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Title: Account of a Voyage of Discovery - to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo-Choo Island
Author: Hall, Basil, 1788-1844
Language: English
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[Illustration: SULPHUR ISLAND.

_Published Jany. 1. 1818. by John Murray, Albemarle Street, London._]



ACCOUNT

OF

A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY

TO THE

WEST COAST OF COREA,

AND

THE GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND;

WITH

AN APPENDIX,

CONTAINING

CHARTS, AND VARIOUS HYDROGRAPHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTICES.


BY CAPTAIN BASIL HALL,

ROYAL NAVY, F.R.S. LOND. & EDIN.
MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF CALCUTTA, OF THE LITERARY SOCIETY OF
BOMBAY, AND OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES AT BATAVIA.


AND

A VOCABULARY OF THE LOO-CHOO LANGUAGE,

BY H.J. CLIFFORD, ESQ.

LIEUTENANT ROYAL NAVY.


LONDON
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE-STREET.
1818.



TO
CAPTAIN MURRAY MAXWELL,
Knight Companion to the Bath,
TO WHOSE
ABILITY IN CONDUCTING THIS VOYAGE,
ZEAL IN GIVING ENCOURAGEMENT TO EVERY INQUIRY,
SAGACITY IN DISCOVERING THE DISPOSITION OF THE NATIVES,
AND ADDRESS IN GAINING THEIR CONFIDENCE AND GOOD WILL,
IS TO BE ATTRIBUTED
WHATEVER MAY BE FOUND INTERESTING OR USEFUL
IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES,
THIS WORK
IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,
BY
THE AUTHORS.



PREFACE.


The following work contains a Narrative of the Voyage to the West Coast
of Corea, and the Great Loo-choo Island; an Appendix, containing
Nautical details; and a Vocabulary of the Language spoken at Loo-choo.

In drawing up the Narrative from journals written at the time, I have
derived great assistance from notes made by Lieutenant H.J. Clifford, of
the Navy. This officer obtained permission from the Admiralty to
accompany me, though on half pay, and having no specific duty to
perform, he was enabled to devote himself entirely to the acquisition of
knowledge; and had it in his power to record many interesting
occurrences of the voyage, which the numerous duties of my station left
me but little leisure to observe or describe.

All the Charts, Tables, and Nautical Notices have been placed in an
Appendix, in order to avoid the interruption which such details are apt
to occasion when inserted in a journal; and the Nautical reader will
perhaps consider it advantageous, to have this part of the subject set
apart, and condensed, instead of being scattered over the pages of the
narrative.

I am indebted to Mr. Clifford for very important assistance in
collecting and arranging the materials which form this Appendix.

The northern part of the Chart of the Yellow Sea, given in the Appendix,
was taken from a Chart by Captain Daniel Ross, of the Bombay marine, the
scientific and able surveyor commanding the squadron which the
Honourable East India Company, in the spirit of a liberal and enlarged
policy, have employed for upwards of nine years, in surveying the China
Seas.

The Vocabulary is exclusively compiled by Mr. Clifford, who took the
greatest pains to collect words and sentences in common use; and though,
from the shortness of our stay, this part of the work is necessarily
incomplete, it is hoped that a future voyager will derive considerable
assistance from it, in his intercourse with the natives.

The drawings of scenery and costume were made by Mr. William Havell, the
eminent artist who accompanied the Embassy, from sketches taken on the
spot, by Mr. C.W. Browne, midshipman of the Alceste, and myself.

Nothing respecting the west side of Corea has hitherto been accurately
known to Europeans. The coast laid down in most Charts has been taken
from the celebrated map of the Jesuits, which is very correct in what
relates to China, but erroneous with respect to Corea. The Jesuits,
indeed, did not survey this country, but have inserted it in their map,
I believe, from Japanese authorities.

Captain Broughton in his voyage to the North Pacific Ocean visited the
South Coast of Corea, and his account of the inhabitants agrees with
ours in most particulars.

The same distinguished voyager visited the Great Loo-choo Island in
1797, after having been shipwrecked near Typinsan, one of its dependant
islands. He was at Napakiang for a few days, and his account of the
natives is highly interesting.

There is an article by Pere Gaubil, a missionary, on the subject of the
Loo-choo Islands, in the 23d vol. of the "Lettres Edifiantes et
Curieuses." It is a translation from the official report of a Chinese
embassador sent to Loo-choo by the Emperor Kang Hi; our opportunities,
however, were not sufficient to enable us to judge of the accuracy of
this curious memoir.



CONTENTS


   NARRATIVE.

   CHAPTER I.

   H.M.S. Alceste and Lyra leave the Yellow Sea on a Voyage of
   Discovery--Sir James Hall's Group on the Coast of Corea--Unsociable
   Character of the Natives--Hutton's Island--Interesting geological
   Structure--Anchor near the Main Land--Corean Chief's Visit--Objections
   made to Strangers landing--Distress of the Chief--His
   Character--Departure from Basil's Bay--Clusters of Islands--Murray's
   Sound--Deserted Corean Village--View from the Summit of a high
   Peak--Interview with the Coreans--Peculiarities of their
   Character--Language--Erroneous geographical Position of this
   Coast--Leave Corea                                               Page 1


   CHAPTER II.

   Enter the Japan Sea--Sulphur Island--Volcano--See the Great Loo-choo
   Island--Lyra nearly wrecked--First Interview with the Natives--Anchor
   at Napakiang--Natives crowd on Board--Their interesting Appearance
   and Manners--Several Chiefs visit the Alceste--Land to make
   Observations--Astonishment of the Natives--Six Chiefs visit the
   Ships--Alceste and Lyra proceed farther in Shore--A Chief of high Rank
   waits upon Captain Maxwell--Return his Visit--Feast--Projected Survey
   of the Anchorage--Visit Reef Island--The Lyra sent to look for another
   Harbour--Arrangements for landing the Alceste's Stores--Description of
   the Temple and Garden--First Acquaintance with Mádera--Study of the
   Language                                                             58


   CHAPTER III.

   The Lyra sent to survey the Island of Loo-choo--Discovery of Port
   Melville--Description of that Harbour, and the Villages on its
   Banks--Lyra nearly wrecked--Interview with Natives at the South
   Point--Return to Napakiang--Behaviour of the Natives at a Seaman's
   Funeral--Mádera's Character and Conduct--Sociable Habits of the
   Natives--Dinner given to the Chiefs of the Island by Captain
   Maxwell--Mádera's Behaviour on this Occasion--Two Women seen--A Lady
   of Rank visits the Boatswain's Wife--Captain Maxwell fractures his
   Finger--Loo-choo Surgeon--Concern of the Natives--Visit of the
   Prince--Discussion about the King of Loo-choo's Letter--Mádera appears
   in a new Character--Feast given by the Prince--List of Supplies given
   to the Ships--Behaviour of the Prince on taking Leave--Preparations
   for Departure--Mádera's Distress--Last Interview with the
   Chiefs--Brief Memorandums upon the Religion, Manners, and Customs of
   Loo-choo--Advice to a Stranger visiting this Island                 135


   APPENDIX.

   Notice explanatory of a Chart of the Gulf of Pe-chee-lee              v

   Notice to accompany the Chart of the West Coast of Corea              x

   Notice to accompany the general Chart of the Great Loo-choo Island
   in the Japan Sea, and the Charts of Napakiang Roads and Port
   Melville                                                           xvii

   Observations made at the Observatory at Napakiang                  xxix

   Table of Observations made with Dr. Wollaston's Dip Sector: with
   an Engraving, and a Description of this Instrument, and
   Directions for its Use                                             xxxi

   Meteorological Journal, from July to November 1816, while the
   Ships were in the Yellow and Japan Seas                              li

   Abstract of the Lyra's Voyage, from leaving England till her
   Return; shewing the Distance between the different Places at
   which she touched, and the Time taken in performing each Passage    cix

   Geological Memorandum; being a Description of the Specimens of
   Rocks collected at Macao and the Ladrone Islands, on the Shores
   of the Yellow Sea, the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo-choo
   Island                                                             cxix


   VOCABULARY.

   PART I.--English and Loo-choo words.

   PART II.--Sentences in English and Loo-choo, with a literal Translation.

   Loo-choo and Japanese Numerals--Names of Persons at Napakiang--Names of
   Places--Days of the Moon--Orders of Rank--Tattoo Marks--Hours of the
   Day.

   Comparison between the Japanese and Loo-choo Languages.

   Comparison between the Loo-choo and Insu Languages.

   Comparison between the Loo-choo, Japanese, and Insu Languages.

   Corean Words.



   DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE PLATES.


   Sulphur Island, to face the Title Page.
   Corean Chief and Secretary                 To face Page 16
   Napakiang                                               77
   Loo-choo Chief and his two Sons                         97
   Priest and Gentleman of Loo-choo                       132
   The Prince of Loo-choo                                 176
   Scene after the Prince's Feast                         196
   Gentleman of Loo-choo in his Cloak                     215
   Bridge of Napakiang                                    222


   APPENDIX.

   Chart of the Gulf of Pe-chee-lee                         v
   Coast of Corea                                           x
   Chart of the Great Loo-choo Island                     xix
   Napakiang Roads                                        xxi
   Port Melville                                         xxiv
   Wollaston's Dip Sector                              xxxiii

           *       *       *       *       *


[Transcriber's note: The following errors have been corrected in the text.]

ERRATA.

Page 1, line 2 from bottom, for _11th August_, read _9th August_.

Page 60, top line, for _was_, read _saw_.


APPENDIX.

Meteorological Journal.--Longitude on the 1st Sept. for 124.20,
read 124.48.

The longitudes in the Met. Journ. from the 3d to the 7th of Sept. inclusive
are too small by 15'.


VOCABULARY.

  For _Tatesee_, read _Tatsee_.
  For _Teetesee_, read _Teetsee_.
  For _Meetesee_, read _Meetsee_.
  For _Eeotesee_, read _Eeotsee_.
  For _Eeyatesee_, read _Eeyatsee_.
  For _opposite_, read _under_, in the note on the word Hour.


[Transcriber's Note: a letter with a macron above it is denoted by [=x].]


VOYAGE TO THE WEST COAST OF COREA AND THE LOO-CHOO ISLANDS.

       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER I.

    H.M.S. Alceste and Lyra leave the Yellow Sea on a Voyage of
    Discovery--Sir James Hall's Group on the Coast of Corea--Unsociable
    Character of the Natives--Hutton's Island--Interesting geological
    Structure--Anchor near the Main Land--Corean Chiefs
    Visit--Objections made to Strangers landing--Distress of the
    Chief--His Character--Departure from Basil's Bay--Clusters of
    Islands--Murray's Sound--Deserted Corean Village--View from the
    Summit of a high Peak--Interview with the Coreans--Peculiarities of
    their Character--Language--Erroneous geographical Position of this
    Coast--Leave Corea.


The embassy to China, under the Right Honourable Lord Amherst, left
England in his Majesty's frigate Alceste, Captain Murray Maxwell, C.B.,
on the 9th of February, 1816, and landed near the mouth of the Pei-ho
river, in the Yellow Sea, on the 9th of August. Shortly afterwards the
Alceste and Lyra sloop of war, which had accompanied the embassy,
proceeded to the coast of Corea, the eastern boundary of the Yellow Sea;
for as these ships were not required in China before the return of the
Embassador by land to Canton, it was determined to devote the interval
to an examination of some places in those seas, of which little or no
precise information then existed. The following pages give the details
of this voyage.

1st of September.--This morning at daylight the land of Corea was seen
in the eastern quarter. Having stood towards it, we were at nine o'clock
near three high islands, differing in appearance from the country we had
left, being wooded to the top, and cultivated in the lower parts, but
not in horizontal terraces as at the places we had last visited in
China. We proceeded to the southward of the group, and anchored in a
fine bay at the distance of two or three miles from the southern island.
Shortly after anchoring, a boat came from the shore with five or six
natives, who stopped, when within fifty yards of the brig, and looking
at us with an air of curiosity and distrust, paid no attention to the
signs which were made to induce them to come alongside. They expressed
no alarm when we went to them in our boat; and on our rowing towards the
shore, followed us till we landed near a village. The inhabitants came
in a body to meet us, forming an odd assemblage, different in many
respects from any thing we had seen; their colour was a deep copper, and
their appearance forbidding, and somewhat savage. Some men, who appeared
to be superior to the rest, were distinguished by a hat, the brim of
which was nearly three feet in diameter, and the crown, which was about
nine inches high, and scarcely large enough to admit the top of the
head, was shaped like a sugar-loaf with the end cut off. The texture of
this strange hat is of a fine open work like the dragon-fly's wing; it
appears to be made of horse-hair varnished over, and is fastened under
the chin by a band strung with large beads, mostly black and white, but
occasionally red or yellow. Some of the elderly men wore stiff gauze
caps over their hair, which was formed into a high conical knot on the
top of the head. Their dress consisted of loose wide trowsers, and a
sort of frock reaching nearly to the knee, made of a coarse open grass
cloth, and on their feet neat straw sandals. They were of the middle
size, remarkably well made, and robust looking. At first they expressed
some surprise on examining our clothes, but afterwards took very little
interest in any thing belonging to us. Their chief anxiety was to get
rid of us as soon as possible. This they expressed in a manner too
obvious to be mistaken; for, on our wishing to enter the village, they
first made motions for us to go the other way; and when we persevered,
they took us rudely by the arms and pushed us off. Being very desirous
to conciliate them, we shewed no impatience at this treatment; but our
forbearance had no effect; and after a number of vain attempts to make
ourselves understood, we went away not much pleased at their behaviour.
A Chinese[1], who accompanied us, was of no use, for he could not read
what the Coreans wrote for him, though in the Chinese character; and of
their spoken language he did not understand a word.

On leaving these unsociable villagers, we went to the top of the highest
peak on the island, the ascent being easy by a winding foot-path. From
this elevation we saw a number of islands to the eastward, and the main
land at a great distance beyond them. The top of the hill being covered
with soft grass and sweet-smelling shrubs, and the air, which had been
of a suffocating heat below, being here cool and refreshing, we were
tempted to sit down to our pic-nic dinner. We returned by the other side
of the hill; but there being no path, and the surface rocky and steep,
and covered with a thick brushwood, we were not a little scratched and
bruised before we reached a road which runs along the north face of the
hill about midway. By following this, we came to a spot from whence we
were enabled to look down upon the village, without being ourselves
perceived by the natives. The women, who had deserted the village on
our landing, had now returned; most of them were beating rice in wooden
mortars, and they had all children tied on their backs. On a sudden they
quitted their work and ran off to their huts, like rabbits in a warren;
and in a few minutes we saw one of the ship's boats row round the point
of land adjacent to the village, which explained the cause of their
alarm. After remaining for some time in expectation of seeing the women
again, we came down to the village, which the natives now permitted us
to pass through. On this occasion one of the gentlemen of our party saw,
for an instant, a woman at no great distance, whose feet he declared
were of the natural size, and not cramped as in China. The village
consists of forty houses rudely constructed of reeds plaistered with
mud, the roofs are of all shapes, and badly thatched with reeds and
straw, tied down by straw ropes. These huts are not disposed in streets,
but are scattered about without order, and without any neatness, or
cleanliness, and the spaces between them are occupied by piles of dirt
and pools of muddy water. The valley in which this comfortless village
is situated is, however, pretty enough, though not wooded; the hills
forming it are of an irregular shape, and covered at top with grass and
sweet-scented flowers; the lower parts are cultivated with millet,
buckwheat, a kind of French bean, and tobacco, which last grows in great
quantity; and here and there is a young oak-tree.

We saw bullocks and poultry, but the natives would not exchange them
for our money, or for any thing we had to offer. They refused dollars
when offered as a present, and, indeed, appeared to set no value upon
any thing we shewed them, except wine glasses; but even these they were
unwilling to receive. One of the head men appeared particularly pleased
with a glass, which, after a good deal of persuasion, he accepted, but,
in about five minutes after, he, and another man to whom a tumbler had
been given, came back and insisted upon returning the presents; and
then, without waiting for further persuasion, returned to the village,
leaving with us only one man, who, as soon as all the rest were out of
sight, accepted one of the glasses with much eagerness.

These people have a proud sort of carriage, with an air of composure and
indifference about them, and an absence of curiosity which struck us as
being very remarkable. Sometimes when we succeeded, by dint of signs and
drawings, in expressing the nature of a question, they treated it with
derision and insolence. On one occasion, being anxious to buy a clumsy
sort of rake made of reeds, which appeared to me curious, I succeeded in
explaining my wish to the owner, one of the lowest class of villagers;
he laughed at first good humouredly, but immediately afterwards seized
the rake which was in my hand, and gave it a rude push towards me with a
disdainful fling of the arm, accompanying this gesticulation by words,
which seemed to imply a desire to give any thing upon condition of our
going away. One man expressed the general wish for our departure, by
holding up a piece of paper like a sail, and then blowing upon it in the
direction of the wind, at the same time pointing to the ships, thereby
denoting that the wind was fair, and that we had only to set sail and
leave the island. Several of the people were marked with the small-pox.
The children kept out of our reach at first, but before we went away,
their fears had, in some degree, subsided, for the boys, who, from their
feminine appearance, were mistaken at first for girls, accompanied us to
some distance from the village.

Captain Maxwell named these islands Sir James Hall's group, in
compliment to the President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. They lie
in longitude 124º 46' E. and latitude 37º 50' N.

At eight o'clock in the evening we weighed and stood to the southward,
but as the coast was quite unknown, we kept rather off shore during the
night, and in the morning no land was in sight. On the 2d we stood to
the eastward, but not having daylight enough to get in with the coast,
it became necessary to anchor for the night, though in deep water.

3d of September.--Having reached nearly lat. 36-1/3 N. and long. 126 E.
we sailed this morning amongst a range of islands extending as far as
the eye could reach, both to the southward and northward, at the
distance of six or seven leagues from the main land. By two o'clock we
were close to the outer cluster of the islands, and the passages
appearing clear between them, we sailed through and anchored inside.
While passing one of these islands in the ships, at no great distance,
it looked so curiously formed, that, on anchoring, we went in the boats
to examine its structure more minutely[2]. While we were thus engaged,
the natives had assembled in a crowd on the edge of the cliff above us;
they did not seem pleased with our occupation of breaking their rocks,
for, from the moment we landed, they never ceased to indicate by shouts,
screams, and all kinds of gesticulations, that the sooner we quitted the
island the better; the cliff being 200 feet high, and nearly
perpendicular, it was fortunate for us that they confined themselves to
signs and clamour, and did not think of enforcing their wishes by a
shower of stones.

As soon as we had completed our investigation of this spot, we went
round in the boats to a small bay where there was good landing. Here we
were met by the natives, who addressed several long speeches to us in a
very loud tone of voice; to which we replied in English, that our wish
was merely to look at the island, without interfering with any body; at
the same time we proceeded up a foot-path to the brow of a hill. This
the natives did not seem at all to relish, and they made use of a sign
which was sufficiently expressive of their anxiety, though we could not
determine exactly to whom it referred. They drew their fans across their
own throats, and sometimes across ours, as if to signify that our going
on would lead to heads being cut off; but whether they or we were to be
the sufferers was not apparent. It was suggested by one of our party
that they dreaded being called to account by their own chiefs for
permitting us to land. All these signs, however, did not prevent our
advancing till we had reached the brow of the hill to which the path
led; from this place we had a view of a village at the distance of half
a mile, of a much better appearance than that above described. Trees
were interspersed among the houses, which were pleasantly situated at
the bottom of a little cove, with fishing-boats at anchor near it. We
explained readily enough that our wish was to go to the village, but it
was all in vain, for their anxiety increased every moment, and we
desisted from any further attempts to advance.

The dress of these people is a loose white robe, cloth shoes, and a few
wear the broad hats before described; by most the hair is tied in a high
conical knot on the top of the head, but by others it is allowed to fly
loose, so as to give them a wild appearance. Some confine the short hair
by a small gauze band with a star on one side, forming, along with the
top knot, rather a becoming head-dress. Their beards and whiskers which,
apparently, had never been cut, and their fans and long tobacco-pipes,
and their strange language and manners, gave a grotesque air to the
whole group, which it is impossible to describe. They crowded about us,
and, by repeated shouts, manifested their surprise at the form and
texture of our clothes; but on a watch being shewn, they disregarded
every thing else, and entreated to be allowed to examine it closely. It
was evidently the first they had seen, and some of them while watching
the second-hand, looked as if they thought it alive. From the watch they
proceeded to examine the seals and keys; with the former they shewed
themselves acquainted by pressing them on their hands, so as to cause an
impression. Their attention was drawn away from the watch by our firing
a musket, which made the whole party fall back several paces.

After amusing ourselves in this manner for some time, we walked back to
the boats, to the great joy of the natives, who encouraged us by all
means to hasten our departure. They took our hands and helped us over
the slippery stones on the beach; and, on perceiving one of the boats
aground, several of them stript and jumped into the water to push her
off. This gave us an opportunity of observing their remarkable symmetry
and firmness of limb; yet, as their long hair was allowed to flow about
their neck and shoulders, their appearance was truly savage. During this
visit we saw no women; but the children came round us without shewing
any symptoms of fear. The people, upon the whole, are more free, and not
so surly as our acquaintance on Sir James Hall's group. They have a
singular custom of speaking with a loud tone, amounting almost to a
shout. Captain Maxwell named this island after Dr. Hutton the geologist.

4th of September.--During all last night it remained perfectly calm. At
nine o'clock in the morning we got under weigh with a fine sea breeze,
and stood in for the land, leaving on either hand many well cultivated
islands. The main land seems to be populous, from the number of large
villages which we passed, and the cultivation which extends a
considerable way up the mountains. Our object this morning was to
discover some safe anchoring place in the main land, but we were obliged
to coast along for a considerable distance before any opening appeared.
About three o'clock we sailed round a point of land and discovered a
bay, which, at first sight, promised shelter, but the water proved too
shallow even for the Lyra, and we anchored far out in five fathoms. The
natives who had assembled in crowds on the point shouted to us as we
passed, in seeming anger at our approaching so near. This bay is about
four miles in diameter, and is skirted by large villages built amongst
trees, and surrounded by cultivated districts, forming altogether a
scene of considerable beauty.

As soon as the Alceste had anchored, Captain Maxwell, Mr. Clifford, and
I, went towards the nearest village in the bay. On approaching the shore
we observed a great bustle among the inhabitants on the shore, as well
as in the boats at anchor off the village. The people on the beach
hastily jumped into canoes, whilst those in the large boats weighed the
anchors, and pulled out with such expedition, as to meet us in a body
before we were near the landing-place. Every boat was crowded with
people, and ornamented with numerous flags and streamers; but one of
them being distinguished by a large blue umbrella, we steered towards
it, on the supposition that this was an emblem of rank; in which opinion
we were soon confirmed by the sound of music, which played only on board
this boat. On coming closer, we saw a fine patriarchal figure seated
under the umbrella; his full white beard covered his breast, and reached
below his middle; his robe or mantle, which was of blue silk, and of an
immense size, flowed about him in a magnificent style. His sword was
suspended from his waist by a small belt, but the insignia of his office
appeared to be a slender black rod tipped with silver, about a foot and
a half long, with a small leather thong at one end, and a piece of black
crape tied to the other: this he held in his hand. His hat exceeded in
breadth of brim any thing we had yet met with, being, as we supposed,
nearly three feet across.

As this was evidently the chief of the party, we pulled alongside and
got into his boat, where he received us with much politeness; but as he
looked dissatisfied at this proceeding, we returned to our own boat, and
there carried on the conference. While we were endeavouring to make
ourselves understood, the other boats gradually separated, and began to
form a circle round us. Apprehending treachery, we prepared our arms,
and pushed off to a little distance. The old gentleman, perceiving this,
looked about very innocently to discover the cause of our alarm; and at
length being made aware by our signs of what was the matter, he
commanded all the boats to go to the other side. We now remained a
considerable time without being able to make ourselves understood; for
the Chinese whom we had with us was quite ignorant of their language. We
endeavoured, by pointing to the shore, to signify our desire to land,
while the old Chief, by similar signs, expressed his wish to go to the
ships. We accordingly rowed to the Lyra, which lay nearer to the shore
than the Alceste. When the Chief's boat was within ten yards of the
brig, they let go their anchor, and threw a rope on board her, by which
they drew the boat alongside in a very seaman-like style. The old man
did not find it an easy matter to get up the ship's side, encumbered as
he was with his splendid robes; he was no sooner on board, however, than
we were crowded with the natives, who boarded us on all sides. Some
climbed up the rigging, so as to overlook the quarter-deck; others got
on the poop, and a line was formed along the hammock netting from one
end of the brig to the other. As the evening was fine, it was thought
best to entertain the venerable Chief upon deck, rather than give him
the trouble of going down to the cabin, which, indeed, we had reason to
fear would prove too small for the party. Chairs were accordingly placed
upon the deck; but the Chief made signs that he could not sit on a
chair, nor would he consent for a time to use his mat, which was brought
on board by one of his attendants. He seemed embarrassed and displeased,
which we could not at the moment account for, though it has since
occurred to us that he objected to the publicity of the conference. At
length, however, he sat down on his mat, and began talking with great
gravity and composure, without appearing in the smallest degree sensible
that we did not understand a single word that he said. We of course
could not think of interrupting him, and allowed him to talk on at his
leisure; but when his discourse was concluded, he paused for our reply,
which we made with equal gravity in English; upon this he betrayed great
impatience at his harangue having been lost upon us, and supposing that
we could, at all events, read, he called to his secretary, and began to
dictate a letter. The secretary sat down before him with all due
formality, and having rubbed his cake of ink upon a stone, drawn forth
his pen, and arranged a long roll of paper upon his knee, began the
writing, which was at length completed, partly from the directions of
the Chief, and partly from his own ideas, as well as the occasional
suggestions of the bystanders. The written part was then torn off from
the scroll and handed to the Chief, who delivered it to me with the
utmost confidence of its being understood: but his mortification and
disappointment were extreme on perceiving that he had overrated our
acquirements[3].

[Illustration: _Drawn by Wm. Havell, Calcutta._   _Engraved by
Robt Havell & Son._

COREAN CHIEF and his SECRETARY.

_Published Jany, 1, 1818, by John Murray, Albemarle Street, London._]

A debate now appeared to take place between the Chief and his followers,
as to the mode of communicating with us; meanwhile, as we ourselves were
equally at a loss, we became anxious to relieve the old man's
embarrassment, by shewing him all the attention in our power, and
completely succeeded in putting him into a good humour, by giving him
some cherry brandy, and distributing rum to his people.

While these attempts at explanation were going on, the crowd of natives
increased, and their curiosity became so great, that they pressed round
us in a way nowise agreeable. Some of them roved about the ship, and
appeared highly entertained with every thing they saw. The Chief
himself, however, did not appear at ease, but continued giving
directions to his officers and people about him with an air of
impatience. He more than once ordered them all into their boats, but
they always returned after a few minutes. One man persevered in climbing
over the hammocks, close to the Chief, to see what was going on. The
noise made to keep him back attracted the Chief's attention, who
immediately gave orders to one of the attendants for his being taken
away; it will be seen by and by what was his fate.

The persons forming the suite of the Chief were dressed nearly in the
same manner as himself, excepting that their robes were white, and did
not contain such a profusion of cloth. They wore the large hats and wide
trowsers tied above the ancle, with cotton shoes turned up a little at
the toe. The immediate attendants, who seemed also to be soldiers, were
differently clothed: over a loose pink frock with wide sleeves, they
have another which fits closer, and is without sleeves, the corners
being tucked up, like the skirts of some military uniforms. Their hat is
a broad flat cone made of thick grass, the under part being embossed
with different coloured silks, and from a gilt ornament on the peak
there hangs a tassel made of peacock's feathers, and another of hair
dyed red: some are armed with bows and arrows, others with only a
straight sword, having no guard for the hand. A coarse frock without
sleeves, and trowsers, or rather drawers, covering the thigh, are worn
by the lower orders.

It was nearly dark when the Chief gave directions for preparing the
boats, at the same time calling to two of his attendants to assist him
to get on his legs. Each took an arm, and in this way succeeded in
raising him up, which was no sooner observed by the people, than they
jumped into their boats with the utmost alacrity, and the Chief, after
many bows and salams, walked into his boat. This did not give him so
much trouble as he had experienced on coming on board, for a platform of
gratings and planks had been prepared for his accommodation during his
visit, an attention with which he seemed much pleased. So far all seemed
well; but there was still something amiss, for the old man, seated in
state under his umbrella, remained alongside with his attendants ranged
on the deck about him, he and his people preserving the most perfect
silence, and making no signs to explain his wishes. We were greatly
puzzled to discover what the old gentleman wanted, till at length it was
suggested, that having paid us a visit, he expected a similar compliment
in return. This idea was no sooner started, than we proceeded to pay our
respects to him in his boat. He made signs for us to sit down, honouring
us at the same with a corner of his own mat. When we were seated, he
looked about as if in distress at having nothing to entertain us with,
upon which a bottle of wine was sent for and given to him. He ordered an
attendant to pour it into several bowls, and putting the bottle away,
made signs for us to drink, but would not taste it himself till all of
us had been served. He was nowise discomposed at being obliged to
entertain his company at their own expense; on the contrary, he carried
off the whole affair with so much cheerfulness and ease, as to make us
suspect sometimes that he saw and enjoyed the oddity of the scene and
circumstances, as fully as we did ourselves.

After sitting about ten minutes, we left the Chief in great good humour,
and returned on board, thinking, of course, that he would go straight to
the shore; but in this we were much mistaken, for we had no sooner left
him, than he pushed off to the distance of ten or twelve yards, and
calling the other boats round him, gave orders for inflicting the
discipline of the bamboo upon the unfortunate culprit, who had been
ordered into confinement during the conference. This exhibition, which
it was evidently intended we should witness, had a very ludicrous
effect, for it followed so much in train with the rest of the ceremony,
and was carried on with so much gravity and order, that it looked like
an essential part of the etiquette. During the infliction of this
punishment, a profound silence was observed by all the party, except by
five or six persons immediately about the delinquent, whose cries they
accompanied by a sort of song or yell at each blow of the bamboo. This
speedy execution of justice was, no doubt, intended to impress us with
high notions of Corean discipline.

As it was now quite dark, we did not expect the Chief to pay any more
visits this evening; but we underrated his politeness, for the moment
the above scene was concluded, he steered for the Alceste. Captain
Maxwell, who during all the time had been on board the Lyra, hurried
into his boat to be prepared to give him a proper reception in his ship,
and had just time to change his jacket for a coat and epaulettes before
the Chief arrived. After climbing up the ship's side with some
difficulty, and being received in due form on the quarter-deck, which
was lighted up, he was handed into the foremost cabin, where he was met
by Captain Maxwell, and conducted to a seat in the after cabin. As he
declined sitting on a chair, he was obliged to wait for his mat, and, in
the meantime, looked round him in amaze at the magnificence of the
apartments. The change of dress made him behave towards Captain Maxwell
as to a perfect stranger; but the moment he recognised him, he appeared
much amused with his mistake, and his manners became less reserved. He
now turned about to see what was become of his mat, and was astonished
to find himself alone with us in the cabin. It was then discovered that
the sentry at the door, in repressing the crowd of his followers, had
found it impossible to distinguish his more immediate attendants, and
had therefore allowed nobody to pass.

The door being opened, the mat-bearer and four of the principal people
were called in by the Chief; and when we were all fairly seated on the
deck, the secretary was directed to prepare a writing, which was
dictated and delivered much in the same manner as before. Whether the
presentation of a written paper was considered by the Chief as a
necessary piece of etiquette, or whether he really had more hopes of
being understood on this occasion than before, was quite uncertain; but
the mode adopted by Captain Maxwell to undeceive him was conclusive. He
immediately called for paper, and wrote upon it in English, "I do not
understand one word that you say," and presented this paper in return,
with all the forms and ceremonies that had been adopted towards himself.
The Chief, on receiving it, examined the characters with great
attention, and then made signs that it was wholly unintelligible,
alternately looking at the paper and at Captain Maxwell with an
inquiring air, and was only made sensible of the awkward dilemma in
which we were placed, by observing Captain Maxwell repeat all his looks
and gestures as equally applicable to the Corean writing which he held
in his hand[4].

The Chief had now recourse to signs, which he used ever afterwards. He
was in great spirits, and seemed entertained with the efforts which were
made to please him. He asked to look at a mirror which had caught his
attention; when it was put into his hands, he seemed very well satisfied
with the figure which it presented, and continued for some time pulling
his beard from side to side with an air of perfect complacency. One of
the attendants thought there could be no harm in looking at the mirror
likewise, but the Chief was of a different opinion, and no sooner
observed what he was doing, than he very angrily made him put down the
glass and leave the cabin. The secretary too fell under his displeasure,
and was reprimanded with much acrimony for overlooking our paper when we
were writing. Scarcely five minutes elapsed, in short, during his stay,
without his finding some cause of complaint against his people; but we
could not determine whether this arose from mere captiousness, or was
done to give us a higher notion of his consequence, because, in the
intervals, he was all cheerfulness and good humour. He was offered tea
and cherry brandy, which he took along with us, and appeared at his ease
in every respect. We thought that he made signs, implying a wish for us
to visit him on shore; to this we cheerfully assented, and an
arrangement for landing in the morning was made accordingly by means of
similar signs, with which the Chief appeared much pleased, and rose to
go away.

He had not got much beyond the cabin-door, however, before the serenity
of his temper was once more overturned. On passing the gun-room
sky-light, he heard the voices of some of his people whom the officers
had taken below, and who were enjoying themselves very merrily amongst
their new acquaintance. The old Chief looked down, and observing them
drinking and making a noise, he called to them in a loud passionate
voice, which made them leave their glasses, and run up the ladder in
great terror. From thence the alarm spread along the lower deck, to the
midshipmen's berth, where another party was carousing. The grog and wine
with which they had been entertained was too potent for this party, as
they did not seem to care much for the old Chief, who, posting himself
at the hatchway, ascertained, by personal examination, who the offenders
were. On this occasion, his little rod of office was of much use; he
pushed the people about with it to make them speak, and used it to turn
them round, in order to discover their faces. One man watching his
opportunity when the Chief was punching away at somebody who had just
come up, slipped past and ran off; but the quick eye of the old man was
not so easily deceived, and he set off in chase of him round the
quarter deck. The man had an apron full of biscuit, which had been
given to him by the midshipmen; this impeded his running, so that the
Chief, notwithstanding his robes, at last came up with him; but while he
was stirring him up with his rod, the fellow slipped his cargo of bread
into a coil of rope, and then went along with the Chief quietly enough.
The old man came back afterwards, and found the biscuit, which he
pointed out to us, to shew that it had not been taken away.

He continued for some time at the hatchway, expecting more people; but
finding none come up, he went below himself, to the main deck, and
rummaged under the guns and round the main-mast, to discover whether any
one was concealed; but finding no person there, he came again upon deck,
and shortly after went into his boat.

On returning to the Lyra, we found a number of boats anchored round her,
which looked as if they meant to keep strict watch over us. We went in
our boat to one of them, where we found the crew asleep. They seemed to
have had orders not to follow the Chief to the frigate, and were here
waiting his return. On our pointing to the shore, and making signs that
the old man with the long beard and large hat had landed, they began
immediately to get their anchor up, and called to the other boats to do
the same. In a few minutes they were all at work, and every person in
the boats joined in repeating the two words "ho ya, ho ya," the effect
of which, from a great many voices, was not unpleasing.

The cable in these boats is wound round a large reel or barrel; to the
ends of which two wheels with handles are fitted, which enables a
considerable number to apply their strength at the same moment. The
anchor is made of a dark coloured, heavy wood, with a long shank and
flukes, and a short stock crossing the former, near the crown of the
anchor, and not at the end of the shank, as with us in Europe. The mat
sails are divided into horizontal divisions by slender pieces of bamboo.
When not under sail, the boats are moved by oars having a circular piece
of wood tied to the end, and are steered by a large scull over the
stern. The bow is square above, but rises from the water in a slope,
making a small angle with the water, like the end of a coal barge, but
overhanging more. The planks are fastened together by means of square
tree-nails, which pass in a slanting direction through the plank, and
not straight, as with us.

5th of September.--A considerable bustle was observed on shore at
daybreak this morning; and shortly afterwards, we saw the old Chief and
his suite embark, and pull towards us, accompanied by a numerous fleet
of smaller boats, all ornamented with showy flags, and crowded with
people in gay and bright coloured garments, forming, upon the whole, a
splendid and imposing scene. As the procession moved slowly along, the
band in the Chief's boat struck up a lively, martial sort of air, on
instruments similar to those we had heard last night; the tone of which
is not unlike the drawling sound of the bagpipe, the bass or drone being
produced by a long horn, and the squeaking sounds by four trumpets, two
of which have stops in the middle, by which the notes are distinctly
marked.

The Chief's visit was so unexpectedly early, that we had not put things
in order for his reception, before he was alongside: he came on board,
however, and seemed happy at being allowed to walk about the decks, and
examine every thing at his leisure. When the cabin was ready, and the
Chief seemed to have satisfied himself with looking round the upper
deck, he was asked to walk down; which he complied with as soon as he
understood what was meant. But he found it no easy matter to get down
the narrow hatchway, in which there was barely room for his hat; but
this he would by no means take off. As he entered the cabin, his robes
and hat completely filled the door-way; and when seated at the table,
(for he now made no objection to a chair) he occupied no inconsiderable
portion of the whole apartment. He sat here for some time, and examined
every thing in the cabin with great attention, pointing with the little
stick whenever he saw any thing which he wanted to look at more closely.
In this way, the books, globes, glasses, &c. were put into his hands;
and it was not a little amusing to see the old gentleman wheeling the
globes round, and hunting over the books for pictures, like a child. A
person of rank who accompanied the Chief this morning, was asked to the
cabin along with him; and was no sooner seated, than we observed that he
had a very sickly look; which circumstance was the cause of a curious
mistake. It had been supposed that the Chief, during last night's
conference, made allusions to some friend of his who was unwell; and
accordingly, in our arrangements for the morning, it was proposed to
take the doctors of both ships on shore, to visit him. As the Chief had
himself come on board, our plans for landing were interrupted, and we
ascribed this early visit to his anxiety on account of his friend's
health.

It was therefore taken for granted, that this sickly looking companion
of the Chief, who, some how or other, got the title of the "Courtier,"
amongst us, was the patient alluded to last night; and no sooner were
the first compliments over in the cabin, than the doctor was sent for to
prescribe. On his being introduced, the Courtier was made to hold out
his tongue, have his pulse felt, and submit to various interrogatories,
the object of which the unfortunate man could not divine, particularly
as there was nothing at all the matter with him. He submitted with so
much patience to all these forms, and the Chief looked on with such
grave propriety during all the examination, that they evidently
considered the whole scene as a part of our ceremonial etiquette. When
this gentleman was released from the doctor's hands, he began to examine
the books with the air of a person who understands what he is about. He
appeared desirous of passing for a literary character; and observing us
hand the books about in a careless manner, ventured to ask for one, by
drawing it towards himself with a begging look. As he happened to select
a volume of the Encyclopædia Britannica, I was under the necessity of
refusing; but offered in its stead a less valuable, though more showy
book, which he accepted with much gratitude. No return, of course, had
been looked for, and I was for a moment at a loss to understand what my
friend meant, by slipping his fan into my hand, under the table. He did
this in so mysterious a way, when the Chief was looking in another
direction, that I saw it was his wish to conceal what he had done, and
the fan was sent privately away. But unfortunately, my precaution was
fruitless, for a few minutes afterwards, on finding the crowded cabin
very hot, I called for a fan, and the servant, unconscious of the
mischief he was doing, brought the Courtier's present; which no sooner
met the old man's eye, than he rose half off his chair, and gave his
unhappy companion such a look of furious anger, as made him tremble from
top to toe: but he was soon pacified when he saw that we took an
interest in the question, and the Courtier was allowed to keep his book.

After sitting half an hour, and drinking a glass of Constantia, the old
man proposed to go upon deck. I accordingly led the way, and had gone
some steps up the ladder, in advance, before I perceived that he had
stopped at the door of the gun-room, where the officers mess, and was
looking in, with his usual curiosity. I begged him to go in, which he
accordingly did, and entertained himself for some time, with looking
over the different cabins of the officers. From having observed the
pleasure which he took in the sight of any thing new, I was induced to
propose his going round the lower deck, and he looked quite pleased when
I pointed along the passage. The state hat, which had been resolutely
kept on during all this time, notwithstanding its perpetual
inconvenience to himself and every one around him, was here destined to
come off; for after making two or three attempts, he found it impossible
to get along and wear the hat too; and being of a very inquisitive
disposition, he chose the degrading alternative of being uncovered, and
his researches proceeded without interruption. Nothing escaped the old
man's observation; whatever was shut or tied up, he requested to have
opened; and in this way he rummaged the midshipmen's chests, and the
sailors' bags, all along the lower deck. He looked into the holds, took
the lid off the boilers, and turned every thing topsy-turvy. Seeing a
cutlass tied to the deck, overhead, he took it down, and on drawing it
from the scabbard, its lustre, and the keenness of its edge, surprised
and delighted him so much, that I asked him to accept it. At first he
seemed willing enough, but after holding a consultation with the
Courtier for five minutes, he reluctantly put it back again. As he went
along, he took samples of every thing that he could easily put into his
sleeve, which served him instead of a sack; so that when he came upon
deck, he was pretty well loaded, and looked about with the satisfaction
of a school-boy, on having visited a show for the first time in his
life.

Whilst we were below, one of the natives had been busily employed in
taking the dimensions of the ship with a string, and another person was
engaged under him, taking an account of the guns, shot, and rigging, all
which details he wrote down; but not being able to ascertain, himself,
the exact number of people on board, he had recourse to me for the
information; this I communicated by opening eight times the fingers of
both hands. The only part of the ship to which he had not free access
was the cabin under the poop, and from which he felt much annoyed at
being excluded: but when told that a gentleman was shaving there, he
shewed himself quite satisfied with the explanation, and waited
patiently until the door was opened to him.

The old gentleman and his followers appearing anxious to see a shot
fired, an eighteen pound carronade was loaded before them, and
discharged with the muzzle so much depressed, that the shot struck the
water close to us, and then rose and fell eight or ten times, to the
great entertainment and surprise of the whole party. In the mean time,
Captain Maxwell had come on board, and breakfast being ready, we
prevailed upon the Chief to sit down with us. He ate heartily of our
hashes, and of every thing else that was put before him, using a knife,
fork, and spoon, which he now saw, probably, for the first time in his
life, not only without awkwardness, but to such good purpose, that he
declined exchanging them for Chinese chopsticks, which were provided for
him. In fact, he was so determined to adopt our customs in every
respect, that when the tea was offered to him in the Chinese way, he
looked to the right and left, and seeing ours differently prepared, held
up his cup to the servant, for milk and sugar, which being given to him,
the old gentleman remained perfectly satisfied.

The politeness and ease with which he accommodated himself to the habits
of people so different from himself, were truly admirable; and when it
is considered, that hitherto, in all probability, he was ignorant even
of our existence, his propriety of manners should seem to point, not
only to high rank in society, but to imply also a degree of civilization
in that society, not confirmed by other circumstances. Be this as it
may, the incident is curious, as shewing, that however different the
state of society may be in different countries, the forms of politeness
are much alike in all. This polished character was very well sustained
by the old Chief; as he was pleased with our attempts to oblige him, and
whatever we seemed to care about, he immediately took an interest in. He
was very inquisitive, and was always highly gratified when he discovered
the use of any thing which had puzzled him at first. But there was no
idle surprise, no extravagant bursts of admiration, and he certainly
would be considered a man of good breeding, and keen observation, in any
part of the world. Towards his own people, indeed, he was harsh and
impatient at all times; but this may have arisen from his anxiety that
no offence should be given to us by the other natives, whom he might
know were less delicate and considerate than himself, and therefore
required constant control.

When breakfast was over, and the old man once more upon deck, we
endeavoured to signify to him that we meant to land, according to our
engagement yesterday evening; but this he either did not, or would not
comprehend; for whenever we pointed towards the shore, he directed our
attention to the frigate. At length he got into his boat, pushed off,
and was making for the Alceste, when Captain Maxwell followed in his
boat, and drawing up alongside of him, tried to prevail upon him to
accompany us to the village: the Chief shook his head by way of
disapprobation, and turning towards his attendants, entered into a
discussion with them, which terminated by the Courtier and himself
stepping into Captain Maxwell's boat.

We ascribed this measure to a desire on the Chief's part to show
publicly that he had not himself invited us on shore, and had only
acceded to our request to land. We had not proceeded far before the
Chief repented of his ready compliance, and tried to persuade us to
return; but finding the ordinary signs of no avail, he held his head
down and drew his hand across his throat, as if his head was to be cut
off. It was now our turn not to comprehend signs, and thinking it would
be idle to lose so favourable an opportunity, spared no pains to
reconcile the old man to our landing. In this, however, we did not
succeed, for, as we approached the shore, his anxiety increased, and he
frequently drew his hand across his neck, as if to shew that he would
lose his head if we persisted. We again tried to re-assure him, by
explaining that we had no intention of going near the village, but
merely desired to walk about for a short time, and then to go to the
frigate to dine. He was of course included in this invitation; but his
only answer consisted in pointing to us and making signs of eating, and
then drawing his hand across his throat; by which he was understood to
mean, that it might be very well for us to talk of eating, but, for his
part, he was taken up with the danger of losing his head. We could not
but laugh at this, as we had no notion of any such apprehension being
well grounded; and, in a short time, landed at the distance of half a
mile from the village.

The old man was lifted out of the boat by several of his people, and we
were amazed to find, when they set him down, that he was in tears, and
looking altogether very unhappy. In a few minutes a crowd, consisting of
more than a hundred people, assembled round us, and we began to think
we should pay dearly for our curiosity. But the poor old man had no
thoughts of vengeance, and was no better pleased with the crowd than we
were; for turning to his soldiers, he desired them to disperse the mob,
which they did in a moment by pelting them with great stones. The Chief
now began crying violently, and turning towards the village walked away,
leaning his head on the shoulder of one of his people. As he went along,
he not only sobbed and wept, but every now and then bellowed aloud. We
had been nowise prepared for such a scene, and were extremely sorry for
having pushed matters to this extremity. It had never occurred to us
that the old Chief's head was really in danger; and even now we could
not satisfy ourselves whether he was sincere, or merely acting in order
to prevail on us to retire. The perfect tranquillity, nay even
cheerfulness of the Courtier, who staid with us all this time, puzzled
us extremely: nor could we account for the indifference of the other
attendants, who looked on with as much composure as if such scenes were
every day occurrences. But at all events, it was necessary before
proceeding any further, that the old man should be pacified; and in
order to effect this, we sat down on the beach, upon which he turned
about and came crying back again. He seated himself by us, and waited
very patiently whilst we remonstrated on the unreasonableness of his
conduct, and contrasted the reception he had met with from us, with his
present unaccountable behaviour. This was expressed by a dumb show
acting of all that had taken place since we came to anchor in the bay;
and these signs we thought might be intelligible to the Chief, because
they were so to all of us, although no words were used. The signs used
by different nations, however, are often dissimilar when the same thing
is to be expressed: and it happened frequently with us that all attempts
at explanation failed, on both sides, though the signs used appeared to
be understood by all the people of the same nation with the person
making the signs.

The old man made a long speech in reply; in the course which the
beheading sign was frequently repeated. It is curious that he invariably
held his hands towards his throat after he had gone through this motion,
and appeared to wash his hands in his blood: probably he did this in
imitation of some ceremony used at executions.

Upon one occasion the Chief endeavoured to explain something to us which
had a reference to a period of two days; this he did by pointing to the
sun, making a motion twice from east to west, and, at the end of each
time, closing his eyes as if asleep. This sign was variously
interpreted: some believed it to mean that in two days his head would be
taken off: others imagined that in two days a communication might be
made to his government, and that orders for our reception would be
transmitted. Whatever might have been meant by this particular sign, it
seems very probable that some general instructions were in force along
the whole of this coast by which the treatment of strangers is
regulated. The promptitude with which we were met at this place, where,
perhaps, no ship ever was before, and the pertinacity with which our
landing was opposed, seem to imply an extraordinary degree of vigilance
and jealousy on the part of the government.

We expressed a desire to eat and drink, in the hopes of working on the
old man's hospitality, and, perhaps, inducing him to entertain us in his
house; but he made no motion towards the village, and merely sent off a
servant for some water and a few small cockles. When this sorry fare was
laid on the beach, the old gentleman made signs for us to begin; but we
did not choose to be pleased either with the entertainment itself, or
with the place and manner in which it had been served. We explained to
him that the proper place to eat was in a house, and not on a wet dirty
beach; he made no offer, however, of any other; but leaning his head
pensively on his hands, seemed entirely resigned to his fate.

The case was now utterly hopeless; and after an ineffectual attempt to
cheer him up, we went on board, as the last, and indeed only favour we
could grant him. Thus we quitted this inhospitable shore, after a stay
of not quite an hour, in which time we had never been twenty yards from
our own boats. We saw the village, however, to some advantage; it is
neatly built, and very pleasantly situated under fine trees, in a valley
cultivated like a garden, in small square patches.

It was now determined to prosecute the voyage to the southward, and the
Lyra was accordingly ordered to proceed as usual to sound the passages
a-head of the frigate, but had not gone far before the Alceste, still at
anchor, was observed to be surrounded with boats. In about an hour she
weighed and stood to sea. Captain Maxwell had received another visit
from the old Chief, whose appearance was described as being quite
altered; his sprightliness and curiosity all gone, and his easy
unceremonious manner exchanged for cold and stately civility: he looked
embarrassed and unhappy, as it appeared, from an apprehension of having
offended Captain Maxwell. When this was discovered, no pains were spared
to convince him that, in this respect, there was not the slightest cause
for uneasiness. He would not accept any presents, but appeared much
relieved by the unexpected kindness with which he was received, and
before he went away, was restored, in some degree, to his wonted
spirits. When looking over the books in the cabin, he was a good deal
taken with the appearance of a Bible, but when offered to him he
declined it, though with such evident reluctance, that it was again
shewn to him just as he was pushing off in his boat, and he now received
it with every appearance of gratitude, and took his leave in a manner
quite friendly.

We quitted this bay without much regret. The old Chief, indeed, with his
flowing beard, and pompous array, and engaging manners, had made a
strong impression upon us all; but his pitiable and childish distress,
whatever might have been the cause, took away from the respect with
which we were otherwise disposed to regard him: yet this circumstance,
though it makes the picture less finished, serves to give it additional
interest; whilst every thing ridiculous in the old man's character is
lost in the painful uncertainty which hangs over his fate.

From this bay we steered amongst the islands, during all the 6th and
7th, to the S.W. before the natives were met with again; we saw them
indeed, but never got near enough to converse with them. They were
frequently observed seated in groups watching us on the islands which we
passed. We saw several fishing-boats, with a crew of about a dozen men,
crowded on a sort of poop. At a little distance these boats appeared to
be formed of two vessels lashed together. This appearance we believe to
be caused by their having an outrigger on one side, on which their oars,
sails, and masts are piled, in order probably to keep the boat clear
when they are at anchor fishing. Their mast is lowered down and hoisted
up by means of a strong tackle from the mast-head to the stern, as in
the barges on the Thames.

We threaded our way for upwards of a hundred miles amongst islands which
lie in immense clusters in every direction. At first we thought of
counting them, and even attempted to note their places on the charts
which we were making of this coast, but their great number completely
baffled these endeavours. They vary in size, from a few hundred yards in
length to five or six miles, and are of all shapes. From the mast-head
other groups were perceived lying one behind the other to the east and
south as far as the eye could reach. Frequently above a hundred islands
were in sight from deck at one moment. The sea being quite smooth, the
weather fine, and many of the islands wooded and cultivated in the
valleys, the scene was at all times lively, and was rendered still more
interesting by our rapid passage along the coast, by which the
appearances about us were perpetually changing. Of this coast we had no
charts possessing the slightest pretensions to accuracy, none of the
places at which we touched being laid down within sixty miles of their
proper places. Only a few islands are noticed in any map; whereas the
coast, for near two hundred miles, is completely studded with them, to
the distance of fifteen or twenty leagues from the main land. These
inaccuracies in the charts naturally gave a very high degree of interest
to this part of the voyage; yet the navigation being at all times
uncertain, and often dangerous, considerable anxiety necessarily mingled
itself with the satisfaction produced by so new and splendid a scene. We
always anchored during the night, or when the tides, which were very
rapid, prevented our proceeding in the deliberate manner absolutely
required by the nature of the circumstances. An instance of the
necessity of these precautions occurred on the 7th of September, at four
o'clock in the afternoon, when, it being quite calm, we were drifting
along with the tide, which suddenly shifted and carried us rapidly
towards a reef of rocks, which was invisible till the strong rippling of
the water shewed us our danger: we let go the anchor immediately, but
the jerk was so great, as to break the Lyra's cable. A second anchor,
however, brought her up at a sufficient distance from the reef.

As soon as the tide slacked, a boat was dispatched to examine the
anchorage on the other side of an island near us. The officer landed
about sunset, and from the top of the island could discover a village on
the other side, on the shores of a fine large bay. He afterwards sounded
the anchorage, and found it of a convenient depth. On his way back he
landed near the village, but though it was bright moonlight he saw none
of the inhabitants.

8th of September.--About noon we weighed and sailed round the north end
of the island, which had been visited last night. The Alceste anchored
nearly in the middle between the two islands which form the anchorage;
but as the Lyra draws less water, she was placed as close off the
village as was safe, being then about a quarter of a mile from the
beach. At this distance, by means of a telescope fixed on a table on the
poop, we were enabled to see what was going on in the village, while the
people were unconscious of being observed. Mr. Clifford, who was too
unwell to land with Captain Maxwell and myself, placed himself at the
glass, and made many observations which must otherwise have escaped
notice.

At first the only inhabitants visible were seated on the top of the hill
watching us, the village itself being quite deserted; but shortly after
our anchoring, the inhabitants began to assemble from different parts of
the island. Of these several were women, some of whom had children on
their backs, and others carried them in their arms. They looked stout,
were fairer in complexion than the men, and were dressed in a long white
robe, loose and open in front, with a petticoat of the same colour
reaching a little below the knees; their hair was tied in a large knot
behind; a small piece of white cloth was thrown loosely over the head to
protect them from the rays of the sun. Some women were engaged in
husking rice in a mortar with a wooden beater; these had no dress above
the waist. The men and boys were seen carrying loads on a wooden frame
hooked to the shoulders.

In a square flat place near the village a number of women and children
were employed winnowing corn by pouring it from a height, so that the
husks blew away. Fishing-nets were spread to dry on most of the houses.
We landed about five o'clock, and found in the village only two men, who
obstinately remained at one place without speaking, and looking anxious
that we should go away; they refused the buttons which we offered them,
and resisted our persuasions to accompany us to the upper part of the
village, which we were anxious they should do, to shew that we had no
intention of hurting any thing, but merely to look about us. We went on
alone, and on reaching a deserted house thought it a good opportunity to
examine it. Before the door, on a neat clean level space, enclosed by a
hedge covered with a sweet-scented white flower, we found several heaps
of corn and straw, and several of the wooden mortars in which the rice
is pounded, also a number of vessels, some filled with water and others
with rice. Cooking utensils were lying about, and a number of fishing
lines coiled neatly in baskets, and split fish spread out to dry on the
top of little corn ricks on one side of the court. The inside was dark
and uncomfortable; the mud floor was full of hollow places; the walls
were black with soot, and every thing looked dirty. On the left of the
entrance two large metal boilers, twenty inches deep, were sunk in the
brickwork, the upper part being about a foot above the floor. The
fire-place was between the boilers, and on the hot embers lay three
split fish. On the wall opposite to the fire were shelves, having a
number of cups, basons, and cooking utensils, principally of coarse
stone ware, and some few of a sort of bell-metal. The number of
inhabitants in one house must be considerable, if we can form an
estimate from the quantity of their dishes and vessels. There were three
neat small pieces of furniture on one of the shelves, the use of which
we could not discover; they were made of wood, elegantly carved and
varnished, with a round top about a foot in diameter, and four legs a
foot and a half long. The roof was well constructed, the rafters being
mortised into the ends of the horizontal beams, and tied to the middle
by a perpendicular beam or King-Post. Over the rafters is laid a
net-work of rods, to which the thatch is tied. There was no chimney to
this house, and only one window made of slender bars of wood, forming
square spaces three inches by two, covered by a thin semi-transparent
paper defended by the roof, which extends so far beyond the wall as to
shelter it not only from the rain but from the sun. Most of the houses
had a sort of raised verandah under the eaves, about a foot or more
above the ground, extending from the door on either hand to the end of
the house; these places were neatly levelled, and must afford a cool
seat. The walls of the houses are from six to eight feet high, and from
fourteen to twenty feet long; the top of the roof being about fourteen.
The walls are of stone and mud, the door moves on the bar, which forms
one of its sides; this bar is prolonged, and works in holes in the beam
above, and a stone below. There was a back door to the house which we
examined. On opening this we found a bare bank of earth as high as the
house, at the distance of three feet from the walls, and a hedge rising
still higher on the top; this effectually excluded all light.

This minute survey of the house being completed, we returned to our
friends, who seemed in some measure re-assured. We tried to prevail upon
them to accompany us in our walk, in hopes that the rest of the
cottagers might be induced to return when they saw how peaceably we were
disposed. Captain Maxwell used every sign he could think of to no
purpose, and tired at length of these attempts, took hold of the oldest
man's hand, drew it through his arm, and walked off with him. I followed
his example with the other; and this familiarity amused the natives, who
now accompanied us in perfect good humour. The ease and apparent
indifference with which they walked along with us was curious, and had
so little of awkwardness in it, that one might have supposed it to be
the fashion of Corea to walk arm in arm. Having reached the house which
we had before examined, we sat down in the verandah, and made signs that
we wished to smoke a pipe with them. In the meantime a boat was observed
to come to the landing-place; the crew quitted her and came towards us
at a rapid pace. The quick manner of these people, so different from the
ordinary behaviour of the Coreans we had seen, made us apprehend that
some violence was meditated; but in this we were mistaken, for they sat
down with us, gave us their pipes to smoke, and laughed immoderately at
some of our words: we took the hint from them, and laughed heartily
whenever we observed that any thing good had been said amongst them;
this was well received, and proved afterwards a good mode of
introduction.

Their curiosity was strongly excited by our clothing, which they
examined minutely; they wished to see some parts of our dress taken off,
and in order to gratify them they were allowed to have our coats, shoes,
stockings, hats, &c. They were more struck with the stockings than with
any thing else, frequently shouting "Hota! Hota!" This word, which is
pronounced with a strong aspiration, was noted down in our list as the
Corean word for stockings; but it was found afterwards to be an
expression of approbation, applied indiscriminately to whatever they
consider remarkably good. After sitting some time with these people, and
smoking several pipes with them, we gave up all hopes of seeing the
villagers return while we were there, and as the night was falling we
proposed taking a short walk with our friends, and then going on board.
But as soon as they saw us go up the hill instead of returning to the
boat, they became very uneasy, and wanted us to turn back. As we had
reason, however, to conjecture that the women and children were on the
other side of the hill, we went on in the expectation of getting a sight
of them before dark. This the Coreans prevented by following us with
shouts wherever we went, so as to give warning of our approach. The
women and children probably retreated before us to a ravine on the north
side of the island, for when we approached it the Coreans became more
anxious than ever for our return; and one man seeing us still advance,
took hold of my arm and gave it a sharp pinch. I turned round and
exclaimed, "Patience, Sir!" He drew back on observing my displeasure,
and a moment after called out himself, "Patience, Sir!" The others
hearing this caught the words too, and nothing was heard for some time
amongst them but "Patience, Sir," pronounced in every instance with
perfect propriety. They seemed surprised themselves on discovering
powers of imitation hitherto in all probability unexercised. This
incident brought us better acquainted, and we remained on the top of the
hill teaching them English words till it was dark. They were certainly
entertained with our instructions, but nevertheless shewed much more
satisfaction in attending us down hill again to our boats. Before going
on board we invited them to come to the ship next day, which one of the
party was supposed to comprehend: he first made preparations for going
to bed, then closed his eyes, hung his head on his hand, and snored very
properly; after a time he opened his eyes, started and looked about him,
then laid his hands on Captain Maxwell's shoulders with an air of
welcome. This was interpreted by some into a wish for our departure
till the morning, and by others that he himself would visit us at
daylight. As he never came on board, and received us on landing next day
with any thing but welcome, probably both guesses were wrong: of one
thing there was no doubt, his anxiety to get rid of us; and his signs
may have meant that it was time for all honest people to be in bed.

9th of September.--At sunrise we landed at the same village, and found
it deserted as before. We left it and made for the highest peak on the
island, accompanied by a few of the Coreans, who did not interfere with
us till about halfway up, when on our entering a grove of fir trees,
with the appearance of which we had been struck, one of the Coreans
objected; we went on, however, and upon reaching the stump of an old
tree the Corean fell on his knees, bowed his head to the ground, and as
he raised it again held his hands closed and pressed together towards
the stump. This had very much the air of a stratagem to dissuade us from
going further in that direction, where the women probably were
concealed. Admitting this to have been the motive, it is curious that he
should have supposed such a shew of religious form calculated to
restrain us. It is further remarkable as being the only circumstance
which we have seen on this coast implying a knowledge of religion or
religious ceremony. There are here no temples, idols, nor tombs, whereas
in China, villages much smaller than these of Corea have them in every
corner. The other Coreans took no notice of the stump, and the man who
was prostrating himself before it finding that his behaviour produced
nothing but a number of questions from us concerning the nature of the
tree, got on his legs and walked sulkily away. In the course of our walk
we saw six bullocks of a small breed and very fat, but which the Coreans
were not to be tempted to sell by any thing which we had to give them.
Dogs were the only quadrupeds besides that we saw. There were pigeons,
hawks, and eagles, but few small birds. Crows were as numerous here as
in every other part of the world. We returned on board to breakfast, and
afterwards set out on an excursion to the top of a high island lying
some leagues to the south-east of us. On our way we landed, and observed
the sun's meridian altitude with an artificial horizon, by which we
ascertained the latitude to be 34º 22' 39" north, the longitude by the
mean of two chronometers is 126º 2' 45" east.

We passed, for the distance of five miles, amongst islands, all, except
the very smallest, inhabited. The villages are built in the valleys,
where the houses are nearly hid by trees and hedges. The sides of the
hills are cultivated with millet and a species of bean; and in the
numerous small gardens near the villages, we saw a great variety of
plants.

As the peaked island which we had undertaken to climb was steep, and
covered with a long coarse grass, it cost us a tiresome scramble to gain
the top, which is about six hundred feet above the level of the sea. The
main land of Corea is just discernible in the north-east and east, from
this elevation; but it commands a splendid view of the islands, lying in
thick clusters, as far as the eye can reach, from north-west quite round
by east to south. We endeavoured to count them. One person, by reckoning
only such as were obviously separate islands, made their number one
hundred and twenty. Two other gentlemen, by estimating the numbers in
each connected cluster, made severally, one hundred and thirty-six, and
one hundred and seventy; a difference, which at once shews the
difficulty of speaking with precision on this subject. But when it is
considered, that from one spot, which though considerably elevated, was
not centrical, one hundred and twenty islands could be counted, and that
our course for upwards of one hundred miles had been amongst islands no
less crowded than these, some idea may be formed of this great
Archipelago.

After enjoying this scene for some time, we went down on the other side
of the peak, which is much less steep. We found the boat's crew
preparing dinner for us, under some trees, close to a well of cool
water. The village to which the well belonged not being many yards off,
we proceeded to explore it, and found it deserted by all except an old
woman and a man. The woman, seated on a pile of stones, in the middle of
the village, took no notice of us as we passed; and indeed, she was
herself so very homely, as to occupy but little of our attention. The
man was seated at the door of a cottage, making a straw sandal: on our
entering his inclosure, he looked up for an instant, and immediately
resumed his work, with as much composure as if we had been a party of
the villagers. A button was offered to him, which he accepted without
scruple: he agreed, with equal readiness, to exchange his unfinished
sandal for another button, which having carelessly put away, in a bag
lying near him, he took some straw and re-commenced his business,
without seeming to notice that we were rummaging his house. He is the
only Corean we have met with, who has not shewn some slight symptoms of
curiosity: indeed, he seemed totally indifferent about our staying or
going, or about what we were doing in his house; and we left him without
knowing whether to ascribe his apathy to fear, or to absolute
stupidity.

On returning from the village, we saw a party of the natives assembled
on a rising ground near us; they were invited, by signs, to join us at
dinner, but they kept their places unmoved. While we were at dinner, the
sailors, who had been rambling about, joined the natives, and in a few
minutes became very good friends with them; the natives giving up their
pipes, and the sailors in return supplying them with tobacco. We have
frequently remarked during this voyage, that the sailors make
acquaintance with the natives much sooner than the officers. This seems
the natural effect of the difference in our manners. On meeting with
natives, we feel so anxious to conciliate, and to avoid giving offence,
that our behaviour, thus guarded and circumspect, has an air of
restraint about it, which may produce distrust and apprehension on their
part; whilst, on the other hand, Jack, who is not only unreflecting and
inoffensive himself, but never suspects that others can possibly
misconstrue his perfect good-will and unaffected frankness, has an easy,
disengaged manner, which at once invites confidence and familiarity.

In about an hour after we had sat down, one of the natives hastily rose,
and without appearing to deliberate, but as if actuated by a sudden
impulse, strode rapidly down to us, and in the most unceremonious way
possible, presented his lighted pipe for us to smoke. We received him
as kindly as we could, and prevailed upon him to take a glass of wine;
which he had no sooner drank off, than he roared out, "Hota! Hota!"

This exclamation brought the rest down, who seating themselves by us,
drank freely, and became very cheerful and communicative, telling us the
Corean names of every thing we pointed to, and asking, in return, the
English names for our clothes.[5] But though the wine made these people
far more sociable than any we had yet seen, they never forgot the
principal object of their thoughts, and suggested, every now and then,
by pointing to our boats, the propriety of our going away. After sunset,
they became very impatient and uneasy at our stay; but when at length we
yielded to their entreaties, the whole party accompanied us to the
water's side, and took leave with the most lively marks of satisfaction
at our departure.

10th of September.--This morning, about ten o'clock, we got under weigh,
and stood to the southward. By sunset we were clear of all the islands,
and could just distinguish the island of Quelpaert in the south-east
quarter.

The shortness of our stay on this coast, and the difficulty we
experienced in communicating with the inhabitants, will account for the
scanty and disjointed nature of the information obtained. A future
voyager would do well to be accompanied by a person who can write the
Chinese character, and should have full leisure to overcome, by patient
management, the distrust of strangers evinced by this unsociable people.

A chart of our track along this coast is subjoined to this work, in the
hope that it may prove useful to a future voyager. As it was constructed
under circumstances of great haste, it is necessarily incomplete; yet it
will probably be found more accurate than any maps or charts hitherto
published.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: A servant of the embassy, left behind by accident at the
Pei-ho river.]

[Footnote 2: We found the north-east end composed of a fine-grained
granite; the middle of the island of a brittle micaceous schistus of a
deep blue colour; the strata are nearly horizontal, but dip a little to
the S.W. This body of strata is cut across by a granite dyke, at some
places forty feet wide, at others not above ten; the strata in the
vicinity of the dyke are broken and bent in a remarkable manner; this
dislocation and contortion does not extend far from the walls of the
dyke, but veins of granite branch out from it to a great distance,
varying in width from three feet to the hundredth part of an inch: the
dyke is visible from the top of the cliff to the water's edge, but does
not re-appear on the corresponding cliff of an island opposite to it,
though distant only thirty yards. This island is composed of the same
schistus, and is cut in a vertical direction by a whin dyke, four feet
wide, the planes of whose sides lie N.E. and S.W., being at right angles
to those of the great granite dyke in the neighbourhood, which run S.E.
and N.W. The strata contiguous to the whin dyke are a good deal twisted
and broken, but not in the same degree as at their contact with the
granite dyke.

The whin dyke is formed of five layers or sets of prisms laid across in
the usual way. Beyond the small island cut by the whin dyke, at the
distance of only forty or fifty feet, we came to an island rising
abruptly out of the sea, and presenting a high rugged cliff of breccia,
fronting that on which the granite dyke is so conspicuous: the junction
of this rock with the schistus cut by the granite and the whin would
have been interesting; but although we must have been at times within a
few yards of it, the actual contact was every where hid by the sea.

The whole of the S.W. end of this island is formed of breccia, being an
assemblage of angular and water-worn pieces of schistus, quartz, and
some other rocks, the whole having the appearance of a great shingle
beach. The fragments of the schistus in this rock are similar to that
which forms the cliff first spoken of.

The theory which presented itself to us on the spot was, that the great
mass of strata which forms the centre of the island was formerly at the
bottom of the ocean; and that the western part, which is now a firm
breccia, had been a beach shingle produced by the action of the waves on
the strata: the granite which forms the eastern end of the island had
been forced into its present situation from beneath the strata, with
sufficient violence to dislocate and contort the beds nearest to it, and
to inject the liquid granite into the rents formed by the heaving action
of the strata as they were raised up. It is natural to suppose that the
ragged edges of the strata forming the sides of these cracks would be
subjected to a grinding action, from which the strata more remote might
be exempted; and in this way we may account for the extraordinary
twisting, and separation of masses along the whole course of the granite
dyke. In the dyke, as well as in the veins which branch from it, there
are numerous islands of schistus. That this last was softened, seems to
follow from the frequent instances which occur of its being bent back
upon itself without producing cracks. The same heat, propagated by the
melted granite in the neighbourhood, may also be supposed to have
reduced the shingle beach to a state of semifusion by the aid of some
flux contained in the sand scattered amongst it. We could not discover
any circumstance by which the relative antiquity of the two dykes
mentioned above, could be ascertained.]

[Footnote 3: _Note on the peculiar character of the written language in
that quarter of the globe._

In China, Japan, Corea, and the islands in the adjacent seas, the spoken
languages are different from one another; the written language, on the
contrary, is the same in all. Thus a native of China is unintelligible
to a Corean or Japanese, while he is speaking, but they mutually
understand one another when their thoughts are expressed in writing. The
cause of this may be thus explained. We in Europe form an idea in the
mind, and this we express by certain sounds, which differ in different
countries; these sounds are committed to writing by means of the letters
of the alphabet, which are only symbols of sounds, and, consequently, a
writing in Europe is unintelligible to every one who is ignorant of the
spoken language in which it happens to be written. The Chinese and the
other natives in these seas have, on the contrary, no alphabet; no
symbols of sounds; their ideas are committed to writing at once without
the intervention of sound, and their characters may therefore be called
symbols of ideas. Now, as the same characters are adopted in all these
countries to express the same ideas, it is clear that their writings
will be perfectly intelligible to each other, although their spoken
languages may be quite incomprehensible.

The case of the Roman numerals in Europe furnishes a ready illustration
of this symbolical language. There is nothing in the symbols 1, 2, 3,
&c. by which their pronunciation can be ascertained when presented to
the eye, yet they communicate meaning independent of sound, and are
respectively intelligible to the inhabitants of the different countries
of Europe; while, at the same time, the sounds by which a native of one
country distinguishes the written symbols 1, 2, 3, &c. are
unintelligible to all the rest.

The knowledge of writing is supposed to be very generally diffused over
the countries using what is called the Chinese character, and, as
probably none but the lowest vulgar are ignorant of it, the surprise of
these people on discovering our inability to read their papers is very
natural. The case, we may imagine, had never occurred to them before,
and it was highly interesting to watch the effect which so novel an
incident produced. At first they appeared to doubt the fact of our
ignorance, and shewed some symptoms of impatience; but this opinion did
not last long, and they remained completely puzzled, looking at each
other with an odd expression of surprise.]

[Footnote 4: This paper, presented by the Corean Chief, has been
translated by Mr. Morrison at Canton, and is as follows: "Persons, of
what land--of what nation (are you)? On account of what business do you
come hither? In the ship are there any literary men who thoroughly
understand, and can explain what is written?"]

[Footnote 5: See note at the end of the Loo-choo vocabulary.]



CHAPTER II.

    Enter the Japan Sea--Sulphur Island--Volcano--See the Great Loo-Choo
    Island--Lyra nearly wrecked--First Interview with the
    Natives--Anchor at Napakiang--Natives crowd on Board--Their
    interesting Appearance and Manners--Several Chiefs visit the
    Alceste--Land to make Observations--Astonishment of the Natives--Six
    Chiefs visit the Ships--Alceste and Lyra proceed farther in Shore--A
    Chief of high Rank waits upon Captain Maxwell--Return his
    Visit--Feast--Projected Survey of the Anchorage--Visit Reef
    Island--The Lyra sent to look for another Harbour--Arrangements for
    landing the Alceste's Stores--Description of the Temple and
    Garden--First Acquaintance with Mádera--Study of the Language.


After leaving Corea, we stood to the southward and eastward, with a
strong breeze from the north, and a mountainous swell from the
north-east. Shortly after daybreak on the 13th of September, we saw
Sulphur Island, in the south-west quarter, and by eleven in the forenoon
were close up to it. We intended to land, but were prevented by the high
wind, which caused so great a surf all round the island, as to render
this impracticable. The sulphuric volcano from which the island takes
its name is on the north-west side; it emits white smoke, and the smell
of sulphur is very strong on the lee side of the crater. The cliffs
near the volcano are of a pale yellow colour, interspersed with brown
streaks: the ground at this place is very rugged, as the strata lie in
all directions, and are much broken; on the top is a thin coat of brown
grass. The south end of the island is of considerable height, of a deep
blood red colour, with here and there a spot of bright green: the
strata, which are here nearly horizontal, are cut by a whin dyke running
from the top to the bottom of the cliff, projecting from its face like a
wall. As the weather still looked threatening, we gave up the intention
of examining this spot, and proceeded to the southward till four
o'clock, at which time land was seen in the south-west quarter; but as
there was not sufficient daylight to close with it, we hauled off to the
westward for the night. Shortly after sunset the sky became overcast,
the wind veered about from one point to another, the air became suddenly
quite chill, the sea rose high, and every thing, in short, seemed to
indicate an approaching tyfoong or hurricane. All our preparations were
made to encounter a violent tempest; but we were much pleased at finding
it turn out nothing more than an ordinary gale of wind.

14th of September.--The weather was still stormy, but being anxious to
close with the land, we bore up, and steered in the supposed direction
of the Great Lieou Kieou, or Loo-choo Island. At eight o'clock we saw
the Sugar Loaf of Captain Broughton, which is a small green island,
having a high remarkable cone in the middle. We left this to the
eastward, and continued steering to the south south-west, hoping to get
to leeward of the great island before night, where we might remain in
smooth water till the weather became fine. While going along at a quick
rate, we suddenly saw breakers close to us; we instantly hauled to the
wind, and made all the sail we could carry. Our situation was now very
critical, for the swell caused by the recent gale checked our way
considerably, and a lee current drifted us gradually towards the reef.
From the mast head we could look down upon the reef, which was of a
circular form, with a low island on its southern side; the surf broke
all round, but in the inside the water was quite smooth, and being only
a few feet deep, the coral, which was of a bright green, appeared
distinctly through it. At the distance of one-third of a mile from where
we were, no bottom was to be found with our lead lines, so that
anchoring was out of the question. After being in this unpleasant
predicament for some time, we succeeded in weathering the western end of
the reef, which we had no sooner done, than we saw a passage four or
five miles wide, by which we proceeded to leeward of the reef island,
where we found the water perfectly smooth. The Alceste rounded the reef
without difficulty, being half a league farther off than the Lyra,
which, as usual, had been stationed a-head to look out, but had not
perceived the danger sooner, owing to the extreme haziness of the
weather.

15th of September.--In the morning, it was arranged that the Lyra should
proceed in shore in search of a harbour, while the frigate remained in
deep water. At ten o'clock I thought we had discovered a place of
security, and having anchored the Lyra, sent three boats to examine it.
A sort of harbour was found, formed by coral reefs; but the passages
being all intricate for large ships, and the water shallow inside, it is
by no means safe. We fell in with several people in canoes; one man, who
seemed to know what we were searching for, directed us to a point of
land to the northward, and waved for us to go round it. While the boats
were away, several natives came off to the Lyra. No people that we have
yet met with have been so friendly; for the moment they came alongside,
one handed a jar of water up to us, and another a basket of boiled sweet
potatoes, without asking or seeming to wish for any recompense. Their
manners were gentle and respectful; they uncovered their heads when in
our presence, bowed whenever they spoke to us; and when we gave them
some rum, they did not drink it till they had bowed to every person
round. Another canoe went near the Alceste, and a rope being thrown to
them, they tied a fish to it, and then paddled away. All this seemed to
promise well, and was particularly grateful after the cold repulsive
manners of the Coreans.

The day was spent in trying to beat round the point to windward, but the
tide was too strong against us, and when it became dark, we found
ourselves awkwardly situated. To the east and west of us there were
islands at the distance of a few miles. To leeward was a circular coral
reef, just appearing above the surface at low water; and to windward
were seen the reefs upon which we were so nearly wrecked on Saturday. As
the exact position of these numerous dangers was unknown to us, we were
determined to anchor for the night, though in eighty fathoms water.

16th of September.--At daylight we weighed, and beat to windward all the
morning; but owing to the tide being contrary, it was two o'clock before
we passed the point mentioned above; which we had no sooner done, than
we came in sight of an extensive town, having a harbour filled with
vessels at anchor. On steering towards the town, we had to sound our way
cautiously amongst coral reefs, which were tolerably well defined by the
surf breaking upon them[6]. The Alceste followed as soon as we had
ascertained that the passage was clear, and both ships anchored at the
distance of half a mile from the town.

In a short time we were surrounded by canoes, full of the natives, who,
with their children, flocked on board. They wear a loose dress, tied
with a belt round their waist; their hair is brought tight up from all
sides, and formed into a knot on the top of the head, with two metal
pins stuck in it. In the course of an hour, a native came on board who
appeared to be somewhat higher in rank than the rest; and we now
discovered, to our great satisfaction, that this man understood our
Chinese servant, who had been of no use to us at Corea. As it was found
that there were other chiefs on shore superior in rank to this man,
Captain Maxwell declined receiving his visit; as well with the view of
inducing the principal people to come on board, as of maintaining an
appearance of dignity, a point of great importance in all transactions
with the Chinese and their dependents, who invariably repay
condescension with presumption. As we had heard of these people being
tributary to China, it was natural to conclude that there might be some
similarity in manners. At all events, it was evidently much easier at
any future time to be free and cordial with them, after having assumed a
distance and reserve in the first instance, than it would be to repress
insolence, if at first encouraged by too hasty familiarity.

Before this man went on shore, he requested to know the reason of our
coming into this port; the interpreter was instructed to acquaint him
that the ships had experienced very bad weather, and had been a long
time at sea; that the large ship had sprung a leak, and required repairs
which could only be done in a secure harbour: further explanations, it
was observed, would be given to the superior chiefs when they came on
board. We had been prepared for these inquiries, not only from the
reception we had met with at Corea, but from the well-known character of
the nations in this quarter of the globe; and it was so far fortunate,
that the Alceste was actually in want of repairs; because to have
assigned curiosity, and a desire of gaining information as our object,
to people wholly unconscious of such feelings, would naturally have led
them to ascribe our actions to some more interested, and consequently
more dangerous motive.

The canoes which we have seen to-day are mostly made of one piece of
wood; they have two sails, and are moved with considerable velocity, by
two or more paddles, assisted by an oar over the stern, which acts both
as a scull and a rudder. There is a neat low seat, made of rattans, for
each person in the canoe. As the day closed, the fishing canoes came in
great numbers from sea, and all came on board the ships on their way;
some of the fishermen pulled up our lines and baited the hooks. The
whole shore abreast of the ships was covered with people, but the crowd
was greatest on two pier-heads, forming the entrance to the harbour; and
the variety of colour in their dresses made this a very lively
exhibition. In the evening, Captain Maxwell and I rowed round to examine
the anchorage, which we found tolerably clear of rocks. An officer was
at the same time sent to examine the inner harbour, but he did not go
far within the entrance, which was much too shallow for the frigate.

On returning to the Lyra, I found that Mr. Clifford had been
entertaining several respectable looking natives who had paid him a
visit. As they readily comprehended his desire to know their words for
various things, he has succeeded in collecting a considerable number,
among which we are surprised to find their name for tobacco the same as
ours; all the others are quite new to us.

17th of September.--I carried the interpreter to the Alceste, after
breakfast, where I found two chiefs, who had been on board some time,
and had been taken care of by the officers, as Captain Maxwell was not
prepared to receive them. A message was then sent to intimate that the
Ta-yin (a Chinese title, used also by these people to persons of rank)
was desirous of seeing the chiefs, and they were introduced into the
after-cabin, where they were received in form. They objected to sitting
down, making at the same time many low obeisances, which they did by
stooping the body, and raising the hands, closed one over the other, to
their face. Their scruples about being seated were at length overcome,
and the first chief took his place on Captain Maxwell's left hand, the
next on my left, and a third, who was evidently of a lower rank, sat
beyond the second. The chiefs sat respectfully silent, and Captain
Maxwell finding that he was expected to speak first, communicated to
them that the ships under his command belonged to the King of England;
that they had gone to China with an Embassador, carrying presents to the
Emperor, at Pekin; that on their way back to Canton, they had
experienced very bad weather, and had been obliged to put in here to
refit, and to procure supplies.

In reply, they expressed their willingness to assist us as much as lay
in their power, but said that the harbour was too shallow for so large a
ship, and recommended our proceeding to another harbour called
Kinching, which they described as being secure and commodious, and only
a few hours sail from this anchorage: they offered to furnish pilots and
a boat to conduct us. Captain Maxwell, however, was unwilling to quit
this anchorage unless certain of finding a better; he therefore proposed
to send the Lyra to examine and report upon the harbour alluded to. The
chiefs paused upon this, and said they could not take upon them to send
pilots to the Brig without consulting the Great Man on shore. We were
very curious to know who this great personage might be, but they evaded
all our inquiries. Captain Maxwell asked where the king resided, and
intimated his intention of waiting upon him; to this they strongly
objected, declaring moreover, that it was impossible, as his majesty
lived a thousand miles off. They did not seem aware of their
inconsistency, when they undertook, immediately afterwards, to get an
answer from court about pilots for the Lyra, in a few hours.

We had been led to hope, from the frankness and kindness of these
people, that no restraint would be imposed on us; and we were the more
disappointed at observing, that whenever we spoke of landing, or asked
any questions about the king, the chiefs became uneasy, and replied in a
mysterious manner. We consoled ourselves, however, with the
supposition, that upon further acquaintance their apprehension would
wear off.

Business being over, the chiefs were asked to walk round the cabin, an
invitation which they accepted with manifest satisfaction. During the
conference they had preserved a gravity suited to an important ceremony,
and, though surrounded by new and curious objects, had never expressed
the least curiosity. They were now no longer formal, and looked over the
various articles with attention, taking particular notice of the globes,
books, and mirrors. Their manners are remarkably gentle and unassuming.
They are observant, and not without curiosity, but they require
encouragement to induce them to come forward, being restrained, it would
seem, by a genteel self-denial, from gratifying curiosity, lest it might
be thought obtrusive. Their dress is singularly graceful; it consists of
a loose flowing robe, with very wide sleeves, tied round the middle by a
broad rich belt or girdle of wrought silk, a yellow cylindrical cap, and
a neat straw sandal, over a short cotton boot or stocking. Two of the
chiefs wore light yellow robes, the other dark blue streaked with white,
all of cotton. The cap is flat at top, and appears to be formed by
winding a broad band diagonally round a frame, in such a manner, that at
each turn a small portion of the last fold shall be visible above in
front, and below at the hinder part. The sandal is kept on by a stiff
straw band passing over the instep, and joining the sandal near the
heel; this band is tied to the forepart by a slight string, drawn
between the great toe and the next, the stocking having a division like
the finger of a glove for the great toe. They all carry fans, which they
stick in their girdles when not in use, and each person has a short
tobacco pipe in a small bag, hanging, along with the pouch, at the
girdle. When they had satisfied themselves with looking over the cabin,
they went away, with a promise of returning in the evening as soon as
the answer from the Great Man should arrive.

During all this morning, the whole space between the ships and the shore
has been covered with canoes, each containing about ten persons. The
scene was very lively, for few of the parties which came to visit the
ships remained long on board, so that the canoes were continually
passing backwards and forwards, and the number which came in this way
must have been immense. They all seemed highly gratified at being
allowed to go wherever they liked over the ships, nor was this liberty
ever abused. The manners even of the lowest classes are genteel and
becoming; their curiosity is great, but it never makes them rudely
inquisitive: their language is musical, and in most cases easy of
pronunciation. We heard a boat song to-day, the air of which was sweet
and plaintive; we tried in vain to catch the words, and unfortunately,
none of us had skill enough to note down the air. We observed several
people in canoes, making drawings of the ships, but they hid their work
when they were observed. In consequence of what had been said last night
of our wanting repairs, a party of shipwrights and caulkers was sent on
board the Alceste this morning, but their tools were of a Lilliputian
order, and quite unsuited to the rough work required.

The variety of colour and pattern in the dresses of the people to-day,
is remarkable. Many wear printed cottons, others have cotton dresses
with the pattern drawn on it by hand, instead of being stamped; but
blue, in all its shades, is the prevalent colour, though there were many
dresses resembling in every respect Highland tartans. The children, in
general, wear more shewy dresses than the men, and of the dress of the
women we can say nothing, as none have yet been seen. Every person has
one of the girdles before described, which is always of a different
colour from the dress, and is, in general, richly ornamented with
flowers in embossed silk, and sometimes with gold and silver threads.
This dress is naturally so graceful, that even the lowest boatmen have
a picturesque appearance. Their hair, which is of a glossy black, is
shaved off the crown, but the bare place is concealed by their mode of
dressing the hair in a close knot over it. Their beards and mustachios
are allowed to grow, and are kept neat and smooth. They are rather low
in stature, but are well formed, and have an easy graceful carriage,
which suits well with their flowing dress. Their colour is not good,
some being very dark and others nearly white, but in most instances they
are of a deep copper. This is fully compensated for by the sweetness and
intelligence of their countenance. Their eyes, which are black, have a
placid expression, and their teeth are regular and beautifully white. In
deportment they are modest, polite, timid, and respectful, and in short,
appear to be a most interesting and amiable people.

Two of our friends who had visited us in the morning, and whose names we
have discovered to be Ookooma and Jeema, came on board again about half
past five, and staid an hour; they had not received any answer, they
said, from the Great Man, and therefore could not send pilots to the
"hoonee gua," or little ship. They were accompanied by a chief whom we
took to be a Chinese from his looks, and his appearing to understand the
interpreter better than the others. His formal and suspicious manner did
not promise so well as that of the others. They came to say that a
present of stock and vegetables had been sent to the ships. It was
intimated to them that we intended to land the next day, and upon their
objecting to this, we said that our wish was to wait upon the Great Man;
to which they replied, that no person answering to this description
resided here. We then said, that it was right we should return their
visit. This argument they combated by saying that they were men of
unequal rank to us, and therefore nowise entitled to such an honour; and
that we, at the same time, would be degrading ourselves by such undue
condescension. This having failed, Captain Maxwell told them of his
illness; upon which, our new acquaintance, who seemed more earnestly
bent against our landing than the others, offered to send a physician on
board to see him. Captain Maxwell replied, that his own doctor had
recommended a ride on shore; upon which they laughed, and turned the
discourse to something else.

In this way every proposal to land, or even allusion to the shore, was
industriously put aside; and as it was our wish to gain their good will,
the matter was dropped for the present. Before they went away, Captain
Maxwell, pointing to their pipes, begged them to smoke if they wished
it; they were grateful for this considerate attention, but would not on
any account begin till we shewed them the example, by smoking with
pipes which they prepared for us. They appeared more at their ease after
this incident, and after sitting for some time, took leave for the night
on the most friendly terms.

18th of September.--Captain Maxwell sent to me to say that he meant to
land on a point at some distance from the town, in order to observe the
sun's meridian altitude with an artificial horizon. Just as I was
setting out to accompany him, I was taken by surprise by two
well-dressed natives, who were halfway down the cabin ladder before I
knew of their approach. One came to superintend the measurement of the
Lyra, and the other, who seemed of inferior rank, to explain why some
poultry, only then sent, had not come on the preceding night, along with
the other presents. I forgot to mention, that a bullock, two hogs, two
goats, a dozen and a half of fowls, some candles, wood, and water, were
sent to each of the ships. I asked them to sit down, and they were so
well satisfied with the Constantia which I gave them, that they remained
for some time; owing to which delay, I did not reach the shore till the
time for observing the sun had gone by. I found Captain Maxwell with
Ookooma and several of the chiefs, and an immense crowd of the natives,
all of whom had left the town on seeing the boat put off, and had
hastened to this spot, either out of curiosity or respect, or more
probably to watch our proceedings. At our request, Ookooma, who appears
to possess considerable authority, made the whole crowd, chiefs and all,
sit down on the grass in a circle round us. Their astonishment at our
operations was strongly expressed in their countenances, and, indeed,
our apparatus and behaviour must have looked, to perfect strangers,
somewhat magical.

In the first place the quicksilver, which to them would appear like
melted metal, was poured into a trough, in a fine stream from a wooden
bottle; while it was running out the people repeated in an under tone
"yi, yi, yi, yi!" but were silent when the glass roof was placed over
the trough. The circular instrument and sextant, fixed on stands, next
attracted their notice, and they looked on in profound silence while we
were taking the sun's altitude. As we were too late for the desired
observation, we amused the natives by letting them look at the two
reflected images of the sun through the telescope of the instruments.
Ookooma was the first who looked, and being quite unprepared for what he
saw, started back in astonishment, as if he had unconsciously beheld
something supernatural and forbidden. The other chiefs, in their turn,
placed themselves at the instrument, as well as several old men who
stepped forward from the crowd. Some testified their surprise by a
sudden exclamation; others were perfectly calm, so that we could not
guess what they thought; and some held up their hands, and looked as if
the whole matter was totally beyond the reach of their comprehension.
When this was over, and there was no longer any necessity for the crowd
being seated, they closed round and watched us while we were putting the
instruments up. Some of the boys held out their hands for quicksilver,
with which they ran off, quite happy.

During this time we were about fifty yards from the foot of a cliff, on
the brow of which was posted a group of women with baskets on their
heads; we were unfortunately not near enough to discern their features,
nor to make out their dress distinctly; it appeared, however, to be like
that of the men, though somewhat shorter, and without any girdle round
the waist.

The rock here rises in perpendicular rugged cliffs of coral, with a
number of rude square excavations on its face, which, at first sight,
appear to have been worn by the elements, but on examination shew
evident traces of art. Most of these caves are closed up by a wall of
loose stones, but in one, of which the mouth was open, several human
bones were found lying amongst the sand. On removing a stone from a
closed cave, a vase was observed in the inside, of an elegant shape; the
people signified to us that these were the remains of the dead, but we
did not make out distinctly whether the bones or the ashes only were
thus preserved. They made no objections to our examining these caves,
though they certainly were not pleased with it. No notice was taken of
what Captain Maxwell and I did; but Mr. Clifford, who had remained below
collecting words from some intelligent natives, was strongly recommended
by Ookooma to go back to the boat; he walked up, however, without
opposition, to the cave which we had been examining, and they ceased to
importune him. A number of little boys who had observed us occasionally
pulling flowers and plants, ran about collecting for us, and after
presenting what they had gathered, with much politeness, ran away
laughing with an arch expression of ridicule at our curiosity.

On our way back, instead of going directly off to the ships, we coasted
along shore in our boats, which gave us a new view of a stone bridge, of
one arch, connecting two parts of the town. On the south side of the
bridge we passed a space of considerable extent, probably set apart as a
burying ground. We saw here a number of large horse-shoe tombs like
those used in China, whitewashed, and apparently kept in good repair.
Most of the tombs, however, are in the form of small square houses, with
low pyramidal roofs; some of these were tiled, others thatched. It is
evident that, in what relates to the dead, they follow, in some
respects, the Chinese customs.

[Illustration: NAPAKIANG.]

The whole coast at this place is of coral cliffs, the base of which
appears to have been scooped out by the action of the sea. As this
excavation is at some places higher than the waves of the sea can be
supposed to have ever reached, there is difficulty in assigning the sea
as the cause; yet the roof of the excavation is horizontal for a great
extent, and its appearance, in every other respect, suggests that it has
been formed by the dashing of the waves. There is, moreover, some
difficulty in accounting for coral cliffs being so much above the level
of the sea, in which, according to every supposition, they must have
been formed.

The scenery here, as in most countries in these climates, does not admit
of a satisfactory description. It may be said, however, that it is more
pleasing to the eye than that of islands near the equator, where the
vegetation is so profusely luxuriant, as to overload the picture with
foliage to the exclusion of every thing else. Here there is much
variety; the numerous groves of pine-trees give some parts of it an
English air, but the style of landscape is what is called tropical. The
general character of the scenery at this spot is faithfully preserved in
the drawing of Napakiang.

19th of September.--No answer having yet come from the Great Man, we
begin to apprehend that they are going to treat us in Chinese style, and
exclude us from their country altogether. We have tried in vain to
discover whether the King is at this place, or a hundred, or as some
maintain, a thousand miles off; in the mean time, as we know the island
to be not more than sixty miles long, it is fair to suppose that they
wish to deceive us.

We conjecture that a large building on a rising ground, three or four
miles from us in an eastern direction, with two flag-staffs near it, is
the palace mentioned in the account quoted by Pere Gaubil, Lettres
Edifiantes et Curieuses, Tom. XXIII. The natives always refuse to give
any information when asked about this building.

Whenever the natives come on board, if at all well dressed, they are
asked into the cabin, where we treat them with cherry brandy and
Constantia. In the course of conversation they contribute a number of
new words, and, in general, when they see what the object is, are very
willing to lend their assistance, and take much pains to teach us the
true pronunciation of their words. One man, however, who was not so
quick as they generally are, was in the cabin to-day for some time; Mr.
Clifford was getting from him the Loo-choo words for sour, sweet, salt,
&c.; and in order to make him comprehend the questions, made him taste
different things that were sour, sweet, and so on: the poor fellow stood
this very well, till some quassia was given to him to get the word
"bitter;" he had no sooner tasted it, than he ran off quite astonished
at the manner in which he had been entertained.

It blew hard this morning, so that there was little intercourse with the
shore; but towards sunset it moderated, and Ookooma, Jeema, and four
other Chiefs, came on board, bringing with them a present of a bullock,
two hogs, goats, and vegetables. The Chief whose name is Shayoon is the
most clever of them all; he is next in rank to Ookooma, but he generally
takes the lead in discussion; he has a quick intelligent look, with more
determination in his manner than any of the others. They were very
particular on all these state occasions to observe the order of
precedence, and no one sat down till his superior was seated. When any
subject was discussed, one at a time rose to speak, but not in order of
rank, and they never attempted to interrupt one another.

The weather at this moment looked so stormy, that I went on board the
Lyra to prepare for a gale; by which I lost a very interesting
conference with the chiefs. I learnt from Captain Maxwell afterwards,
that he had remonstrated with them on their inconsistency and the
pretended difficulty of getting answers from court; he gave them to
understand, that he did not conceive it was treating the King of England
with due respect to deny his officers permission to walk on shore.
Again, that they had promised to send pilots, but that none had come;
and that many other promises had not been performed. He desired the
interpreter to say, that he was not pleased with their telling him so
many different stories, all of which could not be true; first they said
that the bullocks, hogs, &c. were gifts from themselves; then, that they
were sent by the Great Man; then, that there was no Great Man here: in
fine, he urged them strongly to tell him the truth on all points. They
made the interpreter repeat six times over what Captain Maxwell had
desired him to say; they then consulted amongst themselves a long time,
and at last assured Captain Maxwell, that a reply to the communications
made by them to government would reach this place next day.

As the stock and vegetables received by the ships had, by this time,
amounted to a considerable quantity, a bag of dollars was offered to
them, and they were urged to take payment for what had been sent on
board; this offer, which had been made more than once before, was still
declined; upon which they were informed, that we considered it improper,
as servants of government, to receive presents to such an extent from
individuals. Upon this they gave their assurance, that the stock had
been sent on board by order of the Loo-choo government, on their being
informed that the King of another country's ships had arrived. No
payment they said could therefore be taken. With this Captain Maxwell
was satisfied. Their wish seems to be, to prevent our opening any
communication with their government, and they appear so decided upon
these matters, that they will probably succeed, notwithstanding all our
efforts.

The chiefs have dresses adapted to the state of the weather; yesterday
being cold and threatening, they all came on board with a sort of cloak
or great coat made of a thick blue stuff like woollen cloth, buttoned in
front. It is tighter than the ordinary dress, and is worn over it. It is
only in fine weather, and on state occasions, that they wear the band
turban, called by them "hatchee matchee;" at all other times they go
uncovered, having their hair dressed like the rest of the people.

20th of September.--The mercury in the barometer fell last night from
29. 72, to 29. 51, and the sky assumed a yellow appearance. We expected
a heavy gale, more particularly as it was so near the equinox, but we
were so sheltered by the land, that though it appeared to blow hard at
sea, we felt nothing of it where we lay.

Three or four canoes came round the south-west point of land this
forenoon; the people in them were supposed to have come from the other
side of the island, for they did not appear to have seen the ships
before. One of these people was much delighted with a looking-glass
which was shewn to him; he took it in his hands, and calling his
companions about him, shewed them in turn its effect. Having done so
several times, he held it opposite to his own face for four or five
minutes without altering his countenance in the least; at last he
smiled, and immediately and involuntarily nodded assent to the image in
the glass, which had so exactly expressed what he felt himself; he
seemed, however, aware, that it was a reflection of his own countenance,
as he pointed to himself, yet he could not restrain his curiosity from
looking behind, but instantly turned it round again. While the glass was
in his hands, he made us several long speeches, in which he frequently
repeated the word "Kagung," the Loo-choo name for mirror; but, from his
behaviour, it is probable he knew it only by name. One of this party
sold his "Jeewa" or head ornaments for a wine glass. Sometime
afterwards, the others saw a bottle, which they wished to purchase in
the same way; it was, however, given to them as a present, and they went
away very well satisfied. These canoes were of pine, from twelve to
twenty feet long, and from two to four wide; their anchor is made of
wood loaded with stones.

As no answer came this morning from the Great Man, Captain Maxwell took
the ships into a more secure anchorage at the north-east corner of the
bay; our first anchorage being too close to a reef, and moreover open to
the south-west winds. The place we had now shifted to, though apparently
exposed, is, in fact, sheltered by a chain of reefs under water outside
of us to the westward. By this change, we have been brought close to the
bridge spoken of before, and are now abreast the east end of the town:
the Lyra not being more than a quarter of a mile from the shore. A
strict watch is kept on shore, so that no boat leaves the ships without
being observed. Orders have been given for the whole anchorage to be
carefully sounded; in doing this, the boats often approach the shore,
and whenever this happens, a crowd of the natives, headed by one or
other of the chiefs, repair to the spot, and wave them to keep farther
off.

21st of September.--There appears to be some embargo upon the canoes,
for there has not been one near us this morning, and only one on board
the Alceste. It was found necessary to-day to move the frigate still
farther in, and four or five hawsers were laid out for the purpose of
warping her a-head. While this was going on, the beach, and all the
heights near us, were crowded with people, wondering, no doubt, how the
ship was made to move without sails, for the hawsers were low down, and
might have escaped their observation. In the canoe which visited the
Alceste, there came two men, who had not been seen before; they remained
but a short time, which was spent in examining the hawsers and the mode
of warping the ship. As soon as they had made themselves master of this
subject, they went on shore, as if to make a report. During their visit
they said little, being intent upon what was going on; but the
interpreter learnt from one of them, that a Great Man had actually come,
or was expected in the town to-day. A report prevails, that the King of
the island has lately been on board in disguise. We cannot trace the
report to any good foundation, and it is probably false. At the same
time, if his Majesty has any curiosity, it is not unlikely that he may
have come near enough to see such a strange sight as we must be.

It is possible that our moving up so close to the town has alarmed the
people, and may have prevented their visiting us as heretofore; at all
events, it is very unfair in our friends, the Chiefs, neither to let the
people come on board, nor to allow us to go on shore to look at them.

Our occupation in the mean time is to observe the natives through the
telescope placed on a table on the Lyra's poop. The stone bridge appears
to be a great thoroughfare, several roads from the country leading to
it; it seems also to be the only entrance to the town on this side.
Nobody crosses it without stopping to look at us, and a crowd of idle
people have taken post on and about it. We see a number of women coming
from the country with baskets on their heads. Their outer dress differs
from that of the men, it is open in front, and they have no girdle; they
have an under dress, or sack, which is also loose, but not open; in some
we can see that this comes nearly to the feet, in others just to the
knee, and we imagine that those who work in the fields have the short
dress: most of them allow their upper garment to flow out with the wind
behind them. We observe a woman carrying a child across the hip as in
India, with its hands on its mother's shoulder, while her arm is round
the child's waist. One young lady has been seen for some time amusing
herself by making a dog bark at the ships. We see women beating rice in
wooden mortars. On the banks of the stream which the bridge crosses,
there are a number of people washing clothes, which they perform in the
Indian way, by dipping the clothes in water and beating them on stones.
From one end of the beach to the other there is a range of people
watching us, they are formed here and there into groups; one of which,
on a craggy knoll abreast of the ships, has struck us as being
particularly interesting. A fine majestic looking man, whose full beard
and flowing garments remind us of a figure in the Cartoons of Raphael,
is standing in the middle of a circle of old men, who are lying on the
grass, and appear to be listening to him.

22nd of September.--This morning brings us no news, no permission to
land! A number of flags and streamers are displayed on the masts of the
vessels in the inner harbour, and there seems to be something going on
on shore; no boats have come to us, and we have no occupation but
looking through the glass, which, however, affords a good deal of
entertainment, particularly as the people whom we see with it act in the
usual way, being unconscious of our scrutiny.

In the afternoon a number of boats left the shore and proceeded to the
Alceste in procession. In the foremost boat there seemed to be a person
of consequence, whom we immediately conjectured to be the Great Man
alluded to by the people yesterday. He got on board the Alceste before
us, and the natives also had left their canoes, so that we found the
ship's decks crowded with people. The Chief, whom we found seated in the
cabin, was clothed in purple silk, with a light purple hatchee matchee.
An official communication of our history was now repeated at the old
man's request. He listened with great attention till Captain Maxwell
concluded his statement, by informing him that the ship was leaky and
required frequent pumping. He then begged permission to see this
operation, if it would not give too much trouble. As this was exactly
what we wished, the chain pumps were ordered to be got ready, and the
conference went on, consisting principally of compliments. Observing
that we took notice of his being a little deaf, he seemed anxious to
explain that this was the effect of age. He made us feel his pulse, and
look at the withered state of his hand, then taking ours and feeling the
pulse, held them up along with his own, and laughed with great good
humour at the contrast which age had produced. He was about sixty years
old, and his beard of thin hair was as white as snow: he had a
cheerfulness of expression, and a liveliness of manner, which are
remarkable for a man of his years. His manners were graceful and
elegant, and from the first moment he seemed quite at his ease. Every
thing about him, in short, indicated good-breeding, and a familiarity
with good society; and we could not help remarking his decided
superiority in appearance over the other chiefs.

When the pumps were ready, he was escorted to the main deck, where he
sat for some time in great admiration of the machinery; and seeing the
labour required to work it, he seemed really affected at our situation,
which he naturally thought must be very bad, from the immense quantity
of water thrown out by the pumps. The ship being upright, the water did
not run off freely from the deck, and in a short time it flowed round
the chair in which the old man was seated. Three or four of the sailors
seeing him somewhat uneasy at this inundation, took him up chair and
all, and placed him on a dry spot. The old gentleman was surprised, not
displeased, and very graciously replied to the low bows which the
sailors made him. On returning to the cabin, they were all entertained
as usual with sweet wine, cherry brandy, and pipes. The old man filled
pipes for us, and as soon as this part of the ceremonial had been gone
through, a formal request was made for permission to land the Alceste's
casks and stores, in order to stop the leak and make other repairs. This
produced a long discussion amongst the chiefs, in which the old man
joined but little; he spoke, however, now and then, and whatever he
said, appeared to be to the purpose. Whenever the chiefs spoke, they
rose and addressed themselves to him in a most respectful manner. At
length, having agreed about an answer, they communicated to Captain
Maxwell that there was no good place here for the purposes he wanted,
and that as our present anchorage was unsafe, they recommended our going
round to the harbour alluded to on a former occasion. At this place,
which they call Winching or Oonching, he said we might put on shore
whatever we chose. On our asking if in Winching the water was deep
enough to admit a large ship, a long discussion arose, during which they
appeared to be considering the merits of the harbour. They seemed
apprehensive of giving it too high a character, and that on our reaching
it we should be disappointed. The old man at length suggested sending
the "little ship" to see whether it would answer. To this Captain
Maxwell agreed, only requesting that a person might accompany us, in
order to save time in the search. Simple as this appears, they took a
long time to consider it, and ended by saying that no reply could be
given till the next day.

While the subject of this harbour was under discussion, the old man drew
on a sheet of paper, a chart of the island, and pointed out the place
where the harbour lay. It proved afterwards, when we had surveyed the
island, that this sketch possessed considerable accuracy, as the
situation of the harbour of which they spoke corresponds exactly with
that of Port Melville, discovered in the Lyra. It is much to be
regretted that this curious sketch is lost.

The Chief now walked about the cabin, examined the globes, books, and
pictures, with great attention. The wainscot struck him particularly, as
well as the machinery and finish of the windows and sliding shutters.
Captain Maxwell tried to make him comprehend our track on the globe. He
had felt it becoming to preserve some state while business was going on,
but he now became quite chatty and familiar. He went all over the ship,
accompanied by the other chiefs and his own personal suite, consisting
of a pipe bearer, a man who carried his large camp chair, another with a
cover of red cloth for the chair, and a man who carried a round Japan
box for the hatchee-matchee. Two others took it in turn to fan him, and
to hold his arm by the elbow and wrist whenever he walked about;
probably as a piece of state, for the ship had very little motion: these
fanners were very expert at their business, for not content with cooling
his face and neck, they lifted up his large sleeves and fanned his arms.
On returning to the cabin, he saw Mr. Clifford using gloves, and begged
leave to try them on; with the right one he succeeded very well, but the
nails of his left hand being about an inch long, he found it not so easy
a matter: he seemed to think them the oddest things he had met with, and
laughing much, held them up repeatedly to the other chiefs.

The old man brought a present for Captain Maxwell, and sent another to
the Lyra, consisting of a hog, a kid, two bags of potatoes, a basket of
charcoal, thirty bundles of eggs (five in each), a bundle of vermicelli,
and a jar of an ardent spirit called samchew. All the chiefs, who were
in their best attire, were severally accompanied by a man carrying a box
for the hatchee-matchee; their dresses were of various colours, and
their sandals and stockings all alike. On rising to go away, the old man
bowed to me, and said that he meant to visit my ship; but this being
evidently complimentary, I begged him not to take so much trouble: he,
in return, expressed himself obliged to me for being satisfied with the
politeness intended. The Embassador's barge was manned to take him on
shore, but as soon as he saw what was intended, he drew back, and
declared that he could not land in any boat but his own. As it was
supposed that his modesty prevented his accepting this offer, he was
urged to overcome his scruples, and land in the manner proposed; he
still, however, declined the honour, but at last went down the ladder,
and having stepped into the barge, made a bow to Captain Maxwell, as if
in acknowledgment of the attention, but immediately afterwards went into
his own boat and pushed off, under a salute of three guns from each
ship.

Our intention of returning this visit the next day was not mentioned
during the discussions in the cabin, from the certainty of its being
combated, and perhaps overruled: but when the last of the chiefs was
getting into the boat, the interpreter was desired to tell him, in a
careless way, as a matter of course, that next morning this visit would
be returned on shore. As had been foreseen, this did not receive their
approbation; the interpreter went into the boat, where every persuasion
was used to convince him of the impropriety of our intention: they could
not succeed, however, in making him yield this point, and at length went
away. This interpreter is called "John" by all parties, and though
merely an under servant of the factory at Canton, he is a very shrewd
fellow. His English is certainly not the best, and probably the Chinese
he speaks is the base provincial language of Canton; so that
misunderstandings are no doubt often caused by his erroneous
interpretation.

John's report after the boat had put off, and from which we gather that
we shall be expected, was as follows: "They ax me, 'what for my Ta-yin
come sho?' I say, 'to make chin-chin[7] they Ta-yin;' they tell me, 'You
Ta-yin too much great mandarine, no can come sho;' I say, 'What for my
Ta-yin no come sho? He great man; he[8] Ta-wang-tee too much great man;
he let you Ta-yin come board ship, and you no let him come sho,
chin-chin you Ta-yin; what for this?' Then they speak long time
together; by and by ax me, 'how many people bring sho you Ta-yin?' So I
shake my head, I no like give answer long time, (they always take long
time answer me). When they ax me again, I say, 'Ta-yin bring five people
mo besides me.' They say, 'too much men come;' I say, 'No, no too much.'
They ax, 'What time come?' I give no answer."

23d September.--As we had not contemplated such adventures as these, we
had made no preparations for them; and now that it was necessary to make
some return to the chief whom we were going to visit, we found great
difficulty in preparing a suitable present. Captain Maxwell took with
him several dozens of wine, some books, glasses, various trinkets, and a
large piece of blue broad cloth. I took half the quantity of Captain
Maxwell's other presents, and a table cloth in place of the broad cloth.
Smaller presents were also made up for each of the chiefs. At one
o'clock we set out in the barge, with a large union jack flying, and as
it blew fresh, we soon reached the harbour. As we rowed past the shore,
the people were seen running along all the roads leading to the town, so
that by the time we reached the harbour, the crowd on both sides was
immense: the trees, walls, and house tops, and in short every spot from
which we could be seen, was literally covered with people, forming a
sight as striking and animated as can well be conceived. As we entered
the harbour several of the chiefs were observed to come down to a point,
and wave for us to go round the end of a pier or mole, forming the inner
harbour, where there was a good landing-place.

The chiefs helped us out, and then led us along, Ookooma taking Captain
Maxwell's hand, Shayoon mine, and Jeema Mr. Clifford's; the others,
according to their rank, conducted Mr. M'Leod of the Alceste, Mr.
Maxwell, and another midshipman, Mr. Browne. They held our hands nearly
as high as the shoulder, while a lane was formed for us through the
crowd of people, who were perfectly silent. The children were placed in
front, and the next rank sat down, so that those behind could see us in
passing. At about a hundred and fifty yards from the landing-place, we
came to the gate of a temple, where we were met by the Chief, who stood
just on the outside of the threshold, on a small raised pavement: he
took Ookooma's place, and conducted Captain Maxwell up a few steps into
the temple, which was partly open on two sides, with deep verandahs,
which made the interior shady and cool. A large table, finely japanned,
was spread, and two ornamented chairs were placed for us. The Chief
seated himself at one end of the table, and placed Captain Maxwell on
his left.

He expressed himself much gratified and honoured by the visit, asked our
ages, and if we were married. He was greatly pleased with Captain
Maxwell's account of his family, which nearly corresponded with his own.
He guessed Mr. Maxwell's age to be twenty-seven, and was with difficulty
persuaded to believe that a person six feet high could be only sixteen.
The same mistake was made by all the natives, who invariably judged of
the age of our young men by their height alone. An entertainment was now
served, beginning with a light kind of wine, called sackee, which was
handed round in very diminutive cups, filled by Issacha, from a small
high pot in which the sackee was kept hot. They insisted on our emptying
the cup every time, shewing us a fair example themselves. During the
whole feast the sackee never left the table, being considered apropos to
all the strange dishes which we partook of. The first of these consisted
of hard boiled eggs, cut into slices, the outside of the white being
coloured red. A pair of chopsticks[9] was now given to each person, and
these were not changed during the feast. Next came fish fried in batter,
which we found an excellent dish; then sliced smoked pork, next pig's
liver sliced. After this, tea was handed round in cups of a moderate
size; the tea was quite new, resembling, as was observed, an infusion of
hay. Pipes and tobacco served to fill up the short intervals between the
courses. A man attended behind each of our chairs, whose sole business
it was to fill and light the pipes. The next dish was the strangest of
any, and disgusted most of the party; it consisted of a mass of coarse,
soft, black sugar, wrapped up in unbaked dough, powdered over with rice
flour, dyed yellow. After this we had dishes of round cakes, like
gingerbread nuts; then cakes made in the form of wreaths, and in a
variety of other shapes. There was something like cheese given us after
the cakes, but we cannot form a probable conjecture of what it was made.
Most of the dishes were so good that we soon made a hearty dinner, but
the attendants still brought in more, till the Chief seeing that we did
not eat, recommended the sackee to us. The old gentleman's eyes at
length began to glisten, and observing that we felt it hot, he requested
us to uncover, shewing the example himself. He seized the doctor's
cocked hat and put it on, while the doctor did the same with his
hatchee-matchee. The oddity of the Chief's appearance produced by this
change overcame the gravity of the attendants, and the mirth became
general; nor was the joke relished by any body more than the Chief's two
sons, who stood by his chair during all the entertainment: they were
pretty little boys, with gaudy dresses, and their hair dressed in high
shewy top-knots.

[Illustration: LOO-CHOO CHIEF and his TWO SONS.]

During the early part of the feast, our presents were brought in on
trays, and laid at the feet of the Chief: the old man rose and saw them
arranged, he then made a graceful bow, and acknowledged his
satisfaction, observing that we had sent him too much, and had done him
more honour than he was entitled to, and that he could not think of
accepting the whole. This we considered matter of form, and in reply
lamented our inability to make suitable presents; upon which he sat
down and said no more. The other chiefs ran about shewing the list of
their presents to their friends among the crowd.

The room in which this entertainment was given was open at first on two
sides only, but afterwards the partitions on the other two sides were
taken down, being contrived to slide in grooves; thus the rooms are
enlarged or diminished at pleasure. When the partition behind us was
removed, several strange looking figures made their appearance, who we
found were Bodezes or priests. Their heads and faces were shaved, their
feet bare, and their dress different from that worn by the rest of the
people, being somewhat shorter, and much less free and flowing, without
any belt round the waist, the robe being merely tightened a little by a
drawing string tied at the side; over the shoulders hangs an embroidered
band or belt, like that used by drummers: the colour of their dress is
not uniform, some wearing black, others yellow, and some deep purple.
They have a timorous, patient, subdued sort of look, with a languid
smile, and ghastly expression of countenance. They are low in stature,
and generally look unhealthy; they all stoop more or less, and their
manners are without grace, so that a more contemptible class of people
cannot easily be imagined. Along with the Bodezes were several boys,
whom we took to be their children from the resemblance they bore to
them; but this mistake must have arisen from these boys being dressed
like the priests, for the Bodezes are strictly confined to a life of
celibacy. From the circumstance of our being in a temple, as well as
from our general habits of respect to persons filling sacred stations,
we felt at first disposed to treat these Bodezes with attention, but
this was looked upon as ridiculous by the chiefs, who seeing us bowing
to them, begged we would take no further notice of them. Instead of
being the class most respected, they are considered the lowest, and if
not held in contempt, are at least neglected by all other ranks.

During all the time we were at table, the crowd pressed round the
verandahs, and perched themselves upon the walls and house-tops in the
vicinity, or wherever they could get a peep at us. The satisfaction here
was mutual, as we were anxious to make the most of the opportunity, not
knowing if we should ever be allowed to land again. After sitting two
hours we rose, and were escorted to the boats in the same order as when
we landed. An attempt had been made during the feast, when the whole
party were in good humour, to prevail upon the old gentleman to sanction
our taking a walk into the town; but the bare mention of such a thing
sobered the whole party in an instant, and the subject was accordingly
dropped. The sailors, who had been kept in the boats for fear of their
doing mischief, had not been neglected by the Chief, who had sent them
part of the feast, nor did it seem that they had any objection to the
sackee. We looked anxiously on the right and left as we passed through
the crowd, in hopes of seeing some of the women, but in this expectation
we were disappointed. At a considerable distance indeed, on the opposite
side of the harbour, we saw a group of women, several of whom came down
to the causeway to obtain a better view of the boats as they passed. Six
or eight young girls ran to the pier head, round some rocks near the
end; they reached this spot just as we rowed past, but looked quite
frightened at finding themselves so near us, and immediately drew back
out of our sight. We fancied that we could discover a good deal of
beauty in some of their faces, and that their figures were handsome; but
as we had not seen a fair lady's face for nearly half a year before, our
judgment in this case is not perhaps to be depended on. Ookooma and his
associates put off to accompany us in one of their own boats, but as it
blew hard, they came no farther than the pier head: Jeeroo, however, was
sent along with us, to see that there were no stray sheep.

What is to follow is uncertain, but it is clear that we have made little
progress of late, while fresh obstacles have been hourly rising against
our landing; in the meantime, the Loo-chooans shew no little sagacity
and kindness of disposition in supplying us liberally with all kinds of
stock.

24th of September.--Last night and to-day it has blown a hard gale of
wind, beginning at north north-east, and shifting to north-west, but the
reefs and the land break its force, and enable us to ride in perfect
security: in all probability it blew severely in the open sea. The
barometer fell from 29.62, to 29.50, yesterday; in the evening it had
reached 29.48, and this morning stood at 29.40. About four in the
morning it began to rise rapidly, and the severity of the gale did not
come on till it had risen a good deal. The thermometer both in the day
and night stands at 82º, with very little variation, but the sky being
constantly clouded, no observations could be made.

25th of September.--Jeeroo came on board this morning with a present of
vegetables and fruit, and afterwards went on board the Alceste to join
Ookooma and Jeema. They had preceded him with a present from the Chief,
by whose desire they made a number of kind inquiries, and repeatedly
expressed, in his name, surprise and satisfaction at our having been
able to ride out the gale. They also apologized for not visiting us
yesterday, which the gale had rendered impossible. It was represented in
the conference to-day, that our limbs were getting quite stiff for want
of exercise, and that it became absolutely necessary for us to land, on
account of our health: they debated amongst themselves for some time,
and then said that a final answer would be given to-morrow. They have
quite forgotten their promise to send a pilot for the harbour to the
northward: they wish also that we should forget it, since they change
the subject whenever it is spoken of, and affect total ignorance of our
meaning. The government probably think it best to keep us where we are,
and therefore discourage our investigating the island any further.

Jeeroo, who begins to get quite familiar with us all, is a laughing
good-humoured man, about thirty: he shakes every one cordially by the
hand when he comes on board, and engages in all our amusements with
great cheerfulness. He is very useful to us, because the anxiety he has
to learn English makes him communicate freely the knowledge of his own
language: thus there is little difficulty in fixing him over a glass of
Constantia, upon which occasions he contributes largely to Mr.
Clifford's vocabulary. Some of our words the Loo-chooans cannot
pronounce; the letter _l_ preceded by _c_ appears the most difficult;
they call Clifford "Criffar," and even this requires many efforts: not
one of the natives has yet been able to make any thing of child; they
call it shoidah, choiah, and chyad.

26th of September.--No boats have been near us to-day, and we might
readily land if we chose it; but Captain Maxwell is resolved not to do
so till he gets the consent of the natives.

27th of September.--As we were still prevented from going on shore, we
amused ourselves by examining a reef which forms the north side of the
anchorage. We found a field of coral about half a mile square, dry at
low water, with the surf breaking very high on the outer edge, which
lies exposed to the waves from the north. The surface of the rock is
every where worn into small holes, which being left full of water as the
tide goes out, are occupied by a number of beautiful blue fish. The
coral is exceedingly hard, and though at many places it sticks up in
sharp points, it requires a hammer of considerable weight to break it,
and emits sparks like flint when struck; in a short time it entirely
defaces the hammer. This extent of level space has suggested the idea of
measuring a base on it in order to survey the anchorage, since there
appears so little chance of our being allowed to land for this purpose
on the beach.

While we were deliberating on this matter, we had a striking proof of
the inconvenience to which we were likely to be exposed during this
survey, by the tide rising and fairly washing us off. Notwithstanding
this, we determined to commence next morning, and returned to make
preparations, in high spirits at the prospect of an occupation, if not
on terra firma, at least out of the ship, within whose sides we had been
confined so long. On returning, we found that Captain Maxwell had
arranged a party to visit the small island and reef which we were so
close to on the 14th instant; the survey was therefore postponed.

Jeeroo sent us off some fresh fish to-day; some were red, and one or two
blue: he came himself afterwards, and was happy to find us much
gratified by his present. A formal message was sent to-day to the chiefs
in attendance, stating that both ships were in want of fresh water, and
that the boats must go on shore with casks to bring some off. In a short
time after this message had been delivered, a number of canoes came
alongside with large tubs of water; a strong proof of their alertness in
getting rid of all our excuses for landing, and at the same time, it
must be owned, of their readiness to supply our wants. An elderly
gentleman, not a chief, visited us to-day, accompanied by his secretary.
His appearance and manners being greatly in his favour, we paid him all
the attention in our power. His wish was to be permitted to go all over
the ship at his leisure; and in this way he examined every thing on
board with far more attention than any body had done before him. His
secretary, who was equally inquisitive, accompanied him in order to take
notes. He employed himself for about six hours in examining the upper
deck, and never quitted any thing till he understood its use. While he
was thus occupied, he was attended by the sailors, who were pleased with
his reverend appearance, and very readily assisted the old man in his
enquiries.

It was interesting to observe, indeed, how early the gentle and engaging
manners of all classes here won upon the sailors, no less than upon the
officers. The natives from the first were treated with entire
confidence; no watch was ever kept over them, nor were they excluded
from any part of the ships; and not only was nothing stolen, but when
any thing was lost, nobody even suspected for an instant, that it had
been taken by them.

The old man next came down to the cabin, where he remained a long time
examining the books and furniture, and occasionally engaging in
conversation with Mr. Clifford, for whose Vocabulary he supplied many
new words, and corrected others which had been written down erroneously.
He would not accept any thing valuable, but was grateful for samples of
rope, canvas, and cloth. This old gentleman renewed his examination of
the brig next day; nor was it till the third day that he completed his
survey.

28th of September.--At sunrise we set out for Reef Island, which lies
about six miles from the anchorage: we reached it in about an hour, but
as it was low water, the coral was left almost bare for a considerable
way out, and our large boat could not get near the beach. In this
dilemma we took possession of a canoe which was at anchor, and in
several trips all the party landed. Near a hut we saw about a dozen
people who stood looking at us till we landed, and then ran away,
leaving their tobacco-pipes, pouches, and various other things on the
ground about the hut, in which we found a pot of boiled sweet potatoes
and several jars of water. Having, in vain, tried to allay the
apprehensions of the natives by waving to them, to induce them to
approach us, we sat down to breakfast; which we had hardly done, when
two of them, an old man and a boy, came to the door of our tent and
prostrated themselves before us, apparently in great alarm, for they
answered incoherently, "ooa" (yes) to every question we asked them. At
last we raised the old man on his knees, but he would not quit this
posture till we gave him a glass of rum, which re-assured him a little,
and shortly afterwards he consented to stand on his legs. Having thus
gradually gained confidence, he made signs that we had taken his canoe:
upon which an order was given to the coxswain to restore it. He guessed
immediately what was said, and in the joy of his heart was proceeding to
prostrate himself again, but was stopped by our holding out buttons and
some pieces of meat and bread to him, which he received in both hands,
and touching his head each time with the presents, made three low
obeisances and retired.

On rising from breakfast we found, near the tent, about a dozen natives,
who, in most respects, resembled our friends at Napakiang, but were not
so neatly dressed; and their hair, instead of being formed into a knot,
was allowed to fly loose. During the morning the party amused themselves
in various ways. Some took their guns and went in search of curlews and
sea-snipes: others set out to explore the reefs; and two or three
remained near the tent, for the purpose of making observations on the
sun at noon; but as it became cloudy about this time, the latter party
failed in their object. The rest were more successful; the sportsmen
having shot some game for dinner; and the other party having found all
things favourable for inspecting the reef.

The examination of a coral reef during the different stages of one
tide, is particularly interesting. When the tide has left it for some
time it becomes dry, and appears to be a compact rock, exceedingly hard
and ragged; but as the tide rises, and the waves begin to wash over it,
the coral worms protrude themselves from holes which were before
invisible. These animals are of a great variety of shapes and sizes, and
in such prodigious numbers, that, in a short time, the whole surface of
the rock appears to be alive and in motion. The most common worm is in
the form of a star, with arms from four to six inches long, which are
moved about with a rapid motion in all directions, probably to catch
food. Others are so sluggish, that they may be mistaken for pieces of
the rock, and are generally of a dark colour, and from four to five
inches long, and two or three round. When the coral is broken, about
high water mark, it is a solid hard stone, but if any part of it be
detached at a spot which the tide reaches every day, it is found to be
full of worms of different lengths and colours, some being as fine as a
thread and several feet long, of a bright yellow, and sometimes of a
blue colour: others resemble snails, and some are not unlike lobsters in
shape, but soft, and not above two inches long[10].

The growth of coral appears to cease when the worm is no longer exposed
to the washing of the sea. Thus, a reef rises in the form of a
cauliflower, till its top has gained the level of the highest tides,
above which the worm has no power to advance, and the reef of course no
longer extends itself upwards. The other parts, in succession, reach the
surface, and there stop, forming in time a level field with steep sides
all round. The reef, however, continually increases, and being prevented
from going higher, extends itself laterally in all directions. But this
growth being as rapid at the upper edge as it is lower down, the
steepness of the face of the reef is still preserved. These are the
circumstances which render coral reefs so dangerous in navigation; for,
in the first place, they are seldom seen above the water; and, in the
next, their sides are so steep, that a ship's bows may strike against
the rock before any change of soundings has given warning of the danger.

The island at high water is formed into three parts, which at low water
are joined by reefs; the whole being about two and a half or three miles
from east to west, and tolerably clear of rocks on the south side; but
on the north it is guarded by a semicircle of coral extending upwards of
a mile from the shore. On the centre island is only one hut, which, as
there was reason to believe it to be the actual abode of the
inhabitants, it may be allowable to describe. The walls were sunk under
ground, so that only the roof appeared from without, the inside was
fifteen feet by six: the walls of neatly squared stones, being two feet
high, and the roof in the middle about six or seven high, formed of a
ridge pole supported in the centre by a forked stick; the rafters of
rough branches were covered with reeds, and thatched over with the leaf
of the wild pine, which grows on all the coral islands. The fire-place
was at one end on a raised part of the floor, and the other end appeared
to be the sleeping place. It was conjectured, that this wretched place
could only be meant as a temporary residence of fishermen, whose nets we
saw lying about; but the number of water jars and cooking utensils which
we found in and about it, gave it the appearance of a fixed habitation.

It was almost dark when we quitted the island, and the tide carrying us
out of our proper course, we missed the ships and grounded on the reefs
near the town; but as the tide was flowing, we easily got off, and by
coasting along, soon gained the anchorage.

Sunday, 29th of September.--This day is memorable, on account of its
being the first on which we were permitted to land.

Yesterday, when we were absent at Reef Island, the chiefs had come on
board to say that we might land, but that our walk must be confined to
the beach, and that we were neither to enter the town, nor to go into
the country. At one o'clock several of the chiefs came on board and
accompanied us to the beach, where we landed amidst an immense crowd,
and were handed along by Ookooma and the rest, who, in their desire to
be civil, held us by the arms. The day, however, being excessively hot,
and the sand deep, we found this troublesome, and begged leave to walk
alone, to which they reluctantly consented, and we proceeded along the
beach for a quarter of a mile.

Beginning to get tired of our walk, we stopped and expressed some
surprise at such a reception, and told them how disagreeable it was to
us to be in the sun at such an hour. But our remonstrances did not
produce much effect, for, on our objecting particularly to the heat,
they shewed us to a sort of cave in a rock on the beach, where they put
down a mat and wished us to drink tea in the shade, since we disliked
the sun. This could not be submitted to, however, and we told them that
our object in landing was not to sit down on the beach to drink tea, but
to walk about under the trees in order to recover our health, impaired
by a long stay on board ship. They tried all their eloquence to persuade
us that our walk, thus limited, was perfectly pleasant; till at length
Captain Maxwell gave them to understand, that he wished to go to the top
of the hills under the trees; but that, as he did not mean to advance a
single step beyond what was approved of, he would return instantly to
the ship if they persisted in confining him to the beach. A consultation
was held upon this, during which, frequent reference was made to several
elderly men, whose opinions appeared to have great weight. They did not
wear the dress of chiefs, but, from all that passed, we suspected them
to be persons about court, who had been sent to assist the councils of
the local commission, without superseding its authority. They at last
agreed to our going to the top of the hill, taking the precaution before
we set out, of sending on a couple of runners, probably to give warning
to the women who might be in that direction. About half way up the road,
which winds along a steep face, there is a neatly-built well, supplied
by a stream which runs along a carved water-course, and near it were
three or four rudely carved stones about a foot long and four inches
across, with slow matches and a small quantity of rice laid upon each.
Mr. Clifford distinctly made out that this was meant as a religious
offering, but its precise object could not be discovered, though it was
conjectured that the guardian deity of the well might have some title to
the honour. The side of the hill is cut into horizontal irregular
terraces, which are cultivated with apparent care, and irrigated by
means of ditches leading from the well. On gaining the brow of the hill
which overlooks the anchorage, the chiefs stopped, but as we were within
a few yards of the summit, where we saw a shady grove, we begged them to
proceed, to which, after a short deliberation, they consented. By
gaining this eminence, we commanded a view of an extensive valley more
beautiful than any thing we had ever seen; and on the side opposite to
us we saw the large building spoken of before, generally suspected to be
the King's palace: our questions, however, on this subject were always
answered in so evasive a manner, and with such apparent distress, that
we seldom made any allusion either to it or to the King.

Here we remained under the trees for an hour, drinking tea and smoking
pipes in company with all the chiefs, besides four or five of the old
men mentioned before. We amused them by lighting their pipes with a
burning glass; but one old gentleman, who suspected some trick, and did
not join in the surprise shewn by the rest, held out his hand that it
might be exposed to the focus; and he was soon undeceived, to the great
amusement of the circle. The magnifying power of the glass engaged the
attention of them all, but they were differently affected by it: a
start and an exclamation of pleased surprise was the most usual effect;
some laughed immoderately at every experiment, while others were made
very grave by it, who had not been particularly serious before.
Advantage was taken of the moment when their admiration of the glass was
at the highest, to present it to Jeeroo, whose good-will it was thought
expedient to conciliate: he had not expected this, and felt obliged to
us for so public a mark of our esteem.

A man on horseback happening to ride by, it was gravely suggested to the
chiefs that nothing would so materially contribute to the establishment
of our health as this species of exercise; but they insisted upon
treating our request as a mere joke. On the way back an attempt was made
to vary the walk by turning to the left on reaching the brow of the
hill, and so walking along the edge of the cliff to another road; the
chiefs observed upon this that we should infallibly tumble down and kill
ourselves; affecting, notwithstanding the absurdity of any such
apprehensions, to be greatly distressed at our danger: so we turned
back, after having had a short interview with an old man seated in a
shed on the edge of the precipice. His white beard, which covered his
breast, suited well with his sedate and contemplative air, and gave him
much the aspect of a hermit. Our appearance did not in the least
discompose him, nor did he take any notice of us till desired to do so
by Ookooma; he then bowed slightly, but immediately resumed his fixed
look, as if he had been quite alone.

As we drew near to the place where we had landed, our companions
surprised us by an invitation to a feast, prepared, they said, on our
account in a temple close to the shore. Here they gave us painted eggs,
smoked salt pork, and various preparations of eggs and fish, with sweet
cakes in numberless forms, besides tea, pipes, and sackee, a light kind
of wine made hot. Nothing could be more cheerful than they all were
to-day: they placed us on the floor at the upper end of the room, and,
for some time, they would not allow us to move; but Mr. Clifford, who,
from the progress he has made in their language, has become a great
favourite, was invited to join a merry party in the verandah, to which
they brought flowers, fruits, and every thing they could think of, in
order to learn their English names, and give in return those of
Loo-choo.

On reaching the boats, Jeeroo and two of his friends seemed disposed to
go on board; they were accordingly invited to do so, which made him so
happy, that he took a rudely-carved ivory ornament, in the shape of a
monkey, from his tobacco-pouch, and gave it to me. Dinner was on table
when they came on board, but there was time before taking my friends
below, to intimate to the servants, that these gentlemen were going to
dine with me, so that when we reached the cabin, three plates were laid
in addition. They had probably not expected to find dinner ready for
them on board, for they expressed surprise at these preparations having
been made, and would not sit down for some time. When the covers were
removed, they became silent, and looked on either hand for directions
how to proceed. On being helped to soup, they did not stir till they saw
us take spoons, in the management of which they shewed but little
awkwardness. The knife and fork gave them more trouble, but they set
seriously about acquiring a knowledge of their use, and, in a short
time, found no difficulty.

Their grave propriety on this occasion is the more worthy of remark,
from its standing in some measure opposed to our own behaviour under
similar circumstances: for instance, when we first tried to eat with
their chopsticks: on that occasion there was a sort of giggling
embarrassment shewn by some of us, a contempt as it were of ourselves,
for condescending to employ an effort to acquire the use of a thing
apparently so unimportant. Their diminutive cups and odd dishes, too,
sometimes excited mirth amongst us. Our Loo-choo friends, however, never
committed themselves in this way; a difference of manners, which may
arise from their looking upon us as their superiors, and vice versâ; but
even admitting this, which we were sufficiently disposed to do, it is
certainly no excuse for us.

On this occasion Jeeroo and his friends had evidently made up their
minds to find every thing quite new, for all three made a slight
involuntary exclamation when one of the covers was lifted up, and shewed
a dish of their own sweet potatoes. They ate of every thing, using a
great deal of salt, with the fineness and whiteness of which they were
much pleased. A tart, however, being put on the table, they all objected
at first to touching it; they would not say why: they were at length
prevailed upon to taste it, which they had no sooner done, than they
exclaimed that it was "masa! masa!" (good! good!) It was made of Scotch
marmalade, and Jeeroo, in recommending it to his friends, told them it
was "injássa, amása," (bitter, sweet), a union which they appeared not
to have met with before. They drank wine with us, but said they feared
it would make them tipsy; upon which we shewed them our mode of mixing
it with water, which was evidently new to them, for they relished it so
much in this form, that they were in a fair way of running unconsciously
into the very excess which they dreaded. As soon as the cloth was
removed, they rose, and went to walk about the ship: on our shewing a
wish to accompany them, they intreated us to keep our seats.

During dinner, though it was the first they had ever seen in the
European style, these people not only betrayed no awkwardness, but
adopted our customs, such as drinking wine with each other, so readily,
that we were frequently at a loss to determine whether they had but just
learned these customs, or whether their own usages in these cases were
similar to ours. As they pushed off in their boat they were asked to
sing, which they did at once, and by their manner we suspected that the
song had some allusion to us, but we could not make out the words.

30th of September.--During the whole of this morning we were engaged in
the survey, accompanied by several of the midshipmen of both ships. We
measured a base, and continued taking angles till the tide rose and
drove us off.

1st of October.--As a free intercourse was now established with the
natives at this place, and little doubt remained of our being able to
gain their permission in a day or two for landing the Alceste's stores,
it became an object to ascertain, without further delay, whether or not
this anchorage was better than the harbour described by the natives as
being a few miles only to the northward. While any apprehensions existed
of our not being able to land here, it was not thought prudent to send
the Lyra to look for that harbour, lest the chiefs should become still
more suspicious of our intentions. At this moment, however, there was
reason to believe that the chiefs wished the Alceste to remain where she
was, and it was expected that any show of moving to another harbour
would stimulate their exertions to render our present situation
agreeable.

The Lyra was accordingly ordered to weigh this morning at daylight, for
the purpose of examining the coast for ten or twelve leagues to the
northward. We went out by a narrow passage through the reefs, and in the
course of the morning beat up to Sugar Loaf Island. We did not land upon
it, but passed near enough to see that it is richly cultivated on the
lower parts, and that all the houses are collected into villages, shaded
as usual by large trees round the bottom, and for one-third of the way
up the sides of the peak. As this was our furthest point in the present
survey, we tacked on reaching the Sugar Loaf, and coasted round the
shores of a large square bay on the west side of the great island. The
wind shifted gradually as we sailed along, blowing directly off the
shore at every place, by which means we were enabled to complete the
circuit of the bay before dark, after which we anchored in sixty-five
fathoms water. Next morning we resumed our examination of the coast,
but as the weather was fine, we hoisted out a boat and pulled close
along the shore, while the brig kept her course at the distance of
several miles. In this manner we traced the whole shore, till we came
close to Napakiang, without seeing any port. We tried to land at several
places, but were every where kept off by coral reefs stretching along
the coast, at the distance of two or three hundred yards, and forming,
to strangers at least, an impenetrable barrier. The canoes of the
natives paddled away from us, and passed through the surf by passages
which we were afraid to approach. We returned to the brig about two
o'clock, and at three anchored in our former place at Napakiang.

The departure of the Lyra had excited a great sensation on shore; the
chiefs came off to inquire of Captain Maxwell where the "honee gua"
(little ship) was; but he did not choose to satisfy them, except by
saying that they had trifled with him so long, and refused to let him
land his casks and stores with such obstinacy, that he must endeavour to
find some more favourable place at which to refit his ship. The effect
was exactly what he wished; they intreated him not to think of moving
from Napakiang; offered him not only large boats to put his stores in,
but said he should have store-rooms on shore for whatever he desired,
while his ship was refitting. They moreover granted him permission to
land with his officers, and to go to the top of the hill without being
guarded as formerly.

On the Lyra's anchoring, the chiefs came on board in great agitation,
desiring to know what we had discovered. As we had actually nothing to
relate, there was little difficulty in keeping our secret. They
accompanied me on board the Alceste when I went to make my report, but
Captain Maxwell, having found the advantage he had already gained by
keeping them in ignorance of his intentions, was nowise communicative.
They now offered to allow his people to land for the purpose of washing
their clothes, which they had before refused to do, and in short, were
in a mood to grant any thing, provided we were willing to remain at this
part of the island. They did not pretend that this was out of regard for
us, and it was easy to see that they apprehended more trouble in
managing us any where else than at this place. Amongst the arguments
used by them to dissuade us from going to the other end of the island,
they said it was inhabited by savages. It came out accidentally too,
that in the event of the ship's actually proceeding to other parts of
the island, the six chiefs were to accompany us: so that they were
probably influenced by considerations of personal convenience to make
every exertion to prevent our moving.

3d of October.--The Lyra's crew were allowed to go on shore to-day to
wash their clothes, and amuse themselves by running about on the side of
the hill. Two of the sailors of this party, who happened to be singing
near the well, drew a number of natives round them, who expressed great
pleasure at hearing their songs. At first the crowd consisted entirely
of the peasantry, who listened with great attention, and never
interrupted the sailors; but in about half an hour, a person of some
rank, with a number of attendants, came up, and begged them to sing
several of their songs over again: we could not find out who this person
was, but it was probably one of the chiefs, some of whom are remarkably
fond of our music.

4th of October.--The survey on the reef was completed to-day: the only
inconvenience we had experienced here, was the limited time which the
tide allowed us each day, otherwise the situation was well adapted for a
base, from its commanding a view of all parts of the anchorage. During
the progress of the principal survey, the young gentlemen sent by
Captain Maxwell, in conjunction with the midshipmen of the Lyra,
completed a survey of the reef itself. A native of a genteel appearance,
but not in the dress of a chief, visited the Lyra to-day, and gave me a
present of two pipes and two bags of sweet potatoes.

5th of October.--Captain Maxwell called for me this morning at sunrise,
on his way to the shore. The chiefs had not expected us so early, and
our only companion for some time was an old peasant, who now and then
ran on before to give notice of our approach. Two well dressed people
shortly afterwards came up, and continued with us during our walk, which
at first lay along the beach, but afterwards led into the country; some
exception was taken to this by our companions, but as no attention was
paid to them, they desisted.

After walking about a mile, we passed through a grove of young trees,
and found ourselves close to a village, which lies in the bottom of a
glen highly cultivated, the houses being almost entirely hid by trees,
of which the bamboo is the most conspicuous.

This village is surrounded by a close hedge, and every separate house
also has an inclosure: some of the houses have attached to them neat
arbours, formed of a light frame of bamboo covered with a variety of
creepers. The rice fields are divided by small banks of earth, made to
retain the water, and along the top of each bank there is a foot-path;
the whole valley having much the air of a scene in India. A number of
the villagers, accompanied by their children, came out to meet us, but
there were no women amongst them: we passed on, as they were evidently
averse to our entering the village.

On our way across the valley we were attracted by the appearance of a
cottage, so buried in foliage as to be completely hid from our view till
we were within a few paces of the door. It was surrounded by a slight
fence of rods, about an inch apart, with a line of creepers along the
top, and hanging down on both sides: a wicker gate admitted us, and we
entered the house, which we found divided into two apartments, eight
feet square, besides a small verandah at one end. The floors, which were
made of slips of bamboo, were raised about six inches from the ground,
and covered with a straw mat. The walls were five feet high, being
neatly wattled with split bamboo, above which rose a pointed thatched
roof. It was occupied by an old man, whom we appeared to have disturbed
at breakfast, for cups and tea-things were arranged on the floor; he
asked us to sit down, and gave us pipes and tea. The little apartment we
were in was as neat as any thing we had ever seen: on one side there was
a set of shelves, with cups, bowls, and cooking utensils; on the others
were hung various implements of husbandry, with hats and various
dresses, all clean and in order. Higher up was a sort of loft or garret,
formed by bamboo poles, laid horizontally from the top of the walls; on
this were placed various tools, nets, and baskets. The fire-place was in
the middle of one side, and sunk below the level. On the outside, in the
space between the house and the fence, there was a pigeon house and a
poultry yard, and close to the little verandah spoken of before, there
stood two spinning-wheels of a light and ingenious construction. All
round on the outside of the fence, the trees were high and thick; and
though the sun was above the hills, the house was completely shaded
except at the end, where a small opening admitted the rays into the
verandah. We staid some time with the old farmer, trying to express our
admiration of the simplicity and beauty of his cottage, and then went up
the opposite side of the valley.

Here we found a road like a dressed walk in a garden: following this, we
passed through a series of beautiful groves of bamboo and other trees,
till at length, after winding about a good deal, we came to a double row
of tall pine trees, interspersed with many others whose names we did not
know, so as to form a walk which must be shady at all hours of the day.
This road we knew would lead to the town, and therefore when we had
reached the highest point we turned to the right, and after a short walk
reached the grove of trees which had been made the limit to our first
walk on the 29th ultimo. At this place Captain Maxwell surprised the
natives a good deal by shooting several birds on the wing, but they
could not be prevailed upon to fire themselves, nor even to pull the
trigger when no powder was in the pan.

6th of October.--After divine service to-day on board the Alceste, a
long conference was held between Captain Maxwell and the five chiefs,
when, after a good deal of discussion, it was agreed on their part to
allow the Alceste's stores to be landed, for the purpose of getting at
the leak. Our means of interpreting on these occasions are not the best
that could be wished; but John, our Chinese, is nevertheless a keen
fellow, and very ready with answers when pressed. We generally explain
as fully as possible to John what our wishes are, and then leave him to
communicate them the best way he can. An instance of his quickness
occurred to-day, which seems worth mentioning. John had communicated to
them, by Captain Maxwell's desire, that as the leak complained of was in
the magazine, it would be necessary to land the powder: they debated a
long time upon this, and then asked John "Why the powder was not put on
board the little ship?" John, who was not aware of any good reason,
affected to be surprised at this question, which he refused to
interpret, saying that if Captain Maxwell thought such a measure right,
he would surely not have waited till they suggested it. The light in
which he had thus put the question, made them earnestly desire him not
to mention any thing about it, declaring at the same time, that they
would willingly give a place for the powder, and for any other stores
which Captain Maxwell might wish to land.

To-day for the first time they talked unreservedly of the king, whose
name even they had hitherto studiously avoided: they spoke freely of his
majesty's having sent all the stock and vegetables with which we were
daily supplied. Captain Maxwell, who of course was very desirous of
opening a communication with the court, intimated his wish to pay his
respects as soon as might be convenient. They heard this with apparent
satisfaction, and signified that his request should be made known to the
king. We are at a loss to discover what can have caused this change of
manner. We can only conjecture, that perhaps the king, on hearing so
many reports about us, may have become desirous of seeing us himself. At
all events it is clear that some alteration in the instructions to the
chiefs must have been made, otherwise they would have shewn their usual
reserve when the king's name was mentioned, and would on no account have
allowed us to talk of visiting him.

At one o'clock we went on shore to look at the place assigned by the
chiefs for the reception of the Alceste's stores. It is an oblong
inclosure, sixty yards by forty, surrounded by a wall twelve feet high,
rather well built with squared coral: the entrance is by a large gate on
the south side, from which there extends raised gravel walks, with
clipped hedges, the intermediate spaces being laid out in beds, like a
garden. The temple in which we were feasted on the day of our first
visit, occupies one corner of the inclosure; it is completely shaded by
a grove of trees, which also overhang the wall. In that part of the
garden directly opposite to the gate, at the upper end of the walk
there is a smaller temple, nearly hid by the branches of several large
banyan trees; and before it, at the distance of ten or twelve paces, a
square awkward looking building, with a raised terrace round it. The
temple first spoken of is divided by means of shifting partitions into
four apartments, and a verandah running all round, having a row of
carved wooden pillars on its outer edge to support the roof, which
extends considerably beyond it. The floor of the verandah is two feet
from the ground, the roof is sloping and covered with handsome tiles,
those forming the eaves being ornamented with flowers and various
figures in relief; there are also several out-houses, and a kitchen
communicating with them by covered passages. In one of the inner
apartments, at the upper end, there is a small recess containing a green
shrub, in a high narrow flower-pot, having a Chinese inscription on a
tablet hanging above it on the wall. On another side of the same room,
there hangs the picture of a man rescuing a bird from the paws of a cat;
the bird seems to have been just taken from a cage, which is tumbling
over, with two other birds fluttering about in the inside: it is merely
a sketch, but is executed in a spirited manner. In one of the back
apartments we find three gilt images, eighteen inches high, with a
flower in a vase before them. The roof of the temple within is ten feet
high, and all the cornices, pillars, &c. are neatly carved into flowers
and the figures of various animals. The ground immediately round it is
divided into a number of small beds, planted with different shrubs and
flowers; and on a pedestal of artificial rock, in one of the walks close
to it, is placed a clay vessel of an elegant form, full of water, with a
wooden ladle swimming on the top. On a frame near one of the out-houses,
hangs a large bell, three feet high, of an inelegant shape, resembling a
long bee-hive; the sides are two inches thick, and richly ornamented:
its tone is uncommonly fine.

It was determined to appropriate part of the large temple to the use of
the sick and their attendants; the assistant surgeon of the Alceste
taking one room, and the gunner, who was to have the whole inclosure in
his charge, another. The small temple at the upper end, being a retired
spot, was fixed upon for the Lyra's observatory; the square building in
the centre seemed well adapted for a magazine. At the gate a notice was
hung up, both in English and Loo-choo, signifying that no person was to
enter without a written pass from Captain Maxwell, or from one of the
chiefs.

7th and 8th of October.--These days have been occupied in carrying the
arrangements of Sunday into effect. It was very interesting to observe
the care which the natives took of the sick, whom they assisted all the
way from the beach to the temple; a number of people attended to support
such of them as had barely strength enough to walk. When they were
safely lodged, eggs, milk, fowls, and vegetables, were brought to them;
and whenever any of them were tempted by the beauty of the scenery to
walk out, several of the natives were ready to accompany them.

The powder was landed, and Mr. Holman, the gunner of the frigate, began
the operation of drying it on hides spread in the sun round the
magazine. The cows and other stock were also landed. One of the cows
calved that night, to the surprise of every body, and the great joy of
the natives, who took a great fancy to the little bull born amongst
them. Mr. Mayne, the master of the Alceste, took up his quarters in the
temple, in order to be near his observatory, which was in the centre of
the garden. The stores of all kinds were sent on shore from the Alceste,
which produced an apparent confusion, and the chiefs, seeing so many
valuable things lying about, began to fear that they would be taken
away; at least, it was supposed that they had such an apprehension, for
the wall of the temple was immediately fenced in by a sort of net-work
of long bamboo poles, the ends of which were fixed in the ground at the
foot of the wall on the outside, and the tops made to cross one another
four or five feet above the wall. This contrivance, instead of rendering
the place more secure, made it more accessible; but as our opinion was
not asked, and we had no apprehensions of theft, we let them proceed in
their own way.

Mrs. Loy, wife of the boatswain of the Alceste, was the only female in
our squadron, and as such excited no small interest at this place. She
was a perfectly well behaved person, and sufficiently neat in her dress,
but without great pretensions to good looks. The natives, who from the
first paid her much attention, shewed at all times their desire of
granting her every indulgence. They even went so far as to say she might
go into the city; but, upon consulting with her husband, who was
apprehensive of some accident, she declined it. When this circumstance
became known to us, we easily convinced the boatswain that no mischief
could possibly arise from trusting his wife amongst such kind people;
but Mrs. Loy could not be persuaded of this; and thus was lost the only
opportunity of seeing the town which occurred during all our stay.

Two of the natives have been studying English with great assiduity, and
with considerable success. One is called Mádera, the other Anya. They
carry note books in imitation of Mr. Clifford, in which they record in
their own characters every word they learn. They are both keen fellows,
and are always amongst the strangers. From the respect occasionally paid
to them, it is suspected that their rank is higher than they give out,
and that their object in pretending to be people of ordinary rank, is to
obtain a more free intercourse with all classes on board the ships.
Mádera, by his liveliness and his propriety of manners, has made himself
a great favourite; he adopts our customs with a sort of intuitive
readiness, sits down to table, uses a knife and fork, converses, and
walks with us, in short, does every thing that we do, quite as a matter
of course, without any apparent effort or study. He is further
recommended to us by the free way in which he communicates every thing
relating to his country; so that as he advances in English, and we in
Loo-choo, he may be the means of giving us much information. As an
instance of his progress in English, it may be mentioned, that one day
he came on board the Lyra, and said, "The Ta-yin speak me, 'you go ship,
John come shore;'" by which we understood that Captain Maxwell had sent
him on board the brig for the interpreter. This was about three weeks
after our arrival.

[Illustration: PRIEST and GENTLEMAN of LOO-CHOO.]

Most of the natives have acquired a little English, so that Mr. Clifford
has now no difficulty in finding people willing to instruct him, and to
take pains in correcting his pronunciation. One of his teachers, called
Yáckabee Oomeejeéro, will not permit him to write down a single word
till he has acquired the exact Loo-choo sound: but he is like the rest
in shewing an invincible objection to giving any information about the
women. He admits that he is married, and gives the names of his sons:
but when his wife or daughters are alluded to, he becomes uneasy, and
changes the subject. On Mr. Clifford's gravely telling him that he
believed there were no women on the island, he was thrown off his guard,
and answered hastily, that he had both a wife and daughter, but
instantly checking himself, turned the conversation another way. On the
picture of an English lady being shewn to him, he commended it highly,
saying, at the same time, "Doochoo innágo whoóco oorung" (Loo-choo
women are not handsome.) This old gentleman is a better teacher than
scholar; he calls the letter L "airoo;" veal, "bairoo;" flail,
"frayroo;" in which instances of mispronunciation, we may recognize a
difficulty not uncommon amongst English children.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 6: This circumstance is by no means common, and therefore
cannot be depended on. In fine weather these reefs give no warning
whatever, and a ship on approaching them ought invariably to have a boat
a-head.]

[Footnote 7: Chin-chin in the corrupt dialect of Canton, means the
ceremony of salutation, which consists in the action of holding up the
closed hands, pressed together before the face, and bowing at the same
time.]

[Footnote 8: Ta-whang-tee is Chinese for Emperor, King.]

[Footnote 9: Chopsticks are two pieces of ivory or wood, about a foot in
length, of the thickness of a quill; they serve in China instead of a
knife and fork, and are held in the right hand. Until the difficult art
of holding them is attained, they are perfectly useless. The Chief at
this feast, seeing that we made little progress, ordered sharp pointed
sticks to be brought, which he good humouredly recommended our using
instead of the chopsticks.]

[Footnote 10: A large collection, which was at this time made of these
Zoophites, was unfortunately lost in the Alceste.]



CHAPTER III.

    The Lyra sent to survey the Island of Loo-choo--Discovery of Port
    Melville--Description of that Harbour, and the Villages on its
    Banks--Lyra nearly wrecked--Interview with Natives at the South
    Point--Return to Napakiang--Behaviour of the Natives at a Seaman's
    Funeral--Mádera's Character and Conduct--Sociable Habits of the
    Natives--Dinner given to the Chiefs of the Island by Captain
    Maxwell--Mádera's Behaviour on this Occasion--Two Women seen--A Lady
    of Rank visits the Boatswain's Wife--Captain Maxwell fractures his
    Finger--Loo-choo Surgeon--Concern of the Natives--Visit of the
    Prince--Discussion about the King of Loo-choo's Letter--Mádera
    appears in a new Character--Feast given by the Prince--List of
    Supplies given to the Ships--Behaviour of the Prince on taking
    Leave--Preparations for Departure--Mádera's Distress--Last Interview
    with the Chiefs--Brief Memorandums upon the Religion, Manners, and
    Customs of Loo-choo--Advice to a Stranger visiting this Island.


As soon as the survey of Napakiang anchorage was completed, and a
perfectly good understanding established with the natives, it was
determined to make a survey of the whole island, and the Lyra was
ordered upon this service. She were absent about a week, during which
period the general chart of the island was constructed. It will be
obvious to every one acquainted with the subject, that, in so short a
time, a very exact survey of the coast of an island nearly sixty miles
long could not have been made: yet, as the weather was in general fine,
and other circumstances favourable, the chart will be found sufficiently
correct for most practical purposes. As the chart and the nautical and
hydrographical details are given in the Appendix, I propose at present
to relate only such particulars of the cruise as seem likely to interest
the general reader.

9th of October.--At daybreak we got under weigh and stood to sea through
a passage discovered by the boats; it was so extremely narrow, that the
least deviation from the course brought us close to the rocks. We were
regulated in steering by two marks on the land, which lie in the same
straight line with the centre of the passage; these it is necessary to
keep always together: but not conceiving that such nicety was required
while sailing out, the marks were allowed to separate, by which we found
ourselves in a minute or two within a few yards of a coral reef, the
ragged tops of which were distinctly seen two or three feet below the
surface, whilst, at the same time, the leadsman on the opposite side
sounded in nine fathoms. This early proof of the danger of navigating
amongst coral, by teaching us the necessity of extreme caution, was of
great importance to us in our future operations.

As the coast lying between Napakiang and the Sugar Loaf had already been
examined, we proceeded at once round that island, which, from its having
the same aspect on every bearing, and being quite different in shape
from any land in this quarter, is an excellent land-mark for navigators.
The natives call it Eegooshcoond, or castle[11]. The English name was
given, I believe, by Captain Broughton.

Having rounded this peak and stood in for the north-west side of the
Great Loo-choo, where there is a deep bight, a small island was observed
close in shore, behind which it was thought there might be shelter for
ships; the coast, however, being unknown to us, it was not thought safe
to carry the brig very close in, and a boat was therefore dispatched
with an officer to reconnoitre: he returned at eight o'clock to say that
there was a harbour in the main land, the entrance to which lay on the
inside of the small island mentioned before; but that the passages were
narrow and winding, and that a more careful examination was necessary
before the brig could venture in.

11th of October.--In the morning we again stood in, using the
precaution of sending a boat a-head to sound the way; when we had nearly
reached the entrance we anchored, and proceeded in three boats to
examine the harbour discovered last night. As it was near noon when we
passed the small island, we landed and observed the meridian altitude of
the sun; after which we entered the harbour in the main island, by an
intricate passage of about a quarter of a mile in length, and at one
place not two hundred yards wide. Here we found ourselves in a circular
bason upwards of half a mile across, with deep water, and completely
sheltered from all winds. On its western shore we saw a large and
beautiful village almost hid amongst trees, with a high wooded range
behind it stretching to the south. The eastern shore was low and laid
out in salt fields, with a few huts here and there. At first sight this
bason did not appear to have any outlet except by the one we had
examined; but on rowing to its upper or southern side, we found that it
joined by a narrow channel with another harbour still larger, and if
possible more beautiful than the first, for here the land was high on
both sides, and richly wooded from top to bottom. Proceeding onwards
through this bason, which had all the appearance of an inland lake, we
came to another outlet, not above a hundred yards wide, formed by cliffs
rising abruptly out of the water to the height of a hundred feet. Both
sides being covered with trees, which almost met overhead, the space
below was rendered cool and pleasant, and the water, thus sheltered from
every wind, was as smooth as glass. We rowed along for some time by
various windings through this fairy scene in total uncertainty of what
was to come next, and at last, after advancing about three miles, it
opened into an extensive lake several miles in length, studded with
numerous small islands.

The depth of water in the lake varied from four to six fathoms; but in
the narrow neck which connects it with the sea the depth is from ten to
twenty fathoms, being deepest at the narrowest parts. Ships might ride
in any part of this extraordinary harbour, in perfect safety during the
most violent tempests: and the shores are so varied, that every purpose
of re-equipment might be served. At some places natural wharfs are
formed by the rocks, and eight and ten fathoms water close to them.
Ships might lie alongside these places, or might heave down by them:
there are also shallow spots on which ships might be careened. Many of
the cliffs are hollowed into caves, which would answer for storehouses;
and in the numerous lawns on both sides encampments might be formed of
any number of people.

We rowed directly across, and landed at the southern side at the foot
of a wooded range of hills, which forms the southern boundary of the
lake. As no road was observed, it was resolved to go directly up the
hill, and, in about an hour, after a good deal of scrambling amongst the
bushes and long grass, we gained the top, where we found a neat pathway
with a ditch on each side, and a hedge growing on the top of the mound,
formed of the earth from the ditch; it resembled not a little an English
lane. Without knowing where this might take us to, we followed it, in
the hope of meeting some of the people, but in this we were
disappointed. Yet this place must, at times, be frequented, as we
observed a number of similar paths leading to the right and left.

The trees on this range of hills are low, and of no great beauty; the
fir is the most common, but we did not know the names of the rest. After
walking about a mile, our path took an abrupt turn down the brow of the
hill, and appeared to lead to a large village at some distance. The view
from this elevation was very satisfactory, as it enabled us to check our
rough eye draught of the harbour and coast. The road down the hill was
so steep that it was just possible to stand upon it, being inclined, as
was conjectured on the spot, at an angle of 45º. At the foot of the hill
there was a little cottage, consisting of two parts, made of wattled
rattans, connected by a light open bamboo roof, so covered with a large
leaved creeper as to afford a complete shelter from the sun. The
cottage, which was thatched, was enveloped in creepers, encircled by the
usual rattan fence at two or three yards distance. One of the wings was
occupied by goats; the other, which was dark, seemed to belong to the
people, who had deserted it on our approach. There being only a small
hole in the wall to admit light and air, and to allow the smoke to
escape, every thing inside was black and dirty. Two spears hung on one
side, which, upon enquiry afterwards, we were told were for striking
fish.

On coming to our boats, we found them surrounded by a party of the
natives, smaller in stature than our friends at Napakiang, and shewing
less curiosity: probably their surprise at our sudden appearance had not
subsided sufficiently to allow of their indulging curiosity in detail. A
large party of them watched attentively while a musket was loaded, and
when pointed over their heads in the air, they seemed aware that
something was going to happen, but from their not shrinking or removing
out of the way, it seemed they knew not what. When it was fired, the
whole party fell as if they had been shot, but rose instantly again, and
looking to the right and left of each other, indulged in a timorous
laugh. A cartridge was given to one man, with which he was nearly
blowing himself up by placing it on his lighted pipe. The officer of the
boat informed us that a gentleman had come to him and offered his horse
to ride; he had dismounted for that purpose, but the horse was
frightened, and would not suffer the officer to get upon him. We saw
this person riding along when we were at the top of the hill; he called
out to us repeatedly, probably to offer his horse, but we thought he
wished to dissuade us from walking over the hill, and accordingly took
no notice of him.

In the meantime Mr. Clifford, who had been unwell, and felt unequal to
the labour of climbing the hill, proceeded in one of the boats towards a
large village on the eastern side of the lake. He was met by a number of
the inhabitants, whose dress and appearance were inferior to what we had
been accustomed to see at Napakiang; on his asking them in Loo-choo for
some water, they gave it cheerfully; but they shewed little curiosity,
and the party which followed wherever he went, seemed to have no other
object than to prevent disturbance. They made no objection to his going
into the village, where he saw in one inclosure a complete farm-yard.
The principal house was closed, but to the offices there was free
access. In the stable were two handsome bay ponies; there was also a
well stocked pig-sty, and a poultry-house. In another quarter stood a
mill for husking corn, consisting of a grooved solid cylinder of wood,
fitting neatly into a hollow cylinder, the sides of which were also
grooved; near this lay a hand flour-mill and several baskets of cotton.
In another part of the court was a granary erected on posts about six
feet above the ground, having billets of fire-wood piled below it. At
another place, under a tree in the village, he saw a blacksmith's anvil
fixed in a block; the forge was of masonry, having an air hole, but the
bellows was wanting.

In the centre of the village stood a building like a temple, surrounded
by a stone wall. It was filled with elegant vases of different shapes
and sizes, closed up and ranged in rows on the floor; the verandah
encircling the building was also covered with vases. According to the
account of the natives, the remains of the dead are deposited in these
jars. Round the building bamboo poles were placed so as to lean against
the thatched roof, having notches cut in them, to which bundles of
flowers were hung, some fresh, others decayed, apparently funereal
offerings; but their exact import Mr. Clifford was not able to learn.
The elegant shape of the vases, and the tasteful way in which they were
arranged, with the flowers hanging all round, gave to this cemetery an
air of cheerfulness, which we are in the habit of thinking unsuitable
to a depository of the dead.

This village, which is at the head of a bay, is sheltered from the north
wind by a row of trees between it and the beach; behind it is sheltered
by a range of hills. A broad road runs between it and the water; trees
are planted among the houses, so as nearly to conceal them. In the
middle of the village near the cemetery, in an open square, there is a
cluster of granaries like the one described above; the walls are made of
wattled rattan, and overhang the lower part.

Mr. Clifford tried in vain to see the Chief of the village; but either
there was no such person, or he was out of the way: the inhabitants
pointed out a man on horseback as a Chief, who passed on to another
village; this was probably the same man who offered his horse to Mr.
Hall, the officer of the boat. Mr. Clifford went to the top of the range
behind the village, and afterwards into the valley on the other side,
which he found highly cultivated.

From the heights we saw that the large space which was at first
considered a lake, communicates with the sea to the north-eastward, as
well as by the narrow passage through which we had come, but there was
not time to allow of its being fully examined. As we returned by the
narrow straits, we called at some of the small villages on the eastern
side. At one of these, the people of the village, headed by a man who
appeared to be superior to the rest, came towards the boat, and stopped
for some minutes at the distance of fifty yards; after which, appearing
to have gained confidence, they came on, with the old man in front,
carrying a green bough in his hand. He would not come close, however,
till invited by Mr. Clifford in Loo-choo to look at the boat; he then
advanced and presented his bough, in return for which we broke a branch
from a tree, and gave it to him with the same formality he had used
towards us. Soon after this exchange was made, they left us, and went to
examine the boat, to fishermen always an object of great interest.

On our entering the village we were met by a man who appeared to be the
principal person of the place; he was very polite, shewed us through the
village, and took us over his garden, where he had some sugar-cane
growing; this we admired very much, upon which he ordered one of the
finest of the canes to be taken up by the roots and presented to us; we
immediately gave him a few buttons off our jackets, with which he was
quite pleased. On its beginning to rain while we were in the garden, he
invited us into his house, which, from the walls being of wattled cane,
looked like a large basket. Rude pictures and carved wood-work figures
were hanging on the walls, together with some inscriptions in Chinese
characters.

On returning to the lower harbour of all, we went to the large village
before spoken of, which is by far the most finished of any that we have
seen on this island. The streets are regular and clean swept; each house
has a neat cane wall, as well as a screen before the door; plantain and
other trees are growing so thickly in the inside of the fence, that they
completely shade the house. Near the beach were several large houses, in
which a number of people were seated writing: on going up to them they
gave us tea and cakes, and afterwards allowed us to go over the village
without restraint; they were curious to know whether the brig was coming
into the harbour or not, and if so, how many days we meant to stay; they
expressed neither pleasure nor regret when we said that we were not
coming in. In front of the village, and parallel with the beach, there
is a splendid avenue thirty feet wide, formed by two rows of large
trees, whose branches join overhead, and effectually screen the walk
from the sun; here and there are placed wooden benches, and at some
places stone seats are fixed near the trees: this space, which is about
a quarter of a mile long, is probably used as a public walk.

A range of hills of a semicircular form embraces the village, and limits
its extent: at most places it is steep, but at the point where the north
end joins the harbour, there is an overhanging cliff about eighty feet
high, the upper part of which extends considerably beyond the base; at
eight or ten yards from the ground on this inclined face, a long
horizontal gallery has been hewn out of the solid rock: it communicates
with a number of small square excavations still deeper in the rock, for
the reception of the vases containing the bones of the dead.

The trees and creepers on the edge of the precipice hung down so as to
meet the tops of those which grew below, and thus a screen was formed
which threw the gallery into deep shade: every thing here being
perfectly still, the scene was very solemn and imposing. It took us
somewhat by surprise, for nothing in its external appearance indicated
the purpose to which the place was appropriated: happening to discover
an opening amongst the trees and brushwood, and resolving to see what it
led to, we entered by a narrow path winding through the grove. The
liveliness of the scenery without, and the various amusements of the
day, had put us all into high spirits, but the unexpected and sacred
gloom of the scene in which we suddenly found ourselves had an
instantaneous effect in repressing the mirth of the whole party.

This village is called Oonting, and is certainly the same that is
alluded to by the chiefs, and which we formerly wrote down Winching and
Oonching.

This excellent harbour, which we discovered, has been named Port
Melville, in honour of Lord Viscount Melville, First Lord of the
Admiralty.

It was quite dark when we reached the brig. As a heavy swell was rolling
in, no time was lost in getting under weigh, but before we could succeed
in running well off the reefs, the wind suddenly changed, and the
weather, which before had been fine, became so dark and squally, that we
almost lost sight of the shore. Our situation was now very critical, for
we had just sufficient knowledge of the coast, to be sensible how
extremely dangerous it was; and the wind, which blew directly on the
shore, came in such violent gusts, that there was every reason to
apprehend the loss of our topmasts; to reef the sails was impossible, as
the delay which this operation must have caused would have been fatal.
While things were in this state, it became necessary to tack, but owing
to the heavy and irregular swell, the brig came round again against our
will, and before the sails could be properly trimmed, she had gone stern
foremost almost to the verge of the reef, on which the sea was breaking
to a great height. Had this occurred a second time, nothing could have
prevented our being wrecked. After beating about in this awkward
predicament for two hours, the wind shifted a little, and enabled us to
stretch off clear of all danger.

12th of October.--It blew so hard that we kept out at sea clear of the
shore.

13th of October.--As the weather had become moderate, we stood in, and
determined the position of five islands which lie to the northward of
Port Melville.

14th of October.--During this day the whole of the east side of the
great island was explored. The north and north-east sides are high, and
destitute of cultivation; nearly in the middle, on this side, there is a
deep indenture on the coast, and the wind being such as to admit of
sailing out again, we ran in under low sail with the usual precautions;
notwithstanding which we were very nearly on the reefs, for the water
shoaled suddenly from twenty-four to eight fathoms; and although the
brig was instantly tacked, the soundings as she came round were only
five fathoms, and to leeward of us the ragged tops of a rock just level
with the surface were discovered at the distance of only fifty yards. In
exploring such places there ought to be a boat on each bow, as well as
one a-head. The coast from this bay to the south point of the island has
a belt of coral reefs at the distance of ten and fifteen miles from the
shore, and therefore cannot be approached by a ship without great
danger. The extreme south point is comparatively clear of coral; we
therefore anchored off it at sunset, proposing to land next day to
determine its position. We found the iron cables of great use when
anchoring amongst coral reefs.

15th of October.--It blew hard last night, but in the forenoon it
moderated sufficiently to allow of our landing. We ascertained the
latitude of the extreme south point with precision, and made several
other observations, all circumstances being favourable.

We had scarcely landed when the natives began to assemble in groups on
the top of the cliffs, and in a short time they came down to us, most of
them carrying long poles in their hands; we were sufficiently aware of
their inoffensive character to have no apprehension of their intentions,
otherwise their appearance would have been somewhat formidable. There
was no person of rank among them; they were communicative and full of
curiosity, which difference in manner from the inhabitants on the shores
of Port Melville may have arisen from these people knowing something of
us by reports from Napakiang, which is not above ten miles distant. It
was to be expected that we should have become a topic of discourse at
so short a distance, and probably what was said of us would be
favourable, or at all events such as would excite curiosity rather than
fear. Most of these people had fish spears tatooed on their arms in the
form of a trident, with rude barbs. When drawn on the right arm it is
called "Oódeemaw;" when on the left, "Toóga." This is the only instance
we have met with of this practice. Our curiosity was farther excited by
the appearance of these spears, from the circumstance of our never
having seen any warlike weapon on this island; but the people invariably
called them "Eéo stitchee" (fish spear). Several of the tallest of these
people were measured, but none were above five feet six inches; they
are, however, strong limbed and well proportioned. One of them wore a
ring on his finger, which is the only instance we have met with of any
ornament being worn at Loo-Choo. The ring finger is called in the
Loo-choo language, "Eébee gánnee," finger of the ring; and it seems a
fair inference from this, that amongst some part of the community rings
are habitually worn; probably by the women. The coast here is formed of
cliffs, about seventy or eighty feet high, with numerous caverns
hollowed out by the waves. The pools of water left by the tide were full
of beautiful fish of a great variety of colours.

16th of October.--In the morning we weighed and stood to the westward,
among the group of islands called Amakírrima by the natives. At one of
these there seemed at first sight to be a harbour for ships; but on
sending the boats to explore, it proved only safe for small vessels
being filled in every part with coral. On our way across from the south
point of the great island to the Amakírrimas, we passed near a coral
reef exactly circular, and half a mile in diameter; it is just level
with the water's edge at half ebb, so that in fine weather the sea does
not break upon any part of it. As it is upwards of seven miles from any
land, and lies directly in the passage towards Napakiang, it is
exceedingly dangerous, and ought not to be approached in the night by a
stranger.

At four o'clock we anchored in our old place in-shore of the Alceste. As
we stood towards the anchorage we could see the coral from the mast-head
so distinctly as to be able to trace the forms of all the reefs as we
passed among them. This can rarely be done, although the water is always
clear, because an unusual degree of smoothness in the surface is
requisite to make the rocks visible; and the sun must also shine upon
the water at a particular angle. A stranger cannot therefore calculate
upon having the danger pointed out in this way; but when such
circumstances do occur they may be taken advantage of to check the
surveys of reefs made in boats.

We find things at Napakiang nearly as we left them; the best
understanding seems to exist between Captain Maxwell and the chiefs.
Every body is allowed to walk about and do as he likes. The frigate has
been bountifully supplied with stock and vegetables; and the sick on
shore are rapidly recovering under the kind care of the natives, who
take a peculiar interest in their comfort.

A young man belonging to the Alceste had died during our absence. When
the natives were informed of this circumstance, they requested
permission to make the grave, and begged Captain Maxwell to point out a
place for this purpose. Captain Maxwell said that no situation could be
more appropriate than under the grove of trees near the temple, a spot
already rendered sacred by many Loo-choo tombs.

Next day the body was carried to the grave with all the formalities
usual on such occasions, Captain Maxwell, according to custom, walking
last, with the officers and crew before him. The ready politeness of the
natives was never more strikingly displayed than now; for perceiving
that those who were of the highest rank walked in the rear, they
considered that their station must of course be in front; and they
accordingly placed themselves at the head of the procession, and
preserved throughout the ceremony the most profound silence. They were
all dressed in white robes, which we have reason to believe is their
mourning.

On the next day the natives requested leave to raise a tomb over the
grave; this was of course agreed to, and when it was completed, they
performed their own funeral service over it, by sacrificing a large hog,
and burning a quantity of spirits. Jeeroo officiated on this occasion,
and when he had done, he carried the hog to the sick in the hospital.

The chiefs also gave directions for a small square stone to be smoothed
and prepared for an epitaph; which being traced upon the stone by Mr.
Taylor, the clergyman of the Alceste, was carved very neatly by the
natives. The epitaph, after mentioning the name and age of the deceased,
stated briefly, that he and his companions in his Britannic majesty's
ships Alceste and Lyra, had been kindly treated by the inhabitants of
this island. When the purport of the writing was interpreted to the
chiefs, they appeared very much gratified at our acknowledging their
attentions.

18th of October.--Our friends expressed much pleasure on meeting us
again, particularly Jeeroo, who seems to take great interest in our
concerns: he carried us up to the sailor's tomb, where we were joined by
Ookooma, Jeema, and some of the others, who unaffectedly expressed
their sorrow for this man's untimely fate. I found my people who had
been landed previous to our sailing on the survey, much recovered, and
very grateful for the kindness of the natives. Milk, eggs, meat, and
vegetables, had been brought to them every day, and whenever they felt
disposed to walk they were accompanied by one or two of the natives, who
took their arms on coming to rough ground, and often helped them up the
steep side of the hill behind the hospital, to a pleasant grassy spot on
the summit, where the natives lighted pipes for them: in short, I
suppose sailors were never so caressed before.

The chiefs were anxious to know what we had been doing during the week
in which we had been absent. From an apprehension that they might be
displeased at our having instituted a regular examination of the whole
island, we said we had been looking at the harbour they had spoken of;
they immediately mentioned the village of Oonting, and asked how we
liked it. But they guessed that we had been round the island, from
seeing that we returned by the south, though we had sailed to the north;
they said repeatedly, that the island was very small, appearing to be
anxious to depreciate it; our reply of course was, that it was very
large and beautiful.

Mádera has made great improvement in English, and his character is
altogether more developed. He is quite at his ease in our company, and
seems to take the most extraordinary interest in every thing belonging
to us; but his ardent desire to inform himself on all subjects sometimes
distresses him a good deal; he observes the facility with which we do
some things, and his enterprising mind suggests to him the possibility
of his imitating us; but when he is made sensible of the number of steps
by which alone the knowledge he admires is to be attained, his despair
is strongly marked. He sometimes asks us to read English aloud to him,
to which he always listens with the deepest attention. One day, on
shore, he saw me with a book in my hand: he begged me to sit down under
a tree, and read: Jeeroo was the only chief present, but there were
several of the peasants in attendance upon him; they all lay down on the
grass, and listened with an attention and interest which are natural
enough: every one expressed himself pleased and satisfied except Mádera,
whose anxiety was to read in the same manner himself. From the earnest
way in which he inquired into every subject, we were sometimes inclined
to think that he must have been directed by the government to inform
himself on these topics; and certainly a fitter person could not have
been selected; for he adapted himself so readily to all ranks, that he
became at once a favourite, and every person took pleasure in obliging
him.

Jeeroo is esteemed in another way; he is uniformly good humoured and
obliging, and not without curiosity; but he is not clever, and has none
of the fire and enthusiasm of Mádera. We all think kindly of Jeeroo, and
shake him cordially by the hand when we meet him; but Mádera is admired
and respected, as well as esteemed, and his society is courted for his
own sake.

Mádera is about twenty-eight years of age, of a slender figure, and very
active; his upper teeth project in front over the lower ones, giving his
face a remarkable, but not a disagreeable expression. He is always
cheerful, and often lively and playful, but his good sense prevents his
ever going beyond the line of strict propriety. When required by
etiquette to be grave, no one is so immoveably serious as Mádera, and
when mirth rules the hour, he is the gayest of the gay: such indeed is
his taste on these occasions, that he not only catches the outward tone
of his company, but really appears to think and feel as they do. His
enterprising spirit and versatility of talent have led him to engage in
a number of pursuits; his success, however, is the most remarkable in
his acquisition of English. About a month after our arrival, he was
asked what had become of his companion Anya; he replied, "Anya, him
mother sick, he go him mother house;" and when asked if he would return,
he said, "Two, three day time, him mother no sick, he come ship." With
all these endowments and attainments he is unaffectedly modest, and
never seems aware of his being superior to the rest of his countrymen.
We were a long time in doubt what was his real rank; for at first he
kept himself back, so that he was well known to the midshipmen, before
the officers were at all acquainted with him: he gradually came forward,
and though he always wore the dress of the ordinary respectable natives,
his manners evidently belonged, to a higher rank, but he never associated
with the chiefs, and disclaimed having any pretensions to an equality
with them. Notwithstanding all this, there were occasional
circumstances, which, by shewing his authority, almost betrayed his
secret. One morning a difficulty arose about some supplies which the
chiefs had engaged to procure, but which they had neglected to send; as
soon as Mádera was told of the circumstance, he went to Captain Maxwell,
and undertook to arrange it to his satisfaction, at the same time
begging that if any difficulty occurred in future, he might be applied
to. Whatever may be Mádera's rank in his own society, it is highly
curious to discover in a country so circumstanced, the same politeness,
self-denial, and gracefulness of behaviour which the experience of
civilized nations has pointed out as constituting the most pleasing and
advantageous form of intercourse.

The great interest which Mádera took in the English, and the curiosity
he always expressed about our customs at home, suggested the idea of
taking him with us to England, where he would have been an interesting
specimen of a people so little known; and he also might have carried
back knowledge of the greatest use to his country. When it was proposed
to him, he paused for some minutes, and then, shaking his head, said, "I
go Injeree,--father, mother, childs, wife, house, all cry! not go; no,
no, all cry!"

In our absence a number of watch-houses had been erected on the heights
round the anchorage; they are mere sheds of cane thatched over, in which
three or four of the natives remain, day and night, in order to be ready
to accompany any person who may happen to land, wherever it be. They
have also erected a long shed, with a floor of split bamboo; in this
place, which is on the top of the hill above the usual landing place,
the chiefs generally assemble in the morning; they invite every one who
passes to drink tea and smoke pipes, which is very convenient when the
boats happen not to be ready to take us on board. Each of the chiefs is
attended by a boy, generally his son, whose business it is to carry a
little square box, in which there are several small drawers, divided
into compartments, filled with rice, sliced eggs, small squares of
smoked pork, cakes, and fish; and in one corner a small metal pot of
sackee, besides cups and chopsticks. By having this always with them,
they can dine when and where they choose. They frequently invite us to
dine with them, and if we agree to the proposal, they generally ask any
other of the chiefs whom they meet to be of the party and join dinners.
The place selected for these pic-nics is commonly under the trees, in a
cool spot, where a mat is spread on the grass; and every thing being
laid out in great order, the party lies down in a circle, and seldom
breaks up till the sackee pot is empty.

An artist of the island brought a drawing of the Alceste on board to-day
for Captain Maxwell: it is about two feet by one and a half, and is
altogether a most extraordinary production, in which perspective and
proportion are curiously disregarded. The captain and officers are
introduced in full uniform, and a number of the sailors on the rigging
and masts. With all its extravagance, however, it has considerable
merit; there is nothing slovenly about it, and there is enough of truth
in it to shew that it was sketched on the spot.

A dispute has arisen between John the interpreter and the chiefs, who it
seems had positively promised to get a horse for Captain Maxwell to
ride; as they have not kept their word, John declares that he will have
nothing to say to people who do not speak truth. They have again
promised, however, that a horse will be got ready, and in the mean time,
a fresh stock of beef and vegetables has been sent to both ships, which
has pacified John a little. We have had much occasion to lament not
having been accompanied by one of the gentlemen of the factory
acquainted with the Chinese language, for although to have John is much
better than to be without any interpreter, it is probable that he is not
very delicate in his requests, and makes use of expressions and
arguments unsuited to our character, and contrary to our wishes and
instructions.

19th of October.--In the morning, before breakfast, Captain Maxwell was
informed by one of the chiefs, that a horse was ready for him on the
beach; he landed accordingly, and found a little pony saddled, and two
of the chiefs mounted. They objected to his riding in the country, where
the roads were uneven, so that for the present his ride was confined to
the beach. The saddle is made of wood, and so uneven as to be very
unpleasant: it is proposed to have one made of a blanket and mats in
future. To the stirrup there is tied a box, large enough to receive the
whole foot.

A dinner was given to-day by Captain Maxwell to the chiefs Ookooma,
Shayoon, Issacha Sandoo, Jeema, and Issacha Hackeeboocoo; Jeeroo was
also invited to it, but did not attend; being the junior, he had
probably been left in charge of the beach and store-rooms. Mádera also
made one of the party, though not originally included in the invitation.
As he had never laid any claim to an equality in rank with the chiefs,
it had not been thought right to invite him along with them: but Mádera,
who probably knew that he would be very welcome, put himself in Captain
Maxwell's way just before dinner, and was prevailed upon, after a little
persuasion, to remain.

Dinner was served at five o'clock in as sumptuous a style as possible.
Ookooma was placed on Captain Maxwell's right, and Shayoon on his left;
I sat beside the former, and Mr. Clifford next the other; then the two
chiefs next in rank, and beside them two of the officers of the ship:
the first lieutenant, Mr. Hickman, sat at the foot of the table, with
Hackeeboocoo on his right, and Mádera on his left. They were all in
great spirits, and ate and drank freely, and though they complained of
the size of the glasses, and of the strength of the wine, tasted every
thing from punch to champagne: the briskness of the last indeed
surprised them not a little, and effectually muddled two of them for
some time. Cheese was the only thing they all objected to, probably on
account of its being made of milk, which they never taste. The
interpreter not being present, the conversation was carried on through
Mr. Clifford and Mádera, and partly by signs. Whether intelligibly or
not, every body was talking. Mádera has dined often on board the ship,
and is quite perfect in our customs. On this occasion he took great
charge of the chiefs at his end of the table, speaking sometimes in one
language and sometimes in the other. Observing Jeema eating ham without
mustard, he called to Captain Maxwell's servant, and pointing to Jeema,
said, "Tom, take mustard to him." When the desert was put on table, and
the wine decanters ranged in a line, they exclaimed in astonishment,
"Moo eeyroo noo sackee," six kinds or colours of wine; but the
sweetmeats and prepared confectionary pleased them most.

After sitting about an hour and a half after dinner, and drinking with
tolerable spirit, they rose to depart; but this they were not allowed to
do, and they were informed that it was the English custom to sit a much
longer time. They represented that the sun had set, and they would never
be able to find their way on shore, but would all be drowned in
attempting it. This alarming difficulty was easily overruled by a
promise of the barge, and they sat down again. While the discussion was
going on between Captain Maxwell and his guests, Mádera kept his seat,
and looked about him in his keen observant way, to discover, if he
could, what was likely to be the issue of this adventure. Having
observed that in general we were anxious to keep our company at table as
long as we could, he naturally enough thought that we would not let this
opportunity pass of entertaining the chiefs according to our fashion. He
appeared to have settled this question with himself just as the chiefs
resumed their seats, for rising half off his chair, and with a mixture
of archness and simplicity, as if he had made an amusing discovery,
cried out in English, "When all drunk then go ashore!" Though Mádera, as
will be seen, was not quite right in his guess, there was enough of
truth in his remark to raise a hearty laugh among those who understood
him; and as he joined in this laugh at his own joke, it was some time
before he could explain what he had said to the chiefs, who, being in a
merry humour themselves, took it in perfect good part, though their
mirth was evidently dashed by a little apprehension of the fate which
Mádera had anticipated for them.

The health of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent was then given, all
the company standing in the most respectful manner. This was followed by
the health of the King of Loo-choo, which was drank with similar
observances. On sitting down after the latter toast, the chiefs
conferred a few minutes across the table, and then all rose to propose
Captain Maxwell's health; their wishes being explained by Mádera. When
they sat down, Captain Maxwell proposed the health of Ookooma and the
other chiefs, but as we in return stood up to drink to them, their
modesty disclaimed this part of the compliment, and they rose likewise;
nor was it till a good deal of persuasion had been used, that they
consented to be seated while we were standing.

These four bumpers made the party very merry, and it now was intimated
to them, that as all the usual formalities had been observed, they might
drink just as much as they liked, or pass the bottle altogether; a
permission of which few of them took advantage. They lighted their
pipes, laughed, joked, and seemed so happy, that it was agreed on all
hands, that conviviality is no where better understood than at Loo-choo.
After a time, at our request, they played some games, of which we had
heard them speak. The object of these games was drinking; a cup of wine
being the invariable forfeit. That every thing might be in character
during the games, some of their own little cups were put on table. One
person holds the stalk of his tobacco-pipe between the palms of his
hands, so that the pipe rolls round as he moves his hands, which he is
to hold over his head, so as not to see them. After turning it round for
a short time, he suddenly stops, and the person to whom the bowl is
directed has to drink a cup of wine. Another is a Chinese game: one
person holds his hand closed over his head, he then brings it quickly
down before him with one or more fingers extended; the person he is
playing with calls out the number of them, and if he guesses right, he
has to drink the cup of wine. These and other games caused a good deal
of noisy mirth, and at length it was proposed by them to go out, in
order to look at the sailors who were dancing on deck. Before leaving
the cabin, they shewed us a Loo-choo dance round the table: Mádera
placed himself at the head before Ookooma, while the others ranged
themselves in a line behind him; he began by a song, the air of which
was very pretty, and nearly at the same time commenced the dance, which
consisted principally in throwing the body into a variety of postures,
and twisting the hands about. Sometimes the hands were placed flat
together, at others separate, but generally the former; the movements
both of the body and hands were regular and of a waving description. The
head was made to incline slowly from side to side, so as almost to
touch the shoulders; the feet were moved with a slight shuffling motion,
with an occasional long sweeping step to one side and then back again;
but the perfection of the dance appeared to be in the proper use of the
hands and body. The words of the dance song were "Sasa sangcoomah,
sangcoomee ah! sangcoomee ah! kadee yooshee daw;" when they came to the
last word they all joined in the chorus and clapped their hands.
Although Mádera was the leader both in the dance and song, he was
occasionally joined in the latter by several of the others, the whole
party repeating the last word several times over. In this way they went
several times round the table. Mádera had a graceful carriage, and his
dancing, though fantastic, was really elegant; his singing too was in
good taste. The others danced clumsily, though in perfect good time, and
joined with some spirit in the chorus.

The ship was illuminated, and the sailors were dancing on the upper
deck. The chiefs were much pleased with this scene, which was lively
enough. After watching the dance of the sailors for a few minutes,
Mádera, who, to use a common phrase, "was up to every thing," ran among
the sailors, and seizing one of them by the shoulders, put him out of
the dance, took his place, and kept up the reel with the same spirit,
and exactly in the same style and step as the sailors. The other dances
were left off, and the whole ship's company assembling round Mádera,
cheered and clapped him till the dance was done. The chiefs joined in
the applause, seeming no less surprised than ourselves at Mádera's
skill, for his imitation of the sailors' odd steps and gestures was as
exact as if he had lived amongst seamen all his life. The officers then
danced a country dance, after which the chiefs, unasked, and with a sort
of intuitive politeness, which rendered every thing they did
appropriate, instantly stepped forward and danced several times round
the quarter-deck, to the infinite gratification of the sailors.

On returning to the cabin to tea, they were all in high spirits, and
while amusing themselves with a sort of wrestling game, Ookooma, who had
seen us placing ourselves in the boxer's sparring attitudes, threw
himself suddenly into the boxer's position of defence, assuming at the
same time a fierceness of look which we had never before seen in any of
them. The gentleman to whom he addressed himself, thinking that Ookooma
wished to spar, prepared to indulge him; but Mádera's quick eye saw what
was going on, and by a word or two made him instantly resume his wonted
sedateness. We tried in vain to make Mádera explain what were the
magical words which he had used to Ookooma. He appeared anxious to turn
our thoughts from the subject, by saying, "Loo-choo man no fight;
Loo-choo man write--no fight, no good, no, no. Ingerish very good, yes,
yes, yes; Loo-choo man no fight." Possibly he considered that Ookooma
was taking too great a liberty; or, perhaps, he thought even the
semblance of fighting unsuitable with the strict amity subsisting
between us.

Before they went away, Captain Maxwell, who had remarked the
satisfaction with which the chiefs received any attention shewn to their
children, ordered a large cake to be brought him, which he divided into
portions for the family of each. The chiefs were in a proper mood to
feel this kindness, and they expressed themselves, as may be supposed,
very warmly upon the occasion. When they put off for the shore they
began singing, and never left off till they landed.

20th of October.--The forenoon was passed at the Observatory, and
afterwards we walked in the country without being observed, for the
chiefs had not yet recovered from the effects of last night's gaiety:
but we had not gone a mile before Jeeroo overtook us. We were very
anxious to gain the brow of a neighbouring hill, from which we imagined
there would be a good view of the palace; but although Jeeroo was the
most obliging creature in the world on every other occasion, he was
resolute now in not letting us go far beyond our usual limits; we tried
to overrule his objections by telling him that we should do no
mischief, and would not go farther than the adjoining height. He would
listen, however, to nothing; and as we still walked slowly on, he at
last sent off a messenger for assistance, but before this reinforcement
arrived we had turned back, to Jeeroo's great relief. Although the
object proposed had not been accomplished, we got a better sight of the
palace than we had yet obtained. It is so much enclosed by trees that
parts only can be seen, but it is undoubtedly a very large building. On
returning we met Hackeeboócoo, the fat chief, coming puffing and blowing
up the hill; he had set out to overtake us on being told by Jeeroo's
messenger what we were proposing to do. He had drank a good deal of wine
yesterday on board, and said he had been "weetee" (drunk), and that his
head ached very much. After he joined us we passed near a village, where
we met two women at the turning of a road: they did not see us till
within a few yards, and their alarm was great; they threw down the
baskets, which they were carrying on their heads, and fled into the
wood. Our two companions were very uneasy at this rencontre, and would
not listen to our reasoning upon the absurdity of their apprehensions,
looking quite miserable till the subject, which seems to be an
interdicted one, was changed. We went afterwards to the high ground
behind the hospital, in order to fill up by eye the edges of the reefs
in our charts, for which regular triangles could not be taken in the
survey. While I was thus engaged, Mr. Clifford endeavoured to learn from
Jeeroo whether or not the King lived in the large house spoken of
before; Jeeroo as usual denied any knowledge of the King, and could not
be prevailed upon to say what the house was, or who resided there; a
peasant, however, who happened to be along with us was more
communicative, and was giving all the information desired, when Jeeroo,
observing what he was about, reprimanded him sharply. On coming down
from the height we found all the chiefs seated in a long room erected on
the outside of the garden gate: they were very merry on the subject of
last night's adventure.

21st of October.--While Mrs. Loy was employed at the well to-day washing
clothes, at a moment when every body else was out of the way, she was
visited by a Loo-choo lady, accompanied by a numerous guard of men. She
describes her as being about eighteen years of age, well dressed, fair
in complexion, with small dark eyes, and not without beauty; her hair
was of a glossy jet black, made up into a knot on one side of the head.
She wore a girdle tied at the side, and had on sandals like the men.
Mrs. Loy wished to touch her, but she shrunk back in alarm. Whether
these details be quite correct or not, the circumstance of a lady of
rank having visited Mrs. Loy is so far interesting as it denotes a
considerable degree of curiosity on the lady's part, together with the
power of gratifying it, which, in a country where the women are strictly
secluded, perhaps would not be allowed.

22d of October.--Ookooma and Jeeroo came to the Observatory to-day,
together with a number of the most respectable of the natives; they were
desirous of seeing the reflected images of the sun in the artificial
horizon through the telescope of the sextant. As this was placed on a
stand there was no difficulty in satisfying their curiosity, for they
had only to place their eye to the tube, the angle having been
previously arranged. Many of them were amused by the changes of colour
in the reflected images by means of the different shades; others were
more struck with the apparent motion of the two suns, which is very
perceptible when a high magnifying power is used; a few endeavoured to
understand the meaning of what they saw, but with the exception of
Jeeroo, I think they had no conception of its cause. Jeeroo appeared to
have some notion of astronomy; his idea of eclipses was more accurate
than could have been expected. From him Mr. Clifford got the names of
the days and months, and the various points of information respecting
Time, which will be found in the Vocabulary. Whenever we were actually
taking observations, the natives invariably remained at a considerable
distance. They had been told that the least motion disturbed the surface
of the quicksilver, and prevented our taking observations. They had much
patience, and sometimes sat quite still and silent for several hours,
till invited to come forward to look at the instruments. When Ookooma
and Jeeroo came to us, we observed that they were in great distress, and
upon our asking the cause, the former explained that Captain Maxwell
during his ride this morning had fallen down, or rather that his horse,
which was too weak for his weight, had fallen with him, and that his
finger was broken: "Tayin ma tawrittee, Tayin no eebee ootee" (the
Tayin's horse fell, Tayin's finger broke). A Loo-choo doctor, he said,
had gone on board, who would soon cure it.

On going to the Alceste we found that the Loo-choo surgeon had placed
Captain Maxwell's broken finger in a thick paste made of eggs, flour,
and some other substance which he brought along with him. He then
wrapped the whole in the skin of a newly-killed fowl. This skin dried in
a short time and held the paste firm, by which the broken finger was
kept steady. The doctor went through a number of ceremonies, such as
feeling the pulse, looking at the tongue, and so on. He had a box along
with him, containing upwards of a hundred medicines.

Captain Maxwell mentioned, that while he was sitting in a shed after the
accident, he was surprised to see a person enter the door crawling on
all fours, and half dead with terror. This it appeared was the surgeon,
who had been sent for by the chiefs. He was horror-struck at the
accident, but soon recovered himself on observing Captain Maxwell's
perfect tranquillity.

Captain Maxwell's gentleness and forbearance, and his uniform attention
to the wishes of the natives, and the great personal kindness which he
had shewn to so many of them, had very early won their confidence and
esteem. As our intercourse became more intimate, these feelings
naturally became stronger, and the concern which the natives felt upon
this occasion was very general, and was expressed, not only by Mádera
and the chiefs, but by the lower orders, in a manner highly flattering
to Captain Maxwell.

23d of October.--A deputation of the chiefs went on board the Alceste
early this morning to say, that the Prince of the island, who was the
next person in rank to the King, and heir to the throne, meant to come
on board the frigate this afternoon, as well for the purpose of paying
a visit of ceremony, as of enquiring into the state of Captain Maxwell's
health after the accident.

At noon the four senior chiefs, dressed in their state robes and
hatchee-matchees, came to announce the Prince's approach, and in about
half an hour afterwards he was brought in a closed sedan-chair to the
boat, through a concourse of people, to whom he seemed as much a show as
to us. The state boat was a large flat-bottomed barge, covered with an
awning of dark blue, with white stars on it, the whole having much the
appearance of a hearse. It was preceded by two boats bearing flags with
an inscription upon them, having in the bow an officer of justice
carrying a lackered bamboo, and in the stern a man beating a gong. A
vast number of boats were in attendance, some bearing presents, and
others following out of mere curiosity. One of the Chiefs came on board
with the Prince's card, which was of red paper forty-eight inches long,
and eleven wide[12], and shortly afterwards the Prince's barge put off
from the shore; upon which the rigging of both ships was manned, and a
salute of seven guns fired; when he came on board he was received with a
guard, and under a like salute. Captain Maxwell, who had been confined
to the cabin ever since his accident, desired me to receive the Prince.
No arrangement having been made with us respecting the ceremony of
reception, I merely took off my hat and bowed: but all the chiefs fell
on their knees the instant he came on the quarter-deck. I took his hand
from one of the chiefs who had assisted him up the accommodation ladder,
and led him to the cabin.

When seated beside Captain Maxwell, the Prince made several anxious
enquiries about his finger, expressing much regret that so disagreeable
an accident should have occurred at Loo-choo. He then called to his
pipe-bearer, and having prepared a pipe, presented it to Captain
Maxwell, who returned him this compliment, by giving him one of his own.
The usual questions as to our ages and families, and various
complimentary speeches, having passed, he said he had heard much of the
wonders of the ship, and should like to see them himself: he rose upon
this and went to the globes, which he examined with great care. He
begged to be shewn Ingeree, Loo-choo, Quantoong (China); Niphon (Japan);
Manilla, and Pekin. The chiefs would not sit down in his presence, and
never spoke to him without kneeling. On his expressing a wish to look at
the different parts of the ship, he was conducted all round the decks.
He observed every thing with attention, but without betraying any great
degree of curiosity: he had heard of the boatswain's wife, and asked to
see her; the lady, in her best dress, was presented to him; he stood for
about half a minute looking at her with a sort of pleased surprise, and
then, as if suddenly recollecting that this was somewhat rude, he drew
his fan from his breast, and with an air of the utmost politeness, held
it towards her, and upon Mrs. Loy curtsying in acknowledgment, he sent
it to her by Mádera. He asked to see the fire-engine worked, and
appeared much gratified by seeing the water thrown to so great a
height. He had heard of the African negro, and begged that he might be
sent for. When the black man was brought before him he looked
exceedingly surprised, and probably was in doubt whether the colour was
natural, as one of his people was sent to rub his face, as if to
discover whether it was painted or not. The natives, who had flocked on
board in crowds, fell on their knees whenever the Prince passed.

[Illustration: THE PRINCE of LOO-CHOO.]

On returning to the cabin, the Prince was invited to a collation
prepared for him in the foremost cabin: for a long time he refused to
sit down, nor could we conjecture what his objection was; at length,
however, he complied, while the chiefs, who are neither allowed to sit
down nor eat in his presence, retired to the after-cabin. He tasted
every thing which was offered him, but seemed afraid of the wines,
having probably heard of the proceedings on the evening of the 19th. In
about half an hour he rose and went to the after-cabin; the chiefs and
the people of his suite, to the number of fifteen, then sat down at the
table he had left, and made ample amends for the temperance and
moderation of his royal highness.

As soon as they rejoined the party in the after-cabin, business was
entered upon by Captain Maxwell's returning thanks, in the name of the
English government, for the liberal way in which we had been supplied
with every kind of refreshment, and for the other assistance which had
been given to us. The Prince replied, that the King of Loo-choo was
anxious to do every thing in his power for the King of England's ships.
Upon this Captain Maxwell observed, that he was very desirous of seeing
his majesty, for the purpose of expressing in person his gratitude for
the kindness we had received in this country. The Prince answered, that
it was contrary to the laws and customs of Loo-choo, for any foreigner
to see the king, unless sent by his own sovereign, and charged with
complimentary presents. Coming from such high authority, this assurance
was conclusive, and as nothing further could now be said on the subject,
the hope of opening a communication with this court, which had been so
anxiously desired, seemed now destroyed. The Prince, however,
unexpectedly resumed the subject, by saying that a letter would be
written to the King of England, if Captain Maxwell would undertake to
deliver it; his answer was, that nothing could give him more
satisfaction than being made the bearer of such a communication: that he
had earnestly desired the honour of paying his respects to his majesty,
but from the moment that he had heard that it was contrary to the
customs of the country, he had ceased to think of it. As soon as it was
interpreted that Captain Maxwell was willing to carry the letter alluded
to, and that he no longer urged his desire to see the King, the Prince
rose and pressed Captain Maxwell's hand and mine between his, while all
the chiefs fell on their knees in a circle round us, shewing by the
expression of their countenances, how great the anxiety had been from
which they were relieved by Captain Maxwell's ready acquiescence with
their wishes: the Prince in particular, who had hitherto looked full of
anxiety, became all cheerfulness, and his manner assumed a totally
different character.

The inference from this curious scene is, that the real object of the
Prince's visit was to dissuade Captain Maxwell from urging his request
to be allowed an interview with the King; and we conjectured that the
circumstance of his accident was taken advantage of to pay a visit to
the Alceste, where they naturally thought that the remonstrances of a
man of such high rank as the Heir Apparent to the throne, would carry
more weight than any which had yet been tried.

When the Prince again alluded to the letter, it appeared that it was to
be written by the minister, and not by the King. This altered the case
materially, and Captain Maxwell most respectfully informed the Prince,
that such a letter as he described could not be received, as it would be
an indignity to our sovereign to offer his majesty a letter written by
another king's minister. The Prince at once seemed sensible of the
propriety of what Captain Maxwell had said, and calling the chiefs round
him, entered into a long discussion with them: at the close of which, he
declared himself incompetent to decide upon so important an occasion,
but said that he would consult with the King, whose pleasure would be
communicated in a few days. Captain Maxwell expressed his willingness to
abide by his majesty's decision as far as was consistent with the
respect due to his own sovereign. The Prince seemed entirely satisfied
with this answer, and said something to the chiefs, upon which they
again fell on their knees before Captain Maxwell, notwithstanding all
his efforts to prevent them. Nothing more of any consequence passed.

In the early part of the interview the present was brought in, or at
least such parts of it as were capable of being thus displayed. The
whole consisted of two bullocks, three hogs, three goats, and a quantity
of vegetables and fruit; besides fifteen webs of the cloth of the
island, thirty fans, and twelve pipes. The Prince said he had sent a
present to me, which I found to consist of half the above mentioned
things. He shortly afterwards rose to take leave. The rigging was manned
on his going away, and similar honours were paid him as were shewn when
he came on board.

The Prince of Loo-choo, whose name is Shang Pung Fwee, and title Pochin
Tay Foo, belongs to the highest of the nine orders of chiefs on the
islands, the distinction of which rank is a hatchee-matchee of a pink
ground, with perpendicular rows of black, yellow, blue, white, and green
spots. He was clothed in a robe of light blue silk, lined with silk a
shade lighter, over which he wore a girdle richly embossed with flowers
of gold and different coloured silks: in other respects his dress was
like that of the chiefs. He is about fifty years old, his beard is full
and white, and his figure well proportioned. In manners he is genteel
and sedate, but occasionally a little awkward, which his retired habits
sufficiently account for. Towards the close of his visit, when his
reserve had in some degree worn off, we observed him smile for an
instant, now and then, with a shrewd expression in his eyes, as if he
was observing what was passing more narrowly than we at first suspected.
It was thought, too, that in making inquiries about different things on
board, he shewed more discrimination than most of those who had preceded
him; but on the whole, there was nothing very interesting in him besides
his rank. While he was looking over the books and other things in the
cabin, a picture of his majesty King George the Third was shewn to him.
As the interpreter was not present, we could not immediately explain who
it was intended to represent, till it occurred to us to join our hands
and bow to it in the Loo-choo manner: the Prince instantly saw what was
meant, and turning towards the picture, made a low and respectful
obeisance.

His suite consisted of several chiefs whom we had not seen before, and
six or seven personal attendants, two of whom stood behind to fan him
and light his pipe. It is curious that these men, who from their dress
and manner were certainly servants, derived a sort of rank from being
about the Prince's person; for when the chiefs sat down to table after
he had left it, they all stood by as if expecting to be invited to sit
down also; but Mr. Clifford, to whom Captain Maxwell had given the party
in charge, having observed how particular they were with respect to the
distinctions of rank, did not think of asking them to be seated, till
Jeema requested him to do so; still suspecting some mistake, he applied
to Mádera, who said it was perfectly correct, and they were accordingly
asked to sit down with the rest.

We had never been able to obtain from the natives any clear account of
former visitors, and as the Prince was thought a likely person to be in
possession of the desired information, questions were asked him upon
this subject. He said that a vessel had been here about twenty years
ago, and that she went away immediately without holding any
communication with the court. This must have been the schooner in which
Captain Broughton visited Napakiang in July, 1797, after he had been
wrecked in his majesty's ship Providence, on the island of Typinsan[13].
He said that he knew of no other stranger who had visited Loo-choo. On
being interrogated as to the knowledge of other countries, he declared
that they knew nothing of the English or French, or any nation indeed
but the Chinese, Corean, and Japanese. Something was said about Manilla,
and from its not being very remote, it is possible that some
communication may have existed between that place and Loo-choo. Their
accounts, however, were vague and unsatisfactory, and it is not
impossible that we ourselves may have first suggested the name, and
afterwards ascribed the use of it to them[14].

Nothing, however, that occurred to-day, attracted more notice than
Mádera's assumption of his long concealed rank. He came for the first
time dressed in the robes and hatchee-matchee of a chief, and not only
took precedence of all our old friends, but during the discussion in the
cabin with the Prince, maintained a decided superiority over them all.
While all the rest were embarrassed in the Prince's presence, and
crouching on their knees every time they spoke, Mádera, though always
respectful, was quite at his ease; and we could not help fancying that
he addressed the Prince as if accustomed to his society. It was no less
remarkable, that the Prince referred much oftener to him than to any of
the rest, and listened to what he said with greater attention. Whether
Mádera owed such distinction to his actual rank, which may have placed
him about the court, or to the ascendancy of his talents, or to the
accidental circumstance of his having had better opportunities of
knowing us than any other of the natives, we could never discover. He
admitted, when interrogated, that he had often seen the Prince before,
while the other chiefs confessed their ignorance even of his person,
before to-day.

As soon as the Prince was placed in his chair and carried away, Mádera
came on board, and entered with great good humour into all the jokes
which were made upon his new character. He declined telling why he had
kept his rank so long out of sight, but it was sufficiently obvious that
his main object was to establish an intimacy with all the different
classes on board the ships, and in this he completely succeeded; for he
had gradually advanced in his acquaintance, first with the sailors, then
the midshipmen, next with the officers, and last of all with the
captains. By this means he gained the confidence and good will of each
class as he went along; and by rising in consequence every day, instead
of putting forward all his claims at once, acquired not only substantial
importance with us, but gained a much more intimate knowledge of our
character and customs than he could have hoped to do in any other way.

24th of October.--Mr. Clifford went along with me to-day for the purpose
of sketching the bridge, which, though not above three hundred yards
from the landing place, the chiefs have always objected to our
examining. We took Jeeroo with us without telling him our object, which
he no sooner discovered than he became quite alarmed, and sent off for
Mádera, who came to us immediately, and upon learning that nothing
further was proposed than a mere examination of the bridge, he said that
we might go on; having first made us promise solemnly not to go any
further. While Mádera was binding us down in this way, I expressed some
little impatience at his doubting our simple declaration of nothing more
being intended than what we avowed; but his duty I suppose was
imperative, and he would not leave us till the matter was arranged in
his own way. As soon as he was satisfied on this point he said something
to Jeeroo and left us; but turning back again, he came up to Mr.
Clifford, and whispered, "captain no sulky?" meaning, we supposed, to
express his apprehension that I had been angry at the stipulations so
positively required by him. Mr. Clifford, having assured him that I was
not sulky with him, detained him to ask him what it was he feared? what
he had seen in us to excite such dread of our going near the town? He
replied, "Loochoo woman see Ingeree man, Loochoo woman cry!" He then
returned; and Jeeroo, who remained in a boat close to the bridge while I
was employed measuring it and drawing it stone by stone, was greatly
interested by Mr. Clifford's account of the great age of our venerable
Sovereign, and the number of his family, which excited his astonishment
and admiration. He conversed freely while the subject was the King of
England, but the moment the slightest turn in the discourse was made
towards the King of Loo-choo he drew up, and became impenetrable. "He
did not know," he said, "how old he was, nor how many children he had;"
in short he seemed scarcely to admit that he had ever heard any thing
about him.

From Mádera, however, who had no concealments, we learnt afterwards that
the King has only one wife, but has twelve concubines; he is an old man,
and has seven children. It is curious that none of the chiefs will
inform Captain Maxwell whether or not the Prince who visited the ships
yesterday has any children; it is hardly possible that they can be
ignorant of the fact; but either they are kept strangely in the dark as
to what passes in the palace, or they carry their reserve on royal
topics to a singular length.

From the bridge we went to the top of the hill above the well, where
Jeeroo sung several songs. On the way up we stopped at one of the large
horse-shoe tombs mentioned before, which resembles in all respects the
tombs of China. On this similarity being pointed out to Jeeroo, he
became anxious to explain that it was a Loo-choo tomb, and not
exclusively Chinese; meaning probably that Loo-choo persons were
contained in it. He informed us that these tombs did not contain a
single person only, or a single generation, but were used as cemeteries
from age to age. The bodies, according to his account, are put into
coffins, and allowed to lie untouched for seven years, by which time the
flesh is entirely decayed; the bones are then collected, and being put
into cases are preserved by the families of the deceased with great
care.

25th of October.--This being the anniversary of His Majesty's accession
to the throne, the ships were dressed in colours, and a royal salute
fired. Upon the natives this produced a great effect; they had never
seen any other flags than the single ensigns hoisted on Sundays, and
this display of several hundred flags was well calculated to surprise
and delight them. They were informed some days before that there would
be some ceremonies in honour of our King, and great numbers of people
had assembled on the shore in consequence. This morning had also been
fixed upon for returning the Prince's visit; accordingly we left the
Alceste at one o'clock, forming a procession of four boats, with flags
in each. Captain Maxwell took twelve of his officers and young
gentlemen, and six accompanied me from the Lyra, all being dressed in
full uniform. We entered the harbour, and landed at the same part of the
causeway as before, where the chiefs were in attendance, as on the
occasion of our visit on the 23d ult.

The Prince advanced a few yards on the outside of the gate, and having
taken Captain Maxwell's hand, conducted him to the temple, where an
ingenious device was adopted to preserve the etiquette, requiring that
none of inferior rank shall sit down in the Prince's company. The temple
was divided into three rooms by ranges of columns, which were deemed a
sufficient separation; and, at the same time, no person in the other
rooms could feel himself slighted by the exclusion, since the division
by the pillars was merely nominal. The feast was sumptuous, consisting
of twelve regular courses, besides tea and sackee. There were many new
dishes, principally of meat, dressed in various ways in large bowls. We
saw what seemed to be wheaten bread for the first time to-day. It being
necessary to make some return for the presents brought on board by the
Prince two days ago, Captain Maxwell now gave him several pieces of
scarlet and blue superfine cloth, and samples of every species of
cloths, from the finest damask to the coarsest sail canvas; also a set
of cut crystal decanters and glasses, and three dozen of wine of ten
different sorts, with several books, and a number of smaller articles.
It was also stated to the Prince, that a cow and calf had been left on
shore in order to be offered to the King as a small mark of our sense of
the kindness which we had experienced. The Prince expressed much
satisfaction at this gift, as the calf had become a great favourite with
the natives. My present consisted of half the quantity of wine given by
Captain Maxwell, a mirror taken from a dressing-stand, samples of
English stationary, Cary's map of England, an atlas, and a small brass
sextant; which latter present had been suggested by the wonder which it
had invariably excited at the observatory. Mr. John Maxwell, to whom the
Prince had sent a present of cloth and pipes after he landed yesterday,
gave him a spy-glass and a map of London; the map was coloured, and
round the edges were the palaces, Greenwich Hospital, and other public
buildings, all of which he examined with great attention. After he had
looked over most of the things, and was satisfied with the explanations,
he rose and said that a great deal too much had been given, to which it
was replied, that a great deal too little had been given, and that they
were not offered as being, in any respect, an equivalent for the
supplies sent on board, but merely to shew our sense of the kindness
and attention with which we had been received[15]. During the time that
we sat at table to-day, the interpreter was hardly ever called in, as
Mádera and Mr. Clifford contrived between them to explain every thing,
if not as clearly as could have been wished, yet in a more satisfactory
manner than could have been done through the medium of John the
Chinaman, of whose fidelity we were nowise certain, and whose taste and
delicacy in conveying our sentiments we had great reason to doubt.

The Prince, after a time, rose and proposed the King of England's
health, which was accordingly drank in a cup of sackee. In return we
gave the King of Loo-choo. As the surgeon had desired Captain Maxwell to
drink no wine, there was very little drank at the Prince's table; but at
the others every art was used to circulate the sackee pot. Indeed,
little persuasion was required, for the sackee, though not strong, was
very good. Ookooma presided at the table occupied by the officers, and
Jeero at that where the midshipmen sat.

Ookooma having remarked on board, that whenever the King's health was
drank, whether his Majesty of England, or of Loo-choo, the cups were
always freely emptied, took advantage of this loyalty of sentiment, and
gave "The King of Injeree's health" three or four times over, to which,
of course, the officers were obliged to reply, by giving "The King of
Loo-choo" as often. He carried this rather farther than is customary
with us on similar occasions, for observing that the company were rather
backward in eating a bowl of sweet rice-meal porridge, he stood up with
his bowl in his hand, and calling out "King of Injeree health!"
swallowed the whole of it, and invited the rest to follow his example.

The Prince seemed to enjoy the mirth of the other tables very much; he
was himself more cheerful and disengaged than when we first saw him,
though he appears to be naturally a silent man. Ookooma, by overacting
his part, got, we thought, a little tipsy, and came several times into
the state chamber, talking louder than was proper, but of this the
Prince took no notice. When Ookooma came near my chair, I whispered to
him, "Ya weetee," (you are drunk;) he turned round, and affecting to be
angry, called out, "Weetee nang," (I am not drunk) in a voice and manner
which were in direct contradiction to his assertion: his subsequent
behaviour, however, was so correct and sedate when the feast broke up,
and all were again upon duty, that he was probably merely pretending to
be tipsy, in order to suit what was considered to be the humour of the
company.

On rising to depart, the Prince led Captain Maxwell by the hand, not
only through the gate, but about twenty yards along the causeway; here
he stopped and took leave. Captain Maxwell availed himself of this
opportunity to repeat, for the last time, his thanks in the name of his
government, for the numerous attentions and marks of kindness which we
had received. He requested that what he had said might be communicated
to the King, and assured the Prince, in the most earnest and respectful
manner, that all the circumstances of our reception and entertainment
should be stated to our own government. The Prince bowed to this in a
manner which seemed to express his satisfaction at what was promised.
Captain Maxwell next observed, that besides the high public benefits of
which he had just been speaking, he felt individually greatly honoured
and obliged by the particular attention which had been shewn to himself,
and to the captain of the little ship, and hoped that the Prince would
accept from himself a small mark of his respect and gratitude. As soon
as this was interpreted to the Prince, Captain Maxwell took from his
neck a small thermometer, set in silver, and presented it to the Prince,
who leaned his head forward, and requested that it might be hung round
his neck.

This may be supposed a curious place to hang a thermometer, but we had
learned during our intercourse with the chiefs, that some management of
this kind was necessary whenever it was intended to offer them presents;
for their extreme delicacy made them unwilling to accept any thing of
value, lest it might appear in the light of remuneration for their
hospitality. Whenever any thing merely ornamental, or of little value,
was offered, and particularly if worn about the person, no objection was
made to receiving it. It thus became the practice, as being the most
convenient method, to tie the proposed gift by a ribbon round the neck;
and after a time, every one had rings, seals, watch-keys, or bank tokens
with holes drilled in them, prepared for these occasions. The
thermometer which was given to the Prince had particularly attracted his
notice when he was on board.

After Captain Maxwell had given his present, the Prince turned to me,
and I put over his neck a cornelian ornament, suspended by a ribbon, in
the same manner as the thermometer.

He was greatly delighted with these compliments, and immediately
resuming Captain Maxwell's hand, led him along the whole length of the
causeway to the boat, and then stepped upon the top of the parapet to
see us row away.

As soon as we had put off, every one in the boats stood up and gave
three cheers; to which the Prince bowed several times, with his hands
closed and raised to his breast. He remained on the parapet, and
continued waving his fan to us as we rowed down the harbour, as long as
we could see him. As the boats rowed in procession out of the harbour,
all the chiefs ran along to the end of the causeway, where they
continued, along with a vast crowd of natives, waving their
handkerchiefs and fans till we were a great way from the shore. On each
side of this group of chiefs a gong was beat incessantly. On every side,
the rocks, the trees, houses, and boats, in short, every spot was
crowded with people, waving their hands, and cheering us as we went
along. This brilliant scene had less of novelty in it, to be sure, than
what we had witnessed at the same place on the twenty-third of last
month, but it was still more pleasing, for we had now become acquainted
with many of the individuals forming this assemblage, and could feel
assured that their expressions of kindness and respect were sincere. On
the first occasion, too, the natives being ignorant of our intentions,
were very generally alarmed at our appearance; and accordingly, though
there was much curiosity shewn, a profound silence and stillness
prevailed over the whole crowd, very different from the friendly shouts
and signs with which they greeted us as we passed among them to-day.

Precautions had been taken to prevent the ladies from indulging their
curiosity as they had done on the first visit, not a female being seen
any where.

26th of October.--Last night both the Alceste and Lyra were illuminated.
At nine o'clock a _feu de joie_ was fired, and a number of fire-works
let off from the yard-arms. A great concourse of the natives, who had
been apprised of our intentions, assembled on the shore, and were very
highly delighted with this brilliant exhibition.

[Illustration: SCENE after the PRINCE of LOO CHOO'S FEAST.]

The sick, as well as the remaining stores belonging to the Alceste, were
removed on board this morning, and every preparation made for sea. While
employed in completing the series of observations at the observatory,
Mádera joined us, having in his hand the sextant which I had given to
the Prince yesterday. It seemed that he had been ordered to make himself
acquainted with the use of it; and a more hopeless enterprise could not
have been proposed to any man. But Mádera was not a man to be thrown
into despair by difficulty; on the contrary, he persevered in observing
with this sextant, and the more the difficulty was made apparent, the
more keenly he laboured to overcome it. The progress which he made in a
few hours in the mere practical operation of taking angles and altitudes
was not surprising, because there is in fact not much difficulty in it;
but he was nowise satisfied with this proficiency, and seemed anxious to
apply his knowledge to some useful purpose.

With a sextant on a stand, I made him take the distance between the sun
and moon, four or five times; on every occasion he was wonderfully near
the truth. We endeavoured to confine him to one object, merely to
ascertain the time of apparent noon; and I think we succeeded in
explaining to him how this was to be done. He expressed repeatedly his
regret at our approaching departure, in which sentiment he was joined by
Jeeroo and the rest of the chiefs, who were quite out of spirits.
Jeeroo, poor fellow, had prepared a handsome dinner for us under a tree
near the observatory. He made us drink what he called "wackaríttee," or
the parting cup, several times over. We had a number of visitors at the
observatory, who saw the instruments packed up and sent off with looks
of real regret. They all said they were sorry we were going away. One
man gave Mr. Clifford, as a farewell gift, a curious drawing of the
Alceste dressed in flags, and executed, he said, by his son. The
children, too, were all much affected by our preparations, and the
wonted hilarity of the lower orders was quite gone.

Having taken our final leave of the shore, we went to the Alceste, where
we found the chiefs in conference with Captain Maxwell, who made each of
the chiefs a present of a cut wine glass, which he knew they had long
desired to possess. To Ookooma he gave a finely cut tumbler, in a red
morocco case. This was much beyond his expectations, and perhaps his
wishes, for he appeared to observe the wine glasses of the others with
somewhat of a disappointed look. Captain Maxwell perceiving in a moment
that Ookooma had set his heart upon a wine glass, opened the case, and
placed one inside the tumbler, to Ookooma's great satisfaction; and soon
afterwards the whole party went on shore, saying, before they left the
ship, that in the morning the Bodzes would come on board in order to
perform some sacrifice. As they never came, it is probable that the
interpreter misunderstood them, particularly as Isaacha Sandoo said to
Mr. Clifford, "Acha hoonee nittee Doochoo mang hoonee oocooyoong."
"To-morrow the ships will go, and all the Loo-choo people will pray for
them, or wish them well;" which was probably what was meant when the
interpreter reported that the Bodzes were to come on board.

While we were at dinner, Mádera came into the Alceste's cabin for the
purpose of asking some questions about the sextant. He had not been
aware of our being at dinner, and looked shocked at having intruded; and
when invited to sit down, politely, but firmly declined. From the cabin
he went to the gun room, to see his friend Mr. Hoppner, the junior
lieutenant of the Alceste, with whom he had formed a great friendship.
Mr. Hoppner gave him a picture of the Alceste and some other presents;
upon which Mádera, who was much affected, said, "To-morrow ship go sea;
I go my father house, two day distance: when I see my father, I show him
your present, and I tell him, me, Henry Hoppner all same (as) brother,"
and burst into tears!

Sunday, 27th of October.--At daybreak we unmoored, and the natives, on
seeing us take up one of our anchors, thought we were going to get under
weigh immediately, and give them the slip, which was not at all
intended. This alarm, however, brought the chiefs off in a great hurry;
not in a body in their usual formal way, but one by one, in separate
canoes. Old Jeema called on board the Lyra on his way to the frigate; he
was a good deal agitated, and the tears came into his eyes when I put a
ring on his finger. He gave me in return his knife.

The other chiefs called alongside on their way to the frigate, but went
on when I told them that I was just going to the Alceste myself. In the
mean time Mádera came on board, with the sextant in his hand; he was in
such distress that he scarcely knew what he was about. In this
distracted state he sat down to breakfast with us, during which he
continued lighting his pipe and smoking as fast as he could; drinking
and eating whatever was placed before him. After he had a little
recovered himself, he asked what books it would be necessary to read to
enable him to make use of the sextant; I gave him a nautical almanack,
and told him that he must understand that in the first instance: he
opened it, and looking at the figures, held up his hands in despair, and
was at last forced to confess that it was a hopeless business. He
therefore put the sextant up and bade us farewell. Before he left the
Lyra he gave Mr. Clifford his pipe, tobacco pouch, and a crystal
ornament; saying, as he held out the last, "You go Ingeree, you give
this to your childs."

Mr. Clifford gave him a few presents in return, and expressed his
anxiety to be considered his friend. Mádera, with the tears streaming
down his cheeks, placed his hand several times upon his heart, and
cried, "Eedooshee, edooshee!" My friend, my friend!

To me he gave a fan and a picture of an old man looking up at the sun,
drawn, he said, by himself: he probably meant in his picture some
allusion to my usual occupation at the observatory. After he had put off
in his boat, he called out, "Ingeree noo choo sibittee yootoosha," I
shall ever remember the English people. When he went to the Alceste, one
of the chiefs remarked that he had neither his hatchee-matchee on nor
his robes, and told him that it was not respectful to wait upon Captain
Maxwell for the last time, in his ordinary dress; particularly as all
the others were in full array. Mádera, who, poor fellow, had been too
much concerned about other matters to think of dress, was shocked at
this apparent want of politeness, and went immediately to apologize to
Captain Maxwell, who took him by the hand, and gave him a present,
telling him, at the same time, that he was always too happy to see him,
to notice what dress he had on.

On going into the cabin, I found the chiefs seated in a row, all very
disconsolate, and apparently trying to conceal emotions different, in
all probability, from any which they had ever before experienced.
Captain Maxwell had made them his parting present, and I therefore gave
to each chief some trifle, receiving from them in return, their knives,
pipes, pouches, and fans. In the mean time the anchor was hove up, and
every thing being ready for making sail, the chiefs rose to take leave.
Ookooma wished to say something, but was too much affected to speak, and
before they reached their boats they were all in tears.

Mádera cried bitterly as he shook hands with his numerous friends, who
were loading him with presents.

The chiefs, as well as the people in the numerous canoes which had
assembled round the ships, stood up, and continued waving their fans and
handkerchiefs till we were beyond the reefs, and could see them no
longer.

       *       *       *       *       *

Almost every thing respecting the manners and customs of Loo-choo, with
which we have had an opportunity of becoming acquainted, has been laid
before the reader in the foregoing narrative. It is proposed to insert
here a few particulars which in the hurry of the moment were noted down
without date. They might easily have been embodied with the narrative,
but it has been considered of less consequence to sacrifice arrangement,
than to interfere in any way with the integrity of the Journal, in which
nothing has been inserted out of the exact order in which it is known to
have happened.

The religion of Loo-choo appears to be that of Fo, said to be introduced
by the bodzes one thousand years ago[16]. We found great difficulty in
discovering any thing precise on this subject from the natives; but from
all that we could gather, religion does not appear to be made a matter
of general instruction as in Europe, being left, as in China, to the
priests. This we infer from the careless way in which the subject was at
all times treated by the natives, and the ignorance which they
professed of the forms and ceremonies used in the temples. The bodzes
are not respected or esteemed in society; they are prevented from
marrying, and are not allowed to eat meat: few people associate with
them, and even the children turn them into ridicule. On the occasion of
the Loo-choo funeral service over the grave of the seaman, the bodzes
stood behind, and were not called upon to officiate, the service being
entirely performed by Jeeroo.

In the large temple we saw three gilt idols and various pictures; but
with the exception of the funeral service just alluded to, we never met
with any thing in the least degree resembling a religious ceremony. The
bodzes kept the temple clean swept, and took care of the walks and
hedges, and this appeared to be their only employment. It is fair to
suppose, however, that the occupation of the temple by us may have
caused a temporary cessation of their religious observances.

They have large tombs or cemeteries for their dead, being mostly of the
Chinese form, viz. that of a horse-shoe. They are formed of stones and
mortar, and are covered with a coat of cheenam, (shell lime), which is
always kept nicely whitewashed and clean swept: some are more highly
finished than others; their size varies from twenty to thirty feet in
length, by twelve to fourteen broad. The coffin, when closed, is placed
in the vault under the tomb, and is not touched for six or seven years,
by which time the flesh is found to have separated and wasted away; the
bones are then collected, and put into jars ranged in rows on the inside
of the vault. Burning is never used at any stage of the proceedings, nor
under any circumstances. In the course of time, when these vaults become
crowded, the vases are removed to houses appropriated to their reception
above ground: such must have been the building described by Mr. Clifford
in the village near Port Melville. The lower orders, who cannot afford
these expensive tombs, take advantage of hollow places in the rocks,
which by a little assistance are made secure vaults. In the cliffs
behind the village of Oonting, the galleries cut for the reception of
the vases must have been the work of men possessed of power and
authority. Not being fully aware what the Chinese customs are with
respect to the dead, in ordinary cases, it is impossible for us to say
how nearly they resemble those of Loo-choo, but there are certainly some
points of resemblance.

From Mr. Clifford's notes on the Loo-choo inscriptions, I have extracted
the following particulars.

"A number of carved stones, called by the natives Kawroo, were found at
many places, particularly in the groves on the hill. The Kawroo is two
feet long, by one wide, and one high; it is excavated a little on the
upper part, on which an offering of rice is placed. On the sides of this
stone are carved a variety of characters, denoting the rank of the
person who makes the offering, as well as the object of his petition,
together with the date.

"Two of these inscriptions, copied at the time, have since been
translated by a gentleman acquainted with the Chinese characters. The
first gives an account of a man about to sail for China, in the reign of
Kien Lung, the late monarch of that country; this person implores the
divine aid in protecting him during his voyage. The other is dated in
the twenty-first year of the reign of Kia-King, the present emperor of
China, answering to the year 1816, in which we visited Loo-choo. This is
an invocation to the deity for success in a literary pursuit.

"Two narrow strips of paper, with characters inscribed on them, which by
consent of the natives were taken from a pillar in the temple, and which
have since been translated, prove to be invocations, one to the supreme
deity, and the other to the evil spirit. The first is on a slip of
paper, two feet long, by two inches wide, and contains a supplication
for pardon. The latter invocation begins by seven rows of the character
symbolical of the Devil. In the upper line there are seven, and in the
last one, so that a triangular page is formed of twenty-eight
characters, each signifying the Devil; and the prayer itself is written
in a narrow perpendicular line underneath; the whole inscription
resembling in form a kite with a long tail attached to it."

Polygamy is not allowed in Loo-choo as in China, and the king, it
appears, is the only person permitted by law to have concubines; they
invariably spoke with horror of the Chinese practice, which allows a
plurality of wives, and were much gratified on learning that the English
customs in this respect were similar to those of Loo-choo. The women are
not treated so well as we were led to expect from the mildness of
character in the men, and their liberality of thinking in general. The
upper classes of women are confined a good deal to their houses, and the
lower orders perform much of the hard work of husbandry. We saw them at
a distance, in great numbers, carrying loads on their heads. Mádera says
that the women are not treated with much indulgence, being even
restricted from using fans; and that when they are met out of doors by
the men, they take no notice of one another, whatever may be the degree
of relationship or intimacy subsisting between them. The perseverance
with which they kept the women from our sight is curious, and leads us
to conjecture that the general practice of the island is to seclude the
women at all times. In this respect they differ from the Japanese, who
are said to allow wives to every stranger. This degree of seclusion
does not prevail in China, as we had opportunities of observing at
several places never before visited by Europeans. The Chinese account
quoted in the Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, vol. 23, states that the
young men and women marry on this island by choice, and not, as in
China, by a contract made without any personal knowledge of each other.
We took every opportunity of interrogating them on this subject, but as
the question was always evaded, we fear that their practice in this
respect is not so praiseworthy as that account would make it appear.

Of their literature we could get but few satisfactory accounts; they say
that they have few books in their own language, the greater number on
the island being Chinese. The young men of rank are sometimes sent to
China to be educated. Jeeroo had been there when a boy. None but the
upper classes understand the spoken Chinese, and the peasantry are in
general ignorant both of the spoken and written Chinese language.

They appear to have no money, and from all we could see or hear, they
are even ignorant of its use. Those, however, who have visited China
cannot be so ill informed, and yet none of them set any value upon
Spanish dollars, or upon any gold coins that we had. Though we were
incessantly trying to make out from Mádera and the others, what their
medium of exchange was, we could never learn any thing distinct upon the
subject, nor could they be made to comprehend our questions about money;
a difficulty, it may be observed, which we should expect to meet with
among people whose only mode of purchase was by barter. The only
circumstance which came to our knowledge bearing at all upon this
question, was during the time when the garden was under preparation for
the reception of the Alceste's stores; it was then remarked that each of
the labourers employed had a little piece of paper stuck in his hair,
with a single character written on it; this naturally excited our
curiosity, but the inquiries we were enabled to make at that early stage
of our knowledge of the language, led to nothing conclusive. Afterwards,
when our means in this respect were more ample, we could not recall the
circumstance to the recollection of the chiefs. As these papers were
called by the people wearing them, "hoonátee," and as "hoónee" means
ship, Mr. Clifford has conjectured that they may have been written
passes to enable them to enter the gate on the ship's business.

We saw no arms of any kind, and the natives always declared that they
had none. Their behaviour on seeing a musket fired certainly implied an
ignorance of fire-arms. In a cottage at the north end of the island, we
saw a spear which had the appearance of a warlike weapon, but we had
every reason to believe that this was used for the sole purpose of
catching fish, having seen others not very dissimilar actually employed
in this way. They looked at our swords and cutlasses, and at the Malay
creeses and spears, with equal surprise, being apparently as little
acquainted with the one as with the other. The chiefs carried little
case knives in the folds of their robes, or in the girdle, and the lower
orders had a larger knife, but these were always of some immediate
practical utility, and were not worn for defence nor as ornaments. They
denied having any knowledge of war either by experience or by tradition.

We never saw any punishment inflicted at Loo-choo: a tap with the fan,
or an angry look, was the severest chastisement ever resorted to, as far
as we could discover. In giving orders, the chiefs were mild though
firm, and the people always obeyed with cheerfulness. There seemed to be
great respect and confidence on the one hand, and much consideration and
kind feeling on the other. In this particular, more than in any other
that fell under our notice, Loo-choo differs from China, for in the
latter country we saw none of this generous and friendly understanding
between the upper and lower classes.

One day when we were drinking tea and smoking pipes with the chiefs, on
the top of the hill, a boy began to exhibit feats of tumbling before us;
in a short time all eyes were turned towards him, and his modesty caused
him to desist. We offered him buttons and various things, but he would
not resume his tumbling: we then asked Jeema to interfere; he did so,
and told the youngster to go on; but he kept his seat, and Jeema became
angry, or rather pretended to be so, yet the tumbler sat obstinately
still. "Well," said Jeema to us, "what is to be done? It was for his own
amusement that he began, and probably for his amusement he will do so
again." The boy, when left alone, in a short time resumed his tumbling.
I mention this to shew Jeema's good sense in not forcing the boy to do
that as a task, which he had begun as an amusement, and which he had
discernment enough to know would be unpleasant for us to witness in any
other way. By this treatment of their children, mutual cordiality and
freedom of intercourse are encouraged. It was probably owing to this
mode of education that the children became at once familiar with us. One
day while I was employed sketching the village and trees near the
bridge, a boy stopped near me, and without saying any thing, endeavoured
to attract my notice by performing various gambols before me. I took no
notice of him for some time, but at last looked up and smiled; upon
which the boy cried out in perfectly good English, "How do you do? Very
well, I thank you;" and ran off, quite delighted at having displayed his
proficiency in English.

The chiefs were generally accompanied by one or two of their sons, who
took their places near them, and were always put forward when there was
any thing curious to be seen. In this way they were encouraged to make
themselves acquainted with every thing, and yet nothing could be more
respectful or affectionate than they always were. Great pains were taken
to form the manners of the children, and we never observed an instance
of rudeness in any one of them, though they were as full of life and
spirits as the wildest English school-boys. John the Chinaman afforded
them much amusement: he was a great coxcomb, and therefore fair game for
the boys; they used to surround him and pretend to pull his long tail;
but they never actually pulled it, but merely teazed him a little, and
then ran away. These little traits seem worthy of notice, as they belong
to a style of education quite different from what we had seen in China
and some other eastern countries, where the children are made to look
like men in miniature.

During our intercourse with these people, there did not occur one
instance of theft. They were all permitted to come on board
indiscriminately; to go into the cabins, store-rooms, and wherever they
liked, unattended. At the temple the Alceste's stores of every kind were
lying about, as well as the carpenter's and armourer's tools; and in the
observatory, the instruments, books, and pencils were merely placed
under cover; yet there was not a single article taken away, though many
hundreds of people were daily admitted, and allowed to examine whatever
they pleased. This degree of honesty is a feature which distinguishes
the people of Loo-choo from the Chinese, as well as from the inhabitants
of the islands in the South Sea and of the Malay Archipelago; among whom
even fear, as was ascertained by Captain Cook and other voyagers, is
altogether insufficient to prevent theft. At Loo-choo the people are
considerably civilised; but they have few wants, and they appear to be
perfectly contented. Honesty is perhaps the natural consequence of such
a state of society.

We saw no musical instruments of any kind; they were, however, aware of
their use. The natives almost all sing, and we heard several very sweet
airs, principally plaintive: they had many jovial drinking songs, one of
which we wrote down from their singing; it was inscribed on a drinking
cup, and is as follows:

    "Ty´wack koo, tawshoo, shee kackoofing,
    "Chaw ung, itchee shaw, shooha neebooroo;
    "Ting shee, you byee, chee taroo shoo ninnee
    "Nooboo cadsee meesee carra shaw jeeroo
    "Shing coodee sackee oochee noo shing."

The Chinese characters on the drinking-cup were thus translated in
China, "Tywack hoo[17], inspired by a jar of wine, writes an hundred
pages of odes or verses without end. At the market town of Chaw-ung[18]
he entered a wine shop to sleep. The Emperor summoned him to appear; in
his haste to obey the summons, he forgot to put on his neckcloth, and
rushing into the royal presence, exclaimed, 'I am the wine-loving
immortal.'"

The Loo-choo dress has been so frequently mentioned, that a brief
notice, in recapitulation, will suffice in this place. Their loose robe
was generally made of cotton, and of a great variety of colours. The
robe of a grown up person was never flowered or printed over with
figures, being generally of a uniform colour, though instances occurred
of striped cloths being worn by the chiefs. This robe opened in front,
but the edges overlapped, and were concealed by the folds, so as to
render it difficult to say whether or not the robe was continued all
round: the sleeves were about three feet wide: round the middle was
bound a belt or girdle about four or five inches wide, always of a
different colour from the dress, and in general richly ornamented with
wrought silk and gold flowers. The folds of the robe overhang the belt,
but not so much as to hide it: the whole of the dress folds easily, and
has a graceful and picturesque appearance. The garments worn by the
children were often gaudily printed with flowers. In rainy or cold
weather, a sort of great coat was worn by the chiefs only, of thick blue
cloth, buttoning in front over the robe, and tighter both in body and
sleeves than the other. This cloth resembled the coarse cloth used in
China; and it looked like woollen manufacture, and may possibly have
been originally brought from England. The sandals worn by all ranks were
exactly the same; they were formed of straw wrought into a firm mat to
fit the sole of the foot, smooth towards the foot, and ragged
underneath: a stiff smooth band of straw, about as thick as one's little
finger, passes from that part of the sandal immediately under the ancle
and over the lower part of the instep, so as to join the sandal at the
opposite side; this is connected with the foremost part of the sandal by
a short small straw cord which comes between the great toe and the
next one. The upper classes wore stockings of white cotton, not unlike
our half stockings, except that they button at the outside, and have a
place like the finger of a glove for the great toe.

[Illustration: GENTLEMAN of LOO CHOO in his CLOAK.]

Their hair is of a jet black, and is kept glossy by juice expressed
from a leaf. There is no variety in the fashion of dressing it; it is
pulled tight up all round, and is formed at top into a compact knot, so
as to conceal the crown of the head, which is shaved; through the knot
are thrust two metal pins, one of which has a square point and flowered
head consisting of six leaves or divisions: the other pin has one end
sharp, and the other shaped like a scoop: the length of these pins is
from four to six inches. We did not see the Prince's, as he remained
covered during all the time of his visit; but the Chief of high rank,
who visited the Alceste on the 23d of September, had the flowered end of
one pin studded with precious stones. The higher orders wear, on state
occasions, what they called a "hatchee-matchee," which is a kind of
turban, apparently made by winding a broad band round a cylinder, in
such a way, that a small segment of each fold is shewn at every turn, in
front above, and behind below; this is effected by giving a slight
diagonal direction to each fold. The lower orders occasionally tie a
coloured cloth or handkerchief round the head; this they call "sadjee:"
next the body they wear a thin cotton dress. The men wear no ornaments
through their flesh, nor are they tattooed: we saw, indeed, some
fishermen who had fish spears marked on their arms, but this does not
prevail generally. An etching of these marks is given by Mr. Clifford in
the second part of the Vocabulary.

The cattle on this island, which are of a small black breed, are used
exclusively for agricultural purposes. Hogs, goats, and poultry, with
rice and a great variety of vegetables, form the food of the
inhabitants: milk is never used. We saw no geese, so that those left by
Captain Broughton most probably did not thrive. They have no sheep nor
asses. Their horses are of a small slight make, and the natives are very
fond of riding. We saw no carts or wheeled carriages of any kind, horses
being used to carry loads; for this purpose the roads are numerous, and
kept in excellent order, being from six to ten feet wide.

Their mode of dressing the ground is neat, and resembles the Chinese,
particularly in manuring and irrigating it. This is most attended to
where the sugar-cane is cultivated: they have, besides, tobacco, wheat,
rice, Indian corn, millet, sweet potatoes, brinjals, and many other
vegetables. The fields, which are nicely squared, have convenient walks
on the raised banks running round each. Along the sides of the hills,
and round the villages, the bamboo and rattan grow to a considerable
size. The pine is the most conspicuous tree on the island, growing to a
great height and size, which we infer from seeing canoes built with
planks several feet wide; the trees, however, near the temple at
Napakiang were not above ninety feet high, and from three to four in
girt. The banyan-tree of India was seen at several places; the finest
one overhung the small temple at Napakiang, which circumstance led to
the enquiry whether, as in India, this tree is held sacred, but we could
gain no information on this subject.

In a little plot of ground in the temple garden, Mr. Phillips, purser of
the Alceste, sowed mustard-seed, peas, and a variety of other seeds, the
natives taking his directions for their culture. Our total ignorance of
botany prevented our making any observations on this subject while at
Loo-choo; but to supply this deficiency, we collected specimens of every
plant at the place. These were preserved between sheets of brown paper,
and given afterwards to Mr. Abel, the naturalist of the embassy, in
order to be arranged; but they were subsequently lost, along with the
whole of that gentleman's collection.

Of their manufactures it is difficult to speak with certainty. By their
own account the silks which they wear are Chinese, but the cotton cloths
are made on this and the neighbouring islands; the printed patterns of
these are not without elegance. We saw no weaving looms, but as we were
only in a few houses, this is not surprising: the webs are thirty-six
feet long, and fourteen inches broad. Tobacco-pipes and fans are made at
Loo-choo; as well as the sepulchral vases, of which there is a
manufactory at Napakiang, from whence they are exported to Oonting, and
other parts of the island. Some of the pouches of the chiefs were made
of cloth, which they say comes from China; it is exactly like our broad
cloth. We tried in vain to learn what goods they send to China in
exchange for silks: perhaps sulphur forms a part, which these islands
are said to produce, as well as tin. From the number of vessels
constantly sailing out and in, it appears that they must have some
trade, but our enquiries on this and many other topics, though
sedulously pursued, led to nothing satisfactory, owing probably rather
to our ignorance of the language, than to any wish on their part to
withhold information; because, on topics which had no reference to the
royal family or the women, they in general spoke freely.

We had frequent opportunities of seeing their method of making salt, and
an account of it may, perhaps, be interesting. Near the sea, large level
fields are rolled or beat so as to have a hard surface. Over this is
strewn a sort of sandy black earth, forming a coat about a quarter of an
inch thick. Rakes and other implements are used to make it of a uniform
thickness, but it is not pressed down. During the heat of the day, men
are employed to bring water in tubs from the sea, which is sprinkled
over these fields by means of a short scoop. The heat of the sun, in a
short time, evaporates the water, and the salt is left in the sand,
which is scraped up and put into raised receivers of masonry about six
feet by four, and five deep. When the receiver is full of the sand, sea
water is poured on the top, and this, in its way down, carries with it
the salt left by evaporation. When it runs out below at a small hole, it
is a very strong brine; this is reduced to salt by being boiled in
vessels about three feet wide and one deep. The cakes resulting from
this operation are an inch and a half in thickness.

Of the population of this island we know nothing satisfactory: the
natives invariably pleaded ignorance themselves; and as we had no
precise data, our estimates were made at random, and as they never
agreed with each other, they are not worthy of notice. From the south
point of this island, to five or six miles north of Napakiang, an extent
of sixteen or eighteen miles, the country is highly cultivated, and is
almost entirely covered with villages. All round Port Melville too there
are populous villages, but the north, north-east and eastern places are
thinly peopled, and not cultivated to any extent. We saw nothing like
poverty or distress of any kind: every person that we met seemed
contented and happy. We saw no deformed people, nor any who bore
indications of disease, except a few who were marked with the small-pox.

The style of living of those with whom we associated is generous and
free; their custom of carrying about their dinner in boxes, and making
little pic-nic parties, is peculiarly striking, and they appeared fully
sensible of the advantage of bringing people together in this way, and
expressed much satisfaction at the ready way in which we fell into a
custom from which all formality was dismissed. They shewed, moreover, a
good deal of discernment, and could adapt themselves to the character of
the particular persons they happened to be in company with, in a manner
very remarkable; but this was evidently the result not of cunning, but
of correct feelings, and of a polite habit of thinking.

Of their manners, little need be added here to what every page of the
narrative will show. It ought to be particularly noticed, however, that
they are an exceedingly timorous people, and naturally suspicious of
foreigners. A stranger visiting Loo-choo ought therefore to keep these
features of their character constantly in mind. By imitating Captain
Maxwell's wise plan of treating the natives with gentleness and
kindness, and shewing every consideration for their peculiarities, he
will stand the best chance of gaining their good-will and confidence.
But if he should betray any impatience, or be at all harsh in treating
with them, he may rest assured that he will lose much time, and in all
probability fail at last in his attempts to establish an unreserved and
friendly intercourse.

As Loo-choo, however, lies quite out of the track of trading ships, and
does not appear to produce any thing of value itself, and as the
inhabitants seem indifferent about foreign commodities, and if they
wished to possess them are without money to make purchases, it is not
probable that this island will be soon revisited.

[Illustration: BRIDGE AT NAPAKIANG.]

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 11: We first discovered the meaning of this word by hearing
one of the natives apply it to the castle on the chess board: he used
the same term when drawings of towers and castles were shewn to him.]

[Footnote 12: The literal translation of the card is "Loo-choo nation,
extender of laws, Great Person (called Ko), Heang, bows his head and
worships," (the common visiting expression among the Chinese.) It ought
to be remarked, that the Prince's name is placed on one corner of the
card, which is the most respectful mode that can be used, according to
Chinese usage.]

[Footnote 13: See Broughton's Voyage, Book II. Chap. 2. for a very
interesting account of the natives of Typinsan, who appear to resemble
the people of the Great Loo-choo Island. In Book II. Chap. 3. Captain
Broughton gives an account of his visit to Napachan. He was received by
the inhabitants with great kindness; they supplied his wants, but
objected to his landing, and sent back to the schooner some of the
officers who had been sent on shore to examine the town. We found
Captain Broughton's account of the people quite accurate.]

[Footnote 14: At Manilla we found that the Great Loo-choo Island was
known only by name. There appeared to be no intercourse between the two
places.]

[Footnote 15: LIST OF SUPPLIES RECEIVED AT LOO-CHOO BY H.M. SHIPS.

                                            |Alceste. | Lyra. |
  Bullocks                                  |   19    |   8   |
  Pigs                                      |   23    |  10   |
  Goats                                     |   15    |   7   |
  Fowls                                     | *216    | 102   |*Not including
  Fish                                      |   29    |  12   |extra supplies
  Eggs                                      |  920    | 455   |to the officers.
  Bags of sweet potatoes                    |  *59    |  27   |*Not including
  Squashes                                  |   34    |  14   |ditto.
  Jars of Samchoo, each containing about    |         |       |
    fifteen gallons                         |    6    |   3   |
  Baskets of oranges                        |    9    |   4   |
  Bundles of gingerbread                    |    8    |   3   |
  -----------Onions                         |   16    |   8   |
  -----------Radishes                       |   30    |  12   |
  -----------Celery                         |   12    |   5   |
  -----------Garlick                        |    8    |   4   |
  -----------Candles                        |    7    |   3   |
  -----------Wood                           |   16    |   8   |
  Pumpkins                                  |   60    |  30   |
  Baskets of vermicelli                     |    7    |   3   |
  Boxes of sugar                            |    2    |   1   |
  Rolls of printed linen                    |   14    |   7   |
  Bundles of paper                          |    6    |   3   |
]

[Footnote 16: See Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, vol. 23.]

[Footnote 17: A man celebrated in the Tung dynasty for his convivial
disposition: he is known in China by the name of Jai-pe.]

[Footnote 18: The town of Chang-ngan in China, near the Great Wall.]



APPENDIX:

CONTAINING


CHARTS

OF THE GULF OF PE-CHE-LEE, THE WEST COAST OF COREA, THE GREAT LOO-CHOO
ISLAND, NAPAKIANG ROADS, AND PORT MELVILLE: WITH BRIEF EXPLANATORY
NOTICES.


TABLE OF OBSERVATIONS

MADE WITH DR. WOLLASTON'S DIP SECTOR: WITH AN ENGRAVING, AND A
DESCRIPTION OF THIS INSTRUMENT, AND DIRECTIONS FOR ITS USE.


METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL,

FROM JULY TO NOVEMBER 1816, WHILE THE SHIPS WERE IN THE YELLOW AND JAPAN
SEAS.


ABSTRACT OF THE LYRA'S VOYAGE,

FROM LEAVING ENGLAND TILL HER RETURN; SHEWING THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE
DIFFERENT PLACES AT WHICH SHE TOUCHED, AND THE TIME TAKEN IN PERFORMING
EACH PASSAGE.


GEOLOGICAL MEMORANDUM;

BEING A DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS OF ROCKS COLLECTED ON THE SHORES OF
THE YELLOW SEA, COREA, LOO-CHOO, MACAO, AND THE LADRONE ISLANDS.



CHARTS

OF THE

GULF OF PE-CHE-LEE, THE WEST COAST OF COREA, THE GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND,
NAPAKIANG ROADS, AND PORT MELVILLE.

WITH BRIEF EXPLANATORY NOTICES.

[Illustration: Track of His Majesty's Sloop LYRA _and Honble. Comps.
Ship INVESTIGATOR_ _along the Shores of the_ GULPH OF PETCHELEE By
Captain Basil Hall R.N. 1816.

_East of Greenwich_]



NOTICE EXPLANATORY OF A CHART

OF

THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE GULF OF PE-CHE-LEE, YELLOW SEA.


[Sidenote: First meridian used in constructing the chart.]

In constructing this chart, I have assumed the longitude of the fort at
the mouth of the Pei-ho to be 117º 49' east of Greenwich, or 11' west of
the place where the squadron lay at anchor. From this the difference of
longitude was measured by two chronometers. The latitudes were
ascertained by frequent observations of the stars, as well as of the
sun.

[Sidenote: Aspect of the south and south-west coasts.]

[Sidenote: Soundings.]

The coast on the south and south-west sides of this Gulf is very low,
resembling, in this respect, the shore at the entrance of the Pei-ho, or
Pekin river, where it is uniformly low and sandy; occasionally a few
houses are to be seen, and also square mounds or buildings like forts,
but generally, a low white beach is all that can be discovered. The
coast is not visible till within about three leagues distance, and the
eye elevated eighty feet from the sea, which is the height of the Lyra's
foretop-gallant yard. The depth of water when the land first came in
sight, was generally five fathoms; at some places only four fathoms, and
at the very bottom of the Gulf, it could not be discerned till in three
and a half fathoms. It may be said generally, that at ten miles distance
the soundings are from four and a half to six fathoms; at twelve miles,
from six to eight fathoms. There is a wonderful uniformity in the depth
from the Pei-ho round to the south-east corner of the Gulf; the bottom
is mud, sometimes a little gritty, particularly towards the southern
parts.

[Sidenote: Colour of the water.]

The colour of the water was mostly of the same dirty yellow or green
which was observed off the Pei-ho, but we did not observe any red
coloured water, as was frequently noticed at that place; at the bottom
of the Gulf, indeed, there were several changes in the colour of the
water, accompanied by long lines of foam, indicating, it would seem,
the vicinity of a great river.

[Sidenote: Tides on the western side of the Gulf.]

On the west side of the Gulf the ebb tide runs to the south-east by
south, and the flood north-west by west; the periods are very regular,
being generally about six hours: they vary, however, in rapidity. As we
anchored on the flood we were enabled to measure its velocity; as we got
deep in the Gulf it decreased: at the Pei-ho it frequently ran two and
two and a half knots, but far south it was sometimes hardly perceptible;
it is worthy of notice, too, that the perpendicular rise and fall
decreased from ten feet off the Pei-ho, to one, or at most two feet, in
the bottom of the Gulf.

[Sidenote: Bottom of the Gulf.]

The most southern point of our track was 37º 15' north; at this time we
could perceive the low coast stretching to the east and west; the
distance it is difficult to assign very accurately, but it was probably
seven or eight miles, for with a glass we could perceive a number of
people on the shore. I took great pains to ascertain the latitude stated
above, by the meridian altitudes of several stars; the longitude is 1º
39' east of the Pei-ho, or 119º 28' east of Greenwich.

[Sidenote: South-eastern side different from the opposite.]

The coast from the south-west corner of the Gulf to the peninsula of
Teu-choo-foo, is of a totally different character from that opposite to
it, for it is high, and well marked: a range of mountains stretches from
south-west to north-east, at the distance of three or four leagues
inland; their outline is peaked, and they are intersected by deep
ravines without any verdure; the summits are also barren.

[Sidenote: Mount Ellis.]

One of these mountains is very remarkable, having two peaks or paps by
which it can be distinguished at the distance of fifty miles, and bears
the same aspect when viewed from all parts of the Gulf. It lies in 37º
6' north, and 2º 11' east of the Pei-ho, or 120º east of Greenwich. It
has been called Mount Ellis, in honour of Mr. Ellis, the third
commissioner of the Embassy.

[Sidenote: Aspect of the coast.]

[Sidenote: Jane's Isle.]

[Sidenote: Douglas Island.]

Between this range of hills and the shore, there is a lower belt of
elevated ground in a state of high cultivation, covered with many towns
and villages, and interspersed with scattered trees and several
extensive woods; the ground, too, presents a varied surface, so that the
whole offers a pleasing contrast with the rugged land behind. There are
two small islands on this line of coast; the southern one lies in 37º
21' north, and 2º 5' east of the Pei-ho; the other is in 37º 28' north,
and 2º 19' east of the Pei-ho.

[Sidenote: Dangerous shoal.]

There is a dangerous shoal about five leagues off the shore, abreast of
these islands, upon which the Lyra nearly struck at midnight on the
17th instant. When at anchor just outside the shoal, the south island
bore south 20º east, and the other, east 21º south; on the shoal there
was two and a half fathoms, hard bottom. It seems to extend in a north
and south direction, and is very narrow. It lies in 37º 32' north, which
I ascertained by altitudes of the pole star, under favourable
circumstances. It is 1º 58' 30" east of the Pei-ho.

[Sidenote: Soundings and tides.]

The soundings on this side of the Gulf are somewhat deeper than on the
other, but not so deep as might have been expected from the bold nature
of the land. The ebb tide runs to the north-eastward, and the flood into
the Gulf.

[Sidenote: Winds.]

[Sidenote: Melville Point.]

[Sidenote: Teu-choo-foo city.]

The wind was south-east and quite light, from the 11th August to the
17th, when it shifted to north north-east till about eight P.M. when
close in shore near the southern of the two islands; it then blew off,
with all the appearance of a regular land breeze. On the 19th it blew a
gale of wind from the north-east, with a short, high sea; during the
gale we lay at anchor off a remarkable point, connected with the main
land by a low sandy neck; the ground felt soft to the lead, but it was
probably rocky under the mud, as both ships lost a bower anchor by the
cables being cut. This point lies in 37º 42' north, and 2º 35' east of
the Pei-ho. We found the city of Teu-choo-foo to lie in 3º 4' east of
the Pei-ho. The latitude observed in Teu-choo-foo roads was 37º 53'
north, and the longitude 2º 54' east of the Pei-ho. The western Meadow
Island bearing north.

[Sidenote: Cheatow Bay.]

The latitude of a small island at the north-east corner of the Bay of
Cheatow or Zee-a-tow, was determined by the sun's meridian altitude on
shore, to be 37º 35' 52" north, and longitude east of the Pei-ho 3º
45', or in 121º 34' east of Greenwich.

[Sidenote: Oei-hai-oei.]

The latitude of Oei-hai-oei was observed on shore to be 37º 30' 40"
north, and lies 4º 25' east of the Pei-ho.

[Sidenote: Variation of the compass.]

The variation of the compass in the Yellow Sea was found to be 2º 16'
westerly.

The rise and fall of the tide at the anchorage of the squadron off the
Pei-ho was twelve feet. It was high water at full, and change at III.
The flood tide runs to the west-south-west, and the ebb generally about
east and east-south-east. Its strength and direction are a good deal
influenced by the prevalent winds.



NOTICE TO ACCOMPANY THE CHART OF THE WEST COAST OF COREA.


[Sidenote: Inadequate time allowed for so extensive a survey.]

This chart extends from 34º to 38º north latitude, and from 124º to 127º
east longitude. The time of our stay on the coast being only nine days,
no great accuracy is to be expected, and this chart pretends to be
little more than an eye-draught, checked by chronometers and meridian
altitudes of the sun and stars. Under circumstances of such haste, much
has unavoidably been left untouched, and what is now given is presented
with no great confidence.

[Sidenote: General remarks on the methods followed in the survey.]

What follows is extracted from notes made at the time by Mr. Clifford
and myself. The longitudes by chronometer have all been carefully
recomputed, and the greatest care was taken in ascertaining the various
latitudes. The true bearings are in every instance set down, the
variation being allowed for at the moment. The variation of the compass
recorded in this notice, was determined by two azimuth compasses, and
the method recommended by Captain Flinders, of repeating the
observations by turning the compass first one way and then the other,
was invariably followed.

[Illustration: Track _of His Majesty's Ship_ ALCESTE _and_ LYRA _Sloop
along the Western Coast of the PENINSULA of_ COREA by _Captain Basil Hall R.N._]

[Sidenote: The ships leave China.]

[Sidenote: Make the coast of Corea.]

[Sidenote: Sir James Hall's group.]

[Sidenote: Anchorage on the south side of an island.]

His Majesty's ships Alceste and Lyra, after quitting the port of
Oei-hai-oei, which is in latitude 37º 30' 40" north, and longitude 122º
16' east, on the north coast of Shantung Promontory, stood to the
northward and eastward till in latitude 38º north, and then ran to the
eastward. On the morning of the 1st of September, 1816, we saw the land,
bearing about east. By sights with chronometer on the meridian of these
islands, we ascertained that the west end of the northern one lies in
124º 44-1/2' east. The latitude of the south end of the eastern island
was ascertained by meridian altitude of the sun to be 37º 44-1/2' north.
There is a rocky white islet off the west end of the middle island. We
had from twenty to thirty fathoms on rounding the south-west end of the
islands, but on the south side of the southern one there is a bight with
seven fathoms, black sand in the centre: here we anchored. There is good
anchorage all over the bay, which is sheltered from all winds except
between west south-west and south-east, being open to the southward.
There are two villages here. From the top of the highest peak on this
island, which is about seven or eight hundred feet high, we could
discern the main land of Corea, high and rugged, stretching north
north-west and south south-east, distant from eight to ten leagues.
Along the coast abreast of us there were seen many islands. The channel
between the middle island of the group and the one we were upon appeared
clear and broad; but the northern and middle islands seemed connected by
a reef which shews above water at several places.

[Sidenote: Character of the inhabitants.]

The inhabitants were suspicious and unfriendly: we saw some cattle and
many fowls, but neither money nor any thing else that we had could
induce them to part with either.

[Sidenote: Lose sight of the coast.]

In the evening we weighed and stood to the southward; next morning there
was no land in sight. At noon we were in longitude 124º 47' 52" east,
and latitude 36º 44-1/2' north, no land in sight. We hauled in shore to
the eastward, and anchored in the night in deep water.

[Sidenote: Group of five islands.]

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

3rd of September.--Weighed at 3.30 and stood in shore; at 7.45 A.M. we
were due south of the western of a group of islands. Many sights were
taken as we passed to settle the place of this group: it lies between
125º 42-1/2' east, and 125º 57-1/2' east, and in latitude 36º 44' north.
After passing this group we stood to the south-east towards a vast
cluster of islands: at noon, when we were just entering the cluster, the
latitude was observed 36º 18' 21" north, and longitude 126º 10' east.
The south-west extreme of the islands bore south 40º west. There were
eight islands near us between south-east and south-west, and a high
bluff dark rock south one-quarter east, four miles: and on the main land
a very high hill, east 19º north. When we had got well among the islands
it fell calm, and we anchored in eight and a half fathoms. It remained
calm during the night.

[Sidenote: Run among the islands.]

4th of September.--Weighed on a breeze springing up, and stood in shore.
Observed in 36º 13' north, longitude 126º 30' east; at this time the
following bearings were taken.

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

A remarkable peak on the main land, east.

High mountain on the main land, east 38-1/2º north.

White cliff on the east end of the fourth island to the left of the wide
entrance into the cluster, north.

Small round island, north 30º west.

Another, north 35º west.

Extremes of a large bluff island from north 38º west, to north 32-1/2º
west.

Rock, north 72º west.

Outer island, north 75º west.

Extremes of the outer cluster, from north 77-1/2 west, to west 1º south.

Large island, from west 14º 30' south, to west 18º south.

[Sidenote: Basil's Bay.]

[Sidenote: Unsocial disposition of the inhabitants.]

These islands being within from ten to fifteen miles, were laid down by
estimated distances, but it was quite impossible to assign places to the
immense number of others which stretched away to the south and
south-east, as far as the eye could reach. We stood in shore for the
purpose of discovering whether there was any place of shelter in the
main land, but in general it proved shallow and unsafe. At length we
discovered a bay which promised shelter, but on running into it, the
depth was found not to exceed three or four fathoms. This bay is open
towards the south, and is formed by a curved tongue of land on the north
and west. The longitude of the south end of this point is 126º 42' 22"
east, and latitude 36º 7' 38" north. We remained here during the night,
and the forenoon of the 5th. The natives came on board, but made great
objections to our landing.

[Sidenote: Tides.]

The tide rose and fell fifteen feet and a half; it was low water at 8
P.M., and high water at 2.30 A.M. This was two and a half days before
full moon.

The Alceste's boats were sent to sound in the eastern quarter, but they
found shoal water every where.

[Sidenote: Proceed to the south-westward.]

5th of September.--At 11 A.M. we got under weigh and stood to the
south-west among the islands, carrying seven, eight, nine, ten, to
fifteen fathoms, and occasionally deepening to seventeen fathoms. At
4.45 we observed in longitude 126º 24-1/2' east, and latitude 35º 52'
north at this time.

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

Two islands bore north half east, seven miles.

A remarkable small black island, west 32º, north four miles.

Another, west 22º north, seven miles.

A range of islands, from east 10º north, to east 16º south.

A long island, from south 25º east, to south 11º east.

The islands off which we anchored on the 2nd instant bearing about north
10º west.

Two islands, from south 16º west, to south 25º west.

[Sidenote: Main land.]

The main land from south south-east to north-east, high and rugged.

We had a sea breeze to-day, and fine weather. Variation 2º 10' westerly.
We ran on by moonlight till 11 P.M., and then anchored among the
islands. Latitude, observed by Polaris 35º 26' north. Longitude, at
anchor by chronometer next morning 126º 23' 22" east. From this spot the
main land was seen from east 12º north, to south 20º east.

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

A rock, west 7º south, four miles.

An island, from west 15º north, to west 31º north, 4-1/2'.

Three islands, extending from west 36º south, to west 45º south, 3'.

Two distant ones in the same direction.

Cluster of islands, from west 64º south, to west 84-1/2º south.

Large island, north 12º west, ten or twelve miles.

A cluster of islands, from north 15º east, to north 28º east.

Two distant islands, north 32º east.

Two others, north 42º east.

[Sidenote: Channels between the islands generally deep.]

6th of September.--Weighed and stood to the southward. At noon observed
in 35º 17' north, longitude 126º 28-1/2' east, being then in the centre
of a semicircle of islands, extending from north-east to south-east and
south-west. During the forenoon the flood tide set strong to the north
north-east against us. Most of the channels between the islands were
deep, but to-day we tried one which had not more than five and a half
fathoms. At 4.30. took sights, when a long bluff island bore east
north-east a quarter of a mile. Longitude 126º 6' 37" east; latitude 35º
6' north. This island is the most westerly of the range of islands which
lie between the latitude 35º and 36º north. High and connected land was
faintly discernible to the eastward. The soundings were generally from
nine to fifteen fathoms, deepening in most cases on approaching the
bluff islands.

[Sidenote: Flood tide runs to the northward.]

[Sidenote: Windsor Castle.]

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

7th of September.--We anchored last night about ten o'clock in seventeen
fathoms; the flood tide had made; it ran north nearly three miles an
hour, till four A.M. when we got under weigh, and drifted fast to the
southward with the ebb. At 9.30. got sights, which gave longitude 125º
52' 45" east, latitude 34º 42' north; at this time a very remarkable
hill on an island bore east 8º south; it has the appearance of a turret
or large chimney. The other bearings from this spot were--

Western extreme of a large island stretching west north-west, and east
south-east; north 27º, east 4 or 5'.

Round rock, north 18º east, 8'.

Cluster of islands from north 50º west, to north 74º west.

Round bluff small island, west 9º south.

Large island, west 42º south, 7 or eight leagues.

Two small distant islands, west 53º south, 10' leagues.

Small island, south 11º east.

[Sidenote: Soundings.]

[Sidenote: Variation of the compass.]

Extreme of distant land, south 37º east: besides, as usual, innumerable
distant islands. The flood tide made against us between ten and eleven.
The soundings this morning have been from twenty-three to nineteen
fathoms. The weather extremely hot and the water smooth. The ebb made
about four, and there being no wind, it carried us rapidly towards some
rocks joining two islands. We anchored in twenty-one fathoms. The
variation of the compass 2-1/2º westerly. The bearings at anchor this
evening were as follows:

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

Small island, south 3º 22' east.

Large island, from south to south 20-1/2º east.

A small island, south 22º east.

Another, south 28-1/2º east.

High bluff island, south 31º east.

Island from south 9º east, to south 18º west.

Sharp peaked rock, south 25º 40' west.

Island from south 63º west, to south 65º west.

Distant island, from south 63-1/2º west, to south 66º west, nine or ten
leagues.

Distant small island, west 1º 10' north, seven or eight leagues.

[Sidenote: Bearings.]

Distant island, from west 6º 39' north, to west 9º north, formed of one
large flat space and five hummocks, eight or nine leagues.

Island, west 28º 50' north.

Large island, from west 31º north, to west 38º 19' north.

Round bluff island, off which we observed at noon to-day, west 39º 52'
north.

Distant small island, west 44º 28' north, four or five leagues.

Large island, from west 71º north, to west 81º 30' north.

An island, afterwards called Thistle Island, south 79º east, to east 14º
52' north, besides numberless islands, in thick clusters, extending as
far as the eye could reach, in the north-east and east quarters. In the
afternoon a boat went inside Thistle Island, and reported that there was
a clear anchorage.

[Sidenote: Sail into Murray's Sound.]

[Sidenote: Latitude observed on shore.]

[Sidenote: Longitude.]

[Sidenote: Tides.]

[Sidenote: Variation of the compass.]

8th of September.--At noon we weighed and sailed round the north end of
Thistle Island, carrying seventeen fathoms, till the north end bore
south; we then shoaled to ten and eleven, and one cast nine fathoms. On
rounding the island we steered south, and anchored in eleven fathoms,
soft bottom, about four hundred yards from the middle part of the
island. The islands at this place are so situated as to form a capacious
and secure anchorage, with passages among the islands in all directions.
The latitude observed with an artificial horizon on shore, was 34º 22'
39" north; longitude by mean of two chronometers, agreeing nearly, 126º
2' 52" east. The tides run at the springs at the rate of three and four
knots, the flood to the north north-east; the rise and fall is fifteen
feet. Strong eddies are felt among the islands. The variation of the
compass is 2º 30' westerly.

[Sidenote: Appearance of the Amherst Isles, from the top of a peaked
island.]

On the 9th of September Captain Maxwell and a party went to the summit
of a high peak, on an island to the south-east of the ships, in latitude
34º 20' north, and longitude 126º 6' east. From this spot, elevated
about seven or eight hundred feet above the sea, the view of the islands
was very striking: we endeavoured to number them, but our accounts
varied, owing to the difficulty of estimating the number in the distant
groups; it will serve, however, to give some idea of this splendid
scene, to say that the lowest enumeration gave one hundred and twenty
islands.

Many of these islands are large and high, almost all are cultivated, and
their forms present an endless diversity.

High land was seen to rise above the distant islands in the east and
north-east; this probably was the main land of Corea, for it seemed more
extensive and connected than any group of islands we had seen.

[Sidenote: Difficulty of estimating the number of islands on this
coast.]

We had now ran along upwards of two hundred miles of this coast, and at
every part which we approached, the islands were no less thickly sown
than here; so that our attempts to enumerate them all, or even to assign
places on the chart to those which we passed the nearest to, became
after a time quite hopeless.

[Sidenote: Winds and weather.]

During our stay upon the coast of Corea, between the 1st and 10th of
September, the winds were principally from the northward; the weather
was moderate and clear; and occasionally calm during the heat of the
day.

[Sidenote: Barometer and thermometer.]

The barometer rose and fell gradually between 29. 78. and 29. 98. The
thermometer was never above 82º, and never, even at night, under 72º For
further details respecting the winds and weather, see the Meteorological
Journal.

[Illustration: Chart of GREAT LOO CHOO Island

_Surveyed in H.M. Sloop LYRA by Captain Basil Hall_

1816]



NOTICE TO ACCOMPANY THE GENERAL CHART OF THE GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND, AND
THE CHARTS OF NAPAKIANG, AND PORT MELVILLE.


[Sidenote: Different names of this island.]

This island is called Loo-choo, and sometimes Doo-choo, by the natives.
In our maps it is variously written, but mostly Lekayo: the Chinese know
it by the name of Low-kow. The spelling used by Mr. Horsburgh in his
directions, Lieou-kieou, or Lieu-chew.

[Sidenote: Geographical limits and general aspect.]

The island lies between 26º 4-3/4' and 26º 52-1/2', north, and between
127º 34' and 128º 18' east, being very nearly sixty miles long in a
north-east direction, and preserving a tolerably uniform breadth of
about ten or twelve miles. The north end is high and bold, with wood on
the top of the hills. The north-east coast is also abrupt, but quite
barren. The south-east side is low, with very little appearance of
cultivation. The south, south-west, and western faces, particularly the
two former, are of moderate height, and present a scene of great
fertility and high cultivation: it is to this quarter that the mass of
population have resorted. The north-west side is generally rugged and
bare.

[Sidenote: Deep bay.]

[Sidenote: Barrow's Bay.]

There are two deep indentures, one on each side of the island; that on
the west has at least one hundred fathoms depth, and appears to have no
coral in it: while the eastern bight is extremely shallow, and is not
only skirted by a broad fringe of coral, but has reefs in the centre;
and these last are very dangerous, for they give no warning either by
breakers or discoloration of the water, or by soundings: and this remark
will apply generally to all the reefs round this island, rendering the
navigation, particularly at night, very dangerous.

[Sidenote: General caution respecting coral reefs.]

[Sidenote: Sugar Loaf or Eegooshcoond.]

The most remarkable headland is the island called by Captain Broughton
the Sugar Loaf, and by the natives Eegooshcoond (tower or castle); it
can be seen distinctly at the distance of twenty-five miles when the eye
is elevated only fifteen feet. It is a high conical mountain, varying
very little in its aspect when viewed from different quarters: as there
is no other peak like it on or near this island, it cannot be mistaken.
The latitude of the peak is 26º 43' north; and I have reason to believe
that this is within one mile of the truth. Its longitude is 127º 44', or
6' east of the observatory at Napakiang, by two chronometers. The base
of the cone and one-third of the way up is covered with houses; and the
whole island has the appearance of a garden. When nearly on the meridian
of the Sugar Loaf its top seems rounded off.

[Sidenote: Two safe anchoring places.]

[Sidenote: Geographical position of Napakiang.]

There are two places where ships can ride in safety, Napakiang Roads
on the south-west, and Port Melville on the north-west side of the
island. The first of these is the one in which his majesty's ships
Alceste and Lyra lay for upwards of a month. By means of a base of 1319
feet on a coral reef, which dried at half ebb, we were enabled to make
the survey which accompanies this notice. The latitude of the
observatory was determined to be 26º 13' 34" north, the mean of three
meridian altitudes of the sun by a sextant of Cary's, and five by a
circle of Troughton's, the extreme difference being 20". The longitude
is 127º 38' east; this was ascertained by measuring the difference of
longitude between the observatory and Lintin Island off Canton river in
a run of six days; on which occasion two chronometers on board the Lyra
gave within one mile the same difference of longitude, viz. 13º 50',
with that shewn by two others on board his majesty's ship Alceste; the
longitude of Lintin being 113º 48' east of Greenwich. The longitude, by
lunar observations, is 127º 37' 28". The plan of Napakiang roads will be
found sufficient without many directions for ships wishing to enter it.
The principal danger lies in the outer reefs, which do not show when the
weather is very fine and there is little swell; on such occasions a boat
ought to go a-head at least a quarter of a mile, and the ship should put
about instantly upon approaching the reefs, which are every where bold.
A ship coming from the westward ought to steer between the north-eastern
of the group of high islands to the south-westward, and a low green
island with extensive reefs to the northward, in latitude 26º 15' north.
On passing which she should haul up east by south, giving Reef Island a
birth of at least a mile.

[Sidenote: Plan of Napakiang.]

[Sidenote: Directions on approaching Napakiang.]

[Sidenote: Reef Island.]

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Directions for entering Napakiang roads.]

[Illustration: NAPAKIANG ROADS

_on the S.W. Side of the_ GREAT LOO CHOO Island

_Laid down from actual survey by Captain Basil Hall R.N. H.M. Sloop
LYRA_ 1816]

[Sidenote: Capstan Rock.]

[Sidenote: Best anchorage off the mouths of two rivulets.]

[Sidenote: The northern entrance.]

On approaching the main land a conspicuous wooded point will be seen,
having rocks on its summit like the ruins of an abbey; this forms the
south side of the anchorage, and is considerably more to the westward
than the north-east side. The harbour of Napakiang will soon be seen at
the south side of the bay; steer directly in for this, giving Abbey
Point a birth of half a mile, and when directly between the south end of
the outer reefs and Abbey Point haul up east by north. There is a very
remarkable rock on the south-east side of the anchorage resembling the
head of a capstan. It would be safest to anchor when this bears about
south-south-east half a mile at most, in order to avoid a dangerous
coral tongue, which lies north a little easterly from it, three-quarters
of a mile; but as this anchorage is exposed, the ship may proceed
farther in as soon as the exact place of the reef has been ascertained
by boats; and if she proposes staying any time, she may warp into
Barnpool, taking the precaution of placing a boat on each side of the
entrance. There are two rivulets at this place, and probably the best
anchorage is off their mouths, the bottom consisting of the mud brought
down by the stream. There is a well on the eastern side supplied by a
spring, and there are landing places at the entrance of both harbours.
There is a safe passage between the reef, on which the base was
measured, and the outer ones. The Lyra passed through this three times;
and if the object is to go to the northward it ought to be followed,
provided the wind will admit of steering north and two points on each
side of it. The leading mark for going by this passage is Capstan Fort
or Rock, on with a remarkable nose formed by the trees on the highest
distant land; these are on when they bear about south by east half east.
It would certainly not be advisable for a stranger to enter by this
passage, but he may run on coming from the northward along the shore at
the distance of two or three miles till Reef Island bears west, and then
he should look sharply out for the reefs, keeping outside them till near
Abbey Point, then act as before directed. On running down towards
Napakiang from the northward a remarkable bluff table land will be seen
to the southward of Abbey Point. The west face of Abbey Point ought to
be kept just on with the east end of the table land; this will take you
further out than is absolutely necessary; but it is safe; and when Reef
Island is just on with the northern of the group of distant islands you
will be exactly off the north entrance.

[Sidenote: Appearance of land in coming from the northward towards
Napakiang.]

[Sidenote: Not to be attempted by a stranger.]

[Sidenote: Dangerous coral reef about four leagues south-west by west
from Napakiang.]

On coming from the southward the only danger that lies in the way is a
coral reef even with the water's edge; it is of a circular form, and at
low water several rocks shew on it. On every occasion that we passed the
sea broke high upon it; but from what we saw of other similar reefs, it
seems very probable that when the water is smooth it will give no
warning: it is about eight miles west, 15º north of the extreme south
point of the island, and lies in latitude 26º 7' north, and longitude
127º 26' east of Greenwich.

[Sidenote: Port Melville.]

[Sidenote: Directions to approach it, and to anchor previous to entering
the harbour.]

Port Melville is on the north-west side of the island. A ship wishing to
enter it ought to make the Sugar Loaf Peak, and steer between it and the
cluster of islands to the northward, directly for the bottom of the
bight, which lies between the Sugar Loaf and the north end of the
island; here Herbert's Island will be seen close to the shore, run in
towards its western end, anchor when it bears east one-third of a mile,
and the Sugar Loaf west one-quarter north, barely shut in with a low
dark green point of land; here you will have from seventeen to twenty
fathoms.

[Sidenote: Boats should be sent to buoy the channel.]

The entrance of the harbour is narrow, and ought not to be attempted
without previous examination by the boats of a ship wishing to enter it.
With a very little trouble the passage might be buoyed: a large ship
will probably find it expedient to warp in and out.

[Sidenote: Eye-draught of Port Melville.]

The eye-draught, with the directions on it, render much further notice
here superfluous. The harbour is secure, and sufficiently capacious for
a numerous fleet. It extends in a north and south direction for about
two miles, varying in breadth and form in a very remarkable manner; at
the lower or north end there are two basons of a circular form, and have
from nine to fifteen fathoms, soft bottom; these are about one-third of
a mile across. At some places the steep rocks which form the banks
approach within an hundred yards of one another; here the water is
sixteen, eighteen, and twenty fathoms. There are many fine coves, some
with shelving shores, and others steep-to. Every part of the harbour is
secured from the sea, and many parts from all winds: it is well
calculated for the re-equipment of ships, for it is not only secure as
an anchorage, but offers conveniences for landing men and stores, and
also for heaving down or careening a ship.

[Sidenote: Villages of Cooee and of Oonting.]

There are several large villages on the shores of an extensive bay,
communicating with the sea to the north-eastward, at the upper or south
end of the line of harbours, and one called Oonting on the west side of
the lower harbour; there is another of some extent, on the south side of
Herbert's Island, called Cooee.

By permission of Captain Maxwell, I have named this excellent harbour,
Port Melville, in honour of Lord Viscount Melville, First Lord of the
Admiralty.

[Illustration: _Draught_ _of_ PORT MELVILLE _on the N.W. side of_ _GREAT
LOO-CHOO_ Island _by_ _Captain Basil Hall_ _and_ _the_ OFFICERS _of_
_His Majesty's Sloop_ LYRA _11th Octr. 1816._]

From the top of a range of hills which we ascended, rising on the south
side of the upper bay of Port Melville, we could see the south-west
corner of the great western bay, the whole range of Port Melville, and
the coasts adjacent.

[Sidenote: Geographical position of Port Melville.]

The latitude of Herbert's Island, which lies directly off the entrance
of Port Melville, is 26º 42-2/3' north, by meridian altitude of the sun
observed on shore. Its longitude, which is also the longitude of Port
Melville, is 127º 55' east, or 17' east of Napakiang observatory. The
Sugar Loaf bears from the centre of the island, west 4-1/2º north, about
ten miles.

[Sidenote: Coast skirted by coral reefs.]

As the whole part of this coast is skirted by dangerous coral reefs, the
greatest attention should be paid to the lead, and the ship ought to
be put about the instant that the water shoals to eight, seven, or six
fathoms. On running in for the west end of Herbert's Island, on the
morning of the 11th of October, we passed over a coral ledge having nine
fathoms on it. The west point of Herbert's Island bore at this time
south 8º 40' west, distant four or five miles. Before and after passing
this we had from thirty to sixty fathoms; whether it was shoaler than
nine fathoms at any place, was not ascertained, but the circumstance is
deserving of notice, and ought to teach the necessity of constant
vigilance, when near coral reefs.

[Sidenote: Montgomery islands.]

The cluster of islands to the northward of Port Melville lies between
26º 54' and 27º 4-1/2' north, the north end of the northern one being in
longitude 127º 57' east, or 19' east of the observatory. It does not
appear that there is any good anchorage about them; and there are
dangerous reefs off the south and south-western ones.

[Sidenote: Hope Point.]

The north end of the Great Loo-choo lies in 26º 52-1/2' north, and this
is probably within one, or at most two miles of the truth. We observed
in 27º 00' 15" north, at which time the northern extreme bore east 59º
south, nine miles by estimation, an inference which was checked by the
distance run on a direct course afterwards. The longitude is 128º 9'
east, or 31' east of the observatory.

[Sidenote: Sidmouth Point.]

The coast from the north point runs south-east by east, with some minor
deviations, nearly four leagues: great pains were taken to ascertain
this precisely, as the former charts not only place it many miles
further north, but make the coast at this end lie east and west. The
north-east point lies in 26º 47' north, and longitude 128º 18' east, or
40' east of the observatory. The latitude was determined by the meridian
altitude of Sirius and an altitude of Polaris, so near daylight that the
horizon was well defined; but as this point, off which there is a small
island, was some miles north of the ship at the time of observation, the
above latitude may err possibly two miles. It was intended to have
examined two islands which lie to the north-eastward of the north point,
but a strong current in the night carried us so far to leeward, that we
could not effect this object; the situation, therefore, of these two
islands, may perhaps not be accurately laid down in the chart.

[Sidenote: Barrow's Bay.]

The deep indenture about the middle of the east side of the island is
unsafe to enter during the north-east monsoon: as the wind, however, had
westing in it, we sailed up to within three or four miles of the top,
carrying from thirty to twenty fathoms water; but when about to haul in
for the north side, where there appeared to be a bay, we shoaled
suddenly from twenty-four to eight fathoms: the helm was instantly put
down, and when head to wind, we had only five fathoms. While in stays
the water was observed to wash on a rock not a hundred yards to leeward
of us, on which we must infallibly have struck, had we bore up instead
of tacking.

[Sidenote: South-east coast dangerous.]

From the north-east to the south-east point, the coast runs south 40º
west; the shore to the north-east of this deep bight is bold, and seems
clear; that on the south-west side of it presents a formidable barrier
of islands and coral reefs, which break to a great distance: in fine
weather this part of the coast ought to be approached very cautiously.

[Sidenote: South Point.]

[Sidenote: Reef.]

The southern extreme of this island lies in latitude 26º 4' 46" north,
determined with great care by the meridian altitude of the sun on shore;
and in longitude 127º 35' east, or 3' west of the observatory. There is
good anchorage from twenty to thirty fathoms, south a little easterly,
of this point. Between this point and the group of islands to the
westward, there is a dangerous reef, already spoken of; it lies in 26º
7' north, and 127º 26' east; it bears 26' west, 15º north from the south
point of the island, distant eight miles. Immediately round the point on
the west side there is a shallow harbour, formed by coral reefs, but the
entrance is narrow and intricate.

[Sidenote: South-western group.]

We stood over to the largest of the south-west group, on the east side
of which there stands out a conical rock, behind which it was thought
that a harbour might lie, but upon examination, it proved only fit for
boats; it lies in 26º 11' north.

[Sidenote: Reef Island.]

Reef Island lies west by north, about two leagues from Napakiang Roads;
on the north side the reefs stretch a great way, but the south is more
clear.

Between Napakiang and the Sugar Loaf there is no place for ships to lie
in safety; the bay immediately to the north was examined by Mr. Mayne,
master of his Majesty's ship Alceste, when two shallow harbours were
found.

[Sidenote: Tides.]

The flood runs to the northward and eastward, along shore, and the ebb
in an opposite direction. The rise and fall is about nine feet
perpendicular. High water at full and change IX.

[Sidenote: Variation of the compass.]

The variation of the compass, determined with great precision by the
transit azimuth instrument, was 52' westerly.

The longitude of the Lyra's observatory at Napakiang by the mean of
thirty-six lunar observations on both sides of the moon, is 127º 37' 28"
east; by four chronometers, agreeing nearly, 127º 38' 30" east. The
latitude is 26º 13' 39" north.



[Transcriber's Note: Crescent moons are denoted by [((] or [))]; a circle
with a period therein is denoted by [(.)]]


OBSERVATIONS MADE AT NAPAKIANG OBSERVATORY, GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND.

              Lunars with a Sextant.                 Lunars with a Sextant.
               [(.)] West of [((]             *[Greek: a] Arietis, East of [))]

              25th September, 1816.                    4th October, 1816

    [(.)] [((] 127º. 38'. 15" East.            * [))] 127º. 31'. 00" East.
                     35 . 15                                37 . 00
                     36 . 15                                43 . 00
                     34 . 45                                52 . 30
                     33 . 00                                54 . 30
                     36 . 00                                38 . 45
                     30 . 45                                52 . 45
                     28 . 30                                50 . 15
                     32 . 15                                50 . 30
                     31 . 30  127º. 33'. 39" Mean           41 . 45
                                                            40 . 30
                26th October, 1816.                         34 . 15
                                                            43 . 15
    [(.)] [((] 127 . 38 . 30                                39 . 45
                     39 . 45                           ------------
                     41 . 30         Mean by sextant 127 . 43. 20 * East of [))]
                     44 . 15
                     44 . 30                           Lunars by Circle.
                     32 . 15                           [(.)] West of [((]
                     33 . 00
                     31 . 45                           4th October, 1816
                     31 . 15              [(.)] [((] 127º. 38'. 45"
                     27 . 30  127º 36'. 16" Mean           32 . 30
                              -------------           -------------
              Mean by sextant 127 . 34 . 58
                                   [(.)] W. [((] Mean 127 . 35 . 37 by circle.


               Mean by sextant [(.)] west [))] 127º 34'. 58"
                                   * East [((] 127 . 43 . 20
                                              --------------
        Mean longitude by sextant [(.)] * [))] 127 . 39 .  9
                        by circle [(.)] * [((] 127 . 35 . 37
                                              --------------
                   Mean longitude by 36 lunars 127 . 37 . 28
                     Longitude by chronometers 127 . 38 . 30 east of Greenwich.



LATITUDE OF NAPAKIANG.

_By Meridian Altitudes of the Sun and Altitudes taken near Noon._

    By meridian altitudes observed.    By meridian altitudes deduced in the
                                       usual way from sights taken near noon.

    1816.                     1816.
              Sextant.        8th Oct. mean of 3 A.M.} 26º. 13'. 30" circle.
    17th Oct. 26º. 13'. 43"       and 3 P.M.         }

    20th Oct. 26 . 13 . 44      20th Oct.        A.M.{ 26 . 13 . 46} sext.
                                                     { 26 . 13 . 44}

              Circle.
    26th Oct. 26 . 13 . 29      20th Oct.        P.M.{ 26 . 13 . 58}
                                                     { 26 . 13 . 47} sext.
                                                     { 26 . 13 . 57}

                              22d mean 2 A.M.& 2 P.M.  26 . 13 . 24} circle.
                              26th     3 P.M.          26 . 13 . 29}

    Latitude by mean of 3 meridian altitudes  26º. 13'. 39" sextant and circle.
                mean of 5 altitudes near noon 26 . 13 . 50  sextant.
                mean of 3 do.         do.     26 . 13 . 28  circle.
                                              ------------
                Mean latitude                 26 . 13 . 39  north.

       *       *       *       *       *

VARIATION OF THE COMPASS AT NAPAKIANG.

The declination of the magnetic meridian was ascertained with
considerable precision by means of the transit azimuth instrument: the
needle seldom showed the same variation, as it oscillated about ten
minutes, but the mean position of the magnetic meridian was 52' 10" west
of the true. A coral reef was selected for the place of these
observations, in order to avoid the attraction arising from buildings,
or from inequalities in the ground.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Variation observed on board by Walker's Azimuth Compass._

    29th Sept. 1816, P.M. ship's head W. by S. variation by

                                      1st azimuth       0º. 51'. 30" west.
                                      2nd               0 . 53 . 30
                                      3rd               1 . 17 . 30
                                      Amplitude         1 . 15 . 00
    30th        A.M.                  1st azimuth       0 . 55 . 30
                                      2nd               0 . 34 . 15
    3d Oct. A.M. ship's head E.N.E.   1st azimuth       0 . 37 . 00
                                      2nd               0 . 48 . 00
                                                        -----------
    Variation by mean of 7 azimuths and 1 amplitude     0 . 52 . 39 west.



TABLE OF OBSERVATIONS

MADE WITH

DR. WOLLASTON'S DIP SECTOR:

WITH AN ENGRAVING, AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTRUMENT, AND DIRECTIONS
FOR ITS USE.

[Illustration: Wollaston's Dip Sector]

EXPLANATION OF THE DIP SECTOR,

AND

REMARKS ON THE OBSERVATIONS MADE WITH IT IN HIS MAJESTY'S SLOOP LYRA.


In our tables for apparent dip of the visible horizon at different
heights from the sea, as calculated from the known curvature of the
earth, allowance is made for the refraction of the atmosphere, on a
supposition of its being constant, but as it is known to vary, the
tabular dip will often be erroneous, and, consequently, altitudes taken
under different states of the atmosphere, will exhibit different instead
of corresponding results.

It is foreign to the present purpose to shew what the causes are which
have most effect in raising or depressing the apparent horizon. It may
be sufficient to mention, that changes in the relative temperature of
the air and the sea must produce changes in the refraction near the
surface. Dr. Wollaston has published two papers in the Philosophical
Transactions on this subject, in the volumes for 1800 and 1803, and to
these I beg to refer the reader for precise information upon this very
curious subject.

The object which this sector proposes to attain, is the actual
admeasurement of the dip angle; that is, to ascertain how much the
visible horizon is depressed below the horizontal plane passing through
the eye of the observer. The instrument is so contrived as to measure
double the dip angle twice over, so that we obtain four times the
required dip, and one quarter of this angle is what must be applied to
vertical angles, measured from that part of the horizon which has been
observed.

Figure I. is the instrument seen in perspective, and Fig. II. is a plan
of it with the telescope removed. In order to explain its use, let A and
B (Fig. II.) represent the two reflecting glasses at right angles to the
plane of the instrument, and also nearly at right angles to each other.
It is clear that when the plane of the instrument is held vertically, an
eye situated at E, and looking through the unsilvered part of the glass
A at a distant point C, will at the same time see by joint reflection
from both glasses, another distant point D at 180º from C; and D will
appear to correspond with C, if a suitable motion be given to the index
glass B by the tangent screw F.

The instrument may now be supposed to measure the arc CZD. If the points
C and D be each three minutes farther from the zenith than 90º, the
entire angle will then exceed 180º by double that quantity. The relative
position of the glasses then corresponds to 180º 6', and the six minutes
of excess would be shewn on the arc at F if there were no index error.
But, by reason of the index error, the real quantity will not be known
till a similar observation has been made with the instrument in an
opposite direction.

If the instrument be now inverted, so that the unsilvered glass is
uppermost, the arc intended to be measured is CND, or the sum of the
distances of the points C and D from the Nadir instead of the Zenith,
which of course falls short of 180º by as much as the former arc
exceeded that quantity.

The difference of the two arcs is consequently twelve minutes, and if
the index be now moved till the objects C and D appear to correspond,
the amount of this double difference will be shewn by the _change of
position_ of the vernier.

Hence it is evidently unnecessary that the index error should be
previously known, and even preferable that its amount should be such as
to avoid the needless introduction of negative quantities by positions
on different sides of zero.

In the preceding description, it is supposed that the eye is looking
directly through the unsilvered glass at the horizon, and that it also
perceives the opposite horizon after two reflections; but an inspection
of the figure will shew that the observer's head would necessarily
intercept the rays from the horizon behind him. To obviate this, both
the direct and the reflected rays are received in coming from the
unsilvered glass, (and after passing through the field-glass of the
telescope) on a mirror placed at an angle of 45º, which reflects them to
the eye. By this ingenious contrivance, the obstruction is removed, and
the opposite points of the horizon may be both seen at one moment.

In practice, it is most convenient to direct the telescope to the same
part of the horizon in both cases. Thus, if the east and west parts of
the horizon be observed, and that the index glass be uppermost, and
telescope pointing to the west, the observer is on the south side, and
his face must be turned to the north. When the instrument is inverted,
if the observer turn himself round at the same time, so as to face the
south, then the telescope will be pointed as before to the west; but
since the index glass is now undermost, the inferior arc will now be
measured precisely as if his face were to the north, but with the
advantage of the same lights seen in the erect position of the
instrument.

In using this instrument at sea for the first time, considerable
difficulty arises from the constant change in the plane of the
instrument from the perpendicular position, in which it is absolutely
necessary that it should be held, in order to obtain a correct
observation. What at first appears to be a defect, however, is a real
advantage, namely, that whenever it is held in the least degree out of
the vertical plane, the two horizons (that seen direct, and the
reflected one) cross each other, and it is only when the plane is
vertical that the horizons can appear parallel.

The object is to get the two horizons to coincide exactly, and for this
purpose it will often be necessary to have them of different shades.
This is managed, as in the sextant, by means of the screw, which raises
or lowers the telescope. When the telescope is brought nearer to the
plane of the instrument, the reflected horizon becomes dark and
distinct, but when screwed off it becomes fainter, and is not so well
defined. Practice alone can teach the degree of intensity which is most
favourable. In general it is best to have one horizon dark, and the
other light; then bring them very nearly to coincide, and wait till the
ship is steady, at which moment a slight touch of the tangent screw
brings them exactly to cover one another. It will happen, of course,
that when the coincidence is perfect, there is only one horizon to be
seen, and a doubt remains whether all is right, but a slight motion of
the instrument, by making the horizons cross each other, defines them at
once.

It is advisable to take several observations, and the safest way is to
take one first with the index glass uppermost, and then with the
instrument inverted, after which to return to the first, and so on for
two or three times each way.

In the pages which follow, there is given a table containing the result
of all the observations made during this voyage, preceded by several
sets of observations in the fullest detail. From the table it will be
observed how seldom the dip, actually measured, agrees with that
inferred from the mean refraction. Some of these experiments shew very
remarkable differences, and point out the great utility of this
instrument.

The practical navigator, particularly if he has been in hot climates,
will recollect how discordant his observations for latitude always were,
and how few even of the best observers agree in their determination of
the latitude of the same place, simple as the observation is thought to
be. The cause is quite clear; and though it equally affects altitudes
taken for absolute time, the disagreement is less obvious, and it will
often happen that a chronometer going extremely well appears to vary
every day from inaccuracy in the observations. Thus it is, I think,
generally admitted, that it is almost impossible to rate a chronometer
from altitudes observed with the sea horizon. Nor is this difficulty
removed by taking equal altitudes, because the refraction in all
probability will be different at the two observations. With an
artificial horizon, indeed, the changes in refraction are not felt,
because, at a considerable elevation above the horizon, the changes are
very trifling. But it often happens in practice, that the artificial
horizon cannot be used, and we are then reduced to the sea horizon,
where the changes of refraction are always the greatest. In the Yellow
Sea, for instance, we had no opportunity of landing during all the time
that the squadron was at anchor, till the day before we sailed. So that
during nearly a fortnight that the ships were at anchor, the sea horizon
was necessarily used. I need only to refer to the observations taken off
the Pei-ho, viz. from No. 37 to 62, to shew how extremely fallacious the
results must have been.

It is much to be wished that this excellent instrument should be brought
into general use in navigation.



THE FOLLOWING EIGHT OBSERVATIONS ARE SET DOWN IN THE FULLEST DETAIL, IN
ORDER TO SHEW THE METHOD USED IN RECORDING THEM.


No. 31.

YELLOW SEA.

_July 23, 1816._--6 P.M.

    Index uppermost.     Instrument inverted.

      A + 8'. 10"           B - 7'. 10"
          8 . 05                7 . 10
          8 . 00                7 . 10
          ------                ------
    Mean  8 . 05         Mean   7 . 10 B.
                         Mean + 8 . 05 A.
                               -------
                               15 . 15
                               -------
                                3 . 49 Dip.
                                3 . 50 Tabular.
                                     1 Difference.
                               -------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 3 inches.

    Parts of the horizon observed, WSW. and ENE.

    Barometer          29 . 78 inches
    Thermometer {Air   82º
                {Sea   77º
    Latitude           35º north.
    Longitude         124º east.

Wind light from south; horizon uncommonly well defined and sharp; sky
clear, and sea perfectly smooth.


No. 40.

OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

_July 29, 1816._--9 A.M.

    Index uppermost.   Instrument inverted.

       A + 8'. 20"         B - 11'. 40"
           8 . 45              11 . 35
           8 . 30              11 . 50
           ------              -------
    Mean   8 . 32       Mean   11 . 42 B.
                       Mean +   8 . 32 A.
                               -------
                            4) 20 . 14
                                5 .  3 Dip.
                                3 . 50 Tabular.
                                1 . 13 Difference +
                               -------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 3 inches.
    Parts of the horizon observed, NW. and SE.
    The low land just visible in the NW. distant 12 or 14 miles.

    Depth of the sea, 18 feet.
    Barometer          29 . 60 inches.
    Thermometer {Air   81º
                {Sea   84º
    Latitude           38º. 50' north.
    Longitude         118º. 00' east.

There has been little wind this morning, after a very close night.


    No. 43.

    OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

    _August 6, 1816._--1 P.M.

    Index uppermost.       Instrument inverted.

      A + 7'. 48"             B - 11'. 55"
          7 . 48                  11 . 45
          7 . 55                  11 . 45
          ------                  -------
    Mean  7 . 50           Mean   11 . 48 B.
                           Mean +  7 . 50 A.
                                  -------
                               4) 19 . 38
                                  -------
                                   4 . 54 Dip.
                                   3 . 53 Tabular.
                                   1 .  1 Difference +
                                  -------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 6 inches.
    Parts of the horizon observed, SW. by S. and NE. by N.
    Depth of the sea, 29 feet.

    Barometer      -  29 . 64 inches.
    Thermometer { Air 83-1/2º
                { Sea 81-1/2º
    Latitude       -  38º 50' north.
    Longitude      - 118º 00' east.

Moderate breeze from SE. by S.; rather hazy, but the horizon sharp and
distinct.


No. 50.

OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

_August 8, 1816._--6.15. A.M.

    Index uppermost.                   Instrument inverted.
     A + 10'. 20"                      B - 12'. 50"
         10 . 18                           12 . 45
         10 . 35                           13 . 00
         ----------                        ----------
    Mean 10 . 24, 3                 Mean   12 . 51.7 B.
                                    Mean + 10 . 24.3 A.
                                           ----------
                                        4) 23 . 16
                                            5 . 49 Dip.
                                            3 . 50 Tabular.
                                            1 . 59 Difference +
                                           ----------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 3 inches.
    Parts of the horizon observed, NNE. and SSW. clear of the land.
    Depth of the sea, 26 feet.

    Barometer         29 . 65 inches.
    Thermometer { Air 69-1/2º
                { Sea 78º

    Wind NNW. moderate.
    Latitude       -   38º. 50' north.
    Longitude      -  118º. 00' east.

    _Mem._--The top of the fort at the mouth of the river, is just visible at 30
    feet from the surface of the water.


No. 53.

OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

_August 10, 1816._--6.10. A.M.

      Index uppermost.                  Instrument inverted
       A + 13'. 55"                     B - 7'. 30"
           13 . 50                          7 . 15
           13 . 45                          7 . 25
           -------                         ---------
      Mean 13 . 50                    Mean  7 . 23.3 B.
                                           ---------
                                    Mean + 13 . 50   A.
                                           ---------
                                    4)     21 . 13.3
                                            5 . 18.3  Dip.
                                            2 . 20    Tabular.
                                            2 . 58    Difference +

    Height of the eye, 5 feet, 6 inches.
    Depth of the water, 5 feet.
    Parts of the horizon observed, N. by E. and S. by W. just clear of the land.

    Barometer         29 . 69 inches. } On board His Majesty's ship Lyra,
    Thermometer { Air 75º             } distant three or four miles.
                { Sea 77º             }
    Wind WNW.

About one mile from the fort of Tung-coo, at the entrance of the Pei-ho
river. _Note._--Instrument readjusted.


No. 58.

OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

_August 10, 1816._--2 P.M.

    Index uppermost.                   Instrument inverted.

     A + 15'. 40"                       B - 8'. 50"
         15 . 30                            8 . 50
         15 . 35                            8 . 50
         --------                          --------
    Mean 15 . 35                      Mean  8 . 50 B.
                                    Mean + 15 . 35 A.

                                        4) 24 . 25
                                            6 .  6.3 Dip.
                                            3 . 50   Tabular.
                                            2 . 16   Difference +

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 3 inches.
    Parts of the horizon observed, N. by E. and S. by W.
    Depth of the sea, 27 feet.

    Barometer          29 . 68 inches.
    Thermometer }  Air 84º
                }  Sea 83º

    Latitude           38º . 50' north.
    Longitude         118º . 00' east.


No. 59.

OFF THE PEI-HO, YELLOW SEA.

_August 10, 1816._--2. 15. P.M.

    Index uppermost.                          Instrument inverted
     A + 15'. 10"                             B -  7'. 50"
         15 . 10                                   8 . 10
         15 . 10                                   8 . 05
         ---------                                ---------
    Mean 15 . 13.3                         Mean    8 . 01.7 B.
                                           Mean + 15 . 13.3 A.
                                                  ---------
                                               4) 21 . 15
                                                   5 . 48.7 Dip.
                                                   3 . 50   Tabular.
                                                   1 . 59   Difference.
                                                  ---------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet, 3 inches.
    Parts of the horizon observed, NW. by N. and SE. by S.
    Depth of the water, 27 feet.

    Barometer          29 . 68 inches.
    Thermometer {  Air 84º
                {  Sea 83º

    Latitude           38º. 50' north.
    Longitude         118º. 00' east.

The vessels in all parts of the horizon have an inverted image under
them; this is very considerable, some having about a third of the sail,
others only the hull.


No. 110.

OFF THE CAPE.

_July 28, 1817._--2.30. P.M.

    Index uppermost.                         Instrument inverted.
     A +  6'. 35"                             B -  5'. 00"
          6 . 35                                   4 . 55
          6 . 40                                   5 . 00
          --------                                ---------
    Mean  6 . 36.7                         Mean    4 . 58.3 B.
                                           Mean +  6 . 36.7 A.
                                                  ---------
                                               4) 11 . 35
                                                   2 . 53.7 Dip.
                                                   3 . 49   Tabular.
                                                       55   Difference -
                                                  ---------

    Height of the eye, 15 feet.
    Parts of the horizon observed, SE. and NW.

    Thermometer {  Air 64º
                {  Sea 59º
    Depth of the sea, 222 feet.

    Latitude           34º. 57' south.
    Longitude          20º. 15' east.

Cape Lagullus due north, distant 6 or 8 miles.

Calm all day; sky clear, and weather hazy.

On the 29th and 30th of July we were off the Cape, but the weather was
so bad as to prevent any sights being taken.

[Transcriber's Note: The final column of each of the following
tables is transcribed beneath the table.]

 --+--------+----+-----------+-----+-------+-------+-----+-------+------+------+
   |        |Height   Dip.   |Diff.|Then.  |Differ.|     |       |      |      |
   |        | of +-----------+--+--+---+---+---+---+     |       | Long.|Sound-|
 No.  Date. |eye.| Obs. |Tab.|+ |- |Sea|Air| + | - |Baro.|  Lat. | East.| ings.|
 --+--------+----+------+----+--+--+---+---+---+---+-----+-------+------+------+
   |1816.   |f. i|'  "  |'  "| "| "| º | º |   |   |     | º  '  | º  ' | feet |
 18|June 16.|15 3|4 35.0|3 50|45|  |83 |82-|1/2|   |29.86| 5 11 S|106 3 |   60 |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |   |1/2|   |   |     |       |      |      |
 19|June 16.|15 3|4 33.0|3 50|43|  |83-|82 | 1-|   |29.86| 5 05 S|106 10|   56 |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |1/2|sh.|1/2|   |     |       |      |      |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |   |{85|   |   |     |       |      |      |
 20|June 16.|14 0|3 59  |3 41|18|  |84-|{sh|1/2|   |29.83| 5 05 S|106 10|   48 |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |1/2|{95|   |   |     |       |      |      |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |   |{su|   |   |     |       |      |      |
 21|June 16.|14  |4 01  |3 41|20|  |83 |81 | 2 |   |29.85| 5 05 S|106 10|   57 |
 22|June 27.|16  |4 21.0|3 56|25|  |84 |82 | 2 |   |29.81| 6 49 N|107 49|      |
 23|June 28.|16  |4 22.2|3 56|26|  |84 |82 | 2 |   |29.80| 8 00  |108 10|      |
 24|July 3. |16  |4 08.2|3 56|12|  |84-|81 | 3-|   |29.77|13 29  |112 59|      |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |       |      |      |
 25|July 6. |16  |3 53  |3 56|  | 3|84 |83-|1/4|   |29.75|20 00  |114   |      |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |   |3/4|   |   |     |       |      |      |
 27|July 7. |15 3|4  3  |3 50|13|  |85 |85 |   |   |29.79|21 11  |114   |      |
 28|July 8. |14 6|3 49  |3 45| 4|  |84-|82 | 2-|   |29.72|       |      |      |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |       |      |      |
 29|July 16.|15 3|3 27  |3 50|  |23|79 |79 |   |   |29.75|24 37  |118 56|      |
 30|July 21.|15 3|3 44  |3 50|  | 6|77-|76 | 1-|   |29.78|34     |124   |  270 |
   |        |    |      |    |  |  |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |       |      |      |
 31|July 23.|15 3|3 49  |3 50|  | 1|77 |82 |   |5  |29.78|35     |124   |      |
 32|July 23.|15 3|3 49  |3 50|  | 1|77 |82 |   |5  |29.78|35     |124   |      |
 33|July 23.|15 3|3 44  |3 50|  | 6|77 |82 |   |5  |29.78|35     |124   |      |
 35|July 27.|15 3|4 02  |3 50|12|  |76 |76 |   |   |29.70|38 55  |118 50|   72 |
 36|July 27.|13  |3 35  |3 33| 2|  |76 |76 |   |   |29.70|38 55  |118 50|   78 |
 37|July 28.|15 3|4 21  |3 50|31|  |83 |84 |   |1  |29.62|38 50  |118 00    20 |
 38|July 28.|15 3|4 06  |3 50|16|  |83 |84 |   |1  |29.62|38 50  |118 00|   20 |
 --+--------+----+------+----+--+--+---+---+---+---+-----+-------+------+------+
    Remarks.
 ---+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 18 |Weather hazy. The low land of Sumatra just visible. The land wind has     |
    |been blowing gently for about four hours.                                 |
 19 |East and west parts of the horizon observed. Coast of Sumatra just        |
    |visible. Hazy. The land-wind dying away.                                  |
 20 |The day has been extremely hot, and almost a calm. The sea-breeze not yet |
    |set in, only a few light flaws.                                           |
 24 |A fresh breeze from WNW. The sun set in fiery dirty red clouds. Weather   |
    |squally, with occasional showers of rain.  Parts of the horizon observed  |
    |east and west.                                                            |
 25 |Weather remarkably fine; sky clear; and a gentle breeze from the south.   |
    |The sun set about five minutes after these observations were taken.       |
    |Parts of the horizon observed east and west.                              |
 27 |The forenoon has been extremely hot and oppressive. A rolling swell from  |
    |the SW.                                                                   |
 28 |Parts of the horizon observed SSW and NNE, the first clear to seaward,    |
    | the other clear horizon, but the mainland of China behind it, and        |
    |various islands on each side of the NNE line.                             |
 29 |Very hazy weather: sky fiery.                                             |
 30 |Clear weather, with a light breeze from the eastward. Sun set behind a    |
    |low range of dark clouds: sky in that quarter was unusually red. A long   |
    |swell from the northward.                                                 |
 31 |Wind light from south; horizon uncommonly well defined and sharp; sky     |
    |clear; and the sea perfectly smooth. These sights, and the two following, |
    |may be depended on, I think, within ten seconds.                          |
 32 |Circumstances similar to No. 31.                                          |
 33 |Parts of the horizon observed were that immediately under the setting     |
    |sun; viz. W 21º N, and the opposite E 21º S, the sun being about 4º high. |
    |Day has been remarkably clear, although the wind has been from the        |
    |southward, which in these seas is said generally to bring fogs.           |
 35 |Weather somewhat hazy; wind easterly.                                     |
 36 |Wind easterly.                                                            |
 37 |These sights were taken while at anchor off the mouth of the Pei-ho. The  |
    |fort of Tung-coo, on the south bank of the river, bearing W 50º N, distant|
    |about four or five miles.                                                 |
 ---+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+

 --+--------+----+-----------+------+--------+------+-----+------+------+------+
   |        |Height   Dip.   |Diff. |Then.  |Differ.|     |      |      |      |
   |        | of +-----------+----+-+---+---+---+---+     |      | Long.|Sound-|
 No.  Date. |eye.| Obs. |Tab.| +  |-|Sea|Air| + | - |Baro.|  Lat.| East.| ings.|
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+-+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
   |1816.   |f. i|'  "  |'  "|' " |"| º | º |   |   |     | º  ' | º  ' | feet |
 39|July 28.|15 3|3 46  |3 50|    |4|82 |83-|   | 1-|29.61|38 50 |118   |   23 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|   |1/2|     |      |      |      |
 40|July 29.|15 3|5  3  |3 50|1 13| |84 |81 | 3 |   |29.60|38 50 |118   |   18 |
 41|July 29.|15 3|4 00.9|3 50|  10| |84 |83 | 1 |   |29.58|38.50 |118   |   20 |
 42|Aug. 6. |15 3|5 09  |3 50|1 29| |80 |79 | 1 |   |29.64|38 50 |118   |   22-|
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |   |   |   |     |      |      |   1/2|
 43|Aug. 6. |15 6|4 54  |3 53|1  1| |81-|83-|   | 2 |29.64|38 50 |118   |   29 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|1/2|   |   |     |      |      |      |
 44|Aug. 6. |15 3|4 47  |3 50   57| |81-|83-|   | 2 |29.64|38 50 |118   |   29 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|1/2|   |   |     |      |      |      |
 45|Aug. 6. |15 3|4 59  |3 50|1  9| |81-|83-|   | 1-|29.64|38 50 |118   |   29-|
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|1/2|   |1/2|     |      |      |   1/2|
 46|Aug. 6. | 3 9|2 39  |1 54|  45| |81 |84-|   | 3-|29.62|38 50 |118   |   30 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|   |1/2|     |      |      |      |
 47|Aug. 6. | 6  |3 26  |2 25|1  1| |81 |84-|   | 3-|29.62|38 50 |118   |   30-|
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|   |1/2|     |      |      |   1/2|
 48|Aug. 6. |15 3|4 59.2|3 50|1  9| |82 |80 | 2 |   |29.59|38 50 |118   |   30 |
 49|Aug. 8. |15 3|5 47  |3 50|1 57| |78 |69-| 8-|   |29.65|38 50 |118   |   26 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 50|Aug. 8. |15 3|5 49  |3 59|1 59| |78 |69-| 8-|   |29.65|38 50 |118   |   26 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 51|Aug. 8. |15 3|5 47  |3 50|1 57| |77-|73 | 4-|   |29.66|38 50 |118   |   24 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 52|Aug. 9. |15 3|4 30.4|3 59|  40| |79-|75 | 4-|   |29.72|38 50 |118   |      |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 53|Aug.10. | 5 6|5 18.3|2 20|2 58| |77 |75 | 2 |   |29.69|38 50 |118   |    5 |
 54|Aug.10. | 5 6|4 28.3|2 20|2  8| |   |   |   |   |     |38 50 |117 55|      |
 55|Aug.10. | 5 6|4 7   |2 20|1 47| |77 |75 | 2 |   |29.69|38 50 |117 55|   12 |
 56|Aug.10. | 5 6|3 55  |2 20|1 35| |77 |75 | 2 |   |29.69|38 50 |118   |   13 |
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+-+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
    Remarks.
 --+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 39|The day has been exceedingly close with little wind.                       |
 40|There has been little wind this morning, after a very close night.         |
 41|Nearly calm, there being only a very light air from the SE.--Day sultry.   |
 42|Weather hazy; sky clear overhead; sea remarkably smooth; wind north.       |
 43|Moderate breeze from SE by S; rather hazy; but the horizon sharp and       |
   |distinct. And this together with the four following observations, may be   |
   |taken as very accurate, every circumstance being most favourable.          |
 45|Parts of the horizon observed E by N and W by S.                           |
 46|Parts of the horizon observed SSE and NNW. Wind SE.                        |
 47|Wind SE.                                                                   |
 48|Parts of the horizon observed E and W. The day, which has been remarkably  |
   |fine, has resumed towards sunset a wild, stormy aspect. Wind fresh at SE.  |
 49|Parts of the horizon observed E by S and W by N. This morning unusually    |
   |clear; so that when the sun's semi-diameter only was above the horizon,    |
   |it was painful to look at him. The horizon has a rugged appearance.        |
 50|Parts of the horizon observed NNE and SSW. Wind NNW, moderate.             |
 51|Weather remarkably clear; horizon still rugged; wind NNW, moderate.        |
 52|This morning cloudy, and looks rainy but the air seems clear. Parts of the |
   |horizon observed NW by W and SE by E.                                      |
 53|Parts of the horizon observed N by E and S by W. Instrument readjusted.    |
   |Wind WNW.                                                                  |
 54|Parts of the horizon observed WSW and ENE. Wind NW. These observations     |
   |were taken close to the low land, near the mouth of the Pei-ho. The night  |
   |had been cold, and the morning was still keen; but unfortunately there     |
   |was no thermometer in the boat; I suppose, however, that the air was       |
   |about 66º At the time these sights were taken, I observed a vessel bearing |
   |N by W, the lower half of whose sail was inverted.                         |
 55|Wind NW.                                                                   |
 56|Wind NW. Parts of the horizon observed NW and SE.  During these            |
   |observations,(53, 54, 55, 56) the vessels near the land had more or less   |
   |an inverted image under them.                                              |
 --+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

 --+--------+----+-----------+------+--------+------+-----+------+------+------+
   |        |Height   Dip.   |Diff. |Then.  |Differ.|     |      |      |      |
   |        | of +-----------+----+-+---+---+---+---+     |      | Long.|Sound-|
 No.  Date. |eye.| Obs. |Tab.| +  |-|Sea|Air| + | - |Baro.|  Lat.| East.| ings.|
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+-+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
   |1816.   |f. i| '  " |'  "|' " |"| º | º |   |   |     | º  ' | º  ' | feet |
 57|Aug. 10.|15 3| 5 37 |3 50|1 47| |78 |76-| 1-|   |29.70|38 50 |118   |   26 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 58|Aug. 10.|15 3| 6  6 |3 50|2 16| |83 |84 |   | 1 |29.68|38 50 |118   |   27 |
 59|Aug. 10.|15 3| 5 49 |3 50|1 59| |83 |84 |   | 1 |29.68|38 50 |118   |   27 |
 60|Aug. 11.|15 3| 5  3 |3 50|1 13| |79 |76 | 3 |   |29.72|38 50 |118   |   26-|
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |   |   |   |     |      |      |   1/2|
 61|Aug. 11.|15 3| 5 13 |3 50|1 23| |80 |79 | 1 |   |29.73|38 50 |118   |   24 |
 62|Aug. 12.|16  | 4 52 |3 56|  56| |80 |79 | 1 |   |29.79|38 50 |118   |   24 |
 63|Aug. 12.|15 3| 4 35 |3 50|  45| |81 |79-| 1-|   |29.77|38 36 |117 56|   29-|
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|1/2|   |     |      |      |   1/2|
 64|Aug. 13.|16  | 4  4 |3 56|   8| |79 |78 | 1 |   |29.80|38 31 |118 09|   42 |
 65|Aug. 13.|16  | 4  6 |3 56|  10| |79 |78 | 1 |   |29.80|38 31 |118 09|   42 |
 66|Aug. 13.|16  | 4 20 |3 56|  24| |81 |83 |   | 2 |29.80|38 21 |118 04|   44 |
 67|Aug. 14.|15 3| 4 30 |3 30|1   | |78 |79 |   | 1 |29.71|38 30 |118 24|      |
 68|Aug. 14.|15 3| 4 25 |3 30|  55| |79-|80-|   | 1 |29.70|38 30 |118 35|   50 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|1/2|   |   |     |      |      |      |
 69|Aug. 15.|15 3| 4 39 |3 30|1  9| |80 |79 | 1 |   |29.77|38 00 |118 35|   48 |
 70|Aug. 15.|15 3| 4 53 |3 30|1 23| |81-|79 | 2-|   |29.76|38 00 |118 54|   44 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|   |1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 71|Aug. 15.|15 3| 5  4 |3 30|1 34| |82 |79 | 3 |   |29.70|37 54 |118 56|   40 |
 72|Aug. 16.|15 3| 4 43 |3 30|1 13| |81 |76 | 5 |   |29.17|37 38 |118 57|   39 |
 73|Aug. 17.|15 3| 4 38 |3 30|1  8| |80 |79-|1/2|   |29.73|37 21 |119 28|   30 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |   |1/2|   |   |     |      |      |      |
 74|Aug. 17.|14  | 4 29 |3 41|  48| |81-|81 |1/2|   |29.75|37 19 |119 44|   33 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 75|Aug. 17.|15 3| 4 42 |3 30|1 12| |81-|82 |   |1/2|29.70|37 21 |119 44|   30 |
   |        |    |      |    |    | |1/2|   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 76|Aug. 18.|16  | 4 39 |3 56|  43| |80 |77 | 3 |   |29.76|37 29 |119 37|   48 |
 77|Aug. 20.|16  | 4 20 |3 56|  24| |77 |72 | 5 |   |29.85|37 50 |120 16|      |
 79|Aug. 21.|15 3| 4 42 |3 50|  52| |77 |71 | 6 |   |29.80|37 52 |120 27|      |
 80|Aug. 21.| 4  | 2 37 |1 58|  39| |77 |79 |   | 2 |29.80|37 52 |120 27|   60 |
 81|Aug. 21.|15 3| 4  6 |3 50|  18| |77 |76 | 1 |   |29.76|      |      |   60 |
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+-+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
    Remarks.
 --+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 57|Weather very clear. Parts of the horizon observed ENE and WSW.             |
 58|Parts of the horizon observed N by E and S by W.                           |
 59|The vessels in all parts of the horizon have an inverted image under them; |
   |this is very considerable, some having about one-third of the sail, others |
   |only the hull.                                                             |
 60|Light wind from SE. Sky cloudy, somewhat hazy; but the horizon sharp and   |
   |unbroken.                                                                  |
 61|The inversion of the vessels as conspicuous as before. Parts of the        |
   |horizon observed ESE and WNW.                                              |
 62|A light breeze from the SE. Cloudy and close.--N.B. Instrument readjusted. |
 63|Part of the horizon observed N and S.                                      |
 64|Part of the horizon observed E and W. A moderate breeze from the SW. Clear |
   |overhead; hazy in the horizon.                                             |
 65|Parts of the horizon observed N and S.                                     |
 66|Wind SE. Sky clear, and the horizon sharp.                                 |
 67|Light breeze from ESE.  Parts observed NE and SW.                          |
 68|Light breeze at ESE. Cloudy, with a haze in the horizon. Parts observed NE |
   |and SW.                                                                    |
 69|Parts of the horizon observed E and W. Moderate breeze from ENE.           |
   |Remarkably clear weather.                                                  |
 70|Steady moderate breeze at ENE. Very clear. Horizon sharp, and well defined.|
 72|Wind at East. Sky cloudy and rather hazy.                                  |
 73|Light wind at SW. Hazy weather.                                            |
 74|Light breeze from the Northward.  Weather hazy. Parts of the horizon       |
   |observed SE and NW.                                                        |
 75|Parts of the horizon observed NE by E and SW by W.                         |
 76|Moderate breeze from East.  Parts of the horizon observed WNW and ESE.     |
 77|The wind has been blowing hard for two days from NE; this evening it has   |
   |lulled, and the weather has cleared off: there remains however a high      |
   |swell.                                                                     |
 79|Land-wind South. Fine clear morning.                                       |
 80|Parts of the horizon observed SW by S and NE by N.                         |
 81|The inversions which were so conspicuous this morning have been entirely   |
   |removed since the sea breeze set in. In some distant islands there is a    |
   |slight inversion at the ends, but very trifling.                           |
 --+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

 --+--------+----+-----------+-------+-------+-------+-----+------+------+------+
   |        |Height   Dip.   |Diff.  |Then.  |Differ.|     |      |      |      |
   |        | of +-----------+----+--+---+---+---+---+     |      | Long.|Sound-|
 No.  Date. |eye.| Obs. |Tab.| +  | -|Sea|Air| + | - |Baro.|  Lat.| East.| ings.|
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+--+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
   | 1816.  |f. i| '  " |'  "|' " | "| º | º |   |   |     | º  ' | º  ' | feet |
 82|Aug. 21.|14  | 3 26 |3 41|    |15|76 |75 | 1 |   |29.74|      |      |      |
 83|Aug. 21.|15 3| 3 29 |3 41|    |12|76 |75 | 1 |   |29.74|      |      |      |
 84|Aug. 22.|16  | 3 52 |3 56|    | 4|75 |76 | 1 |   |29.80|      |      |      |
 85|Sept. 4.|12  | 3 46 |3 25|  21|  |81 |83 |   | 2 |29.86| 36 10|126 30|   56 |
 86|Sept. 4.|12  | 3 42 |3 25|  17|  |81 |83 |   | 2 |29.86| 36  8|126 35|   56 |
 87|Sept. 5.|15  | 3 47 |3 49|    | 2|79 |80 |   | 1 |29.80| 35 40|126 17|      |
 88|Sept. 7.|15 3| 3 33 |3 41|    | 8|74 |80 |   | 6 |29.84| 34 32|126 34|      |
 89|Sept. 7.|15 3| 3 27 |3 41|    |14|74 |80 |   | 6 |29.84| 34 32|126 34|      |
   | 1817.  |    |      |    |    |  |   |   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 90|Mar. 3. |14  | 3 57 |3 41|  16|  |82 |84-|   | 2-|29.74|  2 18|102 20|      |
   |        |    |      |    |    |  |   |1/2|   |1/2|     |      |      |      |
 91|Mar. 5. |14 8| 4 49 |3 46| 1 3|  |83 |85 |   | 2 |29.73|  3 40|100 35|      |
 92|Mar. 5. |14 8| 4 50 |3 46| 1 4|  |83 |85 |   | 2 |29.73|      |      |  165 |
 93|Mar. 5. |14 8| 4 53 |3 46| 1 7|  |   |   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 94|Mar. 8. |14 8| 4 33 |3 46|  47|  |84 |84 |   |   |29.86|  5 12|100 14|  120 |
 a)|        |    |      |    |    |  |   |   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 94|Mar. 8. |14 8| 4 58 |3 46|1 12|  |84 |82-| 1-|   |29.86|      |      |  120 |
 b)|        |    |      |    |    |  |   |1/2|1/2|   |     |      |      |      |
 --+--------+----+------+----+----+--+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
    Remarks.
 --+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 82|This and the following were observed towards sunset; they exhibit a         |
   |considerable degree of refraction above what is usual. The sights on this   |
   |morning in the same place gave upwards of 1' greater dip.                   |
 83|All other circumstances the same as in No. 82.                              |
 84|Fresh breeze from SE, with a remarkably clear sky. The horizon uncommonly   |
   |sharp.                                                                      |
 85|Wind moderate from WNW. Clear weather.                                      |
 86|All other circumstances the same as in No. 85. Parts of the horizon         |
   |observed SSW and NNE.                                                       |
 87|Parts of the horizon observed WNW and ESE.                                  |
 88|The morning has been exceedingly hot before the breezes set in from sea at  |
   |11 A.M.                                                                     |
 89|All other circumstances the same as in No. 89.                              |
 90|After a very hot day.                                                       |
 91|Parts of the horizon observed ESE and WNW. See further remarks under 93.    |
   |Instruments readjusted.                                                     |
 92|Parts of the horizon observed NE and SW. All other circumstances as in No.  |
   |91.                                                                         |
 93|Parts of the horizon observed SSE and NNW. These three observations (Nos.   |
   |91, 92, and 93) were made under the most favourable circumstances, and may  |
   |be considered as shewing the accuracy which the instrument is capable of    |
   |attaining. The sea was so perfectly smooth, that not the slightest motion   |
   |could be detected. The horizon at all the parts observed was sharp, and     |
   |better defined than I recollect to have seen it; and, what is not often the |
   |case, the opposite parts were alike in strength of light &c. The day has    |
   |been hot, but not close, with a light breeze from the Southward. The dip is |
   |very great, but the observations were made with such care, that there can   |
   |be no doubt of their accuracy.                                              |
 94|There had been a light breeze from the North in the morning, but for an     |
 a)|hour before these sights were taken it had been calm.                       |
 94|Nearly the same place as No. 94(a); but the other circumstances were        |
 b)|changed, as the sea breeze at NW had set in about a quarter of an hour,     |
   |whereas in the last instance it was calm. The above angles were taken with  |
   |great care. The horizon sharp. Parts of the horizon observed NW and SE.     |
 --+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

 ---+--------+----+-----------+------+-------+-------+-----+------+------+------+
    |        |Height   Dip.   |Diff. | Then. |Differ.|     |      |      |      |
    |        | of +-----------+--+---+---+---+---+---+     |      | Long.|Sound-|
 No.|  Date. |eye.| Obs. |Tab.| +| - |Sea|Air| + | - |Baro.|  Lat.| East.| ings.|
 ---+--------+----+------+----+--+---+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
    | 1817.  |f. i|'   " |'  "| "|' "| º | º |   |   |     | º  ' | º  ' | feet |
  95|Mar. 19.|14 8| 3 51 |3 46| 5|   |80 |82 |   | 2 |29.84|      |      |      |
  96|Mar. 19.|14 8| 3 48 |3 46| 2|   |80 |82 |   | 2 |29.78|13 30 | 89 30|      |
  97|Mar. 20.|14 8| 3 48 |3 46| 2|   |79-|82 |   | 2-|29.83|14 30 | 89 15|      |
    |        |    |      |    |  |   |1/2|   |   |1/2|     |      |      |      |
  98|Mar. 21.|14 8| 3 48 |3 46| 2|   |80 |82 |   | 2 |29.84|15 00 | 89 00|      |
  99|Mar. 22.|14 8| 3 39 |3 46|  |  7|79 |79-|   |1/2|29.84|16 00 | 88 30|      |
    |        |    |      |    |  |   |   |1/2|   |   |     |      |      |      |
 100|Mar. 23.|14 8| 3 47 |3 46| 1|   |78-|79 |   |1/2|29.80|17 00 | 88 00|      |
    |        |    |      |    |  |   |1/2|   |   |   |     |      |      |      |
 101|Mar. 24.|14 8| 3 53 |3 46| 7|   |78 |80 |   | 2 |29.78|17 30 | 88 15|      |
    |        |    |      |    |  |   |   |   |   |   |     |South.|      |      |
 102|July 22 |15  | 3 36 |3 49|  | 13|71 |72 |   | 1 |     |34  0 | 26   |  400 |
 103|July 24.|15  | 3 16 |3 49|  | 33|59 |62 |   | 3 |     |34 25 | 24 56|  372 |
 104|July 25.|15  | 3 36 |3 49|  | 13|62 |63 |   | 1 |     |35  S | 23 45|  462 |
 105|July 26.|15  | 3 30 |3 49|  | 19|58 |60 |   | 2 |     |35  S | 23   |  462 |
 106|July 26.|15  | 3 30 |3 40|  | 19|60 |63 |   | 3 |     |34 52 | 22 23|  420 |
 107|July 27.|15  | 2 55 |3 49|  | 54|56 |59 |   | 3 |     |35    | 21   |   24 |
 108|July 27.|15  | 2 47 |3 49|  |1 2|56 |59 |   | 3 |     |35    | 21   |  240 |
 109|July 28.|15  | 3 17 |3 19|  | 32|58 |64 |   | 6 |     |34 58 | 20 15|      |
 110|July 28.|15  | 2 54 |3 49|  | 55|59 |64 |   | 5 |     |34 57 | 20 15|  222 |
 ---+--------+----+------+----+--+---+---+---+---+---+-----+------+------+------+
    Remarks.
 ---+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  95|The wind steady and moderate at NE; atmosphere clear; horizon well defined;|
    |a long swell from SW. This swell, which was not high, produced an obvious  |
    |effect on the dip angle, as observed, the two horizons alternately         |
    |separating and overlapping; this change was however so slight that I have  |
    |not been able to measure it.                                               |
  96|All other circumstances as in Nov. 95. Parts of the horizon observed NE    |
    |and SW.                                                                    |
  97|During the night there has been a light breeze from the East; at this      |
    |moment it is freshening up a little. The atmosphere is clear; horizon      |
    |sharp; a long low swell from SW, as yesterday.                             |
  98|It has been calm, or nearly so, during the night; occasionally a light air |
    |from SE and S. All circumstances favorable.                                |
  99|During the night there has been a light wind from SW. The weather is more  |
    |hazy than when the wind was from the Eastward, and the horizon not so      |
    |distinctly marked; but the above sights are good. There is still a swell   |
    |from SW, which causes some little uncertainty as to the exact moment of    |
    |taking the angle.                                                          |
 100|In the night there has been a light breeze from W by S. Weather hazy; but  |
    |the horizon sharper than yesterday morning.                                |
 101|During the night almost calm; just now a light air from the NE. Parts of   |
    |the horizon observed NE and SW.                                            |
 102|Fine fair clear weather, but with so high a swell as to render the         |
    |observation difficult. Wind light from N, after having been blowing fresh. |
 103|Light breezes from the North-eastward; smooth water, and a clear cool air; |
    |hazy about the land. The distance from the South cost of Africa was about  |
    |8 or 9 leagues. All circumstances seem favourable. No current; we have     |
    |probably been too near shore for it.                                       |
 104|Light breeze from the SW, with a long swell. Hazy weather. The wind has    |
    |been from the West for 24 hours; at first blowing hard, but latterly       |
    |moderate, the current setting us to the SW about a mile an hour. A very    |
    |heavy dew falling this evening. Parts of the horizon observed East and     |
    |West.                                                                      |
 105|Moderate breeze from the NE; air hazy; long high swell from the Westward.  |
    |From observations by stars and chronometers, it has been ascertained that  |
    |there is not the least current. Distance from the South coast of Africa    |
    |about 50 miles. A high range in sight to the Northward. Parts of the       |
    |horizon observed North and South.                                          |
 106|A light breeze from the NE; air hazy; a long swell from the Westward.      |
    |About 50 miles distant from the land.                                      |
 107|The wind has been moderate from the land all night; air hazy; weather raw; |
    |a very heavy dew falling all night. The land in sight to the Northward,    |
    |distant about 40 miles, is inverted from one end to the other.             |
 108|Parts of the horizon observed NNE and SSW. All other circumstances as in   |
    |No. 107.                                                                   |
 109|Parts of the horizon observed NE and SW. Cape Lagullas North 2 or 3        |
    |leagues. A light breeze from the Eastward. Air hazy.                       |
 110|Parts of the horizon observed SE and NW. Cape Lagullas due North, distant  |
    |6 or 8 miles. Calm all day; sky clear; and weather hazy.                   |
    |                                                                           |
    |N.B. On the 29th and 30th of July we were off the Cape, but the weather    |
    |was so bad as to prevent any sights being taken.                           |
 ---+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+



METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL,

FROM JULY TO NOVEMBER 1816, WHILE THE SHIPS WERE IN THE YELLOW AND JAPAN
SEAS.



 -----+-------+---------+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
      |       | Thermom.|       |       |        |
      |       +----+----+       |       |        |
 Hour.|Barom. |Air.|Sea.| Winds.|  Lat. |  Long. |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    | South |       |        |_Sunday, July 14, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |  SSW  |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued quite
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |light during the night, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |one or two slight showers, but
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |no squalls.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30i.01h|    |    |  SW   |       |        |About 8 A.M. the wind
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |hauled to about SW, from
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |which quarter it blew a light
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |breeze.
 Noon.|30 .01 | 83º| 84º|       |22º 07'|115º 26'|
 -----+-------+---------+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |    Coast of    |
   3  |       |    |    |       |     China.     |
   4  |29 .94 |    |    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |_Monday, July 15, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The same winds during the
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |night.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Found that we had been
  10  |29 .89 |    |    |SW by W|       |        |driven by a current,
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |setting about E by N, 2-1/2
 Noon.|29 .89 | 82 | 83 |  WNW  |22 .43 |117 .30 |miles an hour.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |  West |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |    SE Coast    |
   3  |       |    |    |       |    of China.   |About 3 o'clock it became
   4  |       |    |    |       |                |extremely hazy; the sun set
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |in fiery clouds, and a blood
   6  |       |    |    |  WSW  |                |red tint was given to the low
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |clouds all round the horizon.
   8  |29 .76 |    |    |  SW   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |29 .80 |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, July 16, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  WSW  |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During this day there has
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been a moderate breeze from
   6  |       |    |    | West  |       |        |the SSW, with a thick haze,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |and dew at night.
   8  |29 .74 |    |    |  WSW  |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Soundings from 32 to 26
  10  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |fathoms: dark fine sand.
  11  |29 .83 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .74 | 83 |    |       |24 .37 |118 .50 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |   Straits of   |We have seen no land all
   3  |       |    |    |       |    Formosa,    |day, having ran along nearly
   4  |       |    |    |       |     China.     |parallel with the coast
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |of about 30 or 40 about
   6  |29 .75 |    |    |       |                |Chusan, at the distance
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |leagues.
   8  |29 .78 | 80 | 79 |  SW   |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .76 | 80 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, July 17, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .74 | 80 | 80 |  SSW  |       |        |The weather is remarkably
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |hazy, and there is a very
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |disagreeable sea coming after
   6  |29 .76 |    |    |       |       |        |us.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .80 | 82 | 81 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .81 |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
  11  |29 .80 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .81 | 82 | 80 |SW by S| 26 .1 |122 .6  |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |29 .80 |    |    |  SSW  |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |   Straits of   |At night hazy with a heavy
   3  |       |    |    |       |    Formosa,    |dew; soundings 52 fathoms.
   4  |29 .76 | 82 | 81 |       |     China.     |To-day we quitted the Straits
   5  |29 .76 |    |    |       |                |of Formosa, and stood towards
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |the Yellow Sea. Last evening
   7  |29 .76 |    |    |       |                |we were among a cluster of
   8  |29 .79 | 82 | 80 | South |                |large islands near the coast
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |of China, about two-thirds of
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |the way through the Straits
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |of Formosa.
  Mid.|29 .80 | 81 | 80 |S by W |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |_Thursday, July 18, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind during all this day
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been from the South
   5  |29 .78 |    |    |       |       |        |Westward.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |  From noon till midnight it
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued fresh and steady,
   8  |29 .80 | 81 | 80 |  WSW  |       |        |after which it lulled.
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Weather very hazy, and at
  10  |29 .86 |    |    |   SW  |       |        |night a heavy dew falling.
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |        |  Depth of water from 35 to
 Noon.|29 .80 | 81 | 79 |  SSW  |26 .21 |        |37 fathoms.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |                |
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       |To the northward|
   3  |       |    |    |       |of the Straits  |
   4  |29 .80 | 81 | 80 |SW by W|of Formosa.     |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .76 |    |    |  SW   |                |No land seen to-day, being
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |about 30 leagues off shore,
   8  |29 .76 | 81 | 79 | SSW   |                |to the Northward of the
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Straits of Formosa.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, July 19, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .78 | 79 | 78 |S by W |       |        |During this day there has
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been a moderate breeze from
   6  |29 .75 |    |    |       |       |        |the SSW, with a thick haze
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |and dew at night.
   8  |29 .78 | 78 | 78 |  SSW  |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Soundings from 32 to 26
  10  |29 .78 |    |    |  SW   |       |        |fathoms: fine dark sand.
  11  |29 .78 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .78 | 78 | 79 |SW by W|30 .54 |123 .50 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .75 |    |    |       |Off the Islands |
   3  |       |    |    |       |of Chusan 30 or |
   4  |29 .72 | 80 | 80 |  SSW  |40 leagues.     |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |We have seen no land this
   6  |29 .72 |    |    |       |                |day, having ran along nearly
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |parallel with the coast about
   8  |29 .72 | 79 | 80 | South |                |Chusan, at the distance of
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |about 30 or 40 leagues.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .74 | 80 | 79 |       |                |
 -----+-------+---------+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |S by W |       |        |_Saturday, July 20, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Light SSW winds, with thick
   4  |29 .69 | 79 | 76 |       |       |        |haze and dew at night. Regular
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |soundings 20 fathoms: mud and
   6  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |black sand.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 79 | 77 | South |       |        |
   9  |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
  10  |29 .72 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .70 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .70 | 80 | 78 |S by W |32 .35 |123 .50 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |To-day we are about halfway
   2  |29 .70 |    |    |SW by W| Entering the   |between the SE part of
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |Corea and the Chusan islands,
   4  |29 .66 | 80 | 77 |  WSW  |                |each being about 50 leagues
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |distant; the mouth of the
   6  |29 .68 |    |    |       |                |great river Yang-tse-kiang is
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |nearly W 50 leagues, and the
   8  |29 .66 | 79 | 77 |SW by W|                |promontory of Shan-tung N by
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |W 100 leagues.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .69 | 78 | 77 |  WSW  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |W by N |       |        |_Sunday, July 21, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind after noon yesterday
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened up towards sunset
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the WSW, and in the
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |night it hauled to the NW
   8  |29 .76 | 75 | 76 |N by W |       |        |gradually, and so to North;
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |about noon it became quite
  10  |29 .78 |    |    |       |       |        |light as it drew to the
  11  |29 .79 |    |    |       |  N    |    E   |northward.
 Noon.|29 .79 | 76 | 77 | North |33 .55 |   124  |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+The weather has become quite
   1  |29 .78 |    |    |       |                |clear since the change of the
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |wind.
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .78 | 77 | 77 |  NNW  |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Land in sight to-day about
   6  |29 .79 |    |    |E by N |                |East from us, supposed to be
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |the islands off the South end
   8  |29 .79 | 77 | 77 | East  |                |of Corea.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |E by S |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |  SE   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SSE  |       |        |_Monday, July 22, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |In the night there was a
   4  |9 .69  | 75 | 77 |S by W |       |        |breeze from the SSW with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |very thick weather, and
   6  |29 .72 |    |    |       |       |        |much lightning all round.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .71 | 77 | 76 |SW by W|       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .71 |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
  11  |29 .75 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .75 | 78 | 77 |  SSW  |34 .44 |123 .55 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |  SW   |  Yellow Sea.   |After noon it fell calm till
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |about 6 P.M. when there came
   4  |29 .75 | 79 | 79 | Calm  |                |light breeze from the westward
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |which hauled to north, and
   6  |29 .73 |    |    |  NNE  |                |about morning fell nearly calm.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .73 | 76 | 77 |N by E |                |Regular soundings from 44 to
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |43 fathoms: mud.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .74 | 75 | 76 | North |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |N by W |       |        |_Tuesday, July 23, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | West  |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .76 | 75 | 76 | Calm  |       |        |About 8 this morning a
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze sprung at South, which
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |lasted during the day,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshening very gradually--sky
   8  |29 .78 | 77 | 77 |  SSE  |       |        |clear.
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .80 |    |    |  SE   |       |        |Regular soundings 43
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |fathoms: mud.
 Noon.|29 .80 | 79 | 78 | South |35 .06 |123 .06 |
 -----+-------+----+--- +-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .79 |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .79 | 81 | 78 |  SSW  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |A moderate breeze from the
   6  |29 .78 |    |    |       |                |Southward, and fine clear
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |weather.
   8  |29 .76 | 78 | 77 |  SE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |  SSE  |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .77 | 77 | 76 |S by E |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    | SSE   |       |        |_Wednesday, July 24, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind during these 24
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |hours has been moderate
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the Southward.--Quite
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |clear, not the least
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |appearance of fog.
   8  |29 .75 | 77 | 76 |SE by S|       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |29 .77 |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .82 |    |    |S by E |       |        |
  11  |29 .86 |    |    |  NW   |    N  |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .88 | 75 | 78 |NW by W|36 .27 |123 .01 |A very curious assemblage
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+of clouds passed over us at
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |noon from the NW.
   2  |29 .70 |    |    |E by S |   Yellow Sea.  |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .69 | 76 | 74 |SE by E|                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .70 |    |    | SSE   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 | 75 | 72 |S by E |                |Soundings 40, 38, and 37
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |fathoms: brown mud.
  10  |       |    |    |S by W |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, July 25, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .70 | 70 | 71 | SSW   |       |        |The wind during the night
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |hung to the SW, with rain
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |occasionally.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 71 | 66 | Calm  |       |        |After daybreak the
   9  |       |    |    | WNW   |       |        |weather cleared up, and the
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |NW by W|       |        |breeze fell gradually as we
  11  |29 .70 |    |    |  NW   |   N   |    E   |rounded the NE point of the
 Noon.|29 .70 | 74 | 73 |       |37 .32 |122 .37 |promontory of Shan-tung.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .70 |    |    | East  |Nearly on the   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |meridian of the |
   4  |29 .66 | 77 | 72 |  SE   |NE point of     |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Shan-tung       |
   6  |29 .66 |    |    |  SSE  |promontory,     |
   7  |       |    |    |       |Yellow Sea.     |In the forenoon it felt
   8  |29 .61 | 76 | 72 |       |                |calm, and towards sunset a
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |breeze sprung up from ESE
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |and SE which lasted during
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |the night.
 Mid  |29 .61 | 75 | 75 |S by W |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |S by W |       |        |_Friday, July 26, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    | South |       |        |As the day broke, the
   4  |29 .61 | 74 | 72 |  SSE  |       |        |breeze which had been light
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |during the night, freshened
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |up, and the weather, hitherto
   7  |       |    |    | South |       |        |clear, became suddenly quite
   8  |29. 61 | 74 | 72 |  SSW  |       |        |foggy; this however lasted
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |only half an hour, and we
  10  |29. 62 |    |    |       |       |        |enjoyed during the day the
  11  |29. 62 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |same fine clear weather,
 Noon.|29. 62 | 74 | 72 |S by W |38 .07 |122 .00 |with the exception indeed of
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+one thunder squall, which
   1  |       |    |    |  SSW  |                |lasted only a few minutes,
   2  |29. 62 |    |    |  SW   |                |and passed over, going towards
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |the SE.
   4  |29. 59 | 76 | 66 |  WNW  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |N.B. This was the only
   6  |29. 60 |    |    |SE by S|                |instance of fog during the
   7  |       |    |    |  SE   |                |six weeks that the ships were
   8  |29. 60 | 73 | 68 |       |                |in the Yellow Sea.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29. 60 | 75 | 74 |SE by E|                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    | South |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, July 27, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |  SSE  |       |        |During the whole of this
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |day we had a fresh breeze
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from East and ESE, with dark
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |cloudy weather. As we drew
   8  |29. 69 | 77 | 77 |  SE   |       |        |across the Gulf of Petchelee
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |we had the wind much stronger.
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29. 69 |    |    | East  |       |        |
  11  |29. 70 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29. 70 | 76 | 76 |  ENE  |38 .52 |117 .49 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29. 68 |    |    |E by S |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |We anchored at seven
   4  |29. 61 | 76 | 77 |E by N |                |o'clock in 3-1/2 fathoms water.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29. 61 |    |    | East  |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29. 80 | 77 | 82 |E by N |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |In the night it blew hard
  10  |29. 84 |    |    |SE by E|                |from the East, and at sunrise
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |we had a violent thunder
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |storm.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |SE by E|        |       |_Sunday, July 28, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |        |       |After the thunder storm had
   4  |29 .70 | 80 | 80 |SE by S|        |       |passed the weather cleared up,
      |       |    |-1/2|       |        |       |and became quite fine.
   5  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   6  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   7  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   8  |29 .63 | 82 | 82 |  SW   |        |       |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |        |       |
   9  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
  10  |29 .61 |    |    |       |        |       |
  11  |29 .62 |    |    |       |    N   |       |
 Noon.|29 .60 | 83 | 82 |W by N |38.52.42|       |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |        |       |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+
   1  |       |    |    |N by E |                |
   2  |29 .60 |    |    | North |     Pei-ho,    |During the day the breeze
   3  |       |    |    |       |    Yellow Sea. |has been moderate, with fine
   4  |29 .61 | 81 | 82 |E by S |                |clear weather.
   5  |       |    |    |  SSE  |                |
   6  |29 .62 |    |    |S by E |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |       |    |    |       |                |
   9  |29 .61 | 83 | 82 | South |                |
  10  |       |    |    |S by E |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .60 | 80 | 82 |   SW  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, July 29, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  WSW  |       |        |
   4  |29 .59 | 79 | 81 |  NNW  |       |        |Light breezes and cloudy
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |weather.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .60 | 82 | 82 |E by N |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon it fell calm.
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .62 |    |    |       |    N  |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .60 | 82 | 84 |  NE   |38 .56 |118 .00 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .59 |    |    |   SE  |                |At anchor off the mouth of the
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |Pei-ho river, Yellow Sea.
   4  |29 .53 | 83 | 84 |  ESE  |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .55 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .55 | 82 | 82 |  SE   |                |During the night a moderate
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |breeze from the Eastward.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
   10 |       |    |    |       |                |
   11 |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .63 | 80 | 82 |SE by E|                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, July 30, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |SE by E|       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During this day there has
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been a light air from the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Eastward, and fine clear
   6  |       |    |    | East  |       |        |weather.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .50 | 82 | 82 | ENE   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .63 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .63 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .62 | 81 |    |E by N |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .65 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .68 | 81 | 84 |SE by E|Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .61 | 82 | 83 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |At midnight it fell calm.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .69 | 83 | 82 | Calm  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, July 31, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |This morning there is a
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |light air from the eastward,
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |inclining to calm.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .62 | 88 | 82 | SW    |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .70 | 84 | 85 | WNW   |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .70 |    |    | ESE   |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .61 | 83 | 86   SE    |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |29 .71 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .72 | 82 | 82 | SSE   |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night the breeze
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |freshened up from the SE.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .84 | 83 | 82 | South |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, August 1, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night there has
   4  |29 .69 | 83 | 84 | West  |       |        |been a fresh breeze from the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |SW, with rain and lightning.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 81 | 82 |SW by S|       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .69 |    |    | SSW   |       |        |Towards noon it became more
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate.
 Noon.|29 .70 | 81 | 82 |SW by S|       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .63 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .66 | 82 | 82 |S by E |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |       |    |    |  SE   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .66 | 80 | 82 |S by E |                |And at night it was very
   9  |       |    |    | SSW   |                |squally, with rain.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .65 | 79 | 82 |  SW   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |W by S |       |        |_Friday, August 2, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the whole of the night
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |it rained.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .62 | 78 | 82 |       |       |        |Towards morning it blew fresh
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |from the Westward.
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .68 |    |    | SSW   |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .67 | 79 | 82 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |S by W |                |
   2  |29 .63 |    |    |  SE   |At anchor off   |During the whole of the day
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|it has been very hazy with
   4  |29 .68 | 78 | 83 | East  |Pei-ho, Yellow  |slight showers of rain.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .63 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .65 | 78 | 82 | SSE   |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, fresh breezes and
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |clear.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .70 | 79 | 82 | East  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, August 3, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |E by N |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Fresh breezes and cloudy
   4  |29 .72 | 77 | 81 |  NE   |       |        |weather.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .84 | 77 | 81 |  ENE  |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Strong breezes and cloudy,
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |with slight showers of rain
  11  |29 .84 |    |    |  NE   |       |        |at intervals.
 Noon.|29 .82 | 79 | 82 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .80 | 76 | 82 |NE by N|Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |29 .84 |    |    |       |                |Towards evening it cleared
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |up.
   8  |29 .90 | 76 | 80 |  ENE  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |A short swell from the NE.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |Moderate breezes and cloudy.
  Mid.|       | 75 | 80 |NE by N|                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    | North |       |        |_Sunday, August 4, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Light airs and fine weather.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |  NW   |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .69 | 78 | 80 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon |29 .70 | 78 | 81 | West  |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |  NW   |                |Cloudy, with slight showers
   2  |29 .68 |    |    |  WNW  |At anchor off   |of rain at intervals.
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .68 | 78 | 81 |  WSW  |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |29 .68 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .68 | 78 | 80 |  West |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .68 | 77 | 81 |   SW  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, August 5, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |W by S |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Moderate breezes and cloudy.
   4  |29 .68 | 77 | 80 |  WSW  |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .68 | 78 | 80 |W by N |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .69 |    |    |       |       |        |In the forenoon we had a
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |slight shower.
 Noon.|29 .68 | 78 | 81 |  SW   |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .68 |    |    |W by S |At anchor off   |Moderate breezes and cloudy.
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .66 | 81 | 81 |  WSW  |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .65 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .64 | 81 | 82 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Light breezes and cloudy.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .59 |    |    |W by S |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |_Tuesday, August 6, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  NE   |       |        |
   4  |29 .65 | 71 | 79 | North |       |        |Alight breeze from the SW.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards 4 A.M. the wind
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted round to NW, and
   8  |29 .64 | 73 | 77 |  NNW  |       |        |freshened up.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .64 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |  WSW  |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .63 | 76 | 81 |SW by W|       |        |Noon, a moderate breeze and
      |       |    |    |       |       |        |fine weather.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .64 | 83 | 81 |  SSE  |At anchor off   |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |the mouth of the|
   3  |       |    |    |       |Pei-ho, Yellow  |After noon the breeze, which
   4  |29 .60 | 82 | 81 |       |Sea.            |had hauled round to SE,
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |freshened up considerably.
   6  |29 .62 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards sunset dark slaty
   8  |29 .66 | 79 | 82 |  SE   |                |clouds drew over us from the
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |land, moving in a contrary
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |direction from that of the wind
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |which we had.
  Mid.|29 .66 | 80 | 81 |S by E |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, August 7, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | South |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |At sunrise it was moderate,
   4  |       |    |    |E by N |       |        |but about nine o'clock the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze freshened, and towards
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |noon blew fresh from the
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Eastward.
   8  |29 .67 | 79 | 81 |  East |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .95 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 77 | 80 |E by N |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |         |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .92 | 76 | 80 |  NE   |Pei-ho, Yellow  |Fresh breezes and cloudy.
   5  |       |    |    |       |Sea.            |
   6  |29 .82 |    |    |       |                |Towards night it moderated.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .81 | 73 | 78 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |At midnight a moderate breeze.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, August 8, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .65 | 71 | 78 | North |       |        |Moderate and cloudy.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .66 | 73 | 77 |  NNW  |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .67 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .68 | 76 | 81 |       |       |        |Moderate and fine.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .66 |    |    | NNW   |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .65 | 81 |    |       |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 | 79 | 80 |  NE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |Light airs.
  Mid.|29 .71 | 77 | 79 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, August 9, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |N by E |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Light airs and cloudy.
   4  |29 .73 | 75 | 77 |  NW   |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .74 | 76 | 79 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |2 A.M. a moderate breeze
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |sprung up at NW.
 Noon.|29 .77 | 80 | 79 |  ESE  |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .76 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .70 | 79 | 77 |  SSE  |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .70 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 |    |    |       |                |Moderate breezes.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .70 | 76 | 78 |  NW   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  NW   |       |        |_Saturday, August 10, 1816_
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |  WNW  |       |        |Moderate breezes and clear.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .60 | 75 | 77 |  NW   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |Calm and fine weather.
 Noon.|29 .70 | 81 | 79 | Calm  |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .69 |    |    |       |At anchor off   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |the mouth of the|
   4  |29 .67 | 79 | 78 |  SSE  |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .65 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .64 | 76 | 78 |  SW   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |29 .72 |    |    |       |                | Moderate and cloudy.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .74 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, August 11, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  SE   |       |        |
   4  |29 .70 | 75 | 78 |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |SE by S|       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 76 | 79 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .75 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .74 | 79 | 80 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+ Moderate and clear weather.
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |  SE   |Off the River   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |Pei-ho, Yellow  |
   4  |29 .72 | 79 | 78 |       |Sea.            |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .72 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .72 |    |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       | 75 | 79 |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .75 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, August 12, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       | 75 | 78 |  SE   |       |        |Moderate breezes and cloudy.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .78 | 79 | 78 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Moderate breezes from the
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |SE, with fine clear weather:
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |lightning at times.
 Noon.|29 .79 | 79 | 79 |S by E |38 .38 |117 .44 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .79 |    |    |       |  Gulf of       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
   4  |29 .78 | 81 | 82 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Moderate and fine weather.
   6  |29 .78 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .78 | 79 | 81 |  SE   |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Moderate breezes and clear,
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |with lightning.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .80 | 79 | 80 |SE by S|                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, August 13, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |S by W |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |In the evening we had fresh
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breezes from the SE--sky
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |assuming a threatening
   8  |29 .79 | 89 | 79 |  SSW  |       |        |appearance. Towards midnight
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |it moderated, at which time it
  10  |29 .80 |    |    |       |       |        |fell calm.
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .80 | 83 | 81 |  SE   | 38 .34| 118 .08|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |       |  Gulf of       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
   4  |29 .77 | 80 | 80 |  ESE  |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .80 |    |    |  SE   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .79 | 79 | 78 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |SE by S|                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    | Calm  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |SE by S|       |        |_Wednesday, August 14, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |  SE   |       |        |
   4  |29 .70 | 77 | 78 | WSW   |       |        |After midnight a moderate
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze sprung up from the SE.
   6  |29 .71 | 79 | 78 | South |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .72 | 79 | 78 | SSE   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .72 |    |    |       |       |        |About 4 A.M. it shifted
  11  |       |    |    |       |  N    |   E    |more to the Southward, and
 Noon.|29 .74 | 79 | 78 |       |38 .29 |118.20  |remained so the rest of the day.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+ Weather fine.
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .71 |    |    |S by E |  Gulf of       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
   4  |29 .74 | 80 | 80 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .70 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .72 | 79 | 80 |E by N |                |
   9  |       |    |    |E by S |                |
  10  |       |    |    | ESE   |                |At midnight the wind drew
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |round to the Eastward.
  Mid.|29 .75 | 76 | 79 |E by S |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, August 15, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       | 76 | 79 |  SE   |       |        |Moderate and fine weather.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    | East  |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .77 | 78 | 80 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .79 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |During the day the wind
 Noon.|29 .78 | 78 | 81 |       | 37.58 | 118.49 |remained at East and ENE,
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        ||blowing a moderate breeze.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .76 |    |    |       | Gulf of        |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Pe-che-lee.    |
   4  |29 .74 | 80 | 82 |  ENE  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .74 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night it freshened
   8  |29 .76 | 78 |    |       |                |up, and remained quite steady.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .86 | 77 | 80 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, August 16, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day the wind continued at
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |East, the same as yesterday.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .79 | 79 | 81 |E by N |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |E by S |       |        |
  11  |29 .80 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .80 | 79 | 81 |E by N | 37 .30| 118.57 |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |E by S |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |       | Gulf of        |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Pe-che-lee.    |In the evening it became
   4  |29 .74 | 80 | 81 |  ENE  |                |squally, with rain.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .74 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .74 | 79 | 80  SE by S|                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight the wind
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |hauled to the Southward.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |S by W |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    | S by W|       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  SSW  |       |        |_Saturday, August 17, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .74 | 78 | 80 |SW by S|       |        |To-day we have had a breeze
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |from the SW.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |29 .74 |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |29 .74 | 79 | 84 |  SW   |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .74 |    |    |       |  N    |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .75 | 81 | 81 |       | 37 .20| 119.33 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |       |  Gulf of       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |During the afternoon the
   4  |       |    |    |       |                |wind shifted to the Eastward,
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |where it remained, and blew a
   6  |29 .70 |    |    |       |                |steady breeze.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 | 79 | 80 | East  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .71 | 79 | 80 |E by S |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  East |       |        |_Sunday, August 18, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .72 | 79 | 80 |E by N |       |        |After midnight we had a
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |moderate breeze from the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Eastward, and at 4 A.M. it
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened up at ENE, where it
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued until the evening, at
   8  |29 .80 | 79 | 80 |       |       |        |which time it shifted to the
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |SE, with rain.
  10  |29 .81 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |  N    |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .80 | 79 | 79 |       | 37 .47| 119 .37|
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |NE by E|                |
   2  |29 .82 |    |    |       | Gulf of        |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Pe-che-lee.    |At eight it was nearly calm.
   4  |29 .88 | 78 | 79 |  ENE  |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |About nine a breeze sprung
   6  |29 .82 |    |    |       |                |up from the Eastward,
   7  |       |    |    |SE by S|                |accompanied by rain.
   8  |29 .90 | 78 | 78 | Calm  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .98 | 78 | 78 | East  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  NNE  |       |        |_Monday, August 19, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |A light air.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .98 | 78 | 78 |  ENE  |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .94 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .92 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |Towards noon the breeze
 Noon.|29 .92 | 74 | 77 |   NE  | 37. 40| 119.44 |freshened up at North-easterly,
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |where it continued all day, and
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+blew rather fresh, with a short
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |swell.
   2  |29 .92 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Gulf of       |
   4  |29 .92 | 75 | 77 |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .94 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .99 | 74 | 76 |NE by N|                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, August 20, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .95 | 76 | 78 | N by E|       |        |During the night it blew a
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |steady fresh breeze from NNE,
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |in which quarter it continued
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |all this day.
   8  |30 .00 | 76 | 77 |  NNE  |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |The sky having a threatening
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |appearance.
  10  |30 .02 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .03 | 75 |    |       | 37 .46| 120 .08|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards the evening moderated.
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Gulf of       |
   4  |29 .90 | 74 | 78 |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .90 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Near midnight the wind came
   8  |29 .90 | 74 | 77 |NE by N|                |round to the SW, and blew a
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |moderate breeze.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |_Wednesday, August 21, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The early part of the day the
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |wind has been moderate from the
   5  |       |    |    |  SSW  |       |        |Southward.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .80 | 74 | 77 |S by W |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About noon it died away, but
  11  |29 .80 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |shortly after a breeze sprung
 Noon.|29 .80 | 79 | 77 | Calm  | 37 .51| 120 .33|up from the Eastward, and blew
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+pretty steady from that quarter
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |till the evening, when it
   2  |29 .78 |    |    | East  |  Gulf of       |hauled round to the SE.
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Pe-che-lee.   |
   4  |29 .76 | 76 | 77 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .76 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .74 | 75 | 77 |SE by S|                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .82 | 74 | 73 |S by E |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, August 22, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .80 |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the early part of the
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |day we had a moderate breeze
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the SE.
   8  |29 .80 | 77 | 78 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .80 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .74 | 80 | 78 |  SE   |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .74 |    |    |       | Off Cheatow,   |After noon it hauled to the
   3  |       |    |    |       | Yellow Sea.    |Southward.
   4  |29 .74 | 78 | 78 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .72 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .72 | 77 | 78 | SSE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, August 23, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night the wind has
   4  |29 .70 | 78 | 78 |  NE   |       |        |been moderate, and steady
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the Southward.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 80 | 78 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .72 | 81 | 78 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |SE by E| At anchor in   |In the forenoon it veered to
   3  |       |    |    |       | Cheatow Bay,   |the NE, and towards night to
   4  |29 .70 | 80 | 78 |  SE   | Yellow  Sea.   |the Southward.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .68 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .66 | 79 | 78 |  Calm |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .66 | 77 | 78 | South |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    | South |       |        |_Saturday, August 24, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .70 | 77 | 78 |       |       |        |During the morning the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |was steady from the Southward.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .68 | 78 | 78 | S by E|       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .68 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .68 | 79 | 78 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |29 .68 |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .66 |    |    |       |  Che-a-tow,    |
   3  |29 .66 |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |
   4  |29 .66 | 79 | 78 |       |                |Towards night the wind hauled
   5  |29 .64 |    |    |       |                |to the Eastward, blowing a
   6  |29 .64 |    |    |       |                |moderate breeze, and steady.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .62 | 78 | 78 | East  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .62 | 78 | 77 | E by S|                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, August 25, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | E by S|       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued to blow
   4  |29 .74 |    |    |       |       |        |from the NE quarter all the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |forenoon.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .64 | 78 | 78 | N by E|       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |   NE  |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .66 | 79 | 78 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |  NE   | Che-a-tow,     |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Yellow Sea.    |In the afternoon it hauled
   4  |       |    |    | N by E|                |more to the Northward.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    | E by S|                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .64 | 78 | 77 |       |                |At midnight it hauled to the
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |SW, with fine clear weather.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |A heavy dew falling.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |  SW   |       |        |_Monday, August 26, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .56 | 77 | 77 |  WNW  |       |        |After midnight it continued
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |to blow a moderate breeze from
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |the SW.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .56 | 78 | 77 |W by N |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .56 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .56 | 79 | 78 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |About 4 A.M. it shifted to
   2  |29 .64 |    |    |       |  Che-a-tow,    |the NW, from which quarter it
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |blew the whole of the day.
   4  |29 .52 | 79 | 78 |   NW  |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .52 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .54 | 79 | 78 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .56 | 78 | 78 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, August 27, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |  NW   |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon the wind hauled
   4  |29 .58 | 77 | 77 | North |       |        |more to the Westward, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |rain, thunder, and lightning.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .62 |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .64 | 78 | 78 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .62 |    |    |S by W |  At anchor in  |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  Oie-hai-oie   |
   4  |29 .62 | 76 | 77 |       |  harbour,      |
   5  |       |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |
   6  |29 .62 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .61 | 76 | 77 |  NNE  |                |In the evening the wind came
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |to the NNE.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .64 | 75 | 77 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, August 28, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |NE by N|       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day the wind has been
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate and steady from the
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |North-eastward.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 75 | 77 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .72 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .72 | 77 | 76 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |  NE   |  Oie-hai-oie   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  harbour,      |
   4  |29 .70 | 77 | 76 |  ENE  |  Yellow Sea.   |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night the breeze
   8  |29 .70 | 77 | 76 |  NE   |                |freshened, and the sky became
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |cloudy, assuming a threatening
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |appearance.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .74 | 79 | 76 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, August 29, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind hauled
   4  |29 .78 | 77 | 76 |E by N |       |        |to the Eastward, blowing fresh,
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |the weather still looking very
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |black.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .78 | 78 | 76 |S by E |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .80 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .80 | 81 | 77 | South |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .92 |    |    |       |  Oie-hai-oie   |After 4 it moderated, and the
   3  |       |    |    |       |  harbour,      |weather cleared up and became
   4  |29 .90 | 81 | 78 |  SSE  |  Yellow Sea.   |quite fine.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |About 8 P.M. the wind came
   8  |29 .92 | 78 | 77 |  SW   |                |to the Southward. Towards
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |midnight it drew round to the
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |SW, and then to South again.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .94 | 79 | 77 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, August 30, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .96 | 78 | 77 |S by W |       |        |All the forenoon the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been light from the
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Southward and SW.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .98 | 78 | 77 |  SW   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .98 |    |    | West  |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .96 | 80 | 76 | Calm  |37 .58 |122 .58 |About noon it fell calm.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .94 |    |Calm|       |  Yellow Sea.   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .92 | 80 | 81 |  NNE  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |At 2 a breeze sprung up from
   6  |29 .90 |    |    |       |                |the NE, with small drizzling
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |rain, and thick weather.
   8  |29 .90 | 79 | 79 |  ENE  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, August 31, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |29 .90 | 79 | 79 |W by N |       |        |After midnight a light breeze
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the Eastward, inclining
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |to calm.
   8  |29 .92 | 80 | 79 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .94 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .96 | 80 | 79 |NW by N|37 .55 |123 .37 |About noon a breeze sprung up
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+from the Westward; weather
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |cloudy.
   2  |29 .94 |    |    |  NW   |  Yellow Sea.   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .94 | 80 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon it died away
   6  |29 .92 |    |    |       |                |quite light.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .92 | 79 | 79 | Calm  |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight a moderate
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |breeze from the Northward.
 Mid. |       |    |    |  NW   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |NE by N|       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, September 1, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |29 .90 | 76 | 78 | N by E|       |        |During this day there has been
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |a steady breeze at North and
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |North by East.
   8  |29 .90 | 76 | 76 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .92 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |     E  |
 Noon.|29 .90 | 76 | 76 |       |37 .45 | 124 .48|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    | North |                |
   2  |29 .98 |    |    |       |  Yellow Sea.   |Towards night the wind
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |freshened up.
   4  |       |    |    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .98 | 75 | 75 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
  1   |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, September 2, 1816._
  2   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  3   |       |    |    |       |       |        |About 2 A.M. the wind shifted
  4   |       |    |    |       |       |        |to the Eastward, where it
  5   |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened.
  6   | 29.82 | 78 | 79 |       |       |        |
  7   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  8   | 29.82 | 80 | 79 |       |       |        |
  9   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 10   | 29.82 |    |    |       |       |        |
 11   |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.| 29.82 | 81 | 80 |NW by N|36 .45 |124 .51 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
  1   |       |    |    |S by W | West Coast of  |
  2   | 29.96 |    |    |       | Corea.         |
  3   |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon it freshened
  4   | 29.98 | 80 | 80 |  SSE  |                |and shifted to the Southward,
  5   |       |    |    |       |                |accompanied by a slight shower
  6   | 29.98 |    |    |       |                |of rain.
  7   |       |    |    |       |                |
  8   | 30.04 | 80 | 80 |S by W |                |
  9   |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    | South |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
  1   |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, September 3, 1816._
  2   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  3   | 30.02 |    |    | South |       |        |
  4   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  5   |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind during all the night
  6   |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been steady from the
  7   |       |    |    |       |       |        |Southward, and remained so all
  8   | 30.04 | 77 | 79 |S by W |       |        |day until the evening, when it
  9   |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted to the Westward.
  10  | 30.04 |    |    |  SSW  |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.| 30.00 | 79 | 78 |       |36 .18 |126 .09 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  | 29.98 |    |    |  SW   |                |
   3  |       |    |    |  WSW  |                |
   4  | 29.95 | 81 | 78 | West  |                |About sunset it fell calm.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  | 29.94 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  | 29.92 | 80 | 77 | Calm  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+---------+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, September 4, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | Calm  |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |It continued calm all night.
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |29 .95 | 78 | 78 |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .95 | 79 | 78 | West  |       |        |About 8 A.M. a light breeze
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the Westward.
  10  |29 .95 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |     E  |
 Noon.|29 .92 | 80 | 82 |  NW   |36 .13 | 126 .34|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+At noon it freshened, hauling
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |from W to NW.
   2  |29 .85 |    |    | West  | West Coast of  |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Corea.         |
   4  |29 .84 | 81 | 82 |  WSW  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .84 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .84 | 79 | 80 |N by E |                |Towards night the wind shifted
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |to the Northward, and
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |continued to blow steady.
  11  |       |    |    |   N   |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |   N   |       |        |_Thursday, September 5, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |29 .82 | 78 | 79 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About 7 it fell calm.
   8  |29 .82 | 80 | 79 | Calm  |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .82 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .82 | 80 | 80 |  WNW  |36 .05 |126 .42 |Towards noon a breeze sprung
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |up from WNW, with fine clear
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+weather.
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .82 |    |    |  WNW  |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .80 | 80 | 79 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .80 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .80 | 80 | 79 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight the wind came
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |to the Northward.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, September 6, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |N by E |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The most part of this day the
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |wind has been from the
   6  |29 .86 | 78 | 78 |  NNE  |       |        |Northward, blowing a steady
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |moderate breeze.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .86 | 79 | 78 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .88 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .88 | 79 | 78 |       |35 .17 |126 .24 |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |North  |                |
   2  |29 .89 |    |    |       | West Coast of  |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Corea.         |
   4  |29 .90 | 79 | 77 |       |                |Towards night the wind drew
      |       |    |-1/2|       | Corea.         |round to ENE, and became quite
   5  |       |    |    |N by E |                |light.
   6  |29 .90 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .88 | 77 | 74 | ENE   |                |At midnight it fell calm.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    | Calm  |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |NNW    |       |        |_Saturday, September 7, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight a light breeze
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |sprung up from NNW.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |29 .82 |    |    |N by E |       |        |About 4 it hauled round to NE,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |and at noon it was at North.
   8  |29 .82 | 76 | 75 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |ENE    |       |        |
  10  |29 .82 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |  N.   |   E.   |
 Noon |29 .88 | 79 | 78 |       |34 .32 |125 .50 |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |  N    |                |
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    | NNE   |                |At 2 the wind shifted to NE,
   4  |29 .82 |80  | 72 | Calm  |                |and by 4 it fell calm.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards 8 P.M. a breeze sprung
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |up from the Northward, and
   8  |29 .82 |78  | 82 |  N    |                |continued so the remainder of
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |the night.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    | Calm  |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NNW  |        |       |_Sunday, September 8, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   3  |       |    |    | North |        |       |Shortly after midnight it fell
   4  |       |    |    |       |        |       |calm; this did not last above
   5  |       |    |    | Calm  |        |       |half an hour, before a breeze
   6  |       |    |    | NNW   |        |       |sprung up from the Northward,
   7  |       |    |    |       |        |       |which continued so all day. In
   8  |29 .86 | 74 | 70 | North |        |       |the night a heavy dew fell; and
   9  |       |    |    |       |        |       |much lightning was observed in
  10  |29 .82 |    |    |       |        |       |the NE quarter.
  11  |       |    |    |       |    N   |   E   |
 Noon |29 .81 | 78 | 71 |       |34.22.30|126 .03|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+
   1  |       |    |    |N by E |                |
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       |Moored in       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |Murray's Sound, |
   4  |29 .80 | 76 | 70 |       |among the       |
   5  |       |    |    |       |islands which   |
   6  |29 .80 |    |    |       |lie off the SW  |
   7  |       |    |    |       |extreme of      |
   8  |29 .79 | 74 | 70 | NNE   |Corea.          |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |N by W |        |       |
   2  |       |    |    |       |        |       |_Monday, September 9, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   4  |       |    |    |       |        |       |In the forenoon the wind came
   5  |       |    |    |       |        |       |to NW, and continued so all
   6  |29 .78 | 74 | 70 |       |        |       |day, with a steady moderate
   7  |       |    |    |       |        |       |breeze, and fine clear weather.
   8  |29 .78 | 76 | 70 | NNW   |        |       |
   9  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
  10  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
  11  |29 .80 |    |    |       |    N   |   E   |
 Noon |29 .80 | 75 | 78 |       |34.22.30|126 .03|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    | NW    |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .80 | 74 | 71 | NNW   |                |A heavy dew fell during the
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |night.
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .78 | 74 | 70 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .78 | 73 | 69 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
  1   |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, September 10, 1816._
  2   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  3   |       |    |    |       |       |        |The breeze continued at NW
  4   |29 .76 | 72 | 68 | NW    |       |        |until the afternoon, when it
  5   |       |    |    |       |       |        |drew round to the Northward,
  6   |       |    |    |       |       |        |and freshened up from that
  7   |       |    |    |       |       |        |quarter, looking threatening
  8   |29 .76 | 73 | 68 |       |       |        |and squally.
  9   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29. 77 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29. 76 | 73 | 68 |       |   N   | E      |
 Noon.|       |    |    |       |34 .19 |126 .05 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
  1   |       |    |    |       |                |
  2   |29. 74 | 72 | 68 |North  |Got under weigh |
  3   |       |    |    |       |from Murray's   |
  4   |29. 78 | 76 | 80 |N by W |Sound, and stood|Midnight, strong breezes with
  5   |29. 90 |    |    |       |to the Southward|occasional showers of rain, and
  6   |29. 90 |    |    |       |into the Japan  |a very high irregular swell from
  7   |       |    |    |       |Sea. Saw        |the NE. This seems to be the
  8   |29. 74 | 76 | 80 |       |Quelpaert.      |NE monsoon, which sets in to
  9   |       |    |    |       |                |the Northward much earlier than
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |in lower latitudes.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29. 76 | 76 | 80 | North |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
  1   |       |    |    |       |       |        _Wednesday, September 11, 1816._
  2   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  3   |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day we have had a strong
  4   |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze from the N by W, with
  5   |       |    |    |       |       |        |a high irregular swell setting
  6   |       |    |    |       |       |        |after us. In the afternoon the
  7   |       |    |    |       |       |        |wind hauled round to NW.
  8   |29. 73 | 80 | 80 |N by W |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
  9   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29. 72 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |  E     |
 Noon.|29. 71 | 81 | 83 |  NNW  |31 .41 |126 .44 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
  1   |       |    |    |       |                |
  2   |29. 71 |    |    |       |    Japan Sea.  |
  3   |       |    |    |       |                |
  4   |29. 71 | 82 | 82 |  NW   |                |
  5   |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight it
  6   |29. 71 |    |    |       |                |moderated: weather cloudy.
  7   |       |    |    |       |                |
  8   |29. 73 | 79 | 82 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
  9   |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29. 80 |    |    |North  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, September 12, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | North |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night the wind
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted to the Northward, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |a moderate breeze, and fine
   6  |29 .74 | 80 | 82 |       |       |        |clear weather.
   7  |29. 75 |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29. 75 | 82 | 82 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29  75 | 82 | 83 |       |29 .38 |127 .56 |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon it became
   2  |       |    |    |       |   Japan Sea.   |squally, with a heavy shower
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |of rain.
   4  |29. 70 | 83 | 83 |N by E |                |
   5  |       |    |    |NE by N|                |This wind, though not fixed,
   6  |29. 72 |    |    |  NE   |                |has much the appearance of
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |the monsoon.
   8  |29. 78 | 83 | 83 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Latitude by Polaris 30º 3 min.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |30 in. at 2 h. 57 min. A.M.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |13th.
 Mid. |29. 78 | 82 | 82 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, September 13, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued at NE,
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |with a steady fresh breeze;
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |which towards noon freshened
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |considerably, and a swell got
   6  |29. 72 |    |    | N by E|       |        |up from the NE. At noon
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |observed in 27º 48' N latitude.
   8  |29. 70 | 83 | 84 |       |       |        |stormy 2º 30' it became dark
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |and in the NE, and the signal
  10  |29. 70 |    |    |       |       |        |being made to shorten sail, we
  11  |29. 76 |    |    |       |   N   |     E  |brought the ship under the main
 Noon.|29. 78 | 84 | 84 |       |27 .48 |128 .20 |topsail and foresail, and made
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+preparations for a gale. At 4
   1  |29. 60 |    |    |  NE   |                |we saw the Loo-choo Islands SW
   2  |29. 74 |    |    |       |  Off Sulphur   |by S 20 miles. At 5 the wind
   3  |29. 75 |    |    |       | Island, Japan  |shifted from N to NE, and the
   4  |29. 80 |    |    |       |  Sea.          |mountainous swell which we had
   5  |29. 90 |    |    |       |                |experienced during the day
   6  |29. 95 |    |    |       |                |rose still higher. The wind did
   7  |29. 94 |    |    |       |                |not blow fresh except in short
   8  |       |    |    |       |                |rainy squalls. After 8 P.M. it
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |blew at times very fresh, and
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |also in the night, but when the
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |moon got up it became clear.
 Mid. |29. 52 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
  1   |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, September 14, 1816._
  2   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  3   |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night the wind
  4   |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted from NE to NW, and
  5   |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued to blow fresh with a
  6   |29 .52 |    |    |       |       |        |high irregular swell.
  7   |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  8   |29 .52 | 83 | 82 |  NW   |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
  9   |29 .54 |    |    |       |       |        |
 10   |29 .54 |    |    |NW by W|       |        |
 11   |29 .56 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .60 | 83 | 82 |       |27 .44 |127 .35 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |29 .58 |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .60 |    |    |       |  Off Loo-Choo, |Towards evening it became
   3  |29 .64 |    |    |       |   Japan Sea.   |moderate and clear.
   4  |29 .52 | 83 | 82 |NW by N|                |
   5  |29 .54 |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .66 |    |    |  NW   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 | 82 | 82 |NW by N|                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |In the night fine clear
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |weather.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .74 | 81 |    |  NW   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, September 15, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |A moderate breeze from NNW,
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |with a clear sky; the swell
   6  |29 .80 |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |much less, though still
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |considerable.
   8  |29 .78 | 80 |83  |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .76 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .71 |    |    |NW by N|   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|29 .75 | 83 |84  |       |26 .44 |127 .32 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .75 |    |    |       |  Off Loo-Choo, |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   Japan Sea.   |
   4  |29 .75 | 83 | 88 |N by W |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night the wind veered
   6  |29 .75 |    |    |       |                |to NNE.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .80 | 81 |    |North  |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |29 .81 |    |    | NNE   |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .80 | 81 | 84 |NE by N|                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |        |       |_Saturday, September 16, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   3  |       |    |    |       |        |       |The wind continued at NNE.
   4  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
   5  |       |    |    |       |        |       |About 4 A.M. we had several
   6  |29 .84 |    |    |  NNE  |        |       |showers of rain, but soon
   7  |       |    |    |       |        |       |cleared off.
   8  |29 .84 | 81 | 83 |N by E |        |       |
   9  |       |    |    |       |        |       |
  10  |29 .90 |    |    |       |        |       |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N    |   E   |About noon the breeze
 Noon.|29 .90 | 82 | 83 |       |26.13.39|127 .38|freshened.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+--------+-------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .80 |    |    |       | At anchor in   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   Napakiang    |
   4  |29 .80 | 82 | 83 |   NE  |harbour, Great  |In the afternoon we had a
   5  |       |    |    |       |Loo-choo Island.|shower.
   6  |29 .80 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .80 | 80 | 83 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, clear weather, with
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |lightning in the SW.
  Mid.| 2 9.8 | 80 |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, September 17, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued at NE, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |a moderate breeze. At 4 there
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |was a slight shower of rain
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |but it cleared up again in a
   8  |29 .79 | 81 | 82 |NE by E|       |        |short time.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .82 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .82 | 83 | 82 |E by N |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .78 |    |    |       |     Moored in  |After noon the wind shifted
   3  |       |    |    |       |     Napakiang  |to the Eastward: squally with
   4  |29 .77 | 82 | 82 |       |     harbour.   |showers of rain.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .78 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .80 | 81 | 82 | ESE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, clear: moderate
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |weather.
  Mid.|29 .78 | 81 | 82 |E by N |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        _Wednesday, September 18, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    | ENE   |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day the wind has been at NNE.
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After 4 A.M. we had several
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |showers of rain.
   8  |29 .72 | 80 | 82 |NE by E|       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29. 75 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon the breeze
 Noon.|29. 75 | 82 | 82 | ENE   |       |        |freshened.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29. 70 |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   4  |29. 72 | 82 | 82 |NE by E|                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29. 74 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |       | 82 |82  |  NE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |At night squally, with rain.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29. 72 |    |    | NNE   |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, September 19, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight it continued to
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |rain, with occasional squalls.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29. 63 | 81 |82  | NNE   |       |        |As the day advanced it cleared
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |up.
  10  |29. 62 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29. 62 | 82 |83  |       |       |        |At noon quite moderate.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29. 50 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |In the evening it looked very
   4  |29. 58 | 82 | 83 |  NE   |                |black all round, and fell calm.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |About 7 a breeze sprung up from
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |the Eastward, and it commenced
   6  |29. 56 |    |    | Calm  |                |lightning. About 8 the wind
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |shifted to SSE, and freshened,
   8  |29. 54 |    |    | East  |                |with squalls.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |29. 54 |    |    | SSE   |                |Towards midnight heavy squalls,
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |with rain: thunder and
 Mid. |29. 54 |    |    |       |                |lightning.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, September 20, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the same
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |squally weather continued. As
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |the day advanced it cleared up.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .60 | 80 | 83 |  SSE  |       |        |In the afternoon it became
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |squally, with slight showers
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |of rain. Towards evening it
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |looked very black all round.
  11  |29 .62 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .63 | 84 | 83 |S by E |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |  Napakiang     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   harbour.     |
   4  |29 .63 |    |    | SSE   |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |It seems probable that this
   6  |29 .64 |    |    |       |                |is the breaking up of the
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |monsoon. We were so completely
   8  |29 .69 |82  | 82 |E by S |                |sheltered by the land, that we
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |did not feel the wind much;
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |but it was evidently blowing
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |hard outside.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .69 | 81 | 82 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, September 21, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .68 |    |    |       |       |        |During the day the wind has
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been South-easterly, with
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |occasional squalls and showers
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |of rain, and lightning.
   8  |29 .69 |80  |82  |  SE   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |In the forenoon the wind
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |hauled to the Eastward, and
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |cleared up.
 Noon.|29 .70 | 83 | 83 |E by S |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .70 |    |    | ESE   |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .70 | 83 | 83 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .70 |    |    |E by S |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .70 | 81 | 82 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .70 | 80 | 82 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, September 22, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight squally, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |rain and lightning.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .70 | 81 | 82 |  ENE  |       |        |About 7 the wind hauled to the
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |ENE, and cleared up, and
  10  |29 .70 |    |    |       |       |        |continued fine all day.
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .70 | 83 | 82 |E by N |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |   Napakiang    |
   3  |       |    |    |       |    harbour.    |
   4  |29 .68 | 82 | 82 |  ENE  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .66 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .66 | 81 | 82 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .66 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, September 23, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day the wind has been about
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NE; squally at times, with
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |showers of rain, and every
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |appearance of approaching bad
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |weather.
   8  |29 .62 | 80 | 82 |NE by E|       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .62 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .62 | 81 | 82 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |29 .60 |    |    |  ENE  |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .58 | 81 | 82 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During all this day the
   6  |29 .50 |    |    |       |       |        |barometer continued falling,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |in the evening it had reached
   8  |29 .50 |    |    |NE by N|       |        |29.50. The wind in the early
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |part of the night hauled to
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NNE, and towards morning to
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |the Northward.
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, September 24, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |  NNE  |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |In the night the wind has been
   4  |       |    |    |NE by N|       |        |about NNE. About 4 A.M. it
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |began to blow very fresh, with
   6  |29 .43 |    |    |       |       |        |squalls.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .42 |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About noon the wind shifted
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |to NNW, and increased in
 Noon.|29 .40 | 81 | 81 |       |       |        |strength.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .40 |    |    |  NNW  |   Napakiang    |During the afternoon it blew
   3  |       |    |    |       |    harbour.    |hard, and gradually shifted to
   4  |29 .44 | 81 | 81 |       |                |the North-westward, with fresh
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |squalls of short duration. At
   5  |29 .50 |    |    |       |                |3 30 P.M. the mercury began
   6  |29 .55 |    |    |NW by N|                |to rise, and continued rising
   7  |29 .56 |    |    |       |                |very rapidly.
   8  |29 .63 | 79 | 81 |       |                |
   9  |29 .65 |         |       |                |The weather at sunset assumed
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |a very stormy appearance.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .66 | 78 | 80 |  NW   |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, September 25, 1816.
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Shortly after midnight it
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |cleared up and moderated.
   6  |29 .72 |         |       |NW by W|        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .80 | 78 | 80 |   NW  |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .86 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .86 | 79 | 80 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |During the day it has been
   2  |29 .84 |    |    |       |                |blowing a steady moderate
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |breeze from the NW.
   4  |29 .84 | 78 | 80 |NW by W|                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .86 |    |    |  NW   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .92 | 77 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, moderate and cloudy.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .95 | 77 | 78 |NW by N|                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, September 26, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued about NNW
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |all day, blowing a moderate
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze, with fine weather.
   6  |29 .96 |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .96 | 78 | 80 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .99 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 79 | 81 |NW by W|       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  | 30.00 |    |    |       |  Napakiang     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |    harbour.    |
   4  |29 .99 | 83 | 81 |       |                |8 P.M. it fell calm.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .99 |    |    | Calm  |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .99 | 79 | 81 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight a light
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |breeze sprung up from NNE.
  Mid.|29 .99 | 79 | 80 |  NNE  |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |   NNE |       |        |Friday, September 27, 1816.
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind died
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |away.
   6  |29 .99 | 70 |    |  Calm |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .99 | 76 | 81 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .99 |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon a breeze sprung
  11  |29 .99 |    |    |       |       |        |up from the Northward.
 Noon.|29 .99 | 80 | 81 | North |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon it shifted to
   4  |29 .96 | 79 | 80 |  ENE  |                |ENE.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .96 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .94 | 78 | 80 |   NE  |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, calm and cloudy
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |weather.
  Mid.|29 .94 | 77 | 79 | Calm  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, September 28, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |All the early part of the
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |morning it was quite calm.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .90 | 76 | 79 |  Calm |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About 8 A.M. a breeze sprung
  11  |29 .94 |    |    |       |       |        |up about ESE; in the afternoon
 Noon.|29 .94 | 81 | 81 |       |       |        |it hauled round to East.
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .90 |    |    |  ESE  | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  harbour.      |
   4  |29 .92 | 81 | 81 |       |                |
   5  |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   6  |29 .90 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .90 | 80 | 81 |  East |                |
   9  |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, the breeze shifted
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |to NE, and was moderate.
  Mid.|29 .90 | 76 | 79 |   NE  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, September 29, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .90 | 75 | 79 |   NE  |       |        |During this day the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted occasionally from NE to
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |ENE, blowing a moderate breeze,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |with fine clear weather.
   8  |29 .90 | 80 | 81 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .92 |    |    |  ENE  |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .92 | 82 | 81 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .94 |    |    |NE by E|                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .94 | 81 | 81 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .95 |    |    |       |                |Towards night it became cloudy.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .95 | 80 | 80 |  NE   |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .95 | 78 | 80 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |NE by E|       |        |_Monday, September 30, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the forenoon the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been light from the NE.
   6  |29 .96 | 79 | 80 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .96 |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon it freshened up.
  10  |29 .97 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .98 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .98 | 82 | 81 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |NE by N|                |
   2  |29 .91 |    |    |       |  Napkiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   harbour.     |
   4  |29 .96 | 81 | 81 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .95 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .95 | 80 | 80 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, cloudy weather.
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, October 1, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind drew
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |more to the Eastward, and the
   6  |29 .95 |    |    |       |       |        |sky became very black all
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |round: squally, with rain at
   8  |30 .02 | 79 | 80 | East  |       |        |intervals.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |We got under weigh at daylight,
  10  |30 .07 |    |    |       |       |        |and proceeded along shore to
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |the Northward.
 Noon.|30 .07 | 80 | 80 |  ESE  | 26 .34| 127 .38|
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .94 |    |    |       |  Sugar Loaf    |The wind continued to the
   3  |       |    |    |       |Point. N .24º E.|Eastward.
   4  |29 .94 | 79 | 80 |E by S |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .94 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .94 | 78 | 80 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .92 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, October 2, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |29 .91 |    |    |       |       |        |The whole of this day the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been from the Eastward,
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |blowing a moderate breeze,
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |with fine weather.
   8  |29 .91 | 78 | 80 |E by S |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .94 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .96 |    |    |       |  N    |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .96 | 79 | 80 |       | 26 .25| 127 .38|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .92 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .89 | 80 | 81 |  East |                |Towards night cloudy weather.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .88 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .99 | 79 | 81 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .90 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |                |_Thursday, October 3, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |       |    |    |       |                |During the night the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |shifted to NE by E.
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards noon it shifted to
   8  |29 .87 | 78 | 81 |NE by E|                |East, and in the evening to
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |ENE again.
  10  |29 .87 |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Noon.|29 .87 | 81 | 81 |E by S |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    | East  |  Napakiang     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   harbour.     |
   4  |20 .86 | 80 | 81 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    | ENE   |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .86 | 78 | 81 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .86 | 78 | 80 |E by N |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, October 4, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day we had a light breeze
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |from the NE, until the
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |afternoon, when it shifted to
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |SE by E, but only remained a
   8  |29 .87 | 78 | 81 |  NE   |       |        |short time, coming back to NE
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |again, where it continued until
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |near midnight, when it fell
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |calm.
 Noon.|29.87  | 79 | 84 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .86 |    |    |  ENE  |  Napakiang     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   harbour.     |
   4  |29 .86 | 79 | 80 |SE by E|                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .85 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .85 | 79 | 80 |  NE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .85 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, October 5, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |In the morning a breeze sprung
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |up from the Eastward, where it
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |remained until noon; then
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted to NE, and continued
   8  |29 .86 | 78 | 80 | E by N|       |        |to blow from that quarter all
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |the rest of the day.
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .87 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .87 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .85 | 81 | 81 |NE by E|       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .84 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .82 | 81 | 81 | N by E|                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .82 |    |    |   NE  |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .83 | 79 |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .83 | 78 | 80 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, October 6, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The early part of the day from
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |wind has been moderate from the
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NE.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .83 | 78 | 80 |NE by N|       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .84 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About noon the wind shifted to
 Noon.|29 .84 | 80 | 81 | North |       |        |the Northward.
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  harbour.      |
   4  |29 .83 |    |    |       |                |At night it came back to NE,
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |with rain.
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .83 | 79 | 80 |  NE   |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |29 .86 |    |    |  NNE  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |NE by E|       |        |_Monday, October 7, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued at NE by E, with
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |showers of rain.
   8  |29 .80 | 78 | 80 | North |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |29 .94 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .95 | 79 | 80 |N by E |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .92 |    |    | N by E|                |At 4 A.M. the wind came to
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |north, and the weather cleared
   4  |29 .93 | 79 | 80 |       |                |up: it blew a fresh breeze from
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |that quarter all day.
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .93 | 78 | 80 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight it moderated.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .96 | 78 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, October 8, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |To-day we have had a moderate
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze at NE by N.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .00 | 78 | 79 |NE by N|       |        |Squally at times.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .02 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .02 | 78 | 79 |  NNE  |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30. 00 |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   4  |30. 00 | 78 | 79 |NE by N|                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight fine clear
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |weather.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30. 00 | 76 | 78 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |30 00  | 75 | 78 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, October 9, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the morning a moderate
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze from NE by E.
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |NE by E|       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About 6 A.M. we got underweigh,
   8  |30 .04 | 75 | 78 |       |       |        |and stood to the Northward.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .10 |    |    | ENE   |       |        |
  11  |30 .10 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .10 | 77 | 78 |       | 26 .34| 127 .26|
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .06 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon the wind
   4  |30 .00 | 78 | 78 |  East |                |shifted to the Eastward, and
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |continued so the remainder of
   6  |30 .06 |    |    |       |                |the day.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .13 | 77 | 78 | E by S|                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |At night, cloudy weather.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, October 10, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During this day the wind has
   6  |30 .00 |         |       |       |        |been moderate from the
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Eastward.
   8  |30 .00 | 77 | 79 |  ESE  |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .01 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |  East |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .01 | 78 | 79 | E by N| 26 .50| 127 .50|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .98 |    |    |  ENE  | Off the Great  |
   3  |       |    |    |       |Loo-choo Island.|
   4  |29 .98 | 79 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |   NE  |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |At night fine clear weather.
   8  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|29 .96 | 78 | 79 |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |   NE  |       |        |_Friday, October 11, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |       |        |shifted from NE to SE, with a
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |light air.
   8  |29 .97 | 78 | 79 |  SE   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |29 .97 |    |    |       |       |        |Ten A.M. it fell calm.
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |  E     |
 Noon.|29 .97 | 80 | 80 |       | 26 .42| 127 .53|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .96 |    |    |       |   Off Port     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |   Melville.    |
   4  |29 .96 | 80 | 80 |  West |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon a breeze
   6  |29 .96 |    |    | N by E|                |sprung up from the Westward;
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |about 8 it looked very dark all
   8  |29 .94 |    |    | NNE   |                |round, and shortly afterwards
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |began to blow fresh from N by
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |E, and continued so all night.
  11  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, October 12, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |NE by E|       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |  NE   |       |        |During the night the wind came
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |to NE with a fresh breeze, and
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |rain at intervals.
   6  |30 .30 |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .26 | 76 | 79 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .26 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |30 .22 |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .22 | 76 | 79 |       |25 .33 |127 .50 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .20 |    |    |       |Off Loo-choo.   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |In the afternoon a swell got up
   4  |30 .20 | 76 | 79 |  ENE  |                |from the NE; the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |moderated, and drew round to
   6  |30 .30 |    |    |       |                |ENE.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .34 | 76 | 79 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |Midnight, fresh breezes and
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |cloudy.
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|30 .20 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  ENE  |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, October 13, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight it became quite
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate, with rain at times.
   6  |30 .10 |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .06 | 75 | 78 |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .04 |    |    |       |       |        |In the forenoon it fell calm.
  11  |       |    |    |       |  N    |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .04 | 75 | 78 | Calm  |27 .00 |128 .03 |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
    1 |       |    |    |       |                |
    2 |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
    3 |       |    |    |       |                |During the afternoon a breeze
    4 |30 .00 | 75 | 78 |   NE  |                |sprung up at NE.
    5 |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
    5 |       |    |    |       |                |
    6 |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
    7 |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight it freshened
    8 |30 .02 | 75 | 78 |NE by E|                |considerably.
    9 |       |    |    |       |                |
   10 |       |    |    |       |                |
   11 |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|30 .02 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |NE by N|       |        |_Monday, October 14, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderated.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .04 | 75 | 79 |       |       |        |About 8 A.M. it fell nearly
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |calm, but shortly after it
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened at NNE.
  10  |30 .02 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 75 | 79 |  NNE  |26 .36 |127 .56 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .94 |    |    | North |Off Loo-choo.   |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .97 | 75 | 79 |  NNW  |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight the wind
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |shifted to NNW, and continued
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |to blow fresh.
   8  |30 .02 | 75 | 79 | N by W|                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|30 .18 |    |    |  NNW  |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Tuesday, October 15, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During this day the wind has
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been from the N by W, blowing
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |a fresh breeze, with occasional
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |squalls.
   8  |30 .10 |    | 78 |N by W |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .10 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|30 .10 | 74 | 78 | North |26 .02 |127 .35 |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .08 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .08 | 74 | 78 |       |                |At midnight it moderated.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    | North |                |
   6  |30 .08 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .10 | 74 |79  |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, October 16, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night the wind drew
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |round to N by E, with a
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate breeze. About 7 A.M.
   8  |30 .20 | 73 | 77 |N by E |       |        |we weighed and stood to the
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NW, shortly after the breeze
  10  |30 .20 |    |    |       |       |        |freshened, with squalls; at
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |2 P.M. anchored in Napakiang
 Noon.|30 .10 | 74 | 77 |       |26 .11 |127 .30 |harbour.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |       | Off Loo-choo.  |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .00 | 74 | 77 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight the breeze
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |freshened.
   8  |30 .00 | 74 | 77 | N by W|                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, October 17, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The whole of this day we have
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |had a breeze from the NNE, with
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |fine clear weather.
   8  |30 .00 | 71 | 76 |  NNE  |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .00 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 75 | 77 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |NE by N|  Napakiang     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |  harbour.      |
   4  |30 .00 | 75 | 77 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .01 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .02 | 75 | 76 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Friday, October 18, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued about NE by
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |N.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .00 | 73 | 76 |NE by N|       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .00 |    |    | E by N|       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .02 | 74 | 75 |       |       |        |Towards noon it came to the
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |eastward with a moderate
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+breeze.
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .02 |    |    |       | Moored in      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   4  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |NE by E|                |At night it shifted to the NE.
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .00 | 71 | 75 |  NE   |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NE   |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Saturday, October 19, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .98 |    |    |       |       |        |During all this day the wind
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been moderate and steady
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |at NE, with fine clear weather.
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .98 |76  | 76 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |  NE   |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .98 |73  | 75 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .98 |73  | 75 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Sunday, October 20, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |29 .98 | 72 | 75 |  NE   |       |        |The breeze still continues at
      |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NE, with the same fine clear
  10  |29 .98 |    |    |       |       |        |weather as yesterday.
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|29 .98 | 73 | 75 |       |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .98 |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   4  |29 .98 | 73 |75  |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .98 | 72 |75  |NE by N|                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Monday, October 21, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the wind
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted to the N by E, with a
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate breeze.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .00 | 73 | 75 |N by E |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .00 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 74 | 75 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .00 | 73 |75  |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night it fell almost
   8  |30 .04 | 72 | 74 |  NNE  |                |calm.
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NNE  |       |        |_Tuesday, October 22, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight the breeze
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened up at NNE, and
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued so all day, with
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |fine clear weather.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .06 | 72 | 74 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |30 .06 |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .06 | 73 | 75 |NE by N|       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   4  |30 .08 | 73 | 74 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .08 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .08 | 72 | 74 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |NE by N|       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Wednesday, October 23, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind continued steady at
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |NNE, with the same fine weather
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |as yesterday.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .08 | 73 |75  | NNE   |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .10 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .10 | 74 |75  |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .10 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .10 | 73 |74  |N by E |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .12 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |30 .12 | 72 | 73 |       |                |
   7  |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, October 24, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight we had a
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |moderate breeze at NNE.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .04 |    |    |N by E |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Towards noon it shifted to
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |north, and freshened up in
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |that quarter.
 Noon.|30 .00 | 72 | 75 |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .99 |    |    |North  | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |After noon we had a slight
   4  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |shower of rain, but soon after
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |it cleared up.
   6  |29 .98 | 72 | 74 |       |                |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |       |    |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |North  |       |        |_Friday, October 25, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |At daylight the breeze
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |freshened.
   6  |30 .05 |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .08 | 74 | 75 |       |       |        |
      |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |At 9 the weather became
  10  |30 .00 |    |    |       |       |        |squally, with a shower of rain.
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 |    |    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    | NNW   |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |After noon the wind hauled
   4  |30 .00 | 74 | 74 |       |                |to NNW, and continued to blow
      |       |-1/2|-1/2|       |                |a fresh breeze all day.
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .96 | 73 | 74 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |_Saturday, October 26, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During this day the wind has
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |been at north, blowing a fresh
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |breeze, with occasional
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |squalls.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .04 | 74 | 74 | North |       |        |
      |       |    |-1/2|       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|30 .00 | 74 |75  |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .99 |    |    |       | Napakiang      |
   3  |       |    |    |       | harbour.       |
   4  |29 .98 |    | 74 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards midnight it moderated.
   6  |29 .98 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |       |    | 74 |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    | Calm  |       |        |_Sunday, October 27, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |After midnight it fell calm.
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   6  |30 .05 |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .08 | 68 |73  |  NNE  |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |About 9 A.M. a breeze sprung up
  10  |30 .00 |    |    |       |       |        |from NNE. Weighed and stood out
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |of the harbour.
 Noon.|30 .00 | 70 | 74 |N by E |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .00 | 71 |74  |  NNE  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |29 .96 | 72 |74  |       |                |Towards night the breeze
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |freshened.
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |_Monday, October 28, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During all this day the wind
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |has been at NNE, blowing a
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |steady fresh breeze.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .10 | 72 | 77 | North |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .08 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|       |    |    |       |24 .41 |126 . 00|
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .99 |    |    |       | Japan Sea.     |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .98 |74  | 79 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night it shifted to NE.
   8  |30 .05 | 74 | 79 |       |                |
   9  |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
      |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
 Mid. |       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    | Calm  |       |        |_Tuesday, October 29, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |The wind has been from the NE,
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |and a swell rising from that
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |quarter.
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |30 .02 | 76 | 79 |  NNE  |       |        |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .02 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |   N   |   E    |
 Noon.|30 .02 | 76 | 79 |N by E |23 .24 |124 .01 |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |29 .95 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |29 .99 | 76 | 79 |  NNE  |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |30 .00 |    |    |       |                |Towards night the sky
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |assumed a threatening
   8  |30 .00 | 76 | 79 |       |                |appearance.
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |  NNW  |       |        |_Wednesday, October 30, 1816._
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |During the night the wind
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |shifted to the Northward, and
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |continued to blow fresh, with
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |a heavy swell. Saw the islands
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |of Botel-Tobago-Zima, and
   8  |30 .50 | 72 | 77 | North |       |        |Formosa.
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |30 .30 |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |30 .00 |    |    |       |   N   |    E   |
 Noon.|29 .92 |    |    |       |24 .41 |126 .00 |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |30 .50 |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |30 .85 |74  | 79 |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |31 .10 |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |Towards night it shifted to NE.
   8  |31 .00 | 74 | 79 |       |                |
      |       |-1/2|    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------
   1  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   2  |       |    |    |       |       |        |_Thursday, October 31, 1816._
   3  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   4  |       |    |    |       |       |        |Passed Formosa, and entered
   5  |       |    |    |       |       |        |the China sea.
   6  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   7  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   8  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
   9  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  10  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
  11  |       |    |    |       |       |        |
 Noon.|       |    |    |       |       |        |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+
   1  |       |    |    |       |                |
   2  |       |    |    |       |                |
   3  |       |    |    |       |                |
   4  |       |    |    |       |                |
   5  |       |    |    |       |                |
   6  |       |    |    |       |                |
   7  |       |    |    |       |                |
   8  |       |    |    |       |                |
   9  |       |    |    |       |                |
  10  |       |    |    |       |                |
  11  |       |    |    |       |                |
  Mid.|       |    |    |       |                |
 -----+-------+----+----+-------+-------+--------+-------------------------------



ABSTRACT OF THE LYRA'S VOYAGE, FROM LEAVING ENGLAND TILL HER RETURN;

SHEWING

THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT PLACES AT WHICH SHE TOUCHED, AND THE
TIME TAKEN IN PERFORMING EACH PASSAGE.



ABSTRACT
OF THE
VOYAGES OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP LYRA,
In 1816 and 1817.


The Lyra, in the short space of twenty months, viz. from the 9th of
February 1816, to the 14th of October 1817, visited Madeira, the Cape,
Java, Macao, the Yellow Sea, the West Coast of Corea, the Great Loo-choo
Island, Canton, Manilla, Prince of Wales's Island, Calcutta, Madras, the
Mauritius, and St. Helena; having run, in direct courses, a distance of
11,940 nautic leagues, or 41,490 statute miles.

An abstract of the various passages, from place to place, during this
voyage, illustrated by brief remarks on the particular circumstances of
each, will probably be considered interesting.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: England to Madeira and Cape, 2520 leagues.]

1.

Sailed through the Needles passage on the 9th of February, 1816.

    Arrived at Madeira, 18th of February                        9 days
    Crossed the equator in longitude 25º 20' west, 4th March   15
    Reached the Cape of Good Hope, 14th April                  41
                                                              ---
    From England to the Cape, in 9 weeks, 2 days, or           65 days.

This is not a very good passage, considering that we carried the
north-east trade wind to the latitude of 4º north, and longitude 23º
west, where we got the south-east trade, without any interval of calms.

       *       *       *       *       *

2.

[Sidenote: Cape to Java, 1800 leagues.]

Sailed from the Cape on the 26th April 1816.

    Arrived at Anjier Point, Java, 7th June.    42 days.
                                               ---
                                               Six weeks.

After leaving the Cape we had strong westerly winds, with which we ran
the longitude down, in the parallel of 38º and 39º south, till in
longitude 57º east, where the weather being very stormy, we hauled to
the north-east till in 35º south latitude, and then ran east till in 90º
east, when we steered to the east-north-east, and crossed the tropic in
102º east, which was probably too far west. The south-east trade hung
far to the eastward, and made it difficult to fetch Java Head, which had
we not succeeded in doing at first, might have caused considerable
delay, as the wind still blew out of the Straits of Sunda.

       *       *       *       *       *

3.

[Sidenote: Java to China, 600 leagues.]

Sailed from Anjier Point, Java, on the 12th June, 1816.

    Reached Gaspar Straits on the 17th June 1816    5 days.
    Arrived off Macao, 8th July                    21
                                                  ---
    From Java to Macao in 3 weeks 5 days, or       26 days.

This passage was unusually bad, it being nearly a week before we reached
Gaspar Straits, an ordinary run of one day: in the south part of the
China sea the south-west monsoon was very light. An American brig, which
sailed only one day before us from Anjier Point, carried the breeze
along with her, and reached Macao twelve days before us.

       *       *       *       *       *

4.

[Sidenote: Ladrone Islands to the Yellow Sea, 520 leagues.]

Sailed from the Ladrone Islands off Macao, on the 13th July 1816.

    Rounded the promontory of Shantung and entered the
        Yellow Sea, 25th July                           12 days.
    From thence to the anchorage off the Pei-ho
        or Pekin River, 27th July                        2
                                                       ---
    Macao to Pekin River, in 2 weeks, or                14 days.

This voyage can be compared only with that of the Lion on the occasion
of the former embassy. The Lion was nearly three weeks, exclusive of the
time at anchor at Chusan. We had fine weather and steady south-west
winds, with very heavy dews at night. When nearly abreast of the south
point of Corea, the wind became variable from the south-east and
southward. In the Yellow Sea we had easterly winds and no fogs.

       *       *       *       *       *

5.

[Sidenote: Pei-ho to Oei-hai-oei in the Yellow Sea, 90 leagues.]

Sailed from the anchorage off the Pei-ho on the 11th August, 1816.

    Arrived at Cheatow Bay, after having coasted from the
        anchorage along the south side of the Gulf of
        Pe-che-lee, 22d August                              11 days.
    From thence to the harbour of Oei-hai-oei, 23d August    1
                                                           ---
    From Pekin River to harbour of Oei-hai-oei, 1 week
        5 days, or                                          12 days.

In this cruise round the Gulf of Pe-che-lee we had constant easterly
winds, which obliged us to tide the whole way. It blew a gale of wind on
the 19th from the north-east, with a high short sea. With this
exception, and a fresh breeze on the 3d and 6th, the weather was
uniformly fine during our stay in the Yellow Sea, and we never
experienced any fogs.

       *       *       *       *       *

6.

[Sidenote: Yellow Sea to Corea, 40 leagues.]

Sailed from Oei-hai-oei, in China, on the 29th August, 1816.

    Made the islands off the coast of Corea, 1st September      3 days.
    Running along the coast of Corea till the 10th September    9
                                                             ----
                                                               12 days.

On the coast of Corea the winds were mostly from the northward, and the
weather uniformly fine, with heavy dews at night.

       *       *       *       *       *

7.

[Sidenote: Corea to Loo-choo, 240 leagues.]

    From the south-west end of Corea to the Great Loo-choo
    Island, on the 14th September, 1816,                    4 days.


From Corea to the Great Loo-choo Island we had northeasterly and
northerly winds, with one gale from the northward.

       *       *       *       *       *

8.

[Sidenote: Loo-choo to China, 320 leagues.]

    From Loo-choo to Lintin, off Canton.
    27th October to the 2d November, 1816                   6 days.

As the north-east monsoon was blowing fresh, this quick passage was to
be expected.

       *       *       *       *       *

9.

[Sidenote: China to Manilla, 200 leagues.]

    From Lemma Islands to Manilla.
    2d February to the 5th February, 1817                   3 days.

A good passage for this season of the year.

       *       *       *       *       *

10.

[Sidenote: Manilla to Penang, 600 leagues.]

    From Manilla to Prince of Wales's Island.
    21st February to 8th March, 1817                        15 days.

In the north-east monsoon this is somewhat under the average passage.

       *       *       *       *       *

11.

[Sidenote: Penang to Bengal, 400 leagues.]

    From Prince of Wales's Island to Saugor Roads, Bengal.
    13th March to the 27th March, 1817                      14 days.

The average at this season is twenty-one days, consequently this passage
is very good. At this season of the year the north-east monsoon has
entirely ceased in the centre of the Bay of Bengal; so that a ship which
steers well out between the Nicobars and Andamans need not apprehend
northerly winds; whereas in the north-eastern parts of the bay, the
monsoon still blows faintly, with long intervals of calm. A merchant
brig, reputed a good sailer, left Prince of Wales's Island 6 days before
us, and followed the inner route, while we went outside, and arrived 10
days before her at Calcutta.

       *       *       *       *       *

12.

[Sidenote: Calcutta to Madras, 300 leagues.]

Sand Heads off Calcutta to Madras, against the south-west monsoon.

    From 19th April to the 7th May, 1817                    18-1/2 days.

Three weeks is said to be a good passage. We beat down as far as the
latitude 11º north, and longitude 87º east, before we hauled across. We
had fine weather all the way.

       *       *       *       *       *

13.

[Sidenote: Madras to Mauritius, 1140 leagues.]

From Madras to the Mauritius.

    1st June to the 1st July, 1817                          30 days.

We were driven by the south-west monsoon as far as longitude 92º east,
before crossing the equator; here we had a constant high swell. We were
much baffled, and did not get the steady south-east trade till in 7º
south, and longitude 88º east. The average passage is between five and
six weeks at this season of the year.

       *       *       *       *       *

14.

[Sidenote: Mauritius to rounding the Cape, 800 leagues.]

From Mauritius to making the land of Africa, about Algoa Bay.

    8th July to the 22d July, 1817                          14 days.
    Thence to rounding the Cape on the 30th July             8
                                                           ---
    Mauritius till round the Cape, 3 weeks 1 day, or        22 days.

The average from the Mauritius to rounding the Cape, is twenty-eight
days; on this occasion we kept close in-shore: we had no current, and
though in the depth of winter, the weather was invariably fine, and the
water smooth. At night a breeze generally blew off shore. There was a
heavy dew every night.

       *       *       *       *       *

15.

[Sidenote: Cape to St. Helena, 570 leagues.]

    From off the Cape to St. Helena on the 11th August      12 days.
    Mauritius to the Cape (see above)                       22 days.
                                                           ---
    From Mauritius to St. Helena in 4 weeks 6 days,  or     34 days.

[Sidenote: Mauritius to St. Helena, 1370 leagues.]

This is an excellent passage. It appears to be a great object in making
a passage from India to England, to pass the Cape without going in; for
it is often easy to round the Cape and go to St. Helena, when it is
difficult and tedious either to go to Simon's or Table Bay, and much
delay is produced by the difficulty of getting out of the former
anchorage.

       *       *       *       *       *

16.

[Sidenote: St. Helena to Ireland, 1800 leagues.]

    From St. Helena to Bantry Bay in Ireland.
    Sailed from St. Helena on the 14th August, 1817.
    Arrived off Bantry Bay, 14th October, 1817              61 days.

This passage was unusually long, owing to a succession of hard gales
from north-east to south-east, which we encountered in latitude 47º
north, longitude 13º west, beginning on the 27th of September, and
continuing, with little intermission, till the 8th of October; after
which period the weather became fine, but the wind hung constantly to
the eastward, so as to render it difficult to fetch Ireland.



GEOLOGICAL MEMORANDUM;
BEING
A DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS OF ROCKS
COLLECTED AT
MACAO AND THE LADRONE ISLANDS, AND ON THE SHORES OF
THE YELLOW SEA, THE WEST COAST OF COREA,
AND THE GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND.


GEOLOGICAL MEMORANDUM.

It is greatly to be regretted, that, during this voyage, our means of
gaining information on this interesting subject were so limited. In
China we were restrained, sometimes by the jealousy of the Chinese, and
sometimes by an apprehension on our part of giving offence, or of
exciting suspicion, by following up enquiries, the nature of which it
was impossible to explain when interrogated by the inhabitants. On the
coast of Corea, the still greater jealousy of the natives rendered it
impossible to prosecute geological investigations beyond the beach. Both
in China and on the coast of Corea our stay at each place was very
short, and our time being often necessarily occupied by avocations
foreign to such enquiries, many opportunities were lost merely for want
of time. Even at the Great Loo-choo Island, where we remained much
longer, our researches were confined to a coast which offered nothing
interesting.

Having therefore nothing of a general or striking nature to offer to the
scientific world on this subject, I shall merely give an account of the
specimens collected at the various places which we touched at during
this voyage, accompanied by brief explanations from memorandums made on
the spot.

The geologist will be struck with the resemblance which the rocks in
this remote quarter of the globe bear to those with which he has been
familiarly acquainted.



SPECIMENS FROM CHINA.


MACAO.

1. Granite, composed of white quartz, porcelain clay, and greenish
steatite, with veins of white quartz intersecting each other.

2. Fine-grained granite, composed of yellowish feldspar, white quartz,
and black mica.

Quartz dykes of great magnitude traverse the granite which forms this
peninsula.


HONG-KONG, ONE OF THE LADRONE ISLANDS, OFF MACAO.

3. Lead-coloured compact quartz rock, with imbedded crystals of
flesh-coloured feldspar.


GREAT LEMMA, ONE OF THE LADRONE ISLANDS, OFF MACAO.

4. Coarse-grained granite, with distinct crystals of feldspar.



SOUTHERN SHORE OF THE YELLOW SEA.


CHE-A-TOW.

5. Fine-grained gneiss, composed of white quartz, white feldspar, and
black mica, with a vein containing hornblend and crystals of feldspar.

6. The strata are here very much contorted; the cliffs at some places
being folded up like webs of cloth.

7. Granular primitive lime-stone, containing greenish steatite.

8. Quartz rock, alternating with gneiss.

9. A specimen containing amorphous pieces of iron.


CUNG-CUNG-CHEEN ISLANDS.

10. Very fine-grained gneiss, composed of white quartz, flesh-coloured
feldspar, and black mica.

11. Coarser variety of the same.

12. Compact blueish-grey feldspar, with grains of quartz.


OEI-HAI-OEI.

13. Gneiss, composed of yellowish feldspar, white quartz, and black
mica.


LUNG-CUNG-TAO ISLANDS.

14. Coarser variety of the rock described above.



WEST COAST OF COREA.


From an Island in Latitude 37º 45' North.

1. Compact stratified pale-pink lime-stone; variegated in colour; strata
highly inclined.

2. Very compact slaty light-grey rock; strata inclined at an angle of
75º, dipping towards the north-east.

3. Dark olive steatitic rock, containing fragments of granular marble.

4. Very fine-grained greenish hornblend rock.

5. Vine-grained purplish slate; the strata highly inclined.

6. Greenish-grey slate, containing crystals of white feldspar and specks
of hornblend: strata highly inclined, dipping towards the north-east.



SPECIMENS FROM HUTTON'S ISLAND, COAST OF COREA.

Latitude 36º 10' north, longitude 126º 13' east.

The following note is taken from the narrative at page 8.

We found the north-east end composed of a fine-grained granite[19]; the
middle of the island of a brittle micaceous schistus of a deep blue
colour[20]; the strata are nearly horizontal, but dip a little to the
south-west. This body of strata is cut across by a granite dyke[21], at
some places forty feet wide, at others not above ten; the strata in the
vicinity of the dyke are broken and bent in a remarkable manner: this
dislocation and contortion does not extend far from the walls of the
dyke, though veins of granite branch out from it to a great distance,
varying in width from three feet to the hundredth part of an inch: the
dyke is visible from the top of the cliff to the water's edge, but does
not re-appear on the corresponding cliff of an island opposite to it,
though distant only thirty yards. This island is composed of the same
schistus, and is cut in a vertical direction by a whin dyke[22], four
feet wide, the planes of whose sides lie north-east and south-west,
being at right angles to those of the great granite dyke in the
neighbourhood, which run south-east and north-west. The strata
contiguous to the whin dyke are a good deal twisted and broken, but not
in the same degree as at their contact with the granite dyke. The whin
dyke is formed of five layers or sets of prisms laid across in the usual
way.

Beyond the small island cut by the whin dyke, at the distance of only
forty or fifty feet, we came to an island rising abruptly out of the
sea, and presenting a high rugged cliff of breccia[23], fronting that on
which the granite dyke is so conspicuous: the junction of this rock with
the schistus cut by the granite and the whin would have been
interesting; but although we must have been at times within a few yards
of it, the actual contact was every where hid by the sea.

The whole of the south-west end of this island is formed of breccia,
being an assemblage of angular and water-worn pieces of schistus,
quartz, and some other rocks, the whole having the appearance of a
great shingle beach and cliffs. The fragments of the schistus in this
rock are similar to that which forms the cliff first spoken of.
(Specimen 8.)

The theory which presented itself to us on the spot was, that the lower
part of the great mass of strata which now forms the centre of the
island was formerly at the bottom of the ocean; and that the western
part, now a firm breccia, had been a beach of shingle produced by the
action of the waves on the upper strata, which may have formed a coast
above the sea: the granite of the eastern end of the island had been
forced into its present situation from beneath the strata, with
sufficient violence to dislocate and contort the beds nearest to it, and
to inject the liquid granite into the rents formed by the heaving action
of the strata as they were raised up. It is natural to suppose that the
ragged edges of the strata forming the sides of these cracks would be
subjected to a grinding action, from which the strata more remote might
be exempted; and in this way we may account for the extraordinary
twisting, and separation of masses along the whole course of the granite
dyke. In the dyke, as well as in the veins which branch from it, there
are numerous insulated portions of schistus. That this last was
softened, seems to follow from the frequent instances which occur of its
being bent back upon itself without producing cracks. The same heat,
generated by the melted granite in the neighbourhood, and which appears
to have been just sufficient to soften the schistus, may be supposed to
have reduced the shingle beach to a state of semi fusion by the aid of
some flux contained in the sand scattered amongst the fragments. We
could not discover any circumstance by which the relative antiquity of
the two dykes mentioned above could be inferred.

The junction of the granite and schistus above described, resembles very
much the well known junction at the Lowrin mountain, in Galloway,
described by my father, Sir James Hall, in the 7th vol. of the Edinburgh
Transactions. It is also very like the junctions at the Cape of Good
Hope, described in the same volume. The same theory has been found to
explain them all.

Specimen 7. Fine-grained granite, composed of white quartz, white
feldspar, and olive-green mica. This rock (7) forms the eastern end of
the island; the schistus next described (8) the centre, and the breccia
mentioned immediately afterwards (9) the western end.

8. Fine-grained compact micaceous schistus: some of the specimens appear
to contain plumbago. The strata lie north-west and south-east, dipping
only a few degrees from the horizontal line.

9. Breccia, composed of angular and contorted fragments of micaceous
schistus, and angular pieces of feldspar and quartz. This rock forms the
western end of Hutton's Island[24]: it rises in high rugged cliffs. The
angular pieces of schistus are of a similar rock to that described above
(8).

10. Dyke, porphyritic granite, composed of white quartz, white feldspar,
and bronze-coloured mica. This dyke cuts across the schistus last
mentioned, in a direction north-east and south-west. It is nearly
vertical, and varies in breadth from nine to forty feet, with numerous
ramifications.

11. Dyke of compact whin stone. This dyke is composed of five layers of
prisms, whose length is at right angles to the walls of the dyke. It is
nearly vertical. Its direction north and south, and is about five feet
thick.


MAIN LAND OF COREA.

12. Lead-coloured, fine-grained, micaceous schistus. From the main land
of Corea, latitude 36º 10' north, longitude 126º 48' east. The strata
lie north-west and south-east, and are nearly vertical; the natives
objected to our examining the cliffs, though distant less than a quarter
of a mile from the beach.


ANOTHER ISLAND OFF THE COAST OF COREA.

Latitude 34º 23' north, longitude 126º east.

13. Decomposing fine-grained rock; composed of flesh-coloured feldspar,
white quartz, and porcelain clay.


ANOTHER ISLAND NEAR THE ABOVE.

14. Rock composed of white feldspar and quartz. The strata of this rock
were very much contorted.

This rock is the most general of any in this range of islands, at least
as far as we had opportunities of examining them. The islands on this
coast are very numerous; they lie in great clusters along a line of
three degrees and a half of latitude. The islands vary in length from
five or six miles to as many yards, and are of all forms. We saw none
that were remarkably high, and none which seemed volcanic. As our stay
on the coast was only nine days, and as the ships were almost always
under weigh except at night, it was quite impossible to make any careful
or valuable geological observations. It offers a splendid field to
future voyagers.


GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND.

1. Grey stratified lime-stone without shells. This specimen was taken
from the north end of the island, where the ranges of hills were mostly
composed of it: the strata being highly inclined. The hills rise to the
height of four or five hundred feet, and present nothing interesting.

2. Fawn-coloured, cellular, granular lime-stone. The cliffs at Napakiang
are composed of this rock; it also appears to stretch along the whole of
the south-west and south parts of the coast. In the narrative, this rock
has been erroneously called coral. These cliffs are curiously hollowed
out into horizontal caves, which have all the appearance of having been
worn by the dashing of the waves; but as it is obvious, that in their
present situation the sea can never have reached the face of the cliffs,
it seems probable that the whole coast may have been raised up, by a
gentle movement, without dislocating the strata, or disturbing the
horizontal position, in which it seems probable that these caves were
formed.

The variety of coralines which girt the shores of this island was very
great, and large collections were made, as well of these as of the
numerous zoophites which filled up every part of the reefs below
high-water mark. This collection, of which unfortunately no duplicates
were kept, was afterwards lost.


SULPHUR ISLAND

Lies in latitude 27º 5' north, and longitude 128º 25' east. An accurate
representation of it is given as a frontispiece.

We attempted to land, but the surf broke every where so high against the
rock that this was impossible. There is a crater on the left side with
white smoke issuing from it; this has a strong sulphuric smell. The
sides of the crater are stratified. The south end of the island is about
four or five hundred feet high, and is formed of a dark dingy red rock
distinctly stratified; at several places it is cut vertically by great
dykes, which being more durable than the strata which they intersect,
stand out from the face of the cliffs to a considerable distance.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 19: Specimen 7, infra.]

[Footnote 20: Specimen 8.]

[Footnote 21: Specimen 10.]

[Footnote 22: Specimen 11, infra.]

[Footnote 23: Specimen 9.]

[Footnote 24: The island above described was so named by Captain
Maxwell, in compliment to the memory of the distinguished philosopher
whose theory has been used to explain the curious phenomena which it
exhibits.]



END OF THE APPENDIX.



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGE
SPOKEN AT
THE GREAT LOO-CHOO ISLAND, IN THE
JAPAN SEA.


COMPILED BY
HERBERT JOHN CLIFFORD, ESQ.
LIEUTENANT, ROYAL NAVY.


IN TWO PARTS.



OBSERVATIONS
ON
THE LOO-CHOO LANGUAGE.


Of the grammar of this language I pretend to little knowledge, but the
following observations upon some points may perhaps be worth attending
to. The most striking circumstance, is the frequent use of the words
_noo_ and _ka_; the former of which seems to signify _of_, or the _'s_
of the English language, as will appear in _choo noo ka_, a man's skin,
or the skin of a man; _oóshee noo stínnoo_, the bullock's horn, or the
horn of the bullock; and in _moo noo kee saw'teeyoong_, to dig potatoes
out of the ground, or, literally, potatoes of the earth to dig out.

_Ka_, it will be observed, is used to denote skin, and also seems to
signify a receiver or enclosure, as is expressed in the words _meézee
ka_, a well of water, _meézee_ being water, and _ka_, the place
containing the water; and in _ya ka saut eéchoong_, to go out of a
place, _ka_ in this instance expressing the enclosure, _ya_ you, and
_sawt eéchoong_ to go out from, as _eéchoong_ signifies to go.

The adjective is for the most part placed before the substantive, as
_teeshoóee íckkeega_, an old man; _wúsa ya_, a mean house; and _wóckka
innágo_, a young woman.

There is little variety in the termination of the verb, the tenses being
expressed by other means. I have throughout the vocabulary considered
the termination _oong_ to denote the infinitive, and have translated it
as such, even when the sense points to another mood, merely to preserve
consistency; there are, however, a few exceptions to this, and some of
the verbs will be found to terminate in _ang_, _ing_, _awng_, _ong_, and
_ung_. Those ending in _oong_ seem generally to make the participle
terminate in _ee_, as _wóckkayoong_, to separate, makes the participle
_wóckkatee_, separated. The negative termination of the verb is
generally _nang_ or _rang_, as _noómang_, not to drink, is the negative
of _noómoong_, to drink; _meérang_, the negative of _meéoong_, to see;
and _noóboorang_, the negative of _noóbooyoong_, to climb or ascend.
_Na_ is also used as a negative, _coónsoona_, not to rub out, being the
negative of _coónshoong_, to rub out.

_Nang_, _nárang_, and _náshee_ are negatives used with a substantive,
and are always placed after it, as _koómoo nang_, no clouds; _meézee
nárang_, no water; and _feéjee náshee_, no beard.

Some peculiarities will be found by referring to the following words:
deaf; the sole of the foot; head-ache; palm of the hand; the toe; and
the wrist.



PART I.

VOCABULARY OF ENGLISH AND LOO-CHOO WORDS ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, WITH
NOTES, AND OCCASIONAL REFERENCES TO THE SENTENCES IN THE SECOND PART.



VOCABULARY
OF THE
LOO-CHOO LANGUAGE.

Note on the orthography used in the following vocabulary.--The sounds in
the Loo-Choo words are expressed by the letters which in English
correspond nearest to those sounds. There are no mute vowels. The letter
_a_ is invariably sounded as in the English word _far_. The emphasis is
marked by an accent over the last vowel of the accented syllable. _Ee_
and _oo_, whether accented or not, always express one syllable.

    _English._                                   _Loo-Choo._

    Above, or the top of a thing                 Wee.
    Alive                                        Itch-it´chee.
    Alive, to be                                 It´ch-chawng.
    All (every one)                              Eénea, or I´gnea
                                                   (Italian gn[25].)
    All drink, every one drinks                  I´gnea noódung.
    Anchor                                       Eéki.
    Angry                                        Neétsa.
    Ankle                                        Shánna go oóshee.
    Answer, to                                   Aree ga aányoong.
    Arm                                          Teénoo.
    Arrow                                        Eéa.
    Awake, to                                    Oóking.
    Awaking                                      Oócatee.
    Bad                                          Neésha.
    Bad man                                      Yáwna moon, or Yánna choo.
    Bad building                                 Wása ya.
    Bailer of a canoe                            Yoo-toóee.
    Baize, red                                   Moóshung.
    Bake, to                                     I´rreechang.
    Bake bread, to                               Quáshee soókooyoong.
    Bamboo-cane                                  Dákee.
    Bamboo (instrument of punishment)            Boóchee.
    Basket                                       Teéroo.
    Beads                                        Támma.
    Beard                                        Feéjee.
    Beardless                                    Feéjee náshee.
    Beat, to                                     Soó-go-yoong.
    ----, as the heart                           Nácoo-choong.
    ---- on the gong                             Tánna óchoong (lit. to
                                                   play on the gong.)
    ---- to, with the bamboo                     Chíbbee oótchoong.
    Bed                                          Coócha.
    Bell                                         St´chee-gánnee.
    Belly                                        Wátta.
    Belly, big                                   Wátta mágesa.
    Below, or the bottom of a thing              Stcha.
    Bend to, a thing                             Támmeeoong.
    Bird                                         Hótoo.
    Birdcage                                     Hótoo-coo.
    Bishop at chess (lit. priest)                B[=o]dsee, or B[=o]dzee[26].
    Bite to, as a dog                            Coóyoong[27].
    Bitter                                       Injássa.
    Black                                        Korósa.
    Bleed, to, (lit. to draw blood)              Chee-hoóga-choong.
    Blind                                        Meégua.
    Blind man                                    Akee meégua.
    Block                                        Kooroóma.
    Blood                                        Chee[28].
    Blow up, to, or light a fire                 Foó-tchoong.
    Blowing (through a musical instrument)       Gácoo.
    Blue (colour)                                Táma-eeroo.
    Blue (light colour)                          Meéz-eeroo.
    Blunt                                        Chírrarung.
    Blush (lit. red)                             Akássa.
    Boat                                         Tímma, or Sabánnee,
    Boat, the bottom of a                        Nakámma.
    Boil, to                                     Tájeeing.
    Book                                         Sheémootsee[29].
    Bone                                         Coótsee.
    Bonnet, or head-dress worn by the natives    Hat´chee Mat´chee.
    Both alike, or all the same                  Neéchawng, or Yoónoomoong.
    Bow to, to a person passing                  Deéshoong.
    Bow                                          Yoómee.
    Bow, to pull a                               Yoómee feétchoong.
    Bower                                        Tánnan.
    Boy (lit. a man child)                       Ic´kkeega wárrabee.
    Brass                                        Cheéjackko, or Toong.
    Bread                                        Quáshee.
    Bread-basket, or tray                        Quáshee boong.
    Breadth                                      Hábba.
    Break, to, a stick                           Oóyoong[30].
    ---------- a tea-cup                         Wy´oong.
    Breakers                                     Námee.
    Breast                                       Moónee.
    Breathe, to                                  It´chee shoong[31].
    Bridge                                       Háshee[32].
    Bring here                                   Moot´chee coo.
    Bring fire here                              Feetoótee coo.
    Brinjal (an Indian vegetable)                Nasíbbee.
    Broke                                        Oótee, Chírreetee.
    Brother                                      Weékee.
    Bucket                                       Tágoo.
    Bull                                         Woo Oóshee.
    Burn, to                                     Yáddee, or A´kka.
    Butterfly                                    Habároo.
    Button                                       Hogánnee, or kánnee.
    By and by                                    A´tookára[33].
    Cake, a sweet flowered                       Magía quáshee.
    Calf                                         Oóshee gua.
    Calf of the leg                              Koónda.
    Candle                                       Daw.
    Candlestick                                  Soócoo[34].
    Candle and stick together                    Daw´secoo.
    Cannon                                       I´shee-beéa.
    Cap                                          Cammoódee, Maw´tsee.
    Carpenter's black line box                   Stínseeboo.
    [35]Carry to, or take away                   Moótchee eéchoong.
    ------------, a basket on the head            Téeroo kámmeetong[35].
    ------------, a child in the arms             Dáchoong.
    ------------, with a bar on the shoulders[35] Katam´meeoong.
    Carrying a basket on the arm                 Téeroo tenakíkakíttee.
    Cask                                         Soócoo.
    Castle                                       Eegoósecoo, or Gooseécoo.
    Cat                                          Mía, or My´a (Chinese).
    Cat, to mew as a                             Náchoong deéoong.
    Catch, to                                    Kaoótoochung.
    Catch, to, a butterfly                       Kabároo skéhdang.
    Chair                                        Ee (Chinese).
    Charcoal                                     Chácheejing.
    Cheeks                                       Hoo.
    Cheese (literally cow's milk and fat)        Oóshee noo[36] chee quátee.
    Chessmen                                     Choónjee.
    Child (infant)                               Wórrabee.
    Child, male (literally man-child)            I´ckkeega wórrabee.
    Child, female (literally woman-child)        Innágo wórrabee.
    Children                                     Qua.
    Chin                                         Oootoóga.
    Chin, the beard of the (lit. lower beard)    Stcha feéjee.
    Chopsticks                                   Fáshay, or May´shung.
    Climb, to, a pine-tree                       Mátsee kee noóbooyoong.
    Cloth, or clothes                            Ching.
    Cloth, red                                   Akássa nónoo.
    Clouds                                       Koómoo.
    Cock                                         Toóee.
    Cocoa-nut tree                               Nash´ikee.
    Cocoa-nuts                                   Náee.
    Cold                                         Feésa.
    Cold water                                   Feézeeroo Meézee.
    Colours                                      Eéroo eéroo.
    Come, to                                     Choong[37].
    Come here                                    Cung coo.
    Come, to, down a hill                        Oódeeyoong.
    --------- on board                           Choó-oong.
    Coming up from below                         Nooboóteecoo.
    Compass                                      Kárahigh, or Kássee toóee[38].
    Conk shell                                   Neénya goóroo.
    Cool                                         Seedásha.
    Copper                                       Acoógannee.
    Coral                                        Oóroo
    Cover, to, over with sand                    Sínna sheeóstang.
    Cough, to                                    Sáck-quee.
    Count, to                                    Oohaw´koo-oong[39].
    Country                                      A´whfee.
    Cow                                          Mee Oóshee.
    Crab                                         Gaánnee.
    Crab, to crawl as a                          Hóyoong.
    Creep, to                                    Haw´yoong.
    Crow, to                                     O´tayoong.
    Crow                                         Gárrasee.
    Cry, to                                      Nachoong.
    Curlew                                       U´nguainan.
    Cut, to                                      Cheéoong, or feéoong, or
                                                   feéjoong.
    Dance                                        Oodoóee, or Makátta.
    Dark                                         Coórasing.
    Daughter                                     Innágo oóngua, or úngua.
    Day (at Napakiang)                           Nit´chee[40].
    ---- (in the north of the island)            I´sheeree.
    ---- after to-morrow                         Asáttee.
    ---- the following                           Asá tínnacha.
    Daylight                                     Heéroo.
    Dead                                         Sheénoong, or gang.
    Deaf (literally, ear not to hear)            Mímmee chee karung.
    Deep                                         Fookássa.
    Deity (the Indian God Boudha)                Boósa (Chinese).
    Dice                                         Sheégo roócoo.
    Dice, to play with                           Sheégo roócoo ochoong.
    Die, to                                      Níntoong.
    Dig, to, up the ground                       Oóchoong.
    ----, potatoes                               Moo noo kee saúteeyoong.
    Directly (by and by)                         Atookar´ree, or Atookára.
    Dive, to, under water                        Seénoong.
    Dog                                          Ing.
    Dog barks                                    I´nnoo nachoong.
    Don't stir (said to a person rising to       Wfay´sa[41].
      depart)
    Door                                         Hasbírree.
    Draw, to, a picture                          Eé-katchoong[42].
    --------- blood                              Chee na by´oong.
    Dress, to                                    Ching cheéoong.
    Drink                                        Noómoo.
    Drink, to                                    Noómoong[43].
    --------- wine                               Sack´kee noómoong.
    -----, not to, wine                          Sack´kee noómang.
    Drop, to, a thing                            Oocheérooshoong.
    Drunk                                        Weétee[44].
    -----, to get                                Weéoong.
    Dry, to                                      Karacháoong.
    -------, powder                              Eénshoo foóshoong.
    Dung, cow, for manure                        Oóshee noo coósoo.
    Duck, a tame                                 A´feeroo.
    Eagle                                        Hack´ka.
    Ear                                          Mímmee.
    ---, left                                    Feéjeeree noo mímmee.
    ---, right                                   Meéjeree noo mímmee.
    Ears, to pull the                            Mímmee feéoong, or feétchoong.
    Earth                                        Jee.
    East                                         Fingássee.
    Eat, to                                      Kámoong[45].
    ---, I                                       Moónoo kámoong.
    ---, to, boiled rice                         Méeshee kámoong, or kánoung.
    Eggs                                         Coóga.
    Eight                                        [46]Kwat´chee, or fat´chee
                                                   (Loo-Choo); Eeyat´see
                                                   (Japan.)
    Eighteen                                     Kwat´chee joo, or fat´chee joo.
    Eighty                                       Hapáck coo, or Habbáck coo.
    Elbow                                        Teénoo feéjee.
    Eleven                                       Too.
    Empty, to, or pour out                       Hárashoong.
    Ends of a thing                              Yoókoo.
    Every thing                                  A´dee-coódee[47]?
    Exchange, to, fans                           Káyra.
    Exclamation of surprise                      Yeéah, or Cheé-oo-oo.
    -----------------------                      I´yi-yi-yi-yi.
    Expression of respect, or salutation         Taw.
    ------------- thanks in returning            How.
        any thing
    Eye                                          Mee.
    Eyebrows                                     Maí-oh.
    Eyelashes                                    Matsídjee.
    Eyes, to open the                            Mee hoóra choong.
    ----, closing the                            Neeboóee.
    Face                                         Steéra, or Skeéra[48].
    Fall, to                                     Taw´shoong, or Taw´ring[49].
    Fan                                          O´jee.
    ---, to, one's self                          O´jeeshoong.
    ---, to offer a                              O´jee kára.
    Fat                                          Quaítee.
    Father                                       Shoo.
    Feathers of a fowl                           Toóee noo han´nee.
    Female                                       Mee.
    Fence of bamboo                              Dack´kee gat´chee.
    Fiddle                                       Neéshing.
    ------, to play on the                       Feétchoong (lit. to pull.)
    ------ strings                               Cheéroo.
    Fifteen                                      Goónjoo.
    Fifty                                        Gooshácoo, or gooyácoo.
    Fill, to                                     I´ddeecoong.
    Find, to                                     Toómatung[50].
    Finger                                       Eébee.
    ------, fore                                 Choo sháshee.
    ------, little                               Eébeegwaw.
    ------, middle                               Nack´ka eébee.
    ------ ring                                  Nanna shee.
    ------ nail                                  Thímmee.
    Fire                                         Fee.
    ----, to put out                             Fee cha-chee.
    ----, to, a gun                              Narashoong.
    Fish                                         Eeo[51].
    ----, a small                                Coosa eeo.
    ------------- blueish                        Tamung eeo.
    ----, a large red                            Matchee eeo.
    ----, the back of a                          Kánjee.
    ----, the fin of a                           Hannay.
    ----, the gills of a                         Ajee.
    ----, the head of a                          Chee-boo-soo.
    ----, the tail of a                          Dzoo.
    ----, to catch                               Eéo kákeeoong.
    ---- hook and line                           Cheéna.
    ---- spear                                   Eéo stit´chee.
    Five                                         Goo (Loo-Choo); Ittítsee
                                                   (Japan)[52].
    ---- sided figure                            Roo-ka-coo.
    Flag                                         Háta.
    Flail[53]                                    Coóra ma baw[53].
    Flesh                                        Shíshee.
    Flesh, no                                    Shíshee ning.
    Flower, a red, the name of                   A´ckka hanna.
    Flower of a plant                            Fánna.
    Flute, to play on the                        Hánshaw.
    Fly                                          Háyeh.
    Fly, to, as a bird                           Toóbeeoong.
    Foot                                         Shánna.
    ----, the sole of the                        Shánna watta (lit. belly of
                                                   the foot).
    ----, of a bird                              Físha.
    Forehead                                     Fitcháyeh.
    Forty                                        Speéakoo, or Sábacoo.
    Four                                         [54]Shee (Loo-Choo); Eéots see,
                                                   or joo (Japan).
    Four-sided figure                            Sícca Coódair.
    Fourteen                                     Sheénjoo.
    Friend                                       Eedoóshee.
    Frog                                         A´tta beétsee.
    Full                                         Meetchíttee.
    ----, half                                   Ham´boong.
    Get up                                       Tá-tee.
    Girdle                                       O´bee.
    Girl                                         Tack´kee.
    Give, to                                     Queéoong[55].
    Glass                                        Kágung.
    Go, to                                       Eéchoong[56].
    ------, away                                 Haddee.
    ------, in a boat                            Tímma ki eéchoong.
    Go, to, fast                                 Háyee sit´choong.
    ------, up a hill                            Noóbooyoong (lit. to climb,).
    --, not to, up a hill                        Noóboorang.
    --, to, slow                                 Yaw´na eéchoong.
    ------, on shore                             Amáki eéchoong, or moódoeéong.
    Goat                                         Feéja.
    ----, he                                     Woo Feéja.
    ----, she                                    Mee Feéja.
    Going down below                             Oórittee coo.
    Gold                                         Ching.
    Good (for eating)                            Mása.
    ---- (proper)                                Choorása.
    ---- man                                     Yoókachoo, or Eéchoo.
    ---- bye (taking leave)                      Wóckkatee.
    ---- for nothing                             Máconárang.
    ----, not                                    Worroósa.
    Grand-children                               Soong mága.
    Grass                                        Goosit´chee, or Coosá.
    -----, to cut                                Coosá cheéoong.
    Grasshopper                                  Sheéto, or Sáyeh.
    Grave                                        Háka.
    Greybeard                                    Feéjee sheerájee.
    Great coat (made of straw, worn also         New.
      by the Chinese)
    Great man (Chinese Tajin)                    A´jee, or Páychin.
    ----- many                                   Oowhóko.
    Green                                        O´sa.
    Grind, to, the teeth                         Ha gíssee gíssee.
    Groaning                                     Doónee.
    Hair                                         Kurrázzee[57].
    Hammer                                       Goóshung.
    ------ of a stone-cutter                     Oónoo.
    Hand                                         Kee[58].
    ----, right                                  Meéjeeree.
    ----, left                                   Feéjeeree.
    Handkerchief                                 Tee-sádjee[59].
    Handsome                                     Choorása.
    Harp                                         San´gshing.
    Hat, worn by the natives                     Kássa.
    ---------------- English                     Kamoóree.
    Have not got                                 Nang[60], or Nárang.
    ------------ water                           Meézee[61] nárang.
    Head, human                                  Boósee.
    Head-ache (lit. sick head)                   Seeboóroo yádong.
    Head, of a bird                              Tseeboóroo.
    Hear, to                                     Sit´choong, or Skit´choong.
    ----, I                                      Moónoo sit´choong[62].
    ----, I cannot (or understand)               Sit´cheerang, or
                                                   Sit´cheekárang.
    Heart                                        Nácoo.
    Heaven                                       Ting.
    ------, praying to                           Ting oóneewhfa[63].
    Heavy                                        Boósa.
    Heel of the foot                             Shánna-a-roo.
    Here                                         Coo.
    Hide, to, or cover (lit. cannot see)         Meérang.
    ---- of a bullock                            Oóshee noo ka.
    Him (a third person)                         A´ree (meéchay)[64].
    Hips                                         Gammácoo.
    Hissing                                      Seésee.
    Hoe                                          Quáya.
    Hold, to take, of a person                   Kat´sameéoong.
    Holding a thing (a butterfly)                Meecháwree[65].
         (Letting a thing escape)                Oótoo Batch[65].
    Hole                                         A´nna.
    ---- to make in the ground                   A´nna hoóyoong.
    ---- in the jeeshee, or urn                  Mee hoojíttee[66].
    Hoop of a cask                               Obee[67]
    Horn of a bullock                            Oóshee noo stínnoo.
    Horse                                        Ma[68] (Chinese).
    Hot                                          A´tteesa.
    Hour                                         Twit´chee[69].
    House                                        Ya, or Kat´chee.
    House where salt is made                     Máshoo ya.
    Hundred                                      Sing.
    Hungry                                       Yása.
    I, or me (a first person)                    Wang[70] (choóee).
    Jar, a large earthen                         Kámee.
    ---, its top or cover                        Hoóta.
    Inch, one                                    Eésing.
    Inches, ten;                                 Eesháckkoo.
    Infant                                       Wórrabee.
    Ink                                          Sim´mee.
    Inkstand                                     Sim´mee shee.
    Inside                                       Oóchee.
    ----, or soft of bread                       Mee.
    Iron                                         Títzee.
    Jump, to                                     Móyoong.
    Key                                          Quaw.
    Kick, to, with the foot                      King.
    Kid (lit. small goat)                        Feéja água.
    Kill, to                                     Sheémoong, or Koórashoong[71]
    ----, birds                                  Hótoo eéchung.
    ----, by the fire of a gun                   Doogaítee sheénoung.
    King, or monarch                             Kówung (Chinese).
    King's palace                                Oogoós-coo.
    Kiss, to, (lit. kissing the mouth)           Coóchee spoótee[72].
    Kiss                                         Sheemir´ree.
    Knee                                         Stínsee.
    Kneel, to                                    Shúmma git´cheeoong.
    Kneeling                                     Shúmma git´chee.
    Knife, crooked, for cutting grass            Eeránna.
    -----, small (a penknife)                    Seégo.
    Knight, at chess                             Samoóree.
    Knot                                         Coónja coótchee.
    ----, to tie a                               Coónjoong.
    Knuckles                                     Foóshee.
    Lacker, to                                   Noóyoong.
    Ladder                                       Háshee.
    Lake, or light purple                        Coonmoóla sat´chee.
    Land, or shore                               Amáki.
    Lantern                                      Tíndoo.
    -------, folding                             Cháwching.
    Lantern, glass                               Támma-doóroo.
    Large                                        Weésa.
    Laugh, to                                    Wárrayoong.
    Laughing                                     Wárratee.
    Lead (metal)                                 Meéjee kan´nee.
    Leaf (of a tree)                             Wha.
    ----, green (lit. the leaf of a tree)        Kee noo wha.
    ----, withered (lit. a dried leaf)           Kárree wha.
    Lean (not fat)                               Yaítee.
    ----, to, against a thing                    Yookátatoong[73].
    Learning, or studying                        Cootooba[74].
    Let, to, fall a thing                        Nágeeoong.
    Letter, or character                         Jee.
    ------, to seal a                            Ing sit´choong.
    ------, to write a                           Jee kátchoong.
    Letting go a thing                           O´too batch.[75]
    Loo-Choo song                                Loóchoo, or Doóchoo oóta.
    Lift, to, a thing                            Moóchoong.
    Light, not dark (daylight)                   Feéroo, or Heéroo.
    -----, not heavy                             Gása.
    -----, to, a pipe                            Sheéoong.
    Lips                                         Seéba.
    Lip, lower                                   Stit´cha seéba.
    ---, upper                                   Quaw seéba.
    ---, the beard on the lower                  Coofeéjee.
    Liquor                                       Sac´kkeedia, or Sam´tchoo
                                                   (Chinese).
    Live, or reside, to                          Sim´matong[76].
    Lizard                                       U´ndlecha.
    Look, or see, to                             Meéoong, or Meéing[77].
    ----, to, at, or see the sun                 Teéda meéing.
    ----, at a distance                          Han´na-rat´chee.
    Look, to, closely                            Teétsheeoong.
    Looking-glass                                Kágung.
    Long, or length                              Nagása.
    Lose, to                                     Oótoochung.
    Make, to, clothes                            Ching náwyoong[78].
    Make, a noise                                Hábbeecoong.
    Make, a rope                                 Cheéna oótchoong[79].
    Make, salt                                   Máshoo tátchoong.
    Make, sugar                                  Sáta skóyoong[80].
    Make, a tea-pot                              Tácoo soókooyoong[80].
    Making a false step                          Koonsínda dakat´chee.
    Male                                         Woo.
    Mallet, wooden                               Cheé-chee.
    Man (homo)                                   Choo.
    Man (vir)                                    I´ckkeega[81].
    Man, medical                                 I´shsha.
    Man, of rank                                 Páychin, or Quángning
                                                   (Chinese).
    Man, short                                   Injása.
    Man, sick                                    I´ckkeega yádong.
    Man, the skin of a                           Choo-noo-ka.
    Man, small                                   Feecoósa.
    Mast of a ship, or boat                      Hásseeda.
    Mat                                          Mooshoóroo, or Hátung.
    Match, or fire-stick used in the temples     Kaw[82].
    Me, or I                                     Wang.
    Meal, 1st (at sunrise)                       Stim´mee teémoong.
    Meal, 2nd (two hours after)                  A´ssa bung.
    Meal, 3rd (at noon)                          Feéra moómoong.
    ----, 4th (at sunset)                        Yoó bung.
    Measure, to                                  Gáwjee háckkiyoong.
    Melon                                        Toóqua.
    Men, a great many                            Oowhóko Ickkeega.
    Mew, to, as a cat                            Nachoong deeoong.
    Midday, or noon                              Teéda mátchoo.
    Milk                                         Chee.
    ----, to draw                                Chee háyoong.
    Million                                      Chaw.
    Mine                                         Coóra wa moong.
    Mixed                                        Bátee.
    Moon, the                                    Stchay.
    ----, or month, one                          It´chee stit´chee, or
                                                   gwaútsee[83].
    ----, full                                   Oostit´chee, or Mároo.
    ----, half                                   Mécasit´chee.
    Monkey                                       Sároo.
    More                                         Gnáfing.
    Morrow                                       A´cha.
    Mother                                       Um´ma.
    Mud                                          Doóroo.
    Musical instrument, to play on a             Koótoo feétchoong.
    Mustachios                                   Wa feéjee.
    Nail to hang things on                       Coójee.
    Naked                                        Harráka.
    Name                                         Na.
    ----, my                                     Wa na.
    ----, your                                   Ya na.
    ----, his                                    A´rree ga na.
    Navel                                        Whoósoo[84].
    Neck                                         Coóbee.
    ----, short (lit. no neck)                   Coóbee nang[85].
    Needle                                       Háyee skíttee.
    Net, fishing                                 Sheébee.
    Night                                        Yoóroo.
    -----, one                                   It´chee yoóroo.
    Nine                                         Coo[86] (Loo-Choo), Koónitsee
                                                   (Japan).
    Nineteen                                     Coónjoo.
    Ninety                                       Coohácoo, or Queeshácoo.
    Nipples                                      Chee.
    No                                           Oóngba, or Oomba[87].
    Nod, to                                      Nájeechoong.
    North                                        Cheéta.
    Nose                                         Hónna.
    Nostrils                                     Hónnakee.
    Octagon                                      Hacac´koo.
    Offer, to                                    Ozágadee.
    -----, wine                                  Ozágadee sac´kkee.
    -----, more, or again                        Mátta ozágadee.
    Old                                          Teeshoóee.
    --- man                                      Teeshoóee ic´kkeega.
    Olives                                       Kárang.
    One                                          It´chee (Loo-Choo), Teétesee,
                                                   or ta (Japan[88].)
    Onions                                       Dehchaw.
    Open, to, or unlock                          A´keeoong[89].
    Open it                                      Akírree[2].
    Orange, fruit                                Koóneeboo.
    ------, the rind of an                       Koóneeboo noo ka.
    ------, divisions                            Mee.
    ------, the seed of an                       Tánee.
    Overturn, to, or upset                       Koóroobáshoong.
    Outside                                      Foóca.
    -------, of bread (lit. skin)                Ka.
    Paddle of a canoe                            Wayácoo.
    Paint, to                                    Oóroo[90] sheenoóstang.
    Palanquin chair                              Kágoo.
    Palm of the hand (lit. belly of the hand)    Tee noo wátta[91].
    Pant, to                                     Eétchee hoótoong.
    Panting                                      Eétchee.
    Paper of any kind                            Kábee.
    Path                                         Yamána meetchee.
    Paupaw apple                                 Wangshoóee.
    Pawns at chess                               Toómoo.
    Pencil                                       Hoódee.
    Perspiration                                 Ac´kkaddee[92].
    Pepper pod                                   Quáda coósha.
    Pick up any thing, to                        Moóchoong.
    Picture                                      Keé-ee, or Kackkeé-ee.
    Pig                                          Boóta.
    Pin worn in the hair of boys                 Jeépha, or Jeéwa.
    --- flower head worn by men                  Kam´mashíshee.
    ---, ladle head, do.                         Oósheethúshee.
    Pinch, to                                    Kátcheemeéoong[93].
    Pine, the wild                               Adánnee.
    ----, leaves of the                          Wha.
    ----, fruit of the                           Adánnee nay.
    ---- tree                                    Mátesee kee.
    Pipe                                         Shírree.
    ----, the mouth-piece of a                   Quee coótchee.
    ----, wooden part of a                       Saw.
    ----, bowl of a                              Sárra.
    ----, case of a                              Shírree bookoóroo.
    Pitchfork                                    Feéra.
    Pivot on which the scull of a boat traverses Jeéco[94].
    Place                                        Skáta.
    Plank of a boat                              Fánna[95].
    Plant                                        Mee boósha.
    Plantain, leaf of a                          Woo noo fa.
    Play, to, at chess                           Choónjee óchoong.
    ----, with dice                              Sheégo roócoo óchoong.
    ----, on a musical instrument                Koótoo feétchoong[96].
    ----, on the flute                           Hánshaw.
    ----, on the violin                          Feétchoong.
    Pleased                                      Oósha.
    Plough                                       Sit´chee.
    ------, to                                   Sit´choong.
    Point, to, with the finger                   Noóchoong.
    Potatoes, sweet                              Moo, or Moóndee.
    Pour in, to                                  I´rreeing.
    ---- out, to                                 Cheéjoong.
    Pouring                                      Cheéjee.
    Praying to the Deity                         Boósa, or Bósa meéwhfa[97].
    ------- to Heaven                            Ting oóneewhfa.
    Powder                                       Eéenshoo.
    ------, to dry or air                        Eénshoo foóshoong.
    Pregnant                                     Kássee jeétawng.
    Press, to, or squeeze                        Sheétskeeoong.
    Prick, to, with a knife                      Hoogáshoong[98].
    Pricking                                     Yátee.
    Prickly pear bush                            Cooroójee.
    Priest (Bonzes of China)                     Bódzee.
    ------, the silk dress of a                  Eéchoo coóroom.
    ------, the cotton dress of a                Básha coóroom.
    ------, the belt of silk of a                Quára.
    Pull, to, or draw out                        Injat´chee.
    ----, out of the ground                      Noójoong.
    ----, a person                               Feétchoong, or fit´choong.
    Purple                                       Moóla sat´chee.
    Push, to, with the hand                      Koóroo báshoong[99].
    Put, to, a thing above or upright            I´sheeoong.
    -------, up a thing above, high              Injáshoong.
    -------, on the hat                          Kánjoong.
    -------, or lay a thing down                 Oócheeking.
    -------, a thing in                          I´ttee.
    ---------------- under                       Kásseemeéoong.
    -------, on clothes                          Ching cheéoong.
    -------, out fire                            Fee cháchee.
    -------, a ring on the finger                Eébee gánnee sáshoong.
    Quack, to, like a duck                       Náchoong.
    Quarrel, to                                  Títskoong.
    Queen, also at chess                         Oónajerra.
    Quick                                        Háyee.
    Quick, to be                                 Yooháoong
    Rain                                         A´mee.
    ----, to                                     A´mee foóyoong.
    ----, heavy                                  Sheejeékoo foóyoong.
    ----, lightly                                Koókoo foóyong.
    Rainbow                                      Noo-oójee.
    Rat                                          A´ck-a-sa.
    Read, to                                     Yoómoong, or Yoóno-oong.
    Red                                          Akása.
    Rind of a shaddock                           Pow noo ka.
    ------- an orange                            Koóneeboo noo ka.
    ---- (lit. skin)                             Ka.
    Ribbon, silk                                 Eéchoo.
    Ribs                                         Sáwkee.
    Rice                                         Coómee.
    ----, boiled                                 U´mbang, or bang, or
                                                   oómbang[100].
    Ride, to, a horse                            Man´ayoong.
    Right, in writing characters                 Kátchee yánjee.
    Ring                                         Coósayee.
    ---- for the finger                          Eébee gánnee.
    ----, to put on a                            Eébee gánnee sáshoong.
    Rise, to, from a chair                       Tátchoong.
    Road                                         Meéchee.
    Rock                                         See, or Weésa is´hee.
    Root (bulb)                                  Weé-ee.
    Rope                                         Chínna.
    ----, to make                                Chínna oóchoong.
    Rough                                        Soóroo soóroo.
    Round                                        Morroósa.
    -----, a circle                              Maroódair.
    Round, all round                             Maroóee.
    Rowing in a boat                             Coójee.
    Rub, to                                      Soósooing, or soósootee
                                                   oótooshung.
    ---, out                                     Seéree oótooshoong, or
                                                   Soósootee; oóteetung, or
                                                   coónshoong.
    ---, not out                                 Coónsoona.
    Rubber, Indian                               Neéka.
    Rum, or spirits                              Káraboo.
    Run, to                                      Háyay sit´choong[101].
    Running                                      Háyay.
    Sail of a ship or boat                       Foo.
    Sail, to, in a boat                          Hárashoong.
    Salt                                         Máshoo.
    ---- water                                   Spookarása Meézee.
    ---- to the taste                            Spookarása
    Salute, to, a person                         Kámeeoong.
    Sand                                         Sínna.
    Say it, I can                                Ang.
    ------, I cannot                             Nárang[102].
    Sea                                          Námmee.
    ---, the, or ocean                           Oóshoo.
    ---, shore                                   Háma, or Oómee.
    --- weed                                     Moo[103].
    ---, high                                    Oonámmee.
    Seal of a watch                              Ing, or Fang.
    Seam between two planks                      Nágo.
    Scrape, to                                   Sájoong.
    Scratching                                   Weégosa.
    Screw, to                                    Meégoorashoong[104].
    Screw                                        Jírree.
    Scull of a boat                              Doo.
    Scull, to, a boat                            Meégoorashoong.
    See to, or look, (lit. to eye)               Meéoong[105].
    See, I cannot                                Meérang.
    Seed                                         Nigh.
    Separate, to                                 Wóckkayoong.
    Seven                                        Sit´chee(Loo-Choo); Nánnatsee
                                                   (Japan).
    Seventeen                                    Sit´chee joo.
    Seventy                                      Sit´chee hácoo.
    Servant                                      Toómoo, or Eéree, or Sad´ge-ee.
    Sew, to                                      Náwyoong, or No-á-yoong.
    Shade, or shady                              Kájee.
    Shake, to                                    Kátcheeming.
    Shaking a thing                              Yoótoo yoótoo.
    Shallow                                      Asássa.
    Sharp                                        Aka, or chírraring?
    Shave, to                                    Soóyoong.
    Shell                                        Oósheemaw.
    Shell fish (like a crab)                     A´mang.
    Shield                                       Timbáyee.
    Ship                                         Hoónee[106].
    ----, large                                  Hooboónee, or Wesára Hoónee.
    ----, small                                  Hoónee gua, or Coosára Hoónee.
    ---- goes away                               Hoónee eéchoong.
    ---- returns                                 Moóchee eéchoong.
    Shoes, or sandals                            Sábock, or Sabaugh.
    Short                                        Injása.
    Shoulders                                    Kútta.
    Shrub, with leaves resembling a              Sootítsee.
      palm tree, probably sago tree
    Shut, to                                     Meecheéoong.
    Shut it                                      Mechírree.
    Skin                                         Ka.
    Skin, of a bullock                           Oóshee noo ka.
    ----, of a man                               Choo noo ka.
    Sick                                         Yádong.
    ---- man                                     Ic´kkeega yádong.
    ---- belly                                   Wátta éddee.
    Side, of a person                            Hárraga.
    ----, of a thing                             Táttee.
    Sigh, to                                     Hoóee eéchee.
    Silk                                         Eéchoo.
    Silver                                       Jing.
    Sing, to                                     Oótashoong, or oótayooshoong,
                                                   or oótayoong.
    Sister                                       O'nigh.
    Sit down, to                                 Eéoong.
    --------, in a chair                         Eéchawng, or Eeree.
    --------, on the ground                      Eémeesháwdee, or Eédee.
    --------, or be seated                       Yoocoótee.
    Six                                          Roócoo (Loo-Choo); Moótsee
                                                   (Japan).
    Sixteen                                      Roócoojoo.
    Sixty                                        Rookpáckcoo.
    Sleep, to                                    Nínjoong.
    Sleeping                                     Níntee.
    Slow                                         Yoóna, or Yáwna.
    Small                                        Coósa.
    Smell, to                                    Kánnoong, or Kasháshoong.
    Smell                                        Kabbásha[107].
    Smoke, to                                    Foótchoong, or koótchoong.
    Smoke                                        Kínsee.
    Smoking tobacco                              Tobácco foókee.
    Smooth                                       Nándooroosa.
    Smooth down, to                              Nádeeyoong.
    Snake                                        Háboo.
    Snake stings                                 Háboo coótee.
    Snatch, to                                   Kátayoong.
    Sneeze, to                                   Hónna feéoong.
    Snore, to                                    Níntoong.
    Snuff (lit. nose tobacco)                    Spáchee, or Hónna Tobácco.
    Sole of the foot (lit. belly of the foot)    Shánna wátta.
    Son                                          Ic'kkeega oóngua.
    Song                                         Oóta[108].
    Sore from riding                             Náutee.
    Sorry                                        Natskásha.
    Sour                                         Seésa.
    South                                        Whfa or fa.
    Speak, to                                    Moónooyoong[109].
    Spear to catch fish with                     Toóga oóyoong.
    Spectacles (lit. eye-glass)                  Mee kágung.
    Spider                                       Coóba.
    Spider's web                                 Coóba mang.
    Spit, to                                     Simpáy-oong.
    Spittle                                      Simpáyee.
    Spoon                                        Káa.
    Spy glass                                    Toómee kágung.
    Square                                       Káckkoo.
    ------, of a stone mason                     Bánjaw gaúnnee.
    Squeeze, to                                  Mímmeejoong.
    Stab, to                                     Choong.
    Stand up, to                                 Tátteeoong.
    Stand back to back                           Coósee noóchasa.
    Stars                                        Foóshee.
    Stay on board ship                           Hoónee oótee.
    Stem of a boat                               Oomoótee.
    Stern of a boat                              Coóma toómo.
    Stone                                        Is´hee.
    ----- cutter's hammer                        Oong.
    -----, carved                                Káwroo[110].
    Stop                                         Mátee[111].
    Straw                                        Wárra.
    Strike, to                                   Réjeecoong.
    String                                       Ko-eéroo.
    Strong                                       Choósa.
    ------ wine                                  Choozáckkee, or Sáckkeechoo.
    Sucking                                      Noódee[112].
    Sugar                                        Sáta.
    ----- cane                                   Oójee.
    -----, to make                               Sáta skóyoong.
    Sulky                                        Hárradat´chee.
    -----, not                                   Hárradat´chee soóna.
    Sun                                          Teéda.
    Sunset                                       Teéda ságayoong[113].
    Sunshine                                     Teéda téttee.
    Sunrise                                      Teéda ágayoong.
    Swallowing                                   Noónootoósha.
    Sweet                                        Amása.
    ----- wine                                   A´mazac´kkee[114].
    ----- potatoes                               Moo, or Moóndee.
    Swim, to                                     Weéjoong.
    Swimming                                     Weéjee.
    Sword                                        Tat´chee.
        A flight of stone steps                  Keesíee.
        A single step                            Coodámmee.
        To stick a thing in the ground           Táteeing.
    Table, round                                 Mádooee.
    Tail of a bird                               Dzoo.
    Take off the hat, to                         Hásseeoong.[115]
    Tattoo marks on the right arm                Oódeemaw.
    --------------- on the left arm              Toóga.
    Tea cup                                      Cháwung.
    -------, to break a                          Wy´oong.
    --- pot                                      Tácoo.
    ---, in an octagon bucket                    Tácoo cee.
    ---, the metal pot in the inside of          Tácoo mee.
      the bucket
    ---, the cover of a                          Tácoo whfoóta.
    ---, the handle of a                         Tácoo tee.
    ---, the ears of the bucket of a             Tácoo toódee.
    Tear, to                                     Yáyoong.
    ---- a thing in pieces                       Cheéreetawng.
    Tears                                        Náda.
    Teeth                                        Há (an aspirate).
    -----, to set on edge                        Ha gíshee gish.
    Temple                                       Meéa (Chinese).
    ------ yard                                  Tírra.
    Temples, human                               Koómeegung.
    Ten                                          Joo (Loo-Choo);
                                                 Too (Japan).
    Thank you                                    Ka foóshee.
    That                                         A´ddee.
    There                                        Ic´kkee.
    Thigh                                        Moómoo.
    Thirteen                                     Sanjoo.
    Thirty                                       Sangbácoo.
    This                                         Coódee.
    Thousand                                     Mang.
    --------, ten                                O´koo.
    Three                                        Sang (Loo-Choo);
                                                 Meétesee (Japan).
    Three sided figure                           Sang cac´kkoo.
    Thread, sewing                               Eéchoo[116].
    Thresh, to                                   Oótchoong[117].
    Throat                                       Noódee[118].
    Throw to, a stone at a mark                  Náging.
    --------, away any thing                     Oóchung-ging.
    Thumb                                        Hoóee Eébee.
    Tie to, a knot                               Coónjoong.
    Tide                                         Kádezee.
    Tin                                          Sheédookánnee.
    Tired, or fatigued                           Amus´heenoo.
    Tobacco                                      Tobácco[119] (as in England).
    -------  pouch                               Coóshee sat´chee, or foósa.
    To-day                                       A´choo.
    To-morrow                                    A´cha.
    Toe                                          Shánna eébee (lit. foot
                                                   finger).
    Toe-nail                                     Shánna thímmee.
    Tomb                                         Háka.
    Tomb-stone                                   Coóroo ishee.
    Tongue                                       Stcha.
    Torn, part of any thing                      Yádee tung.
    Touch, to                                    Sáyoong, or sit´choong.
    Town                                         Meéattoo, or Métto.
    Tray, or waiter                              Chírreedeh.
    Tread, to                                    Koóraming.
    Tremble to, with cold                        Koórooyoong.
    Tree                                         Kee.
    ----, branch of a                            Eéda.
    ----, Banyan                                 Gádesee mároo kee.
    ----, with red and white flowers             Hoóyoo.
    Tree, with large red flowers, which          Dee-eégo-kee.
      are called _acka banna_
    Trowsers                                     Coo, or Hackkáma.
    Turban worn by the lower order of the        Sájee.
      natives
    Turn round to                                Meégoyoong.
    Two                                          Nee (Loo-Choo); tátesee
                                                  (Japan).
    Twelve                                       Neéjoo.
    Twenty                                       Hácoo.
    ------ one                                   Hácoo it´cheejoo.
    ------ two                                   Hácoo neéjoo.
    ------ three                                 Hácoo sánjoo.
    ------ four                                  Hácoo sheénjoo, or sheehácoo.
    ------ five                                  Hácoo goónjoo, or goohacoo.
    ------ six                                   Hácoo roócoojoo.
    ------ seven                                 Hácoo sit´cheejoo.
    ------ eight                                 Hácoo fat´cheejoo.
    ------ nine                                  Hácoo coójoo.
    Tyger                                        Toóra.
    Vase, or urn                                 Jeéshee.
    Veins                                        Kájee.
    Very well (speaking of health)               Oogánjoo.
    --------- (well done, good)                  Eétshang.
    Victual or dinner box                        Píntaw.
    -------, the drawers in it                   Joobáckkoo.
    Ugly                                         Ootooroósa.
    Umbrella                                     Shássee kássa.
    Undress, to                                  Ching hájeeing.
    Untie, to, a knot                            Hoótoochoong.
    Upper garment                                Eéshaw, or Hoónta.
    Water                                        Meézee, or Meésee.
    -----, hot                                   A´tsee meézee, or átcheeroo.
    -----, cold                                  Feésa meézee, or feézeeroo
                                                   meézee.
    -----, salt                                  Spookoorása meézee.
    -----, a large jar containing                Tookoóee.
    Water tub                                    Meez-ofwhókee (cont. of meézee
                                                   and ofoowookee).
    Walk, to                                     At´choong.
    ----, or crawl as a butterfly                Seégatong.
    ----, slow                                   Yáwna eéchoong.
    ----, quick                                  Háyee sit´choong.
    Walking hand in hand, as the natives         Teefeécha.
    Wash, to                                     A´rayoong.
    ----, or bathe                               Indeetáwoong.
    ----, clothes                                Ching árayoong.
    Washing clothes                              Ching áratee.
    Watch                                        Kárahigh.
    ----- key                                    Sásee noo quaw.
    We, or a fourth person                       Yoótay.
    Weather                                      Tínsee, or tínchee.
    -------, fine                                Yetínsee[120], or tínchee.
    -------, foul or bad                         Yánna tínsee, or tínchee.
    Web-footed bird                              Itchoóma.
    ---------------, beak of a                   Coóchee (lit. mouth).
    ---------------  head                        Makarájjee.
    ---------------  leg                         Sha.
    ---------------  two legs                    Shándee.
    ---------------  tail                        Májoo.
    ---------------  wing                        Hónnee.
    Well (lit. water's skin)                     Meézee ka.
    West                                         Neéshee.
    Wet                                          Inneétee.
    Wet, to                                      I´ndeetáoong.
    What do you call this?                       Noóndeega.
    Wheel of a ship                              Cooroóma.
    Whiskers                                     Bínta.
    Whisper, to                                  Mónotitchoong.
    Whistling                                    Feéfee.
    ---------, as a bird                         Hoósa.
    White                                        Sheeroósa.
    Wick of a candle                             Skeecoótshee.
    Will you give me                             Wang yee quírree[121].
    Wind                                         Kássee, or Kázzee.
    ---- to come in                              Kássee noóchoong.
    ---- to go out                               Kássee eéchoong.
    ----, little                                 Kássee gua.
    ----, great                                  Weésa kássee, or táychfoo[122].
    Wind, to, up a watch                         Feénoyoong.
    --------, a string round the finger          Káramachoong.
    Winking                                      Mee oóchee.
    Wine                                         Sáckkee.
    ---- glass                                   Támma sáckka sit´chee.
    ---- kettle                                  Dáckkeezitza.
    ----, sweet                                  Amazack´kee, compounded of
                                                   amása and sackee.
    ----, strong                                 Choozáckkee, or sáckkeechoo.
    ----, weak                                   Eéawzáckkee, or sáckkee ya.
    Wing of a bird                               Hánnay.
    ---- feathers of a bird                      Kee.
    Wipe, to, the face                           Soósooyoong.
    Wish, to, or bid good bye                    Wóckkayoong.
    Wrist (lit. neck of the arm)                 Tee noo coóbee.
    Write, to                                    Kátchoong[123].
    Writing-desk                                 Sheékoo.
    Wrong in writing characters                  Náwshoong.
    Woman                                        Innágo.
    -----, plain                                 Ootooroósa innágo.
    -----, old                                   Teeshoóee innágo.
    -----, handsome                              Choorása innágo.
    -----, young                                 Wóckka innágo.
    Wood of any kind                             Támoong.
    Yawning                                      A´coobee.
    Year[124]                                    Ning.
    ----, one                                    It´chee ning.
    Years, eighteen, of age                      Joo hat´chee.
    -----, fourteen                              Joó shee.
    -----, thirty                                Sánjoo.
    -----, twenty-five                           Neéjoo goo.
    Yellow                                       Cheéroo.
    ------, dark                                 Kássa cheéroo, or áka cheéroo.
    ------, dirty or dingy                       Cheéroo díngee.
    Yes                                          Oo.
    Yesterday                                    Cheénoo.
    Yoke, across the shoulders of porters        Baw.
    You (a second person)                        Ya (tay).
    Young                                        Wock´ka.
    ----- woman                                  Wock´ka innágo.
    Yours                                        Coóra ya moong.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 25: This sound is the same as the Italian _gn_, and will be
found in the words _Gnafing_, signifying more; _Quangning_, a man of
rank; and also in _Neesa_, bad, and _Nee_, two, which are most commonly
pronounced as if a _g_ were prefixed to the _n_.]

[Footnote 26: The _o_ in this word is sounded as in the English word
_Bode_.]

[Footnote 27: See sentence No. 101, Part II.]

[Footnote 28: This word also signifies milk, and the female breast.]

[Footnote 29: In speaking of books with reference to their number, they
say _teetsee sheemootsee_, one book; _tatsee sheemootsee_, two books;
but of a single book they only say _sheemootsee;_ and we never found
that they had any plural termination.]

[Footnote 30: See sentence No. 111.]

[Footnote 31: There is a great similarity between this word and that
which signifies _to be alive_, (Itch-chawng).]

[Footnote 32: This word signifies both a ladder and a bridge.]

[Footnote 33: See Sentences Nos. 25 and 41.]

[Footnote 34: This word signifies both a cask and a candlestick.]

[Footnote 35: See Sentence No. 70.]

[Footnote 36: _Noo_ seems to express _of_, or the _'s_ used in the
English language: as _Ooshee noo chee_, the cow's milk, or the milk of
the cow; _Ooshee noo ka_, the bullock's skin, or the skin of the
bullock; _Doochoo noo choe_, Loo-choo's people, or the people of
Loo-choo; and will be found in a variety of other instances.]

[Footnote 37: See Sentences Nos. 18, 19, and 21.]

[Footnote 38: The compass was generally called _Kassee tooee_, which two
words signify wind and a cock or fowl; but the landsmen called it
_Karahigh_, which signifies a watch.]

[Footnote 39: This is probably _Oowhoko_, signifying a great many
persons.]

[Footnote 40: The day at Loo-Choo is divided into six hours, as also the
night. In counting a number of days they apply the numerals in a similar
manner to that which will be found in a note on _Twitchee_, an hour; but
they did not seem to have any names to denote the days of the week.]

[Footnote 41: This word is generally used by the master of the house
when his guest announces his intended departure, by saying, _Cung,
cung_.]

[Footnote 42: See Sentences Nos. 74 and 76.]

[Footnote 43: See Sentences Nos. 29, 32, 33, and 37.]

[Footnote 44: See Sentences Nos. 24 and 107.]

[Footnote 45: See Sentences Nos. 31, 36, and 27.]

[Footnote 46: See Numerals, Loo-Choo and Japan, Part II. after the
Sentences.]

[Footnote 47: This word, which is composed of _addee_, this, and
_coodee_, that, I am not positive of, and I have therefore affixed a
query against it.]

[Footnote 48: This is a very difficult word to pronounce, and I am not
certain of having conveyed its true sound.]

[Footnote 49: See Sentence No. 111.]

[Footnote 50: See Sentence No. 55.]

[Footnote 51: See Sentence No. 20.]

[Footnote 52: See note on Numerals.]

[Footnote 53: The nearest sound to that of _flail_ which a native of
Loo-Choo could utter was that of _Freyroo_; generally speaking they
found great difficulty in pronouncing English words. The nearest sound
to that of our _l_ was _Airoo_, and to that of _vil_ was _Bayroo_.]

[Footnote 54: See note on Numerals.]

[Footnote 55: See Sentences Nos. 45, 47, and 48.]

[Footnote 56: The intention of departing from a house is generally
announced by _Cung, cung_.]

[Footnote 57: The hair of the natives is formed into a knot on the crown
of the head, and fastened by two pins of silver or brass, the one
ornamented by a flowered head, called _kamma-shishee_, and the other
_ooshee-thushee_. That worn by the children is called _jeefa_.]

[Footnote 58: This word is used to denote a _tree_ as well as a _hand_;
this probably arises from the similarity; considering the _hand_ as the
trunk, and the fingers the branches of the _tree_.]

[Footnote 59: A piece of China crape, or very fine paper, is used as a
handkerchief by the superior classes of the natives, and is generally
worn in the bosom: the lower orders substitute a coarser kind of paper.]

[Footnote 60: A negative in frequent use.]

[Footnote 61: This word may be applied to being in want of water.]

[Footnote 62: See Sentence No. 2.]

[Footnote 63: A strong aspirate.]

[Footnote 64: See note on _I_ or _me_ (first person) next page.]

[Footnote 65: These two expressions were obtained by catching a
butterfly and then letting it go.]

[Footnote 66: The _jeeshee_, or _vase_, is a stone jar in which the
bones of the dead are deposited at the expiration of seven years after
burial.]

[Footnote 67: The same word (_obee_) signifies both the hoop of a cask
and the girdle worn round the waist; this probably originated in the
girdle being substituted for the hoop, which appears to have been worn
formerly.]

[Footnote 68: _Ma_, signifying a horse, is a Chinese word, and was
probably introduced into Loo-Choo with that animal.]

[Footnote 69: The names of the hours will be found in the second part;
the divisions of time will be found under their different heads of
day, month, year, &c.]

[Footnote 70: While seeking to obtain from the natives the pronouns _I_,
_you_, and _him_, I at first got _chooee, lay_, and _meechay;_ but on
further enquiry I found that these had not that meaning, they were
superseded by _wang_, _ya_, and _aree_, for _I_, _you_, and _him;_ but
as I heard _chooee_, _lay_, and _meechay_ repeated in enumerating
persons, I have set them down as first, second, and third persons, that
being the sense which they seem to bear. The word _chooee_, or _choo_,
it would seem signifies man (homo) in a general sense.]

[Footnote 71: See Sentence No. 96.]

[Footnote 72: See Sentence No. 99.]

[Footnote 73: See Sentence No. 101.]

[Footnote 74: See Sentence No. 6.]

[Footnote 75: See note, "Holding a thing."]

[Footnote 76: See Sentences Nos. 81 and 82.]

[Footnote 77: See Sentences Nos. 38 to 44.]

[Footnote 78: Literally to sew clothes.]

[Footnote 79: Literally to work rope.]

[Footnote 80: _Skoyoong_, or _Sookooyoong_, signifies to bake.]

[Footnote 81: This word, which is composed of _ickkee_ and _ya_
(_ickkee_ signifying _there_, and _ga_, which may possibly have been
originally _ya, you_), appeared to me to bear a similar meaning to our
_you, sir_, or _you, there_, as the natives invariably called out
_ickkeega_, when wishing to attract the attention of any one.]

[Footnote 82: See note on the _kawroo_. The _kaw_ is also burned when an
offering of rice is made on the _kawroo_.]

[Footnote 83: The following are the names of the months or moons.

    January            Shaw gwautsee.
    February           Nee gwautsee (lit. 2d month).
    March              Sang gwautsee (lit. 3d).
    April              Shee gwautsee (lit.  4th).
    May                Goo gwautsee (lit. 5th).
    June               Roocoo gwautsee (lit. 6th).
    July               Sitchee gwautsee (lit. 7th).
    August             Fatchee gwautsee (lit. 8th).
    September          Coo gwautsee (lit. 9th).
    October            Joo gwautsee (lit. 10th).
    November           Shee moo stitchee, or joo itchee gwautsee.
    December           Shee wasee, or joo nee gwautsee.

The twentieth day of the tenth month (October), _Joo gwautsee, neejoo
nitchee_, was, according to Loo-Choo time, the second day of the tenth
month, _joo gwautsee, nee nitchee_.]

[Footnote 84: A strong aspirate on the first syllable.]

[Footnote 85: The negative is almost invariably placed after the word.]

[Footnote 86: See note on numerals.]

[Footnote 87: The sound of the _oong_, or _oomb_, is very difficult, and
can only be approximated by closing the teeth firmly and compressing the
sound of _oong_.]

[Footnote 88: See note on Numerals.]

[Footnote 89: See Sentences Nos. 49 to 53.]

[Footnote 90: _Sheenoostang_ signifies to _cover over_, and possibly
_ooroo_ should have been written _eeroo_, which is _colour_; and this
word, signifying _painting_, would then be literally _to cover over with
colour_.]

[Footnote 91: This is literally the _belly of the hand_, or the _hand's
belly_. For an explanation of the _noo_ see observations on the Loo-Choo
language at the beginning.]

[Footnote 92: This word seems to derive its origin from _ackka_,
_burning_.]

[Footnote 93: This word, _Katcheemeeoong_, to pinch, appears to be
formed of the words _Ka_, skin, _chee_, blood, and _meeoong_, to see;
and may be translated to _see the blood through the skin_, or _in the
skin_.]

[Footnote 94: This sound is not unlike that which the screwing about the
scull of a boat on the pivot causes.]

[Footnote 95: The same word signifies a flower.]

[Footnote 96: _Feetchoong_ signifies to pull, so that it may with more
propriety be applied to the harp, or touching the strings of the violin
with the fingers.]

[Footnote 97: A strong aspirate on the last syllable.]

[Footnote 98: See Sentence No. 105.]

[Footnote 99: Literally, to upset.]

[Footnote 100: For the sound of this word see note on the English word
_no_.]

[Footnote 101: See Sentence No. 8.]

[Footnote 102: _Narang_, or _nang_, is used on most occasions as the
negative.]

[Footnote 103: The same word signifies _sweet potatoes_.]

[Footnote 104: This word it will be observed signifies both _to screw_
and _to scull;_ this may originate in the screwing motion of the oar
from side to side of the boat.]

[Footnote 105: See Sentences No. 38 to 44.]

[Footnote 106: The similarity in sound of this word to that of a
character (_Hoonatee_) written on a piece of paper in the hats of the
men employed working for the ships, has suggested the idea that the
meaning of the character may have some reference to a ship.]

[Footnote 107: See Sentences Nos. 102 and 103.]

[Footnote 108: Words of Loo-Choo songs:

"Sasa sangcoomeh sangcoomeah kadee yooshee daw, tantoong tantoong tang."

A boat song: "Whee yo ee.--Whee yo ee." The steersman gave "Whee," and
was followed by the other men with a repetition of "Whee yo ee."

Another boat song: "Quee yay hanno ha.--Quee yay hanno ha." To both
these airs the rowers kept very good time.]

[Footnote 109: See Sentences Nos. 1 to 7.]

[Footnote 110: The _kawroo_ is a small square stone excavated a little
on the upper part, in which an offering of rice is made. On the face of
this stone is carved a variety of characters denoting the rank, &c. of
the person who makes the offering.]

[Footnote 111: See Sentences in Part II.]

[Footnote 112: See Sentences Nos. 29, 32, 33, and 37.]

[Footnote 113: See Sentences Nos. 108, 109, and 110.]

[Footnote 114: _Amazackkee_ is a contraction of the words _amasa_,
sweet, and _sackkee_, wine; the latter always changing _s_ into _z_ when
preceded by any other word. See _wine_, _strong_, _weak_, &c.]

[Footnote 115: Tattoo marks will be found in Part II.]

[Footnote 116: _Eechoo._ This word is used to denote _thread_, silk_,
and _ribbon._]

[Footnote 117: _Ootchoong_, or _oochoong_, signifies _to work_, _to
play_, and _to make_.]

[Footnote 118: Possibly this word implies the act of swallowing.]

[Footnote 119: The sound of this word is precisely the same as that of
our _tobacco_. I have, therefore, spelt it in the same manner.]

[Footnote 120: See Sentence No. 109.]

[Footnote 121: See Sentences Nos. 45, 47, and 48.]

[Footnote 122: This is probably the _tae fung_ (great wind of the
Chinese, called by us _tyfoon_), a severe gale of wind in the China
Sea.]

[Footnote 123: See Sentence No. 73.]

[Footnote 124: The year at Loo-Choo, according to Jeeroo's account, is
divided into twelve months of thirty days each, making in all 360 days,
and every sixth year one month is intercalated.]



NOTE.


In the following Sentences the English is given before the Loo-Choo. No
Sentence has been inserted the meaning of which was not distinctly
ascertained; but it happened frequently that the precise import of some
words in a Sentence was not made out, and in order to enable the reader
to judge to what extent this took place, a literal translation of the
words in each Sentence is given in the last column; and where a word
occurs, the meaning of which is doubtful, an asterisk is put in its
place.

In the last column it will be observed that every verb having the
termination _oong_, _ung_, &c. is translated as if it were the
infinitive, although the sense, as denoted in the first column, points
to another mood.



SENTENCES, ENGLISH AND LOO-CHOO.

  _Of Speaking._

  No. _English._              _Loo-Choo._                 _Literal Translation._

  1.  I speak                 Moónooyoong                 I to speak.

  2.  I speak, you hear       Moónooyoong, ya sit´choong, I speak, you to hear,
                                  or Chickkee             or hearing.

  3.  I speak to you          Ya, or ea moónooyoong, or   You to speak, or I.
                              wang. Ya too moónooyoong    You * to speak.

  4.  I speak Chinese         Wang Quántoong              I Chinese to speak.
                              moónooyoong

  5.  I cannot speak Chinese  Wang Quántoong moónoorang   I Chinese cannot speak.

  6.  I am learning to speak  Wang Doóchoo cootoóba       I Loo-Choo learning or
      Loo-Choo                yoóshoong[125]              studying to *.

  7.  Mádera speaks English   I´ngere Mádera moónooyoong  English Mádera to
                                                            speak.

  _Of Going and Coming._

  8.  A man running to the    Háyay tímma ic´kkeega       Running boat man.
      boat

  9.  I am going on shore     Wang amáki eéchoong         I shore to go.

  10. To-morrow I will return A´cha choó-oong             To-morrow to come.

  11. To come back again      A´mma ka choong[126]        *   *  to come.

  12. I am going on board     Timma ki eéchoong           Boat * to go.

  13. I came yesterday        Cheénoo chung               Yesterday came.

  14. Go down there           Amúnka ic´kkee              * there.

  15. Come up here            Nooboótee coo               Ascend here.

  16. You go below            Yá oódee meéshawdee         You * *.

  17. To go out of a place    Yá ka saut eéchoong         * * * to go.

  18. To come into a place    Yá ka saut choong           * * * to come.

  19. Tayin[127] returns      Tayin[127] choo-oong        The great man to come.

  20. To go in a boat to      Doóchoo timma eéchoong      Loo-Choo boat to go
      Loo-Choo to carry fish  eéo katámmeeoong            fish to carry.

  21. To go to sea in a       Timma eéchoong oóshoo       Boat to go sea fish to
      boat to catch fish      eéo cheéoong                catch

  22. Where is Tayin gone     Táyin makáyee ga ímjara     Tayin * * *.

  23. Tayin has gone to       Táyin eéchoong hooboónee    Tayin to go large ship
      the other ship to       meéyoong Sheenoóma          to see *.
      pay his respects

  24. When all are drunk      I´gnea weétee amáki         All drunk shore *
      we shall be permitted   moótotee yoótoosha                           *.
      to go on shore

  25. I am going now, he      Atookárra wang eéchoong     By and by I to go, by
      will come presently     atookárra eéchoong          and by to go.

  26. I am going on shore     Wang amáki eéchoong         I shore to go I to
      to dinner               moónookámoong               eat.

  27. I am going on board     Wang hoónee ki eéchoong     I ship * to go I to
      to dinner               moónoo kámoong              eat.

  28. When the ships depart   A´cha hoónee níttee Doóchoo To-morrow ship *
      to-morrow all the       mang hoónee                 Loo-Choo thousand
      Loo-Choo people will    oócooyoong                  ship *.
      pray


  _Of Eating and Drinking._

  29. To drink wine          Sac´kkee noómoong            Wine to drink.

  30. Sweet wine             Amazac´kkee                  Sweet wine.

  31. I eat                  Moónoo kámoong               I to eat.

  32. I never drink tea      Cha noódee nárang            Tea drinking never.

  33. Tayin and you never    Táyin ya sac´kkee noódee     Tayin you wine drink
       drink wine            nárang                       never.

  34. The parting glass      Wóckkarittee                 Departing.

  35. It is good (to eat)    Coódee mása                  This good (to eat).

  36. It is bad, throw it    Neésba is´kung               Bad *.
       away

  37. It is tea, to drink    Meézee tájeeing cha noódee   Water to boil tea
                                                          drinking.


  _Of Looking and Seeing._

  38. To look at the sun     Teéda meéoong kágung         Sun to see glass.
      through a glass

  39. I look, or I see       Moónoomeéoong                I to see.

  40. The English gentleman  I´ngere táyin meésheeoong    English great man to
      is looking                                          look at.

  41. Stop, you shall look   Mátee*, atookárra ya         Stop, by and by you
      presently              meésheeoong                  to look at.

  42. Clouds obscure the     Koómoo teéda oósooóstang     Clouds sun to cover
      sun                                                 over.

  43. The branches of the    Toómee kágung kee noo        Spy-glass trees
      tree obstruct the      káttakáshee meérang          branches to hide.
      sight

  44. If a Loo-Choo woman    Doóchoo innágo I´ngere       Loo-Choo woman English
       should see you she    meéoong náchoong             to see, to cry.
       will be alarmed


  _Of Giving._

  45. Will you give me that  Wang yee quírree             I  * giving.

  46. Give me that pencil    Hoódee moot´choo             Pencil bring.

  47. I gave him some paper  A´ree nee queétang           Him * giving.

  48. By and by I will give  Atookárra qua gnee queéoong  By and by children *
      it to my children                                   to give.


  _Of Opening and Shutting._

  49. Shut this, or it       Akíttee nínjoong             Shutting to sleep.

  50. Open this, or it       Akíttee mírree, or           Opening it.
                             akátindee

  51. Do you open this,      Akátindee, or ya akírree     Opening, or you
      or it                                               opening.

  52. Open this book         Ya sheémootsee akírree       You book opening.

  53. Open your watch that   Akátindee kárahigh meéoong   Opening watch to see.
      I may look at it


  _Of Losing and Finding._

  54. To lose a pencil       Hoódee oótoochung             Pencil to lose.

  55. To find a pencil       Hoódee toómatung              Pencil to find.


  _Of Quantity._

  56. Two small suns         Tátsee teéda gua             Two suns small.

  57. A few boys             Coósa wárrabee               Few boys.

  58. A few Men              Ic´kkeekoósa                 Men few.

  59. A great many men       Ic´kkeerássa                 Men many.

  60. A few books            Sheémootsee sánsatche        Books few.

  61. A great many books     Sheémootsee tóro             Books many.

  62. Six kinds of wine      Moóeeyroo noo sáckkee        *  of wine.


  _Of Making._

  63. Making a false step    Koónsinda dákatchee          *       *.

  64. Vases made at Napa     Nápa jeéshee scoótee         Napa vases made.

  65. Sand spread on a level Sínna oóshoo sháee máshoo    Sand sea  * salt
      plain on which water   tátchoong                    to make.
      is sprinkled for
      making salt

  66. Sing a song            Ya oóta yoóshoong            You song to sing.

  67. Jeeroo sings well,     Jeéroo oóta yoóshoong        Jeeroo song to sing   *
      or with good taste     cheécheegoótoo               *         *.


  _Of Bringing and Carrying._

  68. Bring your children    Ya qua saúteecoo             You children bring.

  69. Bring fire here        Fee toóteecoo                Fire bring.

  70. This vessel carries    Hoónee jeéshee káttamittee   Ship vases * Oonting.
      vases to Oonting       Oónting

  71. Boy, bring fire to     I´rree fee toóteecoo tobácco Boy fire bring,
      light my pipe          foókee                       tobacco smoke.

  72. Bring a cup of water   Cháwung náki meézee eéteecoo Teacup  *  water  *
      here                                                here.


  _Of Writing and Sketching_

  73. To write a letter      Jee kátchoong                A character to write.

  74. Tayin is sketching     Táyin háshee noo             Tayin bridge of to
      the bridge             eékatchoong                  sketch.

  75. Tayin sketches very    Táyin yoókatchee choorása    Tayin  *  sketches
      well                                                handsome.

  76. To sketch a Loo-Choo   Doóchoo meéa eékatchoong     Loo-Choo temple to
      temple                                              sketch.


  _Of Compliment._

  77. Thank you              Ká foóshee                   *    *    *.

  78. How do you do          Yoo ky´moong                 *    *    *.

  79. Very well              Oogánjoo                     *    *    *.

  80. I am very sorry        Oomoótee shangcoómeh         *    *    *.


  _Of Living or Residing._

  81. Tayin lives here       Táyin simmájoo coo           Tayin lives here.

  82. A man living in the    Ickkeegá simmá áwhfee        A man living country.
      country

  83. I live on board the    Wang hoónee gua ímmatong     I ship small to live.
      brigs


  _Of Burning and Scalding._

  84. Fire will burn you     Fee yáddee                   Fire burns.

  85. Water will scald you   Meésee yáddee                Water burns.

  86. Scalding oneself with  Meézee fidgeroósa yoo        Water hot * burns.
      hot water            yáddee


  _Of Enquiry and Reply._

  87. What is the name of    Noóndeega coóra na           What is this name.
      this

  88. The name of this is    Coóra ga na ya               This * name *.

  89. How many children      Qui eecootiéga               *     *     *.
      have you

  90. How old are you or     Eecoótseega                  *     *     *.
      they

  91. I am fourteen years    Joóshee                      Fourteen.
      of age

  92. I am eighteen years    Joohatc´hee                  Eighteen.
      of age

  93. ---- twenty-five, &c.  Neéjoogoo                    Twenty-five.


  _Miscellaneous._

  94. To boil potatoes       Mootájeeing                  Potatoes to boil.

  95. I am very busy         Yoo joónatan                 *     *     *.

  96. The sting of a snake   Háboo coótee sheénoong       Snake sting to kill.
      will kill

  97. Sucking milk at the    Chee noóma chee              Milk * breast.
      breast

  98. A child drinking milk  Chee noódee wárrabee         Milk drinking child.
      at the breast

  99. A child kissing its    Wárrabee úmma coóchee        Child mother mouth
      mother                 spoótee                      kissing.

  100. A woman leaning       Innágo kákatong eéki         Woman to lean anchor.
       on an anchor

  101. A live shell-fish     Amang it´chchawng            Shell-fish to be alive
       will bite             coóyoong                     to bite.

  102. This flower has a     Fánna mása kabásha           Flower sweet smell.
       pleasant smell

  103. This flower has no    Fánna nang kabásha           Flower no smell.
       smell

  104. Loo-Choo women        Doóchoo innágo fwhoóco       Loo-choo woman great
       are not very          ooórung                      many *.
       handsome

  105. The sootitsee (sago   Sootítsee wang tseéchoong    Sootitsee I * *.
       tree) pricked me      yátee

  106. To plant potatoes    Moo jee hoótee céyoong        Potatoes ground * *.

  107. Drunk, I vomit       Weétee moónoo háchoong        Drunk I vomit.

  108. After sunset it is   Teéda ságatee seedásha        Sun setting cool.
       cool

  109. When the sun          Teéda téttee, koómoo nang,   Sunshine, clouds none,
       shines, and there     yaytínchee                   fine weather.
       are no clouds, it
       is fine weather

  110. The sun sets at six   Roócoo twit´chee teéda       Six hours sun to set.
       o'clock               ságayoong

  111. The horse fell down,  Ma táwrittee táyin noo       Horse fell down,
       and the tayin         eébee oótee                  tayin's finger broke.
       broke his finger

  112. After seven years     Sítchee ning, coótsee        Seven years' bones
       we wash the bones     arátee jeéshee ittee         washing vase putting
       and put them into                                  in.
       a vase

  113. Without any flesh     Shíshee ning                 Flesh none.

  114. The people of         Doóchoo noo choo sibíttee    Loo-choo people
       Loo-Choo I shall      yoótoosha                    remember * *.
       never forget

  115. You will soon         Sibíttee wása                Remember bad.
       forget them

  116. Twelve hours make     Joo nee twit´chee, it´chee   Ten two hours, one
       one day               nit´chee                     day.

  117. Thirty days make one  Sánjoo nit´chee, it´chee     Thirty days one month
       moon, or month        gwaútsee

  118. One year consists of  It´chee ning, joo nee        One year, ten two
       twelve months         gwaútsee                     months.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 125: _Yooshoong_ probably signifies _to recite_, as it is used in
requesting a person to sing as well as in this instance.]

[Footnote 126: Probably instead of _amma ka_, this should have been _amaki_
(shore), which would makeit coming to the shore, which was the case.]

[Footnote 127: _Ta-jin_, in Chinese, signifies a _great man;_ it is translated
 by Mr. Morrison _his excellency_.]


[Transcriber's Note: Japanese characters in the table below are denoted as such.]

  NUMERALS.

  _English._    _Loo-Choo._      _Characters._          _Japan._

  1  One        It´chee          [Japanese character]   Teétsee, or te        1.

  2  Two        Nee, or gnee     [Japanese character]   Tátsee, or ta         2.

  3  Three      Sang             [Japanese character]   Meétsee, or mee       3.

  4  Four       Shee             [Japanese character]   Eéotsee[128], or yoo  4.

  5  Five       Goo, or go       [Japanese character]   I´ttitsee             5.

  6  Six        Roóko            [Japanese character]   Moótsee               6.

  7  Seven      St´chee          [Japanese character]   Nánnatsee             7.

  8  Eight      Fat´chee, or     [Japanese character]   Eeyátsee              8.
                kwat´chee

  9  Nine       Coo              [Japanese character]   Koónnitsee            9.

  10 Ten        Joo, or dzoo     [Japanese character]   Too                  10.

Both sets of these numerals are in common use at Loo-Choo, though it
would not perhaps be correct to apply them to the same word, as I never
recollect having heard a native say "itchee sheemootsee," one book, or
"teétsee twit´chee," one hour, but always "teétsee sheémootsee," one
book, and "itchee twitchee," one hour. I at first imagined "teetsee,
tatsee," &c. were ordinals, but I have since found from Captain
Broughton's Voyage that they bear a great resemblance to the numerals of
Japan, and as such I have inserted them.

The characters, of which the above are copies, were written by a native.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 128: The _o_ in this word is to be pronounced as the diphthong
_oa_ in boat.]



NAMES OF PERSONS.

    The Kowung, or King                             - Sháng fwee.

    The Pochin ta foo, or Prince                    - Shang pung-fwee.

    The Chief of the Paychins who attended the ship - Oókooma Mowchowshoóa.

    The second Paychin                              - Madáyra Sháyoon.

    The third   do.                                 - I´ssacha Sándoo.

    The fourth  do.                                 - Jeéma Tsí-se-eu.

    His eldest son                                  - Maátsee Tsí-chee.

    His friend (an elderly man)                     - Oóhoomee Chínchawhee.

    The fifth Paychin                               - I´ssecha Háckkeeboócoo.

    The sixth  do.                                  - Jeéroo Jeéda.

    The first Linguist                              - Mádera Káwsheeoong.

    The second Linguist                             - A´nya Toónshoonfa.

    His wife                                        - Oóshee.

    One of the junior Paychins                      - Yáma Too.

    The teacher (an old man)                        - Yáckkabee Oómeejeéroo.

    His eldest son                                  - Yáckkabee Oómee-nee whaw.

    A boy                                           - O´seejee.

    One of the principal attendants of the}
    Pochin ta foo                         }         - Mádam Báshee.

    Another                                         - Eévaroo.


    NAMES OF PLACES.

    Corea                                           - Córay.

    Pekin                                           - Péking.

    Fokien                                          - Fótchien.

    China                                           - Quántoong.

    Chusan                                          - Choósan.

    England                                         - I´ngeree.

    The island of Loo-Choo                          - Loo-Choo, or Doó-Choo.

    The town of Napakiang                           - Nápa ummeátto.

    The high distant islands seen from Napa         - A´makírreema.

    The Sugar Loaf Island                           - Eégoos eécoondee.

    Japan                                           - Níphon.

    Canton                                          - Cánton.


NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE MOON FROM NEW TO FULL.

1. Chee tátchee.

2. Hádjee mee nitchee.

3. Hádjee mee san nit´chee.

4. Hádjee mee noo ka.

5. Hádjee mee goo nit´chee.

6. Hádjee mee roócoo nit´chee.

7. Hádjee mee sit´chee nit´chee.

8. Hádjee mee fatchee nit´chee.

9. Hádjee mee coo nit´chee.

10. Yoóka.

11. Joo it´chee nit´chee.

12. Joo nee nit´chee.

13. Joo san nit´chee.

14. Joo yoóka.

15. Joo goo nit´chee.



THE NINE ORDERS OF RANK OF PAYCHINS, OR CHIEFS, WHO ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THE
COLOUR OF THEIR BONNETS, CALLED HATCHEE MATCHEE.


                                         { A pink ground with spots, circles,
    1st. Ching neéstchoo noo Hat´chee    { and diamonds, of black, yellow, blue,
         mat´chee                        { white, and green.

    2nd. A´cadjee noo Hat´chee mat´chee  { A pink ground with spots, &c. of red
                                         { and yellow, blue and black.

    3rd. O´jee noo Hat´chee mat´chee     { A green ground with spots, &c. of
                                         { red, yellow, blue, and black.

    4th. Moóla sat´chee noo Hat´chee     { A pink or light purple ground, with
         mat´chee                        { spots of the same colour.

    5th. Cheéroo dínjee noo Hat´chee     { A dingy yellow ground, with spots of
         mat´chee                        { the same colour.

    6th. Cheéroo sy ya noo Hat´chee      { A bright yellow ground without
         mat´chee                        { spots.

    7th. Chíddeeming noo Hat´chee        { A red ground without spots.
         mat´chee

    8th. Akása noo Hat´chee mat´chee     - A red ground without spots.

    9th. O´sa noo Hat´chee mat´chee      - A green ground without spots.

The attendants of the chiefs wear a red Hatchee matchee of a coarser
texture.


TATTOO MARKS ON THE ARMS OF SOME OF THE NATIVES OF THE GREAT LOO-CHOO
ISLAND.

                        1.                          3.
                    Right arm.          Right arm.      Left arm.
    This man had  [Illustration:    [Illustration:     [Illustration:
    not any mark     Oódeemaw.]       Oódeemaw.]          toóga.]
    on the left
    arm.

                        2.                         4.
                    Right arm.          Right arm.      Left arm.
                  [Illustration:     [Illustration]    [Illustration:
                  Coódee Oódemaw.]                        toóga.]

The four men, whose arms were marked in the above manner, were young and
of the lower order, probably fishermen. It appeared to have been done by
puncturing the skin, and staining it with Indian ink in the manner
practised by our seamen.

The above marks are quite as large as the originals; they were on the
inner part of the fore arm, close up to the elbow joint. Some were
marked on both arms, others only on the right, but we did not observe
any who had them only on the left arm.


NAMES OF THE HOURS.

    One hour, or one o'clock    It´chee twit´chee    }
    Two hours, or two           Nee twit´chee        }
    Three                       Sang twit´chee       } The day
    Four                        Shee twit´chee       }
    Five                        Goo twit´chee        }
    Six                         Roócoo twit´chee     }
    Seven                       Sit´chee twit´chee   }
    Eight                       Fat´chee twit´chee   }
    Nine                        Coo twit´chee        } The night.
    Ten                         Joo twit´chee        }
    Eleven                      Joo it´chee twit´chee}
    Twelve                      Joo nee twit´chee    }

The day at Loo-Choo, i.e. between sunrise and sunset, is divided into
six hours, as is also the night.



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE JAPANESE AND LOO-CHOO LANGUAGES.



NOTE.


The following comparisons are given, with the view of pointing out as
nearly as circumstances will permit what resemblance there is between
the languages of the islands of Loo-Choo, Niphon, or Japan, and Insu,
lying in the Japan Sea, and which by some voyagers have been considered
the same language.

In the first comparison, viz. that between the languages of Loo-Choo and
Japan, the Japanese words are extracted from the translation of
Thunberg's Voyage to Japan, printed in London 1795, 2d edit. vol. iii.

In the second, viz. that between Loo-Choo and Insu, the Insu words are
taken from Broughton's Voyage.

A third comparison is given between the languages of Loo-Choo, Niphon,
and Insu, together with the two sets of Numerals in use at Loo-Choo, the
Japanese from Thunberg, and the Insu from Broughton.

It ought to be recollected that as Mr. Thunberg was a foreigner, and
wrote in a different language from that in which the Loo-Choo words have
been recorded, a difference of sound may be suspected between them when
no material difference really exists between the two languages.

The letter _u_ has been substituted in the spelling of the Japanese
words for the _v_ used by Thunberg.



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE JAPANESE AND LOO-CHOO LANGUAGES.


    _English._              _Japanese[129]._      _Loo-Choo._

    All                     Mei                  Innea.
    Anchor                  Ikari                Eki.
    Angry                   Fandatsuru           Neetsa.
    Answer, to              Fento suru           Aree ga aanyoong.
    Arm                     Ude                  Teenoo.
    Arrow                   Ja                   Eea.
    Attendant               Sairio               Eeree.
    Bad                     Warikakuse           Neesha, or Wasa.
    Bake, to                Jaku                 Irree-chang.
    Bare (naked)            Haguru               Harraka.
    Bed                     Nedokuri             Coocha.
    Belly                   Stabara              Watta.
    Bend, to                Oru                  Tammeeoong.
    Bird                    Tori                 Hotoo.
    Birdcage                Tori no su           Hotoo coo.
    Bitter                  Nigaka               Injassa.
    Blood                   Tji, or Kjets        Chee.
    Blow, up the fire, to   Fuku                 Footchoong.
    Boat                    Temma                Timma.
    Boil, to                Tagiru               Tajeeing.
    Bone                    Fone                 Cootsee.
    Book                    Somots               Sheemootsee.
    Bow                     Jumi                 Yoomee.
    Branch of a tree        Jeda                 Kee.
    Brass                   Sintju               Cheejackkoo.
    Breadth                 Jakohaba             Habba.
    Breast                  Mone                 Moonee.
    Breathe, to             Ikitsuku             Itchooshoong.
    Bridge                  Fae, hae             Hashee.
    Brother                 Kiodai               Weekee.
    Bucket                  Tango                Tagoo.
    Button                  Botan                Kogannee.
    Calf of the leg         Stosone              Koonda.
    Candle                  Rosoku               Daw.
    Candlestick             Rosoks tatti         Soo-coo.
    Cannon                  Issibia              Isheebeea.
    Carry away, to          Mootsu               Mootchee eechoong.
    Cat                     Mio                  Mia.
    Charcoal                Sumi                 Chacheejing.
    Cheeks                  Hogeta, fo           Hoo.
    Child                   Kodoma               Warrabee.
    Circle                  Maru                 Maroodair.
    Castle, or tower        Siro, so             Eegooscoo.
    Climb, to               Nagoru               Noobooyoong.
    Cloth                   So king              Ching.
    Cock                    Otori                Woo tooee.
    Cold                    Samka kang           Feesa.
    Compass                 Fobari               Karahigh.
    Colour                  Iro                  Eeroo ceeroo.
    Come, to                Kuru                 Choong.
    Cool                    Sususi               Seedasha.
    Copper                  Akaganni             Acoogannee.
    Count, to               Kansju               Oohawkoo-oong.
    Cow                     Us                   Mee ooshee.
    Creep, to               Fau                  Hawyoong.
    Cup, tea                Tiawang              Chawung.
    Dark                    Mime                 Coorasing.
    Daughter                Musme, gogo          Innago oongua.
    Deep                    Fukai                Fookassa.
    Dig, to                 Foli                 Ooehoong.
    Die                     Sinnoru sinu         Nintoong.
    Dice                    Saii                 Sheego roocoo.
    Door                    To                   Hashirree.
    Dog                     Inu                  Ing.
    Drink                   Nomimono             Noomoo.
    Drink, to               Nomu                 Noomoong.
    Drunk, to be            Namoji jeikfsari     Weeoong.
    Duck, tame              Afiru                Afeeroo.
    Dry, to                 Karruru              Karachoong.
    Earth, the              Tji dsi              Jee.
    Ear                     Mimi                 Mimmee.
    East                    Figasi               Fingassee.
    Egg                     Tamago               Cooga.
    Elbow                   Ude, fisi            Tenoo feejee.
    Empty, to               Akwuru               Karashoong.
    Exchange, to            Kajuru               Kayra (fans); to exchange
                                                   fans at Loo-Choo.
    Face                    Tsera                Steera.
    Fall, to                Tawareta             Tawshoong.
    Fan                     Oge                  Ojee.
    Farewell                Kingo, nigoserru     Wockkatee.
    Father                  Tete, toto           Shoo.
    Fat                     Kojuru               Quaitee.
    Feather                 Tori no fa           Tooee noo hannee.
    Fin, a fin              Jokofiri fire        Hannay.
    Finger                  Jubi                 Eebee.
    Find, to                Midassu              Toomatung.
    Fire                    Fi, finoko           Fee.
    Fish                    Iwo, sakkana         Eeo.
    Fish                    Iwo tsuru            Eeo kakeeoong.
    Fishing net             Ami                  Sheebee.
    Flag, a                 Hato                 Hata.
    Flower                  Fanna                Fanna.
    Fly, a                  Hai                  Hayeh.
    Fly, to                 Toobu                Toobeeoong.
    Friend                  Ftoobai              Eedooshee.
    Foot                    Assi                 Shanna.
    Firewood                Takigi               Tamoong.
    Full                    Mits                 Meetchetee.
    Girl                    Komusime             Tackkee.
    Girdle                  Skimmawas sansakagi  Obee.
    Give, to                Fureru, jaru         Queeoong.
    Go down to              Ururu, iru           Ooritteo coo.
    Go up to                Aguru                Noobooyoong.
    Goat, he                Jagi                 Woo feeja.
    Gold                    Sin                  Ching.
    Good                    Jukka                Choorasa.
    Good man                Jukka fito           Yookachoo.
    Good for nothing        Jonaka               Maconarang.
    Hair                    Kami                 Kurrazzee.
    Hammer                  Kanatsutji           Gooshung.
    Hand                    Tee                  Kee.
    Handkerchief            Te no goi            Teesadgee.
    Hat                     Kasa                 Kassa.
    Head                    Kubi                 Boosee.
    Head-ache                Attamanna, itama,    Seebooroo yadong.
                              dutso
    Heart                   Kokurro, sing        Nacoo.
                              singnoso
    Hear, to                Kikf                 Sitchoong, or skitchoong.
    Heavens                 Ten                  Ting.
    Heavy                   Omoka, omotaka       Boosa.
    Hen, a                  Mendori, metori      Meetooee.
    Hide, to                Kaksu                Meerang.
    Hip                     Momo                 Gammacoo.
    Hole, or cavity         Anna                 Anna.
    Horn                    Tsunno, kaku         Stinnoo.
    Horse                   Aki uma              Ma.
    Hot                     Atska                Atteesa.
    House                   Je                   Ya, or katchee.
    Ink                     Sum, sumi            Simmee.
    Inkstand                Susumi hake          Simmee shee.
    Iron                    Tets, furoganni      Titzee.
    Key                     Kagi                 Quaw.
    Kill, to                Korossu              Sheenoung, or
                                                   Koorashoong.
    Kiss                    Umakutji, or         Sheemirree.
                              Kwutjisu
    Kiss, to                Umakutji suru        Coochee spootee.
    Knife                   Haka                 Seego.
    Knee                    Fisa, fisa no sarra  Stinsee.
    Kneel, to               Fisatatsuru          Shumma gitcheeoong.
    Knot, a                 Fimmo                Coonja cootchee.
    Laugh, to               Warau                Worrayoong.
    Learning, or studying   Narau, Kicku         Cootooba.
    Letter, or character    Moisi, tsi mousi     Jee.
    Lift to, a thing        Motjiagaru           Moochoong.
    Light to, a pipe        Fitobusu, fitomusu   Sheeoong.
    Lip                     Tsuba                Seeba.
    Liquor                  Sakki                Sackkeedia, or
                                                   Samtchoo (Chinese).
    Look to, or see         Miru                 Meeoong, or meeing.
    Looking-glass           Kagami               Kagung.
    Long, or length         Nagai                Nagása.
    Lose, to                Song suru, makuru    Ootoochung.
    Live, to                Inotji               Simmatong.
    Lacker, to              Makie saru           Nooyoong.
    Man (homo)              Momo                 Choo.
    Man (vir)               Otoko                Ickkeega.
    Mast                    Hobasi               Hasseeda.
    Mat                     Tattami              Mooshooroo, or Hatung.
    Match (fire-stick)      Skedakki, skegi      Kaw.
    Measure, to             Siakf, monosasa      Gaujee hackkiyoong.
    Mew, to (like a cat)    Neko, naku           Nachoong deeoong.
    Milk                    Tji tji tji          Chee.
    Monkey                  Saru, salu           Saroo.
    Moon                    Tsuki                Stchay.
    ----, full              Mangets              Oostitchee, or maroo.
    Mother                  Fasa kasa            Umma.
    Mud                     Noro                 Dooroo.
    Nail, finger            Tsume, jassuru       Thimmee.
    Naked                   Hadaka               Harraka.
    Name                    Na                   Na.
    Navel                   Fosso, feso          Whoosoo.
    Neck                    Kwabi, nodor         Coobee.
    Needle                  Fari                 Hayee skittee.
    Night                   Josari, joru         Yooroo.
    Nipples                 Tjibusa              Chee.
    Nod, to                 Gatting suru         Najeechoong.
    North                   Kitta                Cheeta.
    Nose                    Fanna                Honna.
    Nostrils                Fanna nosu           Honnakee.
    Offer, to               Okuru, agurujasiagu- Ozagadee.
                              ru, nedoaskuru
    Old                     Tassijori, furuje    Teeshooee.
                              furuke
    Open, to                Akuru                Akeeoong.
    Overturn, to            Tawaruru             Kooroobashoong.
    Paper                   Kami                 Kabee.
    Pencil                  Fuda                 Hoodee.
    Physician               Isa                  Ishsha.
    Pinch, to               Nesumu               Katcheemeeoong.
    Pipe (tobacco)          Kiseru               Shirree.
    Play to, with dice      Sugoroko utsu        Sheegoroocoo ochoong.
    Plough                  Seri, seribetta,     Sitchee.
                              tsuku tauts
    Plough, to              Togajassu            Sitchoong.
    Pour in, to             Tsugu                Irreeing.
    Powder (gun)            Jenso                Eenshoo.
    Pregnant                Mimotji, farami      Kassee jeetaung.
    Press, to               Siburu               Sheetskeeoong.
    Priest                  Boos                 Bodzee.
    Push, to                Sukikakaru           Kooroobashoong.
    Quarrel, to             Ijou                 Titskoong.
    Quick                   Faijo, faijaki       Hayee.
    Rain                    Ame                  Amee.
    Rain, to                Ame no fiuru         Amee fooyoong.
    Rainbow                 Nisi                 Noo, oojee.
    Rat                     Nisumi               Ack a-sa.
    Read, to                Jomu                 Yoomoong.
    Rice                    Kome                 Coomee.
    Rice, boiled            Mes                  Umbang.
    Ride, to, a horse       Noru                 Manayoong.
    Ring (finger)           Ibiganni             Eebee gannee.
    Root                    Ne                   Wee-ee.
    Rope                    Tsuna no na          Chinna.
    Round                   Mami                 Marroosa.
    Row, to, in a boat      Roosu                Coojee.
    Run, to                 Ajiubu               Hayay sitchoong.
    Sail                    Hoo                  Foo.
    Salt                    Siwo                 Mashoo.
    Salt water              Siwo mis usiwo       Spookarasa meezee.
    Salute, to              Resuru               Kameeoong.
    Sand                    Tsunna               Sinna.
    Scrape, to              Kusagu               Sajoong.
    Screw                   Nesi                 Jirree.
    Sea                     Ume                  Ooshoo.
    Seal                    Fang hang ingjo      Ing, or fang.
    See, to                 Miru                 Meeoong.
    Seed                    Tanna                Ni.
    Separate, to            Saru                 Wockkayoong.
    Serpent                 Kutjinawa hebi       Haboo.
    Sew, to                 No, noi              Nawyoong, or noayoong.
    Shallow                 Assai assaka         Assassa.
    Shave, to               Soru                 Sooyoong.
    Shell                   Kai                  Oosheemaw.
    Ship                    Fune                 Hoonee.
    Shoe                    Kwutsu               Sabock.
    Shoulders               Kata                 Kutta.
    Sick                    Itami mono, bioki    Yadong.
                              mono, jamai mono
    Silk                    Kinno                Eechoo.
    Silver                  Gin                  Jing.
    Sing, to                Utau                 Ootashoong, or ootayoong.
    Sister (eldest)         Musme are            Oui.
    Sleep                   Nur                  Nintee.
    Sleep, to               Nuru                 Ninjoong.
    Slow                    Sisukamai, jojajora  Yoona, yawna.
    Small                   Ko, komaka           Coosa.
    Smell                   Nivi, niwoi          Kabbasha.
    Smell, to               Kusamu               Kannoung, kashashoong.
    Smoke                   Honoo                Kinsee.
    Smoke, to               Kemoli               Footchoong.
    Smoke tobacco, to       Tabaco, nomu         Tobacco, footchoong.
    Sneeze, to              Aksingu              Honna feeoong.
    Snore, to               Ibikikaku            Nintoong.
    Snuff                   Fanna, tabak, kagi   Spachee, honna, tob*
    Sour                    Suika                Seesa.
    South                   Minami               Whfa, or fa.
    Speak, to               Monoju, musmasu,     Moonooyoong.
                              ju, moosuru
    Spectacles              Meganni, fanna,      Meekagung.
                              meganni
    Spider                  Kwumo                Cooba.
    Spittle                 Subakki              Simpaee.
    Spit, to                Subakki, hawk        Simpayoong.
    Spoon                   Saisi                Kaa.
    Square                  Sikaku               Kackkoo.
    Stand up, to            Okiru                Tatteeoong.
    Stars                   Fosi                 Fooshee.
    Stone                   Isi iwa              Ishee.
    Strike, to              Wutsu, utsu, tataku  Rejeecoong.
    Sugar                   Satto                Sata.
    Sun                     Fi, nitji            Teeda.
    Sunset                  Fi no iri            Teeda sagayoong.
    Sunrise                 Fino, de, fino,      Teeda agayoong.
                              agaru
    Swallow, to             Nomikomu             Noonootoosha.
    Sweet                   Amaka, amai          Amasa.
    Swim, to                Ojugu                Weejoong.
    Thigh                   Momo, solomomo       Moomoo.
    Thread                  Ito                  Eechoo.
    Throw, to               Naguru               Naging.
    Thumb                   Ojajubi, ojubi       Hooee eebee.
    Tiger                   Tora                 Toora.
    Tin                     Susu                 Sheedookannee.
    Tongue                  Sta, sita            Stcha.
    Tooth                   Jea                  Ha.
    Touch, to               Kamau, kakaru,       Sayoong, or Sitchoong.
                              ateru
    Tower                   To                   Eegooscoo.
    Town                    Matji, sotomatji     Mecatto, metto.
    Tremble                 Fururu               Koorooyoong.
    Ugly                    Kisannai             Ootooroosa.
    Umbrella                Fisasi               Shassee kassa.
    Vein                    Susi                 Kajee.
    Wake, to                Okiteoru             Ooking.
    Waken, to               Okusu                Oocatee.
    Walk, to                Ita                  Atchoong.
    Warm                    Nakka, atska         Attesa.
    Wash                    Arau                 Arayoong.
    Watch                   Tokei                Karahigh.
    Water                   Mis                  Meezee.
    Water tub               Furo                 Meezofwokee.
    Weather, fine           Jukka, fiuri, jui    Yeetinchee, or tinsee.
                              teng
    Weather, foul           Warri fiuri          Yannatinchee, or tinsee.
    Well, a                 Jgawa                Meezee ka.
    West                    Nis                  Neeshee.
    Wet                     Naroru               Inneetee.
    Wet, to                 Narassu              Indeetaoong.
    Wheel                   Kuruma               Coorooma.
    Wick of a candle        Suku, saku           Skee cootshee.
    Wind                    Kase                 Kassee.
    Wind up, to             Sutsumu              Feenoyoong.
    Wing                    Toobu fanne          Hannay.
    Wink, to                Manaku               Meeoochee.
    Wood                    Tagi                 Tamoong.
    Write                   Kaku                 Katchoong.
    Writing desk            Fikidassi            Sheekoo.
    Year                    Fosi                 Ning.
    Young                   Wakai                Wockka.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 129: From Thunberg's Voyage.]



NUMERALS.

          _Japan_.        _Insu[130]._           _Loo-Choo._

     1    Stozee      Sheeneap    Stitz      Itchee    Teetsee, tee.
     2    Statze      Too         Statz      Nee       Tatsee, ta.
     3    Mitzee      Liep        Mitz       Sang      Meetsee, mee.
     4    Yeatze      Eenep       Yeatze     Shee      Eotsee, yoo.
     5    Idotzee     Asheak      Itseitzy   Goo       Ittitsee.
     6    Nitzee      Ewan        Nitz       Roocoo    Mootsee.
     7    Nanatzee    Arrawan     Nanatzy    Stehee    Nannatsee.
     8    Iosee       Toopish     Yeatz      Fatchee   Eyatsee.
     9    Kikonitz    Lepish      Kokonitz   Coo       Koonnitsee.
    10    Yoo         Wanna       Too        Joo       Too.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 130: From Broughton's Voyage.]



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE LANGUAGES OF LOO-CHOO AND INSU. AN ISLAND IN THE
JAPAN SEA.

    _English._                 _Insu[131]._       _Loo-Choo._

    Come here                 Arkee               Cung coo.
    To walk                   Appeass             Atchoong.
    To enquire the name of    Tambene             Noondeega.
      any thing
    A ship                    Penzy, or Foonil.   Hoonee.
    A bow                     Koo                 Yoomee.
    An arrow                  Ay                  Eea.
    The beard                 Creak               Feejee.
    The teeth                 Meemack             Ha.
    A man                     Oikyo               Ickkeega.
    A woman                   Meanako             Innago.
    Fish net                  Ya                  Sheebee.
    Tobacco pipe              Tsheeree            Shirree.
    Water                     Wakha               Meezee.
    To drink                  Horopsee            Noomoong.
    A book                    Shoomootza          Sheemootsee.
    The finger                Yewbee              Eebee.
    The thumb                 O yewbee            Hoee eebee.
    The thigh                 Momo                Moomoo.
    The arm                   Oondee              Teenoo.
    The middle finger         Nagayewbee          Nackkaeebee.
    Paper                     Kame                Kabee.
    A dog                     Enoo                Ing.
    A cat                     Necko               Mia.
    A child                   Vasasso             Warrabee.
    The foot                  Assee               Shanna.
    The chin                  Olongyse            Ootooga.
    The ear                   Meemee              Mimmee.
    Yes                       O                   Oo.
    No                        Ny                  Oongba.
    Hair                      Kamu                Kurrazzee.
    A boat                    Timma               Timma.
    Tea                       Tcha                Cha.
    Sugar                     Sado                Sata.
    Tobacco                   Tabacco             Tobacco.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 131: From Broughton's Voyage.]



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE LANGUAGES OF LOO-CHOO, JAPAN, AND INSU.


    _English._     _Japanese[132]._    _Loo-Choo._     _Insu[133]._

    To walk        Ita                 Atchoong        Appeass.
    A ship         Fune                Hoonee          Penzy, or foonil.
    A bow          Jumi                Yoomee          Koo.
    An arrow       Ja                  Eea             Ay.
    The finger     Jubi                Eebee           Askippi, yewbee.
    The teeth      Ha                  Ha              Meemack.
    A man          Otoko               Ickkeega        Oikyo.
    A fish net     Ami                 Sheebee         Ya.
    A knife        Haka                Seego           Magiddee.
    An oar         Ro                  Wayacoo         Kanzee.
    Water          Mis                 Meezee          Wakha.
    To drink       Nomu                Noomoong        Horopsee.
    A book         Somots              Sheemootsee     Shomotza.
    The thumb      Ojajubi, ojubi      Hooee eebee     O yewbee.
    The thigh      Momo, soto momo     Moomoo          Momo.
    The arm        Ude                 Teenoo          Oondee.
    Paper          Kami                Kabee           Kame.
    A dog          Inu                 Ing             Enoo.
    A cat          Mio, neko           Mia             Necko.
    A child        Kodoma              Warrabee        Vassasso.
    The lips       Tsuba               Seeba           Koodge.
    The foot       Assi                Shanna          Assee.
    The ear        Mimi                Mimmee          Meemee.
    The hair       Kami                Kurrazzee       Karnu.
    A boat         Temma               Timma           Timma.
    Tea            Tsjaa               Cha             Tcha.
    Sugar          Satto               Sata            Sado.
    Tobacco        Tabako              Tobacco         Tabacco.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 132: From Thunberg's Voyage.]

[Footnote 133: From Broughton's Voyage.]



WORDS OBTAINED FROM THE INHABITANTS OF THE WEST COAST OF COREA.


    _English._            _Corean._

    No                    Poodong.
    Water                 Bool.
    A pipe                Dewton.
    Hair                  Bodee.
    Eyes                  Doon.
    Mouth                 Jeep.
    Nose                  Ko.
    Hand                  So-an.
    Beard                 Shee-om.
    Tongue                Chay.
    Ear                   Quee.
    Teeth                 Jee.
    Tree[134]             Phang na moo.
    Grass[134]            Phee.
    Good[134]             Hota.
    Earth[134]            K,hool.
    Knife[134]            Khul.
    Jacket                Chouksa.
    Trowsers              Choongay.
    Shoe                  Po schien.
    Stockings, or boots   Hung inn.
    Tobacco pouch         Samb-jee.
    Rice (food)           Pa-ap.
    Fan                   Pootsa.
    Stove                 Tok.
    White hat             Pan-a-ee.
    Black hat             Kat.
    A cock                Tac.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 134: These five words have the _h_ so strongly aspirated that
it was rarely we could pronounce them to the satisfaction of the
natives.

Their language, upon the whole, is not unpleasing, and it has none of
the harsh Chinese sounds. The natives have a remarkable facility in
imitating our sounds, and they in general speak in a very loud tone of
voice.]


THE END.

       *       *       *       *       *

T. DAVISON, Lombard-street, Whitefriars, London.





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