy
mother and thy brethren stand
without, desiring to see thee.
21 And he answered and said
unto them, My mother and my
brethren are these which hear
the word of God, and do it.

§ 51. At a Pharisee’s table, Jesus denounces woes against the Pharisees
and others. _Galilee_.

CH. XI. 37-54
37 And as he spake, a certain
Pharisee besought him to dine
with him: and he went in and
sat down to meat.
38 And when the Pharisee saw
_it_, he marvelled that he had
not first washed(157) before
39 And the Lord said unto him,
Now do ye Pharisees make clean
the outside of the cup and the
platter; but your inward part
is full of ravening and
40 Ye fools, did not he that
made that which is without,
make that which is within
41 But rather give alms of
such things as ye have; and
behold, all things are clean
unto you.
42 But wo unto you, Pharisees!
for ye tithe mint, and rue,
and all manner of herbs, and
pass over judgment and the
love of God: these ought ye to
have done, and not to leave
the other undone.
43 Wo unto you, Pharisees! for
ye love the uppermost seats in
the synagogues, and greetings
in the markets.
44 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
are as graves which appear
not, and the men that walk
over _them_ are not aware _of
45 Then answered one of the
lawyers, and said unto him,
Master, thus saying, thou
reproachest us also.
46 And he said, Wo unto you
also, _ye_ lawyers! for ye
lade men with burdens grievous
to be borne, and ye yourselves
touch not the burdens with one
of your fingers.
47 Wo unto you! for ye build
the sepulchres of the
prophets, and your fathers
killed them.
48 Truly ye bear witness, that
ye allow the deeds of your
fathers: for they indeed
killed them, and ye build
their sepulchres.
49 Therefore also said the
wisdom of God, I will send
them prophets and apostles,
and _some_ of them they shall
slay and persecute:
50. That the blood of all the
prophets, which was shed from
the foundation of the world,
may be required of this
51 From the blood of Abel(158)
unto the blood of Zacharias,
which perished between the
altar and the temple: verily,
I say unto you, It shall be
required of this generation.
52 Wo unto you, lawyers! for
ye have taken away the key of
knowledge: ye entered not in
yourselves, and them that were
entering in ye hindered.
53 And as he said these things
unto them, the scribes and the
Pharisees began to urge _him_
vehemently, and to provoke him
to speak of many things;
54 Laying wait for him, and
seeking to catch something out
of his mouth, that they might
accuse him.

§ 52. Jesus discourses to his disciples and the multitude. _Galilee._

CH. XII. 1-59.
In the mean time, when there
were gathered together an
innumerable multitude of
people, insomuch that they
trode one upon another, he
began to say unto his
disciples first of all, Beware
ye of the leaven of the
Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
2 For there is nothing
covered, that shall not be
revealed; neither hid, that
shall not be known.
3 Therefore, whatsoever ye
have spoken in darkness, shall
be heard in the light; and
that which ye have spoken in
the ear in closets, shall be
proclaimed upon the
4 And I say unto you, my
friends, Be not afraid of them
that kill the body, and after
that, have no more that they
can do.
5 But I will forewarn you whom
ye shall fear; Fear him,
which, after he hath killed,
hath power to cast into hell;
yea, I say unto you, Fear him.
6 Are not five sparrows sold
for two farthings, and not one
of them is forgotten before
7 But even the very hairs of
your head are all numbered.
Fear not therefore: ye are of
more value than many sparrows.
8 Also I say unto you,
Whosoever shall confess me
before men, him shall the Son
of man also confess before the
angels of God.
9 But he that denieth me
before men, shall be denied
before the angels of God.
10 And whosoever shall speak a
word against the Son of man,
it shall be forgiven him: but
unto him that blasphemeth
against the Holy Ghost, it
shall not be forgiven.
11 And when they bring you
unto the synagogues, and _unto
magistrates_, and powers, take
ye no thought how or what
thing ye shall answer, or what
ye shall say:
12 For the Holy Ghost shall
teach you in the same hour
what ye ought to say.
13 And one of the company said
unto him, Master, speak to my
brother, that he divide the
inheritance with me.
14 And he said unto him, Man,
who made me a judge, or a
divider over you?
15 And he said unto them, Take
heed, and beware of
covetousness: for a man’s life
consisteth not in the
abundance of the things which
he possesseth.
16 And he spake a parable unto
them, saying, The ground of a
certain rich man brought forth
17 And he thought within
himself, saying, What shall I
do, because I have no room
where to bestow my fruits?
18 And he said, This will I
do: I will pull down my barns,
and build greater; and there
will I bestow all my fruits
and my goods.
19 And I will say to my soul,
Soul, thou hast much goods
laid up for many years; take
thine ease, eat, drink, _and_
be merry.
20 But God said unto him, Thou
fool, this night thy soul
shall be required of thee:
then whose shall those things
be, which thou hast provided?
21 So _is_ he that layeth up
treasure for himself, and is
not rich toward God.
22 And he said unto his
disciples, Therefore I say
unto you, Take no thought for
your life, what ye shall eat;
neither for the body, what ye
shall put on.
23 The life is more than meat,
and the body _is more_ than
24 Consider the ravens: for
they neither sow nor reap:
which neither have
store-house, nor barn; and God
feedeth them. How much more
are ye better than the fowls?
25 And which of you with
taking thought can add to his
stature one cubit?
26 If ye then be not able to
do that thing which is least,
why take ye thought for the
27 Consider the lilies how
they grow: they toil not, they
spin not; and yet I say unto
you, that Solomon in all his
glory was not arrayed like one
of these.
28 If then God so clothe the
grass, which is to-day in the
field, and to-morrow is cast
into the oven; how much more
_will he clothe_ you, O ye of
little faith?
29 And seek not ye what ye
shall eat, or what ye shall
drink, neither be ye of
doubtful mind.
30 For all these things do the
nations of the world seek
after: and your Father knoweth
that ye have need of these
31 But rather seek ye the
kingdom of God, and all these
things shall be added unto
32 Fear not, little flock; for
it is your Father’s good
pleasure to give you the
33 Sell that ye have, and give
alms: provide yourselves bags
which wax not old, a treasure
in the heavens that faileth
not, where no thief
approacheth, neither moth
34 For where your treasure is,
there will your heart be also.
35 Let your loins be girded
about, and _your_ lights
36 And ye yourselves like unto
men that wait for their lord,
when he will return from the
wedding; that, when he cometh
and knocketh, they may open
unto him immediately.
37 Blessed _are_ those
servants, whom the lord when
he cometh shall find watching:
verily, I say unto you, that
he shall gird himself, and
make them to sit down to meat,
and will come forth and serve
38 And if he shall come in the
second watch, or come in the
third watch, and find _them_
so, blessed are those
39 And this know, that if the
good man of the house had
known what hour the thief
would come, he would have
watched, and not have suffered
his house to be broken
40 Be ye therefore ready also:
for the Son of man cometh at
an hour when ye think not.
41 Then Peter said unto him,
Lord, speakest thou this
parable unto us, or even to
42 And the Lord said, Who then
is that faithful and wise
steward, whom his lord shall
make ruler over his household,
to give _them their_ portion
of meat in due season?
43 Blessed _is_ that servant,
whom his lord when he cometh
shall find so doing.
44 Of a truth I say unto you,
That he will make him ruler
over all that he hath.
45 But and if that servant say
in his heart, My lord delayeth
his coming; and shall begin to
beat the men-servants, and
maidens, and to eat and drink,
and to be drunken;
46 The lord of that servant
will come in a day when he
looketh not for _him_, and at
an hour when he is not aware,
and will cut him in sunder,
and will appoint him his
portion with the unbelievers.
47 And that servant which knew
his lord’s will, and prepared
not _himself_, neither did
according to his will, shall
be beaten with many _stripes_.
48 But he that knew not, and
did commit things worthy of
stripes, shall be beaten with
few _stripes_. For unto
whomsoever much is given, of
him shall much be required;
and to whom men have committed
much, of him they will ask the
49 I am come to send fire on
the earth, and what will I, if
it be already kindled?
50 But I have a baptism to be
baptized with; and how am I
straitened till it be
51 Suppose ye that I am come
to give peace on earth? I tell
you, Nay; but rather division:
52 For from henceforth there
shall be five in one house
divided, three against two,
and two against three.
53 The father shall be divided
against the son, and the son
against the father; the mother
against the daughter, and the
daughter against the mother;
the mother-in-law against her
daughter-in-law, and the
daughter-in-law against her
54 And he said also to the
people, When ye see a cloud
rise out of the west,(159)
straightway ye say, There
cometh a shower; and so it is.
55 And when _ye see_ the south
wind blow, ye say, There will
be heat; and it cometh to
56 Ye hypocrites, ye can
discern the face of the sky
and of the earth; but how is
it, that ye do not discern
this time?
57 Yea, and why even of
yourselves judge ye not what
is right?
58 When thou goest with thine
adversary to the magistrate,
_as thou art_ in the way, give
diligence that thou mayest be
delivered from him; lest he
hale thee to the judge, and
the judge deliver thee to the
officer, and the officer cast
thee into prison.
59 I tell thee, thou shalt not
depart thence, till thou hast
paid the very last mite.

§ 53. The slaughter of certain Galileans. Parable of the barren fig-tree.

CH. XIII. 1-9.
There were present at that
season some that told him of
the Galileans, whose blood
Pilate had mingled with their
2 And Jesus answering, said
unto them, Suppose ye that
these Galileans were sinners
above all the Galileans,
because they suffered such
3 I tell you, Nay; but, except
ye repent, ye shall all
likewise perish.
4 Or those eighteen, upon whom
the tower in Siloam fell, and
slew them, think ye that they
were sinners above all men
that dwelt in Jerusalem?
5 I tell you, Nay; but, except
ye repent, ye shall all
likewise perish.
6 He spake also this parable:
A certain _man_ had a fig-tree
planted in his vineyard; and
he came and sought fruit
thereon, and found none.
7 Then said he unto the
dresser of his vineyard,
Behold, these three years I
come seeking fruit on this
fig-tree, and find none: cut
it down; why cumbereth it the
8 And he answering, said unto
him, Lord, let it alone this
year also, till I shall dig
about it, and dung _it_:
9 And if it bear fruit,
_well_: and if not, _then_
after that thou shalt cut it

§ 54. The parable of the sower. _Lake of Galilee. Near Capernaum_?

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIII. 1-23.                  CH. IV. 1-25.
The same day went Jesus out of   And he began again to teach by
the house, and sat by the        the sea-side: and there was
sea-side.                        gathered unto him a great
                                 multitude, so that he entered
                                 into a ship, and sat in the
                                 sea; and the whole multitude
                                 was by the sea, on the land.
2 And great multitudes were
gathered together unto him, so
that he went into a ship, and
sat; and the whole multitude
stood on the shore.
3 And he spake many things       2 And he taught them many
unto them in parables, saying,   things by parables, and said
Behold, a sower went forth to    unto them in his doctrine,
                                 3 Hearken; Behold, there went
                                 out a sower to sow.
4 And when he sowed, some        4 And it came to pass as he
_seeds_ fell by the way-side,    sowed, some fell by the
and the fowls came and           way-side, and the fowls of the
devoured them up:                air came and devoured it up.
5 Some fell upon stony places    5 And some fell on stony
where they had not much earth:   ground, where it had not much
and forthwith they sprung up,    earth; and immediately it
because they had no deepness     sprang up, because it had no
of earth:                        depth of earth:
6 And when the sun was up,       6 But when the sun was up it
they were scorched; and          was scorched; and because it
because they had no root, they   had no root, it withered away.
withered away.
7 And some fell among thorns;    7 And some fell among thorns,
and the thorns sprung up, and    and the thorns grew up, and
choked them:                     choked it, and it yielded no
8 But other fell into good       8 And other fell on good
ground, and brought forth        ground, and did yield fruit
fruit, some a hundred-fold,      that sprang up, and increased,
some sixty-fold, some            and brought forth, some
thirty-fold.                     thirty, and some sixty, and
                                 some a hundred.
9 Who hath ears to hear, let     9 And he said unto them, He
him hear.                        that hath ears to hear, let
                                 him hear.
10 And the disciples came, and   10 And when he was alone, they
said unto him, Why speakest      that were about him, with the
thou unto them in parables?      twelve, asked of him the
11 He answered and said unto     11 And he said unto them, Unto
them, Because it is given unto   you it is given to know the
you to know the mysteries of     mystery of the kingdom of God:
the kingdom of heaven, but to    but unto them that are
them it is not given.            without, all _these_ things
                                 are done in parables:
12 For whosoever hath, to him    12 That seeing they may see,
shall be given, and he shall     and not perceive; and hearing
have more abundance: but         they may hear, and not
whosoever hath not, from him     understand; lest at any time
shall be taken away even that    they should be converted, and
he hath.                         _their_ sins should be
                                 forgiven them.
13 Therefore speak I to them
in parables: because they
seeing, see not; and hearing,
they hear not; neither do they
14 And in them is fulfilled
the prophecy of Esaias,(160)
which saith, By hearing ye
shall hear, and shall not
understand; and seeing ye
shall see, and shall not
15 For this people’s heart is
waxed gross, and _their_ ears
are dull of hearing, and their
eyes they have closed; lest at
any time they should _see_
with _their_ eyes, and hear
with _their_ ears, and should
understand with _their_ heart,
and should be converted, and I
should heal them.
16 But _blessed are_ your
eyes, for they see: and your
ears, for they hear.
17 For, verily I say unto you,
That many prophets and
righteous _men_ have desired
to see _those things_ which ye
see, and have not seen _them_;
and to hear _those things_
which ye hear, and have not
heard _them_.
18 Hear ye therefore the         13 And he said unto them, Know
parable of the sower.            ye not this parable? and how
                                 then will ye know all
19 When any one heareth the      14 The sower soweth the word.
word of the kingdom, and
understandeth _it_ not, then
cometh the wicked _one_, and
catcheth away that which was
sown in his heart. This is he
which received seed by the
                                 15 And these are they by the
                                 way-side, where the word is
                                 sown; but when they have
                                 heard, Satan cometh
                                 immediately, and taketh away
                                 the word that was sown in
                                 their hearts.
20 But he that received the      16 And these are they likewise
seed into stony places, the      which are sown on stony
same is he that heareth the      ground; who, when they have
word, and anon with joy          heard the word, immediately
receiveth it;                    receive it with gladness;
21 Yet hath he not root in       17 And have no root in
himself, but dureth for a        themselves, and so endure but
while: for when tribulation or   for a time: afterward, when
persecution ariseth because of   affliction or persecution
the word, by and by he is        ariseth for the word’s sake,
offended.                        immediately they are offended.
22 He also that received seed    18 and these are they which
among the thorns is he that      are sown among thorns; such as
heareth the word; and the care   hear the word,
of this world, and the
deceitfulness of riches, choke
the word, and he becometh
                                 19 And the cares of this
                                 world, and the deceitfulness
                                 of riches, and the lusts of
                                 other things entering in,
                                 choke the word, and it
                                 becometh unfruitful.
23 But he that received seed     20 And these are they which
into the good ground is he       are sown on good ground; such
that heareth the word, and       as hear the word, and receive
understandeth _it_; which also   it, and bring forth fruit,
beareth fruit, and bringeth      some thirty-fold, some sixty,
forth, some a hundred-fold,      and some a hundred.
some sixty, some thirty.
                                 21 And he said unto them, Is a
                                 candle brought to be put under
                                 a bushel, or under a bed? and
                                 not to be set on a
                                 22 For there is nothing hid,
                                 which shall not be manifested;
                                 neither was any thing kept
                                 secret, but that it should
                                 come abroad.
                                 23 If any man have ears to
                                 hear, let him hear.
                                 24 And he said unto them, Take
                                 heed what ye hear: With what
                                 measure ye mete, it shall be
                                 measured to you: and unto you
                                 that hear shall more be given.
                                 25 For he that hath, to him
                                 shall be given: and he that
                                 hath not, from him shall be
                                 taken even that which he hath.

CH. VIII. 4-18.
4 And when much people were
gathered together, and were
come to him out of every city,
he spake by a parable:
5 A sower went out to sow his
seed: and as he sowed, some
fell by the way-side; and it
was trodden down, and the
fowls of the air devoured it.
6 And some fell upon a rock;
and as soon as it was sprung
up, it withered away, because
it lacked moisture.
7 And some fell among thorns;
and the thorns sprang up with
it, and choked it.
8 And other fell on good
ground, and sprang up, and
bare fruit a hundred-fold. And
when he had said these things,
he cried, He that hath ears to
hear, let him hear.
9 And his disciples asked him,
saying, What might this
parable be?
10 And he said, Unto you it is
given to know the mysteries of
the kingdom of God: but to
others in parables; that
seeing they might not see, and
hearing they might not
11 Now the parable is this:
The seed is the word of God.
12 Those by the way-side, are
they that hear: then cometh
the devil, and taketh away the
word out of their hearts, lest
they should believe and be
13 They on the rock _are
they_, which, when they hear,
receive the word with joy; and
these have no root, which for
a while believe, and in times
of temptation fall away.
14 And that which fell among
thorns, are they, which, when
they have heard, go forth, and
are choked with cares, and
riches, and pleasures of
_this_ life, and bring no
fruit to perfection.
15 But that on the good ground
are they, which, in an honest
and good heart, having heard
the word, keep _it_, and bring
forth fruit with patience.
16 No man, when he hath
lighted a candle, covereth it
with a vessel, or putteth _it_
under a bed; but setteth _it_
on a candlestick, that they
which enter in may see the
17 For nothing is secret, that
shall not be made manifest;
neither _anything_ hid, that
shall not be known, and come
18 Take heed therefore how ye
hear: for whosoever hath, to
him shall be given: and
whosoever hath not, from him
shall be taken even that which
he seemeth to have.

§ 55. Parable of the tares. Other parables. _Near Capernaum_?

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIII. 24-53.                 CH. IV. 26-34.
24 Another parable put he
forth unto them, saying, The
kingdom of heaven is likened
unto a man which sowed good
seed in his field:
25 But while men slept, his
enemy came and sowed tares
among the wheat, and went his
26 But when the blade was
sprung up, and brought forth
fruit, then appeared the tares
27 So the servants of the
householder came and said unto
him, Sir, didst not thou sow
good seed in thy field? from
whence then hath it tares?
28 He said unto them, An enemy   26 And he said, So is the
hath done this. The servant      kingdom of God, as if a man
said unto him, Wilt thou then    should cast seed into the
that we go and gather them up?   ground;
29 But he said, Nay; lest        27 And should sleep, and rise
while ye gather up the tares,    night and day, and the seed
ye root up also the wheat with   should spring and grow up, he
them.                            knoweth not how.
30 Let both grow together        28 For the earth bringeth
until the harvest: and in the    forth fruit of herself; first
time of harvest I will say to    the blade, then the ear, after
the reapers, Gather ye           that the full corn in the ear.
together first the tares, and
bind them in bundles to burn
them: but gather the wheat
into my barn.
                                 29 But when the fruit is
                                 brought forth, immediately he
                                 putteth in the sickle, because
                                 the harvest is come.
31 Another parable put he        30 And he said, Whereunto
forth unto them, saying, The     shall we liken the kingdom of
kingdom of heaven is like to a   God? or with what comparison
grain of mustard-seed, which a   shall we compare it?
man took, and sowed in his
32 Which indeed is the least     31 It _is_ like a grain of
of all seeds: but when it is     mustard-seed, which when it is
grown, it is the greatest        sown in the earth, in less
among herbs, and becometh a      than all the seeds that be in
tree, so that the birds of the   the earth:
air come and lodge in the
branches thereof.
33 Another parable spake he      32 But when it is sown, it
unto them; The kingdom of        groweth up, and becometh
heaven is like unto leaven,      greater than all herbs, and
which a woman took, and hid in   shooteth out great branches;
three measures of meal, till     so that the fowls of the air
the whole was leavened.          may lodge under the shadow of
34 All these things spake        33 And with many such parables
Jesus unto the multitude in      spake he the word unto them,
parables; and without a          as they were able to hear
parable spake he not unto        _it_.
35 That it might be fulfilled    34 But without a parable spake
which was spoken by the          he not unto them: and when
prophet,(161) saying, I will     they were alone, he expounded
open my mouth in parables; I     all things to his disciples.
will utter things which have
been kept secret from the
foundation of the world.
36 Then Jesus sent the
multitude away, and went into
the house: and his disciples
came unto him, saying, Declare
unto us the parable of the
tares of the field.
37 He answered and said unto
them, He that soweth the good
seed is the Son of man;
38 The field is the world; the
good seed are the children of
the kingdom; but the tares are
the children of the wicked
39 The enemy that sowed them
is the devil; the harvest is
the end of the world; and the
reapers are the angels.
40 As therefore the tares are
gathered and burned in the
fire; so shall it be in the
end of this world.
41 The Son of man shall send
forth his angels, and they
shall gather out of his
kingdom all things that
offend, and them which do
42 And shall cast them into a
furnace of fire; there shall
be wailing and gnashing of
43 Then shall the righteous
shine forth as the sun in the
kingdom of their Father. Who
hath ears to hear, let him
44 Again, The kingdom of
heaven is like unto treasure
hid in a field; the which when
a man hath found, he hideth,
and for joy thereof goeth and
selleth all that he hath, and
buyeth that field.
45 Again, The kingdom of
heaven is like unto a
merchant-man seeking goodly
46 Who, when he had found one
pearl of great price, went and
sold all that he had, and
bought it.
47 Again, The kingdom of
heaven is like unto a net,
that was cast into the sea,
and gathered of every kind:
48 Which, when it was full,
they drew to shore, and sat
down, and gathered the good
into vessels, but cast the bad
49 So shall it be at the end
of the world: the angels shall
come forth, and sever the
wicked from among the just,
50 And shall cast them into
the furnace of fire: there
shall be wailing and gnashing
of teeth.
51 Jesus saith unto them, Have
ye understood all these
things? They say unto him,
Yea, Lord.
52 Then said he unto them,
Therefore every scribe _which
is_ instructed unto the
kingdom of heaven, is like
unto a man _that is_ a
householder, which bringeth
forth out of his treasure
_things_ new and old.
53 And it came to pass, _that_
when Jesus had finished these
parables, he departed thence.

§ 56. Jesus directs to cross the lake. Incidents. The tempest stilled.
_Lake of Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. VIII. 18-27.                 CH. IV. 35-41.
18 Now when Jesus saw great      And the same day, when the
multitudes about him, he gave    even was come, he saith unto
commandment to depart unto the   them, Let us pass over unto
other side.                      the other side.
19 And a certain scribe came,
and said unto him, Master, I
will follow thee whithersoever
thou goest.
20 And Jesus saith unto him,
The foxes have holes, and the
birds of the air _have_ nests;
but the Son of man hath not
where to lay _his_ head.
21 And another of his
disciples said unto him, Lord,
suffer me first to go and bury
my father.
22 But Jesus said unto him,
Follow me; and let the dead
bury their dead.
23 And when he was entered       36 And when they had sent away
into a ship, his disciples       the multitude, they took him
followed him.                    even as he was in the ship.
                                 And there were also with him
                                 other little ships.
24 And behold, there arose a     37 And there arose a great
great tempest in the sea,        storm of wind, and the waves
insomuch that the ship was       beat into the ship, so that it
covered with the waves: but he   was now full.
was asleep.
25 And his disciples came to     38 And he was in the hinder
_him_, and awoke him, saying,    part of the ship, asleep on a
Lord, save us: we perish.        pillow: and they awake him,
                                 and say unto him, Master,
                                 carest thou not that we
26 And he saith unto them, Why   39 And he arose and rebuked
are ye fearful, O ye of little   the wind, and said unto the
faith? Then he arose, and        sea, Peace, be still: and the
rebuked the winds and the sea;   wind ceased, and there was a
and there was a great calm.      great calm.
                                 40 And he said unto them, Why
                                 are ye so fearful? how is that
                                 ye have no faith?
27 But the men marvelled,        41 And they feared
saying, What manner of man is    exceedingly, and said one to
this, that even the winds and    another, What manner of man is
the sea obey him!                this, that even the wind and
                                 the sea obey him?

CH. VIII. 22-25.
CH. IX. 57-62.
22 Now it came to pass on a
certain day, that he went into
a ship with his disciples: and
he said unto them, Let us go
over unto the other side of
the lake.
57 And it came to pass, that
as they went in the way, a
certain _man_ said unto him,
Lord, I will follow thee
whithersoever thou goest.
58 And Jesus said unto him,
Foxes have holes, and birds of
the air _have_ nests; but the
Son of man hath not where to
lay _his_ head.
59 And he said unto another,
Follow me. But he said, Lord,
suffer me first to go and bury
my father.
60 Jesus said unto him, Let
the dead bury their dead: but
go thou and preach the kingdom
of God.
61 And another also said,
Lord, I will follow thee; but
let me first go bid them
farewell which are at home at
my house.
62 And Jesus said unto him, No
man having put his hand to the
plough, and looking back, is
fit for the kingdom of God.
22 And they launched forth.
23 But as they sailed, he fell
asleep: and there came down a
storm of wind on the lake; and
they were filled _with water_,
and were in jeopardy.
24 And they came to him, and
awoke him, saying, Master,
Master, we perish. Then he
arose, and rebuked the wind,
and the raging of the water:
and they ceased, and there was
a calm.
25 And he said unto them,
Where is your faith? And they
being afraid, wondered, saying
one to another, What manner of
man is this! for he commandeth
even the winds and water, and
they obey him.

§ 57. The two demoniacs of Gadara. _S. E. coast of the Lake of Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. VIII. 28-34.                 CH. V. 1-21.
CH. IX. 1.
28 And when he was come to the   And they came over unto the
other side, into the country     other side of the sea, into
of the Gegesenes,(162) there     the country of the Gadarenes.
met him two possessed with
devils, coming out of the
tombs, exceeding fierce, so
that no man might pass by that
                                 2 And when he was come out of
                                 the ship, immediately there
                                 met him out of the tombs a man
                                 with an unclean spirit,
                                 3 Who had _his_ dwelling among
                                 the tombs; and no man could
                                 bind him, no, not with his
                                 4 Because that he had been
                                 often bound with fetters and
                                 chains, and the chains had
                                 been plucked asunder by him,
                                 and the fetters broken in
                                 pieces: neither could any
                                 _man_ tame him.
                                 5 And always, night and day,
                                 he was in the mountains, and
                                 in the tombs, crying, and
                                 cutting himself with stones.
                                 6 But when he saw Jesus afar
                                 off, he ran and worshipped
                                 7 And cried with a loud voice,
                                 and said, What have I to do
                                 with thee, Jesus, _thou_ Son
                                 of the most high God? I adjure
                                 thee by God, that thou torment
                                 me not.
                                 8 (For he said unto him, Come
                                 out of the man, _thou_ unclean
29 And behold, they cried out,   9 And he asked him, What _is_
saying, What have we to do       thy name? And he answered,
with thee, Jesus, thou Son of    saying, My name _is_ Legion:
God? art thou come hither to     for we are many.
torment us before the time?
                                 10 And he besought him much
                                 that he would not send them
                                 away out of the country.
30 And there was a good way      11 Now there was there nigh
off(163) from them a herd of     unto the mountains a great
many swine, feeding.             herd of swine(164) feeding.
31 So the devils besought him,   12 And all the devils besought
saying If thou cast us out,      him, saying, Send us into the
suffer us to go away into the    swine, that we may enter into
herd of swine.                   them.
32 And he said unto them, Go.    13 And forthwith Jesus gave
And when they were come out,     them leave. And the unclean
they went into the herd of       spirits went out, and entered
swine: and behold, the whole     into the swine: and the herd
herd of swine ran violently      ran violently down a steep
down a steep place into the      place into the sea, (they were
sea, and perished in the         about two thousand) and were
waters.                          choked in the sea.
33 And they that kept them,      14 And they that fed the swine
fled, and went their ways into   fled and told _it_ in the
the city, and told everything;   city, and in the country. And
and what was befallen to the     they went out to see what it
possessed of the devils.         was that was done.
34 And behold, the whole city    15 And they come to Jesus, and
came out to meet Jesus: and      see him that was possessed
when they saw him, they          with the devil, and had the
besought him that he would       legion, sitting, and clothed,
depart out of their coasts.      and in his right mind: and
                                 they were afraid.
                                 16 And they that saw _it_ told
                                 them how it befell to him that
                                 was possessed with the devil,
                                 and also concerning the swine.
                                 17 And they began to pray him
                                 to depart out of their coasts.
And he entered into a ship,      18 And when he was come into
and passed over, and came into   the ship, he that had been
his own city.                    possessed with the devil
                                 prayed him that he might be
                                 with him.
                                 19 Howbeit Jesus suffered him
                                 not, but saith unto him, Go
                                 home to thy friends, and tell
                                 them how great things the Lord
                                 hath done for thee, and hath
                                 had compassion on thee.
                                 20 And he departed, and began
                                 to publish in Decapolis how
                                 great things Jesus had done
                                 for him. And all _men_ did
                                 21 And when Jesus was passed
                                 over again by ship unto the
                                 other side, much people
                                 gathered unto him: and he was
                                 nigh unto the sea.

CH. VIII. 26-40.
26 And they arrived at the
country of the Gadarenes,
which is over against Galilee.
27 And when he went forth to
land, there met him out of the
city a certain man, which had
devils long time, and ware no
clothes, neither abode in
_any_ house, but in the tombs.
28 When he saw Jesus, he cried
out, and fell down before him,
and with a loud voice said,
What have I to do with thee,
Jesus, _thou_ Son of God most
high? I beseech thee torment
me not.
29 (For he had commanded the
unclean spirit to come out of
the man. For oftentimes it had
caught him: and he was kept
bound with chains, and in
fetters; and he brake the
bands, and was driven of the
devil into the wilderness.)
30 And Jesus asked him,
saying, What is thy name? And
he said, Legion: because many
devils were entered into him.
31 And they besought him, that
he would not command them to
go out into the deep.
32 And there was there a herd
of many swine feeding on the
mountain: and they besought
him that he would suffer them
to enter into them. And he
suffered them.
33 Then went the devils out of
the man, and entered into the
swine: and the herd ran
violently down a steep place
into the lake, and were
34 When they that fed _them_
saw what was done, they fled,
and went and told _it_ in the
city and in the country.
35 Then they went out to see
what was done; and came to
Jesus, and found the man out
of whom the devils were
departed, sitting at the feet
of Jesus,(165) clothed, and in
his right mind: and they were
36 They also which saw _it_,
told them by what means he
that was possessed of the
devils was healed.
37 Then the whole multitude of
the country of the Gadarenes
round about, besought him to
depart from them; for they
were taken with great fear.
And he went up into the ship,
and returned back again.
38 Now, the man out of whom
the devils were departed,
besought him that he might be
with him. But Jesus sent him
away, saying,
39 Return to thine own house,
and shew how great things God
hath done unto thee. And he
went his way and published
throughout the whole city, how
great things Jesus had done
unto him.
40 And it came to pass, that,
when Jesus was returned, the
people _gladly_ received him:
for they were all waiting for

§ 58. Levi’s feast. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IX. 10-17.                   CH. II. 15-22.
10 And it came to pass, as       15 And it came to pass, that
Jesus sat at meat in the         as Jesus sat at meat in his
house,(166) behold, many         house, many publicans and
publicans and sinners came and   sinners sat also together with
sat down with him and his        Jesus and his disciples; for
disciples.                       there were many, and they
                                 followed him.
11 And when the Pharisees saw    16 And when the scribes and
_it_, they said unto his         Pharisees saw him eat with
disciples, Why eateth your       publicans and sinners, they
Master with publicans and        said unto his disciples, How
sinners?                         is it that he eateth and
                                 drinketh with publicans and
12 But when Jesus heard          17 When Jesus heard _it_, he
_that_, he said unto them,       saith unto them, They that are
They that be whole need not a    whole, have no need of the
physician, but they that are     physician, but they that are
sick.                            sick: I came not to call the
                                 righteous, but sinners to
13 But go ye and learn what      18 And the disciples of John,
_that_ meaneth,(167) I will      and of the Pharisees, used to
have mercy, and not sacrifice:   fast: and they come, and say
for I am not come to call the    unto unto him, Why do the
righteous, but sinners to        disciples of John, and of the
repentance.                      Pharisees fast, but thy
                                 disciples fast not?
14 Then came to him the
disciples of John, saying, Why
do we and the Pharisees fast
oft, but thy disciples fast
15 And Jesus said unto them,     19 And Jesus said unto them,
Can the children of the          Can the children of the
bride-chamber mourn, as long     bride-chamber fast, while the
as the bridegroom is with        bridegroom is with them? As
them? but the days will come,    long as they have the
when the bridegroom shall be     bridegroom with them, they
taken from them, and then        cannot fast.
shall they fast.
                                 20 But the days will come,
                                 when the bridegroom shall be
                                 taken away from them, and then
                                 shall they fast in those days.
16 No man putteth a piece of     21 No man also seweth a piece
new cloth unto an old garment:   of new cloth on an old
for that which is put in to      garment: else the new piece
fill it up, taketh from the      that filled it up, taketh away
garment, and the rent is made    from the old, and the rent is
worse.                           made worse.
17 Neither do men put new wine   22 And no man putteth new wine
into old bottles: else the       into old bottles: else the new
bottles break, and the wine      wine doth burst the bottles,
runneth out, and the bottles     and the wine is spilled, and
perish: but they put new wine    the bottles will be marred:
into new bottles, and both are   but new wine must be put into
preserved.                       new bottles.

CH. V. 29-39.
29 And Levi made him a great
feast in his own house; and
there was a great company of
publicans, and of others that
sat down with publicans and
30 But their scribes and
Pharisees murmured against his
disciples, saying, Why do you
eat and drink with publicans
and sinners?
31 And Jesus answering, said
unto them, They that are whole
need not a physician; but they
that are sick.
32 I came not to call the
righteous, but sinners to
33 And they said unto him, Why
do the disciples of John fast
often, and make prayers, and
likewise _the disciples_ of
the Pharisees; but thine eat
and drink?
34 And he said unto them, Can
ye make the children of the
bride-chamber fast, while the
bridegroom is with them?
35 But the days will come,
when the bridegroom shall be
taken away from them, and then
shall they fast in those days.
36 And he spake also a parable
unto them; No man putteth a
piece of a new garment upon an
old: if otherwise, then both
the new maketh a rent, and the
piece that was _taken_ out of
the new, agreeth not with the
37 And no man putteth new wine
into old bottles; else the new
wine will burst the bottles,
and be spilled, and the
bottles shall perish.
38 But new wine must be put
into new bottles, and both are
39 No man also having drunk
old _wine_, straightway
desireth new: for he saith,
The old is better.

§ 59. The raising of Jairus’s daughter. The woman with a bloody flux.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IX. 18-26.                   CH. V. 22-43.
18 While he spake these things   22 And behold, there cometh
unto them, behold, there came    one of the rulers of the
a certain ruler, and             synagogue, Jairus by name; and
worshipped him, saying, My       when he saw him, he fell at
daughter is even now dead: but   his feet.
come and lay thy hand upon
her, and she shall live.
19 And Jesus arose, and          23 And besought him greatly,
followed him, and _so did_ his   saying, My little daughter
disciples.                       lieth at the point of death:
                                 _I pray thee_, come and lay
                                 thy hands on her, that she may
                                 be healed; and she shall live.
20 And behold, a woman which     24 And _Jesus_ went with him;
was diseased with an issue of    and much people followed him,
blood twelve years, came         and thronged him.
behind _him_, and touched the
hem of his garment.
21 For she said within           25 And a certain woman which
herself, If I may but touch      had an issue of blood twelve
his garment, I shall be whole.   years,
22 But Jesus turned him about,   26 And had suffered many
and when he saw her, he said,    things of many physicians, and
Daughter, be of good comfort:    had spent all that she had,
thy faith hath made thee         and was nothing bettered, but
whole. And the woman was made    rather grew worse,
whole from that hour.
                                 27 When she had heard of
                                 Jesus, came in the press
                                 behind, and touched his
                                 28 For she said, If I may
                                 touch but his clothes, I shall
                                 be whole.
                                 29 And straightway the
                                 fountain of her blood was
                                 dried up; and she felt in
                                 _her_ body that she was healed
                                 of that plague.
                                 30 And Jesus, immediately
                                 knowing in himself that virtue
                                 had gone out of him, turned
                                 him about in the press, and
                                 said, Who touched my clothes?
                                 31 And his disciples said unto
                                 him, Thou seest the multitude
                                 thronging thee, and sayest
                                 thou, Who touched me?
                                 32 And he looked round about
                                 to see her that had done this
                                 33 But the woman, fearing and
                                 trembling, knowing what was
                                 done in her, came and fell
                                 down before him, and told him
                                 all the truth.
                                 34 And he said unto her,
                                 Daughter, thy faith hath made
                                 thee whole; go in peace, and
                                 be whole of thy plague.
                                 35 While he yet spake, there
                                 came from the ruler of the
                                 synagogue’s _house certain_
                                 which said, Thy daughter is
                                 dead: why troublest thou the
                                 Master any further?
                                 36 As soon as Jesus heard the
                                 word that was spoken, he saith
                                 unto the ruler of the
                                 synagogue, Be not afraid, only
                                 37 And he suffered no man to
                                 follow him, save Peter, and
                                 James, and John the brother of
23 And when Jesus came into      38 And he cometh to the house
the ruler’s house, and saw the   of the ruler of the synagogue,
minstrels and the people         and seeth the tumult, and them
making a noise,                  that wept and wailed greatly.
24 He said unto them, Give       39 And when he was come in, he
place: for the maid is not       saith unto them, Why make ye
dead, but sleepeth. And they     this ado, and weep? the damsel
laughed him to scorn.            is not dead, but sleepeth.
25 But when the people were      40 And they laughed him to
put forth, he went in, and       scorn. But, when he had put
took her by the hand, and the    them all out, he taketh the
maid arose.                      father and the mother of the
                                 damsel, and them that were
                                 with him, and entereth in
                                 where the damsel was lying.
26 And the fame hereof went      41 And he took the damsel by
abroad into all that land.       the hand, and said unto her,
                                 Talitha-cumi: which is, being
                                 interpreted, Damsel, (I say
                                 unto thee) arise.
                                 42 And straightway the damsel
                                 arose, and walked; for she was
                                 _of the age_ of twelve years.
                                 And they were astonished with
                                 a great astonishment.
                                 43 And he charged them
                                 straitly that no man should
                                 know it; and commanded that
                                 something should be given her
                                 to eat.

CH. VIII. 41-56.
41 And behold, there came a
man named Jairus, and he was a
ruler of the synagogue: and he
fell down at Jesus’ feet, and
besought him that he would
come into his house:
42 For he had one only
daughter, about twelve years
of age, and she lay a-dying.
But as he went, the people
thronged him.
43 And a woman having an issue
of blood twelve years, which
had spent all her living upon
physicians, neither could be
healed of any,
44 Came behind _him_ and
touched the border of his
garment: and immediately her
issue of blood stanched.
45 And Jesus said, Who touched
me? When all denied, Peter,
and they that were with him,
said, Master, the multitude
throng thee, and press _thee_,
and sayest thou, Who touched
46 And Jesus said, Somebody
hath touched me: for I
perceive that virtue is gone
out of me.
47 And when the woman saw that
she was not hid, she came
trembling, and falling down
before him, she declared unto
him before all the people for
what cause she had touched
him, and how she was healed
48 And he said unto her,
Daughter, be of good comfort:
thy faith hath made thee
whole; go in peace.
49 While he yet spake, there
cometh one from the ruler of
the _synagogue’s house_,
saying to him, Thy daughter is
dead: trouble not the Master.
50 But when Jesus heard _it_,
he answered him, saying, Fear
not: believe only, and she
shall be made whole.
51 And when he came into the
house, he suffered no man to
go in, save Peter, and James,
and John, and the father and
the mother of the maiden.
52 And all wept and bewailed
her: but he said, Weep not:
she is not dead, but sleepeth.
53 And they laughed him to
scorn, knowing that she was
54 And he put them all out,
and took her by the hand, and
called, saying, Maid, arise.
55 And her spirit came again,
and she arose straightway: and
he commanded to give her meat.
56 And her parents were
astonished: but he charged
them that they should tell no
man what was done.

§ 60. Two blind men healed, and a dumb spirit cast out. _Capernaum_.

CH. IX.  27-34.
27 And when Jesus departed
thence, two blind men followed
him, crying, and saying,
_Thou_ son of David, have
mercy on us.
28 And when he was come into
the house, the blind men came
to him: and Jesus saith unto
them, Believe ye that I am
able to do this? They said
unto him, Yea, Lord.
29 Then touched he their eyes,
saying, According to your
faith, be it unto you.
30 And their eyes were opened;
and Jesus straitly charged
them, saying, See _that_ no
man know _it_.
31 But they, when they were
departed, spread abroad his
fame in all that country.
32 As they went out, behold,
they brought to him a dumb man
possessed with a devil.
33 And when the devil was cast
out, the dumb spake: and the
multitudes marvelled, saying,
It was never so seen in
34 But the Pharisees said, He
casteth out devils, through
the prince of the devils.

§ 61. Jesus again at Nazareth, and again rejected.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIII. 54-58.                 CH. VI. 1-6.
54 And when he was come into     And he went out from thence,
his own country, he taught       and came into his own county;
them in their synagogue,         and his disciples follow him.
insomuch that they were
astonished, and said, Whence
hath this _man_ this wisdom,
and _these_ mighty works?
55 Is not this the carpenter’s   2 And when the sabbath-day was
son? is not his mother called    come, he began to teach in the
Mary? and his brethren, James,   synagogue: and many hearing
and Joses, and Simon, and        _him_ were astonished, saying,
Judas?                           From whence hath this _man_
                                 these things? and what wisdom
                                 _is_ this which is given unto
                                 him, that even such mighty
                                 works are wrought by his
56 And his sisters, are they     3 Is not this the carpenter,
not all with us? Whence then     the son of Mary,(168) the
hath this _man_ all these        brother of James, and Joses,
things?                          and of Juda, and Simon? and
                                 are not his sisters here with
                                 us? And they were offended at
57 And they were offended in     4 But Jesus said unto them, A
him. But Jesus said unto them,   prophet is not without honour,
A prophet is not without         but in his own country, and
honour, save in his own          among his own kin, and in his
country, and in his own house.   own house.
                                 5 And he could there do mighty
                                 work, save that he laid his
                                 hands upon a few sick folk,
                                 and healed _them_.
58 And he did not many mighty    6 And he marvelled because of
works there, because of their    their unbelief.

§ 62. A third circuit in Galilee. The Twelve instructed and sent forth.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. IX. 35-38. CH. X. 1, 5-42.   CH. VI. 6-13.
CH. XI. 1.
35 And Jesus went about all
the cities and villages,
teaching in their synagogues,
and preaching the gospel of
the kingdom, and healing every
sickness, and every disease
among the people.
36 But when he saw the
multitudes, he was moved with
compassion on them, because
they fainted, and were
scattered abroad as sheep
having no shepherd.
37 Then saith he unto his
disciples, The harvest truly
_is_ plenteous, but the
labourers _are_ few.
38 Pray ye therefore the Lord
of the harvest, that he will
send forth labourers into his


And when he had called unto      7 And he called _unto him_ the
_him_ his twelve disciples, he   twelve, and began to send them
gave them power _against_        forth by two and two, and gave
unclean spirits, to cast them    them power over unclean
out, and to heal all manner of   spirits;
sickness, and all manner of
5 These twelve Jesus sent        8 And commanded them that they
forth, and commanded them,       should take nothing for
saying, Go not into the way of   _their_ journey, save a staff
the Gentiles, and into _any_     only; no scrip, no bread, no
city of the Samaritans, enter    money in _their_ purse:
ye not.
6 But go rather to the lost      9 But _be_ shod with sandals;
sheep of the house of Israel.    and not put on two coats.
7 And as ye go, preach,          10 And he said unto them, In
saying, The kingdom of heaven    what place soever ye enter
is at hand.                      into a house, there abide till
                                 ye depart from that place.
8 Heal the sick, cleanse the
lepers, raise the dead, cast
out devils: freely ye have
received, freely give.
9 Provide neither gold, nor
silver, nor brass in your
10 Nor scrip for _your_
journey, neither two coats,
neither shoes,(169) nor yet
staves: (for the workman is
worthy of his meat.)
11 And into whatever city or
town ye shall enter, inquire
who in it is worthy; and there
abide till ye go thence.
12 And when ye come into a
house, salute it.
13 And if the house be worthy,
let your peace come upon it:
but if it be not worthy, let
your peace return to you.
14 And whosoever shall not       11 And whosoever shall not
receive you, nor hear your       receive you, nor hear you,
words, when ye depart out of     when ye depart thence, shake
that house, or city, shake off   off the dust under your feet,
the dust of your feet.           for a testimony against them.
                                 Verify, I say unto you, it
                                 shall be more tolerable for
                                 Sodom and Gomorrah in the day
                                 of judgment, then for that
15 Verily, I say unto you, It
shall be more tolerable for
the land of Sodom and
Gomorrah, in the day of
judgment, than for that city.
16 Behold, I send you forth as
sheep in the midst of wolves:
be ye therefore wise as
serpents, and harmless as
17 But beware of men: for they
will deliver you up to the
councils, and they will
scourge you in their
18 And ye shall be brought
before governors and kings for
my sake, for a testimony
against them and the Gentiles.
19 But when they deliver you
up, take no thought how or
what ye shall speak, for it
shall be given you in that
same hour what ye shall speak.
20 For it is not ye that
speak, but the Spirit of your
Father which speaketh in you.
21 And the brother shall
deliver up the brother to
death, and the father the
child: and the children shall
rise up against _their_
parents, and cause them to be
put to death.
22 And ye shall be hated of
all men for my name’s sake:
but he that endureth to the
end shall be saved.
23 But when they persecute you
in this city, flee ye into
another: for verily I say unto
you, Ye shall not have gone
over the cities of Israel till
the Son of man be come.
24 The disciple is not above
_his_ master, nor the servant
above his lord.
25 It is enough for the
disciple that he be as his
master, and the servant as his
lord: if they have called the
master of the house Beelzebub,
how much more _shall they
call_ them of his household?
26 Fear them not therefore:
for there is nothing covered,
that shall not be revealed;
and hid, that shall not be
27 What I tell you in
darkness, _that_ speak ye in
light: and what ye hear in the
ear, _that_ preach ye upon the
28 And fear not them which
kill the body, but are not
able to kill the soul: but
rather fear him which is able
to destroy both soul and body
in hell.
29 Are not two sparrows sold
for a farthing? and one of
them shall not fall on the
ground without your Father.
30 But the very hairs of your
head are all numbered.
31 Fear ye not therefore, ye
are of more value than many
32 Whosoever therefore shall
confess me before men, him
will I confess also before my
Father which is in heaven.
33 But whosoever shall deny me
before men, him will I also
deny before my Father which is
in heaven.
34 Think not that I am come to
send peace on earth; I came
not to send peace, but a
35 For I am come to set a man
at variance against his
father, and the daughter
against her mother, and the
daughter-in-law against her
36 And a man’s foes _shall be_
they of his own
37 He that loveth father or
mother more than me, is not
worthy of me: and he that
loveth son or daughter more
than me, is not worthy of me.
38 And he that taketh not his
cross, and followeth after me,
is not worthy of me.
39 He that findeth his life
shall lose it: and he that
loseth his life for my sake,
shall find it.
40 He that receiveth you,
receiveth me; and he that
receiveth me, receiveth him
that sent me.
41 He that receiveth a prophet
in the name of a prophet,
shall receive a prophet’s
reward; and he that receiveth
a righteous man in the name of
a righteous man, shall receive
a righteous man’s reward.
42 And whosoever shall give to
drink unto one of these little
ones, a cup of cold _water_
only, in the name of a
disciple, verily, I say unto
you, he shall in no wise lose
his reward.
And it came to pass when Jesus   And he went round about the
had made an end of commanding    villages teaching.
his twelve disciples, he
departed thence to teach and
to preach in their cities.
                                 12 And they went out, and
                                 preached that men should
                                 13 And they cast out many
                                 devils, and anointed with oil
                                 many that were sick, and
                                 healed them.

CH. IX. 1-6.
Then he called his twelve
disciples together, and gave
them power and authority over
all devils, and to cure
2 And he sent them to preach
the kingdom of God, and to
heal the sick.
3 And he said unto them, Take
nothing for _your_ journey,
neither staves, nor scrip,
neither bread, neither money;
neither have two coats apiece.
4 And whatsoever house ye
enter into, there abide, and
thence depart.
5 And whosoever will not
receive you, when ye go out of
that city, shake off the very
dust from your feet for a
testimony against them.
6 And they departed, and went
through the towns, preaching
the gospel, and healing

§ 63. Herod holds Jesus to be John the Baptist, whom he had just before
beheaded. _Galilee? Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIV. 1, 2, 6-12.             CH. VI. 14-16, 21-29.
At that time Herod the           14 And king Herod heard _of
tetrarch heard of the fame of    him_, (for his name was spread
Jesus,                           abroad,) and he said, That
                                 John the Baptist was risen
                                 from the dead, and therefore
                                 mighty works do shew forth
                                 themselves in him.
2 And said unto his              15 Others said, That it is
servants,(172) This is John      Elias. And others said, That
the Baptist; he is risen from    it is a prophet, or as one of
the dead; and therefore mighty   the prophets.
works do shew forth themselves
in him.
                                 16 But when Herod heard
                                 _thereof_, he said, It is
                                 John, whom I beheaded: he is
                                 risen from the dead.
6 But when Herod’s birth-day     21 And when a convenient day
was kept,(173) the daughter of   was come, that Herod on his
Herodias danced before them,     birth-day made a supper to his
and pleased Herod.               lords, high captains, and
                                 chief _estates_ of Galilee:
                                 22 And when the daughter of
                                 the said Herodias came in, and
                                 danced, and pleased Herod, and
                                 them that sat with him, the
                                 king said unto the damsel, Ask
                                 of me whatsoever thou wilt,
                                 and I will give _it_ thee.
7 Whereupon he promised with     23 And he sware unto her,
an oath to give her whatsoever   Whatsoever thou shalt ask of
she would ask.                   me, I will give _it_ thee,
                                 unto the half of my kingdom.
                                 24 And she went forth, and
                                 said unto her mother, What
                                 shall I ask? And she said, The
                                 head of John the Baptist.
8 And she, being before          25 And she came in straightway
instructed of her mother,        with haste unto the king, and
said, Give me here John          asked, saying, I will that
Baptist’s head in a charger.     thou give me, by and by, in a
                                 charger, the head of John the
9 And the king was sorry:        26 And the king was exceeding
nevertheless for the oath’s      sorry; _yet_ for his oath’s
sake, and them which sat with    sake, and for their sakes
him at meat, he commanded _it_   which sat with him, he would
to be given _her_.               not reject her.
10 And he sent, and beheaded     27 And immediately the king
John in the prison.              sent an executioner, and
                                 commanded his head to be
                                 brought: and he went and
                                 beheaded him in the prison;
11 And his head was brought in   28 And brought his head in a
a charger, and given to the      charger, and gave it to the
damsel: and she brought _it_     damsel; and the damsel gave it
to her mother.                   to her mother.
12 And his disciples came, and   29 And when his disciples
took up the body, and buried     heard _of it_, they came and
it, and went and told Jesus.     took up his corpse, and laid
                                 it in a tomb.

CH. IX. 7-9.
7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard
of all that was done by him:
and he was perplexed, because
that it was said of some, that
John was risen from the dead;
8 And of some, that Elias had
appeared; and of others, that
one of the old prophets was
risen again.
9 And Herod said, John have I
beheaded; but who is this of
whom I hear such things? And
he desired to see him.

§ 64. The Twelve return. Jesus retires with them across the lake. Five
thousand are fed. _Capernaum. N. E. coast of the lake_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIV. 13-21.                  CH. VI. 30-44.
13 When Jesus heard _of it_,     30 And the apostles gathered
he departed thence by ship       themselves together unto
into a desert place apart: and   Jesus, and told him all
when the people had heard        things, both what they had
_thereof_, they followed him     done, and what they had
on foot out of the cities.       taught.
14 And Jesus went forth, and     31 And he said unto them, Come
saw a great multitude, and was   ye yourselves apart into a
moved with compassion toward     desert place, and rest awhile:
them, and he healed their        for there were many coming and
sick.                            going,(174) and they had no
                                 leisure so much as to eat.
                                 32 And they departed into a
                                 desert place by ship
                                 33 And the people saw them
                                 departing, and many knew him,
                                 and ran afoot thither out of
                                 all cities, and outwent them,
                                 and came together unto him.
                                 34 And Jesus, when he came
                                 out, saw much people, and was
                                 moved with compassion toward
                                 them, because they were as
                                 sheep not having a shepherd:
                                 and he began to teach them
                                 many things.
15 And when it was evening his   35 And when the day was now
disciples came to him, saying,   far spent, his disciples came
This is a desert place, and      unto him, and said, This is a
the time is now past; send the   desert place, and now the time
multitude away, that they may    _is_ far passed:
go into the villages, and buy
themselves victuals.
                                 36 Send them away, that they
                                 may go into the country round
                                 about, and into the villages,
                                 and buy themselves bread: for
                                 they have nothing to eat.
16 But Jesus said unto them,     37 He answered and said unto
They need not depart; give ye    them, Give ye them to eat. And
them to eat.                     they say unto him, Shall we go
                                 and buy two hundred pennyworth
                                 of bread, and give them to
17 And they say unto him, We
have here but five loaves, and
two fishes.
18 He said, Bring them hither    38 He saith unto them, How
to me.                           many loaves have ye? go and
                                 see. And when they knew, they
                                 say, Five, and two fishes.
19 And he commanded the          39 And he commanded them to
multitude to sit down on the     make all sit down by companies
grass, and took the five         upon the green grass.
loaves, and the two fishes,
and looking up to heaven, he
blessed, and brake, and gave
the loaves to _his_ disciples,
and the disciples to the
                                 40 And they sat down in ranks,
                                 by hundreds, and by fifties.
                                 41 And when he had taken the
                                 five loaves, and the two
                                 fishes, he looked up to
                                 heaven, and blessed, and brake
                                 the loaves, and gave _them_ to
                                 his disciples to set before
                                 them; and the two fishes
                                 divided he among them all.
20 And they did all eat, and     42 And they did all eat, and
were filled: and they took up    were filled.
of the fragments that remained
twelve baskets full.
                                 43 And they took up twelve
                                 baskets full of the fragments,
                                 and of the fishes.
21 And they that had eaten       44 And they that did eat of
were about five thousand men,    the loaves, were about five
besides women and children.      thousand men.

Luke.                            John.
CH. IX. 10-17.                   CH. VI. 1-14.
10 And the apostles, when they   After these things Jesus went
were returned, told him all      over the sea of Galilee, which
that they had done. And he       is _the sea_ of Tiberias.
took them, and went aside
privately into a desert place,
belonging to the city called
                                 2 And a great multitude
                                 followed him, because they saw
                                 his miracles which he did on
                                 them that were diseased.
11 And the people, when they     3 And Jesus went up into a
knew _it_, followed him: and     mountain, and there he sat
he received them, and spake      with his disciples.
unto them of the kingdom of
God, and healed them that had
need of healing.
                                 4 And the passover, a feast of
                                 the Jews, was nigh.
                                 5 When Jesus then lifted up
                                 his eyes, and saw a great
                                 company come unto him, he
                                 saith unto Philip,(175) Whence
                                 shall we buy bread that these
                                 may eat?
                                 6 (And this he said to prove
                                 him: for he himself knew what
                                 he would do.)
12 And when the day began to     7 Philip answered him, Two
wear away, then came the         hundred pennyworth of bread is
twelve, and said unto him,       not sufficient for them, that
Send the multitude away, that    every one of them may take a
they may go into the towns and   little.
country round about, and
lodge, and get victuals: for
we are here in a desert place.
                                 8 One of his disciples,
                                 Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother,
                                 saith unto him,
                                 9 There is a lad here, which
                                 hath five barley loaves, and
                                 two small fishes: but what are
                                 they among so many?
13 But he said unto them, Give   10 And Jesus said, Make the
ye them to eat. And they said,   men sit down. (Now there was
We have no more but five         much grass in the place.) So
loaves and two fishes; except    the men sat down in number
we should go and buy meat for    about five thousand.
all this people.
14 (For they were about five     11 And Jesus took the loaves;
thousand men.) And he said to    and when he had given thanks,
his disciples, Make them sit     he distributed to the
down by fifties(176) in a        disciples, and the disciples
company.                         to them that were set down;
                                 and likewise of the fishes, as
                                 much as they would.
15 And they did so, and made     12 When they were filled, he
them all sit down.               said unto his disciples,
                                 Gather up the fragments that
                                 remain, that nothing be lost.
16 Then he took the five         13 Therefore they gathered
loaves, and the two fishes,      them together, and filled
and looking up to heaven, he     twelve baskets with the
blessed them, and brake, and     fragments of the five barley
gave to the disciples to set     loaves, which remained over
before the multitude.            and above unto them that had
17 And they did eat, and were    14 Then those men, when they
all filled: and there was        had seen the miracle that
taken up of fragments that       Jesus did, said, This is of a
remained to them twelve          truth that Prophet that should
baskets.                         come into the world.

§ 65. Jesus walks upon the water. _Lake of Galilee. Gennesaret_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
Ch. XIV. 22-36.                  CH. VI. 45-56.
22 And straightway Jesus         45 And straightway he
constrained his disciples to     constrained his disciples to
get into a ship, and to go       get into the ship, and to go
before him unto the other        to the other side before unto
side, while he sent the          Bethsaida, while he sent away
multitudes away.                 the people.
23 And when he had sent the      46 And when he had sent them
multitudes away, he went up      away, he departed into a
into a mountain apart to pray:   mountain to pray.
and when the evening was come,
he was there alone.
24 But the ship was now in the   47 And when even was come, the
midst of the sea, tossed with    ship was in the midst of the
waves: for the wind was          sea, and he alone on the land.
25 And in the fourth watch of    48 And he saw them toiling in
the night Jesus went unto        rowing; for the wind was
them, walking on the sea.        contrary unto them: and about
                                 the fourth watch of the night
                                 he cometh unto them, walking
                                 upon the sea, and would have
                                 passed by them.
26 And when the disciples saw    49 But when they saw him
him walking on the sea, they     walking upon the sea, they
were troubled, saying, It is a   supposed it had been a spirit,
spirit; and they cried out for   and cried out.
27 But straightway Jesus spake   50 (For they all saw him, and
unto them, saying, Be of good    were troubled.) And
cheer; it is I; be not afraid.   immediately he talked with
                                 them, and saith unto them, Be
                                 of good cheer: it is I; be not
28 And Peter answered him and
said, Lord, if it be thou, bid
me come unto thee on the
29 And he said, Come. And when
Peter was come down out of the
ship, he walked on the water,
to go to Jesus.
30 But when he saw the wind      51 And he went up unto them
boisterous, he was afraid; and   into the ship; and the wind
beginning to sink, he cried,     ceased; and they were sore
saying, Lord, save me.           amazed in themselves beyond
                                 measure, and wondered.
31 And immediately Jesus         52 For they considered not
stretched forth _his_ hand,      _the miracle_ of the loaves;
and caught him, and said unto    for their heart was hardened.
him, O thou of little faith,
wherefore didst thou doubt?
32 And when they were come       53 And when they had passed
into the ship, the wind          over, they came into the land
ceased.                          of Gennesaret, and drew to the
33 Then they that were in the    54 And when they were come out
ship came and worshipped him,    of the ship, straightway they
saying, Of a truth thou art      knew him,
the Son of God.
34 And when they were gone       55 And ran through that whole
over, they came into the land    region round about, and began
of Gennesaret.                   to carry about in beds those
                                 that were sick, where they
                                 heard he was.
35 And when the men of that      56 And whithersoever he
place had knowledge of him,      entered, into villages, or
they sent out into all that      cities, or country, they laid
country round about, and         the sick in the streets, and
brought unto him all that were   besought him that they might
diseased;                        touch, if it were but the
                                 border of his garment: and as
                                 many as touched him were made
36 And besought him that they
might only touch the hem of
his garment: and as many as
touched him were made
perfectly whole.

CH. VI. 15-21.
When Jesus therefore perceived
that they would come and take
him by force, to make him a
king, he departed again into a
mountain himself alone.
16 And when even was _now_
come, his disciples went down
unto the sea,
17 And entered into a ship,
and went over the sea toward
Capernaum. And it was now
dark, and Jesus was not come
to them.
18 And the sea arose by reason
of a great wind that blew.
19 So when they had rowed
about five and twenty or
thirty furlongs, they see
Jesus walking on the sea, and
drawing nigh unto the ship:
and they were afraid.
20 But he saith unto them, It
is I; be not afraid.
21 Then they willingly
received him into the ship:
and immediately the ship was
at the land whither they went.

§ 66. Our Lord’s discourse in the Synagogue at Capernaum. Many disciples
turn back. Peter’s profession of faith. _Capernaum_.

CH. VI. 22-71. CH. VII. 1.
22 The day following, when the
people which stood on the
other side of the sea saw that
there was none other boat
there, save that one whereinto
his disciples were entered,
and that Jesus went not with
his disciples into the boat,
but _that_ his disciples were
gone away alone;
23 (Howbeit there came other
boats from Tiberias nigh unto
the place where they did eat
bread, after that the Lord had
given thanks:)
24 When the people therefore
saw that Jesus was not there,
neither his disciples, they
also took shipping, and came
to Capernaum, seeking for
25 And when they had found him
on the other side of the sea,
they said unto him, Rabbi,
when camest thou hither?(177)
26 Jesus answered them and
said, Verily, verily, I say
unto you, Ye seek me, not
because ye saw the miracles,
but because ye did eat of the
loaves, and were filled.
27 Labour not for the meat
which perisheth, but for that
meat which endureth unto
everlasting life, which the
Son of man shall give unto
you: for him hath God the
Father sealed.
28 Then said they unto him,
What shall we do, that we
might work the works of God?
29 Jesus answered and said
unto them, This is the work of
God, that ye believe on him
whom he hath sent.
30 They said therefore unto
him, What sign shewest thou
then, that we may see, and
believe thee? what dost thou
31 Our fathers did eat manna
in the desert; as it is
written,(178) He gave them
bread from heaven to eat.
32 Then Jesus said unto them,
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Moses gave you not that
bread from heaven; but my
Father giveth you the true
bread from heaven.
33 For the bread of God is he
which cometh down from heaven,
and giveth life unto the
34 Then said they unto him,
Lord, evermore give us this
35 And Jesus said unto them, I
am the bread of life: he that
cometh to me, shall never
hunger; and he that believeth
on me, shall never thirst.
36 But I said unto you, That
ye also have seen me, and
believe not.
37 All that the Father giveth
me, shall come to me; and him
that cometh to me, I will in
no wise cast out.
38 For I came down from
heaven, not to do mine own
will, but the will of him that
sent me.
39 And this is the Father’s
will which hath sent me, that
of all which he hath given me,
I should lose nothing, but
should raise it up again at
the last day.
40 And this is the will of him
that sent me, that every one
which seeth the Son, and
believeth on him, may have
everlasting life: and I will
raise him up at the last day.
41 The Jews then murmured at
him, because he said, I am the
bread which came down from
42 And they said, Is not this
Jesus the son of Joseph, whose
father and mother we know? how
is it then that he saith, I
came down from heaven?
43 Jesus therefore answered
and said unto them, Murmur not
among yourselves.
44 No man can come to me,
except the Father which hath
sent me draw him: and I will
raise him up at the last day.
45 It is written in the
prophets,(179) And they shall
be all taught of God. Every
man therefore that hath heard,
and hath learned of the
Father, cometh unto me.
46 Not that any man hath seen
the Father, save he which is
of God, he hath seen the
47 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that believeth on me
hath everlasting life.
48 I am that bread of
49 Your fathers did eat manna
in the wilderness, and are
50 This is the bread which
cometh down from heaven, that
a man may eat therof, and not
51 I am the living bread which
came down from heaven: if any
man eat of this bread, he
shall live for ever: and the
bread that I will give is my
flesh, which I will give for
the life of the world.
52 The Jews therefore strove
among themselves, saying, How
can this man give us _his_
flesh to eat?
53 Then Jesus said unto them,
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Except ye eat the flesh
of the Son of man, and drink
his blood, ye have no life in
54 Whoso eateth my flesh, and
drinketh my blood, hath
eternal life; and I will raise
him up at the last day.
55 For my flesh is meat
indeed, and my blood is drink
56 He that eateth my flesh,
and drinketh my blood,
dwelleth in me, and I in him.
57 As the living Father hath
sent me, and I live by the
Father: so he that eateth me,
even he shall live by me.
58 This is that bread which
came down from heaven: not as
your fathers did eat manna,
and are dead: he that eateth
of this bread shall live for
59 These things said he in the
synagogue, as he taught in
60 Many therefore of his
disciples, when they had heard
_this_, said, This is a hard
saying; who can hear it?
61 When Jesus knew in himself
that his disciples murmured at
it, he said unto them, Doth
this offend you?
62 _What_ and if ye shall see
the Son of man ascend up where
he was before?
63 It is the Spirit that
quickeneth; the flesh
profiteth nothing: the words
that I speak unto you, _they_
are spirit, and _they_ are
64 But there are some of you
that believe not. For Jesus
knew from the beginning who
they were that believe not,
and who should betray him.
65 And he said, Therefore said
I unto you, that no man can
come unto me, except it were
given unto him of my Father.
66 From that _time_ many of
his disciples went back,(181)
and walked no more with him.
67 Then said Jesus unto the
twelve, Will ye also go away?
68 Then Simon Peter answered
him, Lord, to whom shall we
go? thou hast the words of
eternal life.
69 And we believe, and are
sure that thou art that
Christ, the Son of the living
70 Jesus answered them, Have
not I chosen you twelve, and
one of you is a devil?(182)
71 He spake of Judas Iscariot
_the son_ of Simon: for he it
was that should betray him,
being one of the twelve.
After these things Jesus
walked in Galilee: for he
would not walk in Jewry,
because the Jews sought to
kill him.

Part V. From Our Lord’s Third Passover, Until His Final Departure From
Galilee, At The Festival Of Tabernacles.

TIME.  _Six months_.

§ 67. Our Lord justifies his Disciples for eating with unwashen hands.
Pharisaic traditions. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XV. 1-20.                    CH. VII. 1-23.
Then came to Jesus scribes and   Then came together unto him
Pharisees, which were of         the Pharisees, and certain of
Jerusalem, saying,               the scribes, which came from
2 Why do thy disciples           2 And when they saw some of
transgress the tradition of      his disciples eat bread with
the elders?(183) for they wash   defiled (that is to say, with
not their hands when they eat    unwashen) hands, they found
bread.                           fault.
                                 3 For the Pharisees, and all
                                 the Jews, except they wash
                                 _their_ hands oft, eat not,
                                 holding the tradition of the
                                 4 And _when they come_ from
                                 the market, except they wash,
                                 they eat not. And many other
                                 things there be, which they
                                 have received to hold, as the
                                 washing of cups, and pots, and
                                 brazen vessels, and
                                 5 Then the Pharisees and
                                 scribes asked him, Why walk
                                 not thy disciples according to
                                 the tradition of the elders,
                                 but eat bread with unwashen
3 But he answered and said       6 He answered and said unto
unto them, Why do ye also        them, Well hath Esaias
transgress the commandment of    prophesied of you hypocrites,
God by your tradition?           as it is written, This people
                                 honoureth me with _their_
                                 lips, but their heart is far
                                 from me.
4 For God commanded,(185)        7 Howbeit, in vain do they
saying, Honour thy father and    worship me, teaching _for_
mother: and, He that curseth     doctrines the commandments of
father or mother, let him die    men.
the death.
5 But ye say, Whosoever shall    8 For, laying aside the
say to _his_ father or _his_     commandment of God, ye hold
mother, _It is_ a gift, by       the tradition of men, _as_ the
whatsoever thou mightest be      washing of pots and cups: and
profited by me;                  many other such like things ye
6 And honour not his father or   9 And he said unto them, Full
his mother, _he shall be         well ye reject the commandment
free_. Thus ye made the          of God, that ye may keep your
commandment of God of none       own tradition.
effect by your tradition.
7 _Ye_ hypocrites, well did      10 For Moses said, Honour thy
Esaias prophesy of you,(186)     father and thy mother; and,
saying,                          Whoso curseth father or
                                 mother, let him die the death.
8 This people draweth nigh       11 But ye say, If a man shall
unto me with their mouth, and    say to his father or mother,
honoureth me with _their_        _It is_ Corban, that is to
lips; but their heart is far     say, a gift, by whatsoever
from me.                         thou mightest be profited by
                                 me; _he shall be free_.
9 But in vain they do worship    12 And ye suffer him no more
me, teaching _for_ doctrines     to do aught for his father or
the commandments of men.         his mother;
                                 13 Making the word of God of
                                 none effect through your
                                 tradition, which ye have
                                 delivered: and many such like
                                 things do ye.
10 And he called the             14 And when he had called all
multitude, and said unto them,   the people _unto him_, he said
Hear, and understand:            unto them, Hearken unto me
                                 every one _of you_, and
11 Not that which goeth into     15 There is nothing from
the mouth defileth a man; but    without a man, that entering
that which cometh out of the     into him, can defile him: but
mouth, this defileth a man.      the things which come out of
                                 him, those are they that
                                 defile the man.
12 Then came his disciples,      16 If any man have ears to
and said unto him, Knowest       hear, let him hear.
thou that the Pharisees were
offended after they heard this
13 But he answered and said,
Ever plant, which my heavenly
Father hath not planted, shall
be rooted up.
14 Let them alone: they be
blind leaders of the blind.
And if the blind lead the
blind, both shall fall into
the ditch.
15 Then answered Peter and       17 And when he was entered
said unto him, Declare unto us   into the house from the
this parable.                    people, his disciples asked
                                 him concerning the parable.
16 And Jesus said, Are ye also   18 And he saith unto them, Are
yet without understanding?       ye so without understanding
                                 also? Do ye not perceive, that
                                 whatsoever thing from without
                                 entereth into the man, _it_
                                 cannot defile him:
17 Do not ye yet understand,
that whatsoever entereth in at
the mouth goeth into the
belly, and is cast out into
the draught?
18 But those things which        19 Because it entereth not
proceed out of the mouth come    into his heart, but into the
forth from the heart; and they   belly, and goeth out into the
defile the man.                  draught, purging all meats?
19 For out of the heart          20 And he said, That which
proceed evil thoughts,           cometh heart of the man, that
murders, adulteries,             defileth the man.
fornications, thefts, false
witness, blasphemies:
20 These _are the things_        21 For from within, out of the
which defile a man: but to eat   heart of men, proceed evil
with unwashen hands defileth     thoughts, adulteries,
not a man.                       fornications, murders,
                                 22 Thefts, covetousness,
                                 wickedness, deceit,
                                 lasciviousness, an evil eye,
                                 blasphemy, pride, foolishness;
                                 23 All these evil things come
                                 from within, and defile the

§ 68. The daughter of a Syrophenician woman is healed. _Region of Tyre and

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XV. 21-28.                   CH. VII. 24-30.
21 Then Jesus went thence, and   24 And from thence he arose,
departed into the coasts of      and went into the borders of
Tyre and Sidon.                  Tyre and Sidon, and entered
                                 into a house, and would have
                                 no man know _it_: but he could
                                 not be hid.
22 And behold, a woman of        25 For a _certain_ woman,
Canaan came out of the same      whose young daughter had an
coasts, and cried unto him,      unclean spirit, heard of him,
saying, Have mercy on me, O      and came and fell at his feet:
Lord, _thou_ son of David; my
daughter is grievously vexed
with a devil.
23 But he answered her not a     26 (The woman was a Greek, a
word. And his disciples came     Syrophenician(187) by nation,)
and besought him, saying, Send   and she besought him that he
her away; for she crieth after   would cast forth the devil out
us.                              of her daughter.
24 But he answered and said, I   27 But Jesus said unto her,
am not sent but unto the lost    Let the children first be
sheep of the house of Israel.    filled: for it is not meet to
                                 take the children’s bread, and
                                 to cast it unto the dogs.
25 Then came she and
worshipped him, saying, Lord,
help me.
26 But he answered and said,     28 And she answered and said
It is not meet to take the       unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the
children’s bread and to _cast    dogs under the table eat of
it_ to dogs.                     the children’s crumbs.
27 And she said, Truth, Lord:    29 And he said unto her, For
yet the dogs eat of the crumbs   this saying, go thy way; the
which fall from their master’s   devil is gone out of thy
table.                           daughter.
28 Then Jesus answered and       30 And when she was come to
said unto her, O woman, great    her house, she found the devil
_is_ thy faith: be it unto       gone out, and her daughter
thee even as thou wilt. And      laid upon the bed.
her daughter was made whole
from that very hour.

§ 69. A deaf and dumb man healed; also many others. Four thousand are fed.
_The Decapolis_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XV. 29-38.                   CH. VII. 31-37. CH. VIII. 1-9.
29 And Jesus departed from       31 And again departing from
thence, and came nigh unto the   the coasts of Tyre and Sidon,
sea of Galilee; and went up      he came unto the sea of
into a mountain, and sat down    Galilee, through the midst of
there.                           the coasts of Decapolis.
30 And great multitudes came     32 And they bring unto him one
unto him, having with them       that was deaf, and had an
_those that were_ lame, blind,   impediment in his speech; and
dumb, maimed, and many others,   they beseech him to put his
and cast them down at Jesus’     hand upon him.
feet; and he healed them:
                                 33 And he took him aside from
                                 the multitude, and put his
                                 fingers into his ears, and he
                                 spit, and touched his tongue:
                                 34 And looking up to heaven,
                                 he sighed, and saith unto him,
                                 Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
                                 35 And straightway his ears
                                 were opened, and the string of
                                 his tongue was loosed, and he
                                 spake plain.
                                 36 And he charged them that
                                 they should tell no man: but
                                 the more he charged them, so
                                 much the more a great deal
                                 they published _it_;
31 Insomuch that the multitude   37 And were beyond measure
wondered, when they saw the      astonished, saying, He hath
dumb to speak, the maimed to     done all things well; he
be whole, the lame to walk,      maketh both the deaf to hear,
and the blind to see: and they   and the dumb to speak.
glorified the God of Israel.
                                 CH. VIII.
32 Then Jesus called his         In those days the multitude
disciples _unto him_, and        being very great, and having
said, I have compassion on the   nothing to eat, Jesus called
multitude, because they          his disciples _unto him_, and
continue with me now three       saith unto them,
days, and have nothing to eat:
and I will not send them away
fasting, lest they faint in
the way.
                                 2 I have compassion on the
                                 multitude, because they have
                                 now been with me three days,
                                 and have nothing to eat:
                                 3 And if I send them away
                                 fasting to their own houses,
                                 they will faint by the way:
                                 for divers of them came from
33 And his disciples say unto    4 And his disciples answered
him, Whence should we have so    him, From whence can a man
much bread in the wilderness,    satisfy these _men_ with bread
as to fill so great a            here in the wilderness?
34 And Jesus saith unto them,    5 And he asked them, How many
How many loaves have ye? And     loaves have ye? And they said,
they said, Seven, and a few      Seven.
little fishes.
35 And he commanded the          6 And he commanded the people
multitude to sit down on the     to sit down on the ground: and
ground.                          he took the seven loaves, and
                                 gave thanks, and brake, and
                                 gave to his disciples to set
                                 before _them_; and they did
                                 set _them_ before the people.
36 And he took the seven         7 And they had a few small
loaves and the fishes, and       fishes: and he blessed, and
gave thanks, and brake _them_,   commanded to set them also
and gave to his disciples, and   before _them_.
the disciples to the
37 And they did all eat, and     8 So they did eat, and were
were filled: and they took up    filled: and they took up of
of the broken _meat_ that was    the broken _meat_ that was
left seven baskets full.         left, seven baskets.
38 And they that did eat were    9 And they that had eaten were
four thousand men, besides       about four thousand: and he
women and children.              sent them away.

§ 70. The Pharisees and Sadducees again require a sign. _Near Magdala._

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XV. 39. CH. XVI. 1-4.        CH. VIII. 10-12.
39 And he sent away the          10 And straightway he entered
multitude, and took ship, and    into a ship with his
came into the coasts of          disciples, and came into the
Magdala.(188)                    parts of Dalmanutha.
The Pharisees also with the      11 And the Pharisees came
Sadducees came, and, tempting,   forth, and began to question
desired him that he would shew   with him, seeking of him a
them a sign from heaven.         sign from heaven, tempting
2 He answered and said unto
them, When it is evening, ye
say, _It will be_ fair
weather: for the sky is red.
3 And in the morning, _It will
be_ foul weather to-day: for
the sky is red and lowering. O
_ye_ hypocrites, ye can
discern the face of the sky;
but can ye not discern the
signs of the times?
4 A wicked and adulterous        12 And he sighed deeply in his
generation seeketh after a       spirit, and saith, Why doth
sign; and there shall no sign    this generation seek after a
be given unto it, but the sign   sign? Verily I say unto you,
of the prophet Jonas.            There shall no sign be given
                                 unto this generation.

§ 71. The disciples cautioned against the leaven of the Pharisees, &c. _N.
E. coast of the lake of Galilee_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVI. 4-12.                   CH. VIII. 13-21.
4 And he left them, and          13 And he left them, and
departed.                        entering into the ship again,
                                 departed to the other side.
5 And when his disciples were    14 Now _the disciples_ had
come to the other side, they     forgotten to take bread,
had forgotten to take bread.     neither had they in the ship
                                 with them more than one loaf.
6 Then Jesus said unto them,     15 And he charged them,
Take heed and beware of the      saying, Take heed, beware of
leaven of the Pharisees and of   the leaven of the Pharisees,
the Sadducees.                   and _of_ the leaven of Herod.
7 And they reasoned among        16 And they reasoned among
themselves, saying, _It is_      themselves, saying, _It is_
because we have taken no         because we have no bread.
8 _Which_ when Jesus             17 And when Jesus knew _it_,
perceived, he said unto them,    he saith unto them, Why reason
O ye of little faith, why        ye, because ye have no bread?
reason ye among yourselves,      perceive ye not yet, neither
because ye have brought no       understand? have ye your heart
bread?                           yet hardened?
                                 18 Having eyes, see ye not?
                                 and having ears, hear ye not?
                                 and do ye not remember?
9 Do ye not yet understand,      19 When I brake the five
neither remember the five        loaves among five thousand,
loaves of the five thousand,     how many baskets full of
and how many baskets ye took     fragments took ye up? They say
up?                              unto him, Twelve.
10 Neither the seven loaves of   20 And when the seven among
the four thousand, and how       four thousand, how many
many baskets ye took up?         baskets full of fragments took
                                 ye up? And they said,
11 How is it that ye do not      21 And he said unto them, How
understand that I spake _it_     is it that ye do not
not to you concerning bread,     understand?
that ye should beware of the
leaven of the Pharisees and of
the Sadducees?
12 Then understood they how
that he bade _them_ not beware
of the leaven of bread, but of
the doctrine of the Pharisees
and of the Sadducees.

§ 72. A blind man healed. _Bethsaida. (Julias.)_

CH. VIII. 22-26.
22 And he cometh to Bethsaida;
and they bring a blind man
unto him, and besought him to
touch him.
23 And he took the blind man
by the hand, and led him out
of the town;(190) and when he
had spit on his eyes, and put
his hands upon him, he asked
him if he saw aught.
24 And he looked up, and said,
I see men as trees walking.
25 After that, he put _his_
hands again upon his eyes, and
made him look up: and he was
restored, and saw every man
26 And he sent him away to his
house, saying, Neither go into
the town, nor tell _it_ to any
in the town.

§ 73. Peter and the others again profess their faith in Christ. _Region of
Cesarea Philippi_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVI. 13-20.                  CH. VIII. 27-30.
13 When Jesus came into the      27 And Jesus went out, and his
coasts of Cesarea Philippi, he   disciples, into the towns of
asked his disciples, saying,     Cesarea Philippi: and by the
Whom do men say that I, the      way he asked his disciples,
Son of man, am?                  saying unto them, Whom do men
                                 say that I am?
14 And they said, Some _say      28 And they answered, John the
that thou art_ John the          Baptist: but some _say_,
Baptist: some, Elias; and        Elias; and others, One of the
others, Jeremias, or one of      prophets.
the prophets.
15 He saith unto them, But       29 And he saith unto them, But
whom say ye that I am?           whom say ye that I am? And
                                 Peter answereth and saith unto
                                 him, Thou art the Christ.
16 And Simon Peter answered
and said, Thou art the Christ,
the Son of the living God.
17 And Jesus answered and said
unto him, Blessed art thou,
Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and
blood hath not revealed _it_
unto thee, but my Father which
is in heaven.
18 And I say also unto thee,
That thou art Peter, and upon
this rock I will build my
church: and the gates of hell
shall not prevail against it.
19 And I will give unto thee
the keys of the kingdom of
heaven: and whatsoever thou
shalt bind on earth, shall be
bound in heaven; and
whatsoever thou shalt loose on
earth, shall be loosed in
20 Then charged he his           30 And he charged them that
disciples that they should       they should tell no man of
tell no man that he was Jesus    him.
the Christ.

CH. IX. 18-21.
18 And it came to pass, as he
was alone praying, his
disciples were with him; and
he asked them, saying, Whom
say the people that I am?
19 They, answering, said, John
the Baptist; but some _say_,
Elias; and others say, That
one of the old prophets is
risen again.
20 He said unto them, But whom
say ye that I am? Peter,
answering, said, The Christ of

§ 74. Our Lord foretells his own death and resurrection, and the trials of
his followers. _Region of Cesarea Philippi_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVI. 21-28.                  CH. VIII. 31-38. CH. IX. 1.
21 From that time forth began    31 And he began to teach them,
Jesus to shew unto his           that the Son of man must
disciples, how that he must go   suffer many things, and be
unto Jerusalem, and suffer       rejected of the elders, and
many things of the elders, and   _of_ the chief priests, and
chief priests, and scribes,      scribes, and be killed, and
and be killed, and be raised     after three days rise again.
again the third day.(191)
22 Then Peter took him, and      32 And he spake that saying
began to rebuke him, saying,     openly And Peter took him, and
Be it far from thee, Lord:       began to rebuke him.
this shall not be unto thee.
23 But he turned, and said       33 But when he had turned
unto Peter, Get thee behind      about, and looked on his
me, Satan; thou art an offence   disciples, he rebuked Peter,
unto me: for thou savourest      saying, Get thee behind me,
not the things that be of God,   Satan: for thou savourest not
but those that be of men.        the things that be of God, but
                                 the things that be of men.
24 Then said Jesus unto his      34 And when he had called the
disciples If any _man_ will      people _unto him_, with his
come after me, let him deny      disciples also, he said unto
himself, and take up his         them, Whosoever will come
cross, and follow me.            after me, let him deny
                                 himself, and take up his
                                 cross, and follow me.
25 For whosoever will save his   35 For whosoever will save his
life, shall lose it: and         life, shall lose it; but
whosoever will lose his life     whosoever shall lose his life
for my sake, shall find it.      for my sake and the gospel’s,
                                 the same shall save it.
26 For what is a man profited,   36 For what shall it profit a
if he shall gain the whole       man, if he shall gain the
world, and lose his own soul?    whole world, and lose his own
or what shall a man give in      soul?
exchange for his soul?
                                 37 Or what shall a man give in
                                 exchange for his soul?
27 For the Son of man shall      38 Whosoever therefore shall
come in the glory of his         be ashamed of me, and of my
Father, with his angels; and     words, in this adulterous and
then he shall reward every man   sinful generation, of him also
according to his works.          shall the Son of man be
                                 ashamed, when he cometh in the
                                 glory of his Father with the
                                 holy angels.
28 Verily I say unto you,        1 And he said unto them,
There be some standing here,     Verily, I say unto you, That
which shall not taste of         there be some of them that
death, till they see the Son     stand here which shall not
of man coming in his kingdom.    taste of death, till they have
                                 seen the kingdom of God come
                                 with power.

CH. IX. 22-27.
22 Saying, The Son of man must
suffer many things, and be
rejected of the elders, and
chief priests, and scribes,
and be slain, and be raised
the third day.
23 And he said to _them_ all,
If any _man_ will come after
me, let him deny himself, and
take up his cross daily, and
follow me.
24 For whosoever will save his
life, shall lose it: but
whosoever will lose his life
for my sake, the same shall
save it.
25 For what is a man
advantaged, if he gain the
whole world, and lose himself,
or be cast away?
26 For whosoever shall be
ashamed of me, and of my
words, of him shall the Son of
man be ashamed, when he shall
come in his own glory, and _in
his_ Father’s, and of the holy
27 But I tell you of a truth,
there be some standing here
which shall not taste of death
till they see the Kingdom of

§ 75. The Transfiguration. Our Lord’s subsequent discourse. with the three
disciples. _Region of Cesarea Philippi_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVII. 1-13.                  CH. IX. 2-13.
And after six days,(192) Jesus   2 And after six days, Jesus
taketh Peter, James, and John    taketh _with him_ Peter, and
his brother, and bringeth them   James, and John, and leadeth
up into a high mountain apart.   them up into a high mountain
                                 apart by themselves; and he
                                 was transfigured before them.
2 And was transfigured before    3 And his raiment became
them: and his face did shine     shining, exceeding white as
as the sun, and his raiment      snow; so as no fuller on earth
was white as the light.          can white them.
3 And behold there appeared      4 And there appeared unto them
unto them Moses and Elias        Elias, with Moses: and they
talking with him.                were talking with Jesus.
4 Then answered Peter, and       5 And Peter answered and said
said unto Jesus, Lord, it is     to Jesus, Master, it is good
good for us to be here: if       for us to be here: and let us
thou wilt, let us make here      make three tabernacles; one
three tabernacles; one for       for thee, and one for Moses,
thee, and one for Moses, and     and one for Elias.
one for Elias.
                                 6 For he wist not what to say:
                                 for they were sore afraid.
5 While he yet spake, behold,    7 And there was a cloud that
a bright cloud overshadowed      overshadowed them: and a voice
them: and behold, a voice out    came out of the cloud, saying,
of the cloud, which said, This   This is my beloved Son: hear
is my beloved Son, in whom I     him.
am well pleased: hear ye him.
6 And when the disciples heard
_it_, they fell on their face,
and were sore afraid.
7 And Jesus came and touched
them, and said, Arise, and be
not afraid.
8 And when they had lifted up    8 And suddenly, when they had
their eyes, they saw no man,     looked round about, they saw
save Jesus only.                 no man any more, save Jesus
                                 only with themselves.
9 And as they came down from     9 And as they came down from
the mountain, Jesus charged      the mountain, he charged them
them, saying, Tell the vision    that they should tell no man
to no man, until the Son of      what things they had seen,
man be risen again from the      till the Son of man were risen
dead.                            from the dead.
                                 10 And they kept that saying
                                 with themselves, questioning
                                 one with another what the
                                 rising from the dead should
10 And his disciples asked       11 And they asked him, saying,
him, saying, Why then say the    Why say the scribes that Elias
scribes, that Elias must first   must first come?
11 And Jesus answered and said   12 And he answered and told
unto them, Elias truly shall     them, Elias verily cometh
first come, and restore all      first, and restoreth all
things:                          things; and how it is written
                                 of the Son of man, that he
                                 must suffer many things, and
                                 be set at naught.
12 But I say unto you, That      13 But I say unto you, That
Elias is come already, and       Elias is indeed come, and they
they knew him not, but have      have done unto him whatsoever
done unto him whatsoever they    they listed, as it is written
listed: likewise shall also      of him.
the Son of man suffer of them.
13 Then the disciples
understood that he spake unto
them of John the Baptist.

CH. IX. 28-36.
28 And it came to pass, about
an eight days after these
sayings, he took Peter, and
John, and James, and went up
into a mountain to pray.
29 And as he prayed, the
fashion of his countenance was
altered, and his raiment _was_
white _and_ glistering.
30 And behold, there talked
with him two men, which were
Moses and Elias:
31 Who appeared in glory, and
spake of his decease which he
should accomplish at
32 But Peter and they that
were with him were heavy with
sleep: and when they were
awake, they saw his glory, and
the two men that stood with
33 And it came to pass, as
they departed from him, Peter
said unto Jesus, Master, it is
good for us to be here: and
let us make three tabernacles;
one for thee, and one for
Moses, and one for Elias: not
knowing what he said.
34 While he thus spake, there
came a cloud, and overshadowed
them: and they feared as they
entered into the cloud.
35 And there came a voice out
of the cloud, saying, This is
my beloved Son: hear him.
36 And when the voice was
past, Jesus was found alone.
And they kept _it_ close, and
told no man(193) in those days
any of those things which they
had seen.

§ 76. The healing of a demoniac, whom the disciples could not heal.
_Region of Cesarea Philippi_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVII. 14-21.                 CH. IX. 14-29.
14 And when they were come to    14 And when he came to _his_
the multitude, there came to     disciples, he saw a great
him a _certain_ man kneeling     multitude about them, and the
down to him, and saying,         scribes questioning with them.
15 Lord, have mercy on my son;   15 And straightway all the
for he is lunatic, and sore      people, when they beheld him,
vexed, for oft-times he          were greatly mazed, and,
falleth into the fire, and oft   running to _him, saluted him._
into the water.
16 And I brought him to thy      16 And he asked the scribes,
disciples, and they could not    What question ye with them?
cure him.
                                 17 And one of the multitude
                                 answered and said, Master, I
                                 have brought unto thee my son,
                                 which hath a dumb spirit;
                                 18 And wheresoever he taketh
                                 him, he teareth him; and he
                                 foameth and gnasheth with his
                                 teeth, and pineth away; and I
                                 spake to thy disciples that
                                 they should cast him out, and
                                 they could not.
17 Then Jesus answered and       19 He answereth him, and
said, O faithless and perverse   saith, O faithless generation,
generation, how long shall I     how long shall I be with you?
be with you? how long shall I    how long shall I suffer you?
suffer you? Bring him hither     Bring him unto me.
to me.
                                 20 And they brought him unto
                                 him: and when he saw him,
                                 straightway the spirit tare
                                 him; and he fell on the
                                 ground, and wallowed, foaming.
                                 21 And he asked his father,
                                 How long is it ago since this
                                 came unto him? And he said, Of
                                 a child.
                                 22 And oft-times it hath cast
                                 him into the fire, and into
                                 the waters to destroy him: but
                                 if thou canst do any thing,
                                 have compassion on us, and
                                 help us.
                                 23 Jesus said unto him, If
                                 thou canst believe, all things
                                 are possible to him that
                                 24 And straightway the father
                                 of the child cried out, and
                                 said with tears, Lord, I
                                 believe: help thou mine
                                 25 When Jesus saw that the
                                 people came running together,
                                 he rebuked the foul spirit,
                                 saying unto him, _Thou_ dumb
                                 and deaf spirit, I charge
                                 thee, come out of him, and
                                 enter no more into him.
                                 26 And _the spirit_ cried, and
                                 rent him sore, and came out of
                                 him: and he was as one dead;
                                 insomuch that many said, He is
18 And Jesus rebuked the         27 But Jesus took him by the
devil, and he departed out of    hand, and lifted him up; and
him: and the child was cured     he arose.
from that very hour.
19 Then came the disciples to    28 And when he was come into
Jesus apart, and said, Why       the house, his disciples asked
could not we cast him out?       him privately, Why could we
                                 not cast him out?
20 And Jesus said unto them,     29 And he said unto them, This
Because of your unbelief: for    kind can come forth by
verily I say unto you, if ye     nothing, but by prayer and
have faith as a grain of         fasting.
mustard-seed, ye shall say
unto this mountain, Remove
hence to yonder place; and it
shall remove; and nothing
shall be impossible unto you.
21 Howbeit, this kind goeth
not out, but by prayer and

CH. IX. 37-43.
37 And it came to pass, that
on the next day, when they
were come down from the hill,
much people met him.
38 And behold, a man of the
company cried out, saying,
Master, I beseech thee look
upon my son: for he is mine
only child.
39 And lo, a spirit taketh
him, and he suddenly crieth
out; and it teareth him that
he foameth again, and,
bruising him, hardly departeth
from him.
40 And I besought thy
disciples to cast him out, and
they could not.
41 And Jesus, answering, said,
O faithless and perverse
generation, how long shall I
be with you, and suffer you?
Bring thy son hither.
42 And as he was yet a coming,
the devil threw him down, and
tare _him_. And Jesus rebuked
the unclean spirit, and healed
the child, and delivered him
again to his father.
43 And they were all amazed at
the mighty power of God.

§ 77, Jesus again foretells his own death and resurrection. (See § 74.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. xvii. 22, 23.                CH. ix. 30-32.
                                 30 And they departed thence,
                                 and passed through Galilee;
                                 and he would not that any man
                                 should know it.
22 And while they abode in       31 For he taught his
Galilee, Jesus said unto them,   disciples, and said unto them,
The Son of man shall be          The Son of man is delivered
betrayed into the hands of       into the hands of men, and
men:                             they shall kill him; and after
                                 that he is killed, he shall
                                 rise the third day.
23 And they shall kill him,      32 But they understood not
and the third day he shall be    that saying, and were afraid
raised again. And they were      to ask him.
exceeding sorry.

CH. IX. 43-45.
43 But while they wondered
every one at all things which
Jesus did, he said unto his
44 Let these sayings sink down
into your ears: for the Son of
man shall be delivered into
the hands of men.
45 But they understood not
this saying, and it was hid
from them, that they perceived
it not: and they feared to ask
him of that saying.

§ 78. The tribute-money miraculously provided. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVII. 24-27.                 CH. IX. 33.
24 And when they were come to    33 And he came to Capernaum:
Capernaum, they that received
tribute-_money_,(194) came to
Peter, and said, Doth not your
Master pay tribute?
25 He saith, Yes. And when he
was come into the house, Jesus
prevented him, saying, What
thinkest thou, Simon? of whom
do the kings of the earth take
custom or tribute? of their
own children, or of strangers?
26 Peter saith unto him, Of
strangers. Jesus saith unto
him, Then are the children
27 Notwithstanding, lest we
should offend them, go thou to
the sea, and cast a hook, and
take up the fish that first
cometh up: and when thou hast
opened his mouth, thou shalt
find a piece of money: that
take, and give unto them for
me and thee.

§ 79. The disciples contend who should be the greatest. Jesus exhorts to
humility, forbearance and brotherly love. _Capernaum_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XVIII. 1-35.                 CH. IX. 33-50.
                                 33 And being in the house, he
                                 asked them, What was it that
                                 ye disputed among yourselves
                                 by the way?
At the same time came the        34 But they held their peace:
disciples unto Jesus, saying,    for by the way they had
Who is the greatest in the       disputed among themselves, who
kingdom of heaven?               _should be_ the greatest.
                                 35 And he sat down, and called
                                 the twelve, and saith unto
                                 them, if any man desire to be
                                 first, _the same_ shall be
                                 last of all, and servant of
2 And Jesus called a little      36 And he took a child, and
child unto him, and set him in   set him in the midst of them:
the midst of them,               and when he had taken him in
                                 his arms, he said unto them,
3 And said, Verily, I say unto   37 Whosoever shall receive one
you, Except ye be converted,     of such children in my name,
and become as little children,   receiveth me: and whosoever
ye shall not enter into the      shall receive me, receiveth
kingdom of heaven.               not me, but him that sent me.
4 Whosoever therefore shall      38 And John answered him,
humble himself as this little    saying, Master, we saw one
child, the same is greatest in   casting out devils in thy
the kingdom of heaven.           name, and he followeth not us;
                                 and we forbade him, because he
                                 followeth not us.
5 And whoso shall receive one
such little child in my name,
receiveth me.
6 But whoso shall offend one     39 But Jesus said, Forbid him
of these little ones which       not: for there is no man which
believe in me, it were better    shall do a miracle in my name,
for him that a millstone were    that can lightly speak evil of
hanged about his neck, and       me.
_that_ he were drowned in the
depth of the sea.
                                 40 For he that is not against
                                 us, is on our part.
7 Wo unto the world because of   41 for whosoever shall give
offences! for it must needs be   you a cup of water to drink in
that offences come; but wo to    my name, because ye belong to
that man by whom the offence     Christ, verily I say unto you,
cometh:                          he shall not lose his reward.
8 Wherefore, if thy hand or      42 And whosoever shall offend
thy foot offend thee, cut them   one of _these_ little ones
off, and cast _them_ from        that believe in me, it is
thee; it is better for thee to   better for him that a
enter into life halt or          millstone were hanged about
maimed, rather than having two   his neck, and he were cast
hands or two feet, to be cast    into the sea.
into everlasting fire.
9 And if thine eye offend        43 And if thy hand offend
thee, pluck it out, and cast     thee, cut it off: It is better
_it_ from thee: it is better     for thee to enter into life
for thee to enter into life      maimed, than having two hands
with one eye, rather than        to go into hell, into the fire
having two eyes, to be cast      that never shall be quenched:
into hell-fire.
10 Take heed that ye despise     44 Where their worm dieth not,
not one of these little ones:    and the fire is not quenched.
for I say unto you, That in
heaven their angels do always
behold the face of my Father
which is in heaven.
11 For the Son of man is come    45 And if thy foot offend
to save that which was lost.     thee, cut it off: it is better
                                 for thee to enter halt into
                                 life, than having two feet to
                                 be cast into hell, into the
                                 fire that never shall be
12 How think ye? If a man have   46 Where their worm dieth not,
a hundred sheep, and one of      and the fire is not quenched.
them be gone astray, doth he
not leave the ninety and nine,
and goeth into the mountains,
and seeketh that which is gone
13 And if so be that he find     47 And if thine eye offend
it, verily I say unto you, he    thee, pluck it out: it is
rejoiceth more of that           better for thee to enter into
_sheep_, than of the ninety      the kingdom of God with one
and nine which went not          eye, than having two eyes, to
astray.                          be cast into hell-fire:
14 Even so it is not the will    48 Where their worm dieth not,
of your Father which is in       and the fire is not quenched.
heaven, that one of these
little ones should perish.
15 Moreover, if thy brother      49 For every one shall be
shall trespass against thee,     salted with fire, and every
go and tell him his fault        sacrifice shall be salted with
between thee and him alone; if   salt.
he shall hear thee, thou hast
gained thy brother.
16 But if he will not hear       50 Salt _is_ good: but if the
_thee, then_ take with thee      salt have lost his saltness,
one or two more, that in the     wherewith will ye season it?
mouth of two or three            Have salt in yourselves, and
witnesses every word may be      have peace one with another.
17 And if he shall neglect to
hear them, tell _it_ unto the
church: but if he neglect to
hear the church, let him be
unto thee as a heathen man and
a publican.
18 Verily, I say unto you,
Whatsoever ye shall bind on
earth, shall be bound in
heaven: and whatsoever ye
shall loose on earth, shall be
loosed in heaven.
19 Again I say unto you, That
if two of you shall agree on
earth, as touching anything
that they shall ask, it shall
be done for them of my Father
which is in heaven.
20 For where two or three are
gathered together in my name,
there am I in the midst of
21 Then came Peter to him, and
said, Lord, how oft shall my
brother sin against me, and I
forgive him? till seven times?
22 Jesus saith unto him, I say
not unto thee, Until seven
times: but, Until seventy
times seven.
23 Therefore is the kingdom of
heaven likened unto a certain
king which would take account
of his servants.
24 And when he had begun to
reckon, one was brought unto
him which owed him ten
thousand talents.
25 But forasmuch as he had not
to pay, his lord commanded him
to be sold, and his wife and
children, and all that he had,
and payment to be made.
26 The servant therefore fell
down, and worshipped him,
saying, Lord, have patience
with me, and I will pay thee
27 Then the lord of that
servant was moved with
compassion, and loosed him,
and forgave him the debt
28 But the same servant went
out, and found one of his
fellow-servants, which owed
him a hundred pence: and he
laid hands on him, and took
_him_ by the throat, saying,
Pay me that thou owest.
20 And his fellow-servant fell
down at his feet, and besought
him, saying, Have patience
with me, and I will pay thee
30 And he would not: but went
and cast him into prison, till
he should pay the debt.
31 So when his fellow-servants
saw what was done, they were
very sorry, and came and told
unto their lord all that was
32 Then his lord, after that
he had called him, said unto
him, O thou wicked servant, I
forgave thee all that debt,
because thou desiredst me:
33 Shouldest not thou also
have had compassion on thy
fellow-servant, even as I had
pity on thee?
34 And his lord was wroth, and
delivered him to the
tormentors, till he should pay
all that was due unto him.
35 So likewise shall my
heavenly Father do also unto
you, if ye from your hearts
forgive not every one his
brother their trespasses.

CH. IX. 46-50.
46 Then there arose a
reasoning among them, which of
them should be greatest.
47 And Jesus perceiving the
thought of their heart, took a
child, and set him by him,
48 And said unto them,
Whosoever shall receive this
child in my name, receiveth
me; and whosoever shall
receive me, receiveth him that
sent me: for he that is least
among you all, the same shall
be great.
49 And John answered and said,
Master, we saw one casting out
devils(195) in thy name; and
we forbade him, because he
followeth not with us.
50 And Jesus said unto him,
Forbid _him_ not: for he that
is not against us, is for

§ 80. The Seventy instructed, and sent out. _Capernaum_.

CH. X. 1-16.
After these things, the Lord
appointed other seventy also,
and sent them two and two
before his face into every
city, and place, whither he
himself would come.
2 Therefore said he unto them,
The harvest truly _is_ great,
but the labourers _are_ few:
pray ye therefore the Lord of
the harvest, that he would
send forth labourers into his
3 Go your ways: behold, I send
you forth as lambs among
4 Carry neither purse, nor
scrip, nor shoes: and salute
no man by the way.(197)
5 And into whatsoever house ye
enter, first say, Peace _be_
to this house.
6 And if the son of peace be
there, your peace shall rest
upon it: if not, it shall turn
to you again.
7 And in the same house
remain, eating and drinking
such things as they give: for
the labourer _is_ worthy of
his hire. Go not from house to
8 And into whatsoever city ye
enter, and they receive you,
eat such things as are set
before you.
9 And heal the sick that are
therein, and say unto them,
The kingdom of God is come
nigh unto you.
10 But into whatsoever city ye
enter, and they receive you
not, go your ways out into the
streets of the same, and say,
11 Even the very dust of your
city which cleaveth on us, we
do wipe off against you:
notwithstanding, be ye sure of
this, that the kingdom of God
is come nigh unto you.
12 But I say unto you, That it
shall be more tolerable in
that day for Sodom than for
that city.
13 Wo unto thee, Chorazin! wo
unto thee, Bethsaida! for if
the mighty works had been done
in Tyre and Sidon, which have
been done in you, they had a
great while ago repented,
sitting in sackcloth and
14 But it shall be more
tolerable for Tyre and Sidon
at the judgment, than for you.
15 And thou, Capernaum, which
art exalted to heaven, shall
be thrust down to hell.
16 He that heareth you,
heareth me; and he that
despiseth you, despiseth me;
and he that despiseth me,
despiseth him that sent me.

§ 81. Jesus goes up to the feast of tabernacles. His final departure from
Galilee. Incidents in Samaria.

Luke.                            John.
CH. IX. 51-56.                   CH. VII. 2-10.
51 And it came to pass, when     2 Now the Jews’ feast of
the time was come that he        tabernacles was at hand.
should be received up, he
steadfastly set his face to go
to Jerusalem,
52 And sent messengers before    3 His brethren therefore said
his face: and they went and      unto him, Depart hence, and go
entered into a village of the    into Judea, that thy disciples
Samaritans, to make ready for    also may see the works that
him.                             thou doest.
53 And they did not receive      4 For _there is_ no man _that_
him,(198) because his face was   doeth anything in secret, and
as though he would go to         he himself seeketh to be known
Jerusalem.                       openly. If thou do these
                                 things, show thyself to the
54 And when his disciples        5 (For neither did his
James and John saw _this_,       brethren believe in him.)
they said, Lord, wilt thou
that we command fire to come
down from heaven, and consume
them, even as Elias did?
55 But he turned, and rebuked    6 Then Jesus said unto them,
them, and said, Ye know not      My time is not yet come: but
what manner of spirit ye are     your time is always ready.
56 For the Son of man is not     7 The world cannot hate you;
come to destroy men’s lives,     but me it hateth, because I
but to save _them_. And they     testify of it, that the works
went to another village.         thereof are evil.
                                 8 Go ye up unto this feast: I
                                 go not up yet unto this feast;
                                 for my time is not yet full
                                 9 When he had said these words
                                 unto them, he abode _still_ in
                                 10 But when his brethren were
                                 gone up, then went he also up
                                 unto the feast, not openly,
                                 but as it were in secret.

§ 82. Ten lepers cleansed. _Samaria_.

CH. XVII. 11-19.
11 And it came to pass, as he
went to Jerusalem, that he
passed through the midst of
Samaria and Galilee.
12 And as he entered into a
certain village, there met him
ten men that were lepers,
which stood afar off:
13 And they lifted up _their_
voices, and said, Jesus,
Master, have mercy on us.
14 And when he saw _them_, he
said unto them, Go shew
yourselves unto the priests.
And it came to pass, that, as
they went, they were cleansed.
15 And one of them, when he
saw that he was healed, turned
back, and with a loud voice
glorified God,
16 And fell down on _his_ face
at his feet, giving him
thanks: and he was a
17 And Jesus answering, said,
Were there not ten cleansed?
but where _are_ the nine?
18 There are not found that
returned to give glory to God,
save this stranger.
19 And he said unto him,
Arise, go thy way: thy faith
hath made thee whole.

Part VI. The Festival Of Tabernacles And The Subsequent Transactions,
Until Our Lord’s Arrival At Bethany, Six Days Before The Fourth Passover.

TIME. _Six months, less one week._

§ 83. Jesus at the festival of Tabernacles. His public teaching.

CH. VII. 11-53. CH. VIII. 1.
11 Then the Jews sought him at
the feast, and said, Where is
12 And there was much
murmuring among the people
concerning him: for some said,
He is a good man: others said,
Nay; but he deceiveth the
13 Howbeit, no man spake
openly of him, for fear of the
14 Now, about the midst of the
feast, Jesus went up into the
temple and taught.
15 And the Jews marvelled,
saying, How knoweth this man
letters, having never learned?
16 Jesus answered them, and
said, My doctrine is not mine,
but his that sent me.
17 If any man will do his
will, he shall know of the
doctrine, whether it be of
God, or _whether_ I speak of
18 He that speaketh of
himself, seeketh his own
glory: but he that seeketh his
glory that sent him, the same
is true, and no
unrighteousness is in him.
19 Did not Moses give you the
law, and _yet_ none of you
keepeth the law? Why go ye
about to kill me?
20 The people answered and
said, Thou hast a devil: who
goeth about to kill thee?
21 Jesus answered and said
unto them, I have done one
work, and ye all marvel.
22 Moses therefore gave unto
you circumcision, (not because
it is of Moses, but of the
fathers;) and ye on the
sabbath-day circumcise a
23 If a man on the sabbath-day
receive circumcision, that the
law of Moses should not be
broken; are ye angry at me,
because I have made a man
every whit whole on the
24 Judge not according to the
appearance, but judge
righteous judgement.
25 Then said some of them of
Jerusalem, Is not this he whom
they seek to kill?
26 But lo, he speaketh boldly,
and they say nothing unto him.
Do the rulers know indeed that
this is the very Christ?
27 Howbeit, we know this man,
whence he is: but when Christ
cometh, no man knoweth whence
he is.
28 Then cried Jesus in the
temple, as he taught, saying,
Ye both know me, and ye know
whence I am: and I am not come
of myself, but he that sent me
is true, whom ye know not.
29 But I know him; for I am
from him, and he hath sent me.
30 Then they sought to take
him: but no man laid hands on
him, because his hour was not
yet come.
31 And many of the people
believed on him, and said,
When Christ cometh, will he do
more miracles than these which
this _man_ hath done?
32 The Pharisees heard that
the people murmured such
things concerning him: and the
Pharisees and the chief
priests sent officers to take
33 Then said Jesus unto them,
Yet a little while am I with
you, and _then_ I go unto him
that sent me.
34 Ye shall seek me, and shall
not find _me_: and where I am,
_thither_ ye cannot come.
35 Then said the Jews among
themselves, Whither will he
go, that we shall not find
him? will he go unto the
dispersed among the Gentiles,
and teach the Gentiles?
36 What _manner_ of saying is
this that he said, Ye shall
seek me, and shall not find
_me_, and where I am,
_thither_ ye cannot come;
37 In the last day, that great
_day_ of the feast,(200) Jesus
stood and cried, saying, If
any man thirst, let him come
unto me, and drink.
38 He that believeth on me, as
the scripture hath said,(201)
out of his belly shall flow
rivers of living water.
39 (But this spake he of the
Spirit, which they that
believe on him should receive,
for the Holy Ghost was not yet
_given_, because that Jesus
was not yet glorified.)
40 Many of the people
therefore, when they heard
this saying, said, Of a truth
this is the Prophet.
41 Others said, This is the
Christ. But some said, Shall
Christ come out of Galilee?
42 Hath not the scripture
said,(202) That Christ cometh
of the seed of David, and out
of the town of Bethlehem,
where David was?
43 So there was a division
among the people because of
44 And some of them would have
taken him; but no man laid
hands on him.
45 Then came the officers to
the chief priests and
Pharisees; and they said unto
them, Why have ye not brought
46 The officers answered,
Never man spake like this man.
47 Then answered them the
Pharisees, Are ye also
48 Have any of the rulers, or
of the Pharisees believed on
49 But this people who knoweth
not the law are cursed.
50 Nicodemus saith unto them,
(he that came to Jesus by
night, being one of them,)
51 Doth our law judge _any_
man before it hear him, and
know what he doeth?
52 They answered and said unto
him, Art thou also of Galilee:
Search, and look: for out of
Galilee ariseth no prophet.
53 And every man went unto his
own house.
Jesus went unto the mount of

§ 84. The woman taken in adultery. _Jerusalem_.

CH. VIII. 2-11.
2 And early in the morning he
came again into the temple,
and all the people came unto
him; and he sat down and
taught them.
3 And the scribes and
Pharisees brought unto him a
woman taken in adultery; and
when they had set her in the
4 They say unto him, Master,
this woman was taken in
adultery, in the very act.
5 Now Moses in the law(204)
commanded us, that such should
be stoned:(205) but what
sayest thou?
6 This they said, tempting
him, that they might have to
accuse him. But Jesus stooped
down, and with his finger
wrote on the ground, _as
though he heard them not_.
7 So when they continued
asking him, he lifted up
himself, and said unto them,
He that is without sin among
you, let him first cast a
stone(206) at her.
8 And again he stooped down,
and wrote on the ground.
9 And they which heard _it_,
being convicted by their _own_
conscience, went out one by
one, beginning at the eldest,
_even_ unto the last: and
Jesus was left alone, and the
woman standing in the midst.
10 When Jesus had lifted up
himself, and saw none but the
woman, he said unto her,
Woman, where are those thine
accusers? hath no man
condemned thee?
11 She said, No man, Lord. And
Jesus said unto her, Neither
do I condemn thee: go, and sin
no more.

§ 85. Further public teaching of our Lord. He reproves the unbelieving
Jews, and escapes from their hands. _Jerusalem_.

CH. VIII. 12-59.
12 Then spake Jesus again unto
them, saying, I am the light
of the world: he that
followeth me shall not walk in
darkness, but shall have the
light of life.
13 The Pharisees therefore
said unto him, Thou bearest
record of thyself; thy record
is not true.
14 Jesus answered and said
unto them, Though I bear
record of myself, _yet_ my
record is true: for I know
whence I came, and whither I
go: but ye cannot tell(207)
whence I come, and whither I
15 Ye judge after the flesh, I
judge no man.
16 And yet if I judge, my
judgment is true: for I am not
alone, but I and the Father
that sent me.
17 It is also written in your
law, that the testimony of two
men is true.(208)
18 I am one that bear witness
of myself; and the Father that
sent me, beareth witness of
19 Then said they unto him,
Where is thy Father? Jesus
answered, Ye neither know me,
nor my Father: if ye had known
me, ye should have known my
Father also.
20 These words spake Jesus in
the treasury, as he taught in
the temple: and no man laid
hands on him, for his hour was
not yet come.
21 Then said Jesus again unto
them, I go my way, and ye
shall seek me, and shall die
in your sins: whither I go, ye
cannot come.
22 Then said the Jews, Will he
kill himself? because he
saith, Whither I go, ye cannot
23 And he said unto them, Ye
are from beneath; I am from
above: ye are of this world; I
am not of this world.
24 I said therefore unto you,
that ye shall die in your
sins: for if ye believe not
that I am _he_, ye shall die
in your sins.
25 Then said they unto him,
Who art thou? And Jesus saith
unto them, Even _the same_
that I said unto you from the
26 I have many things to say,
and to judge of you: but he
that sent me, is true; and I
speak to the world those
things which I have heard of
27 They understood not that he
spake to them of the Father.
28 Then said Jesus unto them,
When ye have lifted up the Son
of man, then shall ye know
that I am _he_, and _that_ I
do nothing of myself; but as
my Father hath taught me, I
speak these things.
29 And he that sent me is with
me: the Father hath not left
me alone; for I do always
those things that please him.
30 As he spake these words,
many believed on him.(209)
31 Then said Jesus to those
Jews which believed on him, If
ye continue in my word, _then_
are ye my disciples indeed;
32 And ye shall know the
truth, and the truth shall
make you free.
33 They answered him, We be
Abraham’s seed, and were never
in bondage to any man: how
sayest thou, Ye shall be made
34 Jesus answered them,
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Whosoever committeth sin,
is the servant of sin.
35 And the servant abideth not
in the house for ever, _but_
the Son abideth ever.
36 If the Son therefore shall
make you free, ye shall be
free indeed.
37 I know that ye are
Abraham’s seed; but ye seek to
kill me, because my word hath
no place in you.
38 I speak that which I have
seen with my Father: and ye do
that which ye have seen with
your father.
39 They answered and said unto
him, Abraham is our father.
Jesus saith unto them, If ye
were Abraham’s children, ye
would do the works of Abraham.
40 But now ye seek to kill me,
a man that hath told you the
truth, which I have heard of
God: this did not Abraham.
41 Ye do the deeds of your
father. Then said they to him,
We be not born of fornication;
we have one Father, _even_
42 Jesus said unto them, If
God were your Father, ye would
love me: for I proceeded forth
and came from God; neither
came I of myself, but he sent
43 Why do ye not understand my
speech? even because ye cannot
hear my word.
44 Ye are of _your_ father the
devil, and the lusts of your
father ye will do: he was a
murderer from the beginning,
and abode not in the truth;
because there is no truth in
him. When he speaketh a lie,
he speaketh of his own: for he
is a liar, and the father of
45 And because I tell you the
truth, ye believe me not.
46 Which of you convinceth me
of sin? And if I say the
truth, why do ye not believe
47 He that is of God, heareth
God’s words: ye therefore hear
_them_ not, because ye are not
of God.
48 Then answered the Jews, and
said unto him, Say we not well
that thou art a Samaritan, and
hast a devil?
49 Jesus answered, I have not
a devil: but I honour my
Father, and ye do dishonour
50 And I seek not mine own
glory: there is one that
seeketh and judgeth.
51 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, If a man keep my saying,
he shall never see death.
52 Then said the Jews unto
him, Now we know that thou
hast a devil. Abraham is dead,
and the prophets; and thou
sayest, If a man keep my
saying, he shall never taste
of death.
53 Art thou greater than our
father Abraham, which is dead!
and the prophets are dead:
whom makest thou thyself?
54 Jesus answered, If I honour
myself, my honour is nothing:
it is my Father that honoureth
me, of whom ye say, that he is
your God.
55 Yet ye have not known him;
but I know him: and if I
should say, I know him not, I
shall be a liar like unto you:
but I know him, and keep his
56 Your father Abraham
rejoiced to see my day: and he
saw _it_, and was glad.
57 Then said the Jews unto
him, Thou art not yet fifty
years old, and hast thou seen
58 Jesus said unto them,
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Before Abraham was, I am.
59 Then took they up stones to
cast at him: but Jesus hid
himself, and went out of the
temple, going through the
midst of them, and so passed

§ 86. A lawyer instructed. Love to our neighbour defined. Parable of the
Good Samaritan. _Near Jerusalem_.

CH. X. 25-37.
25 And behold, a certain
lawyer stood up, and tempted
him, saying, Master, what
shall I do to inherit eternal
26 He said unto him, What is
written in the law? how
readest thou?
27 And he answering said, Thou
shalt love the Lord thy God
with all thy heart, and with
all thy soul, and with all thy
strength, and with all thy
mind; and thy neighbour as
28 And he said unto him, Thou
hast answered right: this do,
and thou shalt live.(211)
29 But he, willing to justify
himself, said unto Jesus, And
who is my neighbour?
30 And Jesus answering, said,
A certain _man_ went down(212)
from Jerusalem to Jericho, and
fell among thieves, which
stripped him of his raiment,
and wounded _him_, and
departed, leaving him _half_
31 And by chance there came
down a certain priest that
way; and when he saw him, he
passed by on the other side.
32 And likewise a Levite, when
he was at the place, came and
looked _on him_, and passed by
on the other side.
33 But a certain Samaritan, as
he journeyed, came where he
was: and when he saw him, he
had compassion _on him_,
34 And went to _him_, and
bound up his wounds, pouring
in oil and wine, and set him
on his own beast, and brought
him to an inn, and took care
of him.
35 And on the morrow, when he
departed, he took out two
pence, and gave _them_ to the
host, and said unto him, Take
care of him: and whatsoever
thou spendest more, when I
come again, I will repay thee.
36 Which now of these three,
thinkest thou, was neighbour
unto him that fell among the
37 And he said, He that shewed
mercy on him. Then said Jesus
unto him, Go, and do thou

§ 87. Jesus in the house of Martha and Mary. _Bethany_.

CH. X. 38-42.
38 Now it came to pass, as
they went, that he entered
into a certain village: and a
certain woman, named Martha,
received him into her house.
39 And she had a sister called
Mary, which also sat at Jesus’
feet, and heard his word.
40 But Martha was cumbered
about much serving, and came
to him, and said, Lord, dost
thou not care that my sister
hath left me to serve alone?
bid her therefore that she
help me.
41 And Jesus answered, and
said unto her, Martha, Martha,
thou art careful, and troubled
about many things:
42 But one thing is needful;
and Mary hath chosen that good
part, which shall not be taken
away from her.

§ 88. The disciples again taught how to pray. _Near Jerusalem_.

CH. XI. 1-13.
And it came to pass, that as
he was praying in a certain
place, when he ceased, one of
his disciples said unto him,
Lord, teach us to pray, as
John also taught his
2 And he said unto them, When
ye pray, say, Our Father which
art in heaven, Hallowed be thy
name. Thy kingdom come. Thy
will be done, as in heaven, so
in earth.
3 Give us day by day our daily
4 And forgive us our sins; for
we also forgive every one that
is indebted to us. And lead us
not into temptation; but
deliver us from evil.
5 And he said unto them, Which
of you shall have a friend,
and shall go unto him at
midnight,(213) and say unto
him, Friend, lend me three
6 For a friend of mine in his
journey is come to me, and I
have nothing to set before
7 And he from within shall
answer and say, Trouble me
not: the door is now shut, and
my children are with me in
bed; I cannot rise and give
8 I say unto you, Though he
will not rise and give him,
because he is his friend, yet
because of his importunity he
will rise and give him as many
as he needeth.
9 And I say unto you, Ask, and
it shall be given you; seek,
and ye shall find; knock, and
it shall be opened unto you.
10 For every one that asketh
receiveth; and he that seeketh
findeth; and to him that
knocketh, it shall be opened.
11 If a son shall ask bread of
any of you that is a father,
will he give him a stone? or
if _he ask_ a fish, will he
for a fish give him a serpent?
12 Or if he shall ask an egg,
will he offer him a scorpion?
13 If ye then, being evil,
know how to give good gifts
unto your children, how much
more shall _your_ heavenly
Father give the Holy Spirit to
them that ask him?

§ 89. The Seventy return. _Jerusalem?_

CH. X. 17-24.
17 And the seventy returned
again with joy, saying, Lord,
even the devils are subject
unto us through thy name.
18 And he said unto them, I
beheld Satan as lightning fall
from heaven.
19 Behold, I give unto you
power to tread on serpents and
scorpions, and over all the
power of the enemy: and
nothing shall by any means
hurt you.
20. Notwithstanding, in this
rejoice not, that the spirits
are subject unto you; but
rather rejoice, because your
names are written in heaven.
21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced
in spirit, and said, I thank
thee, O Father, Lord of heaven
and earth, that thou hast hid
these things from the wise and
prudent, and hast revealed
them unto babes: even so,
Father; for so it seemed good
in thy sight.
22 All things are delivered to
me of my Father: and no man
knoweth who the Son is, but
the Father; and who the Father
is, but the Son, and he to
whom the Son will reveal
23 And he turned him unto
_his_ disciples, and said
privately, Blessed are the
eyes which see the things that
ye see.
24 For I tell you, That many
prophets and kings have
desired to see those things
which ye see, and have not
seen _them_; and to hear those
things which ye hear, and have
not heard _them_.

§ 90. A man born blind is healed on the Sabbath. Our Lord’s subsequent
discourses. _Jerusalem_.

CH. IX. 1-41. CH. X. 1-21.
And as _Jesus_ passed by, he
saw a man which was blind from
_his_ birth.
2 And his disciples asked him,
saying, Master, who did sin,
this man, or his parents, that
he was born blind?
3 Jesus answered, Neither hath
this man sinned, nor his
parents: but that the works of
God should be made manifest in
4 I must work the works of him
that sent me, while it is day:
the night cometh, when no man
can work.
5 As long as I am in the
world, I am the light of the
6 When he had thus spoken, he
spat on the ground, and made
clay of the spittle, and he
anointed the eyes of the blind
man with the clay,
7 And said unto him, Go, wash
in the pool of Siloam, (which
is by interpretation, Sent.)
He went his way therefore, and
washed, and came seeing.
8 The neighbours therefore,
and they which before had seen
him that he was blind, said,
Is not this he that sat and
9 Some said, This is he:
others said, He is like him:
_but_ he said, I am _he_.
10 Therefore said they unto
him, How were thine eyes
11 He answered and said, A man
that is called Jesus, made
clay, and anointed mine eyes,
and said unto me, Go to the
pool of Siloam, and wash; and
I went and washed, and I
received sight.
12 Then said they unto him,
Where is he? He said, I know
13 They brought to the
Pharisees him that aforetime
was blind.
14 And it was the sabbath-day
when Jesus made the clay, and
opened his eyes.
15 Then again the Pharisees
also asked him how he had
received his sight. He said
unto them, He put clay upon
mine eyes, and I washed, and
do see.
16 Therefore said some of the
Pharisees, This man is not of
God, because he keepeth not
the sabbath-day. Others said,
How can a man that is a sinner
do such miracles? And there
was a division among them.
17 They say unto the blind man
again, What sayest thou of
him, that he hath opened thine
eyes? He said, He is a
18 But the Jews did not
believe concerning him, that
he had been blind, and
received his sight, until they
called the parents of him that
had received his sight.
19 And they asked them,
saying, Is this your son, who
ye say was born blind? How
then doth he now see?
20 His parents answered them
and said, We know that this is
our son, and that he was born
21 But by what means he now
seeth, we know not; or who
hath opened his eyes, we know
not: he is of age; ask him: he
shall speak for himself.
22 These _words_ spake his
parents, because they feared
the Jews: for the Jews had
agreed already, that if any
man did confess that he was
Christ, he should be put out
of the synagogue.
23 Therefore said his parents,
He is of age; ask him.
24 Then again called they the
man that was blind, and said
unto him, Give God the praise:
we know that this man is a
25 He answered and said,
Whether he be a sinner _or
no_, I know not: one thing I
know, that, whereas I was
blind, now I see.
26 Then said they to him
again, What did he to thee?
how opened he thine eyes?
27 He answered them, I have
told you already, and ye did
not hear: wherefore would ye
hear _it_ again? will ye also
be his disciples?
28 Then they reviled him, and
said, Thou art his disciple,
but we are Moses’ disciples.
29 We know that God spake unto
Moses; _as for_ this _fellow_,
we know not from whence he is.
30 The man answered and said
unto them, Why, herein is a
marvellous thing, that ye know
not from whence he is, and
_yet_ he hath opened mine
31 Now we know that God
heareth not sinners; but if
any man be a worshipper of
God, and doeth his will, him
he heareth.
32 Since the world began was
it not heard that any man
opened the eyes of one that
was born blind.
33 If this man were not of
God, he could do nothing.
34 They answered and said unto
him, Thou wast altogether born
in sins, and dost thou teach
us? And they cast him out.
35 Jesus heard that they had
cast him out: and when he had
found him, he said unto him,
Dost thou believe on the Son
of God?
36 He answered and said, Who
is he, Lord, that I might
believe on him?
37 And Jesus said unto him,
Thou hast both seen him, and
it is he that talketh with
38 And he said, Lord, I
believe. And he worshipped
39 And Jesus said, For
judgment I am come into this
world; that they which see not
might see; and that they which
see might be made blind.
40 And _some_ of the Pharisees
which were with him heard
these words, and said unto
him, Are we blind also?
41 Jesus said unto them, If ye
were blind, ye should have no
sin: but now ye say, We see;
therefore your sin remaineth.
CH. X.
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that entereth not by
the door into the sheepfold,
but climbeth up some other
way, the same is a thief and a
2 But he that entereth in by
the door is the shepherd of
the sheep.
3 To him the porter openeth;
and the sheep hear his voice:
and he calleth his own sheep
by name, and leadeth them out.
4 And when he putteth forth
his own sheep, he goeth before
them, and the sheep follow
him: for they know his voice.
5 And a stranger will they not
follow, but will flee from
him: for they know not the
voice of strangers.
6 This parable spake Jesus
unto them: but they understood
not what things they were
which he spake unto them.
7 Then said Jesus unto them
again, Verily, verily, I say
unto you, I am the door of the
8 All that ever came before me
are thieves and robbers: but
the sheep did not hear them.
9 I am the door: by me if any
man enter in, he shall be
saved, and shall go in and
out, and find pasture.
10 The thief cometh not, but
for to steal, and to kill, and
to destroy: I am come that
they might have life, and that
they might have it more
11 I am the good shepherd: the
good shepherd giveth his life
for the sheep.
12 But he that is a hireling,
and not the shepherd, whose
own the sheep are not, seeth
the wolf coming, and leaveth
the sheep, and fleeth; and the
wolf catcheth them, and
scattereth the sheep.
13 The hireling fleeth,
because he is a hireling, and
careth not for the sheep.
14 I am the good shepherd, and
know my _sheep_, and am known
of mine.
15 As the Father knoweth me,
even so know I the Father: and
I lay down my life for the
6 And other sheep I have,
which are not of this fold:
them also I must bring, and
they shall hear my voice; and
there shall be one fold, _and_
one shepherd.
17 Therefore doth my Father
love me, because I lay down my
life, that I might take it
18 No man taketh it from me,
but I lay it down of myself. I
have power to lay it down, and
I have power to take it again.
This commandment have I
received of my Father.
19 There was a division
therefore again among the Jews
for these sayings.
20 And many of them said, He
hath a devil, and is mad; why
hear ye him?
21 Others said, These are not
the words of him that hath a
devil. Can a devil open the
eyes of the blind?

§ 91. Jesus at Jerusalem at the feast of dedication. He retires beyond
Jordan. _Jerusalem. Bethany beyond Jordan_.

CH. X. 22-42.
22 And it was at Jerusalem the
feast of the dedication, and
it was winter.
23 And Jesus walked in the
temple in Solomon’s porch.
24 Then came the Jews round
about him, and said unto him,
How long dost thou make us to
doubt? If thou be the Christ,
tell us plainly.
25 Jesus answered them, I told
you, and ye believed not: the
works that I do in my Father’s
name, they bear witness of me.
28 But ye believe not, because
ye are not of my sheep, as I
said unto you.
27 My sheep hear my voice, and
I know them, and they follow
28 And I give unto them
eternal life; and they shall
never perish, neither shall
any pluck them out of my hand.
29 My Father, which gave
_them_ me, is greater than
all; and none is able to pluck
_them_ out of my Father’s
30 I and _my_ Father are one.
31 Then the Jews took up
stones again to stone him.
32 Jesus answered them, Many
good works have I shewed you
from my Father; for which of
those works do ye stone me?
33 The Jews answered him,
saying, For a good work we
stone thee not; but for
blasphemy, and because that
thou, being a man, makest
thyself God.
34 Jesus answered them, Is it
not written in your law, I
said, Ye are gods?(214)
35 If he called them gods,
unto whom the word of God
came, and the scripture cannot
be broken;
36 Say ye of him whom the
Father hath sanctified, and
sent into the world, Thou
blasphemest; because I said, I
am the Son of God?
37 If I do not the works of my
Father, believe me not.
38 But if I do, though ye
believe not me, believe the
works: that ye may know and
believe that the Father _is_
in me, and I in him.
39 Therefore they sought again
to take him; but he escaped
out of their hand,
40 And went away again beyond
Jordan, into the place where
John at first baptized; and
there he abode.
41 And many resorted unto him,
and said, John did no miracle;
but all things that John spake
of this man were true.
42 And many believed on him

§ 92. The raising of Lazarus. _Bethany_.

CH. XI. 1-46.
Now a certain man was sick,
named Lazarus, of Bethany, the
town of Mary and her sister
2 (It was _that_ Mary which
anointed the Lord with
ointment, and wiped his feet
with her hair, whose brother
Lazarus was sick.)
3 Therefore his sisters sent
unto him, saying, Lord,
behold, he whom thou lovest is
4 When Jesus heard _that_, he
said, This sickness is not
unto death, but for the glory
of God, that the Son of God
might be glorified thereby.
5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and
her sister, and Lazarus.
6 When he had heard therefore
that he was sick, he abode two
days still in the same place
where he was.
7 Then after that saith he to
_his_ disciples, Let us go
into Judea again.
8 _His_ disciples say unto
him, Master, the Jews of late
sought to stone thee; and
goest thou thither again?
9 Jesus answered, Are there
not twelve hours in the day?
If any man walk in the day, he
stumbleth not, because he
seeth the light of this world.
10 But if a man walk in the
night, he stumbleth, because
there is no light in him.
11 These things said he: and
after that he saith unto them,
Our friend Lazarus sleepeth;
but I go that I may awake him
out of sleep.
12 Then said his disciples,
Lord, if he sleep, he shall do
13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his
death: but they thought that
he had spoken of taking of
rest in sleep.
14 Then said Jesus unto them
plainly, Lazarus is dead.
15 And I am glad for your
sakes that I was not there, to
the intent ye may believe;
nevertheless, let us go unto
16 Then said Thomas, which is
called Didymus, unto his
fellow-disciples, Let us also
go, that we may die with him.
17 Then when Jesus came, he
found that he had _lain_ in
the grave four days already.
18 (Now Bethany was nigh unto
Jerusalem, about fifteen
furlongs off:)
19 And many of the Jews came
to Martha and Mary, to comfort
them concerning their brother.
20 Then Martha, as soon as she
heard that Jesus was coming,
went and met him: but Mary sat
_still_ in the house.
21 Then said Martha unto
Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst
been here, my brother had not
22 But I know that even now,
whatsoever thou wilt ask of
God, God will give _it_ thee.
23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy
brother shall rise again.
24 Martha saith unto him, I
know that he shall rise again
in the resurrection at the
last day.
25 Jesus said unto her, I am
the resurrection, and the
life: he that believeth in me,
though he were dead, yet shall
he live:
26 And whosoever liveth, and
believeth in me, shall never
die. Believest thou this?
27 She saith unto him, Yea,
Lord: I believe that thou art
the Christ, the Son of God,
which should come into the
28 And when she had so said,
she went her way, and called
Mary her sister secretly,
saying, The master is come,
and calleth for thee.
29 As soon as she heard
_that_, she arose quickly, and
came unto him.
30 Now Jesus was not yet come
into the town, but was in that
place where Martha met him.
31 The Jews then which were
with her in the house, and
comforted her, when they saw
Mary that she rose up hastily,
and went out, followed her,
saying, She goeth unto the
grave to weep there.
32 Then when Mary was come
where Jesus was, and saw him,
she fell down at his feet,
saying unto him, Lord, if thou
hadst been here, my brother
had not died.
33 When Jesus therefore saw
her weeping, and the Jews also
weeping which came with her,
he groaned in the spirit, and
was troubled,
34 And said, Where have ye
laid him? They say unto him,
Lord, come and see.
36 Jesus wept.
36 Then said the Jews, Behold
how he loved him!
37 And some of them said,
Could not this man, which
opened the eyes of the blind,
have caused that even this man
should not have died?
38 Jesus therefore again
groaning in himself, cometh to
the grave. It was a cave, and
a stone lay upon it.
39 Jesus said, Take ye away
the stone. Martha, the sister
of him that was dead, saith
unto him, Lord, by this time
he stinketh: for he hath been
_dead_ four days.
40 Jesus saith unto her, Said
I not unto thee, that if thou
wouldest believe, thou
shouldest see the glory of
41 Then they took away the
stone _from the place_ where
the dead was laid. And Jesus
lifted up _his_ eyes, and
said, Father, I thank thee
that thou hast heard me.
42 And I knew that thou
hearest me always: but because
of the people which stand by,
I said _it_, that they may
believe that thou hast sent
43 And when he thus had
spoken, he cried with a loud
voice, Lazarus, come forth.
44 And he that was dead came
forth, bound hand and foot
with graveclothes: and his
face was bound about with a
napkin. Jesus saith unto them,
Loose him, and let him go.
45 Then many of the Jews which
came to Mary, and had seen the
things which Jesus did,
believed on him.
46 But some of them went their
ways to the Pharisees, and
told them what things Jesus
had done.

§ 93. The counsel of Caiaphas against Jesus. He retires from Jerusalem.
_Jerusalem. Ephraim_.

CH. XI. 47-54.
47 Then gathered the chief
priests and the Pharisees a
council, and said, What do we?
for this man doeth many
48 If we let him thus alone,
all _men_ will believe on him:
and the Romans shall come, and
take away both our place and
49 And one of them, _named_
Caiaphas, being the high
priest that same year, said
unto them, Ye know nothing at
50 Nor consider that it is
expedient for us, that one man
should die for the people, and
that the whole nation perish
51 And this spake he not of
himself: but being high priest
that year, he prophesied that
Jesus should die for that
52 And not for that nation
only, but that also he should
gather together in one the
children of God that were
scattered abroad.
53 Then from that day forth
they took counsel together for
to put him to death.
54 Jesus therefore walked no
more openly among the Jews;
but went thence unto a country
near to the wilderness, into a
city called Ephraim, and there
continued with his disciples.

§ 94. Jesus, beyond Jordan, is followed by multitudes. The healing of the
infirm woman on the Sabbath. _Valley of Jordan. Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIX. 1, 2.                   CH. X. 1.
And it came to pass, _that_      And he arose from thence, and
when Jesus had finished these    cometh into the coasts of
sayings, he departed from        Judea, by the farther side of
Galilee, and came into the       Jordan: and the people resort
coasts of Judea, beyond          unto him again; and, as he was
Jordan:                          wont, he taught them again.
2 And great multitudes
followed him, and he healed
them there.

CH. XIII. 10-21.
10 And he was teaching in one
of the synagogues on the
11 And behold, there was a
woman which had a spirit of
infirmity eighteen years, and
was bowed together, and could
in no wise lift up _herself_.
12 And when Jesus saw her, he
called _her to him_, and said
unto her, Woman, thou art
loosed from thine infirmity.
13 And he laid _his_ hands on
her: and immediately she was
made straight, and glorified
14 And the ruler of the
synagogue answered with
indignation, because that
Jesus had healed on the
sabbath-day, and said unto the
people, There are six days in
which men ought to work: in
them therefore come and be
healed, and not on the
15 The Lord then answered him,
and said, _Thou_ hypocrite,
doth not each one of you on
the sabbath loose his ox or
_his_ ass from the stall, and
lead _him_ away to watering?
16 And ought not this woman,
being a daughter of Abraham,
whom Satan hath bound, lo,
these eighteen years, be
loosed from this bond on the
17 And when he had said these
things, all his adversaries
were ashamed: and all the
people rejoiced for all the
glorious things that were done
by him.
18 Then said he, Unto what is
the kingdom of God like? and
whereunto shall I resemble it?
19 It is like a grain of
mustard-seed which a man took,
and cast into his garden, and
it grew, and waxed a great
tree; and the fowls of the air
lodged in the branches of it.
20 And again he said,
Whereunto shall I liken the
kingdom of God?
21 It is like leaven, which a
woman took and hid in three
measures of meal, till the
whole was leavened.

§ 95. Our Lord goes teaching and journeying towards Jerusalem. He is
warned against Herod. _Perea_.

CH. XIII. 22-35.
22 And he went through the
cities and villages, teaching,
and journeying toward
23 Then said one unto him,
Lord, are there few that be
saved? And he said unto them,
24 Strive to enter in at the
strait gate: for many, I say
unto you, will seek to enter
in, and shall not be able.
25 When once the Master of the
house is risen up, and hath
shut to the door, and ye begin
to stand without, and to knock
at the door, saying, Lord,
Lord, open unto us; and he
shall answer and say unto you,
I know you not whence ye are:
26 Then shall ye begin to say,
We have eaten and drunk in thy
presence, and thou hast taught
in our streets.
27 But he shall say, I tell
you, I know you not whence ye
are; depart from me, all _ye_
workers of iniquity.
28 There shall be weeping and
gnashing of teeth, when ye
shall see Abraham, and Isaac,
and Jacob, and all the
prophets, in the kingdom of
God, and you _yourselves_
thrust out.
29 And they shall come from
the east, and _from_ the west,
and from the north, and _from_
the south, and shall sit down
in the kingdom of God.
30 And behold, there are last,
which shall be first; and
there are first, which shall
be last.
31 The same day there came
certain of the Pharisees,
saying unto him, Get thee out,
and depart hence; for Herod
will kill thee.
32 And he said unto them, Go
ye and tell that fox, Behold,
I cast out devils, and I do
cures to-day and to-morrow,
and the third _day_ I shall be
33 Nevertheless, I must work
to-day and to-morrow, and the
_day_ following: for it cannot
be that a prophet perish out
of Jerusalem.
34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,
which killest the prophets,
and stonest them that are sent
unto thee; how often would I
have gathered thy children
together, as a hen _doth
gather_ her brood under _her_
wings, and ye would not!
35 Behold, your house is left
unto you desolate.(215) And
verily, I say unto you, Ye
shall not see me, until _the
time_ come when ye shall say,
Blessed _is_ he that cometh in
the name of the Lord.

§ 96. Our Lord dines with a chief Pharisee on the Sabbath. Incidents.

CH. XIV. 1-24.
And it came to pass, as he
went into the house of one of
the chief Pharisees to eat
bread on the sabbath-day, that
they watched him.
2 And behold, there was a
certain man before him which
had the dropsy.
3 And Jesus answering, spake
unto the lawyers and
Pharisees, saying, Is it
lawful to heal on the
4 And they held their peace.
And he took _him_, and healed
him, and let him go:
5 And answered them, saying,
Which of you shall have an ass
or an ox fallen into a pit,
and will not straightway pull
him out on the sabbath-day?
6 And they could not answer
him again to these things.
7 And he put forth a parable
to those which were bidden,
when he marked how they chose
out the chief rooms; saying
unto them,
8 When thou art bidden of any
_man_ to a wedding, sit not
down in the highest room, lest
a more honourable man than
thou be bidden of him;
9 And he that bade thee and
him come and say to thee, Give
this man place; and thou begin
with shame to take the lowest
10 But when thou art bidden,
go and sit down in the lowest
room; that when he that bade
thee cometh, he may say unto
thee, Friend, go up higher:
then shalt thou have worship
in the presence of them that
sit at _meat_ with thee.
11 For whosoever exalteth
himself shall be abased, and
he that humbleth himself shall
be exalted.
12 Then said he also to him
that bade him, When thou
makest a dinner or a supper,
call not thy friends, nor thy
brethren, neither thy kinsmen,
nor _thy_ rich neighbours;
lest they also bid thee again,
and a recompense be made thee.
13 But when thou makest a
feast, call the poor, the
maimed, the lame, the blind;
14 And thou shalt be blessed:
for they cannot recompense
thee: for thou shalt be
recompensed at the
resurrection of the just.
15 And when one of them that
sat at meat with him heard
these things, he said unto
him, Blessed _is_ he that
shall eat bread in the kingdom
of God.
16 Then said he unto him, A
certain man made a great
supper, and bade many:
17 And sent his servant at
supper-time, to say to them
that were bidden, Come, for
all things are now ready.
18 And they all with one
_consent_ began to make
excuse. The first said unto
him, I have bought a piece of
ground, and I must needs go
and see it: I pray thee have
me excused.
19 And another said, I have
bought five yoke of oxen, and
I go to prove them: I pray
thee have me excused.
20 And another said, I have
married a wife: and therefore
I cannot come.
21 So that servant came, and
shewed his lord these things.
Then the master of the house
being angry, said to his
servant, Go out quickly into
the streets and lanes of the
city, and bring in hither the
poor, and the maimed, and the
halt, and the blind.
22 And the servant said, Lord,
it is done as thou hast
commanded, and yet there is
23 And the lord said unto the
servant, Go out into the
highways and hedges, and
compel _them_ to come in, that
my house may be filled.
24 For I say unto you, that
none of those men which were
bidden, shall taste of my

§ 97. What is required of true disciples. _Perea_.

CH. XIV. 25-35.
25 And there were great
multitudes with him: and he
turned, and said unto them,
26 If any _man_ come to me,
and hate not his father, and
mother, and wife, and
children, and brethren, and
sisters, yea, and his own life
also, he cannot be my
27 And whosoever doth not bear
his cross, and come after me,
cannot be my disciple.
28 For which of you, intending
to build a tower, sitteth not
down first, and counteth the
cost, whether he have
_sufficient_ to finish _it_?
29 Lest haply after he hath
laid the foundation, and is
not able to finish _it_, all
that behold _it_ begin to mock
30 Saying, This man began to
build, and was not able to
31 Or what king going, to make
war against another king,
sitteth not down first, and
consulteth whether he be able
with ten thousand to meet him
that cometh against him with
twenty thousand?
32 Or else, while the other is
yet a great way off, he
sendeth an ambassage, and
desireth conditions of peace.
33 So likewise, whosoever he
be of you that forsaketh not
all that he hath, he cannot be
my disciple.
34 Salt _is_ good: but if the
salt have lost his savour,
wherewith shall it be
35 It is neither fit for the
land, nor yet for the
dunghill; _but_ men cast it
out. He that hath ears to
hear, let him hear.

§ 98. Parables of the lost Sheep, &c. and of the Prodigal Son. _Perea_.

CH. XV. 1-32.
Then drew near unto him all
the publicans and sinners for
to hear him.
2 And the Pharisees and
scribes murmured, saying, This
man receiveth sinners, and
eateth with them.
3 And he spake this parable
unto them, saying,
4 What man of you having a
hundred sheep, if he lose one
of them, doth not leave the
ninety and nine in the
wilderness, and go after that
which is lost, until he find
5 And when he hath found it,
he layeth _it_ on his
shoulders, rejoicing.
6 And when he cometh home, he
calleth together _his_ friends
and neighbours, saying unto
them, Rejoice with me; for I
have found my sheep which was
7 I say unto you, that
likewise joy shall be in
heaven over one sinner that
repenteth, more than over
ninety and nine just persons
which need no repentance.
8 Either what woman having ten
pieces of silver, if she lose
one piece, doth not light a
candle, and sweep the house,
and seek diligently till she
find _it_?
9 And when she hath found
_it_, she calleth _her_
friends and _her_ neighbours
together, saying, Rejoice with
me; for I have found the piece
which I had lost.
10 Likewise, I say unto you,
There is joy in the presence
of the angels of God over one
sinner that repenteth.
11 And he said, A certain man
had two sons:
12 And the younger of them
said to _his_ father, Father,
give me the portion of goods
that falleth to _me_. And he
divided unto them _his_
13 And not many days after,
the younger son gathered all
together, and took his journey
into a far country, and there
wasted his substance with
riotous living.
14 And when he had spent all,
there arose a mighty famine in
that land; and he began to be
in want.
15 And he went and joined
himself to a citizen of that
country; and he sent him into
his fields to feed swine.
16 And he would fain have
filled his belly with the
husks that the swine did eat;
and no man gave unto him.
17 And when he came to
himself, he said, How many
hired servants of my father’s
have bread enough and to
spare, and I perish with
18 I will arise and go to my
father, and will say unto him,
Father, I have sinned against
heaven, and before thee,
19 And am no more worthy to be
called thy son: make me as one
of thy hired servants.
20 And he arose, and came to
his father. But when he was
yet a great way off, his
father saw him, and had
compassion, and ran, and fell
on his neck, and kissed him.
21 And the son said unto him,
Father, I have sinned against
heaven, and in thy sight, and
am no more worthy to be called
thy son.
22 But the father said to his
servants, Bring forth the best
robe, and put it on him; and
put a ring on his hand, and
shoes on _his_ feet:
23 And bring hither the fatted
calf, and kill _it_; and let
us eat, and be merry:
24 For this my son was dead,
and is alive again; he _was_
lost, and is found. And they
began to be merry.
25 Now his elder son was in
the field: and as he came and
drew nigh to the house, he
heard music and dancing.
26 And he called one of the
servants, and asked what these
things meant.
27 And he said unto him, Thy
brother is come; and thy
father hath killed the fatted
calf, because he hath received
him safe and sound.
28 And he was angry, and would
not go in; therefore came his
father out, and entreated him.
29 And he, answering, said to
_his_ father, Lo, these many
years do I serve thee, neither
transgressed I at any time thy
commandment; and yet thou
never gavest me a kid, that I
might make merry with my
30 But as soon as this thy son
was came, which hath devoured
thy living with harlots, thou
hast killed for him the fatted
31 And he said unto him, Son,
thou art ever with me; and all
that I have is thine.
32 It was meet that we should
make merry, and be glad: for
this thy brother was dead, and
is alive again; and was lost,
and is found.

§ 99. Parable of the Unjust Steward. _Perea_.

CH. XVI. 1-13.
And he said also unto his
disciples, There was a certain
rich man which had a steward;
and the same was accused unto
him that he had wasted his
2 And he called him, and said
unto him, How is it that I
hear this of thee? give an
account of thy stewardship:
for thou mayest be no longer
3 Then the steward said within
himself, What shall I do? for
my lord taketh away from me
the stewardship: I cannot dig;
to beg I am ashamed.
4 I am resolved what to do,
that when I am put out of the
stewardship, they may receive
me into their houses.
5 So he called every one of
his lord’s debtors _unto him_,
and said unto the first, How
much owest thou unto my lord?
6 And he said, A hundred
measures of oil. And he said
unto him, Take thy bill, and
sit down quickly, and write
7 Then said he to another, And
how much owest thou? And he
said, A hundred measures of
wheat. And he said unto him,
Take thy bill, and write
8 And the lord commended the
unjust steward, because he had
done wisely: for the children
of this world are in their
generation wiser than the
children of light.
9 And I say unto you, Make to
yourselves friends of the
mammon of unrighteousness;
that when ye fail, they may
receive you into everlasting
10 He that is faithful in that
which is least, is faithful
also in much; and he that is
unjust in the least, is unjust
also in much.
11 If therefore ye have not
been faithful in the
unrighteous mammon, who will
commit to your trust the true
12 And if ye have not been
faithful in that which is
another man’s, who shall give
you that which is your own?
13 No servant can serve two
masters: for either he will
hate the one, and love the
other; or else he will hold to
the one, and despise the
other. Ye cannot serve God and

§ 100. The Pharisees reproved. Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus.

CH. XVI. 14-31.
14 And the Pharisees also, who
were covetous, heard all these
things, and they derided him.
15 And he said unto them, Ye
are they which justify
yourselves before men; but God
knoweth your hearts: for that
which is highly esteemed among
men, is abomination in the
sight of God.
16 The law and the prophets
_were_ until John: since that
time the kingdom of God is
preached, and every man
presseth into it.
17 And it is easier for heaven
and earth to pass, than one
tittle of the law to fail.
18 Whosoever putteth away his
wife, and marrieth another,
committeth adultery; and
whosoever marrieth her that is
put away from _her_ husband,
committeth adultery.
19 There was a certain rich
man, which was clothed in
purple and fine linen, and
fared sumptuously every day:
20 And there was a certain
beggar named Lazarus, which
was laid at his gate, full of
21 And desiring to be fed with
the crumbs which fell from the
rich man’s table: moreover,
the dogs came and licked his
22 And it came to pass, that
the beggar died, and was
carried by the angels into
Abraham’s bosom. The rich man
also died, and was buried:
23 And in hell he lifted up
his eyes, being in torments,
and seeth Abraham afar off,
and Lazarus in his bosom.
24 And he cried, and said,
Father Abraham, have mercy on
me, and send Lazarus, that he
may dip the tip of his finger
in water, and cool my tongue:
for I am tormented in this
25 But Abraham said, Son,
remember that thou in thy
lifetime receivedst thy good
things, and likewise Lazarus
evil things: but now he is
comforted, and thou art
26 And besides all this,
between us and you there is a
great gulf fixed: so that they
which would pass from hence to
you, cannot; neither can they
pass to us, that _would come_
from thence.
27 Then he said, I pray thee
therefore, father, that thou
wouldest send him to my
father’s house:
28 For I have five brethren;
that he may testify unto them,
lest they also come into this
place of torment.
29 Abraham saith unto him,
They have Moses and the
prophets, let them hear them.
30 And he said, Nay, father
Abraham: but if one went unto
them from the dead, they will
31 And he said unto him, If
they hear not Moses and the
prophets, neither will they be
persuaded, though one rose
from the dead.

§ 101. Jesus inculcates forbearance, faith, humility. _Perea_.

CH. XVII. 1-10.
Then said he unto his
disciples, It is impossible
but that offences will come:
but wo _unto him_ through whom
they come!
2 It were better for him that
a millstone were hanged about
his neck, and he cast into the
sea, than that he should
offend one of these little
3 Take heed to yourselves: If
thy brother trespass against
thee, rebuke him; and if he
repent, forgive him.
4 And if he trespass against
thee seven times in a day, and
seven times in a day turn
again to thee, saying, I
repent; thou shalt forgive
5 And the apostles said unto
the Lord, Increase our faith.
6 And the Lord said, If ye had
faith as a grain of
mustard-seed, ye might say
unto this sycamine-tree, Be
thou plucked up by the root,
and be thou planted in the
sea; and it should obey you.
7 But which of you having a
servant ploughing, or feeding
cattle, will say unto him by
and by, when he is come from
the field, Go and sit down to
8 And will not rather say unto
him, Make ready wherewith I
may sup, and gird thyself, and
serve me, till I have eaten
and drunken; and afterward
thou shalt eat and drink?
9 Doth he thank that servant,
because he did the things that
were commanded him? I trow
10 So likewise ye, when ye
shall have done all those
things which are commanded
you, say, We are unprofitable
servants: we have done that
which was our duty to do.

§ 102. Christ’s coming will be sudden. _Perea_.

CH. XVII. 20-37.
20 And when he was demanded of
the Pharisees, when the
kingdom of God should come, he
answered them and said, The
kingdom of God cometh not with
21 Neither shall they say, Lo
here! or, Lo there! for
behold, the kingdom of God is
within you.
22 And he said unto the
disciples, The days will come,
when ye shall desire to see
one of the days of the Son of
man, and ye shall not see
23 And they shall say to you,
See here! or, See there! go
not after _them_, nor follow
24 For as the lightning that
lighteneth out of the one
_part_ under heaven, shineth
unto the other part under
heaven; so shall also the Son
of man be in his day.
25 But first must he suffer
many things, and be rejected
of this generation.
26 And as it was in the days
of Noe, so shall it be also in
the days of the Son of man.
27 They did eat, they drank,
they married wives, they were
given in marriage, until the
day that Noe entered into the
ark, and the flood came, and
destroyed them all.(216)
28 Likewise also as it was in
the days of Lot: they did eat,
they drank, they bought, they
sold, they planted, they
29 But the same day that Lot
went out of Sodom, it rained
fire and brimstone from
heaven, and destroyed _them_
30 Even thus shall it be in
the day when the Son of man is
31 In that day, he which shall
be upon the house-top, and his
stuff in the house, let him
not come down to take it away:
and he that is in the field,
let him likewise not return
32 Remember Lot’s wife.(218)
33 Whosoever shall seek to
save his life, shall lose it;
and whosoever shall lose his
life, shall preserve it.
34 I tell you, in that night
there shall be two _men_ in
one bed; the one shall be
taken, and the other shall be
35 Two _women_ shall be
grinding together; the one
shall be taken, and the other
36 Two _men_ shall be in the
field; the one shall be taken,
and the other left.
37 And they answered and said
unto him, Where, Lord? And he
said unto them, Wheresoever
the body _is_, thither will
the eagles be gathered

§ 103. Parables. The importunate Widow. The Pharisee and Publican.

CH. XVIII. 1-14.
And he spake a parable unto
them _to this end_, that men
ought always _to_ pray, and
not to faint;
2 Saying, There was in a city
a judge, which feared not God,
neither regarded man.
3 And there was a widow in
that city; and she came unto
him, saying, Avenge me of mine
4 And he would not for a
while: but afterward he said
within himself, Though I fear
not God, nor regard man;
5 Yet, because this widow
troubleth me, I will avenge
her, lest by her continual
coming she weary me.
6 And the Lord said, Hear what
the unjust judge saith.
7 And shall not God avenge his
own elect, which cry day and
night unto him, though he bear
long with them?
8 I tell you that he will
avenge them speedily.
Nevertheless, when the Son of
man cometh, shall he find
faith on the earth?
9 And he spake this parable
unto certain which trusted in
themselves that they were
righteous, and despised
10 Two men went up into the
temple to pray; the one a
Pharisee, and the other a
11 The Pharisee stood and
prayed thus with himself, God,
I thank thee, that I am not as
other men _are_, extortioners,
unjust, adulterers, or even as
this publican.
12 I fast twice in the week, I
give tithes of all that I
13 And the publican, standing
afar off, would not lift up so
much as _his_ eyes unto
heaven, but smote upon his
breast, saying, God be
merciful to me a sinner.
14 I tell you, this man went
down to his house justified
_rather_ than the other: for
every one that exalteth
himself shall be abased; and
he that humbleth himself shall
be exalted.

§ 104. Precepts respecting divorce. _Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIX. 3-12.(219)              CH. X. 2-12.
3 The Pharisees also came unto   2 And the Pharisees came to
him, tempting him, and saying    him, and asked him, Is it
unto him, Is it lawful for a     lawful for a man to put away
man to put away his wife for     _his_ wife? tempting him.
every cause?
4 And he answered and said       3 And he answered and said
unto them, Have ye not           unto them, What did Moses
read,(220) that he which made    command you?
_them_ at the beginning, made
them male and female,
5 And said,(221) For this        4 And they said, Moses
cause shall a man leave father   suffered to write a bill of
and mother, and shall cleave     divorcement, and to put _her_
to his wife: and they twain      away.
shall be one flesh?
                                 5 And Jesus answered and said
                                 unto them, For the hardness of
                                 your heart, he wrote you this
6 Wherefore they are no more     6 But from the beginning of
twain, but one flesh. What       the creation, God made them
therefore God hath joined        male and female.
together, let not man put
7 They say unto him, Why did     7 For this cause shall a man
Moses then command to give a     leave his father and mother,
writing of divorcement, and to   and cleave to his wife;
put her away?(222)
8 He saith unto them, Moses,     8 And they twain shall be one
because of the hardness of       flesh: so then they are not
your hearts, suffered you to     more twain, but one flesh.
put away your wives: but from
the beginning it was not so.
                                 9 What, therefore, God hath
                                 joined together, let not man
                                 put asunder.
9 And I say unto you,            10 And in the house his
Whosoever shall put away his     disciples asked him again of
wife, except _it be_ for         the same _matter_.
fornication, and shall marry
another, committeth adultery;
and whoso marrieth her which
is put away, doth commit
                                 11 And he saith unto them,
                                 Whosoever shall put away his
                                 wife, and marry another,
                                 committeth adultery against
10 His disciples say unto him,   12 And if a woman shall put
If the case of the man be so     away her husband,(223) and be
with _his_ wife, it is not       married to another, she
good to marry.                   committeth adultery.
11 But he said unto them, All
_men_ cannot receive this
saying, save _they_ to whom it
is given.
12 For there are some eunuchs,
which were so born from
_their_ mother’s womb: and
there are some eunuchs, which
were made eunuchs of men: and
there be eunuchs, which have
made themselves eunuchs for
the kingdom of heaven’s sake.
He that is able to receive
_it_, let him receive it.

§ 105. Jesus receives and blesses little children. _Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIX. 13-15.                  CH. X. 13-16.
13 Then were there brought       13 And they brought young
unto him little children, that   children to him, that he
he should put _his_ hands on     should touch them; and _his_
them, and pray: and the          disciples rebuked those that
disciples rebuked them.          brought _them_.
14 But Jesus said, Suffer        14 But when Jesus saw _it_, he
little children, and forbid      was much displeased, and said
them not, to come unto me: for   unto them, Suffer the little
of such is the kingdom of        children to come unto me, and
heaven.                          forbid them not: for of such
                                 is the kingdom of God.
                                 15 Verily I say unto you,
                                 Whosoever shall not receive
                                 the kingdom of God as a little
                                 child, he shall not enter
15 And he laid _his_ hands on    16 And he took them up in his
them, and departed thence.       arms; put _his_ hands upon
                                 them, and blessed them.

CH. XVIII. 15-17.
15 And they brought unto him
also infants, that he would
touch them: but when _his_
disciples saw _it_, they
rebuked them.
16 But Jesus called them _unto
him_, and said, Suffer little
children to come unto me, and
forbid them not: for of such
is the kingdom of God.
17 Verily, I say unto you,
Whosoever shall not receive
the kingdom of God as a little
child, shall in no wise enter

§ 106. The rich young man. Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XIX. 16-30. CH. XX 1-16.     CH. X. 17-31.
16 And behold, one came and      17 And when he was gone forth
said unto him, Good Master,      into the way, there came one
what good thing shall I do       running, and kneeled to him,
that I may have eternal life?    and asked him, Good Master,
                                 what shall I do that I may
                                 inherit eternal life?
17 And he said unto him, Why     18 And Jesus said unto him,
callest thou me good? _there     Why callest thou me good?
is_ none good but one, _that     _there is_ none good, but one,
is_, God: but if thou wilt       _that is_ God.
enter into life, keep the
18 He saith unto him, Which?     19 Thou knowest the
Jesus said, Thou shalt do no     commandments, Do not commit
murder. Thou shalt not commit    adultery, Do not kill, Do not
adultery, Thou shalt not         steal, Do not bear false
steal, Thou shalt not bear       witness, Defraud not, Honour
false witness,                   thy father and mother.
19 Honour thy father and _thy_
mother: and, Thou shalt love
thy neighbour as thyself.(224)
20 The young man saith unto      20 And he answered and said
him, All these things have I     unto him, Master, all these
kept from my youth up: what      have I observed from my youth.
lack I yet?
21 Jesus said unto him, If       21 Then Jesus beholding him,
thou wilt be perfect, go and     loved him, and said unto him,
sell that thou hast, and give    One thing thou lackest: go thy
to the poor, and thou shalt      way, sell whatsoever thou
have treasure in heaven: and     hast, and give to the poor,
come _and_ follow me.            and thou shalt have treasure
                                 in heaven; and come, take up
                                 the cross, and follow me.
22 But when the young man        22 And he was sad at that
heard that saying, he went       saying, and went away grieved:
away sorrowful: for he had       for he had great possessions.
great possessions.
23 Then said Jesus unto his      23 And Jesus looked round
disciples, Verily, I say unto    about, and saith unto his
you, That a rich man shall       disciples, How hardly shall
hardly enter into the kingdom    they that have riches enter
of heaven.                       into the kingdom of God!
                                 24 And the disciples were
                                 astonished at his words. But
                                 Jesus answereth again, and
                                 saith unto them, Children, how
                                 hard is it for them that trust
                                 in riches to enter into the
                                 kingdom of God!
24 And again I say unto you,     25 It is easier for a camel to
It is easier for a camel to go   go through the eye of a
through the eye of a needle,     needle, than for a rich man to
than for a rich man to enter     enter into the kingdom of God.
into the kingdom of God.
25 When his disciples heard      26 And they were astonished
_it_, they were exceedingly      out of measure, saying among
amazed, saying Who then can be   themselves, Who then can be
saved?                           saved?
26 But Jesus beheld _them_,      27 And Jesus, looking upon
and said unto them, With men     them, With men _it is_
this is impossible, but with     impossible, but not with God:
God all things are possible.     for with God all things are
27 Then answered Peter, and      28 Then Peter began to say
said unto him, Behold, we have   unto him, Lo, we have left
forsaken all, and followed       all, and have followed thee.
thee; what shall we have
28 And Jesus said unto them,     29 And Jesus answered and
Verily, I say unto you, That     said, Verily I say unto you,
ye which have followed me in     There is no man that hath left
the regeneration, when the Son   house, or brethren, or
of man shall sit in the throne   sisters, or father, or mother,
of his glory, ye also shall      or wife, or children, or
sit upon twelve thrones,         lands, for my sake, and the
judging the twelve tribes of     gospel’s,
29 And every one that hath       30 But he shall receive a
forsaken houses, or brethren,    hundred-fold now in this time,
or sisters, or father, or        houses, and brethren, and
mother, or wife, or children,    sisters, and mothers, and
or lands, for my name’s sake,    children, and lands, with
shall receive a hundred-fold,    persecutions; and in the world
and shall inherit everlasting    to come, eternal life.
30 But many _that are_ first     31 But many _that are_ first
shall be last, and the last      shall be last; and the last
_shall be_ first.                first.
For the kingdom of heaven is
like unto a man _that is_ a
householder, which went out
early in the morning to hire
labourers into his vineyard.
2 And when he had agreed with
the labourers for a penny a
day, he sent them into his
3 And he went out about the
third hour, and saw others
standing idle in the
4 And said unto them, Go ye
also into the vineyard; and
whatsoever is right, I will
give you. And they went their
5 Again he went out about the
sixth and ninth hour, and did
6 And about the eleventh hour
he went out, and found others
standing idle, and saith unto
them, Why stand ye here all
the day idle?
7 They say unto him, Because
no man hath hired us. He saith
unto them, Go ye also into the
vineyard; and whatsoever is
right, _that_ shall ye
8 So when evening was come,
the lord of the vineyard saith
unto his steward, Call the
labourers, and give them
_their_ hire, beginning from
the last unto the first.
9 And when they came that
_were hired_ about the
eleventh hour, they received
every man a penny.
10 But when the first came,
they supposed that they should
have received more; and they
likewise received every man a
11 And when they had received
_it_, they murmured against
the good man of the house,
12 Saying, These last have
wrought _but_ one hour, and
thou hast made them equal unto
us, which have borne the
burden and heat of the day.
13 But he answered one of
them, and said, Friend, I do
thee no wrong: didst not thou
agree with me for a penny?
14 Take _that_ thine _is_, and
go thy way: I will give unto
this last, even as unto thee.
15 Is it not lawful for me to
do what I will with mine own?
is thine eye evil because I am
16 So the last shall be first,
and the first last: for many
be called, but few chosen.

CH. XVIII. 18-30.
18 And a certain ruler asked
him, saying, Good Master, what
shall I do to inherit eternal
19 And Jesus said unto him,
Why callest thou me good? none
_is_ good, save one, _that is_
20 Thou knowest the
commandments, Do not commit
adultery, Do not kill, Do not
steal, Do not bear false
witness, Honour thy father and
thy mother.
21 And he said, All these have
I kept from my youth up.
22 Now, when Jesus heard these
things, he said unto him, Yet
lackest thou one thing: sell
all that thou hast, and
distribute unto the poor, and
thou shalt have treasure in
heaven: and come, follow me.
23 And when he heard this, he
was very sorrowful: for he was
very rich.
24 And when Jesus saw that he
was very sorrowful, he said,
How hardly shall they that
have riches enter into the
kingdom of God!
25 For it is easier for a
camel to go through a needle’s
eye, than for a rich man to
enter into the kingdom of God!
26 And they that heard _it_,
said, Who then can be saved?
27 And he said, The things
which are impossible with men,
are possible with God.
28 Then Peter said, Lo, we
have left all, and followed
29 And he said unto them,
Verily, I say unto you, There
is no man that hath left
house, or parents, or
brethren, or wife, or
children, for the kingdom of
God’s sake,
30 Who shall not receive
manifold more in this present
time, and in the world to come
life everlasting.

§ 107. Jesus a third time foretels his Death and Resurrection. (See § 74,
§ 77.) _Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XX. 17-19.                   CH. X. 32-34.
17 And Jesus, going up to        32 And they were in the way,
Jerusalem, took the twelve       going up to Jerusalem; and
disciples apart in the way,      Jesus went before them: and
and said unto them,              they were amazed; and as they
                                 followed, they were afraid.
                                 And he took again the twelve,
                                 and began to tell them what
                                 things should happen unto him.
18 Behold, we go up to           33 _Saying_, Behold, we go up
Jerusalem; and the Son of man    to Jerusalem; and the Son of
shall be betrayed unto the       man shall be delivered unto
chief priests, and unto the      the chief priests, and unto
scribes, and they shall          the scribes; and they shall
condemn him to death,            condemn him to death, and
                                 shall deliver him to the
19 And shall deliver him to      34 And they shall mock him,
the Gentiles to mock, and to     and shall scourge him, and
scourge, and to crucify _him_:   shall spit upon him, and shall
and the third day he shall       kill him: and the third day he
rise again.                      shall rise again.

CH. XVIII. 31-34.
31 Then he took _unto him_ the
twelve, and said unto them,
Behold, we go up to Jerusalem,
and all things that are
written by the prophets
concerning the Son of man
shall be accomplished.
32 For he shall be delivered
unto the Gentiles, and shall
be mocked, and spitefully
entreated, and spitted on;
33 And they shall scourge
_him_, and put him to death:
and the third day he shall
rise again.
34 And they understood none of
these things: and this saying
was hid from them, neither
knew they the things which
were spoken.

§ 108. James and John prefer their ambitious request. _Perea_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XX. 20-28.                   CH. X. 35-45.
20 Then came to him the mother   35 And James and John, the
of Zebedee’s children, with      sons of Zebedee, come unto
her sons, worshipping _him_,     him, saying, Master, we would
and desiring a certain thing     that thou shouldest do for us
of him.                          whatsoever we shall desire.
21 And he said unto her, What    36 And he said unto them, What
wilt thou? She saith(225) unto   would ye that I should do for
him, Grant that these my two     you?
sons may sit, the one on thy
right hand, and the other on
the left, in thy kingdom.
                                 37 They said unto him, Grant
                                 unto us that we may sit, one
                                 on thy right hand, and the
                                 other on thy left hand, in thy
22 But Jesus answered and        38 But Jesus said unto them,
said, Ye know not what ye ask.   Ye know not what ye ask: can
Are ye able to drink of the      ye drink of the cup that I
cup that I shall drink of, and   drink of? and be baptized with
to be baptized with the          the baptism that I am baptized
baptism that I am baptized       with?
with? They say unto him, We
are able.
23 And he saith unto them, Ye    39 And they said unto him, We
shall drink indeed of my cup,    can. And Jesus said unto them,
and be baptized with the         Ye shall indeed drink of the
baptism that I am baptized       cup that I drink of; and with
with; but, to sit on my right    the baptism that I am baptized
hand, and on my left, is not     withal shall ye be baptized:
mine to give, but _it shall be
given to them_ for whom it is
prepared of my Father.
                                 40 But to sit on my right hand
                                 and on my left hand, is not
                                 mine to give; but _it shall be
                                 given to them_ for whom it is
24 And when the ten heard        41 And when the ten heard
_it_, they were moved with       _it_, they began to be much
indignation against the two      displeased with James and
brethren.                        John.
25 But Jesus called them _unto   42 But Jesus called them _to
him_, and said, Ye know that     him_, and saith unto them, Ye
the princes of the Gentiles      know that they which are
exercise dominion over them,     accounted to rule over the
and they that are great          Gentiles, exercise lordship
exercise authority upon them.    over them; and their great
                                 ones exercise authority upon
26 But it shall not be so        43 But so shall it not be
among you: but whosoever will    among you: but whosoever will
be great among you, let him be   be great among you, shall be
your minister;                   your minister:
27 And whosoever will be chief   44 And whosoever of you will
among you, let him be your       be the chiefest, shall be
servant:                         servant of all.
28 Even as the Son of man came   45 For even the Son of man
not to be ministered unto, but   came not to be ministered
to minister, and to give his     unto, but to minister, and to
life a ransom for many.          give his life a ransom for

§ 109. The healing of two blind men near Jericho.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XX. 29-34.                   CH. X. 46-52.
29 And as they departed from     46 And they came to Jericho:
Jericho, a great multitude       and as he went out of Jericho
followed him.                    with his disciples, and a
                                 great number of people, blind
                                 Bartimeus, the son of Timeus,
                                 sat by the highway side,
30 And behold, two blind men     47 And when he heard that it
sitting by the wayside, when     was Jesus of Nasareth, he
they heard that Jesus passed     began to cry out and say,
by, cried out, saying, Have      Jesus, _thou_ son of David,
mercy on us, O Lord, _thou_      have mercy on me.
son of David.
31 And the multitude rebuked     48 And many charged him that
them, because they should hold   he should hold his peace: but
their peace: but they cried      he cried the more a great
the more, saying, Have mercy     deal, _Thou_ son of David,
on us, O Lord, _thou_ son of     have mercy on me.
32 And Jesus stood still, and    49 And Jesus stood still, and
called them, and said, What      commanded him to be called:
will ye that I shall do unto     and they call the blind man,
you?                             saying unto him, Be of good
                                 comfort, rise; he calleth
                                 50 And he, casting away his
                                 garment, rose, and came to
33 They say unto him, Lord,      51 And Jesus answered and said
that our eyes may be opened.     unto him, What wilt thou that
                                 I should do unto thee? The
                                 blind man said unto him, Lord,
                                 that I might receive my sight.
34 So Jesus had compassion _on   52 And Jesus said unto him, Go
them_, and touched their eyes:   thy way; thy faith hath made
and immediately their eyes       thee whole. And immediately he
received sight, and they         received his sight, and
followed him.                    followed Jesus in the way.

CH. XVIII. 35-43. CH. XIX. 1.
35 And it came to pass, that
as he was come nigh(226) unto
Jericho, a certain blind man
sat by the wayside begging;
36 And hearing the multitude
pass by, he asked what it
37 And they told him, that
Jesus of Nazareth passeth by.
38 And he cried, saying,
Jesus, _thou_ son of David,
have mercy on me.
39 And they which went before
rebuked him, that he should
hold his peace: but he cried
so much the more, _Thou_ son
of David, have mercy on me.
40 And Jesus stood and
commanded him to be brought
unto him: and when he was come
near, he asked him,
41 Saying, What wilt thou that
I shall do unto thee? And he
said, Lord, that I may receive
my sight.
42 And Jesus said unto him,
Receive thy sight: thy faith
hath saved thee.
43 And immediately he received
his sight, and followed him,
glorifying God: and all the
people, when they saw _it_,
gave praise unto God.
And _Jesus_ entered and passed
through Jericho.

§ 110. The visit to Zaccheus. Parable of the ten Minæ. _Jericho_.

CH. XIX. 2-28.
2 And behold _there was_ a man
named Zaccheus, which was the
chief among the publicans, and
he was rich.
3 And he sought to see Jesus
who he was; and could not for
the press, because he was
little of stature.
4 And he ran before, and
climbed up into a
sycamore-tree to see him; for
he was to pass that _way_.
5 And when Jesus came to the
place, he looked up, and saw
him, and said unto him,
Zaccheus, make haste, and come
down: for to-day I must abide
at thy house.
6 And he made haste, and came
down, and received him
7 And when they saw _it_, they
all murmured, saying, That he
was gone to be guest with a
man that is a sinner.
8 And Zaccheus stood, and said
unto the Lord; Behold, Lord,
the half of my goods I give to
the poor; and if I have taken
any thing from any man, by
false accusation, I restore
_him_ four-fold.
9 And Jesus said unto him,
This day is salvation come to
this house, forasmuch as he
also is a son of Abraham.
10 For the Son of man is come
to seek and to save that which
was lost.
11 And as they heard these
things, he added and spake a
parable, because he was nigh
to Jerusalem, and because they
thought that the kingdom of
God should immediately appear.
12 He said therefore, A
certain nobleman went into a
far country to receive for
himself a kingdom, and to
13 And he called his ten
servants, and delivered them
ten pounds, and said unto
them, Occupy till I come.
14 But his citizens hated him,
and sent a message after him,
saying, We will not have this
_man_ to reign over us.
15 And it came to pass, that
when he was returned, having
received the kingdom, then he
commanded these servants to be
called unto him, to whom he
had given the money, that he
might know how much every man
had gained by trading.
16 Then came the first,
saying, Lord, thy pound hath
gained ten pounds.
17 And he said unto him, Well,
thou good servant: because
thou hast been faithful in a
very little, have thou
authority over ten cities.
18 And the second came,
saying, Lord, thy pound hath
gained five pounds.
19 And he said likewise to
him, Be thou also over five
20 And another came, saying,
Lord, behold _here is_ thy
pound, which I have kept laid
up in a napkin:
21 For I feared thee, because
thou art an austere man: thou
takest up that thou layedst
not down, and reapest that
thou didst not sow.
22 And he saith unto him, Out
of thine own mouth will I
judge thee, _thou_ wicked
servant. Thou knewest that I
was an austere man, taking up
that I laid not down, and
reaping that I did not sow:
23 Wherefore then gavest not
thou my money into the bank,
that at my coming I might have
required mine own with usury?
24 And he said unto them that
stood by, Take from him the
pound, and give _it_ to him
that hath ten pounds.
25 (And they said unto him,
Lord, he hath ten pounds.)
26 For I say unto you, That
unto every one which hath,
shall be given; and from him
that hath not, even that he
hath shall be taken away from
27 But those mine enemies,
which would not that I should
reign over them, bring hither,
and slay _them_ before me.
28 And when he had thus
spoken, he went before,
ascending up to Jerusalem.

§ 111. Jesus arrives at Bethany six days before the Passover. _Bethany_.

CH. XI. 55-57. CH. XII. 1,
55 And the Jews’ passover was
nigh at hand: and many went
out of the country up to
Jerusalem before the passover,
to purify themselves.
56 Then sought they for Jesus,
and spake among themselves, as
they stood in the temple, What
think ye, that he will not
come to the feast?
57 Now both the chief priests
and the Pharisees had given a
commandment, that, if any man
knew where he were, he should
shew _it_, that they might
take him.
THEN Jesus, six days before
the passover, came to Bethany,
where Lazarus was which had
been dead, whom he raised from
the dead.
9 Much people of the Jews
therefore knew that he was
there: and they came, not for
Jesus’ sake only, but that
they might see Lazarus also,
whom he had raised from the
10 But the chief priests
consulted that they might put
Lazarus also to death;
11 Because that by reason of
him many of the Jews went
away, and believed on Jesus.

Part VII. Our Lord’s Public Entry Into Jerusalem, And The Subsequent
Transactions Before The Fourth Passover.

TIME. _Five days._

§ 112. Our Lord’s public entry into Jerusalem. (First Day Of The Week.)
_Bethany. Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXI. 1-11, 14-17.            CH. XI. 1-11.
And when they drew nigh unto     And when they came nigh to
Jerusalem, and were come to      Jerusalem, unto Bethphage, and
Bethphage, unto the mount of     Bethany, at the mount of
Olives, then sent Jesus two      Olives, he sendeth forth two
disciples,                       of his disciples,
2 Saying unto them, Go into      2 And saith unto them, Go your
the village over against you,    way into the village over
and straightway ye shall find    against you: and as soon as ye
an _ass_ tied, and a colt with   be entered into it, ye shall
her: loose _them_, and bring     find a colt tied, whereon
_them_ unto me.                  never man sat; loose him, and
                                 bring _him_.
3 And if any _man_ say aught     3 And if any man say unto you,
unto you, ye shall say, The      Why do ye this? say ye that
Lord hath need of them; and      the Lord hath need of him; and
straightway he will send them.   straightway he will send him
4 All this was done, that it
might be fulfilled which was
spoken by the prophet,
5 Tell ye the daughter of
Sion, Behold, thy King cometh
unto thee, meek, and sitting
upon an ass, and a colt the
foal of an ass.
6 And the disciples went, and    4 And they went their way and
did as Jesus commanded them,     found the colt tied by the
                                 door without, in a place where
                                 two ways met; and they loose
                                 5 And certain of them that
                                 stood there said unto them,
                                 What do ye, loosing the colt?
                                 6 And they said unto them even
                                 as Jesus had commanded: and
                                 they let them go.
7 And brought the ass and the    7 And they brought the colt to
colt, and put on them their      Jesus, and cast their garments
clothes,(229) and they set       on him; and he sat upon him.
_him_ thereon.
8 And a very great multitude     8 And many spread their
spread their garments in the     garments in the way: and
way: others cut down branches    others cut down branches off
from the trees, and strewed      the trees, and strewed _them_
_them_ in the way.               in the way.
9 And the multitudes that went   9 And they that went before,
before, and that followed,       and they that followed, cried,
cried, saying, Hosanna to the    saying, Hosanna: Blessed _is_
Son of David: Blessed _is_ he    he that cometh in the name of
that cometh in the name of the   the Lord.
Lord: Hosanna in the highest.
                                 10 Blessed _be_ the kingdom of
                                 our father David, that cometh
                                 in the name of the Lord:
                                 Hosanna in the highest.
10 And when he was come into
Jerusalem, all the city was
moved, saying, Who is this?
11 And the multitude said,
This is Jesus the prophet of
Nazareth of Galilee.
14 And the blind and the lame
came to him in the temple; and
he healed them.
15 And when the chief priests
and scribes saw the wonderful
things that he did, and the
children crying in the temple,
and saying, Hosanna to the son
of David; they were sore
16 And said unto him, Hearest
thou what these say? And Jesus
saith unto them, Yea: have ye
never read, Out of the mouth
of babes and sucklings thou
hast perfected praise?(230)
17 And he left them, and went    11 And Jesus entered into
out of the city into Bethany,    Jerusalem, and into the
and he lodged there.             temple: and when he had looked
                                 round about upon all things,
                                 and now the even-tide was
                                 come, he went out unto
                                 Bethany, with the twelve.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XIX. 29-44.                  CH. XII. 12-19.
29 And it came to pass, when     12 On the next day, much
he was come nigh to Bethphage    people that were come to the
and Bethany, at the mount        feast, when they heard that
called _the mount_ of Olives,    Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
he sent two of his disciples,
30 Saying, Go ye into the
village over against _you_; in
the which at your entering ye
shall find a colt tied,
whereon yet never man sat:
loose him, and bring _him
31 And if any man ask you, Why
do ye loose _him_? thus shall
ye say unto him, Because the
Lord hath need of him.
32 And they that were sent
went their way, and found even
as he had said unto them.
33 And as they were loosing
the colt, the owners thereof
said unto them, Why loose ye
the colt?
34 And they said, The Lord
hath need of him.
35 And they brought him to
Jesus: and they cast their
garments upon the colt and
they set Jesus thereon.
36 And as he went, they spread
their clothes in the way.
37 And when he was come nigh,    13 Took branches of
even now at the descent of the   palm-trees, and went forth to
mount of Olives, the whole       meet him, and cried, Hosanna;
multitude of the disciples       Blessed _is_ the King of
began to rejoice and praise      Israel that cometh in the name
God with a loud voice for all    of the Lord.(231)
the mighty works that they had
38 Saying, Blessed _be_ the      14 And Jesus, when he had
King that cometh in the name     found a young ass, sat
of the Lord: Peace in heaven,    thereon; as it is written,
and glory in the highest.
                                 15 Fear not, daughter of Sion:
                                 behold, thy King cometh,
                                 sitting on an ass’s colt.
                                 16 These things understood not
                                 his disciples at the first:
                                 but when Jesus was glorified,
                                 then remembered they that
                                 these things were written of
                                 him, and _that_ they had done
                                 these things unto him.
                                 17 The people therefore that
                                 was with him when he called
                                 Lazarus out of his grave, and
                                 raised him from the dead, bare
                                 18 For this cause the people
                                 also met him, for that they
                                 heard that he had done this
39 And some of the Pharisees     19 The Pharisees therefore
from among the multitude said    said among themselves,
unto him, Master, rebuke thy     Perceive ye how ye prevail
disciples.                       nothing? behold, the world is
                                 gone after him.
40 And he answered and said
unto them, I tell you, that if
these should hold their peace,
the stones would immediately
cry out.
41 And when he was come near,
he beheld the city, and wept
over it.
42 Saying, If thou hadst
known, even thou, at least in
this thy day, the things
_which belong_ unto thy peace!
but now they are hid from
thine eyes.
43 For the days shall come
upon thee, that thine enemies
shall cast a trench about
thee, and compass thee round,
and keep thee in on every
44 And shall lay thee even
with the ground, and thy
children within thee: and they
shall not leave in thee one
stone upon another: because
thou knewest not the time of
thy visitation.

§ 113. The barren Fig-tree. The cleansing of the Temple. (Second Day Of
The Week.) _Bethany. Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXI. 12, 13, 18, 19.         CH. XI. 12-19.
18 Now in the morning, as he     12 And on the morrow, when
returned into the city, he       they were come from Bethany,
hungered.                        he was hungry.
19 And when he saw a fig-tree    13 And seeing a fig-tree afar
in the way, he came to it, and   off, having leaves, he came,
found nothing thereon, but       if haply he might find any
leaves only, and said unto it,   thing thereon: and when he
Let no fruit grow on thee        came to it, he found nothing
henceforward for ever. And       but leaves: for the time of
presently the fig-tree           figs was not _yet_.
withered away.
                                 14 And Jesus answered and said
                                 unto it, No man eat fruit of
                                 thee hereafter for ever. And
                                 his disciples heard _it_.
12 And Jesus went into the       15 And they come to Jerusalem:
temple of God, and cast out      and Jesus went into the
all them that sold and bought    temple, and began to cast out
in the temple, and overthrew     them that sold and bought in
the tables of the                the temple, and overthrew the
money-changers, and the seats    tables of the money-changers,
of them that sold doves,         and the seats of them that
                                 sold doves:
                                 16 And would not suffer that
                                 any man should carry _any_
                                 vessel through the temple.
13 And said unto them, It is     17 And he taught, saying unto
written,(232) My house shall     them, Is it not written, My
be called the house of prayer,   house shall be called, of all
but ye have made it a den of     nations, the house of prayer?
thieves.                         but ye have made it a den of
                                 18 And the scribes and chief
                                 priests heard _it_, and sought
                                 how they might destroy him:
                                 for they feared him, because
                                 all the people was astonished
                                 at his doctrine.
                                 19 And when even was come, he
                                 went out of the city.

CH. XIX. 45-48. CH. XXI. 37,
45 And he went into the
temple, and began to cast out
them that sold therein, and
them that bought,
46 Saying unto them, It is
written, My house is the house
of prayer, but ye have made it
a den of thieves.
47 And he taught daily in the
temple. But the chief priests,
and the scribes, and the chief
of the people sought to
destroy him,
48 And could not find what
they might do: for all the
people were very attentive to
hear him.
37 And in the day-time he was
teaching in the temple; and at
night he went out, and abode
in the mount that is called
_the mount_ of Olives.
38 And all the people came
early in the morning to him in
the temple, for to hear him.

§ 114. The barren Fig-tree withers away. (Third Day Of The Week.) _Between
Bethany and Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXI. 20-22.                  CH. XI. 20-26.
                                 20 And in the morning, as they
                                 passed by, they saw the
                                 fig-tree dried up from the
20 And when the disciples(233)   21 And Peter calling to
saw _it_, they marvelled,        remembrance, saith unto him,
saying, How soon is the          Master, behold, the fig-tree
fig-tree withered away!          which thou cursed is withered
21 Jesus answered and said       22 And Jesus answering, saith
unto them, Verily, I say unto    unto them, Have faith in God.
you, If ye have faith, and
doubt not, ye shall not only
do this _which is done_ to the
fig-tree, but also, if ye
shall say unto this mountain,
Be thou removed, and be thou
cast into the sea; it shall be
                                 23 For verily I say unto you,
                                 That whosoever shall say unto
                                 this mountain, Be thou
                                 removed, and be thou cast into
                                 the sea; and shall not doubt
                                 in his heart, but shall
                                 believe that those things
                                 which he saith shall come to
                                 pass; he shall have whatsoever
                                 he saith.
22 And all things whatsoever     24 Therefore I say unto you,
ye shall ask in prayer,          What things soever ye desire
believing, ye shall receive.     when ye pray, believe that ye
                                 receive _them_, and ye shall
                                 have _them_.
                                 25 And when ye stand praying,
                                 forgive, if ye have aught
                                 against any: that your Father
                                 also which is in heaven may
                                 forgive you your trespasses.
                                 26 But if ye do not forgive,
                                 neither will your Father which
                                 is in heaven forgive your

§ 115. Christ’s authority questioned. Parable of the two Sons. (Third Day
Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXI. 23-32.                  CH. XI. 27-33.
23 And when he was come into     27 And they come again to
the temple, the chief priests    Jerusalem: and as he was
and the elders of the people     walking in the temple, there
came unto him as he was          come to him the chief priests,
teaching, and said, By what      and the scribes, and the
authority doest thou these       elders,
things? and who gave thee this
                                 28 And say unto him, By what
                                 authority doest thou these
                                 things? and who gave thee this
                                 authority to do these things?
24 And Jesus answered and said   29 And Jesus answered and said
unto them, I also will ask you   unto them, I will also ask of
one thing, which if ye tell      you one question, and answer
me, I in like wise will tell     me, and I will tell you by
you by what authority I do       what authority I do these
these things.                    things.
25 The baptism of John, whence   30 The baptism of John, was
was it? from heaven, or of       _it_ from heaven, or of men?
men? And they reasoned with      answer me.
themselves, saying, If we
shall say, From heaven; he
will say unto us, Why did ye
not then believe him?
                                 31 And they reasoned with
                                 themselves, saying, If we
                                 shall say, From heaven; he
                                 will say, Why then did ye not
                                 believe him?
26 But if we shall say, Of       32 But if we shall say, Of
men; we fear the people: for     men; they feared the people:
all hold John as a prophet.      for all _men_ counted John,
                                 that he was a prophet indeed.
27 And they answered Jesus,      33 And they answered and said
and said, We cannot tell. And    unto Jesus, We cannot tell.
he said unto them, Neither       And Jesus answering saith unto
tell I you by what authority I   them, Neither do I tell you by
do these things.                 what authority I do these
28 But what think ye? A
_certain_ man had two sons;
and he came to the first, and
said, Son, go work to-day in
my vineyard.
29 He answered and said, I
will not; but afterward he
repented, and went.
30 And he came to the second,
and said likewise. And he
answered and said, I _go_,
sir: and went not.
31 Whether of them twain did
the will of _his_ father? They
say unto him, The first. Jesus
saith unto them, Verily I say
unto you, That the publicans
and the harlots go into the
kingdom of God before you.
32 For John came unto you in
the way of righteousness, and
ye believed him not: but the
publicans and the harlots
believed him: and ye, when ye
had seen _it_, repented not
afterward, that ye might
believe him.

CH. XX. 1-8.
And it came to pass, _that_ on
one of those days, as he
taught the people in the
temple, and preached the
gospel, the chief priests and
the scribes came upon _him_,
with the elders,
2 And spake unto him, saying,
Tell us, By what authority
doest thou these things? or
who is he that gave thee this
3 And he answered and said
unto them, I will also ask you
one thing; and answer me:
4 The baptism of John, was it
from heaven, or of men?
5 And they reasoned with
themselves, saying, If we
shall say, From heaven; he
will say, Why then believed ye
him not?
6 But and if we say, Of men;
all the people will stone us:
for they be persuaded that
John was a prophet.
7 And they answered, That they
could not tell whence _it
8 And Jesus said unto them,
Neither tell I you by what
authority I do these things.

§ 116. Parable of the wicked husbandmen. (Third Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXI. 33-46.                  CH. XII.
33 Hear another parable; There   And he began to speak unto
was a certain householder,       them by parables. A _certain_
which planted a vineyard, and    man planted a vineyard, and
hedged it round about, and       set an hedge about _it_, and
digged a wine-press in it, and   digged a _place for_ the
built a tower, and let it out    wine-fat, and built a tower,
to husbandmen, and went into a   and let it out to husbandmen,
far country:                     and went into a far country.
34 And when the time of the      2 And at the season he sent to
fruit drew near, he sent his     the husbandmen a servant,(235)
servants(234) to the             that he might receive from the
husbandmen, that they might      husbandmen of the fruit of the
receive the fruits of it.        vineyard.
35 And the husbandmen took his   3 And they caught _him_, and
servants, and beat one, and      beat him, and sent _him_ away
killed another, and stoned       empty.
36 Again he sent other           4 And again he sent unto them
servants more than the first:    another servant: and at him
and they did unto them           they cast stones, and wounded
likewise.                        _him_ in the head, and sent
                                 _him_ away shamefully handled.
                                 5 And again he sent another;
                                 and him they killed, and many
                                 others; beating some, and
                                 killing some.
37 But last of all, he sent      6 Having yet therefore one
unto them his son, saying,       son, his well-beloved, he sent
They will reverence my son.      him also last unto them,
                                 saying, They will reverence my
38 But when the husbandmen saw   7 But those husbandmen said
the son, they said among         among themselves, This is the
themselves, This is the heir;    heir; come, let us kill him,
come, let us kill him, and let   and the inheritance shall be
us seize on his inheritance.     ours.
39 And they caught him, and      8 And they took him, and
cast _him_ out of the            killed _him_, and cast _him_
vineyard, and slew _him_.        out of the vineyard.
40 When the lord therefore of    9 What shall therefore the
the vineyard cometh, what will   lord of the vineyard do? He
he do unto those husbandmen?     will come and destroy the
                                 husbandmen, and will give the
                                 vineyard unto others.
41 They say unto him, He will
miserably destroy those wicked
men, and will let out _his_
vineyard unto other
husbandmen, which shall render
him the fruits in their
42 Jesus saith unto them, Did    10 And have ye not read this
ye never read in the             scripture; The stone which the
scriptures, The stone which      builders rejected is become
the builders rejected, the       the head of the corner:
same is become the head of the
corner: this is the Lord’s
doing, and it is marvellous in
our eyes?(236)
43 Therefore say I unto you,     11 This was the Lord’s doing,
The kingdom of God shall be      and it is marvellous in our
taken from you, and given to a   eyes?
nation bringing forth the
fruits thereof.
43 Therefore say I unto you,
The kingdom of God shall be
taken from you, and given to a
nation bringing forth the
fruits thereof.
44 And whosoever shall fall on
this stone, shall be broken:
but on whomsoever it shall
fall, it will grind him to
45 And when the chief priests    12 And they sought to lay hold
and Pharisees had heard his      on him, but feared the people;
parables, they perceived that    for they knew that he had
he spake of them.                spoken the parable against
                                 them: and they left him, and
                                 went their way.
46 But when they sought to lay
hands on him, they feared the
multitude, because they took
him for a prophet.

CH. XX. 9-19.
9 Then began he to speak to
the people this parable: A
certain man planted a
vineyard, and let it forth to
husbandmen, and went into a
far Country for a long time.
10 And at the season he sent a
servant to the husbandmen,
that they should give him of
the fruit of the vineyard: but
the husbandmen beat him, and
sent _him_ away empty.
11 And again he sent another
servant: and they beat him
also, and entreated _him_
shamefully, and sent him away
12 And again he sent a third:
and they wounded him also, and
cast _him_ out.
13 Then said the lord of the
vineyard, What shall I do? I
will send my beloved son: it
may be they will reverence
_him_ when they see him.
14 But when the husbandmen saw
him, they reasoned among
themselves, saying, This is
the heir: come, let us kill
him, that the inheritance may
be ours.
15 So they cast him out of the
vineyard, and killed _him_.
What therefore shall the lord
of the vineyard do unto them?
16 He shall come and destroy
these husbandmen, and shall
give the vineyard to others.
And when they heard it, they
said, God forbid.
17 And he beheld them, and
said, What is this then that
is written, The stone which
the builders rejected, the
same is become the head of the
18 Whosoever shall fall upon
that stone, shall be broken:
but on whomsoever it shall
fall, it will grind him to
19 And the chief priests and
the scribes the same hour
sought to lay hands on him;
and they feared the people:
for they perceived that he had
spoken this parable against

§ 117. Parable of the marriage of the King’s Son. (Third Day Of The Week.)

CH. XXII. 1-14.
And Jesus answered and spake
unto them again by parables,
and said,
2 The kingdom of heaven is
like unto a certain king,
which made a marriage for his
3 And sent forth his servants
to call them that were bidden
to the wedding: and they would
not come.
4 Again he sent forth other
servants, saying, Tell them
which are bidden, Behold, I
have prepared my dinner: my
oxen and _my_ fatlings _are_
killed, and all things _are_
ready: come unto the marriage.
5 But they made light of _it_,
and went their ways, one to
his farm, another to his
6 And the remnant took his
servants, and entreated _them_
spitefully, and slew _them_.
7 But when the king heard
_thereof_, he was wroth: and
he sent forth his armies, and
destroyed those murderers, and
burned up their city.
8 Then saith he to his
servants, The wedding is
ready, but they which were
bidden were not worthy.
9 Go ye therefore into the
highways, and as many as ye
shall find, bid to the
10 So those servants went out
into the highways, and
gathered together all as many
as they found, both bad and
good: and the wedding was
furnished with guests.
11 And when the king came in
to see the guests, he saw
there a man which had not on a
12 And he saith unto him,
Friend, how camest thou in
hither, not having a
wedding-garment? And he was
13 Then said the king to the
servants, Bind him hand and
foot, and take him away, and
cast _him_ into outer
darkness: there shall be
weeping and gnashing of
14 For many are called, but
few _are_ chosen.

§ 118. Insidious question of the Pharisees. Tribute to Cesar. (Third Day
Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXII. 15-22.                 CH. XII. 13-17.
15 Then went the Pharisees,      13 And they send unto him
and took counsel how they        certain of the Pharisees, and
might entangle him in _his_      of the Herodians, to catch him
talk.                            in _his_ words.
16 And they sent out unto him    14 And when they were come,
their disciples, with the        they say unto him, Master, we
Herodians, saying, Master, we    know that thou art true, and
know that thou art true, and     carest for no man: for thou
teachest the way of God in       regardest not the person of
truth, neither carest thou for   men, but teachest the way of
any _man_: for thou regardest    God in truth: Is it lawful to
not the person of men.           give tribute to Cesar, or not?
17 Tell us therefore, What
thinkest thou? Is it lawful to
give tribute unto Cesar, or
18 But Jesus perceived their     15 Shall we give, or shall we
wickedness, and said, Why        not give? But he, knowing
tempt ye me, _ye_ hypocrites?    their hypocrisy, said unto
                                 them, Why tempt ye me? bring
                                 me a penny, that I may see
19 Shew me the tribute-money.    16 And they brought _it_. And
And they brought unto him a      he saith unto them, Whose _is_
penny.                           this image and superscription?
                                 And they said unto him,
20 And he saith unto them,
Whose _is_ this image, and
21 They say unto him, Cesar’s.   17 And Jesus answering, said
Then saith he unto them,         unto them, Render to Cesar the
Render therefore unto Cesar,     things that are Cesar’s, and
the things which are Cesar’s;    to God the things that are
and unto God, the things that    God’s. And they marvelled at
are God’s.                       him.
22 When they had heard _these
words_, they marvelled, and
left him, and went their way.

CH. XX. 20-26.
20 And they watched _him_, and
sent forth spies, which should
feign themselves just men,
that they might take hold of
his words, that so they might
deliver him unto the power and
authority of the governor.
21 And they asked him, saying,
Master, we know that thou
sayest and teachest rightly,
neither acceptest thou the
person of _any_, but teachest
the way of God truly:
22 Is it lawful for us to give
tribute unto Cesar, or no?
23 But he perceived their
craftiness, and said unto
them, Why tempt ye me?
24 Shew me a penny. Whose
image and superscription hath
it? They answered and said,
25 And he said unto them,
Render therefore unto Cesar
the things which be Cesar’s,
and unto God the things which
be God’s.
26 And they could not take
hold of his words before the
people: and they marvelled at
his answer, and held their

§ 119. Insidious question of the Sadducees. The Resurrection. (Third Day
Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXII. 23-33.                 CH. XII. 18-27.
23 The same day came to him      18 Then come unto him the
the Sadducees, which say that    Sadducees, which say there is
there is no resurrection, and    no resurrection; and they
asked him,                       asked him, saying,
24 Saying, Master, Moses said,   19 Master, Moses wrote unto
If a man die, having no          us, If a man’s brother die,
children, his brother shall      and leave _his_ wife _behind
marry his wife, and raise up     him_, and leave no children,
seed unto his brother.(239)      that his brother should take
                                 his wife, and raise up seed
                                 unto his brother.
25 Now, there were with us       20 Now, there were seven
seven brethren: and the first,   brethren: and the first took a
when he had married a wife,      wife, and dying left no seed.
deceased: and having no issue,
left his wife unto his
26 Likewise the second also,     21 And the second took her,
and the third, unto the          and died, neither left he any
seventh.                         seed: and the third likewise.
27 And last of all the woman     22 And the seven had her, and
died also.                       left no seed: last of all the
                                 woman died also.
28 Therefore, in the             23 In the resurrection
resurrection, whose wife shall   therefore, when they shall
she be of the seven? for they    rise, whose wife shall she be
all had her.                     of them? for the seven had her
                                 to wife.
29 Jesus answered and said       24 And Jesus answering, said
unto them, Ye do err, not        unto them, Do ye not therefore
knowing the scriptures, nor      err, because ye know not the
the power of God.                scriptures, neither the power
                                 of God?
30 For in the resurrection       25 For when they shall rise
they neither marry, nor are      from the dead, they neither
given in marriage, but are as    marry, nor are given in
the angels of God in heaven.     marriage; but are as the
                                 angels which are in heaven.
31 But, as touching the          26 And as touching the dead,
resurrection of the dead, have   that they rise; have ye not
ye not read that which was       read in the book of Moses, how
spoken unto you by God,          in the bush God spake unto
saying,                          him, saying, I _am_ the God of
                                 Abraham, and the God of Isaac,
                                 and the God of Jacob?
32 I am the God of Abraham,      27 He is not the God of the
and the God of Isaac, and the    dead, but the God of the
God of Jacob?(240) God is not    living: ye therefore do
the God of the dead, but of      greatly err.
the living.
33 And when the multitude
heard _this_, they were
astonished at his doctrine.

CH. XX. 27-40.
27 Then came to _him_ certain
of the Sadducees (which deny
that there is any
resurrection) and they asked
28 Saying, Master, Moses wrote
unto us, If any man’s brother
die, having a wife, and he die
without children, that his
brother should take his wife,
and raise up seed unto his
29 There were therefore seven
brethren: and the first took a
wife, and died without
30 And the second took her to
wife, and he died childless.
31 And the third took her; and
in like manner the seven also:
and they left no children, and
32 Last of all the woman died
33 Therefore in the
resurrection, whose wife of
them is she? for seven had her
to wife.
34 And Jesus answering, said
unto them, The children of
this world marry, and are
given in marriage:
35 But they which shall be
accounted worthy to obtain
that world, and the
resurrection from the dead,
neither marry, nor are given
in marriage:
36 Neither can they die any
more:(241) for they are equal
unto the angels; and are the
children of God, being the
children of the resurrection.
37 Now that the dead are
raised, even Moses shewed at
the bush, when he calleth the
Lord the God of Abraham, and
the God of Isaac, and the God
of Jacob.
38 For he is not a God of the
dead, but of the living: for
all live unto him.
39 Then certain of the scribes
answering, said, Master, thou
hast well said.
40 And after that, they durst
not ask him any _question at

§ 120. A lawyer questions Jesus. The two great Commandments. (Third Day Of
The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXII. 34-40.                 CH. XII. 28-34.
34 But when the Pharisees had    28 And one of the scribes
heard that he had put the        came, and having heard them
Sadducees to silence, they       reasoning together, and
were gathered together.          perceiving that he had
                                 answered them well, asked him,
                                 Which is the first commandment
                                 of all?
35 Then one of them _which
was_ a lawyer, asked _him a
question_, tempting him, and
36 Master, which _is_ the
great commandment in the law?
                                 29 And Jesus answered him, The
                                 first of all the commandments
                                 _is_, Hear, O Israel; The Lord
                                 our God is one Lord:
37 Jesus said unto him, Thou     30 And thou shalt love the
shalt love the Lord thy God      Lord thy God with all thy
with all thy heart, and with     heart, and with all thy soul,
all thy soul, and with all thy   and with all thy mind, and
mind.(242)                       with all thy strength: this
                                 _is_ the first commandment.
38 This is the first and great   31 And the second _is_ like,
commandment.                     _namely_ this, Thou shalt love
                                 thy neighbour as thyself:
                                 there is none other
                                 commandment greater than
39 And the second _is_ like      32 And the scribe said unto
unto it, Thou shalt love thy     him, Well Master, thou hast
neighbour as thyself.(243)       said the truth: for there is
                                 one God; and there is none
                                 other but he:
                                 33 And to love him with all
                                 the heart, and with all the
                                 understanding, and with all
                                 the soul, and with all the
                                 strength, and to love _his_
                                 neighbour as himself, is more
                                 than all whole burnt-offerings
                                 and sacrifices.
                                 34 And when Jesus saw that he
                                 answered discreetly, he said
                                 unto him, Thou art not far
                                 from the kingdom of God. And
                                 no man after that durst ask
                                 him _any question_.

§ 121. How is Christ the Son of David? (Third Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXII. 41-46.                 CH. XII. 35-37.
41 While the Pharisees were
gathered together, Jesus asked
42 Saying, What think ye of
Christ? whose son is he? They
say unto him, _The son_ of
43 He saith unto them, How       35 And Jesus answered and
then doth David in spirit call   said, while he taught in the
him Lord, saying,                temple, How say the scribes
                                 that Christ is the son of
44 The LORD said unto my Lord,   Holy Ghost, The LORD said unto
Sit thou on my right hand,       my Lord, Sit thou on my right
till I make thine enemies thy    hand, till I make thine
footstool?(244)                  enemies thy footstool.
45 If David then call him        37 David therefore himself
Lord, how is he his son?         calleth him Lord, and whence
                                 is he _then_ his son? And the
                                 common people heard him
46 And no man was able to
answer him a word, neither
durst any _man_, from that day
forth, ask him any more

CH. XX. 41-44.
41 And he said unto them, How
say they that Christ is
David’s son?
42 And David himself saith in
the book of Psalms, The LORD
said unto my Lord, Sit thou on
my right hand,
43 Till I make thine enemies
thy footstool.
44 David therefore calleth him
Lord, how _is_ he then his

§ 122. Warnings against the evil example of the Scribes and Pharisees.
(Third Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXIII. 1-12.                 CH. XII. 38, 39.
Then spake Jesus to the          38 And he said unto them in
multitude, and to his            his doctrine, Beware of the
disciples,                       scribes, which love to go in
                                 long clothing, and _love_
                                 salutations in the
2 Saying, The scribes and the    39 And the chief seats in the
Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat:    synagogues, and the uppermost
                                 rooms at feasts:
3 All therefore whatsoever
they bid you observe, _that_
observe and do: but do not ye
after their works: for they
say, and do not.
4 For they bind heavy burdens,
and grievous to be borne, and
lay _them_ on men’s shoulders;
but they _themselves_ will not
move them with one of their
5 But all their works they do
for to be seen of men: they
make broad their phylacteries,
and enlarge the borders of
their garments,
6 And love the uppermost rooms
at feasts, and the chief seats
in the synagogues,
7 And greetings in the
markets, and to be called of
men, Rabbi, Rabbi.
8 But be ye not called Rabbi:
for one is your Master, _even_
Christ; and all ye are
9 And call no _man_ your
father upon the earth: for one
is your Father which is in
10 Neither be ye called
masters: for one is your
master, _even_ Christ.
11 But he that is greatest
among you, shall be your
12 And whosoever shall exalt
himself, shall be abased; and
he that shall humble himself,
shall be exalted.

CH. XX. 45, 46.
45 Then in the audience of all
the people, he said unto his
46 Beware of the scribes,
which desire to walk in long
robes, and love greetings in
the markets, and the highest
seats in the synagogues, and
the chief rooms at feasts;

§ 123. Woes against the Scribes and Pharisees. Lamentation over Jerusalem.
(Third Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXIII. 13-39.                CH. XII. 40.
13 But wo unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites! for
ye shut up the kingdom of
heaven against men: for ye
neither go in _yourselves_,
neither suffer ye them that
are entering, to go in.
14 Wo unto you, scribes and      40 Which devour widows’ houses
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye    and for a pretence make long
devour widows’ houses, and for   prayers these shall receive
a pretence make long prayer:     greater damnation
therefore ye shall receive the
greater damnation.
15 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
compass sea and land to make
one proselyte; and when he is
made, ye make him two-fold
more the child of hell than
16 Wo unto you, _ye_ blind
guides, which say, Whosoever
shall swear by the temple, it
is nothing; but whosoever
shall swear by the gold of the
temple, he is a debtor.
17 _Ye_ fools, and blind! for
whether is greater, the gold,
or the temple that sanctifieth
the gold?
18 And whosoever shall swear
by the altar, it is nothing;
but whosoever sweareth by the
gift that is upon it, he is
19 _Ye_ fools, and blind! for
whether _is_ greater, the
gift, or the altar that
sanctifieth the gift?
20 Whoso therefore shall swear
by the altar, sweareth by it,
and by all things thereon.
21 And whoso shall swear by
the temple, sweareth by it,
and by him that dwelleth
22 And he that shall swear by
heaven, sweareth by the throne
of God, and by him that
sitteth thereon.
23 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
pay tithe of mint, and anise,
and cummin, and have omitted
the weightier _matters_ of the
law, judgment, mercy, and
faith: these ought ye to have
done, and not to leave the
other undone.
24 _Ye_ blind guides, which
strain at a gnat, and swallow
a camel.
25 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
make clean the outside of the
cup and of the platter, but
within they are full of
extortion and excess.
26 _Thou_ blind Pharisee,
cleanse first that which _is_
within the cup and platter,
that the outside of them may
be clean also.
27 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
are like unto whited
sepulchres, which indeed
appear beautiful outward, but
are within full of dead
_men’s_ bones, and of all
28 Even so ye also outwardly
appear righteous unto men, but
within ye are full of
hypocrisy and iniquity.
29 Wo unto you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! because
ye build the tombs of the
prophets, and garnish the
sepulchres of the righteous,
30 And say, If we had been in
the days of our fathers, we
would not have been partakers
with them in the blood of the
31 Wherefore ye be witnesses
unto yourselves, that ye are
the children of them which
killed the prophets.
32 Fill ye up then the measure
of your fathers.
33 _Ye_ serpents, _ye_
generation of vipers, how can
ye escape the damnation of
34 Wherefore, behold, I send
unto you prophets, and wise
men, and scribes; and _some_
of them ye shall kill and
crucify, and _some_ of them
shall ye scourge in your
synagogue, and persecute
_them_ from city to city:
35 That upon you may come all
the righteous blood shed upon
the earth, from the blood of
righteous Abel, unto the blood
of Zacharias, son of
Barachias, whom ye slew
between the temple and the
36 Verily, I say unto you, All
these things shall come upon
this generation.
37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,
_thou_ that killest the
prophets, and stonest them
which are sent unto thee, how
often would I have gathered
thy children together, even as
a hen gathereth her chickens
under _her_ wings, and ye
would not!
38 Behold, your house is left
unto you desolate.(246)
39 For I say unto you, Ye
shall not see me henceforth,
till ye shall say, Blessed
_is_ he that cometh in the
name of the Lord.(247)

CH. XX. 47.
Which devour widows’ houses,
and for a shew make long
prayers: the same shall
receive greater damnation.

§ 124. The Widow’s Mite. (Third Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Mark.                            Luke.
CH. XII. 41-44.                  CH. XXI. 1-4.
41 And Jesus sat over against    And he looked up and saw the
the treasury, and beheld how     rich men casting their gifts
the people cast money into the   into the treasury.
treasury: and many that were
rich cast in much.
42 And there came a certain      2 And he saw also a certain
poor widow, and she threw in     poor widow, casting in thither
two mites, which make a          two mites.
43 And he called _unto him_      3 And he said, Of a truth I
his disciples, and saith unto    say unto you, That this poor
them, Verily, I say unto you,    widow hath cast in more than
That this poor widow hath cast   they all.
more in, than all they which
have cast into the treasury.
44 For all _they_ did cast in    4 For all these have of their
of their abundance: but she of   abundance cast in unto the
her want did cast in all that    offerings of God: but she of
she had, _even_ all her          her penury hath cast in all
living.                          the living that she had.

§ 125. Certain Greeks desire to see Jesus. (Third Day Of The Week.)

CH. XII. 20-36.
20 And there were certain
Greeks among them, that came
up to worship at the _feast_.
21 The same came therefore to
Philip, which was of Bethsaida
of Galilee, and desired him,
saying, Sir, we would see
22 Philip cometh and telleth
Andrew: and again, Andrew and
Philip tell Jesus.
23 And Jesus answered them,
saying, The hour is come, that
the Son of man should be
24 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Except a corn of wheat
fall into the ground and die,
it abideth alone: but if it
die, it bringeth forth much
25 He that loveth his life
shall lose it; and he that
hateth his life in this world,
shall keep it unto life
26 If any man serve me, let
him follow me, and where I am,
there shall also my servant
be: if any man serve me, him
will _my_ Father honour.
27 Now is my soul troubled;
and what shall I say? Father,
save me from this hour: but
for this cause came I unto
this hour.
28 Father, glorify thy name.
Then came there a voice from
heaven, _saying_, I have both
glorified _it_, and will
glorify _it_ again.
29 The people therefore that
stood by, and heard _it_, said
that it thundered. Others
said, An angel spake to him.
30 Jesus answered and said,
This voice came not because of
me, but for your sakes.
31 Now is the judgment of this
world: now shall the prince of
this world be cast out.
32 And I, if I be lifted up
from the earth, will draw all
_men_ unto me.
33 (This he said, signifying
what death he should die.)
34 The people answered him, We
have heard out of the law that
Christ abideth for ever:(248)
and how sayest thou, The Son
of man must be lifted up? Who
is this Son of man?
35 Then Jesus said unto them,
Yet a little while is the
light with you. Walk while ye
have the light, lest darkness
come upon you: for he that
walketh in darkness knoweth
not whither he goeth.
36 While ye have light,
believe in the light, that ye
may be the children of light.
These things spake Jesus, and
departed, and did hide himself
from them.

§ 126. Reflections upon the unbelief of the Jews. (Third Day Of The Week.)

CH. XII. 37-50.
37 But though he had done so
many miracles before them, yet
they believed not on him.
38 That the saying of Esaias
the prophet might be
fulfilled, which he spake,
Lord, who hath believed our
report? and to whom hath the
arm of the Lord been
39 Therefore they could not
believe, because that Esaias
said again,
40 He hath blinded their eyes,
and hardened their heart; that
they should not see with
_their_ eyes, nor understand
with _their_ heart, and be
converted, and I should heal
41 These things said Esaias,
when he saw his glory, and
spake of him.(251)
42 Nevertheless, among the
chief rulers also many
believed on him; but because
of the Pharisees they did not
confess _him_, lest they
should be put out of the
43 For they loved the praise
of men more than the praise of
44 Jesus cried, and said, He
that believeth on me,
believeth not on me, but on
him that sent me.
45 And he that seeth me, seeth
him that sent me.
46 I am come a light into the
world, that whosoever
believeth on me should not
abide in darkness.
47 And if any man hear my
words, and believe not, I
judge him not: for I came not
to judge the world, but to
save the world.
48 He that rejecteth me, and
receiveth not my words, hath
one that judgeth him: the word
that I have spoken, the same
shall judge him in the last
49 For I have not spoken of
myself; but the Father which
sent me, he gave me a
commandment, what I should
say, and what I should speak.
50 And I know that his
commandment is life
everlasting: whatsoever I
speak therefore, even as the
Father said unto me, so I

§ 127. Jesus, on taking leave of the Temple, foretells its destruction,
etc. (Third Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem. Mount of Olives_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXIV. 1-14.                  CH. XIII. 1-13.
And Jesus went out, and          And as he went out of the
departed from the temple: and    temple, one of his disciples
his disciples came to _him_      saith unto him, Master, see
for to shew him the buildings    what manner of _stones_, and
of the temple.                   what buildings _are here_!
2 And Jesus said unto them,      2 And Jesus answering, said
See ye not all these things?     unto him, Seest thou these
verily, I say unto you, There    great buildings? there shall
shall not be left here one       not be left one stone upon
stone upon another, that shall   another, that shall not be
not be thrown down.              thrown down.
3 And as he sat upon the mount   3 And as he sat upon the mount
of Olives, the disciples came    of Olives, over against the
unto him privately, saying,      temple, Peter, and James, and
Tell us, when shall these        John, and Andrew, asked him
things be? and what _shall_ be   privately,
the sign of thy coming, and of
the end of the world.
                                 4 Tell us, when shall these
                                 things be? and what _shall_ be
                                 the sign when all these things
                                 shall be fulfilled?
4 And Jesus answered and said    5 And Jesus answering them,
unto them, Take heed that no     began to say. Take heed lest
man deceive you.                 any _man_ deceive you:
5 For many shall come in my      6 For many shall come in my
name, saying, I am Christ; and   name, saying, I am _Christ_;
shall deceive many.              and shall deceive many.
6 And ye shall hear of wars,     7 And when ye shall hear of
and rumours of wars: see that    wars, and rumours of wars, be
ye be not troubled: for all      ye not troubled: for _such
_these things_ must come to      things_ must needs be; but the
pass, but the end is not yet.    end _shall_ not be yet.
7 For nation shall rise          8 For nation shall rise
against nation, and kingdom      against nation, and kingdom
against kingdom: and there       against kingdom: and there
shall be famines, and            shall be earthquakes in
pestilence, and earthquakes in   _divers_ places, and there
divers places.                   shall be famines, and
                                 troubles: _these are_ the
                                 beginnings of sorrows.
8 All these _are_ the
beginning of sorrows.
9 Then shall they deliver you    9 But take heed to yourselves:
up to be afflicted, and shall    for they shall deliver you up
kill you: and ye shall be        to councils; and in the
hated of all nations for my      synagogues ye shall be beaten:
name’s sake.                     and ye shall be brought before
                                 rulers and kings for my sake,
                                 for a testimony against them.
                                 10 And the gospel must first
                                 be published among all
                                 11 But when they shall lead
                                 _you_, and deliver you up,
                                 take no thought beforehand
                                 what ye shall speak, neither
                                 do ye premeditate: but
                                 whatsoever shall be given you
                                 in that hour, that speak ye:
                                 for it is not ye that speak,
                                 but the Holy Ghost.
10 And then shall many be        12 Now, the brother shall
offended, and shall betray one   betray the brother to death,
another, and shall hate one      and the father the son: and
another.                         children shall rise up against
                                 _their_ parents, and shall
                                 cause them to be put to death.
11 And many false prophets
shall rise, and shall deceive
12 And because iniquity shall
abound, the love of many shall
wax cold.
13 But he that shall endure      13 And ye shall be hated of
unto the end, the same shall     all _men_ for my name’s sake:
be saved.                        but he that shall endure unto
                                 the end, the same shall be
14 And this gospel of the
kingdom shall be preached in
all the world, for a witness
unto all nations; and then
shall the end come.

CH. XXI. 5-19.
5 And as some spake of the
temple, how it was adorned
with goodly stones, and gifts,
he said,
6 _As for_ these things which
ye behold, the days will come,
in the which there shall not
be left one stone upon
another, that shall not be
thrown down.
7 And they asked him, saying,
Master, but when shall these
things be? and what sign _will
there be_ when these things
shall come to pass?
8 And he said, Take heed that
ye be not deceived: for many
shall come in my name, saying,
I am _Christ_; and the time
draweth near: go ye not
therefore after them.
9 But when ye shall hear of
wars, and commotions, be not
terrified: for these things
must first come to pass; but
the end _is_ not by and by.
10 Then said he unto them,
Nation shall rise against
nation, and kingdom against
11 And great earthquakes shall
be in divers places, and
famines, and pestilences: and
fearful sights, and great
signs shall there be from
12 But before all these they
shall lay their hands on you,
and persecute _you_,
delivering _you_ up to the
synagogues, and into prisons,
being brought before kings and
rulers for my name’s sake.
13 And it shall turn to you
for a testimony.
14 Settle _it_ therefore in
your hearts, not to meditate
before what ye shall answer.
15 For I will give you a mouth
and wisdom, which all your
adversaries shall not be able
to gainsay nor resist.
16 And ye shall be betrayed
both by parents, and brethren,
and kinsfolks, and friends;
and _some_ of you shall they
cause to be put to death.(252)
17 And ye shall be hated of
all _men_ for my name’s sake.
18 But there shall not an hair
of your head perish.
19 In your patience possess ye
your souls.

§ 128. The signs of Christ’s coming to destroy Jerusalem, etc. (Third Day
Of The Week.) _Mount of Olives_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXIV. 15-42.                 CH. XXIII. 14-37.
15 When ye, therefore, shall     14 But when ye shall see the
see the abomination of           abomination of desolation,
desolation, spoken of by         spoken of by Daniel the
Daniel the prophet,(253) stand   prophet, standing where it
in the holy place, (whoso        ought not, (let him that
readeth, let him understand,)    readeth understand) then let
                                 them that be in Judea flee to
                                 the mountains:
16 Then let them which be in
Judea flee into the mountains:
17 Let him which is on the       15 And let him that is on the
housetop not come down to take   housetop not go down into the
any thing out of his house:      house, neither enter
                                 _therein_, to take any thing
                                 out of his house:
18 Neither let him which is in   16 And let him that is in the
the field return back to take    field not turn back again for
his clothes.                     to take up his garment.
19 And wo unto them that are     17 But wo to them that are
with child, and to them that     with child, and to them that
give suck in those days!         give suck in those days!
20 But pray ye that your         18 And pray ye that your
flight be not in the winter,     flight be not in the winter.
neither on the sabbath-day:
21 For then shall be great       19 For _in_ those days shall
tribulation, such as was not     be affliction, such as was not
since the beginning of the       from the beginning of the
world to this time, no, nor      creation which God created
ever shall be.                   unto this time, neither shall
22 And except those days         20 And except that the Lord
should be shortened, there       had shortened these days, no
should no flesh be saved: but    flesh should be saved: but for
for the elect’s sake those       the elect’s sake, whom he hath
days shall be shortened.         chosen, he hath shortened the
23 Then if any man shall say     21 And then, if any man shall
unto you, Lo, here _is_          say to you, Lo, here _is_
Christ, or there; believe _it_   Christ; or lo, _he is_ there;
not.                             believe _him_ not.
24 For there shall arise false   22 For false Christs, and
Christs, and false prophets,     false prophets shall rise, and
and shall shew great signs and   shall shew signs and wonders,
wonders; insomuch that, if _it   to seduce, if _it were_
were_ possible, they shall       possible, even the elect.
deceive the very elect.
25 Behold, I have told you       23 But take ye heed: behold, I
before.                          have foretold you all things.
26 Wherefore, if they shall
say unto you, Behold, he is in
the desert; go not forth:
behold, he _is_ in the secret
chambers; believe _it_ not.
27 For as the lightning cometh
out of the east, and shineth
even unto the west; so shall
also the coming of the Son of
man be.
28 For wheresoever the carcass
is, there will the eagles be
gathered together.
29 Immediately after the         24 But in those days, after
tribulation of those days,       that tribulation, the sun
shall the sun be darkened, and   shall be darkened, and the
the moon shall not give her      moon shall not give her light,
light, and the stars shall
fall from heaven, and the
powers of the heavens shall be
                                 25 And the stars of heaven
                                 shall fall, and the powers
                                 that are in heaven shall be
30 And then shall appear the     26 And then shall they see the
sign of the Son of man in        Son of man coming in the
heaven: and then shall all the   clouds with great power and
tribes of the earth mourn, and   glory.
they shall see the Son of man
coming in the clouds of heaven
with power and great glory.
31 And he shall send his         27 And then shall he send his
angels with a great sound of a   angels, and shall gather
trumpet, and they shall gather   together his elect from the
together his elect from the      four winds, from the uttermost
four winds, from one end of      part of the earth to the
heaven to the other.             uttermost part of heaven.
32 Now learn a parable of the    28 Now learn a parable of the
fig-tree; When his branch is     fig-tree: When her branch is
yet tender, and putteth forth    yet tender, and putteth forth
leaves, ye know that summer      leaves, ye know that summer is
_is_ nigh:                       near:
33 So likewise ye, when ye       29 So ye in like manner, when
shall see all these things,      ye shall see these things come
know that it is near, _even_     to pass, know that it is nigh,
at the doors.                    _even_ at the doors.
34 Verily, I say unto you,       30 Verily, I say unto you,
This generation shall not        That this generation shall not
pass, till all these things be   pass, till all these things be
fulfilled.                       done.
35 Heaven and earth shall pass   31 Heaven and earth shall pass
away, but my words shall not     away: but my words shall not
pass away.                       pass away.
36 But of that day and hour      32 But of that day and _that_
knoweth no _man_, no, not the    hour knoweth no man, no, not
angels of heaven, but my         the angels which are in
Father only.                     heaven, neither the Son, but
                                 the Father.
37 But as the days of Noe        33 Take ye heed, watch and
_were_, so shall also the        pray: for ye know not when the
coming of the Son of man be.     time is.
38 For as in the days that       34 _For the Son of man is_ as
were before the flood, they      a man taking a far journey,
were eating and drinking,        who left his house, and gave
marrying and giving in           authority to his servants, and
marriage, until the day that     to every man his work; and
Noe entered into the ark,(255)   commanded the porter to watch.
39 And knew not until the
flood came, and took them all
away: so shall also the coming
of the Son of man be.
40 Then shall two be in the
field; the one shall be taken,
and the other left.
41 Two _women shall be_
grinding at the mill; the one
shall be taken, and the other
42 Watch therefore; for ye       35 Watch ye therefore: for ye
know not what hour your Lord     know not when the master of
doth come.                       the house cometh, at even, or
                                 at midnight, or at the
                                 cock-crowing, or in the
                                 36 Lest coming suddenly, he
                                 find you sleeping.
                                 37 And what I say unto you, I
                                 say unto all, Watch.

CH. XXI. 20-36.
20 And when ye shall see
Jerusalem compassed with
armies, then know that the
desolation thereof is nigh.
21 Then let them which are in
Judea flee to the mountains;
and let them which are in the
midst of it depart out; and
let not them that are in the
countries enter thereinto.
22 For these be the days of
vengeance, that all things
which are written may be
23 But wo unto them that are
with child, and to them that
give suck in those days! for
there shall be great distress
in the land, and wrath upon
this people.
24 And they shall fall by the
edge of the sword, and shall
be led away captive into all
nations: and Jerusalem shall
be trodden down of the
Gentiles, until the times of
the Gentiles be fulfilled.
25 And there shall be signs in
the sun, and in the moon, and
in the stars; and upon the
earth distress of nations,
with perplexity; the sea and
the waves roaring;
26 Men’s hearts failing them
for fear, and for looking
after those things which are
coming on the earth: for the
powers of heaven shall be
29 And he spake to them a
parable; Behold the fig-tree,
and all the trees;
30 When they now shoot forth,
ye see and know of your
ownselves that summer is now
nigh at hand.
31 So likewise ye, when ye see
these things come to pass,
know ye that the kingdom of
God is nigh at hand.
32 Verily, I say unto you,
This generation shall not pass
away, till all be fulfilled.
33 Heaven and earth shall pass
away: but my words shall not
pass away.
34 And take heed to
yourselves, lest at any time
your hearts be overcharged
with surfeiting and
drunkenness, and cares of this
life, and _so_ that day come
upon you unawares.
35 For as a snare shall it
come on all them that dwell on
the face of the whole earth.
36 Watch ye therefore, and
pray always, that ye may be
accounted worthy to escape all
these things that shall come
to pass, and to stand before
the Son of man.

§ 129. Transition to Christ’s final coming. Exhortation. Parables. (Third
Day Of The Week.) _Mount of Olives_.

CH. XXIV. 43-51. CH. XXV.
43 But know this, that if the
good man of the house had
known in what watch the thief
would come, he would have
watched, and would not have
suffered his house to be
broken up.
44 Therefore be ye also ready:
for in such an hour as ye
think not, the Son of man
45 Who then is a faithful and
wise servant, whom his lord
hath made ruler over his
household, to give them meat
in due season?
46 Blessed _is_ that servant,
whom his lord, when he cometh,
shall find so doing.
47 Verily I say unto you, That
he shall make him ruler over
all his goods.
48 But and if that evil
servant shall say in his
heart, My lord delayeth his
49 And shall begin to smite
_his_ fellow-servants, and to
eat and drink with the
50 The lord of that servant
shall come in a day when he
looketh not for _him_, and in
an hour that he is not aware
51 And shall cut him asunder,
and appoint _him_ his portion
with the hypocrites: there
shall be weeping and gnashing
of teeth.
Then shall the kingdom of
heaven be likened unto ten
virgins, which took their
lamps, and went forth to meet
the bridegroom.
2 And five of them were wise,
and five _were_ foolish.
3 They that _were_ foolish
took their lamps, and took no
oil with them:
4 But the wise took oil in
their vessels with their
5 While the bridegroom
tarried, they all slumbered
and slept.
6 And at midnight there was a
cry made, Behold, the
bridegroom cometh: go ye out
to meet him.
7 Then all those virgins
arose, and trimmed their
8 And the foolish said unto
the wise, Give us of your oil:
for our lamps are gone out.
9 But the wise answered,
saying, _Not so_; lest there
be not enough for us and you:
but go ye rather to them that
sell, and buy for yourselves.
10 And while they went to buy,
the bridegroom came; and they
that were ready, went in with
him to the marriage: and the
door was shut.
11 Afterward came also the
other virgins, saying, Lord,
Lord, open to us.
12 But he answered and said,
Verily, I say unto you, I know
you not.
13 Watch therefore, for ye
know neither the day nor the
hour wherein the Son of man
14 For _the kingdom of heaven
is_ as a man travelling into a
far country, _who_ called his
own servants, and delivered
unto them his goods.
15 And unto one he gave five
talents, to another two, and
to another one; to every man
according to his several
ability; and straightway took
his journey.
16 Then he that had received
the five talents, went and
traded with the same, and made
_them_ other five talents.
17 And likewise he that _had
received_ two, he also gained
other two.
18 But he that had received
one, went and digged in the
earth, and hid his lord’s
19 After a long time the lord
of those servants cometh, and
reckoneth with them.
20 And so he that had received
five talents, came and brought
other five talents, saying,
Lord, thou deliveredst unto me
five talents: behold, I have
gained besides them five
talents more.
21 His lord said unto him,
Well done, _thou_ good and
faithful servant; thou hast
been faithful over a few
things, I will make thee ruler
over many things: enter thou
into the joy of thy lord.
22 He also that had received
two talents came, and said,
Lord, thou deliveredst unto me
two talents: behold, I have
gained two other talents
besides them.
23 His lord said unto him,
Well done, good and faithful
servant; thou hast been
faithful over a few things, I
will make thee ruler over many
things: enter thou into the
joy of thy lord.
24 Then he which had received
the one talent came, and said,
Lord, I knew thee that thou
art an hard man, reaping where
thou hast not sown, and
gathering where thou hast not
25 And I was afraid, and went
and hid thy talent in the
earth: lo, _there_ thou hast
_that is_ thine.
26 His lord answered and said
unto him, _Thou_ wicked and
slothful servant, thou
knewest(256) that I reap where
I sowed not, and gather where
I have not strewed:
27 Thou oughtest therefore to
have put my money to the
exchangers, and then at my
coming I should have received
mine own with usury.
28 Take therefore the talent
from him, and give _it_ unto
him which hath ten talents.
29 For unto every one that
hath shall be given, and he
shall have abundance: but from
him that hath not, shall be
taken away even that which he
30 And cast ye the
unprofitable servant into
outer darkness: there shall be
weeping and gnashing of teeth.

§ 130. Scenes of the Judgment Day. (Third Day Of The Week.) _Mount of

CH. XXV. 31-46.
31 When the Son of man shall
come in his glory, and all the
holy angels with him, then
shall he sit upon the throne
of his glory:
32 And before him shall be
gathered all nations: and he
shall separate them one from
another, as a shepherd
divideth _his_ sheep from the
33 And he shall set the sheep
on his right hand, but the
goats on the left.
34 Then shall the King say
unto them on his right hand,
Come, ye blessed of my Father,
inherit the kingdom prepared
for you from the foundation of
the world:
35 For I was an hungered, and
ye gave me meat: I was
thirsty, and ye gave me drink:
I was a stranger, and ye took
me in:
36 Naked, and ye clothed me: I
was sick, and ye visited me: I
was in prison, and ye came
unto me.
37 Then shall the righteous
answer him, saying, Lord, when
saw we thee an hungered, and
fed _thee_? or thirsty, and
gave _thee_ drink?
38 When saw we thee a
stranger, and took _thee_ in?
or naked, and clothed _thee_?
39 Or when saw we thee sick,
or in prison, and came unto
40 And the King shall answer
and say unto them, Verily I
say unto you, Inasmuch as ye
have done _it_ unto one of the
least of these my brethren, ye
have done _it_ unto me.
41 Then shall he say also unto
them on the left hand, Depart
from me, ye cursed, into
everlasting fire, prepared for
the devil and his angels:
42 For I was an hungered, and
ye gave me no meat: I was
thirsty, and ye gave me no
43 I was a stranger, and ye
took me not in: naked, and ye
clothed me not: sick, and in
prison, and ye visited me not.
44 Then shall they also answer
him, saying, Lord, when saw we
thee an hungered, or athirst,
or a stranger, or naked, or
sick, or in prison, and did
not minister unto thee?
45 Then shall he answer them,
saying, Verily, I say unto
you, Inasmuch as ye did it not
to one of the least of these,
ye did _it_ not to me.
46 And these shall go away
into everlasting punishment:
but the righteous into life

§ 131. The Rulers conspire. The Supper at Bethany. Treachery of Judas.
(Fourth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem. Bethany_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 1-16.                  CH. XIV. 1-11.
And it came to pass, when
Jesus had finished all these
sayings, he said| unto his
2 Ye know that after two days    After two days was _the feast_
is _the feast of_ the            of the passover, and of
passover, and the Son of man     unleavened bread: and the
is betrayed to be crucified.     chief priests, and the
                                 scribes, sought how they might
                                 take him by craft, and put
                                 _him_ to death.
3 Then assembled together the
chief priests, and the
scribes, and the elders of the
people, unto the palace of the
high priest, who was called
4 And consulted that they
might take Jesus by subtilty,
and kill _him_.
5 But they said, Not on the      2 But they said, Not on the
_feast-day_, lest there be an    _feast-day_, lest there be an
uproar among the people.         uproar of the people.
6 Now when Jesus was in          3 And being in Bethany, in the
Bethany, in the house of Simon   house of Simon the leper, as
the leper,                       he sat at meat, there came a
                                 woman having an alabaster-box
                                 of ointment of spikenard, very
                                 precious; and she brake the
                                 box, and poured _it_ on his
7 There came unto him a woman
having an alabaster-box of
very precious ointment, and
poured _it_ on his head as he
sat _at meat_.
8 But when his disciples(257)    4 And there were some that had
saw _it_, they had               indignation within themselves,
indignation, saying, To what     and said, Why was this waste
purpose _is_ this waste?         of the ointment made?
9 For this ointment might have   5 For it might have been sold
been sold for much, and given    for more than three hundred
to the poor.                     pence, and have been given to
                                 the poor. And they murmured
                                 against her.
10 When Jesus understood _it_,   6 And Jesus said, Let her
he said unto them, Why trouble   alone: why trouble ye her? she
ye the woman? for she hath       hath wrought a good work on
wrought a good work upon me.     me.
11 For ye have the poor always   7 For ye have the poor with
with you; but me ye have not     you always, and whensoever ye
always.                          will ye may do them good: but
                                 me ye have not always.
12 For in that she hath poured   8 She hath done what she
this ointment on my body, she    could: she is come aforehand
did _it_ for my burial.          to anoint my body to the
13 Verily, I say unto you,       9 Verily, I say unto you,
Wheresoever this gospel shall    Wheresoever this gospel shall
be preached in the whole         be preached throughout the
world, _there_ shall also        whole world, _this_ also that
this, that this woman hath       she hath done shall be spoken
done, be told for a memorial     of, for a memorial of her.
of her.
14 Then one of the twelve,       10 And Judas Iscariot, one of
called Judas Iscariot, went      the twelve, went unto the
unto the chief priests,          chief priests, to betray him
                                 unto them.
15 And said _unto them_, What    11 And when they heard _it_,
will ye give me, and I will      they were glad, and promised
deliver him unto you? And they   to give him money. And he
covenanted with him for thirty   sought how he might
pieces of silver.                conveniently betray him.
16 And from that time he
sought opportunity to betray

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 1-6.                   CH. XII. 2-8.
Now the feast of unleavened
bread drew nigh, which is
called the Passover.
2 And the chief priests and
scribes sought how they might
kill him: for they feared the
                                 2 There they made him a
                                 supper; and Martha served: but
                                 Lazarus was one of them that
                                 sat at the table with him.
                                 3 Then took Mary a pound of
                                 ointment of spikenard, very
                                 costly, and anointed the
                                 feet(258) of Jesus, and wiped
                                 his feet with her hair: and
                                 the house was filled with the
                                 odour of the ointment.
                                 4 Then saith one of his
                                 disciples, Judas
                                 Iscariot,(259) Simon’s _son_,
                                 which should betray him,
                                 5 Why was not this ointment
                                 sold for three hundred pence,
                                 and given to the poor?
                                 6 This he said, not that he
                                 cared for the poor, but
                                 because he was a thief, and
                                 had the bag, and bare what was
                                 put therein.
                                 7 Then said Jesus, Let her
                                 alone: against the day of my
                                 burying hath she kept this.
                                 8 For the poor always ye have
                                 with you; but me ye have not
3 Then entered Satan into
Judas, surnamed Iscariot,
being of the number of the
4 And he went his way, and
communed with the chief
priests and captains, how he
might betray him unto them.
5 And they were glad, and
covenanted to give him money.
6 And he promised, and sought
opportunity to betray him unto
them in the absence of the

§ 132. Preparation for the Passover. (Fifth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 17-19.                 CH. XIV. 12-16.
17 Now the first _day_ of the    12 And the first day of
_feast of_ unleavened bread,     unleavened bread, when they
the disciples came to Jesus,     killed the passover, his
saying unto him, Where wilt      disciples said unto him, Where
thou that we prepare for thee    wilt thou that we go and
to eat the passover?             prepare, that thou mayest eat
                                 the passover?
18 And he said, Go into the      13 And he sendeth forth two of
city to such a man, and say      his disciples, and saith unto
unto him, The Master saith, My   them, Go ye into the city, and
time is at hand; I will keep     there shall meet you a man
the passover at thy house with   bearing a pitcher of water:
my disciples.(260)               follow him.
                                 14 And wheresoever he shall go
                                 in, say ye to the good man of
                                 the house, The Master saith,
                                 Where is the guest-chamber,
                                 where I shall eat the passover
                                 with my disciples?
                                 15 And he will shew you a
                                 large upper room furnished
                                 _and_ prepared: there make
                                 ready for us.
19 And the disciples did as      16 And his disciples when
Jesus had appointed them; and    forth, and came into the city,
they made ready the passover.    and found as he had said unto
                                 them: and they made ready the

CH. XXII. 7-13.
7 Thence came the day of
unleavened bread, when the
passover must be killed.
8 And he sent Peter and John,
saying, Go and prepare us the
passover, that we may eat.
9 And they said unto him,
Where wilt thou that we
10 And he said unto them,
Behold, when ye are entered
into the city, there shall a
man meet you, bearing a
pitcher of water; follow him
into the house where he
entereth in.
11 And ye shall say unto the
good man of the house, The
Master saith unto thee, Where
is the guest-chamber, where I
shall eat the passover with my
12 And he shall shew you a
large upper room furnished:
there make ready.
13 And they went and found as
he had said unto them: and
they made ready the passover.

Part VIII. The Fourth Passover; Our Lord’s Passion; And The Accompanying
Events Until The End Of The Jewish Sabbath.

TIME. _Two days_.

§ 133. The Passover Meal. Contention among the Twelve. (Evening
Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 20.                    CH. XIV. 17.
20 Now when the even was come,   17 And in the evening he
he sat down with the twelve.     cometh with the twelve.

CH. XXII. 14-18, 24-30.
14 And when the hour was come,
he sat down, and the twelve
apostles with him.
15 And he said unto them, With
desire I have desired to eat
this passover with you before
I suffer.
16 For I say unto you, I will
not any more eat thereof,
until it be fulfilled in the
kingdom of God.
17 And he took the cup, and
gave thanks, and said, Take
this, and divide _it_ among
18 For I say unto you, I will
not drink of the fruit of the
vine, until the kingdom of God
shall come.
24 And there was also a strife
among them, which of them
should be accounted the
25 And he said unto them, The
kings of the Gentiles exercise
lordship over them; and they
that exercise authority upon
them are called benefactors.
26 But ye _shall_ not _be_ so:
but he that is greatest among
you, let him be as the
younger; and he that is chief,
as he that doth serve.
27 For whether _is_ greater,
he that sitteth at meat, or he
that serveth? _is_ not he that
sitteth at meat? but I am
among you as he that serveth.
28 Ye are they which have
continued with me in my
29 And I appoint unto you a
kingdom, as my Father hath
appointed unto me;
30 That ye may eat and drink
at my table in my kingdom, and
sit on thrones, judging the
twelve tribes of Israel.

§ 134. Jesus washes the feet of his disciples. (Evening Introducing The
Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XII. 1-20.
Now before the feast of the
passover, when Jesus knew that
his hour was come that he
should depart out of this
world unto the Father, having
loved his own which were in
the world, he loved them unto
the end.
2 And supper being ended, (the
devil having now put into the
heart of Judas Iscariot,
Simon’s _son_, to betray him,)
3 Jesus knowing that the
Father had given all things
into his hands, and that he
was come from God, and went to
4 He riseth from supper, and
laid aside his garments; and
took a towel, and girded
5 After that, he poureth water
into a basin, and began to
wash the disciples’ feet, and
to wipe _them_ with the towel
wherewith he was girded.
6 Then cometh he to Simon
Peter: and Peter saith unto
him, Lord, dost thou wash my
7 Jesus answered and said unto
him, What I do thou knowest
not now; but thou shalt know
8 Peter saith unto him, Thou
shalt never wash my feet.
Jesus answered him, If I wash
thee not, thou hast no part
with me.
9 Simon Peter saith unto him,
Lord, not my feet only, but
also _my_ hands and _my_ head.
10 Jesus saith to him, He that
is washed needeth not save to
wash _his_ feet, but is clean
every whit: and ye are clean,
but not all.
11 For he knew who should
betray him: therefore said he,
Ye are not all clean.
12 So after he had washed
their feet, and had taken his
garments, and was set down
again, he said unto them, Know
ye what I have done to you?
13 Ye call me Master, and
Lord: and ye say well; for
_so_ I am.
14 If I then, _your_ Lord and
Master, have washed your feet;
ye also ought to wash one
another’s feet.
15 For I have given you an
example, that ye should do as
I have done to you.
16 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, The servant is not
greater than his lord; neither
he that is sent greater than
he that sent him.
17 If ye know these things,
happy are ye if ye do them.
18 I speak not of you all; I
know whom I have chosen; but
that the scripture may be
fulfilled, He that eateth
bread with me, hath lifted up
his heel against me.(261)
19 Now I tell you before it
come, that when it is come to
pass, ye may believe that I am
20 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that receiveth
whomsoever I send, receiveth
me; and he that receiveth me,
receiveth him that sent me.

§ 135. Jesus points out the traitor. Judas withdraws. (Evening Introducing
The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 21-25.                 CH. XIV. 18-21.
21 And as they did eat, he       18 And as they sat, and did
said, Verily I say unto you,     eat, Jesus said, Verily I say
That one of you shall betray     unto you, One of you which
me.                              eateth with me, shall betray
22 And they were exceeding       19 And they began to be
sorrowful, and began every one   sorrowful, and to say unto him
of them to say unto him, Lord,   one by one, _Is_ it I? and
is it I?                         another _said_, _Is_ it I?
23 And he answered and said,     20 And he answered and said
He that dippeth _his_ hand       unto them, _It is_ one of the
with me in the dish, the same    twelve that dippeth with me in
shall betray me.                 the dish.
24 The Son of man goeth, as it   21 The Son of man indeed
is written of him: but wo unto   goeth, as it is written of
that man by whom the Son of      him: but wo to that man by
man is betrayed! it had been     whom the Son of man is
good for that man if he had      betrayed! good were it for
not been born.                   that man if he had never been
25 Then Judas, which betrayed
him, answered and said,
Master, is it I? He said unto
him, Thou hast said.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 21-23.                 CH. XIII. 21-35.
21 But behold, the hand of him   21 When Jesus had thus said,
that betrayeth me _is_ with me   he was troubled in spirit, and
on the table.                    testified, and said, Verily,
                                 verily, I say unto you, that
                                 one of you shall betray me.
22 And truly the Son of man
goeth as it was determined:
but wo unto that man by whom
he is betrayed!
                                 22 Then the disciples looked
                                 one on another, doubting of
                                 whom he spake.
                                 23 Now there was leaning on
                                 Jesus’ bosom, one of his
                                 disciples, whom Jesus loved.
23 And they began to inquire     24 Simon Peter therefore
among themselves, which of       beckoned to him, that he
them it was that should do       should ask who it should be of
this thing.                      whom he spake.
                                 25 He then, lying on Jesus’
                                 breast, saith unto him, Lord,
                                 who is it?
                                 26 Jesus answered, He it is to
                                 whom I shall give a sop, when
                                 I have dipped _it_. And when
                                 he had dipped the sop, he gave
                                 _it_ to Judas Iscariot _the
                                 son_ of Simon.
                                 27 And after the sop Satan
                                 entered into him. Then said
                                 Jesus unto him, That thou
                                 doest, do quickly.
                                 28 Now no man at the table
                                 knew for what intent he spake
                                 this unto him.
                                 29 For some _of them_ thought,
                                 because Judas had the bag,
                                 that Jesus had said unto him,
                                 Buy _those things_ that we
                                 have need of against the
                                 feast; or, that he should give
                                 something to the poor.
                                 30 He then, having received
                                 the sop, went immediately out:
                                 and it was night.
                                 31 Therefore, when he was gone
                                 out, Jesus said, Now is the
                                 Son of man glorified, and God
                                 is glorified in him.
                                 32 If God be glorified in him,
                                 God shall also glorify him in
                                 himself, and shall straightway
                                 glorify him.
                                 33 Little children, yet a
                                 little while I am with you. Ye
                                 shall seek me; and, as I said
                                 unto the Jews, Whither I go,
                                 ye cannot come, so now I say
                                 to you.
                                 34 A new commandment I give
                                 unto you, That ye love one
                                 another; as I have loved you,
                                 that ye also love one another.
                                 35 By this shall all _men_
                                 know that ye are my disciples,
                                 if ye have love one to

§ 136. Jesus foretells the fall of Peter, and the dispersion of the
Twelve. (Evening Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 31-35.                 CH. XIV. 27-31.
31 Then saith Jesus unto them,   27 And Jesus saith unto them,
All ye shall be offended         All ye shall be offended
because of me this night: for    because of me this night: for
it is written, I will smite      it is written, I will smite
the Shepherd, and the sheep of   the Shepherd, and the sheep
the flock shall be scattered     shall be scattered.
32 But after I am risen again,   28 But after that I am risen,
I will go before you into        I will go before you into
Galilee.                         Galilee.
33 Peter answered and said       29 But Peter said unto him,
unto him, Though all _men_       Although all shall be
shall be offended because of     offended, yet _will_ not I.
thee, _yet_ will I never be
34 Jesus said unto him,          30 And Jesus saith unto him,
Verily, I say unto thee, That    Verily, I say unto thee, That
this night, before the cock      this day, _even_ in this
crow, thou shalt deny me         night, before the cock crow
thrice.                          twice,(263) thou shalt deny me
35 Peter said unto him, Though   31 But he spake the more
I should die with thee, yet      vehemently, If I should die
will not I deny thee. Likewise   with thee, I will not deny
also said all the disciples.     thee in any wise. Likewise
                                 also said they all.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 31-38.                 CH. XIII. 36-38.
31 And the Lord said, Simon,     36 Simon Peter said unto him,
Simon, behold, Satan hath        Lord, whither goest thou?
desired _to have_ you, that he   Jesus answered him, Whither I
may sift _you_ as wheat:         go, thou canst not follow me
                                 now; but thou shalt follow me
32 But I have prayed for thee,
that thy faith fail not: and
when thou art converted,
strengthen thy brethren.
33 And he said unto him, Lord,   37 Peter said unto him, Lord,
I am ready to go with thee,      why cannot I follow thee now?
both into prison, and to         I will lay down my life for
death.                           thy sake.
34 And he said, I tell thee,     38 Jesus answered him, Wilt
Peter, the cock shall not crow   thou lay down thy life for my
this day, before that thou       sake? Verily, verily, I say
shalt thrice deny that thou      unto thee, The cock shall not
knowest me.                      crow, till thou hast denied me
35 And he said unto them, When
I sent you without purse, and
scrip, and shoes, lacked ye
any thing? And they said,
36 Then said he unto them, But
now, he that hath a purse, let
him take _it_, and likewise
_his_ scrip: and he that hath
no sword, let him sell his
garment, and buy one.(264)
37 For I say unto you, that
this that is written must yet
be accomplished in me, And he
was reckoned among the
transgressors:(265) for the
things concerning me have an
38 And they said, Lord,
behold, here are two swords.
And he said unto them, It is

§ 137. The Lord’s Supper. (Evening Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 26-29.                 CH. XIV. 22-25.
26 And(266) as they were         22 And as they did eat, Jesus
eating,(267) Jesus took bread,   took bread, and blessed, and
and blessed _it_, and brake      brake _it_, and gave to them,
_it_, and gave _it_ to the       and said, Take, eat: this is
disciples, and said, Take,       my body.
eat; this is my body.
27 And he took the cup, and      23 And he took the cup, and
gave thanks, and gave _it_ to    when he had given thanks, he
them, saying, Drink ye all of    gave _it_ to them: and they
it;                              all drank of it.
28 For this is my blood of the   24 And he said unto them, This
new testament,(268) which is     is my blood of the new
shed for many for the            testament, which is shed for
remission of sins.               many.
29 But I say unto you, I will    25 Verily, I say unto you, I
not drink henceforth of this     will drink no more of the
fruit of the vine, until that    fruit of the vine, until that
day when I drink it new with     day that I drink it new in the
you in my Father’s kingdom.      kingdom of God.

CH. XXII. 19-20.
19 And he took bread, and gave
thanks, and brake _it_, and
gave unto them, saying, This
is my body which is given for
you: this do in remembrance of
20 Likewise also the cup after
supper, saying, This cup _is_
the new testament in my blood,
which is shed for you.

§ 138. Jesus comforts his disciples. The Holy Spirit promised. (Evening
Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XIV. 1-31.
Let not your heart be
troubled: ye believe in God,
believe also in me.
2 In my Father’s house are
many mansions; if _it were_
not _so_, I would have told
you. I go to prepare a place
for you.
3 And if I go and prepare a
place for you, I will come
again and receive you unto
myself; that where I am,
_there_ ye may be also.
4 And whither I go ye know,
and the way ye know.
5 Thomas saith unto him, Lord,
we know not whither thou
goest; and how can we know the
6 Jesus saith unto him, I am
the way, and the truth, and
the life: no man cometh unto
the Father, but by me.
7 If ye had known me, ye
should have known my Father
also: and from henceforth ye
know him, and have seen him.
8 Philip saith unto him, Lord,
shew us the Father, and it
sufficeth us.
9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I
been so long time with you,
and yet hast thou not known
me, Philip? he that hath seen
me, hath seen the Father; and
how sayest thou _then_, Shew
us the Father?
10 Believest thou not that I
am in the Father, and the
Father in me? the words that I
speak unto you, I speak not of
myself: but the Father, that
dwelleth in me, he doeth the
11 Believe me that I _am_ in
the Father, and the Father in
me: or else believe me for the
very works’ sake.
12 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that believeth on me,
the works that I do shall he
do also; and greater _works_
than these shall he do;
because I go unto my Father.
13 And whatsoever ye shall ask
in my name, that will I do,
that the Father may be
glorified in the Son.
14 If ye shall ask any thing
in my name, I will do _it_.
15 If ye love me, keep my
16 And I will pray the Father,
and he shall give you another
Comforter, that he may abide
with you for ever;
17 _Even_ the Spirit of truth;
whom the world cannot receive,
because it seeth him not,
neither knoweth him: but ye
know him; for he dwelleth with
you, and shall be in you.
18 I will not leave you
comfortless: I will come to
19 Yet a little while, and the
world seeth me no more; but ye
see me: because I live, ye
shall live also.
20 At that day ye shall know
that I _am_ in my Father, and
ye in me, and I in you.
21 He that hath my
commandments, and keepeth
them, he it is that loveth me:
and he that loveth me, shall
be loved of my Father, and I
will love him, and will
manifest myself to him.
22 Judas saith unto him, (not
Iscariot) Lord, how is it that
thou wilt manifest thyself
unto us, and not unto the
23 Jesus answered and said
unto him, If a man love me, he
will keep my words: and my
Father will love him, and we
will come unto him, and make
our abode with him.
24 He that loveth me not,
keepeth not my sayings: and
the word which ye hear is not
mine, but the Father’s which
sent me.
25 These things have I spoken
unto you, being _yet_ present
with you.
26 But the Comforter, _which
is_ the Holy Ghost, whom the
Father will send in my name,
he shall teach you all things,
and bring all things to your
remembrance, whatsoever I have
said unto you.
27 Peace I leave with you, my
peace I give unto you: not as
the world giveth, give I unto
you. Let not your heart be
troubled, neither let it be
28 Ye have heard how I said
unto you, I go away, and come
_again_ unto you. If ye loved
me, ye would rejoice, because
I said, I go unto the Father:
for my Father is greater than
29 And now I have told you
before it come to pass, that
when it is come to pass, ye
might believe.
30 Hereafter I will not talk
much with you: for the prince
of this world cometh, and hath
nothing in me.
31 But that the world may know
that I love the Father; and as
the Father gave me
commandment, even so I do.
Arise, let us go hence.

§ 139. Christ the true Vine. His disciples hated by the world. (Evening
Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XV. 1-27.
I am the true vine, and my
Father is the husbandman.
2 Every branch in me that
beareth not fruit, he taketh
away: and every _branch_ that
beareth fruit, he purgeth it,
that it may bring forth more
3 Now ye are clean through the
word which I have spoken unto
4 Abide in me, and I in you.
As the branch cannot bear
fruit of itself, except it
abide in the vine: no more can
ye, except ye abide in me.
5 I am the vine, ye _are_ the
branches: He that abideth in
me, and I in him, the same
bringeth forth much fruit: for
without me ye can do nothing.
6 If a man abide not in me, he
is cast forth as a branch, and
is withered; and men gather
them, and cast _them_ into the
fire, and they are burned.
7 If ye abide in me, and my
words abide in you, ye shall
ask what ye will, and it shall
be done unto you.
8 Herein is my Father
glorified, that ye bear much
fruit; so shall ye be my
9 As the Father hath loved me,
so have I loved you: continue
ye in my love.
10 If ye keep my commandments,
ye shall abide in my love;
even as I have kept my
Father’s commandments, and
abide in his love.
11 These things have I spoken
unto you, that my joy might
remain in you, and _that_ your
joy might be full.
12 This is my commandment,
That ye love one another, as I
have loved you.
13 Greater love hath no man
than this, that a man lay down
his life for his friends.
14 Ye are my friends, if ye do
whatsoever I command you.
15 Henceforth I call you not
servants; for the servant
knoweth not what his lord
doeth: but I have called you
friends; for all things that I
have heard of my Father, I
have made known unto you.
16 Ye have not chosen me, but
I have chosen you, and
ordained you, that ye should
go and bring forth fruit, and
_that_ your fruit should
remain: that whatsoever ye
shall ask of the Father in my
name, he may give it to you.
17 These things I command you,
that ye love one another.
18 If the world hate you, ye
know that it hated me before
_it hated_ you.
19 If ye were of the world,
the world would love his own;
but because ye are not of the
world, but I have chosen you
out of the world, therefore
the world hateth you.
20 Remember the word that I
said unto you, The servant is
not greater than his lord. If
they have persecuted me, they
will also persecute you: if
they have kept my saying, they
will keep yours also.
21 But all these things will
they do unto you for my name’s
sake, because they know not
him that sent me.
22 If I had not come and
spoken unto them, they had not
had sin: but now they have no
cloak for their sin.
23 He that hateth me, hateth
my Father also.
24 If I had not done among
them the works which none
other man did, they had not
had sin: but now have they
both seen, and hated both me
and my Father.
25 But _this cometh to pass_,
that the word might be
fulfilled that is written in
their law, They hated me
without a cause.(269)
26 But when the Comforter is
come, whom I will send unto
you from the Father, _even_
the Spirit of truth, which
proceedeth from the Father, he
shall testify of me.
27 And ye also shall bear
witness, because ye have been
with me from the beginning.

§ 140. Persecution foretold. Further promise of the Holy Spirit. (Evening
Introducing The Sixth Day Of The Week.)  _Jerusalem_.

CH. XVI. 1-33.
These things have I spoken
unto you, that ye should not
be offended.
2 They shall put you out of
the synagogues: yea, the time
cometh, that whosoever killeth
you, will think that he doeth
God service.
3 And these things will they
do unto you, because they have
not known the Father, nor me.
4 But these things have I told
you, that when the time shall
come, ye may remember that I
told you of them. And these
things I said not unto you at
the beginning because I was
with you.
5 But now I go my way to him
that sent me, and none of you
asketh me, Whither goest thou?
6 But because I have said
these things unto you, sorrow
hath filled your heart.
7 Nevertheless, I tell you the
truth: It is expedient for you
that I go away: for if I go
not away, the Comforter will
not come unto you; but if I
depart, I will send him unto
8 And when he is come, he will
reprove the world of sin, and
of righteousness, and of
9 Of sin, because they believe
not on me;
10 Of righteousness, because I
go to my Father, and ye see me
no more;
11 Of judgment, because the
prince of this world is
12 I have yet many things to
say unto you, but ye cannot
bear them now.
13 Howbeit, when he, the
Spirit of truth is come, he
will guide you into all truth:
for he shall not speak of
himself; but whatsoever he
shall hear, _that_ shall he
speak: and he will shew you
things to come.
14 He shall glorify me: for he
shall receive of mine, and
shall shew _it_ unto you.
15 All things that the Father
hath are mine: therefore said
I, that he shall take of mine,
and shall shew it unto you.
16 A little while, and ye
shall not see me: and again, a
little while, and ye shall see
me, because I go to the
17 Then said _some_ of his
disciples among themselves,
What is this that he saith
unto us, A little while, and
ye shall not see me: and
again, a little while, and ye
shall see me; and, Because I
go to the Father?
18 They said therefore, What
is this that he saith, A
little while? we cannot tell
what he saith.
19 Now Jesus knew that they
were desirous to ask him, and
said unto them, Do ye inquire
among yourselves of that I
said, A little while, and ye
shall not see me: and again, a
little while, and ye shall see
20 Verily, verily, I say unto
you, that ye shall weep and
lament, but the world shall
rejoice: and ye shall be
sorrowful, but your sorrow
shall be turned into joy.
21 A woman when she is in
travail hath sorrow, because
her hour is come: but as soon
as she is delivered of the
child, she remembereth no more
the anguish, for joy that a
man is born into the world.
22 And ye now therefore have
sorrow: but I will see you
again, and your heart shall
rejoice, and your joy no man
taketh from you.
23 And in that day ye shall
ask me nothing. Verily,
verily, I say unto you,
Whatsoever ye shall ask the
Father in my name, he will
give _it_ you.
24 Hitherto have ye asked
nothing in my name: ask, and
ye shall receive, that your
joy may be full.
25 These things have I spoken
unto you in proverbs: but the
time cometh when I shall no
more speak unto you in
proverbs, but I shall shew you
plainly of the Father.
26 At that day ye shall ask in
my name: and I say not unto
you, that I will pray the
Father for you:
27 For the Father himself
loveth you, because ye have
loved me, and have believed
that I came out from God.
28 I came forth from the
Father, and am come into the
world: again, I leave the
world, and go to the Father.
29 His disciples said unto
him, Lo, now speakest thou
plainly, and speakest no
30 Now are we sure that thou
knowest all things, and
needest not that any man
should ask thee: by this we
believe that thou camest forth
from God.
31 Jesus answered them, Do ye
now believe?
32 Behold, the hour cometh,
yea, is now come, that ye
shall be scattered every man
to his own, and shall leave me
alone: and yet I am not alone,
because the Father is with me.
33 These things I have spoken
unto you, that in me ye might
have peace. In the world ye
shall have tribulation, but be
of good cheer: I have overcome
the world.

§ 141. Christ’s last prayer with his disciples. (Evening Introducing The
Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XVII. 1-26.
These words spake Jesus, and
lifted up his eyes to heaven,
and said, Father, the hour is
come; glorify thy Son, that
thy Son also may glorify thee:
2 As thou hast given him power
over all flesh, that he should
give eternal life to as many
as thou hast given him.
3 And this is life eternal,
that they might know thee the
only true God, and Jesus
Christ whom thou hast sent.
4 I have glorified thee on the
earth: I have finished the
work which thou gavest me to
5 And now, O Father, glorify
thou me with thine own self,
with the glory which I had
with thee before the world
6 I have manifested thy name
unto the men which thou gavest
me out of the world: thine
they were, and thou gavest
them me; and they have kept
thy word.
7 Now they have known that all
things whatsoever thou hast
given me are of thee:
8 For I have given unto them
the words which thou gavest
me; and they have received
_them_, and have known surely
that I came out from thee, and
they have believed that thou
didst send me.
9 I pray for them: I pray not
for the world, but for them
which thou hast given me; for
they are thine.
10 And all mine are thine, and
thine are mine; and I am
glorified in them.
11 And now I am no more in the
world, but these are in the
world, and I come to thee.
Holy Father, keep through
thine own name those whom thou
hast given me, that they may
be one, as we _are_.
12 While I was with them in
the world, I kept them in thy
name: those that thou gavest
me I have kept, and none of
them is lost, but the son of
perdition; that the scripture
might be fulfilled.(270)
13 And now come I to thee, and
these things I speak in the
world, that they might have my
joy fulfilled in themselves.
14 I have given them thy word;
and the world hath hated them,
because they are not of the
world, even as I am not of the
15 I pray not that thou
shouldest take them out of the
world, but that thou shouldest
keep them from the evil.
16 They are not of the world,
even as I am not of the world.
17 Sanctify them through thy
truth: thy word is truth.
18 As thou hast sent me into
the world, even so have I also
sent them into the world.
19 And for their sakes I
sanctify myself, that they
also might be sanctified
through the truth.
20 Neither pray I for these
alone; but for them also which
shall believe on me through
their word:
21 That they all may be one;
as thou, Father, _art_ in me,
and I in thee, that they also
may be one in us: that the
world may believe that thou
hast sent me.
22 And the glory which thou
gavest me, I have given them;
that they may be one, even as
we are one;
23 I in them, and thou in me,
that they may be made perfect
in one; and that the world may
know that thou hast sent me,
and hast loved them as thou
hast loved me.
24 Father, I will that they
also whom thou hast given me
be with me where I am; that
they may behold my glory which
thou hast given me: for thou
lovedst me before the
foundation of the world.
25 O righteous Father, the
world hath not known thee: but
I have known thee, and these
have known that thou hast sent
26 And I have declared unto
them thy name, and will
declare _it_: that the love
wherewith thou hast loved me,
may be in them, and I in them.

§ 142. The agony in Gethsemane. (Evening Introducing The Sixth Day Of The
Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 30, 36-46.             CH. XIV. 26, 32-42.
30 And when they had sung a      26 And when they had sung an
hymn, they went out into the     hymn, they went out into the
mount of Olives.                 mount of Olives.
36 Then cometh Jesus with them   32 And they came to a place
unto a place called              which was named Gethsemane:
Gethsemane, and saith unto the   and he saith to his disciples,
disciples, Sit ye here, while    Sit ye here, while I shall
I go and pray yonder.            pray.
37 And he took with him Peter,   33 And he taketh with him
and the two sons of Zebedee,     Peter, and James, and John,
and began to be sorrowful and    and began to be sore amazed,
very heavy.                      and to be very heavy;
38 Then saith he unto them, My   34 And saith unto them, My
soul is exceeding sorrowful,     soul is exceeding sorrowful
even unto death: tarry ye        unto death: tarry ye here, and
here, and watch with me.         watch.
39 And he went a little          35 And he went forward a
further, and fell on his face,   little, and fell on the
and prayed, saying, O my         ground, and prayed that, if it
Father, if it be possible, let   were possible, the hour might
this cup pass from me:           pass from him.
nevertheless, not as I will,
but as thou _wilt_.
                                 36 And he said, Abba, Father,
                                 all things _are_ possible unto
                                 thee; take away this cup from
                                 me: nevertheless, not what I
                                 will, but what thou wilt.
40 And he cometh unto the        37 And he cometh, and findeth
disciples, and findeth them      them sleeping, and saith unto
asleep, and saith unto Peter,    Peter, Simon, sleepest thou?
What! could ye not watch with    couldest not thou watch one
me one hour?                     hour?
41 Watch and pray, that ye       38 Watch ye and pray, lest ye
enter not into temptation: the   enter into temptation. The
spirit indeed _is_ willing,      spirit truly _is_ ready, but
but the flesh _is_ weak.         the flesh _is_ weak.
42 He went away again the        39 And again he went away, and
second time, and prayed,         prayed, and spake the same
saying, O my Father, if this     words.
cup may not pass away from me,
except I drink it, thy will be
43 And he came and found them    40 And when he returned, he
asleep again: for their eyes     found them asleep again, (for
were heavy.                      their eyes were heavy;)
                                 neither wist they what to
                                 answer him.
44 And he left them, and went
away again, and prayed the
third time, saying the same
45 Then cometh he to his         41 And he cometh the third
disciples, and saith unto        time, and saith unto them,
them, Sleep on now, and take     Sleep on now, and take _your_
_your_ rest: behold, the hour    rest: it is enough, the hour
is at hand, and the Son of man   is come: behold, the Son of
is betrayed into the hands of    man is betrayed into the hands
sinners.                         of sinners.
46 Rise, let us be going:        42 Rise up, let us go; lo, he
behold, he is at hand that       that betrayeth me is at hand.
doth betray me.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 39-46.                 CH. XVIII. 1.
39 And he came out, and went,    When Jesus had spoken these
as he was wont, to the mount     words, he went forth with his
of Olives; and his disciples     disciples over the brook
also followed him.               Cedron, where was a garden,
                                 into which he entered, and his
40 And when he was at the
place, he said unto them, Pray
that ye enter not into
41 And he was withdrawn from
them about a stone’s cast, and
kneeled down, and prayed,
42 Saying, Father, if thou be
willing, remove this cup from
me: nevertheless, not my will,
but thine, be done.
43 And there appeared an angel
unto him from heaven,
strengthening him.
44 And being in an agony, he
prayed more earnestly: and his
sweat was as it were great
drops of blood(271) falling
down to the ground.
45 And when he rose up from
prayer, and was come to his
disciples, he found them
sleeping for sorrow,(272)
46 And said unto them, Why
sleep ye? rise and pray, lest
ye enter into temptation.

§ 143. Jesus betrayed and made prisoner. (Evening Introducing The Sixth
Day Of The Week.) _Mount of Olives_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 47-56.                 CH. XIV. 43-52
47 And while he yet spake, lo,   43 And immediately while he
Judas, one of the twelve,        yet spake, cometh Judas, one
came, and with him a great       of the twelve, and with him a
multitude with swords and        great multitude with swords
staves, from the chief priests   and staves, from the chief
and elders of the people.        priests, and the scribes, and
                                 the elders.
48 Now, he that betrayed him,    44 And he that betrayed him,
gave them a sign, saying,        had given them a token,
Whomsoever I shall kiss, that    saying, Whomsoever I shall
same is he; hold him fast.       kiss, that same is he; take
                                 him, and lead _him_ away
49 And forthwith he came to      45 And as soon as he was come,
Jesus, and said, Hail Master;    he goeth straightway to him,
and kissed him.                  and saith, Master, Master; and
                                 kissed him.
50 And Jesus said unto him,
Friend, wherefore art thou
come? Then came they, and laid
hands on Jesus, and took him.
51 And behold, one of them       47 And one of them that stood
which were with Jesus,           by, drew a sword, and smote a
stretched out _his_ hand, and    servant of the high priest,
drew his sword, and struck a     and cut off his ear.
servant of the high priest,
and smote off his ear.
52 Then said Jesus unto him,
Put up again thy sword into
his place: for all they that
take the sword, shall perish
with the sword.(273)
53 Thinkest thou that I cannot
now pray to my Father, and he
shall presently give me more
than twelve legions of angels?
54 But how then shall the
scriptures be fulfilled, that
thus it must be?
55 In that same hour said        48 And Jesus answered and said
Jesus to the multitudes, Are     unto them, Are ye come out as
ye come out as against a thief   against a thief, with swords
with swords and staves for to    and _with_ staves to take me?
take me? I sat daily with you
teaching in the temple, and ye
laid no hold on me.
56 But all this was done, that   49 I was daily with you in the
the scriptures of the prophets   temple, teaching, and ye took
might be fulfilled.              me not: but the scriptures
                                 must be fulfilled.
Then all the disciples forsook   50 And they all forsook him
him, and fled.                   and fled.
                                 51 And there followed him a
                                 certain young man, having a
                                 linen cloth cast about _his
                                 naked body_; and the young men
                                 laid hold on him.
                                 52 And he left the linen
                                 cloth, and fled from them

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 47-53.                 CH. XVIII. 2-21.
47 And while he yet spake,       2 And Judas also, which
behold a multitude, and he       betrayed him, knew the place:
that was called Judas, one of    for Jesus ofttimes resorted
the twelve, went before them,    thither with his disciples.
and drew near unto Jesus to
kiss him.
                                 3 Judas then, having received
                                 a band _of men_ and officers
                                 from the chief priests and
                                 Pharisees, cometh thither with
                                 lanterns, and torches, and
48 But Jesus said unto him,      4 Jesus therefore, knowing all
Judas, betrayest thou the Son    things that should come upon
of man with a kiss?              him, went forth, and said unto
                                 them, Whom seek ye?
49 When they which were about    5 They answered him, Jesus of
him, saw what would follow,      Nazareth. Jesus saith unto
they said unto him, Lord,        them, I am _he_.(274) And
shall we smite with the sword?   Judas also, which betrayed
                                 him, stood with them.
                                 6 As soon then as he had said
                                 unto them, I am _he_, they
                                 went backward, and fell to the
                                 7 Then asked he them again,
                                 Whom seek ye? And they said,
                                 Jesus of Nazareth.
                                 8 Jesus answered, I have told
                                 you that I am _he_. If
                                 therefore ye seek me, let
                                 these go their way:
                                 9 That the saying might be
                                 fulfilled which he spake, Of
                                 them which thou gavest me,
                                 have I lost none.
50 And one of them smote the     10 Then Simon Peter,(275)
servant of the high priest,      having a sword, drew it, and
and cut off his right ear.       smote the high priest’s
                                 servant, and cut off his right
                                 ear. The servant’s name was
51 And Jesus answered and        11 Then said Jesus unto Peter,
said, Suffer ye thus far. And    Put up thy sword into the
he touched his ear, and healed   sheath: the cup which my
him.                             Father hath given me, shall I
                                 not drink it?
52 Then Jesus said unto the
chief priests, and captains of
the temple, and the elders
which were come to him, Be ye
come out as against a thief
with swords and staves?
53 When I was daily with you     12 Then the band, and the
in the temple, ye stretched      captain, and officers of the
forth no hands against me: but   Jews took Jesus, and bound
this is your hour, and power     him.
of darkness.

§ 144. Jesus before Caiaphas. Peter thrice denies him. (Night Introducing
The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 57, 58, 69-75.         CH. XIV. 53, 54, 66-72.
57 And they that had laid hold   53 And they led Jesus away to
on Jesus, led _him_ away to      the high priest: and with him
Caiaphas the high priest,        were assembled all the chief
where the scribes and the        priests, and the elders and
elders were assembled.           the scribes.
58 But Peter followed him afar   54 And Peter followed him afar
off, unto the high priest’s      off, even into the palace of
palace, and went in, and sat     the high priest: and he sat
with the servants to see the     with the servants, and warmed
end.                             himself at the fire.
69 Now Peter sat without in      66 And as Peter was beneath in
the palace: and a damsel came    the palace, there cometh one
unto him, saying, Thou also      of the maids of the high
wast with Jesus of Galilee.      priest:
                                 67 And when she saw Peter
                                 warming himself, she looked
                                 upon him, and said, And thou
                                 also wast with Jesus of
70 But he denied before _them_   68 But he denied, saying, I
all, saying, I know not what     know not, neither understand I
thou sayest.                     what thou sayest. And he went
                                 out into the porch; and the
                                 cock crew.
71 And when he was gone out      69 And a maid saw him again,
into the porch,(276) another     and began to say to them that
_maid_ saw him, and said unto    stood by, This is _one_ of
them that were there, This       them.
_fellow_ was also with Jesus
of Nazareth.
72 And again he denied with an   70 And he denied it again. And
oath, I do not know the man.     a little after, they that
                                 stood by said again to Peter,
                                 Surely thou art _one_ of them:
                                 for thou art a Galilean, and
                                 thy speech agreeth _thereto_.
73 And after a while came unto
_him_ they that stood by, and
said to Peter, Surely thou
also art _one_ of them; for
thy speech bewrayeth thee.
74 Then began he to curse and    71 But he began to curse and
to swear, _saying_, I know not   to swear, _saying_, I know not
the man. And immediately the     this man of whom ye speak.
cock crew.
75 And Peter remembered the      72 And the second time the
word of Jesus, which said unto   cock crew. And Peter called to
him, Before the cock crow thou   mind the word that Jesus said
shalt deny me thrice. And he     unto him, Before the cock crow
went out, and wept bitterly.     twice, thou shalt deny me
                                 thrice. And when he thought
                                 thereon, he wept.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 54-62.                 CH. XVIII. 13-18, 25-27.
Then took they him, and led      13 And led him away to Annas
_him_ and brought him into the   first,(277) (for he was
high priest’s house. And Peter   father-in-law to Caiaphas,
followed afar off.               which was the high priest that
                                 same year.)
                                 14 Now Caiaphas was he which
                                 gave counsel to the Jews, that
                                 it was expedient that one man
                                 should die for the people.
                                 15 And Simon Peter followed
                                 Jesus, and _so did_ another
                                 disciple. That disciple was
                                 known unto the high priest,
                                 and went in with Jesus, into
                                 the palace of the high priest.
                                 16 But Peter stood at the door
                                 without. Then went out that
                                 other disciple which was known
                                 unto the high priest, and
                                 spake unto her that kept the
                                 door, and brought in Peter.
55 And when they had kindled a   18 And the servants and
fire in the midst of the hall,   officers stood there, who had
and were set down together,      made a fire of coals; (for it
Peter sat down among them.       was cold) and they warmed
                                 themselves: and Peter stood
                                 with them, and warmed himself.
56 But a certain maid beheld     17 Then saith the damsel that
him as he sat by the fire, and   kept the door unto Peter, Art
earnestly looked upon him, and   not thou also _one_ of this
said, This man was also with     man’s disciples? He saith, I
him.                             am not.
57 And he denied him, saying,
Woman, I know him not.
58 And after a little while      25 And Simon Peter stood and
another saw him, and said,       warmed himself. They said
Thou art also of them. And       therefore unto him, Art not
Peter said, Man, I am not.       thou also _one_ of his
                                 disciples? He denied _it_, and
                                 said, I am not.
59 And about the space of one    26 One of the servants of the
hour after, another              high priest (being his kinsman
confidently affirmed, saying,    whose ear Peter cut off)
Of a truth this _fellow_ also    saith, did not I see thee in
was with him: for he is a        the garden with him?
60 And Peter said, Man, I know   27 Peter then denied again:
not(278) what thou sayest. And   and immediately the cock
immediately, while he yet        crew.(279)
spake, the cock crew.
61 And the Lord turned, and
looked upon Peter. And Peter
remembered the word of the
Lord, how he had said unto
him, Before the cock crow,
thou shalt deny me thrice.
62 And Peter went out and wept

§ 145. Jesus before Caiaphas. He declares himself to be the Christ, &c.
(Morning Of The Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVI. 59-68.                 CH. XIV. 55-65.
59 Now the chief priests and     55 And the chief priests, and
elders, and all the council,     all the council sought for
sought false witness against     witness against Jesus to put
Jesus, to put him to death;      him to death; and found none:
60 But found none: yea, though   56 For many bare false witness
many false witnesses came,       against him, but their witness
_yet_ found they none. At the    agreed not together.
last came two false witnesses,
                                 57 And there arose certain,
                                 and bare false witness against
                                 him, saying,
61 And said, This _fellow_       58 We heard him say, I will
said, I am able to destroy the   destroy this temple that is
temple of God, and to build it   made with hands, and within
in three days.                   three days I will build
                                 another made without hands.
                                 59 But neither so did their
                                 witness agree together.
62 And the high priest arose,    60 And the high priest stood
and said unto him, Answerest     up in the midst, and asked
thou nothing? what _is it        Jesus, saying, Answerest thou
which_ these witness against     nothing? what _is it which_
thee?                            these witness against thee?
63 But Jesus held his peace.     61 But he held his peace, and
And the high priest answered     answered nothing. Again the
and said unto him, I adjure      high priest asked him, and
thee by the living God, that     said unto him, Art thou the
thou tell us whether thou be     Christ, the Son of the
the Christ, the Son of God.      Blessed?
64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou    62 And Jesus said, I am: and
hast said: nevertheless, I say   ye shall see the Son of man
unto you, Hereafter shall ye     sitting on the right hand of
see the Son of man sitting on    power, and coming in the
the right hand of power, and     clouds of heaven.
coming in the clouds of
65 Then the high priest rent     63 Then the high priest rent
his clothes, saying, He hath     his clothes, and saith, What
spoken blasphemy; what further   need we any further witnesses?
need have we of witnesses?
behold, now ye have heard his
66 What think ye? They           64 Ye have heard the
answered and said, He is         blasphemy: what think ye? And
guilty of death.                 they all condemned him to be
                                 guilty of death.
67 Then did they spit in his     65 And some began to spit on
face, and buffeted him; and      him, and to cover his face,
others smote _him_ with the      and to buffet him, and to say
palms of their hands,            unto him, Prophesy: and the
                                 servants did strike him with
                                 the palms of their hands.
68 Saying, Prophesy unto
us,(280) thou Christ, Who is
he that smote thee?

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXII. 63-71.                 CH. XVIII. 19-24.
66 And as soon as it was day,
the elders of the people, and
the chief priests, and the
scribes, came together, and
led him into their council,
67 Art thou the Christ? tell     19 The high priest then asked
us. And he said unto them, If    Jesus of his disciples, and of
I tell you, ye will not          his doctrine.
68 And if I also ask _you_, ye   20 Jesus answered him, I spake
will not answer me, nor let      openly to the world; I ever
_me_ go.                         taught in the synagogue, and
                                 in the temple, whither the
                                 Jews always resort; and in
                                 secret have I said nothing.
69 Hereafter shall the Son of
man sit on the right hand of
the power of God.
70 Then said they all, Art       21 Why askest thou me? ask
thou then the Son of God? And    them which heard me, what I
he said unto them, Ye say that   have said unto them: behold,
I am.                            they know what I said.
71 And they said, What need we   22 And when he had thus
any further witness? for we      spoken, one of the officers
ourselves have heard of his      which stood by, struck Jesus
own mouth.                       with the palm of his hand,
                                 saying, Answerest thou the
                                 high priest so?
63 And the men that held
Jesus, mocked him, and smote
64 And when they had             23 Jesus answered him, If I
blindfolded him, they struck     have spoken evil, bear witness
him on the face, and asked       of the evil: but if well, why
him, saying, Prophesy, who is    smitest thou me?
it that smote thee?
65 And many other things         24 (Now Annas had sent him
blasphemously spake they         bound unto Caiaphas the high
against him.                     priest.)

§ 146. The Sanhedrim lead Jesus away to Pilate. (Sixth Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 1, 2, 11-14.          CH. XV. 1-5.
When the morning was come, all   And straightway in the morning
the chief priests and elders     the chief priests held a
of the people took counsel       consultation with the elders
against Jesus to put him to      and scribes, and the whole
death.                           council, and bound Jesus, and
                                 carried _him_ away, and
                                 delivered _him_ to Pilate.
2 And when they had bound him,
they led _him_ away, and
delivered him to Pontius
Pilate the governor.
11 And Jesus stood before the    2 And Pilate asked him, Art
governor: and the governor       thou the King of the Jews? And
asked him, saying, Art thou      he answering, said unto him,
the King of the Jews? And        Thou sayest it.
Jesus said unto him, Thou
12 And when he was accused of    3 And the chief priests
the chief priests and elders,    accused him of many things:
he answered nothing.             but he answered nothing.
13 Then saith Pilate unto him,   4 And Pilate asked him again,
Hearest thou not how many        saying, Answerest thou
things they witness against      nothing? behold how many
thee?                            things they witness against
14 And he answered him to        5 But Jesus yet answered
never a word; insomuch that      nothing: so that Pilate
the governor marvelled           marvelled.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 1-5.                  CH. XVIII. 28-38.
And the whole multitude of       28 Then led they Jesus from
them arose, and led him unto     Caiaphas unto the hall of
Pilate.                          judgment: and it was early;
                                 and they themselves went not
                                 into the judgment-hall, lest
                                 they should be defiled; but
                                 that they might eat the
2 And they began to accuse       29 Pilate then went out unto
him, saying, We found this       them, and said, What
_fellow_ perverting the          accusation bring ye against
nation, and forbidding to give   this man?
tribute to Cesar, saying, That
he himself is Christ, a King.
                                 30 They answered and said unto
                                 him, If he were not a
                                 malefactor, we would not have
                                 delivered him up unto thee.
                                 31 Then said Pilate unto them,
                                 Take ye him, and judge him
                                 according to your law. The
                                 Jews therefore said unto him,
                                 It is not lawful for us to put
                                 any man to death:
                                 32 That the saying of Jesus
                                 might be fulfilled, which he
                                 spake, signifying what death
                                 he should die.
3 And Pilate asked him saying,   33 Then Pilate entered into
Art thou the King of the Jews?   the judgment-hall again, and
And he answered him and said,    called Jesus, and said unto
Thou sayest _it_.                him, Art thou the King of the
                                 34 Jesus answered him, Sayest
                                 thou this thing of thyself, or
                                 did others tell it thee of me?
                                 35 Pilate answered, Am I a
                                 Jew? Thine own nation, and the
                                 chief priests, have delivered
                                 thee unto me. What hast thou
                                 36 Jesus answered, My kingdom
                                 is not of this world: if my
                                 kingdom were of this world,
                                 then would my servants
                                 fight,(281) that I should not
                                 be delivered to the Jews: but
                                 now is my kingdom not from
                                 37 Pilate therefore said unto
                                 him, Art thou a king then?
                                 Jesus answered, Thou sayest
                                 that I am a king. To this end
                                 was I born, and for this cause
                                 came I into the world, that I
                                 should bear witness unto the
                                 truth. Every one that is of
                                 the truth, heareth my voice.
4 Then said Pilate to the        38 Pilate saith unto him, What
chief priests, and _to_ the      is truth? And when he had said
people, I find no fault in       this, he went out again unto
this man.                        the Jews, and saith them, I
                                 find in him no fault _at all_.
5 And they were the more
fierce, saying, He stirreth up
the people, teaching
throughout all Jewry,
beginning from Galilee to this

§ 147. Jesus before Herod. (Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XXIII. 6-12.
6 When Pilate heard of
Galilee, he asked whether the
man were a Galilean.
7 And as soon as he knew that
he belonged unto Herod’s
jurisdiction, he sent him to
Herod, who himself was also at
Jerusalem at that time.(282)
8 And when Herod saw Jesus, he
was exceeding glad: for he was
desirous to see him of a long
_season_, because he had heard
many things of him; and he
hoped to have seen some
miracle done by him.
9 Then he questioned with him
in many words; but he answered
him nothing.
10 And the chief priests and
scribes stood and vehemently
accused him.
11 And Herod with his men of
war set him at nought, and
mocked _him_, and arrayed him
in a gorgeous robe, and sent
him again to Pilate.
12 And the same day Pilate and
Herod were made friends
together; for before they were
at enmity between themselves.

§ 148. Pilate seeks to release Jesus. The Jews demand Barabbas. (Sixth Day
Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 15-26.                CH. XV. 6-15.
15 Now at _that_ feast, the      6 Now at _that_ feast he
governor was wont to release     released unto them one
unto the people a prisoner,      prisoner, whomsoever they
whom they would.                 desired.
16 And they had then a notable   7 And there was _one_ named
prisoner, called Barabbas.       Barabbas, _which lay_ bound
                                 with them that had made
                                 insurrection with him, who had
                                 committed murder in the
17 Therefore, when they were     8 And the multitude crying
gathered together, Pilate said   aloud, began to desire _him to
unto them, Whom will ye that I   do_ as he had ever done unto
release unto you? Barabbas, or   them.
Jesus, which is called Christ?
                                 9 But Pilate answered them,
                                 saying, Will ye that I release
                                 unto you the King of the Jews?
18 (For he knew that for envy    10 (For he knew that the chief
they had delivered him.)         priests had delivered him for
19 When he was set down on the
judgment-seat, his wife sent
unto him, saying, Have thou
nothing to do with that just
man: for I have suffered many
things this day in a dream,
because of him.
20 But the chief priests and     11 But the chief priests moved
elders persuaded the multitude   the people that he should
that they should ask Barabbas,   rather release Barabbas unto
and destroy Jesus.               them.
21 The governor answered and     12 And Pilate answered, and
said unto them, Whether of the   said again unto them, What
twain, will ye that I release    will ye then, that I shall do
unto you? They said, Barabbas.   _unto him_ whom ye call the
                                 King of the Jews?
22 Pilate saith unto them,       13 And they cried out again,
What shall I do then with        Crucify him.
Jesus, which is called Christ?
_They_ all say unto him, Let
him be crucified.
23 And the governor said, Why!   14 Then Pilate said unto them,
what evil hath he done? But      Why, what evil hath he done?
they cried out the more,         And they cried out the more
saying, Let him be crucified.    exceedingly, Crucify him.
24 When Pilate saw that he
could prevail nothing, but
_that_ rather a tumult was
made, he took water, and
washed _his_ hands before the
multitude, saying, I am
innocent of the blood of this
just person: see ye _to it_.
25 Then answered all the
people, and said, His blood
_be_ on us, and on our
26 Then released he Barabbas     15 And _so_ Pilate, willing to
unto them:                       content the people, released
                                 Barabbas unto them.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 13-25.                CH. XVIII. 39, 40.
13 And Pilate, when he had
called together the chief
priests, and the rulers, and
the people,
14 Said unto them, Ye have
brought this man unto me, as
one that perverteth the
people: and behold, I, having
examined _him_ before you,
have found no fault in this
man, touching those things
whereof ye accuse him;
15 No, nor yet Herod: for I
sent you to him; and lo,
nothing worthy of death is
done unto him:
16 I will therefore chastise     39 But ye have a custom that I
him, and release _him_.          should release unto you one at
                                 the passover: will ye
                                 therefore, that I release unto
                                 you the king of the Jews?
17 (For of necessity he must
release one unto them at the
18 And they cried out all at     40 Then cried they all again,
once, saying, Away with this     saying, Not this man, but
_man_, and release unto us       Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a
Barabbas:                        robber.
19 (Who, for a certain
sedition made in the city, and
for murder, was cast into
20 Pilate therefore, willing
to release Jesus, spake again
unto them.
21 But they cried, saying,
Crucify _him_, crucify him.
22 And he said unto them the
third time, Why, what evil
hath he done? I have found no
cause of death in him; I will
therefore chastise him, and
let _him_ go.
23 And they were instant with
loud voices, requiring that he
might be crucified: and the
voices of them, and of the
chief priests prevailed.
24 And Pilate gave
sentence(283) that it should
be as they required.
25 And he released unto them
him that for sedition and
murder was cast into prison,
whom they had desired; but he
delivered Jesus to their will.

§ 149. Pilate delivers up Jesus to death. He is scourged and mocked.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 26-30.                CH. XV. 15-19.
26 And when he had scourged      15 And delivered Jesus, when
Jesus, he delivered _him_ to     he had scourged _him_, to be
be crucified.                    crucified.
27 Then the soldiers of the      16 And the soldiers led him
governor took Jesus into the     away into the hall, called
common hall, and gathered unto   Pretorium; and they call
him the whole band _of           together the whole band;
28 And they stripped him, and    17 And they clothed him with
put on him a scarlet robe.       purple, and platted a crown of
                                 thorns, and put it about his
29 And when they had platted a   18 And began to salute him,
crown of thorns, they put _it_   Hail, King of the Jews!
upon his head, and a reed in
his right hand: and they bowed
the knee before him, and
mocked him, saying, Hail, King
of the Jews!
30 And they spit upon him, and   19 And they smote him on the
took the reed, and smote him     head with a reed, and did spit
on the head.                     upon him, and bowing _their_
                                 knees, worshipped him.

CH. XIX. 1-3.
Then Pilate therefore took
Jesus and scourged _him_.
2 And the soldiers platted a
crown of thorns, and put _it_
on his head, and they put on
him a purple robe,
3 And said, Hail, King of the
Jews! and they smote him with
their hands.

§ 150. Pilate again seeks to release Jesus. (Sixth Day Of The Week.)

CH. XIX. 4-16.
4 Pilate therefore went forth
again, and saith unto them,
Behold, I bring him forth to
you, that ye may know that I
find no fault in him.
5 Then came Jesus forth,
wearing the crown of thorns,
and the purple robe. And
_Pilate_ saith unto them,
Behold the man!
6 When the chief priests
therefore and officers saw
him, they cried out, saying,
Crucify _him_, crucify _him_.
Pilate saith unto them, Take
ye him, and crucify _him_: for
I find no fault in him.
7 The Jews answered him, We
have a law, and by our law he
ought to die, because he made
himself the Son of God.
8 When Pilate therefore heard
that saying, he was the more
9 And went again into the
judgment-hall, and saith unto
Jesus, Whence art thou? But
Jesus gave him no answer.
10 Then saith Pilate unto him,
Speakest thou not unto me?
knowest thou not, that I have
power to crucify thee, and
have power to release thee?
11 Jesus answered, Thou
couldest have no power _at
all_ against me, except it
were given thee from above:
therefore he that delivered me
unto thee hath the greater
12 And from thenceforth Pilate
sought to release him; but the
Jews cried out, saying, If
thou let this man go, thou art
not Cesar’s friend. Whosoever
maketh himself a king,
speaketh against Cesar.
13 When Pilate therefore heard
that saying, he brought Jesus
forth, and sat down in the
judgment-seat, in a place that
is called the Pavement, but in
the Hebrew, Gabbatha.
14 And it was the preparation
of the passover, and about the
sixth hour:(284) and he saith
unto the Jews, Behold your
15 But they cried out, Away
with _him_, away with _him_,
crucify him. Pilate saith unto
them, shall I crucify your
King? The chief priests
answered, We have no king but
16 Then delivered he him
therefore unto them to be

§ 151. Judas repents, and hangs himself. (Sixth Day Of The Week.)

CH. XXVII. 3-10.
3 Then Judas, which had
betrayed him, when he saw that
he was condemned, repented
himself, and brought again the
thirty pieces of silver to the
chief priests and elders,
4 Saying, I have sinned in
that I have betrayed the
innocent blood. And they said,
What _is that_ to us? see thou
_to that_.
5 And he cast down the pieces
of silver in the temple, and
departed, and went and hanged
6 And the chief priests took
the silver pieces, and said,
It is not lawful for to put
them into the treasury,
because it is the price of
7 And they took counsel, and
bought with them the potter’s
field, to bury strangers in.
8 Wherefore that field was
called, The field of blood,
unto this day.
9 Then was fulfilled that
which was spoken by
Jeremy(285) the prophet,
saying, And they took the
thirty pieces of silver, the
price of him that was valued,
whom they of the children of
Israel did value;
10 And gave them for the
potter’s field, as the Lord
appointed me.(286)

§ 152. Jesus is led away to be crucified. (Sixth Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 31-34.                CH. XV. 20-23.
31 And after that they had       20 And when they had mocked
mocked him, they took the robe   him, they took off the purple
off from him, and put his own    from him, and put his own
raiment on him, and led him      clothes on him, and led him
away to crucify _him_.           out to crucify him.
32 And as they came out, they    21 And they compel one Simon a
found a man of Cyrene, Simon     Cyrenian, who passed by,
by name: him they compelled to   coming out of the country, the
bear his cross.                  father of Alexander and
                                 Rufus,(287) to bear his cross.
33 And when they were come       22 And they bring him unto the
unto a place called Golgotha,    place Golgotha, which is,
that is to say, A place of a     being interpreted, The place
skull,                           of a skull.
34 They gave him vinegar to      23 And they gave him to drink,
drink, mingled with gall: and    wine mingled with myrrh: but
when he had tasted _thereof_,    he received _it_ not.
he would not drink.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 26-33.                CH. XIX. 16-17.
26 And as they led him away,     16 And they took Jesus, and
they laid hold upon one Simon    led _him_ away.
a Cyrenian, coming out of the
country, and on him they laid
the cross, that he might bear
_it_ after Jesus.
27 And there followed him a      17 And he bearing his cross
great company of people, and
of women, which also bewailed
and lamented him.
28 But Jesus turning unto
them, said, Daughters of
Jerusalem, weep not for me,
but weep for yourselves, and
for your children.
29 For behold, the days are
coming, in the which they
shall say, Blessed _are_ the
barren, and the wombs that
never bare, and the paps which
never gave suck.(288)
30 Then shall they begin to
say to the mountains, Fall on
us; and to the hills, Cover
31 For if they do these things
in a green tree, what shall be
done in the dry?
32 And there were also two
others, malefactors, led with
him to be put to death.
33 And when they were come to    went forth into a place called
the place which is called        _the place_ of a skull, which
Calvary,                         is called in the Hebrew,

§ 153. The Crucifixion. (Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 35-38.                CH. XV. 24-28.
35 And they crucified him, and   24 And when they had crucified
parted his garments, casting     him, they parted his garments,
lots: that it might be           casting lots upon them, what
fulfilled which was spoken by    every man should take.
the prophet; They parted my
garments among them, and upon
my vesture did they cast
36 And sitting down, they        25 And it was the third hour,
watched him there:               and they crucified him.
37 And set up over his head      26 And the superscription of
his accusation(291) written,     his accusation was written
38 Then were there two thieves   27 And with him they crucify
crucified with him: one on the   two thieves, the one on his
right hand, and another on the   right hand, and the other on
left.                            his left.
                                 28 And the scripture was
                                 fulfilled, which saith, And he
                                 was numbered with the

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 33, 34, 38.           CH. XIX. 18-24.
33 There they crucified him,     18 Where they crucified him,
and the malefactors; one on      and two other with him, on
the right hand, and the other    either side one, and Jesus in
on the left.                     the midst.
34 Then said Jesus, Father,
forgive them: for they know
not what they do. And they
parted his raiment, and cast
38 And a superscription also     19 And Pilate wrote a title,
was written over him, in         and put it on the cross. And
letters of Greek, and Latin,     the writing was, JESUS OF
OF THE JEWS.                     JEWS.
                                 20 This title then read many
                                 of Jews: for the place where
                                 Jesus was crucified was nigh
                                 to the city: and it was
                                 written in Hebrew, _and_
                                 Greek, _and_ Latin.
                                 21 Then said the chief priests
                                 of the Jews to Pilate, Write
                                 not, The King of the Jews; but
                                 that he said, I am King of the
                                 22 Pilate answered, What I
                                 have written, I have written.
                                 23 Then the soldiers, when
                                 they had crucified Jesus, took
                                 his garments, and made four
                                 parts,(293) to every soldier a
                                 part; and also _his_ coat: now
                                 the coat was without seam,
                                 woven from the top throughout.
                                 24 They said therefore among
                                 themselves, Let us not rend
                                 it, but cast lots for it whose
                                 it shall be: that the
                                 scripture might be fulfilled,
                                 which saith, They parted my
                                 raiment among them, and for my
                                 vesture they did cast lots.
                                 These things therefore the
                                 soldiers did.

§ 154. The Jews mock at Jesus on the cross. He commends his mother to
John. (Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 39-44.                CH. XV. 29-32.
39 And they that passed by,      29 And they that passed by,
reviled him, wagging their       railed on him, wagging their
heads,                           heads, and saying, Ah, thou
                                 that destroyest the temple,
                                 and buildest _it_ in three
40 And saying, Thou that         30 Save thyself, and come down
destroyest the temple, and       from the cross.
buildest _it_ in three days,
save thyself. If thou be the
Son of God, come down from the
41 Likewise also the chief       31 Likewise also the chief
priests mocking _him_, with      priests mocking, said among
the scribes and elders, said,    themselves with the scribes,
                                 He saved others; himself he
                                 cannot save.
42 He saved others; himself he   32 Let Christ the King of
cannot save. If he be the King   Israel descend now from the
of Israel, let him now come      cross, that we may see and
down from the cross, and we      believe. And they that were
will believe him.                crucified with him, reviled
43 He trusted in God; let him
deliver him now if he will
have him: for he said, I am
the Son of God.(294)
44 The thieves also which were
crucified with him, cast the
same in his teeth.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 35-37, 39-43.         CH. XIX. 25-27.
35 And the people stood
beholding. And the rulers also
with them derided him, saying,
He saved others; let him save
himself, if he be Christ, the
chosen of God.
36 And the soldiers also
mocked him, coming to him, and
offering him vinegar,(295)
37 And saying, If thou be the
King of the Jews, save
39 And one of the
malefactors,(296) which were
hanged, railed on him, saying,
If thou be Christ, save
thyself and us.
40 But the other answering,
rebuked him, saying, Dost not
thou fear God, seeing thou art
in the same condemnation?
41 And we indeed justly; for
we receive the due reward of
our deeds: but this man hath
done nothing amiss.
42 And he said unto Jesus,
Lord, remember me when thou
comest into thy kingdom.
43 And Jesus said unto him,
Verily, I say unto thee,
To-day shalt thou be with me
in paradise.
                                 25 Now there stood by the
                                 cross of Jesus, his mother,
                                 and his mother’s sister, Mary
                                 the _wife_ of Cleophas, and
                                 Mary Magdalene.
                                 26 When Jesus therefore saw
                                 his mother, and the disciple
                                 standing by whom he loved, he
                                 saith unto his mother, Woman,
                                 behold thy son!
                                 27 Then saith he to the
                                 disciple, Behold thy mother!
                                 And from that hour that
                                 disciple took her unto his own

§ 155. Darkness prevails. Christ expires on the cross. (Sixth Day Of The
Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 45-50.                CH. XV. 33-37.
45 Now, from the sixth hour      33 And when the sixth hour was
there was darkness over all      come, there was darkness over
the land unto the ninth hour.    the whole land, until the
                                 ninth hour.
46 And about the ninth hour      34 And at the ninth hour Jesus
Jesus cried with a loud voice,   cried with a loud voice,
saying, Eli, Eli, lama           saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama
sabachthani? that is to say,     sabachthani? which is, being
My God, my God, why hast thou    interpreted, My God, my God,
forsaken me?(297)                why hast thou forsaken me?
47 Some of them that stood       35 And some of them that stood
there, when they heard _that_,   by, when they heard _it_,
said, This _man_ calleth for     said, Behold, he calleth
Elias.                           Elias.
48 And straightway one of them   36 And one ran and filled a
ran, and took a spunge, and      spunge full of vinegar, and
filled _it_ with vinegar,(298)   put _it_ on a reed, and gave
and put _it_ on a reed, and      him to drink, saying, Let
gave him to drink.               alone; let us see whether
                                 Elias will come to take him
49 The rest said, Let be, let
us see whether Elias(299) will
come to save him.
50 Jesus, when he had cried      37 And Jesus cried with a loud
again with a loud voice,         voice, and gave up the ghost.
yielded up the ghost.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 44-46.                CH. XIX. 28-30.
44 And it was about the sixth
hour, and there was a darkness
over all the earth(300) until
the ninth hour.
45 And the sun was darkened,
                                 28 After this, Jesus knowing
                                 that all things were now
                                 accomplished, that the
                                 scripture might be fulfilled,
                                 saith, I thirst.(301)
                                 29 Now there was set a vessel
                                 full of vinegar: and they
                                 filled a spunge with vinegar,
                                 and put _it_ upon hyssop, and
                                 put _it_ to his mouth.
46 And when Jesus had cried      30 When Jesus therefore had
with a loud voice, he said,      received the vinegar, he said,
Father, into thy hands I         It is finished: and he bowed
commend my spirit: and having    his head, and gave up the
said thus, he gave up the        ghost.

§ 156. The vail of the Temple rent. The graves opened. The women at the
cross. (Sixth Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 51-56.                CH. XV. 38-41.
51 And behold, the vail of the   38 And the vail of the temple
temple was rent in twain from    was rent in twain, from the
the top to the bottom: and the   top to the bottom.
earth did quake, and the rocks
52 And the graves were opened,
and many bodies of the saints
which slept, arose,
53 And came out of the graves
after his resurrection, and
went into the holy city, and
appeared unto many.
54 Now, when the centurion,      39 And when the centurion
and they that were with him,     which stood over against him,
watching Jesus, saw the          saw that he so cried out, and
earthquake, and those things     gave up the ghost, he said,
that were done, they feared      Truly this man was the Son of
greatly, saying, Truly this      God.
was the Son of God.
55 And many women were there     40 There were also women
(beholding afar off)(302)        looking on afar off, among
which followed Jesus from        whom was Mary Magdalene, and
Galilee, ministering unto him:   Mary the Mother of James the
                                 less, and of Joses, and
56 Among which was Mary          41 Who also, when he was in
Magdalene, and Mary the mother   Galilee, followed him, and
of James and Joses, and the      ministered unto him; and many
mother of Zebedee’s children.    other women which came up with
                                 him unto Jerusalem.

CH. XXIII. 45, 47-49.
45 And the vail of the temple
was rent in the midst.
47 Now, when the centurion saw
what was done, he glorified
God, saying, Certainly this
was a righteous man.
48 And all the people that
came together to that sight,
beholding the things which
were done, smote their breasts
and returned.
49 And all his acquaintance,
and the women that followed
him from Galilee, stood afar
off, beholding these things.

§ 157. The taking down from the cross. The burial. _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVII. 57-61.                CH. XV. 42-47.
57 When the even was come,       42 And now, when the even was
there came a rich man of         come, (because it was the
Arimathea, named Joseph, who     preparation, that is, the day
also himself was Jesus’          before the sabbath,)
58 He went to Pilate, and        43 Joseph of Arimathea, an
begged the body(303) of Jesus.   honourable counsellor, which
Then Pilate commanded the body   also waited for the kingdom of
to be delivered.                 God, came, and went in boldly
                                 unto Pilate, and craved the
                                 body of Jesus.
                                 44 And Pilate marvelled if he
                                 were already dead: and calling
                                 _unto him_ the centurion, he
                                 asked him whether he had been
                                 any while dead.
                                 45 And when he knew _it_ of
                                 the centurion, he gave the
                                 body to Joseph.
59 And when Joseph had taken     46 And he bought fine linen,
the body, he wrapped it in a     and took him down, and wrapped
clean linen cloth,               him in the linen, and laid him
                                 in a sepulchre which was hewn
                                 out of a rock, and rolled a
                                 stone unto the door of the
60 And laid it in his own new
tomb, which he had hewn out in
the rock; and he rolled a
great stone to the door of the
sepulchre, and departed.
61 And there was Mary            47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary
Magdalene, and the other Mary,   _the mother_ of Joses beheld
sitting over against the         where he was laid.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIII. 50-56.                CH. XIX. 31-42.
                                 31 The Jews therefore, because
                                 it was the preparation, that
                                 the bodies should not remain
                                 upon the cross on the
                                 sabbath-day, (for that
                                 sabbath-day was an high day)
                                 besought Pilate that their
                                 legs might be broken, and
                                 _that_ they might be taken
                                 32 Then came the soldiers, and
                                 brake the legs of the first,
                                 and of the other which was
                                 crucified with him.
                                 33 But when they came to
                                 Jesus, and saw that he was
                                 dead already, they brake not
                                 his legs:
                                 34 But one of the soldiers
                                 with a spear pierced his side,
                                 and forthwith came thereout
                                 blood and water.
                                 35 And he that saw _it_, bare
                                 record, and his record is
                                 true: and he knoweth that he
                                 saith true, that ye might
                                 36 For these things were done,
                                 that the scripture should be
                                 fulfilled, A bone of him shall
                                 not be broken.(304)
                                 37 And again another scripture
                                 saith, They shall look on him
                                 whom they pierced.(305)
50 And behold, _there was_ a     38 And after this Joseph of
man named Joseph, a              Arimathea (being a disciple of
counsellor: _and he was_ a       Jesus, but secretly for fear
good man, and a just:            of the Jews) besought Pilate
                                 that he might take away the
                                 body of Jesus: and Pilate gave
                                 _him_ leave. He came therefore
                                 and took the body of Jesus.
51 (The same had not consented
to the counsel and deed of
them:) _he was_ of Arimathea,
a city of the Jews; who also
himself waited for the kingdom
of God.
52 This _man_ went unto          39 And there came also
Pilate, and begged the body of   Nicodemus (which at the first
Jesus.                           came to Jesus by night) and
                                 brought a mixture of myrrh and
                                 aloes, about an hundred pounds
53 And he took it down, and      40 Then took they the body of
wrapped it in linen, and laid    Jesus, and wound it in linen
it in a sepulchre that was       clothes with the spices, as
hewn in stone, wherein never     the manner of the Jews is to
man before was laid.             bury.
                                 41 Now in the place where he
                                 was crucified, there was a
                                 garden; and in the garden a
                                 new sepulchre, wherein was
                                 never man yet laid.
54 And that day was the          42 There laid they Jesus
preparation, and the sabbath     therefore, because of the
drew on.(306)                    Jews’ preparation-_day_; for
                                 the sepulchre was nigh at
55 And the women also, which
came with him from Galilee,
followed after, and beheld the
sepulchre, and how his body
was laid.
56 And they returned, and
prepared spices and ointments;
and rested the sabbath-day,
according to the commandment.

§ 158. The watch at the sepulchre. (Seventh Day Of The Week, Or Sabbath.)

CH. XXVII. 62-66.
62 Now, the next day that
followed the day of the
preparation, the chief priests
and Pharisees came together
unto Pilate,
63 Saying, Sir, we remember
that that deceiver said, while
he was yet alive, After three
days I will rise again.
64 Command therefore that the
sepulchre be made sure until
the third day, lest his
disciples come by night, and
steal him away, and say unto
the people, He is risen from
the dead: so the last error
shall be worse than the first.
65 Pilate said unto them, Ye
have a watch: go your way,
make _it_ as sure as ye can.
66 So they went and made the
sepulchre sure, sealing the
stone, and setting a

Part IX. Our Lord’s Resurrection, His Subsequent Appearances, And His

TIME. _Forty days_.

§ 159. The morning of the Resurrection. (First Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVIII. 2-4.                 CH. XVI. 1.
                                 And when the sabbath was past,
                                 Mary Magdalene, and Mary the
                                 _mother_ of James, and Salome,
                                 had bought sweet spices, that
                                 they might come and anoint
2 And behold, there was a
great earthquake; for the
angel of the Lord descended
from heaven, and came and
rolled back the stone from the
door, and sat upon it.
3 His countenance was like
lightning, and his raiment
white as snow.
4 And for fear of him the
keepers did shake, and became
as dead _men_.

§ 160. Visit of the women to the Sepulchre. Mary Magdalene returns. (First
Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVIII. 1.                   CH. XVI. 2-4.
In the end of the sabbath, as    2 And very early in the
it began to dawn toward the      morning, the first _day_ of
first _day_ of the week, came    the week, they came unto the
Mary Magdalene, and the other    sepulchre at the rising of the
Mary to see the sepulchre.       sun:
                                 3 And they said among
                                 themselves, Who shall roll us
                                 away the stone from the door
                                 of the sepulchre?
                                 4 (And when they looked, they
                                 saw that the stone was rolled
                                 away,) for it was very great.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIV. 1-3.                   CH. XX. 1-2.
Now upon the first _day_ of      The first _day_ of the week
the week, very early in the      cometh Mary Magdalene early,
morning, they came unto the      when it was yet dark, unto the
sepulchre, bringing the spices   sepulchre, and seeth the stone
which they had prepared, and     taken away from the sepulchre.
certain _others_ with them.
2 And they found the stone
rolled away from the
3 And they entered in, and       2 Then she runneth, and cometh
found not the body of the Lord   to Simon Peter, and to the
Jesus.                           other disciple whom Jesus
                                 loved, and saith unto them,
                                 They have taken away the Lord
                                 out of the sepulchre, and we
                                 know not where they have laid

§ 161. Vision of angels in the Sepulchre. (First Day Of The Week.)

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVIII. 5-7.                 CH. XVI. 5-7.
                                 5 And entering into the
                                 sepulchre, they saw a young
                                 man sitting on the right side,
                                 clothed in a long white
                                 garment; and they were
5 And the angel answered and     6 And he saith unto them, Be
said unto the women, Fear not    not affrighted: ye seek Jesus
ye: for I know that ye seek      of Nazareth, which was
Jesus, which was crucified.      crucified: he is risen; he is
                                 not here; behold the place
                                 where they laid him.
6 He is not here: for he is
risen, as he said. Come, see
the place where the Lord lay.
7 And go quickly, and tell his   7 But go your way, tell his
disciples, that he is risen      disciples and Peter, that he
from the dead, and behold, he    goeth before you into Galilee:
goeth before you into Galilee;   there shall ye see him, as he
there shall ye see him: lo, I    said unto you.
have told you.

CH. XXIV. 4-8.
4 And it came to pass, as they
were much perplexed
thereabout, behold, two men
stood by them in shining
5 And as they were afraid, and
bowed down _their_ faces to
the earth, they said unto
them, Why seek ye the living
among the dead?
6 He is not here, but is
risen. Remember how he spake
unto you when he was yet in
7 Saying, The Son of man must
be delivered into the hands of
sinful men, and be crucified,
and the third day rise again.
8 And they remembered his

§ 162. The women return to the city. Jesus meets them. (First Day Of The
Week.) _Jerusalem_.

Matthew.                         Mark.
CH. XXVIII. 8-10.                CH. XVI. 8.
8 And they departed quickly      6 And they went out quickly
from the sepulchre, with fear    and fled from the sepulchre;
and great joy; and did run to    for they trembled, and were
bring his disciples word.        amazed: neither said they any
                                 thing to any _man_; for they
                                 were afraid.
9 And as they went to tell his
disciples, behold Jesus met
them, saying, All hail. And
they came, and held him by the
feet, and worshipped him.
10 Then said Jesus unto them,
Be not afraid: go tell my
brethren, that they go into
Galilee, and there shall they
see me.

CH. XXIV. 9-11.
9 And returned from the
sepulchre, and told all these
things unto the eleven, and to
all the rest.
10 It was Mary Magdalene, and
Joanna, and Mary _the mother_
of James, and other _women
that were_ with them, which
told these things unto the
11 And their words seemed to
them as idle tales, and they
believed them not.

§ 163. Peter and John run to the Sepulchre. (First Day Of The Week.)

Luke.                            John.
CH. XXIV. 12.                    CH. XX. 3-10.
12 Then arose Peter, and ran     3 Peter therefore went forth,
unto the sepulchre, and          and that other disciple, and
stooping down, he beheld the     came to the sepulchre.
linen clothes laid by
themselves, and departed,
wondering in himself at that
which was come to pass.
                                 4 So they ran both together:
                                 and the other disciple did
                                 outrun Peter, and came first
                                 to the sepulchre.
                                 5 And he stooping down, _and
                                 looking in_, saw the linen
                                 clothes lying; yet went he not
                                 6 Then cometh Simon Peter
                                 following him, and went into
                                 the sepulchre, and seeth the
                                 linen clothes lie;
                                 7 And the napkin that was
                                 about his head, not lying with
                                 the linen clothes, but wrapped
                                 together in a place by itself.
                                 8 Then went in also that other
                                 disciple which came first to
                                 the sepulchre, and he saw, and
                                 9 For as yet they knew not the
                                 scripture, that he must rise
                                 again from the dead.
                                 10 Then the disciples went
                                 away again unto their own

§ 164. Our Lord is seen by Mary Magdalene at the Sepulchre. (First Day Of
The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

John.                            Mark.
CH. XX. 11-18.                   CH. XVI. 9-11.
11 But Mary stood without at     9 Now, when _Jesus_ was risen
the sepulchre weeping: and as    early, the first _day_ of the
she wept she stooped down _and   week, he appeared first to
looked_ into the sepulchre,      Mary Magdalene, out of whom he
                                 had cast seven devils.
12 And seeth two angels in
white, sitting, the one at the
head, and the other at the
feet, where the body of Jesus
had lain.
13 And they say unto her,
Woman, why weepest thou? She
saith unto them, Because they
have taken away my Lord, and I
know not where they have laid
14 And when she had thus said,
she turned herself back, and
saw Jesus standing, and knew
not that it was Jesus.
15 Jesus saith unto her,
Woman, why weepest thou? whom
seekest thou? She, supposing
him to be the gardener, saith
unto him, Sir, if thou have
borne him hence, tell me where
thou hast laid him, and I will
take him away.
16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary.
She turned herself, and saith
unto him, Rabboni, which is to
say, Master.
17 Jesus saith unto her, Touch   10 _And_ she went and told
me not: for I am not yet         them that had been with him,
ascended to my Father: but go    as they mourned and wept.
to my brethren, and say unto
them, I ascend unto my Father
and your Father, and _to_ my
God and your God.
18 Mary Magdalene came and       11 And they, when they had
told the disciples that she      heard that he was alive, and
had seen the Lord, and _that_    had been seen of her, believed
he had spoken these things       not.
unto her.

§ 165. Report of the watch. (First Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XXVIII. 11-15.
11 Now, when they were going,
behold, some of the watch came
into the city, and shewed unto
the chief priests all the
things that were done.
12 And when they were
assembled with the elders, and
had taken counsel, they gave
large money unto the soldiers,
13 Saying, Say ye, His
disciples came by night, and
stole him _away_ while we
14 And if this come to the
governor’s ears, we will
persuade him, and secure you.
15 So they took the money, and
did as they were taught: and
this saying is commonly
reported among the Jews until
this day.

§ 166. Our Lord is seen of Peter; then by two disciples on the way to
Emmaus. (First Day Of The Week.) _Emmaus_.

Mark.                            Luke.
CH. XVI. 12, 13.                 CH. XXIV. 13-35.
12 After that, he appeared in    13 And behold, two of them
another form unto two of them,   went that same day to a
as they walked, and went into    village called Emmaus, which
the country.                     was from Jerusalem _about_
                                 threescore furlongs.
                                 14 And they talked together of
                                 all these things which had
                                 15 And it came to pass, that,
                                 while they communed
                                 _together_, and reasoned,
                                 Jesus himself drew near, and
                                 went with them.
                                 16 But their eyes were holden,
                                 that they should not know him.
                                 17 And he said unto them, What
                                 manner of communications _are_
                                 these that ye have one to
                                 another, as ye walk, and are
                                 18 And the one of them, whose
                                 name was Cleopas, answering,
                                 said unto him, Art thou only a
                                 stranger in Jerusalem, and
                                 hast not known the things
                                 which are come to pass there
                                 in these days?
                                 19 And he said unto them, What
                                 things? And they said unto
                                 him, Concerning Jesus of
                                 Nazareth, which was a prophet
                                 mighty in deed and word before
                                 God, and all the people:
                                 20 And how the chief priests
                                 and our rulers delivered him
                                 to be condemned to death, and
                                 have crucified him.
                                 21 But we trusted that it had
                                 been he which should have
                                 redeemed Israel: and besides
                                 all this, to-day is the third
                                 day since these things were
                                 22 Yea, and certain women also
                                 of our company made us
                                 astonished, which were early
                                 at the sepulchre.
                                 23 And when they found not his
                                 body, they came, saying, that
                                 they had also seen a vision of
                                 angels, which said that he was
                                 24 And certain of them which
                                 were with us, went to the
                                 sepulchre, and found _it_ even
                                 so as the women had said: but
                                 him they saw not.
                                 25 Then he said unto them, O
                                 fools, and slow of heart to
                                 believe all that the prophets
                                 have spoken!
                                 26 Ought not Christ to have
                                 suffered these things, and to
                                 enter into his glory?
                                 27 And beginning at Moses, and
                                 all the prophets, he expounded
                                 unto them in all the
                                 scriptures the things
                                 concerning himself.
                                 28 And they drew nigh unto the
                                 village whither they went: and
                                 he made as though he would
                                 have gone further.
                                 29 But they constrained him,
                                 saying, Abide with us: for it
                                 is toward evening, and the day
                                 is far spent. And he went in
                                 to tarry with them.
                                 30 And it came to pass, as he
                                 sat at meat with them, he took
                                 bread, and blessed _it_, and
                                 brake, and gave to them.
                                 31 And their eyes were opened,
                                 and they knew him: and he
                                 vanished out of their sight.
                                 32 And they said one to
                                 another, Did not our heart
                                 burn within us while he talked
                                 with us by the way, and while
                                 he opened to us the
13 And they went and told _it_   33 And they rose up the same
unto the residue: neither        hour, and returned to
believed they them.              Jerusalem, and found the
                                 eleven gathered together, and
                                 them that were with them,
                                 34 Saying, The Lord is risen
                                 indeed, and hath appeared to
                                 35 And they told what things
                                 _were done_ in the way, and
                                 how he was known of them in
                                 breaking of bread.

§ 167. Jesus appears in the midst of the Apostles, Thomas being absent.
(Evening Following The First Day Of The Week.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XVI. 14-18.
14 Afterward he appeared unto
the eleven,(309) as they sat
at meat, and upbraided them
with their unbelief, and
hardness of heart, because
they believed not them which
had seen him after he was
15 And he said unto them, Go
ye into all the world, and
preach the gospel to every
16 He that believeth and is
baptized, shall be saved; but
he that believeth not, shall
be damned.
17 And these signs shall
follow them that believe: In
my name shall they cast out
devils; they shall speak with
new tongues:
18 They shall take up
serpents; and if they drink
any deadly thing, it shall not
hurt them; they shall lay
hands on the sick, and they
shall recover.

Luke.                            John.
CH. XIV. 36-49.                  CH. XX. 19-23.
36 And as they thus spake,       19 Then the same day at
Jesus himself stood in the       evening, being the first _day_
midst of them, and saith unto    of the week, when the doors
them, Peace _be_ unto you.       were shut where the disciples
                                 were assembled for fear of the
                                 Jews, came Jesus and stood in
                                 the midst, and saith unto
                                 them, Peace _be_ unto you.
37 But they were terrified and
affrighted, and supposed that
they had seen a spirit.
38 And he said unto them, Why
are ye troubled? and why do
thoughts arise in your hearts?
39 Behold my hands and my        20 And when he had so said, he
feet, that it is I myself:       shewed unto them _his_ hands
handle me, and see; for a        and his side. Then were the
spirit hath not flesh and        disciples glad when they saw
bones, as ye see me have.        the Lord.
40 And when he had thus
spoken, he shewed them _his_
hands and _his_ feet.
41 And while they yet believed
not for joy, and wondered, he
said unto them, Have ye here
any meat?
42 And they gave him a piece
of a broiled fish, and of an
43 And he took _it_, and did
eat before them.
44 And he said unto them,        21 Then said Jesus to them
These _are_ the words which I    again, Peace _be_ unto you:
spake unto you, while I was      _as my_ Father hath sent me,
yet with you, that all things    even so send I you.
must be fulfilled which were
written in the law of Moses,
and _in_ the prophets, and
_in_ the psalms, concerning
45 Then opened he their          22 And when he had said this,
understanding, that they might   he breathed on _them_, and
understand the scriptures,       saith unto them, Receive ye
                                 the Holy Ghost.
46 And said unto them, Thus it   23 Whose soever sins ye remit,
is written, and thus it          they are remitted unto them;
behoved Christ to suffer, and    _and_ whose soever _sins_ ye
to rise from the dead the        retain, they are retained.
third day:
47 And that repentance and
remission of sins should be
preached in his name among all
nations, beginning at
48 And ye are witnesses of
these things.
49 And behold, I send the
promise of my Father upon you:
but tarry ye in the city of
Jerusalem, until ye be endued
with power from on high.

§ 168. Jesus appears in the midst of the Apostles, Thomas being present.
(Evening Following First Day Of Week After Resurrection.) _Jerusalem_.

CH. XX. 24-29.
24 But Thomas, one of the
twelve, called Didymus, was
not with them when Jesus came.
25 The other disciples
therefore said unto him, We
have seen the Lord. But he
said unto them, Except I shall
see in his hands the print of
the nails, and put my finger
into the print of the nails,
and thrust my hand into his
side, I will not believe.
26 And after eight days again
his disciples were within, and
Thomas with them: _then_ came
Jesus, the doors being shut,
and stood in the midst, and
said, Peace _be_ unto you.
27 Then saith he to Thomas,
Reach hither thy finger, and
behold my hands; and reach
hither thy hand, and thrust
_it_ into my side; and be not
faithless, but believing.
28 And Thomas answered and
said unto him, My Lord and my
29 Jesus saith unto him,
Thomas, because thou hast seen
me, thou hast believed:
blessed _are_ they that have
not seen and _yet_ have

§ 169. The Apostles go away into Galilee. Jesus shows himself to seven of
them at the Sea of Tiberias. _Galilee_.

Matthew.                         John.
CH. XXVIII. 16.                  CH. XXI. 1-24.
16 Then the eleven disciples     After these things Jesus
went away into Galilee,          shewed himself again to the
                                 disciples at the sea of
                                 Tiberias; and on this wise
                                 shewed he _himself_.
                                 2 There were together Simon
                                 Peter, and Thomas called
                                 Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana
                                 in Galilee, and the _sons_ of
                                 Zebedee, and two other of his
                                 3 Simon Peter saith unto them,
                                 I go a fishing. They say unto
                                 him, We also go with thee.
                                 They went forth, and entered
                                 into a ship immediately; and
                                 that night they caught
                                 4 But when the morning was now
                                 come, Jesus stood on the
                                 shore; but the disciples knew
                                 not that it was Jesus.
                                 5 Then Jesus saith unto them,
                                 Children, have ye any meat?
                                 They answered him, No.
                                 6 And he said unto them, Cast
                                 the net on the right side of
                                 the ship, and ye shall find.
                                 They cast therefore, and now
                                 they were not able to draw it
                                 for the multitude of fishes.
                                 7 Therefore that disciple whom
                                 Jesus loved saith unto Peter,
                                 It is the Lord. Now when Simon
                                 Peter heard that it was the
                                 Lord, he girt _his_ fisher’s
                                 coat _unto him_, (for he was
                                 naked) and did cast himself
                                 into the sea.
                                 8 And the other disciples came
                                 in a little ship (for they
                                 were not far from land, but as
                                 it were two hundred cubits)
                                 dragging the net with fishes.
                                 9 As soon then as they were
                                 come to land, they saw a fire
                                 of coals there, and fish laid
                                 thereon, and bread.
                                 10 Jesus saith unto them,
                                 bring of the fish which ye
                                 have now caught.
                                 11 Simon Peter went up, and
                                 drew the net to land full of
                                 great fishes, an hundred and
                                 fifty and three: and for all
                                 there were so many, yet was
                                 not the net broken.
                                 12 Jesus saith unto them, Come
                                 _and_ dine. And none of the
                                 disciples durst ask him, Who
                                 art thou? knowing that it was
                                 the Lord.
                                 13 Jesus then cometh, and
                                 taketh bread, and giveth them,
                                 and fish likewise.
                                 14 This is now the third time
                                 that Jesus shewed himself to
                                 his disciples, after that he
                                 was risen from the dead.
                                 15 So when they had dined,
                                 Jesus saith to Simon Peter,
                                 Simon, _son_ of Jonas, lovest
                                 thou me more than these? He
                                 saith unto him, Yea, Lord:
                                 thou knowest that I love thee.
                                 He saith unto him, Feed my
                                 16 He saith to him again the
                                 second time, Simon, _son_ of
                                 Jonas, lovest thou me? He
                                 saith unto him, Yea, Lord:
                                 thou knowest that I love thee.
                                 He saith unto him, Feed my
                                 17 He saith unto him the third
                                 time, Simon, _son_ of Jonas,
                                 lovest thou me? Peter was
                                 grieved because he said unto
                                 him the third time, Lovest
                                 thou me? And he said unto him,
                                 Lord, thou knowest all things;
                                 thou knowest that I love thee.
                                 Jesus saith unto him, Feed my
                                 18 Verily, verily, I say unto
                                 thee, When thou wast young,
                                 thou girdest thyself, and
                                 walkedst whither thou
                                 wouldest: but when thou shalt
                                 be old, thou shalt stretch
                                 forth thy hands, and another
                                 shall gird thee, and carry
                                 _thee_ whither thou wouldest
                                 19 This spake he, signifying
                                 by what death he should
                                 glorify God. And when he had
                                 spoken this, he saith unto
                                 him, Follow me.
                                 20 Then Peter, turning about,
                                 seeth the disciple whom Jesus
                                 loved, following; (which also
                                 leaned on his breast at
                                 supper, and said, Lord, which
                                 is he that betrayeth thee?)
                                 21 Peter seeing him, saith to
                                 Jesus, Lord, and what _shall_
                                 this man _do_?
                                 22 Jesus saith unto him, if I
                                 will that he tarry till I
                                 come, what _is that_ to thee?
                                 Follow thou me.
                                 23 Then went this saying
                                 abroad among the brethren,
                                 that that disciple should not
                                 die: yet Jesus said not unto
                                 him, He shall not die; but, if
                                 I will that he tarry till I
                                 come, what _is that_ to thee?
                                 24 This is the disciple which
                                 testifieth of these things,
                                 and wrote these things: and we
                                 know that his testimony is

§ 170. Jesus meets the Apostles and above five hundred brethren on a
mountain in Galilee. _Galilee_.

CH. XXVIII. 16-20.
16 into a mountain where Jesus
had appointed them.
17 And when they saw him,(310)
they worshipped him: but some
18 And Jesus came, and spake
unto them, saying, All power
is given unto me in heaven and
in earth.
19 Go ye therefore and teach
all nations, baptizing them in
the name of the Father, and of
the Son, and of the Holy
20 Teaching them to observe
all things whatsoever I have
commanded you: and lo, I am
with you alway, _even_ unto
the end of the world. Amen.

§ 171. Our Lord is seen of James; then of all the Apostles. _Jerusalem_.

The title of this section in inserted, for the sake of preserving the
series of Dr. Robinson, whose arrangement has been followed in this
Harmony; but as the appearances of Jesus which are here referred to, are
related only by Luke in Acts, i. 3-8, and by Paul in 1 Cor. xv. 7, the
particular insertion of those passages is omitted, for the reasons already
given. See § 137, note. The subject of this and the eleven preceding
sections, respecting the resurrection of Jesus, is discussed in the Note
on the Resurrection.

§ 172. The Ascension. _Bethany_.

Mark.                            Luke.
CH. XVI. 19, 20.                 CH. XXIV. 50-53.
19 So then, after the Lord had   50 And he led them out as far
spoken unto them, he was         as to Bethany:(311) and he
received up into heaven, and     lifted up his hands, and
sat on the right hand of God.    blessed them.
20 And they went forth, and      51 And it came to pass, while
preached every where, the Lord   he blessed them, he was parted
working with _them_, and         from them, and carried up into
confirming the word with signs   heaven.
following. Amen.
                                 52 And they worshipped him,
                                 and returned to Jerusalem with
                                 great joy:
                                 53 And were continually in the
                                 temple, praising and blessing
                                 God. Amen.

§ 173. Conclusion of John’s Gospel.

CH. XX. 30, 31.
30 And many other signs truly
did Jesus in the presence of
his disciples, which are not
written in this book.
31 But these are written that
ye might believe that Jesus is
the Christ, the Son of God;
and that believing ye might
have life through his name.
CH. XXI. 25.
25 And there are also many
other things which Jesus did,
the which, if they should be
written every one, I suppose
that even the world itself
could not contain the books
that should be written. Amen.


The accounts of the Resurrection and of the subsequent appearances of our
Lord, have been harmonised in various methods; of which the latest, and
probably the best, is that of Professor Robinson, in an article published
in the Bibliotheca Sacra for February 1845, vol. ii. pp. 162-189. As the
best service the present writer could do to the English reader, he has
therefore here abridged that article, by omitting the introduction, and
such parts as relate to the Greek text, and a few other passages, which it
seemed might be spared without injury to the narrative itself.

§ 1. _The Time of the Resurrection._

Matt. 26: 1, 2.  Mark 16: 1, 2, 9.  Luke 24: 1.  John 20: 1.

That the resurrection of our Lord took place before full daylight, on the
first day of the week, follows from the unanimous testimony of the
Evangelists respecting the visit of the women to the sepulchre. But the
exact time at which he rose is nowhere specified. According to the Jewish
mode of reckoning, the Sabbath ended and the next day began at sunset; so
that had the resurrection occurred even before midnight, it would still
have been upon the first day of the week, and the third day after our
Lord’s burial. The earthquake had taken place and the stone had been
rolled away before the arrival of the women; and so far as the immediate
narrative is concerned, there is nothing to show that all this might not
have happened some hours earlier. Yet the words of Mark in another place
render it certain, that there could have been no great interval between
these events and the arrival of the women; since he affirms in v. 9, that
Jesus “had risen _early_, the first day of the week;” while in v. 2, he
states that the women went out “_very early_.” A like inference may be
drawn from the fact, that the affrighted guards first went to inform the
chief priests of these events, when the women returned to the city (Matt.
28: 11); for it is hardly to be supposed, that after having been thus
terrified by the earthquake and the appearance of an angel, they would
have waited any very long time before sending information to their
employers.—The body of Jesus had therefore probably lain in the tomb not
less than about thirty-six hours.

§ 2. _The Visit of the Women to the Sepulchre._

Matt. 28: 1-8. Mark 16: 1-8. Luke 24: 1-11. John 20: 1, 2.

The first notices we have of our Lord’s resurrection, are connected with
the visit of the women to the sepulchre, on the morning of the first day
of the week. According to Luke, the women who had stood by the cross, went
home and rested during the sabbath (23:56); and Mark adds that after the
sabbath was ended, that is, after sunset, and during the evening, they
prepared spices in order to go and embalm our Lord’s body. They were
either not aware of the previous embalming by Joseph and Nicodemus; or
else they also wished to testify their respect and affection to their
Lord, by completing, more perfectly, what before had been done in haste;
John 19: 40-42.

It is in just this portion of the history, which relates to the visit of
the women to the tomb and the appearance of Jesus to them, that most of
the alleged difficulties and discrepancies in this part of the Gospel
narratives are found. We will therefore take up the chief of them in their

I. _The Time_. All the Evangelists agree in saying that the women went out
_very early_ to the sepulchre. Matthew’s expression is, _as the day was
dawning_. Mark’s words are, _very early_: which indeed are less definite,
but are appropriate to denote the same point of time. Luke has the more
poetic term: _deep morning_, i. e. early dawn. John’s language is likewise
definite: _early, while it was yet dark_. All these expressions go to fix
the time at what we call _early dawn_, or _early twilight_; after the
break of day, but while the light is yet struggling with darkness.

Thus far there is no difficulty; and none would ever arise, had not Mark
added the phrase, _the sun being risen_; or, as the English version has
it, _at the rising of the sun_. These words seem, at first, to be at
direct variance both with the _very early_ of Mark himself, and with the
language of the other Evangelists. To harmonise this apparent discrepancy,
we may premise, that since Mark himself first specifies the point of time
by a phrase sufficiently definite in itself, and supported by all the
other Evangelists, we must conclude that when he adds, _at the rising of
the sun_, he did not mean to contradict himself, but used this latter
phrase in a broader and less definite sense. As the sun is the source of
light and of the day, and as his earliest rays produce the contrast
between darkness and light, between night and dawn, so the term sunrising
might easily come in popular language, by a metonymy of cause for effect,
to be put for all that earlier interval, when his rays, still struggling
with darkness, do nevertheless usher in the day.

Accordingly, we find such a popular usage prevailing among the Hebrews;
and several instances of it occur in the Old Testament. Thus in Judg. 9:
33, the message of Zebul to Abimelech, after directing him to lie in wait
with his people in the field during the night, goes on as follows: “and it
shall be, in the morning, as soon as the sun is up thou shalt rise early
and set upon the city;” yet we cannot for a moment suppose that Abimelech
with his ambuscade was to wait until the sun actually appeared above the
horizon, before he made his onset. So the Psalmist (104: 22), speaking of
the young lions that by night roar after their prey, goes on to say: “The
sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, and lay them down in their
dens.” But wild animals do not wait for the actual appearance of the sun
ere they shrink away to their lairs; the break of day, the dawning light,
is the signal for their retreat. See also Sept. 2 K. 3:22. 2 Sam. 23:4. In
all these passages the language is entirely parallel to that of Mark; and
they serve fully to illustrate the principle, that the rising of the sun
is here used in a popular sense as equivalent to the _rising of the day_
or early dawn.

II. _The Number of the Women._ Matthew mentions Mary Magdalene and the
other Mary; v. 1. Mark enumerates Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of
James, and Salome; v. 1. Luke has Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother
of James, and others with them; v. 10. John speaks of Mary Magdalene
alone, and says nothing of any other. The first three Evangelists accord
then in respect to the two Marys, but no further; while John differs from
them all. Is there here a real discrepancy?

We may at once answer, No; because, according to the sound canon of Le
Clerc:(312) “_Qui plura narrat, pauciora complectitur; qui pauciora
memorat, plura non negat._” Because John, in narrating circumstances with
which he was personally connected, sees fit to mention only Mary
Magdalene, it does not at all follow that others were not present. Because
Matthew, perhaps for like reasons, speaks only of the two Marys, he by no
means excludes the presence of others. Indeed, the very words which John
puts into the mouth of Mary Magdalene, (v. 2), presupposes the fact, that
others had gone with her to the sepulchre. That there was something in
respect to Mary Magdalene, which gave her a peculiar prominence in these
transactions, may be inferred from the fact, that not only John mentions
her alone, but likewise all the other Evangelists name her first, as if
holding the most conspicuous place.

The instance here under consideration is parallel to that of the demoniacs
of Gadara, and the blind men at Jericho; where, in both cases, Matthew
speaks of two persons, while Mark and Luke mention only one.(313)
Something peculiar in the station or character of one of the persons,
rendered him in each case more prominent, and led the two latter
Evangelists to speak of him particularly. But there, as here, their
language is not exclusive; nor is there in it anything that contradicts
the statements of Matthew.

III. _The Arrival at the Sepulchre._ According to Mark, Luke, and John,
the women on reaching the sepulchre found the great stone, with which it
had been closed, already rolled away. Matthew, on the other hand, after
narrating that the women went out to see the sepulchre, proceeds to
mention the earthquake, the descent of the angel, his rolling away the
stone and sitting upon it, and the terror of the watch, as if all these
things took place in the presence of the women. The angel too (in v. 5)
addresses the women, as if still sitting upon the stone he had rolled

The apparent discrepancy, if any, here arises simply from Matthew’s
brevity in omitting to state in full what his own narrative presupposes.
According to v. 6, Christ was already risen; and therefore the earthquake
and its accompaniments must have taken place at an earlier point of time,
to which the sacred writer returns back in his narration. And although
Matthew does not represent the women as entering the sepulchre, yet in v.
8, he speaks of them as going out of it; so that of course their interview
with the angel took place, not outside of the sepulchre, but in it, as
narrated by the other Evangelists. When therefore the angel says to them
in v. 6, “Come, see the place where the Lord lay,” this is not said
without the tomb to induce them to enter, as Strauss avers; but within the
sepulchre, just as in Mark v. 6.

IV. _The Vision of Angels in the Sepulchre._ Of this John says nothing.
Matthew and Mark speak of one angel; Luke of two. Mark says he was
sitting; Luke speaks of them as standing. This difference in respect to
numbers is parallel to the case of the women, which we have just
considered; and requires therefore no further illustration.

There is likewise some diversity in the language addressed to the women by
the angels. In Matthew and Mark, the prominent object is the charge to the
disciples to depart into Galilee. In Luke this is not referred to; but the
women are reminded of our Lord’s own previous declaration, that he would
rise again on the third day. Neither of the Evangelists here professes to
report _all_ that was said by the angels; and of course there is no room
for contradiction.

§ 3. _The return of the Women to the city, and the first appearance of our

Matt. 28: 7-10. Mark 16: 8. Luke 24: 9-11. John 20: 1, 2.

John, speaking of Mary Magdalene alone, says that having seen that the
stone was taken away from the sepulchre, she went in haste (ran) to tell
Peter and John. He says nothing of her having seen the angels, nor of her
having entered the sepulchre at all. The other Evangelists, speaking of
the women generally, relate that they entered the tomb, saw the angels and
then returned into the city. On their way Jesus meets them. They recognize
him; fall at and embrace his feet; and receive his charge to the
disciples.—Was Mary Magdalene now with the other women? Or did she enter
the city by another way? Or had she left the sepulchre before the rest?

It is evident that Mary Magdalene was not with the other women when Jesus
thus met them. Her language to Peter and John forbids the supposition,
that she had already seen the Lord: “They have taken away the Lord out of
the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.” She therefore
must have entered the city by another path and gate; or else have left the
sepulchre before the rest; or possibly both these positions may be true.
She bore her tidings expressly to Peter and John, who would seem to have
lodged by themselves in a different quarter of the city; while the other
women went apparently to the rest of the disciples. But this supposition
of a different route is essential, only in connection with the view, that
she left the tomb with the other women. That, however, she actually
departed from the sepulchre before her companions, would seem most
probable; inasmuch as she speaks to Peter and John only of the absence of
the Lord’s body; says nothing in this connection of a vision of angels;
and when, after returning again to the tomb, she sees the angels, it is
evidently for the first time; and she repeats to them as the cause of her
grief her complaint as to the disappearance of the body; John 20: 12, 13.
She may have turned back from the tomb without entering it at all, so soon
as she saw that it was open; inferring from the removal of the stone, that
the sepulchre had been rifled. Or, she may first have entered with the
rest, when, according to Luke, “they found not the body of the Lord
Jesus,” and “were much perplexed thereabout,” before the angels became
visible to them. The latter supposition seems best to meet the exigencies
of the case.

“As the other women went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them,
saying, All hail. And they came, and held him by the feet, and worshipped
him. Then Jesus said unto them, Be not afraid; go, tell my brethren, that
they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.” The women had left the
sepulchre “with fear and great joy” after the declaration of the angels
that Christ was risen; or, as Mark has it, “they trembled and were
amazed.” Jesus meets them with words of gentleness to quiet their terrors;
“Be not afraid.” He permits them to approach, and embrace his feet, and
testify their joy and homage. He reiterates to them the message of the
angels to his “brethren,” the eleven disciples; see v. 16.

This appearance and interview is narrated only by Matthew; none of the
other Evangelists give any hint of it. Matthew here stops short. Mark
simply relates that the women fled from the tomb; “neither said they
anything to any one, for they were afraid.” This of course can only mean,
that they spoke of what they had thus seen to no one while on their way to
the city; for the very charge of the angels, which they went to fulfil,
was, that they should “go their way and tell his disciples;” v. 7. Luke
narrates more fully, that “they returned from the sepulchre, and told all
these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.—And their words seemed
to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.” We may perhaps see in
this language one reason why the other Evangelists have omitted to mention
this appearance of our Lord. The disciples _disbelieved the report of the
women_, that they had seen Jesus. In like manner they afterwards
disbelieved the report of Mary Magdalene to the same effect; Mark 16: 11.
They were ready, it would seem, to admit the testimony of the women to the
absence of the body, and to the vision of angels; but not to the
resurrection of Jesus and his appearance to them; Luke 24: 21-24. And
afterwards, when the eleven had become convinced by the testimony of their
own senses, those first two appearances to the women became of less
importance and were less regarded. Hence the silence of three Evangelists
as to the one; of two as to the other; and of Paul as to both; 1 Cor. 15:
5, 6.

§ 4. _Peter and John visit the Sepulchre. Jesus appears to Mary

John 20: 3-18. Luke 24: 12. Mark 16: 9-11.

The full account of these two events is given solely by John. Matthew has
not a word of either; Luke merely mentions, in general, that Peter, on the
report of the women, went to the sepulchre; while Mark speaks only of our
Lord’s appearance to Mary Magdalene, which he seems to represent as his
_first_ appearance.

According to John’s account, Peter and the beloved disciple, excited by
the tidings of Mary Magdalene that the Lord’s body had been taken away,
hasten to the sepulchre. They run; John outruns Peter, comes first to the
tomb, and stooping down, sees the grave-clothes lying, but he does not
enter. The other women are no longer at the tomb; nor have the disciples
met them on the way. Peter now comes up; he enters the the tomb, and sees
the grave-clothes lying, and the napkin that was about his head not lying
with the rest, but wrapped together in a place by itself. John too now
enters the sepulchre; “and he saw and believed.”

What was it that John thus believed? The mere report of Mary Magdalene,
that the body had been removed? So much he must have believed when he
stooped down and looked into the sepulchre. For this, there was no need
that he should enter the tomb. His belief must have been of something more
and greater. The grave-clothes lying orderly in their place, and the
napkin folded together by itself, made it evident that the sepulchre had
not been rifled nor the body stolen by violent hands; for these garments
and spices would have been of more value to thieves, than merely a naked
corpse; at least, they would not have taken the trouble thus to fold them
together. The same circumstances showed also that the body had not been
removed by friends; for they would not thus have left the grave-clothes
behind. All these considerations produce in the mind of John the germ of a
belief that Jesus was risen from the dead. He believed _because_ he saw;
“_for_ as yet they knew not the Scripture;” (v. 9). He now began more
fully to recall and understand our Lord’s repeated declaration, that he
was to rise again on the third day;(314) a declaration on which the Jews
had already acted in setting a watch.(315) In this way, the difficulty
which is sometimes urged of an apparent want of connection between verses
8 and 9, disappears.

The two disciples went their way, “wondering in themselves at what was
come to pass.” Mary Magdalene who had followed them back to the sepulchre,
remained before it weeping. While she thus wept, she too, like John,
stooped down and looked in, “and seeth two angels, in white, sitting, the
one at the head and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had
lain.” To their inquiry why she wept, her reply was the same report which
she had before borne to the two disciples: “Because they have taken away
my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him,” v. 13. Of the angels we
learn nothing further. The whole character of this representation seems to
show clearly, that Mary had not before seen the angels; and also that she
had not before been told, that Jesus was risen. We must otherwise regard
her as having been in a most unaccountably obtuse and unbelieving frame of
mind; the very contrary of which seems to have been the fact. If also she
had before informed the two disciples of a vision of angels and of
Christ’s resurrection, it is difficult to see, why John should omit to
mention this circumstance, so important and so personal to himself.

After replying to the angels, Mary turns herself about, and sees a person
standing near, whom, from his being present there, she takes to be the
keeper of the garden. He too inquires, why she weeps. Her reply is the
same as before; except that she, not unnaturally, supposes him to have
been engaged in removing the body, which she desires to recover. He simply
utters in reply, in well-known tones, the name Mary! and the whole truth
flashes upon her soul; doubt is dispelled, and faith triumphs. She
exclaims: “Rabboni!” as much as to say, “My dearest Master!” and
apparently, like the other women,(316) falls at his feet in order to
embrace and worship him. This Jesus forbids her to do, in these remarkable
words: “Touch me not: for I am not yet ascended to my Father. But go to my
brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and
to my God and your God;” v. 17.

There remains to be considered the circumstance, that Mark, in v. 9, seems
to represent this appearance of Jesus at the sepulchre to Mary Magdalene,
as his first appearance: “Now, being risen early the first of the week, he
appeared _first_ to Mary Magdalene.” In attempting to harmonize this with
Matthew’s account of our Lord’s appearance to the other women on their
return from the sepulchre, several methods have been adopted; but the most
to the purpose is the view which regards the word _first_, in Mark v. 9,
as put not absolutely, but relatively. That is to say, Mark narrates
three, and only three, appearances of our Lord; _of these three_, that to
Mary Magdalene takes place _first_, and that to the assembled disciples
the same evening occurs _last_, v. 14. A similar example occurs in 1 Cor.
15: 5-8, where Paul enumerates those to whom the Lord showed himself after
his resurrection, viz. to Peter, to the twelve, to five hundred brethren,
to James, to all the apostles, and _last of all_ to Paul also. Now had
Paul written here, as with strict propriety he might have done, “he was
seen _first_ of Cephas,” assuredly no one would ever have understood him
as intending to assert that the appearance to Peter was the first
absolutely; that is, as implying that Jesus was seen of Peter before he
appeared to Mary Magdalene and the other women. In like manner when John
declares (21: 14) that Jesus showed himself to his disciples by the lake
of Galilee for the _third_ time after he was risen from the dead; this is
said relatively to the two previous appearances to the assembled apostles;
and does by no means exclude the four still earlier appearances, viz. to
Peter, to the two at Emmaus, to Mary Magdalene, and to the other
women,—one of which John himself relates in full.

In this way the old difficulty in the case before us disappears; and the
complex and cumbrous machinery of earlier commentators becomes

After her interview with Jesus, Mary Magdalene returns to the city, and
tells the disciples that she had seen the Lord and that he had spoken
these things unto her. According to Mark (vs. 10, 11), the disciples were
“mourning and weeping;” and when the heard that Jesus was alive and had
been seen of her, they believed not.

§ 5. _Jesus appears to two disciples on the way to Emmaus. Also to Peter._

Luke 24: 13-35. Mark 16: 12, 13. 1 Cor. 15: 5.

This appearance on the way to Emmaus is related in full only by Luke. Mark
merely notes the fact; while the other two Evangelists and Paul (1 Cor.
15: 5) make no mention of it.

On the afternoon of the same day on which our Lord arose, two of his
disciples, one of them named Cleopas, were on their way on foot to a
village called Emmaus, sixty stadia or seven and a half Roman miles
distant from Jerusalem,—a walk of some two or two and a half hours. They
had heard and credited the tidings brought by the women, and also by Peter
and John, that the sepulchre was open and empty; and that the women had
also seen a vision of angels, who said that Jesus was alive. They had most
probably likewise heard the reports of Mary Magdalene and the other women,
that Jesus himself had appeared to them; but these they did not regard,
and do not mention them (v. 24); because they, like the other disciples,
had looked upon them “as idle tales, and they believed them not;” v. 11.
As they went, they were sad, and talked together of all these things which
had happened. After some time Jesus himself drew near and went with them.
But they knew him not. Mark says he was in another form; Luke affirms that
“their eyes were holden, that they should not know him;” v. 16. Was there
in this anything miraculous? The “another form” of Mark, Doddridge
explains by “a different habit from what he ordinarily wore.” His
garments, of course, were not his former ones; and this was probably one
reason why Mary Magdalene had before taken him for the keeper of the
garden.(317) It may be, too, that these two disciples had not been
intimately acquainted with the Lord. He had arrived at Jerusalem only six
days before his crucifixion; and these might possibly have been recent
converts, who had not before seen him. To such, the change of garments,
and the unexpectedness of the meeting, would render a recognition more
difficult; nor could it be regarded as surprising, that under such
circumstances they should not know him. Still, all this is hypothesis; and
the averment of Luke, that “their eyes were holden,” and the manner of our
Lord’s parting from them afterwards, seem more naturally to imply that the
idea of a supernatural agency, affecting not Jesus himself, but the eyes
or minds of the two disciples, was in the mind of the sacred writer.

Jesus inquires the cause of their sadness; chides them for their slowness
of heart to believe what the prophets had spoken; and then proceeds to
expound unto them “in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.”
They feel the power of his words; and their hearts burn within them. By
this time they drew nigh to the village whither they went; it was toward
evening, and the day was far spent. Their journey was ended; and Jesus was
about to depart from them. In accordance with oriental hospitality they
constrained him to remain with them. He consents; and as he sat at meat
with them, he took bread, and blessed and brake, and gave unto them. At
this time, and in connection with this act, their eyes were opened; they
knew him; and he vanished away from them. Here too the question is raised,
whether the language necessarily implies anything miraculous? Our English
translators have rendered this passage in the margin, “he ceased to be
seen of them;” and have referred to Luke 4: 30, and John 8: 59, as
illustrating this idea. They might also have referred to Acts 8: 39.
Still, the language is doubtless such as the sacred writers would most
naturally have employed in order directly to express the idea of
supernatural agency.

Full of wonder and joy, the two disciples set off the same hour and return
to Jerusalem. They find the eleven and other disciples assembled; and as
they enter, they are met with the joyful exclamation: “The Lord is risen
indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon;” v. 34.  They then rehearse what had
happened to themselves; but, according to Mark, the rest believed them
not. As in the case of the women, so here, there would seem to have been
something in the position or character of these two disciples, which led
the others to give less credit to their testimony, than to that of Peter,
one of the leading apostles.

This appearance to Peter is mentioned by no other Evangelist; and we know
nothing of the particular time, nor of the attending circumstances. It
would seem to have taken place either not long before, or else shortly
after, that to the two disciples. It had not happened when they left
Jerusalem for Emmaus; or, at least, they had not heard of it. It had
occurred when they returned; and that long enough before to have been
fully reported to all the disciples and believed by them. It may perhaps
have happened about the time when the two disciples set off, or shortly

Paul, in enumerating those by whom the Lord was seen after his
resurrection (1 Cor. 15: 5), mentions Peter first; passing over the
appearances to the women, and also that to the two disciples; probably
because they did not belong among the apostles.

§ 6. _Jesus appears to the Apostles in the absence of Thomas; and
afterwards when Thomas is present._

Mark 16: 14-18. Luke 24: 36-48. John 20: 19-29. 1 Cor. 15: 5.

The narrative of our Lord’s first appearance to the apostles is most fully
given by Luke: John adds a few circumstances; and Mark, as well as Luke,
has preserved the first charge thus privately given to the apostles, to
preach the Gospel in all the world,—a charge afterwards repeated in a more
public and solemn manner on the mountain in Galilee. When Paul says the
Lord appeared to _the twelve_, he obviously employs this number as being
the usual designation of the apostles; and very probably includes both the
occasion narrated in this section. Mark and Luke speak in like manner of
_the eleven_; and yet we know from John, that Thomas was not at first
among them; so that of course only _ten_ were actually present.

According to Mark, the disciples were at their evening meal; which implies
a not very late hour. John says the doors were shut, for fear of the Jews.
While the two who had returned from Emmaus were still recounting what had
happened unto them, Jesus himself “came and stood in the midst of them,
and saith unto them, Peace be unto you!” The question here again is
raised, whether this entrance of our Lord was miraculous? That it might
have been so, there is no reason to doubt. He who in the days of his flesh
walked upon the waters, and before whose angel the iron gate of the prison
opened of its own accord so that Peter might pass out; he who was himself
just risen from the dead; might well in same miraculous way present
himself to his followers in spite of bolts and bars. But does the language
here necessarily imply a miracle? The doors indeed were shut; but the word
used does not of itself signify that they were bolted or fastened. The
object no doubt was, to prevent access to spies from the Jews; or also to
guard themselves from the danger of being arrested; and both these objects
might perhaps have been as effectually accomplished by a watch at or
before the door. Nor do the words used of our Lord strictly indicate
anything miraculous. We do not find here a form of the word commonly
employed to express the sudden appearance of angels; but, “he _came_ and
stood in the midst of them;” implying _per se_ nothing more than the
ordinary mode of approach. There is, in fact, nothing in the whole account
to suggest a miracle, except the remark of John respecting the doors; and
as this circumstance is not mentioned either by Mark or Luke, it may be
doubtful whether we are necessarily compelled by the language to regard
the mode of our Lord’s entrance as miraculous.

At this interview Thomas was not present. On his return the other
disciples relate to him the circumstances. But Thomas now disbelieved the
others; as they before had disbelieved the women. His reply was, “except I
shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the
print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.”
Our Lord had compassion upon his perverseness. Eight days afterwards, when
the disciples were again assembled and Thomas with them, our Lord came as
before, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you! He permits to
Thomas the test he had demanded; and charges him to be not faithless, but
believing. Thomas, convinced and abashed, exclaims in the fulness of faith
and joy, My Lord and my God! recognising and acknowledging thereby the
divine nature thus manifested in the flesh. The reply of our Lord to
Thomas is strikingly impressive and condemnatory of his want of faith:
“Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed; blessed are they
that have not seen, and yet have believed!” He and the other disciples,
who were to be the heralds of the Lord’s resurrection to the world as the
foundation of the hope of the Gospel, refused to believe except upon the
evidence of their own senses; while all who after them have borne the
Christian Name, have believed this great fact of the Gospel solely upon
their testimony. God has overruled their unbelief for good, in making it a
powerful argument for the truth of their testimony in behalf of this great
fact, which they themselves were so slow to believe. Blessed, indeed, are
they who have received their testimony.

§ 7. _Our Lord’s Appearance in Galilee._

John 21: 1-24. Matt. 28: 16-20. 1 Cor. 15: 6.

It appears from the narrative of Matthew, that while the disciples were
yet in Jerusalem, our Lord had appointed a time, when he would meet them
in Galilee, upon a certain mountain.(318) They therefore left Jerusalem
after the passover, probably soon after the interview at which Thomas was
present, and returned to Galilee, their home. While waiting for the
appointed time, they engaged in their usual occupation of fishermen. On a
certain day, as John relates, towards evening, seven of them being
together, including Peter, Thomas, and the sons of Zebedee, they put out
upon the lake with their nets in a fishing boat; but during the whole
night they caught nothing. At early dawn Jesus stood upon the shore, from
which they were not far off, and directed them to cast the net upon the
right side of the boat. “They cast therefore, and now they were not able
to draw it for the multitude of the fishes.” Recognising in this miracle
their risen Lord, they pressed around him. Peter, with his characteristic
ardour, threw himself into the water in order to reach him the sooner. At
their Lord’s command they prepared a meal from the fish they had thus
taken. “Jesus then cometh and taketh bread, and giveth them, and fish
likewise.” This was his third appearance to the eleven; or rather to a
large number of them together. It was on this occasion, and after their
meal, that our Lord put to Peter the touching and thrice repeated
question, “Lovest thou me?”

At length the set time arrived; and the eleven disciples went away into
the mountain “where Jesus had appointed them.” It would seem most
probable, that this time and place had been appointed of our Lord for a
solemn and more public interview, not only with the eleven, whom he had
already met, but with all his disciples in Galilee; and that therefore it
was on this same occasion, when, according to Paul, “he was seen of above
five hundred brethren at once.”(319) That the interview was not confined
to the eleven alone, would seem evident from the fact that “some doubted;”
for this could hardly be supposed true of any of the eleven, after what
had already happened to them in Jerusalem and Galilee, and after having
been appointed to meet their risen Lord at this very time and place. The
appearance of the five hundred must at any rate be referred to Galilee;
for even after our Lord’s ascension, the number of the names in Jerusalem
were together only about an hundred and twenty.(320) I do not hesitate,
therefore, to hold with Flatt, Olshausen, Hengstenberg, and others, that
the appearances thus described by Matthew and Paul, were identical. It was
a great and solemn occasion. Our Lord had directed that the eleven and all
his disciples in Galilee should thus be convened upon the mountain. It was
the closing scene of his ministry in Galilee. Here his life had been
spent. Here most of his mighty works had been done and his discourses
held. Here his followers were as yet most numerous. He therefore here
takes leave on earth of those among whom he had lived and laboured
longest; and repeats to all his disciples in public the solemn charge,
which he had already given in private to the apostles: “Go ye therefore
and teach all nations:—and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of
the world.” It was doubtless his last interview with his disciples in that
region,—his last great act in Galilee.

§ 8. _Our Lord’s further Appearances at Jerusalem, and his Ascension._

1 Cor. 15: 7. Acts 1: 3-12. Luke 24: 49-53. Mark 16: 19, 20.

Luke relates, in Acts 1: 3, that Jesus showed himself alive to his
apostles, “after his passion, by many infallible proofs, being seen of
them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of
God.” This would seem to imply interviews and communications, as to which
we have little more than this very general notice. One of these may have
been the appearance to James, mentioned by Paul alone (1 Cor. 15: 7), as
subsequent to that to the five hundred brethren. It may be referred with
most probability to Jerusalem, after the return of the Apostles from
Galilee. That this return took place by the Lord’s direction, there can be
no doubt; although none of the Evangelists have given us the slightest
hint as to any such direction. Indeed, it is this very brevity,—this
omission to place on record the minor details which might serve to connect
the great facts and events of our Lord’s last forty days on earth, that
has occasioned all the doubt and difficulty with which this portion of the
written history of these events has been encompassed.—The James here
intended was probably our Lord’s brother; who was of high consideration in
the church, and is often, in the latter books, simply so named without any
special designation.(321) At the time when Paul wrote, the other James,
“the brother of John,” as he is called, was already dead.(322)

After thus appearing to James, our Lord, according to Paul, was seen “of
all the apostles.” This, too, was apparently an appointed meeting; and was
doubtless the same of which Luke speaks, as occurring in Jerusalem
immediately preceding the ascension. It was, of course, the Lord’s last
interview with his apostles. He repeats to them the promise of the baptism
with the Holy Spirit as soon to take place; and charges them not to depart
from Jerusalem until this should be accomplished.(323) Strange as it may
appear, the twelve, in this last solemn moment, put to him the question,
“Lord, wilt thou at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” How, indeed,
were they to believe! Their gross and darkened minds, not yet enlightened
by the baptism of the Spirit, clung still to the idea of a temporal Prince
and Saviour, who should deliver his people, not from their sins, but from
the galling yoke of Roman dominion. Our Lord deals gently with their
ignorance and want of faith: “It is not for you to know the times and
seasons;—but ye shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you;
and ye shall be witnesses unto me—unto the uttermost part of the earth.”

During this discourse, or in immediate connection with it, our Lord leads
them out _as far as to_ Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them;
Luke 24: 50. This act of blessing must be understood, by all the laws of
language, as having taken place at or near Bethany. “And it came to pass,
_while_ he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into
heaven.” Our Lord’s ascension, then, took place at or near Bethany.
Indeed, the sacred writer could hardly have found words to express this
fact more definitely and fully; and a doubt on this point could never have
suggested itself to the mind of any reader, but for the language of the
same writer, in Acts 1: 12, where he relates that after the ascension the
disciples “returned unto Jerusalem by the mount called Olivet.” Luke
obviously did not mean to contradict himself; and the most that his
expression can be made to imply, is, that from Bethany, where their Lord
had ascended, which lies on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, a
mile or more below the summit of the ridge, the disciples returned to
Jerusalem by a path across the mount.

As these disciples stood gazing and wondering, while a cloud received
their Lord out of their sight, two angels stood by them in white apparel,
announcing unto them, that this same Jesus, who was thus taken up from
them into heaven, shall again so come, in like manner as they had seen him
go into heaven. With this annunciation closes the written history of our
Lord’s resurrection and ascension.


The death of Jesus is universally regarded among Christians as a cruel
murder, perpetrated under the pretence of a legal sentence, after a trial,
in which the forms of law were essentially and grossly violated. The Jews
to this day maintain, that, whatever were the merits of the case, the
trial was at least regular, and the sentence legally just; that he was
accused of blasphemy, and convicted of that offence by legal evidence. The
question between them involves two distinct points of inquiry, namely,
first, whether he was guilty of blasphemy; and, secondly, whether the
arraignment and trial were conducted in the ordinary forms of law. But
there will still remain a third question, namely, whether, admitting that,
as a mere man, he had violated the law against blasphemy, he could legally
be put to death for that cause; and if not, then whether he was justly
condemned upon the new and supplemental accusation of treason or of
sedition, which was vehemently urged against him. The first and last of
these inquiries it is proposed briefly to pursue; but it will be necessary
previously to understand the light in which he was regarded by the Jewish
rulers and people, the state of their criminal jurisprudence and course of
proceeding, and especially the nature and extent of the law concerning
blasphemy, upon which he was indicted.

In the early period of the ministry of Jesus, he does not appear to have
excited among the Pharisees any emotion but wonder and astonishment, and
an intense interest respecting the nature of his mission. But the people
heard him with increasing avidity, and followed him in countless throngs.
He taught a purer religion than the Scribes and Pharisees, whose pride and
corruption he boldly denounced. He preached charity and humility, and
perfect holiness of heart and life, as essential to the favour of God,
whose laws he expounded in all the depth of their spirituality, in
opposition to the traditions of the elders, and the false glosses of the
Scribes and Pharisees. These sects he boldly charged with making void and
rejecting the law of God, and enslaving men by their traditions; he
accused them of hypocrisy, covetousness, oppression, and lust of power and
popularity; and denounced them as hinderers of the salvation of others, as
a generation of serpents and vipers, doomed to final perdition. It was
natural that these terrific denunciations, from such a personage,
supported by his growing power and the increasing acclamations of the
people, should alarm the partisans of the ancient theocracy, and lead them
to desire his destruction. This alarm evidently increased with the
progress of his ministry; and was greatly heightened by the raising of
Lazarus from the dead, on which occasion the death of Jesus was
definitively resolved on;(324) but no active measures against him seem to
have been attempted, until the time when, under the parable of the wicked
husbandmen who cast the heir out of the vineyard and slew him, he declared
that the kingdom of God should be taken from them, and given to others
more worthy. Perceiving that he spake this parable against them, from that
hour they sought to lay hands on him, and were restrained only by fear of
the popular indignation.(325)

Having thus determined to destroy Jesus at all events, as a person whose
very existence was fatal to their own power, and perhaps, in their view,
to the safety of their nation, the first step was to render him odious to
the people; without which the design would undoubtedly recoil on the heads
of its contrivers, his popularity being unbounded. Countless numbers had
received the benefit of his miraculous gifts; and it was therefore deemed
a vain attempt to found an accusation, at that time, on any past
transaction of his life. A new occasion was accordingly sought, by
endeavouring to “entangle him in his talk;” a measure, planned and
conducted with consummate cunning and skill. The Jews were divided into
two political parties. One of these consisted of the Pharisees, who held
it unlawful to acknowledge or pay tribute to the Roman emperor, because
they were forbidden, by the law of Moses,(326) to set a king over them who
was a stranger, and not one of their own countrymen. The other party was
composed of the partisans of Herod, who understood this law to forbid only
the voluntary election of a stranger, and therefore esteemed it not
unlawful to submit and pay tribute to a conqueror. These two parties,
though bitterly opposed to each other, united in the attempt to entrap
Jesus, by the question,—“Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, or
not?”(327) If he answered in the negative, the Herodians were to accuse
him to Pilate, for treason; if in the affirmative, the Pharisees would
denounce him to the people, as an enemy to their liberties.(328) This
insidious design was signally frustrated by the wisdom of his reply, when,
referring to Cæsar’s image and legend, on the coins which they all
received as legally current, he showed the inconsistency of withholding
the honour due to one thus implicitly acknowledged by both parties to be
their lawful sovereign.

Defeated in this attempt to commit him politically, their next endeavour
was to render him obnoxious to one or the other of the two great religious
sects, which were divided upon the doctrine of the resurrection, the
Pharisees affirming, and the Sadducees denying, that the dead would rise
again. The latter he easily silenced, by a striking exposition of their
own law. They asked him which, of several husbands, would be entitled in
the next world to the wife whom they successively had married in this; and
in reply, he showed them that in heaven the relation of husband and wife
was unknown.(329)

Their last trial was made by a lawyer, who sought to entrap him into an
assertion that one commandment in the law was greater than another; a
design rendered abortive by his reply that they were all of equal

It being apparent, from these successive defeats, that any farther attempt
to find new matter of accusation would result only in disgrace to
themselves, the enemies of Jesus seem to have come to the determination to
secure his person secretly, and afterwards to put him to death, in any
manner that would not render them odious to the people. In execution of
this design, they first bribed Judas to betray him by night into their
hands. This object being attained, the next step was to destroy his
reputation, and if possible to render him so vile in the public
estimation, as that his destruction would be regarded with complacency.
Now no charge could so surely produce this effect, and none could so
plausibly be preferred against him, as that of blasphemy; a crime which
the Jews regarded with peculiar horror. Even their veneration of Jesus,
and the awe which his presence inspired, had not been sufficient to
restrain their rising indignation on several occasions, when they regarded
his language as the blasphemous arrogation of a divine character and power
to himself; and could they now be brought to believe him a blasphemer, and
see him legally convicted of this atrocious crime, his destruction might
easily be brought about, without any very scrupulous regard to the form,
and even with honour to those by whom it might be accomplished.

It will now be necessary to consider more particularly the nature of the
crime of blasphemy, in its larger signification, as it may be deduced from
the law of God. That the spirit of this law requires from all men,
everywhere, and at all times, the profoundest veneration of the Supreme
Being, and the most submissive acknowledgment of Him as their rightful
Sovereign, is too plain to require argument. If proof were wanted, it is
abundantly furnished in the Decalogue,(331) which is admitted among
Christians to be of universal obligation. At the time when the Jewish
Theocracy was established, idolatry had become generally prevalent, and
men had nearly lost all just notions of the nature and attributes of their
Creator. It is therefore supposed that the design of Jehovah, in forming
the Jewish constitution and code of laws, was to preserve the knowledge of
himself as the true God, and to retain that people in the strictest
possible allegiance to him alone; totally excluding every acknowledgment
of any other being, either as an object of worship or a source of power.
Hence the severity with which he required that sorceries, divinations,
witchcrafts and false prophecies, as well as open idolatries, should be
punished, they being alike acts of treason, or, as we might say, of
_præmunire_, amounting to the open acknowledgment of a power independent
of Jehovah. Hence, too, the great veneration in which he commanded that
his name and attributes should be held, even in ordinary conversation. It
is the breach of this last law, to which the term _blasphemy_, in its more
restricted sense, has usually been applied;(332) but originally the
command evidently extended to every word or act, directly in derogation of
the sovereignty of Jehovah, such as speaking in the name of another
god,(333) or omitting, on any occasion that required it, to give to
Jehovah the honour due to his own name.(334) Thus, when Moses and Aaron,
at the command of God, smote the rock in Kadesh, that from it waters might
flow to refresh the famishing multitude, but neglected to honour him as
the source of the miraculous energy, and arrogated it to themselves,
saying, “Hear now, ye rebels, must _we_ bring you water out of this
rock?”(335) this omission drew on them his severe displeasure. “And the
Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye believed me not, to sanctify
_me_ in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore _ye_ shall not bring
this congregation into the land which I have given them.” Accordingly,
both Moses and Aaron died before the Israelites entered into the promised
land.(336) No other deity was permitted to be invoked; no miracle must be
wrought, but in the name of God alone. “I am Jehovah; that is my name; and
my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven
images.”(337) This was ever a cardinal principle of his law, neither newly
announced by Isaiah, nor by Moses. Its promulgation on Mount Sinai was
merely declaratory of what had been well understood at the beginning,
namely, that God alone was the Lord of all power and might, and would be
expressly acknowledged as such, in every exertion of superhuman energy or
wisdom. Thus Joseph, when required to interpret the dream of Pharaoh,
replied, “It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of
peace.”(338) And Moses, in all the miracles previously wrought by him in
Egypt, expressly denounced them as the judgments of God, by whose hand
alone they were inflicted.(339) After the solemn re-enactment of this law
on Mount Sinai, its signal violation by Moses and Aaron deserved to be
made as signal an example of warning; and this judgment of Jehovah may be
said to constitute the leading case under this article of the law; forming
a rule of action and of judgment for all cases of miracles which might be
wrought in all coming time. The same principle was afterwards expressly
extended to prophesying. “The prophet—that shall speak in the name of
other gods, even that prophet shall die.”(340) His character of prophet,
and even his inspiration, shall not authorize him to prophesy but in the
name of the Lord. He shall not exercise his office in his own name, nor in
any name but that of Jehovah, from whom his power was derived.

That such was understood to be the true meaning of this law of God, is
further evident from the practice of the prophets, in later times, to whom
was given the power of working miracles. These they always wrought in his
name, expressly acknowledged at the time. Thus, the miracle of thunder and
rain in the season of the wheat-harvest, called for by Samuel, he
expressly attributed to the Lord.(341) So did Elijah, when he called fire
from heaven to consume his sacrifice, in refutation of the claims of
Baal.(342) So did Elisha, when he divided the waters of Jordan, by smiting
them with the mantle of Elijah;(343) and again, when he miraculously
multiplied the loaves of bread, for the people that were with him;(344)
and again, when he caused the young man’s eyes to be opened, that he might
behold the hosts of the Lord around him, and smote his enemies with
blindness.(345) And even the angel Gabriel, when sent to interpret to
Daniel the things which should befall his people in the latter days,
explicitly announced himself as speaking in Jehovah’s name.(346)

The same view of the sinfulness of exercising superhuman power without an
express acknowledgment of God as its author, and of any usurpation of his
authority, continued to prevail, down to the time of our Saviour. Thus,
when he said to the sick of the palsy, “Son, be of good cheer, thy sins be
forgiven thee,” certain of the Scribes said within themselves, “This man
blasphemeth. Who can forgive sins, but God alone?”(347) And again, when
the Jews, on another occasion, took up stones to stone him, and Jesus,
appealing to his good works done among them, asked for which of them he
was to be stoned; they replied, “For a good work we stone thee not, but
for blasphemy, and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself
God.”(348) Yet Jesus had on no occasion mentioned the _name_ of Jehovah,
but with profound reverence.

Thus it appears that the law of blasphemy, as it was understood among the
Jews, extended not only to the offence of impiously using the name of the
Supreme Being, but to every usurpation of his authority, or arrogation, by
a created being, of the honour and power belonging to him alone.(349) Like
the crime of treason among men, its essence consisted in acknowledging or
setting up the authority of another sovereign than one’s own, or invading
the powers pertaining exclusively to him; an offence, of which the case of
Moses, before cited, is a prominent instance, both in its circumstances
and in its punishment. Whether a false god was acknowledged or the true
one denied, and whether the denial was in express terms, or by
implication, in assuming to do, by underived power, and in one’s own name,
that which God only could perform, the offence was essentially the same.
And in such horror was it held by the Israelites, that in token of it
every one was obliged, by an early and universal custom, to rend his
garments, whenever it was committed or related in his presence.(350) This
sentiment was deeply felt by the whole people, as a part of their

Such being the general scope and spirit of the law, it would seem to have
been easy to prove that Jesus had repeatedly incurred its penalties. He
had performed many miracles, but never in any other name than his own. In
his own name, and without the recognition of any higher power, he had
miraculously healed the sick, restored sight to the blind and strength to
the lame, cast out devils, rebuked the winds, calmed the sea, and raised
the dead. In his own name, also, and with no allusion to the Omniscient,
no “Thus saith the Lord,” he had prophesied of things to come. He had by
his own authority forgiven sins, and promised, by his own power, not only
to raise the dead, but to resume his own life, after he should, as he
predicted, be put to death. Finally, he had expressly claimed for himself
a divine origin and character, and the power to judge both the quick and
the dead(351). Considered as a man, he had usurped the attributes of God.
That he was not arrested at an earlier period, is to be attributed to his
great popularity, and the astounding effect of his miracles. His whole
career had been resplendent with beneficence to the thousands who
surrounded him. His eloquence surpassed all that had been uttered by man.
The people were amazed, bewildered, and fascinated, by the resistless
power of his life. It was not until his last triumphal visit to Jerusalem,
after he had openly raised Lazarus from the dead, when the chief priests
and elders perceived that “the world was gone after him,” that they were
stricken with dismay and apprehension for their safety, and under this
panic resolved upon the perilous measure of his destruction.

The only safe method in which this could be accomplished, was under the
sanction of a legal trial and sentence. Jesus, therefore, upon his
apprehension, was first brought before the great tribunal of the
Sanhedrim, and charged with the crime of blasphemy. What were the
specifications under this general charge, or whether any were necessary,
we are not informed. But that this was the offence charged, is manifest
both from the evidence adduced and from the judgment of conviction.(352)
Such was the estimation in which he was held, that it was with great
difficulty that witnesses could be found to testify against him; and the
two who at last were procured, testified falsely, in applying his words to
the temple of Solomon, which he spake of the temple of his body. When,
upon the occasion of his scourging the money-changers out of the temple,
the Jews demanded by what authority he did this, Jesus replied, alluding
to his own person, “Destroy _this_ temple, and in three days I will raise
it up.”(353) But though the witnesses swore falsely in testifying that he
spake of the Jewish temple, yet his words, in either sense, amounted to a
claim of the power of working miracles, and so brought him within the law.
The high priest, however, still desirous of new evidence, which might
justify his condemnation in the eyes of the people, proceeded to
interrogate Jesus concerning his character and mission. “I adjure thee, by
the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of
God. Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless, I say unto you,
hereafter ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power,
and coming in the clouds of heaven. Then the high priest _rent his
clothes_, saying He hath _spoken blasphemy_; what _further_ need have we
of witnesses? Behold, now _ye have heard his blasphemy_. What think ye?
They answered and said, _He is guilty of death_.”(354) We may suppose the
multitude standing without the hall of judgment, able, through its avenues
and windows, to see, but not to hear, all that was transacting within. It
became important, therefore, to obtain some reason upon which the high
priest might rend his clothes in their sight, thus giving to the people,
by this expressive and awful sign, the highest evidence of blasphemy,
uttered by Jesus in the presence of that august assembly. This act turned
the tide of popular indignation against him, whose name, but a short time
before, had been the theme of their loudest hosannas. There was now no
need to go into the past transactions of his ministry, for matter of
accusation. His friends might claim for him on that score all that the
warmest gratitude and love could inspire; and all this could be safely
conceded. But here, his accusers might say, was a new and shocking crime,
just perpetrated in the presence of the most sacred tribunal; a crime so
shocking, and so boldly committed, that the high priest rent his clothes
with horror, in the very judgment seat, in the presence of all the members
of the Sanhedrim, who, with one accord, upon that evidence alone,
immediately convicted the offender and sentenced him to death.

If we regard Jesus simply as a Jewish citizen, and with no higher
character, this conviction seems substantially right in point of law,
though the trial were not legal in all its forms. For, whether the
accusation were founded on the first or second commands in the decalogue,
or on the law, laid down in the thirteenth chapter of Deuteronomy, or on
that in the eighteenth chapter and twentieth verse, he had violated them
all, by assuming to himself powers belonging alone to Jehovah. And even if
he were recognized as a prophet of the Lord, he was still obnoxious to
punishment, under the decision in the case of Moses and Aaron, before
cited. It is not easy to perceive on what ground his conduct could have
been defended before any tribunal, unless upon that of his superhuman
character. No lawyer, it is conceived, would think of placing his defence
upon any other basis.

The great object of exciting the people against Jesus being thus
successfully accomplished, the next step was to obtain legal authority to
put him to death. For though the Sanhedrim had condemned him, they had not
the power to pass a capital sentence; this being a right which had passed
from the Jews by the conquest of their country, and now belonged to the
Romans alone. They were merely citizens of a Roman province; they were
left in the enjoyment of their civil laws, the public exercise of their
religion, and many other things relating to their police and municipal
regulations; but they had not the power of life and death. This was a
principal attribute of sovereignty, which the Romans always took care to
reserve to themselves in order to be able to reach those individuals who
might become impatient of the yoke, whatever else might be neglected.
_Apud quos (Romanos), vis imperii valet; inania transmittuntur_.(355) The
jurisdiction of capital cases belonged ordinarily to the governor general
or _Præses_ of a province, the _Procurator_ having for his principal duty
only the charge of the revenue and the cognizance of revenue causes. But
the right of taking cognizance of capital crimes was, in some cases, given
to certain _Procurators_, who were sent into small provinces, to fill the
places of governors, (_Vice Præsides_,) as clearly appears from the Roman
laws. The government of all Syria was at this time under a governor
general, or _Præses_; of which Judea was one of the lesser dependencies,
under the charge of Pilate as _Vice Præses_, with capital

It could not be expected that Pilate would trouble himself with the
cognizance of any matter, not pertaining to the Roman law; much less with
an alleged offence against the God of the Jews, who was neither
acknowledged nor even respected by their conquerors. Of this the chief
priests and elders were fully aware; and therefore they prepared a second
accusation against Jesus, founded on the Roman law; as likely to succeed
with Pilate, as the former had done with the people. They charged him with
attempting to restore the kingdom of Israel, under his own dominion as
king of the Jews. “We found this fellow, said they, perverting the nation,
and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying, That he himself is
Christ, a king.”(357)

It was a charge of high treason against the Roman state and emperor; a
charge which was clearly within Pilate’s cognizance, and which, as they
well knew, no officer of Tiberius would venture lightly to regard. Pilate
accordingly forthwith arraigned Jesus, and called upon him to answer this
accusation. It is worthy of note, that from the moment when he was accused
of treason before Pilate, no further allusion was made to the previous
charge of blasphemy; the Roman governor being engaged solely with the
charge newly preferred before himself. The answer of Jesus to this charge
satisfied Pilate that it was groundless, the kingdom which he set up
appearing plainly to be not a kingdom of this world, but his spiritual
reign in righteousness and holiness and peace, in the hearts of men.
Pilate therefore acquitted him of the offence. “He went out again unto the
Jews, and saith unto them, _I find in him no fault at all_.”(358) Here was
a sentence of acquittal, judicially pronounced, and irreversible, except
by a higher power, upon appeal; and it was the duty of Pilate thereupon to
have discharged him. But the multitude, headed now by the priests and
elders, grew clamorous for his execution; adding, “He stirreth up the
people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this
place.”(359) Hearing this reference to Galilee, Pilate seized the
opportunity, thus offered, of escaping from the responsibility of a
judgment, either of acquittal or of condemnation, by treating the case as
out of his jurisdiction, and within that of Herod, tetrarch of Galilee,
who was then in Jerusalem on a visit. He therefore sent Jesus and his
accusers to Herod; before whom the charge was vehemently renewed and
urged. But Herod, too, perceived that it was utterly groundless, and
accordingly treated it with derision, arraying Jesus in mock habiliments
of royalty, and remanding him to Pilate.(360) The cause was then solemnly
re-examined by the Roman governor, and a second judgment of acquittal
pronounced. For “Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and
the rulers, and the people, said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto
me, as one that perverteth the people; and behold, I having examined him
before you, have found no fault in this man, touching those things whereof
ye accuse him: No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and lo, nothing
worthy of death is done unto him. I will therefore chastise him and
release him.”(361)

It may seem strange to us that after a judgment of acquittal thus solemnly
pronounced, any judge, in a civilized country, should venture to reverse
it, upon the same evidence, and without the pretence of mistake or error
in the proceedings. Probably, in the settled jurisprudence of the city of
Rome, it could not have been done. But this was in a remote province of
the empire, under the administration not of a jurist, but a soldier; and
he, too, irresolute and vacillating; fearful for his office, and even for
his life, for he served the “dark and unrelenting Tiberius.” As soon as he
proposed to release Jesus, “the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this
man go, thou art not Cæsar’s friend. Whosoever maketh himself a king,
speaketh against Cæsar.”(362) Whereupon “Pilate gave sentence that it
should be as they required.”(363) That Jesus was executed under the
pretence of treason, and that alone, is manifest from the tenor of the
writing placed over his head, stating that he was king of the Jews; such
being the invariable custom among the Romans, in order that the public
might know for what crime the party had been condemned.(364) The remaining
act in this tragedy is sufficiently known.

In the preceding remarks, the case has been considered only upon its
general merits, and with no reference to the manner in which the
proceedings were conducted. But M. Dupin, in his tract on the Trial of
Jesus before the Sanhedrim, in reply to Mr. Salvador’s account of it, has
satisfactorily shown that throughout the whole course of that trial the
rules of the Jewish law of procedure were grossly violated, and that the
accused was deprived of rights, belonging even to the meanest citizen. He
was arrested in the night, bound as a malefactor, beaten before his
arraignment, and struck in open court during the trial; he was tried on a
feast day, and before sunrise; he was compelled to criminate himself, and
this, under an oath or solemn judicial adjuration; and he was sentenced on
the same day of the conviction. In all these particulars the law was
wholly disregarded.(365)


MR. JOSEPH SALVADOR, a physician and a learned Jew, a few years ago
published at Paris, a work, entitled, “Histoire des Institutions de Moïse
et du Peuple Hébreu,” in which, among other things, he gives an account of
their course of criminal procedure, in a chapter on “The Administration of
Justice;” which he illustrates, in a succeeding chapter, by an account of
the trial of Jesus. As this is the recent work of a man of learning,
himself a Jew, it may be regarded as an authentic statement of what is
understood and held by the most intelligent and best informed Jews,
respecting the claims of our Lord, the tenor of his doctrines, the nature
of the charge laid against him before the Sanhedrim, and the grounds on
which they condemned him. The following translation of the last-mentioned
chapter will therefore not be unacceptable to the reader. It will be found
in Book IV. chapter iii., entitled, “The Trial and Condemnation of Jesus.”
The reader will bear in his mind, that it is the language of an enemy of
our Saviour, and in justification of his murderers.

“According to this exposition of judicial proceedings,” says the Jew, “I
shall follow out the application of them in the most memorable tried in
history, that of Jesus Christ. I have already explained the motives which
have directed me, and the point of view in which I have considered the
subject; I have already shown, that among the Jews no title was a shelter
against a prosecution and sentence. Whether the law or its forms were good
or bad, is not the object of my present investigation; neither is it to
ascertain whether we ought to pity the blindness of the Hebrews in not
discovering a Deity in Jesus, or to be astonished that a God personified
could not make himself comprehended when he desired it. But since they
regarded him only as a citizen, did they not try him according to their
law and its existing forms? This is my question, which can admit of no
equivocation. I shall draw all my facts from the Evangelists themselves,
without inquiring whether all this history was developed after the event,
to serve as a form to a new doctrine, or to an old one which had received
a fresh impulse.

Jesus was born of a family of small fortune; Joseph, his supposed father,
perceived that his wife was big before they had come together. If he had
brought her to trial, in the ordinary course of things, Mary, according to
the 23rd verse of the 22nd chapter of Deuteronomy, would have been
condemned, and Jesus, having been declared illegitimate, could never,
according to the 2nd verse of the 23rd chapter, have been admitted to a
seat in the Sanhedrim.(366) But Joseph, who, to save his wife from
disgrace, had taken the resolution of sending her away privately, soon had
a dream which consoled him.(367)

After having been circumcised, Jesus grew like other men, attended the
solemn feasts, and early displayed surprising wisdom and sagacity. In the
assembly on the Sabbath, the Jews, eager for the disputes to which the
interpretation of the law gave rise, loved to hear him. But he soon
devoted himself to more important labours; he pronounced censures against
whole towns, Capernaum, Chorazin and Bethsaida.(368) Recalling the times
of Isaiah and Jeremiah, he thundered against the chiefs of the people with
a vehemence which would in our day be terrific.(369) The people then
regarded him as a prophet;(370) they heard him preach in towns and country
without opposition; they saw him surrounded with disciples according to
the custom of the learned men of the age; whatever may have been the
resentment of the chief men, they were silent as long as he confined
himself to the law.

But Jesus, in presenting new theories, and in giving new forms to those
already promulgated, speaks of himself as God; his disciples repeat it;
and the subsequent events prove in the most satisfactory manner, that they
thus understood him.(371) This was shocking blasphemy in the eyes of the
citizens: the law commands them to follow Jehovah alone, the only true
God; not to believe in gods of flesh and bone, resembling men or women;
neither to spare nor listen to a prophet who, even doing miracles, should
proclaim a new god, a god whom neither they nor their fathers had

Jesus having said to them one day: “I have come down from heaven to do
these things,” the Jews, who till then had listened to him, murmured and
cried: “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph and of Mary? we know his
father, his mother, and his brethren; why then does he say that he has
come down from heaven?”(373) On another day, the Jews, irritated from the
same cause, took stones and threatened him. Jesus said unto them, “I have
done good works in your eyes by the power of my Father, for which of these
works would you stone me? It is for no good work,” replied the Jews, who
stated the whole process in few words, “but because of thy blasphemy; for
being a man,(374) thou makest thyself God.”(375)

His language was not always clear. Often his disciples themselves did not
comprehend him. Among his maxims, some of which showed the greatest
mildness, there were some which the Hebrews, who were touched only through
their natural sense, thought criminal. “Think not that I am come to send
peace on earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to
set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her
mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man’s
foes shall be they of his own household. He that loveth father or mother
more than me, is not worthy of me.”(376) Finally, if he wrought miracles
before certain of the people, his replies to the questions of the doctors
were generally evasive.(377)

In regard to political relations, he caused dissensions.(378) A great
number of disorderly persons whom he had the design of reclaiming, but who
inspired dread in the national council, attached themselves to him;(379)
his discourse flattered them inasmuch as he pronounced anathemas against
riches. “Know,” said he, “that it is easier for a camel to go through the
eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven.”(380)
In this state of affairs, the council deliberates; some are of opinion
that he should be regarded as a madman,(381) others say that he seeks to
seduce the people.(382) Caiaphas, the high priest, whose dignity compels
him to defend the letter of the law, observes that these dissensions would
furnish an excuse to the Romans for overwhelming Judea, and that the
interests of the whole nation must outweigh those of a single individual;
he constitutes himself the accuser of Jesus.(383)

The order is given to seize him. But let us pause here upon a fact of the
highest importance. The senate did not begin by actually seizing Jesus, as
is now the practice; they begin by giving, after some debate, an order
that he should be seized.(384) This decree is made public; it is known to
all, especially to Jesus. No opposition is offered to his passing the
frontier: his liberty depends entirely upon himself. This is not all; the
order for his arrest was preceded by a decree of admonition. One day,
Jesus having entered the temple, took upon himself authority contrary to
the common law; then he preached to the people, and said: “That those who
should believe in him should be able to do all things, so that if they
should say to a mountain, remove thyself and cast thyself into the sea, it
would obey.” Then the chief priest and senators went to find him and said
to him, “By what authority doest thou these things? who gave thee this

Meanwhile a traitor discloses the place whither the accused had retired;
the guards, authorized by the high priest and by the elders,(386) hasten
to seize him. One of his disciples, breaking into open rebellion, with a
stroke of his sword cuts off the ear of one of them, and brings upon
himself the reproof of his master.(387) As soon as Jesus is arrested, the
zeal of the apostles is extinguished; all forsake him.(388) He is brought
before the grand council, where the priests sustain the accusation. The
witnesses testify, and they are numerous; for the deeds of which he is
accused were done in the presence of all the people. The two witnesses
whom St. Matthew and St. Mark accuse of perjury, relate a discourse which
St. John declares to be true, with regard to the power which Jesus
arrogates to himself.(389) Finally, the high priest addresses the accused,
and says: “Is it true that thou art Christ, that thou art the Son of God?”
“I am he,” replies Jesus; “you shall see me hereafter at the right hand of
the majesty of God, who shall come upon the clouds of heaven.” At these
words, Caiaphas rent his garments in token of horror.(390) “You have heard
him.” They deliberate.

The question already raised among the people was this: Has Jesus become
God? But the senate having adjudged that Jesus, son of Joseph, born at
Bethlehem, had profaned the name of God by usurping it to himself, a mere
citizen, applied to him the law of blasphemy, and the law in the 13th
chapter of Deuteronomy, and the 20th verse in chapter 18, according to
which every prophet, even he who works miracles, must be punished, when he
speaks of a god unknown to the Jews and their fathers:(391) the capital
sentence was pronounced. As to the ill-treatment which followed the
sentence, it was contrary to the spirit of the Jewish law; and it is not
in the course of nature, that a senate composed of the most respectable
men of a nation, who, however they might have been deceived, yet intended
to act legally, should have permitted such outrages against him whose life
was at their disposal. The writers who have transmitted to us these
details, not having been present at the trial, have been disposed to
exaggerate the picture, either on account of their prejudices, or to throw
greater obloquy on the judges.

One thing is certain, that the council met again on the morning of the
next day or the day following that,(392) as the law requires, to confirm
or to annul the sentence: it was confirmed. Jesus was brought before
Pilate, the procurator that the Romans had placed over the Jews. They had
retained the power of trying according to their own laws, but the
executive power was in the hands of the procurator alone: no criminal
could be executed without his consent: this was in order that the Senate
should not have the means of reaching men who were sold to
foreigners.(393) Pilate, the Roman, signed the decree. His soldiers, an
impure mixture of diverse nations, were charged with the punishment. These
are they who brought Jesus to the judgment hall, who stripped him before
the whole cohort, who placed upon his head a crown of thorns, and a reed
in his hand, who showed all the barbarity to which the populace in all
ages is disposed; who finally caused him to undergo a punishment common at
Rome, and which was not in use among the Jews.(394) But before the
execution, the governor had granted to the condemned an appeal to the
people, who, respecting the judgment of their own council, would not
permit this favour, couching their refusal in these terms: “We have a law;
and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of
God.”(395) Then Pilate left them the choice of saving Jesus, or a man
accused of murder in a sedition; the people declared for the latter;
saying that the other would scatter the seeds of discord in the bosom of
the nation, at a time when union was most necessary.(396)

“Jesus was put to death. The priests and elders went to the place of
punishment; and as the sentence was founded upon this fact, that he had
unlawfully arrogated to himself the title of Son of God, God himself, they
appealed to him thus: ‘Thou wouldst save others; thyself thou canst not
save. If thou art indeed the king of Israel, come down into the midst of
us, and we will believe in thee, since thou hast said, I am the Son of
God, let that God who loves thee come now to thine aid.’(397) According to
the Evangelist, these words were a mockery; but the character of the
persons who pronounced them, their dignity, their age, the order which
they had observed in the trial, prove their good faith. Would not a
miracle at this time have been decisive?”


   Being A Refutation Of Mr. Salvador’s Chapter Entitled “The Trial And
 Condemnation Of Jesus.” By M. Dupin. Translated From The French by John
                             Pickering, LL.D.


A few years ago, Mr. Joseph Salvador, a physician—and a descendant of one
of those Jewish families, whom the intolerance of Ferdinand the Catholic
expelled, in a body, from Spain, about the year 1492—published at Paris a
learned work, entitled “Histoire des Institutions de Moïse et du Peuple
Hébreu,” or History of the Institutions of Moses and the Hebrew People;
and in one chapter of his work he gives an account of the _Administration
of Justice_ among the Hebrews. To that chapter he has subjoined an account
of the “Trial and Condemnation of Jesus;” in the course of which he
expresses his opinion, that the trial, considered merely _as a legal
proceeding_, was conformable to the Jewish laws.

The author of the following little work, M. Dupin, who is one of the most
eminent lawyers of the French Bar, immediately called in question the
correctness of Mr. Salvador’s opinion, and entered upon an analysis of
this portion of his work, with a view to examine its soundness, and the
present volume contains the result of that examination, conducted with
great legal skill and extensive learning.

It appears, that he had, many years before, in a little work, entitled
“_The Free_ Defence of Accused Persons,” published in 1815, taken the same
views of this great trial; which, as he observes, has been justly called
“the _Passion_ or _Suffering_ of our Saviour; for he did in truth
_suffer_, and had not a trial.”

The author’s attention, however, had been withdrawn from this subject for
several years, when it was again brought under his notice by the work of
Mr. Salvador, a copy of which was sent to him by that writer, with a
request that M. Dupin would give some account of it. Accordingly, says the
latter, “it is in compliance with _his request_, and not from a spirit of
hostility, that I have made this examination of his work;” and he gives
ample proof of his good feeling towards Mr. Salvador, with whom, he says,
he is personally acquainted and for whose talents he has a great respect.

With this friendly spirit he enters upon his examination; which is
conducted with an ability, learning, animation, and interest, that leave
nothing to be desired. As an argument, his work is unanswerable,—he has
demolished that of his adversary; and, for intense interest, we do not
know any publication of the present day to be compared with it.

The introductory _Analysis_ of Mr. Salvador’s chapter on the
Administration of Justice according to the Jewish Law will be highly
instructive and interesting; and those persons, who have not been
accustomed to read the Bible with particular reference to the _Law_, will
find many new and striking views of that portion of the Scriptures. They
cannot fail to be particularly struck with the extraordinary care taken to
secure by law the personal liberty and rights of the citizen.

According to Mr. Salvador’s view, “the fundamental division into _castes_
is the principal basis of the oriental theocracies.” Moses, on the
contrary, took for his basis the _unity_ of the people. In his system of
legislation the people are every thing; and the author shows us, that
every thing, eventually, is done for them, by them, and with them. The
tribe of Levi was established, only to supply a secondary want; and that
tribe was very far from obtaining all the powers which we are apt to
attribute to it; it did not make, nor develope the laws; it did not judge
or govern; all its members, even the high priest himself, were subject to
the control of the Elders of the nation, or of a Senate legally assembled.

Intimately connected with these rights of the people was the _liberty of
speech_; and Mr. Salvador, in his chapter on the _Public Orators and
Prophets_, maintains, and in the opinion of M. Dupin, proves clearly, that
in no nation was the liberty of speech ever so unlimited, as among the
Hebrews. Accordingly he observes—“What an additional difference was this
between the Israelites and the Egyptians! Among the latter, the mass of
the people did not dare, without incurring the hazard of the most terrible
punishment, to utter a word on affairs of state; it was Harpocrates, the
god of silence with his finger on his closed lips, who was their God; in
Israel, it was _the right of speech_.”

But we forbear any further reflections, and submit this remarkable
performance to our readers. Those, who are familiar with the animated tone
of French writers, will perhaps discover in this translation some loss of
the fire and intensity of the original; but the translator’s purpose will
be effected, if his version shall be found to be a faithful one.

September 3, 1839.

Analysis Of The Chapter Of Mr. Salvador, Entitled “The Administration Of
Justice” Among The Jews.(398)

Mr. Salvador has discussed with particular care whatever relates to the
_administration of justice_ among the Jewish people. We shall dwell upon
this chapter, which undoubtedly will most interest our readers.

_Judicare_ and _judicari_, to judge and to be judged, express the rights
of every Hebrew citizen; that is, no one could be condemned without a
judgment, and every one might, in his turn, be called upon to sit in
judgment upon others. Some exceptions to this principle are explained; but
they do not affect the rule. In matters of mere interest each party chose
a judge, and these two chose a third person. If a discussion arose as to
_the interpretation of a law_, they carried it to the lower council of
Elders, and from thence to the Great council at Jerusalem. Each town of
more than one hundred and twenty families was to have its lower council,
consisting of twenty-three members; and these had jurisdiction in criminal

The expressions, _he shall die, he shall be cut off from the people_,
which are so often used in the Mosaic law, embrace three very different
significations, which we are accustomed to confound. They indicate the
suffering of death as a punishment, civil death, and that premature death,
with which an individual is naturally threatened, who departs from those
rules which are useful to the nation and to the individual himself. Civil
death is the last degree of _separation_, or _excommunication_; it is
pronounced, as a judicial punishment, by the assembly of the judges.

There were three kinds of separation; which Mr. Salvador compares to the
three degrees of civil excommunication provided for in the French Penal
Code, and which condemn the criminal to hard labour either for life or for
a term of years, or to certain correctional punishments. But the Hebrew
excommunication had this advantage, that the party _never lost all hope of
regaining his original standing_.

The Hebrew lawyers, in relation to the punishment of death, maintained
opinions, which deserve to be quoted:—

“A tribunal, which condemns to death _once in seven years_, may be called
_sanguinary_.”—“It deserves this appellation, says doctor Eliezer, when it
pronounces a like sentence once in seventy years.”—“If we had been members
of the high court, say the doctors Tyrphon and Akiba, we should never have
condemned a man to death.” Simeon, the son of Gamaliel, replied—“Would not
that be an abuse? Would you not have been afraid of multiplying crimes in
Israel?” Mr. Salvador answers—“No, certainly; far from lessening their
number, the severity of the punishment increases it, by giving a more
resolute character to the men who are able to brave it; and, at the
present day, how many intelligent minds range themselves on the side of
Akiba and Tyrphon! How many consciences refuse to participate, in any
manner, in the death of a man! The flowing of blood, the multitude excited
by an unbecoming curiosity, the victim dragged in triumph to the horrible
altar, the impossibility of repairing a mistake, (from which human wisdom
is never exempt), the dread of one day seeing a departed shade rising up
and saying, ‘_I was innocent_,’ the facility which modern nations have of
expelling from among them the man whose presence pollutes them—the
influence of general depravity on the production of crimes—and finally the
absurd contrast of the whole of society, while in possession of strength,
intelligence, and arms, opposing itself to an individual wretch (who has
been drawn on by want, by passion, or by ignorance) and yet finding no
other means of redress than by exceeding him in cruelty—all these things,
and many others, have so deeply penetrated the minds of all ranks of
people, that there will one day proceed from them the most striking proof
of the power of morals over the laws; for the law will be changed by the
simple fact, that we shall not find any person who will consent to apply

I feel honoured in having maintained the same opinion in my _Observations
on Criminal Legislation_; but I solicit those, who wish to see this
question discussed in its whole extent, to read the profound reflections
which the Duke de Broglie has just published on the subject, in the last
number of the _Revue Française_ (for October, 1828.)

The whole criminal procedure in the Pentateuch rests upon three
principles, which may be thus expressed; publicity of the trial, entire
liberty of defence allowed to the accused; and a guaranty against the
dangers of testimony. According to the Hebrew text _one_ witness is no
witness; there must be at least two or three who know the fact. The
witness, who testifies against a man, must swear that he speaks the truth;
the judges then proceed to take exact information of the matter; and, if
it is found that the witness has sworn falsely, they compel him to undergo
the punishment to which he would have exposed his neighbour. The
discussion between the accuser and the accused is conducted before the
whole assembly of the people. When a man is condemned to death, those
witnesses whose evidence decided the sentence inflict the first blows, in
order to add the last degree of certainty to their evidence. Hence the
expression—_Let him among you, who is without sin, cast the first stone_.

If we pursue their application of these fundamental rules in practice, we
shall find that a trial proceeded in the following manner.

On the day of the trial, the executive officers of justice caused the
accused person to make his appearance. At the feet of the Elders were
placed men who, under the name of _auditors_, or _candidates_, followed
regularly the sittings of the Council. The papers in the case were read;
and the witnesses were called in succession. The president addressed this
exhortation to each of them: “It is not conjectures, or whatever public
rumour has brought to thee, that we ask of thee; consider that a great
responsibility rests upon thee: that we are not occupied by an affair,
like a case of pecuniary interest, in which the injury may be repaired. If
thou causest the condemnation of a person unjustly accused, his blood, and
the blood of all the posterity of him, of whom thou wilt have deprived the
earth, will fall upon thee; God will demand of thee an account, as he
demanded of Cain an account of the blood of Abel. Speak.”

A woman could not be a witness, because she would not have the courage to
give the first blow to the condemned person; nor could a child, that is
irresponsible, nor a slave, nor a man of bad character, nor one whose
infirmities prevent the full enjoyment of his physical and moral
faculties. _The simple confession of an individual against himself_, or
the declaration of a prophet, however renowned, would not decide a
condemnation. The Doctors say—“We hold it as fundamental, that _no one
shall prejudice himself_. If a man accuses himself before a tribunal, we
must not believe him, unless the fact is attested by two other witnesses;
and it is proper to remark, that the punishment of death inflicted upon
Achan, in the time of Joshua(399) was an exception, occasioned by the
nature of the circumstances; for our law does not condemn upon the simple
confession of the accused, nor upon the declaration of one prophet alone.”

The witnesses were to attest to the identity of the party, and to depose
to the month, day, hour, and circumstances of the crime. After an
examination of the proofs, those judges who believed the party innocent
stated their reasons; those who believed him guilty spoke afterwards, and
_with the greatest moderation_. If one of the _auditors_, or _candidates_,
was entrusted by the accused with his defence, or if he wished in his own
name to present any elucidations in favour of innocence, he was admitted
to the seat, from which he addressed the judges and the people. But this
liberty was not granted to him, if his opinion was in favour of
condemning. Lastly; when the accused person himself wished to speak, they
gave the most profound attention. When the discussion was finished, one of
the judges recapitulated the case; they removed all the spectators; two
scribes took down the votes of the judges; one of them noted those which
were in favour of the accused, and the other, those which condemned him.
Eleven votes, out of twenty-three, were sufficient to acquit; but it
required thirteen to convict. If any of the judges stated that they were
not sufficiently informed, there were added two more Elders, and then two
others in succession, till they formed a council of sixty-two, which was
the number of the Grand Council. If a majority of votes acquitted, the
accused was discharged _instantly_; if he was to be punished, the judges
postponed pronouncing sentence till the third day; during the intermediate
day they could not be occupied with anything but the cause, and they
abstained from eating freely, and from wine, liquors, and everything which
might render their minds less capable of reflection.

On the morning of the third day they returned to the judgment seat. Each
judge, who had not changed his opinion, said, _I continue of the same
opinion and condemn_; any one, who at first condemned, might at this
sitting acquit; but he who had once acquitted was not allowed to condemn.
If a majority condemned, two _magistrates_ immediately accompanied the
condemned person to the place of punishment. The Elders did not descend
from their seats; they placed at the entrance of the judgment hall an
officer of justice with a small flag in his hand; a second officer, on
horseback, followed the prisoner, and constantly kept looking back to the
place of departure. During this interval, if any person came to announce
to the Elders any new evidence favourable to the prisoner, the first
officer waved his flag, and the second one, as soon as he perceived it,
brought back the prisoner. If the prisoner declared to the _magistrates_,
that he recollected some reasons which had escaped him, they brought him
before the _judges_ no less than five times. If no incident occurred, the
procession advanced slowly, preceded by a herald who, in a loud voice,
addressed the people thus: “This man (stating his name and surname) is led
to punishment for such a crime; the witnesses who have sworn against him
are such and such persons; if any one has evidence to give in his favour,
let him come forth quickly.”

It was in consequence of this rule that the youthful Daniel caused the
procession to go back, which was leading Susanna to punishment, and he
himself ascended the seat of justice to put some new questions to the

At some distance from the place of punishment, they urged the prisoner to
confess his crime, and they made him drink a stupefying beverage, in order
to render the approach of death less terrible.(400)

By this mere analysis of a part of Mr. Salvador’s work we may judge of the
extreme interest of the whole. His principal object has been, to make
apparent the mutual aids which history, philosophy, and legislation afford
in explaining the institutions of the Jewish people. His book is a
scientific work, and at the same time a work of taste. His notes indicate
vast reading; and in the choice of his citations he gives proofs of his
critical skill and discrimination. Mr. Salvador belongs, by his age, to
that new generation, which is distinguished as much by its application to
solid studies, as by elevation and generosity of sentiment.

Trial Of Jesus.

    Refutation Of The Chapter Of Mr. Salvador, Entitled “The Trial And
                         Condemnation Of Jesus.”

“The chapter, in which Mr. Salvador treats of _the Administration of
Justice among the Hebrews_, is altogether theoretical. He makes an
exposition of the law—that things, in order to be _conformable to rule_,
must be transacted in a certain mode. In all this I have not contradicted
him, but have let him speak for himself.

In the subsequent chapter the author announces: “That according to this
_exposition of judicial proceedings_ he is going to follow out the
application of them to the most memorable trial in all history, that of
Jesus Christ.” Accordingly the chapter is entitled: _The Trial and
Condemnation of Jesus_.

The author first takes care to inform us under what point of view he
intends to give an account of that accusation: “That we ought to lament
the blindness of the Hebrews for not having recognised a God in Jesus, is
a point which I do not examine.” (There is another thing also, which he
says he shall not examine.) “But, when they discovered in him _only a
citizen_, did they try him _according to existing laws and formalities_?”

The question being thus stated, Mr. Salvador goes over all the various
aspects of the accusation; and his conclusion is, that the procedure was
perfectly regular, and the condemnation perfectly appropriate to the act
committed. “Now,” says he, (p. 87,) “the Senate, having adjudged that
Jesus, the son of Joseph, born in Bethlehem, had profaned the name of God
by usurping it himself, though a simple citizen, applied to him the law
against blasphemy, the law in the 13th chapter of Deuteronomy, and verse
20, chapter 18th, conformably to which every prophet, even one that
performs miracles, is to be punished when he speaks of a God unknown to
the Hebrews or their fathers.”

This conclusion is formed to please the followers of the Jewish law; it is
wholly for their benefit, and the evident object is, to justify them from
the reproach of _deïcide_.

We will, however, avoid treating this grave subject in a theological point
of view. As to myself, Jesus Christ is the _Man-God_; but it is not with
arguments drawn from my religion and my creed, that I intend to combat the
statement and the conclusion of Mr. Salvador. The present age would charge
me with being intolerant; and this is a reproach which I will never incur.
Besides, I do not wish to give to the enemies of Christianity the
advantage of making the outcry, that we are afraid to enter into a
discussion with them, and that we wish to crush rather than to convince
them. Having thus contented myself with declaring my own faith, as Mr.
Salvador has let us clearly understand his, I shall also examine the
question under a merely _human_ point of view, and proceed to inquire,
with him, “Whether Jesus Christ, considered _as a simple citizen_, was
tried according to the existing laws and formalities.”

The catholic religion itself warrants me in this; it is not a mere
fiction; for God willed, that Jesus should be clothed in the forms of
humanity (_et homo factus est_), and that he should undergo the lot and
sufferings of humanity. The _son of God_, as to his moral state and his
holy spirit, he was also, in reality, the _Son of Man_, for the purpose of
accomplishing the mission which he came upon earth to fulfil.

This being the state of the question, then, I enter upon my subject; and I
do not hesitate to affirm, because I will prove it, that, upon examining
all the circumstances of this great trial, we shall be very far from
discovering in it the application of those legal maxims, which are the
safeguard of the rights of accused persons, and of which Mr. Salvador, in
his chapter _On the Administration of Justice_, has made a seductive

The accusation of Jesus, instigated by the hatred of the priests and the
Pharisees, and presented at first as a charge of _sacrilege_, but
afterwards converted into a _political_ crime and _an offence against the
state_, was marked, in all its aspects, with the foulest acts of violence
and perfidy. It was not so much _a trial_ environed with legal forms, as a
real _passion_, or prolonged suffering, in which the imperturbable
gentleness of the victim displays more strongly the unrelenting ferocity
of his persecutors.

When Jesus appeared among the Jews, that people was but the shadow of
itself. Broken down by more than one subjugation, divided by factions and
irreconcilable sects, they had in the last resort been obliged to succumb
to the Roman power and surrender their own sovereignty. Jerusalem, having
become a mere appendage to the province of Syria, saw within its walls an
imperial garrison; Pilate commanded there, in the name of Cæsar; and the
late people of God were groaning under the double tyranny of a conqueror,
whose power they abhorred and whose idolatry they detested, and of a
priesthood that exerted itself to keep them under the rigorous bonds of a
religious fanaticism.

Jesus Christ deplored the misfortunes of his country. How often did he
weep for Jerusalem! Read in Bossuet’s _Politics drawn from the Holy
Scriptures_, the admirable chapter entitled, _Jesus Christ the good
citizen_. He recommended to his countrymen _union_, which constitutes the
strength of states. “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, (said he,) thou that killest
the prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I
have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens
under her wings, and ye would not!”

He was supposed to be not favorable to the Romans; but he only loved his
own countrymen more. Witness the address of the Jews, who, in order to
induce him to restore to the centurion a sick servant that was dear to
him, used as the most powerful argument these words—that he was worthy for
whom he should do this, for he loveth our nation. And Jesus went with
them. Luke vii. 4, 5.

Touched with the distresses of the nation, Jesus comforted them by holding
up to them the hope of another life; he alarmed the great, the rich, and
the haughty, by the prospect of a final judgment, at which every man would
be judged not according to his rank, but his works. He was desirous of
again bringing back man to his original dignity; he spoke to him of his
_duties_, but at the same time of his _rights_. The people heard him with
avidity, and followed him with eagerness; his words affected them; his
hand healed their diseases, and his moral teaching instructed them; he
preached, and practised one virtue till then unknown, and which belongs to
him alone—_charity_. This celebrity, however, and these wonders excited
envy. The partisans of the _ancient theocracy_ were alarmed at the _new
doctrine_; the chief priests felt that their power was threatened; the
pride of the Pharisees was humbled; the scribes came in as their
auxiliaries, and the destruction of Jesus was resolved upon.

Now, if his conduct was reprehensible, if it afforded grounds for a _legal
accusation_, why was not that course taken openly? Why not try him for the
acts committed by him, and for his public discourses? Why employ against
him subterfuges, artifice, perfidy, and violence? for such was the mode of
proceeding against Jesus.

Let us now take up the subject, and look at the narratives which have come
down to us. Let us, with Mr. Salvador, open the books of the Gospels; for
he does not object to that testimony; nay, he relies upon it: “It is by
the Gospels themselves,” says he, “that I shall establish _all the

In truth, how can we (except by contrary evidence, of which there is none)
refuse to place confidence in an historian, who tells us, as Saint John
does, with affecting simplicity: “He that saw it bare record, and his
record is true, and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.”
John xix. 35.


Who will not be surprised to find in this case the odious practice of
employing hired informers? Branded with infamy, as they are in modern
times, they will be still more so when we carry back their origin to the
trial of Christ. It will be seen presently, whether I have not properly
characterized by the name of hired informers those emissaries, whom the
chief priests sent out to be about Jesus.

We read in the evangelist Luke, chap. xx. 20: _Et observantes miserunt
insidiatores, qui se justos simularent, ut caperent eum in sermone, et
traderent illum principatui et potestati præsidis_. I will not translate
this text myself, but will take the language of a translator whose
accuracy is well known, Mr. De Sacy: “As they only sought occasions for
his destruction, they sent to him _apostate persons who feigned themselves
just men_, in order to _take hold_ of his words, that they might deliver
him unto magistrate and into the power of the governor.” And Mr. De Sacy
adds—“if there should escape from him the least word against the public

This first artifice has escaped the sagacity of Mr. Salvador.


According to Mr. Salvador, the senate, as he calls it, did not commence
their proceedings by arresting Jesus, as would be done at the present day;
but they began by passing a preliminary decree, that he should be
arrested; and he cites, in proof of his assertion, St. John xi. 53, 54,
and St. Matthew xxvi. 4, 5.

But St. John says nothing of this pretended decree. He speaks, too, not of
a public sitting, but of a consultation held by the chief priests and the
_Pharisees_, who did not, to my knowledge, constitute a judicial tribunal
among the Jews. “Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a
council, and said, What do we? for this man _doeth many miracles_.” John
xi. 47. They add: “If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on
him,”—which imported also, in their minds, _and they will no longer
believe in us_. Now, in this, I can readily perceive the fear of seeing
the morals and doctrines of Jesus prevail; but where is the preliminary
_judgment_, or decree? I cannot discover it.

“And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year,
said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor consider, that it is expedient
for us, that one man should die for the people ... and he _prophesied_,
that Jesus should die for the nation of the Jews.” But to _prophesy_ is
not to _pass judgment_; and the individual opinion of Caiaphas, who was
only one among them, was not the opinion of all, nor a _judgment of the
senate_. We, therefore, still find a _judgment_ wanting; and we only
observe, that the priests and Pharisees are stimulated by a violent hatred
of Jesus, and that “from that day forth they took counsel together for _to
put him to death; ut interficerent eum_.” John xi. 53.

The authority of St. John, then, is directly in contradiction of the
assertion, that there was an _order of arrest_ previously passed by a
regular tribunal.

St. Matthew, in relating the same facts, says, that the chief priests
assembled at the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, and
there held counsel together. But what counsel? and what was the result of
it? Was it to issue an _order of arrest_ against Jesus, that they might
hear him and then pass sentence? Not at all; but they held counsel
together, “that they might take Jesus _by subtilty_, or _fraud_, and _kill
him_”; _concilium fecerunt_, _ut Jesum_ DOLO _tenerent et_ OCCIDERENT.
Matt. xxvi. 5. Now in the Latin language, a language perfectly well
constituted in everything relating to terms of the law, the words
_occidere_ and _interficere_ were never employed to express the act of
passing _sentence_, or _judgment of death_, but simply to signify _murder_
or _assassination_.(401)

This _fraud_, by the aid of which they were to get Jesus into their power,
was nothing but the bargain made between the chief priests and Judas.

Judas, one of the twelve, goes to find the chief priests, and says to
them, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? Matt. xxvi.
14, 15. And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver! Jesus,
who foresaw his treachery, warned him of it mildly, in the midst of the
Last Supper, where the voice of his master, in the presence of his
brethren, should have touched him and awakened his reflections! But not
so; wholly absorbed in his reward, Judas placed himself at the head of a
gang of servants, to whom he was to point out Jesus; and, then, by a
_kiss_ consummated his treachery!(402)

Is it thus that a _judicial decree was to be executed_, if there had
really been one made for the arrest of Jesus?


The act was done in the night time. After having celebrated the Supper,
Jesus had conducted his disciples to the Mount of Olives. He prayed
fervently; but they fell asleep.

Jesus awakes them, with a gentle reproof for their weakness, and warns
them that the moment is approaching. “Rise, let us be going; behold he is
at hand that doth betray me.” Matt. xxvi. 46.

Judas was not alone; in his suite there was a kind of ruffian band, almost
entirely composed of servants of the high priest, but whom Mr. Salvador
honours with the title of the _legal soldiery_. If in the crowd there were
any Roman _soldiers_, they were there as spectators, and without having
been legally called on duty; for the Roman commanding officer, Pilate, had
not yet heard the affair spoken of.

This personal seizure of Jesus had so much the appearance of a forcible
arrest, an illegal act of violence, that his disciples made preparation to
repel force by force.

Malchus, the insolent servant of the high priest, having shown himself the
most eager to rush upon Jesus, Peter, not less zealous for his own master,
cut off the servant’s right ear.

This resistance might have been continued with success, if Jesus had not
immediately interfered. But what proves that Peter, even while causing
bloodshed, was not resisting a _legal order_, a _legal judgment_ or
decree, (which would have made his resistance an act of _rebellion by an
armed force against a judicial order_,) is this—that he was not arrested,
either at the moment or afterwards, at the house of the high priest, to
which he followed Jesus, and where he was most distinctly recognised by
the maid servant of the high priest, and even by a relative of Malchus.

Jesus alone was arrested; and although he had not individually offered any
active resistance, and had even restrained that of his disciples, they
bound him as a malefactor; which was a criminal degree of rigour, since
for the purpose of securing a single man by a numerous band of persons
armed with swords and staves it was not necessary. “Be ye come out as
against a thief with swords and staves?” Luke xxii. 52.


They dragged Jesus along with them; and, instead of taking him directly to
the proper magistrate, they carried him before Annas, who had no other
character than that of being _father-in-law to the high priest_. John
xviii. 13. Now, if this was only for the purpose of letting him be seen by
him, such a curiosity was not to be gratified; it was a vexatious
proceeding, an irregularity.

From the house of Annas they led him to that of the high priest; all this
time being _bound_. John xviii. 24. They placed him in the court yard; it
was cold, and they made a fire; it was in the night time, but by the light
of the fire Peter was recognised by the people of the palace.

Now the Jewish law prohibited _all proceedings by night_; here, therefore,
there was another infraction of the law.

Under this state of things, his person being forcibly seized and detained
in a private house, and delivered into the hands of servants, in the midst
of a court, how was Jesus treated? St. Luke says, the men that held Jesus
_mocked_ him and _smote_ him; and when they had blindfolded him, they
struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that
smote thee? And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
Luke xxii. 63, 64, 65.

Will it be said, as Mr. Salvador does, that all this took place out of the
presence of the senate? Let us wait, in this instance, till the senate
shall be called up, and we shall see how far they protected the accused


Already had the cock crowed! But it was not yet day. The elders of the
people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and, having
caused Jesus to appear before their council, they proceeded to interrogate
him. Luke xxii. 66.

Now, in the outset, it should be observed, that if they had been less
carried away by their hatred, they should, as it was the _night time_, not
only have postponed, but put a stop to the proceedings, because it was
_the feast of the Passover_, the most solemn of all festivals; and
according to their law no _judicial procedure_ could take place on a
feast-day, under the penalty of being null.(403) Nevertheless, let us see
who proceeded to interrogate Jesus. This was that same Caiaphas, who, if
he had intended to remain a _judge_, was evidently liable to objection;
for in the preceding assemblage he had made himself the _accuser_ of
Jesus.(404) Even before he had seen or heard him, he declared him to be
_deserving of death_. He said to his colleagues, that “it was _expedient_
that one man should die for all.” John xviii. 14. Such being the opinion
of Caiaphas, we shall not be surprised, if he shows partiality.

Instead of interrogating Jesus respecting _positive acts done_, with their
circumstances, and respecting _facts personal to himself_, Caiaphas
interrogates him respecting _general facts_, respecting his disciples
(whom it would have been much more simple to have called as witnesses),
and respecting his _doctrine_, which was a mere abstraction so long as no
external acts were the consequence of it. “The high priest then asked
Jesus of his disciples and of his doctrine.” John xviii. 19.

Jesus answered with dignity: “I spake openly to the world; I ever taught
in the synagogue and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in
secret have I said nothing.” Ib. 20.

“Why askest thou me? Ask them which heard me, _what I have said unto
them_; behold, they know what I said.” Ib. 21.

“And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck
Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest
so?” Ib. 22.

Will it here be still said, that this violence was the individual act of
the person who thus struck the accused? I answer, that on this occasion
the fact took place in the presence and under the eyes of the whole
council; and, as the high priest who presided did not restrain the author
of it, I come to the conclusion, that he became an accomplice, especially
when this violence was committed under the pretence of avenging the
alleged affront to his dignity.

But in what respect could the answer of Jesus appear offensive? “If I have
spoken evil,” said Jesus, “bear witness of the evil; but if well, why
smitest thou me?”(405) John xviii. 23.

There remained no mode of escaping from this dilemma. They accused Jesus;
it was for those, who accused, to prove their accusation. An accused
person is not obliged to criminate himself. He should have been convicted
by proofs; he himself called for them. Let us see what witnesses were
produced against him.


“And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against
Jesus to put him to death; and found none.” Mark xiv. 55.

“For many bare _false witness_ against him, but their witness agreed not
together.” Ib. 56.

“And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying, We
heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and
within three days I will build another made without hands.” Ib. 57, 58.

“But (to the same point still) neither so did their witness agree
together.” Ib. 59.

Mr. Salvador, on this subject, says, p. 87: “The two witnesses, whom St.
Matthew and St. Mark charge with _falsehood_, narrate a discourse which
St. John declares to be _true_, so far as respects the power which Jesus
Christ attributed to himself.”

This alleged contradiction among the Evangelists does not exist. In the
first place, St. Matthew does not say that the discourse was had by Jesus.
In chapter xxvi. 61, he states the depositions of the witnesses, but
saying at the same time that they were _false witnesses_; and in chapter
xxvii. 40, he puts the same declaration into the mouth of those who
insulted Jesus at the foot of the cross; but he does not put it into the
mouth of Christ. He is in accordance with St. Mark.

St. John, chapter ii. 19, makes Jesus speak in these words: “Jesus
answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will
raise it up.” And St. John adds: “He spake of the temple of his body.”

Thus Jesus did not say in an affirmative and somewhat menacing manner, _I
will destroy this temple_, as the witnesses _falsely_ assumed; he only
said, hypothetically, _Destroy this temple_, that is to say, suppose this
temple should be destroyed, I will raise it up in three days. Besides,
they could not dissemble, that he referred to a temple altogether
different from theirs, because he said, I will raise up another in three
days, _which will not be made by the hands of man_.

It hence results, at least, that the Jews did not understand him, for they
cried out, “Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou
rear it up in three days?”

Thus, then, the witnesses did not agree together, and their declarations
had nothing conclusive. Mark xiv. 59. We must, therefore, look for other

“Then the high priest, (we must not forget, that he is still the accuser,)
the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest
thou nothing? what is it, which these witness against thee? But he held
his peace, and answered nothing.” Mark xiv. 60. In truth, since the
question was not concerning the temple of the Jews, but an ideal temple,
not made by the hand of man, and which was alone in the thoughts of Jesus,
the explanation was to be found in the very evidence itself.

The high priest continued: “I adjure thee, by the living God, that thou
tell us, whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.” Matt. xxvi. 63. I
adjure thee, I call upon thee on oath! a gross infraction of that rule of
morals and jurisprudence, which forbids our placing an accused person
between the danger of perjury and the fear of inculpating himself, and
thus making his situation more hazardous. The high priest, however,
persists, and says to him: Art thou the Christ, the Son of God?(406) Jesus
answered, _Thou hast said_. Matthew xxvi. 64; _I am_. Mark xiv. 62.

“Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, _He hath spoken blasphemy;
what further need have we of witnesses_? behold, now _ye have heard his
blasphemy_. What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death.”
Matt. xxvi. 66.

Let us now compare this scene of violence with the mild deduction of
principles, which we find in the chapter of Mr. Salvador _On the
Administration of Justice_; and let us ask ourselves, if, as he alleges,
we find a just _application_ of them in the proceedings against Christ?

Do we discover here that _respect_ of the Hebrew judge towards the party
accused, when we see that Caiaphas permitted him to be struck, in his
presence, _with impunity_?

What was this Caiaphas, at once an accuser and judge?(407) A passionate
man, and too much resembling the odious portrait which the historian
Josephus has given us of him!(408) A judge, who was irritated to such a
degree, that he rent his clothes; who imposed upon the accused a most
solemn oath, and who gave to his answers the criminal character, that _he
had spoken_ blasphemy! And, from that moment, he wanted no more witnesses,
notwithstanding the law required them. He would not have an inquiry, which
he perceived would be insufficient; he attempts to supply it by captious
questions. He is desirous of having him condemned _upon his own
declaration alone_, (interpreted, too, as he chooses to understand it,)
though that was forbidden by the laws of the Hebrews! And, in the midst of
a most violent transport of passion, this accuser himself, a high priest,
who means to speak in the name of the living God, is the first to pass
sentence of death, and carries with him the opinions of the rest!

In this hideous picture I cannot recognise that justice of the Hebrews, of
which Mr. Salvador has given so fine a view in _his theory_!


Immediately after this kind of sacerdotal verdict rendered against Jesus,
the acts of violence and insults recommenced with increased strength; the
fury of the judge must have communicated itself to the bystanders. St.
Matthew says: “Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and
others smote him with the palms of their hands, saying, Prophesy unto us,
thou Christ; who is he that smote thee?” Matt. xxvi. 67, 68.

Mr. Salvador does not contest the truth of this ill treatment. In page 88
he says, “It was contrary to the spirit of the Hebrew law, and that it was
not according to the order of nature, that a senate composed of the most
respectable men of a nation,—that a senate, which might perhaps be
mistaken, but which thought it was acting mildly, should have permitted
such outrages against him whose life it held in its own hands. The writers
who have transmitted these details to us, not having been present
themselves at the trial, were disposed to overcharge the picture, either
on account of their own feelings, or to throw upon their judges a greater

I repeat; this ill treatment was entirely contrary to the spirit of the
law. And what do I want more, since my object is to make prominent _all
the violations of law_.

“It is not in nature to see a body, which respects itself, authorize such
attempts.” But of what consequence is that, when the fact is established?
“The historians, it is said, were not present at the trial.” But was Mr.
Salvador there present himself, so that he could give a flat denial of
their statements? And when even an able writer, who was not an
eye-witness, relates the same events after the lapse of more than eighteen
centuries, he ought at least to bring opposing evidence, if he would
impeach that of contemporaries; who, if they were not in the very hall of
the council, were certainly on the spot, in the vicinity, perhaps in the
court yard, inquiring anxiously of every thing that was happening to the
man whose disciples they were.(409) Besides, the learned author whom I am
combating says, in the outset (p. 81), “it is from the Gospels themselves
that he will take all his facts.” He must then take the whole together, as
well those which go to condemn, as those which are in palliation or

Those gross insults, those inhuman acts of violence, even if they are to
be cast upon the servants of the high priest and the persons in his train,
do not excuse those individuals, who, when they took upon themselves the
authority of judges, were bound at the same time to throw around him all
the protection of the law. Caiaphas, too, was culpable as the master of
the house (for every thing took place in his house), even if he should not
be responsible as high priest and president of the council for having
permitted excesses, which, indeed were but too much in accordance with the
rage he had himself displayed upon the bench.

These outrages, which would be inexcusable even towards a man irrevocably
condemned to punishment, were the more criminal towards Jesus, because,
legally and judicially speaking, there had not yet been any sentence
properly passed against him according to the public law of the country; as
we shall see in the following section, which will deserve the undivided
attention of the reader.


We must not forget, _that Judea was a conquered country_. After the death
of Herod—most inappropriately surnamed _the Great_—Augustus had confirmed
his last will, by which that king of the Jews had arranged the division of
his dominions between _his_ two sons: but Augustus did not continue their
title of _king_, which their father had borne.

Archeläus, on whom Judea devolved, having been recalled on account of his
cruelties, the territory, which was at first intrusted to his command, was
united to the province of Syria. (_Josephus_, Antiq. Jud. lib. 17, cap.

Augustus then appointed particular officers for Judea. Tiberius did the
same; and at the time of which we are speaking, Pilate was one of those
officers. (_Josephus_, lib. 18, cap. 3 & 8.)

Some have considered Pilate as governor, by title, and have given him the
Latin appellation, _Præses_, president or governor. But they have mistaken
the force of the word. Pilate was one of those public officers, who were
called by the Romans, _procuratores Cæsaris_, Imperial procurators. With
this title of _procurator_, he was placed under the superior authority of
the governor of Syria, the true _præses_, or governor of that province, of
which Judea was then only one of the dependencies.

To the governor (_præses_) peculiarly belonged the right of taking
cognizance of _capital_ cases.(410) The _procurator_, on the contrary,
had, for his principal duty, nothing but the collection of the revenue,
and the trial of revenue causes. But the right of taking cognizance of
_capital_ cases did, in some instances, belong to certain _procurators_,
who were sent into small provinces to fill the places of governors (_vice
præsides_), as appears clearly from the Roman laws.(411) Such was _Pilate_
at Jerusalem.(412)

The Jews, placed in this political position—notwithstanding they were left
in the enjoyment of their civil laws, the public exercise of their
religion, and many things merely relating to their police and municipal
regulations—the Jews, I say, had not the _power of life and death_; this
was a principal attribute of sovereignty, which the Romans always took
great care to reserve to themselves, even if they neglected other things.
_Apud Romanos, jus valet gladii; cætera transmittuntur_. TACIT.

What then was the right of the Jewish authorities in regard to Jesus?
Without doubt the scribes, and their friends the Pharisees, might well
have been alarmed, as a body and individually, at the preaching and
success of Jesus; they might be concerned for their worship; and they
might have interrogated the man respecting his creed and his
doctrines,—they might have made a kind of preparatory proceeding,—they
might have declared, in point of fact, that those doctrines, which
threatened their own, were contrary to their law, as understood by

But that law, although it had not undergone any alteration as to the
affairs of religion, had no longer any coercive power as to the external
or civil regulations of society. In vain would they have undertaken to
pronounce sentence of death under the circumstances of the case of Jesus;
the council of the Jews had not the power to pass a _sentence of death_;
it only would have had power to make _an accusation_ against him before
the governor, or his deputy, and then deliver him over to be tried by him.

Let us distinctly establish this point; for here I entirely differ in
opinion from Mr. Salvador. According to him, (p. 88), “the Jews had
_reserved the power of trying, according to their law_; but it was in the
hands of the _procurator_ alone, that the executive power was vested;
every culprit must be put to death by _his_ consent, in order that the
senate should not have the means of reaching persons that were sold to

No; the Jews had not reserved _the right of passing sentence of death_.
This right had been transferred to the Romans by the very act of conquest;
and this was not merely that the senate should not have the means of
reaching persons who were sold to foreign countries; but it was done, in
order that the conqueror might be able to reach those individuals who
should become _impatient of the yoke_; it was, in short, for the equal
protection of all, as all had become Roman subjects; and to Rome alone
belonged the highest judicial power, which is the principal attribute of
sovereignty. Pilate, as the representative of Cæsar in Judea, was not
merely an agent of the _executive authority_, which would have left the
_judiciary_ and _legislative_ power in the hands of the conquered
people—he was not simply an officer appointed to give an _exequatur_ or
mere approval (_visa_) to sentences passed by _another authority_, the
_authority of the Jews_. When the matter in question was a _capital_ case,
the Roman authorities not only ordered the _execution_ of a sentence, but
also took cognizance (_cognitio_) of the crime; it had the right of
jurisdiction _à priori_, and that of _passing judgment in the last
resort_. If Pilate himself had not had this power by special delegation,
_vice præsidis_, it was vested in the governor, within whose territorial
jurisdiction the case occurred; but in any event we hold it to be clear,
that the Jews had lost the right of _condemning to death_ any person
whatever, not only so far as respects the _execution_ but the _passing_ of
the sentence. This is one of the best settled points in the provincial law
of the Romans.

The Jews were not ignorant of this; for when they went before Pilate, to
ask of him the condemnation of Jesus, they themselves declared, that it
was not permitted to them to put any person to death: “It is not lawful
for us to put any man to death.” John xviii. 31.

Here I am happy to be able to support myself by the opinion of a very
respectable authority, the celebrated Loiseau, in his treatise on
_Seigneuries_, in the chapter on the administration of _justice belonging
to cities_. “In truth,” says he, “there is some evidence, that the
_police_, in which the people had the sole interest, was administered by
officers of the people; but I know not upon what were founded the
concessions of power to some cities of France to exercise criminal
jurisdiction; nor why the Ordinance of Moulins left that to them rather
than civil cases; for the criminal jurisdiction is the _right of the
sword_, the _merum imperium_, or absolute sovereignty. Accordingly, by the
Roman law, the administration of justice was so far prohibited to the
officers of cities, that they could not punish even by a simple fine.
_Thus it is doubtless that we must understand_ that passage of the Gospel,
where the Jews say to Pilate, _It is not lawful for us to put any man to
death_; for, after they were subjected to the Romans, they had not
jurisdiction of crimes.”

Let us now follow Jesus to the presence of Pilate.


At this point I must entreat the particular attention of the reader. The
irregularities and acts of violence, which I have hitherto remarked upon,
are nothing in comparison with the unbridled fury, which is about to
display itself before the _Roman Judge_, in order to extort from him,
against his own conviction, a sentence of death.

“And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with
the elders, and scribes, and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and
carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.” Mark xv. 1.

_As soon as the morning was come_; for, as I have observed already, every
thing which had been done thus far against Jesus was done _during the

They then led Jesus from Caiaphas unto the Hall of Judgment of
Pilate.(413) It was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment
hall, lest _they should be defiled_; but that they might eat the passover.
John xviii. 28.

Singular scrupulousness! and truly worthy of the Pharisees! They were
afraid of _defiling themselves on the day of the passover_ by entering
_the house of_ a heathen! And yet, the same day, only some hours before
presenting themselves to Pilate, they had, in contempt of their own law,
committed the outrage of _holding a council_ and deliberating upon _an
accusation of a capital crime_.

As they would not enter, “Pilate went out to them.” John xviii. 29. Now
observe his language. He did not say to them, _Where is the sentence you
have passed_; as he must have done, if he was only to give them his simple
_exequatur_, or permission to execute the sentence; but he takes up the
matter from the beginning, as would be done by one who had _plenary
jurisdiction_; and he says to them: What accusation bring ye against this

They answered, with their accustomed haughtiness: If he were not _a
malefactor_ we would not have delivered him up to thee. John xviii. 30.
They wished to have it understood, that, being a question of _blasphemy_,
it was the _cause of their religion_, which they could appreciate better
than any others could. Pilate, then, would have been under the necessity
of believing them _on their word_. But this Roman, indignant at their
proposed course of proceeding, which would have restricted his
jurisdiction by making him the passive instrument of the wishes of the
Jews, answered them in an ironical manner: Well, since you say he has
sinned against your law, take him yourselves and judge him according to
your law. John xviii. 31. This was an absolute mystification to them, for
they knew their own want of power to condemn him to death. But they were
obliged to yield the point, and to submit to Pilate himself their
_articles of accusation_.

Now what were the grounds of this accusation? Were they _the same_ which
had hitherto been alleged against Jesus—the charge of _blasphemy_—which
was the only one brought forward by Caiaphas before the council of the
Jews? Not at all; despairing of obtaining from the Roman judge a sentence
of _death_ for a _religious_ quarrel, which was of no interest to the
Romans,(414) they suddenly changed their plan; they abandoned their first
accusation, the charge of blasphemy, and substituted for it a _political_
accusation, an _offence against the state_.

Here we have the very crisis, or essential incident, of the passion; and
that which makes the heaviest accusation of guilt on the part of the
informers against Jesus. For, being fully bent on destroying him in any
manner whatever, they no longer exhibited themselves as the avengers of
_their religion_, which was alleged to have been outraged, or of their
worship, which it was pretended was threatened; but, ceasing to appear as
Jews, in order to affect sentiments belonging to a foreign nation, those
hypocrites held out the appearance of being concerned for the interests of
_Rome_; they accused their own countryman of an intention to restore the
kingdom of Jerusalem, to make himself _king_ of the _Jews_, and to make an
insurrection of the people against their conquerors. Let us hear them
speak for themselves:

“And they began to _accuse_ him, saying, We found this fellow perverting
the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying, that he
himself is Christ a _king_.” Luke xxiii. 2.

What a calumny! Jesus forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar! when he had
answered the Pharisees themselves, in presence of the whole people, by
showing them the image of Cæsar upon a Roman piece of money, and saying,
Give unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar’s. But this accusation was one
mode of interesting Pilate in respect to his jurisdiction; for, as an
imperial _procurator_, he was specially to superintend the collection of
the revenue. The second branch of the accusation still more directly
affected the sovereignty of the Romans: “He holds himself up for a

The accusation having thus assumed a character purely _political_, Pilate
thought he must pay attention to it. “Then Pilate entered into the
judgment hall,” (the place where justice was administered,) and having
_summoned Jesus to appear_ before him, he proceeds to his Examination, and
says to him: “Art thou the king of the Jews?” John xviii. 33.

This question, so different from those which had been addressed to him at
the house of the high priest, appears to have excited the astonishment of
Jesus; and, in his turn, he asked Pilate: “Sayest thou this thing of
thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?” Ib. 24. In reality, Jesus was
desirous of knowing, first of all, the authors of this new accusation—Is
this an accusation brought against me by the _Romans_ or by the _Jews_?

Pilate replied to him—“Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests
have delivered thee unto me; what hast thou done?” Ib. 35.

All the particulars of this procedure are important; I cannot too often
repeat the remark, that in no part of the transactions before Pilate is
there any question at all respecting a previous sentence, a judgment
already passed—a judgment, the execution of which was the only subject of
consideration; it was a case of a capital accusation; but an accusation
which was then just beginning; they were about the preliminary
_interrogatories_ put to the accused, and Pilate says to him, “What hast
thou done?”

Jesus, seeing by the explanation what was the source of the _prejudging_
of his case, and knowing the secret thoughts which predominated in making
the accusation, and that his enemies wanted to arrive at the same end by
an artifice, answered Pilate—“_My kingdom is not of this world_; if my
kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should
not be delivered to the Jews;” (we see, in fact, that Jesus had forbidden
his people to resist) but, he added, “now is my kingdom not from hence.”
John xviii. 36.

This answer of Jesus is very remarkable; it became the foundation of his
religion, and the pledge of its universality, because it detached it from
the interests of all governments. It rests not merely in assertion, in
doctrine; it was given in _justification_, in _defence_ against the
accusation of intending to make himself _King of the Jews_. Indeed, if
Jesus had affected a _temporal_ royal authority, if there had been the
least attempt, on his part, to usurp _the power of Cæsar_, he would have
been guilty of treason in the eyes of the magistrate. But, by answering
twice, _my kingdom is not of this world_, my kingdom _is not from hence_,
his justification was complete.

Pilate, however, persisted and said to him: “Art thou a king then?” Jesus
replied, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for
this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the
truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. John xviii. 37.

Pilate then said to him: _What is the truth?_

This question proves, that Pilate had not a very clear idea of what Jesus
called _the truth_. He perceived nothing in it but _ideology_; and,
satisfied with having said (less in the manner of a question than of an
exclamation) “_What is the truth_,” he went on to the Jews (who remained
outside) and said to them, “_I find in him no fault at all_.” John xviii.

Here, then, we see Jesus absolved from the accusation by the declaration
of the Roman judge himself.

But the accusers, persisting still farther, added—“_He stirreth up the
people, teaching_ throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this
place.” Luke xxiii. 5.

“He stirreth up the people!” This is a charge of sedition; and for Pilate.
But observe, it was _by the doctrine which he teaches_; these words
comprehend the real complaint of the Jews. To them it was equivalent to
saying—He _teaches_ the people, he instructs them, he enlightens them; he
preaches _new doctrines_ which are not _ours_. “He stirs up the people!”
This, in their months signified—the people hear him willingly; the people
follow and become attached to him; for he preaches a doctrine that is
friendly and consolatory to the people; he unmasks our pride, our avarice,
our insatiable spirit of domination!

Pilate, however, does not appear to have attached much importance to this
new turn given to the accusation; but he here betrays a weakness. He heard
the word _Galilee_; and he makes that the occasion of shifting off the
responsibility upon another public officer, and seizes the occasion with
avidity. He says to Jesus—you are a _Galilean_ then? and, upon the answer
being in the affirmative, considering Jesus as belonging to the
jurisdiction of Herod-Antipas, who, by the good pleasure of Cæsar, was
then tetrarch of Galilee, he sent him to Herod. Luke xxiii. 6, 7.

But Herod, who, as St. Luke says, had been long desirous of _seeing Jesus_
and had hoped to see some  miracle  done by him, after satisfying an idle
curiosity and putting several questions to him, which Jesus did not deign
to answer,—Herod, notwithstanding the presence of the priests, (who had
not yet gone off, but stood there with their scribes,) and notwithstanding
the pertinacity with which they continued to accuse Jesus, perceiving
nothing but what was merely chimerical in the _accusation of being a
king_, made a mockery of the affair, and sent Jesus back to Pilate, _after
having arrayed him in a gorgeous robe_, in order to show that he thought
this pretended royalty was a subject of ridicule rather than of
apprehensions. Luke xxiii. 8, &c., and De Sacy. Ib.


No person, then, was willing to condemn Jesus; neither Herod, who only
made the case a subject of mockery, nor Pilate, who had openly declared
that he found nothing criminal in him.

But the hatred of the priests was not disarmed—so far from it, that the
chief priests, with a numerous train of their partisans, returned to
Pilate with a determination to force him to a decision.

The unfortunate Pilate, reviewing his proceedings in their presence, said
to them again: “Ye have brought this man unto me as one that perverteth
the people—and, behold, I, having examined him before you, _have found no
fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him_: No, nor
yet Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo, _nothing worthy of death is done
unto him_. I will therefore chastise him and release him.” Luke xxiii. 14,

After “chastising” him! And was not this a piece of cruelty, when he
considered him to be innocent?(415) But this was an act of condescension
by which Pilate hoped to quiet the rage with which he saw they were

“Then Pilate therefore took Jesus and scourged him.” John xix. 1. And,
supposing that he had done enough to disarm their fury, he exhibited him
to them in that pitiable condition; saying to them at the same time,
Behold the man! _Ecce homo_. John xix. 5.

Now, in my turn, I say, here is indeed a decree of Pilate, and an unjust
decree; but it is not the pretended decree alleged to have been made by
the Jews. It is a decision wholly different; an unjust decision, it is
true; but sufficient to avail as _a legal bar_ to any new proceedings
against Jesus for the same act. _Non bis in idem_, no man shall be put
twice in jeopardy, &c. is a maxim, which has come down to us from the

Accordingly, “from thenceforth Pilate sought to _release_ Jesus.” John
xix. 12.

Here, now, observe the deep perfidy of his accusers. “If thou let this man
go, thou art not Cæsar’s friend; whosoever maketh himself a _king_
speaketh against Cæsar.” Ib.

It does not appear that Pilate was malignant; we see all the efforts he
had made at different times to save Jesus. But he was a _public officer_,
and was attached to _his office_; he was intimidated by the outcry which
called in question his _fidelity to the emperor_; he was afraid of a
_dismissal_: and he yielded. He immediately reascended the judgment-seat;
(Matt. xxvii. 19), and, as new light had thus come upon him, he proceeded
to make a second decree!

But being for a moment stopped by the voice of his own conscience, and by
the advice which his terrified wife sent to him—“_Have thou nothing to do
with that just man_”—(Matt. xxvii. 19)—he made his last effort, by
attempting to influence the populace to accept of Barabbas instead of
Jesus. “But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather
release Barabbas unto them.” Mark xv. 11. Barabbas! a murderer! an

Pilate spoke to them again: _What will ye then, that I should do with
Jesus?_ And they cried out, _Away with him, crucify him_. Pilate still
persisted: _Shall I crucify your king?_ thus using terms of raillery, in
order to disarm them. But here showing themselves to be more truly Roman
than Pilate himself, the chief priests hypocritically answered: _We have
no king but Cæsar._ John xix. 15.

The outcry was renewed—Crucify him, crucify him! And the clamour became
more and more threatening; “and the voices of them and of the chief
priests prevailed.” Luke xxiii. 23.

At length Pilate, _being desirous of pleasing the multitude_, proceeds to
speak. But can we call it a legal adjudication, a _judgment_, that he is
about to pronounce? Is he, at the moment, in that free state of mind which
is necessary for a judge, who is about to pass a _sentence of death_? What
new witnesses, what proofs have been brought forward to change his
conviction and opinion, which had been so energetically declared, of the
innocence of Jesus?

“When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult
was made, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying,
_I am innocent of the blood of this just person_; see ye to it. Matt.
xxvii. 24. And Pilate gave sentence, that it should be as they required.
Luke xxiii. 24. And he delivered him to them to be crucified.” Matt.
xxvii. 26.

Well mayest thou wash thy hands, Pilate, stained as they are with innocent
blood! Thou hast authorised the act in thy weakness; thou art not less
culpable, than if thou hadst sacrificed him through wickedness! All
generations, down to our own time, have repeated that the _Just One_
suffered _under Pontius Pilate_. Thy name has remained in history, to
serve for the instruction of all public men, all pusillanimous judges, in
order to hold up to them the shame of _yielding contrary to one’s own
convictions_. The populace, in its fury, made an outcry at the foot of thy
judgment-seat, where, perhaps, thou thyself didst not sit securely! But of
what importance was that? Thy _duty_ spoke out; and in such a case, better
would it be to suffer death, than to inflict it on another.(416)

We will now come to a conclusion.

The _proof_ that Jesus was not, as Mr. Salvador maintains, put to death
for the crime of blasphemy or sacrilege, and for having preached a new
religious worship in contravention of the Mosaic law, results from _the
very sentence_ pronounced by Pilate; a sentence, in pursuance of which he
was led to execution by Roman soldiers.

There was among the Romans a custom, which we borrowed from their
jurisprudence, and which is still followed, of placing over the head of a
condemned criminal a writing containing _an extract from his sentence_, in
order that the public might know _for what crime_ he was condemned. This
was the reason why Pilate put on the cross a label, on which he had
written these words: _Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judæorum_, (Jesus of Nazareth,
King of the Jews), which has since been denoted by the initials J. N. R.
J. This was the alleged cause of his condemnation. St. Mark says—“And the
superscription of his _accusation_ was written over—_The King of the
Jews_.” Mark xv. 26.

This inscription was first in _Latin_, which was the legal language of the
_Roman_ judge; and it was repeated in _Hebrew_ and _Greek_, in order to be
understood by the people of the nation and by foreigners.

The chief priests, whose indefatigable hatred did not overlook the most
minute details, being apprehensive that people would take it to be
literally a fact affirmed, that Jesus _was the King of the Jews_, said to
Pilate: “Write not _King of the Jews_, but that _he said_ I am king of the
Jews.” But Pilate answered: “What I have written I have written.” John
xix. 21, 22.

This is a conclusive answer to one of the last assertions of Mr. Salvador,
(p. 88,) that “the Roman Pilate signed the sentence;” by which he always
means that Pilate did nothing but sign a sentence, which he supposes to
have been passed by the Sanhedrim; but in this he is mistaken. Pilate did
not merely _sign_ the sentence, or decree, but _drew it up_; and, when his
draft was objected to by the priests, he still adhered to it, saying, what
I have written shall remain as written.

Here then we see the true cause of the condemnation of Jesus! Here we have
the “_judicial and legal proof_.” Jesus was the victim of a _political_
accusation! He was put to death for the imaginary crime of having aimed at
the power of Cæsar, by calling himself _King of the Jews_! Absurd
accusation; which Pilate never believed, and which the chief priests and
the Pharisees themselves did not believe. For they were not authorized to
arrest Jesus on that account; it was a new, and totally different,
accusation from that which they first planned—a sudden accusation of the
moment, when they saw that Pilate was but little affected by their
_religious_ zeal, and they found it necessary to arouse _his zeal for_

“_If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar’s friend!_” This alarming
language has too often, since that time, reverberated in the ears of timid
judges, who, like Pilate, have rendered themselves criminal by delivering
up victims through want of firmness, whom they would never have condemned,
if they had listened to the voice of their own consciences.

Let us now recapitulate the case, as I have considered it from the

Is it not evident, contrary to the conclusion of Mr. Salvador, that Jesus,
considered merely as _a simple citizen_, was not tried and sentenced
either _according to law_, or _agreeably to the forms of legal proceedings
then existing_?

God, according to his eternal design, might permit the just to suffer by
the malice of men; but he also intended, that this should at least happen
by a disregard of all laws, and by a violation of all established rules,
in order that the entire contempt of forms should stand as the first
warning of the violation of law.

Let us not be surprised then, that in another part of his work, Mr.
Salvador (who, it is gratifying to observe, discusses his subject
dispassionately) expresses some regret in speaking of the “_unfortunate
sentence against Jesus_.” Vol. i. p. 59. He has wished to excuse the
Hebrews; but, one of that nation, in giving utterance to the feelings of
his heart, still says—in language which I took from his own mouth, “We
should be very cautious of condemning him at this day.”

I pass over the excesses which followed the order of Pilate; as, the
violence shown to Simon, the Cyrenian, who was made in some degree a
sharer in the punishment, by being compelled to carry the cross; the
injurious treatment which attended the victim to the place of the
sacrifice, and even to the cross, where Jesus still prayed for his
brethren and his executioners!

To the heathen themselves I would say—You, who have gloried in the death
of Socrates, how much must you be struck with wonder at that of Jesus! Ye,
censors of the Areopagus, how could you undertake to excuse the Synagogue,
and justify the sentence of the Hall of Judgment? Philosophy herself has
not hesitated to proclaim, and we may repeat with her—“Yes, if the life
and death of _Socrates_ were those of a sage, the life and death of
_Jesus_ were those of a divinity.”


    1 Cicero, Philip. II. § 43.

    2 Nov. Org. 1. 68. “Ut non alius fere sit aditus ad regnum hominus,
      quod fundatur in scientiis, quam ad regnum cœlorum, in quod, nisi
      sub persona infantis, intrare non datur.”

    3 Bishop Wilson’s Evidences, p. 38.

    4 See Dr. Hopkins’s Lowell Lectures, particularly Lect. 2. Bp.
      Wilson’s Evidences of Christianity, Vol. i. pp. 45-61. Horne’s
      Introduction, Vol. i. pp. 1-39. Mr. Horne having cited all the best
      English writers on this subject, it is sufficient to refer to his
      work alone.

    5 Hopkins’s Lowell Lect., p. 48.

    6 It has been well remarked, that, if we regard man as in a state of
      innocence, we should naturally expect that God would hold
      communications with him; that if we regard him as guilty, and as
      having lost the knowledge and moral image of God, such a
      communication would be absolutely necessary, if man was to be
      restored.—Dr. Hopkins’s Lowell Lect., p. 62.

    7 The argument here briefly sketched, is stated more at large, and
      with great clearness and force, in an essay entitled “The Philosophy
      of the Plan of Salvation,” pp. 13-107.

    8 See Professor Stuart’s Critical History and Defence of the Old
      Testament Canon, where this is abundantly proved.

    9 Per Tindal, Ch. Just., in the case of the Bishop of Meath v. the
      Marquis of Winchester, 3 Bing. N. C. 183, 200, 201. “It is when
      documents are found in other than their proper places of deposit,”
      observed the Chief Justice, “that the investigation commences,
      whether it was reasonable and natural, under the circumstances of
      the particular case, to expect that they should have been in the
      place where they are actually found; for it is obvious, that, which
      there can be only one place of deposit strictly and absolutely
      proper, there may be many and various, that are reasonable and
      probable, though differing in degree, some being more so, some less;
      and in these cases the proposition to be determined is, whether the
      actual custody is so reasonably and probably accounted for, that it
      impresses the mind with the conviction that the instrument found in
      such custody must be genuine.” See the cases cited in 1 Greenleaf on
      Evidence § 142. See also 1 Stark. on Evidence, pp. 332-335, 381-386.
      Croughton v. Blake, 12 Mees. & Welsb. 205, 208. Doe v. Phillips, 10
      Jurist, p. 34. It is this defect, namely, that they do not come from
      the proper or natural repository, which shows the fabulous character
      of many pretended revelations, from the Gospel of the Infancy to the
      Book of Mormon.

   10 1 Greenleaf on Evid. § 34, 142, 570.

   11 Morewood v. Wood, 14 East, 329, n. Per Lord Kenyon. Weeks v. Sparke,
      1 M. & S. 686; the Berkeley Peerage Case, 4 Campb. 416. Per
      Mansfield, Ch. J. See 1 Greenleaf on Evidence, § 128.

   12 1 Starkie on Evidence, pp. 195, 230; 1 Greenleaf on Evidence, § 483.

   13 The arguments for the genuineness and authenticity of the books of
      the Holy Scriptures are briefly, yet very fully stated, and almost
      all the writers of authority are referred to by Mr. Horne, in his
      Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, vol. i., passim.
      The same subject is discussed in a more popular manner in the
      Lectures of Bp. Wilson, and of Bp. Sumner of Chester, on the
      Evidences of Christianity; and, in America, the same question, as it
      relates to the Gospels, has been argued by Bp. M’Ilvaine, in his

   14 See the case of the Slane Peerage, 5 Clark & Finelly’s Rep., p. 24.
      See also the case of the Fitzwalter Peerage, 10 Clark & Finelly’s
      Rep., p. 948.

   15 Matt. ix. 10; Mark ii. 14, 15; Luke v. 29.

   16 The authorities on this subject are collected in Horne’s
      Introduction, vol. iv. pp. 234-238, part 2, chap. ii. sec. 2.

   17 See Horne’s Introduction, vol. iv. p. 229-232.

   18 See Campbell on the Four Gospels, vol. iii. pp. 35, 36; Preface to
      St. Matthew’s Gospel, § 22, 23.

   19 See Gibbon’s Rome, vol. i. ch. vi. and vol. iii. ch. xvii. and
      authorities there cited. Cod. Theod. Lib. xi. tit. 1-28, with the
      notes of Gothofred. Gibbon treats particularly of the revenues of a
      later period than our Saviour’s time; but the general course of
      proceeding, in the levy and collection of taxes, is not known to
      have been changed since the beginning of the empire.

   20 Acts xii. 12, 25; xiii. 5, 13; and xv. 36-41; 2 Tim. iv. 11; Phil.
      24; Col. iv. 10; 1 Pet. v. 13.

   21 Horne’s Introduction, vol. iv. pp. 252, 253.

   22 Mark vii. 2, 11; and ix. 43, and elsewhere.

   23 Mr. Norton has conclusively disposed of this objection, in his
      Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels, vol. i. Additional
      Notes, see. 2, pp. cxv-cxxxii.

   24 Compare Mark x. 46, and xiv. 69, and iv. 35, and i. 35, and ix. 28,
      with Matthew’s narrative of the same events.

   25 See Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. pp 252-259.

   26 Acts xvi. 10, 11.

   27 Col. iv. 14. Luke, the beloved physician.

   28 Luke v. 12; Matt. viii. 2; Mark i. 40.

   29 Luke vi. 6; Matt. xii. 10; Mark iii. 1.

   30 Luke viii. 55; Matt. ix. 25; Mark v. 42.

   31 Luke vi. 19.

   32 Luke xxii. 44, 45, 51.

   33 See Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. pp. 260-272, where references may be
      found to earlier writers.

   34 See Lardner’s Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 138, 139; 4to. vol. iii. pp.
      203, 204; and other authors, cited in Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. p.

   35 2 Phillips on Evidence, p. 95, (9th edition.)

   36 When Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, in shooting at deer with a
      cross-bow, in Bramsil park, accidentally killed the keeper, King
      James I. by a letter dated Oct. 3, 1621, requested the Lord Keeper,
      the Lord Chief Justice, and others, to inquire into the
      circumstances and consider the case and “the scandal that may have
      risen thereupon,” and to certify the King what it may amount to.
      Could there be any reasonable doubt of their report of the facts,
      thus ascertained? See Spelman’s Posthumous Works, p. 121.

   37 The case of the ill-fated steamer President furnishes an example of
      this sort of inquiry. This vessel, it is well-known, sailed from New
      York for London in the month of March, 1841 having on board many
      passengers, some of whom were highly connected. The ship was soon
      overtaken by a storm, after which she was never heard of. A few
      months afterwards a solemn inquiry was instituted by three gentlemen
      of respectability, one of whom was a British admiral, another was
      agent for the underwriters at Lloyd’s, and the other a government
      packet agent, concerning the time, circumstances and causes of that
      disaster; the result of which was communicated to the public, under
      their hands. This document received universal confidence, and no
      further inquiry was made.

   38 Mark i. 20.

   39 John xix. 26, 27.

   40 John xiii. 23.

   41 Matt. xxvii. 55, 56; Mark xv. 40, 41.

   42 John xviii. 15, 16.

   43 Luke viii. 51; Matt. xvii. 1, and xxvi. 37.

   44 This account is abridged from Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. pp. 286-288.

   45 Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. p. 289, and authors there cited.

   46 See, among others, John i. 38, 41, and ii. 6, 13, and iv. 9, and xi.

   47 See Horne’s Introd. vol. iv. pp. 297, 298.

   48 See Gambier’s Guide to the Study of Moral Evidence, p. 121.

   49 1 Stark. Evid. pp. 514, 577; 1 Greenl. on Evid. §§ 1, 2; Wills on
      Circumstantial Evid., p. 2; Whately’s Logic, b. iv. ch. iii. § 1.

   50 See 1 Stark. Evid. pp. 16, 480, 521.

   51 This subject has been treated by Dr. Chalmers, in his Evidences of
      the Christian Revelation, chapter iii. The following extract from
      his observations will not be unacceptable to the reader. “In other
      cases, when we compare the narratives of contemporary historians, it
      is not expected that all the circumstances alluded to by one will be
      taken notice of by the rest; and it often happens that an event or a
      custom is admitted upon the faith of a single historian; and the
      silence of all other writers is not suffered to attach suspicion or
      discredit to his testimony. It is an allowed principle, that a
      scrupulous resemblance betwixt two histories is very far from
      necessary to their being held consistent with one another. And what
      is more, it sometimes happens that, with contemporary historians,
      there may be an apparent contradiction, and the credit of both
      parties remain as entire and unsuspicious as before. Posterity is,
      in these cases, disposed to make the most liberal allowances.
      Instead of calling it a contradiction, they often call it a
      difficulty. They are sensible that, in many instances a seeming
      variety of statement has, upon a more extensive knowledge of ancient
      history, admitted of a perfect reconciliation. Instead, then, of
      referring the difficulty in question to the inaccuracy or bad faith
      of any of the parties, they, with more justness and more modesty,
      refer it to their own ignorance, and to that obscurity which
      necessarily hangs over the history of every remote age. These
      principles are suffered to have great influence in every secular
      investigation; but so soon as, instead of a secular, it becomes a
      sacred investigation, every ordinary principle is abandoned, and the
      suspicion annexed to the teachers of religion is carried to the
      dereliction of all that candour and liberality with which every
      other document of antiquity is judged of and appreciated. How does
      it happen that the authority of Josephus should be acquiesced in as
      a first principle, while every step, in the narrative of the
      evangelists, must have foreign testimony to confirm and support it?
      How comes it, that the silence of Josephus should be construed into
      an impeachment of the testimony of the evangelists, while it is
      never admitted, for a single moment, that the silence of the
      evangelists can impart the slightest blemish to the testimony of
      Josephus? How comes it, that the supposition of two Philips in one
      family should throw a damp of scepticism over the Gospel narrative,
      while the only circumstance which renders that supposition necessary
      is the single testimony of Josephus; in which very testimony it is
      necessarily implied that there are two Herods in that same family?
      How comes it, that the evangelists, with as much internal, and a
      vast deal more of external evidence in their favour, should be made
      to stand before Josephus, like so many prisoners at the bar of
      justice? In any other case, we are convinced that this would be
      looked upon as _rough handling_. But we are not sorry for it. It has
      given more triumph and confidence to the argument. And it is no
      small addition to our faith, that its first teachers have survived
      an examination, which, in point of rigour and severity, we believe
      to be quite unexampled in the annals of criticism.” See Chalmers’s
      Evidences, pp. 72-74.

   52 See 1 Stark. Evid. pp. 480, 545.

   53 If the witnesses could be supposed to have been biassed, this would
      destroy their testimony to matters of fact; it would only detract
      from the weight of their judgment in matters of opinion. The rule of
      law on this subject has been thus stated by Dr. Lushington: “When
      you examine the testimony of witnesses nearly connected with the
      parties, and there is nothing very peculiar tending to destroy their
      credit, when they depose to mere facts, their testimony is to be
      believed; when they depose as to matter of opinion, it is to be
      received with suspicion.” Dillon _v._ Dillon, 3 Curteis’s Eccl. Rep.
      pp. 96, 102.

   54 This subject has been so fully treated by Dr. Paley, in his view of
      the Evidences of Christianity, Part I., Prop. I., that is it
      unnecessary to pursue it farther in this place.

   55 1 Stark. Evid., pp. 483, 548.

   56 Campbell’s Philosophy of Rhetoric, c. v. b. 1. Part 3, p. 125.
      Whately’s Rhetoric, Part 1. ch. 2. § 4. 1 Stark. Evid., p. 487.

   57 See the Quarterly Review, vol. xxviii. p. 465. These narrators were,
      the Duchess D’Angoulême herself, the two Messrs. De Bouillè, the Duc
      De Choiseul, his servant, James Brissac, Messrs. De Damas and
      Deslons, two of the officers commanding detachments on the road,
      Messrs. De Moustier and Valori, the garde du corps who accompanied
      the king, and finally M. de Fontanges, archbishop of Toulouse, who
      though not himself a party to the transaction, is supposed to have
      written from the information of the queen. An earlier instance of
      similar discrepancy is mentioned by Sully. After the battle of
      Aumale, in which Henry IV. was wounded, when the officers were
      around the king’s bed, conversing upon the events of the day, there
      were not two who agreed in the recital of the most particular
      circumstances of the action. D’Aubigné, a contemporary writer, does
      not even mention the king’s wound, though it was the only one he
      ever received in his life. See Memoirs of Sully, vol. i. p. 245. If
      we treated these narratives as sceptics would have us treat these of
      the sacred writers, what evidence should we have of any battle at
      Aumale, or of any flight to Varennes?

   58 Far greater discrepancies can be found in the different reports of
      the same case, given by the reporters of legal judgments than are
      shown among the evangelists; and yet we do not consider them as
      detracting from the credit of the reporters, to whom we still resort
      with confidence, as to good authority. Some of these discrepancies
      seem utterly irreconcilable. Thus, in a case, 45 Edw. III. 19, where
      the question was upon a gift of lands to J. de C. with Joan, the
      sister of the donor, and to their heirs, Fitzherbert (tit. _Tail_,
      14) says it was adjudged fee simple, and not frankmarriage; Statham
      (tit. _Tail_) says it was adjudged a gift in frankmarriage; while
      Brook (tit. _Frankmarriage_) says it was not decided. (Vid. 10 Co.
      118.) Others are irreconcilable, until the aid of a third reporter
      is invoked. Thus, in the case of Cooper v. Franklin, Croke says it
      was not decided, but adjourned; (Cro. Jac. 100); Godbolt says it was
      decided in a certain way, which he mentions; (Godb. 269); Moor also
      reports it as decided, but gives a different account of the question
      raised; (Moor, 848); while Bulstrode gives a still different report
      of the judgment of the court, which he says was delivered by Croke
      himself. But by his account it further appears, that the case was
      previously twice argued; and thus it at length results that the
      other reporters relate only what fell from the court on each of the
      previous occasions. Other similar examples may be found in 1 Dougl.
      6, n. compared with 5 East, 475, n. in the case of Galbraith _v_.
      Neville; and in that of Stoughton _v_. Reynolds, reported by
      Fortescue, Strange, and in Cases temp. Hardwicke. (See 3 Barnw. &
      Ald. 247, 248.) Indeed, the books abound in such instances. Other
      discrepancies are found in the names of the same litigating parties,
      as differently given by reporters; such as, Putt _v_. Roster, (2
      Mod. 318); Foot _v_. Rastall, (Skin. 49), and Putt _v_. Royston, (2
      Show. 211); also, Hosdell _v_. Harris, (2 Keb. 462); Hodson _v_.
      Harwich, (Ib. 533), and Hodsden _v_. Harridge, (2 Saund. 64), and a
      multitude of others, which are universally admitted to mean the same
      cases, even when they are not precisely within the rule of _idem
      sonans_. These diversities, it is well known, have never detracted
      in the slightest degree from the estimation in which the reporters
      are all deservedly held, as authors of merit, enjoying, to this day,
      the confidence of the profession. Admitting now, for the sake of
      argument, (what is not conceded in fact,) that diversities equally
      great exist among the sacred writers; how can we consistently, and
      as lawyers, raise any serious objection against them on that
      account, or treat them in any manner different from that which we
      observe towards our own reporters?

   59 Mr. Hume’s argument is thus refuted by Lord Brougham. “Here are two
      answers, to which the doctrine proposed by Mr. Hume is exposed, and
      either appears sufficient to shake it.

      “_First_—Our belief in the uniformity of the laws of nature rests
      not altogether upon our own experience. We believe no man ever was
      raised from the dead,—not merely because we ourselves never saw it,
      for indeed that would be a very limited ground of deduction; and our
      belief was fixed on the subject long before we had any considerable
      experience,—fixed chiefly by authority,—that is, by deference to
      other men’s experience. We found our confident belief in this
      negative position partly, perhaps chiefly, upon the testimony of
      others; and at all events, our belief that in times before our own
      the same position held good, must of necessity be drawn from our
      trusting relations of other men—that is, it depends upon the
      evidence of testimony. If, then, the existence of the law of nature
      is proved, in great part at least, by such evidence, can we wholly
      reject the like evidence when it comes to prove an exception to the
      rule—a deviation from the law? The more numerous are the cases of
      the law being kept—the more rare those of its being broken—the more
      scrupulous certainly ought we to be in admitting the proofs of the
      breach. But that testimony is capable of making good the proof there
      seems no doubt. In truth, the degree of excellence and of strength
      to which testimony may arise seems almost indefinite. There is
      hardly any cogency which it is not capable by possible supposition
      of attaining. The endless multiplication of witnesses,—the unbounded
      variety of their habits of thinking, their prejudices, their
      interests,—afford the means of conceiving the force of their
      testimony, augmented _ad infinitum_, because these circumstances
      afford the means of diminishing indefinitely the chances of their
      being mistaken, all misled, or all combining to deceive us. Let any
      man try to calculate the chances of a thousand persons who come from
      different quarters, and never saw each other before, and who all
      vary in their habits, stations, opinions, interests,—being mistaken
      or combining to deceive us, when they give the same account of an
      event as having happened before their eyes,—these chances are many
      hundreds of thousands to one. And yet we can conceive them
      multiplied indefinitely; for one hundred thousand such witnesses may
      in all like manner bear the same testimony; and they may all tell us
      their story within twenty-four hours after the transaction, and in
      the next parish. And yet, according to Mr. Hume’s argument, we are
      bound to disbelieve them all, because they speak to a thing contrary
      to our own experience, and to the accounts which other witnesses had
      formerly given us of the law of nature, and which our forefathers
      had handed down to us as derived from witnesses who lived in the old
      time before them. It is unnecessary to add that no testimony of the
      witnesses, whom we are supposing to concur in their relation,
      contradicts any testimony of our own senses. If it did, the argument
      would resemble Archbishop Tillotson’s upon the Real Presence, and
      our disbelief would be at once warranted.

      “_Secondly_—This leads us to the next objection to which Mr. Hume’s
      argument is liable, and which we have in part anticipated while
      illustrating the first. He requires us to withhold our belief in
      circumstances which would force every man of common understanding to
      lend his assent, and to act upon the supposition of the story told
      being true. For, suppose either such numbers of various witnesses as
      we have spoken of; or, what is perhaps stronger, suppose a miracle
      reported to us, first by a number of relators, and then by three or
      four of the very soundest judges and most incorruptibly honest men
      we know,—men noted for their difficult belief of wonders, and, above
      all, steady unbelievers in miracles, without any bias in favour of
      religion, but rather accustomed to doubt, if not disbelieve,—most
      people would lend an easy belief to any miracles thus vouched. But
      let us add this circumstance, that a friend on his death-bed had
      been attended by us, and that we had told him a fact known only to
      ourselves,—something that we had secretly done the very moment
      before we told it to the dying man, and which to no other being we
      had ever revealed,—and that the credible witnesses we are supposing,
      informed us that the deceased appeared to them, conversed with them,
      remained with them a day or two, accompanying them, and to avouch
      the fact of his reappearance on this earth, communicated to them the
      secret of which we had made him the sole depository the moment
      before his death;—according to Mr. Hume, we are bound rather to
      believe, not only that those credible witnesses deceive us, or that
      those sound and unprejudiced men were themselves deceived, and
      fancied things without real existence, but further, that they all
      hit by chance upon the discovery of a real secret, known only to
      ourselves and the dead man. Mr. Hume’s argument requires us to
      believe this as the lesser improbability of the two—as less unlikely
      than the rising of one from the dead; and yet every one must feel
      convinced, that were he placed in the situation we have been
      figuring, he would not only lend his belief to the relation, but if
      the relators accompanied it with a special warning from the deceased
      person to avoid a certain contemplated act, he would, acting upon
      the belief of their story, take the warning, and avoid doing the
      forbidden deed. Mr. Hume’s argument makes no exception. This is its
      scope; and whether he chooses to push it thus far or no, all
      miracles are of necessity denied by it, without the least regard to
      the kind or the quantity of the proof on which they are rested; and
      the testimony which we have supposed, accompanied by the test or
      check we have supposed, would fall within the grasp of the argument
      just as much and as clearly as any other miracle avouched by more
      ordinary combinations of evidence.

      “The use of Mr. Hume’s argument is this, and it is an important and
      a valuable one. It teaches us to sift closely and rigorously the
      evidence for miraculous events. It bids us remember that the
      probabilities are always, and must always be incomparably greater
      against, than for, the truth of these relations, because it is
      always far more likely that the testimony should be mistaken or
      false, than that the general laws of nature should be suspended.
      Further than this the doctrine cannot in soundness of reason be
      carried. It does not go the length of proving that those general
      laws cannot, by the force of human testimony, be shown to have been,
      in a particular instance, and with a particular purpose, suspended.”
      See his Discourse of Natural Theology, Note 5, p. 210-214. (Ed.

      Laplace, in his Essai sur les Probabilités, maintains that, the more
      extraordinary the fact attested, the greater the probability of
      error or falsehood in the attestor. Simple good sense, he says,
      suggests this; and the calculation of probabilities confirms its
      suggestion. There are some things, he adds, so extraordinary, that
      nothing can balance their improbability. The position here laid down
      is, that the probability of error, or of the falsehood of testimony,
      becomes in _proportion_ greater, as the fact which is attested is
      more extraordinary. And hence a fact extraordinary in the highest
      possible degree, becomes in the highest possible degree improbable;
      or so much so, that nothing can counterbalance its improbability.

      This argument has been made much use of, to discredit the evidence
      of miracles, and the truth of that divine religion which is attested
      by them. But however sound it may be, in one sense, this application
      of it is fallacious. The fallacy lies in the meaning affixed to the
      term “extraordinary.” If Laplace means a fact extraordinary _under_
      its existing circumstances and relations, that is, a fact remaining
      extraordinary, notwithstanding all its circumstances, the position
      need not here to be controverted. But if the term means
      extraordinary _in the abstract_, it is far from being universally
      true, or affording a correct test of truth, or rule of evidence.
      Thus, it is extraordinary that a man should leap fifteen feet at a
      bound; but not extraordinary that a strong and active man should do
      it, under a sudden impulse to save his life. The former is
      improbable in the abstract; the latter is rendered probable by the
      circumstances. So, things extraordinary, and therefore improbable
      under one hypothesis, become the reverse under another. Thus, the
      occurrence of a violent storm at sea, and the utterance by Jesus of
      the the words, “Peace, be still,” succeeded instantly by a perfect
      calm, are facts which, taken separately from each other, are not in
      themselves extraordinary. The connexion between the command of Jesus
      and the ensuing calm, as cause and effect, would be extraordinary
      and improbable if he were a mere man; but it becomes perfectly
      natural and probable, when his divine power is considered. Each of
      those facts is in its nature so simple and obvious, that the most
      ignorant person is capable of observing it. There is nothing
      extraordinary in the facts themselves; and the extraordinary
      coincidence, in which the miracle consists, becomes both
      intelligible and probable upon the hypothesis of the Christian. (See
      the Christian Observer for Oct. 1838, p. 617.) The theory of Laplace
      may, with the same propriety, be applied to the creation of the
      world. That matter was created out of nothing is extremely
      improbable, in the abstract, that is, if there is no God; and
      therefore it is not to be believed. But if the existence of a
      Supreme Being is conceded, the fact is perfectly credible.

      Laplace was so fascinated with his theory, that he thought the
      calculus of probabilities might be usefully employed in discovering
      the value of the different methods resorted to, in those sciences
      which are in a great measure conjectural, as medicine, agriculture,
      and political economy. And he proposed that there should be kept, in
      every branch of the administration, an exact register of the trials
      made of different measures, and of the results, whether good or bad,
      to which they have led. (See the Edinburgh Review, vol. xxiii. pp
      335, 336.) Napoleon, who appointed him Minister of the Interior, has
      thus described him: “A geometrician of the first class, he did not
      reach mediocrity as a statesman. He never viewed any subject in its
      true light; he was always occupied with subtleties; his notions were
      all problematic; and he carried into the administration the spirit
      of the _infinitely_ small.” See the Encyclopedia Britannica, art.
      Laplace, vol. xiii. p. 101. Memoires Ecrits à Ste. Helena, i. 3. The
      injurious effect of deductive reasoning, upon the minds of those who
      addict themselves to this method alone, to the exclusion of all
      other modes of arriving at the knowledge of truth in fact, is shown
      with great clearness and success, by Mr. Whewel in the ninth of the
      Bridgewater Treatises, book 3, ch. 6. The calculus of probabilities
      has been applied by some writers, to judicial evidence; but its very
      slight value as a test, is clearly shown in an able article on
      Presumptive Evidence, in the Law Magazine, vol. i. pp. 28-32 (New

   60 See Mr. Norton’s “Discourse on the latest form of Infidelity,” p.

   61 The arguments on this subject are stated in a condensed form, by Mr.
      Horne, in his Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, vol.
      i. ch. 4, sec. 2; in which he refers, among others, to Doctor
      Gregory’s Letters on the Evidences of the Christian Revelation; Dr.
      Campbell’s Dissertation on Miracles; Vince’s Sermons on the
      Credibility of Miracles; Bishop Marsh’s Lectures, part 6, lect. 30;
      Dr. Adam’s Treatise in reply to Mr. Hume; Bishop Gleig’s
      Dissertation on Miracles, (in the third volume of his edition of
      Stackhouse’s History of the Bible, p. 240, &c.); Dr. Key’s Norissian
      Lectures, vol. i. See also Dr. Hopkins’s Lowell Lectures, lect. I.
      and II. delivered in Boston in 1844, where this topic is treated
      with great perspicuity and cogency.

      Among the more popular treatises on miracles, are Bogue’s Essay on
      the Divine Authority of the New Testament, ch. 5; Bishop Wilson’s
      Evidences of Christianity, vol. i. lect. 7; Bishop Sumner’s
      Evidences, ch. 10; Gambier’s Guide to the Study of Moral Evidence,
      ch. v.; Mr. Norton’s Discourse on the latest form of Infidelity, and
      Dr. Dewey’s Dudleian Lecture, delivered before Harvard University,
      in May, 1836.

   62 See Bishop Wilson’s Evidences, lect. 7, p. 130.

   63 1 Stark on Evid. p. 496-499.

   64 1 Stark. on Evid. p. 523.

   65 1 Stark. Evid. 487. The Gospels abound in instances of this. See,
      for example, Mark, xv. 21. John, xviii. 10. Luke, xxiii. 6. Matt.
      xxvii. 58-60, John xi. 1.

   66 1 Stark. Evid. 522, 585.

   67 See 1 Stark. Evid. 498. Wills on Circumstantial Evidence, pp. 128,

   68 See Chalmers’s Evidence, chap. iii.

   69 See Chalmers’s Evidence, pp. 76-78, Amer. ed. Proofs of this kind
      are copiously referred to by Mr. Horne, in his Introduction, &c.
      vol. i., ch. 3, sect. II. 2.

   70 See Mark viii. 32; ix. 5; and xiv. 29; Matt. xvi. 22; and xvii. 5;
      Luke ix. 33; and xviii. 18; John xiii, 8; and xviii. 15.

   71 Mark viii. 29; Matt. xvi. 16; Luke ix. 20.

   72 Matt. xviii. 21; and xix. 27; John xiii. 36.

   73 Gal. ii. 11.

   74 John xx. 3-6.

   75 Matt. xiv. 30.

   76 Acts i. 15.

   77 Acts ii. 14.

   78 Matt. xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20; John vi. 69.

   79 Matt. xxvi. 33, 35; Mark xiv. 29.

   80 See Paley’s view of the Evidences of Christianity, part ii. chapters
      iii. iv. v. vi. vii; Ibid. part iii. ch. i.; Chalmers on the
      Evidence and Authority of the Christian Revelation, ch. iii. iv.
      viii.; Wilson’s Evidences of Christianity, lect. vi.; Bogue’s Essay
      on the Divine Authority of the New Testament, chap. iii. iv.

   81 See Bogue’s Essay, chap. i. sect. 2; Newcome’s Obs. part ii. ch. i.
      sec. 14.

   82 Mal. iv. 5, 6.

   83 Mic. iv. 7.

   84 Is. xli. 8, 9; Gen. xxii. 16, seq.

   85 Gen. xxii. 16, seq.

   86 Matt. i. 19.

      _husband_. There was commonly an interval of ten or twelve months,
      between the making of the contract of marriage and the time of its
      celebration. _Gen_. xxiv. 55; _Judg_. xiv. 8. During this period,
      though there was no intercourse between the bride and bridegroom,
      not even so much as an interchange of conversation, yet they were
      considered and spoken of as husband and wife. If, at the end of this
      probationary period, the bridegroom was unwilling to solemnize his
      engagements by the marriage of the bride, he was bound to give her a
      bill of divorce, as if she had been his wife. And if she, during the
      same period, had illicit intercourse with another man, she was
      liable to punishment, as an adulteress. JAHN’S Archæol. § 154.

   87 Is. vii. 14.

   88 Luke ii. 1. _a decree_. This decree was issued eleven years before
      it was carried into effect, the delay having been procured by Herod.
      This fact reconciles the evangelist with the Roman historians, from
      whom it appears that Cyrenius was not governor when the decree was
      issued, though he held that office when the census was taken and the
      tax assessed. See TOWNSEND, _in loc._

   89 Gen. xvii. 12; Lev. xii. 3.

   90 Ex. xiii. 2; Numb. viii. 16, 17.

   91 Lev. xii. 6, 8.

   92 Is. viii. 14.

   93 Matth. ii. 3, _he was troubled_. According to Josephus, Herod was
      always in fear for the stability of his throne, and anxious to pry
      into futurity to discover whether it was likely to endure. Thus,
      when advanced to regal power, he sent for Manahem, an Essene, who
      had predicted of him when a boy that he would be a king, to inquire
      of him how long he should reign. JOSEPH. Ant. xv. § 5. BLUNT,
      Veracity, &c. § ii. 2.

   94 Mic. v. 2.

   95 Hos. xi. 1.

   96 Jer. xxxi. 15, and xl. 1.

   97 Matth. ii. 22, _he was afraid_. The naked statement of this fact,
      without explanation, is a mark of the sincerity of the evangelist,
      for the value of which we are indebted to Josephus, who relates,
      (Ant. b. 17, ch. 9, § 3,) an instance of savage cruelty in
      Archelaus, immediately on his coming to the throne, in causing three
      thousand persons to be butchered in cold blood, at the first
      passover after Herod’s death. Such an act, committed under such
      circumstances, must have been rapidly made known abroad, and
      inspired all persons with horror. Well, therefore, might Joseph fear
      to return. But Matthew’s incidental allusion to the cause, is
      characteristic of a man intent only upon the statement of the main
      facts, and regardless of appearances or explanations. BLUNT,
      Veracity, &c. § ii. 3.

   98 Is. xi. 1, and liii. 2; Zech. vi. 12; Rev. v. 5.

   99 Luke ii. 42; _twelve years old_. Jewish children were not obliged to
      the observances of the ceremonial law, until they attained to years
      of discretion, which, in males, was fixed by common consent at
      twelve years. On arriving at this age, they were taken to Jerusalem
      at the passover, of which they thenceforth participated, as “sons of
      commandment,” being fully initiated into the doctrines and
      ceremonies of the Jewish church, probably after examination by the
      doctors. This accounts for the circumstance of his being found among
      them, both hearing, and asking them questions. STACKHOUSE, Hist. N.
      T. ch. i.; BLOOMFIELD, _in loc_.

  100 Luke ii. 44; _in the company_. All who came, not only from the same
      city, but from the same canton or district, made one company. They
      carried necessaries along with them, and tents for their lodging at
      night. Such companies they now call _caravans_, and in several
      places have houses fitted up for their reception, called
      _caravanseries_. This account of their manner of travelling
      furnishes a ready answer to the question, How could Joseph and Mary
      make a day’s journey, without discovering, before night, that Jesus
      was not in the company? In the day-time, we may reasonably presume,
      the travellers would mingle with different parties of their friends
      and acquaintance; but in the evening, when they were about to
      encamp, every one would join the family to which he belonged.
      CAMPBELL, _in loc_.

  101 The Genealogy of Jesus, as given by Luke, is here inverted for the
      sake of more convenient comparison with that given by Matthew.

      The apparent discrepancies in these accounts are reconciled by Dr.
      Robinson, in the following manner:

      “I. In the genealogy given by Matthew, considered by itself, some
      difficulties present themselves.

      “1. There is some diversity among commentators in making out the
      three divisions, each of fourteen generations, v. 17. It is,
      however, obvious, that the first division begins with Abraham and
      ends with David. But does the second begin with David, or with
      Solomon? Assuredly with the former; because, just as the first
      begins _apo Abraham_, so the second also is said to begin _apo
      David_. The first extends _heos David_, and includes him; the second
      extends to an epoch and not to a person; and therefore the persons
      who are mentioned as coeval with this epoch are not reckoned before
      it. After the epoch the enumeration begins again with Jechoniah, and
      ends with Jesus. In this way the three divisions are made out thus:—

      1. Abraham.
      2. Isaac.
      3. Jacob.
      4. Judah.
      5. Phares.
      6. Esrom.
      7. Aram.
      8. Aminadab.
      9. Naasson.
      10. Salmon.
      11. Boaz.
      12. Obed.
      13. Jesse.
      14. David.

      1. David.
      2. Solomon.
      3. Roboam.
      4. Abiah.
      5. Asa.
      6. Josaphat.
      7. Joram.
      8. Uzziah (Ozias).
      9. Jotham.
      10. Ahaz.
      11. Hezekiah.
      12. Manasseh.
      13. Amon.
      14. Josiah.

      1. Jechoniah.
      2. Salathiel.
      3. Zorobabel.
      4. Abiud.
      5. Eliakim.
      6. Azor.
      7. Sadoc.
      8. Achim.
      9. Eliud.
      10. Eleazar.
      11. Matthan.
      12. Jacob.
      13. Joseph.
      14. Jesus.

      “2. Another difficulty arises from the fact, that between Joram and
      Ozias, in v. 8, three names of Jewish kings are omitted, viz.
      Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah; see 2 K. 8, 25 and Chr. 22, 1. 2 K. 11,
      2. 21 and 2 Chr. 22, 11. 2 K. 12, 21. 14, 1 and 2 Chr. 24, 27.
      Further, between Josiah and Jechoniah in v. 11, the name of
      Jehoiakim is also omitted; 2 K. 23, 34. 2 Chr. 36, 4. comp. 1 Chr.
      3, 15, 16. If these four names are to be reckoned, then the second
      division, instead of fourteen generations, will contain eighteen, in
      contradiction to v. 17. To avoid this difficulty, Newcome and some
      others have regarded v. 17 as a mere gloss, ‘a marginal note taken
      into the text.’ This indeed is in itself possible; yet all the
      external testimony of manuscripts and versions is in favour of the
      genuineness of that verse. It is better therefore to regard these
      names as having been customarily omitted in the current genealogical
      tables, from which Matthew copied. Such omissions of particular
      generations did sometimes actually occur, ‘propteres quod malæ
      essent et impiæ,’ according to R. Sal. Jarchi; Lightfoot, Hor. Heb.
      in Matth. 1, 8. A striking example of an omission of this kind,
      apparently without any such reason, is found in Ezra 7, 1-5,
      compared with 1 Chr. 6, 3-15. This latter passage contains the
      lineal descent of the high-priests from Aaron to the captivity;
      while Ezra, in the place cited, in tracing back his own genealogy
      through the very same line of descent, omits at least six
      generations. A similar omission is necessarily implied in the
      genealogy of David, as given Ruth 4, 20-22. 1 Chr. 2, 10-12. Matth.
      1, 5, 6. Salmon was contemporary with the capture of Jericho by
      Joshua, and married Rahab. But from that time until David, an
      interval of at least four hundred and fifty years (Acts 13, 20,)
      there intervened, according to the list, only four generations,
      averaging of course more than one hundred years to each. But the
      highest average in point of fact is _three_ generations to a
      century; and if reckoned by the eldest sons they are usually
      shorter, or three generations for every seventy-five or eighty
      years. See Sir I. Newton’s Chronol. p. 53. Lond. 1728.

      “We may therefore rest in the necessary conclusion, that as our
      Lord’s regular descent from David was always asserted, and was never
      denied even by the Jews; so Matthew, in tracing this admitted
      descent, appealed to genealogical tables, which were public and
      acknowledged in the family and tribe from which Christ sprang. He
      could not indeed do otherwise. How much stress was laid by the Jews
      upon lineage in general, and how much care and attention were
      bestowed upon such tables, is well known. See Lightfoot, Hor. Heb.
      in Matth. 1, 1. Comp. Phil. 3, 4, 5.

      “II. Other questions of some difficulty present themselves, when we
      compare together the two genealogies.

      “1. Both tables at first view purport to give the lineage of our
      Lord through Joseph. But Joseph cannot have been the son by natural
      descent of both Joseph and Heli (Eli), Matth. 1, 16. Luke 3, 23.
      Only one of the tables therefore can give his true lineage by
      generation. This is done apparently in that of Matthew; because,
      beginning at Abraham, it proceeds by natural descent, as we know
      from history, until after the exile; and then continues on in the
      same mode of expression until Joseph. Here the phrase is changed;
      and it is no longer Joseph who ’begat’ Jesus, but Joseph ‘the
      husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus who is called the Christ.’
      See Augustine, de Consensu Evangel. II. 5.

      “2. To whom then does the genealogy in Luke chiefly relate? If in
      any way to Joseph, as the language purports, then it must be because
      he in some way bore the legal relation of son to Heli, either by
      adoption or by marriage. If the former simply, it is difficult to
      comprehend why, along with his true personal lineage as traced by
      Matthew up through the royal line of Jewish kings to David, there
      should be given also another subordinate genealogy, not personally
      his own, and running back through a different and inferior line to
      the same great ancestor. If, on the other hand, as is most probable,
      this relation to Heli came by marriage with his daughter, so that
      Joseph was truly his _son-in-law_ (comp. Ruth 1, 8. 11. 12); then it
      follows, that the genealogy in Luke is in fact that of Mary the
      mother of Jesus. This being so, we can perceive a sufficient reason
      why this genealogy should be thus given, viz. in order to show
      definitely, that Jesus was in the most full and perfect sense a
      descendant of David: not only by law in the royal line of kings,
      through his reputed father, but also in fact by direct personal
      descent through his mother.

      “That Mary, like Joseph, was a descendant of David, is not indeed
      elsewhere expressly said in the New Testament. Yet a very strong
      presumption to that effect is to be drawn from the address of the
      angel in Luke 1, 32; as also from the language of Luke 2, 5, where
      Joseph, as one of the posterity of David, is said to have gone up to
      Bethlehem, to _enroll himself with Mary his espoused wife_. The
      ground and circumstances of Mary’s enrolment must obviously have
      been the same as in the case of Joseph himself. Whether all this
      arose from her having been an only child and heiress, as some
      suppose, so that she was espoused to Joseph in accordance with Num.
      36, 8, 9, it is not necessary here to inquire. See Michaelis
      ‘Commentaries on the Laws of Moses,’ Part II. § 78.

      “It is indeed objected, that it was not customary among the Jews to
      trace back descent through the female line, that is, on the mother’s
      side. There are, however, examples to show that this was sometimes
      done; and in the case of Jesus, as we have seen, there was a
      sufficient reason for it. Thus in 1 Chr. 2, 22, Jair is enumerated
      among the posterity of Judah by regular descent. But the grandfather
      of Jair had married the daughter of Machir, one of the heads of
      Manasseh, 1 Chr. 2, 21. 7, 14; and therefore in Num. 32, 40. 41,
      Jair is called the son (descendant) of Manasseh. In like manner, in
      Ezra, 2, 61, and Neh. 7, 63, a certain family is spoken of as ‘the
      children of Barzillai;’ because their ancestor ‘took a wife of the
      daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their

      “3. A question is raised as to the identity, in the two genealogies,
      of the Salathiel and Zorobabel named as father and son, Matth. 1,
      12. Luke 3, 27. The Zorobabel of Matthew is no doubt the chief, who
      led back the first band of captives from Babylon, and rebuilt the
      temple, Ezra c. 2-6. He is also called the son of Salathiel in Ezra
      3, 2. Neb. 12, 1. Hagg. 1, 1. 2, 2. 23. Were then the Salathiel and
      Zorobabel of Luke the same persons? Those who assume this, must rest
      solely on the identity of the names; for there is no other possible
      evidence to prove, either that they were contemporary, or that they
      were not different persons. On the other hand, there are one or two
      considerations, of some force, which go to show that they were
      probably not the same persons.

      “First, if Salathiel and Zorobabel are indeed the same in both
      genealogies, then Salathiel who, according to Matthew, was the son
      of Jechoniah by natural descent, must have been called the son of
      Neri in Luke either from adoption or marriage. In that case, his
      connection with David through Nathan, as given by Luke, was not his
      own personal genealogy. It is difficult, therefore, to see Luke,
      after tracing back the descent of Jesus to Salathiel, should abandon
      the true personal lineage in the royal line of kings, and turn aside
      again to a merely collateral and humbler line. If the mother of
      Jesus was in fact descended from the Zorobabel and Salathiel of
      Matthew, she, like them, was descended also from David through the
      royal line. Why rob her of this dignity, and ascribe to her only a
      descent through an inferior lineage? See Spanheim Dubia Evangel. I.
      p. 108, sq.

      “Again, the mere identity of names under these circumstances,
      affords no proof; for nothing is more common even among
      contemporaries. Thus we have two Ezras; one in Neh. 12, 1. 13, 33;
      from whom Ezra the scribe is expressly distinguished in v. 36. We
      have likewise two Nehemiahs; one who went up with Zorobabel, Ezra 2,
      2; and the other the governor who went later to Jerusalem, Neh. 2,
      9, sq. So too, as contemporaries, Joram son of Ahab, king of Israel,
      and Joram (Jehoram,) son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah; 2 K. 8, 16,
      coll. v. 23, 24. Also Joash king of Judah, and Joash king of Israel;
      2 K. 13, 9, 10. Further, we find in succession among the descendants
      of Cain the following names: Enoch, Irad, Mehujael, Methusael,
      Lamech, Gen. 4, 17, 18; and later among the descendants of Seth
      these similar ones: Enoch, Methusalah, Lamech, Gen. 5, 21-25.” See
      Dr. Robinson’s Greek Harmony of the Gospels, pp. 183-187.

  102 Mal. iii. 1; Is. xl. 3.

  103 In the New Testament, the same word is used for _the high priests_,
      and the chief priests, who were the heads of the twenty-four
      courses. So that the two persons whom the Roman governor considered
      as the chief of the priests, and whose names stood as such in those
      public registers which seem here referred to, may be intended. An
      irregularity had arisen out of the confusion of the times: and the
      ruler or prince under the Romans, though a chief priest, was a
      distinct person from the high priest: Annas being the one, and
      Caiaphas the other. Scott, _in loc._ See also Campbell, _in loc._

  104 Is. xl. 3, seq.

  105 Deut. viii. 3.

  106 Deut. vi. 16.

  107 Ps. xci. 11.

  108 Deut. vi. 13.

  109 There is a seeming discrepancy between Matthew and Luke, in the
      order of the temptations; but Luke does not affirm the order;
      whereas Matthew uses particles, in v. 2 and 8, which seem to fix it
      as he has written. NEWCOME.

  110 John means that he was not really Elias risen from the dead. But
      when Jesus says, (Matth. xvii. 12, and xi. 14,) that Elias was come
      already, he means that John had appeared _in the spirit and power of
      Elias_. Luke i. 17. Thus likewise, John here denies that he is one
      of the ancient prophets again appearing on earth: see Luke ix 19;
      with which our Lord’s assertion that he was an eminent prophet, Luke
      vii. 28, seems perfectly consistent.  Newcome.

  111 Is. xl. 3.

  112 Kings and princes very often changed the names of those who held
      offices under them, particularly when they first attracted their
      notice and were taken into their employ; and when subsequently they
      were elevated to some new station, and crowned with additional
      honours. Gen. xli. 45; and xvii. 5; and xxxii. 28; and xxxv. 10; 2
      Kin. xxiii. 34, 35; and xxiv. 17; Dan. i. 6. Hence a name (_a new
      name_) occurs topically, as a token of honour, in Phil. ii. 9; Heb.
      i. 4; Rev. ii. 17. See also Mark iii. 17. Jahn’s Archæol. § 164.

_  113 Nathanael_. This apostle is supposed to be the same with
      _Bartholomew_, of whom John says nothing; and the others make no
      mention of _Nathanael_. This seems to have been his proper name;
      since the name of _Bartholomew_ is not a proper name, but only
      signifies _the son of Ptolomy_. _Nathanael_ is also ranked among the
      Apostles to whom Jesus showed himself. _John_ xxi. 2-4. A. Clarke,
      _in loc_.

  114 Gen. xxviii. 12.

  115 Ps. lxix. 9.

  116 Numb. xxi. 8, seq.

  117 Is. ix. 1.

  118 Is. lxi. 1, and lviii. 6.

  119 This word denotes only a subordinate officer, who attended the
      minister and obeyed his orders in what concerned the more servile
      part of the work. Among other things he had charge of the sacred
      books, and delivered them to those to whom he was commanded by his
      superiors to deliver them. After the reading was over, he deposited
      them in their proper place. CAMPBELL, _in loc_.

  120 The service of the synagogue consisted of reading the scriptures,
      prayer, and preaching. The posture in which the latter was
      performed, whether in the synagogue or elsewhere, (see _Matth_. v.
      1; _Luke_ v. 3,) was sitting. Accordingly when our Saviour had read
      the portion of scripture, in the synagogue at Nazareth, of which he
      was a member, having been brought up in that city, and then, instead
      of retiring to his place, _sat down_ in the desk or pulpit, it is
      said “the eyes of all that were present were fastened upon him,”
      because they perceived, by this posture, that he was about to preach
      to them. See also Acts xiii. 14, 15. JENNINGS, Ant. 375.

  121 1 Kings xvii. 1, 9.

  122 2 Kings v. 14.

  123 The accuracy of this description is attested by travellers, to this
      day. See ROBINSON’S Travels in Palestine, vol. iii., pp. 186, 187.

  124 Matthew says that the disciples were called by Christ while walking
      by the sea, because that calling followed the walk by the sea. “We
      say that a thing was done by one walking in this or that place,
      because he took such a walk, whether he who did the act was then
      walking, or sitting or standing.” Spanb. dub. lxxii. v. 2. This
      remark reconciles “_walking_,” Matth. iv. 18 with “_stood_,” Luke v.
      1. A like remark may be made with respect to the passages placed
      parallel to Luke v. 6. Jesus is concisely represented as if he had
      at first seen Peter and Andrew casting a net into the sea, because
      they were employed thus in consequence of the interview.

      Luke does not deny that more than Simon were seen, nor does he
      affirm that Simon was seen. Indeed our Lord is said to have seen two
      ships by the lake. The calling of others beside Simon not only is
      not denied by Luke, but is sufficiently indicated in v. 11. The
      words of Matthew (v. 21) “going on from thence,” are not to be
      understood as implying a great distance, but as relating to the
      neighbouring shore. Matthew relates the principal fact, the calling
      and the following; Luke has the accompanying circumstances. And
      there is a remarkable harmony between them. Matthew records the
      repairing of their nets by the fishermen; Luke shows how they became
      broken,—by the great draught they had taken. What is related by
      Luke, is not denied by Matthew, but omitted only. Nothing, indeed,
      is more common than to find the omission of some supplied by the
      other Evangelists. NEWCOME.

  125 The death of Zebedee is nowhere mentioned in the gospels; yet an
      undesigned coincidence, and proof of the veracity of the
      Evangelists, is evident by comparing this place with others, in
      which his death is tacitly alluded to. Thus, in Chap. viii. 21, it
      is related that “another of his _disciples_ said unto him, Lord,
      suffer me first to go and _bury my father_;” and in Chap. xx. 20, it
      is said, “Then came to him the _mother of Zebedee’s children_ with
      her sons, worshipping him,” &c. See also Chap. xxvii. 55. BLUNT,
      Veracity of the Gospels, Sec. I. 2. See note on Mark vi. 3; Post, §

  126 There is no inconsistency between this place and the last clause of
      Luke iv. 35. The word translated _torn_, signifies to move, agitate,
      convulse. It occurs only twice in the Septuagint. In 2. Sam. xxii.
      8, the Hebrew signifies to be shaken, _ut in terræ motu_. In Jer.
      iv. 19, it is applied to commotion of mind. Here, the demoniac was
      violently agitated; but the agitation left no lasting bad effect; he
      was restored to perfect health and soundness. NEWCOME.

  127 Is. liii. 4.

  128 This clause may be rendered “when the day was coming on,” and thus
      be reconciled with the words of Mark, who says it was a great while
      before day, namely, before broad day-light. SCOTT, _in loc_

  129 “The miraculous cure of the leprosy was thought by the Jews to be
      characteristic of the Messiah; and therefore there was peculiar
      reason for enjoining this man silence.” _Benson’s Life of Christ_,
      p. 340. NEWCOME. For the consequences of a premature full
      manifestation of himself as the Messiah, by awakening the jealousy
      of the Roman government, might, humanly speaking, have impeded his
      ministry. Yet there was great propriety in the private exhibition,
      to the priesthood, of full proof that he was the Messiah; after
      which, their obstinacy in rejecting him was inexcusable. In this,
      and divers other instances, our Lord manifested his intent not to be
      generally known to the Jews as their Messiah, till the consummation
      of his ministry. A general announcement of his divine character at
      the outset would have been productive of no good; on the contrary it
      would have excited the malice of the Scribes, Pharisees and
      Herodians against him; would have favoured the conceit of the Jews
      that he was to be their temporal king; would have awakened the
      jealousy of the Roman government; and in the natural course of
      things, would have prevented him from giving the many miraculous
      proofs which he gave of his ministry, and thus laying solid
      foundations for faith in his divine mission; would have exposed him
      and his religion to the charge of ostentation, vanity, and love of
      power and display; and would have deprived the world of that example
      which he gave, of meekness, humility and patient suffering and
      self-denial. According to human experience, an early assumption of
      regal splendour, supported by the miracles he wrought, would have
      been successful, and carried him to the throne instead of the cross;
      but it would have deprived the world of the great object of his
      mission. A sufficient number were enlightened to attest his miracles
      and proclaim his religion, and enough were left in their ignorance,
      to condemn and crucify him. See A. CLARKE, and SCOTT, _in loc_.

  130 Lev. xiv. 2, seq.

  131 When a Jew became a Roman citizen, he usually assumed a Roman name.
      It is therefore supposed that Levi was the original Hebrew, and
      Matthew the assumed Roman name of this evangelist. STOWE’S Introd.
      120. See also, HARMER’S Obs. vol. iv. p. 330; Obs. 94.

  132 It is observable that though John speaks of this pool or bath as
      existing at the time he wrote, which was upwards of sixty years
      after the crucifixion, yet he speaks of the efficacy of its waters
      in the past tense, as something which had long ceased. This may
      account for the silence of Josephus concerning it; whether we
      suppose it to have been really a miraculous virtue, existing only in
      the time of our Saviour; or merely a groundless belief of the

  133 Spanheim, dub. evang. ii. 185, doubts how the latter part of this
      verse is reconcilable with Matthew iii. 17, and the parallel verses.
      But the voice from heaven was not God’s _immediate_ voice; but
      uttered at his command, and in his person. See Deut. iv. 33; Ex. xx.
      1, 2; Comp. Hebr. ii. 2; Gal. iii. 19; Acts vii. 53. NEWCOME.

  134 Deut. xxiii. 25.

  135 The act of plucking the ears of corn by the hand, in another’s
      field, was expressly permitted, by the law of Moses, Deut. xxiii.
      23; but it was considered so far a species of reaping as to be
      servile work, and therefore not lawful to be done on the Sabbath.
      CAMPBELL, _in loc_. See ROBINSON’S Biblical Researches in Palestine,
      Vol. 2, pp. 192, 201, that this custom is still in use.

  136 Hos. vi. 6.

  137 It appears from 1 Sam. xxi. 1, that Abimelech was the high priest at
      the time referred to; but Abiathar his son was the _chief_ priest
      under him, and probably superintended the tabernacle and its stated
      concerns. Abimelech was soon after slain; and Abiathar succeeded him
      in that office, and continued in it about forty years, until after
      the death of David. This circumstance, and his great eminence, above
      his father, may account for the use of his name rather than his
      father’s, as illustrating the times of David and Saul. See SCOTT,
      _in loc_.

  138 Numb. xxviii. 9, 10; xviii. 19.

  139 1 Sam. xxi. 1-7.

  140 Is. xlii. 1, seq.; Is. xi. 10.

  141 There may be an allusion, in these words of the prophet, to an
      Eastern custom, for those who were grievously afflicted to come to
      the sovereign for relief or redress, having pots of fire, or of
      burning straw, or other combustible on their heads, in token of
      their extreme trouble. Not one of these, the prophet seems to
      intimate, should go away without redress; he will certainly remove
      the cause of their complaints, and render truth and justice
      victorious over falsehood and oppression. 3 CALM. 394.

  142 It appears from Mark vi. 7, that the apostles were sent forth by
      _two and two_ to preach; and this accounts for their being here and
      in the parallel places named in couples. Luke mentions Matthew
      first, as being regarded as the senior of Thomas, his companion; but
      Matthew modestly places his own name last. Mark is less observant of
      the order of the names, but he alone states that they were thus
      associated. The others give the names in couples, but state no
      reason for it. This is not the method of false witnesses; such
      incidental corroborations belong only to the narratives of truth.

  143 Thaddeus, Theudas and Judas (or Jude) are probably names of the same
      signification, the Greek termination being added to different forms
      of a Hebrew verb. “The Canaanite,” Matth. x. 4, is the same with
      “Zelotes” in Luke. “Cognomen erat Chald. quod Lucas reddidit
      Zelotem.” Wetstein. Thus, Thomas is rendered Didymus, or, the twin;
      Cephas, Peter; and Silas, Tertius. Some suppose that this name had
      been given to Simon on account of his religious zeal; or, because he
      had been of a Jewish sect called Zealots, who were addicted to the
      Pharisees, and justified themselves by the example of Phinehas, for
      punishing offenders without waiting for the sentence of the
      magistrate. NEWCOME.

      “Between Matthew (x. 2,) and Mark (iii. 16,) we observe a strict
      correspondence, but the catalogue in St. Luke (vi. 14,) differs from
      both the first-mentioned writers, in two particulars. 1, ‘Simon the
      Canaanite,’ of Matthew and Mark is introduced as ‘Simon called
      Zelotes.’ Now if any difference was admitted in this place, we might
      expect it to extend no farther than to the order of the names, or
      the addition of a surname; as, for instance, Matthew calls the
      ‘Thaddeus’ of Mark also ‘Lebbeus;’ but here we have one surname
      changed for another. It is indeed easy to conceive, that Simon might
      have been commonly distinguished by either appellative, but this we
      can only conjecture; neither Evangelist adds a word to explain the
      point. 2, The other discrepancy, however, appears more serious. The
      Lebbeus or Thaddeus of St. Matthew and Mark, is entirely omitted in
      the list of St. Luke, who substitutes ‘Judas the brother of James.’
      Here is certainly a marked difference, for it would not seem very
      probable, that the Apostle in question passed by three distinct
      names. Nor could this be a mere oversight in St. Luke, for, in Acts
      i. 13, where a catalogue of the eleven is inserted, he mentioned
      this individual in exactly the same manner. Are we to suppose then
      that the Evangelist commits a deliberate error in this particular?
      We have distinct and satisfactory witnesses to prove that there
      really was an Apostle, besides Iscariot, who bore the name of Judas.
      Both Matthew (xiii. 55,) and Mark (vi. 3,) concur in speaking of
      James and Jude as the near relations of Christ, and part of this
      statement is incidentally confirmed by St. Paul, who calls James
      ‘the Lord’s brother.’ (Gal. i. 19.) But farther, St. John (xiv. 22,)
      presents us with a remark made by ‘Judas not Iscariot;’ evidently
      one of the Apostles; and St. Jude himself, in the first verse of his
      Epistle, styles himself ‘the brother of James.’ There is thus amply
      sufficient evidence, that all the Gospel writers acknowledge an
      Apostle of this name, though St. Matthew, with his usual simplicity,
      familiarly mentions him by two of his appellations, omitting that of
      Judas, and St. Mark sees no occasion to depart from his language, in
      a matter of such general notoriety. Luke, on the other hand, usually
      studious of accuracy, distinguishes this Apostle by the name
      generally current in the Church, when his Gospel was written. This
      variation then may, upon the whole, convince us how undesignedly the
      writers of Scripture confirm each other’s statements; yet can this
      only be the result of a minute examination upon our part, and upon
      the probability of this, a cautious writer would hardly stake his
      reputation for truth or exactness.” See ROBERTS’S “Light shining out
      of Darkness,” pp. 91-93.

  144 It may be objected that Matthew, in saying that this discourse was
      delivered sitting on a mountain, is contradicted by Luke, who says,
      that Jesus was standing on a plain. Luke vi. 17. But Dr. Clarke, on
      this latter place, has suggested that Jesus “being pressed with
      great multitudes of people, might retire from them again to the top
      of the hill.” And Dr. Priestley observes that “Matthew’s saying that
      Jesus was _sat down_ after he had gone up the mountain, and Luke’s
      saying that he stood on the plain, when he healed the sick before
      the discourse, are no inconsistencies.” Harm. p. 83.

      The whole picture is striking. Jesus ascends a mountain, employs the
      night in prayer, and having thus solemnly invoked the divine
      blessing, authoritatively separates the twelve apostles from the
      mass of his disciples. He descends, and heals, in the plain, all
      among a great multitude, collected from various parts by the fame of
      his miraculous power. Having thus created attention, he satisfies
      the desire of the people to hear his doctrine; and retiring first to
      the mountain whence he came, that his attentive hearers might follow
      him, and might better arrange themselves before him. Sacro digna
      silentio Mirantur _omnes_ dicere. _Hor_. NEWCOME.

      The different accounts of the Sermon on the Mount may be reconciled,
      by considering that Mathew wrote chiefly for the Hebrew Christians;
      and it was therefore important for him to bring out, in full, the
      manner in which our Lord enforced the spiritual nature of his
      dispensation and doctrine, in opposition to the mere letter of the
      Jewish law, and the teaching and practice of Scribes and Pharisees;
      which he does particularly and with many examples; while Luke, on
      the contrary, wrote chiefly for Gentile Christians, to whom the
      contrast with the Jewish law was of less interest; and therefore he
      omits those parts of the discourse, and dwells only upon those which
      were of practical importance to all. ROBINSON. NEWCOME.

  145 The Greek word here employed is said to be derived from the
      Persians, among whom the king’s messengers or posts were called
      _Angari_. These had the royal authority for pressing horses, ships,
      and even men, to assist them in the business on which they were
      sent. The word therefore signifies, to be compelled by violence to
      do any particular service, especially of the public kind, by the
      king’s authority. And the sentiment is a lesson of patience and
      gentleness under severe exactions from man. _Lightfoot, apud_ A.
      CLARKE, _in loc_. SIR J. CHARDIN’S Travels, Vol. i. p. 238, 257.

  146 Calvin says that Matthew, being more brief, introduces the centurion
      himself as speaking; and that Luke expresses more at large his
      sending by his friends; but that the sense of both is the same.
      _Harm_. p. 124.

      (Toinard quotes Exod. xviii. 6, where the words related as spoken by
      Jethro, were evidently a message sent by him to Moses. _Harm_. 147.)
      Considering then the sameness of the scene, of the person, of the
      words, and of the transaction, I cannot but conclude with Grotius,
      that the miracle is one and the same, related in general by Matthew,
      and with greater accuracy by Luke. NEWCOME.

  147 The nature of our Lord’s ministry, as it now appeared, so unlike
      what John as a Jew expected, may have surprised and perplexed him.
      And his own misfortune, coming upon this disappointment and
      perplexity, would increase his doubt and embarrassment. His faith
      was shaken;—the question implies no more;—and he sent that his
      doubts might be removed, and his faith confirmed. Jesus therefore
      merely referred John to the miracles he was doing, and the
      prophecies which spake of him, and which were fulfilled by those
      miracles. Bp. SUMNER, in loc.

  148 Is. xxxv. 5, seq.

  149 Mal. iii. 1.

  150 Mal. iv. 5.

  151 We here learn that the demoniac was both blind and dumb. St. Luke
      omits the former circumstance, but does not contradict it. NEWCOME.

  152 An accurate reader will observe that Matt. xii. 22, and Luke xi. 14,
      show the general occasion of the blasphemy against Jesus; and that
      Matt. xii. 23, shews the particular occasion of it, the multitude
      alarming the Jewish rulers by their question whether Jesus were the
      Christ. No cause for the absurd and impious insinuation of the
      Scribes and Pharisees is assigned by St. Mark: however, he suggests
      an important circumstance, that they came from Jerusalem to watch
      the conduct of Jesus. The latter part of Luke viii. 19, shows that
      his relations were not able to enter the house on account of the
      press. Thus one Evangelist is wonderfully supplemental to another by
      notations of time, place, and other circumstances; and the strictest
      propriety and agreement result from diligently comparing them.

  153 The writer of a false narrative would either have omitted to mention
      the request for a sign, or would have related that it was complied
      with. He would never have exposed his Master to the suspicion of a
      want of power. See also, Matt. xvi. 1.

  154 Jonah i. 17.

  155 Jonah iii. 4, 5.

  156 1 Kings x. 1 seq.

  157 This omission may seem inconsistent with the character of Jesus, who
      appears to have generally complied with all the innocent usages of
      his countrymen; and of course it may be adduced as an objection
      against the veracity of the Evangelist. Luke simply records the
      fact, however it may seem to make against the character of his
      Master, or his own veracity. But Mark, vii. 3-9, in a manner equally
      incidental and without design, discloses the truth that this washing
      was superstitious, and connected with the dangerous error of placing
      the traditions of the elders on equal footing with the commands of
      God. Where there was danger of his practice being misinterpreted,
      our Lord withheld his compliance, even in things indifferent. See
      Bp. SUMNER on Luke, Lect. 41.

  158 Gen. iv. 8; 2 Chron. xxiv. 20, seq.

  159 The autumnal rains in Palestine come mostly from the west or
      south-west. ROBINSON’S Biblical Researches, vol. ii. p. 97. The
      incidental allusion here made to that fact, would hardly have been
      made by a writer of fiction.

  160 Is. vi. 9, 10.

  161 Ps. lxxviii. 2.

  162 This is made consistent with the other Evangelists, by reading
      “Gadarenes.” If Gergasa was subordinate to Gadara, the metropolis of
      Perea, as Cellarius and Reland judge, and St. Mark did not write in
      Judea, what wonder that he chose the more general name, which was
      best known in the world?  But Cellarius from Eusebius takes notice
      that some esteemed Gergasi, so Eusebius writes it, and Gadara two
      names of the same city; and this he thinks was the sentiment of the
      Syriac translator. To this Sir Richard Ellis most inclines, in his
      “Fortuita Sacra.” TOWNSON, p. 72.

      In Matthew mention is made of two demoniacs; in Mark and Luke of one
      only. Here Le Clerc’s maxim is undoubtedly true: Qui plura narrat,
      pauciora complectitur: qui pauciora memorat, plura non negat.
      _Harm_. p. 524.

      We may collect a reason from the Gospels themselves, why Mark and
      Luke mention only one demoniac; because, one only being grateful for
      the miracle, his cure only was recorded by the two Evangelists, who
      mention this gratitude, and who are more intent on inculcating the
      moral, than on magnifying our Lord’s power. NEWCOME.

  163 There is no contradiction here between Matth. and Mark. The
      demoniacs met Jesus on the shore, as he came out of the ship. Luke
      viii. 27. The swine were within sight, on the ascending ground, Luke
      viii. 32, at the side of the mountain, Mark v. 11, which was at some
      distance from the shore where they stood. Matth. viii. 30.

  164 Since swine were held in abhorrence by the Jews, how happened a herd
      of them to be feeding by the sea of Tiberias? The answer shows the
      accuracy of the Evangelist and his intimate knowledge of the local
      circumstances of Judea; for it appears from Josephus, Antiq. xvii.
      11, 4, that _Gadara_ was a _Grecian city_, the inhabitants of which,
      therefore, were not Jews. BLUNT, Veracity, &c. sect. ii. 6.

  165 Here is a reference to an Eastern custom, which affords internal
      evidence of the truth of the narrative. The master sat on a higher
      seat, and the scholars sat at his feet. Sitting at the feet, was the
      posture of a learner; and indicated the reverence and submission due
      to the teacher. Thus Moses says of the people, to whom God gave the
      law from Mount Sinai,—“they sat down at thy feet.” Deut. xxxiii. 3.
      Isaiah, speaking of Abraham, who was taught of God, says “he called
      him to his foot.” Is. xli. 2. Mary “sat at Jesus’s feet and heard
      his words.” Luke x. 39. Paul was brought up “at the feet of
      Gamaliel;” Acts xxii. 3; studied law with him. And the restored
      maniac sat down at Jesus’s feet, in the posture of a humble learner,
      desiring no other wisdom than to be taught of him.

  166 Both Mark and Luke state that this was in Matthew’s own house; and
      Luke calls it a great feast, made in honour of Jesus. The omission
      of this fact by Matthew, not only shows his modesty and humility,
      but adds much to the weight of evidence in his favour, both as a
      man, and as a witness.  See BLUNT’S Veracity of the Gospels, sect.
      i. 4.

  167 Hos. vi. 6; 1 Sam. xv. 22.

  168 Neither of the Evangelists expressly mentions the death of Joseph;
      yet from all four of them it may indirectly be inferred to have
      happened while Jesus was yet alive. Comp. Luke viii. 19, John ii.
      12, and xix. 25-27. Such harmony as this could not have been the
      effect of concert. See BLUNT’S Veracity, &c. sect. i. 7.

  169 Commentators have noted two inconsistent circumstances in this
      section. In Matthew, _shoes are_ forbidden; in Mark the Apostles are
      commanded to be shod with _sandals_. But the true solution seems to
      be this, that the Apostles should not furnish themselves with spare
      garments, and should wear the simplest covering for their feet. “Non
      vult ullis rebus studiose comparatis onerari.” Beza. See Newcome, in

  170 The synagogues were used, not only for divine service, but for
      holding courts of justice, especially for ecclesiastical affairs;
      and the lesser punishments, such as whipping, were inflicted in the
      synagogue, immediately after sentence, as the burning in the hand
      was formerly inflicted in England, upon praying the benefit of
      clergy. JENNINGS, Ant. p. 376. Such an allusion as this would not be
      likely to have been found in a work of fiction.

  171 Mic. vii. 6.

  172 Matth. xiv. 2, _unto his servants_. Matthew alone mentions, and
      without any apparent reason for such minuteness, that Herod
      addressed his remark to his _servants_ it. Luke, in the parallel
      passage, says he _heard of all that was done by him_; but by
      referring to Luke viii. 3, and to Acts xiii. 1, we find that Christ
      had followers from among the household of the very prince, with whom
      Herod was likely to converse on a subject in which they were better
      informed than himself. BLUNT, Veracity, &c., sec. i. 8.

  173 Here is a very natural passing allusion to what we learn from
      Josephus was a settled custom in the family of Herod; namely, the
      making of a feast on his birth-day, at which the officers of his
      government were guests. JOSEPHUS, Ant. xix. vii. § 1.

  174 Mark incidentally mentions the great multitude coming and going, and
      the purpose of Jesus to withdraw _awhile_. The occasion of this
      great multitude of _travellers_ is stated in the like incidental
      manner by John, vi. 4, that the _passover_ was nigh at hand; and
      hence, if Jesus withdrew awhile, the throng would be drawn off
      towards Jerusalem. These undesigned coincidences tend to verify both
      the narratives. Blunt, Veracity, &c. sect. i. 13.

  175 Why Jesus addressed this question to Philip, and why John mentioned
      so unimportant a fact, is not here explained. Nor does Luke indicate
      any reason for his own statement of the place where this miracle was
      wrought, namely, near Bethsaida. But John, in another place, (ch. i.
      44,) with apparently as little reason, gratuitously states that
      Philip was of Bethsaida; and this fact renders both the others
      intelligible and significant. Jesus, intending to furnish bread for
      the multitude by a miracle, first asked Philip, who belonged to the
      city and was perfectly acquainted with the neighbourhood, whether
      bread could be procured there. His answer amounts to saying that it
      was not possible. These slight circumstances, thus collected
      together, constitute very cogent evidence of the veracity of the
      narrative, and evince the reality of the miracle itself. See Blunt,
      Veracity, &c. sect. i. 13.

  176 In Luke, Jesus commands that the people should be made to sit down
      by _fifties_. In Mark it is said that they sat down _by hundreds and
      by fifties_. Piscator, and Pearce, in a dissertation at the end of
      his comment on St. Paul’s Epistles, say that they sat an hundred in
      front, and fifty deep; which very satisfactorily solves the seeming
      variation. NEWCOME.

  177 This seemingly idle inquiry becomes important as a note of veracity
      in the narrator, when compared with the account of Matthew. John
      indeed tells us, v. 18, that the wind blew a gale, but he does not
      state from what quarter. He also says that there were boats from
      Tiberias, near the place where the miracle of bread was wrought, v.
      23, but this does not at all explain the inquiry of the people how
      Jesus came to Capernaum. But Matthew states that “the wind was
      contrary,” that is, west, Matth. xiv. 22. This fact, and the
      geographical position of the places, explains the whole. The miracle
      was wrought near Bethsaida, on the east side of the lake. The people
      saw the disciples take the only boat which was there, and depart for
      Capernaum, which was on the west side of the lake, and saw that
      Jesus was not with them. In the night it blew a tempest from the
      west. In the morning, the storm being over, the people crossed over
      to Capernaum and found Jesus already there. Well might they ask him,
      with astonishment, how he came thither. For though there were boats
      over from Tiberias, which was also on the west side of the lake, yet
      he could not have returned in one of them, for the wind would not
      have permitted them to cross the lake.  BLUNT, Veracity of the
      Gospels, sect. i. 17.

  178 Ps. lxxviii. 24. Ex. xvi. 15.

  179 Isa. liv. 13. Jer. xxxi. 33, seq.

  180 Ex. xvi. 15.

  181 The truth of the Gospels has been argued from the _confessions_ they
      contain. On this verse Paley asks, “Was it the part of a writer, who
      dealt in suppression and disguise, to put down _this_ anecdote?”
      _Evid._ 255.

  182 The admission of Judas Iscariot into the domestic and confidential
      circle of our Lord, was the result of profound and even of divine
      wisdom. It showed that Jesus was willing to throw open his most
      secret actions, discourses, and views not merely to his devoted
      friends, but to a sagacious and hardened enemy. If Judas had ever
      discovered the least fault in the character or conduct of Jesus, he
      certainly would have disclosed it;—he would not have publicly
      confessed that he had betrayed innocent blood, and have sunk down in
      insupportable anguish and despair. See TAPPIN’S Lect. on Eccl. Hist.

  183 The traditions of the elders were unwritten ordinances of indefinite
      antiquity, the principal of which, as the Pharisees alleged, were
      delivered to Moses in the mount, and all of which were transmitted
      through the High Priests and Prophets, down to the members of the
      great Sanhedrim in their own times; and from these, as the Jews say,
      they were handed down to Gamaliel, and ultimately to Rabbi Jehudah,
      by whom they were digested and committed to writing, toward the
      close of the second century. This collection is termed the Mishna;
      and in many cases it is esteemed among the Jews as of higher
      authority than the law itself. In like manner, there are said to be
      many Christians, at the present day, who receive ancient
      traditionary usages and opinions as authoritative exponents of
      Christian doctrine. They say that the preached gospel was before the
      written gospel; and that the testimony of those who heard it is
      entitled to equal credit with the written evidence of the
      Evangelists; especially as the latter is but a brief record, while
      the oral preaching was a more full and copious announcement of the
      glad tidings.

      These traditions, both of the Jewish and the Christian Church, seem
      to stand _in pari ratione_, the arguments in favour of the
      admissibility and effect of the one, applying with the same force,
      in favour of the other. All these arguments may be resolved into two
      grounds, namely, contemporaneous practice subsequently and uniformly
      continued; and contemporaneous declarations, as part of the _res
      gestæ_, faithfully transmitted to succeeding times. It is alleged
      that those to whom the law of God was first announced, best knew its
      precise import and meaning, and that therefore their interpretation
      and practice, coming down concurrently with the law itself, is
      equally obligatory.

      But this argument assumes what cannot be admitted; for it still
      remains to be shown that those who first heard the law, when orally
      announced, had any better means of understanding it than those to
      whom the same words were afterwards read. The Ten Commandments were
      spoken in the hearing of Aaron and all the congregation of Israel;
      immediately after which they made and worshipped a golden calf.
      Surely this will not be adduced as a valid contemporaneous
      exposition of the second commandment. The error of the argument lies
      in the nature of the subject. The human doctrine of contemporaneous
      exposition is applicable only to human laws and the transactions of
      men, as equals, and not to the laws of God. Among men, when _their
      own_ language is doubtful and ambiguous, _their own_ practice is
      admissible, to expound it; because both the language and the
      practice are but the outward and visible signs of the meaning and
      intention of one and the same mind and will, which inward meaning
      and intention is the thing sought after. It is on the same ground,
      that, where a statute, capable of divers interpretations, has
      uniformly been acted upon in a certain way, this is held a
      sufficient exposition of its true intent. In both cases it is the
      conduct of _the parties_ themselves which is admitted to interpret
      their own language; expressed, in cases of contract, by themselves
      in person, and in statutes, through the medium of the legislators,
      who were their agents and representatives; and in both cases, it is
      merely the interpretation of what a man says, by what he does. But
      this rule has never been applied, in the law, to the language of any
      other person than the party himself; never, to the command or
      direction of his superior or employer. And even the language of the
      _parties_, when it is contained in a sealed instrument, is at this
      day held incapable of being expounded by their actions, on account
      of the greater solemnity of the instrument. See Baynham _v_. Guy’s
      Hospital, 3 Vesey’s Rep. 295. Eaton _v_. Lyon, Ibid. 690, 694. The
      practice of men, therefore, can be no just exponent of the law of
      God. If they have mistaken the meaning of his command from the
      beginning, the act of contravention remains a sin in the last
      transgressor, as well as the first; for the word of God cannot be
      changed or affected by the gloss of human interpretation.

      The other ground, namely, that the testimony of those who heard
      Jesus and his apostles preach, is of equal authority with the
      Scriptures, being contemporaneous declarations, and parts of the
      _res gestae_, and therefore admissible in aid of the exposition of
      the written word, is equally inconsistent with the sound and settled
      rules of law respecting writings. When a party has deliberately
      committed his intention and meaning to writing, the law regards the
      writing as the sole repository of his mind and intention, and does
      not admit any oral testimony to alter, add to, or otherwise affect
      it. The reasons for this rule are two; first, because the writing is
      the more solemn act, by the party himself, designed to prevent
      mistake, and to remain as the perpetual memorial of his intention;
      and, secondly, because of the great uncertainty and weakness of any
      secondary evidence. For no one can tell whether the by-standers
      heard precisely what was said, nor whether they heard it all, nor
      whether they continued to remember it with accuracy until the time
      when they wrote it down, or communicated it to those who wrote it;
      to say nothing of the danger of their mixing up the language of the
      speaker with what was said by others, or with their own favourite
      theories. And where the witnesses were not the original auditors of
      what was said, no one knows how much the truth may have suffered
      from the many channels through which it has passed, in coming from
      the first speaker to the last write or witness. On all these
      accounts, the law rejects oral testimony of what the parties said,
      in regard to anything that has already been solemnly committed to
      writing by the parties themselves, and rejects the secondary
      evidence of hearsay, when evidence of a higher degree, as, for
      example, a written declaration of the party, can be obtained.

      Now, inasmuch as the writings of the Evangelists and Apostles were
      penned under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, why should not the
      documentary evidence of the Gospel, thus drawn up by them, be
      treated with at least as much respect as other written documents? If
      they were inspired to write down those great truths for a perpetual
      memorial to after ages, then this record is the primary evidence of
      those truths. It is the word of God, penned by his own dictation,
      and sealed, as it were, with his own seal. If it were a man’s word
      and will, thus solemnly written, no verbal or secondary evidence
      could be admitted, by the common law, to explain, add to, or vary
      it; nothing could be engrafted upon it; nor could any person be
      admitted to testify what he heard the party say, in regard to what
      was written. The courts would at once reject all such attempts, and
      confine themselves strictly to the writing before them, the only
      inquiry being as to the meaning of the language contained in that
      document, and not as to what the party may elsewhere have spoken.
      The law presumes that the writing alone is the source to which he
      intended that resort should be had, in order to ascertain his
      meaning. But by calling in the fathers, with their traditions, to
      prove what Christ and his Apostles taught, beyond what is solemnly
      recorded in the Scriptures, the principle of this plain and sound
      rule of law is violated; resort is had to secondary evidence of the
      truths of our religion, when the primary evidence is already at
      hand; and the pure fountain is deserted for the muddy stream.

  184 Matthew was not only a Jew himself, but it is evident, from the
      whole structure of his Gospel, especially from his numerous
      references to the Old Testament, that he wrote for Jewish
      readers.—_Paley_. But the explanation here given by Mark is an
      additional evidence of the fact asserted by Jerome and Clement of
      Alexandria, that he wrote at Rome, for the benefit chiefly of the
      converts of that nation.

  185 Ex. xxii 12. Ex. xxi. 17. Deut. v. 16.

  186 Is. xxix. 13.

  187 Mark designates the woman by the country where she dwelt; Matthew
      calls her a woman of Canaan, because of the people to whom she
      belonged. Thus they do not contradict each other. The treatment of
      this woman by our Lord has been the subject of remark, as evasive
      and insincere. But it was far otherwise. He had a twofold object; to
      call the attention of his disciples to the fact of her being a
      foreigner, in order to show them that his ministry, though primarily
      and chiefly to the Jews, was in truth designed for the benefit of
      the Gentiles also; and to draw out, as it were, the great faith of
      the woman, in order to teach them the effect of faithful and
      persevering supplication. To attain these objects, he took the
      direct and most obvious method. In this instance also, as in those
      of the centurion, (Matth. viii. 5-13,) and of the Samaritan leper,
      (Luke xvii. 16-18,) he indicated that the gospel would be more
      readily received by the Gentiles than by the Jews. See A. CLARKE,
      _in loc_. NEWCOME, Obs. on our Lord. p. 165. Bp. Horsley’s Sermons
      on this subject, Serm. xxxvii. and xxxviii. p. 444-464.

  188 Cellarius and Lightfoot think that Dalmanutha and Magdala were
      neighbouring towns. See Calmet, voc. Dalmanutha. It is probable that
      Dalmanutha and Magdala were in Gaulanitis, towards the south-east
      part of the lake. See Matth. xv. 21; Mark vii. 24. NEWCOME.

  189 Our Lord’s words, Matth. xvi. 8, 10, and Mark viii. 17, 20, are the
      same in substance, though differently modified. The evangelists are
      not scrupulous in adhering to the precise words used by Christ. They
      often record them in a general manner, non numerantes, sed tanquem
      appendentes; regarding their purport, and not superstitiously
      detailing them. However, in this place, after uttering what Matthew
      relates, Jesus may have asked the questions recorded by Mark.

  190 The notice of this circumstance affords a proof of the veracity of
      the evangelist; for he barely states a fact having no apparent
      connexion with any other in his narrative. The reason of it is found
      in facts stated by the other evangelists. The people of Bethsaida
      had already witnessed the miracles of our Lord, but these only
      served to increase their rage against him; and they were therefore
      abandoned to the consequences of their of their unbelief. Matth. xi.

  191 The phrase _three days and three nights_ is equivalent to _three
      days_, three natural days of twenty-four hours. Gen. i. 5; Dan.
      viii. 14. Comp. Gen. vii. 4. 17.

      (It is a received rule among the Jews, _that a part of a day is put
      for the whole_; so that whatsoever is done in any part of the day,
      is properly said to be done that day. 1 Kings xx. 29; Esth. iv. 16.
      “When eight days were accomplished for the circumcision of the
      child,” &c. Yet the day of his birth and of his circumcision were
      two of these eight days. _Whitby_, quoted by SCOTT, on Matth. xii.
      40.) Grotius establishes this way of reckoning the _parts_ of the
      first and third days for _two days_, by Aben Ezra on Lev. xii. 3.

      (In proof that the phrase “_after three days,_” is sometimes
      equivalent to “_on the third day,_” compare Deut. xiv. 28 with xxvi.
      12; 1 Sam. xx. 12 with v. 19; 2 Chron. x. 5 with v. 12; Matth. xxvi.
      2 with xxvii. 63, 64; Luke ii. 21 with i. 59.)

      St. Luke omits our Lord’s sharp reproof of Peter, and the occasion
      of it; though he records the discourse in consequence of it. Le
      Clerc’s 12th canon is “Qui pauciora habet, non negat plura dicta aut
      facta; modo ne ulla sit exclusionis nota.” Perhaps the disciple and
      companion of that apostle who had withstood Peter to his face, Gal.
      ii. 11, willingly made this omission, as he omits some aggravating
      circumstances in Peter’s denial of Christ, Luke xxii. 60, though he
      carefully records the greatness of his sorrow, v. 62. NEWCOME.

  192 It has been shown, § 74, that “_after six days_” may signify on the
      sixth day. But we are not hence to conclude that the phrase has
      _always_ such a signification. Here it means six days complete,
      after the discourse recorded in § 74. The eight days mentioned by
      St. Luke include that of Peter’s reproof and of the transfiguration;
      which two days Matthew and Mark exclude. Macknight furnishes us with
      the following apposite reference to Tacitus: Hist. i. 29. Piso says,
      _Sextus dies agitur—ex quo—Cæsar adscitus sum;_ and yet, § 48 of the
      same book, Tacitus speaks of Piso as _quatriduo Cæsar_.

      Grotius on Matth. xvii. 1, has another solution; Quod Lucas dicit,
      tale est quale cum vulgò dicimus _post septimanam circiter. Nam
      Judæos octo dies_ appellasse id quod ab uno sabbato est ad alterum
      apparet, Joan. 20, 26, &c. NEWCOME.

  193 It is remarkable that Luke assigns no reason for this extraordinary
      silence; leaving his narrative in this place imperfect and obscure,
      which an impostor would not have done. It is explained by the
      command of Jesus, related by Matthew and Mark.

  194 The original word is _didrachma_, denoting, not tribute or tax in
      general, but a specific and particular offering which every Jew paid
      to God. See Josephus, Ant. xviii. x. § 1. This minute accuracy of
      the evangelist is worthy of note, as an indication of veracity.

  195 The twelve apostles and the seventy disciples were commissioned and
      sent forth at different times. Hence the person here alluded to may,
      for aught that appears, have been one of the seventy, not personally
      known to John and to those who were with him. _Letters on Evil
      Spirits_, p. 39.

  196 Here Jesus says, He that is not against us is for us; but in Matth.
      xii. 30, he says, He that is not with me is against me. Grotius
      regards both as proverbial sayings;—Proverbia in utramque partem
      usurpata, veritatem suam habent pro materia cui aptantur;—and
      alludes to similar forms in Prov. xxvi. 4, 5. NEWCOME.

  197 2 Kings iv. 29.

  198 This was near the passover; when Jesus, going to celebrate it at
      Jerusalem, plainly indicated that men ought to worship _there_;
      contrary to the practice of the Samaritans, who, in opposition to
      the Holy City, had set up a temple at Gerazim. Hence the cause of
      their hostility to him as well as to all others travelling in that
      direction _at that season_. This account perfectly harmonizes with
      the respectful deportment of the Samaritans towards him at the time
      of his interview with the woman at Jacob’s well, John iv. 1-42; for
      he was then coming _from_ Judea, and it was not the season of
      resorting thither for any purposes of devotion. John iv. 35. BLUNT,
      Veracity, &c., sect. i. 16.

  199 Lev. xii. 3.

  200 On this day, which was one of great joy and festivity, it was the
      custom of the Jews to fetch water from the pool Siloam, some of
      which they drank with loud acclamations of joy and thanksgiving; and
      some they brought to the altar, in commemoration of the miraculous
      relief of their forefathers, when thirsting in the wilderness; and
      some they brought as a drink-offering to God, to pray for rain
      against the following seed-time. See BENSON’S Life of Christ, p.
      412. JENNINGS, Ant. p. 495. The existence of this custom, thus
      remotely alluded to, gives great truthfulness to the narrative.

  201 Isa. lv. 1, and lviii. 11, and xliv. 3. Zech. xiii. 1, and xiv. 8.

  202 Ps. lxxxix. 4, and cxxxii. 11. Mic. v. 2.

  203 It is apparent, from various incidental allusions in the
      Evangelists, that it was the habit of our Lord at this period to
      spend his days in Jerusalem, in teaching the people and healing the
      sick, and his nights in the Mount of Olives, in prayer. Yet it is
      nowhere directly asserted; and the manner in which it is slightly
      mentioned or alluded to by the sacred writers, is worthy of
      particular notice, as a proof of their veracity, never met with, in
      works of fiction. Compare Matth. xxiv. 3, and xxvi. 30; Mark xiii.
      3, and xiv. 26; Luke vi. 12, and xxi. 37, 38, and xxii. 39; John
      viii. 1, 2, and xviii. 1.

  204 Lev. xx. 10. Deut. xxii. 21.

  205 The Romans, in settling the provincial government of Judea, which
      they had conquered, deprived the Jewish tribunals of the power of
      inflicting capital punishments. John xviii. 31. The law of Moses,
      however, condemned adulterers to be stoned to death. “This woman had
      been caught in the very fact. Jesus must therefore determine against
      the law, which inflicted death; or against the Romans, who suffered
      them not to put any body to death, and who would still less have
      permitted it for such a crime as adultery, which was not capital
      among them.—If he condemned not the adulteress _to death_ when he
      was alone with her, he hereby teaches us to submit to the civil laws
      of the places where we live.” BASNAGE, _Hist. Jud_. lib. v. c. § 2.

  206 When one was condemned to death, those witnesses, whose evidence
      decided the sentence, inflicted the first blows, in order to add the
      last degree of certainty to their evidence. DUPIN, Trial of Jesus,
      p. 7. SALVADOR, Histoire des Institutions de Moise, &c. Liv. iv. ch.
      ii. p. 76.

  207 John vii. 28, is consistent with John viii. 14. “Ye both know my
      transactions among you, and whence, as a man, I derive my descent;
      (ch. vi. 42,) and yet there is a sense in which ye know not whence I
      am, as I came not,” _&c. Kai_ is used in the same manner, Matth. ix.
      19. _And yet wisdom_, &c. See also John ix. 30. In this latter sense
      (ch. viii. 14,) the Jews knew not whence Jesus came, knew not his
      divine mission, and that he would return to the Father at his
      ascension. NEWCOME.

  208 Deut. xvii. 6, and xix. 15.

  209 The Jews who are said to have believed on Jesus (John viii. 30) are
      not the same with those whom our Lord accuses of seeking to kill
      him, ver. 40, nor with those who insulted him, ver. 48, &c.,
      although these are not distinguished from the others in the
      narrative of John, who always mentions the Jews indiscriminately as
      speaking with Jesus. Cler. Harm. 528. NEWCOME.

  210 Deut, vi. 5. Lev. xix. 18, and xviii. 5.

  211 The professional reader will not fail to observe the wisdom of this
      reply. The lawyer sought to learn from Jesus the terms of the
      condition on which eternal life could be attained; and was made to
      answer for himself that, by the law, it was attainable by nothing
      short of the highest degree of love, to God and to his neighbour.
      The lawyer thus was reminded, out of his  own code, that, this being
      a condition precedent, he could have no title to that which was
      promised, unless he fully performed every part of the condition; and
      that in this sense, whosoever offended in one point, or was
      deficient in performing any part of the condition, was guilty of
      all—lost the benefit of all. If he murmured at the hardship of
      losing the reward of all the good deeds he had done, merely for the
      omission to do a little more; the well-known rule of law and of
      reason would teach him that nothing is to be allowed for acts of
      past performance of a condition precedent, unless they are
      beneficial to the party for whom they are performed.

  212 A note of minute accuracy in the historian, Jericho being situated
      in the plain or valley of Jordan, and Jerusalem being among the
      mountains of Judea.

  213 An incidental and very natural allusion to the well-known custom of
      that country. For in those hot regions, men travel in the cool of
      the evening and night, and rest in the daytime; looking for
      refreshment, if they are not among total strangers, to the
      hospitality of friends.

  214 Ps. lxxxii. 6.  Ex. xxii. 7, seq.

  215 Ps. lxix. 25. Jer. xii. 7, and xxii. 5.

  216 Gen. vii. 4, 7.

  217 Gen. xix. 15, seq.

  218 Gen xix. 26.

  219 The two Evangelists go on to relate our Lord’s observations about
      divorce and marriage; they agree in substance, which is sufficient;
      though they differ in the form of the dialogue, neither adhering
      scrupulously to the exact manner in which the words passed, though
      we may learn it, by comparing both. Thus Matt. v. 9, reduces to a
      plain assertion, what Mark informs us was a reply to an inquiry made
      by the disciples apart. Or, we may suppose with Le Clerc, that this
      assertion was first advanced to the Pharisees, and then repeated to
      the disciples. NEWCOME.

  220 Gen. i. 27.

  221 Gen. ii. 24.

  222 Deut. xxiv. 1.

  223 The practice of divorcing the husband, unwarranted by the law, had
      been introduced, as Josephus informs us, (Antiq. XV. vii. 10,) by
      Salome, sister of Herod the Great, who sent a bill of divorce to her
      husband Costobarus; which bad example was afterwards followed by
      Herodias and others. Campbell. This natural allusion to an existing
      illegal custom is in perfect harmony with the whole history, it
      being true; but it seldom if ever has a parallel in the annals of

  224 Ex. xx. 12, seq. Lev. xix. 18.

  225 As all three came to Jesus, the action of the sons expressed, that
      they joined in the petition uttered by the mother. They are
      therefore represented as saying what was said with their consent,
      and probably by their suggestion. Luke xix. 11, will show how
      suitable this request was to the time, according to the ideas of our
      Lord’s disciples. NEWCOME.

  226 According to St. Mark, Jesus comes to Jericho; by which may be meant
      that he is a temporary inhabitant of that city. See Mark vi. 1, and
      viii. 22. Jesus therefore may be represented, (Matt. xx. 29; Mark x.
      46,) not as _finally leaving_ Jericho for Jerusalem, but as
      _occasionally going out_ of Jericho; in which city he had made some
      abode, it matters not for how few days. See Mark xi. 19. Jericho was
      a very considerable city; and we do not read that it was visited by
      our Lord at any other time. We may therefore suppose that Jesus,
      accompanied by his disciples and the multitude, and intent on his
      great work of propagating the gospel, went out of this city, knowing
      that a fit occasion of working a miracle would present itself; and
      that on his return, as he drew nigh unto Jericho, (Luke xviii. 35,)
      he restored the blind men to sight. It is likewise probable that
      Jesus, having given this proof of his divine mission, or foreseeing
      that so great a miracle would create too much attention in the
      people, prudently and humbly passed through Jericho on his return to
      it, (Luke xix. 1,) and continued his journey to Jerusalem.

      As to the remaining difficulty, that Matthew mentions two blind men,
      and the other Evangelists only one, I must refer to Le Clerc’s
      maxim, before quoted; (see § 57, note): adding that Bartimeus may
      have been the more remarkable of the two, and the more eminent for
      his faith in Jesus. NEWCOME.

  227 Here is a fine allusion to historical facts, first observed by Le
      Clerc. “Thus Herod the Great solicited the kingdom of Judea at Rome,
      (Jos. Antiq. Jud. XIV. xiv. 4, 5; XV. vi. 6, 7,) and was appointed
      king by the interest of Anthony with the senate; and afterwards he
      sailed to Rhodes, divested himself of his diadem, and received it
      again from Augustus. In like manner his sons Archelaus and Antipas
      repaired to the imperial city, that they might obtain the kingdom on
      their father’s death; and we read, (Jos. Antiq. Jud. XIV. xi. 1, and
      xiii. 2,) that the Jews sent an embassy thither, with accusations
      against Archelaus.” NEWCOME, Obs. on our Lord, p. 83.

  228 Zech. ix. 9.

  229 Thus acknowledging him to be their king; for this was a custom
      observed by the people when they found that God had appointed a man
      to the kingdom. When Jehu was anointed King by Elisha the prophet,
      at the command of God, and his captains knew what was done, _every
      man took his garment and spread it under him on the top of the
      steps, and blew the trumpets, saying Jehu is king_. 2 King ix. 13.
      A. CLARKE. See JENNINGS, Ant. vol. ii. p. 245. “_Thereon_,” that is,
      on the garments. The princes of Israel were forbidden to multiply
      _horses_ to themselves. Deut. xvii. 16, and xx. 1. This law was
      imposed as a standing mark of distinction between them and other
      nations; and a trial of prince and people, whether they had
      confidence in God their deliverer, who wanted neither horses nor
      footmen to fight his battles. It was observed for near four hundred
      years, until some time in the reign of Solomon; for David himself
      rode on a mule; as did Solomon also on the day of his coronation. 1
      Kings i. 33, 34. See Judges x. 4, and xii. 14; 1 Saml. xxv. 20.
      Subsequently the kings of Israel and Judah violated this command, by
      copying the example of the neighbouring princes in the establishment
      of their cavalry. The displeasure of God for this offence is
      indicated by several of the prophets: Isaiah ii. 6, 7, and xxxi. 1;
      Hosea xiv. 3, and i. 7; Micah v. 10, 11.—In opposition to the
      character of these warlike and disobedient princes, it was predicted
      that Messiah would come as a just king, having salvation;—a
      deliverer—riding upon an ass, after the manner of the ancient
      deliverers of Israel, who came only in the strength and power of the
      Lord. Zech. ix. 9. See Bishop SHERLOCK’S Dissert. IV. MICHAELIS,
      vol. ii. pp. 439-449.

  230 Ps. viii. 3.

  231 Ps. cxviii. 26.

  232 Isa. lvi. 7. Jer. vii. 11.

  233 Matth. xxi. 20, _the disciples_. Mark xi. 21, _Peter_. These may be
      thus reconciled. Peter addresses himself to Jesus: the disciples
      turn their attention to the object; Jesus addresses all. Or, Peter’s
      remark may be attributed to all the disciples. See § 141. NEWCOME.

  234 Many servants are sent; some of whom are beaten, some slain, some
      stoned. Here St. Matthew is more circumstantial than the other two
      Evangelists, who mention only one servant as sent, and one of the
      three injurious modes of treatment. Some suppose that this servant
      was chief among the rest.

  235 Here Mark mentions one servant among the others, as stoned wounded
      in the head, and sent away dishonoured; and Luke selects the
      circumstance that that one was beaten. Then Mark and Luke mention a
      third message, about which Matthew is silent. But, “qui pauciora
      memorat, plura non negat.” St. Luke may be understood as saying that
      a mortal wound was inflicted on the third messenger. NEWCOME.

  236 Ps. cxviii. 22.

  237 Isa. viii. 14, seq. Zech. xii. 3. Dan. ii. 34, seq., 44, seq.

  238 In the East, where the fashions of dress rarely if ever change, much
      of their riches consists in the number and splendour of their robes,
      or _caffetans_. Presents of garments are frequently alluded to in
      Scripture. Gen. xlv. 22. 2 Chron. ix. 24. Judges xiv. 12. 2 Kings v.
      5. Ezra ii. 69. Neh. vii. 70, where “the Tirshatha gave five hundred
      and thirty priests’ garments.”

      Presents were considered as tokens of honour;—not meant as offers of
      payment or enrichment, (1 Sam. ix. 7); and especially presents of
      dresses. 1 Sam. xviii. 4. Luke xv. 22. _Tavernier_, p. 43, mentions
      a _nazar_, whose virtue so pleased a king of Persia, that he caused
      himself to be disappareled, and gave his own habit to the _nazar_,
      which is _the greatest honour a king of Persia can bestow on a

      Such presents are given by kings on great occasions, especially at
      the marriages of their children. The Sultan Achmet, at the marriage
      of his eldest daughter, “gave presents to above 20,000 persons.”
      Knolles’s Hist. of the Turks, p. 1311. So Ahasuerus “gave gifts,
      _according to the state of the king_.” Esth. ii. 18.

      The king gives his garment of honour _before_ the wearer is admitted
      into his presence;—De la Mottraye’s Trav. p. 199; (Does this
      illustrate Zech. iii. 3, 4?)—and would resent it if any, having
      received robes of him, should appear in his presence without wearing
      these marks of his liberality. And to refuse such favours, when
      offered, is considered as one of the greatest indignities. Sir John
      Chardin relates an instance where such a refusal cost a vizier his
      life. See 4 CALM. DICT. pp. 64, 126, 514.

  239 Deut. xxv. 5.

  240 Ex. iii. 6.

  241 Here is a minute indication of St. Luke’s veracity, derived from his
      medical profession. No other Evangelist records this remark; but it
      would not be likely to escape the notice of a physician. See on Luke
      xxii. 44.

  242 Deut. vi. 4, 5.

  243 Lev. xix. 18.

  244 Ps. cx. 1.

  245 Gen. iv. 8. 2 Chron. xxiv. 20-22.

  246 Ps. lxix. 26. Jer. xii. 7, and xxii. 5.

  247 Ps. cxviii. 26.

  248 2 Sam. vii. 13. Ps. lxxxix. 30, 37; cx. 4.

  249 Is. liii. 1.

  250 Is. vi. 10.

  251 Is. vi. 1, seq.

  252 No imposter would have warned his followers, as Jesus did, of the
      persecutions they would have to submit to.

  253 Danl. ix. 27.

  254 Is. xiii. 9, 10.  Joel iii. 15.

  255 Gen. vii. 4, seq.

  256 Interrogatively and sarcastically. That is, Was such thy wicked
      opinion? Then “out of thine own mouth will I judge thee;” thou
      oughtest to have acted according to that opinion. Bp. SUMNER, _in

  257 In St. John, Judas alone murmurs; in St. Matthew, the disciples have
      indignation; or, as St. Mark expresses it, some have indignation
      among themselves. Dr. Lardner says, Serm. v. 2, p. 316, “It is well
      known to be very common with all writers, to use the plural number
      when one person only is intended. Nor is it impossible that others
      might have some uneasiness about it, though they were far from being
      so disgusted at it as Judas was. And their concern for the poor was
      sincere; his was self-interested, and mere pretence.” See also
      Grotius _in loc_. NEWCOME.

  258 It is nowhere asserted that the unction was of Jesus’s head _only_,
      or of his feet _only_. Both actions are consistent; and St. John, in
      his supplemental history, may very well have added the respectful
      conduct of Mary, that, after having anointed Jesus’s head, she
      proceeded to anoint his feet, and even to wipe them with her hair.

  259 The other Evangelists mention that indignation was caused by the
      supposed waste of the ointment: John fixes it upon Judas. That Judas
      went to the High Priest’s on the evening or night of our Wednesday,
      may be collected from Matth. xxvi. 14, 17, and the parallel places;
      and he seems to have acted partly from disgust at what had passed.
      The story has a remarkably apt connection with the preceding and
      subsequent history. The Jewish rulers consult how they may take
      Jesus by craft, and without raising a tumult among the people. An
      incident happens, which offends one of Jesus’s familiar attendants,
      who immediately repairs to the enemies of Jesus, and receives from
      them a bribe to betray him in the absence of the multitude. Newcome.

  260 Here is a very natural, yet incidental recognition of a rule,
      universally respected among the Jews, that this feast was to be
      celebrated not alone, but by companies of not less than ten persons.
      See JOSEPHUS, Bell. Jud. vi. ix. § 3. BLUNT, Veracity, &c. Sect. ii.

  261 Ps. xli. 10.

  262 Zech. xiii. 7.

  263 The other Evangelists simply say, Before the cock crow.—It is
      observed, that the cock crows about midnight: and about the fourth
      watch, or about three in the morning, when that watch began. When
      _gallicinium (cock-crowing)_ stands alone, it means this latter
      time, which is referred to, Aristoph. Eccles. 390, Juv. Sat. ix.
      107. The four Evangelists therefore denote the same time,—sc.
      galliciniis secundis, as Ammianus expresses it, 1. 22; and any part
      of the period thus marked out may be understood. See BOCHART de
      anim. pars, 2d. 119, and GROTIUS on Matth. xxvi. 34. NEWCOME.

  264 In the animated language of the prophets, their predictions are
      often announced under the form of commands. The prophet Isaiah, in
      the sublime prediction he has given us of the fate of the king of
      Babylon, thus foretells the destruction of his family:—_Prepare
      slaughter for his children_, &c. Isa. xiv. 21. The prophet Jeremiah
      in like manner foretells the approaching destruction of the children
      of Zion: _Call for the mourning women, that they may come: and send
      for cunning women; and let them make haste, and take up a wailing_,
      &c. Jer. ix. 17, 18. There, matter of sorrow is predicted, by
      commanding the common attendants on mourning and lamentation to be
      gotten in readiness; here, warning is given of the most imminent
      dangers, by orders to make the customary preparation against
      violence, and to account a weapon more necessary than a garment.
      CAMPBELL, _in loc_.

  265 Isa. liii. 12.

  266 This account of the institution of the Lord’s Supper is corroborated
      by that of Paul, in 1 Cor. xi. 23-25, which is usually inserted by
      Harmonists in this place as parallel testimony; but as the plan of
      this work leads me to deal with the four Gospels alone, the
      insertion of other parts of Scripture in the text, here and
      elsewhere, is omitted.

  267 The Evangelists have determined, by some general expressions, the
      order of the following events between the sitting down to the
      paschal supper, and the going to Gethsemane. Before the eating of
      the paschal lamb, Jesus rises from supper to wash the disciples’
      feet. John xiii. 1, 4. While they are eating, a declaration is made
      of Judas’s treachery, and the bread is instituted, Matt. xxvi. 21,
      26. See also Mark. After, the cup is instituted, Luke xxii. 20; 1
      Cor. xi. 25. But as to the particular and precise order of the facts
      and discourses during this period, Pilkington’s words relating to
      one of them are applicable to all. “It is observable that St. Luke
      mentions the institution of the communion before the declaration of
      Judas’s treachery; whereas the other Evangelists place these in a
      different order. But it is a liberty I think very allowable in any
      historian, to neglect taking notice of the exact order of all the
      facts, when he is only giving a general account of what was done at
      a certain time. And if so, whichsoever was the true successive
      order, there can be no just imputation upon any of the Evangelists
      for neglecting to observe it in the narration.” Harm. p. 52.

  268 The use of the word _testament_, (_diatheke_,) in a sense involving
      also the idea of a _covenant_, and in connexion with the
      circumstances of a compact, has greatly perplexed many English
      readers of the Bible. The difficulty occurs in Matt. 26, 28, and the
      parallel places, where our Lord employs the word _testament_, or
      last will, in connexion with the sacrificial shedding of his own
      blood; a ceremony which, by means of a suitable animal, usually was
      adopted among the ancients, upon the making of the most solemn
      engagements; and instead of which, the mutual partaking of the
      sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, by the contracting parties, was
      substituted among Christians in later times. The same embarrassment
      occurs, perhaps in a greater degree, in the exposition of several
      passages in the eighth and ninth chapters of the Epistle to the
      Hebrews, (manifestly written by a profound lawyer, be he Paul or
      Apollos), where he uses language applicable indifferently both to a
      covenant _inter vivos_ and a last will. For with us, a testament is
      simply a declaration of the last will of the testator, in regard to
      the disposition of his property after his decease, irrespective of
      any consent, or even knowledge, at the time, on the part of him to
      whom the estate is given; while a covenant requires the mutual
      consent of both parties, as essential to its existence. The one is
      simply the _ultima voluntas_ of an individual, the other is the
      _aggregatio mentium_ of both or all.

      The solution of this difficulty belongs rather to theologians, whose
      province it is by no means intended here to invade; but perhaps a
      reference to the laws and usages in force in Judea in the times of
      our Saviour and his Apostles may furnish some aid, which a lawyer
      might contribute without transgressing the limit of his profession.

      It is first to be observed that the municipal laws of Greece and
      Rome were strikingly similar; those of Greece having been freely
      imported into the Roman jurisprudence. In like manner, the
      similarity of the Grecian laws and usages with those extant in Asia
      Minor, indicated a common origin; and thus, what Greece derived from
      Egypt and the states of Asia Minor, these states, after many ages,
      received again as the laws of their Roman masters. It should also be
      remembered that Palestine had been reduced to a Roman province some
      years before the time of our Saviour; long enough, indeed, to have
      become familiar with Roman laws and usages, even had they been
      previously unknown; and that Paul, to whom the Epistle to the
      Hebrews is generally attributed, was himself a thorough-bred lawyer,
      well versed in the customs of his country, whether ancient or
      modern. Among those nations, the civil magistrate often exercised
      the functions of the priesthood, these dignities being in some
      respects identical; and thus, whatever was transacted before the
      magistrate, might naturally seem to partake of the character of an
      act of religion. Covenants were always made with particular
      formalities, and to those of graver nature, religious solemnities
      were often superadded. They were frequently confirmed by an oath,
      the most solemn form of which was taken standing before the altar;
      and whosoever swore by the altar, swore by the sacrifice thereon,
      and was held as firmly bound as though he had passed between the
      dismembered parts of the victim. Of the latter kind was the oath, by
      which God confirmed his covenant with Abraham (Gen. xv.) when the
      visible light of his presence passed between the pieces which the
      patriarch had divided and laid “each piece one against another.”

      With these things in view, we may now look at some of the modes of
      transferring property, practised by the nations alluded to.

      Among the methods of alienation or sale of property by the owner, in
      his lifetime, was that which in the Roman law was termed
      _mancipatio_; a mode by which the vendor conveyed property to the
      purchaser, each party being present, either in person or by his
      agent, representative, or factor. Five witnesses were requisite, one
      of whom was called _libripens_, or the balance-holder. This form had
      its origin in the sale of goods by weight, but was gradually
      extended to all sales; and the practice was for the buyer to strike
      the balance with a piece of money called a _sestertius_, which was
      immediately paid over to the vendor as part of the price; and hence
      the expression _per æs et libram vendere_.

      Wills or testaments were made with great solemnity. One method among
      the Romans, probably common, in its principal traits, to the other
      nations before mentioned, was termed the testament _per æs et
      libram_, it being effected in the form of a sale. This mode seems to
      have been resorted to whenever the estate was given to a stranger,
      (_hæres extraneus_,) to the exclusion of the _hæres suus_, or
      _necessarius_, or, as we should say, the heir at law; and it was
      founded on the purchase of the estate by the adopted heir, who
      succeeded to the privileges of the child. The forms of a sale by
      _mancipatio_ were therefore scrupulously observed; the presence and
      agreement of the purchaser, either in person or by his
      representative or negotiator, being necessary to its validity. The
      reason for requiring this form was because it _involved a covenant_
      on the part of the adopted heir or legatee, by which he became bound
      to pay all the debts of the testator. Having entered into this
      covenant, he had the best possible title in law to the inheritance,
      namely, that of a purchaser for a valuable consideration. Among the
      Greeks, and probably among the Romans also, this was transacted in
      the presence of a magistrate, who sanctioned it by his sentence of
      approval. This was the most ancient form of a will; and it does not
      seem to have been abrogated until the time of Constantine.

      Now, when our Saviour speaks of the _new testament in his blood_, or
      of his _blood of the new testament_, and when Paul uses similar
      forms of expression may not the figure have reference to the custom
      above stated? And if so, may not this custom guide us to the true
      meaning of the words? Does it intimate to us that the promised
      inheritance was first given to man, as it were by a testament in
      this ancient form, upon a covenant of _his own perfect obedience_ to
      every part of the law of God; that having broken this covenant, his
      title became forfeited; that the inheritance was afterwards
      promised, in the same manner, to every one, Jew or Gentile, upon a
      new covenant and condition, namely of a true _faith_ in Christ; a
      faith evinced in the fruits of a holy life; that this inheritance by
      a new testament and covenant was negociated, as it were, and
      obtained for man by the mediation of Jesus Christ, (“the mediator of
      the new testament,” Heb. 9. 15,) as the representative of all who
      should accept it by such faith, and their surety for the performance
      of its conditions; that it was purchased by _his_ obedience and
      solemnized by the sacrifice of himself as the victim?

      This solution is suggested with much diffidence. That it carries
      these passages clear of all difficulty is not pretended. The very
      nature of the subject renders it difficult of illustration by any
      reference to human affairs; and the embarrassment is proportionally
      increased, whenever the simile is pressed beyond its principal point
      of resemblance.

      See Ayliffe’s Pandect, pp. 349, 393, 367-369. Book iii. tit. xii.
      xv. Leges Atticæ, De Testamentis, &c. tit. vi. S. Petit. Comm. in
      Leges Attic. p. 479-481. Justin, Inst. lib. 2. tit. 10, § 1. Ibid.
      tit. 19, § 5, 6. Cooper’s Justinian, p. 487. Cod. lib. 6. tit. 23,
      1. 15. Fuss’s Roman Antiq. ch. 1, § 87, 97, 103, 107, 183.
      Michaelis, LL. Moses, vol. 4, art. 302. Bp. Patrick, quoted in
      Bush’s Illustrations, p. 254.

  269 Ps. lxix. 5.

  270 Ps. xli. 9, and cix. 8, 17.

  271 The strangeness of such a profusion of blood has been urged, first,
      against the probability, and then against the truth, of the
      narrative. But learned men have related instances of mental agony so
      great as to force the blood through the pores; and if this has ever
      occurred, it may well be believed to have occurred in the present
      case. See _Bloomfield_ and _A. Clarke_, in loc. It should be
      observed, however, that Luke does not directly affirm that it was
      blood. He only _compares_ the sweat to that of blood, using a term
      of similitude, (_quasi_ grumi sanguinis—_Beza_; _tanquam_
      demissiones sanguinis—_Tremellius_; sicut guttæ sanguinis—_Vulg_.
      and _Molinaus_;) which may signify no more than that the drops of
      sweat were as large as drops of blood, which, from its viscidity,
      are very large.

  272 No other Evangelist mentions the cause of their slumber, except
      Luke, who ascribes it to their sorrow. It is observable, that Luke
      was a physician, (Col. iv. 14,) and therefore well knew that deep
      mental distress frequently induced sleep. To this cause may perhaps
      be referred the fact, that persons condemned to die are often waked
      from sound sleep by the executioner. The internal evidence here
      afforded of the truth of Luke’s narrative, is corroborated by his
      notice of the bloody sweat, ver. 44, and of the miraculous healing
      of the ear of Malchus, ver. 51; facts which are not re