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Title: A Synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha
Author: Hall, E. Raymond (Eugene Raymond), 1902-1986
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *

    A Synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha


                E. RAYMOND HALL

        University of Kansas Publications
            Museum of Natural History

  Volume 5, No. 10, pp. 119-202, 68 figures in text
                December 15, 1951

              University of Kansas




The University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History, are
offered in exchange for the publications of learned societies and
institutions, universities and libraries. For exchanges and information,

    MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.--E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Editorial

    This series contains contributions from the Museum of Natural
    History. Cited as Univ. Kans. Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist.

  Vol. 1. (Complete) Nos. 1-26. Pp. 1-638. August 15, 1946-January 20,

  Vol. 2. (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest. Pp.
             1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.

  Vol. 3. 1. The avifauna of Micronesia its origin, evolution, and
             distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 16 figures in
             text. June 12, 1951.

          2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds.
             Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text. June 29, 1951.

          3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale Arvey.
             Pp. 473-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables. October 10, 1951.

          4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H. Lowery,
             Jr., and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649, 7 figures in text, 2
             tables. October 10, 1951.

  Vol. 4. In press.

  Vol. 5. 1. Preliminary survey of a Paleocene faunule from the Angels Peak
             Area, New Mexico. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 1-11, 1 figure in
             text. February 24, 1951.

          2. Two new moles (genus Scalopus) from Mexico and Texas. By
             Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 17-24. February 28, 1951.

          3. Two new pocket gophers from Wyoming and Colorado. By
             E. Raymond Hall and H. Gordon Montague. Pp. 25-32.
             February 28, 1951.

          4. Mammals obtained by Dr. Curt von Wedel from the barrier beach
             of Tamaulipas, Mexico. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 33-47, 1
             figure in text. October 1, 1951.

          5. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of some
             North American rabbits. By E. Raymond Hall and Keith R.
             Kelson. Pp. 49-58. October 1, 1951.

          6. Two new subspecies of Thomomys bottae from New Mexico and
             Colorado. By Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 59-71, one figure in text.
             October 1, 1951.

          7. A new subspecies of Microtus montanus from Montana and
             comments on Microtus canicaudus Miller. By E. Raymond Hall and
             Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 73-79. October 1, 1951.

          8. A new pocket gopher (genus Thomomys) from Eastern Colorado.
             By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 81-85. October 1, 1951.

          9. Mammals taken along the Alaska highway. By Rollin H. Baker.
             Pp. 87-117, 1 figure in text. November 28, 1951.

         10. A synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha. By E. Raymond
             Hall. Pp. 110-202, 68 figures in text. December 15, 1951.

    A Synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha


                E. RAYMOND HALL

        University of Kansas Publications
            Museum of Natural History

  Volume 5, No. 10, pp. 119-202, 68 figures in text

                December 15, 1951

              University of Kansas




Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, A. Byron Leonard, Edward H. Taylor,
Robert W. Wilson

Volume 5, No. 10, pp. 119-202, 68 figures in text December 15, 1951

  Lawrence, Kansas



A Synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha



The most popular small game mammal in nearly every part of North America
is one or another of the species of rabbits or hares. The rabbit is one
of the few species of wild game that still is hunted commercially and
sold for food on the open market. The close association and repeated
contact of man with these animals has resulted in his contracting such
of their diseases as are transmissible to him. Consequently the rabbits
and hares have figured in many investigations concerned with public
health and medicine. Because the number of such investigations is
increasing, there has been an increasing number of specimens of these
animals submitted to mammalogists for identification; also, inquiries
are received as to the degree of relationship between two or more of the
named kinds of rabbits in which identical, or closely related, disease
organisms have been found; other inquiries have to do with the degree of
relationship of named kinds of rabbits and hares in widely separated
parts of the continent.

The monographs to which the investigator could turn to obtain answers to
some of these questions are Arthur H. Howell's "Revision of the American
Pikas" (1924), and Edward H. Nelson's "The Rabbits of North America"
(1909) published 27 and 42 years ago, respectively. These monographs are
still excellent sources of detailed information, as, of course, also is
Marcus Ward Lyon's "Classification of the Hares and their Allies"
(1904). The acquisition of additional study specimens in recent years,
however, has provided new data on the geographic occurrence of several
species, and study of these specimens has given basis for a different
arrangement of several named kinds of the lagomorphs. Two principal aims
of the present synopsis, therefore, are to combine in one publication
the current taxonomic arrangement and as much as is known of the
geographic distribution of the several species and subspecies.

The maps herewith and listings of marginal localities are the means
chosen to present the information on geographic distribution. The
artificial key is supplemented by line drawings of skulls of certain
species and by a minimum of text to aid the user of the key. The skulls
are necessary for the identification of some species of the genus
_Sylvilagus_. The skins, on the contrary, are essential for the
identification of the species of the genus _Lepus_ in central Mexico and
in the Great Basin of the western United States. Consequently, it has
been impossible to construct a key based on external characters only or
on cranial features only. Furthermore, the only apparent differences
between a given pair of species in one region may not be apparent in
another region where the same two species occur together. A case in
point is provided by _Sylvilagus floridanus_ and _Sylvilagus nuttallii_
where the Great Plains meet the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains and
where the Sonoran desert meets the southwestern flank of these
mountains. The details are described by Hall and Kelson (1951:52, 53)
and are indicated in the part of the accompanying artificial key that
takes out the species _Sylvilagus nuttallii_. Because of this geographic
change in specific characters and because of the slight amount of
difference between certain species of leporids, I have frequently
resorted to geography, instead of to morphology alone, in constructing
the artificial key. Despite this fault of the key to the lagomorphs, it,
and the accompanying account, I hope, will aid workers who need to
identify kinds of lagomorphs and to know about their geographic

Another reason for presenting a synopsis of the lagomorphs at this time
is that the presentation may bring suggestions for improvement in the
arrangement of the kind of information presented here; an account along
similar lines for all of the kinds of mammals native to North America is
in prospect. Corrections of, and additions to, the material presented
here will be welcomed and I shall be especially grateful for suggestions
as to a more useful arrangement of the data.

In arranging the families, genera and species the aim has been, in each
category, to list the most primitive members first and to list last the
one which presents the highest total of specialization. The term _total
of specialization_ is used here, as Miller (1924:2) used it, to denote
the sum of the physical modifications which any mammal, or taxonomic
category of mammals, is supposed by the author to have undergone during
the course of its development away from its original or generalized
mammalian stock.

Subspecies of any one species are arranged alphabetically. On the maps,
of course, the subspecies are shown in their correct geographic

For each subspecies, or species if it has not been divided into
subspecies, there is given (1) the accepted scientific name (selected
in accordance with the rules of the International Commission of
Zoological Nomenclature); (2) a citation to the account in which the
terminal part of the name was first proposed (the original description
of zoological parlance) followed by a statement of the type locality;
(3) a citation to the account in which the combination of names
(generic, specific and subspecific) used in the present account first
was employed unless the name combination used here is the same as that
in the original description; (4) synonyms arranged in chronological
order, and (5) marginal record stations of occurrence.

These marginal records are arranged in clockwise order beginning with
the northernmost locality. If more than one of the marginal localities
lies on the line of latitude that is northernmost for a given kind of
mammal, the westernmost of these is recorded first. The marginal
localities that are represented by symbols on the corresponding
distribution map are in Roman type. Italic type is used for those
marginal localities that could not be represented by symbols on the map
because undue crowding, or overlapping, of the symbols would have
occurred. An understanding of how these localities are arranged and
knowledge as to which of these localities are shown on the map will
permit a person to associate any symbol on a map with its corresponding
place name.

Measurements are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated. Capitalized
color terms are after Ridgway (Color Standards and Color Nomenclature,
Washington, D. C., 1912), and uncapitalized terms refer to no particular
color standard. Several of the drawings of skulls were reproduced
originally in the "Mammals of Nevada" (Hall, 1946) and I am grateful to
the University of California Press for permission to use them here.
Those drawings were made by Miss Viola Memmler. The other drawings are
the work of Mrs. Frieda Abernathy, Mrs. Diane (Danley) Sandidge, and
Mrs. Virginia (Cassel) Unruh. Initials on the drawings identify the
individual's work. The study here reported upon was aided by a contract
between the Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, and the
University of Kansas (NR 161-791). Also, assistance with some of the
field work was given by the Kansas University Endowment Association and
by Dr. Curt von Wedel. For the corrected dates on several publications I
am indebted to Dr. A. Remington Kellogg. For assistance with the
organization of the data for the present account I am grateful to
several persons, especially to my wife, Mary F. Hall, and to Dr. Keith
R. Kelson.

Order LAGOMORPHA--Hares, Rabbits and Pikas

    Families and genera revised by Lyon, Smithsonian Miscl. Coll.,
    45:321-447, June 15, 1904. For taxonomic status of group see Gidley,
    Science, n. s., 36:285-286, August 30, 1912.

The order Lagomorpha is old in the geological sense; fossilized bones
and teeth of both pikas and rabbits are known from deposits of Oligocene
age and even at that early time the structural features distinguishing
these animals from other orders were well developed.

A noteworthy character of the order is the presence of four upper
incisor teeth (instead of only two as in the Rodentia); also, the fibula
is ankylosed to the tibia and articulates with the calcaneum. Each of
the first upper incisors has a longitudinal groove on its anterior face.

All lagomorphs are herbivorous. They eat principally leaves and
non-woody stems although the bark of sprouts and bushes is taken as
second choice by rabbits and hares.

Correlation of structure and function is well illustrated among the
lagomorphs by the means which the different species employ to detect and
escape from their enemies. A gradient series is evident in which the
pikas and jack rabbits are the extremes. The black-tailed jack rabbit,
for example, in relation to size of the entire animal, has the longest
ears and longest hind legs. This kind of lagomorph takes alarm when an
enemy, for example, a coyote, is yet a long way off. The jack rabbit
seeks safety in running; even when being overtaken by a pursuer that is
close behind, the jack rabbit still relies on its running ability
instead of entering thick brush or a hole in the ground where its
larger-sized pursuer would be unable to follow. A cottontail has shorter
ears and shorter hind legs. It allows the enemy to approach more closely
than the jack rabbit does before running, and then, although relying in
some measure on its running ability for escape, flees to a burrow or
thicket for safety from its pursuer. The brush rabbit with ears and hind
legs shorter than those of the cottontail seldom if ever ventures
farther than 45 feet away from the edge of dense cover. After an enemy
is near, the brush rabbit has merely to scamper back into the brush.
Still shorter of ear and hind leg is the pigmy rabbit which ventures
outside its burrow to feed only among the tall and closely-spaced bushes
of sagebrush among which its burrow is dug. Detection of the slightest
movement of an enemy on the opposite side of the bush sends the pigmy
rabbit, in one or a few jumps, into the mouth of its burrow and, if
need be, below ground. The pika, with the shortest ears and legs of all,
lives in the rock slides and has to do little more than drop off the top
of a rock into a space between the broken rocks when an enemy is
detected near enough to the pika to have a chance of seizing it.

The number of molts in a year, depending on the kind of lagomorph,
varies in adults from one (according to Nelson, 1909:31) in the
cottontails (genus _Sylvilagus_) to as many as three (according to
Lyman, 1943, and Severaid, 1945) in the varying hare (_Lepus
americanus_). Difficulties that I have experienced in attempting to
account for the variations in color and wear of the pelage of the pika,
_Ochotona princeps_, on the basis of two molts per year, make me wonder
if it, too, has three molts. _Lepus townsendii_ certainly has at least
two molts per year.


  1.  Hind legs scarcely larger than forelegs; hind foot less than 40;
      nasals widest anteriorly; no supraorbital process on frontal; five
      cheek teeth on each side above
                               Family Ochotonidae, Genus _Ochotona_, p. 125

  1´. Hind legs notably larger than forelegs; hind foot more than 40;
      nasals widest posteriorly; supraorbital process on frontal; six
      cheek teeth on each side above
                                                   Family Leporidae, p. 134

      2.  Interparietal fused with parietals (see fig. 49); hind foot
          usually more than 105
                                                      Genus _Lepus_, p. 170

      2´. Interparietal not fused with parietals (see fig. 10); hind foot
          usually less than 105
                        Genera _Romerolagus_ and _Sylvilagus_, pp. 137, 138


Certain characters in which this family differs from the Leporidae
(hares and rabbits) are: hind legs scarcely longer than forelegs; ears
short, approximately as wide as high; no postorbital process on frontal;
rostrum slender; nasals widest anteriorly; maxilla not conspicuously
fenestrated; jugal long and projecting far posteriorly to zygomatic arm
of squamosal; no pubic symphysis; one less cheek-tooth above, the dental
formula being i. 2/1, c. 0/0, p. 3/2, m. 2/3; second upper maxillary
tooth unlike third in form; last lower molar simple (not double) or
absent (in the extinct genus _Oreolagus_); cutting edge of first upper
incisor V-shaped; mental foramen situated under last lower molar.

Genus OCHOTONA Link--Pikas

Revised by A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 47:1-57, August 21, 1924.

    1795. _Ochotona_ Link, Beyträge zur Naturgesch, I (pt. 2):74. Type,
      _Lepus ogotona_ Pallas.

_Characters_.--Five teeth (excluding incisor) in lower jaw; first
cheek-tooth (p3) with more than one re-entrant angle; columns of lower
molars angular internally; transverse width of any one column of a
lower molariform tooth more than double the width of the neck connecting
it to the other column.

Subgenus PIKA Lacépède

    1799. _Pika_ Lacépède, Tableau des Divisions &c., Mamm., p. 9. Type,
      _Lepus alpinus_ Pallas.

    1904. _Pika_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:438, June 15.

_Characters._--Skull flattened; interorbital region wide; maxillary
orifice roundly triangular; palatal foramina separate from anterior
palatine foramina.

All of the living members of the family Ochotonidae belong to this
genus. American pikas all belong to the subgenus _Pika_, which occurs
also in Eurasia.

The distribution is boreal and the animals live in talus. This broken
rock at the foot of a cliff provides interstices in which the animals
live and store grass and herbs. These plant materials are cut for food
and stacked in piles to dry in the sun, often beneath slabs of rock
which protect the hay-piles from rain. Pikas are diurnal, active
throughout the year, and have a characteristic call, "chickck-chickck."
Young number two to five per litter.

[Illustration: FIGS. 1-4. _Ochotona princeps tutelata_, Greenmonster
Canyon, 8150 feet, No. 38519 MVZ, ♂, × 1.]


  1.  North of 58° N latitude; underparts creamy white, without buffy
      wash; an indistinct grayish "collar" on shoulders
                                                         _collaris_, p. 126

  1´. South of 58° N latitude; underparts washed with buff; no grayish
      "collar" on shoulders
                                                         _princeps_, p. 127

=Ochotona collaris= (Nelson)

Collared Pika

    1893. _Lagomys collaris_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 8:117,
      December 21, type from near head of Tanana River, Alaska.

    1897. [_Ochotona_] _collaris_, Trouessart, Catalogus Mammalium ...,
      p. 648

    _Marginal records._--Alaska: Mt. McKinley (A. H. Howell, 1924:36).
    Yukon: head of Coal Creek, Ogilvie Mountains (_ibid._). Mackenzie:
    mile 63E on Little Keel River, Canol Road (Anderson, 1947:94).
    Yukon: _Macmillan Pass, mile 282, Canol Road_ (_ibid._); Ross River,
    mile 96, Canol Road (_ibid._); vic. Teslin Lake (A. H. Howell,
    1924:36). British Columbia: Tagish Lake (_ibid._); Stonehouse Creek,
    5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River (29088 KU). Alaska:
    Tanana River (A. H. Howell, 1924:36).

    Upper parts Drab to Light Drab; underparts creamy white; grayish
    patch on nape and shoulders; skull broad; tympanic bullae large;
    total length 189; hind foot, 30.

=Ochotona princeps=


Total length, 162-216; hind foot, 25-35; weight of _O. p. tulelata_, 6 ♂
121 (108-128), 2 ♀ 121 and 129 grams. Upper parts varying from grayish
to Cinnamon-Buff depending on the subspecies; underparts with wash of
buff. Eight Nevadan females had an average of 3.1 (2-4) embryos. The
mode was 3.


    1912. _Ochotona albatus_ Grinnell, Univ. California Publ. Zool.,
      10:125, January 31, type from 11,000 ft., near Cottonwood Lakes,
      Sierra Nevada, Inyo County, California.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:45).--California: Bullfrog
    Lake; 10,000 ft., Independence Creek; type locality; Mineral King,
    E. Fork Kaweah River.


    1924. _Ochotona princeps brooksi_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:30, August 21, type from Sicamous, British Columbia.

    _Marginal records_.--British Columbia: Mountains E Shuswap Lake
    (Anderson, 1947:95); type locality; McGillivary Creek, Lillooet
    Dist. (A. H. Howell, 1924:31).


    1919. _Ochotona fenisex brunnescens_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:108, May 20, type from Keechelus, Kittitas County,

    1924. _Ochotona princeps brunnescens_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:31, September 23.

    _Marginal records_.--British Columbia: Alta Lake (Anderson,
    1947:95); Hope, Lake House (A. H. Howell, 1924:33). Washington:
    _Whatcom Pass_ (Dalquest, 1948:380); Stevens Pass (A. H. Howell,
    1924:33); _Cowlitz Pass_ (Dalquest, 1948:380). Oregon: Mt. Hood (A.
    H. Howell, 1924:33); Crater Lake (_ibid._); Mt. McLoughlin (V.
    Bailey, 1936:116); Diamond Lake (A. H. Howell, 1924:33). Washington:
    Tumtum Mtn. (Dalquest, 1948:380); Mt. Index (A. H. Howell, 1924:33).
    British Columbia: Chilliwack (ibid.); Vancouver (_ibid._).

[Illustration: FIG. 5. Distribution of _Ochotona collaris_ and _Ochotona

  1. _O. collaris_
  2. _O. p. princeps_
  3. _O. p. lutescens_
  4. _O. p. septentrionalis_
  5. _O. p. brooksi_
  6. _O. p. cuppes_
  7. _O. p. brunnescens_
  8. _O. p. fenisex_
  9. _O. p. fumosa_
  10. _O. p. jewetti_
  11. _O. p. taylori_
  12. _O. p. schisticeps_
  13. _O. p. muiri_
  14. _O. p. albatus_
  15. _O. p. sheltoni_
  16. _O. p. tutelata_
  17. _O. p. nevadensis_
  18. _O. p. uinta_
  19. _O. p. moorei_
  20. _O. p. cinnamomea_
  21. _O. p. fuscipes_
  22. _O. p. utahensis_
  23. _O. p. howelli_
  24. _O. p. lemhi_
  25. _O. p. goldmani_
  26. _O. p. clamosa_
  27. _O. p. ventorum_
  28. _O. p. levis_
  29. _O. p. figginsi_
  30. _O. p. saxatilis_
  31. _O. p. nigrescens_
  32. _O. p. incana_ ]


    1905. _Ochotona cinnamomea_ J. A. Allen, Mus. Brooklyn Inst. Arts
      and Sci., Sci. Bull., 1:121, March 31, type from 11,000 ft.,
      Briggs [=Britts] Meadows, Beaver Range, Beaver County, Utah (5 mi.
      by road W Puffer Lake, according to Hardy, Jour. Mamm., 26:432,
      February 12, 1946). Known from type locality only.

    1934. _Ochotona princeps cinnamomea_, Hall, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:103, June 13.


    1938. _Ochotona princeps clamosa_ Hall and Bowlus, Univ. California
      Publ. Zool., 42:335, October 12, type from 8400 ft., north rim
      Copenhagen Basin, Bear Lake County, Idaho.

    _Marginal records._--Idaho: type locality; _Deep Lake, Bear River
    Mts._ (Hall and Bowlus, 1938:336) _2 mi. E Strawberry Creek Ranger
    Station, Wasatch Mts._ (Davis, 1939:352).


    1899. _Ochotona cuppes_ Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 1:40,
      June 5, type from 4000 ft., Monashee Divide, Gold Range, British

    1924. _Ochotona princeps cuppes_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:27, September 23.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia: Glacier (A. H. Howell,
    1924:28); Nelson (Anderson, 1947:95). Idaho: Cabinet Mts. (Davis,
    1939:348). Washington: Sullivan Lake (A. H. Howell, 1924:28).
    British Columbia: Rossland (_ibid._); type locality.


    1913. _Ochotona fenisex_ Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 26:80,
      March 22 (substitute for _minimus_ Lord, type from 7000 ft.,
      Ptarmigan Hill, near head of Ashnola River, Cascade Range, British

    1924. _Ochotona princeps fenisex_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:28, September 23.

    1863. _Lagomys minimus_ Lord, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 98. (Not
      of Schinz, 1821.)

    1899. _Ochotona minimus_, Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 1:39,
      June 5.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia: Okanagan (A. H. Howell,
    1924:30). Washington: Horseshoe Basin, "near" Mt. Chopaka (_ibid._);
    mts. near Wenatchee (_ibid._); Steamboat Mtn. (Dalquest, 1948:380);
    Easton (_ibid._); Lyman Lake (_ibid._); Barron (A. H. Howell,
    1924:30). British Columbia: Tulameen (_ibid._); 2500 ft., mts. W
    Okanagan Lake (_ibid._).

_Ochotona princeps figginsi_ J. A. Allen.

    1912. _Ochotona figginsi_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      31:103, May 28, type from Pagoda Peak, Rio Blanco County,

    1924. _Ochotona princeps figginsi_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:21, September 23.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:22).--Wyoming: Bridger Peak,
    Sierra Madre. Colorado: Mt. Zirkel; Trappers Lake; _Crested Butte_;
    Irwin; type locality; Sand Mtn., 9 mi. SW Hahns Peak P. O.


    1919. _Ochotona fenisex fumosa_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:109, May 20, type from Permilia Lake, W base Mt.
      Jefferson, Linn County, Oregon.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps fumosa_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:33, September 23.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:34).--Oregon: About 900 ft.,
    15 mi. above Estacada; Paulina Lake; _Three Sisters_; Lost Creek
    Ranger Station, 10 mi. SE McKenzie Bridge.


    1919. _Ochotona schisticeps fuscipes_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:110, May 20, type from Brian Head, Parowan Mts.,
      Iron County, Utah.

    1941. _O[chotona]. p[rinceps]. fuscipes_, Hall and Hayward, The
      Great Basin Naturalist, 2:108, July 20.

    _Marginal records._--Utah: type locality; 9000 ft., Duck Creek
    (Durrant, MS).


    1924. _Ochotona schisticeps goldmani_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:40, September 23, type from Echo Crater, Snake River Desert, 20
      mi. SW Arco, Idaho.

    1938. _Ochotona princeps goldmani_, Hall and Bowlus, Univ.
      California Publ. Zool., 42:337, October 12.

    _Marginal records._--Idaho: _S base Grassy Cone_ (Davis, 1939:350);
    type locality; _Fissure Crater_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:41); _Great Owl
    Cavern_ (Davis, 1939:350).


    1931. _Ochotona princeps howelli_ Borell, Jour. Mamm., 12:306,
      August 24, type from 7500 ft., near head of Bear Creek, summit of
      Smith Mtn., S end Seven Devils Mts., Adams County, Idaho.

    _Marginal records._--Idaho: _½ mi. E Black Lake_ (Davis, 1939:350);
    type locality.


    1919. _Ochotona saxatilis incana_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:107, May 20, type from 12,000 ft., Pecos Baldy,
      Santa Fe County, New Mexico.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps incana_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:25, September 23.

    _Marginal records._--Colorado: Medano Creek (A. H. Howell, 1924:25).
    New Mexico: Wheeler Peak (V. Bailey, 1932:64); type locality.


    1919. _Ochotona schisticeps jewetti_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:109, May 20, type from head of Pine Creek, near
      Cornucopia, S slope Wallowa Mts., Baker County, Oregon.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:42).--Oregon: Wallowa Lake;
    Cornucopia, near head East Pine Creek; _Anthony_; Strawberry Butte;


    1919. _Ochotona uinta lemhi_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:106, May 20, type from Lemhi Mountains, 10 mi. W
      Junction, Lemhi County, Idaho.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps lemhi_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 47:16,
      September 23.

    _Marginal records._--Idaho: Elk Summit, about 15 mi. SE Warren (A.
    H. Howell, 1924:18); mts. E of Leadore (_ibid._); mts. E of Birch
    Creek (_ibid._); Ketchum (_ibid._); _Stanley Lake_ (_ibid._); 5 mi.
    W Cape Horn (Davis, 1939:348).


    1912. _Ochotona levis_ Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      25:57, April 13, type from Chief Mountain [= Waterton] Lake,

    1924. _Ochotona princeps levis_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:16, September 23.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:16).--Alberta: type locality.
    Montana: Little Belt Mts.; Belt Mts.; Chief Mountain Lake.


    1919. _Ochotona princeps lutescens_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:105, May 20, type from approximately 8000 ft.,
      Mount Inglismaldie, near Banff, Alberta.

    _Marginal records._--Alberta: Mistaya Creek, Banff-Jasper Highway
    (Anderson, 1947:96); Canmore (A. H. Howell, 1924:15); Mt.
    Forget-me-not, 50 to 75 mi. SW Calgary (_ibid._).


    1950. _Ochotona princeps moorei_ Gardner, Jour. Washington Acad.
      Sci., 40:344, October 23, 1950, type from 10,000 ft., 1 mi. NE
      Baldy Ranger Station, Manti Nat'l Forest, Sanpete County, Utah.
      Known from type locality only.


    1916. _Ochotona schisticeps muiri_ Grinnell and Storer, Univ.
      California Publ. Zool., 17:6, August 23, type from 9300 ft., Ten
      Lakes, Yosemite Nat'l Park, California.

    1934. _Ochotona princeps muiri_, Hall, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      47:103, June 13.

    _Marginal records._--Nevada (Hall, 1946:593): 8500 ft., 3 mi. S Mt.
    Rose, California (A. H. Howell, 1924:44): Markleeville; mts. W
    Bishop Creek; Washburn Lake; Latitude 39°, summit of Sierra.


    1919. _Ochotona uinta nevadensis_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:107, May 20, type from 10,500 ft., Ruby Mts., SW
      Ruby Valley P. O., Elko County, Nevada.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps nevadensis_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:21, September 23.

    _Marginal records._--Nevada: 7830 ft., Long Creek (Hall, 1946:590);
    type locality.


    1913. _Ochotona nigrescens_ V. Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      26:133, May 21, type from 10,000 ft., Jemez Mountains, Bernalillo
      County, New Mexico.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps nigrescens_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:26, September 23.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:26).--Colorado: Upper Navajo
    River; Osier. New Mexico: type locality. Colorado: Navajo Peaks.


    1828. _Lepus_ (_Lagomys_) _princeps_ Richardson, Zool. Jour., 3:520,
      type from headwaters of Athabaska River, near Athabaska Pass,

    1897. [_Ochotona_] _princeps_, Trouessart, Catalogus Mammalium, p.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia: headwaters South Pine River
    (Anderson, 1947:95). Alberta: Muskeg Creek "about" 60 mi. N Jasper
    House (_ibid._). British Columbia: Morrissey (_ibid._). Montana:
    mts. near St. Marys Lake (A. H. Howell, 1924:14); mts. 15 mi. E
    Corvallis (_ibid._); Lake Como, Bitterroot Mts. (_ibid._). Idaho:
    Coeur d' Alene Nat'l Forest (Rust, 1946:322). British Columbia: Mt.
    Evans, "near" Cranbrook (A. H. Howell, 1924:14); Spillamacheen River


    1899. _Ochotona saxatilis_ Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club,
      1:41, June 5, type from Montgomery, "near" Mt. Lincoln, Park
      County, Colorado.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps saxatilis_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:23, September 23.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1924:24, except as otherwise
    noted).--Wyoming: Medicine Bow Mts.; just above Centennial in mts.
    (Martin, 1943:394). Colorado: Estes Park; Pikes Peak; Silverton.
    Utah: La Sal Mts. Colorado: Crystal Lake, 5 mi. W Lake City; Middle
    Brush Creek; Ten Mile Creek; Berthoud Pass; _Irwin Lakes_ (A. H.
    Howell, _loc. cit._) not found.


    1889. _Lagomys schisticeps_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 2:11, October
      30, type from Donner, Placer County, California.

    1936. _Ochotona princeps schisticeps_, A. H. Miller, Jour. Mamm.,
      17:174, May 18.

    1897. _Ochotona schisticeps_ Merriam, Mazama, 1:223, October.

    _Marginal records._--Nevada (Hall, 1946:590): 12 mi. E and 3 mi. N
    Ft. Bidwell, 5700 ft.; 8400-8600 ft., Duffer Peak, Pine Forest Mts.
    California (A. H. Howell, 1924:39): Tahoe; _Donner Pass_; 12 mi. NE
    Prattville; Lassen Peak; Mt. Shasta.


    1947. _Ochotona princeps septentrionalis_ Cowan and Racey, Canadian
      Field-Nat., 60:102, March 17, type from 6500 ft., Itcha Mountains,
      52° 45´ N lat., 125° W long., British Columbia. Known from type
      locality only.


    1918. _Ochotona schisticeps sheltoni_ Grinnell, Univ. California
      Publ. Zool., 17:429, April 25, type from 11,000 ft., "near" Big
      Prospector Meadow, White Mountains, Mono County, California.

    1946. _Ochotona princeps sheltoni_, Hall, Mammals of Nevada, p. 593,
      July 1.

    _Marginal records._--Nevada: 8700 ft., Pinchot Creek (Hall,
    1946:593). California: type locality.


    1912. _Ochotona taylori_ Grinnell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      25:129, July 31, type from 9000 ft., Warren Peak, Warner Mts.,
      Modoc Co., Calif.

    _Marginal records_ (V. Bailey, 1936:113, unless otherwise
    noted).--Oregon: N end of Steens Mts.; Guano Valley; Jack Lake, 20
    mi. NE Adel; Adel. California (A. H. Howell, 1924:40): type
    locality; 5400 ft., "near" Termo, Madeline Plains; nr. head Little
    Shasta Riv. Oregon: Lower Klamath Lake.


    1934. _Ochotona princeps tutelata_ Hall, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:103, June 13, type from 8150 ft., Greenmonster
      Canyon, Monitor Mts., Nye County, Nevada.

    _Marginal records_ (Hall, 1946:591).--Nevada: 7500 ft., Smiths
    Creek, Desatoya Mts.; 8600 ft., type locality; 8700-11,000 ft., SW
    and W slopes Mt. Jefferson, Toquima Range; South Twin River; _Arc


    1912. _Ochotona uinta_ Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      25:58, April 13, type from "near" head E. Fork Bear River, Uinta
      Mts., Utah.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps uinta_, A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:19, September 23.

    _Marginal records._--Utah: type locality; Elk Park (Hall and Bowlus,
    1938:337); _11,000 to 11,500 ft., The Nipple_ (_ibid._); 10,500 ft.,
    SW slope Bald Mtn. (_op. cit._:336); Mt. Timpanogos (_op.
    cit._:337); 8500 ft., Morehouse Canyon, 5 mi. above Weber River
    (_op. cit._:337); _Spirit Lake_ (_op. cit._:336) not found.


    1941. _Ochotona princeps utahensis_ Hall and Hayward, Great Basin
      Nat., 2:107, July 20, type from 2 mi. W Deer Lake, Garfield
      County, Utah.

    _Marginal records._--Utah: 9000 ft., Donkey Lake, Boulder Mtn.
    (Durrant, MS); type locality.


    1919. _Ochotona uinta ventorum_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 32:106, May 20, type from Fremont Peak, Wind River
      Mts., Fremont County, Wyoming.

    1924. _Ochotona princeps ventorum_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna,
      47:18, September 23.

    _Marginal records._--Montana: Emigrant Peak (A. H. Howell, 1924:19);
    Beartooth Mts. (_ibid._). Wyoming: 9600 ft., 19½ mi. E and 4½ mi. S
    Shell (20882 KU); head of Trappers Creek (A. H. Howell, 1924:19);
    Medicine Wheel Ranch, 28 mi. E Lovell (32919 KU); Needle Mtn. (A. H.
    Howell, 1924:19); Lake Fork (_ibid._); 8450 ft., 17½ mi. S and 6½
    mi. W Lander (37994 KU); Middle Piney Lake, "near" Stanley (A. H.
    Howell, 1924:19); Salt River, 16 mi. S Afton (Hall and Bowlus,
    1938:337); Teton Pass (A. H. Howell, 1924:19). Idaho: Teton Canyon
    (Davis, 1939:349).

Family LEPORIDAE--Rabbits and Hares

Hind legs longer than forelegs; ears longer than wide; frontal bone
carrying supraorbital process consisting always of posterior arm and
sometimes of anterior arm; rostrum wide; nasals not wider anteriorly
than posteriorly; maxillae conspicuously fenestrated; jugal projecting
less than half way from zygomatic root of squamosal to external auditory
meatus (except in _Romerolagus_); pubic symphysis well marked; dental
formula, i. 2/1, c. 0/0, p. 3/2, m. 3/3 (but m. 2/3 in _Pentalagus_ of
Liu Kiu Islands south of Japan); second upper maxillary tooth like third
in form; last lower molar double; cutting edge of first upper incisor
straight; mental foramen of mandible situated under first lower
cheek-tooth. Females average larger than males in all members of this
family. (See Orr, 1940:20.) The reverse is true in most other families
of mammals.

Hare is a name applied to any lagomorph whose young are born fully
haired, with the eyes open, and able to run about a few minutes after
birth. The young are born in the open, not in a nest. All of the species
of the genus _Lepus_ are hares. The species of leporids of all genera
other than _Lepus_, in North America at least, are rabbits. Their young
are born naked, blind, and helpless, in a nest especially built for them
and lined with fur. Considering the degree of development of the young
at birth, the gestation periods are about what a person would expect: 26
to 30 days in _Sylvilagus_ and 36 to 47 days in _Lepus_ (see Severaid,
1950:356-357). Vernacular names are misleading because the names jack
rabbit and snowshoe rabbit are applied to hares; also, Belgian hare is a
name applied to a rabbit (genus _Oryctolagus_) that is commonly bred in
captivity. There are many domestic strains and varieties of
_Oryctolagus_ and the animals are second only to poultry in some areas
as a protein food for man. Also, the pelts are sold as a source of felt
and many of the skins are dyed and processed for making fur coats and
other fur-pieces that appear on the market under names not readily
associated with rabbit.

Rabbits and hares are crepuscular and possibly more nocturnal than
diurnal. So far as I know they do not store food as do their diurnal
relatives, the pikas. Some leporids, however, have an unusual, and
possibly unique, method of processing food: Two types of vegetable
pellets are expelled from the anal opening of the digestive tract; the
dark brownish pellets, from which the nutriments have been extracted,
are feces, but the greenish pellets seem to be only slightly predigested
foods which are re-eaten. Southern (1942:553), among others, has written
about this. This system functionally resembles that in the ruminants
where a cud of vegetation is returned to the mouth, from one part of the
stomach, to be re-chewed and finally swallowed.

Because the causative organism of a disease that decimates dense
populations of small mammals, and some other kinds of vertebrates, was
isolated first in leporids, this disease, tularemia, is more associated
in the popular mind with rabbits than with other kinds of mammals.
Actually, many kinds of mammals are quite as likely to have tularemia as
are rabbits. Now that streptomycin is available, cases of tularemia in
persons are easily cured.


  1.  Antorbital extension of supraorbital process more than ½ length of
      posterior extension; first upper cheek-tooth with only one
      re-entrant angle on anterior face; re-entrant angle of second upper
      cheek-tooth not crenate
                                            _Sylvilagus idahoensis_, p. 139

  1´. Antorbital extension of supraorbital process less than ½ of
      posterior extension or entirely absent; first upper cheek-tooth with
      more than one (usually 3) re-entrant angles on anterior face;
      re-entrant angle of second upper cheek-tooth crenate.

    2.  Anterior extension of supraorbital process absent (or if a point is
        barely indicated, then 5/6 or all of posterior process fused to

      3.  Tympanic bulla smaller than foramen magnum; hind foot more than
          74; geographic range wholly in United States.

        4.  Ear more than 58 from notch in dried skin; basilar length of
            skull more than 63
                                             _Sylvilagus aquaticus_, p. 166

        4´. Ear less than 58 from notch in dried skin; basilar length of
            skull less than 63.

          5.  Underside of tail white; posterior extension of supraorbital
              process tapering to a slender point, this point free of
              braincase or barely touching it and leaving a slit or long
                                        _Sylvilagus transitionalis_, p. 160

          5´. Underside of tail brown or gray; posterior extension of
              supraorbital process always fused to skull, usually for
              entire length but in occasional specimens there is small
              foramen at middle of posterior extension of supraorbital
                                             _Sylvilagus palustris_, p. 147

      3´. Tympanic bulla as large as foramen magnum; hind foot less than
          74; geographic range limited to southern edge of Mexican
          tableland at high elevations
                                                _Romerolagus diazi_, p. 138

    2´. Anterior extension of supraorbital process present, and posterior
        extension free of braincase or leaving a slit between the process
        and braincase.

            6.  Tympanic bullae large (see fig. 26).
                                             _Sylvilagus audubonii_, p. 162

            6´. Tympanic bullae small (see figs. 23, 25 and 27).

              7.  Restricted to Pacific coastal strip from Columbia River
                  south to tip of Baja California, west of Sierra
                  Nevada-Cascade Mountain Chain; hind foot less than 81.
                     _Sylvilagus bachmani_ and _S. mansuetus_, pp. 143, 147

              7´. East of the Pacific coastal strip mentioned in 7; hind
                  foot usually more than 81.

                8.  If north of United States-Mexican boundary:

                  9.  In Arizona, New Mexico and southern Colorado
                      posterior extension of supraorbital process free of
                      braincase, and supraoccipital shield posteriorly
                      pointed; from central Colorado north into Canada
                      diameter of external auditory meatus more than crown
                      length of last three cheek-teeth
                                             _Sylvilagus nuttallii_, p. 161

                  9´. In Arizona, New Mexico and southeastern Colorado
                      posterior extension of supraorbital process of
                      frontal with its tip against, or fused to,
                      braincase, and supraoccipital shield posteriorly
                      truncate or notched; from central Colorado north
                      into Canada, diameter of external auditory meatus
                      less than crown length of last three cheek-teeth
                                            _Sylvilagus floridanus_, p. 154

                8´. If south of United States-Mexican boundary:

                    10.  Geographic range restricted to Tres Marias Islands
                                              _Sylvilagus graysoni_, p. 169

                    10´. Geographic range not including Tres Marias

                      11.  Underside of tail dingy gray or buffy (not

                        12.  Tail short (less than 30) and brown like rump;
                             ear from notch (dry) less than 53;
                             interorbital breadth less than 16.
                                          _Sylvilagus brasiliensis_, p. 141

                        12´. Tail of moderate length (more than 30) and
                             dingy gray; ear from notch (dry) more than
                             53; interorbital breadth more than 16
                                               _Sylvilagus insonus_, p. 168

                      11´. Underside of tail distinctly white.

                          13. Total length more than 476; ear from notch
                               (dry) more than 64; interorbital breadth
                               usually more than 19.3; geographic range,
                               southwestern Mexico north of the Isthmus of
                                          _Sylvilagus cunicularius_, p. 169

                          13´. Total length less than 476; ear from notch
                               (dry) less than 64; interorbital breadth
                               usually less than 19.3; geographic range,
                               Canada to Panamá
                                            _Sylvilagus floridanus_, p. 154

Genus ROMEROLAGUS Merriam--Volcano Rabbit

    1896. _Romerolagus_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 10:173,
      December 29. Type, _Romerolagus nelsoni_ Merriam = _Lepus diazi_

Total length 300 to 311; tail rudimentary; hind foot, 52; ear from notch
(dry), 36; upper parts grizzled buffy brown or dull cinnamon brown;
underparts dingy gray; anterior projection of supraorbital process
absent; jugal projecting posteriorly past squamosal root of zygomatic
arch more than half way to external auditory meatus. The two cranial
characters mentioned are resemblances to pikas although the skull
otherwise resembles that of the true rabbits. The genus contains only
the one living species.

Living in well defined runways in the dense sacoton grass, these small
rabbits are mainly nocturnal and crepuscular, but sometimes are active
by day, especially in cloudy weather in the period of mating.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. Distribution of _Romerolagus diazi_.]

=Romerolagus diazi= (Diaz)

Volcano Rabbit

    1893. _Lepus diazi_ Diaz, Catal. Com. Geográf.-Expl. Repub. Mex.
      Expos. Internac. Columb. Chicago, pl. 42, March, 1893, type from
      eastern slope of Mount Ixtaccihuatl, Puebla.

    1911. _Romerolagus diazi_ Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      24:228, October 31, 1911.

    1896. _Romerolagus nelsoni_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      10:173, December 29, 1896, type from west slope Mount
      Popocatepetl, 11,000 feet, México.

_Range._--Canadian Life-zone of the mountains bounding the eastern,
southern and western sides of the Valley of Mexico. _Marginal
records._--México: Monte Río Frío, 45 km. ESE Mexico City (Davis,
1944:401). Puebla: type locality. México: Mt. Popocatepetl (Nelson,
1909:280). Distrito Federal: 31 km. S Mexico City (30815 KU). México:
Llano Grande, 3 km. W Tlalmanalco (28278 KU).

Genus SYLVILAGUS Gray--Cottontails and Allies

Revised by Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:58-158, August 31, 1909.

    1867. _Sylvilagus_ Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 20 (ser. 3):221.
      Type, _Lepus sylvaticus_ Bachman, _Lepus nuttalli mallurus_

Total length, 291-538; tail, 18-73; hind foot, 71-110; ear from notch
(dry) 41-74. Grayish to dark brownish above and lighter below; sutures
of interparietal bone distinct throughout life; second to fourth
cervical vertebrae broader than long with dorsal surface flattened and
without carination.

The delectable flesh of members of this genus, the large numbers that
occur on a small area, even in thickly settled rural areas, and the
wariness that rabbits soon develop when much hunted, give them top
ranking among small game mammals. Tens of thousands of cottontails in
Kansas and Missouri (_Sylvilagus floridanus_ and some _S. audubonii_)
are captured alive, transported to the eastern United States and
released there to bolster the local supply of game. Considering that
certain ectoparasites are limited to certain hosts and that some
ectoparasites transmit such diseases as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
whereas other ectoparasites do not, this transplantation of rabbits is
dangerous. Also, expenditure of $100.00 on improving the habitat for
_Sylvilagus_ in a given area in the eastern United States would produce
more cottontails than the expenditure of the same sum for live animals,
from the Middlewest, that are to be released (see Langenbach and Beule,
1942:14, 15 and 30).

Different species venture different distances from cover to feed. The
Audubon cottontail of west-central California ventures a hundred feet
and more from cover but the brush rabbit was never seen (Orr, 1940:182)
farther than 42 feet from cover. In the thirties, when a gladiolus
farmer from the chaparral belt of Santa Clara County, California,
visited the University of California seeking advice on how to prevent
damage by "cottontails" to his gladioli plantings, we asked the farmer
if brush rabbits or cottontails were responsible and suggested to the
farmer, who was unable to distinguish between the two, that an animal be
killed and submitted for identification. When this was done, the brush
rabbit (_Sylvilagus bachmani_) was found to be responsible for the
damage. Robert T. Orr's recommendation that the chaparral (brush) be cut
back 45 feet from the gladioli plantings was reluctantly followed and
proved to be effective. A letter from a Santa Clara County agricultural
official a couple of years later expressed thanks for the recommendation
made by Orr, and estimated that adoption of his recommendations saved
farmers of that one county $40,000 annually. This incident illustrates
how detailed knowledge of the life history of a given kind of animal and
control of its environment, rather than direct "control" of the animal,
is sometimes of value to man.

The genus _Sylvilagus_ is restricted to the New World; the two species
_Sylvilagus brasiliensis_ and _S. floridanus_ are the only two which
occur in South America and they occur also in North America.

Subgenus BRACHYLAGUS Miller--Pigmy Rabbit

    1900. _Brachylagus_ Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 13:157,
      June 13. Type, _Lepus idahoensis_ Merriam. For characters see
      subgenus _Sylvilagus_.

Sylvilagus idahoensis (Merriam)

Pigmy Rabbit

    1891. _Lepus idahoensis_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 5:76, July 30,
      type from head of Pahsimeroi Valley, near Goldburg, Custer County,
      Idaho (Davis, Recent Mammals of Idaho, p. 363, April 9, 1939).

    1930. _Sylvilagus idahoensis_, Grinnell, Dixon and Linsdale, Univ.
      California Publ. Zool., 35:553, October 10.

    _Marginal records._--In southeastern Washington: Ritzville (Taylor
    and Shaw, 1929:29); Lind (243344 USBS); Warden (Taylor and Shaw,
    1929:29). In remainder of range: Montana: Bannack (Davis, 1937:27).
    Idaho: Trail Creek near Pocatello (Davis, 1939:366). Utah: 3 mi. NE
    Clarkson (Durrant, MS); W side Utah Lake (_ibid._); 20 mi. W Parowan
    (_ibid._); 10 mi. SW Cedar City (_ibid._). Nevada: 8½ mi. NE Sharp
    (Hall, 1946:618); Fallon (Schantz, 1947:187). California: Bodie
    (Severaid, 1950:2); 5000 ft., 3 mi. S Ravendale (Orr, 1940:194).
    Oregon: Silver Lake (Bailey, 1936:110, fig. 17, 206518 USBS);
    Fremont (_ibid._, 205005 USBS); Redmond (_ibid._, 242302 USBS); 10
    mi. N Baker (Dice, 1926:27). Idaho: type locality; Junction (Davis,

    Total length, 250-290; tail, 20-30; hind foot, 65-72; ear from notch
    (dry), 36-48; weight, 6 ♂ 409(375-435), 9 ♀ 398(246-458) grams.
    Upper parts pinkish to blackish or dark grayish depending on amount
    of wear. The pigmy rabbit lives in burrows, mostly dug by itself,
    preferably where tall sagebrush grows densely. This species feeds
    extensively on sagebrush, at least in winter. Six young seem to be
    the rule and they are born any time from late in May until early in

[Illustration: FIG. 7. Distribution of _Sylvilagus idahoensis_.]

Subgenus SYLVILAGUS Gray--Cottontails and Allies

    1867. _Sylvilagus_ Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 20 (ser. 3):221.
      Type, _Lepus sylvaticus_ Bachman [= _Lepus nuttalli mallurus_

    1867. _Tapeti_ Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 20 (ser. 3):224,
      September. Type _Lepus brasiliensis_ Linnaeus.

    1897. _Microlagus_ Trouessart, Catalogus Mammalium ..., p. 660.
      Type, _Lepus cinerascens_ J. A. Allen.

    1897. _Limnolagus_ Mearns, Science, n. s., 5:393, March 5. Type
      _Lepus aquaticus_ Bachman.

    1950. _Paludilagus_ Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 100:333, May
      26. Type _Lepus palustris_ Bachman.

Characters of subgeneric worth, in contrast to those of the subgenus
_Brachylagus_, are: First premolar, in upper jaw and in lower jaw, with
more than one fold in the enamel; infolded enamel, which divides each
molar tooth into two parts, crenate.

The many nominal species of the subgenus _Sylvilagus_ belong to no more
than 12 and perhaps to only ten full species. The now more abundant
specimens than were available a half century ago reveal also that there
are less trenchant differences between some of the species than were
supposed to exist when the five names for genera or subgenera listed
immediately above were proposed. Some species can be placed in each of
two subgenera with almost equal propriety. If used, four of the five
subgeneric names mentioned above would contain only one species each. It
seems that no useful purpose is served by attempting to fit the several
species of the genus _Sylvilagus_ into more than the two subgenera
_Brachylagus_ and _Sylvilagus_; the other names, _Tapeti_ Gray,
_Microlagus_ Trouessart, _Limnolagus_ Mearns, and _Paludilagus_
Hershkovitz, are here arranged as synonyms of the subgeneric name
_Sylvilagus_ Gray.

Sylvilagus brasiliensis

Forest Rabbit

Total length, 380-420; tail, 20-21; hind foot, 77-80; ear from notch
(dry), 39-46. The principal characters of this species are small size,
dark color, short tail, and dingy buffy (not white) undersurface of the
tail. These rabbits rest in forests or other thick vegetative cover and
do not venture far from such cover to feed.


    1917. _Sylvilagus gabbi consobrinus_ Anthony, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 37:335, May 28, type from Old Panamá, Panamá. Known from
      type locality only.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis consobrinus_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U.
      S. Nat. Mus., 100:353, May 26.


    1932. _Sylvilagus dicei_ Harris, Occas. Papers Univ. Michigan, Mus.
      Zool., 248:1, August 4, type from 6000 ft., El Copey de Dota, in
      the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis dicei_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 100:352, May 26.

    _Marginal records._--Costa Rica (Goodwin, 1946:359); Rancho de Río
    Jimenez; Juan Viñas; type locality; _San José_.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. Distribution of _Sylvilagus brasiliensis_.

  1. _S. b. truei_
  2. _S. b. gabbi_
  3. _S. b. dicei_
  4. _S. b. consobrinus_
  5. _S. b. messorius_
  6. _S. b. incitatus_ ]


    1877. _Lepus brasiliensis_ var. _gabbi_ J. A. Allen, Monogr. N.
      Amer. Rodentia, p. 349, August, type locality Costa Rica and
      Chiriquí; restricted by Nelson (N. Amer. Fauna, 29:259, August 31,
      1909), by designation of type specimen, to Talamanca [= Sipurio,
      Río Sixaola, near Caribbean Coast], Costa Rica.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis gabbi_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 100:351, May 26.

    1908. _Lepus gabbi tumacus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 24:649, October 13, type from Tuma, Nicaragua.

    _Marginal records._--Honduras: San Pedro Sula (Nelson, 1909:261); to
    Gulf Coast and southward along coast to Panamá Canal, Panamá: Gatun
    (Goldman, 1920:146); Corozal (_ibid._); Gobernador Island (_ibid._);
    Divala (_ibid._); _Chiriquí_ (Goodwin, 1946:358). Northward east of
    the range of _S. b. dicei_, thence westward in Costa Rica: Vijaqual,
    San Carlos (Goodwin, 1946:358). Nicaragua: Matagalpa (Allen,
    1910:96); Ocotal (_ibid._). Honduras: San José, Santa Barbara
    (Goodwin, 1942:151).


    1901. _Lepus_ (_Tapeti_) _incitatus_ Bangs, Amer. Nat., 35:633,
      August, type from San Miguel Island, Bay of Panamá. Known from
      type locality only.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis incitatus_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S.
      Nat. Mus., 100:352, May 26.


    1912. _Sylvilagus gabbi messorius_ Goldman, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 60
      (no. 2):13, September 20, type from Cana, 1800 ft., mts. of
      eastern Panamá.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis messorius_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S.
      Nat. Mus., 100:352, May 26.

    _Marginal records._--Panamá (Goldman, 1920:147): Boca de Cupe;
    _Tacarcuna_; _Tapalisa_; type locality.


    1890. _Lepus truei_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3:192,
      December 10, type from Mirador, Veracruz.

    1950. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis truei_, Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 100:351, May 26.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:264, unless otherwise noted).--San
    Luis Potosí: Rancho Apetsco, Xilitla (Dalquest, 1950:4), thence down
    coast to Tabasco: Teapa. Chiapas: Huehuetan. Oaxaca: Santo Domingo.
    Veracruz: Buena Vista; Motzorongo. Puebla: Metlaltoyuca.

=Sylvilagus bachmani=

Brush Rabbit

Size small. Total length, 300-375; tail, 20-43; hind foot, 64-81; ear
from notch (dry), 50-64; weight (topotypes of _S. b. macrorhinus_) 16 ♂
679 (561-832), 22 ♀ 707 (517-843) grams. Body uniformly dark brown or
brownish gray, but tail whitish beneath; hair on midventral part of body
gray at base; only a slight crenulation of ridge of enamel which
separates an individual molariform tooth into anterior and posterior
sections. From _Sylvilagus audubonii_, the only other species of
_Sylvilagus_ in the same geographic area, _S. bachmani_ differs in
smaller size, less white on underparts (the hairs on the midventral part
of the body being gray instead of white at base), shorter ears and legs,
and a less crenulated ridge of enamel separating the anterior and
posterior parts of a molariform tooth.

The brush rabbit is a Pacific Coastal species; as may be seen from
figure 9 on the next page, this species occurs from the Columbia River
on the north to the tip of Baja California on the south. Nowhere, so far
as I can learn, does it occur as far east as the crest of the
Cascade-Sierra Nevada Mountain Chain. Throughout its range the brush
rabbit is closely associated with--in fact, lives in--the chaparral that
is dense enough to afford protection from raptorial birds and the larger
carnivorous mammals. The rabbit's reliance on protective cover is so
great that, as pointed out on an earlier page, a person can turn this
trait to advantage in protecting cultivated crops from inroads that the
rabbits might make on them. The protection is afforded by clearing the
brush from a strip forty-five feet wide so that the cleared strip
intervenes between the cultivated crops and the brushy shelter. The
rabbits will not risk crossing the open strip and hence do not reach the
growing crops.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. Distribution of _Sylvilagus bachmani_ and
_Sylvilagus mansuetus_.

  1. _S. b. ubericolor_
  2. _S. b. tehamae_
  3. _S. b. macrorhinus_
  4. _S. b. riparius_
  5. _S. b. mariposae_
  6. _S. b. bachmani_
  7. _S. b. virgulti_
  8. _S. b. cinerascens_
  9. _S. b. rosaphagus_
  10. _S. b. howelli_
  11. _S. b. exiguus_
  12. _S. b. peninsularis_
  13. _S. b. cerrosensis_
  14. _S. mansuetus_ ]

Brush rabbits use simple "forms" in the brush for resting. Only one
observer (Orr, 1940: 173) has reported an individual entering a hole. In
patches of chaparral in which the rabbits live they make runways that
are especially well defined at the edges of the brush. The outer
entrance to a runway is tunnellike and one to two feet from the outer
entrance there is a special form that serves as a lookout post. A brush
rabbit that is about to venture into the open ordinarily pauses in such
a form for several minutes, presumably to satisfy itself that no enemy
is in the open area whither the rabbit is bound.

The breeding season is from January to June, at least in California.
There are 2 to 5 young, averaging 3.5 per litter. They are born in a


    1839. _Lepus bachmani_ Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Pt. 6
      (for 1838):103, February 7, type from California, probably between
      Monterey and Santa Barbara.

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_microlagus_) _bachmani_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc.
      Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    1855. _Lepus trowbridgei_ Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
      p. 333, type from Monterey County, California.

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:150): 2 mi. S mouth
    Salinas River; near Morro.


    1898. _Lepus cerrosensis_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      10:145, April 12, type from Cerros [=Cedros] Island, Baja
      California. Known from type locality only.

    1909. _Sylvilagus bachmani cerrosensis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:255, August 31.


    1890. _Lepus cinerascens_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      3:159, October 8, type from San Fernando, Los Angeles County,

    1907. _Sylvilagus bachmani cinerascens_, Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:84, July 22.

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:168): 5700 ft., San
    Emigdio Canyon; 3 mi. E San Fernando; Reche Canyon (Orr, 1940:169);
    3500 ft., Dos Palmas Springs, Santa Rosa Mts. Baja California
    (Nelson, 1909:253): La Huerta, thence northward up-coast to point of


    1907. _Sylvilagus bachmani exiguus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:84, July 22, type from Yubay, central Baja

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Nelson, 1909:254): Agua Dulce;


    1927. _Sylvilagus bachmani howelli_ Huey, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat.
      Hist., 5:67, July 6, type from 10 mi. SE Alamo, Baja California,
      lat. 31° 35´ N, long. 116° 03´ W.

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Huey, 1927:68): Laguna Hanson,
    Sierra Juarez; type locality.


    1935. _Sylvilagus bachmani macrorhinus_ Orr, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 48:28, February 6, type from Alpine Creek Ranch, 3½
      mi. S and 2-1/3 mi. E Portola, 1700 ft., San Mateo County,

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:163): 10 mi. SW Suisun; W
    side Mt. Diablo; Summit Station, Santa Cruz Mts., thence north along
    coast to Golden Gate.


    1916. _Sylvilagus bachmani mariposae_ Grinnell and Storer, Univ.
      California Publ. Zool., 17:7, August 23, type from McCauley Trail,
      4000 ft., near El Portal, Mariposa County, California.

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940): Carbondale (p. 158);
    French Gulch, 6700 ft., Piute Mtn. (p. 159).


    1898. _Lepus peninsularis_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      10:144, April 12, type from Santa Anita, Baja California.

    1909. _Sylvilagus bachmani peninsularis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:255, August 31.

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Nelson, 1909:255): type
    locality; Cape San Lucas.


    1935. _Sylvilagus bachmani riparius_ Orr, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 48:29, February 6, type from west side San Joaquin
      River, 2 mi. NE Vernalis, in Stanislaus County, California. Known
      from type locality only.


    1940. _Sylvilagus bachmani rosaphagus_ Huey, Trans. San Diego Soc.
      Nat. Hist., 9:221, July 31, type from 2 mi. W Santo Domingo
      Mission, Baja California, México, lat. 30° 45´ N, long. 115° 58´
      W, or precisely, near the huge red cliff that marks the entrance
      of the Santo Domingo River Cañon from the coastal plain.

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Huey, 1940): San Quintín (p.
    223); El Rosario (p. 222).


    1935. _Sylvilagus bachmani tehamae_ Orr, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 48:27, February 6, type from Dale's, on Paine's Creek,
      600 ft., Tehama County, California.

    _Marginal records._--Oregon (Orr, 1935:28): Prospect. California
    (Orr, 1940:156): Auburn; 7 mi. W and 14 mi. S Chico; Rumsey; Castle
    Springs; 3 mi. S Covelo; Mad River Bridge, S. Fork Mtn.


    1899. _Lepus bachmani ubericolor_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, p. 383, September 29, type from Beaverton,
      Washington County, Oregon.

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Microlagus_) _bachmani ubericolor_, Lyon,
      Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:337, June 15.

    _Range._--Columbia River, Oregon, south to San Francisco Bay,
    California, and from the Pacific Coast eastward to a line connecting
    the following marginal records.--Oregon (V. Bailey, 1936:109, unless
    otherwise noted): Portland (Nelson, 1909:251); Mackenzie Bridge;
    above Grants Pass. California (Orr, 1940:153): Laytonville; Maillard
    [=4 mi. E Lagunitas].


    1926. _Sylvilagus bachmani virgulti_ Dice, Occas. papers Mus. Zool.
      Univ. Michigan, 166:24, February 11, Soledad, Monterey County,

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:166): The Pinnacles;
    Waltham Cr., 4½ mi. SE Priest Valley; 2 mi. S San Miguel; Bryson.

=Sylvilagus mansuetus=

Brush Rabbit

    1907. _Sylvilagus mansuetus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      20:83, July 22, type from San José Island, Gulf of California,
      Baja California. Known from San José Island only.

This insular species is closely related to _Sylvilagus bachmani_ and is
distinguished by paleness, proportionately longer and narrower skull,
fusion to skull of anterior arm of supraorbital process, and larger

=Sylvilagus palustris=

Marsh Rabbit

(See figure 42)

Total length, 425-440; tail, 33-39; hind foot, 88-91; ear from notch
(dry), 45-52. Upper parts blackish brown or reddish brown; underside of
tail brownish or dingy gray (not white); ears, tail and hind feet short;
posterior and anterior extensions of supraorbital processes joined to
skull along most (or all) of their extent. The lack of white on the
underside of the tail is a ready means of distinguishing this species
from the other species of the genus which occur within its geographic
range. The species occurs in the lowlands, possibly not above 500 feet
altitude, of the Lower Austral and Tropical life-zones. In Florida,
Blair (1936) found that the marsh rabbit ate 29 per cent of its bodily
weight in green food each day and that the number of embryos in 3
females was 4, 4 and 3.


    1894. _Lepus paludicola_ Miller and Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 9:105, June 9, type from Ft. Island, near Crystal
      Riv., Citrus Co., Fla.

    1909. _Sylvilagus palustris paludicola_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:269, August 31.

    _Marginal records._--Florida (Nelson, 1909:270): Hibernia [= Green
    Cove Springs]; San Mateo; along Atlantic Coast at least to Micco;
    Kissimmee River; Cape Sable; northward along Gulf Coast and on
    coastal islands at least to Suwanee River.


    1837. _Lepus palustris_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
      7:194, type locality eastern South Carolina.

    1909. _Sylvilagus palustris_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:266, August

    _Marginal records._--Nansemond County (Handley and Patton,
    1947:190), southward along Atlantic Coast to northern Florida:
    Anastasia Island (Nelson, 1909:269). West to Gulf Coast and along
    Coast to Alabama: Bon Secour (Nelson, 1909:269); Flomaton (Howell,
    1921:74); Dothan (_ibid._). Georgia: Americus (Nelson, 1909:269).
    South Carolina: Society Hill (_ibid._).

[Illustration: FIGS. 10-14. Dorsal views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.]

    FIG. 10. _Romerolagus diazi_, 31 km. S Mexico City, D. F. No. 30815
    KU, ♀.

    FIG. 11. _Sylvilagus idahoensis_, Millett P. O., Nevada. No. 37275
    MVZ, ♂.

    FIG. 12. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis truei_, 30 km. SSE Jesus Carranza,
    Veracruz. No. 32128 KU, ♂.

    FIG. 13. _Sylvilagus bachmani macrorhinus_, 1700 feet, Alpine Creek
    Ranch, San Mateo County, California. No. 53382 MVZ, ♀.

    FIG. 14. _Sylvilagus palustris palustris_, Riceboro, Georgia. No.
    45502 USNM, ♀. (After Nelson, 1909: pl. 12, fig. 3.)

[Illustration: FIGS. 15-19. Dorsal views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.]

    FIG. 15. _Sylvilagus nuttallii grangeri_, ½ mi. E. Jefferson, Nev.
    No. 58527, ♀.

    FIG. 16. _Sylvilagus audubonii minor_, 3290 ft., Neville Spring,
    Grapevine Mts., Big Bend, Brewster Co., Texas. No. 80519 MVZ,

    FIG. 17. _Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi_, 4 mi. NE Lawrence, Douglas
    Co., Kansas. No. 3774 KU, ♂.

    FIG. 18. _Sylvilagus a. aquaticus_, Crawford Co., Kansas. No. 8544
    KU. ♂.

    FIG. 19. _Sylvilagus cunicularius cunicularius_, 3 km. W Acultzingo,
    Veracruz. No. 30749 KU, ♂.

[Illustration: FIGS. 20-24. Ventral views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.
Different views of the first four of these skulls are shown in figs.

    FIG. 20. _Romerolagus diazi._

    FIG. 21. _Sylvilagus idahoensis._

    FIG. 22. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis truei._

    FIG. 23. _Sylvilagus bachmani macrorhinus._

    FIG. 24. _Sylvilagus palustris palustris_, Society Hill, South
    Carolina. No. 2089 USNM (after Lyon, 1904: pl. 76, fig. 6).

[Illustration: FIGS. 25-29. Ventral views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.
Different views of these skulls are shown in figs. 15-19.]

    FIG. 25. _Sylvilagus nuttallii grangeri._

    FIG. 26. _Sylvilagus audubonii minor._

    FIG. 27. _Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi._

    FIG. 28. _Sylvilagus aquaticus aquaticus._

    FIG. 29. _Sylvilagus cunicularius cunicularius._

[Illustration: FIGS. 30-34. Lateral views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.
Different views of these skulls are shown in figs. 10-15.]

    FIG. 30. _Romerolagus diazi._

    FIG. 31. _Sylvilagus idahoensis._

    FIG. 32. _Sylvilagus brasiliensis truei._

    FIG. 33. _Sylvilagus bachmani macrorhinus._

    FIG. 34. _Sylvilagus nuttallii grangeri._

[Illustration: FIGS. 35-38. Lateral views of skulls of rabbits. All × 1.
Different views of these skulls are shown in figs. 16-19.]

    FIG. 35. _Sylvilagus audubonii minor._

    FIG. 36. _Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi._

    FIG. 37. _Sylvilagus aquaticus aquaticus._

    FIG. 38. _Sylvilagus cunicularius cunicularius._

=Sylvilagus floridanus=

Florida Cottontail

Total length, 375-463; tail, 39-65; hind foot, 87-104; ear from notch
(dry), 49-68; upper parts brownish or grayish; underside of tail white;
skull with transversely thick posterior extension of supraorbital
process of frontal. The geographic range is the largest of all of the
North American species of the genus _Sylvilagus_; from Canada the
species occurs south at least to Costa Rica and it may occur in Panamá
for the species is recorded also from South America.

In the western part of the Great Plains this species is confined to the
riparian growth along streams and _Sylvilagus audubonii_ occupies the
remainder of the terrain. In New Mexico and southwestern Texas _S.
floridanus_ is confined to the boreal life-zones where timber provides
denser cover than is found in the lower life-zones. The zonal range is
from the Canadian Life-zone into the Tropical Life-zone. It is not
surprising, therefore, that there is much geographic variation in the
shape and size of the skull. There is so much geographic variation in
the skull that it is impossible, at this writing at least, to frame a
description that will enable the reader to distinguish the skull from
those of all other species of the genus. In any given area, however, it
is possible, easily and certainly, to distinguish the skulls of _S.
floridanus_ from those of the other species which occur in that area.


    1896. _Lepus sylvaticus alacer_ Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      10:136, December 28, type from Stilwell, Boston Mountains, Adair
      County, Oklahoma.

    _Marginal records._--Missouri (Nelson, 1909:176): Columbia; St.
    Louis. Illinois: Ozark (Necker and Hatfield, 1941:56). Tennessee
    (Nelson, 1909:176): Samburg; Raleigh. Mississippi (Nelson,
    1909:176): Michigan City; Bay St. Louis. Texas (Nelson, 1909:176):
    Port Lavaca; Brazos; Henrietta. Oklahoma: Norman (Blair, 1939:128).
    Kansas: _8 mi. NE Harper_ (12917 KU); Rago (12508 KU); Halstead
    (3110 KU); _4 mi. S_ and _14 mi. W Hamilton_ (13673 KU); 3 mi. N
    Chanute (22026 KU).


    1939. _Sylvilagus floridanus ammophilus_ A. H. Howell, Jour. Mamm.,
      20:365, August 14, type from "Oak Lodge", on peninsula opposite
      Micco, Florida. Known from type locality only.

[Illustration: FIG. 39. Distribution of _Sylvilagus nuttallii_, _S.
floridanus_ and _S. insonus_.

  Guide to kinds:

  1. _S. n. nuttallii_
  2. _S. n. grangeri_
  3. _S. n. pinetis_
  4. _S. f. similis_
  5. _S. f. mearnsi_
  6. _S. f. llanensis_
  7. _S. f. alacer_
  8. _S. f. mallurus_
  9. _S. f. hitchensi_
  10. _S. f. floridanus_
  11. _S. f. ammophilus_
  12. _S. f. cognatus_
  13. _S. f. robustus_
  14. _S. f. chapmani_
  15. _S. f. holzneri_
  16. _S. f. restrictus_
  17. _S. f. subcinctus_
  18. _S. f. orizabae_
  19. _S. f. connectens_
  20. _S. f. russatus_
  21. _S. f. aztecus_
  22. _S. f. chiapensis_
  23. _S. f. yucatanicus_
  24. _S. f. hondurensis_
  25. _S. f. costaricensis_
  26. _S. insonus_ ]


    1890. _Lepus sylvaticus aztecus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 3:188, December 10, type from Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca.

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _floridanus aztecus_, Lyon,
      Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:188, unless otherwise
    noted).--Oaxaca: Santa Maria Petapa; Santa Efigenia. Chiapas:
    Tonala, 50 M (Hooper, 1947:56). Oaxaca: Salina Cruz; _type


    1899. _Lepus floridanus chapmani_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 12:12, March 4, type from Corpus Christi, Nueces County,

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _floridanus chapmani_, Lyon,
      Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    1899. _Lepus floridanus caniclunis_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, p. 388, October 5, type from Fort Clark, Kinney
      County, Texas.

    1902. _Lepus simplicicanus_ Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      15:81, April 25, type from Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:178).--Texas: Clyde; Victoria
    County; _Rockport_. Tamaulipas: Soto la Marina; Juamave. Coahuila:
    Monclova; Sabinas. Texas: Comstock; Stanton.


    1904. _Lepus floridanus chiapensis_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:106, May 18, type from San Cristobal, Chiapas.

    1909. _Sylvilagus floridanus chiapensis_, Lyon and Osgood, Bull. U.
      S. Nat. Mus., 62:32, January 28.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:190, unless otherwise
    noted).--Chiapas: type locality; Comitan. Guatemala: Hacienda
    Chancol; Panajachel (Goodwin, 1934:56). Chiapas: Tuxtla.


    1907. _Sylvilagus cognatus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      20:82, July 22, type from near summit of the Manzano Mountains,
      Valencia County, New Mexico.

    1951. _Sylvilagus floridanus cognatus_, Hall and Kelson, Univ.
      Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 5:55, October 1, 1951.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:193).--New Mexico: Santa Rosa, 35
    mi. N on Conchas River; Capitan Mts.; Datil Mts.; type locality.


    1904. _Lepus floridanus connectens_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:105, May 18, type from Chichicaxtle, central

    1909. _Sylvilagus floridanus connectens_, Lyon and Osgood, Bull. U.
      S. Nat. Mus., 62:32, January 28.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:186).--Tamaulipas: Altamira.
    Veracruz: type locality. Oaxaca: Mt. Zempoaltepec. Veracruz: Orizaba
    (City of); Jico. Puebla: Metlaltoyuca. Queretaro: Pinal de Amoles.
    San Luis Potosí: Valles.


    1933. _Sylvilagus floridanus costaricensis_ Harris, Occas. Papers
      Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, 266:3, June 28, type from Hacienda
      Santa Maria, Province of Guanacaste, 3200 ft, Costa Rica.

    _Marginal records_ (Goodwin, 1946:358).--Costa Rica: El Pelón; type
    locality; Tenorio.


    1890. _Lepus sylvaticus floridanus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus.
      Nat. Hist., 3:160, October 8, type from Sebastian River, Brevard
      County, Florida.

    1904. _Sylvilagus floridanus_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:322,
      June 15.

    _Marginal records._--Florida: San Mateo (Sherman, 1936:122);
    _Enterprise_ (_ibid._); Miakka Lake (230812 USBS); Blitches Ferry
    (Sherman, 1936:122).


    1911. _Sylvilagus floridanus hitchensi_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 39:227, January 9, type from Smiths Island, Northampton
      County, Virginia.

    _Marginal records._--Virginia: type locality; Fishermans Island
    (Handley and Patton, 1947:187).


    1896. _Lepus sylvaticus holzneri_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
      18:554, June 24, type from Douglas spruce zone, near summit of
      Huachuca Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona.

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _floridanus holzneri_, Lyon,
      Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    1896. [_Lepus sylvaticus_] subspecies _rigidus_ Mearns, Proc. U. S.
      Nat. Mus., 18:555, June 24, type from Carrizalillo Mts., near
      monument No. 31, Mexican boundary line, Grant County, New Mexico.

    1903. _Lepus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _durangae_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer.
      Mus. Nat. Hist., 19:609, November 12, type from Rancho Bailon,
      northwestern Durango.

    _Marginal records._--Arizona: Pine Springs, 15 mi. S of Canyon of
    Colorado (Hall and Kelson, 1951:54); Reynolds Creek R. S., Sierra
    Ancha Mts. (_ibid._); W base Mt. Turnbull, 4500 ft. (_ibid._). New
    Mexico: Silver City (Nelson, 1909:180); _Animas Mts._ (_ibid._).
    Zacatecas: Valparaiso (_ibid._); Plateado (_ibid._). Chihuahua:
    Guadalupe y Calvo (_ibid._). Arizona: Thomas Cañon, 2 mi. E
    Baboquivari Mts. (Hall and Kelson, 1951:54), Hualapi Mts. (_ibid._).


    1932. _Sylvilagus floridanus hondurensis_ Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 45:122, July 30, type from Monte Redondo,
      approximately 30 mi. NW Tegucigalpa, 5100 ft., Honduras.

    _Marginal records._--Honduras: Santa Barbara (Goodwin, 1942:150);
    Cedros (_ibid._). Nicaragua: Jinotega (Nelson, 1909:190); Chontales
    ["District" of] (_ibid._); Leon. Honduras: Ocotepeque (Goodwin,


    1938. _Sylvilagus floridanus llanensis_ Blair, Occas. Papers. Mus.
      Zool., Univ. Michigan, 380:1, June 21, type from Old "F" Ranch
      headquarters, Quitaque, Briscoe County, Texas.

    _Marginal records._--Kansas: 15 mi. N and 3 mi. E Stafford (5547
    KU); 1 mi. NE Aetna (12144 KU). Oklahoma: 3 mi SE Southard (10063
    KU); _Fort Cobb_ (Blair, 1939:129); Mt. Scott (_ibid._). Texas: 6
    mi. E Coahoma (Blair, 1938:3); 6 mi. southwest of Muleshoe
    (_ibid._). Kansas: Coolidge (18462 KU).


    1898. _L[epus]. n[uttalli]. mallurus_ Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat.
      Hist., 2(ser. 7):320, October, type from Raleigh, Wake County,
      North Carolina.

    1904. _Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll.,
      45:323, June 15.

    1837. _Lepus sylvaticus_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 7:403, no type or type locality. Name given to the
      "common gray rabbit" of the eastern United States and probably
      with particular reference to the animal in South Carolina. Name
      preoccupied by _Lepus borealis sylvaticus_ Nilson, 1832, from

    _Marginal records._--Connecticut: Bear Mountain (Goodwin, 1935:163),
    south along coast to Florida: Lake Julian (Nelson, 1909:168); Rock
    Bluff (Sherman, 1936:122). Alabama: Bayou Labatre (A. H. Howell,
    1921:71); Leighton (_ibid._). Tennessee (Kellogg, 1939:291):
    Arlington; Hornbeak; Highcliff; Watauga Valley. West Virginia:
    _Ernshaw_ (Kellogg, 1937:472). Pennsylvania (Nelson, 1909:169):
    Waynesburg; Potts Grove. New York: Palenville (_ibid._).


    1894. _Lepus sylvaticus mearnsii_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 6:171, May 31, type from Fort Snelling, Hennepin County,

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _floridanus mearnsi_, Lyon,
      Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    _Marginal records._--Minnesota: Fertile (Swanson, Surber and
    Roberts, 1945:97); Duluth (_ibid._). Michigan: Marquette County
    (Burt, 1946:249). Ontario: Lake Simcoe (Miller, 1924:464). Quebec
    (Anderson, 1947): Montreal (p. 103); Quebec-side Ottawa River in
    Laurentian Hills (p. 104). New York: "eastern New York" (Hamilton,
    1943:383). Pennsylvania: Lopez (Nelson, 1909:172). West Virginia: 7
    mi. E Phillipi (Kellogg, 1937:473); Gilboa (_ibid._). Illinois:
    Sangamon (Nelson, 1909:172). Kansas: Neosho Falls (5104 KU); 1 mi. N
    and ½ mi. E Lincolnville (12964 KU); _6 mi. SW Clay Center_ (12398
    KU); Strawberry (4510 KU). Minnesota: Otter Tail County (Surber,


    1893. _Lepus orizabae_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 8:143,
      December 29, type from Mt. Orizaba, 9500 ft., Puebla.

    1909. _Sylvilagus floridanus orizabae_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:183, August 31.

    1903. _Lepus floridanus persultator_ Elliott, Field Columb. Mus.,
      publ. 71, zool. ser., 3:147, March 20, type from Puebla, Puebla.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:185).--Coahuila: Sierra
    Encarnación. Hidalgo: Encarnación. Veracruz: _Las Vigas_; Mt.
    Orizaba. _Puebla: Chalchicomula_. México: Mt. Popocatepetl; Volcano
    of Toluca. Guanajuato: Santa Rosa. San Luis Potosí: San Luis Potosí.


    1907. _Sylvilagus floridanus restrictus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:82, July 22, type from Zapotlan, Jalisco.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:183).--Nayarit: Tepic; Ojo de Agua.
    Jalisco: _La Cienega_; _Atenguillo_. Michoacán: Mt. Tancítaro;
    Pátzcuaro. Jalisco: type locality; Las Canoas; La Laguna.


    1905. _Lepus pinetus robustus_ V. Bailey, N. Amer. Fauna, 25:159,
      October 24, type from 6000 ft., Davis Mts., Jeff Davis County,

    1951. _Sylvilagus floridanus robustus_, Hall and Kelson, Univ.
      Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 5:56, October 1, 1951.

    _Marginal records._--Texas: The Bowl, Guadalupe Mts. (Hall and
    Kelson, 1951:56); Chisos Mts. (Nelson, 1909:195); 35 mi. S Marfa


    1904. _Lepus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _russatus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer.
      Mus. Nat. Hist., 20:31, February 29, type from Pasa Nueva,
      southern Veracruz.

    1909. _Sylvilagus floridanus russatus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:186, August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:187).--Veracruz: Catemaco;
    Coatzacoalcos; _Minatitlan_; type locality; _Jimba_ (KU 19895).


    1907. _Sylvilagus floridanus similis_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:82, July 22, type from Valentine, Cherry County,

    _Marginal records._--Manitoba: Dauphin (Anderson and Rand, 1943:24).
    Minnesota: Ten Mile Lake (Surber, 1932:74). Nebraska: Neligh
    (Nelson, 1909:174). Kansas: _Long Island_ (_ibid._); 3 mi. N and 2
    mi. W Hoisington (16509 KU); Lane County (5520 KU); Elkader (5595
    KU). Colorado: Arvada (Cary, 1911:158). Wyoming: 6400 ft., 3 mi. E
    Horse Creek, P. O. (15936 KU). Nebraska: 8 mi. E Chadron (39380 KU).
    Montana: _Little Missouri River, 7 mi. NE Albion_ (Hall and Kelson,
    1951:52); Box Elder Creek, 25 mi. SW Sykes (_ibid._). North Dakota:
    Oakdale (Bailey, 1927:134).


    1899. _Lepus floridanus subcinctus_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, p. 386, October 5, type from Hacienda El Molino,
      near Negrete, Michoacán.

    1904. _Sylvilagus floridanus subcinctus_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll.,
      45:336, June 15.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:181).--Jalisco: Lagos. Guanajuato:
    Acámbaro. Michoacán: _Querendaro_. Jalisco: _Ameca_; Etzatlán.


    1899. _Lepus floridanus yucatanicus_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, p. 384, September 29, type from Mérida, Yucatán.

    1904. _Sylvilagus floridanus yucatanicus_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc.
      Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:191).--Yucatán: Progreso; type
    locality. Campeche: Campeche.

=Sylvilagus transitionalis= (Bangs)

New England Cottontail

    1895. _Lepus sylvaticus transitionalis_ Bangs, Proc. Boston Soc.
      Nat. Hist., 26:405, January 31, type from Liberty Hill, New London
      County, Connecticut.

    1909. _Sylvilagus transitionalis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:195,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records._--Vermont: west side at Canadian boundary
    (Osgood, F. L., Jr., 1938:440); Montpelier (_ibid._). Maine:
    Sagadahoc County (Palmer, 1944:194); _Androscoggin County_
    (_ibid._). New York: Miller Place (Nelson, 1909:199). Virginia:
    Roanoke County (Llewellyn and Handley, 1946:385). North Carolina:
    Roan Mtn. (Nelson, 1909:199). Georgia: Brasstown Bald Mtn. (A. H.
    Howell, 1921:71). Alabama: Erin (_ibid._); Ardell (_ibid._).
    Tennessee: Walden Ridge, "near" Soddy (Kellogg, 1939:291). West
    Virginia: Ronceverte (Kellogg, 1937:473). Pennsylvania: Renovo
    (Nelson, 1909:199). New York: Lake George (_ibid._).

[Illustration: FIG. 40. Distribution of _Sylvilagus transitionalis_.]

Total length, 388; tail, 39; hind foot, 95; ear from notch (dry), 52.
Upper parts almost pinkish buff, varying to almost ochraceous buff; back
overlaid by a distinct black wash giving a penciled effect; anterior
extension of supraorbital process obsolete or short and closely
appressed to orbital rim; tympanic bullae small, smaller than in any
subspecies of _S. floridanus_ in the United States. _S. transitionalis_
is a forest-inhabiting species--more so than is _S. floridanus_.

=Sylvilagus nuttallii=

Nuttall Cottontail

(See figure 39)

Total length, 350-390; tail, 44-50; hind foot, 88-100; ear from notch
(dry), 55-56; weight in Nevada, ♂ 678, 3 ♀ 928 (868-1032) grams. Hind
feet densely covered with long hair; ear short; tympanic bulla of
moderate size. In the northern part of its range _S. nuttallii_ occurs
principally in the sagebrush areas but it occurs also in the timbered
areas of the Transition Life-zone and almost exclusively in timbered
areas in the southern part of its range. From _S. floridanus_, _S.
nuttallii_ along the eastern margin of its range differs in more slender
rostrum, and larger external auditory meatus. In New Mexico and Arizona,
_S. nuttallii_ differs from _S. floridanus_ in the posteriorly pointed
and un-notched supraoccipital shield and in the posterior extension of
the supraorbital process, the tip of which projects free from the
braincase or merely lies against the braincase instead of being firmly
welded to the side of the skull. From _S. audubonii_, _S. nuttallii_
differs in shorter ears, smaller tympanic bullae and smaller hind legs;
_S. nuttallii_ usually occurs at higher elevations, or where the two
occur at approximately the same elevation _S. nuttallii_ occurs in
wooded or brushy areas and _S. audubonii_ lives on the plains or in
relatively open country. Eight females contained an average of 6.1 (4-8)


    1895. _Lepus sylvaticus grangeri_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 7:264, August 21, type from Hill City, Black Hills,
      Pennington County, South Dakota.

    1909. _Sylvilagus nuttalli grangeri_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:204, August 31.

    1904. _Lepus l[aticinctus]. perplicatus_ Elliott, Field Columb.
      Mus., publ. 87, zool. ser., 3:255, January 7, type from Hannopee
      [= Hannaupah] Canyon, Panamint Mts., Inyo County, California.

    _Marginal records._--Alberta: Steveville (Anderson, 1943:25).
    Saskatchewan (_ibid._): Cypress Hills; Johnston Lake; Big Muddy
    Lake. North Dakota: Goodall (V. Bailey, 1927:137). South Dakota:
    Custer (Nelson, 1909:207). Wyoming: 2 mi. W Horse Creek P. O. (15935
    KU); Sherman (Nelson, 1909:207). Colorado: Meeker (Warren,
    1942:272). Utah (Nelson, 1909:207): Mt. Ellen; "Upper Kanab";
    Panguitch. Nevada (Hall, 1946:612): ¼ mi. W Utah-Nev. boundary, 38°
    17´ N, 7300 ft.; S end Belted Range, 5 mi. NW Whiterock Spring, 7200
    ft.; Chiatovich Creek, 7000 ft.; 2½ mi. E and 1 mi. S Grapevine
    Peak, 6700 ft.; Charleston Park, Kyle Cañon, 8000 ft. California
    (Orr, 1940:103): Johnson Canyon, 6500 ft.; nr. Woodfords, 5500 ft.
    Nevada (Hall, 1946:612): Calvada; Hardscrabble Canyon; Paradise
    Valley. Idaho (Davis, 1939:363): S. Fork Owyhee River, 12 mi. N
    Nevada line; Crane Creek, 15 mi. E Midvale; Lemhi. Montana: 4 mi. W
    Hamilton (Jellison, MS); 2 mi. N Moise Lake (_ibid._). Alberta:
    Cardston (Anderson, 1947:105).


    1837. _Lepus nuttallii_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
      7:345, type locality probably eastern Oregon near mouth of Malheur

    1904. _Sylvilagus nuttallii_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:323,
      June 15.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia: Anarchist Mtn., Osoyoos
    (Cowan, 1940:9). Washington: Kettle Falls (Dalquest, 1941:408).
    Idaho: Couer d' Alene (Rust, 1946:322); _Lewiston_ (Davis,
    1939:361); Fiddle Creek (_ibid._). Nevada (Hall, 1946:612): 5800
    ft., Quinn River Crossing; _½ mi. S Granite Cr., Granite Mts._;
    _Smoke Creek, 9 mi. E California line_; 4½ mi. S Flanigan.
    California: Truckee (Orr, 1940:101); _Beckwith_ (_ibid._); Weed
    (Orr, 1940:100); Yreka (_ibid._). Oregon (V. Bailey, 1936:107): near
    Ashland; Bend; The Dalles. Washington: Grand Dalles (Taylor and
    Shaw, 1929:29); Yakima Valley (_ibid._); Douglas (Nelson, 1909:203).


    1894. _Lepus sylvaticus pinetis_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 6:348, December 7, type from White Mts., south of Mt. Ord,
      Apache County, Arizona, according to Warren (Mammals of Colorado,

    1909. _Sylvilagus nuttalli pinetis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:207,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records._--Colorado (Nelson, 1909:210): Arkins; Golden;
    Greenhorn Mts. New Mexico: Sierra Grande (Nelson, 1909:211); Willis
    (_ibid._); Zuni Mts. (V. Bailey, 1932:60). Arizona: type locality.
    Utah (Durrant, MS): 4½ mi. NW Bluff; Block Canyon, 19 mi. SE Moab,
    5400 ft.; _5 mi. NE La Sal P. O., 8000 ft._

=Sylvilagus audubonii=

Audubon Cottontail

Total length, 350-420; tail, 45-75; hind foot, 75-100; ear from notch
(dry), 55-70; weight of _S. a. vallicola_, 7 ♂ 912 (835-988), 2 ♀ 1096,
1191 grams. Long hind legs, long ears, sparseness of hair on the ears,
shortness of hair on the feet, prominent (upturned) supraorbital process
of the skull and much inflated tympanic bullae are characters of this
wide-spread species. Embryos in 19 Californian females averaged 3.6
(2-6) per female.

[Illustration: FIG. 41. Distribution of _Sylvilagus audubonii_.

  1. _S. a. audubonii_
  2. _S. a. vallicola_
  3. _S. a. sanctidiegi_
  4. _S. a. confinis_
  5. _S. a. arizonae_
  6. _S. a. warreni_
  7. _S. a. baileyi_
  8. _S. a. cedrophilus_
  9. _S. a. neomexicanus_
  10. _S. a. minor_
  11. _S. a. goldmani_
  12. _S. a. parvulus_ ]


    1877. [_Lepus sylvaticus_] var. _arizonae_ J. A. Allen, Monogr.
      North Amer. Rodentia, p. 332, August, type from Beals Spring,
      Yavapai Co., Arizona.

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni arizonae_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:222, August 31.

    1896. _Lepus arizonae major_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18:557,
      June 24, type from Calabasas, Pima County, Arizona.

    1904. _Lepus laticinctus_ Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., publ. 87,
      zool. ser., 3:254, January 7, type from Oro Grande, Mohave Desert,
      San Bernardino County, California.

    1904. _Lepus l[aticinctus]. rufipes_ Elliot, Field Columb. Mus.,
      publ. 87, zool. ser., 3:254, January 7, type from Furnace Cr.,
      Inyo Co., California.

    _Marginal records._--Utah (Durrant, MS): 2 mi. SW Fish Springs;
    Holden; 7 mi. SW Tropic. Arizona (Nelson, 1909:225): Seligman; Ft.
    Verde; Dos Cabesos. Sonora (Burt, 1938:69): Tecoripa; La Libertad
    Ranch. Baja California: San Matias Pass (Nelson, 1909:225).
    California: Vallecito (Orr, 1940:126); Fairmont, Antelope Valley
    (_ibid._); Little Lake, 3300 ft. (Orr, 1940:125); 5300-5639 ft.,
    near Benton (_ibid._). Nevada (Hall, 1946:614): Arlemont; 4 mi. E
    Smith Creek Cave.


    1858. _Lepus audubonii_ Baird, Mamm. N. Amer., p. 608, July 14, type
      from San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:214, August

    _Marginal records_ (Orr, 1940:115).--California: 600 ft., Paines
    Creek; Rackerby; Pleasant Valley; Snelling; 2 mi. S mouth Salinas
    River, northward not reaching coast again except at San Francisco,
    thence around shores of San Francisco Bay to mouth of Carquinez
    Straits and northward along western side of Sacramento Valley to
    Winslow, 5 mi. W Fruto.


    1897. _Lepus baileyi_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 11:148,
      June 9, type from Spring Creek, east side of Bighorn Basin,
      Bighorn County, Wyoming.

    1908. _Sylvilagus auduboni baileyi_, Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad.
      Sci., 22:336.

    _Marginal records._--Montana: Great Falls of the Missouri (Nelson,
    1909:234). North Dakota: Wade on the Cannonball River (V. Bailey,
    1927:138). South Dakota: Corral Draw (Nelson, 1909:234). Nebraska:
    Glen (_ibid._). Kansas: 2½ mi. S and 4 mi. W Oberlin (19035 KU);
    Wakeeney (1203 KU). Colorado (Nelson, 1909:234): Monon; The Cedars;
    Quenda [=Querida]; Salida. Wyoming: ½ mi. W Horse Creek P. O. (15948
    KU). Colorado (Nelson, 1909:234): White Rock [2 mi. above Meeker,
    6400 ft.]; 20 mi. SW Rangely. Utah (Durrant, MS): 8 mi. S Myton; 6
    mi. NW Duchesne; 10 mi. E Mountain Home. Wyoming (Nelson, 1909:234):
    Ft. Bridger; Big Piney; Circle. Montana: Stillwater (_ibid._).
    Phillips Creek, Montana (Nelson 1909:234) not found.


    1907. _Sylvilagus auduboni cedrophilus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:83, July 22, type from Cactus Flat, 20 mi. N Cliff,
      Grant County, New Mexico.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:230).--Arizona: San Francisco Mts.
    New Mexico: Gallup; Santa Rosa; Capitan; Ancho; Isleta; Burro Mts.
    Arizona: Springerville.


    1898. _Lepus arizonae confinis_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 10: 146, April 12, type from Playa Maria, Baja California.

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni confinis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:220, August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:221).--Baja California: type
    locality; San Bruno, thence southerly over peninsula to tip.


    1904. _Lepus arizonae goldmani_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      17:107, May 18, type from Culiacán, Sinaloa.

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni goldmani_ Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:225,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:226).--Sonora: Ortiz; Camoa.
    Sinaloa: Bacubirito; type locality.


    1896. _Lepus arizonae minor_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18:557,
      June 24, type from El Paso, El Paso County, Texas.

    1907. _S[ylvilagus]. a[uduboni]_. minor, Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:83, July 22.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:228, unless otherwise noted).--New
    Mexico: [12 mi. N] Tularosa. Texas: Kent; Haymond; Langtry. Durango
    (Nelson, 1909:229): Inde; Rancho Bailon; Río Campo. Arizona: San
    Bernardino Ranch. New Mexico: Red Rock; _Lordsburg_.


    1907. _Sylvilagus auduboni neomexicanus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:83, July 22, type from Fort Sumner, Guadalupe
      County, New Mexico.

    _Marginal records._--Kansas: 1 mi. E Coolidge (12976 KU); Rezeau
    Ranch, 5 mi. N Belvidere (13208 KU). Texas: Wichita Falls (Nelson,
    1909:236); San Angelo (_ibid._); Adam [=15 mi. E Adams] (Nelson,
    1909:236); 28 mi. S Alpine (Borell and Bryant, 1942:39); _15 mi. S
    Alpine_, (Hall and Kelson, 1951:57); 7 mi. NE Marfa (Blair,
    1940:34); Toyahvale [= 10 mi. S of] (Nelson, 1909:236); McKittrick
    Canyon (Davis and Robertson, 1944:271). New Mexico: Roswell (V.
    Bailey, 1932:54); Emory Peak (_ibid._).


    1904. _Lepus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _parvulus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer.
      Mus. Nat. Hist., 20:34, February 29, type from Apam, Hidalgo.

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni parvulus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:236, August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:237, unless otherwise
    noted).--Texas: Llano; San Diego; Rio Grande City. Tamaulipas: El
    Mulato (Dice, 1937:256); Miquihuana. San Luis Potosí: Rio Verde.
    Veracruz: Perote. Puebla: Chalchicomula. Guanajuato: Silao. Durango:
    Durango City. Coahuila: Monclova. Texas: Comstock.


    1899. _Lepus floridanus sanctidiegi_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 51:389, October 5, type from Mexican Boundary
      Monument No. 258, shore of Pacific Ocean, San Diego County,

    1909. _Sylvilagus auduboni sanctidiegi_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:218, August 31.

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:122): Sespe; Reche Canyon
    near Colton; San Felipe Canyon. Baja California (Nelson, 1909:220):
    Nachogüero Valley; Santo Tomas, thence northerly along coast.


    1907. _Sylvilagus auduboni vallicola_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:82, July 22, type from San Emigdio Ranch, Kern
      County, California.

    _Marginal records_ (Orr, 1940:118, unless otherwise
    noted).--California: Fresno Flat (Nelson, 1909:218); Badger
    (_ibid._); 2750 ft., Onyx; Tehachapi (Nelson, 1909:218); Mt. Pinos
    (Orr, 1940:119), northwesterly, seldom actually reaching coast, to
    central Monterey County thence easterly to point of beginning.


    1907. _Sylvilagus auduboni warreni_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:83, July 22, type from Coventry, Montrose County,

    _Marginal records._--Utah: 5250 ft., Willow Creek (Durrant, MS).
    Colorado (Nelson, 1909:232): Rifle; Villa Grove; Medano Ranch. New
    Mexico: Hondo Canyon (Nelson, 1909:232); Cieneguilla (_ibid._); Juan
    Tafoya (Bailey, 1932:59). Arizona (Nelson, 1909:232): Holbrook;
    Winslow. Utah: Canesville (_sic_) (Nelson, 1909:232); Wellington
    (Durrant, MS).

=Sylvilagus aquaticus=

Swamp Rabbit

Total length, 530-540; tail, 67-71; hind foot, 105-110; length of ear
from notch (dry), 63-67. Upper parts blackish brown or reddish brown;
underparts with some white; under side of tail white; skull robust;
posterior extensions of supraorbital processes joined for their entire
length with side of braincase or, in some specimens, with a small
foramen between the braincase and the base of the posterior extension of
the supraorbital process. This big rabbit is a stronger runner than the
smaller marsh rabbit and is easily distinguished from the smaller
species by larger size and white, instead of brownish or grayish,
underside of the tail.


    1837. _Lepus aquaticus_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
      7:319, type locality western Alabama.

    1909. _Sylvilagus aquaticus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:270, August

    1895. _Lepus aquaticus attwateri_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 7:327, November 8, type from Medina River, 18 mi. S San
      Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

    1899. _Lepus telmalemonus_ Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., publ. 38,
      zool. ser., 1:285, May 25, type from Washita River, near
      Dougherty, Murray County, Oklahoma.

    _Marginal records._--Illinois: 6 mi. N Sesser (Cockrum, 1949:427).
    Indiana: Point Township (Harrison and Hickie, 1931:319). Tennessee:
    5 mi. W Hornbeak (Kellogg, 1939:292); Henryville (A. H. Howell,
    1909:63). Alabama: Huntsville (Nelson, 1909:273); Big Crow Creek
    near Stevenson (A. H. Howell, 1921:71). South Carolina: "about" 3
    mi. SE Westminster (F. Sherman, 1939:259); "about" 5 mi. W Iva
    (_ibid._). Georgia: Fulton County (_ibid._); Lumpkin (Nelson,
    1909:273). Alabama: Castleberry (_ibid._). Louisiana: Covington
    (Lowery, 1936:32); Kleinpeter (_ibid._). Texas (Nelson, 1909:273):
    Sourlake; Richmond; Medina River, 18 mi. SW San Antonio; Gurley.
    Oklahoma: 7 mi. NW Stillwater (Blair, 1939:129). Kansas: Crawford
    County (8826 KU). Arkansas: along White River near Springdale
    (Black, 1936:34). Missouri: 3 mi. SW Udall (Leopold and Hall,
    1945:145). Arkansas: White River near Augusta (Dellinger and Black,
    1940:190). Missouri: St. Francis River, W of Senath (Nelson,

[Illustration: FIG. 42. Distribution of _Sylvilagus palustris_ and
_Sylvilagus aquaticus_.

  1. _S. p. palustris_
  2. _S. p. paludicola_
  3. _S. a. aquaticus_
  4. _S. a. littoralis_ ]


    1909. _Sylvilagus aquaticus littoralis_ Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:273, August 31, type from Houma, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.

    _Range._--Swamps and marshes along Gulf Coast, wholly within Lower
    Austral Life-zone, below 50 ft., from Mobile Bay west to Matagordo
    Bay. Inland _Marginal records_.--Alabama: Blakely Island opposite
    Mobile (A. H. Howell, 1921:73). Mississippi: Bay St. Louis (Nelson,
    1909:275). Louisiana: Rayne (Lowery, 1936:32); Hackberry (Nelson,
    1909:275). Texas: Matagorda (Nelson, 1909:275).

=Sylvilagus insonus= (Nelson)

Omilteme Cottontail

(See figure 39)

    1904. _Lepus insonus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 17:103,
      May 18, type from Omilteme, Guerrero. Known from type locality

    1909. _Sylvilagus insonus_, Lyon and Osgood, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
      62:34, January 28 (see Hershkovitz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
      100:335, May 26, 1950, for allocation of _S. insonus_ to subgenus
      _Sylvilagus_ instead of to subgenus _Tapeti_).

Total length, 435; tail, 42.5; hind foot, 95; ear from notch (dry), 61.
Color grayish brown above and dingy (not white) below; tail dingy buffy
below and dull rusty brown above. The collectors thought that the
species was restricted to the forested parts of the Sierra Madre del Sur
between 7000 and 10,000 feet altitude in the Mexican state of Guerrero.

[Illustration: FIG. 43. Distribution of _Sylvilagus cunicularius_ and
_Sylvilagus graysoni_.

  1. _Sylvilagus cunicularius insolitas_
  2. _Sylvilagus cunicularius pacificus_
  3. _Sylvilagus cunicularius cunicularius_
  4. _Sylvilagus graysoni_ ]

=Sylvilagus cunicularius=

Mexican Cottontail

Total length, 485-515; tail, 54-68; hind foot, 108-111; ear from notch
(dry), 60-63. Pelage coarse; upper parts brownish gray; skull massive;
posterior extensions of supraorbital processes varying from those that
project free to those that have the tips, or tips and a considerable
part of the processes, attached to the braincase.


    1848. _Lepus cunicularius_ Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mammalia, 2:132,
      type from Zacualpan (probably in state of México).

    1909. _Sylvilagus cunicularius_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:239,
      August 31.

    1890. _Lepus verae-crucis_ Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 74,
      June, type from Las Vigas, Veracruz.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:241).--Hidalgo: Tulancingo.
    Veracruz: Las Vigas; Orizaba. Oaxaca: Mt. Zempoaltepec; Suchixtepec.
    Guerrero: Chilpancingo. Michoacán (Hall and Villa, 1949:469).
    Pátzcuaro; Tancítaro.


    1890. _Lepus insolitus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      3:189, December 10, type from plains of Colima, Jalisco.

    1909. _Sylvilagus cunicularius insolitus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:243, August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:244).--Sinaloa: Mazatlan; Rosario;
    Esquinapa. Nayarit: Acaponeta. Colima: Colima; Armeria, thence
    northward along Pacific Coast.


    1904. _Lepus veraecrucis pacificus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:104, May 18, type from Acapulco, Guerrero.

    1909. _Sylvilagus cunicularius pacificus_, Lyon and Osgood, Catal.
      Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 62:35, January 28.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:242).--Guerrero: El Limón. Oaxaca:
    Llano Grande, thence westward along Pacific Coast.

=Sylvilagus graysoni= (J. A. Allen)

Tres Marias Cottontail

    1877. _Lepus graysoni_ J. A. Allen, Monogr. N. Amer. Rodentia, p.
      347, August, type from Tres Marias Islands, Jalisco; probably
      María Madre Island. (See Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 14:16, April 29,

    1904. _Sylvilagus_ (_Sylvilagus_) _graysoni_, Lyon, Smiths. Misc.
      Coll., 45:336, June 15.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:245): María Madre Island; María
    Magdalena Island.

Total length, 480; tail, 51; hind foot, 99; ear from notch (dry), 57.
This insular species is closely related to _Sylvilagus cunicularius_ of
the adjacent mainland but has notably shorter ears and more reddish on
the upper parts, sides and legs; the skull is slenderer, especially in
the rostral region. The posterior extensions of the supraorbital process
are united to the braincase throughout most of their length as in
_Sylvilagus palustris_. The species seems to have a narrow vertical
range, occurring from sea level up to only 200 feet.

Genus LEPUS Linnaeus--Hares and Jack Rabbits

    Revised by Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:59-158, August 31, 1909.
    Concerning Shamel's (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 55:25, May 12,
    1942) proposed changes of names for several species, see Hall, Univ.
    Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 5:45, October 1, 1951.

    1758. _Lepus_ Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, ed. 10, 1:57. Type _Lepus
      timidus_ Linnaeus.

    1895. _Macrotolagus_ Mearns, Science, n. s., 1:698, June 21. Type,
      _Lepus alleni_ Mearns. (See Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18:552,
      June 24, 1896.)

    1904. _Poecilolagus_ Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45:395, June 15.
      Type, _Lepus americanus_ Erxleben.

    1904. _Lagos_ Palmer. N. Amer. Fauna, 23:361, January 23. Type,
      _Lepus arcticus_ Ross. _Lagos_ J. Brooks, a catalogue of the
      anatomical and zoological museum, pt. 1, p. 54, July, 1828,
      appears to be a _nomen nudum_.

    1911. _Boreolepus_ Barrett-Hamilton, History of the British
      Mammalia, pt. 9, p. 160, November 17. Type, _Lepus groenlandicus_
      Rhoads. (For status see Sutton and Hamilton, Mem. Carnegie Mus.,
      12 (pt. 2, sec. 1):78, August 4, 1932; also A. H. Howell, Jour.
      Mamm., 17:331, November 16.)

Total length, 363-664; tail, 25-112; hind foot, 112-189; ear from notch
(dry), 62-144. Upper parts grayish, brownish or black; interparietal
bone fused to surrounding bones; cervical vertabrae long, 2nd and 3rd
being longer than wide; transverse processes of lumbar vertabrae long,
the longest one equal to the length of the centrum to which it is
attached plus half of the length of the preceding centrum; free
extremity of transverse process of lumbar vertebra considerably
expanded; distance from anterior edge of acetabulum to extreme anterior
point of ilium less than distance from former point to most distant
point of ischium; ulna reduced in size along middle part of shaft, and,
excepting the lower extremity, placed almost entirely behind radius.

All members of the genus _Lepus_ are technically hares, as these are
defined in the account of the family Leporidae. The largest members of
the order Lagomorpha are members of the genus _Lepus_. No domestic
strains have been developed but effort in this direction might be
profitable, in as much as the so-called Belgian hares of the related
genus, _Oryctolagus_, have done well in captivity.

In the past it has been customary to recognize two or more subgenera of
the genus _Lepus_. The species are a less diverse lot than those in
some other genera, however, and it seems that no useful purpose is
served by recognizing subgenera. Accordingly, the several names proposed
for this purpose are arranged here as synonyms of the generic name
_Lepus_ Linnaeus.

The introduction of the European Hare (_Lepus europaeus_) into the
eastern part of the North American Continent has been successful in the
sense that the animal is multiplying. If it continues to increase, the
increase almost certainly will be at the expense of some native species
of rabbit. This circumstance and the unfortunate consequences of the
introduction of the European rabbit (_Oryctolagus cuniculus_) in New
Zealand (see Wodzicki, 1950:107-141) and Australia (see Stead,
1925:355-358) give basis for effort to exterminate the alien species
before it spreads more widely.


  1.  North of 34° N latitude.

    2.  All white pelage (tips of ears sometimes black).

      3.  North of line from Port Simpson, British Columbia, to Halifax,
          Nova Scotia.

        4.  Basilar length of skull more than 67; ear from notch usually
            more than 73 dry (77 fresh); first upper incisors inscribing
            an arch of a circle the radius of which is more than 9.6 mm.

          5.  Geographic range east of Mackenzie River.
                                                   _Lepus arcticus_, p. 178

          5´. Geographic range west of Mackenzie River.
                                                      _Lepus othus_, p. 177

        4´. Basilar length of skull less than 67; ear from notch usually
            less than 73 dry (77 fresh); first upper incisors inscribing
            an arch of a circle the radius of which is less than 9.6 mm.
                                                 _Lepus americanus_, p. 173

      3´. South of a line from Port Simpson, British Columbia to Halifax,
          Nova Scotia.

          5.  Ear from notch more than 82 dry (87 fresh); least
              interorbital breadth more than 26
                                                 _Lepus townsendii_, p. 180

          5´. Ear from notch less than 82 dry (87 fresh); least
              interorbital breadth less than 26
                                                 _Lepus americanus_, p. 173

    2´. Brownish or grayish pelage.

            6.  Tail blackish or brownish all around (in specimens not
                having completed molt on tail, white winter pelage may be
                present); basilar length less than 67 mm.
                                                 _Lepus americanus_, p. 173

            6´. Tail partly or wholly white.

              7.  Tail black on upper surface.

                8.  Upper sides of hind feet without a trace of white;
                    upper parts tawny.
                                                  _Lepus europaeus_, p. 189

                8´. Upper sides of hind feet with more or less white or
                    whitish; upper parts grayish or brownish
                                               _Lepus californicus_, p. 181

              7´. Tail all white or (in some _Lepus townsendii_) with
                  faint buffy or dusky median line on top but this line
                  not extending on to rump (as in _L. californicus_).

                  9.  Geographic range north of a line from Port Simpson,
                      British Columbia, to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

                    10. Geographic range east of Mackenzie River
                                                   _Lepus arcticus_, p. 178

                    10´. Geographic range west of Mackenzie River
                                                      _Lepus othus_, p. 177

                  9´. Geographic range south of a line from Port Simpson,
                      British Columbia, to Halifax, Nova Scotia
                                                 _Lepus townsendii_, p. 180

  1´. South of 34° N latitude.

                      11.  In state of Tamaulipas, México.
                                               _Lepus californicus_, p. 181

                      11´. Range outside Tamaulipas, México.

                        12.  Ears with terminal black patch (on outside).
                             _Lepus californicus_ and _Lepus insularis_,
                                                               pp. 181, 186

                        12´. Ears without terminal black patch.

                          13.  Ear from notch, dry more than 130 (137
                                                     _Lepus alleni_, p. 188

                          13´. Ear from notch, dry less than 130 (137

                            14.  Nape more or less black.

                              15.  Ears yellow; range Pacific Coastal
                                   region of Isthmus of Tehuantepec in
                                   southern Oaxaca and Chiapas.
                                               _Lepus flavigularis_, p. 188

                              15´. Ears dark buff, grayish, white and
                                   black; range north of Isthmus of
                                                   _Lepus callotis_, p. 186

                            14´. Nape gray or grayish buff.
                                                  _Lepus gaillardi_, p. 188

[Illustration: FIG. 44. Distribution of _Lepus americanus_.

  Guide to subspecies:

  1. _L. a. dalli_
  2. _L. a. macfarlani_
  3. _L. a. americanus_
  4. _L. a. pallidus_
  5. _L. a. columbiensis_
  6. _L. a. cascadensis_
  7. _L. a. washingtoni_
  8. _L. a. klamathensis_
  9. _L. a. tahoensis_
  10. _L. a. pineus_
  11. _L. a. oregonus_
  12. _L. a. bairdii_
  13. _L. a. seclusus_
  14. _L. a. phaenotus_
  15. _L. a. struthopus_
  16. _L. a. virginianus_ ]

=Lepus americanus=

American Varying Hare

Total length, 363-520; tail, 25-55; hind foot, 112-150; ear from notch
(dry), 62-70. Upper parts brownish or dusky grayish; hind feet brownish
or white depending on subspecies; winter pelage white except in certain
populations along Pacific Coast; basilar length less than 67; first
upper incisors inscribing an arc of a circle the radius of which is
less than 9.6 mm. There are two to six young in a litter according to
Orr (1940:59).


    1777. [_Lepus_] _americanus_ Erxleben, Systema Regni Animalis ...,
      1:330, type locality Hudson Bay, Canada.

    1778. _Lepus hudsonius_ Pallas, Glires, p. 30, type locality not

    1790. _Lepus nanus_ Schreber, Säugethiere, 4:880-885, pl. 234B, a
      composite of _Lepus americanus_ and _Sylvilagus floridanus_. No
      type or type locality designated. Range given as from Hudson Bay
      to Florida.

    1899. _Lepus bishopi_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
      12:11, March 4, type from Mill Lake, Turtle Mts., North Dakota
      (inseparable from _L. a. americanus_ according to V. Bailey, N.
      Amer. Fauna, 49:138, January 8, 1927 [not December, 1926]).

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:89, unless otherwise
    noted).--Keewatin: Hudson Bay (Anderson, 1947:100). Ontario: Fort
    Severn (Nelson, 1909:88); around shore of Hudson Bay to
    approximately 56° N thence to Ungava: Fort Chimo. Labrador: Hamilton
    Inlet. Ontario: North Bay of Lake Nipissing; Michipicoten Island;
    Isle Royal (Anderson, 1947:100). Manitoba: Dog Lake. Saskatchewan:
    Indian Head. North Dakota (V. Bailey, 1927:139): Mill Lake, Turtle
    Mts.; Grafton; "near" Fargo; Elbowoods; Buford. Saskatchewan: Battle
    Creek (Soper, 1946:149). Alberta: Red Deer; 50 mi. N Edmonton; Fort
    Chipewyan; Govt. Hay Camp, Slave River (Soper, 1942:140).


    1869. _Lepus bairdii_ Hayden, Amer. Nat., 3:115, May, type locality
      Columbia Valley, Wind River Mts., Fremont County, Wyoming.

    1875. [_Lepus americanus_] var. _bairdii_, J. A. Allen, Proc. Boston
      Soc. Nat. Hist., 17:431, February 17.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia: Elko (Anderson, 1947:100);
    Waterton Lakes Nat'l Park (_ibid._). Montana (Nelson, 1909:112):
    Fort Benton; Big Snowy Mts. Wyoming: 5 mi. E and 9 mi. N Pinedale
    (15924 KU); 3 mi. ESE Browns Peak (17603 KU). Colorado: Boulder Co.
    (Nelson, 1909:112). New Mexico: 10,500 ft., Agua Fria Mtn. (Hill,
    1942:82); Pecos Baldy (V. Bailey, 1932:45); Chama (_ibid._). Utah
    (Durrant, MS unless otherwise noted): 18 mi. SE Manila; _30 mi. N
    Fort Duchesne_; _23 mi. N Fruitland_; 21 mi. N Escalante; 10 mi. E
    Marysvale; City Creek Canyon, Salt Lake City (Barnes, 1927:145).
    Idaho (Dalquest, 1942:181): Pocatello; _Payette_; Cuddy Mtn.;
    _Weippe_; Bitterroot Valley. _British Columbia: Newgate_ (Anderson,


    1907. _Lepus bairdi cascadensis_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:87, December 11, type from Roab's ranch, near Hope,
      British Columbia.

    1935. _Lepus americanus cascadensis_, Racey and Cowan, Rep't Prov.
      Mus. British Columbia, 1935:H28.

    _Marginal records_ (Dalquest, 1942:177, unless otherwise
    noted).--British Columbia: type locality; Fairview-Keremeos Summit
    (Anderson, 1947:101). Washington: Lake Chelan; Trout Lake; Vance;
    _Mt. Rainier_; Entiat River, 20 mi. from mouth. British Columbia:
    Alta Lake.


    1895. _Lepus americanus columbiensis_ Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, p. 242, July 2, type from Vernon, British Columbia.

    _Marginal records._--Alberta: Banff Nat'l Park (Anderson, 1947:101);
    Jasper Nat'l Park (_ibid._). British Columbia: Creston (Dalquest,
    1942:182). Washington: Republic (Dalquest, 1948:385); Moulson
    (Dalquest, 1942:182). British Columbia: Cottonwood Post Office
    (Dalquest, 1942:182); Indianpoint Lake (_ibid._).


    1900. _Lepus americanus dalli_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci.,
      2:29, March 14, type from Nulato, Alaska.

    _Marginal records._--Noatak River (Bailey and Hendee, 1926:21);
    Upper St. John River (Rausch, 1950:466); Koyukuk (Nelson, 1909:102);
    Anvik (_ibid._); Yukon Delta (_ibid._); thence northerly, in
    suitable habitat, along coast to Noatak River.


    1899. _Lepus klamathensis_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 16:100, October
      28, type from head of Wood River, near Fort Klamath, Klamath
      County, Oregon.

    1936. _Lepus americanus klamathensis_, V. Bailey, N. Amer. Fauna,
      55:95, August 29.

    _Marginal records._--Oregon (Dalquest, 1942:176): Mt. Hood; mouth
    Davis Creek. California (Orr, 1940:53): vicinity Fort Bidwell; 3000
    ft., Rush Creek, 12 mi. from [N of] Weaverville. _Oregon: Estacada_
    (Dalquest, 1942:176).


    1900. _Lepus americanus macfarlani_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad.
      Sci., 2:30, March 14, type from Fort Anderson, near mouth of
      Anderson River, Mackenzie.

    1900. _Lepus saliens_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:39, October 6, type
      from Caribou Crossing, between Lake Bennett and Lake Tagish,

    1907. ? _Lepus niediecki_ Matschie, Niedieck's Kreuzfahrten im
      Beringmeer, p. 240, type locality Kasilof Lake, Kenai Peninsula,

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:100, unless otherwise
    noted).--Mackenzie: type locality; Fort Franklin; Fort Rae; Fort
    Resolution; Fort Smith. British Columbia: Peace River and Alaska
    Highway (Anderson, 1947:101); Bennett. Alaska: Cordova (Philip,
    1939:84); Mills Creek (_ibid._); Lake Clark; E. Fork Kuskokwim River
    (Dice, 1921:27); head N. Fork Kuskokwim (_ibid._); Fort Yukon.
    Yukon: Russell Mts.


    1934. _Lepus bairdii oregonus_ Orr, Jour. Mamm., 15:152, May 15,
      type from 12 mi. S Canyon City, 5500 ft., Grant County, Oregon.

    1942. _Lepus americanus oregonus_, Dalquest, Jour. Mamm., 23:179,
      June 3.

    _Marginal records._--Oregon (Dalquest, 1942:180): 22 mi. N
    Enterprise; _Wallowa Lake_; _summit of Blue Mts._; Ochoco Nat'l
    Forest, Harney County.

    1938. _Lepus americanus pallidus_ Cowan, Jour. Mamm., 19:242, May
      12, type from Chezacut Lake, Chiloctin River, British Columbia.


_Marginal records._--British Columbia: 23 mi. N Hazelton (Dalquest,
1942:183); Berg Lake (_ibid._); Quesnel (Cowan, 1938:243); Lac La Hache
(_ibid._); Bonaparte River, 5 days N Ashcroft (Dalquest, 1942:183);
Kimsquit, Dean Channel (Anderson, 1947:102); Hazelton (Dalquest,


    1899. _Lepus americanus phaeonotus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus.
      Nat. Hist., 12:11, March 4, type from Hallock, Kittson County,

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:96, unless otherwise
    noted).--Manitoba: Selkirk Settlement. Ontario: Lake of the Woods
    (Anderson, 1947:102); Rainy Lake. Michigan: Houghton; Chippewa
    County (Burt, 1946:244); Presque Isle County (_ibid._); Wayne County
    (_ibid._); Jackson County (_ibid._); Allegan County (_ibid._).
    Wisconsin: Rhinelander; St. Croix River, Douglas Co. Minnesota: Elk
    River; Moores Lake; Warren; St. Vincent. Saskatchewan: Glen Ewen
    (Soper, 1946:149). Manitoba: Carberry (Anderson, 1947:102).


    1942. _Lepus americanus pineus_ Dalquest, Jour. Mamm., 23:178, June
      3, type from Cedar Mtn., Latah County, Idaho.

    _Marginal records._--British Columbia (Anderson, 1947:102): Trail;
    Nelson Range south of Creston. Idaho (Dalquest, 1942:179): 5 mi. W
    Cocolalla; Troy. Washington (Dalquest, 1942:179): Blue Mts.,
    Columbia County; _Marcus_. _British Columbia_: _Rossland_ (Anderson,


    1950. _Lepus americanus seclusus_ Baker and Hankins, Proc. Biol.
      Soc. Washington, 63:63, May 25, type from 12 mi. E and 2 mi. N
      Shell, 7900 ft., Bighorn Mts., Big Horn County, Wyoming. Type
      locality is only precise locality.


    1898. _Lepus americanus struthopus_ Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 12:81, March 24, type from Digby, Nova Scotia.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:92, unless otherwise
    noted).--Newfoundland (introduced in 1864): Bay of Islands; Bay of
    St. George. Nova Scotia: type locality. Maine: Bucksport. Quebec:
    south of St. Lawrence River (Anderson, 1947:102). New Brunswick:
    Andover. Prince Edward Island: Alberton. Quebec: Grosse Isle,
    Magdalen Islands.


    1933. _Lepus washingtonii tahoensis_ Orr, Jour. Mamm., 14:54,
    February 14, type from ½ mi. S Tahoe Tavern, Placer County,

    1942. [_Lepus americanus_] _tahoensis_, Dalquest, Jour. Mamm.,
    23:176, June 3.

    _Marginal records._--California: vic. Mineral (Orr, 1940:56).
    Nevada: 350 yards NE junction of Nevada state line and N shore Lake
    Tahoe (Hall, 1946:601). California: Niagara Creek (Orr, 1940:55);
    Cisco (Orr, 1940:56).


    1825. _Lepus virginianus_ Harlan, Fauna Americana, p. 196, type
      locality Blue Mountains, northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

    1875. _Lepus americanus_ var. _virginianus_, J. A. Allen, Proc.
      Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 17:431, February 17.

    1825. _Lepus wardii_ Schinz, Das Thierreich ..., 4:428, based on the
      varying hare of the southern part of the United States (Warden, D.
      B., in A statistical, political, and historical account of the
      United States of North America ..., 1:233, 1819).

    1845. _Lepus borealis_ Schinz, Synopsis Mammalium, 2:286-287. No
      type or type locality mentioned. From Virginia and the

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:94, unless otherwise
    noted).--Quebec (Anderson, 1947:103): Ottawa River; Megantic County.
    Maine: _Greenville_ (Nelson, 1909:95); Sebec Lake (_ibid._); Mt.
    Desert Island (Manville, 1942:397). _Massachusetts_: _Concord_;
    _Middleboro_. _Rhode Island_: _Washington County_. New York: Locust
    Grove. Pennsylvania: type locality. Tennessee: White Rock (Kellogg,
    1939:289). Ohio: Ashtabula Co. (Bole and Moulthrop, 1942:174).
    Ontario: Holland Riv. (Snyder and Logier, 1930:180).


    1855. _Lepus washingtonii_ Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 7:333, type from Steilacoom, Washington.

    1875. _Lepus americanus_ var. _washingtoni_, J. A. Allen, Proc.
      Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 18:431, February 17.

    _Marginal records_ (Dalquest, 1942:175, unless otherwise
    noted).--British Columbia (Nelson, 1909:107): Sumas; Chilliwack.
    Washington: _Mt. Vernon_; Lake Kapowsin; White Salmon. Oregon: Drew;
    Florence; _Tillamook_. Washington: Sekiu River.

=Lepus othus=

Alaskan Hare

Total length, 565-690; tail, 53-104; hind foot, 147-189; ear from notch
(dry), 75-78. Color brownish in summer; white in winter; but tips of
ears always black. General comparisons indicate that this is the species
which, in Eurasia, bears the name _Lepus timidus_.


    1900. _Lepus othus_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 2:28,
      March 14, type from St. Michael, Norton Sound, Alaska.

    _Marginal records._--Alaska (A. H. Howell, 1936:334): Kotzebue
    Sound; mts. NW Nulato River; Akiak; 75 mi. below Bethel; thence N
    along coast.


    1900. _Lepus poadromus_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 2:29,
      March 14, type from Stepovak Bay, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska.

    1936. _Lepus othus poadromus_, A. H. Howell, Jour. Mamm., 17:334,
      November 16.

    _Marginal records._--Alaska (A. H. Howell, 1936:335): Nushagak;
    Kawatna Bay, Shelikof Strait; _Cold Bay_; _Chignik_; _type
    locality_; _Sand Point_; 15 mi. W Pavlof Mtn.

=Lepus arcticus=

Arctic Hare

    Revised by A. H. Howell, Jour. Mamm., 17:315-332, November 16, 1936.
      For the taxonomic status of the technical names _arcticus_ and
      _glacialis_ see Rhoads, Amer. Nat., 30:234-235, March, 1896;
      Merriam, Science, n. s., 3:564-565, April 10, 1896; Rhoads,
      Science, n. s., 3:843-845, June 5, 1896; Merriam, Science, n. s.,
      3:845, June 5, 1896.

Total length, 480-678; tail, 34-80; hind foot, 132-174; ear from notch
(dry), 70-84. Upper parts gray in summer in southern subspecies; in
others white; in winter white in all subspecies, except black tips of
ears. Weights of lean individuals reach 12 pounds. Hopping on the hind
feet without touching the forefeet to the ground has repeatedly been
recorded for this species. There are four to eight young in a litter.

[Illustration: FIG. 45. Distribution of _Lepus othus_ and _Lepus

  1. _L. o. othus_
  2. _L. o. poadromus_
  3. _L. a. groenlandicus_
  4. _L. a. porsildi_
  5. _L. a. monstrabilis_
  6. _L. a. arcticus_
  7. _L. a. andersoni_
  8. _L. a. labradorius_
  9. _L. a. bangsi_ ]


    1819. _Lepus arcticus_ Ross, Voyage of Discovery, ed. 2, vol. 2,
      appendix 4, p. 151, type locality Possession Bay, Bylot Island,
      lat. 73° 37´ N.

    1819. _Lepus glacialis_ Leach, in Ross, Voyage of Discovery, ed. 2,
      vol. 2, p. 170, type locality same as for _Lepus arcticus_ Ross.

    _Marginal records._--Franklin: type locality; Egukjuak, 8 mi. E Pond
    Inlet, Baffin Island (A. H. Howell, 1936:322); W coast Baffin
    Island, 67° 30´ (Anderson, 1947:96); Winter Island, Melville
    Peninsula (A. H. Howell, 1936:321); Repulse Bay, Melville Peninsula


    1934. _Lepus arcticus andersoni_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:85, March 8, type from Cape Barrow, Coronation
      Gulf, Northwest Territory.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1936:328).--Franklin: Cape
    Kellett, Banks Island; Cambridge Bay, Victoria Island. Mackenzie:
    Bathurst Inlet; Backs River near Lake Beechey; Lake Hanbury; Fort
    Rae; Fort Anderson.


    1896. _Lepus arcticus bangsii_ Rhoads, Amer. Nat., 30:253[=236 of
      March issue], author's separates (preprints) published February
      20, 1896, type from Codroy, Newfoundland.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1936:327).--Labrador: Hopedale;
    Makkovik. Newfoundland: Saint Johns; type locality; Mt. St. Gregory.


    1896. _Lepus groenlandicus_ Rhoads, Amer. Nat., 30:254(=237 of March
      issue), author's separates (preprints) issued February 20, type
      from Robertson Bay, NW Greenland.

    1934. [_Lepus arcticus_] _groenlandicus_, Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:83, March 8.

    1912. _Boreolepus groenlandicus_, Barrett-Hamilton, Hist. British
      Mammals, pt. 12, p. 298, October.

    1930. _Lepus variabilis hyperboreus_ Pedersen, Medd. om Grönland,
      77:363, no type or type locality designated but name applied to
      hares of east Greenland in the general vicinity of Scoresby Sound
      (preoccupied by _Lepus hyperboreas_ Pallas, Zoogeographica Rosso
      Asiatica, 1:152, 1831, a species of _Ochotona_).

    1934. _Lepus arcticus persimilis_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:84, March 8, type from S side Clavering Island,
      east Greenland.

    _Marginal records._--Greenland (A. H. Howell, 1936:331): Cape
    Alexander; on east coast to Francis Joseph Fiord; on west coast to
    _Nugsuak Peninsula_; Disko Island; Holsteinsborg.


    1899. _Lepus labradorius_ Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      13:39, May 29, type from Fort Chimo, Ungava, Canada.

    1924. _Lepus arcticus labradorius_, G. M. Allen and Copeland, Jour.
      Mamm., 5:12, February 9.

    1902. _Lepus arcticus canus_ Preble, N. Amer. Fauna, 22:59, October
      31, type from Hubbart Point, W coast Hudson Bay, Keewatin.

    _Marginal records_ (A. H. Howell, 1936:323).--Franklin: Pangnirtung
    Fiord; Nunata, Kingua Fiord; Cumberland Sound, Blacklead Island;
    Weddell Harbor, Frobisher Bay. Labrador: Ramah; Solomons Island,
    near Davis Inlet. Quebec: _type locality_; Great Whale River, Hudson
    Bay; Belcher Islands. Manitoba: Fort Churchill; _Hubbart Point_.
    Keewatin: Cape Fullerton; Southampton Island. Franklin: _Cape
    Dorset_; Camp Kungovik, W coast Baffin Island, 65° 35´ N lat.;
    _Nettilling Fiord_.


    1934. _Lepus arcticus monstrabilis_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 47:85, March 8, type from Buchanan Bay, Ellesmere

    _Marginal records._--Franklin (A. H. Howell, 1936:329): Cape
    Sheridan; Craig Harbor; Dundas Harbor, Devon Island.


    1934. _Lepus arcticus porsildi_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      47:83, March 8, type from near Julianehaab, 61° 20´ N lat.,

    _Marginal records._--Greenland (A. H. Howell, 1936:332):
    Sukkertoppen; _Neria, 61° 36´ N lat_.; 60° 42´ N lat.

=Lepus townsendii=

White-tailed Jack Rabbit

Total length, 565-655; tail, 66-112; hind foot, 145-172; ear from notch
(dry), 96-113. Upper parts grayish brown; tail all white or with dusky
or buffy mid-dorsal stripe which does not extend onto back; white in
winter in northern parts of its range. Two adult males weighed 2945 and
2494 grams (Orr, 1940:43) and there are 3 to 6 young in a litter.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. Distribution of _Lepus townsendii_.

  1. _Lepus townsendii townsendii_
  2. _Lepus townsendii campanius_ ]


    1837. _Lepus campestris_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 7:349, not of Meyer, 1790; type locality plains of
      the Saskatchewan, probably near Carlton House.

    1915. _Lepus townsendii campanius_ Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 28:70, March 12.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:78, unless otherwise
    noted).--Saskatchewan: Indian Head (Nelson, 1909:77). Manitoba:
    Carberry (_ibid._). Ontario: Rainy River (Anderson, 1947:100).
    Minnesota (Swanson, Surber and Roberts, 1945:97): Polk County; Otter
    Tail County; Sherburne County: Washington County. Illinois:
    Blanding, 6 mi. WNW Hanover (Hoffmeister, 1948:1). Kansas: Red Fork,
    60 mi. W Fort Riley; Greensburg (Brown, 1940:387). New Mexico:
    "near" Taos (V. Bailey, 1932:47); Hopewell. Colorado: Antonito; Fort
    Garland; Villa Grove; Salida; Como; _Denver_; Mt. Whitely, 25 mi. N
    Kremmling. Wyoming: Spring Creek; Big Piney; head Glenn Creek,
    Yellowstone Nat'l Park. Alberta: Great Plains region (Anderson,


    1839. _Lepus townsendii_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 8(pt. 1):90, pl. 2, type from Fort Walla Walla, near
      present town of Wallula, Walla Walla County, Washington.

    1904. _Lepus campestris sierrae_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:132, July 14, type from 7800 ft., Hope Valley,
      Alpine County, California. Regarded as inseparable from _L. t.
      townsendii_ by Orr, Occas. Papers, California Acad. Sci., 19:42,
      May 25, 1940.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:82, unless otherwise
    noted).--British Columbia: Fairview, Okanagan Valley. Idaho:
    Rathdrum Prairie (Rust, 1946:322); Lemhi River; Teton Basin.
    Wyoming: Hamsfork; Henrys Fork. Colorado: Hot Sulphur Springs; Mt.
    Baldy; Crested Butte; Mill City. Utah: Kanab. Nevada (Hall,
    1946:600): Hamilton; Desatoya Mts.; Santa Rosa Mts. California:
    Parker Creek, 6300 ft., Warner Mts. Nevada (Hall, 1946:600): 8600
    ft., 3 mi. S Mt. Rose; 8900 ft., Lapon Canyon, Mt. Grant; Mt.
    Magruder. California (Orr, 1940:43): Tuolumne Meadows; Woodfords;
    Tahoe City; 4700 ft., Steele Meadows. Oregon: Antelope. Washington:
    Manson (Dalquest, 1948:382).

=Lepus californicus=

Black-tailed Jack Rabbit

Total length, 465-630; tail, 50-112; hind foot, 112-145; ear from notch
(dry), 99-131. Upper parts gray to blackish; tail with black mid-dorsal
stripe extending onto back; never all white in winter. On the tableland
of Mexico and in the southwestern United States where this species
occurs together with the white-sided jack rabbits, _L. californicus_ can
be recognized by the terminal black patch on the outside of each ear and
by the less extensive area of white on the flank. To the eastward, in
Tamaulipas, where only the black-tailed jack rabbit occurs, it too, has
extensively white flanks and some individuals lack the terminal black
patch on the ear.

A certain means for distinguishing the skulls of the black-tailed jack
rabbit from those of all of the white-sided jack rabbits has not yet
been found. The same is true of the skulls of the white-tailed jack
rabbit and the black-tailed jack rabbit in the Great Basin region of
Nevada. The skulls, at least of adults, of these two species, in the
region east of the Rocky Mountains can be readily distinguished by the
pattern of infolding of the enamel on the front of the first upper
incisor teeth; _L. townsendii_ has a simple groove on the anterior face
of the tooth and _L. californicus_, east of the Rocky Mountains, has a
bifurcation, or even trifurcation, of the infold that can readily be
seen by examining the occlusal surface of the incisor.

In Arizona, Vorhies and Taylor (1933:478) found the weight of 23 adult
males to average 5.1 (4.4-6.1) lbs. In that state, 70 pregnant females
averaged 2.24 (1-6) young per litter and the authors (_op. cit._)
thought that a female had three or four litters each year.


    1904. _Lepus merriami altamirae_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:109, May 18, type from Alta Mira, Tamaulipas. Known
      from type locality only.

    1951. _Lepus californicus altamirae_, Hall, Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus.
      Nat. Hist., 5:45, October 1, 1951.


    1899. _Lepus asellus_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia,
      p. 380, September 29, type from San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí.

    1909. _Lepus californicus asellus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:150,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:151).--Coahuila: Jaral. Nuevo Leon:
    Miquihuana. San Luis Potosí: Río Verde. Aguascalientes: Chicalote.
    Zacatecas: Valparaiso.


    1844. _Lepus bennettii_ Gray, Zoology Voy. _Sulphur_, p. 35, pl. 14,
      type from San Diego, San Diego County, California.

    1909. _Lepus californicus bennetti_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:136,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records._--California: Mt. Piños (Orr, 1940:73); Arroyo
    Seco, Pasadena (Orr, 1940:74); San Felipe Valley (_ibid._); Jacumba
    (Nelson, 1909:137), Baja California: San Quintín (Nelson, 1909:137).
    Northward along coast at least to California: Montalvo (Orr,


    1837. _Lepus californica_ Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist.,
      1:586, type from "St. Antoine," California (probably on coastal
      slope of mts. near the Mission of San Antonio, Jolon, Monterey

    1926. _Lepus californicus vigilax_ Dice, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool.,
      Univ. Michigan, 166:11, February 11, type from Balls Ferry, Shasta
      County, California.

    _Marginal records._--Oregon (Nelson, 1909:132): Drain; Grants Pass.
    California (Orr, 1940:68-69): Callahan, Scott River; 3300 ft,
    Lymans, NW of Lyonsville; Dry Creek, Oroville-Chico Road; Snelling;
    Hernandez; Morro; _Carmel Point_; _Bolinas Bay_; _Freestone_;
    _Sherwood_; _Ferndale_; 3 mi. W Arcata. Oregon: Rogue River Valley
    (Nelson, 1909:132).

_Lepus californicus curti_ Hall.

    1951. _Lepus californicus curti_ Hall, Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 5:42, October 1, 1951, type from 88 mi. S and 10 mi. W
      Matamoros, Tamaulipas. Known from type locality only.

[Illustration: FIG. 47. Distribution of _Lepus californicus_ and _Lepus

  1. _L. c. wallawalla_
  2. _L. c. californicus_
  3. _L. c. deserticola_
  4. _L. c. richardsonii_
  5. _L. c. bennettii_
  6. _L. c. martirensis_
  7. _L. c. xanti_
  8. _L. c. sheldoni_
  9. _L. c. magdalenae_
  10. _L. c. eremicus_
  11. _L. c. texianus_
  12. _L. c. melanotis_
  13. _L. c. merriami_
  14. _L. c. asellus_
  15. _L. c. festinus_
  16. _L. c. altamirae_
  17. _L. c. curti_
  18. _L. insularis_ ]


    1896. _Lepus texianus deserticola_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
      18:564, June 24, type from western edge Colorado Desert, at base
      of Coast Range Mts., Imperial County, California.

    1909. _Lepus californicus deserticola_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:137, August 31.

    1932. _Lepus californicus depressus_ Hall and Whitlow, Proc. Biol.
      Soc. Washington, 45:71, April 2, type from ½ mi. S. Pocatello,
      Bannock County, Idaho. (Regarded as inseparable from _L. c.
      deserticola_ by Davis, The Recent Mammals of Idaho, p. 359, April
      5, 1939.)

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:140, unless otherwise
    noted).--Idaho (Davis, 1939:360): Boise River; Sawtooth Nat'l
    Forest; Arco; Blackfoot. Utah: Ogden; Provo; Loa. Arizona: San
    Francisco Mtn.; Fort Whipple; Phoenix; Rancho Bonito, Abra Valley
    (Huey, 1942:362). Sonora: El Doctor. Baja California: Calamahue;
    Esperanza Canyon. California (Orr, 1940-76): Coyote Wells;
    Kenworthy; Victorville; Farrington Ranch; 5 mi. SW Lone Pine; 10,000
    ft., head Silver Canyon; Mono Mills; 5600 ft., near Woodfords.
    Nevada (Hall, 1946:606): Sutcliffe; ¾ mi. S Sulphur. Idaho: 6 mi. S
    Murphy (Davis, 1939:360).


    1894. _Lepus texianus eremicus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 6:347, December 7, type from Fairbank, Cochise County,

    1909. _Lepus californicus eremicus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:140,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:141, unless otherwise
    noted).--Arizona: Casa Grande; Fort Bowie; 2 mi. E Portal (Cahalane,
    1939:435). Chihuahua: San Bernardino Ranch (possibly Nelson should
    have placed this in Sonora); Colonia Garcia. Sonora: Hermosillo; La
    Libertad (Burt, 1938:68); Agua Dulce (of Sonora, not of Arizona).


    1904. _Lepus festinus_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 17:108,
      May 18, type from Irolo, Hidalgo.

    1909. _Lepus californicus festinus_ Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:151,
      August 31.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:152).--Hidalgo: Zimapan;
    _Tulancingo_; type locality; Queretaro: Tequisquiapam.


    1907. _Lepus californicus magdalenae_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 20:81, July 22, type from Magdalena Island, Baja

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Nelson, 1909:155): type
    locality; Margarita Island.


    1895. _Lepus martirensis_ Stowell, Proc. California Acad. Sci.,
      5(ser. 2):51, May 28, type specimen from the San Pedro Mártir
      Mountains of Baja California.

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Nelson, 1909:154): La Huerta;
    Calamahue; San Bruno; Rancho San José; San Simon.


    1890. _Lepus melanotis_ Mearns, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2:297,
      February 21, type from Independence, Montgomery County, Kansas.

    1909. _Lepus californicus melanotis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:146, August 31.

    _Marginal records._--South Dakota: Lyman Co. (Over and Churchill,
    1945:48). Nebraska: Oakland (12399 KU). Kansas: near Doniphan Lake
    (Linsdale, 1928:146). Missouri: Saline Co. (Enders, 1932:120); 5 mi.
    E Rockbridge (Leopold and Hall, 1945:145). Arkansas: "about" 2 mi. S
    Evansville (Dellinger and Black, 1940:190). Oklahoma: 3 mi. E
    Wainwright (Blair, 1939:128). Texas: Brazos County (Petersen,
    1946:166); Golinda (Nelson, 1909:148); Washburn (_ibid._). New
    Mexico: Santa Rosa (_ibid._); vicinity of Cimarron (Hill, 1942:82).
    Colorado: Semper (Nelson, 1909:148). Wyoming: 3 mi. W Meriden along
    Horse Cr. (15926 KU).


    1896. _Lepus merriami_ Mearns, Preliminary diagnoses of new mammals
      from the Mexican border of the United States, p. 2, March 25,
      (Reprint: Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18:444, May 23, 1896) type from
      Fort Clark, Kinney County, Texas.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:150, unless otherwise
    noted).--Texas: Mason; Lott; Antioch; Houston. Tamaulipas:
    Matamoros; Tamaulipeca, San Carlos Mts. (Dice, 1937:255). Nuevo
    Leon: Santa Catariña. Coahuila: Monclova; Sabinas.


    1839. _Lepus richardsonii_ Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.
      Philadelphia, 8(pt. 1):88, type from California (exact locality
      unknown, but probably on interior slope of mts. near Jolon,
      Monterey County).

    1909. _Lepus californicus richardsoni_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:133, August 31.

    1904. _Lepus tularensis_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
      17:136, July 14, type from Alila, Tulare County, California.

    _Marginal records._--California (Orr, 1940:71): Minkler; Thompson
    Valley, Walker Basin; Kern Lake Basin; Carrizo Plains, 7 mi. SE
    Simmler; _2 mi. E Bryson_; Jolon.


    1933. _Lepus californicus sheldoni_ Burt, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 46:37, February 20, type from Carmen Island [(lat. 26°
      N, long. 111° 12´ W) Gulf of Calif.], Baja California. Known from
      type locality only.


    1848. _Lepus texianus_ Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mamm., 2:136, type
      locality unknown, but probably in western Texas.

    1909. _Lepus californicus texianus_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:142,
      August 31.

    1896. _Lepus texianus griseus_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
      18:562, June 24, type from Fort Hancock, El Paso County, Texas.

    1903. _Lepus_ (_Macrotolagus_) _texianus micropus_ J. A. Allen,
      Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19:605, November 12, type from Río
      del Bocas, NW Durango.

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:146, unless otherwise
    noted).--Colorado: between Grand Junction and the Utah boundary
    (Cary, 1911:158). New Mexico: Roswell (Nelson, 1909:145). Texas
    (Nelson, 1909:145). Colorado: Comstock. Coahuila: 8 mi. SE San Pedro
    de los Colonias, 3700 ft. (40206 KU). Durango: Río Sestín; Río del
    Bocas. Chihuahua: Santa Rosalia; Pacheco; San Luis Mts. New Mexico
    (Nelson, 1909:145): Guadalupe Ranch. Arizona: Painted Desert. Utah:
    Abajo (Blue Mts.) (Barnes, 1927:149).


    1904. _Lepus texianus wallawalla_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc.
      Washington, 17:137, July 14, type from Touchet, Plains of the
      Columbia, Walla Walla County, Washington.

    1909. _Lepus californicus wallawalla_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna,
      29:132, August 31.

    _Marginal records._--Washington: Moses Coulee (Dalquest, 1948:386);
    Touchet (Nelson, 1909:133). Oregon: Ontario (Nelson, 1909:133).
    Nevada (Hall, 1946:606): 4100 ft., Quinn River Crossing; 4200 ft.,
    4½ mi. W Flanigan. California (Orr, 1940:79): 5000 ft., 7 mi. E
    Ravendale; 3600 ft., 1 mi. SE Weed; Hornbrook. Oregon (Nelson,
    1909:133): Hay Creek; Willow Junction.


    1898. _Lepus californicus xanti_ Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,
      1(ser. 7):45, January, type from Santa Anita, Baja California.

    _Marginal records._--Baja California (Nelson, 1909:156): Southern
    part of the Peninsula. Santa Clara Mts., southward around range of
    _L. c. martirensis_ to and down east coast; La Paz; Cape St. Lucas;
    San Jorgé; 20 mi. W San Ignacio.

=Lepus insularis= Bryant

Black Jack Rabbit

    1891. _Lepus insularis_ Bryant, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 3(ser.
      2):92, April 23, type from Espiritu Santo Island, Gulf of
      California, Baja California. Known from Espiritu Santo Island

    1895. _Lepus edwardsi_ St. Loup, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 1:5,
      type from Espiritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, Baja

Total length, 574; tail, 96; hind foot, 121; ear from notch (dry), 105.
This insular species, clearly a close relative of _Lepus californicus_
of the adjacent peninsula of Baja California, is mainly glossy black on
the upper parts but grizzled and suffused on sides of back and body, and
in some specimens on head, with dark buffy or reddish brown; underparts
dark cinnamon buffy or dusky brown; ears and sides of head grayish
dusky; jugals heavier than in _Lepus californicus_ of the adjacent
peninsula of Baja California.

=Lepus callotis= Wagler

White-sided Jack Rabbit

    1830. _Lepus callotis_ Wagler, Nat. Syst. der Amphibien, p. 23, type
      from southern end of Mexican Tableland.

    1830. _Lepus mexicanus_ Lichtenstein, Abhandl. k. Akad. Wiss.,
      Berlin., p. 101, type from México (southern end of Mexican

    1833. _Lepus nigracaudatus_ Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 41,
      type from "that part of California which adjoins to Mexico"
      (probably southwestern part of Mexican Tableland).

    _Marginal records_ (Nelson, 1909:124).--Durango: Durango (city of).
    San Luis Potosí: Arenal. Hidalgo: Tulancingo. Oaxaca: Oaxaca (city
    of); Tlapancingo. Jalisco: Atenquiqui; Reyes.

Total length, 560; tail, 71; length of hind foot, 133; ear from notch
(dry), 117. Upper parts dark, slightly pinkish, buff heavily washed with
black; backs of ears mainly white without terminal patch of black;
flanks white; rump iron gray.

[Illustration: FIG. 48. Distribution of the White-sided Jack Rabbits.

  Guide to kinds:

  1. _Lepus callotis_
  2. _Lepus flavigularis_
  3. _Lepus gaillardi gaillardi_
  4. _Lepus gaillardi battyi_
  5. _Lepus alleni alleni_
  6. _Lepus alleni palitans_
  7. _Lepus alleni tiburonensis_ ]

=Lepus flavigularis= Wagner

Tehuantepec Jack Rabbit

    1844. _Lepus callotis_ var [gamma] _flavigularis_ Wagner, Schreber's
      Säugthiere, Suppl., 4:106, type from México (probably near
      Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca).

    1909. _Lepus flavigularis_, Nelson, N. Amer. Fauna, 29:125, August

    _Marginal records._--Oaxaca (Nelson, 1909:126): Santa Efigenia; San
    Mateo del Mar; Huilotepec.

Total length, 595; tail, 77; hind foot, 133; ear from notch (dry), 112.
Upper parts bright ochraceous buff strongly washed with black; ears
entirely buff; nape with black stripe extending back from base of each
ear and median stripe of buff; flanks and underparts of body white; rump
iron gray; tympanic bullae smaller than in any other _Lepus_ of México.

=Lepus gaillardi=

Gaillard Jack Rabbit

Total length, 450-536; tail, 59-80; hind foot, 124-133; ear from notch
(dry), 110-112. Coloration essentially as in _Lepus callotis_ except
that nape is plain buff, without a trace of black, and upper parts
paler, more vinaceous buff.


    1903. _Lepus_ (_Microtolagus_ [_sic_]) _gaillardi battyi_ J. A.
      Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19:607, November 12, type from
      Rancho Santuario, northwestern Durango.

    _Marginal records._--Durango (Nelson, 1909:122): Río Campo; type


    1896. _Lepus gaillardi_ Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18:560, June
      24, type from West Fork of Playas Valley, near monument No. 63,
      Mexican boundary line, Grant County, New Mexico.

    _Marginal records._--New Mexico: Animas Valley (V. Bailey, 1932:53).
    Chihuahua (Nelson, 1909:121): Whitewater; Colonia Juarez. New
    Mexico; type locality.

=Lepus alleni=

Antelope Jack Rabbit

Total length, 553-670; tail, 48-76; hind foot, 127-150, ear from notch,
in flesh, 138-173. Top and sides of head creamy buff, slightly washed on
top with black; tail white except for mid-dorsal line of black extending
onto rump; sides of shoulders, flanks, sides of abdomen, rump, and
outside of hind legs uniform iron gray. The average weight of 61 adult
males from Arizona was 8.2 lbs. In that state 124 pregnant females had
an average of 1.93 young (1-5) and Vorhies and Taylor (1933:580) thought
that a female had three or four litters per year.


    1890. _Lepus alleni_ Mearns, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2:294,
      February 21, type from Rillito, on the Southern Pacific Railroad,
      Pima County, Arizona.

    _Marginal records._--Arizona: Queen Creek (Vorhies and Taylor,
    1933:480); Cascabel (_ibid._); Calabasas (Nelson, 1909:118). Sonora
    (Burt, 1938): Cerro Blanco (p. 67); Oputo (p. 66); Batamotal (p.
    66); La Libertad Ranch (p. 67); Picu Pass (p. 67). Arizona: 2 mi. W
    Quitovaquita (Huey, 1942:362); Casa Grande (Nelson, 1909:118).


    1900. _Lepus_ (_Macrotolagus_) _alleni palitans_ Bangs, Proc. New
      England Zool. Club, 1:85, February 23, type from Aguacaliente,
      about 40 mi. SE Mazatlan, Sinaloa.

    _Marginal records._--Sonora: near San Bernardo on Río Mayo on Sonora
    side of Sonora-Chihuahua boundary (Burt and Hooper, 1941:7):
    _Alamos_ (Nelson, 1909:119); Guirocoba (Burt, 1938:68). Nayarit:
    Acaponeta (Nelson, 1909:119). Sinaloa (Nelson, 1909:119): Esquinapa;
    _Rosario_; Culiacán. Sonora: "near" Navajoa (Burt, 1938:68).


    1912. _Lepus alleni tiburonensis_ Townsend, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
      Hist., 31:120, June 14, type from Tiburon Island, Gulf of
      California, Sonora. Known from Tiburon Island only.

=Lepus europaeus=

European Hare

Total length, 640-700; tail, 70-100; hind foot, 130-150; ear from notch
(dry), 79-100; weight, 3000 to 5000 grams. Upper parts tawny, mixed with
blackish hairs on back; underparts white including underside of tail;
upper side of tail and terminal patch at distal end of outside of ears
black; upper side of feet tawny like sides (not white or whitish). This
is an introduced species.


    1778. _Lepus europaeus_ Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord., p. 30.
      Type locality, Burgundy, France. (Introduced and established in
      Ontario and parts of the northern United States; slowly spreading
      in southern Ontario north of Lake Erie (St. Thomas and Woodstock),
      west and north of Lake Ontario (Toronto) to Goodrich on east side
      of Lake Huron. See Anderson, Canadian Field-Naturalist, 37:75-76,
      April, 1923; Anderson, Nat. Mus. Canada Bull., 102:100, January
      24, 1947; Burt, Mammals of Michigan, p. 247, 1946.)


    1822. _Lepus hybridus_ Desmarest, Encyclopedie methodique (Zoologie)
      Mammalogie, pt. 1, p. 349 (Name based on "Russac" of Pallas, Nov.
      Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord., p. 5, 1778), type locality central

    1912. _Lepus europaeus hybridus_, Miller, Cat. Mamm., western
      Europe, Publ., British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), p. 508, November 23,

    _Range._--Introduced and established in New York and Connecticut
    (see Goodwin, Connecticut Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, Bull.
    53:159-162, 1935).

[Illustration: FIGS. 49-51. Dorsal views of skulls of hares. All × 1.]

    FIG. 49. _Lepus americanus tahoensis_, ½ mi. S Tahoe Tavern, Lake
    Tahoe, Placer County, California. No. 37522 MVZ, ♂.

    FIG. 50. _Lepus alleni alleni_, Santa Rita Mountains, 30 mi. S
    Tucson, Pima County, Arizona. No. 8621 KU, ♂.

    FIG. 51. _Lepus arcticus groenlandicus_, Cape Alexander, Greenland.
    No. 114850 USNM, ♂.

[Illustration: FIGS. 52-54. Dorsal views of skulls of hares. All × 1.]

    FIG. 52. _Lepus townsendii townsendii_, north end Ruby Valley, east
    base Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada. No. 4686, coll. of Ralph
    Ellis, ♀.

    FIG. 53. _Lepus callotis_, 3½ mi. S Tecolotlán, Jalisco. No. 31842
    KU, ♀.

    FIG. 54. _Lepus californicus deserticola_, 4 mi. W Fallon, Churchill
    County, Nevada. No. 900061 MVZ, ♂.

[Illustration: FIGS. 55-57. Ventral views of skulls of hares. All × 1.
Different views of these skulls are shown in figs. 49-51.]

    FIG. 55. _Lepus americanus tahoensis_.

    FIG. 56. _Lepus alleni alleni_.

    FIG. 57. _Lepus arcticus groenlandicus_.

[Illustration: FIGS. 58-60. Ventral views of skulls of hares. All × 1.
Different views of these skulls are shown in figs. 49-51.]

    FIG. 58. _Lepus townsendii townsendii_.

    FIG. 59. _Lepus callotis_.

    FIG. 60. _Lepus californicus deserticola_.

[Illustration: FIGS. 61-64. Lateral views of skulls (one lower jaw) of
hares. All × 1. Different views of these skulls are shown in figs.

    FIG. 61. _Lepus alleni alleni_.

    FIG. 62. _Lepus americanus tahoensis_.

    FIGS. 63-64. _Lepus arcticus groenlandicus_.

[Illustration: FIGS. 65-68. Lateral views of skulls (one lower jaw) of
hares. All × 1. Different views of these skulls are shown in figs.

    FIG. 65. _Lepus townsendii townsendii_.

    FIG. 66. _Lepus callotis_.

    FIGS. 67-68. _Lepus californicus deserticola_.



  1910. Additional mammals from Nicaragua. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
        28:87-115, April 30.


  1947. Catalogue of Canadian Recent mammals. Bull. Nat. Mus. Canada,
        102:v + 238, January 24.

ANDERSON, R. M., and RAND, A. L.

  1943. A synopsis of the rodents of the southern parts of the Prairie
        Provinces of Canada. Special contribution-43-1, Canada, Dept.
        Mines and Resources, Mines and Geol. Branch, pp. 1-25, 13
        illustrations (mimeographed MS). On the front of the self cover
        below the date 1943 there is stamped "April 27, 1939".

BAILEY, A. M., and HENDEE, R. W.

  1926. Notes on the mammals of northwestern Alaska. Jour. Mamm.,
        7:9-28, 3 pls., February 15.


  1927. A biological survey of North Dakota. N. Amer. Fauna, 49:vi +
        226, 21 pls., 8 figs. in text, January 8.

  1932. Mammals of New Mexico. N. Amer. Fauna, 53:1-412, 22 pls., 56
        figs. in text, March 1.

  1936. The mammals and life zones of Oregon. N. Amer. Fauna, 55:1-416,
        51 pls. (nos. 2-52), 102 figs. in text, 1 map, August 29.


  1927. Utah mammals. Bull. Univ. of Utah, 17(12):1-183, Frontispiece,
        31 maps, June.


  1936. Mammals of northwestern Arkansas. Jour. Mamm., 17:29-35,
        February 17.


  1936. The Florida Marsh rabbit. Jour. Mamm., 17:197-207, August 17.

  1938. A new race of the eastern cottontail from the Texas Panhandle.
        Occas. Papers, Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, no. 380:1-3, June 21.

  1939. Faunal relationships and geographic distribution of mammals in
        Oklahoma. Amer. Midl. Natur., 22:85-133, 1 fig., July.

  1940. A contribution to the ecology and faunal relationships of the
        mammals of the Davis Mountain Region, Southwestern Texas. Misc.
        Publ., Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, 46:1-39, 3 pls., June 28.

BOLE, B. P., JR., and MOULTHROP, P. N.

  1942. The Ohio Recent mammal collection in the Cleveland Museum of
        Natural History. Scientific Publs., Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist.,
        5:83-181, September 11.

BORELL, A. E., and BRYANT, M. D.

  1942. Mammals of the Big Bend area of Texas. Univ. California Publ.
        Zool., 48:1-62, 5 pls., 1 fig. in text, August 7.


  1940. The distribution of the white-tailed jack rabbit (_Lepus
        townsendii campanius_ Hollister) in Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad.
        Sci., 43:385-389.


  1938. Faunal relationships and geographic distribution of mammals in
        Sonora, Mexico. Misc. Publ., Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan,
        39:1-77, 3 tables, 26 maps, February 15.

  1946. The mammals of Michigan. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, xv +
        1-288 pp., illustrated.

BURT, W. H., and HOOPER, E. T.

  1941. Notes on mammals from Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. Occas.
        Papers, Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, 430:1-7, May 27.


  1939. Mammals of the Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona.
        Jour. Mamm., 20:418-440, 3 figs. in text, November 14.


  1911. A Biological survey of Colorado. N. Amer. Fauna, 33:1-256, 12
        pls., 39 figs. in text, August 17.


  1949. Range-extension of the swamp rabbit in Illinois. Jour. Mamm.,
        30:427-429, 1 fig. in text, November 17.


  1938. Notes on the hares of British Columbia with the description of a
        new race. Jour. Mamm., 19:240-243, May 12.

  1940. Two mammals new to the known fauna of British Columbia. The
        Murrelet, 21:9, April 30.


  1941. Distribution of cottontail rabbits in Washington. Jour. Wildlife
        Manag., 5:408-411, October.

  1942. Geographic variation in northwestern snowshoe hares. Jour.
        Mamm., 23:166-183, 2 figs. in text, June 3.

  1948. Mammals of Washington. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist.,
        2:1-444, 140 figs. in text, April 9.

  1950. Records of mammals from the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí.
        Occas. Papers Mus. Zool., Louisiana State Univ., 23:1-15, July


  1937. Some mammals from western Montana and eastern Idaho. Murrelet
        18:22-27, September 4.

  1939. The Recent mammals of Idaho. The Caxton Printers, Caldwell,
        Idaho, 400 pp., 2 full pages half tones, 33 figs. in text, April

  1944. Notes on Mexican mammals. Jour. Mamm., 25:370-403, 1 fig. in
        text, December 12.

DAVIS, W. B., and ROBERTSON, J. L., Jr.

  1944. The mammals of Culberson County, Texas. Jour. Mamm., 25:254-273,
        1 pl., 2 figs. in text, September 8.


  1940. Notes on Arkansas mammals. Jour. Mamm., 21:187-191, May 16.


  1921. Notes on the mammals of interior Alaska. Jour. Mamm., 2:20-28,
        February 10.

  1926. Notes on Pacific Coast rabbits and pikas. Occas. Papers, Mus.
        Zool., Univ. Michigan, 166:1-28, February 11.

  1937. Mammals of the San Carlos Mountains and vicinity. Michigan
        studies, Sci. Ser., 12:245-268, 3 pls.


  MS. The mammals of Utah. 826 pp., illustrated--on file Mus. Nat.
        Hist., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, as of May, 1950.


  1932. Mammal distribution in Saline and Camden counties, Missouri.
        Amer. Midland Nat., 13:114-123, May.


  1920. Mammals of Panama. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 69(5):1-309, 39
        pls., 24 figs. in text, April 24.


  1934. Mammals collected by A. W. Anthony in Guatemala 1924-1928. Bull.
        Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 68:1-60, 5 pls., December 12.

  1935. The mammals of Connecticut. Bull. Connecticut State Geol. and
        Nat. Hist. Surv., 53:1-221, 33 pls., 19 figs. in text.

  1942. Mammals of Honduras. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 79:107-195,
        May 29.

  1946. Mammals of Costa Rica. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 87:271-473,
        1 pl., 50 figs. in text, 1 map, December 31.


  1946. Mammals of Nevada. Univ. California Press, Berkeley, xi + 710,
        colored frontispiece, 11 pls., 485 figs, in text, plus 54
        silhouettes, July 1.

HALL, E. R., and BOWLUS, H. L.

  1938. A new pika (mammalian genus Ochotona) from southeastern Idaho
        with notes on near-by subspecies. Univ. California Publ. Zool.,
        42:335-339, 1 fig. in text, July 7.

HALL, E. R., and KELSON, K. R.

  1951. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of some
        North American rabbits. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist.,
        5:49-58, October 1, 1951.

HALL, E. R., and VILLA R. B.

  1949. An annotated check list of the mammals of Michoacán, México.
        Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 1:433-472, 2 pls., 1 fig.
        in text, December 27.


  1943. The mammals of eastern United States. Comstock Publishing Co.,
        Inc., Ithaca, pp. 1-432, illustrated.

HANDLEY, C. O., JR., and PATTON, C. P.

  1947. Wild mammals of Virginia. Commonwealth of Virginia Comm. Game
        and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, vi + 220 pp. Frontispiece + 103
        figs. in text.


  1931. Indiana's swamp rabbit. Jour. Mamm., 12:319-320, August 24.


  1942. Notes on mammals of northeastern New Mexico. Jour. Mamm.,
        23:75-82, 1 fig. in text, February 16.


  1948. A specimen of the white-tailed jack rabbit, _Lepus townsendii_,
        from Illinois. Chicago Acad. Sci., Nat. Hist. Miscellanea,
        29:1-2, October 15.


  1947. Notes on Mexican mammals. Jour. Mamm., 28:40-57, February 17.


  1909. Notes on the distribution of certain mammals in the southeastern
        United States. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 22:55-68, April 17.

  1921. A biological survey of Alabama. N. Amer. Fauna, 45:1-88, 10
        figs. in text, October 28.

  1924. Revision of the American pikas. N. Amer. Fauna, 47:iv + 57, 6
        pls., 4 figs., September 23.

  1936. A revision of the American Arctic hares. Jour. Mamm.,
        17:315:337, 4 figs, in text, November 16.


  1927. A new kangaroo rat and a new brush rabbit from Lower California,
        Mexico. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 5:65-68, July 6.

  1940. A new coastal form of brush rabbit from the vicinity of San
        Quintín, Lower California, Mexico. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat.
        Hist., 9:221-224, July 31.

  1942. A vertebrate faunal survey of the Organ Pipe Cactus National
        Monument, Arizona. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 9:353-375,
        1 map, February 17.


  1937. Annotated list of West Virginia mammals. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
        84:443-479, prior to November 17.

  1939. Annotated list of Tennessee mammals. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
        86:245-303, prior to March 27.


  1942. A progress report on cottontail rabbits in Pennsylvania.
        Pennsylvania Game News, 13(8):14, 15, and 30, 3 photos., 2
        tables. Only the reprint (lacking photos.) seen.

LEOPOLD, A. S., and HALL, E. R.

  1945. Some mammals of Ozark County, Missouri. Jour. Mamm., 26:142-145,
        July 19.


  1928. Mammals of a small area along the Missouri River. Jour. Mamm.,
        9:140-146, May 9.


  1946. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia. Jour. Mamm., 26:379-390,
        February 12.


  1936. A preliminary report on the distribution of the mammals of
        Louisiana. Proc. Louisiana Acad. Sci., 3:11-39, 4 pls., 2 figs.
        in text, March.


  1943. Control of coat color in the varying hare, _Lepus americanus_
        Erxleben. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 93:393-461, illustrated.

LYON, M. W., JR.

  1904. Classification of the hares and their allies. Smithsonian Misc.
        Coll., 45:321-447, pls. 74-100, figs. 44-45, June 15.


  1942. Notes on the mammals of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Jour. Mamm.,
        23:391-398, December 30.


  1943. The Colorado pika. Jour. Mamm., 24:394-396, August 18.


  1924. List of North American Recent mammals. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
        128:xvi + 673, April 29.


  1941. Mammals of Illinois. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 6:17-60, 15 figs.
        in text, May 15.


  1909. The rabbits of North America. N. Amer. Fauna, 29:1-314, 13 pls.,
        19 figs. in text, August 31.

ORR, R. T.

  1935. Descriptions of three new races of brush rabbit from California.
        Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 48:27-30, February 6.

  1940. The rabbits of California. Occas. Papers, California Acad. Sci.,
        19:1-227, 10 pls., 30 figs. in text, May 25.


  1938. The mammals of Vermont. Jour. Mamm., 19:435-441, November 14.


  1945. Mammals of South Dakota. Museum, Univ. S. Dakota, pp. 3 + 56 + 3
        (MS, mimeographed, including one map).


  1944. New England Cottontail in Maine. Jour. Mamm., 25:193-195, May


  1946. Recent and Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Brazos County, Texas.
        Jour. Mamm., 27:162-169, 5 figs. in text, May 14.


  1939. A parasitological reconnaissance in Alaska with particular
        reference to varying hares. Jour. Mamm., 20:82-86, February 15.


  1950. Notes on the distribution of some Arctic mammals. Jour. Mamm.,
        31:464-466, November 21.


  1946. Mammals of Northern Idaho. Jour. Mamm., 27:308-327, 1 fig., 1
        tab., November 25.


  1947. Extension of the range of Brachylagus idahoensis. Jour. Mamm.,
        28:187-188, 1 fig. in text, June 1.


  1945. Pelage changes in the snowshoe hare.... Jour. Mamm., 26:41-63,
        15 figs. in text, February 27.

  1950. The pigmy rabbit (_Sylvilagus idahoensis_) in Mono County,
        California. Jour. Mamm., 31:1-4, February 21.

  1950. The gestation period of the pika (_Ochotona princeps_). Jour.
        Mamm., 31:356-357, August 21.


  1936. A list of the Recent land mammals of Florida. Proc. Florida
        Acad. Sci., 1:102-128.


  1939. The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus aquaticus) in South
        Carolina. Jour. Mamm., 20:259, May 15.


  1924. The European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas) in North America.
        Jour. Agric. Research, 28:1133-1137, 1 fig. in text, June 14.

SNYDER, L. L., and LOGIER, E. B. S.

  1930. A faunal investigation of King Township, York County, Ontario.
        Trans. Royal Canadian Inst., 17(pt. 2):167-208, 3 pls.


  1942. Mammals of Wood Buffalo Park, northern Alberta and District of
        Mackenzie. Jour. Mamm., 23:119-145, 2 pls. 1 fig. in text, June

  1946. Mammals of the northern Great Plains along the international
        boundary in Canada. Jour. Mamm., 27:127-153, 1 fig. in text, May


  1942. Periodicity of refection in the wild rabbit. Nature, 149:553,
        May 16.


  1925. Australian Encyclopedia, vol. 2, pp. 355-358--article on rabbit.


  1932. The mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. Conservation, 8 vo.,
        pp. 1-84, illustrated.


  1945. The mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. Conservation, Tech.
        Publ., 2:1-108, numerous unnumbered pls. and figs.

TAYLOR, W. P., and SHAW, W. T.

  1929. Provisional list of land mammals of the State of Washington.
        Occas. Pap. Chas. R. Conner Mus., No. 2, pp. 1-32, December.


  1933. The life-histories and ecology of jack rabbits, _Lepus alleni_
        and _Lepus californicus_ ssp., in relation to grazing in
        Arizona. Tech. Bull., Univ. Arizona, College Agric., Agric. Exp.
        Station, 49:468-587, 12 pls., 5 figs, in text, 17 tables, May


  1942. The mammals of Colorado. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. xviii + 330
        pp., 50 pls.


  1950. Introduced mammals of New Zealand.... x + 255 pp., illustrated.
        Published by Dept. Sci. and Industrial Res., Wellington, New

_Transmitted May 8, 1951. Museum of Natural History, University of
Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas._


       *       *       *       *       *


Changes that have been made to the text (typos or inconsistent
spellings) are as follows:

Changed "are are" to "as are" (such of their diseases as are
transmissible to him)

Changed "Inglesmaldie" to "Inglismaldie" (Mount Inglismaldie, near
Banff, Alberta).

Changed "Carribean" to "Caribbean" (Sipurio, Río Sixaola, near Caribbean

Changed "Quintin" to "Quintín" (Baja California (Huey, 1940): San

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha" ***

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