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Title: An Account of The Kingdom of Nepal - And of the Territories Annexed to this Dominion by the House of Gorkha
Author: Hamilton, Francis, 1762-1829
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Account of The Kingdom of Nepal - And of the Territories Annexed to this Dominion by the House of Gorkha" ***

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NEPAL***


                [Picture: View of the Temple of Bouddhama]



                              AN ACCOUNT OF
                           THE KINGDOM OF NEPAL


                          AND OF THE TERRITORIES
                     ANNEXED TO THIS DOMINION BY THE

                             HOUSE OF GORKHA.

                    _FRANCIS BUCHANAN HAMILTON_, M.D.

                                * * * * *

                       ILLUSTRATED WITH ENGRAVINGS.

                                * * * * *

                                    TO

                              THE MOST NOBLE

                     RICHARD MARQUIS WELLESLEY, K.G.

                           _&c._, _&c._, _&c._

                     THE FOLLOWING WORK IS INSCRIBED,
                    AS A MARK OF THE AUTHOR’S ESTEEM,
                         RESPECT, AND GRATITUDE.

CONTENTS.

                                                                  Page
INTRODUCTION.                                                        1
                            CHAPTER FIRST.
        _Of the Tribes inhabiting the Territories of Gorkha._
Original Inhabitants—Hindu Colonies, their                           9
period—Brahmans, History—Colony from Chitaur—Colony of
Asanti—Success of Colonization in the West, in the
East—Colony of Chaturbhuja—Hindu Tribes east from the
River Kali—Language—Brahmans, Diet, Festivals,
Offspring—Rajputs, adopted, illegitimate—Low
Tribes—General Observations on the Customs of the Mountain
Hindus east from the Kali—Of the Hindus west from the
Kali—Of Tribes who occupied the Country previous to the
Hindus—Manners—Magars—Gurungs—Jariyas—Newars—Murmis—
Kiratas—Limbus—Lapchas—Bhotiyas
                           CHAPTER SECOND.
                       _Nature of the Country._
Division into four regions from their relative                      61
elevatiom—First, or Plain Region, or
Tariyani—Soil—Productions, Animal and
Vegetable—Cultivation—Climate—Rivers—Second, or Hilly
Region—Productions—Minerals—Forests—Birds—Vallies called
Dun—Cultivation—Climate—Third, or Mountainous
Region—Elevation—Climate—Diseases—Cultivation—Pasture—
Sheep and Cattle—Minerals—Spontaneous
Vegetables—Extent—Fourth, or Alpine
Region—Vallies—Mountains—Productions, Mineral, Animal, and
Vegetable
                            CHAPTER THIRD.
                        _Laws and Government._
Parts east from the Kali—Courts, and Forms of                      101
Proceeding—Punishments—Provincial Government—Revenue and
Endowments—Officers of State—Military
Establishment—Differences in the parts west from the River
Kali—Revenue and Civil Establishment—Military
Establishment
                             PART SECOND.

 ACCOUNT OF THE PARTICULAR STATES WHICH FORMERLY EXISTED, AND OF THE
                 FAMILIES BY WHICH EACH WAS GOVERNED.
INTRODUCTION.                                                      117
                            CHAPTER FIRST.
               OF THE STATES EAST FROM THE RIVER KALI.
                            SECTION FIRST.
                         _Country of Sikim._
Inhabitants—Government—Extent—History—Geography                    118
                             SECTION II.
     _Dominions of the Family descended from Makanda Sen, Raja of
                             Makwanpur._
General History—Branch of Lohango which occupied the               128
Country of the Kiratas—History—Former Government—Military
Force, Police, and Revenue, and Justice—Present
State—District of Morang—District of Chayenpur—District of
Naragarhi—District of Hedang—District of Makwanpur—Western
Branch, which occupied chiefly the Country of
Palpa—History—Description—Tanahung Family and its
Possessions, and Collateral Branches—Rising, Ghiring, and
Gajarkot
                             SECTION III.
                           _Nepal Proper._
Name—History previous to the Conquest by the                       186
Gorkhalis—Extent and
Topography—Population—Buildings—Revenue—Trade—Coins—
Weights—Measures—Agriculture—Tenures—Crown Lands—Lands
held for Service—Charity
Lands—Tenants—Implements—Crops—Manufactures—Price of
Labour—Slaves—Diet
                             SECTION IV.
      _The Countries belonging to the Chaubisi and Baisi Rajas._
Chaubisi Rajas—Pamar Family, impure Branch—Bhirkot,                237
Garahang, Dhor, pure
Branch—Nayakot—Satahung—Kaski—Lamjun—Gorkha, Topography,
History—Prithwi, Narayan—Singha Pratap—Bahadur Sahi—Rana
Bahadur—Bhim Sen—Royal Family—Kala Macwani Family—Gulmi,
Khachi, Argha, Dhurkot, Musikot, Isma—Family of Bhingri
and Khungri—Family of Piuthana—Family of Poin—Malihang
Family—The Samal Family; Malebum; Galkot; Rugum; Musikot;
Jajarkot; Bangphi; Gajal; Dharma; Jahari; Satatala;
Malaneta; Saliyana; Dang; Chhilli—The Baisi Rajas—Dalu
Dailek—Duti—Yumila—Taklakot, with the adjacent parts of
Thibet subject to China
                           CHAPTER SECOND.
             _Of the Countries west from the River Kali._
Kumau; History, State—Garhawal; History,                           291
State—Sirmaur—Twelve Lordships—Besar—Hanur
                 SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACCOUNT OF NEPAL.
    _Some Information respecting the petty Chiefs who still remain
    independent to the west of the Dominions of Nepal or Gorkha._
Kangra—History—State—Kahalur—Bhomor—Kottahar—Yasawal—              309
Datarpur—Gular—Nurpur—Chamba—Kullu—Mundi—Sukhet
REGISTER OF THE WEATHER, from February 1802 to March 1903          318
CALCULATION OF THE ALTITUDES of some of the Snowy                  346
Mountains from the Valley of Nepal.  By Colonel CRAWFORD
INDEX.                                                             347

DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE PLATES.

    I.      View of the Temple of Bouddhama,
            to front the title-page.
   II.      View of Kathmandu, to front page
            209.
   III.     Himaliya Mountains, Plate 1.        )
   IV.      Himaliya Mountains, Plate 2.        )
    V.         Do.       do.    Plate 3.        ) at the end of the
                                                volume.
   VI.         Do.       do.    Plate 4.        )
   VII.        Do.       do.    Plate 5.        )
  VIII.     Map of the Dominions of Gorkha      )



INTRODUCTION.


This Account, which is intended to describe the country as it stood
previously to the war with the British, commencing in the end of the year
1814, is derived chiefly from the following sources.

In the first place, during the years 1802 and 1803, I passed fourteen
months in the country, mostly in the vicinity of Kathmandu, the capital;
and I was accompanied by Ramajai Batacharji, an intelligent Brahman, from
Calcutta, whom I employed to obtain information, so far as I prudently
could, without alarming a jealous government, or giving offence to the
Resident, under whose authority I was acting.

In the next place, assisted by the same person, I passed two years on the
frontier, collecting information, both from the Company’s subjects, and
from numerous refugees and travellers from the dominions of Gorkha.  The
following are the persons to whose information I am chiefly indebted:

The account of Sikim is chiefly taken from a Lama, or priest of Buddha,
who, with part of his flock, had fled into the district of Puraniya, to
escape from the violence of the Gorkhalese, and who constructed a map of
the country, which I have deposited in the Company’s library.  Besides
the Lama, I consulted many of the natives of the Company’s territory, who
had visited the lower parts of Sikim, and several of the Gorkhalese, and
other people of Nepal; and Mr Smith, of Nathpur, favoured me with several
particulars, collected by a Mr Pagan for the information of government.

Concerning the country between Sikim and Nepal Proper, my information is
chiefly derived from the following persons:

1_st_, Agam Singha, hereditary chief of the Kirats, a tribe bordering
immediately on Nepal, and last Chautariya, or prime minister, of the
princes who governed that people.

2_d_, A Brahman, who was the Munsuf, or civil judge of Bahadurgunj, a
territory in the district of Puraniya belonging to the Company.  His
ancestors were hereditary Dewans to the princes who governed the
territory between Nepal and Sikim, that is, the Brahman’s family managed
the princes’ revenue.

3_d_, From Narayan Das, a scribe, (Kayastha,) whose ancestor Janardan
accompanied Lohanga, founder of the late dynasty; and whose descendants
enjoyed the hereditary office of Neb, or second minister to the
successors of that chief, until their final expulsion from the mountains.

4_th_, A slave of the Raja of Gorkha, who entered into my service in
order to bring plants from the Alpine regions; but, finding him very
intelligent, and a great traveller, I employed him to construct a map,
which I have deposited in the Company’s library.  In order to enable
himself to execute this with more care, he refreshed his memory by
several journeys in different directions.

5_th_, A Kirat from Hedang, near the Arun river, gave me another map,
which has also been deposited in the Company’s library.  It contains only
the eastern parts of the territory in question.

These two maps, together with that of the Lama, as might be expected, are
very rude, and differ in several points; but they coincide in a great
many more, so as to give considerable authority to their general
structure; and, by a careful examination of the whole, many differences,
apparently considerable, may be reconciled.  The general authority of the
whole is confirmed by our maps, so far as they go, and by the
intelligence which Colonel Crawford obtained in Nepal.

The account of Nepal Proper is chiefly derived from my own observations,
assisted by those of Ramajai above mentioned and by some communications
with which I was favoured by Colonel Crawford, now Surveyor-General in
Bengal.  He favoured me, in particular, with several drawings of the
snowy mountains; and, by orders of the Marquis Wellesley, then
Governor-General, I was furnished with copies of Colonel Crawford’s
valuable geographical surveys and maps of the country.

In one point respecting these maps, I consider myself bound to do justice
to the researches of Colonel Crawford.  From a treatise on the sources of
the Ganges, given by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. in the 11th volume of the
Asiatick Researches, page 429, etc. it might be possibly inferred,
although this, perhaps, was not intended to be expressed, that Colonel
Colebrooke and his kinsman were induced to reject the authority of
D’Anville respecting the sources of the Ganges, merely from examining the
authorities, upon which the course of the Ganges above Haridwar had been
laid down in the geographical charts then in use.  Now, the fact is, that
Colonel Colebrooke had other grounds for rejecting the authority of
D’Anville, and especially one of the above-mentioned maps, which had been
officially communicated to him by Colonel Crawford.  In this map the
sources of the Ganges are laid down from the reports of pilgrims; nor has
the survey, carried on by the suggestion of Colonel Colebrooke, added any
thing material, so far as relates to the general outlines of these
sources.  By this observation I by no means intend to depreciate the
labours of Mr Webb, by whom the survey was conducted; nor the judgment
and love of science evinced in the recommendation of Colonel Colebrooke
to employ him.  So long as the matter rested entirely on the report of
pilgrims, doubts would exist; and the survey has not only entirely
removed these, but has given us many details of a country previously
unknown.

Concerning the country between Nepal Proper and the river Kali, I follow
chiefly the authority of the following persons: 1_st_, a Brahman, named
Sadhu Ram Upadhyaya, whose family was in hereditary possession of the
office of priest (Purohit) for the Raja of Palpa, one of the principal
chiefs in this district; 2_d_ and 3_d_, Prati Nidhi Tiwari, and Kanak
Nidhi Tiwari, two brothers of the sacred order, the former very learned,
and the latter a man of business.  Their family had been long Mantris, or
advisers of the same chiefs, but came originally from Kumau; 4_th_, Samar
Bahadur, uncle to the Raja of Palpa, now in exile.

Two maps of these parts, now in the Company’s library, were prepared by
Sadhu Ram and Kanak Nidhi, with the assistance of Kamal Lochan, one of
the natives attached to the survey of Bengal, on which I was engaged.
Although they differ in some points, they agree in so many more,
especially in the eastern parts, that considerable reliance may be placed
on their giving some tolerable idea of the country.

Finally, concerning the parts west of the river Kali, in the rainy season
1814 I proceeded up the Ganges, with a view of going to Haridwar, where I
expected to procure intelligence; but, fortunately, I met at Futtehgur
with a person well qualified for the purpose.  This was Hariballabh, a
Brahman born in Kumau, but who has been long in the service of the
Garhawal Rajas, and has travelled much in the adjacent parts.  A map of
the western parts of the dominions of Gorkha, now also in the Company’s
library, was composed by Hariballabh, with the assistance of Kamal
Lochan.  The same person gave me another map explaining the country,
which extends some way west from the Sutluj, and of which a short account
will be found in the Appendix.

I regret, that, on the banks of the Karanali, there intervenes a space,
with which none of my informants were well acquainted, its communications
being entirely with the country belonging to the Nawab Vazir.

I shall have very frequent occasion to mention the account of Nepal by
Colonel Kirkpatrick; and, although I often differ from him in opinion,
and think it my duty to state these points fully, yet no one can be more
sensible, knowing well the difficulties he encountered, of the merits of
his work, which is, on the whole, perfectly conformable to his well-known
thirst for information and judgment in the acquisition of knowledge.  I
must here, however, in a general way, caution the reader to place little
confidence in the names given in the printed work.  I have no doubt, that
the numerous errors in the names are to be attributed to the printing of
the work having been entrusted to some person entirely ignorant of the
native language; and who, therefore, could not be led, by a knowledge of
this, to read the names in the manuscript with accuracy.  But, besides
this source of error, in some degree, perhaps, unavoidable, the printer
seems to have been uncommonly careless in reading even those names that
are known to Europeans.  Thus, (in page 131,) speaking of the birds of
Nepal, he has as follows: “The two last belong to the genus of pheasants,
the damphia being of the golden, and the monal of the argheer, or spotted
sort.”  There can be no doubt, that Colonel Kirkpatrick wrote argus, and
not argheer, which has no meaning.

The utmost negligence may be also observed in a matter of more
importance; for, in the route from Kathmandu to Beni, the capital of
Malebum, given in page 290, all the stages from Deoralli 1st, to Ragho
Powa, both inclusive, are evidently transposed, as going through the
territory of Lamjun and Kaski, after having entered Malebum at
Kusmachoor, while both Lamjun and Kaski are between Kathmandu and
Malebum.  I suspect, also, that the person entrusted with the printing
has introduced some matter of his own about the Hindu religion, several
passages on that subject being unlike the sentiments of a person of
Colonel Kirkpatrick’s known sense and observation.



PART FIRST.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.


INTRODUCTION.


Nepal, a name celebrated in Hindu legend, in a strict sense, ought to be
applied to that country only which is in the vicinity of Kathmandu, the
capital; but at present it is usually given to the whole territory of the
Gorkha Rajas, which occupies about thirteen degrees of longitude, and
five of latitude.  It is my intention now to give an account of the whole
of this territory, so far as has come to my knowledge.

East from the territory called Nepal Proper, the mountains were chiefly
occupied by a tribe called Kirat or Kichak, who, in remote times, seem to
have made extensive conquests in the plains of Kamrup and Matsya, now
constituting the districts of Ranggapur and Dinajpur.  Although these
conquests had long been lost to the Kirats, yet Father Giuseppe, who
witnessed the conquest of Nepal by the Gorkhalese, and gives a good
account of the horrid circumstances attending that event, {7} considers
the Kiratas (Ciratas) in the year 1769 as being an independent nation.
Now, although this would not appear to be strictly exact, as the Kirats
had then been long subject to Rajput princes; yet the Father is
abundantly justifiable in what he has advanced; for the Kirats formed the
principal strength of these Rajput chiefs, their hereditary chief held
the second office in the state, (Chautariya,) and the Rajputs, who were
united with them, did not presume to act as masters, to invade their
lands, or violate their customs.  These Kirats are frequently mentioned
in Hindu legend as occupying the country between Nepal and Madra, the
ancient denomination in Hindu writings for the country which we call
Bhotan.

Towards the west again, the country between Nepal and Kasmir, over which
the present rulers of the former have far extended their dominion, in the
ancient Hindu writings is called Khas, and its inhabitants Khasiyas.  I
am told, that, wherever mentioned in ancient records, like the Kirats,
their neighbours to the west, the Khasiyas are considered as abominable
and impure infidels.



CHAPTER FIRST.
OF THE TRIBES INHABITING THE TERRITORIES OF GORKHA.


Original Inhabitants.—Hindu Colonies, their period.—Brahmans,
History.—Colony from Chitaur.—Colony of Asanti.—Success of Colonization
in the West,—in the East.—Colony of Chaturbhuja.—Hindu Tribes east from
the River Kali.—Language.—Brahmans, Diet, Festivals, Offspring.—Rajputs,
adopted, illegitimate.—Low Tribes.—General Observations on the Customs of
the Mountain Hindus east from the Kali.—Of the Hindus west from the
Kali.—Of Tribes who occupied the Country previous to the
Hindus.—Manners.—Magars.—Gurungs.—Jariyas.—Newars.—Murmis.—Kiratas.—
Limbus.—Lapchas.—Bhotiyas.

The numerous valleys among the prodigious mountains, of which Nepal in
its extended sense consists, are inhabited by various tribes, that differ
very much in language, and somewhat in customs.  All that have any sort
of pretensions to be considered as aboriginal, like their neighbours of
Bhotan to the east, are, by their features, clearly marked as belonging
to the Tartar or Chinese race of men, and have no sort of resemblance to
the Hindus.

The time when the Hindus penetrated into these regions is very uncertain.
Bhim Sen, the son of Pandu, is said to have penetrated into these parts,
and probably was the first who introduced any sort of improvement.  He
still continues to be a favourite object with the rude tribes, not only
on the mountains, but in their vicinity.  Probably at no great distance
from the time of that prince, and about the commencement of our era,
Sakya, the last great teacher of the Bouddhists, passed through the
country, and settled at Lasa, where he is supposed to be still alive in
the person whom we call the Grand Lama.  His followers seem to have
acquired a great ascendancy over all the tribes of Nepal, as well as in
Thibet and Bhotan, which they retained until a subsequent colony of
Hindus settled in the first of these countries, and introduced the
Brahmans, who have had considerable success in destroying the heretical
doctrines, although these have still numerous votaries.

Colonel Kirkpatrick, or perhaps rather his editor, seems to have
entertained a very different opinion concerning the period when the
Hindus penetrated into Nepal.  Speaking of Sambhunath, he says, {10}
“After all, it is highly probable that the sanctity of this spot might be
safely referred to a period very anterior both to the Newar and Khat
Bhotiya dynasties (who preceded the Newars) of Nepaul, since the sacred
books of the Hindus leave scarcely any room to doubt, that the religion
of Brahma has been established from the most remote antiquity in this
secluded valley, where there are nearly as many idols as inhabitants,
there not being a fountain, a river, or hill within its limits, that is
not consecrated to one or other of the Hindu deities.”  What idea the
author may have held of the terms Hindu and religion of Brahma, I cannot
say.  If he meant by Hindu whatever colonists may have come from the
plains, I agree with him, and have stated, that Bhim Sen and Sakya Singha
seem, in early ages, to have penetrated into the mountains, and to have
introduced civilization.  But I think him mistaken, if, by Hindu, he
means the followers of the present Brahmans, introduced into India from
Saka Dwip by the son of Krishna, contemporary with Bhim Sen; and if, by
the religion of Brahma, he means the doctrine taught by these Brahmans,
who do not, however, worship that deity.  In the first place, I have been
assured, that, in the sacred books of the Hindus, that is to say, in the
Puranas attributed to Vayasa, the Khas and Kiratas, the ancient
inhabitants of the mountains, are always spoken of as impure infidels.
Again, the number of idols and places consecrated in Nepal to the Hindu
gods is no sort of proof that the doctrines of the Brahmans have existed
long in the country; for the Bouddhists, who follow the doctrine of
Sakya, admit of the worship of the same inferior deities (Devatas) with
the Brahmans, both having probably adopted their worship from sects that
had previously existed.  Farther, the changes in the names of places,
since the Hindu conquest, has been rapid almost beyond conception; for
instance, the capitals of the three principalities into which Nepal was
divided, and which are now called Kathmandu, Lalita Patana, and Bhatgang,
and which, in 1802, I always heard called by these names, were, during
the Newar government, which ended in 1767, called Yin Daise, Yulloo
Daise, and Khopo Daise. {11}  To these circumstances, explanatory of the
author’s mistake, I must add the statements, which will follow, and which
reduce the arrival of the present Hindu colonies to a modern period, or
to the fourteenth century of the Christian era.

According to the traditions most commonly current in Nepal, the Hindus of
the mountains (Parbatiya) left their own country in consequence of an
invasion by the Muhammedan king of Dilli, who wished to marry a daughter
of the Raja of Chitor, or Chitaur, celebrated for her beauty.  A refusal
brought on the destruction of her father and his capital city; and, to
avoid a hateful yoke, many of the people fled to the hills.  A somewhat
similar story, related in the translation of Fereshtah by Dow, would seem
to verify the truth of the tradition, and fix its date to the 1306 year
of our era.

In opposition to this tradition, very generally received at Kathmandu,
and throughout the eastern parts of the Nepalese dominions, Hariballabh
contends, that there was a certain Asanti, a prince descended of
Shalivahana in the seventh or eighth generation, and who, therefore,
should have lived in about the second or third century of the Christian
era, but whom Hariballabh supposes to have lived seven or eight hundred
years ago, in which case the Shalivahana from whom he was descended must
have been different from the prince whose name has been given to an era.
Asanti came to these mountains, and established a kingdom extending from
Pesaur to Morang, and having for its capital Karuvirpur, a town near
Almorha.  His descendants were called Suryabangsi Rajputs, and with them
came pure Brahmans, whose doctrines gradually gained ground by the
addition of colonists, and the progress of generation.  This progress
would appear to have been very slow, for I cannot find, even in Kumau,
the seat of the first colonists, that there are now any other Brahmans,
except those called the Brahmans of Kumau, a colony avowedly introduced
from Kanoj by Thor Chandra, who lived after the middle of the fifteenth
century of the Christian era, and, therefore, subsequent to the colony
from Chitaur.  The country had previously been inhabited by Jars, Magars,
and other impure and infidel tribes, and great numbers of these continued
under the descendants of Asanti as cultivators; but, west of the Soyal,
there was no Raja who was not of pure birth, although the barbarous
chiefs continued to hold most of the country east from thence, tributary,
however, to the descendants of Shalivahana.  Hariballabh remembers the
names of only the three first of Asanti’s successors, namely, Basanti,
Dham Deva, and Brahma Deva; but his descendants continued, for a
considerable time, to enjoy a supremacy over the chiefs of the hills,
although their power was much reduced by family dissensions, and by
appanages granted to collateral branches.  Various turbulent chiefs, that
successively came from the low country, took advantage of this weakness
to reduce the authority of the descendants of Asanti to a jurisdiction
nearly nominal; and, in the reign of Akbur, the government of Karuvirpur
was totally overturned by the petty chief of Kumau, who pretended to be
of the ancient family of the moon, and whose ancestors, a few generations
before, had succeeded, by an abominable act of treachery, in obtaining a
settlement in the hills.  Indeed, it is generally admitted, even by
themselves, that all, or at least most of the chiefs, who came from the
low country, used similar means, that is, entered into the service of the
mountaineers, and, having gained their confidence by a superior knowledge
and polish of manners, contrived to put them to death, and to seize their
country.

This conduct is justified, in their opinion, by their having abolished
the impure and abominable customs that previously existed among the
mountaineers; and, in conformity with this common principle, all the
chiefs west of the river Kali glory in having either totally expelled or
extirpated the original inhabitants, and in having established, in its
full height, the purity of the Hindu doctrines.

To the east of the Kali river, the chiefs have not been actuated by so
pure a zeal, and not only have permitted many of the mountain tribes to
remain and practise their abominations, but have themselves relaxed, in
many essential points, from the rules of cast, and have debased their
blood by frequent intermixtures with that of the mountaineers; while such
of these as chose to embrace the slender degree of purity required in
these parts, have been admitted to the high dignities of the military
order.

Perhaps, in the parts west from the river Kali, the Hindus from the south
have not, in fact, been so bad as they pretend; and, although no one is
willing to acknowledge a deficiency of zeal, or a descent from
barbarians, yet, in fact, they may have permitted to remain such of the
cultivators as chose to adopt the rules of purity, and to take the name
of Sudras.  I have not seen a sufficient number of the people from that
part of the country to enable me to judge how far this may have been the
case; for all the original tribes of the mountains, as already stated,
have strongly marked Chinese or Tartar countenances, when the breed has
not been improved by a mixture with people of more elegant features.

According to Sadu Ram and Samar Bahadur, when the colony from Chitaur,
mentioned above, arrived at the mountains east from the Kali, in the
beginning of the fourteenth century of the Christian era, they found the
whole occupied by impure or infidel tribes, nor for some time did any of
the sacred order, nor any descendants of the colony, extend beyond the
limits of their conquests.  Gradually, however, the descendants of the
colony, and especially the members of the sacred order, who indulged very
much in promiscuous amours, spread wide over the mountainous region, and
multiplied exceedingly, introducing everywhere, as much as possible, the
modern doctrines of purity and law, modified, however, a good deal, to
accommodate it to the licence which the mountaineers exercised in the
intercourse of the sexes, and in eating.  In this conversion the Brahmans
have had great success, and most of the chiefs of the highland tribes
have adopted the rules of purity, and are called Rajputs, while various
fables and genealogies have been contrived to gratify their vanity, by
connecting their history with Hindu legend.

Concerning the colony from Chitaur I received another account, from the
Mahanta, or prior of the convent of Janmasthan, at Ayodhya.  He alleges,
that Chaturbhuja, a prince of the Sisaudhiya tribe, having left Chitaur,
conquered Kumau and Yumila, where he established his throne, from whence
his family spread to Palpa Tanahung and the Kirats.  The supremacy very
lately admitted by all the eastern mountain chiefs to the Rajas of
Yumila, is a strong presumption in favour of this opinion.  Many chiefs,
and especially the Palpa Tanahung and Makwanpur families, pretend to be
descended of the Chitaur princes; but it is very doubtful whether they
have any claim to a descent so illustrious, for the Mahanta said, that,
after some generations, all the hill chiefs rebelled, and paid only a
nominal obedience to the Raja of Yumila, nor does Samar Bahadur, uncle of
the Palpa Raja, claim kindred with that chief, while one of the branches
of his family still remains impure.  But, if this tradition be
well-founded, the Yumila, or Kumau principality, or at least its
possession by the Rajputs, must have been subsequent to 1306, which will
not admit of above twenty-five generations, instead of the fifty or sixty
which the Brahmans of that country allot for the arrival of Asanti.  This
difference may, however, be explained.  Chaturbhuja, as well as a
fortunate Brahman, who obtained Malebum, as will be afterwards mentioned,
may have married the daughter of the former chief of Yumila, and thus
succeeded to the power; and the fifty or sixty generations, in both
cases, may include both the original family, and those who succeeded by
marriage.  But, if the Mahanta is right, the Yumila or Karuvir family, in
place of being descended of Shalivahana, was descended of the princes of
Ajmir and Chitaur.

In giving an account of the tribes now occupying the dominions of Nepal,
I shall first commence with these Hindu colonists, as having acquired the
predominance; but I must premise, that very considerable differences
prevail in their customs in different parts, and especially that those in
the countries east from the Kali differ much from those who live west
from that river.  I shall commence with the former, with whom I am best
acquainted.

The language spoken by the mountain Hindus in the vicinity of Kathmandu,
is usually called the Parbatiya basha, or mountain dialect; but west from
the capital, it is more commonly known by the name of Khas basha, or
dialect of the Khas country, because it seems to have been first
introduced into the territory of that name.  I have lodged in the
Company’s library a copious vocabulary of this dialect, from whence the
learned may judge how far it is probable that it came from Chitor; for
there can be no doubt, that it is a dialect of the Hindwi language, and
it is making rapid progress in extinguishing the aboriginal dialects of
the mountains.

The character in which this language is written is evidently derived from
the Nagri, and may be found in Colonel Kirkpatrick’s Account of Nepaul,
opposite to page 220; and in the twenty-eight following pages may be seen
a short vocabulary.

East from the Kali, the Brahmans, who are of pure birth, are only few in
number, there being no means for their subsistence, as they confine
themselves mostly to the duties of the sacred order.  They are of the
Kanoj nation, and the sect of the Saktis, following chiefly the doctrine
of the books called Tantras.  Where the chiefs who pretend to have come
from Chitaur settled, many of them were men of great learning.  In other
parts, very few have made any sort of progress in grammar, law, or
philosophy; but they are considered as profound astrologers.  Although
very few have taken service either from men or in temples, they
contaminate themselves by uncommon liberties in the gratification of
their appetites.  They are divided into three ranks that do not
intermarry.  The highest are called Jayurbedi, from the sacred book which
they profess to follow, and they assume the title of Upadhyaya.  These
are the instructors (Gurus) and priests (Purohits) for Brahmans and
Rajputs, and eat goats, sheep, and some kinds of wild fowl, but abstain
from venison.  The two lower orders are called Kamiya and Purubi, and act
as instructors and priests for the lower orders.  These not only eat the
same animals as those of the highest rank, but many of them rear fowls
and swine for their tables.

The sixteen principal festivals observed by the mountain Hindus have been
described by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {17} nor have I any additional
information to offer.

All the Brahmans may keep widows of their own class as concubines, and
the spurious offspring of such connections are called Jausis.  These,
having betaken themselves to agriculture and commerce, have become
exceedingly numerous, and are reduced to perform every kind of drudgery.
Among the poor people whom I observed coming to the markets in the
Gorakhpur district, loaded with goods even from the distant hills of
Malebum, at least a half stated themselves to be of this class.  These,
although of illegitimate extraction, are not called Khas; but, until the
present dynasty seized on the government, were considered as entitled to
all the immunities and privileges of the sacred order, as were also the
children of Brahmans by widows of their own rank.

The descendants of Brahmans by women of the lower tribes, although
admitted to be Khas, or impure, are called Kshatris or Khatris, which
terms are considered as perfectly synonymous, and have now formed two
tribes, Pauriyal and Sili; but some proper Khatris, called Dewkotas and
Lahauriyas, from Bareli and Lahaur, have settled in the country, and
intermarry with the Pauriyal and Sili, all of whom wear the thread, and
are considered as belonging to the military tribes.

The Rajputs that are, or that even pretend to be, descended of the colony
which came from Chitaur, are very few in number; but the families of the
mountain chiefs, who have adopted the Hindu rules of purity, and even
some who have neglected to do so, are now universally admitted to be
Rajputs; and the Chitaur family have so often married the daughters of
the former, that several members of it have acquired the Tartar
countenance, while some of the mountain families, by intermarriages with
pure but indigent Rajputs, have acquired oval faces and high noses.  Not
only the colony, therefore, from Chitaur, if the Palpa family be such,
but all the descendants of the hill chiefs, are now called Rajputs; and,
until the absorption of all power in the Gorkha family, the Rajputs held
all the principal civil and military offices of the petty states into
which the country was subdivided.  It would also appear, that, when the
princes of the mountaineers were persuaded to follow the doctrines of the
Brahmans, many of their subjects or clans were induced to follow the
example of their chiefs, and thus have established tribes called Thapas,
Ghartis, Karkis, Majhis, Basnats, Bishtakos, Ranas, and Kharkas, all of
whom are called Khasiyas, or natives of Khas, but they wear the thread,
and live pure like Kshatris, and, in fact, are included among the
fencibles or military power of the country, and are very much employed in
the government of the family of Gorkha, under which some of them enjoy
the highest dignities of the state; for Bhim Sen, who is now vested with
the whole power of the kingdom, is by birth a Thapa, as is also Amar
Singha Karyi, who commands the army beyond the Yamuna.  Among those
called Khasiyas, thus adopted into the military order, there may be many
others, of which I did not hear; but it would not appear, even when they
adopted fully the rules of purity, that the whole of these tribes
obtained so elevated a rank, which is almost equal to that of the sacred
bastards.  The Thapas, for instance, are of two kinds, Khas and Ranggu;
yet the latter, although they live pure, and have pure Brahmans to give
them instruction, and to perform their ceremonies, are not permitted to
wear the military badge, nor to intermarry with those who enjoy this
privilege.  The Ghartis, also, are of two kinds, Khas and Bhujal.  The
former are admitted to the military dignity; but the latter wallow in all
the abominations of the impure Gurungs, and do not speak the Khas
language.  The Ranas, also, are divided into two kinds, the Khas and
Magar.  The latter are a branch of the Magar tribe, and totally neglect
the rules of Hindu purity.  It is not even, as I have said, all the
Rajputs that have adopted the rules of purity, and some branches of the
same families were pure, while others rejected the advice of the sacred
order, and eat and drank whatever their appetites craved.

All these military tribes, including the Khasiyas, descended of Brahmans
or Khatris, who are more numerous than all the others, the Rajputs,
Thapas, etc. have again had children by widows of their own cast, and by
concubines of lower tribes, and these children are also called Khasiyas,
who, although they live equally pure, and observe equally the laws of the
Brahmans, are not permitted to wear the thread of distinction; but must
toil in ignoble professions.  They are considered as of so little
consequence, that, of whatever descent they may be by the male line, they
may all freely intermarry.  They speak the Khas language.

The low tribes, which also speak this language, are all supposed to form
part of the colony from Chitaur; but here there is a considerable number
of a tribe called Khawas, who are slaves, and accompanied the chief as
his domestic servants, having been in slavery at Chitaur.  They are
reckoned a pure tribe, and their women are not abandoned to prostitution
like the slaves of the mountain tribes called Ketis.  The Khawas adhered
to the chiefs of the Chitaur family, and were employed in confidential
offices, such as stewards; while these chiefs soon indulged in the luxury
of having mountain slaves round their persons.  Next in rank, in the
following order, are,

1.  Nai, or barbers.  A Brahman may drink their water.

2.  Karmi, who build and thatch houses, and Chunra, or carpenters.  These
have degraded Brahmans as instructors.

3.  Kami, miners and workers in iron and copper; Sarki, tanners and
shoemakers; Damai, tailors and musicians.  All these are vile, and have
no priests but of their own cast.  Any Musulman or Christian, however,
who should cohabit with a Damai woman, would suffer death, and the woman
would be severely punished; but, according to the Hindu law, a female,
however low in rank, cannot for any crime be deprived of life.  When any
woman has been discovered with a Musulman, the whole kingdom is thrown
into confusion.  Even if she has been of the lowest cast, she may have
given water to some person of the cast immediately above her own.  He may
again have given it to a higher, and thus the whole inhabitants may have
been involved in sin and disgrace.  This can only be expiated by a
ceremony called Prayaschitta, in which the prince washes in the river
with great ceremony, and bestows large sums on the Brahmans, who read the
expiatory prayers proper on the occasion.  The expense of an expiation of
this kind, which was performed during our stay in this country, was, by
my Brahman, estimated at two thousand rupees; but the natives alleged
that it amounted to ten times this sum.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {21a} mentions the Dhewars as husbandmen and fishers
of the western district, from which circumstance we may conclude that
they belong to the Hindu colony; but I did not hear of them, as my
account of the Parbatiya tribes was chiefly derived from the central
parts.  From the condition of similar tribes on the plains, these Dhewars
probably belong to the third of the ranks above enumerated, although the
Majhis, (Mhanjhees,) whom Colonel Kirkpatrick joins with the Dhewars,
were represented to me as a tribe of original Khas, which has been
converted by the Hindus, and admitted into the military order.

Colonel Kirkpatrick then states, {21b} “That Nepaul, having been ruled
for many centuries past by Rajput princes, and the various classes of
Hindus appearing in all periods to have composed a great proportion of
its population, we are naturally prepared to find a general resemblance
in manners and customs between this part of its inhabitants, and kindred
sects established in adjacent countries; accordingly, the differences are
so faint as to be scarcely discernible in a single instance.”  Now, I
must here observe, that Nepal, in the proper sense of the word, when
Colonel Kirkpatrick wrote, had not been governed for half a century by
chiefs, who even pretended to be descended of a Hindu colony, for the
Rajas of Nepal were Newars, who deny this extraction.  They indeed called
themselves Rajputs, that is, the descendants of princes, but so does the
king of Ava, although no one ever imagined that he is descended of the
Rajputs in Hindustan.  I shall afterwards have occasion to show, that the
various classes of Hindus, that is, of the natives of India, who have
adopted the Brahmans for spiritual guides, have not in all periods
composed a great proportion of the population, nor have even entered any
part of the country as residents.  At present, indeed, in most parts of
the kingdom, except in Nepal itself, they, or converts to their doctrine,
form a large proportion of the inhabitants; and the more recent the
importation, I should expect the greater resemblance between the
colonists and the inhabitants of the plains of India; but, in fact, the
resemblance, though strong, is not so complete as Colonel Kirkpatrick’s
short stay amongst them induced him to suppose, as will appear from what
I shall afterwards state.

These mountain Hindus appear to me a deceitful and treacherous people,
cruel and arrogant towards those in their power, and abjectly mean
towards those from whom they expect favour.  Their men of rank, even of
the sacred order, pass their nights in the company of male and female
dancers and musicians, and, by an excessive indulgence in pleasure, are
soon exhausted.  Their mornings are passed in sleep, and the day is
occupied by the performance of religious ceremonies, so that little time
remains for business, or for storing their minds with useful knowledge.
Except a few of the Brahmans, they are, in general, drunkards, which,
joined to a temper uncommonly suspicious, and to a consciousness of
having neglected the conjugal duties, works them up to a fury of jealousy
that frequently produces assassination.  For this they are all prepared,
by wearing a large knife in their girdle, and the point of honour
requires them never to rest, until they have shed the blood of the man
who has been suspected of a criminal intercourse with their wives.  The
jealous man watches his opportunity for months, and even for years,
should his adversary be on his guard; and, having at length found a
favourable time, with one stroke of his knife in the throat of his rival,
he satisfies his revenge.  This is considered as so commendable, that, at
Kathmandu, the police, in other respects very strict, does not at all
interfere, although the murderer is often actuated merely by suspicion.

The higher ranks, whenever not compelled by the most urgent necessity,
conceal their women; and their widows ought to burn themselves with their
husbands’ corpse.  Many, however, refuse, nor did I learn that force is
ever used.  The custom seems, however, more prevalent than in any part of
India where I have been, the vicinity of Calcutta excepted.

The appearance and dress of the lower orders of these Parbatiya Hindus is
represented in the plate opposite to page 40 of Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul,
where the figure, behind those seated, is a porter of this tribe.

In these eastern parts of the dominions of Nepal, the mountain Hindus are
far from having extirpated the aboriginal tribes, most of which, until
the accession of the Gorkha family, enjoyed their customs and religion
with little or no disturbance, and they are still numerous and powerful,
as will be afterwards mentioned; but, west from the Kali river, there is
a great difference.  The whole people in Kumau, and Garhawal at least, as
well as their language, are called Khasiyas, as having settled in the
Khas country; but all pretend to be descended of colonists from the
south, and disclaim every connection with the original impure barbarians.
West from Garhawal, the term Khas is altogether rejected, and it is
pretended that this impure race never held the country.  Each cast, west
from the Kali, preserves its race with the utmost care; nor are widows of
the high cast permitted to become concubines.  Except in a very few
places, near the passes through the snowy mountains, the aboriginal
inhabitants are alleged to have been obliged entirely to conform to the
rules of Hindu purity, and to reject their ancient forms of worship; for
I hope that the colonists from the south are not so bad as they pretend,
and that religious zeal has not had such a victory over humanity as they
allege; for the fear of being thought in any degree contaminated by the
infidel Khas, would make them carefully conceal whatever indulgence
humanity may have wrung from intolerance.  To such a height is caution on
this subject required, that the people, who have settled near the passes
in the snowy mountains, although acknowledged as of the same tribes with
those nearer the plain, and although they use the same language and
manners, are called Bhotiyas, and are no longer permitted to intermarry
with the people who can have no intercourse with these impure infidels.
On account of this strictness, the Rajputs of the western districts are
as much courted by those of the plains, as those east from the Kali are
scouted.

The mountain tribes, which I consider aboriginal, as I have said, have
Chinese or Tartar faces, but each spoke a peculiar language.  Some used a
written character altered from the Nagri, so as to enable it to express
their utterance; others had not the use of letters.  Before the arrival
of Hindu colonies, they had no idea of cast; but some of the tribes
confined their marriages to their own nation, while others admitted of
intermarriages with strangers.  The women in all seem to enjoy great
indulgence, and are allowed, as in Europe, to form a choice for
themselves, after they have arrived at mature years.

In all these hill tribes the women were weavers, and seem to have enjoyed
great privileges; but the plurality of husbands had not been introduced
with the religion of Thibet.  Until the arrival of the Rajputs, they seem
all to have eaten every kind of animal food, and still do so whenever
they are at liberty to indulge their inclinations.  They still continue
to drink spirituous liquors.  Each tribe appears originally to have had a
priesthood and deities peculiar to itself, although the worship of Bhim
Sen, the son of Pandu, seems to be very general, and to have been that
which preceded the doctrine of the Buddhas; but first the Lamas, or,
perhaps, rather the Zogis, and then the Brahmans, have made
encroachments, and at the same time introduced many new customs.  They
have not yet introduced the custom of inoculation for the small-pox, and
those who are seized are put into a separate hut, to which the friends
daily convey water and food, but do not enter; and the sick is allowed to
take his chance.  They are all very slovenly and dirty.

The tribes, which, on the arrival of the colonies from Hindustan,
occupied the country east from the Kali river, (for those to the west
have been extirpated or abolished,) were chiefly Magars, Gurungs,
Jariyas, Newars, Murmis, Kirats, Limbus, Lapchas, and Bhotiyas.  Colonel
Kirkpatrick {25} mentions also people called Nuggerkoties and Hawoos, of
whom I have not heard.  All these tribes he calls Hindus of the meanest
cast; but on what foundation, unless that they are Pagans, and neither
Christians nor Muhammedans, I do not know.

The Magars, called Mungurs by Colonel Kirkpatrick, occupied a great
proportion of the lower hills in the western parts, seem to have received
the Rajput chiefs with much cordiality, and have now adopted a great part
of the ferocious customs of these mountain Hindus.  They eat copiously
the flesh of hogs, goats, sheep, ducks, and fowls, but now abstain from
beef.  They are much addicted to intoxication, and are excessively cruel
and treacherous; but they are men of great bodily vigour and mental
activity.  They have, in general, submitted to the guidance of the same
Brahmans and Sannyasis that instruct the Rajputs; but formerly had
priests of their own tribe called Damis, and seemed to have worshipped
chiefly ghosts.  They marry only one wife.

The family of Gorkha which now governs Nepal, although it pretends to
come from Chitaur, according to Sadu Ram, a good authority, is, in
reality, of the Magar tribe; and, at any rate, these people are now
firmly attached to its interests, by having largely shared in the sweets
of conquest; and by far the greatest part of the regular troops of that
family is composed of this nation.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {26a} has given a
short vocabulary of its language, which has no affinity to the Parbatiya
or Sangskrita.  In the vocabulary which I have deposited in the Company’s
library, will be seen a more full specimen of the Magar language, which
now, at least, is written in the Nagri character.  By many of the
soldiery, owing to their frequent absence from home, for the purpose of
attending at court, it has been entirely forgotten.  In a short time,
therefore, it is highly probable that this people may unite with the
mountain Hindus, and be considered as one of their casts.  When I was at
Kathmandu, indeed, I found that many people were then of this opinion;
and Colonel Kirkpatrick {26b} includes them among the Kshatriya or
military cast.  But hitherto the tribe has been so powerful, that many
people in the west speak its language although they do not belong to it;
and by far the greatest number adhere to the original impurity of life
which their ancestors embraced.  Before the arrival of the Rajputs, it is
said, that this nation consisted of twelve Thums, or clans, the whole
members of each being supposed to have a common extraction in the male
line; and a man and woman of the same blood could not intermarry.  Each
Thum was governed by a chief, considered as the head of a common family.

Near the Magars was settled a numerous tribe named Gurung, whose wealth
chiefly consisted in sheep, but whose manners are, in most respects,
nearly the same with those of the Magars, except that, in the course of
their pastoral life, they frequent the Alpine regions in summer, and
return to the valleys in winter.  The men also employ themselves in
weaving blankets; but they are a tribe addicted to arms.  A chief who
pretended to be of the Hindu colony, and who was Raja of Kaski, having
either settled where these Gurungs were the most predominant tribe, in
the districts of Gangrong Postong and Argong, or being, in fact, of the
Gurung tribe,—these people were strongly attached to his descendants, by
whom they were not disturbed in their religious opinions or customs, and
they continued to follow the doctrines of Sakya, as explained to them by
Lamas of their own tribe, who were supposed qualified to give them
instruction, and to direct their ceremonies.  These persons are said
never to have given themselves the trouble of studying the language of
Thibet, and, therefore, were probably not very conversant in the
doctrines of Sakya, which they professed to teach.  The Gurungs remain in
these parts in great numbers, and still adhere to the Lamas; nor do I
hear that any of them have been admitted to the dignity of Khasiya,
although perhaps the Ghartis, above mentioned as belonging to that class
of Hindus, may be of this race, as one part of the Ghartis, that still
remains impure, is said to live among the Gurungs, and to have similar
manners.  There are, at any rate, several tribes of Gurungs, such as
Nisi, Bhuji, Ghali, and Thagsi.  The latter live nearest the snow; but
all the Gurungs require a cold climate, and live much intermixed with the
Bhotiyas on both sides of the snow-covered peaks of Emodus, and in the
narrow valleys interposed, which, in the language of the country, are
called Langna.  The Gurungs cultivate with the hoe, and are diligent
traders and miners.  They convey their goods on sheep, of which they have
numerous flocks.

The Jariyas formed a very numerous tribe, occupying much of the lower
hilly region between the Kali and Nepal Proper, south from the Gurungs,
and intermixed with the Magars.  There can be little doubt that the
Malebum family was of the Jariya tribe; but one of the chiefs having an
only daughter, gave her in marriage to a Brahman, and from this source
spring the families of Malebum, and its numerous collateral branches,
with a large proportion of the Rajputs of this part of the country;
although, where not of a chief’s family, the offspring of a Brahman by a
Sudra is reckoned a Khasiya.  I have not heard that any of the Jariyas
continue to be viewed as impure; and I think it probable, that they have
all obtained the rank of Khas, although it is generally admitted, that
they had a dialect peculiar to themselves; but of this I could procure no
specimen.

The Khas Ranas, there is no doubt, were originally Magars; but whether
the Thapas, Karkis, Majhis, Basnats, Bishtakos, and Kharkas, all now
considered as Hindus of the Khas tribe, were branches of the Magar race,
or Jariyas, or Gurungs, I cannot take upon myself to say.  I can only
observe, that, in this vicinity, I heard of no tribes but the Magars,
Jariyas, and Gurungs, that spoke languages different from the Khas, and
that there is no reason to suppose the Thapas, etc. to have come from
Chitaur; although, on adopting the religion and laws of that country,
they have also adopted its language, but many of them still speak the
Magar tongue.

The more fertile part of what is called Nepal Proper, was chiefly
occupied by the Newars, a race addicted to agriculture and commerce, and
far more advanced in the arts than any other of the mountain tribes.
Their style of building, and most of their other arts, appear to have
been introduced from Thibet, and the greater part still adhere to the
tenets of the Buddhs; but they have adopted the doctrine of cast, have
rejected the Lamas, and have a priesthood of their own called Bangras.
Their own chiefs, of a family called by the common title of Mal, at the
time when conquered by the Raja of Gorkha, had divided into three
branches, governing Kathmandu, Lalita-Patan, and Bhatgang.  During the
government of these chiefs a good many of the Newars had rejected the
doctrine of Sakya, and adopted the worship of Siva, but without changing
their manners, which are chiefly remarkable for a most extraordinary
carelessness about the conduct of their women; neither have they adopted
the Brahmans as their priests.  Some of themselves, with the title of
Achar, have assumed the manners and authority of the sacred order.

Thus the Newars, in point of religion, are divided into two sects.  A
very small portion has forsaken the doctrine of Buddha, while by far the
most numerous class adhere to the doctrines taught by Sakya Singha.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {29} seems to think, that the worshippers of Buddha
among the Newars, whom he calls Bahauras, (Bangras,) are only a trifling
portion, “who have apostatized in a certain degree from the religious
creed of their countrymen at some period subsequent to their conquest of
Nepaul, or, at least, to have grafted upon it a considerable portion of
the idolatry of Thibet.”  If this had been the case, we should have found
the greater part of the Newars adhering to the Brahmans, which is not the
case; and the portion which has adopted the doctrine of the Vedas,
rejecting the sacred order of the Hindus, have the Achars as priests of
their own.  The probable cause of Colonel Kirkpatrick’s supposing the
followers of Buddha among the Newars to be small in number is explained
by another passage, {30} where the Bangras are called Bhanras, and are
stated to be a sort of separatists from the Newars, and to amount to
about 5000.  He does not seem to have been aware, that these were merely
the priests of this sect, and that such a number in the priesthood
implies a very large proportion of the sect.

The worshippers of Siva among the Newars in their religious opinions
follow the doctrine of the Vedas, as explained by Sankara Acharya; but
they do not receive the Brahmans as their Gurus, or instructors, and in
spirituals are subordinate to a class of Newars, who are called Achars or
Doctors, who are both their instructors (Gurus) and priests, (Purohits,)
and who differ in birth and name only from the Brahmans.

Among the Sivamarg Newars, or those who worship Maha Deva, the Achars are
considered as the highest cast; but their superiority is not acknowledged
by those who worship Bouddha.  They officiate as priests (Pujaris) in the
temples of Siva and of the Saktis, and read the prayers (Mantras) that
are appointed to accompany sacrifices; but they do not kill the animal
that is offered.  The Achars have among them certain men who perform the
ceremonies necessary to free from sin the souls of those who die on
certain unfortunate days.  This ceremony they call Hom.  The Brahmans
perform similar rites, which they call Pushkarasanti.  The Hindus
believe, that if this ceremony is neglected, all the relations of the
deceased will perish.  By this ceremony the officiating priest is
supposed to take upon himself the sin of the departed soul; and if, in
its performance, he commits any mistake, he incurs certain destruction
from the wrath of the Deity.  The office is therefore shunned by men of
high rank, both as sinful and dangerous.  The Achars who perform this
ceremony are called Gulcul, and cannot intermarry with those of the first
rank.  This inferior order performs also any ceremonies that may be
wanted by Newars, who are at a distance from home, and the purity of
whose extraction cannot therefore be ascertained.  Poor Achars cultivate
the land with their own hands, from which they are not deterred by a fear
of distressing the ox, as the plough is not used by the Newars.  Their
women spin and weave, which is the only point in which they seem to
differ from the Brahmans; the two casts, however, consider themselves as
entirely distinct.

Among the Newars, the Bangras, or Baryesu, are the head of the sect of
Buddhmargas, and are much more numerous than the Achars.  They are
divided into two classes.  The first are the Gubal Bangras, who are the
instructors, (Gurus,) priests, (Purohits,) and philosophers, (Pandits,)
of all the sect, and are priests (Pujaris) at the temples of Buddh, and
of some of the Saktis.  When they perform any ceremony, they wear a
thread like the Brahmans or Achars.  They neither eat nor intermarry with
any person of inferior rank.  The Bakali Bangras work in gold, silver,
and copper, and are traders and cultivators.  We may thus observe, that
the doctrine of cast, and the nature of the priesthood, are essential
differences between the religion of the Burmas and that professed by the
followers of Buddh in Nepal.  The doctrines of these people appeared so
shockingly impious to my Brahman, that I could not induce him to converse
on the subject with their learned men.  These doctrines also are
essentially different from those taught by the Rahans, or priests of Ava.
The Bangras believe in a supreme being, called Sambhu, or Swayambhu, from
whom have proceeded many Buddhs, or Intelligences, which, by the Tartars,
are called Bourkans.  Among these Matsyendranath has the chief
superintendence over the affairs of the world.  Under him are a great
many Devatas, or spirits of vast power, among whom Brahma the creator,
Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer of this earth, do not bear a
very distinguished rank.  These spirits are the Tengri of the Tartars,
and the Nat of the Burmas, of which the worship is execrated by the
followers of Buddha in Ava; but is eagerly followed by most of the
Bangras, and still more so by the lower casts of Newars.  Sakya Singha is
considered one of the Buddhs, who came on earth to instruct man in the
true worship, and in Nepal is commonly believed to be still alive at
Lasa.  His images entirely resemble those of Gautama.  As this teacher
has admitted the worship of all the Nat, or Devatas, among whom are
placed the deities worshipped by the followers of the Vedas, we can
readily account for the appearance of these in the temples of the
Chinese.  The followers of Buddh in Ava reject altogether the worship of
these beings, so that, when I was in that country, and was unacquainted
with the doctrines of any other sect of Buddhists, I was led into an
erroneous opinion concerning the religion of the Chinese, from knowing
that they worshipped the same Gods with the Brahmans.  This, we see, is
allowed by the doctrine of Sakya Singha, nor, on account of finding the
images of Vishnu, Siva, or Brahma, in any temple, can we conclude, that
it was not built by a follower of Buddh.  In fact, even in Swayambhunath,
the temple of the supreme deity of the Buddhists, there are a great many
images of Siva.

A kind of mixed breed of Newars are, by the Sivamargas, acknowledged as
of very high rank.  I shall, therefore, mention them in this place,
although their pretensions are disputed by the Bangras.  They are called
Jausi, and are the only cast that ought to practise medicine; but at
present all ranks profess that art.  The Jausis are descended from the
offspring of a Brahman by a Newar woman; and if their mother has been a
Bangra, or an Achar, they wear the thread, and act as instructors (Gurus)
and priests (Purohits) for their brethren of mixed descent.  These
privileges are not allowed to such as are descended from low mothers.  In
imitation of their fathers, the Jausis are mostly Sivamargas; but in
other matters, they follow the customs of the Newars.

The next in rank among the Newars are the Srishtas, who form a small
cast.  They can serve as cooks for all Newars, the Achars and Bangras
excepted, which is a sure mark of their transcendent rank.  The
Buddhmargas and Sivamargas of this cast eat together; but a woman, for
her first paramour, always chooses a person of her own persuasion.  The
highest rank of Srishtas are called Sira, and are mostly traders.  A
lower class, called Sual, act as porters; and a still lower, called
Bagul, cultivate the ground.  All these eat together; nor is the
difference of class any restriction in their amours.

The persons of the remaining casts are almost entirely Buddhmargas; but,
being low and ignorant, they will worship almost any thing that is called
a God, which is, indeed, usual with all Hindus of their rank.  Some of
our Seapoys, who were Brahmans, immediately on our arrival at
Swayambhunath, took flowers and consecrated water, and went round the
hill offering some to every image which they saw, and, among others, to
that of Sakya Singha.  I happened to be standing near it with Ramajaya,
my Brahman, who asked them if they knew what they were doing, and
informed them that they were worshipping Buddh.  At this the poor fellows
were much ashamed.  However, an old Havildar (serjeant) comforted them,
by observing, that, on the march to Bombay, under General Goddard, they
had often seen this deity, and that their worshipping him seemed to have
been very lucky, as the army had great success.

I shall enumerate the lower casts, according to their respective
dignities.

The Jopu Newars were originally all cultivators; but some of them have
now become traders and porters.

The Uda were all originally traders, and are nearly of the same rank with
the Jopus.

The Bhat procure a living by proclaiming the titles of great men, and
singing their praises on all public occasions,—a vanity in which the men
of power in India take great delight.  The Bhat also beg in the name of
the Gods, which, among the Hindus, is always a profession of some
dignity.

The three next casts, Got, Kurmi, and Now, are nearly of the same rank.

The Got are gardeners, and one of them, named Balabhadra, whom I employed
as a collector of plants, repeatedly told me the following curious
circumstances: He said that the Got do not acknowledge the Achars, or
Bangras, as their instructors, (Gurus,) but have certain persons of their
own cast, who, among their brethren, enjoy this privilege.  At certain
temples dedicated to Bhawani, which word means merely the Goddess, the
Got attend to dance in masks; and, on these occasions, ten of them
represent Singhini, Vyaghrini, Indrani, Bhairavi, Bhawani, Varahi,
Vaishnavi, Kumari, Brahmani, and Ganesa, while four others represent
Mahakal, Nandiswar, Vindhyiswar, and Nasadeva, who are the instructors
(Gurus) of the other ten deities.  From those who come to worship at the
temple, the Got that represent these deities accept of spirituous
liquors, which they drink out of human skulls till they become elevated,
and dance in a furious manner, which is supposed to proceed from
inspiration.  In the same manner, they drink the blood of the animals
which are offered as sacrifices.  In these temples the priests (Pujaris)
are Achars, who at the sacrifices read the forms of prayer (Mantras)
proper for the occasion, but retire when the animal is about to be killed
by the Got who represents Bhairavi.  The shrine, in which the images of
the gods are kept, is always shut, and no person is allowed to enter but
the priest (Pujari) and the Gots, who personate in masks these deities.
Once in twelve years the Raja offers a solemn sacrifice.  It consists of
two men, of such a rank that they wear a thread; of two buffaloes, two
goats, two rams, two cocks, two ducks, and two fishes.  The lower animals
are first sacrificed in the outer part of the temple, and in the presence
of the multitude their blood is drank by the masked Gots.  After this,
the human victims are intoxicated, and carried into the shrine, where the
mask representing Bhairavi cuts their throats, and sprinkles their blood
on the idols.  Their skulls are then formed into cups, which serve the
masks for drinking in their horrid rites.  I questioned the man
repeatedly on the subject, and he always related the circumstances
without variation, and declared, that at the last sacrifice, which had
been offered nine years previous to our arrival in Nepal, he had
represented Bhairavi, and with his own hands had cut the throats of the
human victims.  My Brahman, however, inquired of several persons, who
ought to have known the truth, and who denied altogether the human
sacrifices at this ceremony, which is performed in the Ashtami in the
month Aswin.  All ranks of the natives of Nepal pay so very little
attention to the observance of veracity, that I remain in suspense
concerning this circumstance.  Balabhadra was a mild attentive creature;
and although he spoke of the human sacrifice with considerable glee, as
being attended with copious potations of spirituous liquor, he was
shocked when I asked him if two bulls made a part of the offering.

The Karmi are bricklayers and carpenters.

The Nau are barbers.

Next follow three casts of nearly the same rank.

Songat, or washermen.

Japu, or potmakers.

Hial, or Sial, who are cow-herds.

Nearly of the same rank are the persons, by the Newars called Dhui, but
whom the Parbatiyas call Putaul.  They are the persons who carry the
palanquins of the Raja, and of his family.  None but Bakali Bangras will
condescend to act as instructors (Gurus) for a cast so low as this is.

All the casts yet enumerated are considered as pure, and Hindus of any
rank may drink the water which they have drawn from a well; but the
following casts are impure, and a person of any considerable dignity will
be defiled by their touch.

The Salim are oil-makers, and weavers of garlands, at which art the
Newars are very dexterous, and there is a great demand for their work, as
both sexes, of all ranks in Nepal, ornament their hair with flowers.

The Kasulia are musicians, and have a vast variety of ear-rending
instruments.  The Hindu music, especially that of the martial kind, is
said by the natives to be in great perfection in Nepal; and in this holy
land are still to be found all the kinds that were to be found in the
army of Rama.

Still lower than these are the Kasai, who are butchers, and palanquin
bearers for the vulgar.  The Chhipi, or dyers, are nearly of the same
rank.

Lower again are the two following casts.

Kow, or ironsmiths.

Gotoo, or coppersmiths.

Then follow two military tribes.

Kosar, who are said originally to have been robbers.

Tepai, who can marry, or keep as concubines any Hindu women that have
lost cast by eating unclean things.

Then follow three exceedingly low casts.

Puria, fishermen and basketmakers.

Bala, who remove offals and nastiness.

Chamkal, who are dressers of leather and shoemakers.

These casts can scarcely venture to draw near any other Hindu, but would
consider themselves as much degraded, by eating, drinking, or cohabiting
with a Musulman or Christian; and any of their women who should venture
to commit an act of such uncleanness, would be severely punished, as
would also be the infidel by whom she had been corrupted.  This, however,
does not prevent Hindu women of all ranks and casts from being sold as
slaves to either Musulmans or Christians.  A master or a parent has the
power of selling his slave or child, whose consent is not asked, who
thereby loses cast, and who has no alternative, but to adopt the religion
of her new master.  Such incongruities may astonish a person unacquainted
with Hindus; and what may add to his surprise is, that, while at
Kathmandu, several Hindus, of high cast, among our followers, chose to
embrace the Musulman faith, and thereby subjected themselves to severe
restrictions and disgrace.

Musulmans have become pretty numerous, and are increasing, as they are
zealous in purchasing girls, and in propagating their sect.  Christianity
has not been equally successful; and, on our arrival, we found the church
reduced to an Italian Padre, and a native Portuguese, who had been
inveigled from Patna by large promises, which were not made good, and who
would have been happy to have been permitted to leave the country.

These are the various casts of Newars.  I shall now give an account of
the customs that are common to the whole nation.

All the Newars burn the dead; all eat buffaloes, sheep, goats, fowls, and
ducks; and all drink spirituous liquors, to the use of which, indeed,
they are excessively addicted.  The highest of the Sivamargas kill
animals with their own hands; but the higher orders of the Buddhmargs
abstain from shedding blood, and from eating pork.  They all live in
towns or villages, and their houses are built of brick with clay mortar,
and covered with tiles.  These houses are three stories high, the ground
floor being appropriated for the cattle and poultry, the second floor for
servants, and the third for the family of the owner.  This is in the
houses of the wealthy.  Among the poor, a number of families live under
one roof.  The rooms are exceeding low, as I could not stand upright in
the principal apartment of what was reckoned the best house in Kathmandu,
the palace excepted.  At first sight, however, the houses look well,
especially to a person coming from the towns of Hindustan.  In Nepal,
they have numerous large windows, which are shut by wooden lattices
curiously carved, and which, in some measure, hang over the street, the
upper end of the lattice projecting much more than the lower.  Within,
the houses are exceedingly mean and dirty, and swarm with vermin, which,
added to all manner of filth, including the offals of the shambles, and
the blood of sacrifices, that is allowed to corrupt in the streets,
renders an abode in any of their towns utterly disgusting.

The following account of the Nepalese, or rather Newar, architecture, I
have taken from papers communicated by Colonel Crawford.

The Nepalese possess a great advantage in having an excellent clay for
making bricks and tiles; and their workmen are very expert.  They use
moulds nearly of the size and shape of our common bricks, and have also
others for the bricks that are used in cornices and other ornaments.  For
the fronts and ornamental parts of their best houses, they make smooth
glazed bricks, that are very handsome.  Their bricklayers and masons are
also good workmen, but labour under a great disadvantage, the want of
lime.  The tiles are flat, of an oblong form, and have two longitudinal
grooves, one above and another below, which fit into the adjacent tiles,
and the whole are put on with great neatness.

The houses of towns are in general three stories high, though some in the
cities and large towns rise to four.  The lower story has no windows, and
the smoke of their kitchens comes out by the door, which renders the
outside, even of their houses, very black and dirty.  The windows of the
second story are always small and nearly square.  In each, a wooden
trellis, which is highly ornamented by carving, but which cannot be
opened and shut, admits the air and light, but prevents strangers from
seeing into the apartment.  The third or upper story has large windows,
extending a great part of the length of each sitting apartment.  Most of
these windows have in front a wooden balcony composed of lattice work, in
general much carved.  This slopes outwards from a bench that is a little
elevated from the floor, and joins the edge of the roof, which projects
considerably beyond the wall.  The bench is the favourite seat of the
people, who, from thence, command a view of the street.  The rooms are
always narrow, the difficulty of carrying large timber from the
mountains, per-venting them from procuring beams of sufficient
dimensions.  The beams, which can be usually procured, are fir of about
six inches square.  These are placed at about a foot distant from each
other, and their ends project beyond the walls, so that from the street
you can tell the number of beams in each house.  The larger houses are
square, with an open court in the centre.

In the villages, the houses are built of unburnt bricks, and often also
consist of three stories disposed of in the same manner as in towns; but
the windows of the upper story are not provided with balconies.  Those of
two stories are also very common, and one of them is represented by
Colonel Kirkpatrick in the plate opposite to page 160.

The temples are of two kinds.  One, constructed of solid brick, and
peculiar to the worshippers of Buddha, resembles the temples of the same
sect in Ava.  The other is common to the Bouddhists and followers of the
Vedas, and has a strong resemblance to the temples of the Chinese.  The
temples of this kind are destined to contain idols, and are squares
consisting of from two to five stories, each of which is of smaller
dimensions than the one below, and the last ends in a point.  Each story
has a sloping roof, and in some fine temples, these roofs are covered
with gilded copper.  The lower [Picture: Temple bell] story is surrounded
by a rude wooden colonnade.  From the corners, and sometimes all round
the edges of these roofs, are suspended small bells with slender
clappers, which are considerably longer than the bells, and end in a thin
plate shaped like the ace of hearts, so that a strong wind occasions all
the bells to ring.  The roofs are supported by posts, which [Picture:
Temple] project from the middle of the upright wall to the edge of the
slope, and are carved with all the distorted figures of Hindu mythology.
In the larger temples, these posts on the second story are covered with
planks, and on these are fastened all the various offerings that have
been made to the Deity, and which form a strange and ridiculous
assemblage of swords and shields, pots, pans, spinning-wheels, mugs,
jars, buffaloes’ horns, looking-glasses, knives, bracelets, etc. etc.

The view given by Colonel Kirkpatrick {41a} of Kathmandu affords a good
idea of the place, and shows the strong resemblance of its temples to
those of Thibet and China.  I cannot but therefore wonder, when he says,
{41b} “These edifices appeared to differ nothing in their figure or
construction from the wooden Mundups, occasionally met with in other
parts of India.”  I have never in India seen any such, either in
structure or in materials, every considerable temple there being either
of brick or stone.

The Newar women are never confined.  At eight years of age, they are
carried to a temple, and married, with the ceremonies usual among Hindus,
to a fruit called Bel, (Ægle Marmelos, Roxb.)  When a girl arrives at the
age of puberty, her parents, with her consent, betroth her to some man of
the same cast, and give her a dower, which becomes the property of the
husband, or rather paramour.  After this, the nuptials are celebrated
with feasting, and some religious ceremonies.  Among the higher casts, it
is required that girls should be chaste till they have been thus
betrothed; but in the lower casts, a girl, without scandal, may
previously indulge any Hindu with her favours; and this licentiousness is
considered a thing of no consequence.  Whenever a woman pleases, she may
leave her husband; and if, during her absence, she cohabit only with men
of her own cast, or of a higher one, she may at any time return to her
husband’s house, and resume the command of his family.  The only ceremony
or intimation that is necessary, before she goes away, is her placing two
betel-nuts on her bed.  So long as a woman chooses to live with her
husband, he cannot take another wife, until she becomes past
child-bearing; but a man may take a second wife, when his first chooses
to leave him, or when she grows old; and at all times he may keep as many
concubines as he pleases.  A widow cannot marry again; but she is not
expected to burn herself; and may cohabit with any Hindu as a concubine.
The children, by the betrothed wife, have a preference in succession to
those by concubines; the latter, however, are entitled to some share.  A
man can be betrothed to no woman except one of his own cast; but he may
keep a concubine of any cast, whose water he can drink.  If the woman’s
cast be lower than his, the children are called Khas, and are considered
as belonging to the cast of the mother, but are somewhat elevated on
account of their father’s birth.

A custom of the Newars, which was observed on the 11th of August by
Colonel Crawford, deserves to be mentioned on account of its oddity.
Each man on that day purchases a small quantity of boiled rice, mashed
into a soft substance, and carries it to the field which he has
cultivated.  He then searches the field for frogs, and to every one that
he can discover he gives a small portion of the boiled rice, at the same
time uttering a prayer, and requesting the frog to watch over and protect
his crop.

The Newars are a peaceable people, and not so much addicted to
assassination as the Parbatiyas; but possess all the other vices of that
barbarous race.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {43} doubts, whether the Newars have at any period
been a warlike nation; but the long resistance which they made against
Prithwi Narayan appears to me to indicate abundant courage, while his
success seems to have been more owing to his cunning, and to his taking
advantage of their internal dissensions, than to a superiority in the art
of war.

One vile custom of the Newars of Kathmandu has been described by Colonel
Crawford, from whose papers I have taken the following account.  About
the end of May, and beginning of June, for fifteen days, a skirmish takes
place between the young men and boys, of the north and south ends of the
city.  During the first fourteen days it is chiefly confined to the boys
or lads; but on the evening of the fifteenth day it becomes more serious.
The opposing parties are drawn up in the broad, level, sandy bed of the
river, which runs between the city and Swayambhunath.  In the rear of
each is a rising ground, which prevents either party from being hard
pushed; for, the only weapons used being stones, the ascent gives such an
advantage, that the pursuit of the victorious party is usually checked on
their reaching the hill of their adversaries.  The fight begins about an
hour before sunset, and continues until darkness separate the combatants.
In the one which we saw, four people were carried off much wounded, and
almost every other year one or two men are killed: yet the combat is not
instigated by hatred, nor do the accidents that happen occasion any
rancour.  Formerly, however, a most cruel practice existed.  If any
unfortunate fellow was taken prisoner, he was immediately dragged to the
top of a particular eminence in the rear of his conquerors, who put him
to death with buffalo bones.  In remembrance of this custom, the bones
are still brought to the field, but the barbarous use of them has for
many years been abolished.  The prisoners are now kept until the end of
the combat, are carried home in triumph by the victors, and confined
until morning, when they are liberated.

The origin of this custom is attributed to two causes.  Some allege, that
at one time Kathmandu was subject to two Rajas, and that the skirmishings
first arose among their respective followers, and have ever since been
continued.  Others, with more probability, think that the combat is meant
to commemorate a battle between a son of Maha Deva, and a Rakshas, or
evil spirit.  Colonel Crawford justly gives a preference to this opinion,
for, if one of the parties obtain the victory, every thing favourable,
seasonable rains, plentiful crops, and fine weather, is augured for the
remainder of the year; the reverse is expected should the opposite party
gain an advantage.

The territory anciently called Mithila, comprehending much of the
northern parts of the district of Puraniya, and all those of Tirahut,
belonged for many ages to a dynasty of princes called Janaka, who resided
at Janakipur in the low country subject to Gorkha.  Long afterwards, in
that part of the country there had arisen a dynasty, the seat of whose
government was at Gar Samaran, through the extensive ruins of which, the
present boundary between the Company and the Gorkhalese passes.  In the
year 1802, when in this vicinity, I heard an imperfect account concerning
this dynasty, and have mentioned them in the observations on Nepal, which
I then composed.  Anxious to procure more accurate information, in 1810 I
sent an intelligent Brahman to inquire after traditions, who discovered a
person residing at Chotoni, whose ancestors had been registers of
Tirahut, and who gave him the following account.  In the year of the
Bengal era 496, (A.D. 1089,) Nanyop Dev, of the Kshatria tribe, acquired
the sovereignty of Tirahut, and was the founder of a dynasty, the princes
of which succeeded from father to son in the following order.



Nanyopdev’ governed            36 years.
Ganggadev’                            14
Narasingha dev’                       52
Ramsingha dev’                        92
Sakrasingha dev’                      12
Harisingha dev’                       20
                                     ---
                                     226



This person had great power, and is universally acknowledged to have
settled the customs which are now observed by the Brahmans of Mithila.
After his death there was an interegnum of thirty-four years.  The
greatest difficulty in this accession arises from the two enormous reigns
of fifty-two and ninety-two years held in succession by father and son.
It is just possible that a grandfather and grandson might reign such a
number of years, and the minute distinction of grandson and son may
naturally enough have escaped the notice of Hindu genealogist; but there
is reason to suspect, that the accession of Nanyop dev is antedated, for
the same authority states, that he took possession of Tirahut on the
death of Lakshman Sen king of Bengal, who, it is well known, had
conquered it in the 1104th year of our era, or twenty-five years after
the accession given to Nanyop, and probably governed it for a good many
years.  On the death of that warlike prince, it is very likely that
Nanyop may have wrested Tirahut, or the western parts of Mithila, from
his successor, and may have been the Raja of Oriswa, against whom
Lakshmam II. erected the works of Majurni Khata, for the learned
D’Anville places Oriswa in these parts.  When the length of these reigns
is thus curtailed, the story may be sufficiently exact.

The account of this dynasty given by Colonel Kirkpatrick {46} differs
considerably from that which I have above stated.  He makes Hari Singha
(Hurr Sinha) the last king of Gar Samaran, and states, that he was driven
from this to Nepal in 1323 by the Patan king Secunder Lodi; but, at that
time, according to Dow’s translation of Ferishta, Yeas ul deen Tuglick
Shaw was the Muhammedan king of India; and the people of Mithila assert,
that Hari Singha, their prince, died in quiet possession of his
birthright.  The predecessors of Hari Singha at Gar Samaran, according to
Colonel Kirkpatrick, were,

Nan Dev, (Nanyop Dev’,) who began to reign in the year Sambat 901, (A.D.
843.)

Kamuk Dev, (Gangga Dev’.)

Nersingh Dev, (Narasingha Dev’.)

Ramsing Dev, (Ram’Singha Dev’.)

Bhad Sing Dev.

Kurm Sing Dev.

Nan Dev, the founder of this dynasty, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick,
was descended of Bamdeb of the Surijbunsi, (Suryabangsi,) princes of
Oude, (Ayodhya;) but in the Pauranic lists of these princes I can find
nothing like Bamdeb, unless it be Bhanu or Bhanuman, mentioned both in
the Sri Bhagawata and Bangsa Lots, among the later descendants of
Ramachandra.  The objections to this chronology are still stronger than
to that which I received, in so much as it makes it commence still
earlier.

There is, therefore, great room to doubt, whether in reality Nanyopdev
was a Kshatriya.  The Brahmans of Mithila, indeed, are totally unwilling
to admit, that a person of any lower rank could have authority to settle
their customs; but in Bengal a person of the medical tribe obtained this
power; and the chiefs of the low tribe called Bhawar trace their origin
to a Nanyopdev who brought the stud of the king of Dilli to pasture in
the plains of Mithila, then entirely waste.  Certain it is, that the
Bhawars, about that time, extended their dominion over the Gorakhpur
district as well as Tirahut, and that many petty chiefs of that tribe
continued to occupy the parts adjacent to the hills until long after; and
many of them continue to this day to be objects of worship among the low
tribes.  These may have been the descendants of collateral branches of
the Raja’s family, or of the chief officers of their government; and it
must be remarked, that many of them assumed the title of Dev, as all the
princes descended of Nanyop had done.

After the death of Hari Singha it is in Mithila generally admitted, that
a Sivai Singha succeeded; and, although the Bhavans probably then formed
the chief population of Gar Samaran and Tirahut, it is probable, as is
asserted, that Sivai Singh vas a military Brahman of the tribe called
Aniwar.  It is alleged by the people of Tirahut, that Sivai having had a
dispute with a brother, this unnatural relation fled to Dilli, and,
having procured an army from the Musulman king, he advanced towards Gar
Samaran with an intention of dethroning his brother.  Before he had
reached the Gandaki, Sivai Singha, having heard of the approach of an
army of men that eat beef, was seized with a panic, and after having
reigned twenty-two years, resigned his kingdom to Kangkali, the tutelar
deity of his capital city.  He then dedicated his life to God, and,
having assumed the character of a religious mendicant, he passed his days
in wandering about the places which are esteemed holy.

It is said, that about this time the unnatural brother of Sivai Singha
died, and that the Musulman army, after a fruitless attempt on Gar
Samaran, were obliged to retreat, owing, as the Hindus suppose, to the
powerful influence of the tutelar deity.  The Musulmans, however, seem to
have seized on all the country near the Ganges, which afterwards
continued subject to them till the establishment of the Company’s
authority.

About the same time, the inhabitants deserted Gar Samaran, for what
reason is not explained.  They took with them the image of Kangkali, and
retired with an intention of going to Nepal.  On the route they were in
danger of perishing from hunger, when Kangkali appeared to one of their
chiefs in a dream, and told him, that in the morning she would grant a
supply of provisions, and that she gave them permission ever afterwards
to use the kind of food which she was about to send.  Accordingly, in the
morning, a large herd of buffaloes appeared, and were killed by the
people, who ever since have indulged in that kind of food, which,
according to the precepts of their religion, they had formerly considered
unclean.  They afterwards settled in the valley of Nepal, and are the
people now called Newars.

From Dow’s translation of Ferishta, {49} we learn, that Yeas ul deen
Tuglick Shaw, king of Dilli, in the year of Christ 1322, on returning
from an expedition into Bengal, was passing near the hills of Turhat,
(Tirahut,) when the raja of these parts appearing in arms, was pursued
into the woods.  Having cut down these, the royal army arrived at a fort
surrounded by a wall, and by seven ditches filled with water.  After a
siege of three weeks the place was taken, and the government of Turhat
conferred upon Achmet Chan.  That this is the same story with that
contained in the traditions concerning Sivai Singha and Gar Samaran, I
think there can be little doubt, and the Musulman chronology is that upon
which most reliance can be placed.  Some of the Hindu traditions make
Sivai Singha the son of Hari Deva, others make him of another family
which succeeded after an anarchy of 34 years; but in both cases the
period between 1315, the supposed era of Hari Deva’s death, and 1322, the
time of Gar Samaran’s capture, is too short, and the difference between
it and the actual time has probably been added, to make up part of the
enormous reigns of Narasingha and Ramsingha.  At any rate, if the people
of Gar Samaran retired to Nepal, and became the Newars, then 1322 (or
1323, as Colonel Kirkpatrick has it,) {50a} is the most probable date of
the event.  There is nothing improbable in the circumstance, and the
doctrine of cast prevailing among the Newars is a strong confirmation of
their having come from Hindustan.

It must, however, be confessed, that the Newars themselves totally deny
this origin, and allege, that the only foundation for it is the
resemblance between the names Newar and Aniwar.  They consider themselves
as the aboriginal inhabitants of the country which they now occupy, and
their houses have a great resemblance to those of the Bhotiyas, or people
of Thibet, as described by Captain Turner, while in many points their
customs resemble those of the other tribes of the Chinese race.  It must
be, however, observed, that their features are not clearly marked as of
that origin, and that many of them have high features, large eyes, and
oval faces; but considering the manners of their women, little reliance
can be put on this mark, and the truth will be best discovered by an
examination of their language, of which I have deposited a copious
vocabulary in the Company’s library.  I think, indeed, that I can trace
many coincidences between it and the language of the Murmis, a tribe
undoubtedly of the Chinese race, and it appears to me radically different
from the Hindwi language, although religion has no doubt introduced some
Sangskrita words.

A short vocabulary of this language has been given by Colonel
Kirkpatrick, {50b} and may perhaps suffice to decide the language to
which it has the greatest affinity.  The character in which it is written
is evidently derived from the Nagri of India, and will be found opposite
to page 220 in Colonel Kirkpatrick’s Account of Nepaul.

In treating of the Newars, Colonel Kirkpatrick observes, {51} “That this
people differ essentially, so as to prove abundantly that they are an
insulated race of men, whose origin is not to be traced to any of the
nations immediately surrounding them.”  Now, if they came from Samaran,
as he supposes, they must have been Hindus; and, if they are descendants
of Thibetians, intermixed with Hindus, as I suppose, still their origin
is to be derived from the nations immediately contiguous.  He goes on to
observe, “That the Newars are of a middle size, with broad shoulders and
chest, very stout limbs, round and rather flat faces, small eyes, low and
somewhat spreading noses; yet he cannot agree with those who affirm, that
there is in the general physiognomy of these people any striking
resemblance to the Chinese features.”  For my part, I do not well know in
what other terms the Chinese features could be better defined, than in
the description of the Newars thus given by Colonel Kirkpatrick; and, for
a confirmation of a considerable resemblance between the two people, I
may refer to the figures given by this author opposite to pages 185 and
187, which, although called merely natives of Nepal, represent in fact
Newars.  In reality, if the morals of the Newar women had been more
strict, I believe that the resemblance between the Chinese or Thibetians
and Newars would have been complete; but since the conquest, the approach
to Hindu countenance is rapidly on the increase, women in most cases
giving a decided preference to rank, especially if connected with arms or
religion.  Until the conquest, there was probably little intermixture,
except in the descendants of the governing family, which probably was of
a mixed breed between a Thibetian lady and a raja of Banaras, as will be
afterwards mentioned; and this family had, I believe, multiplied
exceedingly, and composed a numerous and warlike gentry, which, of
course, contributed largely to the propagation of the nation.

The assumption of the military dignity, and of the thread, one of its
badges among the Hindus, and the title Rajput given to all the chiefs of
the mountaineers, seems to have induced Colonel Kirkpatrick to suppose,
that the Kshatriya tribe of India formed a large portion of the
inhabitants in Nepal.  Yet he had with accuracy observed, {52} that the
progeny of a Newar female and one of these Kshatriyas may almost be taken
for a Malay, that is, a mixed breed between people of a Chinese race with
Hindus and Arabs; and farther, he accurately noticed, that illegitimate
persons of the reigning family by Newar women, although he supposes their
fathers to have been Rajputs, approach nearer than their mothers to the
Tartars or Chinese.  The reason of this, I would say, is, that the royal
family are in fact Magars, a Thibetian race.

In the more rude and mountainous parts of Nepal Proper, the chief
population consisted of these Murmis, who are by many considered as a
branch of the Bhotiyas, or people of Thibet; but, although in religion
and doctrine they followed the example of that people, and all their
priests, called Lamas, studied its language and science, yet it seems
doubtful, whether the two nations had a common origin; but this will be
best ascertained by a comparison of the languages.  For this purpose I
have deposited in the Company’s library a copious vocabulary of the Murmi
dialect.  The doctrine of the Lamas is so obnoxious to the Gorkhalese,
that, under pretence of their being thieves, no Murmi is permitted to
enter the valley where Kathmandu stands, and by way of ridicule, they are
called Siyena Bhotiyas, or Bhotiyas who eat carrion; for these people
have such an appetite for beef, that they cannot abstain from the oxen
that die a natural death, as they are not now permitted to murder the
sacred animal.  They have, therefore, since the conquest, retired as much
as possible into places very difficult of access; and before the
overthrow of Sikim a great many retired to that country, but there they
have not escaped from the power of the Gorkhalese, and have been obliged
to disperse even from that distant retreat, as they were supposed too
much inclined to favour its infidel chief.  They never seem to have had
any share in the government, nor to have been addicted to arms, but
always followed the profession of agriculture, or carried loads for the
Newars, being a people uncommonly robust.  Their buildings are thatched
huts, often supported on stages, like those of the farther India.

The Kiratas, or Kichaks, have been already mentioned as occupying the
country east from Nepal Proper.  They seem always to have been a warlike
and enterprising people, but very rude, although not so illiterate as
many of their neighbours.  The Lamas have made great progress in
persuading them to adopt their doctrines; and the Lamas, who gave them
instruction, were skilled in the language of Thibet; but many adhered to
their old customs, and the old priesthood continued to perform the
ceremonies of all.  The Rajputs, on obtaining power, induced many to
abandon part of their impure practices, and to employ Brahmans to perform
their ceremonies; but in general this compliance was only shown when they
were at court.  The abstinence from beef, which the Gorkhalese enforce,
is exceedingly disagreeable to the Kirats; and, although the Lamas have
been banished, this people still retain a high respect for their memory,
and a longing after the flesh-pots.  Agam Singha, the chief of the
nation, now in exile, told me plainly, that, although he received a
Brahman as an instructor, it was only because he could not procure a
Lama, and that he considered the chief Lamas as incarnations of God.

The Kirats, being vigorous beef-eaters, did not readily submit to the
Rajputs.  Previous to the invasion of these Hindus they had, it is true,
been compelled to retire to the hills; but there, until the vast power
acquired by the family of Gorkha, they retained, as I have already
mentioned, a great degree of independence.

I have deposited in the Company’s library a full vocabulary of the Kirata
language.  They are said to have had a written character peculiar to
themselves; but Agam Singha, their chief, is no penman, and the people
with him, born in exile, have contented themselves with acquiring the
Nagri character.  The Kirats are allowed to marry several wives, and to
keep concubines.  Their property is divided equally among their sons by
wives; but the sons by concubines are allowed a share, though smaller
than that given to the offspring of a virgin spouse.

Among the Kirats was settled a tribe called Limbu, the manners of which
were very nearly the same, and, indeed, the tribes intermarry; but their
languages are said to be different, and it would not appear that the
Lamas had made any progress in converting the Limbus.  Since the
overthrow of the Kirats, and since the reluctance with which they submit
to the Gorkhalese has become evident, it has been the policy of the court
of Kathmandu to show a decided preference to the Limbus, who have not
been disgusted by the loss of power which they never possessed, nor by
the banishment of their priests.  They are not, however, reconciled to
the loss of beef; but are certainly less discontented than any other
neighbouring tribe.  Their profession is that of agriculture, and they
live in huts.  I was unable to procure any vocabulary of their language,
but Colonel Kirkpatrick {55} gives a short list of the words of the Limbu
tongue, which he calls Limbooa.  It has no affinity to the Sangskrita.

Another considerable tribe of Nepal, taken in its most extended sense,
are the Lapchas, who occupy the country between the Kankayi and Tista,
and east from that of the Kiratas; but by most Hindus they are included
under this odious name.  Their manners were very nearly the same with
those of the Kirats.  The Lapchas are a set of vigorous barbarians, about
one half of whom had been deluded by the monkish austerities, and
superior learning of the Lamas.

The Lapchas ate beef, pork, and every other thing reckoned abominable,
and drank strong liquors without shame.  Their women did not marry until
after they had arrived at the age of maturity, and had become sensible to
the assiduities of courtship.  The Lapchas were chiefly armed with swords
and bows, with which they shot poisoned arrows.  Spears were not in use,
being ill fitted for a mountainous country, thickly overgrown with wood,
and where men cannot charge in compact order.  They had a few muskets,
but too large to be fired from the shoulder.  They were tied to a tree,
and fired by a match.

It must be observed, that the inhabitants of both Thibet, and of what we
call Bhotan or Bootan, are by the natives of India called Bhotiyas, and
their countries Bhotan or Bhot.  Some of these people, who inhabit near
Kathmandu, call themselves Sayn; and the same name is given by the Newars
to the whole nation.  Thibet, I am inclined to believe, is a Persian
word, totally unknown to the natives.  At Kathmandu I had a patient who
had been chief of a territory north from Lassa, and who had been
dispossessed by the Chinese; and, so far as I could learn from him, the
native appellation, at least of the territory subject to Lassa, is Borka,
from whence Bhotiya is perhaps a corruption; but I could not ascertain
any general name for the countries which we call Thibet.  These, however,
and also Bhotan, are inhabited by kindred tribes of people, who resemble
each other strongly in features, complexion, language, and manners.  In
the plate opposite to page 40 of Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, are well
represented, in a sitting posture, two persons of this nation, although,
by some mistake, probably in the publisher, they are called natives of
Nepal.

The Lamas are the priests of the sect of Bouddh, in Thibet and the
adjacent territories, and are monks, who have nominally at least forsaken
the pleasures of the world.  They totally reject the doctrine of cast,
and a person of any nation may be admitted into the order.  The whole, at
least of those at a distance, consider themselves as under the authority
of Sakya Gomba, who came from India about the time of Jesus Christ, and
has ever since resided at Lassa, where he remains in perpetual youth.  On
this account he is not considered as an incarnation, (Avatar.)  There
are, however, many personages of this sect who are considered as
incarnations of different Buddhas, or persons who have obtained divinity.
These enter into the bodies of children, and inspire them through life;
and when the body dies, the deity enters into another.  Of this nature is
the Dharma Raja, or spiritual chief of what we call Bhotan; and still
more celebrated is the Tishu Lama, who resides at Degarchi, and is the
spiritual guide of the Chinese emperors.  This class of supposed deities
seems to be pretty numerous, as, in the territory of the Lapcha and
Kirats, their number would appear to have been at least twelve, as so
many were known to my informant, who was only well acquainted with the
former territory.  The ordinary lamas pretend only to be saints.  The
best account I have seen of their doctrine is that given by the learned
Pallas, which is much more complete than any I could procure in Nepal.
The followers of Buddh have had five great lawgivers, and a sixth is
daily expected.  As each of these is supposed to have been an incarnation
of a Buddh or Bourkan, and as all have been usually taken as one person,
we may readily account for the difference that prevails in the opinions
concerning the era when this sect arose.  Gautama is the fourth of those
lawgivers, and his doctrine alone is received by the priests of Ava, who
reject the fifth as a heretic; but by the Bouddhists of Nepal, Thibet,
Tartary, and China, he is named Sakya.  Gautama, according to the best
authorities, lived in the sixth century before the Christian era, and
Sakya in the first century after the birth of our Lord.

Although there is no distinction of cast among the Sayn or Bhotiyas, yet
they are not without differences in religious opinions; for some of them
in Nepal worship at Swayambhunath, while others prefer a temple of
Bouddhama, which is situated near Pasupanath.  The doctrine of Sakya
Singha differs most essentially from that of Gautama.  The Bhotiyas,
following the former, worship all the spirits, that by the Burmas are
called Nat, a practice which is held in abhorrence by the Rahans of Ava.
They also consider the Buddhs as emanations from a supreme deity, view
many of their Lamas as incarnations of a Buddh, and accordingly worship
them as living Gods, although they do not consider them as equal to
Sakya, who is the Lama of Lassa.  There is among the Lamas no prohibition
against the laity from studying any character or any book; but they must
have wonderfully degraded the human understanding, when they can induce
the people to swallow the belief in the deities living among them.  It is
true, that these are in all probability very much secluded, and rarely
shown to the vulgar, except at a very great distance, and in obscurity;
but still this seems to be nearly the utmost height of human imbecility.

The belief of Sakya having lived among them since about the commencement
of the Christian era, is probably confined to Nepal, and other remote
parts, where no means of knowing the contrary exists.  Such an absurdity
could scarcely pass among actual observers, however degraded in
understanding, and in Thibet the Lama of Lassa is probably considered as
merely an incarnation of Sakya.

Besides the countries which we call Thibet and Bootan, the Bhotiyas
occupy, every where between the Kali and the Tista, the Alpine region
adjacent to the snowy peaks of Emodus, on both sides of that chief of
mountains, where none of the highland tribes above mentioned can endure
the cold of winter any more than the Bhotiyas can suffer the moderate
summer heats of Kathmandu.  This induces me to think, that the present
highland tribes, although of the same race with the people of Thibet, had
originally occupied the plains, and, on the invasion of the present
Hindus, had retired to the mountains, so far as they considered the
temperature of the air tolerable, just as a colony of Hindus had retired
to the same quarter, to avoid Mohammedan intolerance.  In a region so
extended, as that occupied by the Bhotiya nation, it is probable, that
there exists a great variety of custom and dialect, for I heard of many
different kinds, even among those who inhabit the southern face of
Emodus; but the accounts given by people of different tribes and
languages, differed so much, that I can say nothing satisfactory on the
subject, especially as the season, when I resided on the frontier, was
totally insufferable to a Bhotiya, so that I had no opportunity of
conversing with them; the Lama from whom I received an account of the
Lapchas being by birth a Murmi.

I have already said that the Murmis are by many considered as a kind of
Bhotiyas, but this the Lama denied, and the languages seem to have little
affinity.  I heard, besides, of Khat, Sirmi, and Kutung or Kutiya
Bhotiyas, but cannot venture to speak of the nature of these
distinctions, farther than to state, that the Khat Bhotiyas are mentioned
by Colonel Kirkpatrick {59} as having long governed Nepal before the
Newars, and as at this time occupying the lower parts of Bhotan,
(Kachar,) on which subject I have already given my opinion.  The
resemblance to be traced between the Newar and Murmi languages, induces
me to suppose that these two tribes are originally the same, and the
historical hints given by Colonel Kirkpatrick induce me to draw the
conclusion, that the Newars are Khat Bhotiyas, who have adopted some new
customs in consequence of a greater connection with the Hindus.  I never,
indeed, heard the Murmis and Khat Bhotiyas mentioned as the same; but the
former I have often heard named Siyena Bhotiyas, which is very likely to
be another appellation for the Khat Bhotiyas, one name implying wild or
forest Bhotiyas, and the other implying Bhotiyas who eat carrion like
jackalls.

The Bhotiyas, at least the greater part of those in Thibet, neglect
agriculture, and, like the Dasnami Sannyasis of Puraniya, chiefly pursue
commerce and a life of monkish austerity, but occasionally they wield the
sword; and the principal support of the country is in its mines, and its
numerous and various herds of cattle.  The quantity of grain is said to
be very inconsiderable, and both it and the herds of cattle are probably
reared by some inferior tribe; but on this subject I have not yet had
sufficient information.  I have only learned, that the highest and proper
Bhotiyas confine their attention entirely to religion, commerce, and
arms, and it is in the first alone that they have had much success.

One circumstance relative to the Bhotiyas is remarkable, and seems to me
to decide a matter that has long been agitated concerning the natural
history of man.  All those that I have seen at Kathmandu, not only from
the territory of Gorkha, but from Mostong, Kuti, Lasa, and Degarchi, are
as black as the natives of Canton or Ava.  Climate is not, therefore,
able to change the colour of a nation; but it seems to have a greater
effect on the temperament.  Cold can produce a change of temperament from
the melancholic and choleric to the phlegmatic and sanguine, and heat
acting on the human frame, is capable of producing a contrary revolution.
Hence, rosy cheeks and lips are frequently observed among the mountain
Hindus of Nepal, although they are very little fairer than those of
Madras.

Such are the principal tribes that occupy the mountains subject to the
dominion of Nepal, or rather of Gorkha.  In the plains adjacent to the
mountains, and subject to the same prince, are several other tribes; but
it is my intention to treat of them when I describe the Company’s
provinces, where the greater part of these tribes is now found.



CHAPTER SECOND.
NATURE OF THE COUNTRY.


Division into four Regions from their relative elevation.—First, or Plain
Region, or Tariyani.—Soil.—Productions, Animal and
Vegetable.—Cultivation.—Climate.—Rivers.—Second, or Hilly
Region—Productions.—Minerals.—Forests.—Birds.—Vallies called
Dun.—Cultivation.—Climate.—Third, or Mountainous
Region.—Elevation.—Climate.—Diseases.—Cultivation.—Pasture.—Sheep and
Cattle.—Minerals.—Spontaneous Vegetables.—Extent.—Fourth, or Alpine
Region.—Vallies.—Mountains.—Productions, Mineral, Animal, and Vegetable.

I shall next proceed to give a general view of the appearance, soil,
climate, and productions of the country, and for this purpose I must
divide it into four stages of elevation.  My actual observations are
confined to the three lower of these, and I have seen these only in the
vicinity of the capital.  What I say concerning the highest region is,
therefore, entirely from report, and what I mention concerning the
others, so far as I write from actual observation, is strictly applicable
only to the parts near the capital; but inquiries have enabled me to
judge, that a great similarity prevails over the whole territory, and
whatever differences have come to my knowledge shall be mentioned either
in this part, or when I come to treat of the different principalities,
which have now been subjected to the chief of Gorkha.

The lowest region is a part of the great plain of Hindustan.  In a few
places the Company’s territory extends to the foot of the mountains which
bound the great plain on the north, which are called Himadri, Himachul,
Himalichul, or Himaliya, and which form the Emodus of the ancients: but
in most parts the dominions of Gorkha extend about twenty miles into the
plain, and it seems in general to have been the policy of the princes of
India to allow the mountain chiefs, even when very petty, to retain at
least this extent of the low country, as being too obnoxious to their
incursions to be of a value adequate to defray the expense of its
defence.  At times, some of the mountain tribes, which had acquired
power, have been able to extend their authority over the plains much
farther, and as none of them have ever equalled in power the chiefs of
Gorkha, these have for some time been eager in taking every opportunity
of encroachment; but although powerful, they have been opposed by a force
vastly more formidable than was ever before known in India, and this has
checked their power, which might have been very formidable to an
undisciplined state however extensive.

This low region is called Tariyani, Tarai, or Ketoni, and, as I have
said, is, in general, about twenty miles in width.  In this space there
are a few scattered small hills, and much poor high land overgrown with
trees and bushes of little value; but there is, also, a very large
proportion of rich land, and on the whole the soil is much better than in
the adjacent parts of the Company’s territory.

I do not intend here to enter into a detailed account of its productions;
because they are nearly the same with those of the Company’s adjacent
territory, of which it is my intention to give hereafter a full account,
only being less cultivated, there are in the Tariyani more wild beasts,
especially elephants and rhinoceroses.  The breed of the former is
considered as uncommonly bad, and it has been lately remarked to me by Mr
Venour, the surgeon at Puraniya, that every one of them has a toe of some
one of its feet very much lengthened, which gives the foot an unseemly
appearance.  So far as I have been able to observe since, the remark of
Mr Venour is accurate; but the number of elephants of this kind that I
have seen is not great.  In the dry season the elephants retire to the
lower ranges of hills; but in the rainy season they abandon these
forests, and are then very destructive to the crops, which, indeed,
prevents the natives from being so attentive to the cultivation of rice
as they otherwise would be, so that, although the country is best adapted
for the culture of this grain, the farmers content themselves chiefly
with winter crops of wheat, barley, and mustard.  The Raja reserves to
himself the sole right of catching the elephants, and annually procures a
considerable number.  They are sold on his account at 200 Mohurs, or 86
rupees, for every cubit of their height; but five cubits of the royal
measure are only six English feet.  As few merchants are willing to give
this price for elephants which have not been seasoned, the Raja generally
forces them on such persons as have claims on the court, who sell their
elephants in the best manner they can.  Tigers are not so numerous as
might have been expected in a country so uncultivated.  Black bears of a
great size are more numerous, and are very troublesome.  Wild hogs,
hog-deer, hares, foxes, and jackalls, are to be found in abundance.

In the waste lands of the Tariyani, the most common trees are the
_Palas_, (_Erythina monosperma_, Lamarck,) and the _Simul_, (_Bombax
heptaphyllum_, Lamarck;) but by far the greater part of these wastes is
covered with long grass or reeds, which once a year are burned, in order
to keep the country clear, and to improve the pasture.  Owing to the
moisture and coolness of the air, the fields, at all seasons, preserve
some verdure, but the grass seems to be of a very bad quality, as the
cattle, although abundantly supplied with it, are to the last degree
wretched; still, however, in the heats of spring, very large herds are
sent from the Company’s provinces to these wastes.  In these, also, there
grows a great quantity of the species of _Ischæmum_ called _Sabe_, of
which ropes are made, and of which a good deal is exported to the
territory of the Company.

Before the conquest by the Nepalese, the petty Rajas, who governed its
different portions, were so much afraid of their neighbours, that they
did not promote the cultivation of this low land.  They rather encouraged
extensive woods, and contented themselves, in a great measure, with the
produce of the forests in timber, elephants, and pasture; even then,
however, many rich spots were occupied, and very productive; but they
were so buried in the forests as to be little observable.  The
Gorkhalese, being more confident, have cleared much of the country,
although still a great deal remains to be done.  Even now they export a
considerable quantity of grain; and, were property somewhat more secure,
this territory is capable of yielding considerable resources.  Its
tobacco is said to be uncommonly good, and the reddish cotton wool is
said to be very thriving.

In the annexed register of the weather, the state of the atmosphere,
during the two months stay which I made in the country, will be seen.
The climate is considerably cooler and moister than that in the vicinity
of Patna; and the hot winds, according to report, are almost a month
later in commencing, than they are at that city.  Our residence in the
Tariyani was at the most favourable season; but about the time (1st
April) at which we advanced towards Nepal, the country becomes very
unhealthy, good water for drinking becomes very scarce, and, till the
cold season, the people are very subject to fevers and disorders in the
bowels, which by the natives of Nepal are attributed to the Ayul, or a
poisonous air, which many of them imagine proceeds from the breath of
large serpents, supposed to inhabit the forests of the northern
mountains.  The existence of such serpents in any considerable number, is
very doubtful, and rational men assign a more natural origin to the Ayul
or bad air.  They say, that the ground in the forests, during spring, is
covered with fallen leaves, which are rotted by the first rains of the
hot season, and, by their putrefaction, corrupt the air.  They
accordingly allege, that the climate continues healthy, until the first
rain after the commencement of the hot season, after which the unhealthy
season begins, and continues until the cold weather, although it abates
considerably of its virulence with the heavy rains which happen after the
solstice.

The Tariyani is intersected by numerous small rivers, which not only
serve for watering the crops in the latter end of the dry season; but,
when they are swollen by rain, become navigable, and enable the farmer to
send the produce of his fields to a good market.  These rivers also serve
to float down the valuable timber that abounds in the forests, by which
the hills are skirted.  The term Tariyani, indeed implies the country’s
being navigable.

Fish are found in abundance in the rivers of the Tariyani; and the
mullet, which I call Mugil Corsula, and the carp, which I call Cyprinus
Rohita, are of an excellent quality.

Bounding the above mentioned plain on the north, is a region of nearly
the same width.  It consists of small hills, rising, however, gradually
towards the north, and watered by many small rivers, which spring from
the southern faces of the first lofty mountains, to which these hills
gradually unite.

The channels of these rivers or torrents, even when they have no
communication with the high mountains, are filled with fragments of
granite and shistose mica; but the hills themselves are in general
composed of clay, intermixed with various proportions of sand, mica, and
gravel.  This mixture contains many masses of rock, and is disposed in
strata, that are either horizontal, or dip towards the north with an
angle less than 25 degrees.  In many places, these heterogeneous
materials have been indurated into stone of considerable hardness.  But
besides those, I observed many rocks in these hills, especially in deep
vallies, where they were disposed in vertical strata, running easterly
and westerly, and consisting of limestone, hornstone, and aggregates,
usually called primitive.  These parts abound in incrustations, formed by
the deposition of calcareous matter; but I have not been able to hear of
the exuviæ of marine animals, except such as are washed down by the
Gandaki, and are loose in its channel.  The calcareous matter has either
formed itself in crusts, covering the surface of rocks, or has assumed
the form of the mosses, lichens, and other such plants, that it has
covered.

On the bank of the Kosi, near Varaha Chhatra, is found a singular black
ferruginous earth, of which the elephant is said to eat greedily, when
indisposed; and the natives use it, rubbed with a little water, to supply
the place of ink.

The lower part of these hills, and some of the adjacent plains, are the
grand seat of the Sal {67a} forests, among which are many trees of the
species of _Dalbergia_, called _Sisau_, {67b} and of the _Cedrella_,
which at Calcutta, is called _Tungd_, (_toon_ of the English,) but which
in the forests adjacent to Puraniya, is called _Chilli kath_.  Higher up,
the hills are covered with a vast variety of trees, nearly resembling
those of _Goyalpara_, of which I intend hereafter to give an account; but
in the hills of the North, there are many pines (_Pinus longifolia_,)
which the mountain Hindus call _Salla_, {67c} and an abundance of the
_Mimosa_ (_Khaira_,) of which catechu is made.  A great many people are
employed in preparing this drug.  A few of them belong to the company’s
territory, but by far the greater part are the subjects of Gorkha.  Each
man pays a duty to the Raja, of from three to five rupees, and during the
fair season makes from eight to ten _mans_ of the Calcutta weight, which
is nearly 82 lbs.  The merchants, who advance money for subsistence,
usually give the workman four rupees a man, that is, from 32 to 40 rupees
for six months work; but from this the tax must be deducted.  The greater
part is sent to Patna and Banaras.

In these woods, a vast number of these kinds of birds which are tamed by
the natives on account of their singing or imitating the human voice,
form their nests, which are considered as the property of the Raja.
These birds are,

Mayna, Gracula religiosa, Latham.

Amrita chela.

Madna, Kajla, Two parakeets nearly allied to the Psittacus gingianus of
Latham.

Tetiya, Psittaca torquata, Brisson.

Chandana, a parakeet not described by Latham.

Sugi, Psittacus gingianus, Latham.

Latkan, a small short-tailed parakeet, nearly allied to the Psittacus
galgulus.

The right of taking the young birds from the nest is farmed to men, who
again employ people to climb the trees, when the birds are first fledged.
These people keep the birds for two months, and then deliver one half to
the renter, and take the remainder to themselves.  Petty dealers come
from the low country, purchase the birds, and disperse them through
Bengal.

In several places, these low hills are separated from the high mountains
by fine vallies of a considerable length, but a good deal elevated above
the plain of Hindustan.  In the country west from the Ganges, these
vallies are called by the generic name Dun, analogous to the Scottish
word Strath; but towards the east, the word Dun is unknown, nor did I
hear of any generic term used there for such vallies, although there are
very fine ones in that part of the country.

These Duns or Straths are tolerably cultivated by the same tribes that
dwell in the great plain of Hindustan.  But among the spurs and ridges of
these hills, there are many narrow vallies, or what in Scotland would be
called Glens, and both these, although their soil is rich, and the
surrounding hills, are almost totally neglected.  A few straggling
villages are however scattered through the woods, especially in the
higher parts, and their inhabitants cultivate cotton, rice, and other
articles, with the hoe, after having cleared away parts of the forest, as
practised by the Garos of Ranggapur.  The chief reason of the desert
state of this part of the country, seems to be its extreme unhealthiness,
and this again, in a great measure, in all probability, depends on the
want of cultivation; for Vijaypur Chatra and some other places, that must
be included in this division, are abundantly healthy, having been well
cleared.

Some estimate of the temperature of this region may be formed from the
heat of a spring at Bichhakor, having, in the end of March, been found
74° of Fahrenheit’s scale, the latitude being 27° 16′ N.

On arriving at what may be called the mountains, though they are not
separated from the low hills by any distinct boundary, we have a very
elevated region, consisting of one mountain heaped on another, and rising
to a great height, so that, when any fall happens in winter, their tops
are for a short time covered with snow.  The inhabited vallies between
these are in general very narrow, and are of very various degrees of
elevation, probably from 3000 to 6000 feet of perpendicular height above
the plains of Puraniya.  Of course, they differ very much in their
temperature; so that some of them abound in the ratan and bamboo, both of
enormous dimension, while others produce only oaks and pines.  Some ripen
the pine-apple and sugar-cane, while others produce only barley, millet,
and other grains.

Some estimate of the climate of this region may be formed by means of the
accompanying register of the weather kept near Kathmandu, although it is
very imperfect, from that want of convenience which must attend
travellers in so remote a country.  The winter we passed in Nepal, was
reckoned uncommonly mild; and in place of the rain, which we had at that
season, in most years snow falls at Kathmandu.  A more accurate estimate
of the average heat of the valley may be obtained from that of its
springs, which by repeated trials at a fine spring nearly on a level with
Kathmandu, I found to be 64° of Fahrenheit’s thermometer; but in a spring
near Thankot, the heat in April was 59½°; in one at Chitlong it was a
degree lower; and at Bhimphedi, on the skirts of the lower hills, it was
63°.  This cold, so uncommon in the latitude of between 27° 30′, and 26°
41′, must be attributed to the great elevation of the country, for the
neighbourhood of the snowy peaks of Emodus could produce little effect,
as the winds were very seldom from that quarter.  We have no data upon
which we can calculate the height of the valley of Nepal with any
considerable accuracy.  The nearest approach I can make to it, is by the
difference of the average height of the barometer observed during the
month of February 1802, in the Tariyani, and during the February
following at Kathmandu.  The average height at the former place was 29,60
inches, while at the latter it was 25,25 inches.  The difference of the
logarithms of these numbers, rejecting the index, and taking only the
four next figures, will give 690 fathoms, 4140 feet, for the height of
Kathmandu above the Tariyani.  The observations with the thermometer, for
the proper correction of those made with the barometer, are not complete;
but they are not of great consequence, considering that the fundamental
observations were not simultaneous, and were therefore liable to great
error.

The periodical rains extend to Nepal, and are nearly of the same violence
and duration with those in Behar.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {70} thinks, and
perhaps justly, that they commence a little earlier.  Water spouts are
common, which shows that their cause is quite unconnected with the sea.

On the whole I am inclined to believe, that the climate of the valley is
healthful, although, immediately before our arrival, the inhabitants had
been much troubled with fevers, and, for the first three months after our
arrival, the whole of our native attendants were exceedingly sickly.  The
complaints to which they were chiefly subject, were fevers of the
intermittent kind, and fluxes, attended with a very copious secretion of
slimy matter, which, by the natives, is attributed to Bayu or wind; and
which was brought on by very slight indulgences in eating.  In the fevers
emetics seemed much more efficacious than the cathartics which are
usually employed at Calcutta; and, indeed, a dose of emetic tartar very
frequently cut the fever short, as usual in temperate climates.  The
fluxes were not attended with much pain, and both these and the tendency
in the bowels to the slimy secretions, seemed to require the frequent
exhibition of spirituous bitters and small doses of opium.  In such
cases, I found the chirata tolerably efficacious, but I thought other
bitters more powerful, especially the infusion of chamomile flowers, and
the compound tinctures of Gentian and Peruvian bark.  Our people probably
suffered from having passed through the forest too late in the season;
but the natives of Hindustan do not support a change of air, and on our
first arrival they were not well provided with means to resist the
weather, which to them was uncommonly cold.

I have seen no country where the venereal disease is so common as in
Nepal, nor so generally diffused among all classes of the people, who are
indeed very dissolute.  During my stay I had application for medical
assistance from all ranks labouring under the venereal disease; and I
observed that the men did not consider it as extraordinary or shameful,
when they found their wives afflicted with this malady.  The dissolute
manners of the inhabitants are carried to such a length, that a great
many of the young men of rank, by the age of twenty-five, are
debilitated, and have recourse to stimulants.  The preparation of these
forms a chief source of emolument to the medical men, and they are
sometimes taken to a quantity that proves fatal.

Cutaneous disorders, and especially the itch, are also very common, and
almost as prevalent as in Hindustan.  The leprosy, in which the joints
drop off, is as common as in Bengal; but in Nepal it cannot be attributed
to the lowness of the country, nor to a fish diet, to which the people of
Kathmandu have little or no inclination.  Some of the persons afflicted
with this horrid disorder, I found to be of considerable rank, and quite
removed from the want of a nourishing diet.  I am almost certain that
this disease is not infectious, as I know an instance of a woman, who has
lost all her toes and fingers, and who, in that state, has had a child,
which she nursed.  The child is two years old, and is very healthy.  The
natives consider the disease as hereditary, and allege that the child
will become its victim.

The same kind of swelling in the throat that is common among the
inhabitants of the Alps, prevails in Nepal, and, indeed, is frequently
seen every where north from Patna.  It might at first sight be supposed,
that this disease does not derive its origin from the people drinking the
water which came from mountains covered with perpetual snow, the cause to
which in Europe it has been usually attributed.  No water of this kind,
however, flows through Nepal; for, although some of the inhabitants of
the northern part of Bahar, who live near the Ganduki and Kausiki, drink
the water springing from perpetual snow; yet by far the greater part of
them drink the water of the various branches of the Vagmati, all of which
arise in sub-alpine regions.  It must, however, be observed, that the
springs by which these rivers are fed may be supplied by the melted snow,
which may sink into the earth of the Himalaya mountains, and not come to
light till it reaches the lower hills.

As the seasons resemble those of Bengal, and the periodical rains occupy
the greater part of summer, the country is not favourable for many kinds
of fruit: the heats of spring are not sufficient to bring them to
maturity before the rainy season begins, as is the case in Bengal.
Peaches grow wild by every rill; but the one side of the fruit is rotted
by the rain, while the other is still green.  There are vines, but
without shelter from the rain the fruit will always be bad.  Two kinds of
fruit, however, come to the utmost perfection; the pine apple, in the
warmer vallies, is uncommonly fine; and the orange, as it ripens in
winter, is nowhere better.

From the abundance of rain in the warm season, the country, considering
the inequality of its surface, is uncommonly productive of grain.
Wherever the land can be levelled into terraces, however narrow, it is
exceedingly favourable for transplanted rice, which ripens after the
rains have ceased, so that the harvest is never injured; and, as most of
these terraces can be supplied at pleasure with water from springs, the
crops are uncommonly certain.  This is by far the most valuable land, and
is that in which all the officers and servants of the Crown are paid, and
from whence all endowments are made.  In some parts the same land gives a
winter crop of wheat and barley; but in most places this is most
judiciously omitted.

Where the land is too steep to be conveniently formed into terraces, or
where this operation has been neglected, the fields are called Kuriya,
{74} and are generally cultivated after fallows, by any person that
chooses to occupy them, on paying a certain sum by the head, and not
according to the extent of land.  The hoe is chiefly used, and the
produce is rice, sown broadcast, maize, cotton, _kurthi_, _bhot mash_,
and _mash kalai_, three kinds of pulse, that, without seeing, I cannot
pretend to specify; _ture_, a kind of mustard, which I cannot specify;
_manjit_, or Indian madder, wheat, barley, and sugar cane.

The manjit, or Indian madder, seems to be of two kinds; the _Rubia
cordata_ of Wildenow, and a species of Rubia, not described in the common
systems of botany.  Both seem to be equally fit for the purpose, and grow
in the same manner.  It is cultivated exactly as cotton is among the
hills.  The ground is cleared and laboured in spring, and, when the first
rains commence, the field is sown broadcast with rice, having intermixed
the seed of manjit or of cotton.  When the rice ripens, it is cut.  The
manjit is allowed to grew four or five years; and, after the second year,
the stems are annually cut down to the root.  They are four or five
cubits long, and lie flat on the ground.  When cut, they are stript of
the leaves, and rolled up for sale.

Besides these, a most valuable article of cultivation, in these
mountainous parts, is a large species of cardamom, of which I have as yet
seen no description.  The fruit is larger than that of the _Cardamomum
minus_ of Rumph, and has membraneous angles; but, in other respects, the
two plants have a strong resemblance.  In Hindustan, the cardamom of
Nepal is called the Desi Elachi, while the small cardamom of Malabar
(_Amomum repens_, W.) is called the Gujjarati Elachi, as having usually
come by the way of Surat.  The plant in question is a species of amomum,
as that genus is defined by Dr Roxburgh, and differs very much from the
cardamom of Malabar.  The natives call it merely Elachi.  It is raised in
beds, that are levelled, and surrounded by a small bank, like a field of
rice; for it requires to be constantly in water.  In spring, cuttings of
the roots are planted in these beds, at about a cubit’s distance from
each other, and must be carefully weeded and supplied with water, so that
the soil is always covered two or three inches.  In about three years the
plants begin to produce, and ever afterwards, in the month Bhadra, give
an annual crop.  The heads, which spring up among the leaves, are
plucked, and, at the same time, old withered stems and leaves and weeds
are carefully removed.  The capsules are then separated, dried, and
packed for sale.

In the country between Nepal Proper, and the Kali river, ginger is also a
valuable article of cultivation.

On the whole, one-half of the cultivation among the mountains may be said
to consist in transplanted rice.  The remainder is composed of the
various articles above mentioned, sown on the Kuriya, or steep land.  For
a more particular account of the agriculture, I must refer to the third
section of the first chapter of the second part, where I have detailed
all that I know on this subject, so far as relates to Nepal Proper.

The pasture on these mountains, although not so harsh and watery as that
of the low country, is by no means good, and seems greatly inferior to
that even on the heaths of Scotland.

The Gurung and Limbu tribes, already described, are, however, shepherds
provided with numerous flocks.  In winter they retire to the lower
mountains and vallies; but in summer they ascend to the Alpine regions,
which bound the country on the north, and feed their herds on some
extensive tracts in the vicinity of the regions perpetually frozen, but
which in winter are deeply covered with snow.  The sheep which these
people possess are said to be very large, and are called Barwal, and
their wool is said to be fine.  It is woven into a cloth, which is finer
than that of Bhotan.  The sheep of this breed give also much milk, with
which, if I understand the account of the natives right, they make a kind
of cheese.  Whether or not the Barwal is of the same breed with the sheep
employed to carry loads, and afterwards to be mentioned, I do not exactly
know.

There is another kind of sheep called San-Bhera, which are never sent to
the Alpine pastures.

The cattle of the ox kind resemble those of the low country, and are not
numerous.

Buffaloes are brought from the low country and fattened for slaughter,
but are not bred.  The same is the case with hogs and goats, although the
country seems admirably adapted for the latter kind of cattle.

Horses are imported from Thibet, for they do not breed on the south side
of the Alps.  The same is the case with the Chaungri cattle, (_Bos
grunniens_,) and the goat which produces the wool from whence shawls are
made.

This part of the country consists in many places of granite, and contains
much iron, lead, and copper, with some zinc (_Dasta_) and a little gold
found in the channels of some rivers.  The specimens which I procured of
the ores were so small, that I can say little concerning their nature.
The copper ore which I saw adhered to whitish hornstone, or earthy
quartz.  The iron ore is a dark red stony substance, with a fine grain.
I have not seen any of the lead or zinc ores.  The following details
respecting the management of these mines, will enable the reader to judge
concerning their value.

The copper mines seem to be quite superficial, and the ore is dug from
trenches entirely open above, so that the workmen cannot act in the rainy
season, as they have not even sense to make a drain.  Each mine has
attached to it certain families, who seem to be a kind of proprietors, as
no one else is allowed to dig.  These miners are called Agari.  Each man
in the month digs, on an average, from two to four _mans_ of the ore,
that is, about 30 _mans_ in the year.  The _man_ is 40 _sers_ of 64
_sicca_ weight, so that the total ore dug by each man may be about 1970
lb.  This is delivered to another set of workmen, named Kami, who smelt,
and work in metals.  These procure charcoal, the Raja furnishing trees,
and smelt the ore.  This is first roasted, then put in water for two or
three days, then powdered, and finally put in small furnaces, each
containing from two to three _sers_, or from three to five pounds of the
powdered ore.  Two _sers_ of ore give from one to one and a half _ser_ of
metal, or, on an average, 62½ per cent.  The total copper, therefore,
procured by one miner’s labour is 1232 lb.  Of this, the man takes ⅓ =
410⅔ lb., the Raja takes as much, the smelter takes 1/5 = 246⅔ lb.  The
remainder, 164-3/11 lb. is divided equally between the Raja, the miner,
and a person called Izaradar, who keeps the accounts, usually advances a
subsistence to the whole party, and often gives loans even to the Raja,
the system of anticipation being universally prevalent.  The miner,
therefore, makes about 465 lb. of copper in the year, and the Raja, for
each miner, has as much.  The smelter gets about 300 lb. but one smelter
suffices for about two miners, so that he makes better wages.  It must be
observed, that copper bears in India a much greater value in proportion
to silver than it does in Europe, so that the profits of the miner are
high.

The iron ore is also found near the surface, and the mines of it are
nearly on the same footing as those of copper, only the same persons
(Kami) dig and smelt, and are allowed one third of the whole produce,
while the Raja and superintendent (Izaradar) receive each as much.  I
have received no estimate of the amount of each man’s labour.  The iron
of different mines is of very different qualities, some being so
excellent, that, even without being converted into steel, it makes knives
and swords.

Only two mines of lead are at present wrought, because all the metal is
reserved for the Raja’s magazines; but, so far as I can learn, lead is
found in a great many places quite on the surface.  These, however, are
concealed with care by those who observe them, and who are thus able to
work in private.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {78a} was informed, that the people, owing to want of
skill, could not smelt their lead ore, and procured the metal from Patna;
but it would be extraordinary, if a people who could smelt iron and
copper, should be unable to smelt lead.  He, in the same place, observes,
that the lead of Nepal, as usual, contains silver.

Colonel Kirkpatrick had received information of mines of antimony and
mercury, but considered the information vague.  I am well assured of the
existence of the latter in the form of a native cinnabar, which is called
_Sabita_ by the natives, and is exported to the low country for sale.

The position of such of the mines as have come to my knowledge, will be
seen in the maps.

Mines of sulphur are said to be numerous in these regions.  Colonel
Kirkpatrick {78b} says, that the government of Gorkha was obliged to
desist from working them, on account of their deleterious qualities.
This was probably owing to an admixture of arsenic, which he says is also
found.

Corundum of the compact kind, such as is found in the western provinces
under the presidency of Bengal, is called Kurran by the Hindus of the
mountains, and is found in great quantities on the hills of Isma and
Musikot; and at Kathmandu, I was shown some of a coarse nature, said to
be brought from the surrounding mountains; but what is most esteemed in
that capital is said to come from Thibet.  In both the Company’s
territory and in Nepal, it is always found in detached rounded masses
lying on the surface, but often of considerable size.  In Nepal, these
masses seldom exceed four or five pounds, but in the Company’s provinces
they are much larger.

I saw masses of the Agalmatolite, used in China to make images, and in
Ava for pencils.  They were said to be brought from the mountains in the
vicinity of Kathmandu.

I have seen very fine specimens of Talc brought from Nepal as a medicine;
but I have no information concerning the place where it is found.

On the banks of the Gandaki, at Muktanath, is a precipice, from which the
river is supposed to wash the Salagrams or black stones, which are
considered by the Hindus as representatives of several of their deities,
and which are the most common objects of worship in Bengal, where images
are scarce.  They are of various kinds, and accordingly represent
different deities.  Pilgrims, who have been at the place, say, that the
stones are found partly in the precipice, and partly in the bed of the
river, where it has washed down the earth.  On account of its containing
these stones, this branch of the river is usually called the Salagrami,
and the channel every where below Muktinath, until it reaches the plain
of India at Sivapur, abounds in these stones.  All the Salagrams consist
of carbonate of lime, and are in general quite black, but a few have
white veins.  Their colour is probably owing to some metallic
impregnation, which also occasions their great specific weight.  They
rarely exceed the size of an orange, and they are rounded, I suppose, by
the action of water.  Most of them are what naturalists call
petrifactions, and by far the most common are Ammonites, half imbedded in
a ball of stone, exactly of the same nature with the petrified animal.
Others, which are reckoned the most valuable, are balls containing a
cavity formed by an Ammonite, that has afterwards decayed, and left only
its impression, or they are what Wallerius calls _Typolithi Ammonitarum_.
The Ammonites or their impressions are called the Chakras or wheels of
the Salagrams, but are sometimes wanting.  The stone is then a mere ball
without any mark of animal exuviæ.  Some balls have no external opening,
and yet by rubbing away a portion of one of their sides, the hollow wheel
(_chakra_) is discovered.  Such Salagrams are reckoned very valuable.

In many parts of these mountains, the substance called _Silajit_ exudes
from rocks.  I have not yet satisfied myself concerning its nature; but
intend hereafter to treat the subject fully, when I describe the natural
productions of Behar, where I had an opportunity of collecting it, as it
came from the rock.

The valley of Nepal Proper, which contains Kathmandu, or, as many call
it, Kathmaro, Lalita Patan, and Bhatgang, is the largest in the dominions
of Gorkha, and in this plain there is not naturally a single stone of any
considerable size.  The whole, so far as man has penetrated, consists of
what is called alluvial matter, covered by soil.  In some places the
alluvial matter consists of thick beds of fine gravel and sand, much of
which is micaceous.  Among these beds are found concretions of the same
materials, united into balls, about the size and shape of a turkey’s egg.
At one end these are generally perforated with a small hole, and some,
but not all of them, are hollow.  The Newars call them Dungoda; but can
give no account of their formation, nor did I observe any thing that
could lead to an explanation.

A large proportion of the alluvial matter consists of a blackish
substance resembling clay.  It seems to approach nearer to the nature of
turf than any thing with which I am acquainted, and I have no doubt is of
vegetable origin.  It is called Koncha by the Newars, who dig out large
quantities, and apply it to their fields as a manure.  The beds, in which
it is disposed, are often very thick and extensive; and it is always much
intermixed with leaves, bits of stick, fruits, and other vegetable
exuviæ, the produce of plants, similar to those now growing on the
neighbouring hills.

The various rivers that pass through the above-mentioned Koncha, have
washed from its strata another harder and blacker substance, but still
having so strong a resemblance, that it is called _Ha Koncha_.  This is
most commonly found in the channels of the rivers, and by the natives is
supposed to be decayed charcoal; but the great size of some of the masses
seems to me incompatible with the truth of this opinion.

A kind of blue martial earth, the earthy blue iron ore of mineralogists,
by the Newars called Ong Shigulay, is also found commonly intermixed with
the Koncha.  It is never in large masses, and, in my opinion, has derived
its origin from some vegetable substance that has been gradually
impregnated with iron.  Cones of the pine may be traced in all stages,
from those retaining a half of their vegetable nature, to those entirely
converted into martial earth, and only distinguishable by their shape as
having once been vegetable productions.  The half-formed specimen that I
procured is a cone of the _Pinus strobus_; but the more common ones are
exuviæ of the _Pinus longifolia_.

In the alluvial matter of the plain of Nepal are also found large strata
of clay, fit for the potter and brickmaker.

The greater part of the mountains which enclose the valley of Nepal
consists of grey granite, of which the surface is very much decayed
wherever it has been exposed to the air.  On the south side of
Chandangiri, about four miles west from Pharphing, is a very large
stratum of fine white sand, which the Parbatiyas call _Seta mati_, or
white earth.  It seems to me to be nothing more than decayed granite; and
I think it probable, that the sandstone found on Sambhu, and the
neighbouring hill towards Hilchuck, is composed of this granitic sand
reunited into rock.  This sandstone is used in a few buildings, but I
have seen no large blocks, and the difficulty, or impracticability, of
procuring such, has probably occasioned this stone to be in general
neglected.

The stone usually employed in Nepal for building is a rock containing
much lime, which is so impregnated with other matters, that, though it
effervesces strongly with acids, and falls to pieces in a sufficient
quantity of these liquids, yet, by calcination, it cannot be reduced to
quicklime fit for use.  It is disposed in vertical strata, is very fine
grained, has a silky lustre, cuts well, can be procured in large masses,
and powerfully resists the action of the weather, so that it is an
excellent material for building.

Limestone is so scarce, that clay is the only mortar used by the natives.
We, however, visited a quarry on the mountain called Nag Arjun, where the
people obtain lime for white-washing their houses, and for chewing with
betel.  It is a vertical stratum, about two feet wide, and running
parallel with the other strata of the mountain.  It consists of small
irregular rhombic crystals, which agree with the character given by
Wallerius of the _Spathum arenarium_.

In the lower part of the hills, which borders immediately on the plain,
are found large masses of a hard red clay, considered by some
naturalists, to whom I have shown it, as decomposed schistus.  It is
called Lungcha by the Newars, and used by them for painting the walls of
their houses.

The whole of this mountainous region is copiously watered by limpid
streams and springs, and the vegetable productions are of most remarkable
stateliness, beauty, and variety.  Except at the summits of the
mountains, the trees are uncommonly large; and every where, and at all
seasons, the earth abounds with the most beautiful flowers, partly
resembling those of India, but still more those of Europe.

I have already mentioned the vegetable productions of the mountains, so
far as they are objects of cultivation.  I shall now mention a few of its
spontaneous plants that are applied to use.

The timber trees consist of various oaks, {83a} pines, firs, walnut,
{83b} chesnut, hornbeam, yew, laurels, hollies, birches, Gordonia, {83c}
Michelias, etc, most of them species hitherto unnoticed by botanists; but
some exactly the same as in Europe, such as the yew, holly, hornbeam,
walnut, Weymouth pine, (Pinus strobus, W.) and common spruce fir, (Pinus
picea, W.)  As, however, the greater part are of little value, from the
inaccessible nature of the country, I shall only particularize a few
kinds.

The _Malayagiri_ is a tree, of which I have only seen a branch with
leaves, and I cannot with any certainty judge what its botanical
affinities may be.  It has a pale yellow wood, with a very agreeable
scent, and on this account might be valuable for fine cabinet work, and
might bear the expense of carriage.

The _Tinmue_, or _Taizbul_ of Colonel Kirkpatrick, {84a} is a species of
_Fagara_.  In the mountains of Nepal I have only seen the shrubby kind;
but, on the lower hills, I observed another species, which grows to be a
tree, and which is probably the larger sort alluded to by the Colonel.

The male _Sinkauri_, or _Silkauli_ of the mountain Hindus, is a species
of Laurus, which is either the _Laurus japonica_ of Rumph, {84b} or
approaches very near to that plant.  Both its bark and leaves have a fine
aromatic smell and taste, and this quality in the leaves is strengthened
by drying.  They are carried to the low country, and sold under the name
of _Tejpat_; but the tree is of a different species from the Tejpat of
Ranggapur.

The female Sinkauri, or Silkauli, like the male, is another tree nearly
related to the cinnamon; but its aromatic quality resides in the bark of
the root, which has a very permanent fragrance, and would probably give a
very fine oil.  The specimens brought from the mountains of Morang,
appeared to differ in species from the plant of similar qualities that
has been introduced into Ranggapur from Bhotan.

Both male and female Sinkauli are considered by Colonel Kirkpatrick as
one species, which he calls _Singrowla_, {85a} probably by a
typographical error.

The _Lalchandan_, or Red Sandal, is a timber tree, the foliage and
appearance of which have some resemblance to the Laurels.  It seems to be
a fine timber for the cabinetmaker, but has little smell, and is not the
Red Sanders or Sandal of the shops.

The _Siedburrooa_, mentioned by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {85b} as the plant
from which the Nepalese make paper, is a species of Daphne, very nearly
allied to that which botanists call _odora_.

The _Karphul_, mentioned also by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {85c} as a small
stone fruit, resembling a cherry, is a species of _Myrica_.

The _Jumne mundroo_ of Colonel Kirkpatrick {85d} I consider as a species
of _Leontice_, although it is a small tree, and has strong affinities
with the _Berberis_.  Its leaves are pinnated; but each division, as the
Colonel notices, has a strong resemblance to the leaves of the holly.

The _Chootraphul_ of Colonel Kirkpatrick {85e} is, in fact, a species of
barberry, to which the Colonel compares it.

There are two species of the _Chirata_, a bitter herb, much and
deservedly used by the Hindu physicians in slow febrile diseases, as
strengthening the stomach.  The smaller is the one most in request.  I
have not seen its flowers, but the appearance of the herb agrees with
some short notices in manuscript, with which I was favoured by Dr
Roxburgh, of the plant sent to him as the Chirata, and which he considers
as a species of gentian.  The larger Chirata is a species of _Swertia_,
but approaches nearer in appearance to the common Gentian of the shops
than to any other plant that I know.  Its root, especially, has a great
resemblance, and might probably be a good substitute, were not the herb
of the smaller Chirata a better medicine.  Both species, however,
approach so near to each other, that they are often sold
indiscriminately.

The dried scales of a tuberous root are imported from these mountains
into the Company’s territory, and the druggists there call them _Kshir
kangkri_ or _Titipiralu_.  Some people of the mountains, whom I employed,
brought me the living bulbs, certainly of the same kind, and these had
young stems then very thriving, but which soon withered from the heat.
They had every appearance of being a species of _Lilium_, and the people
who brought them said, that they were the _Titipiralu_, while the _Kshir
kangkri_, according to them, is a plant of the cucurbitaceous tribe.
Other hill people, however, brought for the Titipiralu a species of
_Pancratium_, which I cannot trace in the works of botanists; but it has
a great resemblance to the _Pancratium maritimum_.  This is certainly not
the plant sold by the druggists of Nathpur.

The same druggists gave me a medicine which they called _Jainti_ or
_Bhutkes_.  Some of the hill people said, that it grows among the mosses,
on large stones, on the higher mountains, and is evidently the lower part
of the stems of one of the _orchides_ of that kind of _epidendra_, which
have an erect stem, many of which, I know, grow in Nepal in such
situations.  Others of the mountaineers alleged that this was not the
true Bhutkes, or Bhutkesar, which they say differs from the Jainti; and,
in fact, they brought me from the snowy mountains a very different plant,
which they called _Bhutkesar_.

_Singgiya Bikh_, or _Bish_, is a plant much celebrated among the
mountaineers.  The plant was brought to me in flower, but was entirely
male, nor did I see the fruit, which is said to be a berry.  So far as I
can judge from these circumstances, I suppose that it is a species of
_Smilax_, with ternate leaves.  To pass over several of its qualities
that are marvellous, the root, which resembles a yam, is said to be a
violent poison.  The berries also are said to be deleterious, but, when
applied externally, are considered as a cure for the swelling of the
throat, which resembles the goitre of the Swiss, and is very common among
the mountaineers.

The _Jhul_ is imported by the druggists of the Company’s territory, and
what was brought as such to me, consisted of four kinds of Lichen,
intermixed with some straggling Jungermannias.  By far the greater part,
however, of the Jhul consisted of two kinds of Lichen, the furfuraceus,
and one very like the farinaceus.  These grow on stones among the
mountains.

With respect to the breadth of this mountainous region, there is reason
to think, from the observations of Colonel Crawford, that, immediately
north and east from Kathmandu, the horizontal direct extent may be from
thirty to forty British miles; but farther west, the breadth of this
region probably exceeds that extent.  I have, however, no solid grounds
for judging; as days’ journies, given by travellers on routes, in such a
country, can give but a very imperfect notion of horizontal distance.

The alpine region belonging to the chiefs of Gorkha, which bounds the
mountainous district on the north, is probably of nearly an equal
breadth; that is to say, over a space of thirty or forty miles from north
to south, there are scattered immense peaks covered with perpetual snow,
before we reach the passes at the boundary of Thibet, where almost the
whole country is subject to everlasting winter.  Between these scattered
peaks there are narrow vallies, some of which admit of cultivation, and,
being of the same elevation with the higher parts of the mountainous
region, admit of similar productions.

It is indeed said by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {88a} that, in the alpine
vallies occupied by the Limbus, there is raised a kind of rice called
_Takmaro_, which he thinks may be probably found to answer in the climate
and soil of England.  Whether or not this Takmaro may be the same with
the grain called _Uya_, which will be farther mentioned in the account of
_Malebum_, I cannot take upon myself to determine, although I think it
probable, from the situation in which both are said to grow, that Uya and
Takmaro are two names for the same grain.  In this case the grain may
probably be rye, although this also is uncertain.

By far the greatest part, however, of the Alpine region, consists of
immense rocks, rising into sharp peaks, and the most tremendous
precipices, wherever not perpendicular, covered with perpetual snow, and
almost constantly involved in clouds.  No means for ascertaining the
height of the central, and probably the highest peaks of Emodus, have
come to my knowledge; but, while at Kathmandu, Colonel Crawford had an
opportunity of observing the altitude of several of the detached peaks,
the situations of which will be seen from the accompanying map, copied
from one of this excellent geographer. {88b}  The accompanying table also
will give the result of his estimate of the height of these peaks above
the valley of Nepal.  In the five wooden plates, taken from drawings by
Colonel Crawford, a view of these mountains from Oba Mohisyu, in the
valley of Nepal is represented, and will give an idea of their
appearance, as well as that of the valley of Nepal itself, although a
better judgment may be formed of this from the two copperplates that will
be afterwards mentioned.

The southern face of these alps differs very much from those of
Switzerland; for the rains being periodical, and falling in the hottest
season of the year, the snow continues almost always stationary.  It is
only the few showers that happen in winter, and the vapours from
condensed clouds, that dissolve in the beginning of summer, and occasion
a small swell in the rivers, which spring from the south side of these
alps.

The country on the north side of these lofty peaks, so far as I can
learn, more resembles Europe.  It is exceedingly high and bare, and is
far from being mountainous.  The rains, however, are not periodical, and
the greatest falls happen in summer, so that, although several Indian
rivers come from thence, they do not swell much by the melting of snow in
the heats of spring.

The ridge of snowy alps, although it would appear to wind very much, has
few interruptions, and, in most places, is said to be totally
insuperable.  Several rivers that arise in Thibet pass through among its
peaks, but amidst such tremendous precipices, and by such narrow gaps,
that these openings are in general totally impracticable.  By far the
widest is on the Arun, the chief branch of the Kosi, where Maingmo on the
west, and Mirgu on the east, leave a very wide opening occupied by
mountains of a moderate height, and which admit of cultivation.  Even
there, however, the Arun is so hid among precipices, that it is
approachable in only a few places, where there are passes of the utmost
difficulty.  Again, behind this opening in the snowy ridge, at a
considerable distance farther north, is another range of hills, not so
high and broken as the immense peaks of Emodus, but still so elevated as
to be totally impassable in winter, owing to the depth of snow; for the
road is said to be tolerable, that is, it will admit of cattle carrying
loads.  Somewhat similar seems in general to be the nature of the other
few passages through these alpine regions.

It is about these passages chiefly, and especially beyond Maingmo and
Mirgu, that there is the greatest extent of the alpine pastures, which I
have already mentioned; but in every part, bordering on the perpetual
snow, these occur more or less.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {90} thinks, that there are two distinct ranges of
Emodus or Himaleh; the lower of which, separating Nepal from Thibet, is
only streaked with snow, while the highest separates Kuchar, or the lower
Bhotan, from Thibet.  He also thought, that, from the summit of the Lama
Dangra hills above Chisapani, he saw the highest ridge.  Now, in the maps
which I obtained from the natives, three ridges may in some measure be
traced, as proceeding from about the lake Manasarawar, which may be
considered as the centre of Emodus.  The summits of even the most
southern of these ridges, which is probably the lowest, are not covered
with mere patches of snow, as Colonel Kirkpatrick seems to have thought,
but on them the snow is perennial to a very great extent.

The most northern ridge, which is probably the highest, as it is nowhere
penetrated by rivers, approaches Hindustan only at the lake Manasarawar,
where the remarkable peak called Kailasa may be considered as its centre.
This peak may perhaps be visible from the southward, although there
exists no certainty of its being so; but the portions of this ridge,
which extend west and east from Kailasa, bordering on the north, the
upper part of the Indus, and Brahmaputra rivers, are certainly invisible
from every part of Hindustan, and very little is known concerning them.

The middle ridge of Himaleh, which separates Thibet from Hindustan,
taking this word in its most extended sense as including Kasmir, the
dominions of Gorkha, etc. extends probably to the Chinese Sea along the
northern frontier of the provinces of Quangsi and Quantong, lowering
gradually as it advances to the east.  Although, so far as connected with
Hindustan, it is of enormous height, yet it is perforated by many rivers,
such as the Indus, Sutluj or Satrudra, Karanali or Sarayu, Gandaki, Arun,
Brahmaputra, etc.

Mr Colebrooke, indeed, {91} doubts of any rivers crossing this chain; for
he says, “It is presumable that all the tributary streams of the Ganges,
including the Sarayu, (whether its alleged source in the Manasarawar lake
be credited or discredited,) and the Yamuna, rise on the southern side of
the Himaliya;” and again he says, “From the western side of the
mountains, after the range, taking a sweep to the north, assumes a new
direction in the line of the meridian, arise streams tributary to the
Indus, or perhaps the Indus itself.”  On this I would remark, that all
the rivers I have enumerated, no doubt, arise from Thibet, and penetrate
this chain.  If, indeed, the Sarayu, or rather Karnali, arises from the
lake Manasarawar, which is undoubtedly on the north side of the Himaleh
ridge, how could Mr Colebrooke’s position be maintained?  He is also
probably wrong in supposing that the central Himaliya ridge bends to the
north.  There is rather reason to think that it passes straight west,
after it is penetrated by the Indus, and reaches to the Hindoo Coosh of
the Honourable Mr Elphinston; while it is the western extremity of the
northern ridge, first mentioned, that turns to the north, and separates
Samarkhand and Bokhara from Kashgar.  These rivers, which penetrate the
central Himaliya ridge, do not appear to me to arise from any remarkable
ridge of mountains, but spring from detached eminences on the elevated
country of Thibet, and pass through interruptions or chasms in the
central ridge of Emodus.  It is very possible, that Colonel Kirkpatrick
saw this ridge from Lama Dangra; but I am very doubtful, whether any part
of it is visible from the plains of Hindustan; or, at least, that any of
the more distinguished peaks visible from thence belong to it.  All the
peaks measured by Colonel Crawford were, no doubt, to the southward of
the central ridge, and I suspect that all the snow-clad mountains visible
from the plains, like those seen by Colonel Crawford, are either detached
peaks, or belong to the southern ridge.

There is also reason to think, that the peak measured by Lieutenant Web,
and which was one appearing conspicuous from the plains of Rohilkhand,
{92a} is that laid down by Mr Arrowsmith, about 40 miles south from
Litighat, that is, from the central chain, and must therefore be near the
southern edge of the alpine region.  Contrary, therefore, to the opinion
of Mr Colebrooke, {92b} I think it very much to be doubted, whether the
snowy mountains, visible from Rohilkhand, are the highest ground between
the level plains of India, and the elevated regions of southern Tartary,
by which I presume he means Thibet.

The third or southern ridge forms the southern boundary of the alpine
region above described.  In many parts, the whole space between this and
the central ridge is thickly covered with immense peaks, so as to leave
no separation between the ridges; but in other parts, there exists an
intermediate, more level, and habitable portion, interposed between the
central ridge and the southern peaks, which in these parts form a very
distinct ridge.  This is particularly the case in the Chamba country,
towards Kasmir, in the Taklakhar country on the Karnali, and in the
Kirata country on the Arun, as will be afterwards described.

Of the productions of this part I shall now proceed to treat, confining
myself to those of the southern face, where there are but a very few of
the cattle, (Bos grunniens,) whose tails form the Chaungri of India, and
the badges by which the Turkish Bashaws are distinguished; nor are there
any of the goats which produce the fine wool from whence the shawls are
made; nor are there mines of gold, nor, one excepted, of salt, nor of
borax.  All these, so far as I can learn, are almost entirely the produce
of the country beyond the alps.

An account of the Chandra or shawl-wool goat has been given by Colonel
Kirkpatrick, {93} who suspects it to be rather scarce, even in Thibet,
since it is not without the greatest difficulty that a perfect male of
this species can be procured, owing to the jealous vigilance employed by
the Thibetians to prevent their being conveyed into foreign countries.
The editor, in a note, thinks this opinion unfounded, because Captain
Turner brought several of these animals from Thibet to Bengal, from
whence he sent a few to England.  I do not see that the reasoning of
either Colonel Kirkpatrick, or his editor, is here conclusive.  If the
people of Thibet are jealous, the difficulty of procuring a perfect male
for exportation can be no proof of the species being scarce.  Neither can
Captain Turner’s having been allowed to bring several of these animals to
Bengal be considered as a proof of the want of jealousy.  A great many
wethers of this breed are annually brought to market at Kathmandu, and
may be readily procured, nor does it appear that those brought by Captain
Turner were entire males.  Those remaining in the Governor General’s park
in 1803 were all wethers.  That both entire males and females may be
procured, we know from the exertions of Mr Moorcroft; but that the people
of Thibet are very jealous in preserving the monopoly, I have been
assured by that gentleman, as well as by the people of Nepal.

I have already mentioned, that I believe sulphur, and perhaps talc, are
found in these alpine regions, and there can be no doubt that they abound
with Mica (_Abrak_) in large plates, and in rock crystal (_Belor_) of a
large size.  It is probably in reference to this mineral, that some parts
of this great alpine chain, towards the north-west, has been named Belor
Tag, although Mr Elphinston gives another derivation, and changes the
final _r_ into a _t_, in order to accommodate the word to his meaning,
which may, however, be quite correct.  Besides these mineral productions,
the alpine region has several metallic veins, especially lead and zinc,
or tutenague.

The most valuable production of the southern face of these mountains is
the animal which produces musk, of which vast numbers are annually
killed.  The only other large animal found there is a kind of wild sheep
of great size.  The accounts which I have received concerning it are very
imperfect, and I have only seen one skin, which was in a very bad state
of preservation.  It may possibly be the same animal that our zoologists
have described by the name of _Argali_.

These frigid regions are the constant abode of two of the finest birds
that are known, the Manal {95a} and Damphiya. {95b}  To me both seem
evidently to have the closest affinity with each other, in size, manners,
and form, and the females of the two species are not easily
distinguishable; yet the former, (Meleagris satyra, L.) by the best
ornithologists, has been most unaccountably classed with the turkey, and
the latter (Phasianus Impeyanus) with the pheasant, to which the
resemblance is very trifling.

Along with these two fine birds, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, {95c}
is found the _Chakor_, or _Chiukoar_, according to his orthography.  He
states, that this bird “is well known to the Europeans in India by the
name of fire-eater.  It is a species of partridge, (_Perdix rufa_,) and
derives its English name from its reputed power of swallowing fire.  The
fact, according to the people of Nepal, is that in the season of love,
this bird is remarkably fond of red or _chean_ (Cayenne) pepper, after
eating two or three capsules of which, it will eat a red coal if offered
to it.”  This account of the Nepalese deserves no credit; for, in its
native frozen mountains, where is the Chakor to procure Capsicum or
Cayenne pepper? and I know that the birds will pick at sparks of fire,
where no capsicum has been given to them.

The vegetable productions of these mountains are, however, the greatest
object of curiosity, and it is with infinite regret that I not only have
not had it in my power to visit them, but that the disturbances existing
between the two governments, when I was on the frontier, have prevented
me from procuring complete specimens and seeds of many of the most
interesting objects, for which arrangements had been made, when the
disputes put a stop to communication.  While at Nathpur, I had indeed
previously procured young plants of most of the kinds, but although kept
in a very cool house, not one of them resisted the summer heats.  I shall
now mention some of the most remarkable.

The _Dhupi_ is a species of juniper.  Its wood has a beautiful grain, a
fine mahogany colour, and a remarkably pleasant scent, a good deal
resembling that of the pencil cedar, but stronger, and I think more
agreeable.  Planks of this are sent to Thibet, from whence they are
probably carried to China.  A man, whom I sent from Nathpur to Thibet, in
order to procure plants, says, that the Dhupi grows to be a very large
tree, in which case it would be a valuable acquisition in Europe, in the
northern parts of which it will no doubt thrive.

The _Thumuriya Dhupi_ is another species of juniper, which is a low bush,
like the kind common in the north of Europe.  Its branches and leaves
have an agreeable smell, and are used in fumigations.

The _Hingwalka Chhota saral_, or small alpine fir, so strongly resembles
the common fir of the south of Europe, (_Pinus picca_, W.) that I can
perceive no difference in the foliage; but I have not seen the cones.
There is, however, probably some difference, for it is said never to grow
to a considerable size, and the leaves, if I can trust to memory, have a
much more agreeable smell than those of the common fir.

The _Hingwalka bara Saral_, or large alpine fir, is in fact the yew tree;
and although I have seen it in all its stages, I can perceive no very
essential difference between it and the tree of Europe.  Its leaves,
however, are rather larger, and bent, (_falcata_.)  Like the yew in the
north of Europe, it grows to a great size.

The _Bhuryapatra_ or _Bhurjapatra_ is a species of birch, the bark of
which resembles that of the tree common in Europe, in being separable
into fine smooth layers; but these are of a fine chesnut colour.  This
bark is imported into the low country in considerable quantity, and is
used both in the religious ceremonies of the Hindus, and for constructing
the flexible tubes with which the natives smoke tobacco.

The _Sanpati_ is a small Rhododendron, which has a considerable affinity
with the kinds described in the Encyclopédie by the names of R.
linearifolium and ferrugineum.  It is a shrub much like our sweet gale in
Europe, and its leaves are very odorous, and, even when dried, retain
their fragrance.  It is used in fumigations, and sent to the low country.

The _Bhairopati_, although I have not seen the flower, is, I have no
doubt, another similar species of the Rhododendron, which has a great
resemblance to the kind called Chamæcistus.  Its qualities are similar to
those of the former, but it is less fragrant.  The man whom I sent to
Thibet brought, as the _Bhairopati_, a totally different plant, of which
the specimens so strongly resemble branches of the Cypressus sempervirens
meta convoluta, that I should have no doubt of its being this plant, were
it not that the man describes it as a shrub, and that its dried leaves
have a disagreeable sulphurous smell.  It is, however, the Rhododendron
which is always sold in the shops of Hindustan as the _Bhairopati_.

There seems to be some difficulty in fixing the nomenclature of the
_Jatamangsi_, a plant celebrated among the natives as a perfume, and of
which large quantities are sent from these Alps to the plains of India.
What I procured at the shops in Nathpur, and recently imported from the
Alps, was the species of Valerian described by Dr Roxburgh in the
Asiatick Researches, and supposed by Sir William Jones to be the
spikenard of the ancients.  As there can be no disputing about taste, I
cannot take upon myself to say how far the encomiums bestowed on the
fragrance of the spikenard are applicable to this valerian; and the
native women, no doubt, consider the smell very agreeable, because most
of such as can afford it use oil impregnated with this root for perfuming
their hair.  All I can say is, that, if this root was the spikenard of
the Roman ladies, their lovers must have had a very different taste from
the youth of modern Europe.  A still greater difficulty attends the
nomenclature of the _Jatamangsi_.  A person whom I employed to bring me
the growing plant from the mountains, produced a root totally different
from the former.  It strongly resembled the root of the Anthamantha meum;
but when fresh had an uncommonly fragrant smell.  From the appearance of
the leaves, I have no doubt that it is an umbelliferous plant.

I have already mentioned the doubts that exist about the plant called
_Bhutkesar_, which is imported from the mountains, and used as a
medicine.  What was brought to me from the snowy mountains was a thick
woody root, on the top of which were many stiff bristles, and from among
these the young leaves were shooting.  These were three times divided
into three, and resembled these of a Thalictrum, of which I know there
are several species in the lower mountains of Nepal.

The term _Bish_ or _Bikh_, according to the pronunciation of the same
letters on the plains, and in the mountains, is applied to four different
plants with tuberous roots, all in great request.  I have already
mentioned the _Singgiya Bish_, as found on the lower mountains and hills,
and supposed it to be a species of Smilax.  The others have not the
smallest resemblance to it, but are so strongly marked by a resemblance
to each other, that I have no doubt of their all belonging to the same
genus, although I have only seen the flower and fruit of one.  This is
called _Bishma_ or _Bikhma_, and seems to me to differ little in
botanical characters from the _Caltha_ of Europe.  The _Bishma_ or
_Bikhma_ is also, I believe, called _Mitha_, although I am not certain
but that this name may be also given to the following species, which
deserves the most serious attention, as the _Bikhma_ is used in medicine,
is a strong bitter, very powerful in the cure of fevers, while the plant
that will be next mentioned is one of the most virulent poisons.

This dreadful root, of which large quantities are annually imported, is
equally fatal when taken into the stomach, and applied to wounds, and is
in universal use throughout India for poisoning arrows; and there is too
much reason to suspect, for the worst of purposes.  Its importation would
indeed seem to require the attention of the magistrate.  The Gorkhalese
pretend, that it is one of their principal securities against invasion
from the low countries; and that they could so infect all the waters on
the route by which an enemy was advancing, as to occasion his certain
destruction.  In case of such an attempt, the invaders ought, no doubt,
to be on their guard; but the country abounds so in springs, that might
be soon cleared, as to render such a means of defence totally
ineffectual, were the enemy aware of the circumstance.  This poisonous
species is called _Bish_, _Bikh_, and _Hodoya Bish_ or _Bikh_, nor am I
certain whether the _Mitha_ ought to be referred to it, or to the
foregoing kind.

The _Nirbishi_ or _Nirbikhi_ is another plant of the same genus, and,
like the first kind, has no deleterious qualities, but is used in
medicine.  The President of the Asiatick Society, in a note annexed to Dr
Roxburgh’s account of the Zedoary, gives the _Nirbisha_ or _Nirbishi_ as
a Sangskrita or Hindwi name of that plant, which has not the smallest
resemblance to the _Nirbishi _of the Indian Alps.  In fact, the
nomenclature of the _materia medica_ among the Hindus, so far as I can
learn, is miserably defective, and can scarcely fail to be productive of
most dangerous mistakes in the practice of medicine.  For instance, the
man whom I sent to Thibet for plants brought, as the species which
produces the poison, that which was first brought to me as the
_Nirbishi_, or kind used in medicine.

The _Padam chhal_ is a plant with a thick cylindrical root, that is used
in medicine, and brought to the low country for that purpose.  The
specimen that I procured had one large heart-shaped rough leaf, and had
somewhat the appearance of an Anemone.

The _Kutki_ is another officinal plant with a woody root, and a stem
containing many alternate leaves, toothed on the edges, and shaped like a
spathula.  It has much the appearance of a saxifrage.  The roots are
brought for sale.

The _Brim_ appears to be one of the orchides, and has a root used in
medicine.



CHAPTER THIRD.
LAWS AND GOVERNMENT.


Parts east from the Kali.—Courts and Forms of
Proceeding.—Punishments.—Provincial Government.—Revenue and
Endowments.—Officers of State.—Military Establishment.—Differences in the
parts west from the River Kali.—Revenue and Civil Establishment.—Military
Establishment.

Having thus described, in a general manner, the inhabitants and country
of the territory subject to the chief of Gorkha, I shall now give a
similar view of the form of government which existed under the petty
chiefs, to whom it was formerly subject, and of the changes which have
been introduced since its union under one head.

I shall only premise a very just observation of Colonel Kirkpatrick, who
says, {101} “that the government, taking its colour, for the most part,
from the character and temporary views of the ruling individual, must
necessarily be of too fugitive a nature to admit of any delineation
equally applicable to all periods and circumstances.”  This may serve to
explain many differences between his account and mine, without supposing
the information received by either to be erroneous.

The management of affairs in all the petty states was in many points the
same, and differed chiefly in the names applied to similar officers, and
in the nature of the military establishment in the two countries to the
east and west of the river Kali.  I have already mentioned, that in the
former the Hindu rules of purity and law had been established with much
less rigour than in the latter; but, in other points, such as the names
of officers, and the form of government, the eastern parts followed more
nearly the ancient Hindu system, while the western more fully imitated
the Muhammedans.

In the parts east of the Kali, for each small territory or manor called a
Gang, or, where these were small, for every two or three, there was an
officer called an Umra Mokudum or Mahato, and over from ten to twenty
gangs there was a higher officer named Desali or Chaudhuri, assisted by a
Mujumdar or accountant.  In cases of disputes or petty offences, one or
other of these officers, called a kind of jury, (Pangchayit,) and
endeavoured to settle the affair, so as to avoid farther trouble; but, if
one or other of the parties was dissatisfied, he might go to the Raja’s
court.  There an officer, called Bichari in the east, and Darogah in the
west, received an account of the affair from the parties, or from the
inferior officers, and endeavoured to settle it.  If, however, the cause
was important, or required severe punishment, or if either of the parties
insisted on it, the matter was referred by the Bichari to the minister of
the Raja, called Karyi in the east, and Vazir in the west, either
verbally or by petition, according to its importance.  The minister
communicated the affair to the Raja, who ordered the Bichari to try it by
a Pangchayit.  This kind of jury made a report, saying, that the parties
were guilty of such or such a crime.  The Raja then ordered whatever
punishment he thought fit, but, in doing so, usually consulted an officer
called Dharm’adhikar, or owner of justice, who pointed out the law.

The criminal in the east might appeal from even the Raja’s decision, to
the court called Bharadar, consisting of all the chief officers of
government; but in the west, no such court, I believe, existed.  Oaths
were seldom administered.  If the parties, however, insisted on this
form, the Haribangsa, a part of the Mahabharat, was put into the
witness’s hand.  Ordeals were seldom used, until the Gorkha family seized
the government, since which they have become very frequent.

There were five severe punishments: 1_st_, confiscation of the whole
estate; 2_dly_, banishment of the whole family; 3_dly_, degradation of
the whole family by delivering the members to the lowest tribes; 4_thly_,
maiming the limbs; 5_thly_, death by cutting the throat.

The people of Gorkha have introduced other capital punishments, hanging
and flaying alive.  Women, as in all Hindu governments, are never put to
death; but the punishments inflicted on them are abundantly severe.  The
most common is the cutting off their noses.  Even those of considerable
rank are tortured, by being smoked in a small chamber with the
suffocating fumes of burning capsicum, and by having their private parts
stuffed with this acrid substance.

There were two kinds of fines; Prayaschitta for the neglect of
ceremonies, and those inflicted as punishments for crimes.  The latter
went to the Raja, and do so still.  The former went to the Dharm’adhikar,
or chancellor; but having been enormously multiplied since the Gorkha
government, their amount is divided into eight shares, of which the Raja
takes one, the collector (Gomashtash) one, the Dharm’adhikar one, and one
goes to each of five families of Brahmans, named Pangre, Pantha, Arjal,
Khanal, and Agnidanda.  These families divide their shares equally among
their members, who have multiplied exceedingly.  Besides the fine, all
delinquents in matters of ceremony are compelled to entertain a certain
number of these five families; the two first fattening on the wicked of
the country west from the Narayani; and the other three on those east
from that river.  The number to be fed is restricted by the sentence, and
the criminal may select those to whom he gives the entertainment, in any
manner he pleases, confining himself strictly to the families entitled to
participate.

Colonel Kirkpatrick, when he visited the country, thought {104} that the
government, on the whole, afforded considerable protection to foreign
merchants, rendering them in all cases as strict and prompt justice, as
the imperfect nature of its general polity will admit.  This, perhaps, is
not saying much, as in the subsequent page he mentions, that the trade
between Nepal and Thibet, the principal one in the country, is subject to
very enormous, and at all times arbitrary exactions.  In fact, all other
branches of commerce, so far as I could judge, were in a state of decay,
owing partly to these exactions, and partly to the recovery of debts
being now very much neglected in the courts of justice, which seems to be
one of the causes of the increase of trials by ordeal.  A poor creditor,
in general, has no resource against a powerful debtor, except sitting
Dherna on him; and unless the creditor be a Brahman, he may sit long
enough before he attract any notice.

Since the government of Gorkha, there has been usually established a
Subah in place of each Raja, and the affairs are generally conducted by
these officers as formerly; so far at least as relates to form; but they
are not allowed to inflict any of the five severe punishments, without
special orders from the Raja or court, to whom a report of the case is
made.  There are, however, great complaints of injustice, the Subahs
having power to check all complaints.  In the petty states the Raja durst
not neglect justice, having no resource except in his subjects’
affection.  Personal acts of extreme violence, in contests for power,
were overlooked in the families of the chief; and no attention was paid
to punish assassination, when committed on pretence of revenging injured
honour.

The Subahs having no power of inflicting severe punishment, few of these
officers have with them a Dharm’adhikar; but, where a person of this kind
is allowed, he is appointed by the Dharm’adhikar of Kathmandu.  At that
city there are now four Bicharis, and these appoint an officer of the
same kind for each Subah.  Over the Bicharis of Kathmandu is a chief
called Ditha, who does not try causes, but watches over the conduct of
the court.

The Subah is an officer of revenue, justice, and police, and, in fact,
always farms the whole royal revenue of his district.  He sometimes
collects the different branches of revenue, on his own account, by means
of subordinate officers named Fouzdars, and sometimes farms them to
Izaradars.  The land revenue, under the Fouzdars, is collected by
Chaudhuris or Desalis, and other petty officers above mentioned.  None of
these offices are in any degree hereditary, nor does there seem to be any
regular system for their payment.  Sometimes the allowances are made in
land, sometimes by a _per centage_ on the rent, and sometimes by monthly
wages.  The whole seems to be in a great measure left to the discretion
of the Subah, but, under the name of Khurchah, both he, and every man in
authority under him, takes from his inferiors as much as he can.

The Subah has under his authority some armed men, and these are called
Seapoys; but they are irregulars, like the Burkandaj, which are employed
by the civil authority in Bengal.

The amount paid by the Subah forms by no means the whole of the royal
revenue.  On a great variety of occasions, besides the presents that
every one must make on approaching the court, there is levied a Rajangka,
which is a kind of income tax that extends to all ranks, and even to such
of the sacred order as possess free lands.  A Rajangka is levied at no
fixed period, but according to the exigencies of the state; and many
districts pay more on this account than the regular revenue, which has
been often almost entirely alienated, by giving the lands as religious
endowments, to various civil officers, and in military tenure for the
support of the army.  The Subah does not collect the Rajangka; an officer
for that purpose is especially sent from the court.

When Colonel Kirkpatrick visited the country, he learned, on what he
considered tolerably good authority, that the revenue which reached the
treasury at Kathmandu never exceeded 3,000,000 of rupees, and fluctuated
between that and 2,500,000.  The subsequent addition of territory,
although it has increased the means of supporting a large army, has
probably sent little money to the capital.

The ordinary public revenue, consisting of land-rents, customs, fines,
and mines, in the east, was divided among the chief, and the principal
persons and officers of his family, the chief for his own expense
receiving about two-thirds of the whole; but, if there was in the family
any estate on the plain, the chief reserved the whole of this for
himself, although he sometimes bestowed part free of revenue for
services.  About a third of the revenue that remained, after grants to
the civil and military establishments, was divided as follows: the
Chautariya, or chief councillor, always the Raja’s brother in the Indian
sense, that is, a near kinsman in the male line, received one fifth.  The
Karyi, or man of business, who was always a near relation of the chief,
had an equal share.  The Raja’s eldest son, when married, had as much.
The chief’s virgin spouse, when she had children, was allowed as much.
The Serdar, or principal officer, who was not of the chief’s family,
received one-tenth.  The Jethabura, a councillor, had one-twentieth.
Finally, the Kaliya, or secretary, obtained as much.  All other officers,
soldiers, and even most domestics, were paid in lands, held as long as
they performed the duty, and called Jaygirs, a Persian term.  The
occupants either cultivated the lands themselves, or let them as they
pleased.  There were, besides, lands appropriated to the support of some
temples, and two kinds of free estates granted in perpetuity to
individuals.  The owners of one kind, called Brittiyas, had no
jurisdiction over those living on their estates, which was also the case
with those holding Jaygirs; the others, called Bitalpas, administered
justice to their vassals.  They were all Brahmans, and never were
numerous; but by far the greater part of the lands of both Bitalpas and
Brittiyas have been resumed by the chiefs of Gorkha, in order to increase
the military establishment.  In other respects they have not much altered
the constitution.

In consequence of their extended dominions, the princes of Gorkha have
increased the number of the chief officers of state, and have four
Chautariyas, four Karyis, and four Serdars.

When Colonel Kirkpatrick visited the country the twelve chief officers,
according to his orthography, {107} were reckoned, one Choutra, four
Kajies, four Sirdars, two Khurdars or secretaries, one Kuppardar or
storekeeper, and one Khuzanchee or treasurer.

These chief officers now form the Bharadar, or great council of the Raja,
which attends him in the Durbar, Rajdani, or palace to transact business,
and which frequently acts without his presence.  It ought to consist of
these twelve members; but some of the places are often vacant, and, at
other times, the persons who hold them have so little influence, that
they neglect or avoid giving their attendance.  At other times, again, on
business of the utmost emergency, a kind of assembly of notables is held,
in which men who have neither office, nor any considerable influence in
the government, are allowed to speak very freely, which seems to be done
merely to allow the discontents of the nation to evaporate, as there is
not a vestige of liberty in the country, nor does the court seem ever to
be controlled by the opinions advanced in these assemblies.

The first rank of councillors is the only one now confined to the
prince’s family, and is often given to illegitimate kinsmen.  The
Chautariya, who is the nearest relation to the reigning prince, is always
considered as the prime minister, although he may have little real
authority.  During our stay in Nepal, the first Chautariya was a boy,
brother to the Raja, and never appeared except on occasions of ceremony,
where he was exhibited like a puppet, in the same manner as his
sovereign.

The office of Karyi should be held by persons only of a few very
distinguished families; but many exceptions have been made of late, and
especially in the instance of Bhim Sen, the present ruler of the country,
who holds no higher office than this, to which even his birth does not
entitle him.

The Serdars are chosen from whatever families the chief thinks proper;
but, in public opinion, the giving the office to low men, especially if
these are entrusted with much power, is exceedingly offensive.

Every person who has held the office of Chautariya, Karyi, and Serdar,
continues to enjoy the title for life; and, whenever a man is appointed
to one of these dignities, all his brothers assume the title.

Military officers, named Serdars, frequently are appointed to command
over different portions of the country, and, wherever they are, have a
jurisdiction in all matters over the Subahs.  In particular, their
criminal jurisdiction is much more extensive, as they can condemn to
capital punishment, without any reference to the court, while the Subah
requires an order from thence before he can punish any criminal.  Still
more are the Subahs under the authority of the higher officers of state,
the Chautariyas and Karyis, when any of these eight great officers of
state are deputed in command to the provinces.  The Serdars who visit the
provinces do not always belong to the four great officers of this title,
who with the four Chautariyas and four Karyis compose the great council
of twelve, which assists the Raja to govern the nation.  These great
Serdars, like the other great officers of state, are occasionally deputed
on high commands; but some Serdars, such as I have before mentioned, are,
in general, stationary in different parts of the country, and have
authority over all the Subahs and civil officers in their vicinity,
although they are properly military men, for such are the only persons,
Brahmans excepted, who are considered as entitled to any weight in the
state.  The Serdar in command at Vijaypur, I understand, receives 7000
rupees a-year, but out of this he pays his establishment.  It is to these
persons that communications from our provincial officers should be made,
as the Subahs are considered as inferior characters.

There are thirty-six families of Gorkhalis, who should hold all the
principal offices of government, and, in fact, have always held the
greater part of them.  A fuller detail of the condition and privileges of
these families than I procured may be found in Colonel Kirkpatrick’s
account. {110}  They are divided into three gradations, and the highest,
consisting of six houses, are considered as having an exclusive right to
the office of Karyi.  When I was at Kathmandu, in 1802, by far the most
powerful of these six houses were the Pangres and Viswanaths.

Occasionally a few regulars are sent to act as a guard to the Subahs, but
the Telanggas, or regular troops, are entirely exempt from the authority
of these officers.

The military force among the petty chiefs was always large in proportion
to their means, but consisted of a rabble totally undisciplined and ill
armed, although of good bodily endowments.  Much order has been
introduced by the chiefs of Gorkha, although both in arms and discipline
the soldiers are still very far behind Europeans.  In Puraniya I was
told, that, in that vicinity, that is, in the country of the Kiratas, the
lands assigned for the support of the military were given to the officers
commanding companies, who were held bound to give regular pay to their
men; nor have I any reason to doubt that such a measure has been carried
into effect in that vicinity; but I was assured at Gorakhpur, as also at
Kathmandu, that each individual in the western parts receives his own
lands.

Each Subahdar commanding a company now receives 400 or 500 rupees a-year,
and 15 khets or fields, each of which is estimated to produce 100 muris
or 234½ Winchester bushels of grain, of which, if the land is let, he
will obtain one-half, worth almost 72 (71⅞) rupees.  For every Pati or
squad of from 20 to 25 fuzileers there are one Jumahdar, one Havildar,
and one Amildar.  The first of these receives 7 fields of land, and 200
rupees in money.  A major keeps the accounts of the company, and has
Jumahdar’s allowances.  Each company has five or six squads, besides
officers and music.  The privates have each three fields, and 25 rupees
a-year.  Such are the accounts that I received.  Those given to Colonel
Kirkpatrick {111} differ somewhat, making the allowance of the superior
officers higher, and of the privates lower, than what I have stated.

Each company has a large band of music, amounting to ten men, where there
are six Patis or squads.  These have instruments of the most hideous
noise.  Each company has, besides, two flags, and a regular establishment
of artificers, so that the army may be considered as perfectly well
arranged; but the soldiers are little versed in tactics, and, considering
the strong country that they possess, this would be of less importance,
were they in habits of more prompt obedience, and more dexterous in the
use of their arms; but they do not load with cartridge.  They have all
firelocks, but these are not in the best condition.  They do not use the
bayonet, but have all swords, which are, perhaps, better fitted for such
a country, and I believe that the men are dexterous in their use.  They
also have in their belt a large knife or dagger, (Khukri,) which serves
as many purposes as that of Hudibras.  It is represented in the uppermost
figure of the plate opposite to page 118, in the work of Colonel
Kirkpatrick.  When that gentleman visited the country, the troops were
irregularly clothed, some in the same company of guards wearing red, some
green, and some blue.  When I saw them, this irregularity had been
remedied, and all were in red, each company having, besides, its peculiar
facings; and, although their arms were not clean, they did not appear so
bad as when Colonel Kirkpatrick saw them, as he states {112} that few of
their muskets appeared fit for service.

In the vicinity of Kathmandu, Bhim Sen is said to have collected 25
companies, and there are probably 15 at Tamsen, under his father.  It is
also said, that at each of the capitals of former petty chiefs there are
from one to five companies; and a large body, perhaps from 20 to 25
companies, is under old Amar Singha in advance beyond the Yamuna.  In the
western parts, the old irregulars, I believe, have been entirely
discarded, or are only called out occasionally in times of actual
hostility, when they are employed to plunder.

In the parts west from the river Kali, almost the whole revenue, whether
on the mountains or plains, being reserved under the immediate management
of the prince, a fuller establishment was necessary; and that which
existed under the petty chiefs, entirely resembled what is described by
the late Mr Grant, Sereshtahdar of Bengal, as the proper Mogul system.
The actual cultivators, or farmers as they would be termed in England,
only they all occupied very small farms, were called Zemindars, and were
very moderately assessed.  In Almora, (and the other estates did not
materially differ,) the rent was fixed by the Visi, which, on an average,
may be taken at 10 Calcutta bigas, or 3-1/5 English acres; but the Visis
varied a good deal in size, especially in such as were exempted from
assessment, which were in general much larger than such as paid it.  The
extent of 10 bigas for the Visi is chiefly applicable to the latter.  The
rent was paid partly in kind, partly in money.  Each Visi in October paid
28 sers of clean rice, (Calcutta weight,) 4 sers of the pulse called
Urid, and 2 sers of Ghiu or oil: in May it paid 28 sers of wheat, 4 sers
of Urid, and 2 of Ghiu: in August it paid one rupee in money.  On each of
the two holidays called Dasahara, there was besides a kid offered to the
sovereign for every 10 Visis.  The possessions of a convenient number of
Zemindars formed a gram or gang, and one of them held the hereditary
office of Pradhan, entirely analogous to the Umra of the eastern parts.
The Pradhan was allowed a deduction of rent, and enjoyed some honourable
distinctions, and, when the heir was in any manner incapacitated, a
relation was appointed to act for him.  The representations of the other
Zemindars or farmers in the same gram, were usually considered as the
most just criterion of this incapacity.  Besides the judicial powers and
the magistracy of his territory, the Pradhan kept an account of the other
tenants, and of their payments and debts to government, and, receiving
what was due, transmitted it to the collector.  He was also an agent for
the other Zemindars of his village, to represent losses which they had
suffered, and to solicit indulgences on the occasion.  Over from twenty
to fifty Pradhans was another hereditary officer named Kamin, analogous
to the Desali of the eastern states.  He assisted the Pradhans in
settling their accounts, and in obtaining indulgences on account of
peculiar losses; and it was his duty, in an especial manner, to protect
the Zemindars, and to induce new comers to occupy waste lands.  The rents
were never farmed out, but were delivered by the Pradhans to the
messengers of the collector, or Bandari, who received an account of what
was due from the Kanungoe or register, and he made up his accounts from
those forwarded to him by the Pradhans.  Where the lordship was petty, no
other officers were necessary; but where large, the country was divided
into pergunahs or taluks, each managed by an officer removeable at will.
In the most important of these districts, especially towards a weak
frontier, were stationed military officers called Foujdars, who had
authority to determine many small suits without appeal, but always with
the assistance of a Pangchayit.  In the less important stations, the
officers managing taluks or pergunahs were on the hills named Negis, and
on the plains Adhikars.  These also decided causes by means of a
Pangchayit; but there was an appeal to the chief’s court, in which he sat
in person, assisted by his principal officers, the Darogah or judge, and
the Dharm’adhikar or chancellor.  These often decided the cause without a
Pangchayit; but this was only when the parties were obstinate, and would
not consent to the use of this kind of jury.  The facts in criminal
prosecutions were often investigated by the inferior officers and
Pangchayit on the spot, and the chief and his chancellor judged from
their report, what punishment was due.  The Foujdars, Negis, and
Adhikars, besides their duties as judges, magistrates, and military
guardians of the boundary, which the Foujdars were, received from the
Pradhans all the rents, and, having sold those paid in kind, remitted the
proceeds to the (Bandari) collector, or rather store-keeper.

About six parts in ten of the whole lands had been alienated to the
Brahmans and temples, nor do I hear any complaint in this quarter of the
present government having invaded this property; but much of the
Zemindary lands have been granted to the soldiers and officers, on the
same terms as towards the east, and the Zemindars of such lands have in a
great measure been left to the discretion of the new occupants, who have
of course raised considerably the rate of rent.  In former times the
chiefs received the whole proceeds, and paid from thence the whole
establishment, civil and military.  In comparing the following accounts,
therefore, of the states east and west of the river Kali, particular
attention must be paid to this circumstance.  For instance, the revenue
of Gorkha has been stated at 12,000 rupees, and that of Bhajji at 15,000;
but the latter, even in comparison with the former, was altogether petty,
as this 15,000 rupees was the whole sum destined for the support of the
chief and his family, and of his officers, servants, and soldiers;
whereas the 12,000 rupees in Gorkha was entirely disposable for the
personal expense of the chief, and his children; his kinsmen, and even
most of his domestics, as well as the civil and military establishments,
being supported entirely by land.

In the western parts, the chief civil authority was held by the Vazir,
and the chief military command by the Bukhshi, and both were appointed by
the will of the chief; but of course most commonly were conferred on his
kinsmen, although some families of Brahmans often interfered.  The
military were of two kinds.  Part consisted of adventurers from the low
country, the privates receiving usually five rupees a month, and
remaining constantly on duty.  The others were selected from the stoutest
youth in the families of the Zemindars, and were relieved as often as
they pleased, by their parents or kinsmen sending other youths in their
place; for no sort of instruction in military evolution was attempted,
and the only exercise was shooting at a mark.  The privates of this class
received daily rations of food, and twice a year from 20 to 100 rupees,
according to their supposed intrepidity.  Those, however, who received
more than 25 rupees were few in number.  The whole troops were armed with
matchlock, sword, and target.



PART II.
ACCOUNT OF THE PARTICULAR STATES WHICH FORMERLY EXISTED,
AND OF THE FAMILIES BY WHICH EACH WAS GOVERNED.


INTRODUCTION.


I now proceed to give an account of the various states and principalities
which this mountainous region contained, and of the manner in which they
became subject to the chiefs of Gorkha; and I shall commence at the
Eastern extremity, proceeding westward regularly, so far as I can,
without interrupting the account of each family.



CHAPTER FIRST.
OF THE STATES EAST FROM THE RIVER KALI.


SECTION I.
COUNTRY OF SIKIM.


Inhabitants.—Government.—Extent.—History.—Geography.

The most eastern principality, in the present dominions of Gorkha, is
that of the Lapchas, called Sikim.  Although the prince of Sikim was a
Bhotiya, the strength of his army consisted entirely of the Lapchas, who
inhabited the higher mountains between the Kankayi and Tista.  The
Bhotiyas themselves are a very timid race, entirely sunk under the
enervating effects of what they call religion.

Besides the Bhotiyas, who surrounded the prince, and the Lapchas by whom
he was guarded, the mountains of Sikim contained many people of the tribe
called Limbu, who have been already mentioned.  My informant thinks, that
of the whole population three-tenths were Bhotiyas, five-tenths Lapchas,
and two tenths Limbus.

The princes of Sikim, as I have said, were Bhotiyas.  They were of a
family of high rank from Lasa, and took the title of Gelpo.  The next
person in the state was the chief or Hang of the Lapchas.  I suspect that
the Gelpo possessed little power, except in matters of religion; for it
is said, that his neighbour, the Deva Dharma Raja, although a mere
priest, appoints whomsoever he pleases to manage the temporal affairs of
his country; but in Sikim the office of Hang is hereditary.  I have not
learned the succession of the princes of Sikim; but it is probable that
the Bhotiyas have governed the country for a considerable time.

At one time the princes of Sikim had extended their dominion far south,
into the district of Puraniya, and possessed the low country on the east
of the Mahananda, as far as Krishnagunj, a part of the country which was
originally possessed by the Koch and Paliyas, the natives of Kamrup and
Matsya, now the districts of Ranggapur and Dinajpur.  The Rajas of Sikim
were driven from the greatest part of this most valuable of their
possessions by the Moslems; but they still retained a small space of the
plain to the north of the Pergunah of Baikunthapur, when they were
attacked by the Gorkhalese.  Although the Kankayi, in the upper part of
its course, was nearly their boundary, they never would appear to have
possessed the plain between the Kankayi and Mahananda; but they were
lords of the lower hills, occupied by the tribe called Dimali, who, I am
assured, are the same with the Mech, a tribe now confined to the eastern
parts of Kamrup or Ranggapur.

The chief who governed Sikim before the year 1782, was by the natives of
the Company’s territory named Rup Chiring; but the Bhotiya names are so
mangled by the Bengalese, that no reliance can be placed on those
reported by them.  He resided at Darjiling, and had there a fort, or
strong house of brick, which an old Bengalese, who visited it about that
time, describes as very splendid; but his ideas of magnificence in
building are probably rather confined.  This prince died about the year
1782, and was succeeded by his son, the Chhawa Raja, which is the name
that the low country people give to the heir-apparent of this family.
During his time, and, as would appear from a letter addressed by Mr Pagan
to Colonel Ross, in the month of September, (probably of 1788, for there
is no date in the letter,) the Gorkhalese invaded Sikim.  Their troops
consisted of about 6000 men, of whom 2000 were regulars, and were under
the command of Tiurar Singha, Subah of Morang.  He met with no opposition
until he approached Sikim, the capital, in defence of which the Rajah
ventured an engagement; when, after an obstinate resistance, he was
completely defeated, owing, in all probability, to the 2000 fusileers.
The Gorkhalese, however, suffered much, although they immediately laid
siege to the capital.  This happened shortly previous to the 28th October
1788, as, in a letter from Mr Pagan of that date, he mentions, that he
had just received accounts of the entire conquest of Sikim by the
Gorkhalese, who, in this report, had considerably magnified the extent of
their victory.

The Raja of Sikim retired towards the frontier of Thibet, in order to
reassemble his army, and to solicit assistance from Lasa and Tasasudan.
At the latter place was soon concluded a treaty, by which the Sikim chief
engaged to pay the Deva Dharma Raja a certain tribute, on condition of
his being restored to his dominions by the exertions of that prince.
This negotiation is said to have been facilitated by an open boast made
by the Gorkhalese, that they no sooner should have conquered Sikim, than
they would attack the Deva Dharma Raja, a kind of policy of which the
Gorkhalese are fond, when they have no sort of intention of putting their
threats in execution.

The Raja, strengthened by a considerable force of the Deva Dharma’s
troops, and a party of Bhotiyas from a province of Thibet, named Portaw,
returned towards the capital, and, about the beginning of December,
compelled the Gorkhalese to raise the siege; and, after losing many men
in a skirmish, to retire towards Ilam on the Kankayi, where they had
erected forts to secure a communication with Morang.  It must be
observed, that, at this time, the Gorkhalese had invaded the province of
Kutti in Thibet, and had there met with a repulse; and that a body of the
troops of Thibet had penetrated through a pass in the mountains to the
eastward of Kutti.  These troops seized on the passes of the Kosi and
Arun rivers, thus intending to cut off all communication between
Kathmandu and the army in Morang; an excellent plan, and very easily
practicable.

The Gorkhalese commander, far from being dismayed, seems soon to have
dispossessed these troops, and gave out that he had retreated from Sikim
merely on account of the severity of the cold.

From the reports of the natives, there is reason to suppose, that about
this time the Sikim Raja died, leaving his son Kurin Namki, an infant.
The war was chiefly conducted by Yuksu-thuck, the Hang or chief of the
Lapchas, who was next in rank to the Raja.  This man, by the natives of
the low country, was called Chhatrajit, and was a person of barbarous
energy.  He seems to have headed the army in the field, while his brother
Nam-si (Lamjit of the Bengalese) defended the capital.  They were sons of
Lang-cho, son of De-sha, both of whom had held the office of Hang.

Soon after these advantages over the Gorkhalese, the troops of the Deva
Dharma Raja retired; for they are allowed no pay, and the country was too
poor to admit of plunder.  By a letter from Mr Pagan, this would appear
to have happened before the 29th March 1789.  On this the greater part of
the people of Sikim submitted to the Gorkhalese; but the Raja fled to
Tankiya in Thibet, and the chief of the Lapchas retired to a stronghold
situated between the two branches of the Tista; from which he has ever
since annoyed the Gorkhalese.  This place, called Gandhauk, has annexed
to it a territory of considerable extent, and affords the Raja a revenue
of about 7000 rupees a-year, which is all that he possesses; but, being a
man of high birth, he lately obtained in marriage a daughter of the chief
minister at Lasa, with whom, in 1809, he returned to the petty dominion,
which the vigour of his minister has retained.

Both the Deva Dharma Raja and the government of Lasa seem to have been
most seriously alarmed at the progress of the Gorkhalese, and applied to
the Emperor of China for his interposition.  In the meanwhile, the Deva
Dharma Raja is said to have sent an embassy to Kathmandu, offering as a
sacrifice the part of Baikunthapur, that had been given to him by Mr
Hastings; but the interposition of the emperor came in time to save this,
and the Gorkhalese have ever since abstained from giving him any
molestation.  The people of Thibet were not so fortunate, and were
compelled to cede to the Nepalese a part of Kutti, which now forms the
government of Kheran or Kheru, on the head of the Sankosi, and some
Bhotiya villages near the Arun, which are now annexed to the northern
part of Vijaypur, and with that form the government of Chayenpur.  By a
letter from Colonel Ross, dated in the end of December 1789, it would
appear that our government had received intelligence of every thing
having been settled by the interference of the Chinese, and that a
Gorkhalese envoy had been dispatched to pay homage to the emperor.

The Lapchas were, however, not so easily managed.  Part under their chief
Nam-si maintained an absolute independence, and the remainder have been
so troublesome, that the Gorkhalese have judged it prudent to give them a
governor, or, at least, a collector of their own.  This person, named
Yu-kang-ta, and called Angriya Gabur by the Bengalese, is nephew of the
Lapcha chief, who has so gallantly defended the remnant of the
principality.  In 1808, I found that he was in possession of the whole
civil government, and had agreed to pay annually a fixed sum as tribute.
The Subah of Chayenpur was, however, in military authority over him, and
there were Gorkhalese troops at Sikim and Darjiling, the two chief places
in the district.

On the return of the young Raja to Gandhauk, he brought with him as an
escort 500 Bhotiyas of Thibet; and an insurrection seems to have been
meditated.  In the end of 1809, a person calling himself Dihit Karan, a
relation of the chief of the Kirats, came to Lieutenant Munro, then
stationed at Sannyasikata, and informed him that he had been sent as an
ambassador by the Chinese general, (Vazir,) who had arrived with 15,000
men and 40 guns to restore the Prince of Sikim, and that he was on his
way to Puraniya, to proceed from thence to Calcutta.  From the
information of his nearest relations, there is reason to think that Dihit
Karan had died before this time, and the messenger did not go to
Puraniya.  It is probable that he merely came to sound Mr Munro, whether
or not there was any actual appearance of hostility between the British
government and the Gorkhalese.  The only troops that had come were the
500 armed Bhotiyas; but with even these the enterprising Lapcha is said
to have determined to proceed, and a good many Gorkhalese soldiers
marched in that direction.  At this time the Lapcha died, and after a
little skirmishing things were amicably adjusted, the Sikim Raja
retaining Gandhauk alone.

The map of this country drawn by the Lama, and mentioned in the
Introduction, although very rude, as might be naturally expected, will
enable scientific men to throw considerable light on the geography of
that country, hitherto almost unknown, and more reliance is to be placed
on most of the Lama’s positions, than on those given in the map of the
countries east from Nepal, which has been mentioned in the same place,
except towards the south-west corner, for the Lama was better acquainted
with the other parts of the country than the person who constructed the
map to which I have alluded.  His scale is an inch to the day’s journey.
His angular lines represent mountains, and, beginning at the north, we
find Khawa karpola, that is, the mountain white with snow, or the highest
ridge of Emodus, which separates Sikim from the dominion of Lasa.
According to the map, this ridge is penetrated by three rivers.  That on
the west is the Kankayi; but it seems doubtful whether or not this
actually rises from beyond the highest peaks of Emodus, for, in another
map, which will be afterwards mentioned, its source is made to come from
a lower range of the snowy mountains, which by some is called Mirgu; and
this opinion is strongly confirmed by its size, when it enters the
plains.  The Kankayi would appear to run in a narrow valley between two
ridges of mountains, and for some way down the whole valley belonged to
Sikim.  In this are two Golas or marts, Bilasi and Majhoya.  To these
marts the low country traders carry rice, salt, extract of sugar-cane,
hogs, dry fish, tobacco, spirituous liquor, and various cloths.  Formerly
they took oxen for slaughter, but, since the conquest, this has been
prohibited.  They procured in return cotton, Indian madder, (Manjit,)
musk, and Thibet bull-tails, (Chaungris.)

Farther down, the Kankayi formed the boundary between the Kirats and
Sikim, until it reached the plain, the whole of which, as far as the
Mahananda, belonged to the Vijaypur Rajas, while all the low hills
belonged to Sikim.  These low hills are not represented in the map,
although they are of very considerable size, such as the greater part of
the mountains of Scotland or Wales; but, near Emodus, these appear like
molehills.  The hilly country, I am told by the traders, commences at
what they call six coses north from Sannyasikata, and extends about
eighteen coses farther to Siumali, another mart, which the low country
people name Dimali.

The hills south of Dimali are thinly inhabited by the Mech or Dimali, who
cultivate cotton, rice, and other articles, in the same manner as the
Garos, which will be described in my account of Asam.  This kind of
country extends from the Kankayi to the Tista, everywhere, probably,
about the same width; but the coses, in all likelihood, are very short,
twelve of them being reckoned a day’s journey, and, in such roads, twelve
miles is a long journey, and will give no great horizontal distance.

Between the Mahananda and Tista the Sikim Raja possessed a low tract,
four or five coses wide, which is inhabited by Koch, and cultivated with
the plough.  The chief place in it is Dabi, on the east bank of the
Mahananda.  This part is not noticed in the Lama’s map.

Siumali, or Dimali, according to the Bengalese, is a custom-house on the
east side of the Bala kongyar river, but the Lama places it on the west,
and is probably more correct, the Bengalese concerning such points being
uncommonly stupid.  At this custom-house or mart is a Lapcha collector,
appointed by Yu-kang-ta.  He has with him four Bengalese writers, to
assist him in collecting the duties.  The custom-house consists of a
square surrounded by buildings, in which the traders and their
commodities are received, for there is no house near, except those of the
collector and his assistants.  The traders from the low country take up
salt, tobacco, cotton cloth, goats, fowls, swine, iron, and occasionally
a little coral, and broad cloth.  They bring back Indian madder,
(Manjit,) cotton, beeswax, blankets, horses, musk, bull-tails,
(Chaungris,) Chinese flowered silk, (Devang,) and rhinoceroses horns.

North from the mart, half a day’s journey, on a hill at the source of the
Bala kongyar, is the residence of Yu-kang-ta, the Lapcha chief, who now
collects the revenues for the Gorkhalese.  By the natives it is called
Sam-dung, but the Bengalese call it Nagrikoth.  They describe it as a
very large building, with several stories, and it was represented to Mr
Monro as a fort of some strength.  Both accounts are, however, doubtful,
as I learn that it is roofed only with thatch.  Two days’ journey east
from this, at the source of the Mahananda, is Satang, another Gola or
mart; but, of late, Siumali has engrossed almost the whole trade.

Immediately north from these places the Lama lays down a high ridge of
mountains, extending from the Kankayi beyond the Tista, and on this he
says that Dalimkoth, belonging to Bhotan, is situated, and he makes it
communicate with the snowy mountains, both at the Kankayi and to the east
of the Tista.  All the rivers between the Kankayi and Tista spring from
the south side of this chain, and between its two arms is included the
greater part of Sikim, watered by various branches of the Tista, and
forming, as it were, a valley; but the whole of this space is extremely
mountainous, though there is much cultivation carried on with the hoe.
The great articles of cultivation are rice and Manjit.

Beyond Sam-dung and Sa-tang one day’s journey, and on the other side of
the first high mountains, is Darjiling, which would appear to be the
chief fortress of the country, as it is there that the Gorkhalese troops
are mostly stationed.  From thence to Sikim, the capita], is six days’
journey, and the snowy mountains are about the same distance still
farther north.  Sikim is on the west side of the Jhamikuma river, which
arises from the south side of the snowy mountains, and, opposite to the
town, divides into two branches, which surround an immense mountain, on
the top of which there is a small level and strong-hold named Tasiding.
The descent from this to the river is reckoned half a day’s journey on
each side.  Some way below this, the river receives from the west a
branch named Rainam, that rises from the mountains, by which the Kankayi
is bounded on the east.  The united streams are called the Rimikma, which
soon joins the Tista.

The great river Tista arises in the dominions of Lasa by two branches,
called the Greater and Lesser Tista, and passes through the snowy
mountains.  The western branch forms the boundary between the dominions
of the Gorkhalese and the petty territory of Gan-dhauk, which still
remains to the Raja of Sikim.  This poor prince possesses also a small
portion beyond the lesser or eastern Tista, which, however, in general,
forms the boundary between him and Bhotan, or the country of the Deva
Dharma Raja.  On its east side is Dam-sang, a fortress belonging to the
last-mentioned prince.  The united stream of the two Tistas forms the
present boundary between him and Gorkha.

The only route between Sikim and Thibet is by a passage through the snowy
mountains, named Phakali, and this is seven days’ journey from Jang-chim,
in the north-east part of the Sikim territory, so that, the route being
through the territory of the Deva Dharma Raja, the people of Sikim were
entirely dependent on this prince for a communication with Thibet.


SECTION II.
DOMINIONS OF THE FAMILY DESCENDED FROM MAKANDA SEN,
RAJA OF MAKWANPUR.


General History.—Branch of Lohanga which occupied the Country of the
Kiratas.—History.—Former Government.—Military Force, Police, and Revenue,
and Justice.—Present State.—District of Morang.—District of
Chayenpur.—District of Naragarhi.—District of Hedang.—District of
Makwanpur.—Western Branch, which occupied chiefly the Country of
Palpa.—History—Description.—Tanahung Family and its Possessions, and
Collateral Branches.—Rising, Ghiring, and Gajarkot.

The next principality to that of the Lapchas was that of the Kiratas,
which fell to the lot of a family that pretends to be sprung from the
Rajas of Chitaur, although its claims, as I have said, are by no means
well substantiated, and the different branches of the family differ much
in the account of their genealogy.

In the account of the Newars, I have mentioned, that the tribe called
Bhawar or Bhar has many territories, which had been subject to a powerful
chief, whose capital was Garsamaran in Tirahut, and the dominion of these
Bhawars extended once all over Gorakhpur.  Garsamaran was destroyed in
1322 by the Muhammedans, and in its vicinity a state of anarchy, under
petty chiefs, prevailed for twenty-four years, while the Muhammedans
seized on the parts towards the Ganges.  About 1306, the Muhammedans had
destroyed Chitaur, and expelled from thence the Chauhan tribe, called
also Sisaudhiyas, because they had been settled in a town of that name
before they occupied Chitaur.

In the account given of the mountain Hindus, I have mentioned, that these
Chauhans are said to have retired to the mountains, and founded the
dynasties of Karuvirpur and Yumila; but another family pretends also to
be descended from the Rajas of Chitaur, and to have long occupied a great
extent of country to the east, south, and west of Nepal Proper.  In the
eastern parts of this dominion, it was said, that the first chiefs of
this family, who came to the parts of which I am now treating, were Jil
and Ajil Rays, sons of Buddhi, brother of Chitra Sen, Raja of Chitaur,
and son of Pratap Sen, son of Udayraj Sen, of the Sisaudhiya tribe of the
Kshatriya race.  These two adventurers, with 700 soldiers of fortune,
entered into the service of Karma Singha, a person of the impure tribe of
Bhawar, which is very numerous in the low country subject to Nepal.  This
chief resided at Rajpur, on the west side of the Gandaki or Salagrami,
where that great river enters the plains, and he had subject to him many
of his countrymen, who chiefly cultivated the low lands, and some Kirats,
and other barbarians, who occupied the adjacent hills, and formed his
military power.  He is said to have had two brothers, Nandakumar, Raja of
Nandapur Tisuti, near Bhawara, (Bawara R.) in Tirahut, and Sarandeo, Raja
of Belka on the Kosi.

For twenty-two years the Hindu nobles served this low man, but were then
able to cut him off, and Ajil Sen assumed the government.  He was
succeeded by his son Tula Sen; and it must be observed, that all the
princes of this family are called Sen, which I shall for the future in
general omit, although among the natives, in speaking of them, it is
always annexed.  Tula built on the hills the fortress of Makwanpur,
(Mocaumpour, R.) since which time the principality has been often called
by that name, but it seems then to have extended only from the large
Gandaki to the Adhwara River.  He was succeeded in regular lineal descent
by Dambhal, Gajapati, Chandra, Rudra, and Mukunda, by which time the
principality had been extended far towards the west, over the mountains
of the Magars and Gurung.

In the western parts of the territory belonging to this family, I
procured a manuscript said to have been composed by Rana Bahadur, late
Chautariya of Palpa, and one of its descendants.  He states, that the
first of his ancestors, who came to this country, was Rudra Sen, the son
of Chandra Sen, Raja of Chitaur, descended of Ratna Sen, first Chauhan
chief of that city; but I think that this account is not tenable, and
Samar Bahadur, the brother of Rana Bahadur, gives one totally different,
and, in my opinion, more probable.  He says, that Ratna Sen, instead of
being the first Raja of Chitaur, was the last of these princes; and that
Naya Sen, his eldest son, settled at Prayag or Allahabad, which he seized
with 20,000 men, and he considers Tutha Sen, Ribeli Sen, Dimirawa Sen,
Udayarawa Sen, Udayachanda Sen, Jagadbrahma Sen, Dharma Pala Sen, Aneka
Singha Sen, Ramraja Sen, and Chandra Sen, the father of Rudra Sen, not as
Rajas of Chitaur, as his brother’s manuscript represents, but as chiefs
of the colony from that city, which settled in the vicinity of Nepal.
Tutha Sen, he says, having been driven from Prayag, seized on the country
adjacent to the hills of Butaul, and afterwards seized on the
principality of Champaranya, the capital of which was Rajpur.  Now, this
seems highly probable, for Chitaur was taken in about 1306, and
Garsamaran, of which Champaranya was originally a dependency, did not
fall until 1322, while an anarchy prevailed throughout the territories of
Garsamaran until 1346, that is to say, until these were mostly reunited
under the colony from Chitaur, 40 years after the fall of that city.  It
is, therefore, unlikely, that the chief who left Chitaur should have seen
his family established in a new dominion; but, that it should have been
his son who accomplished this event, as Samar Bahadur says, is highly
probable.  Tutha’s first acquisition on the hills seems to have been
Rishiyang, now an inconsiderable place between Butaul and Palpa.  His son
founded Ribdikot in that vicinity, of which it continued to be the
capital, until Palpa was founded by Rudra Sen.  It must be observed, that
the accounts procured in Puraniya and Gorakhpur differ totally as to
names, until the time of Chandra Sen, after which they agree tolerably
well, and Rudra was probably the first of the family, as his descendant
alleges, who assumed the title of the Palpa Raja.  It is agreed by all,
that the Makanda Sen, the son of Rudra, possessed very extensive
dominions, and might probably have founded a kingdom equal to that which
the Gorkhalese now enjoy, but he had the imbecility to divide his estates
among his four sons.  The accounts concerning these sons differ somewhat.
According to what I heard in Puraniya, Manik, the eldest son, obtained
Palpa, Bhringgu received Tanahung, Rajpur the original possession of the
family, was given to Arjun, and Makwanpur, with its hardy mountaineers,
fell to the lot of Lohangga.  But the account given in the manuscript of
Rana Bahadur, which here, I think, deserves most credit, is, that the
eldest son was Binayak, who communicated his name to a large territory on
the plain west from the Gandaki, which he received as his patrimony; but
this territory is now most commonly called Butaul, from its chief town,
and in the low country the chiefs are commonly called the Butaul Rajas.
The second son, Manik, obtained Palpa; the third son, Bihangga, (Bhringga
of the Puraniya account,) obtained Tanahung, and Lohangga, the fourth
son, obtained Makwanpur.

I shall now return to the Kiratas, the nation next to the Lapchas, when
they were about to receive Lohangga as their chief.

At that time the country between the Kosi and the Kankayi, and on the
plain so far as the Mahanandah, was subject to Vijayanarayan, whose
ancestors are said to have come from Kamrup.  From his title, one might
be led to suppose that he was of the Vihar family; but one of this race,
who was in my service, denied any such relation; and, indeed, as Vijaya
is said to have been the seventh prince of his family, he could scarcely
have been descended of the grandson of the Koch Hajo, ancestor of the
chief’s of Vihar.  The natives allege, that the title of the chiefs of
this family was Harbhang Raja, and that the title of his minister was
Bharbhang Mantri.  Harbhang Bharbhang, in the provincial dialect, implies
foolish, similar to the notions entertained by the Bengalese of
Havachandra and Bhavachandra of Kamrup, which may perhaps serve to
connect the history of the two dynasties.  Not that these princes seem to
have been more foolish than their neighbours, but they probably had some
customs, that appeared extraordinary to their subjects.  Two dynasties
are mentioned as having preceded that of the Harbhang Rajas; 1_st_, That
of Kichak Raja, contemporary with Yudhishthir; and, 2_d_, That of the
Satya Rajas, in whose time probably the power of the Kirats or Kichaks
was at the greatest height.

I have received three accounts of the manner in which Vijayanarayan was
overthrown.  The first was given me orally by Agam Singha.  He says, that
the ancestors of Vijayanarayan originally possessed only the low country
called Morang; but that this prince took into his service his ancestor
Singha Ray, the son of Khebang, who was Hang or hereditary chief of the
Kirats, that occupied the hills north from Morang.  When the needy
mountaineers had for some time been accustomed to the luxuries of the
plains, the Raja built Vijayapur, and took the title of Vijaya Bharati,
or victorious over the earth.  He soon after took occasion to put the
mountain chief to death, under pretence, that he, being an impure
beef-eating monster, had presumed to defile a Hindu woman.  Baju Ray, son
of the mountain chief, immediately retired, and, going to the Rajput
chief of Makwanpur, promised to join him with all his Kirats, if that
prince would enable him to destroy the murderer of his father.  This was
accordingly done, and the Hang was constituted sole Chautariya or
hereditary chief minister of the principality, which dignity his
descendants enjoyed, until its total overthrow, and Agam Singha, the last
possessor of the office, accompanied his master, when he fled for refuge
into the Company’s territory, and now lives with the mother of that
unfortunate youth.

The second account was given by the Munsuf of Bahadurgunj, mentioned in
the Introduction.  He nearly agrees with the Kirat chief, but says, that
the new dynasty was formed in a manner entirely peaceable.  Vijayanarayan
having died without heirs, the Kirat chief, who was the second person in
the government, invited a brother of the Palpa Raja to take possession of
the government.

The third account was communicated to me in writing by Premnarayan Das,
mentioned also in the Introduction.  The scribe says, that one day
Vijayanarayan went to Varahachhatra, a place of pilgrimage on the Kosi,
where Vishnu is worshipped under the form of a boar.  Here he found a
Sannyasi, Ramanath Bharati, who, warned by a dream, had come from Surya
kunda, and had taken up his residence in a hut near the place of worship,
where he was assiduous in prayer.  The Sannyasi having been insolent to
the Raja, a circumstance not at all improbable, the prince had the
audacity to kick him down the hill, and to burn his hut.  The god then
appeared to the saint in a human form, and gave him authority of speech,
(Bakya Siddhi,) by which all men would obey his command.  Bharati then
went to the poor chief of Makwanpur, who, having been kind and attentive,
was commanded to take possession of the dominions of Vijayanarayan, and
was informed how it might be done.

The account of the Kirat is evidently the most credible, although it is
not unlikely that Ramanath may have been disgusted, and might have been
employed to gain over the people, and to negotiate between the Rajput and
Kirat; but the scribe alleges, that these barbarians were not elevated to
the first office of the state until a later period.  However that may be,
in the remainder of the history, I shall follow chiefly his account,
although even there it differs in some particulars from the accounts that
I received both from Agam Singha, and from the Brahman.

Lohangga, on crossing the Adhwara, first subdued a petty chief of the
Magar tribe.  He then took possession of a small territory on the plain,
belonging to an Aniwar Brahman.  Then he destroyed Mohan Thakur, another
chief of the last mentioned tribe, and seized on his territory, which now
forms the district of Mahatari.  He in a similar manner seized on Korani,
belonging to a Bhawar, and probably a descendant of Nandakumar, (p. 129;)
on Khesraha, belonging to Raja Langkeswar; on Rampur belonging to Raja
Muzles; on Pokhari, belonging to Raja Karabandar; on Jhamuna, belonging
to Raja Roja; on Jogoda, belonging to Raja Udaygir; on Dhapar, Kalisa,
and Belka koth, belonging to Raja Karnadeo; on Samda, belonging to
Ballabh deo; and on Karjain, belonging to Dullabh deo, a brother of the
two last mentioned chiefs, who were descended of Saran deo, brother of
Karma Singha and Nandakumar, (p. 129,) as I am informed by Gauri
Chaudhuri, their representative, and now Zemindar of Dhapar, in the
district of Puraniya.  All these were petty independent chiefs, whose
territories now form Pergunahs in the Subah of Saptari, belonging to
Gorkha, or in the adjacent parts of the Company’s territory.  The
rapacious chief now made an attack on the hill Gidha, but here he was
opposed by a devil, (Dano,) who killed a number of his troops, and
prevailed, until the holy man Ramanath ordered the god Ramkrishna to cut
off the devil’s head, which was accordingly done.  The Raja then
descended to Meghvari on the banks of the Kosi, where he learned that
Vijayanarayan had died.  He, therefore, left one-half of his troops at
Meghvari, and, advancing with the other, took quiet possession of
Vijayapur, (Bissypur, R.)  The nature of these transactions strongly
confirms the account given by Agam Singha, as the force of the petty
district of Makwanpur seems to have been totally inadequate to effect
such conquests; but the junction of the Kirats will readily account for
the success.

Agam Singha says, that during these wars, his ancestor Baju was killed,
and was succeeded by his son Bidyachandra, who relinquished the title of
Hang, and in its stead took that of Chautariya, and who, like all his
successors, assumed a Hindu name, and adopted some degree of purity in
his manner of life.

Lohangga had now acquired a very extensive territory, reaching from the
Adiya on the west to the Mahananda on the east, and from the alps of Bhot
to Julagar near Puraniya.  When the Sannyasi had placed the Raja on the
throne, he wished to return to his native country, but, at the
intercession of the prince, he remained some time longer, having been
appointed priest (Mahanta) to a temple (Math) erected at Varaha Chhatra,
and well endowed.  According, indeed, to my authority, the priests, his
successors, seem to have held a distinguished place in the state; but,
since the conquest, they have sunk into insignificance, although the
Gorkhalese still allow them ample endowments.

Lohangga had two sons, Raghav’ and Bhagawanta, but rationally left the
whole of his dominions to the former, who, by all other persons except
the scribe, is considered as having been the founder of the family in
these parts, and as a brother of the Raja of Palpa.  In his reign
Ramanath delivered over his office to Jagamoban, and disappeared; but he
promised his successor to favour him with an annual visit.

Harihar’, the son of Raghav’, extended his dominions to Gondwara, and
took the title of Hindupati, or chief of the Hindus.  His wife, Jagamata,
having been delivered of a daughter of most extraordinary beauty, he, in
his joy, called to her by her name; but, as it is totally contrary to
Hindu law for a man to call his wife Mata, that is, mother, he was under
the necessity of divorcing her, which will, perhaps, show that his
civilians had a considerable skill in discovering legal pretexts for the
actions of their prince.  The chief was soon after supplied with other
wives, for, having made war on the Vihar Raja, and taken that prince in
battle, his anger was pacified by obtaining Mahisi and Maheswari, two
beautiful daughters of the descendant of Siva.  By Mahisi the Morang Raja
had four sons, Chhatrapati, Padma, Pratap, and one who died an infant.
Maheswari bore only one son, named Subha, to whom his father intended to
leave the whole of his dominions, and, in order to secure his authority,
gave him immediate possession of the territory of Makwani.

After this, Harihar seems to have fallen into a state of dotage, and his
three sons by Mahisi rose upon their aged parent, and put him in
confinement.  In this difficulty he applied to Adanuka, the wife of
Chhatrapati, one of these unnatural sons, and promised, if she would
procure his release, that he would leave the whole of his kingdom to the
child with which she was then pregnant.  This lady, who seems to have
possessed great abilities, persuaded her husband and his two brothers to
release their father, on condition that the whole kingdom should be
divided into four equal shares, one for each brother.  The three sons of
Mahisi then went and attacked their brother, in order to compel him to
agree to this engagement, but they were defeated with great loss, and
retreated to Phulwari, on the Kamala river, where Adanuka was delivered
of a son, whom his grandfather immediately created king of all the
territories east from the Kosi, while he left all on the west of that
river to his son Subha.  The father and uncles of the infant had probably
been too much weakened by their defeat to venture on any farther
enterprise of villainy.

I shall now follow the history of Subha, who soon after these events fell
sick, and sent for Ganggadhar, the successor of Jagamohan as priest at
Varaha Chhatra.  This person informed the Raja that he was just about to
die, but, as he himself had forty years of life to spare, he would
transfer them to the prince, for whom he had a great regard.  The Raja
accepted the offer, and soon after the priest went and buried himself
alive, (Samadi,) a manner of taking leave of the world which is
considered as very laudable, and to this day is occasionally practised at
Varaha Chhatra.  The Raja, on the strength of this accession of life,
married a young Rajput named Amarawati, by whom he had two sons, Mahapati
and Manik.

Subha Sen had governed thirty-one years of his additional life, when he
had a dispute with Pradyumna Upadhyaya, a Brahman of Tanahung, who was
his Dewan, or minister of finance.  This traitor entered into a
conspiracy with a certain officer named Parasuram Thapa, and, in order to
induce this man to rebel, did not hesitate to give him his daughter in
marriage, although the fellow was of the spurious breed called Khas,
descended by the father’s side alone from the sacred order; and this
would appear to be considered as by far the most reprehensible part of
the Brahman’s offence.  Having seized on the old Raja, their master,
these traitors intended to deliver him up to Isfundiyar khan, the Nawab
of Puraniya.  By this time Indu Bidhata, the infant who had been made
Raja of Marang, had grown up, and, hearing of his uncle’s misfortune, led
an army against the Nawab and the traitors, and was accompanied by his
brother Budha Sen.  Having obtained a victory, he restored his uncle;
but, while they were still in the midst of their joy, Kalu Upadhyaya, a
relation of the treacherous Brahman, contrived to seize on both the uncle
and nephews, and again delivered them to the Nawab, who had made the most
liberal promises.  It was on this occasion that the Moslems reduced the
greater part of the low country of Morang, and, in fact, they settled
some free land on the family of the traitor, but to no great extent, and
vastly less than was expected.  One of his descendants is now the Munsuf
at Bahadurgunj, mentioned above as one of the persons from whom I
received information respecting this principality.

The unfortunate Subha and his nephews were sent to Dilli, where Muhammed
Azim, then emperor, deprived them of cast by a curtailment of which the
faithful are proud.

Prabodh das, the then Neb, or second hereditary minister of the family,
fled with the two sons of Subha Sen to the Kirats, and his descendant,
who gave me the written account, alleges that it was then only that the
chiefs of this tribe were elevated to the dignity of Chautariya; but in
this, I imagine, he is mistaken.

Mahapati, the eldest son, was placed by the Kirat Bidyachandra Ray on the
throne of all that remained to the family east from the Kamala river,
while the smaller portion west from that river was given to his brother
Manik, to whom Prabodh das adhered; but a Kirat of the same family with
Bidyachandra acted as the Chautariya of Manik, and Mahapati had a Neb of
the family of Prabodh das.

Mahapati married, but neglected his wife, and had eighteen illegitimate
children.  Mahapati means elder son, and I was assured by the Munsuf of
Bahadurgunj, that his real name was Mandhata.  Here, indeed, I must
follow chiefly the authority of the Munsuf; for the descendant of Prabodh
das is little acquainted with the history of the eastern division, while
the Munsuf was naturally unwilling to speak of the western.

Mandhata governed eighteen or twenty years, and left his territory to his
natural son Kamdatt.  I am informed by a Brahman, who had resided long in
these parts, and by an intelligent Kirat, that Kamdatt lived on very bad
terms with Bichitra Ray, the Kirat Chautariya of this part of the
principality, who drove Kamdatt to Lasa, and placed on the throne Jagat,
a younger but legitimate son of the western branch of the family.  This
prince reconciled the Chautariya to Kamdatt, and while Jagat reserved to
himself the country between the Kamala and Kosi, he gave all the
territory east from the latter river to his kinsman Kamdatt.  Thus the
principality became divided into three shares.

Soon after this Bichitra the Chautariya died, and was succeeded by
Budhkarna his son, with whom Kamdatt continued to live on the worst
terms; sometimes the one, and then the other, being under the necessity
of flying from Vijayapur, which was the seat of government.  On one of
these occasions Kamdatt came to the Company’s territory, and applied to
Ghanasyam Upadhyaya, of the family of the traitor who had betrayed Subha
Sen.  The Brahman took him to Calcutta; but, receiving no countenance
from the Governor-General, they returned to the frontier, where they
raised some men, with whom Kamdatt recovered the government of Morang.
Kamdatt still farther enraged the Kirat by putting his brother to death,
on which event Budhkarna applied to the legitimate heir of the family,
then in exile, who recommended an alliance with the Sikim Bhotiyas.
Budhkarna having gone to that country, and having formed an alliance with
its rulers, ten men were sent by them under pretence of adjusting the
differences between the prince and his minister.  These ruffians, having
been admitted to a conference without suspicion, rushed on Kamdatt and
put him to death.  Budhkarna then placed on the throne of Vijayapur the
legitimate heir, Karna Sen, whom the Gorkhalese had then expelled from
the middle principality.  He died in about eighteen months afterwards, in
the year 1774, leaving an only son, a boy, under the charge of his widow,
and of his Chautariya Agam Singha, descended in the fifth degree from
Bidya Chandra, who was contemporary, according to Agam Singha, with the
first Rajput prince of this country.  In the same year the Gorkhalese
attacked Vijayapur, and the widow fled with her son, and accompanied by
Agam Singha, to the Company’s territory.

The widow, her son, and minister, settled near Nathpur; while Budhkarna,
after some fruitless engagements, went to Calcutta to solicit assistance,
but without success.  He soon after came towards the frontier, at
Chilmari in the Company’s territory, from whence he was carried off by a
party of Gorkhalese soldiers disguised like robbers.  He was taken to
Vijayapur, where, under pretence of avenging the death of Kamdatt, the
slender claim which the Gorkhalis used to cover their unjust attack on
the infant son of Karna Sen, he was put to the most cruel tortures, which
continued three days before he expired.

The jealousy of Prithwi Narayan of Gorkha did not permit him to view the
poor child, then five years old, without anxious fears.  His first plan
was to endeavour to inveigle him into his power, by promising, on
condition of an annual tribute, to restore his inheritance.  He next
offered to hold the territories of the youth from the British government,
and to pay an annual sum; for he was cruelly alarmed lest the governor
should interfere.  At length he is alleged to have calmed his fears by a
stratagem worthy of his savage nature.  A Brahman was hired to insinuate
himself into the favour of the mother, to whom he represented himself as
a person skilled in the inoculation for the small pox.  Having gained the
mother’s consent, he performed the operation; but the smallpox did not
appear; in its stead most dreadful ulcerations took place, and the child
perished of a wretched disease.  It is in general believed that poison
was used instead of matter, and that the perpetrator was hired by Prithwi
Narayan; for, immediately after the operation, the Brahman disappeared,
and is supposed to have retired to Nepal.  The character of the prince
does not leave much room to think that he would hesitate about employing
such means.

The unfortunate widow, deprived of her only hope, seems to have harboured
views of revenge.  She sent to Mukunda Sen, the Raja of Palpa, and, as I
have said above, of the same family with her husband, in order to request
one of his sons, whom she might adopt, and to whom she might transfer the
right to the middle and eastern divisions of the principality.  The Raja
accordingly sent Dhwajavir, one of his younger sons, who came to Puraniya
in the year 1779, and sent letters to the Deva Dharma Raja, to Sikim, to
the Chaubisiya Rajas, and to the Governor of Bengal, soliciting aid, but
without the least probability of success.  He had remained about three
years at Puraniya, and had formed a friendship with Madrapati Ojha, a
Brahman, who managed the estate Dhumgar, within nine coses of the
frontier of Morang.  He had also formed a friendship with a Ganes Bharati
Mahanta, a priest, who lived between Puraniya and Dhumgar.  This man, in
the year 1782, promised, that, if the youth came to his house, he would
adopt him as his pupil, (Chela), and lend him money, of which the young
man was in much need.  On his arrival at the residence of this priest,
various delays and frivolous excuses were made to avoid the performance
of the promises; and the youth was tempted, by an invitation from his
friend Madrapati, to advance to Dhumgar, where he and his attendants were
entertained eight days, in the office where the rents of the estate were
collected.  In the night of the eighth day the party were suddenly
awakened by the approach of a body of men; and, on looking out, perceived
that these were armed, and had surrounded the house.  The party in the
office now looked for their arms; but these had been removed in the night
without their knowledge.  They soon learned, from the language of the
people by whom the house was surrounded, that they were Gorkhalese
soldiers, who ordered them, in opprobrious language, (Nekal Bahenchod,)
to come out.  Several who went out were killed, but the Raja remaining
within, and all his people invoking the protection of the Governor and of
the Company, as usual in such cases, the soldiers entered, and said,
there is no Governor nor Company can now give you any assistance.  The
Raja soon received a cut in his forehead, and then acknowledged himself;
asking them, whether they intended to carry him away or to murder him.
They replied, that they came for his life; on which he began to pray, and
held out his head, which was cut off with a sword.  During the confusion
a Brahman escaped, and repaired to Madrapati, who replied with the utmost
composure that he could give no assistance.  The Raja had with him
thirty-four people, of whom fifteen were killed, eleven wounded, and four
carried away.  Among the killed were Ripumardan, a natural son of Karna
Sen Raja of Morang, and a messenger from the Sikim Raja, with five of his
attendants.  The soldiers were disguised like robbers, and took away such
property as they found with the Raja, more probably to show what they had
effected than for the sake of the plunder, as they gave no disturbance to
the people of the village.  From all the circumstances attending the
event, few doubt that the scheme was preconcerted, and that the Mahanta
and Brahman were the agents of the Gorkhalese, to decoy the youth within
their reach.

The poor widow was now totally helpless.  She was originally allowed a
pension of 100 rupees a month; but for many years this has been withheld,
and the Zemindars in the Company’s territory are giving her great trouble
respecting some lands, which had been granted her free of rent.  Her
sister-in-law died in the year 1810, in Tirahut, where she had some
villages, which she left by will to the unfortunate old lady; but I am
told that the Raja of Darbhangga has seized on them as Zemindar, although
his claim is probably dubious, the grants having been made before the
decennial settlement.

Having thus traced the fate of Mandhata and his descendants, I return to
his brother Manik, who procured the share of the principality that is
west from the Kamala river.

By the Munsuf of Bahadurgunj, Manik is said to have governed his country
quietly for twenty years.  Although his share of the principality was one
of the most productive of revenue, as including a large portion of the
plain, he had little power, few of the hardy Kirats being under his
authority; but then he was exempted from the dangers arising from the
turbulence of these mountaineers.  He left four sons, Hemcarna, Jagat,
Jaymanggal, and Vikram.  The first succeeded his father, and Jagat, as I
have mentioned, was placed by the Kirats in the government of that part
of the principality which is situated between the Kamala and Kosi.

Hemcarna had a son, Digbandan, and a daughter, Maiya Saheb, of most
extraordinary beauty.  About this time first rose to notice Prithwi
Narayan Saha, whose ancestors had held the petty territory of Gorkha, in
some measure dependent on the Palpa Rajas, the kinsman of Hemcarna.  This
person had by various means acquired some little power, and had induced
the people of Lalita Patan to choose his brother Dalmar-dan Saha for
their king; for they had fallen into anarchy, and had displaced their
lawful sovereign of the Mal family, which had long been in possession of
the three principalities into which Nepal.  Proper had been divided.
Prithwi Narayan, about this time, offered himself as a suitor for the
beautiful daughter of Hemcarna, but was rejected with scorn, as a match
far beneath her rank.  Soon after, however, he was the fortunate suitor,
but I do not exactly know the period.  Hemcarna having died, was
succeeded by his son Digbandan, a very weak prince, in whose affairs his
brother-in-law, Prithwi Narayan, soon began to interfere; and by his
courage, liberality, and strength of understanding, totally drew to
himself the minds of the soldiery.  In the year 1761 he openly attacked
his brother-in-law, and took him and his family prisoners.  The chief
persons that had resisted his attack he put to death, some by the sword,
some by the rope, and some by flaying them alive.  Their children he
delivered to the most vile and abominable tribe, (Sarki,) to be educated
in their odious profession, as outcasts.  The captives he conducted to
Nepal, the open attack on which he then commenced; for, until then, he
had contented himself with seizing on the passes, by which the valley is
surrounded, and with fomenting dissensions among the three divisions of
the principality.  In 1769, having completed his conquest of Nepal
Proper, he attacked the petty Rajas west from Gorkha, usually called the
Chaubisiya, or Twenty-four.  For some time he had rapid success, but in
an engagement with the Tanahung Raja, he was so roughly handled, that he
was compelled to relinquish these conquests.  In the meanwhile, his
brother-in-law Digbandan, his wife, and seven sons, were kept in close
confinement, and were only prevented from starving, by a pittance sent to
them by their kinsman the Palpa Raja.  What became of the remainder of
these unfortunate persons I cannot say; but in the year 1780 Bhubar, one
of the sons of Digbandan, effected his escape to Betiya, in the Company’s
territory, where he was kindly received, and two villages, free from the
obligation of paying any revenue, were granted to him.  He died lately,
and has left two sons, one of whom in 1810 was eight, and the other five
years of age; and these are the undoubted legal heirs to the whole
principality founded by Lobangga Sen.

I have already mentioned, that Budkarna, the Kirat chief of the eastern
division of the principality, discontented with the illegitimacy and
temper of Kamdatt, invited Jagat, a younger son of Manik, to assume the
government, which he accordingly did, but he seems to have been a person
of moderation; he contented himself with the middle portion of the
principality, situated between the Kamala and Kosi, and allowed Kamdatt
to retain whatever was beyond the latter river, for a maintenance, but
not as a sovereign.  Jagat usually resided at Chaundandi and Shikarmari,
and died in peace.  He had no son, and his dominions went to his brother
Vikram, who left them to his son Karna Sen.  In 1773 Prithwi Narayan,
having somewhat recovered from the defeat which the Tanahung Raja had
given him, attacked Karna Sen, and took his dominions.  The fugitive
prince, as I have mentioned, was received by Budkharna, the Kirat, as
sovereign of Morang; but I have already given an account of the miserable
events that immediately after happened.

Having now detailed the first origin and total overthrow of the
principality founded by the Rajput Lohangga, I shall mention what I have
learned concerning the nature of the government, which his descendants
administered.

The Raja, in most cases, seems to have given himself very little trouble
about the affairs of government, but was surrounded by Rajputs and Khas
much attached to his person and family, and by Brahmans; by whom both he
and his guards were duped, and who seem to have been the most active
intriguers of the court.

Next in rank to the Raja was the Chautariya, who, as I have said, appears
to me to have always been a Kirat of the family, that had governed his
nation before the union with the Rajputs.  The Kayastha alleges, indeed,
that this was not the case; but he appears to me to be either mistaken,
or to have made his representation from hatred to the Kirats, by whose
power the Rajas and their Hindu adherents were very much controlled; for,
setting aside the evidence of Agam Singha, a plain unaffected man, but
who may however be supposed to be influenced by vanity, the Kayastha
pretends, that, until a late period, the office of Chautariya was held by
the family of the perfidious Brahman, who delivered Subha Sen to the
Moslems; but the descendant of that person does not pretend that his
ancestors ever enjoyed the dignity of Chautariya, and says, that they
held the lucrative appointment of Dewan, which will be afterwards
mentioned.  The Chautariya signed all commissions and orders, while the
Raja applied his seal.  The Raja might punish the Chautariya in whatever
manner he pleased, and even put him to death; but he could not deprive
him of his rank, nor his son of the regular succession.  This power of
punishment, however, must have been very much limited, as the Kirats seem
to have been entirely guided by their chief; and they composed almost the
whole strength of the state.  The Chautariya was allowed one-tenth part
of the whole revenue.

The ancestor of the Kayastha held, by hereditary descent, the office of
deputy (Neb) Chautariya, and seems merely to have been the person
appointed by the Hindu Raja to carry on the writings necessary to be
executed by the chiefs of the Kirats, who, if we may judge from Agam
Singha, were no great penmen.

Next to the Chautariya was the Kazi or Karyi, to whose office the Raja
might appoint any person that he pleased.  The Karyi was usually the most
active person in managing the affairs of government, and received
one-sixteenth of the profits of the whole country.

Next to these was the Dewan, whose office, as I have stated, was
hereditary in a family of Brahmans.  The Dewans managed the whole
collections of the territory on the plain, and probably made much more
than either Chautariya or Karyi, which, joined to their birth, gave them
great influence.  When the principality subdivided, each Raja had his
Chautariya, Karyi, and Dewan, who formed his council.

The regular military force consisted of two kinds.  First, the Rajputs
and Khas, who generally resided near the person of the Raja, and formed
his immediate security.  They were by no means numerous, and were usually
paid in money.  The other branch of the regular army was more numerous,
and consisted chiefly of Kirats.  They were under the orders of Serdars,
but the number of men under each of these was not defined; each was
appointed to command a number proportioned to the supposed extent of his
abilities.  The Serdars could at pleasure be removed, or the number of
their troops altered.  Each Serdar, in proportion to the extent of his
command, received a quantity of land in the hills, which he subdivided
among his officers and soldiers, reserving a share for himself.  He might
at pleasure appoint new soldiers, or remove old ones; but he received no
regular tribute from the lands, although all his men made him presents.
When called upon by the Raja, he was bound to appear in the field with
his stipulated number of men; and a few Kirats, in their turn, were
always on duty at the residence of the prince.  When on actual service,
the men were allowed subsistence.  The Kirats seem to have been chiefly
armed with swords and bows, their arrows being poisoned.  The Rajputs had
fire-arms.  It is said, that there were in all 90,000 Kirats able to
carry arms; but not above 5000 or 6000 were considered as regulars.  The
others paid rent.

In the hills the management of the police and the collection of the
revenue was entrusted to officers called Subahs, who accounted to the
Dewans for the revenue, but as commanding the militia, were subject to
the Serdars.  There were also Zemindars, who appear to have held the
property of the soil, but were allowed to retain only a small portion (15
to 20 bigas) of good land, fit for transplanted rice, and for this they
were held bound to pay three rupees a-year, and to appear in the field as
a militia, when called upon by the Subah.  The Zemindar, however, as lord
of the soil was entitled to cultivate, without additional burden, as much
as he pleased of any ground not fit for transplanted rice, and no one
could cultivate such without giving him a present.  Every family, except
the Zemindars, who cultivated this kind of ground, paid three rupees
a-year to the Raja, and the men, when required, were bound to appear in
the field.  All the land fit for transplanted rice, except that held by
the Zemindars, was Melk or free of revenue.  Part had been granted to
Brahmans and temples, and part to various officers of the state, none of
whom were paid in money; but by far the greater part was given to the
Serdars, for the support of their men.  Over every three or four villages
the Subah appointed a deputy, called a Duyariya.

In the hilly part of the country, much of the cultivation was carried on
by Adhiyars, who gave to the soldier, officer, or Zemindar that employed
them, one half of the produce for rent.  Each family of this kind paid a
rupee a year to the Raja.  All persons not employed in agriculture
(Sukhvas and Khosvas) paid eight anas for ground-rent, and two anas for
holidays.  No casts were exempted.

In the level country the lands were cultivated by tribes, who had little
or no turn for military affairs, and paid a rent in money, which was
collected under the Dewans by Fouzdars, who managed districts (Garhis) by
means of Chaudhuris, who held manors, (Pergunahs,) and under these by
Mokuddums, who held villages, (Gangs.)  In some places the word Pergunah
had not been adopted, but the Chaudhuri held the space between two
rivers, which is called a Khari.

Independent of the Dewans was a register called Suduriya, and, wherever
there was a deputy of the Dewan, the register had also a deputy.  In
fact, the Mogul system of finance had been completely introduced, while
in the mountains the Hindu system of military tenure seems to have been
more completely retained.

The trial of civil causes was conducted at the capital by four Bicharis,
who appointed a deputy for the jurisdiction under each Subah, and for
each subdivision; and these judges seem to have had a much greater
authority than is usual in Hindu or Muhammedan governments.  Under the
Bicharis and their deputies were petty officers, named Duyariyas, who
arrested offenders, and decided petty suits.  These were assisted by
Kotwals, or messengers.  The reason of the attention paid to suits seems
to have been, that the Raja took one-fourth of all property recovered by
legal process, and allowed the judge a share; of course, the complainant
usually gained the cause.  The principal chance which the defendant had
was giving a bribe higher than the share that the judge would legally
receive; but the Raja was a check on this kind of gain.

In the hilly country there were no duties levied, except at custom-houses
placed on the passes towards the plain, or towards the dominions of Lasa.
On the plain there was a vast variety of duties, similar to those now
exacted, and which will be afterwards detailed.

I shall now proceed to consider the present state of this principality,
in the footing on which it has been placed by the Gorkhalese.

In the first place, it has been divided into districts.

The eastern division of the principality, founded by Lohangga, together
with the part of Sikim, and a portion of Thibet, that have been
conquered, are now divided into two districts, (Zilas,) Morang and
Chayenpur, each under the management of a Subah.

Morang, in a general sense, extends in the low country from the Tista to
the Kosi, for the level country, that formerly belonged to Sikim, has now
been annexed to this district.  Its extent, therefore, from east to west,
is rather more than 87 miles.  On the low hills, it extends from the
Kankayi to the Kosi, which is about 48 miles.  It includes very few or
none of the mountains, and none of the Alps.

The most remarkable places are as follows:

Vijaypur, the residence of the Subah, and of a former dynasty of princes,
is situated on the higher part of the low hills, and is in so much exempt
from the unhealthy air of that region called Ayul, that the people, they
say, can eat three-fourths more there than they can in the lowlands; a
manner of measuring the salubrity of different places, which is in common
use among the natives, but, I suspect, is rather fanciful.  The fort is
always garrisoned by regulars, and a Serdar very commonly resides in it,
superintends the conduct of the neighbouring civil officers, and watches
over the frontier.

Samrigarhi is another small fort still occupied.

Chaudanda, until the division of the principality founded by Lohangga,
was most commonly the seat of government.  It is now almost entirely
deserted.

Satya Raja is a ruin, which is said to have been the residence of a
dynasty, that governed the country before the ancestors of Vijaynarayan.

Kichak jhar is also a ruin, which is said to have been the residence of
Kichak, the brother-in-law of Virat, king of Matsya, celebrated in Hindu
legend.  I am assured by the people of the vicinity, that in a very thick
wood at Kichak jhar there are ruins.

At Sorahbag was the residence of the wife of Vijaybharat, the last king
of the dynasty, which preceded Lohangga.

Varaha kshetra is a temple dedicated to Vishnu, in the form of a boar.
During the government of the former dynasty, the priests (Mahanta) of
this temple seem to have had great weight; and their successor enjoys
some land, and the whole duties collected at a neighbouring custom-house,
(Chatra Gola.)  The place is still frequented by a good many pilgrims,
but the number has, of late, considerably diminished.  This is a place
where holy persons sometimes bury themselves alive, and on such
occasions, are supposed to be endowed with the gift of prophecy.  The
buildings are not considerable, and, of late, have become ruinous.

The market places (Hats) are 24 in number, as will appear by the map.

The Golas, or custom-houses, are frequently changing, and, of late, have
mostly been placed near the frontier, and removed from the hills.

At present, Morang is divided into three Taluks, or districts.  Each is
under the charge of a deputy collector, or Fouzdar.  The first has under
him one Chaudhuri, or Zemindar; the second has four Chaudhuris; and the
third three Chaudhuris.  The land, under this Subah’s authority, is
divided into Pergunahs.

                                                Rupees         Sayer
1.       (       Nangang and Dhapar,           5,000 )         1,300
                 land rent,
         (       Beli,                           600 )

         (       Futehhari,                    4,500 )
         (       Gogra,                        7,500 )         1,000
         (       Hathiya Simar,                  450 )
         (
2.       (       Mangar,                         250 )
         (       Beliya,                         700 )
         (                                           )         2,500
         (       Kuthor,   )                  12,500 )
         (       Bariyati, )                         )

         (       Harchand garhi,              14,500 )         1,600
3.       (       Kerayan,                      1,125 )
         (       Atmanza,                        7,000         1,100
         (       Mechpali and Latang,              400
                                              --------      --------
                                             R. 54,025      R. 7,500

                 Total land rent,                          R. 54,025
                 Do. Sayer,                                    7,500
                 Kascharai, or rent for                       24,000
                 pasture,
                 Khayer Sal, or duty on                        3,000
                 Catechu,
                 Kathmahal, or duty on                        38,000
                 timber,
                 Chiriyamahal, or duty                           500
                 on birds,

                 Customs at the Golas,
                 Chatra, (given to a         R. 1,500)
                 temple,

                 Vijayapur,                      2,000
                 Raksa,                            800
                 Latang,                           600
                 Rotoya,                         1,000
                                             ---------
                                                               4,400
                                                           ---------
                 Total Rupees                                131,425

The land rent is levied by so much on each crop, by a biga of nine common
cubits the Katha, equal to 72,900 square feet.  The following was the
rate at the time when I procured the account; but the chief of the
village, (Mokuddum,) for every hundred bigas that pay rent, is allowed
five free of that charge.

Rate in the year Sambat 1868, A.D. 1810.

                    By the country measure.   By the Calcutta
                                              measure.
                       _Rupees_.     _Anas_.     _Anas_.     _Pies_.
Sali or rice                   3           5          10          5½
Maruya and                     2          11           8           6
Mustard
Cotton and patuya              2           4           7           0
or corchorus
Kitchen gardens                5           0          15          9½
and tobacco
Sugar-cane                     4           0          12          7½

No other crop pays any thing, and the tenantry pay no ground rent for
their houses.  The Calcutta Biga is one-third of an English acre, and the
rupee weighs 179½ grains of silver; it is divided into 16 anas, and the
ana into 12 pies.

The settlement in the year Sambat 1846, soon after the conquest, was
considerably lower, but more crops were included.

The duties called Sayer include a capitation on artists, a duty on the
sale of oxen and buffaloes, on marriages, on the contract with a
concubine, on grain exported, on all things sold at Hats or markets, and
on adulterers.

The duty on Catechu I have already explained.

The management of the mines is not entrusted to the care of the Subahs.

The whole amount which the Subah collected in the year 1809–10 is said to
have been 131,425 rupees, out of which the Subah pays 80,000 rupees to
government; and his share of the Rajangka, and presents to the twelve
great officers of state, usually amount to 20,000 rupees more; but this
is probably compensated by similar exactions that he makes from his
inferiors.  He, however, incurs a heavy expense in furnishing the regular
troops with provisions, which he must do at a price fixed by government,
and which is always far below the market price; but he squeezes a great
part of this from the neighbouring tenantry.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {154}
estimates the nett revenue of this territory, which he calls East Turrye,
at from 125,000 to 150,000 rupees, including, perhaps, Rajangka and
mines.

Each village (Gang) is under a Mokuddum, who has five _per cent_. of the
land free of rent; a Patwari or clerk, who has one-half ana on the rupee
of rent, and two anas a-year on each house, both from the tenants, and
gives one-half of this to his superiors, the Mohurers, who are registers
to the Fouzdars, and to the Kanungo, who is register to the Subah.  The
messengers (Gorayits) from every house get about two loads of the ears of
rice, which give about one _man_ (82 lbs. avoirdupois) of grain; so that,
neither on account of the village establishment, nor on that of the
Kanungoes or his clerks, (Mohurer,) is there any deduction from the above
sum; but the Subah pays several heavy establishments.

At his chief office, it amounts to about 3500 rupees a-year.  There are,
besides the Fouzdars, Chaudhuris and armed men, at the three subordinate
divisions for the land rent and sayer.

The Subah, being a merchant of Banaras, keeps the Catechu at his own
disposal, and, besides the duties, has probably much profit on this
article as a merchant.

The duties on timber are formed in three lots, to three Fouzdars, and the
nett proceeds only have been included.

The rents on pasture are farmed on the same plan to two Fouzdars.

His whole establishment, therefore, does not probably exceed 7000 rupees
a-year.

Two captains (Subahdars) have lands in the district for the maintenance
of 300 men.

The Subah, as judge, receives 25 _per cent_. on all sums recovered in his
court, but the greater part of this goes to the Raja.  The Subah,
however, always receives presents from the defendant, when the suit is
given in his favour, and he has fees in the management of the police.
The avowed profits, in the management of justice and police in the year
1809–10, are said, in even numbers, to have been 15,000 rupees.

The inhabitants of Vijaypur, towards the east, are chiefly Koch or
Rajbangsis, who are considered as the same, live on the plain, and speak
the dialect of Bengal; on the lower hills are many Mech.  Both these
tribes are original inhabitants of Kamrup.  In the western parts, most of
the cultivators are of the Gangaye cast, who speak the dialect of
Mithila, and adhere to the doctrines of purity, as established in that
country.  On the hills, the people are mostly Khas, or a mixed breed
between the mountain Hindus and natives, with some Rajputs, and some
Magars, who have been lately introduced.

The northern part of the eastern division of the principality, founded by
Lohangga, has been lately formed into a distinct district, and its Subah
resides at Chayenpur.  The hilly parts of Sikim, so far as has been
subdued, and a portion of Thibet, bordering on the Arun river, have been
annexed to the jurisdiction, which is bounded by the Sengkhuya Arun, and
Kausiki on the west, and by the Tista on the east, extending between 80
and 90 miles in these directions, and perhaps about 60 or 70 from north
to south.  It consists altogether of lofty mountains, rising, in many
parts, to the most tremendous Alps.

The land revenue, I am told, is very trifling, the whole almost being
held by military tenure; but I did not learn the particulars.  The chief
revenues are the customs at Golas, mines, and capitation, (Rajangka,) but
the two last are not collected by the Subah.  There is no Sayer.

The forts are Chayenpur, about two or three coses from the Arun,
Changiya, Hedang, a large place towards the frontier of Thibet,
Darjiling, and Sikim.

The Golas, or custom-houses, are Ilam, Majhuya, Bilasi, Tangting,
Huchi-Mechi, Dimali, and Satang, all in the territory formerly belonging
to the Sikim Raja.  The Gorkhalese have no connection with Thibet in that
quarter, because the route is still in possession of the Sikim Raja.
Chayenpur, however, has a considerable trade with Thibet by that part of
the country which is near the Arun.  Hatiya on the Arun, and Alangchang
on the Tambar, are at present the marts established for this commerce.
Formerly it was carried on at Pokang in the middle between the two
rivers.  People can pass to the two former all the year; the trade at
Pokang was confined to summer.  The goods imported at these places from
Thibet are salt carried on sheep, gold, silver, musk, and musk-deer
skins, the tails called Chaungris, blankets, borax, Chinese silks, and
medicinal herbs.  The goods sent from Chayenpur are rice, wheat, maruya,
(Cynosurus corocanus,) uya, a grain, oil, butter, iron, copper, cotton
cloths, broadcloth, catechu, myrobalans, (harra bahara,) planks of the
Dhupi, pepper, and spices, indigo, tobacco, hides, otters’ fur,
sugar-candy, and extract of sugar-cane, occasionally some pearls.

The route from Vijaypur to Pokang is said to be as follows in days
journeys:

1.  To Mulghat on the Tambar river.  The road hilly, but not mountainous.
Much cultivation.  No river of note.

2.  To Dhankuta, or Dhankot.  The same kind of country.  Cross the
Tambar.

3.  To Ukhaliya.  Country more hilly, and less cultivated.  Several small
rivers, especially the Mangmay.

4.  To Jaresang, a town in a plain well cultivated country.

5.  To the Leghuya river, where there is a fine valley.  The road passes
over low hills.

6.  To Dobhang.  The road hilly, but in many parts cultivated.  Cross the
Piluya river below Chayenpur Fort.  Dobhang is situated on the Soyeya
river, near where it joins the Arun.

7.  To Tamlingtar, a smooth road fit for horses.  It stands between the
Soyeya and the Arun, which are about 1⅔ coses distant from each other.
This is the largest place in the district, and is said to be about the
size of Kirtipur, in the valley of Nepal, which, I suppose, may contain
6000 people; but Tamlingtar is not built with brick, as is the case with
Kirtipur.  The plain round it is very considerable, extending twelve
coses north and south, and four coses east and west.  The plain is
bounded on the west by the Arun, and is not quite so cool as Kathmandu,
nor is it fully cleared.

8.  To Tamling, a smooth road fit for horses.  Tamling is about three
coses east from the Arun.

9.  To Segeya, a smooth road fit for horses.  The country is well
cultivated.  Segeya is a day’s journey east from the Arun.

10.  To Lum, a good road.

11.  To Jupha, a very hilly road with steep ascents and descents, but
much cultivation.

12.  To Jholangghat, on the Arun, where there is a bridge suspended by
rattans.

13.  To Hedang, the route being on low hills by the west side of the
Arun.  West from Hedang two days journey, is Meyangma, a snowy mountain,
and at the same distance east is another named Mirgu.

14.  To Komba, a village of Bhotiyas, at a distance from the Arun, and
formerly at least the residence of a Lama, who was supposed to be an
incarnation of God.

15.  To Chamtang, another village inhabited by Bhotiyas, and at a
distance from the Arun.

16.  To Seksula, or Seksura, on the Arun.  Some accounts place it on one
side, and some on the other of the Arun.  It is a village of Bhotiyas,
and part may be on each side of the river, which is crossed on a bridge
of rattans.

17 and 18 to Pokang.  The country is not very hilly, but so high and
cold, that it is frequented only in summer by shepherds and traders who
attend the mart.

From Seksula, proceeding on the west side of the Arun, you have,

17.  Hatiya, a Bhotiya village, where there is a mart.

18.  Chipachintang, another Bhotiya village belonging to Gorkha.  A
little way beyond it is Manigumba, a village subject to Lasa.

The Arun here would seem to pass through the highest ridge of the snowy
mountains.  The Kirat, who gave me the map of the eastern parts of the
principality, names the portion of these mountains towards the east
Papti, and says, that between it and Mirgu, mentioned above, there is a
large valley; but, except near the Arun, it has no regular inhabitants.
In summer it is frequented by shepherds alone; but he would not appear to
have been acquainted with its eastern parts; for, though he admits that
the Tambar rises from Papti, and afterwards passes through Mirgu, he knew
nothing of the Gola that is there, and is called Alangchang.  South from
Mirgu is another high ridge; but the snow that occasionally falls on it
in winter soon melts.  The Kirat calls it Ichhanglima; I have no doubt
that it is the Phakphok of the map made by the slave; for the Kirat says,
that the Kankayi rises from Mirgu, and passes through a gap in
Ichhanglima.  The slave in his map says that Phakphok is the proper
source of the Kankayi, but admits, that it receives a stream from the
snowy mountains.  The Kirat alleged that the hollow between Mirgu and
Ichhanglima is overgrown with immense forests occupied by elephants and
rhinoceroses, which is scarcely reconcilable with its necessary
elevation; and the compiler of the other map represents it as a well
inhabited country, which is the most probable account, as the Kirat had
not visited that part.

On the west side of the Arun, again, the Kirat places Syamphelang as the
highest ridge of snowy mountains, and he seemed to think, that the very
highest peak visible, and bearing about N. by W. from Nathpur, was part
of this mountain connected with this, but leaving between them the valley
watered by the Tarun, is another snowy mountain, which the Kirat calls
Meyangma, but which the slave who constructed the map calls Salpa pahar.

The inhabitants of the eastern parts of Chayenpur have been already
mentioned.  In the western parts the most numerous tribe is Kirat, next
Limbu, then Magar, lately introduced as soldiers, then Khas and Rajputs.
There are also Murmis, and towards the N.W. Bhotiyas.

The middle part of the principality of Lohangga has also been divided
into two districts under Subahs.  The first comprehends the southern
portion called Saptari, but the low land between the Rato and Kamal,
named Mahatari, which formerly belonged to the western division of the
principality, has lately been placed under the authority of this Subah.
His jurisdiction, therefore, on the plain extends about 100 miles from
east to west, and its width there is nearly the same as that of Morang;
so that it possesses more level land.  Very little of the hilly country
belongs to it, as Khatang and Makwanpur come far down and meet at the
Kamal.

The most remarkable places in this district are Naragarhi, a small fort
on the plain, where the Subah usually resides; Bhemagarhi, another
similar place, where he occasionally resides; and Janakpur, a place of
pilgrimage noted in Hindu fable, and already mentioned as the seat of a
very ancient dynasty.  I am told that there are no remains of former
power or greatness.

There are ten market-places.

The Golas, or custom-houses, are placed in the map.

The land-rent is collected by two Fouzdars, one for Saptari, the other
for Mahatari; but these also collect some trifling dues which have not
been let with the sayer or duties on markets; for there is no regular
system of finance.  These dues are those on marriages, (Bihadani,) on
contracts of concubinage, (Sagora,) and a fine on adulterers of rupees
2-10/16, levied by the collector, besides the fine that goes to the Raja;
for the man who has farmed the duties on the markets takes a part of the
fine, amounting to rupees 2-10/16.  The following will show the sums
collected on these heads in the year Sambat 1867, (A.D. 1809.)

ZILA.          SAPTARI.             Land-rent.      Marriages.     Concubines.     Adulterers.
Pergunah       Khalisa                  10,015             75½              50              25
               Jagadal                   2,485              25             12½               -
               Pakri                   13,345½             55½              25              30
               Maljhumna                  754½              15               5               -
               Rayjhumna                  941½              25              7½              10
               Pakuya                     855½              10               5               5
               Gudagari                   501½              25              7½              20
               Rampurbehara                481               -               5               -
               Mahishan                   501½              20              5½               -

               Khonjvaghni )    Totally waste
               Majhoya     )
               Dhanchhoyar )
               Vihar       )
                                       -------         -------         -------         -------
               Total                    29,881             251             123              90



ZILA.          MAHATARI.            Land-rent.      Marriages.     Concubines.     Adulterers.
Pergunah       Mahatari                 9,115½             103              50              25
               Korari                   10,025             40½              10              16
               Khesraha                 11,212              50              25               -
               Pihan                    7,855½              80              40              65
                                      --------        --------        --------        --------
               Total Rupees             38,208            273½             125             106

The establishment is nearly similar to what is maintained in Vijaypur.  A
great part of the rents are farmed.  The rent is paid by so much a biga
for each kind of crop.  The biga is of the same size as in Morang.  The
following is the rate:

                    According to Country      According to Calcutta
                    measure.                  measure.
                    Rupees.       Anas.       Anas.       Pies.
Rice (Sali)                    4          10          14          7¼
Mustard (Turi)                 3          10          11          6¾
)

Corocanus
(Maruya)    )
Cotton                         3          12          11          10
Tobacco and                    5           0          15          9½
Kitchen Gardens

All ranks pay the same rate.  Tradesmen pay a ground rent for their
houses of rupees 5. 10. included in the land-rent, and a capitation tax
to the Sayer of rupees 1. 10.  Those who have regular shops in the
market-places pay to the Sayer rupees 7. 10, and nothing for ground rent.
Washer-men, barbers, tailors, and shoe-makers, pay no capitation.

The Sayer, consisting of the capitation on tradesmen, and of the duties
levied on goods sold, and grain exported, is farmed to two men for
Saptari, one paying 3254 rupees, and the other 3?35½; and for Mahatari,
to one man paying 6595½.

The rents on the pasture of buffaloes is farmed at 1431 rupees for
Saptari, and 3956⅛ rupees for Mahatari.

The duty on those who make catechu is farmed in Saptari for 1015 rupees,
and in Mahatari for 1212 rupees.

The duties on timber are farmed in Saptari for 2462 rupees, and in
Mahatari for 2225 rupees.

The duties on boats loaded with timber are farmed in Saptari for 2441
rupees, and in Mahatari for 345.

The duty on birds for both is farmed at 698½ rupees.

The duties levied at the Golas, or custom-houses, have been farmed for
three years at 100,000 rupees, or 33,333⅓ a year; but in this bargain are
included the duties at Varaha kshetra and Vijaypur, for which the renter
pays 1500 rupees annually to the priest of the former place, and 2000 to
the Subah of Morang; so that the customs here are actually farmed at
29,833 rupees a-year.  The person who has farmed these rents, Achal
Thapa, resides at Bhangraruya on the Kosi, and has endeavoured to secure
a monopoly; but his plans have not been very successful, and he will be a
heavy sufferer by the interruptions of commerce that have ensued in
consequence of the disputed frontier.

The total revenue collected by the Subah is as follows:

                                               Rupees
Land-rent and several casualties               68,957
Pasture                                         5,386
Catechu                                         2,227
Timber cutters                                  4,687
Duties on boats loaded with timber              2,786
Duties on birds                                   698
Customs at Golas                               29,833
Duties on markets or Sayer                     12,985
                                            ---------
                                Total         127,559

Exclusive of the Rajangka or income tax, he pays to the Raja 58,000
rupees a-year.

There is very little land granted for the support of the army, or
officers of government, and no great religious establishment.

At Jaleswar, in Mahatari, south from Janakpur, the Raja has a manufacture
of saltpetre and gunpowder.

There is only one mine of iron at Sisuya, near the Kosi.

The Tharu cast, resembling, in its manners, the Gangayi of Morang,
composes the greatest part of the population on the plain.  Next to
these, are nearly equal parts of the impure Bhawars, and of the military
and agricultural tribe of Brahmans, called Aniwar, both of whom have, at
different times, been sovereigns of the country.  Immediately under the
hills are many Batars, who speak the Hindwi language.  The lower hills
are occupied by Sringguyas, a branch of the Limbu tribe, and by Magars,
and Rajputs or Khas.  The Magars have been lately introduced.

The northern parts of this middle division of the principality of
Lohangga, form the jurisdiction of the Subah of Khatang, who possesses an
extensive region of mountains, bounded by the Arun on the east, and on
the west by the Tamba Kosi, which separates it from the territory of
Bhatgang, one of the three principalities into which Nepal Proper was
divided.  Towards the south it descends to the Kamal, which, in part,
separates it from Makwanpur.  On the north it is bounded by the snow
hills, which separate it from Thibet or Lasa, and, in this part, advance
far south.

The land revenue has been almost entirely granted to the different
officers of the Gorkhalese government, and there is no Sayer, nor
customs, so that the Raja chiefly receives the income tax, (Rajangka,)
fines, and the profits of mines.  The Subah pays only 12,000 rupees
a-year, and about 3000 rupees as Rajangka.  This district maintains two
companies of 120 fusileers each.

The forts are Hedang, where the Subah resides; Chaudandi, where the Rajas
formerly lived; Rawa, near the junction of the San and Dudh Kosis;
Chariyagarhi, on the Kamal; and Hatuya, at the junction of the San Kosi
and Arun, where a Serdar often has a military station.

At the temple of Siva in Halesi, where the Dudhkosi and Sankosi unite, is
a very great fair in February.

With Thibet there are two routes of communication.

On the Dudhkosi is Lamja, to which the Bhotiyas come at all seasons.  The
Alps extend two day’s journey beyond it, on the banks of the Dudhkosi;
afterwards there is a plain country.  The road from Kalesi to Lamja Gola
is as follows:

One day’s journey to Rawa, a large town with a fort.  The country fully
occupied.

One day to Hakula, a large village.  The country here, also, is well
inhabited.

One day’s journey to Jubing, a large village.

One day to Ghat, a village inhabited chiefly by Bhotiyas, the climate
being too cold for the mountain Hindus.

One day’s journey from thence to Lamja, also inhabited by Bhotiyas.  The
imports are as usual from that country, but there are no duties.

The other route to Thibet, from this district, is towards Dudhkunda, a
place in Thibet, where there is a very great annual fair.  The road,
commencing at Lengleng, at the junction of the Tamha and San Kosi, is as
follows:

One day to Namari, a large village.

One day to Jirikampti, where the Raja of Gorkha has 10,000 or 12,000 cows
on fine plain land, kept waste on purpose.

One day to Gama, a large village inhabited by Bhotiyas.

One day to Goyang, a similar village.

One day to the snowy mountain Pangmo.  Dudhkunda is a little way among
the Alps, but is subject to Thibet.

The commerce by the Tamba kosi goes by Phala, a Gola or custom-house in
the former territory of Bhatgang.

The roads from the San Kosi to the mountains are difficult, but, for a
part of the way, people can ride on horseback.

From Chatra to Nepal the road is rather better, but, in many places, the
rider must dismount.  After, however, passing the falls of the Kosi at
Chatra, the San Kosi is navigable in canoes, to the junction of the Risu,
where it turns to the north.  The Arun is navigable to Hedang.

The best route, by land, from Chatra to Nepal, is as follows:

On the first day’s journey, cross the Kosi to Mayna, and then the San
kosi to Lasuniya.

A day’s journey from Lasuniya to Kuta.

One day’s journey to Khatang, which may be five or six coses north from
the San kosi.

From Khatang to Kamtel, one day.

To Halesi, at the junction of the Dudhkosi, one day.

To Teliya, about three coses from the San kosi, one day.

To Bangnam, on the west of the Lekho, one day.

To Chupulu, one day.

To Mantali ghat, on the Tamba kosi, one day.  The village is on the west
side.

To Puchi ghat, on the San kosi, one day.

To Dumja, on the Rusi, one day.

To Dapcha, on the north side of the Rusi, one day.

To Banipa, at the head of the Rusi, on the hills that bound the valley of
Nepal, one day.

The mines in this district are numerous, as will appear from the map.

There are no markets, (Hats,) but some shops in all the towns.

The chief place in Khatang is Dalka, on the Tamba kosi, upon a plain
extending to Puchigat, on both sides of the Tamba kosi, and about a cose
in width.  This valley extends down the San kosi, from one-half to one
cose in width.  Dalka is a town like Timmi, in the valley of Nepal,
which, I suppose, may contain 4000 people, and is chiefly inhabited by
Newars, and built of brick.  At it there is a celebrated temple of Bhim
Sen, one of the sons of Pandu.  The Pujari is a Newar, and the temple is
considered as the eastern boundary of Nepal Proper.

The most valuable district which the Raja of Nepal possesses, is that
which formed the western division of the principality, founded by
Lohangga, although the district called Mahatari has been separated, and
annexed to the Subah of Saptari.  The Subah of this district resides
usually at Makwanpur, on the hills, but, in the cold season, he visits
the plains and resides at Baragarhi, from whence he is often called the
Baragarhi Subah.  His jurisdiction extends from the Rato, on the east, to
the Trisul Gangga, and Gandaki, on the west; and from the Company’s
territory, on the south, to the San kosi, and Rusi, on the north.  In
some parts, towards the north, this boundary was disputed between the
Rajas of Patan, in Nepal, and the Rajas of Makwanpur.  One would
naturally have supposed, that the boundary would have been determined by
the mountain called Lama dangra, which extends from the Trisul gangga to
the Arun, and which, except by the Vagmati or Vagwati, is crossed by no
river, all those from its north side falling into the Trisul gangga,
Vagmati, or Kosi.  In fact, where I passed this mountain at Chisapani, a
little above the fort, I was shown an old wall on the summit, which was
said to have been the boundary; but I am told, that the copper mine on
the north side of the hill belongs to Makwani, and that the boundary goes
thence obliquely towards the north-east, so that it includes many
villages between Lama Dangra, and the Rusi, and San kosi rivers.

When Colonel Kirkpatrick visited Nepal, {168a} it would appear that the
Subah of Makwanpur, or Baragarhi, governed the whole country from the
Kosi to the Gandaki, divided into five Zilas, which he names Subtuni,
(Saptari,) Mohtuni, (Mahatari,) Rohuttut or Rohtut, Bareh, (Baragarhi,)
and Persa, (Pasara.)

One-half of this territory is on the level country, called Tariyani, and
is exactly on the same footing with the level of Morang, Saptari, and
Mahatari.

About one-fourth of the district consists of low hills, very thinly
occupied; and one-fourth consists of high mountains.

The most remarkable places of strength are the fort of Makwanpur, where
the Rajas formerly dwelt; Hariharpur, commanding the Vagmati; Sinduli,
(Seedly R.) and Chisapani, commanding two passages through the mountain
called Lama dangra; Chayenpur, on the San kosi; and Kumbi, Gar Pasara,
Kurarbas and Baragarhi, commanding the plain.  Chisapani, the most
important, and Gar Pasara, both of which I have seen, are altogether
contemptible; and it is probable that the others are still worse.
Baragarhi, (Barra Gharry,) according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, {168b} is a
mean place, containing 30 or 40 huts, and its fort is not more
respectable than Gar Pasara.  In the whole district, there is not one
considerable town.

At Hethaura, Sinduli, and Bichhakhori, customs are collected, but none of
them are marts for the sale of goods.  On the plain country are several
markets, (Hats,) but I have not learned the names nor situations of the
whole.

I did not learn the particulars of the revenue of this district, but was
told at Kathmandu, in a general way, that the Subah pays annually 100,000
rupees.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {169} estimates the money annually remitted
by the Subah at 200,000 rupees; but then this Subah held also Saptari,
which, paying now 58,000 rupees, should leave 142,000 for the present
territory; but, in what Colonel Kirkpatrick states as the remittance, the
Rajangka was perhaps included.  There are, besides, many mines.  The
greater part of the hills has been granted in Jaygir to various officers.
The plains alone are rented on account of the court.

On the plains, the population consists chiefly of Tharus and Aniwars.
The great cast on the hills is the Murmi, and this is also the case on
the north of the valley of Nepal.  About the forts are some Rajputs, many
of the spurious breed of Khas, and a good many Magars.

The inhabitants of this part of the Tariyani, which I had an opportunity
of seeing, are quite the same in their circumstances, language, dress,
persons, and customs, with the Hindus of the northern part of Behar.  The
peasantry are extremely nasty, and apparently indigent.  Their huts are
small, dirty, and very ill calculated to keep out the cold winds of the
winter season, for a great many of them have no other walls but a few
reeds supported by sticks in a perpendicular direction.  Their clothing
consists of some cotton rags, neither bleached nor dyed, and which seem
never to be washed.  They are a small, hard-favoured people, and by no
means fairer than the inhabitants of Bengal, who are comparatively in
much better circumstances.

Having finished my account of the principality, founded by Lohangga, the
youngest son of Mukunda, in the eastern parts of the territory, now
subject to Gorkha, I proceed to give an account of the territory adjacent
to the west, which fell to the lot of the other branches of the same
family.

Makunda Sen the 1st, when he provided for his sons, gave Champaranya to
his brother, who left it to his son Rama Singha, descended of whom was
another Makunda Sen, whose son, or grandson, is supposed to have been
destroyed by the ghost of a Brahman, whom he had offended, and the
country now belongs to the Raja of Betiya.  This is an account given by
Samar Bahadur.  Others say, that Rama Sen, or Rama Singha, was a son of
Makunda the 1st, who obtained Tilpur and Rajpur, both in the Company’s
territory, as I intend hereafter to describe.

I have already mentioned, that Binayak, said to be the eldest son of
Makunda, received the territory on the plain now called Butaul.  Jasu
Sen, the son of Binayak, did nothing worth remark, but left his patrimony
to his son Damodar Sen, who, in the same manner, begat Balabhadra Sen,
and he begat Ambar Sen, who succeeded to Palpa, the line of Manik having
failed.  He was succeeded by his son Gandharba Sen, who begat Udyata Sen,
but survived his son, and was succeeded by Makunda Sen, his grandson, who
had wars with most of his neighbours, conquered Gulmi, and recovered some
of his dominions that had been seized by the Raja of Gorkha.  In the
course of his wars with a Muhammedan Nawab, he took some guns and flags,
as trophies of victory.  He had five sons.  1. Mahadatta S. who
succeeded.  2. Suravir S.  3. Karuvir S.  4. Chandravir S.  And, 5.
Dhwajavir S.  Mahadatta had three sons.  1. Prithwi Pal S.  2. Rana
Bahadur S.  And, 3. Samar Bahadur S.  Prithwi Pal S. succeeded his
father, and left one son named Ratna Sen, who is the present
representative of the family.  This is the account contained in the
manuscript composed by Rana Bahadur, already mentioned.  I shall now give
some farther detail.

Gandharba Sen of Palpa and Binayakpur made a considerable addition to his
dominions, having, with the assistance of his allies, the Rajas of Gulmi
and Kachi, seized on the territories of an impure Magar chief, who
resided at Balihang.  This chief, of whose family there are no remains,
had large possessions, both on the hills and plains, especially on the
latter.  These were divided among the three allies, Palpa taking the best
share.  There was a small territory, however, called Khidim, about the
division of which the three chiefs could not agree.  After much
squabbling, it was determined that it should be given to a Brahman, whose
descendants held it, until the country was seized by the late Raja of
Gorkha and Nepal, who gave it to his father-in-law, the Raja of Gulmi.

Makunda Sen the 2d held Binayakpur Palpa and a great part of Balihang,
and was at the head of an alliance of petty chiefs, composed of Gajarkot,
Rising, Ghiring, Argha, Khachi, and Gulmi, which last, after a vain
attempt at conquest, he was obliged to relinquish.  Narabhupal, Raja of
Gorkha, had married his aunt, daughter of Gandarbha, and he received
kindly at his court his cousin Prithwi Narayan, the son of Narabhupal,
while that chief was a young man, very slenderly provided.  One of
Prithwi’s most early acts was to subdue the three first mentioned allies
of Makunda; but from their territories he was soon expelled, and this is
what in the manuscript is called recovering part of his dominions from
Gorkha.  After the death of Prithwi Narayan, his son Singha Pratap showed
so much favour to a Swarup Singha, whom he had raised from a low rank to
the important office of Karyi, that, on account of the envy which was
excited, the favourite was under the necessity of flying to the Company’s
territory.  There some European gentlemen took notice of him, and
supported him with money.  Having introduced himself to the unfortunate
widow of Karna Sen, chief of the eastern branch of the family, whose only
child, as I have already mentioned, had been poisoned by the intrigues of
Prithwi Narayan, Swarup obtained authority from this lady to proceed to
Palpa for assistance; and having gone there, Makunda gave him his
youngest son Dwaja vir to be adopted by the old lady, and to assert the
claims of his family.  The melancholy fate of this youth has been already
detailed.  At the time of his murder Swarup Singha was at Calcutta,
soliciting assistance.  On his return he was invited to Kathmandu, and
all envy, it was said, having died away, large promises were made, and
the mother of the Raja’s heir gave an oath, that he should meet with no
harm.  Immediately, however, after his arrival he was confined, and in
less than a year he was killed.

Makunda Sen procured from the Nawab Vazir a grant of the extensive estate
of Tilpur, and of that part of Rajpur, which is on the west side of the
Gandaki, and had once, as lately mentioned, belonged to a branch of his
family; but in the latter he never acquired proper authority, owing to
the intrigues of the Kanungo, or register.

This enterprising chief married the eldest daughter (Maha Kumari) of his
ally the Raja of Argha, and on this occasion presented his father-in-law
with an estate situated on the plain, and called Tuppah Bandar; although
he continued to pay the revenue to the Nawab.  This was part of the spoil
taken from Balihang by his grandfather.

Mahadatta Raja of Palpa was very much in favour with Asofud Doulah, the
Nawab Vazir, who confirmed to him all his hereditary or acquired lands on
the plains, at an easy rate; and, going there frequently to hunt, seems
to have amused himself with the Raja’s children.  The youngest son Samar,
a lame but shrewd man, seems in particular to have attracted his notice,
and he bestowed on him the title of Nader Shah, by which he is much
better known than by his proper name.

Mahadatta also entered into the strictest alliance with Bahadur Sahi,
younger son of Prithwi Narayan, and regent of Gorkha during the minority
of his nephew Rana Bahadur.  In order to cement the friendship, Mahadatta
gave his daughter in marriage to the regent, which, on account of her
birth, was considered as a very honourable connexion for the chief of
Gorkha.  These friends soon entered into a most iniquitous combination.
The Gorkha family had hitherto entirely failed in all their attempts to
extend their dominions to the west, and, if Palpa had continued to assist
the neighbouring Rajas, it is probable, that their resistance to Gorkha
might have been continued with success; but the father and son-in-law
agreed, that they should make a common cause, and divide the spoil.  This
scheme completely succeeded, and Damodar Pangre, a Khas by birth, but
representative of one of the chief families in Gorkha, and a most gallant
officer, was sent in command of the regent’s forces.  After the conquest,
Damodar took for his master the lion’s share, but allowed Mahadatta to
retain as master Gulmi, Argha, and Kachi, three of the states that had
been long in alliance with his family, and which he was bound to protect,
not only by the duty of alliance, but of kindred, for the Raja of Argha
was his uncle.  The other three allies, who had been saved by his father,
were abandoned to the power of Gorkha, and annexed to Nepal.  Mahadatta
was very soon forced to eat the fruit of his villany.  Damodar advanced
the conquests of his nation to the west, and, having subdued Kumau, all
resistance to his force on the hills was in vain, and Mahadatta was soon
deprived of all the hope of protection, that he might have had from the
power of his son-in-law the regent, the young Raja of Gorkha having put
his uncle to death.  The friendship of the Nawab Vazir, however, saved
Mahadatta, nor was any encroachment made on Palpa, so long as he lived.

Prithwi Pal succeeded his father, when very young, and was endowed with
great personal vigour, nor was he, I believe, at all scrupulous about
means; but he seems to have been rash and credulous, which rendered him
totally unable to resist the wiles of the people of Gorkha, who were
afraid to use open violence, on account of his connexion with the Nawab
Vazir.  They did not therefore molest his ancient dominions, nor any of
the territory that he had acquired on the plains, all of which was
tributary to the Nawab; but, immediately after his accession, Rana
Bahadur, king of Gorkha and Nepal, compelled the Raja of Palpa to restore
the mountains of Gulmi to Siddhi Pratap, the legal heir of that country,
whose sister Rana Bahadur had married.

When Rana Bahadur of Gorkha determined to place the sovereignty in the
hands of Yuddha Vikram Sahi, his illegitimate son, he invited Prithwi Pal
to perform the ceremony of Tika, under pretence that he was desirous of
obviating the defects of his son’s birth, by having the mark of royalty
placed on his forehead by a person of Prithwi Pal’s high rank; for, among
the hill chiefs he was considered as the most eminent by birth, and the
Raja of Yumila had been expelled from his dominions; nor did the Gorkha
family, after the acquisition of Nepal, acknowledge the superiority of
its chief.  The real object, however, of the invitation, was in all
probability to have power over Prithwi Pal; for he remained in a kind of
confinement until January 1803, when the noble and high-spirited lady,
wife of Rana Bahadur, who then governed Nepal, had the magnanimity to
allow him to return to his own territories, although his father had
treacherously stript hers of his dominions, and, although there is strong
reason to suspect, that Damodar Pangre, discontented with the
illegitimacy of Yuddha Vikram, had entered into a conspiracy to dethrone
that young prince, and to place Prithwi Pal on the throne of Nepal.

When Rana Bahadur had returned from Banaras, had assumed the management
of affairs, as regent for his son, and had put to death Damodar Pangre,
and the other discontented nobles of his kingdom, his first care was to
secure Prithwi Pal.  He accordingly sent an embassy to that chief,
requesting his sister in marriage, and making the most profuse offers of
increasing the territories of his future brother-in-law.  The lady was
sent, accompanied by her brother Rana Bahadur, for Prithwi Pal was
suspicious; and, although invited, did not attend.  The lady and her
brother were most kindly received by Rana Bahadur of Gorkha, who said to
the chief of the same name, I have been a king, and should therefore
think myself degraded by worshipping you, (according to the Hindu
custom,) when I received your sister from your hands; it will be
therefore highly agreeable to me, if your brother, who is a prince my
superior in birth, would attend to give away his sister.  The Guru, or
spiritual guide of the Palpa Raja, was in the suite of the princess, and
was dispatched in order to persuade Prithwi Pal, in which he succeeded,
by declaring, that Rana Bahadur had before him taken the most solemn
oaths to do his guest no injury.  Whether Rana Bahadur had actually done
so, or whether the Brahman was bribed, and told a falsehood to obtain his
end, I cannot take upon myself to say, either circumstance being
abundantly compatible with the characters of the persons; but Prithwi Pal
had no sooner reached Kathmandu, with about 400 attendants, than these
were disarmed, he and his principal officers were put in close
confinement, and no more mention was made of the marriage.  No one can
pity the fate of Prithwi Pal; as, in order to ingratiate himself with his
intended brother-in-law, he took with him, and delivered to Rana Bahadur,
the widow and only surviving son of his friend Damodar Pangre; who, when
that gallant veteran and his elder sons had been murdered by the tyrant,
had fled to Palpa for refuge.  The Raja of Gorkha was, however, afraid of
driving the Palpa family to extremities, and compelling it to seek refuge
in the territories of the Company, which had received from the Nawab
Vazir the sovereignty of the low countries belonging to Palpa, and might
be disposed to give its powerful support.

When mortally wounded by his brother, the Raja of Gorkha placed the
authority of the kingdom, and the protection of his son, in the hands of
Bhim Sen, a very vigorous rash young man, who, owing partly to the
moderation of the Company’s negotiations with Rana Bahadur, by him
attributed to fear, and partly to the hope of protection from the
Chinese, seems to have beheld the British government with contempt.  One
of his first measures, about the end of June 1804, was to put the Raja of
Palpa and all his officers to death.  It is said by some that, under
pretence of the conspiracy to which I have alluded, he inflicted most
severe tortures on the unfortunate chief; but others maintain, that his
throat was cut, like that of the others, without any form of
investigation or delay.  Bhim Sen acted with the utmost promptitude in
obtaining his object.  His father, Amar Singha, was raised to the English
rank of general, sent with a considerable force, and in less than a month
from his son’s elevation, took possession of Palpa without resistance;
nor did he hesitate to advance into the low country, which belonged to
the Raja of Palpa, as a subject of the Company.  Had Bhim Sen confined
himself to the hills of Palpa, it is almost certain that he would have
met with no disturbance from the British government; but he still perhaps
congratulates himself on having understood the British government better
than Rana Bahadur; for, although he has not been allowed to keep
undisturbed all the low country that was subject to Palpa, he has for
some years held a considerable portion.

On the approach of General Amar Singha to Palpa, in July or August 1804,
the widow of Prithwi Pal, with her son Ratna Sen, his uncle Samar
Bahadur, usually called the Lal Dewan, or Nader Shah, and his grand-uncle
Suravir, who held the office of Chautariya, fled to a house which the
family had at Madhuvani in Tilpur.  The unfortunate lady died there, and
the Raja was removed to Gorakhpur, where he has ever since remained, but
in such constant apprehension of assassination, that it has been judged
necessary to have his house secured by a guard of regular seapoys.  The
Company have allowed him a pension in lieu of the profits which he would
have had from his remaining estates, of which the collector has assumed
the entire disposal; for owing to the encroachments made by Amar Singha,
and the devastation that has followed in what remains, it is altogether
impossible for him to fulfil the engagements into which his father’s
agents entered with Mr Rutlege, the gentleman who had the management of
the country ceded by the Nawab vazir to the Company.  This pension was
altogether inadequate to support the number of persons by whom he was
followed; and even his venerable grand-uncle Suravir, son of Makunda Sen,
suffered such mortifications, that he had determined to perish on the
place where his son had suffered death, for this youth had accompanied
his cousin Prithwi Pal.  The old man, after taking an affectionate leave
of some of the family adherents in Tilpur, and weeping with them a whole
day, went to Palpa and presented himself to Amar Singha, who was moved
with compassion, and said, though we have killed your son, and overthrown
your family, we will do you no injury, but will provide for you in a
manner very different from your friends the English.  There has
accordingly been settled on him an income sufficient to supply his wants.
I am not sure that this has proceeded from generosity; but it has
produced some effect on the minds of the populace.  If it was intended to
lull the fears of the family into a fatal security, it has hitherto
completely failed.

The extent and boundaries of Palpa will be better seen from the maps than
explained by description.  The country, independent of Butaul, is in
general lower and warmer than the valley of Nepal Proper.  The greatest
crop is transplanted rice, next to that broadcast rice, then maize, then
the pulse called urid, almost equal in quantity to the maize, then the
Lathyrus sativus, called dubi kerao, then the Eleusine corocanus, or
maruya, then the Ervum lens, or masuri, then four kinds of sesamum, and
the cruciform oil seeds, like mustard and rape, then three kinds of the
pulse called kurthi, and then a little of the grains called sama and
kodo.  Much ginger is reared.  The sugar-cane grows very large and juicy,
but is eaten without preparation.

When the colony from Chitaur first took possession of Palpa, it belonged
to a Magar chief, and the people were of that tribe.  Brahmans, but
mostly of the spurious breed called Jausi, are now the most numerous
class; next to these are the Khas; and the Magars only occupy the third
place.

Since the Raja of Gorkha and Nepal has seized on this country, the seat
of government has been removed to Tansen, a town at some distance west
from Palpa, with a tolerable road between them.  This is now the
residence of the General Amar Singha, formerly called Thapa, and the
Subahs, or civil officers, governing the petty principalities to a
considerable distance, are under his authority.  He has with him a large
force of regulars, (fourteen or fifteen companies,) which he has for some
time been assiduously increasing, and to enable him to put this measure
into execution, a great part of the free land has been resumed.  The plan
adopted on this occasion was to say to the Brahmans who held the land,
“you are impure fellows, who have degraded yourselves by doing many
things totally inconsistent with the character of the sacred order.  It
is impossible, therefore, that you should, as such, be permitted to hold
lands; and if you presume to act in the character from which you have
degraded yourself, you shall be scourged.  For a subsistence, therefore,
betake yourself to cultivation; or other drudgeries for which alone you
are now fit, and do not bring a disgrace on the character of the sacred
order.”  In these degenerate days perhaps there is not one Brahman out of
fifty who either does not do what he ought to shun, or who does not omit
to do what he ought to perform; and all will admit that degraded Brahmans
are unworthy of holding such possessions.  If the Brahmans, however, were
to be the judges of the quantum of such transgressions necessary to
occasion the forfeiture of free lands, such an event would seldom indeed
happen.  But the lay rulers of Nepal judged more strictly; and as they
knew that whatever proofs they might bring would produce no conviction,
they probably deemed it quite unnecessary to put the parties to any
trouble, or to go through the farce of a trial, where the measure to be
adopted was predetermined; nor are the chiefs of Nepal men against whom
any complaints of injustice are made by those under their authority.

There are many routes from the plain into the hills of Palpa; but, except
by a few smugglers, most of these have been deserted since the conquest,
for which there seem to be two reasons.  The Nepalese are desirous of
having only a few open routes, by which an army from the low country
might penetrate into the hills, and they think that in a few years the
neglected routes will be either altogether forgotten, or be so overgrown
with woods as to prevent access.  The few remaining roads will then be
easily guarded by a small force.  But besides the military point of view,
they are desirous of having few passages as a point of economy in
collecting the customs.  Accordingly, so far as they can, they have stopt
every pass, except that by Butaul, which, of course, has become a
considerable mart, although most inconveniently situated.  It stands on
the plain, but in a recess of the mountains, and is so dreadfully
unhealthy, that no one resides there in the rainy season.  The Rajas had
a house called Nayakot on a hill overhanging the town, or assemblage of
huts; but I am told, that this castle is not sufficiently elevated to be
exempt from the effects of the insalubrious air.

The Palpa Rajas possessed also a very important mart in the hills.  It is
called Rerighat, and is situated on the bank of the Narayani.  The best,
or rather the only tolerable roads passing through the country either
from the east and west, or from the north and south, pass this route; and
it seems to be of equal importance either in a military or commercial
view.  During the cold season there is at Rerighat a fair (Mela) which
lasts for three or four months, and is frequented by a great number of
traders from all parts of the mountains.  The road from Butaul to
Rerighat by Morihang, Mosihang, and Tansen, was said to be far from
difficult; but what idea a mountaineer annexed to a difficult road is not
easy to determine.  Some of them say, that loaded oxen could pass; others
say that they could not.  It is generally admitted, that the easiest
route from Rerighat to the plains would be east through Tansen, Rampur,
Nayakot, and Dewghat, but this road is at present stopt.

Loaded canoes, I am assured, can pass up the Gandaki, or Narayani, all
the way to Rerighat, except at a narrow rapid between two rocks at a
place called Gongkur, a little above Dewghat.  There they must be
unloaded and dragged up empty.  Timber in floating down this passage is
apt to fall across the channel, and to stick between the rocks; but this
may be obviated by tying a rope to one end of the logs so as to allow
them to float end on.  Canoes can ascend to Dewghat with little
difficulty.  There are, indeed, three rapids; one above Bhelaunji to
which large boats can go with ease; a second at the junction of the
Arhung; and a third at Khairiyani, near Dewghat; but in the dry season
canoes or small boats may be dragged up loaded.  In floods the navigation
is altogether unadvisable, the river being then of tremendous rapidity.

Near Tansen, the present capital, there was formerly a mine of iron, but,
since the conquest, copper has been discovered in the same place, and
now, it is said, the mine produces that metal to the value of 50,000
rupees a-year.  In the small territory of Khidim lately, as I have said,
annexed to Palpa, is a mine of lead.

I received very little information concerning the Tanahung branch of this
family.  It is said to be descended of Bihangga, or Bhringga, son of
Makunda Sen, who lived ten or eleven generations ago.  After some
generations the then chief of Tanahung, it is said, gave Rising as an
appanage to a younger brother, although, as I shall afterwards state,
there may be some doubt entertained on this point.  Afterwards, on the
failure of the Champaranya, or Rajpur branch of this colony from Chitaur,
the then Raja of Tanahung secured a part called Ramnagar, which is
situated in the district of Saran, under the protection of the Company,
and is now all that belongs to the family.  No chief resisted with such
gallantry and effect the rising power of Prithwi Narayan of Gorkha as the
Raja of Tanahung, by whom the forces of that perfidious prince were
defeated in a most decisive battle; nor was any attempt afterwards made
to extend the dominions of Gorkha to the west until the Raja of Palpa was
gained, as I have already mentioned.  How the overthrow of Tanahung took
place I have not learned; but the Raja made his escape to Ramnagar, and
retains only what he held of the Company.  His country, that was formerly
independent, consists of two portions; one on the hills that surround
Gorkha on the west and south, and one in the valley of the Raputi, which
is adjacent to the southern portion of what is on the hills.  This valley
is inhabited by the ordinary Hindus of Mithila.  It contains three
Pergunahs or baronies, Chitan, Belan, and Sengjhayat, of which the two
former contain a good deal of cultivation.  The road through them along
the Raputi to Hethaura is tolerably level, and might be easily made good;
while I understand that from Ramnagar by Bakraghat there is a pretty good
road to Chitan over the low hills, by which the valley is bounded on the
south.  The direct road from the plain to Hethaura by Bichhakhori is, I
know, very difficult; but some allege, that there is along the banks of
the torrent, in which the road now goes, a very good route, which has
been shut up by the present government of Nepal.  Colonel Kirkpatrick
describes another route through these hills; but, from all accounts, it
is more difficult than any of the others.

The mountains of Tanahung were inhabited by the same races as Palpa, and
nearly in the same proportions.  Its southern division contained three
towns, Yogimara, Upadrang, and Kavilas; the first of which is said to be
large, and a military station of some importance, although I did not
learn the title of the officer commanding, nor the extent of his force.
The circumstance of the military station, however, strongly confirms the
statement of Samar Bahadur, who alleges, that by these three towns is one
of the easiest routes to Nepal, of which the following is a detail given
by Sadhu Ram.

From Sivapur Ghat on the Gandaki, in the Company’s territory, to
Bhelongji in Nepal, the distance is 2½ coses, very bad road, but large
boats can go up the river.  From Bhelongji to Benmohar the distance is 3
coses, the river having some rapids.  Near Benmohar the Raputi joins the
Gandaki or Narayani; and there is a road through a level country, partly
cultivated, to Hethaura.  From Benmohar to the Arung Dumohan the distance
is 3 coses.  At this place also are some rapids.  From Arun Dumohan to
Leraghat is a distance of 3½ coses without rapids.  From Leraghat to
Dewghat are two days’ journey, having the cultivated lands of Chitan to
the right, and Nawalpur, the residence of a Subah, to the left.  From
Dewghat to Kavilas is one day’s journey east through a hilly country, in
some parts cultivated.  Kavilas is a village near the Trisul Gangga,
which is larger than the Narayani above Dewghat.  From Kavilas to
Upadrang is a day’s journey through a hilly country.  Upadrang is a town
and military station, with the Trisulgangga one-quarter cose to the
north.  It must be observed, that Kanak Nidhi reverses the situation of
the two last places; but Sadhu Ram’s position is supported by Colonel
Kirkpatrick.  From Upadrang to Yogimara, or Yogimaya, is a day’s journey
east.  Yogimara is a large village on a hill one-quarter cose south from
the Trisulgangga.  From Yogimara to Chitlang, in the lesser valley of
Nepal, is two days’ journey; and the road seems to pass through the
valley, which Colonel Kirkpatrick calls Doona Baisi, and fully describes.
{184}  From his account it would appear, that, from this valley, besides
the route leading to Chitlong, there is another leading to Thankot in the
greater valley of Nepal, and avoiding the difficult passage of
Chandangiri, which lies between Chitlong and Kathmandu.  Samar Bahadur
says, that on the whole route there is no great ascent; but the Brahman
Prati Nidhi alleges, that the route is both circuitous and steep.  At any
rate, it has been stopt by the present government of Nepal.

In the western wing of Tanahung were the capital and Bandi, two places of
some consequence.  The two maps differ a good deal in the details of this
principality; nor do I know to which the preference should be given.

The mountains of Tanahung contained mines of iron, but no others.

It was said, by Samar Bahadur, that Rising, Ghiring, and Gajarkot,
formerly belonged to Tanahung, and were given as an appanage to a younger
brother, among whose descendants they were afterwards subdivided, and the
three chiefs, to whom they belonged, are universally looked upon to be of
the same family; but here a great difficulty occurs.  The Tanahung
family, as well as the Palpa branch, is very generally admitted to be
descended of the Chitaur family, and to be of the highest and purest
tribe on the hills, east of the river Kali; but these three petty chiefs
wallow in all the ancient abominations of the mountaineers.  That Samar
Bahadur was mistaken, I see no reason to suppose; especially as these
three chiefs were in league with his family, and as Rising seems to have
belonged to his ancestor Makunda the 1st, who founded at the Dewghat, in
that territory, a celebrated temple, where he died.  I shall not take
upon myself, however, to say, whether we are, from the circumstance, to
infer, that the whole members of this family have no just claim to be
descended from the Chitaur colony, but were impure mountaineers, who had
this pedigree invented to flatter them, when they turned from their
impure ways, and were induced to follow the Brahmans.  It is possible,
that the first chief of the Rising family, who obtained that country as
an appanage, may have been of illegitimate birth, and that, his mother
being impure, he may have been brought up in a hankering after the
flesh-pots, from which it has been impossible to wean his descendants.

Rising, as I have said, was given by a Raja of Tanahung to a younger son.
The territory was always petty, and, according to Prati Nidhi, Dewghat
seems to have been resumed by Tanahung; but Sadhu Ram alleges, that so
long as the principality of Rising continued independent, Dewghat was its
port, and enjoyed some trade, which has been stopt by its present rulers.
The image of Siva, contained in the temple, is called Makundeswar, from
the founder.  There is a great assembly of votaries on the Sivaratri, and
another on the Khichri.  Some of this family are said to remain, but
where, I have not heard.  The country and its inhabitants do not differ
materially from Palpa, but it contains no mines.

Ghiring and Gajarkot, which belonged to two collateral branches of
Rising, were still more petty than that state, but did not differ in any
other considerable respect.



SECTION III.


NEPAL PROPER.


Name.—History previous to the Conquest by the Gorkhalis.—Extent and
Topography.—Population.—Buildings.—Revenue.—Trade.—Coins.—Weights.—
Measures.—Agriculture.—Tenures.—Crown Lands.—Lands held for
Service.—Charity Lands.—Tenants.—Implements.—Crops.—Manufactures.—Price
of Labour.—Slaves.—Diet.

I must next proceed to describe Nepal Proper, which is bounded on the
east, south, and south-west, by the territory above mentioned.  I have to
regret, that various restraints, by which my inquiries were checked,
while at Kathmandu, prevented me from obtaining much information that I
was anxious to procure.  In particular, I obtained little or no
information concerning the history of the princes who governed Nepal at
the time of the conquest; except that the Newars had been long subject to
a family of their own nation, all the members of which assumed the name
of Mal, and, for some time previous to the conquest, had separated into
three lordships, Kathmandu or Kathmaro, Lalita Patan, and Bhatgang, which
circumstance greatly facilitated the enterprise of the chief of Gorkha.

Nepal is a country celebrated in Hindu fable, and is said to be written
thus in the Purans, attributed to Vyas; but in the country itself, it is
commonly said, that its proper name is Niyampal, derived from a certain
Niyam, a Muni, or very holy person, the Nymuni of Colonel Kirkpatrick.
{187a}  This, however, is probably some modern conceit, as the Brahmans
of both south and north agree in writing the name Nepala, or Nepal, and
as the fables on which this etymology is built, as Colonel Kirkpatrick
justly observes, {187b} merit no attention.

As I myself procured little or no historical account of Nepal Proper,
previous to its conquest by the Raja of Gorkha, I might altogether refer
on the subject to Colonel Kirkpatrick’s account, contained in his eighth
chapter; but for the sake of connection, and in order to communicate my
opinions on the subject, I shall here give an abstract of Colonel
Kirkpatrick’s account, referring to his own work for particulars.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {187c} quotes books, which he calls Hurrumunt Khund
and Ooter Khund, probably portions of the Sri Bhagwat, for copious
details concerning Nepal, during the time that it continued one of the
favourite haunts of the Hindu deities, that is, during the Satya Yug, or
Golden age; nor have we any reason to regret, that, instead of detailing
such idle fables, he has contented himself with a mere reference to this
work.  Afterwards he goes on to give a series of princes, who are said to
have governed Nepal in subsequent ages, commencing with Niyam Muni, or as
he writes Nymuni.  In this part of his work Colonel Kirkpatrick quotes no
authority; but, as he brings the lists down to the termination of the
Newar dynasty in 1767, his authorities are probably quite modern, and, as
he supports the doctrine of the Newars having come from Gar Samaran,
which they deny, his authorities must be founded on the legends of the
Brahmans, much of which probably may be inventions perfectly recent, but
some foundation may have been taken from ancient works, mangled to suit
them for modern systems of Hindu chronology.

However this may be, Niyam Muni and his eight descendants are said {188a}
to have governed during the Treta and Dwapar Yugs, or the Silver and
Brazen Ages, which, according to the present system, lasted for many
hundred thousand years.  The eight successors of Niyam Muni governed
{188b} four hundred and ninety-one one-third years, which requires rather
an unwarrantable stretch of faith to believe; but, even admitting this,
what remains to Niyam Muni is altogether beyond measure.  This, perhaps,
is owing to the works originally consulted having been composed before
the present system of chronology was invented.  It is more to the purpose
to observe, that these princes have Sangskrita names, and therefore
probably came from the plains; and that, except Niyam and his immediate
successor, all of them are called Gupt; which shows that they were of the
cow-herd tribe.

This dynasty was deprived of power by Bhul Singh of the Rajput tribe, and
descended of Mehip Gopal, who came from Semrounghur (Gar Samaran) and
Jamnukpou, (Janakipur.)  He and his two descendants both having
Sangskrita names, governed a hundred and eleven seven-twelfth years.  Gar
Samaran, it must be observed, was not built for many ages after the time
of this dynasty; but Bhul Singh may have come from Janakipur, which was
in the vicinity of the place where Gar Samaran was afterwards built.
Whatever title these princes may have assumed, there is no reason to
suppose that they were of the ancient Kshatriyas, descended of the sun,
who resided at Janakipur, and governed Mithila, as no such name as Mehip
Gopal appears in any list of the princes of Mithila that I have seen.
Indeed, the title Gopal rather implies, that, like the former dynasty,
the descendants of Mehip belonged to the low tribe of cow-herds.

This dynasty, whatever may have been its origin, was expelled by the
Kerrats, (Kiratas,) of whom 27 princes governed 1630 years.  The names of
these princes, as might be expected, from what I have said of the tribe
Kirata, are entirely barbarous.

The barbarian Kiratas were expelled by Nevesit, a Chetree (Kshatriya) of
the Surejbunsi (Suryabangsi) race, of whose descendants 33 princes
governed 1702 years.  These princes had Sangskrita names, although
Colonel Kirkpatrick, {189a} speaking of one of them, who built the temple
of Sambhunath, says, that they were Thibetians, who, after having been
expelled by the Newars, obtained the name of Khat Bhotiyas, which they
preserve to this day.  Many of them took the title of Burmah, {189b} on
which account Colonel Kirkpatrick calls them Burmahs, probably meaning
Varmas; and it is probable that these are the Varmas celebrated in the
Purans, and had no connection with the Burmas of Ava, as Dr Leyden
supposed. {189c}  Both, indeed, were of the sect of Buddha, who are
usually called Brahmas by the Hindus, and the word Burma, Burmah, or
Birmah, is probably a corruption of that appellation.

The Ahirs, (Ahiras, another name for cow-herds,) who were originally the
sovereigns of Nepal, then recovered their dominions, and three of them
governed 175 years.  These must have been descendants of Niyam Muni.
They have Sangskrita names, with the addition of Gupt, to mark their
descent and tribe.

After these the Burmahs, descended of Nevesit, again recovered Nepal, and
during 46 reigns governed 1869-1/6th years, which, by some error in the
printing, or addition, is made 2869-1/12 years.  Three sons of the last
of these 46 princes governed successively, but the length of their reigns
is not stated.  One of them left a daughter, named Suttey Naik Deby,
(probably Satya Nayeka Devi,) and married to Harrir Chander Deo,
(probably Harihara Chandra Deva,) Raja of Banaras, by whom she had a
daughter, Raj Letchmi, (Raya Lakshmi,) who was queen of Nepal.

This lady was succeeded by Hurr Singh Deo Raja of Semrour, (Hari Singha
Deva of Samaran,) who introduced the Newars, and {190} expelled the
Thibetians, now called Kath Bhotiyas, who since occupy chiefly the
mountains near Kuti.  This event happened in the Newar year 444, (A.D.
1323.)

The length of time allotted in the preceding account to these reigns is
quite inadmissible, and on an average, I think, that more than ten years
should not be allowed for each.  According to this, we may form the
following estimate.

Niyam and his eight descendants would govern 90 years, beginning A.D. 33,
nearly about the time that Sakya introduced the doctrine of the Buddhas
into these mountainous regions, and it was he who probably introduced
Sangskrita names, and any considerable degree of civility among the
mountain tribes.  We know abundantly, that most of the successors of
Niyam continued to adhere to the doctrine of Sakiya, as the Kiratas
Burmahs and Newars occupy by far the greatest portion of the subsequent
space, and were no doubt of the sect of Bouddha.

The three descendants of Mehip Gopal would govern 30 years, beginning
A.D. 173.

The Kiratas would govern 270 years, commencing A.D. 303.

The Bhotiyas, descended of Nevesit, would govern at first 330 years,
beginning A.D. 473.

The descendants of Niyam Muni, after recovering their old patrimony,
would govern 30 years, beginning A.D. 803.

The Bhotiyas would again govern 490 years, beginning A.D. 833.

In the account of the Newars I have already stated, that this people
totally deny their having come from the plains, or that their princes
were descended of Hari Singha of Gar Samaran, and the people of Mithila,
in which Gar Samaran is situated, altogether deny that Hari Singha ever
left their country.  I am therefore inclined to suppose, that the Mal
family, which afterwards governed Nepal, are in fact the descendants of
the last queen of the Burmah race, who, under the influence of her father
from Banaras, may have introduced the doctrine of cast, and other
customs, in which the Newars differ from the Thibetians, and thus
separated their subjects from that portion of their tribe who retained
their ancient customs, and who were afterwards distinguished by the name
of Khat Bhotiyas.

Jat Mull, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, {191} in the sixth generation
from the founder of the Newar dynasty, was a great conqueror; but divided
his kingdom into the three principalities which existed when the country
was conquered by the Gorkhalis.  Runjeet Mull (Ranjit Mal) of Bhatgang,
in the seventh generation from Jat Mull, entered into a league with
Prithwi Narayan of Gorkha against Kathmandu, which ended in the total
subjugation of his house in the year 1767, so that thirteen generations
held the government for 444 years, which coincides very exactly with the
calculation of the venerable Herodotus.

The finest parts of Nepal consist of two delightful vallies separated
from each other by the mountain Chandangiri; but these vallies, called
Great and Little Nepal, do not include the whole of Nepala Desa, which is
one of the fifty-six regions of Hindu geography.  It extends also a
considerable way over the countries watered by streams which run from the
outside of the mountains that inclose the greater valley, and which fall
into the Gandaki on the west, and the Kausiki on the east.  The real
boundaries are four celebrated places of pilgrimage; Nilkantha, eight
days’ journey north from Kathmandu; Nateswar, three days’ journey south;
Kaleswar, two days’ journey west; and Bhimeswar, four days’ journey east.
The whole territory between these places is holy ground, and is properly
called Dhama.  This holy land, according to the Brahmans, is inhabited by
5,600,000 Bhairawas and Bhairawis.  The former are male spirits of Maha
Deva, or Siva, and the latter are female spirits of the Sakti, who is the
wife, the mother, and the divine power of that deity.  The whole
territory within these boundaries was not, however, subject to the Newan
chiefs who governed Nepal, and a large part in the vicinity of Nilkantha
in particular, until the rise of the house of Gorkha, was subject to
Thibet.

Nilkantha is a place much frequented by pilgrims, and which would seem to
possess many natural curiosities.  I therefore shall here annex an
account of the best route to it, in hopes that it may be of use to some
fortunate traveller, who may procure access to visit the Alps of Nepal.
The traveller ought to proceed to Yogimara, the route to which I have
mentioned before.

From Yogimara it is one day’s journey north and east to Mahes Domohana, a
large village on a hill, at the junction of the Mahes with the
Trisulgangga.  The Mahes rises at Bhenjhongga, a village three coses west
from Kirtipur, in the greater valley of Nepal.

From Mahes Domohana to Devighat is a distance of 2½ days’ journey, with
not above two or three villages on the whole route.  Devighat is a large
village, where the Tazi or Tadi joins the Trisulgangga, and where there
are annually several assemblies for the people to bathe at the junction
of the streams.  Kanak Nidhi, it must be observed, places a Devighat much
lower down, at the junction of the Trisulgangga with the Gandi, but the
Devi Ghat at the junction of the Tadi and Trisulgangga, or Daiby Ghaut,
as he calls it, is that described by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {193} at
considerable length.  It is dedicated to Maha Maia, or Bhawani,
concerning whom, Colonel Kirkpatrick, or his editor, seems to have fallen
into several errors, saying, “that Bhowani is Daiby, (so he writes the
words,) in her character of universal mother, or in other words Nature.”
Now, Devi and Bhawani have exactly the same meaning, that is, the
Goddess; and Maha Maia is not universal mother, but great mother; nor is
Bhawani ever worshipped as the Genetrix naturæ, as universal mother might
imply, but as the Sakti, or power of Siva, who is the God of destruction,
and her worship is entirely that of fear.

North from this Devighat, six hours’ (two pahars) journey, is Nayakot, a
town of Nepal Proper, situated on a hill, on the east side of the
Trisulgangga.  It contains about 12,000 houses, mostly occupied by
Newars, and is built of brick like Kathmandu.  The Court often retires
here in the winter, the situation being warmer than Kathmandu.  The town
is situated on a hill, overhanging a valley, which Colonel Kirkpatrick
{194} estimates to be 2200 feet lower than Kathmandu, on which account,
it is not habitable after the middle of April, being subject to the Ayul.

From Nayakot north, one day’s journey, is Dhayabung, a village chiefly
inhabited by Bhotiyas, and situated on a high hill at the Bitrawati ghat.
The Bitrawati comes from the east, and has a course of four or five
hours’ (1½ pahar) journey in length.

North from Dhayabung, one day’s journey, is Dhunchi, a Bhotiya village,
on a large hill, south from the Trisulgangga.

From Dhunchi east, one day’s journey, is Dhimsa, a large Bhotiya village,
not now subject to Gorkha.  From Dhimsa to Gosaingsthan there are no
inhabitants, and the country is covered with snow.  Three hours’ journey
from Dhimsa, the pilgrims come to Ganes Gongera, where there is an image
of Ganes, to which the pilgrims resort.  They then proceed about seven or
eight hours’ journey (two or three pahars) to Bara Nilkantha, where,
during the fair, there are many shops.  There are eight springs, one of
which is hot, and emits a blue flame from its surface.  East from thence
one-half cose, is a pool called Gaurikunda.  Another pool, named
Suryakunda, is about one-half cose farther east; and immediately beyond
that, rises the immense peak of Gosaingsthan, from the east-side of which
a branch of the Kausiki issues.  On a mountain south from Gosaingsthan,
and called Mahamandal, are found lead, zinc, or tutenague, mica in large
plates, and rock crystal.

From Dhunchi there is a road to Kerung, one day’s journey north.  This
has lately been ceded to the Chinese by the governors of Nepal.

Considerable illustrations of this route up the Trisulgangga, by Nayakot
to Nilkantha, and Kerung, {195} may be found in the 5th Chapter of
Kirkpatrick’s Account of Nepaul, page 107, etc.

I have already given an account of the Newars, and of the mineral
productions of the valley of Nepal, and now proceed to treat of some
other circumstances, relating partly to the former, and partly to the
present state of things, when Nepal has become the seat of a foreign
government; although by this arrangement, I must here detail much of what
I have to state concerning the family which now reigns, and to which I
must afterwards return.

The following is the route to Kathmandu, by which I went to that city,
and which is the one most frequented by merchants from the low country,
especially by those trading to Patna, which is the principal mart for
this commerce.

From the Company’s boundary near the Bera river are about ten miles to
Gar Pasara, over an open plain, little of which is cultivated.  An old
fort, and many plantations of Mango trees, show that formerly it has been
in a better state.  We crossed the Bera, and passed some way along the
banks of another river.  Even in the end of March, these rivers are full
of water, and contain no large banks of sand, as is usual in India.  With
industry, they might be applied most advantageously to irrigate the
fields.  The water is dirty, and owing to the quantity of rotten
vegetable matter which it brings from the forest, and which at this
season is little diluted, it is reckoned very unwholesome.  Gar Pasara is
a small village with a large tank.  Near it is a brick house built by
Singha Pratap, the present Raja of Gorkha’s grandfather, who in the cold
season sometimes resided in the Tariyani, on the improvement of which he
bestowed considerable attention.

From Gar Pasara to Bichhakor is about fourteen miles.  The three first
miles are clear, the remainder passes through a stately forest, with
little or no underwood, but some long grass and reeds.  For seven miles
the ground in the forest is nearly level, and a very little trouble would
make the road fit for carts.  The remaining road passes along the lower
part of some small hills, which are rather stony, and it crosses the
rough and wide channels of some torrents, which in the cold season are
perfectly dry; yet a small labour would render the whole way from Gar
Pasara to Bichhakor passable for carts.  At present it is perfectly good
for laden cattle.  There is no water by the way.  Bichhakor contains
about a dozen huts, and affords no supplies except wood and water, of
which last there is a very fine spring, and several small streams in a
very wide stony channel, the only clear place in the vicinity.

Bichhakor derives its name from the place abounding in scorpions.  There
is no cultivation near it, and the only inhabitants are a few Parbatiyas,
or mountain Hindus.  They reside at the place to collect some duties, and
for the accommodation of travellers, and by long habit have become inured
to the climate, and enabled to resist its baneful influence, which, from
the end of March, till the beginning of December, is exceedingly
destructive to all strangers.  The temperature of the air at Bichhakor is
sensibly cooler than at Gar Pasara, and we found the heat of the spring
to be 74° Fahrenheit’s thermometer, which may be considered as the
average heat of the place.

From Bichhakor to Hethaura is about sixteen miles.  For the first seven
miles the channel serves as a road; but both sides consist of low steep
hills and precipices; the former covered with thick woods, among which
are many pines.  The ascent on the whole is considerable, but is nowhere
steep; and with a little pains, the road might be made very good for
loaded oxen, or even for light carriages.  Even now, cattle convey along
it on their backs the usual burthen of grain.  About seven miles from
Bichhakor, the road proceeds to the right from the channel, through a
very strong pass called Chiriyaghat, or bird passage.  It is commanded by
two hills, which are less than a mile from the river, and which, although
steep, are not high.  The road between them is narrow, but in other
respects is not bad.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {197} considers Chiriyaghat as
the name of the whole ridge, and not as that of the pass, as the name
would seem to imply, and as I understood.  From Chiriyaghat to Hethaura,
the road is very good for loaded cattle, and might be easily rendered fit
for carts.  It descends gently through a country that rises into small
swells, and has few trees, but is intersected by several dry water
courses.  About a mile from Hethaura, the Karara, coming from the east,
passes the road.  The ford is perfectly easy, and the road from thence to
Hethaura is good, leading through a stately forest.  From Chiriyaghat to
Hethaura, there is no water except the Karara, a dirty black stream,
which it is unsafe to drink, being black and unwholesome.

The route to Hethaura above described by Gar Pasara, or as he writes it
Goolpussra, {198a} or Goorpussra, {198b} according to Colonel
Kirkpatrick, possesses decided advantages over that by the Bhareh pass,
situated farther east.

Hethaura stands on a fine plain, about a mile wide, which is bounded on
the north by the Raputi, and on the south by the Karara.  The soil of
this plain is good, but none of it is cultivated, and most of it is
covered with stately forests of the Sakhuya or Sal, which are kept clear
of underwood, by burning at this season the fallen leaves and dry grass.
This is done to all the forests in the neighbourhood, and every night of
my stay, the surrounding hills were illuminated in a very grand manner.

The Raputi is a beautiful rapid clear stream, which, having come from the
north, turns here to the west, and after having been joined by the Karara
some way below, passes till it joins the Gandaki, through a valley, the
lower part of which is cultivated, but all near Hethaura is waste,
although the plain there would admit of a considerable extent of
cultivation, should ever the jealousy of the Nepal government be so far
removed as to allow the forests to be cleared.  This, however, is not
likely soon to be the case, as these forests increase the insalubrity of
the air at Hethaura, which is one of the most important stations that
could be chosen by invaders coming from the south.  All kind of stores
and provisions can be transported to it with ease, and it is a fine
situation, admitting of a large camp.  This might be secured by taking
Makwanpur, a fortress situated about five miles to the eastward on a high
hill.  The people of Nepal are very jealous concerning Makwanpur,
Hariharpur, and Sinduli, as the possession of these would give an enemy
the entire command of the Tariyani.

The heat at Hethaura is much more temperate than that of the Tariyani;
but, as the warm season advances, the air becomes exceedingly unhealthy,
which seems to be chiefly owing to the want of cultivation.

For the accommodation of merchants, Hethaura has a brick building, which
surrounds a square court.  There are also a few shops.

From Hethaura to Bhimphedi is a distance of about eighteen miles, leading
through a narrow defile, between high and steep hills, overgrown with
thick woods.  The Raputi winds through the defile in an extraordinary
manner, so that it is crossed twenty-two times by the way.  It is a
strong, rapid, clear stream, not too deep to prevent it from being easily
forded, so far as the water is concerned; but the channel is filled with
rounded slippery stones, that render the fords very bad; when we went,
bridges had therefore been constructed of trees laid from stone to stone,
and covered with earth, so that cattle might have passed with tolerable
ease, nor is the road very bad.  From Hethaura to Bhimphedi is usually
reckoned one day’s journey; but in returning, I halted by the way, on a
clear space, called Maka Paka, which, although of small extent, and
uneven, afforded abundance of wood and water; while at Bhimphedi the
supply of the latter is scanty, and it is practicable from Maka Paka to
go over the hill of Chisapani, and in one day to reach the fine rivulet
called Panauni, which is on its north side.  Between Maka Paka and
Hethaura are a few cleared spots, like it cultivated by rude tribes, who
shun all communication with travellers, and dwell in the recesses of
forests which protect them from the Gorkhalese.

About fourteen miles from Hethaura, and a little way from Maka Paka, the
road leaves the immediate bank of the Raputi, and ascends a very steep
and strong bank, called Dokaphedi, from whence to Bhimphedi there is a
fine level.

At Bhimphedi, the valley of the Raputi entirely ceases, and the high
mountains called Lama Dangra divide it from the country on the north
watered by the branches of the Vagmati.  A large channel, one of the
branches of the Raputi, passes Bhimphedi; but in the dry season it
contains no water, and the inhabitants receive a scanty supply from a
small spring.  Water, however, might probably be procured in abundance,
by digging wells in the channel of the torrent.

The height of Bhimphedi, above Hethaura, is very considerable, and the
influence of the Ayul is much later in extending there, owing to the
coolness of the air.  At sunrise, on the 8th April, while the thermometer
in the air was at 67° of Fahrenheit’s scale, it sunk to 63° upon being
immersed into the spring.  This may be considered as the average heat of
the place, which is about 27° 30′ of north latitude.  Here the mercury in
our barometer sunk out of sight below the scale, which descended only to
twenty-six inches; nor during our stay in Nepal did the mercury ever
reach that height.  At Bhimphedi, the vegetable productions put on a
strong resemblance to those of Europe.  It is a small village inhabited
by Parbatiyas, and where some public buildings have been erected for the
accommodation of passengers.  Some shops afford grain, and such articles
of consumption as Hindu travellers usually require.

From Bhimphedi to the copper mine (Tamrakhani) on the Panauni, is about
5½ miles over the chain of mountains called Lamadangra, and by the pass
called Chisapani.  The mountain is of great elevation, and very steep,
but not very rugged; nor are the woods thick, although the trees are
lofty.  Except in steepness, the road is not bad.

About a mile and a half from Bhimphedi, I came to a fort called
Chisapani, considered as the bulwark of Nepal; but it is by no means
fitted to inspire us with respect for the skill of the engineers of
Gorkha.  It is situated on the declivity of the hill, so that an
assailant might go round by the right, and when he had got above it, even
with musquetry, the garrison could not show their faces on the works.
Its form will be understood from the sketch.

                        [Picture: Chisapani Fort]

The center in which the gates are is commanded by the two wings.  The
whole is built of brick, without any ditch.  The wall on the upper side
is about thirteen feet high; but on the lower front, the height of the
parapet being carried round on a level, the elevation may be eighteen
feet.  This fort is always guarded by a company of seapoys; and, if fully
garrisoned, might contain two hundred men.  Round the fort a space has
been cleared from trees; but so steep is the hill, that an enemy resting
at the edge of the forest, and within two hundred yards of the fort, is
not from thence visible.  Immediately above the fort is a small village
and market, (bazar;) but the Hindu engineers have been so improvident,
that the only supply of water is about half a mile higher up the
mountain.  There, near the road, is a small spring of fine clear water,
like that at Bhimphedi.  It is called Chisa Pani, or the cold water, and
is reckoned unwholesome, probably from people having suffered by drinking
it rashly, when they have been heated by ascending the hill: for being a
pure spring, it is probably excellent water.

For about a mile beyond the spring, the road continues to ascend,
although with a more moderate declivity than below the fort.  At the
summit of the hill are some old fortifications, which were said to form
the boundary between Nepal Proper and Makwanpur.  The view from thence is
said to be very grand, but a thick haze in all directions hindered me
from seeing any thing except the neighbouring hills.

From this summit to the Panauni river, there is a very steep descent of
about two miles through a beautiful forest of oaks, which is clear from
underwood, and ornamented with the purple flowers of a large
rhododendron, and with innumerable parasitical plants, having splendid
and odorous flowers.  In this forest, on account of its northern
exposure, the pine does not thrive.  The road over this mountain called
Chisapani, is on the whole fatiguing; nor will it admit of any load being
transported by cattle.  To conduct a road over such a mountain, with
proper slopes, so as to enable carriages to pass, is a work not to be
expected from the natives, who, even if they were able to contrive such a
work, would be afraid to put it in execution; as they would consider it
as likely to afford too free an intercourse with their more powerful
neighbours; and jealousy of strangers is the predominant principle in the
Nepal government.

The Panauni is a clear rapid stream, with various branches, which come
from the west and north, and water the country called Lahuri, or Little
Nepal.  All these branches unite where the road descends from Chisapani,
and run to the east to join the Vagmati.  Having crossed the Panauni
twice, and observed in its channel numerous large masses of grey granite,
I halted to breakfast at a small village named Tamra Khani.  Near it is a
productive copper mine, which the jealousy of the people hindered me from
seeing, nor could I procure any of the ore, except a few small fragments.
Tamra Khani, or the copper mine, is a small village inhabited by mountain
Hindus, (Parbatiyas,) and situated in a very narrow part of the valley,
which is straitened by an insulated hill on the north side of the river.
Although its situation is low, yet being subject to continual high winds,
this place is by the natives considered as very cold.

From thence I proceeded about six miles, and having at first followed the
principal stream of the Panauni, and then one of its branches, I halted a
little beyond Chitlong, after having had a good view of Lahuri Nepal.
Except in dimensions, this so much resembles the larger valley, that I
need not take up much time in its description.  The road through it
frequently crosses the river, and ascends a steep hill above a village
named Marku; but this might be in a great measure avoided.  The whole
valley is not only clear of woods, but very bare.  Its surface is
extremely uneven, but is finely watered by numerous springs and rivulets,
so that it is well cultivated, and produces much grain.  The whole
appearance of Lahuri Nepal, and its vegetable productions, strongly
resemble those of the wilder parts of Britain; and, during my stay, I was
entertained with the note of an old acquaintance, the cuckoo.  The air of
the higher part of the valley where we encamped is much cooler than that
of Kathmandu, and was so sharp to our relaxed habits, that our winter
clothing became comfortable, although Chitlong is situated nearly in
twenty-seven degrees and a half of north latitude.  I judge from the
temperature of the springs, as they issue from the earth, that its mean
heat is 58½ degrees of Fahrenheit’s scale.  The winters, however, are
never severe; and at that season the fields produce a crop of wheat,
while in summer they yield one of rice.  The great inferiority of this
country, when compared with the mountains of Europe, consists in its
pasture, which is very poor.  It is, however, of a more nourishing
quality than the rank grass of the Tariyani; for the cattle of Chitlong
are in excellent condition when compared with those below the mountains.

Lahuri Nepal formerly belonged to the Raja of Lalita Patan.  Its chief
town called Chitlong, is well built, and its inhabitants are mostly
Newars.

From Chitlong is about four miles to Thankot in the greater valley of
Nepal.  The road is very bad and rough, and conducts through forests over
a mountain named Chandangiri, and nearly as difficult of ascent and
descent as Chisapani.  It derives its name, signifying sandal mountain,
from one of the fables in the Hindu mythology, which states, that the
goddess Parwati, the wife of Siva, rubbed herself with the powder of this
fragrant wood while she sat on the mountain.  Colonel Kirkpatrick calls
this Chandraghiri, or the Mountain of the Moon. {204}  On the highest
part of the pass a house has been built for the accommodation of
passengers.  In the wooden carved work of this building are some very
indecent figures, which by the natives are considered as fit ornaments,
even in places erected from religious motives, as all these houses for
the accommodation of travellers are.

Thankot is a small town, finely supplied with wood and water.  It stands
on a rocky eminence at the south west corner of the valley of Nepal, in a
district separated from the other parts of the plain by a low ridge of
hills.  On the most conspicuous part of this ridge stands Kirtipur, a
considerable town.  This part of the valley seems to be a good deal
elevated above the portion which contains Kathmandu; and I found the heat
of a spring in a small wood above Thankot to be 59½ degrees of
Fahrenheit’s thermometer.  From Thankot to Kathmandu is about seven miles
over very uneven cultivated fields, with no roads but foot-paths.

The larger valley of Nepal is somewhat of a circular form, and is watered
by numerous branches of the Vagmati, which flow from the surrounding
hills towards the centre, and unite into one stream a little way south
from the capital.  From the place of junction the Vagmati runs south, and
goes to the Tariyani, after having forced a passage through the
mountains.  Taken in the largest sense, therefore, the valley of Nepal
comprehends all the grounds watered by these branches of the Vagmati,
and, according to this definition, it is about twenty-two miles from east
to west, and twenty miles from north to south.  This extent is every
where bounded by a chain of hills, all of which are steep, and some of
them rise into high mountains.  Of these the most remarkable are Shiva,
or Siwapuri, on the north, Nagarjun on the west, Chandangiri on the
south-west, Pulihu on the south east, and Devikot on the east.  It must
be observed, that from these hills, various branches reach a considerable
way into the plain, and separate from it small vallies, most of which are
considerably elevated above the general level, and from these vallies
issue the various streams by which the country is irrigated.  The larger
valley, reduced by these branches, may be about fourteen miles each way.
A person placed in the centre of this extent would consider the whole as
one great level, but on travelling about, he frequently comes to very
deep hollows, excavated by the various branches of the river, which flow
with a very gentle current in large sandy channels.  Except after heavy
rains, these are almost always fordable, and are commonly sunk fifty or
sixty feet perpendicular below the general level of the plain.

It appears evident to me, that Colonel Kirkpatrick {206} judged rightly
in supposing that this valley has formerly been a lake, which has
gradually deposited all the alluvial matter that now forms the different
substrata of the plain.  The extent of the lake may in all places be
traced by that of the alluvial matters, above the edges of which
generally appear irregularly shaped large stones, which, having rolled
down from the hills, stopped at the water’s edge as usual in the lakes of
hilly countries.  The memory of the lake is preserved in the fables
contained in the books of the natives, which mention the deity by whom
the mountain was cleft to drain off the water, together with numerous
circumstances connected with this event.  The following is an account of
these fables that was communicated to me by Colonel Crawford.  When the
valley of Nepal was an immense lake, an incarnation of Buddha was born in
that country.  A petition was therefore made to the gods requesting that
the lake might be drained, that the valley might be filled with
inhabitants, and that thus the number of the followers of Buddha might
increase.  The gods attended to this petition, and ordered Menjoo Dev’ to
evacuate the waters by making a cut through the mountains.  This he
performed with one blow of his scimitar, and ever since, the waters of
the Vagmati have flowed through the gap, which he then formed.  The
spirit who had presided over the lake was a large serpent, who, finding
his water become scanty, and the dry land beginning every where to
appear, became exceedingly wroth, but he was pacified by the gods, who
formed for his residence a miraculous tank, which is situated a little to
the southward of Lalita Patan.  This tank has a number of angles, all of
which cannot be seen at once from any station; they can only, therefore,
be numbered by walking round the tank; the miraculous nature of which, in
the opinion of the natives, is fully demonstrated by no two persons who
make the attempt to number these angles, being able to agree concerning
this important point.

The Brahmans, it must be observed, have invented another story, equally
extravagant, and attribute the blow which cleared the valley to Anirudha,
the grandson of Krishna, who at the same time killed Sangkhasur, who
until then had been lord of Nepal.

The Vagmati must always have flowed from the valley, to carry away the
vast body of water collected in the rainy season, and which evidently was
confined by a narrow ledge of rocks, which crosses the channel of the
river, where it enters the southern mountainous district.  At that time
the bottom of the lake must have been a smooth cavity, and it must have
been surrounded by small narrow glens, pouring their streams into the
lake, as they now do into the valley.  As the river gradually wore away
the rock, over which it must have been precipitated in a cataract, the
water in the lake would subside, and the various streams running from the
glens would form deep excavations in the soft matter that had formerly
been deposited by the water; and this operation would go on, till the
ledge of rock was entirely worn away, and a stop was put to the sinking
of the river, by the immerse mass of rock opposed to its influence.

While the lake existed, there must have appeared in it two islands, which
now form hills.  The one is called Sambhunath, or rather Swayambhunath,
as being, in the opinion of the Bouddhists of Nepal and Thibet, a
favourite residence of the Supreme Being.  It is an elegant hill, with
two peaks occupied by religious buildings, and covered with the most
stately trees.  It is a conspicuous object from almost every part of the
valley, and every where appears to great advantage.

The description given of the Temple of Buddha on this hill by Colonel
Kirkpatrick {208} is not very accurate, and the drawing is bad,
especially in representing the upper part quadrangular, while in reality
it is round.  It is generally admitted to be the most ancient temple or
edifice in Nepal, and, indeed, Colonel Kirkpatrick states, that it was
built by Maun Deo, (Mana Deva,) who, according to him, was the
sixty-first prince of the country, before the year of Christ 1323.
Allowing ten years for each reign, this would place the building of the
temple in the beginning of the eighth century, which, from its
appearance, is fully as early a date as can be admitted.

The other hill is larger, but not so high, and is greatly celebrated
among the followers of the Vedas.  It is venerated as being the residence
of Siva, under the name of Pasupatinath, and of his wife, under the name
of Guhyiswari.  The hill is covered with trees, and has a temple
dedicated to each of the deities.  These temples are frequented by great
numbers of pilgrims, who, by visiting the holy place, expect to be ever
afterwards secured from being born an animal lower than man.  The hill,
in a large part of its circumference, is washed by the Vagmati, which is
there a holy river; and all the Hindus of Nepal wish to expire with their
feet immersed in its stream, and are desirous, that after death they
should be burned on its banks.

       [Picture: View of Kathmandu and Lalita Patan from the West]

The two copperplate engravings, taken from drawings by Colonel Crawford,
will give an idea of the scenery in the valley of Nepal.  No. 1.
represents the temple of Bouddhama in Kasacheit, the most favourite place
of worship with the Khat Bhotiyas, or ancient inhabitants of the country.
In the distant parts of the back ground are peaks of the Himaliya
mountains rising through the clouds.  No. 2 gives a distant view of
Kathmandu towards the right, and Lalita Patan towards the left, with the
temple of Jagannath between them, and in front of Lalita Patan, the
Queen’s Garden, in which the British Embassy was lodged.  The town of
Kirtipur is seen on a hill behind Kathmandu.

In Nepal Proper, the Parbatiyas are not near so numerous as the Newars.
The valley of Nepal seems to be exceedingly populous; but when the
natives, as usual, talk of 18,000 houses in Kathmandu, 24,000 in Lalita
Patan, and 12,000 in Bhatgang, they certainly grossly exaggerate.  The
persons of all ages and both sexes may in these towns amount to such
numbers, and in Kathmandu may perhaps somewhat exceed this calculation.
There are, besides, in this small valley several other considerable
towns, such as Timmi, Kirtipur, Dewapatan, Sangghu, and Thankot.

Colonel Kirkpatrick observes, {209} that “we are altogether unfurnished
with any documents that would warrant our hazarding even a conjecture on
the number of people, the materials we possess for judging of the
population of the valley of Nepaul itself being at the best extremely
vague, and enabling us only to state it loosely at about half a million.”
In p. 161, he reckons 48,000 or 50,000 people in Kathmandu, which seems
to me considerably exaggerated.

The Parbatiyas do not, like the Newars, delight in towns and villages,
and, except the followers of the court, few reside in Kathmandu, or other
cities of Nepal; neither are they so much addicted to large brick
buildings; for the princes of the Gorkha family, although they have
united very extensive dominions under their authority, have been
contented with the palace of the petty chief of Kathmandu, or Kathmaro,
as it is often called.  This, indeed, is a large building, but of so
singular a form, that our terms of art could not be applied to describe
its architecture.  It possesses no magnificence, and seems to have been
inferior to the palaces of Lalita Patan and Bhatgang.  All the three,
however, are works of astonishing magnitude, considering the small extent
of country subject to the princes by whom they were built.  The great
families of Gorkha have occupied the best houses of the Newars, or have
built others in the same style, some of which are mansions that in
appearance are befitting men of rank.  The greater part of the
Parbatiyas, however, retain their old manners, and each man lives on his
own farm.  Their huts are built of mud, and are either white-washed or
painted red with a coloured clay.  They are covered with thatch, and,
although much smaller than the houses of the Newars, seem more
comfortable, from their being much more neat and clean.  Their usual form
may be seen in the foreground of the copperplate No. 1.

Near the palace of Kathmandu is the shrine of Tulasi Bhawani, (Toolaja
Bhowani, {210}) who, with Gorakhanath, is the tutelar deity of the
reigning family.  There is no image of this deity which is represented by
a Yantra, or cabalistical figure.  In order to impress the subjects with
awe, no person is admitted into this shrine except the Raja, the Rani or
Queen, the Guru or spiritual guide of the prince, and the Pujari or
priest, who is always of the Guru’s family.  In order probably to add
more to the awe of the place, Prithwi Narayan is said to have offered
some human sacrifices; but the deity is reported to have reprimanded the
prince in a dream, and ever since the victims offered have been
buffaloes, sheep, and goats.  After the proper ceremonies have been
performed, the throat of the animal is cut, in the outer part of the
temple, before the multitude, and the blood is carried into the shrine by
the priest, or by the prince.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {211} describes the twenty most remarkable temples of
Nepal, excluding the two greatest, Sambhunat and Bouddhama, as being
heterodox; but he was not aware, that the same reason should have induced
him to exclude the temples of Matsyendranath, (Mutchendernath,) and
Gorakhnath, (Goorukhnath.)  I may, however, refer to his account for all
that requires to be mentioned on this subject.

Nepal Proper is immediately under the management of the Bahradar, or
great officers of the court.  Kathmandu, for the support of the court,
pays annually 18,000 rupees, Lalita Patan pays 18,000, Bhatgang 14,000,
and Kirtipur 7000.

About three years ago, a kind of perpetual settlement was made on these
crown lands.  Each farm was assessed at a certain quantity of grain,
which the farmer might either pay in kind, or in money, at the market
price.  Much benefit would have resulted to the Company, had Lord
Cornwallis adopted such a plan.  A very large portion of Nepal Proper has
been alienated, either in fee or in charity lands.  A fine town, named
Sangghu, is the Jaygir, or jointure lands of the Maha Rani, or Queen
Regent, and is worth annually 4000 rupees.  Dewa Patan, a still larger
place, belongs entirely to the temples of Pasupatinath and Guhyiswari.

The trade of Nepal was formerly pretty considerable, although the
territories of the Raja produce few articles for exportation, except
iron, copper, and drugs.  At present the defects in the police, and the
total want of credit, partly owing to the weakness of the law, and partly
to the falsehood of the people, have in a great measure put a stop to the
commerce which passed through the country.  Its nature was as follows:

Some merchants of Kasmir carried their manufactures by the way of Ladak
to Kutti, and other towns in Thibet, in order to procure the wool
produced in these countries by the Shawl goat.  These manufactures were
partly used in Thibet, partly sent to Siling or Sining, on the western
frontier of China, by the way of Degarchi and Lassa, and partly sent to
Patna by the way of Kathmandu.  These Kasmirians have factories at Lassa,
Siling, Patna, and Kathmandu.  They brought from China such goods as
answered for the demand of Nepal and Kasmir, among which tea and silks
were the principal articles; and from Patna they carried to China otters’
skins, to the annual amount of about 50,000 rupees.  These otters’ skins
are procured in the neighbourhood of Dhaka in Bengal.

Again the merchants of Bhot or Thibet brought for sale to Kathmandu
paper, coarse woollen cloths, horses, Shawl goats, common goats, sheep,
Chaury cattle, chauries, (changwari or chaungri,) musk, salt, sal
ammoniac, hurtal or yellow arsenic, borax, quicksilver from China,
gold-dust, silver, preserved fruits, such as almonds, walnuts, raisins,
and dates, and drugs, such as Indian madder or manjit, chirata, and
charas, or extract of hemp.  Formerly the Lamas of Degarchi (Teeshoo) and
Lassa sent much bullion to the mint at Kathmandu, and made a very liberal
allowance for having it coined; but the rapacity of Rana Bahadur induced
him to alloy the money, which of course put an entire stop to this source
of wealth.  Of these articles, the greater part of the musk, chaungris,
hurtal, borax, and bullion, are sent to Patna, or the low country.  From
thence again are brought up buffaloes, goats, broad-cloth, cutlery, glass
ware, and other European articles, Indian cotton cloths, mother of pearl,
pearls, coral, beads, spices, pepper, betel nut and leaf, camphor,
tobacco, and phagu, or the red powder thrown about by the Hindus at their
festival called Holi.  Most of these articles, together with many
utensils of wrought copper, brass, bell-metal, and iron, are sold to the
merchants of Thibet.

                   [Picture: Wether sheep pack-animal]

The borax and salt are said to be brought from a lake, which is situated
nearly north from Kathmandu, about fifteen days’ journey beyond the
Brahmaputra.  They are conveyed to Nepal on the backs of a large kind of
sheep, of which many have four horns, and which seem to be the common
beasts of burthen in all the countries towards the sources of the Indus,
Ganges, and Brahmaputra.  The annexed figure represents a wether of this
breed.  Each wether, according to what I heard, carries about eighty
pounds weight; but Colonel Kirkpatrick {214a} states the load at
forty-two pounds, which is more probable.  These sheep are about the size
of the larger breeds in England.

Captain Turner {214b} describes a sheep used in Thibet for carrying
burdens, but that is probably different from what I have mentioned, as he
takes no notice of the sheep of this breed having four horns, and states
them to be of a small size.  Each carries only from twelve to twenty
pounds.

In Nepal accounts are kept thus: 4 Damas = 1 Paisah; 4 Paisahs = 1 Ana; 8
Anas = 1 Mohur.  The Ana is an imaginary money.  The coin called a Mohur
varies in its rate of exchange, but is commonly worth 34 Paisahs.  The
Paisah always exchanges for 4 Damas.  On Prithwi Narayan’s accession, he
called in all the gold and silver money and recoined it, so that I could
procure no pieces of a more ancient date than his reign.  Ever since that
period the value of the coin has continued the same, and is as follows.

Gold coins are called ashruffies; but the full ashruffy is not coined.
The fractions in use are halfs, quarters, and eighths.  The half ashruffy
is by the Court paid away at the rate of 14 Mohurs; and at this value it
is a legal tender of payment between man and man, unless silver has been
specially stipulated.  In the market, however, the half ashruffy usually
exchanges for 12½ Mohurs.  It weighs 84¼ grains; and, according to an
assay made at Calcutta, is worth nearly three Calcutta rupees, or nearly
six shillings and threepence at the mint price.

The coins analogous to the rupee of Hindustan and its fractions are
collectively called Madarmali.  Colonel Kirkpatrick writes this word
{215} Mehnder mulie, applies it only to the Mohur or Mohr, as he calls
it, and says that the word is derived from the name of a prince.  The
integer is called Pura Rupiya, or Du Mohur, and is seldom seen.  The half
is called the Mohur, and is the common silver currency in the country.
When new it weighs 84¼ grains, and is worth six anas, 10⅝ pies, or 43/100
of the Calcutta rupee.  The quarter is called Adha Mohur; the eighth is
called Suki.

Besides the Madarmali, there is a wretched small silver coin called Dama,
of which the value in exchange is variable; but commonly 136 Damas are
given for one Mohur.

The copper coins are Paisas, Half-Paisas, and a few Quarter-Paisas.
These last are of the same value with the Dama, but the minute silver
coin is considered as more convenient than the Paisa of copper.  I am
indeed persuaded that no great inconvenience arises from a very minute
coinage in circulation; and that, without any loss, we might entirely
dispense with the use of a copper currency.

The weights in use are founded on the Paisa, but these are by no means
uniform.  On an average, however, they may be taken at 162 grains Troy
weight.

72 Paises = 1 Ser = lb. avoirdupois 1.666.

3 Sers = 1 Dharni = lb.  4.998.

The Dharni may therefore be considered as equal to five pounds
avoirdupois.  It is also divided into two Bisulis, and four Barapuls.

Grain is always sold by measure.

8 Manas = 1 Pathi = 152 cubical inches.

20 Pathis = 1 Muri = Winchester bushels 2-344/1000.

The whole lands in Nepal have long been divided into what are called
Khets or fields, each of which is estimated in ordinary seasons to
produce 100 Muris, or 234½ bushels of Paddy, or rice in the husk.  About
the year 1792 Ranjit Pangre, then one of the Karyis, by the orders of
Rana Bahadur, made a survey of the valley; but the result has been kept
secret.  The people know only that he estimated each of their possessions
at a certain number of Rupinis, and that on an average twenty-five of
these formed one Khet.  They also observed, that in good soils he used a
rod seven cubits and a half in length, and in bad soils he employed one
nine cubits and a half long.  Some people who had resided at Patna
informed my Brahman, that the Rupini was nearly of the same size with the
Biga of that city, which is one-third of an English acre; and this is the
only foundation that I have for the calculations which I have made.

It must, however, be observed, that, according to the information
received by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {216} the average Rupini contains only
3¾ Kathas of the Calcutta measure, or only 3/16 of what was reported to
me; and if his information is considered more likely than mine to be
correct, all the statements which I have subsequently given, concerning
the produce of an acre in Nepal, must be augmented in that proportion.
For instance, I have stated the rice in the husk produced by an acre to
be about 28 bushels; but, according to the information given to Colonel
Kirkpatrick, it ought to be almost 150 bushels.  This induces me to place
no great confidence in part of the information given to the Colonel; for,
as I shall afterwards have occasion to state, I have no doubt that the
crops of rice near Calcutta are more abundant than those of Nepal.

In Nepal the pastures and forests are in general commons, and any person
that pleases may use them; but some forests are reserved for the Court.
Although these forests contain many oak, chestnut, pine, and yew trees,
none of these are by the natives esteemed of much value; but for
carpenter’s work a preference is given to the Champa or Michelia, which
is certainly a good kind of timber.

Nothing is paid for pasture; but, as it is very scarce, and as the Newars
do not employ cattle in agriculture, very few are bred in the country.  A
few milch cows are kept in the towns, and still more in the narrow
vallies inhabited by Parbatiyas, who use cattle in their ploughs.
Buffaloes and goats are imported from the low country; and horses,
chaungri-cattle, shawl-goats, common goats, and sheep, are brought from
Bhot.  They become tolerably fat on the pasture of the hills, which,
although scanty, seems to be nourishing.  Captain Knox killed two female
buffaloes, that had been fattened entirely on grass; and they made
tolerable beef.

No taxes are paid to government for houses.

The arable lands are partly retained as the immediate property of the
Court, for defraying the household expenses of the Raja.  The whole of
the rice land near Nayakot is reserved as the Raja’s proper farm, and is
cultivated by his servants and slaves, under the superintendency of a
steward: and the same management is observed with a considerable number
of fruit and flower gardens, in the valley of Nepal, and with an
extensive pasture on the banks of the Kosi.  The produce is not sold, but
serves for the consumption of the Court, and for distributing in charity
at temples, and to religious mendicants.  By far the greater part,
however, of the lands reserved for the use of the Raja, is let to
tenants, as I have before mentioned.  The extent of these has at
different times varied; but I believe they have never produced a net
income of more than a million of mohurs.  The only other public revenues
are the fines levied from offenders, which are sometimes considerable;
the customs, which are very trifling; and some small profits arising from
the mines, from elephants, and from the sale of Sal or Sakhuya timber,
from the forests below the mountains.  The demands on the treasury,
however, are very few; for not only every officer, civil and military,
and every, soldier, but even the private servants, and principal slaves
of the Raja, are paid by lands granted for their support.

The lands thus granted in fee for service are called Chakran, and in
general are resumable at pleasure, and follow the office of the person by
whom they are held; but some branches of the Royal family, and some of
the families of distinction, have enjoyed certain lands ever since the
time of Prithwi Narayan, and it would not be safe to attempt a resumption
of such property.  Some persons have even been permitted to alienate such
lands by sale; but to do so, the consent of the Court must be obtained.
I procured no information on which I could attempt to calculate the
amount of these two kinds of Chakran lands.

Another kind of property, which pays no rent nor tax, and which is not
resumable, is called Khairat zemin, or Charity land, which is the Birtha
or Brhemoter land of Colonel Kirkpatrick, (p. 92, 93.)  This is of two
kinds; part belongs to Brahmans Bangras, or Achars; and another part has
been granted for the support of temples.  The whole amount of this kind
of land is not equal to that reserved by the Crown for its own purposes.

The Khairat that is given to religious men is of two kinds.  The first is
called Yamapatri, which is given when the Raja bestows Dhana in order to
procure the remission of his sins.  This can never revert to the Crown,
but, in case of the family to which it was granted becoming extinct, it
goes to the temples of Pasupatinath and Changgu Narayan.  The second kind
of Khairat given to religious men is bestowed on account of their piety
and learning; and, on failure of heirs, reverts to the Crown.  This kind
may be sold, if the proprietor obtain the consent of the Raja.

The lands belonging to the temples are in fact held by the priests,
(Pujaris,) who are bound to defray the expenses of worship.  They are
removable at the pleasure of the Raja.

This Khairat or Brhemoter land, Colonel Kirkpatrick says, is also divided
into two kinds, Koos Brhemoter and Soona Brhemoter, the owners of which
are perhaps the same with those called to me Bitalpas and Brittiyas,
mentioned in page 164, although this is not very certain.  The Koos
Brhemoter land, according to the Colonel, is rarely bestowed but on
Brahmans, and that with a very solemn investiture.  Land of this kind is
rent-free, saleable, and hereditary, but for certain crimes it may be
forfeited.  Presents are often given, especially on the accession of a
new Raja.  The Soona Brhemoter has been granted to certain Newars, and
other natives of countries subjected by the Gorkhalis, and continued by
the conquerors for a considerable fine under each succeeding prince, but
it is saleable and hereditary.

Landholders, who do not cultivate their own estates, in general let them
for one-half of the grain produced.  Money rent can seldom be procured,
and is very low.  It varies from four to twelve anas a Rupini, which
produces at least four Muris of Paddy, one half of which, or the rent
usual when paid in kind, is worth about fifty anas, and if it be good
land, it produces also a winter crop.

Most great proprietors, however, like the Raja, employ stewards with
their servants and slaves, to cultivate some land for supplying their
families.  The great, therefore, seldom go to market, which, among a
lawless people, is an advantage for the lower classes, although it
subjects travellers to great inconveniency from the want of markets.  It
is besides alleged, that the lower classes, in the vicinity of these
farms, often suffer by being compelled to labour without an adequate
remuneration.

When lands are alienated by sale, they bring from 1600 to 2000 Mohurs a
Khet, which high price is owing to the very small quantity of land that
is brought to market.

The persons who rent lands from the owners are of two kinds: first, the
Kuriyas, who occupy free (Khairat) land, are exempted from any services
to government, except the repairing of roads, and the attending on armies
employed on certain duties; and, secondly, the Prajas, who occupy the
crown land, whether that be held by the Prince, or granted in Jaygir.
The Prajas are bound to perform various services at the call, both of
government and of their immediate masters.  The rent which both usually
pay is one-half of the produce, with an annual fine of between two and
three rupees for each Khet.  Where the land is tolerable, these terms are
considered as favourable for the tenant, and enable him to support a
family with ease.

The following is the account which my Brahman gives of the agriculture of
the Newars.

The hoe used by the Newars has been represented by Colonel Kirkpatrick,
(in the uppermost figure of the plate opposite to page 100 of his Account
of Nepaul,) but the figure is not good.  It seems a very awkward
instrument, as the blade is fixed by a long neck, so as to stand parallel
to the short handle, at about the distance or six inches.  The labourer,
therefore, must either stoop exceedingly, when at work, or must sit on
his heels, which is the most usual posture.  Still these people use it
with great dexterity, and one man in three days digs up a Rupini.  After
each hoeing, the women and children break the clods with a wooden mallet
fixed to a long shaft, which does not require them to stoop.  Almost the
only other implement of agriculture these people have is the Khuripi, or
weeding iron, and some fans for winnowing the corn.  In Nepal, however,
they have in some measure made a further progress than in India, as they
have numerous water-mills for grinding corn.  The stones are little
larger than those of hand-mills, and the upper one is turned round by
being fixed on the end of the axis of the water wheel, which is
horizontal, and is placed under the floor of the mill, with which the
stones are on a level.  This wheel consists of six blades, about three
feet long, and six inches broad, which are placed obliquely in the
axle-tree.  On these blades, the water falls down an inclined plane of
about eight or ten feet in perpendicular height.  The hopper is a basket
perforated at the bottom, but has no contrivance to shake it.  The people
at one of the mills which we examined said, that, in one day, it could
grind twelve _Muris_, or rather more than twenty-nine bushels.

In Nepal, rice is the great crop, and the ground fit for it is of two
kinds, which differ in the manner, and in the time of their cultivation,
so as to make two harvests of rice: but no one field, in one year,
produces two crops of this grain.

Colonel Kirkpatrick indeed mentions, {222} that some fields yield two
crops of rice successively, the one coarse, and the other fine, besides
affording in the same year a crop of wheat.  This, however, I presume,
does not allude to Nepal Proper, but to some of the warmer vallies in the
dominions of Gorkha; as where he goes on, in the 99th page, to describe
the expense of cultivation, he mentions the ploughings, an operation
which is not employed in the agriculture of the Newars.

The first kind of ground produces the crop called Gheya, is the highest,
and there is no necessity for its being absolutely level, as the fields
are not inundated.  From the 13th of March to the 11th of April, this
ground is hoed; and, having been well manured with dung collected in the
streets, it is hoed again.  A week after this, the field is hoed two or
three times, and is well pulverized with the mallet.  About the 12th of
May, after a shower of rain, the field is slightly hoed, and the mould is
broken, and smoothed with the hand.  Small drills, at a span’s distance
from each other, are then made by the finger, which is directed straight
by a line.  At every span-length in these drills are placed four or five
seeds of the rice, called Uya Dhan, which is the only kind cultivated in
this manner.  The seed is covered by the hand, and a very small quantity
only is required.  In about five days the young corn comes up in small
tufts, just as if it had been transplanted.  From the 13th of June to the
15th of August, when the corn is about a cubit high, the weeds are
removed with the spud.  About the latter period, slugs, worms, and
insects, fill all the moister fields in Nepal, and in order to be rid of
them, the farmers keep a great number of ducks, which, at this season,
they turn into the fields, to devour the vermin.  The Gheya crop ripens
about the 1st of September, and by the middle of the month the harvest is
finished.  The ears only are cut off, and next day the grain is beat out,
and generally dried in the streets.  Very little of the crop is made into
Hakuya, a process that will be afterwards mentioned.  After the Gheya
crop has been cut, the field is in general cultivated with radishes,
mustard, or some other crop, that is usually sown about the time.

By far the greater part of the rice ground, and that the lowest and the
best, is of the kind which produces the crop of rice called Puya.  The
kinds of rice which are cultivated in this crop are very numerous, and it
would be tedious to mention their names, as I have no observations to
make on any one in particular.  The fields which produce this crop must
be perfectly level, as they are inundated during the greater part of the
process of cultivation.  Therefore, as the plain is by no means even, it
has been divided into terraces.  So much pains has been bestowed on this
part of agriculture, that on the steep descents leading down to the
rivers, there have been formed many terraces not above two feet wide.
The numerous springs and rivulets that issue from the surrounding hills
have been conducted with great pains to irrigate these terraces, and have
been managed with considerable skill.

The cultivation of the Puya crop commences between the 13th of May and
12th of June, during which the field is hoed two or three times, and
manured with dung, if any can be procured.  At any rate, it is always
manured with the kind of earth called Koncha, which I have already
described.  The banks that confine the water are then repaired; and about
the 12th of June, when, either by the rain or by the irrigation from
aqueducts, the fields have been inundated, and the soil has been by the
hoe reduced to mud, the seedlings which have been raised in plots sown
very thick, are transplanted by the women.  The men perform all the other
parts of the labour.  This is a time of festivity as well as of hard
work; and the people are then allowed a great freedom of speech, to which
they are encouraged by large quantities of intoxicating liquors, in a
share of which even the women indulge.  The transplanting ought to
commence from the 12th to the 15th of June, and ought to be finished by
the Amavasya of Asharh, but this is a moveable feast.  On the Krishna
Chaturdasi, which happens on the day preceding the Amavasya, the Maha
Rani or Queen, with her slave girls, (Ketis,) transplant a small plot
within the palace, and it is reckoned an unlucky circumstance when this
is not the last planted field in the valley..  The fields are always kept
under water, and weeds are not troublesome.  The few that spring up are
removed by the spud.  This crop begins to ripen about the 15th of
October, and by the 1st of November the harvest is completed, after which
a considerable portion of the land is cultivated for wheat or other
winter crops.

The Puya rice is cut down close by the ground.  The finer kinds of rice
are immediately thrashed, as is likewise all that which is intended for
seed; but the greater part is made into what is called Hakuya.  This is
done with a view of correcting its unwholesome quality: for all the grain
produced in the valley of Nepal is thought by the natives to be of a
pernicious nature.  The manner of preparing Hakuya is as follows: The
corn, immediately after having been cut, is put into heaps, ten or twelve
feet diameter, and six or eight feet in height.  These are covered with
wet earth, and allowed to heat for from eight to twelve days, and till
they may be seen smoking like lime-kilns.  After this the heaps are
opened, and the grain is separated from the straw by beating it against a
piece of ground made smooth for the purpose.  Both grain and straw are
then dried in the sun.  The grain is called Hakuya, and the straw is the
fuel commonly used by the poor, for fire-wood is very dear.  According to
the accounts received by Colonel Crawford, this manner of preserving rice
was discovered by accident.  Many years ago one of the towns was besieged
by an enemy that came so suddenly as not to allow the citizens time to
gather in the crop, which had just then been cut.  The citizens, rather
than allow the enemy to benefit by their corn, determined to throw it
into the water and cover it with earth.  In this manner it remained about
a week, when the enemy were compelled to retire.  When the grain was
taken up it was found to have begun to rot, but necessity having
compelled the people to eat it, they found, to their astonishment, that
it was much better and more salutary than the grain which had been
prepared in the usual manner.  It is only the Newars that eat this
Hakuya.

The crops of rice in Nepal appeared to me very poor when compared with
those of Bengal; and, if my Brahman was rightly informed concerning the
extent of a rupini, they are really so.  The rupini produces four muris
of paddy, or 9-376/1000 bushels, but near Calcutta the biga (supposed to
be of the same extent) of good ground produces often 640 sers, or
19-82/100 bushels.  The difference of price, however, in the two
countries makes the value of the produce in Nepal the greater of the two.
I have already stated that the value of four muris of paddy in Nepal is
usually 13M. 2A. 2D., or about 54 rupees.  But near Calcutta in harvest
the usual price of 640 sers of paddy, is 5 rupees 5 A. 4 P.  If no error
has been made in estimating the extent of a rupini, the acre of good land
in Nepal produces rather more than 28 bushels of paddy, or rice in the
husk.

Immediately after the Puya crop has been cut, the ground is formed into
beds by throwing the earth out of parallel trenches upon the intermediate
spaces.  On these about the middle of November is sown wheat, or
sometimes a little barley.  These ripen without farther trouble, and are
cut from the 12th of April to the 12th of May.  The seed for a rupini is
stated to be one pati, and the produce is stated to be two muris.  This
would make the seed about the fifth part of a bushel an acre, and the
produce about fourteen bushels; but this seems to me greatly exaggerated.
I have never seen more wretched crops, and most of the fields of wheat
are quite choked with hemp, (_Cannabis sativa_,) which in Nepal is a
troublesome and useless weed.  The wheat and barley are mostly used for
making fermented or distilled liquors.

Pangdu Kodo, or Maruya, is the _Cynosurus Corocanus_ of Linnæus, of which
I saw much growing on some of the higher parts of the plain.  It seems to
thrive well.  The Maruya is sown from the 13th of June to the 14th of
July, and twenty days afterwards is transplanted.  It is ripe about the
middle of September, and produces four muris a rupini.

In thrashing this corn, Colonel Crawford saw the Newars [Picture: Flail]
using a kind of flail, an implement which I have never observed in India.
Three pieces of Bamboo, about eighteen inches long, were fastened
together in a parallel manner, at about a finger’s breadth asunder, and
then fixed to a peg, which passed through a hole in the end of a longish
pole that was a little bent.  The instrument seemed to require
considerable dexterity in its management, but appeared to answer the
purpose intended.

The Sana Kodo of the Parbatiyas is probably the Paspalum kora of
Wildenow.  It also is transplanted, ripens in October and November, and
produces as much as the Pangdu Kodo.

The Muccai and Muruli of the Parbatiyas are both by the Newars called
_Kaunguni_, and are varieties of the _Holcus sorghum_.  They are chiefly
planted in the small vallies that open into the plain, and on high
terraces, that have a bad supply of water.

The Urid, or Kala Mas of the Parbatiyas, is by the Newars called May; and
Dr Roxburgh, in his manuscripts, calls it _Phaseolus minimoo_, from its
Telinga name.  In Nepal this is the most common pulse.  It is sown about
the 1st of July, and reaped about the 1st of September.  A rupini
produces about ten patis, or an acre about three bushels and a half.

The Seta Mas of the Parbatiyas, or Chica May of the Newars, Dr Roxburgh
has raised from seed, which I sent from Nepal.  He thinks it a new
species, which he calls _Phaseolus ocultatus_.  It is sown about the 1st
of July, reaped the 1st of October, and produces the same quantity that
the urid does.

The Lato, Rato, or Ruta mas of the Parbatiyas, is by the Newars called
Hayngu may.  It also appears to Dr Roxburgh to be an undescribed species,
and he has given it the name of _Phaseolus calcaratus_.  It is sown and
reaped at the same time with the preceding, and yields the same produce.

The Lal mung of the Parbatiyas is also called Hayngumay by the Newars.
The seeds of this plant, which I sent to the botanical garden, show it to
be a _Phaseolus_, that is by Dr Roxburgh considered as a nondescript, and
he calls it the _Phaseolus racemosus_.

The Mung of the Parbatiyas, and the Muk or Mugy may of the Newars, is the
Dolichos Mungo of Linnæus.  Three manas are sown on a rupini about the
1st of July, and about the 1st of November produce eight patis.

The Seta, and Cala Bhot Mas of the Parbatiyas, are called Musa and Gya by
the Newars.  They are two varieties of the _Dolichos soja_, the one of
which has yellow flowers and white seeds, and the other has black seeds,
and purplish flowers.  The former is ripe about the 1st of November, the
latter about the 1st of September.  Their seed and produce are equal to
those of the mung.

The Mosuri of the Parbatiyas, and Mosu of the Newars, is the _Ervum lens_
of botanists.  About the 1st of November two manas are sown on a rupini;
and about May produce twelve patis.

The same is the case with the Pea, or _Pisum arvensis_, called Kerao by
the Parbatiyas, and Caigo by the Newars.

The mustard called Sarishi by the Parbatiyas, and Turi by the Newars is
mostly cultivated as a pot-herb.  It is sown about the middle of October,
and is cut before it flowers.  Another, which by the Newars is called
Ika, is the _Sinapis ramosa_ of Dr Roxburgh.  About the 1st of February
two manas are sown on a rupini, and about April produce two muris of
seed.  The ground is afterwards cultivated for rice.

Sesamum is called Til by the Parbatiyas, and Hamo by the Newars.  It
grows commonly wild as a weed, but very little of it is cultivated.

The sugar-cane is planted in considerable quantities, and seems to
thrive.  The Newars make a very little extract, soft sugar, and
sugar-candy; but a large proportion of the cane is eaten without
preparation.  It is planted about the 1st of April, and is cut, from the
middle of November to the middle of May.  The juice is generally
expressed by a lever.

Ginger, the Puli of the Newars, is planted about the 1st of April, and
dug up in October or November.

The common radishes are by the Parbatiyas called Mulu, and by the Newars
Kipo, and are very much cultivated.  They grow in vast abundance all the
year, except from the 15th of November to the 10th of February.  In order
to procure a supply of this useful article, for three months of winter, a
large quantity is sown about the 1st of September, and pulled about the
1st of November.  The roots are then buried in a pit for six or seven
days, during which they seem to undergo a kind of half putrid
fermentation; as when they are taken out of the pit, and dried in the
sun, they exhale a most powerful stench.  These dried roots are called
Sinky, keep all winter, and, although offensive to the smell, enter
largely into the diet of the poorer Newars.  These, owing partly to the
great quantity of sinky and of garlic which they eat, and partly to the
dirtiness of their linen, exhale a worse smell than any people I have
ever been among.

Methi, or Fenugreek, grows at all seasons, except from the 15th of
November to the 12th of January.  It is used only as a pot-herb, and is
the one most commonly consumed in Nepal.

Khira, or cucumbers, grow to great perfection, and with another
cucurbitaceous plant called Kangkari, are ripe from the 13th of June to
the 15th of August.

The garlic is planted about the 1st of January, and is taken up from the
12th of April to the 12th of June.

Bera, or the Solanum Melongena, is sown about the 1st of May, and is ripe
about the 1st of October.

In the hilly parts of the country, the common potatoe (Solanum tuberosum)
has been introduced, and grows tolerably: but it does not thrive so well
as at Patna, owing probably to a want of care.

The Sakarkandh (Convolvulus batatas) succeeds better.  It is planted
about the 1st of April, and is taken up from the middle of October to the
middle of December.

Most of the European kitchen vegetables have been introduced: but they
are only to be found in the gardens of men of distinction, and in very
small quantities.

When Colonel Kirkpatrick visited the country, {230} the only kitchen
vegetables (meaning, I presume, European) were cabbages and peas, both of
which were of the worst kind.  They had, he says, the Thibet turnip, but
cannot raise it any more than the potatoe, without receiving the seed
annually.  This, compared with what I observed, indicates some degree of
progressive improvement.

None of their fruits are good, except the oranges and pine apples; but
both of these are in great perfection.  The peach is every where wild,
and is also reared in gardens: but it does not ripen till long after the
rainy season has commenced, and is generally half rotten before it
becomes soft.  At Kathmandu the Plantain tree (Musa) dies to the ground
in winter, but the roots are not killed, and in the spring send up fresh
stems.  Some good plantains come from Nayakot, and other valleys, that
are situated lower than the capital is.

Such is the account I could procure of the cultivation in the plains of
Nepal.  On the sloping faces of the hills, bounding the smaller vallies
in its vicinity, I observed another mode of cultivation.  The soil there
is not formed into terraces; but in April is pared and burned, and then
is sown with Sama, or the _Panicum Italicum_, with Tangni or Kakun, which
is the _Panicum colonum_, and with Kaungni, which is the _Holcus
Sorghum_.  When the soil is in heart, these produce very good crops, and
once in the three or four years the field is allowed a season’s fallow.
This seems to be the kind of land which Colonel Kirkpatrick calls Kohrya.
{231a}

In Nepal, the Gangja, Charas, or Cannabis sativa, as I have already
mentioned, is a common weed: but in that country it is not cultivated,
although much used for the purpose of intoxication.  The dried leaves are
brought from the Tariyani, but are reckoned heating, and are not so much
used as the extract, which is called Charas: of this Thibet produces the
best.  The proper manner of preparing Charas is by making incisions into
the stem, and collecting the juice, in the same manner as opium is
produced from the capsules of the poppy.  A coarser kind is prepared from
the expressed juice of the hemp.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {231b} gives a different account of the manner of
preparing this drug, which, he says, is procured by rubbing the leaves of
the plant Jeea, until the resin adheres to the fingers, from which it is
scraped off with a spathula.  The plant called Jeea is no doubt the
_Cannabis sativa_, nor can much reliance be placed on the information
which the Colonel received on this subject: as the person who gave it has
evidently been inaccurate, when he stated concerning the Gangja and Subje
produced from the same plant, that the former is prepared from the
flowers and the latter from the leaves; while, in fact, the one is the
dried plant, and the other the expressed juice.

The dose of Charas is from ten to twelve grains made up into a pill,
which is smoked like tobacco.  The dried leaves, or Gangja, are taken in
the same manner, and both produce violent intoxication.  While we were in
Nepal, a shopkeeper, who attended the camp, smoked so much Charas that he
died.  From the accounts given me by those who saw him, he became stupid,
but not irrational, and complained of nothing except thirst, for which he
two or three times drank water.  As it was not looked upon as any thing
extraordinary, I did not hear of the circumstance till some hours after
the man’s death.  He did not intend to kill himself; but, in the course
of his indulgence, repeated the dose too often.

Two kinds of coarse cotton cloth, called Khadi and Changa, are woven by
the Newar women of all ranks, and by the men of the Parbatiya cast,
called Magar.  The cotton grows in the hilly parts of the kingdom, and is
sufficient for the consumption; but none is exported from Nepal Proper.
These cloths constitute the dress of the middling and lower classes of
people, although woollen would be better fitted for the cold of a Nepal
winter.  All those, however, that are not very poor, can afford to have
woollen blankets, which are manufactured by the Bhotiyas, who even in
summer wear no linen.  The whole dress of the higher ranks in Nepal is
imported, and consists chiefly of Chinese silks, shawls, and of the low
country muslins and calicoes.  The military alone wear European broad
cloth.

In Lalita Patan and Bhatgang there is a very considerable manufacture of
copper, brass, and Phul, which is a kind of bell-metal.  The bells of
Thibet are superior to those of Nepal: but a great many vessels of Phul
are made by the Newars, and exported to Thibet, along with those of brass
and copper.  Iron vessels and lamps are also manufactured for the same
market.

A very strong paper, remarkably well fitted for packages, is made at
Bhatgang, from the bark of a shrub, which I call the _Daphne papyrifera_.
The supply, however, is not adequate to the demand, and not only the
paper, but a considerable quantity of the raw material is imported from
Bhot.  The bark is exceedingly strong and pliable, and seems to be the
same with certain tape-like bandages, employed by the Chinese in tying
many of their parcels.

At Kathmandu the common daily hire for a labouring man is two anas.
Merchants pay three Mohurs for every porter who brings a load from
Hethaura, and five Mohurs from Gar Pasara.  The porter takes three days
to come from the former, and five days from the latter; but he must
return empty; the hire is therefore four anas a day.  The usual load is
twenty Dharnis, or a hundred pounds; but some strong men carry a half
more.  They carry their loads in a basket called Doka, of which a
representation is given in the plate opposite to page 39 of Kirkpatrick’s
Nepaul.  Persons of rank, who do not choose to walk or ride on horseback,
usually travel in what is called a Dandi, which is a hammock suspended on
a pole, and carried by from four to six men, as represented in the plate
opposite to page 39 of Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul.  When a woman goes in a
Dandi, a cloth thrown over the pole conceals her from view.  This
conveyance is well fitted for a mountainous country, where few of the
roads will admit of the use of a horse.  For a Dandi, to convey them from
Kathmandu to Gar Pasara, merchants pay twenty-four Mohurs: carpenters and
blacksmiths receive three anas a day: bricklayers two anas and a half:
goldsmiths, for every two Mohurs weight of gold they work up, are allowed
four anas: for working silver, they receive one-sixteenth part of the
metal.  According to the fineness of the work, the labourers obtain from
one to two Mohurs for every Darni of copper which they manufacture.

The want of labouring cattle among the Newars renders the operations of
husbandry so tedious, that at many seasons every person in the family
capable of labour must be employed; and as no one can be left to take
care of the young children, these must be carried to the field.  As this
is often at a distance from the house, the poor villager may be often
seen carrying his infants in two baskets suspended over his shoulder by a
bamboo.  In these baskets some food also is taken, as the family does not
return until night.  An oblong mat also forms a usual part of what is
carried into the field.  This mat defends the children as well as the
victuals from the sun and rain, and is sometimes used by the labourers
for the same purposes, especially when they are employed in weeding the
rice fields.  As that operation is performed during the rainy season, the
labourers would suffer considerably, unless they kept off the water by a
mat tied over their heads and covering their backs, while their arms are
left at liberty.

In Nepal most of the domestic servants are slaves.  A male slave is
called a Keta, and costs about thirty Mohurs.  A female is called Keti,
and costs about the same price; but, if young and handsome, she will
bring ten Mohurs additional.  There are some Brahmans who are slaves even
to Rajputs: but they are not degraded by the name Keta, and are employed
in great families, either as cooks, or in the service of the private
chapels.  All other ranks are sold for common slaves: and persons of the
best families have often been degraded by the Rajas, and given to the
Damais or Tailors, by which they lose not only their liberty, but their
cast, which is of more importance to a Hindu.  In general, however, among
the higher tribes, the cast of the slave is respected, and no duty is
imposed on him, by which that would be injured.  It is reckoned very
disgraceful for any persons but those of the lowest rank, to sell their
children to any person of impure birth, or who is an infidel.  Still,
however, this is occasionally done by persons of high birth, who happen
to be in necessitous circumstances; nor do the parents on this account
lose cast.  They would, however, inevitably become outcasts, should they
ever afterwards admit their child into their house, even were he to be
set at liberty by his master.  Most of the slaves, it must be observed,
have been born free.  A few have been degraded, and sold by the Raja on
account of crimes alleged against them: but by far the greater part have
been sold by necessitous parents.  All the Ketis, even those belonging to
the Queen, are prostitutes, and therefore seldom have children.  The
masters in general do not give their slave girls any other allowance than
a small quantity of rice; and a great many of them are so obdurate, that
even this allowance is stopped, when sickness prevents the slave from
working.  The poor creatures are therefore forced to sacrifice their
chastity, in order to procure clothing; and beggary is the usual resource
of those who are old and infirm.  The Ketis of the court, indeed, are
allowed some privileges, and have a considerable influence among the
young men of family.  In the day time they attend the Maha Rani or queen;
and when she goes out, some of them armed with swords follow her on
horseback, and form her body guard.  They are well dressed, and ride
astride like men.  They are allowed to carry on intrigues with any person
of good birth: but the young Rajputs of the guard are their usual
favourites.  Some Brahmans and Bankers from the low country, induced by
the beauty of these girls, have formed connexions with them; but they
have in general paid dearly for their indulgence.  Fidelity to one
mistress is not a virtue among such men, and the Ketis of the court think
the whole corps bound to punish any infidelity against one of their
number, nor will the police interfere to prevent them from plundering the
delinquent of his whole property.  The slaves of private persons are not
only ill fed, but are hardly wrought.  The common duties imposed on them
are to wash, to bring fire-wood from the mountains, to clean the cooking
utensils and the house, and to carry the umbrella.

Rice is the great article of support in Nepal.  Along with their rice the
poorest people eat raw garlic and radishes; they also fry radishes,
fenugreek, or lentiles, in water mixed with salt, capsicum, and turmeric.
To these, people in more easy circumstances add oil or ghiu; and those
who are rich add a great deal of animal food.  Even the poorest are able
occasionally to sacrifice a pigeon, a fowl, or a duck, and of course they
eat these birds.  No Hindu eats any meat but the flesh of sacrifices; for
he considers it as a sin to kill any animal for the purpose of indulging
his appetite; but, when a sacrifice has been offered, the votary may
without blame eat what the Deity does not use.  We observed, that even
the Rajputs in Nepal were so fond of animal food, that, to the utter
astonishment of our low country Hindus, they drank the blood of the
sacrifices as it flowed from the victim.



SECTION IV.
THE COUNTRIES BELONGING TO THE CHAUBISI AND BAISI RAJAS.


Chaubisi Rajas.—Pamar Family, Impure Branch.—Bhirkot, Garahang, Dhor,
Pure Branch.—Nayakot.—Satahung.—Kaski.—Lamjun.—Gorkha, Topography,
History.—Prithwi Narayan.—Singha Pratap.—Bahadur Sahi.—Rana Bahadur.—Bhim
Sen.—Royal Family.—Kala Macwani Family.—Gulmi, Khachi, Argha, Dhurkot,
Musikot, Tama.—Family of Bhingri and Khungri.—Family of Piuthana.—Family
of Poin.—Malihang Family.—The Samal Family; Malebum; Galkot; Rugum;
Musikot; Jajarkot; Bangphi; Gajal; Dharma; Jahari; Satatala; Malaneta;
Saliyana; Dang; Chhilli.—The Baisi Rajas.—Dalu
Dailek.—Duti.—Yumila.—Taklakot, with the adjacent parts of Thibet subject
to China.

Immediately west from Nepal Proper is a country of considerable extent,
which had long consisted of 24 petty estates, whose chiefs were
collectively called the Chaubisi Rajas.  Yet it would not appear that
they were all connected by any common union for defence, by a common
extraction, or by any other tie.  They all, indeed, acknowledged the
superiority of the Yumila Raja, of whom some account will be afterwards
given; but besides these 24 chiefs, he had many others in similar
dependence, which, however, conferred very little authority on the
superior, whose power seems chiefly to have been confined to exhort his
vassals in the support of a balance of power, and to confer the mark
(Tica) of supreme authority on the heirs of each chief.  His superior
rank was, however, never disputed, and his call seems long to have met
with a good deal of attention, when directed to procure assistance, in
preventing one chief from swallowing up the dominions of another.  The 24
chiefs, according to Kanak Nidhi, were the Rajas mentioned in the
following list; but other lists differ considerably.

1.       Piuthana           9.        Palpa       17.       Gajarkot
2.       Malebum or         10.       Garahang    18.       Rising
         Parbat
3.       Galkot             11.       Poin        19.       Ghiring
4.       Isma               12.       Satahung    20.       Tanahung
5.       Dhurkot            13.       Birkot      21.       Lamjun
6.       Argha              14.       Nayakot     22.       Gorkha
7.       Khachi             15.       Kaski       23.       Tarki
8.       Gulmi              16.       Dhor        24.       Musikot



Of the other lists, which I received, it would be useless to give a
detail, but I shall mention that given to Colonel Kirkpatrick, {238}
referring to the names given in my list by prefixing the number.  (21)
Loomjoong.  (15) Kashki.  (20) Tunhoo or Tunnohoo.  (3) Gulkoat.  (2)
Purbut or Mullibum.  (14) Noakote or Nuwakote.  (11) Pyoon.  (12)
Luttohoon.  (10) Gurhoon.  (18) Reesing.  (19) Ghering.  (16) Dhoar.  (9)
Palpa.  (8) Goolmi.  Wigha.  (7) Khanchi.  Dang.  (24) Musikote.  (1)
Purthana.  Jhilli.  Suliana.  (5) Dhoorkote; and (4) Isma.  He thus omits
Gorkha, Tarki, Gajarkot, and Argha of the list which I have given;
although I suspect, that his Wigha is no other than Argha, for in page
288, he reckons Urghaloor as one of the 24 chiefs, and in page 297 he
speaks of the territories of the Urgho Raja.  I have indeed little doubt,
that Wigha is a mistake of the editor for Urgho, and that Urghaloor was
originally written Urghapoor, poor or pura being a common termination of
the names of Indian cities.  Gorkha was probably omitted by the Gorkhali
who gave him the information; as its being included would have been
acknowledging the former supremacy of Yumila, which the chiefs of Gorkha
now wish to disavow.  In place of Tarki and Gajarkot, Colonel
Kirkpatrick’s list introduces Dang and Jhilli, (Chhilli,) both of which I
have placed in the class containing twenty-two chiefs, although perhaps
on slender grounds.

Several of these chiefs had entered with others into leagues for mutual
defence, as the interpositions of Yumila, although of some weight, were
by no means sufficient to procure security.  The leagues were sometimes
connected by a common descent in the chiefs, and such were called
Athabhai, or eight brothers; while other leagues were composed of chiefs
who were of different origins.  Such leagues were called Satbhai, or
seven brothers.

Among the leagues I heard of the following:

I.  Lamjun was at the head of a league composed of Tanahung and Kaski;
but Tanahung was followed in war by Dhor, and Kaski by Satahung, without
any reference to the union of these states with Lamjun.

II.  Birkot was at the head of a league containing Garahang, Poin, and
Nayakot.

III.  Palpa was at the head of a league composed of Gajarkot, Rising,
Ghiring, Argha, Khachi, and Gulmi.

IV.  Malebum had in alliance Gulkot.

V.  Piuthana had in alliance Musikot and Isma, and also the two petty
chiefs of Khungri and Bhingri, who, although their territories were
surrounded by those of the Chaubisiya Rajas, were not included in the
number of these chiefs.

Gorkha, I was informed, was always completely unconnected, and
independent of all these alliances; nor did I learn that Dhurkot or Tarki
were in a contrary situation.

I shall now proceed to give an account of the chiefs who governed this
assembly of states, and of their countries.

I have already given an account of the family of highest rank, including
the Rajas of Palpa, Tanahung, Rising, Ghiring, and Gajarkot; because this
family possessed also large estates to the east of Nepal Proper.  It
therefore remains to describe the other 19 states.

I shall first mention the family which at present has obtained almost
universal empire over the mountains north from the Company’s provinces,
and does not content itself with a gentle rule, such as that exercised by
the Rajas of Yumila, but has seized the entire dominion and power of the
conquered countries, and assumes a menacing countenance even to the
Company.

The family pretends to be of the Pamar tribe; but it is alleged, as I
have already explained, that this is a mere fable, and that, on the
arrival of the colony from Chitaur, this family were Magars.  One of its
branches, however, has long adopted the Hindu rules of purity, and has
intermarried with the best families, although not without creating
disgust; and the other branch remains in primitive impurity, although we
have seen that the same is the case with the Chauhans, who long pretended
to a great superiority over the chiefs of Gorkha.

The first persons of the Gorkha family, of whom I have heard, were two
brothers named Khancha and Mincha, or Nimcha, words altogether barbarous,
and in no manner resembling the high sounding titles of the family of the
sun, from whom the Pamars pretend to be descended.  From whence these
persons came, I did not learn; but Khancha was the founder of the impure
branch of the family, and Mincha was the chief of Nayakot.

The impure branch of the family possessed Bhirkot, Garahang, and Dhor,
which afterwards separated under three chiefs of the same house; but
Bhirkot seems to have been the head of the whole, as its chief was at the
head of a league containing Nayakot, the most ancient family of the pure
descendants of Mincha.  Bhirkot is a very petty state, consisting
entirely of mountains, and containing neither mines nor mart of any
consequence.

The same is the case with Garahang, whose chief adhered to the league
with his kinsman of Bhirkot.  The capital, (Rajdhani or Durbar,) of the
same name with the country, is situated on the top of a hill, with no
water nearer than a cose.  In such a situation, only 60 or 70 huts
surrounded the chief’s castle, which was built of brick.

The impure chief of Dhor did not join in the league of his kinsmen; but
followed in battle the pure chiefs of Tanahung.  His country was as petty
and as mountainous as that of his kinsmen, but contained some iron mines.

I now return to Mincha, whose descendants were reclaimed from their
impurity by the Brahmans.

Mincha was Raja of Nayakot, and the chiefs of this place, although they
lived pure, continued to the last to follow in war the impure
representative of Khancha, who governed Bhirkot.  Nayakot was very petty;
but, besides the capital, contained a town of some note, named Limi, but
no mines of any consequence.

A collateral branch of the Nayakot Rajas obtained a similar state called
Satahung, which, besides the capital, contained a town called Gengdi.
The capital, of the same name with the territory, is situated on a hill,
and contained about 250 thatched huts, besides the brick castle of the
chief.  In the whole territory there might have been 1500 houses.  The
Raja’s share of the land revenue amounted to 2000 rupees a-year.  He
followed in war the chief of Kaski.  The most numerous tribe among his
subjects was the Khasiya.

A second collateral branch of the Nayakot family was Kaski, a more
powerful state than that of the chief from which it sprang.  I believe
that the territory of this chief towards the hills was much wider than is
represented in the map of Kanak, for I was informed, that Gorkha had no
communication with the Bhotiyas, his country being narrowed there between
Kaski and Nepal.  It may, however, have happened, that the want of
communication was owing to the impracticability of the mountains, and not
to the shortness of the frontier.  The chiefs of Kaski leagued with
Lamjun, a collateral branch of their own family, but had as a follower in
war their kinsman of Satahung.  Although adjacent to the mountains
covered with perpetual snow, the southern parts are rather warmer than
the valley of Nepal Proper, but the parts adjacent to the snowy peaks
were inhabited by Bhotiyas, and next to these were some Gurungs.  The
warmer parts were occupied by Brahmans, Khasiyas, and the persons of low
tribes necessary as artisans.  The mountains here formed an uninterrupted
and impenetrable barrier towards the north.  The chief possessed some
mines of copper; and, besides the capital, there is a considerable town
called Pokhara, which is a mart frequented by merchants from Nepal,
Palpa, Malebum, etc. and afforded duties that in so poor a country were
reckoned considerable.  The capital by Colonel Kirkpatrick {242} is
called Buttolachoor, is situated among hills on the Seti river, (Saite,
K.) which is very deep but narrow.

Kaski, the ancient capital, Colonel Kirkpatrick places 7 coses west from
Buttolachoor, with Surrungkoat, a large town with a fort on a hill
between them.

The chief of Lamjun was descended from a younger son of Kaski, and was
originally powerful, the sum appropriated from the land revenue, for his
family expense, being 22,000 rupees a-year; and he was not only followed
in war by his kinsman the chief of Kaski, but by the Raja of Tanahung.
Lamjun, after the loss of Gorkha, was a cold country bordering on the
snowy peaks of Emodus, and inhabited by Bhotiyas, with some Brahmans and
Khasiyas in the warmer vallies.  It contained no mine of any importance,
nor any town of note, except the capital; and the chief advantage, after
the loss of Gorkha, that the Raja enjoyed, was the commerce with Bhotan
or Thibet, which was carried on through a passage in Emodus called
Siklik.  Many goods were conveyed by this route to Lamjun, and from
thence, by the way of Tarku, Tanahung, Dewghat, and Bakra, into the low
country; but this trade has been interdicted by the present government of
Nepal, which is very jealous of the Raja of Tanahung, to whom Bakra still
is secured by the Company’s protection.  Siklik, however, is still the
residence of a Subah or civil governor, and is probably the place called
Seshant in the map of Kanak.  The name merely implies a frontier place,
but among the hills is used to imply a place inhabited by barbarians;
that is, such as reject the doctrines of the Brahmans.  In both meanings
the term is applicable to Siklik, as its inhabitants, Bhotiyas and
Gurungs adhere to the Lamas, and it is the frontier town towards the
empire of China.

One of the Lamjun Rajas, according to Prati Nidhi, had a younger brother
named Darbha Sahi, who as usual held the office of Chautariya; but
rebelled, and took to himself Gorkha, the southern part of the
principality, paying 12,000 rupees of the 22,000 that came to the chief
for his support.

Gorkha is rather warmer than the valley of Nepal, and its chief
inhabitants were Brahmans and Khasiyas, in about equal numbers, with
rather fewer Magars, the Brahmans being the chief cultivators, and the
Khas and Magars the fighting men.  The capital Gorkha is situated on a
very high hill, and was the only place of note in the territory.  It is
said to contain about 2000 houses, and the temple of Gorakhanath, who is
one of the tutelar deities of the reigning family.  From this
circumstance we may perhaps infer, that the proper name of the place is
Gorakha, and that, previous to having adopted the doctrines of the
Brahmans, this family had received the Zogis, or priests of Gorakhanath,
as their spiritual guides.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {244} states the old boundaries of Gorkha to have
been the Trisulganga (Tirsoolgunga) on the east, and the Marichangdi
(Mursiangdi) on the west.  In place of the former he should have stated
the Gandi; but from what he says, (in page 122,) it would seem that he
confounded the Gandi with both the Setiganga and Trisulganga.

Nara Bhupal or Nribhupala, according to Prati Nidhi, was the sixth or
seventh in descent from Darbha.  The account which I received in Nepal
does not materially differ.  The first chief of Gorkha was, however,
there called Rama Sahi, whether a different name for Darbha, or his son,
I do not know; but his descendants were as follows: 1.  Puran.  2.
Chhatra.  3.  Dambar.  4.  Virbhadra.  5.  Prithwi Pati.  6.  Nribhupal.
These chiefs entered into none of the leagues formed by their neighbours,
trusting to their own vigour chiefly, for their country was very poor.

The chiefs of Gorkha being cut off from any direct communication with
either the low country or Thibet, and having no mines nor other
productions as a basis for commerce, were considered as insignificant,
but Nribhupal procured in marriage, first, a daughter of the Palpa
family; and, secondly, a daughter of the sixth son of the chief of
Malebum, both of whom added much to his dignity.

His eldest son Prithwi Narayan (Purthi Nerayn in Kirkpatrick) was a
person of insatiable ambition, sound judgment, great courage, and
unceasing activity.  Kind and liberal, especially in promises to his
friends and dependants, he was regardless of faith to strangers, and of
humanity to his enemies, that is, to all who opposed his views.

When a very young man, he visited Banaras, and having met with what he
considered insolence at some (Chauki) custom-house, instantly put the
officers to death.  He was concealed from the police by a (Vairagi)
person dedicated to religion, who, induced by most abundant promises,
conveyed the highland chief in safety to his cousin, Makunda Sen, Raja of
Palpa, by whom he was very kindly received, and furnished with the means
which enabled him to undertake his first enterprises.  I have already
mentioned the manner in which he repaid this friendship, and in which he
conquered the countries that the Chitaur colony held on the east of the
Gandaki.  Some account of the invasion of Nepal by this chief is given by
Colonel Kirkpatrick, {245} and in the Asiatick Researches will be found a
more full narration by an eye-witness of the manner in which he acquired
that country, to which he immediately transferred the seat of government,
although his nobles and soldiers despise the name of Nepal, and call
themselves Gorkhalis.  I have also mentioned his total failure in an
attempt to extend his dominions to the west, towards which, during the
remainder of his government, and that of his son, the Marichangdi
continued to be the boundary to the west, as it had been in the time of
his ancestors.

The Vairagi, who had saved the life of Prithwi Narayan at Banaras, no
sooner heard of the conquest of Nepal, than he repaired to that country,
and reminded the chief of his promises.  These the chief did not attempt
to deny; but said, that, as the promises had been extorted by fear, he
would give nothing.  The Vairagi, having assembled 500 of the religious
order of Nagas, attempted to use force; but the whole horde was taken,
and put to death, an event of great use to Bengal, which these ruffians
had been in the habit of plundering.

Prithwi Narayan, besides his personal endowments, was much indebted for
success to the introduction of firelocks, which until his time were
totally unknown among the hills; and, so far as he was able, he
introduced European discipline, the value of which he fully appreciated.
His jealousy of the European character always, however, prevented him
from employing any of them in his service, and he is said to have
strongly recommended to his successors to follow, in this respect, his
example.  How far this may have been judicious, I cannot say; but it has
certainly prevented his troops, although in many respects well organized,
from making considerable progress in tactics, or in a dexterous use of
their arms, and these are probably much more defective than his
descendants and their officers think.

Prithwi Narayan died about the year 1771, and left two legitimate sons;
Singha Pratap, who succeeded his father, and Bahadur Sahi, who, after his
brother’s death, was regent of the kingdom during his nephew’s minority,
although he had excited the jealousy of Singha Pratap, and had with
difficulty saved his life by living in exile.

Singha Pratap’s attention, as I have mentioned, was chiefly directed to
secure the conquests towards the east, in which, as I have said, he seems
to have had as few scruples as usual in his family.  He died in 1775, at
Devighat, and left his kingdom to his son Rana Bahadur, placed in charge
of his uncle Bahadur Sahi, a very active enterprising prince, and of his
mother Rajendra Lakshmi, a princess of a similar character.

Two such enterprising personages could not agree: and, until the
princess’s death, there were constant disputes, sometimes the one, and
sometimes the other, acquiring the ascendancy, and then confining or
banishing their adversary.  Yet it is alleged, that in times of
reconciliation, marriage had been proposed between them, the custom of
the lower casts of Hindus, at least, not only permitting, but requiring a
younger brother to espouse his elder brother’s widow.  That such a
proposal should ever have been made, being contrary to the customs which
at present prevail among the high casts, is rather improbable; and,
perhaps, owes its origin to a desire of flattering Rana Bahadur, whose
treatment of his uncle required an apology.  The people of Palpa indeed
allege, that, during the life of Singha Pratap, a more criminal
intercourse had actually taken place between the two regents, and that it
was to revenge the disgrace thrown on his family, that Rana Bahadur
proceeded to extremities against his uncle.  Were this true, the attempt
to unite their differences by a marriage might be supposed possible: but
I attribute the origin of such a story to the disappointed hopes of the
Palpa family, which, after having entered into an iniquitous league with
Bahadur Sahi, found itself in consequence reduced to a state of
dependancy.

I have already mentioned the manner in which Bahadur Sahi thus connected
himself with the Palpa family, and the success that attended Damodar
Pangre, the officer who was most judiciously employed, and who then held
the office of Karyi.  Except Palpa, and its share of the spoil, this
officer speedily reduced the whole country from Gorkha to the boundary of
the country called Garhawal, the capital of which is Srinagar.  At the
same time, the dominion of Gorkha was extended over the Sikim Bhotiyas of
the east, as I have already mentioned; and several other chiefs of the
Bhotiya nation towards the north were reduced to obedience.

So far the greatest success had attended the regent, when he was tempted
to adopt a very rash measure.  Sumur, a discontented brother of the Tishu
Lamas from Degarchi, came to Nepal, and told the needy chief wonderful
stories concerning the wealth of the convent, in which the Tishu Lama,
spiritual guide of the Chinese Emperor, resided.  Inflamed with a desire
for plunder, and without having the slightest pretence or intercourse
with that priest, a large body of Gorkhalis (it is said 7000) overcame
all the obstructions of a long and very difficult route, and succeeded in
carrying back a large booty, although closely pursued by a Chinese army,
that came to the assistance of the Lama.  This army having been greatly
increased, about the time when Colonel Kirkpatrick visited Nepal,
advanced to Dhayabung, and compelled the regent to submit to several
indignities, although it had suffered severely from the climate, and the
poverty of the country.  For the particulars, however, I may refer to the
Account of Colonel Kirkpatrick, {248a} and of Captain Turner, {248b}
whose opportunities of acquiring information were superior to mine.  So
far as I can learn, the people of Gorkha were very much discontented with
the regent for submitting to the indignities which the Chinese demanded;
and they seem to have thought, that the invading army had been reduced to
a situation rather to offer than demand submission.  The submission was,
however, not impolitic; for I believe, that the tribute agreed upon has
never even been demanded, much less expected, and the Gorkhalis are in
the habit of saying, that, should they have any dispute with the English,
their only formidable neighbour, they will claim the protection of the
Chinese, with whose influence over the Company they seem to be much
better acquainted than one would have expected.  The Chinese general
consented to move back on receiving a supply of grain for his army, and
fifty virgins as an homage for his sovereign; but no stipulation was made
for the restoration of the plunder of Degarchi.  It was given out at
Kathmandu, that the virgins threw themselves from the precipices on the
route, and perished rather than submit to the embraces of infidels
defiled by every impure food: but I have since learned, that their sense
of honour did not carry them to such lengths, and that the Chinese placed
them in a convent near the frontier.  The people of Thibet procured no
satisfaction for the injury, and Chinese garrisons having been placed
through their country, they have become more subject than ever to that
empire, and most of their petty chiefs have been put to death or
banished, while the Chinese have since extended their conquests still
farther west.  The dominions of Nepal are therefore the only thing that
separates them from the British power, and saves them from political
discussions, managed free from the control of their own forms, and from
exposing to their officers and people the view of a nation far their
superior in power.

It is alleged, that at length the regent’s ambition overcame his sense of
duty, and that he intended to keep his nephew in confinement, and seize
the government.  The people of Palpa allege, that he had secured the
assistance of his brother-in-law Mahadatta Sen.  Certain it is, that he
was suddenly dispossessed of power by his nephew, and died in
confinement, some say by the Raja’s own hand, while others assert that he
was starved to death.

Bahadur Sahi, although a prince of great vigour, is supposed to have been
uncommonly superstitious; yet from some anecdotes related by Colonel
Kirkpatrick, {250} it would appear, that he was very capable of evading
with skill the performance of troublesome ceremonies, and that he could
speak on religion with the popish missionaries without harshness, but
with a considerable quickness of repartee.  His superstition was
probably, therefore, of that nature which is usually assumed by princes
placed in difficult situations.

Rana Bahadur received little or no education from his guardians, but was
allowed to indulge in every vice, surrounded by minions and young
profligates of the court.  These not only assisted him in the pursuit of
low vices, but encouraged his natural propensity to cruel diversions.  He
had no sooner secured his rights to the throne, and assumed the power of
the state, than he showed the restless ambition of his family by an
attack on the Yumila Raja, whom all the mountain chiefs acknowledged as
their liege lord.  The Yumila chief, although he had been thrown off his
guard by all manner of professions, having an extensive territory, made a
stout resistance, but was finally compelled to seek refuge in the country
of the Vazir.

Rana Bahadur had married a daughter of the Gulmi Raja, to whom he showed
some favour, compelling the Raja of Palpa to give up to that chief
several estates, of which he had been stript by Mahadatta Sen; but,
perhaps being disgusted by his wife’s having no children, he soon
neglected that virtuous and high-minded lady, and very openly cohabited
with other women.  He first had a son by a common slave girl, and then
one by the daughter of a Brahman.  This gave great offence to the sacred
order, but the ungovernable fury of the Raja’s temper hushed all
complaints.  As a means of disturbing him, however, the skilful in
astrology (Jyotish) published a prophecy, foretelling that the Raja would
not long survive his beauteous favourite of the sacred order, who would
soon be seized with a disease.  As the latter circumstance happened, the
Raja, who, like other Hindus, had no doubt in the science, was in the
utmost consternation.  Some of the learned took immediate advantage, and
informed him, that, by certain ceremonies performed before a certain
image, his favourite might be restored to health.  The Raja, caught by
this device, advanced what was held to be a very large sum, it is said
100,000 rupees; but without effect, for his favourite died in a few days.
The Raja’s ungovernable temper now fully disclosed itself.  He not only
scourged the Brahmans to make them disgorge his money, but he took the
image, and, grinding it to pieces with excrement, threw the fragments
into a river.  His fears, however, were not abated, and the people,
disgusted and terrified at his violence, were ripe for change.  It was
judiciously suggested to him, that, as he could not expect to survive
long, he should endeavour to secure the government to the son of his
favourite, by placing him immediately on the throne, (Gadi,) and by
making all ranks take the oaths of fidelity to the child.  The Raja
approved entirely of this measure, and determined to end his days at
Banaras, and thus to secure a place in heaven.  Every step, however, was
taken to secure the young Raja’s authority.  The Raja of Palpa was
invited to place the mark of royalty (Tika) on his forehead, and some of
the conquered chiefs, I believe chiefly those descended of Khancha and
Mincha, were induced to be present, and promised an annual pension, on
condition of their acknowledging the legitimacy of their illegitimate
kinsman: and so much weight has been attached to this acknowledgment,
that the pensions, I am told, are still continued.

Before all these ceremonies had been performed, much time had elapsed.
Although, therefore, every preparation had been made for the Raja’s
departure for Banaras, and although he had conferred the regency on his
surviving favourite the slave girl, his wife having refused to accept of
the office, and having insisted on accompanying her lord, Rana Bahadur,
no longer called Raja but Swami, finding himself very well, seems to have
repented of what he had rashly done, and suspecting some trick, was
inclined to resume the government.  Both people and chiefs were, however,
in general averse to this measure, as the violence of his temper was
universally feared.  The chiefs, therefore, under the direction of
Damodar Pangre, informed him, that they, having sworn obedience to the
young Raja, would support his government.  The Raja fortified himself in
the town of Lalita Patan, near the capital, and most of the eastern
provinces were disposed to support his authority; but Damodar had shown
such prudence and mildness, when he conquered the west, that the people
of that quarter were determined to adhere to his cause.  Sadhu Ram
alleges, that on this occasion, in the country between Gorkha Proper and
Garhawal, including Palpa, in the strictest friendship with Damodar,
17,000 men of the sacred order, and an equal number of the military
tribes, were ready to support this officer.  After some skirmishing,
Damodar’s party being evidently the strongest, Rana Bahadur retired
privately to Banaras with the character of insanity but, except in an
ungovernable ferocity and cruelty of temper, and in a credulity,
evidently the fault of education, he seems to have been abundantly
judicious, and in fact finally overreached all his adversaries.

Rana Bahadur having incurred a considerable debt to the British
Government, which supplied his wants at Banaras, a treaty was entered
into for a gradual repayment, and for the residence of a British officer
at Kathmandu; and Captain Knox, with whom I went, entered their territory
in February 1802.  We had been there only a few days, when the officers,
who came to meet us, and who were very friendly disposed, were thrown
into great trouble by the arrival of the princess, Rana Bahadur’s wife.
The unprincipled chief had connected himself with one of these frail but
pure beauties, (Gandharbin,) with which the holy city abounds, had stript
his wife of her jewels to bestow them on this wanton companion, and
finally had turned his wife out of doors.  As the slave regent had the
meanness to seize on the income of the town, assigned for the princess’s
dowry, the poor lady was reduced to the utmost distress, and conceived
that we were her enemies, being on an embassy to the low woman, by whom
she had been so shamefully used.  She therefore stirred up to destroy us
a certain Masan Raut, who had under him many thieves and robbers, with
whom he plundered the borders.  We received, however, timely notice, and
our guard being all night under arms, no attempt was made, although the
sentries saw hovering round parties of men, who, no doubt, had come in
the expectation of finding some unguarded part.

As might have been expected, under such circumstances, the slave girl’s
regency had been from the first marked with weakness.  The two most
powerful chiefs then in Nepal were Brahma Sahi of the royal family, and
Damodar of the house called Pangre, which, ever since the conquest, has
been the most powerful family among the Gorkhalis.  Damodar had
strengthened his influence by the marriage of his sister into the
distinguished family of the Viswanaths, and had procured the command of
most of the fortresses, which he intrusted to the care of his own
dependants.  The eldest of his nephews, of the Viswanath family, was then
a fine young man named Kritimohun.  Him the regent appointed Karyi, and
in his abilities reposed the highest confidence, which was supposed to
have been increased by her regard for his person.  Far from supporting
his uncle, this rash young man removed all the adherents of the Pangre
family from the command of the fortresses, and gave them in charge to
dependants of his own, and of Rudravir his illegitimate brother.  In the
meanwhile, envy raised against him many enemies, and he was assassinated
by persons of a rank too elevated to be publicly mentioned.  Among these
was Sri Krishna Sahi, one of the legitimate princes of the royal family,
who was compelled to fly into the Company’s territory; but the principal
odium and suspicion fell on Damodar Pangre, the young minister’s uncle.
As the regent never liked this chief, the circumstance was made a
pretence for attempting his ruin, and for the elevation of Brahma Sahi to
the principal authority in the government.  This personage having joined
with two brothers of the Viswanath family, and with Sher Bahadur,
illegitimate brother of Rana Bahadur, seized on the two sons of Damodar
Pangre; but the old man could not be touched; he was too much versed in
affairs, and was too strongly supported by his friends, and especially by
two warlike brothers.  With these he retired from court; and when Captain
Knox approached the frontier, in the beginning of 1802, was living in
sullen retirement.  At this time an apparent reconciliation took place
between Brahma Sahi and Damodar Pangre; both came to receive the English
embassy; and the sons of Damodar were liberated.  The probable cause of
this reconciliation was the elevation of a low man to the principal
confidence of the regent, while the charge of her conscience and heart
was in possession of a young Sannyasi or religious mendicant, one of the
finest formed men that I have ever seen.  Both circumstances gave offence
to the people.

On our arrival in the valley of Nepal, in April, we found a young
illegitimate Raja, about six years of age, whose nominal chief minister,
Chautariya, was an illegitimate brother, two years older than himself,
and son of the regent slave girl, who had in fact given the whole power
to a very low person, which occasioned universal disgust.  Damodar
Pangre, who had met us on the frontier, did not accompany us to the
court, for what reason I do not exactly know; but it is probable that he
scorned the low favourite, who had been raised to the chief authority in
the kingdom.  The only man of weight at the court was in fact Brahma
Sahi, descended of the royal family; but whether or not legitimate, I
cannot say.  He was, however, highly respected by the people, and has
fewer of the vices of his family than usual, with much good sense and
moderation.

Soon after our arrival we learned, that the distressed princess, spouse
of Rana Bahadur, terrified at the thought of remaining in the unhealthy
forests during the rainy season, deprived of means to support her in the
Company’s territory, and probably encouraged by Damodar Pangre, intended
to come up to Nepal without leave; for the regent could not bear the
approach of her former mistress, and yet would not give her the
stipulated dower.  People were therefore sent, who brought up all the
male attendants of the princess in irons; and it was hoped, I believe,
that she would perish in the woods.  Necessity, however, added boldness
to her measures, and she advanced with ten or twelve female attendants to
Chisapani, a fortress commanding the entrance into Nepal.  It was
evident, however, that the commiseration of the people was daily gaining
strength, and the timidity of the regent gave daily an increase of power
to the princess.  An additional company of Seapoys was sent to Chisapani,
as if soldiers were the proper persons to stop the progress of a few
helpless women.  The officer commanding had received positive orders to
refuse the princess admittance; but he contented himself by executing
merely the letter of his orders.  He took in all his garrison, shut the
gates, and allowed the lady and her attendants to walk quietly round the
walls.  Much anxiety was now evident at the capital, and another company
of Seapoys was dispatched to Chitlang, with positive orders to prevent
the princess from advancing farther; and, if the arrears of dower had
accompanied the officer, I do not believe that she would have made any
attempt; but the sordid dispositions of the regent and her favourite did
not suffer them to part with money.  The officer commanding the company
met the poor princess and her attendants on the road, and, being a man of
true honour, with a good deal of difficulty mustered courage to disclose
his orders.  When he had done so, the high-born lady, unmoved by fear,
pulled out a dagger, and saying, will you presume to oppose the lawful
wife of a Gorkhali Raja, while going to her own estate? she struck him on
the arm; on which, although wounded, he immediately retired, quite
ashamed of the service on which he had been employed; and his men
required no orders to follow his example.  The princess that morning
entered the valley of Nepal, and halted about five miles from the
capital.  No sooner was this known than she was joined by Damodar Pangre,
and all ranks flocked to pay their respects, and among them all the
officers of government, except the low favourite, who immediately fled
towards Thibet.

The regent, thus deserted, retired with the Raja and her son to the
sanctuary of a temple, taking with her all the money in the treasury and
the jewels of the crown.  Next day the princess entered the capital, and,
after a short negotiation, took upon herself the regency, and settled on
her base-born rival an income, which, had she received, she would never
have given any trouble.  In the whole transaction, indeed, she showed
great magnanimity; and the only stain on her character, so far as I know,
during so difficult a scene, was her conduct to the wife of the low man,
whom the late regent had elevated to the office of Serdar.  This
unfortunate woman was put to the torture, to make her disclose where her
husband had concealed his treasure; but, I believe, the treasure was
imaginary, and the report of his having accumulated wealth arose, I
imagine, in base minds, envious of his sudden rise, and anxious to
gratify their envy by misrepresentations to the princess regent.  The
man, indeed, bore on the whole a good character; and the meanness of his
birth and education, with some low conduct, arising more from these
misfortunes than from any inclination to evil, are the only things for
which I ever heard him blamed.

The new regent placed in her chief confidence Damodar Pangre, the officer
in the country of by far the highest reputation; and although she
consulted him chiefly, she expressed great anxiety for her husband’s
return.  She also showed the utmost jealousy of the British embassy as
likely to interfere with that event; and in the end of March 1802 we left
the capital.  It was probably at the instigation of Damodar, that the
Palpa Raja, as I have mentioned, was allowed to return home.  Whether or
not these chiefs had entered into any conspiracy, as has been hinted, I
do not know; but it is generally believed, that Damodar, so far as he was
able, opposed the return of Rana Bahadur, which certainly was neither
desirable for Nepal nor its neighbours.  The natives in general believe,
that he wrote a letter to a gentleman of rank at Banaras, requesting his
influence to keep Rana Bahadur at that city; and that this letter, by the
treachery or mistaken policy of the gentleman, came into the hands of
this ferocious chief.  He instantly departed by post, and was in the
dominions of Nepal before any one suspected that he had left Banaras.  He
was cordially received by his faithful wife, although he did not fail to
send to Banaras for the wanton beauty, by whom he had been there
captivated, and who must have cost him great sums, if we can judge from
the style in which she now lives at Banaras, to which she returned on his
death.

On his approach to the capital, Rana Bahadur was met by Damodar Pangre,
at the head of a large body of armed men.  This certainly had an alarming
appearance, and the intention of a man so prudent and reserved as Damodar
must always remain uncertain; but the prince, supported by the advice of
Bhim Sen, a young attendant, showed no sign of fear, and called aloud to
the officers and men, “Now show whether you will have me or Damodar for
your lord?” on which the whole joined him, and the gallant veteran, and
his eldest son, were bound.

Rana Bahadur contented himself with the title of Swami or Lord, and,
finding that the oath of fidelity had still a considerable influence
among the troops, acted merely as regent for his son; but, in action, he
never hesitated to assume the full power of the prince.  Soon after,
having shown the letter to Damodar, he delivered him and his son to the
public executioner.  As leading to the place, the young man proposed
resistance, and a sudden attempt might have put them in possession of
arms, which, with their known courage, and the veneration for their
character, where no higher authority was present, might have overcome the
guard.  The old general, however, recommended submission, lest their
attempt might have proven totally fatal to their house.  He appears to
have here also acted with his usual judgment; as his only surviving son
was spared by Rana Bahadur, when treacherously delivered up by the Palpa
Raja, as I have above mentioned; and the young man, I believe, now holds
the office of one of the Karyis, the whole soldiery viewing the family
with affection, and considering it entitled to have one of its members
always in possession of that dignity.

Immediately after this, Rana Bahadur determined to enlarge his dominions,
and with that view entrusted Bara Amar Singha with a large force.  This
officer Rana Bahadur, when he arrived from Banaras, found in confinement,
in which he had been placed by his old commander, Damodar Pangre, and, on
this account, he was justly considered as more faithful to the prince.
He rapidly seized on Garhawal, and extended the power of Gorkha beyond
the Yamuna; where, had it not been checked by Ranjit Singha, the Sikh
chieftain, it would soon have extended to the boundary of Kasmira.

I have already mentioned the arts by which Rana Bahadur inveigled Prithwi
Pal, and the chief officers of that prince, into his power; in which he
showed no symptoms of insanity, unless a shameless perfidy be considered
as such.  His career, however, was then near a close.  Most of the chief
officers were disgusted, and kept in constant terror by the remembrance
of Damodar Pangre’s fate, with whom most of them had been intimately
connected; and each daily expected, that this connection might be made a
pretence for his ruin; for the regent or lord consulted only a young man
named Bhim Sen, vigorous, ambitious, and unprincipled as himself.  A
conspiracy is said to have been formed with a view of placing the Palpa
Raja at the head of affairs; and Sher Bahadur, an illegitimate brother of
the regent, who long had held the high office of Chautariya, is supposed
to have been concerned.  In order to remove his brother from such
dangerous enterprises, the regent ordered him to join the army in the
field, but he declined.  The regent was then very angry; and, while in
full court, sent for his brother, with orders to bring him by force if he
declined.  Sher Bahadur followed the messengers into the court, and being
asked, if he would join the army, declined by saying, we are sons of the
same father, go you and I will follow.  What may be exactly meant by this
phrase in an ambiguous language, I cannot say; certainly, however, it so
enraged Rana, that he ordered his brother for execution; but, while no
one was aware, the brother drew his sword, and gave the regent a mortal
blow.  He was instantly put to death by Bhim Sen, into whose hands the
regent, before he expired, delivered his son, the Raja, and commanded all
persons to obey his authority.

When the Raja expired, Bhim Sen immediately retired to another room,
commanding a view of the court, in which the guard was assembled, and,
having addressed the soldiers, and received a promise of their support,
he immediately surrounded the hall, in which the court was assembled, and
put to death all the most active persons, under pretence, at least, of
the conspiracy, and there is reason to suspect, that what he alleged was
not destitute of foundation.  On this occasion, Bidur Sahi, an
illegitimate son of the royal family, then one of the Chautariyas,
Narasingha Karyi, Tribhuvan Karyi, and about fifty military officers,
were killed.  On the same day he put to death the Palpa Raja, and his
chief officers, as has been already mentioned; and his father, Amar
Singha, immediately seized on the dominions of that chief.  Some
variations are told in the circumstances of this event, but the above I
consider as the best authenticated.

Rana Bahadur, although he could not treat his wife with kindness, nor
even decency, does not seem to have been altogether unmoved by her noble
conduct; and, after his return from Banaras, had enlarged her father’s
dominions.  Fortunately for Bhim Sen, the high-spirited lady accompanied
the body of her faithless husband on the funeral pile and freed the new
regent from her presence, which might have been very troublesome.  For
his subsequent conduct in seizing on her father’s petty states, which was
done when he seized Palpa, it will be difficult to account, except on the
principle of insatiable rapacity.  The tragedies of his first day’s
government of course stopped all observations on his conduct.  Disliking
to have at the capital a person so venerable, and of such high rank as
Brahma Sahi, he induced that chief to accept the government of Kumau or
Almora, the most honourable in the kingdom, and augmented in dignity by
the new title of Raja Brahma Sahi, exempt from ambition, and knowing from
his character that he was safe from danger, accepted the office as more
suited to his great years, than the dangerous intrigues of Kathmandu.
The remote government of Saliyana is occupied by his brother Rudravir,
but the youngest brother Hasthadal, and all his legitimate male issue,
are held at Kathmandu, no doubt as hostages; for all the family is
suspected not only of disaffection, but of being too friendly to the
English.  Hasthadal, however, is now one of the Chautariyas.  The command
of the army in the west has been continued to Bara Amar Singha, whose
birth gives him no pretension to raise disturbances; but who has good
abilities, and there is reason to believe is firmly attached to the
present ruler.  Bhim Sen, himself, now in the vigour of youth, and of the
most determined courage, has probably very ambitious views.  Whether or
not he may think these promoted by his disputes with the English, I do
not know; but the Raja approaches manhood, and the objections to his
succession are very numerous, while the disputes with the English have
been a pretence for assembling a very large force, (twenty-five companies
under the son, and thirteen companies under the father,) and for thus
attaching to his family a very large proportion of the army.  The army in
the west is under the command of Bara Amar Singha, father of Ranadhwar,
the chief confidant and coadjutor of the young minister.

From the following genealogical table of the legitimate descendants of
Narabhupal or Nribhupal, composed in spring 1803, it will appear, that
the line of Prithwi Narayan ended in Rana Bahadur; nor do I know what has
since become of the other branches of the family.  They were in obscurity
when the table was composed, and their condition since has probably in no
way been altered, at least for the better; and at any rate, they are
distant relations to Rana Bahadur, nor are they descended from Prithwi
Narayan, the favourite hero of the nation.  Every male of the family,
legitimate or not, takes the title of Sa, Sahi, or Saha, which is always
used in conversation and writing, but need not be repeated in the table.

                      [Picture: Genealogical Table]

There was another family, which contained six petty chiefs, Gulmi,
Khachi, Argha, Musikot, Dhurkot, and Isma; all of whom, except Musikot,
had adopted the rules of purity, and took the title of Sahi, or Saha,
like the chiefs of Gorkha; but it is not alleged, that the two families
had any connection, except by marriage, and two of the branches of the
family, of which I am now giving an account, Gulmi and Musikot, called
themselves Kala Makwani, although no one knows from whence they came, nor
the origin of the appellation.  The Rajas of Gulmi, Khachi, and Argha,
followed Palpa in war; Dhurkot stood independent; and Isma and Musikot
followed Piuthana.

It is probable, that Gulmi was the original seat of the family, as Khachi
and Argha are acknowledged to be collateral branches; but with the claims
of the other three chiefs I am not acquainted.  Gulmi, the capital of the
state so named, is situated on a hill, the ascent of which is said to be
three miles in length.  The castle is built of bricks, and covered with
tiles.  The town contained 500 houses, mostly thatched.  There is no
water within a quarter of a mile of the town.  A part of the great mart,
called Rerighat, mentioned in the account of Palpa, belonged to the chief
of Gulmi.  His territory contains mines of zinc, (dasta,) cinnabar,
(sabita,) and copper, of which one is on a hill, called Chandrakot, and
another on Arakul Pahar, near the former.  These mines would appear to be
valuable.  The allied chiefs of Palpa, Gulmi, Khachi, and Argha, as I
have mentioned, about the beginning of the eighteenth century, destroyed
the Magar chief of Balihang, and divided among themselves his dominions,
both on the hills and plains.  The division seems to have given rise to
sundry bickerings.  The capital, which was situated on a hill near the
plains, and fortified, fell to the share of Palpa; but Gulmi and Khachi
received a large share of the plains.  Makunda Sen of Palpa, about the
middle of the last century, contrived to seize on Gulmi, by the intrigues
of a Brahman, named Kanak Nidhi, who gives me the account, and he
delivered the fortress to an officer of his master’s, named Kirtibamb
Thapa; but that person very soon restored the place to its lawful owner.
I have already mentioned the base manner in which Mahadatta of Palpa
joined with his son-in-law, Bahadur Sahi of Gorkha, and how he obtained
Gulmi, Khachi, and Argha, as the dear bought fruit of his perfidy.
These, however, he was allowed to possess, so long as he lived.  Siva
Saha, the dethroned chief of Gulmi, retired to Ramnagar, where he found
refuge with the exiled chief of Tanahung, and while there, gave his
grand-daughter in marriage to Rana Bahadur, the young Raja of Gorkha and
Nepal, who no sooner obtained the government, than he compelled Prithwi
Pal to restore the hills of Gulmi to his wife’s father; and when he
returned from Banaras, and had secured Prithwi Pal in confinement, the
original possessions of the Gulmi family were augmented by the whole of
the hills of Balihang; but this flourishing state lasted only for a few
weeks, as, on the death of Rana and his high-minded spouse, all her
father’s possessions were seized by the rapacious Bhim Sen, who now
governs Nepal.  Sidhi Pratap, the chief of Gulmi, is supposed to be still
in the mountains; but others allege, that he has died without issue.  He
is supposed to have been about the thirtieth chief of his race.

In Gulmi and Balihang one-half of the people are Khasiyas, one-eighth
Brahmans, of whom many are of pure birth, (Upadhyayas,) and few
illegitimate, (Jausi.)  The remainder of the population consists of
impure tribes of cultivators and artificers.

The principal crop in these hills is the rice, which is reaped in the
beginning of winter, (Aghani.)

The chief of Khachi, a younger branch of Gulmi, profited much by the
spoils of Balihang, and had a fine territory on the plain adjacent to his
hills.  In the latter were no mines, except one of iron; but at the foot
of the hills was a considerable mart, called Barakadwar, the trade of
which, however, has been almost totally forced to Butaul, since the chief
of Gorkha has seized on both countries.  It is said, that there is a
still more important pass, called Khor, four coses east from Barakadwar.
This is said to be the easiest of all the ascents to the mountains, and
leads to the town of Khachi, from whence there are routes in many
directions leading to places at a great distance, without any very
difficult ascent or descent.  The town of Khachi, which was the capital,
stands on a hill plentifully supplied with water.  The town contained
about 300 houses, mostly thatched; that of the chief was built of brick.
The Raja’s share of the land revenue on the hills, besides the lands for
supplying the officers and soldiers, amounted to 4000 rupees a-year, and
from the plain he annually procured from 500 to 1500 rupees, according as
the cultivators were discontented or satisfied.  Some of the officers had
lands free of rent on the plains; but, as usual among the mountaineers,
the whole revenue from the plain went to the chief.  On the hills of this
state 5-16ths of the people were Khasiyas, Brahmans and Rajputs 3-16ths,
and low cultivators and artisans 8-16ths.  The last Raja’s name was
Durgar Sahi, who was expelled by Mahadatta of Palpa, as already
mentioned.  I have not heard of his subsequent fate.

Argha belonged also to a collateral branch of Gulmi, which is supposed by
some to have become extinct; but others allege, that the son of the last
chief is now in Nepal.  It had a small territory on the plain, bestowed
by Makunda Sen in consequence of a marriage; but both hill and plain were
seized by his son, as I have mentioned.  Argha, the capital, is on a
hill, four coses in ascent, on the summit of which, round the chief’s
castle, are about 150 houses, while there are 350 about the middle of the
ascent.  The houses have mud walls and thatched roofs.  Water is plenty
at the lower town, but is a quarter of a mile distant from the upper.
The hills possessed no mines, nor any considerable mart.  The Raja’s
share of the land rent amounted to about 4000 rupees a-year, and the
whole of his territory might contain 5000 houses.  Not above 100 of these
belonged to Brahmans, and the number of Rajputs was quite trifling.  One
half of the people were Khasiyas, the other half impure cultivators and
tradesmen.

Concerning Dhurkot I learned nothing but what has been already mentioned,
and that its chief had one iron mine.  It was rendered subject to Gorkha
by Damodar Pangre.

Musikot was the residence of the chief of this name, who had a
brick-house on a hill close to the Barigar river, and, unlike the other
chiefs of his race, rejected the pure doctrines of the Brahmans.  The
house of the chief was surrounded by 400 houses of his subjects, mostly
thatched.  He had no possessions on the plain, and his whole territory
might contain 3000 houses, of which 5-16ths were occupied by Rajputs,
1-16th by Brahmans, mostly of spurious birth, (Jausis,) 4-16ths by
Khasiyas, and 6-16ths by impure cultivators and tradesmen.  Most of the
Rajputs were of the Raja’s family, a circumstance uncommon on the hills,
where the governing families seem seldom to have propagated to nearly
such an extent, and were often rather weak.  The Raja’s share of the
landed revenue was estimated at 2000 rupees a-year.  There was no great
mart, but near the Barigar there is a mine of copper.  The great crop
here, also, is winter rice.  When Damodar Pangre seized the country, the
chief and many of his family went to Kathmandu, where a great part has
obtained service.

Isma, the last chief of this family, resided at a fortress of the same
name, situated on a lofty hill, of very difficult access, three coses in
ascent.  Horses could not ascend more than half way, where there were
about 250 houses.  Round the castle, on the summit, were 50 or 60.  These
houses are thatched huts, with walls of stone or planks.  On the hill are
several springs of water.  The Raja had no possessions on the plain, and
his subjects might amount to 2500 houses, from whom his share of the rent
might amount to 2000 rupees.  One half of his subjects were Khasiyas,
1-8th pure Brahmans, (Upadhyayas,) 1-16th bastard Brahmans, (Jausis,)
1-16th Rajputs, and 1-4th low cultivators and tradesmen.  The country
contained neither mines nor marts.  It must, however, be observed, that
both in this country and in Musikot, Corundum (Kusan) is found in
detached masses, either on the surface or mixed with the soil.  Some of
it is bluish like lead, and some is of a copper colour.  The pieces
seldom exceed 4lbs. or 5 lbs. in weight.  It affords no revenue.  The
chiefs of this family waged a constant war with their kinsman of Musikot,
and the twenty-third or twenty-fourth of them married a daughter of
Makunda Sen of Palpa, so that Mahadatta leagued with the chief of Gorkha
to destroy his nephew.

The Raja of Piuthana, among these petty chiefs, was a person of some
consequence, and was followed in war by Isma and Musikot, two chiefs of
the last mentioned family.  He was also followed by the chiefs of Khungri
and Bhingri, whose countries were surrounded by Piuthana; and I think,
that in all probability these two belonged to the Chaubisiyas, although
they are not mentioned in Kanak Nidhi’s list; and I must confess, that
the latter I have heard arranged with the twenty-two Rajas.  All that I
learned concerning these chiefs is, that they were of the same family,
followed Piuthana in war, and were very petty.  The situation of their
countries will be seen in the maps.

Piuthana had no mines of value, but it possessed a considerable tract on
the plain, and paid the revenue of this through the Raja of Bangsi, after
Mahadatta of Palpa had been freed from that vassalage by the Nawab Vazir.
This territory on the plain, called Siwaraj, is, therefore, claimed by
the Bangsi family; but is in possession of the Raja of Gorkha.  The chief
of Piuthana pretends to be a Chandel Rajput, nor had his family
subdivided into different branches.  The town, from whence he derived his
title, is situated on a hill, the ascent to which is two coses in length.
Round their chief’s house, which was built of brick after the fashion of
Kathmandu, were about 400 houses, mostly mud-walled huts with thatched
roofs.  The Jimri, called Rapti in the low country, passes on its south
side.  The whole territory on the hills and plains contained about 2500
houses, of whom 5-16ths were Khasiyas, 3-16ths Brahmans, one-half low
cultivators and tradesmen.  There were a very few Rajputs and Newars.
Manik Chandra possessed this country in quiet, and was succeeded by Mati
Chandra, who retired without a struggle, when attacked by Damodar Pangre.
Rudra Chandra, his son, now resides at Ramnagar with the Tanahung Raja,
for the people of Gorkha seized on Siwaraj, when they took possession of
Piuthana, although it then belonged to the Nawab Vazir, and should now
form a part of the Gorakhpur district.  They at first cajoled the Bangsi
Rajah, promising to pay more than the chief of Piuthana had done; but,
after the first year, he got nothing.  The present representative of the
family, in 1814, was about twenty-eight years of age, and is supposed to
be the twenty-fifth chief of his race.  If so, his pretence to be a
Chandel is probably ill-founded, as no true Rajputs are said to have
settled so early in these hills.

Poin was a very petty chief, who followed in war the impure chief of
Bhirkot, but was himself pure, and called himself a Sirnet, saying that
he came from the mountains south-west from the Yamuna.  Poin is situated
on a high hill, where much snow falls, and there is intense cold.  At
this capital were only 120 houses, and the whole in the territory
amounted to only 2000; but there were iron and copper mines in the
country, and the Raja, for his share of the revenue, had 4000 rupees a
year.

In the list of the twenty-four Rajas given by Kanak Nidhi, a Tarki Raja
is mentioned; but I heard no account of any such person, nor does any
such place appear in the maps.  In place of Tarki I suspect, therefore,
we must introduce the very petty chief of Malihang, usually called the
Sat Bisi, or seven-score Raja, because his revenue amounted to 140 rupees
a year; a poverty which renders St Marino an empire.

There remain two countries, Malebum or Malebamba, and Galkot, which, by
all the authorities that I consulted, were included among the Chaubisiya
or twenty-four Rajas, and, therefore, I shall treat of them here,
although I suspect an inaccuracy.  It is said, that there was a certain
impure chief of the Jariya tribe, who had very extensive dominions.  The
daughter and heiress of this chief married a Gautamiya Brahman, and by
him had twenty-two sons, each of whom obtained a share of his
grandfather’s dominions, and among these, besides Malebum and Galkot, are
the northern Musikot, Jajarkot, Jahri, Bangphi, Rugun, and Salyana, all
reckoned in a class called the Baisi or twenty-two Rajas.  I have not
been able to procure a complete list of these chiefs, some of whose
dominions extend farther north than the knowledge of my informants; but I
think, that the above mentioned circumstance of the twenty-two
descendants of a common origin must have given rise to the
classification, and that Malebum and Galkot in fact belong to the Baisi,
thus making room for Khungri and Bhingri in the Chaubisiyas, among whom
they are placed in the maps.  The same conclusion may be drawn from a
circumstance stated of Nag Bamba of Malebum; who is said in his wars to
have led twenty-two chiefs to battle.

The Brahman common ancestor of this family settled first at Takam, where
his father-in-law probably resided, and this place is in Malebum, or
Parbat, as the country is often called, on account of the immense
mountains that it contains.  This division of the grandfather’s estate
was always by far the most powerful, and was probably the share of the
eldest son.  The Brahman was named Dimba Ray, which savours rather of a
barbarous race.  On his marriage he called himself a Samal Rajput, and
all his descendants have imitated his example, although, according to the
custom of the country, they should be reckoned Khasiyas, being descended
of a Brahman father and impure mother.  I have never before, nor any
where else, heard of a Gautamiya Brahman; and the Gautamiya tribe of the
plains is a spurious branch of the Gautama Rajputs, formerly very
powerful near Allahabad; and I suspect that Dimba Ray belonged to this
race.

Some generations after the fortunate marriage of this chief, the seat of
government was removed from Takam to Dhoral Thana, usually called
Malebum, and situated at the junction (Beni) of the Mayangdi, Mehagdi of
Kirkpatrick, with the Narayani.  On this account the town is often called
Beni Shahar or Beniji, while Dhoral is the name of the castle by which it
is commanded; Malebum is a term applicable to both.  Nag Bamba was then
Raja, and he was a person eminent for strength and courage.  A
prize-fighter (Mal) from Dilli, who had previously overcome all those in
three principalities that dared to engage him, was conquered by Nag
Bamba, on which occasion the king (Padshah) sent him the title of Nag
Bamba Mal.  This chief and his allies had afterwards a long continued war
with his sovereign lord, the Raja of Yumila, who wished to possess
himself of Thenikot.

Long after this Raja Male Bamba Mal communicated his name to the
principality.  His son was Saha Bamba Mal, who was succeeded by his son
Kirti Bamba, reckoned the sixtieth in descent from Dimba, but more
probably from the first of the barbarian race from whom Dimba procured
the country.  The government of Kirti Bamba gave great dissatisfaction to
his officers, who wished to dethrone him, and to place in his stead his
own son Nrisingha Mal, then a child.  This gave Bahadur Saha an
opportunity of conquering the country with little difficulty.  The Raja
with his son retired to Balirampur, in the dominions of the Nawab Vazir,
where the father shortly died, and the son, unable to suffer the heat,
retired to the hills, and lives near Bhirkot on a small allowance from
the Raja of Nepal.

Parbat or Malebum is a very elevated cold country, one-fourth of the
whole being occupied by mountains covered with perpetual snow.  It
contains the remarkable hot springs of Muktanath, with mines of sulphur,
cinnabar, iron, and copper, and some allege of zinc, (Dasta,) although by
others this is denied.  The mines of copper are said to be twenty-five in
number, and produce a great revenue, besides what is used in the country
and Thibet, sending large quantities to the plains of India.  It also has
three mines of Abrac or mica, and several places abound in rock crystal,
(Phatik.)  The crystals are said to be sometimes found as thick as a
man’s thigh, but their usual size is five or six inches in length.  Gold
also is found in the sands of several rivers, especially in the Krishna
Gandaki or Narayani, the Bakhugar or Bathugar, the Modi, and the
Mayangdi.

The upper part of the river, which in the plains of India is called the
Gandaki, is called Kali, and, rising near a place called Damodur kund,
runs through the territories of a Bhotiya chief, called the Mastang Raja,
who is, or at least when I saw him in 1802, was tributary to Gorkha; but
there is reason to think, that since that time the Chinese have compelled
the Raja of Gorkha to cede both Mastang and Kerung.  On passing the
highest peaks of Emodus, the Kali enters Malebum, and receives from the
east a small stream called the Narayani, which rises near the perennial
snow from the warm sources of Muktanath, a very celebrated place of
pilgrimage.  The usual love of fable multiplies the number of these
sources to 1000; but Sadhu Ram, who has visited the place, reduces the
number to seven, and the most remarkable is the Agnikund or spring of
fire, which is in a temple.  The spring is not remarkably copious, but is
perennial, and issues from among stones, accompanied by a flame, which
rises a few inches.  The water falls immediately into a well (Kund) or
cistern, which is about two feet wide.  On the whole, so far as I can
understand the description, it entirely resembles the Sitakunda near
Chitagang, that is, the water has no connexion with a subterraneous fire,
and the flame is occasioned by the burning of an inflammable air, that
issues from the crevices of a rock, over which the water has been
artificially conducted.  The streams of the Kali and Narayani unite at
Kagakoti, take the name of Narayani, and are also called Krishna,
Gandaki, and Salagrami, from the number of stones of that kind, which the
channel contains.

Concerning these places Colonel Kirkpatrick states, {273} that four
journeys beyond the capital, is situated Muktanath, within half a mile of
which the Gandaki takes the name of Salagrami.  It rises north from
Muktanath, and not far from Kagbeini (Kagakoti) in the direction of
Mastang, a place of some note in Upper Thibet, and twelve days’ journey
from Malebum.  Three days’ journey beyond Muktanath is Damodarkund, a
celebrated spring or natural reservoir.  The breadth of the Narayani at
Beni, the capital of Malebum, is said not to exceed thirty yards wide.
Colonel Crawford laid down the upper part of this river’s course, from
the authority of a Lama, who accompanied the Mastang Raja, which is
better than that received by Colonel Kirkpatrick.

Thakakuti, some way below Kaga Koti, is the chief mart for the trade with
Thibet through Mastang, and may contain one thousand houses.  The
Narayani is no where fordable below this place, and is crossed in some
places on wooden bridges, (Sangga,) and in others on jholas or bridges of
ropes made of rattans connected by cords of tough grass.  Thakakuti is
situated in a fine valley extending from Dhumpu to Kaga Koti, which is
compared to the valley of Nepal, but is not so wide, and the hills around
are covered with perennial snow.  The plain is sandy.  Danakoti, some way
below Dhumpu, is a place of some trade.  There is there a bad hill, but
except over that, oxen could, with some difficulty, carry loads all the
way from Rerighat to Kaga Koti.  Goods are, however, conveyed mostly, if
not entirely, on men’s shoulders, or on sheep.  Dhorali, the former abode
of the Rajas, with the adjacent town of Beni, is still the most
considerable place in Malebum.  Kusma on the Modi, near its junction with
the Narayani, has some commerce, but the great route of trade goes
through the hills straight from Dhorali to Rerighat, and from thence to
Butaul, without at all following the course of the river.  Baglungchaur,
according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, {274} is a large town and fort situated
in a valley, and very opulent and populous.

In the whole country it is supposed, that there are 100,000 families, of
whom three-fourths are Gurungs, occupying chiefly the country west and
north from the capital, which is called Seshant.  This country is
cultivated with the hoe, and the crops are, 1. Barley, 2. Uya, which, I
presume, is rye, the natives saying, that it is neither barley nor wheat,
but has a resemblance to both.  It must, however, be confessed, that it
may merely be the kind of rice called Uya, which is reared on the high
uneven land, that, in treating of Nepal Proper, I have mentioned in the
account of agriculture; for the natives speak of the objects of natural
history with such a want of precision, that much reliance cannot be
placed on their comparisons.  3. Maruya, or Eleusine Corocanus, 4.
Kanguni, (_Panicum Italicum_;) and, 5. Phaphar, said by some to be a
species of Amaranthus, called Amardana in the low country; but others say
that this is a mistake.  The other crops are inconsiderable.  The other
part of the country, south and east from the capital, is called Khasant.
One half of its inhabitants are Brahmans, mostly of the bastard (Jausis)
race, who plough and carry burthens; one-fourth consists of Khasiyas, who
call themselves Khatris; and one-fourth consists of other Hindus of a
lower birth, but called also Khasiyas.  Very few of even these spurious
Hindus have settled among the Gurungs, and very few of the latter have
remained in the Khasant.  The houses in both parts have in general stone
walls, and are thatched.  Some of those belonging to the Gurungs have two
stories.

Galkot, which belonged to a chief of the same family with Malebum, is a
territory of small extent, but contains three mines of copper, and one of
iron, which would be very productive, were there a sufficient number of
miners, (Agari;) but there are only a few, and these have an exclusive
right to work the mines.  Although a cooler country than the valley of
Nepal, it is the best cultivated in these parts, partly with the hoe,
partly with the plough.  Except in Malebum, the latter alone is used in
all the territories hitherto described.  The Raja’s share of the revenue,
including the mines, amounted to 3500 rupees a year.  The whole number of
inhabitants were reckoned at 3000 houses, of whom a half were low tribes
of cultivators and tradesmen; one-fourth Khasiyas, and one-fourth Rajputs
and Brahmans.  The chief’s house called Galkot was on a hill, the ascent
to which is reckoned five coses long.  Around it were 500 houses, mostly
thatched huts.  Colonel Kirkpatrick {276} calls Galkot a considerable
fort and town.  The Raja, on being attacked by order of Bahadur Saha,
submitted quietly, and remained in the country.

As I have said, these two last chiefs have been included among the
Chaubisiya or twenty-four Rajas, agreeable to the reports I heard;
although I think it probable that they actually belonged to the Baisi or
twenty-two Rajas.

At Rugun resided one of the twenty-two Rajas, whose territory was
adjacent to Malebum on the west; but my informants had very little
knowledge of that part of the country.

West from Rugun is Musikot, the chief of which also is said to have been
one of the twenty-two Rajas.

West again from Musikot is Jajarkot, whose chief also belonged to the
same class, and to the alliance, at the head of which was the chief of
Malebum.

South from Jajarkot is Bangphi, which belonged to another of the
twenty-two Rajas.

In the same direction I heard of Gajal, Dharma, and Jahari, three petty
states also in alliance with Malebum, and probably belonging to three of
the twenty-two Rajas, but that was not stated.  Their situations are not
placed in the maps, and Dharma may perhaps be a tribe of Bhotiyas, that
was formerly subject to Yumila, and bore the name of Dharma.

In the maps again, I observe Satatala among the twenty-two Rajas; but I
procured no verbal account of the place, and its name implies seven petty
districts, so that, in place of being one petty state, it should have
perhaps been marked as seven.

Malaneta is near it, and belonged to a chief of the Malebum family, who
lived in strict alliance with the Raja of Saliyana of the same race.  The
Malaneta Raja had no mines nor plain country, and was very poor.

Saliyana is also called Khasant, 10-16ths of its inhabitants being
Khasiyas, or bastards of various kinds, 2-16ths are pure Brahmans,
(Upadhyayas,) 1-16th bastard Brahmans, (Jausis,) and 3-16ths consist of
various impure tribes.  Saliyana, the residence of the chief, is situated
on a large hill, and his house was built of brick, and covered with
tiles.  The other houses were mostly mud-walled huts.  The air there is
cool, although not so cold as Kathmandu.  The Raja fortunately held some
part of the plain belonging to the Nawab, and in a valley, between the
mountains and a low ridge of hills, had a considerable mart called Jara
Pani, or cool water, a tempting name on the burning plains of India.  It
is ten coses north-east from Balirampur, and is still a considerable
thoroughfare, although not so great as Butaul.  The Raja possessed also
several mines, yet he was so poor, that, when the late chief married a
daughter of Prithwi Narayan’s, the young lady complained bitterly to her
father, that he had bestowed her on a chief unable to give her food.
Prithwi promised to give her the estate of the neighbouring chief of
Dang, but died before this was accomplished.  It was, however, done by
Bahadur Saha, the lady’s brother, and she and her two sons enjoyed their
estates quietly, until Rana Bahadur was murdered.  Bhim Sen, the present
violent ruler, did not respect the daughter of the favourite hero of his
country; but, when he seized Palpa, seized also on her estates, carrying
her and her younger son to Kathmandu, where he allows them a very scanty
subsistence.  The eldest son fled to his estates on the plain, fortunate
in having the protection of the Nawab Vazir, with whose dominions the
chiefs of Gorkha do not interfere.  Why they respect them more than the
Company’s, I do not exactly know; but that they do so is certain.  This
branch of the Malebum family is supposed to have governed for about 50
generations.

The Raja of Dang, the next neighbour to Saliyana, has adopted the rules
of purity, and is connected by marriage with the Palpa family; but,
whether he was reckoned one of the twenty-two Rajas, I have not learned,
although, from his situation and family, being a Samal, that is, of the
Malebum race, I think it highly probable.  By Colonel Kirkpatrick,
however, as I have already mentioned, he and the next chief of his family
are both classed among the twenty-four Rajas.  The chiefs formerly lived
on a high hill called Dang; and, until deprived of this part of their
estate, they had there a house called Chaugora; but for some generations
they had withdrawn to Phalabamb, which was not on the plain, but on a
hill immediately overhanging it.  This town is now often called Dang, and
consists of huts with mud or wooden walls, the Raja’s house alone being
built of brick.  On the hills were several mines of iron; but the most
valuable part of the chief’s estate was on the plain, and consists of
Pergunah Tulasipur, belonging to the Nawab Vazir.  A part of this, called
the Bhitari Tarai, is separated from the great plain of India by a small
ridge of hills.  The valley between this small ridge and the mountains is
about six coses wide, and belongs partly to Saliyana, partly to Dang.  I
have already mentioned, that Bahadur Saha took the hills of Dang, and
gave them to his sister, the Rani of Saliyana, but New Dang, or
Phalabamb, was protected by the Nawab Vazir.  Nawab Singha, who was
deprived of his estates, was reckoned the fortieth chief of his race.  He
retired to a house called Barapate, twelve coses north from Tulasipur,
and he usually resided there, although he had a house at Tulasipur.  His
son Dana Bahadur is now Raja of Tulasipur, and is said to have about
25,000 families of vassals.  Among these are a few Upadhyayas, Jausis,
and Khasiyas near Phalabamb; but the most numerous casts are Brahmas,
Puns, and Ales, all impure: there are a good many Majhis and Darwes, both
pure, and some Ghartis, partly Misal and partly Bhujal, both impure.
Some Ghartis, who are pure, are called Khasiyas.

Chilli is a very small territory, partly on the plains and partly on the
hills; but it produced, as the Raja’s share, 2500 rupees a-year.  The
chief’s residence was on a hill, the ascent to which may be 1½ cose in
length.  There is round his house a small town containing two hundred
houses.  He is of the Samal tribe, that is, of the Malebum family, and is
a branch of the Dang chief’s house.  Being nearly connected with the
Gorkha family by marriage, when his estates were seized, he went to
Kathmandu, and procured the whole to be restored without even tribute.
If Bhim Sen has respected them, he is the only chief from the Tista to
the Yamuna, that has retained his estates or power.

According to my ideas, Malebum, Galkot, Rugun, Musikot, Jajarkot,
Bangphi, Gajal, Dharma, Jahari, Satatala, Malaneta, Saliyana, Dang, and
Chilli, are fourteen of the twenty-two chiefs, so that there are still
eight wanting; but Satatala, implying seven petty divisions, may account
for six of these, and the two remaining may be Dalu Dailek, or Bilaspur
and Duti, although I did not hear any such thing mentioned, and neither
Raja is of the Malebum family.

By Colonel Kirkpatrick {279} the twenty-two Rajas are called Bansi, no
doubt by an error of the editor for Baessi, or twenty-two.  Unfortunately
the list, which he procured, is as imperfect as mine, and is as follows.

1.  Jumla, (Yumila,) 2.  Jajurkote, (Jajarkot,) 3.  Cham, 4.  Acham, 5.
Roogum, (Rugun,) 6.  Musikote 2d, (Musikot,) 7.  Roalpa, 8.  Mullyanta,
(Malaneta,) 9.  Bulhang, (Balihang,) 10.  Dylick, (Dulu Dailek,) 11.
Suliana 2d, (Saliyana,) 12.  Bamphi, (Bangphi,) 13.  Jehari, (Jahari,)
14.  Kalagong, 15.  Ghoorikote, 16.  Gootum, 17.  Gujoor, (Gajal?) 18.
Darimeea, (Dharma.)

Of these the 1st, so far as I could learn, belonged to neither the
twenty-four nor the twenty-two Rajas, but to the common chief of both
classes, and the 9th, according to the information which I received,
belonged to the class containing twenty-four chiefs.  The 10th number
confirms my conjecture concerning Dalu Dailek being one of the twenty-two
chiefs.  No. 3, 4, 7, 14, 15, and 16, are probably six of the seven
chiefs, which in my list were included under the common name Satatala.
Or if Satatala be considered as the proper name of one territory, the
above-mentioned places would serve to complete the list.  I have heard
nothing myself concerning these places, and can find almost nothing in
Colonel Kirkpatrick’s work.  From a route, however, which he gives, {280}
it would appear that Chhamkote, probably the capital of Cham, is about
thirty one miles road distance west from the Karnali river, (Kurnali
Kola,) and that Acham is thirty-two miles farther west.  Both territories
are west from Yumila, and in the route are said to have belonged to its
chief.  Acham he reckons seventy-two B. miles in a straight line from
Duti, (Dhotee,) and about twenty-four from Yumila, four miles road
distance, on long routes, giving only one in a direct line.

The country between the Beni and Dalu Basandra, by Sadhu Ram, was called
Bilaspur, while by the two Nidhis it was called Dalu Dailek, a name which
should be preferred, as farther west there is another Bilaspur.  The
chief town is at Mathagari, where the government of Nepal, since the
conquest, has built a fort.  It is probable that Mathagari is the name of
this fort, and that the former town was called Bilaspur, but I did not
hear this mentioned.  This capital contains about one hundred and fifty
thatched huts.  The chief’s house is built of stone, and partly thatched,
partly covered with tiles.  The chief was called a Khas, but he rejected
the rules of Hindu purity, and was probably one of the real ancient
Khasiyas.  When attacked by the forces of Bahadur Saha, he retired to
some strongholds and began to plunder, on which all persons of his family
that could be caught were put to death.  This so terrified the chief that
he fled; but to what place my informants do not know.  There are in the
country many Khasiyas, who, I presume, live impure like their former
master.  There were scarcely any pure Brahmans (Upadhyayas) in the
country; but about one-eighth of the people were considered pure, and
were called Jausis and Rajputs.  The most remarkable thing, by far, in
this petty territory is the place of worship called Dalu Basandra.  There
are three springs (Kunds) supposed to issue from the head, navel, and
feet of Vishnu, (Sirasthan, Nabhisthan, and Padukasthan.)  The central
one is about 1½ cose from each of the extreme springs.  At each place,
according to Sadhu Ram, who once performed the pilgrimage, there is a
small natural pool without any building.  The water springs from the sand
in the bottoms of the pools, and is very hot.  Above the small holes from
whence the water issues, of which there are several in each pool, a flame
appears on the surface of the water.

West from Dalu Basandra was rather a considerable chief, called the Duti
Raja, who, according to Prati Nidhi, pretended to be of the family of the
Sun; but, according to Hariballabh, the chiefs of this state were of a
collateral branch of the Shalivahan family.  According to Prati Nidhi,
they had governed for about 40 generations, when Vishnu Sa, the son of
Pradipa Sa, was dethroned by order of Bahadur Sahi.  He was carried to
Nepal, but Prati does not know what has been his fate.  According,
however, to Hariballabh, the chief who was expelled was Dip Sa, the son
of Krishna Sa, the son of Mahendra Sa.  He resided some years at
Pilibhit, where he died, leaving three sons, who have retired to Mahmudi,
in the Nawab’s country, in great distress, the army of Gorkha having
seized the whole of their lands on the plains, as well as on the
mountains.  I have, however, heard it stated, that very lately the heir
has been taken into favour, and restored to his estates, on condition of
paying an annual tribute.  The country extended to the Kali-nadi, or
Black-water, which separated it from Kumau, and through its centre passes
the Setigangga, or White River.  On the banks of this is a fine valley,
two coses long and one broad, in which stands Dipal, the capital,
surrounded on three sides by the river.  It contains about 400 houses
built of stone, and roofed with the same material.  The Rajas possessed
some territory on the plains.  Of the whole population, pure (Upadhyayas)
Brahmans composed a fourth, the bastard Jausis an equal share, Khasiyas
3-16ths, and low labourers and tradesmen 5-16ths.  The principal crop was
winter rice, the second Urid, the third Kurthi, and the fourth barley;
all the others were small.  The oil-seed chiefly reared was the Til, or
Sesamum.

To the north of all these petty chiefs, and reaching within two days’
journey of Dipal and Mathagari, is an extensive country called Yumila,
which, towards the west, was once bounded by the territory of Gar, or
Garhawal, the capital of which is Srinagar; and towards the east by
Mastang, as it extended to Kagakoti on the Narayani, at the northern
extremity of Malebum; but towards the east it was much straitened by
Jajarkot, which extends to within a few coses of Chhinachhin, the
capital.  Large territories also had been gradually seized from its
prince, by the chief of Kumau, who had extended his dominions to the
snowy mountains.

The chief of Yumila was a Rajput, and he was long acknowledged as the
supreme lord or king over all the mountain chiefs towards the west; at
least, as all my informants from that quarter declared, and they extended
his authority to the east also; but this was entirely denied by
Hariballabh, and in these parts his information is more to be trusted
than that of the others.  We may safely, however, conclude, that his
superiority was acknowledged everywhere between the Kali river and Nepal.
His authority, however, was still more limited than that of the late
Cæsars of Germany, his subjects frequently levying war, not only against
each other, but against their sovereign; nor was there any assembly of
states from which he could obtain assistance against a common enemy.  His
power probably resembled that possessed by those who were called the
sovereign kings of India, before the Muhammedan conquest, and consisted
in three privileges.  Each chief sent him an annual embassy, with
presents; he bestowed the mark of royalty (Tika) on each heir, when he
succeeded; and he had a right to interfere in keeping the stronger from
overrunning the weaker; and to exhort all chiefs to preserve the balance
of power.  Except persuasion, however, no means seem to have existed to
enforce co-operation.  Still, however, the evident common benefit of such
a power seems long to have given it some effect; although, in the
struggle for universal dominion by the chiefs of Gorkha, it never seems
on any one occasion to have been employed.

Etawargiri is a merchant nominally dedicated to religion, (Atithi,) who
was born at Chhinachhin, and who still adheres to the Raja.  He left the
country when very young, but has since made three journeys thither to
purchase horses, there being at the place several merchants of this
order, who deal to a considerable amount.  They carry up metals, spices,
and cloths; and bring down cow tails, salt, horses, a woollen cloth
called Pheruya, medicinal herbs, musk, etc.

Etawargiri, setting out from Tulasipur, in the dominions of the Vazir,
crossed the Bheri, and proceeded through Jajarkot, the territory of which
reaches within three coses of Chhinachhin; but from Jajarkot to the
boundary took him nine days over a hilly country.  At the boundary he
entered a fine plain cut with deep ravines, like that of Nepal, but well
cultivated.  It is said to extend eight coses from north to south, and
fifteen from east to west.  It is cultivated by the plough drawn by oxen,
and produces much wheat, barley, _phaphar_, and _uya_; with some _urid_,
peas, lentiles, and maize, and a little transplanted rice.  Sugar-cane,
_kodo_, (_Paspalum frumentaceum_, Roxb.) and _chana_, (_Cicer arietinum_,
Lin.) will not grow there, for there is snow in winter.  In this level
part of the country, each ploughgate of land is said to pay ten rupees
a-year; but in the high poor parts of Yumila, one rupee is the rent.

According to the accounts which Colonel Kirkpatrick received, {284} this
valley is nearly of the same extent as that of Nepal, but is rather more
contiguous to the Himaliya mountains, and more chequered with low hills.
The ridge of mountains immediately to the north is called Seela pahar,
(Sweta pahar, white mountain,) and makes part of the greater Himaliya.

Chhinachhin is a large scattered place.  All the houses are built of
brick or stone, and have flat roofs.  The two most remarkable temples at
Chhinachhin, at least in the opinion of Etawargiri, belong, of course, to
Siva.  The one is called Chandranath, the other Bhairav’nath.  In the
daily market are exposed for sale the birds called Manal and Dhangphiya,
mentioned above, (page 95,) and another called Chakuri, which I do not
know, unless it be the Chakor, mentioned in page 95.  These are commonly
eaten.  There are also exposed for sale many sheep and goats, loaded with
salt, musk, medicinal herbs, and a seed called Bariyalbhera.  Near
Chhinachhin there are some of the cattle whose tails form the chaungri
{285} chamar, or changwari, of the vulgar tongue, and the chamari of the
Sangskrita, and they are very numerous in the hilly parts.  Sadhu Ram
says, that in Bhot there are three kinds of cow; the Changwari, the Lulu,
and the Jhogo.  The tails of all the kinds are bushy from the root, but
those of the changwari are the most valuable.  None of these kinds of
cattle have the undulated dew-lap of the Indian cattle.

Besides the plain on which Chhinachhin is built, the Rajas held a very
great extent of narrow vallies and mountains, many of the latter
perpetually covered with snow.  Towards the east, the country extended
fifteen days’ journey to Bhot.  I know from other circumstances, that it
reached to Kagakoti on the Narayani, which is said to be about nineteen
miles east from Butaul, and Chhinachhin is nearly north from Dalu
Basandra, which, according to the map that I procured, is 124 miles west
from Butaul; the fifteen days’ journey gives, therefore, 143 miles direct
distance, or about 9½ miles for each.  Chhinachhin, at this rate,
allowing it to be six miles from the boundary, would be about ninety
miles north from Jajarkot, which is nearly north from Dalubasandra, and
Jajarkot, according to the map deposited in the India House, is 108 miles
from the plains of India.  But to admit these situations as accurate, we
must suppose, that the snowy mountains take there a great bend to the
north, which is not said to be the case, and we must, therefore, allow
that Jajarkot stands much farther south than it is placed in the map; and
that Yumila is much nearer Jajarkot than Etawargiri supposes.

Colonel Kirkpatrick gives a route from Beni, the capital of Malebum, to
Chhinachhin, the two places lying east and west, distant by the road 250
coses.  Their actual distance, by the native maps, being about 143 miles,
will give, on a long route, rather more than half a mile (0.57) of direct
horizontal distance for the cose of road distance.

One of the most important productions of Yumila is salt, which is said to
come from a place called Mukhola, reckoned ninety or a hundred miles road
distance from Chhinachhin, towards the north-east.  It is said, that, at
Mukhola, there is a large space, containing many pools, that in winter
are covered with snow.  When this melts in spring, the water is thrown
out, and cattle arc turned into the muddy pools to tread the bottom with
their feet.  As summer advances, a crust of salt is formed, and removed.
I do not understand the nature of such a process, and suspect some
mistake, as the dialect spoken by Etawargiri was not clearly understood
by any of my people, much less by myself.

About half way between Chhinachhin and Mukhtanath is a frontier fortress
of Yumila called Tibrikot.  It is remarkable for a temple of the goddess
Tibrisundari.

About one-fourth of the people in this country are Brahmans, Rajputs, and
Khasiyas, who follow the doctrines of the present Hindu law.  The
Bhotiyas are on the whole the most numerous tribe, and with Gurungs,
Rohanis, Khatis, and Rahals, all impure mountain tribes, make up the
remaining three-fourths, who chiefly adhere to the Lamas.  The language
spoken at Court was the Khas, but differed very much from that of Palpa
or Gorkha; even the titles of the chief officers of government were
totally different, although the same forms of administration were
established.  For instance, the Chautariya of Palpa was in Chhinachhin
called Hitan, and the Karyi of the former was the Bist of the latter.

According to Hariballabh the Rajas of Yumila were of the Suryabangsi
tribe, and were admitted to be pure, so as to intermarry with the chiefs
of Kumau and Garhawal.  They had penetrated into the northern hills about
500 years ago; but, as I have above mentioned, were far from having
expelled or persecuted the ancient inhabitants.  It was said by the
Mahanta of the Janmasthan at Ayodhya, that they first settled in the
Almora country, and thence removed to Yumila; and as the Duti Raja,
acknowledged to be of the Shalivahan family, is also called a
Suryabangsi, I think it probable, that the Rajas of Yumila are the
descendants and representatives of Asanti and Basanti, and this will
explain the vassalage to them, which all the eastern chiefs avowed,
although the people of Kumau, by whom the Yumila chiefs were stript of
the best part of their dominions, deny this vassalage, and pretend to
knew nothing of their descent.

When Rana Bahadur attacked the country, it is universally admitted, that
he was opposed by Sobhan Sahi; but, according to Etawargiri, this person
was Raja, while Kanak Nidhi says that he was the Raja’s brother, and
Hariballabh alleges that that he was the uncle of the chief.  For two
years he resisted the troops of Gorkha, and had collected a force of
22,000 men; but Rana Bahadur, watching a favourable opportunity when most
of these had retired to their homes, completely surprised the country,
and acted with such vigour and cruelty, that no force durst afterwards
assemble.  A son of Sobhan, named Munsur Sahi, has fled for protection to
the Taolakhar or Taklakhar Bhotiyas, and Hariballabh says, that the old
chief is now at Lasa.  He also says, that the Raja was carried to
Kathmandu, where he died after some confinement.  He was not used
harshly, and was allowed two rupees a-day for his subsistence.  A son of
the Yumila chief, and acknowledged as the heir of the family, but whether
son or nephew of Sobhan Sahi, I do not know, lives at Tulasipur, in the
Vazir’s country, along with the Dang Raja, his former vassal.

Yumila on the north is bounded by the great snowy ridge called there
Humla, by which it is separated from the country of the Taolakhar or
Taklakhar Bhotiyas, now certainly subject to China, and in the map of
Hariballabh their capital is called Taklakot.

Near Taklakot, between two parallel ridges of Emodus covered with
everlasting snow, Hariballabh places two lakes, Manasa Sarawar Vulgo
Manasarawar, and Ravanhrad, which receives the water flowing from the
former.  On their west side is a vast peak named Kailasa, which the
Hindus suppose to be the residence of the Gods.  The valley, east and
west from the lakes, and extending to a great width between the two
ridges of the snowy mountains, is deeply covered with snow in winter, and
then the shepherds retire lower down; but in summer it is covered with
flocks, the pasture being short, close, and rich.  A river flows from
each end of the Ravanhrad, or rather from each lake.  That going to the
west is called the Satadru and Satrudra, and turning to the south forms
what we call the Sutluj.  It must, however, be observed, that, according
to Hariballabh, there rises from the northern ridge of that eastern part
of the valley another river, which, as in the Chinese map of Thibet
published in Duhalde, runs west parallel to the Satrudra.  Hariballabh
does not know its name.  It was called to him the river of Ladak, as
passing that city.  From many other persons I have learned, that this
river of Ladak passes north from Kasmira; and, if not the chief branch,
is at least one of the greatest of those which form the Indus.

The river that flows to the east from the lakes is named the Karanali,
and, according to Hariballabh, who has seen this part of its course,
after flowing a short way in that direction, passes through the southern
ridge of snowy mountains, and waters Yumila; but he does not know that
part of its course, and has only heard that it passes on the west side of
Dalu Basandra.  Kanak Nidhi calls the river thus passing Dalu Basandra,
the Sonabhadra; but Sadhu Ram told me, that its name is the Karanali, or
Salasu, for many rivers of these parts have a variety of appellations,
that is very perplexing to the geographer.  He says, that west from Dalu
Basandra, it is a river as wide as the Gandaki, where that river comes
into the plain, which I have formerly described.  Etawargiri says, that
the Karanali passes near the salt mines of Yumila, and then turns west,
passing north from Chhinachhin, in which case it must take a very large
bend to the east from Ravanhrad, and then another to the west, before it
reaches Dalu Basandra.

As connected by trade with Yumila, I may here mention, that the Chinese,
in the, part of Thibet, north-east from Manasarawar, and beyond the
second range of Emodus, have a very valuable gold mine.  It can only be
wrought in summer, and those who wish to mine pay seven Mashes of gold
for every solid cubit of mineral that they dig.  They also give to the
government all pieces of gold which they find that weigh more than three
Mashas; all the smaller bits they keep to themselves.  Thirteen Mashas
are equal to a Furrokhabad rupee, that is, each contains between thirteen
and fourteen grains.



CHAPTER SECOND.
OF THE COUNTRIES WEST FROM THE RIVER KALI.


Kumau; History, State.—Garhawal; History, State.—Sirmaur.—Twelve
Lordships.—Besar.—Hanur.

Kumau is a very considerable territory bordering with Duti on the east,
the boundary being the Kali Nadi.  On the west it has Garhawal or Gar,
and it extends a considerable way into the plains of Bareli; but all that
it has there is subject to the Company.

It is generally agreed, that the founder of the family of Kumau was Thor
Chandra, a needy, but high born descendant of the family of the Moon,
who, about 350 years ago, left Jhausi or Pratishthan, opposite to
Allahabad, in quest of fortune.  He was accompanied by a pure Brahman,
equally necessitous, and named Jaydev, from whom the two Nidhis, my
informants, claim a descent.  According to Hariballabh, the two
adventurers agreed that they should repair to the hills, and endeavour to
procure service.  If they succeeded, they should by degrees invite some
comrades, and by their assistance, they expected to overpower their
master, and seize his dominions, which were to be equally divided.  They
accordingly found service from an impure chief of the Jar or Magar cast,
it is not worth while investigating which, my informant considering both
equally vile.  This fellow had a small territory, for which he paid
tribute in peace to the Rajas of Karuvirpur; who, although of pure and
high extraction, scandalously suffered their subjects to wallow in
abomination.  Having secured this man’s favour, and invited some pure men
like themselves, the two servants cut off their master, expelled the
monsters his subjects, and settled the country with pure Hindus, building
the town of Champawati, or Kurmachal, as it is called in the language of
the Gods; but the word in the language of men has somehow been corrupted
into Kumau.

The soldier, when not actuated by zeal for purity, was an honourable man;
and, no sooner had he acquired this territory, than he offered the half
of it to the priest; but Jaydev declined the troublesome office of
government, and contented himself with stipulating for the hereditary
office of register (Kanungo) and steward (Zemindar) for all the estates,
which the prowess of the Rajas might acquire.  Thor Chandra was succeeded
by his son Kamir C., whose son, Nirbhaga C., having died without
legitimate heirs, the chief officers sent to Jhausi, and procured as a
chief another needy descendant of the Moon.  His whole revenues amounted
to about 3000 rupees a-year, and like his predecessors, pure and impure
he paid tribute to the Rajas of Karuvirpur.

In this state the family continued, until the time of Bala Kalyan C., son
of Kirti C., son of Bhishma C., son of Guru Gyangn C.  This Kalyan
married a daughter of the Raja of Duti, a collateral branch of the
Karuvirpur family, and by her obtained Sor, as an addition to his
inheritance.  Their son, Rudra C., was a man of great abilities.  In his
time the family of his sovereign, the Karuvirpur king, was involved in
dissensions, twenty competitors claiming the succession.  Rudra, having a
high character, was chosen by these unfortunate chiefs as umpire; and
entered the capital under pretence of investigating their claims.  When
in full possession, he declared that they were all low fellows, descended
only of Shalivahan, while he was a descendant of the illustrious Budha,
and, therefore, seized on the sovereignty, giving each competitor a
little land in a place called Manur in the Pergunah of Pali, where their
descendants still remain, and are called Manuriya Rajputs.  Rudra now
built Almora, and made it the seat of his extended government.  This was
in the time of the Mogul Akbur, one of whose officers, having attacked
Almora, was defeated, and Rudra advancing into the plain, obtained a
jaygir eighty coses long and five wide, then overgrown with woods.  The
intelligent chief, however, brought inhabitants, and settled six
Pergunahs, Rudrapur, Sabna, Belahari, Nanakamata, Kasipur, and Reher,
which produced a revenue of 1,000,000 rupees; and in the first mentioned
Pergunah he built a fort of the same name.  He afterwards became a
favourite of the kings, who granted him permission to coin money in the
royal name, and Persian character.  No other hill chief had a mint except
Nepal, the Rajas of which have always coined money in their own name, and
in the Nagri character.  Rudra finally took Siragar from his kinsman the
Raja of Duti, for he was one of those great men that do not hesitate
about trifles.  He was succeeded by his son Lakshmi, who was a saint, and
had four sons.  The three eldest, Dilip C., Vijay C. and Trimala C.
succeeded each other, and had no male issue.  Nila Singha, the youngest
brother, left a son, Baz Bahadur, who succeeded his uncle Trimala, and
was another man of great activity.  He attacked the Yumila Raja, who
after the overthrow of Karuvirpur, was probably the proper representative
of Asanti, and who was acknowledged as liege lord by all the chiefs of
the mountains.  From this prince Baz Bahadur took Danpur, Joyar, and
Dharma.  Joyar was a very large territory, including Baropathi and
Munsiyari; and both it and Dharma, like the other territories of Yumila,
were chiefly inhabited by Bhotiyas, and other impure monsters, who, on
the conquest, were totally expelled or destroyed, and the rules of purity
established.  Jagat C., son of Gyangn C., son of Udyot C., the son of
this Baz Bahadur, was, like his great-grandfather, a conqueror, and took
Chaudas from Yumila, after which the family began to decline.  His son,
Devi C., had a dispute with Muhammed Shah, which was amicably settled by
means of Raja Jaya Singha.  He had no son, and was succeeded by Kalyan C.
his grand-uncle, the youngest son of Udyata C.  This old man was
succeeded by his son Dip, who had the misfortune to be born dumb, and to
give himself entirely up to religious exercises, leaving the whole
management of his affairs to his wife and officers.  His first favourite
was Jaya Krishna, a Brahman descended of Jaya Deva, the companion of Thor
Chandra.  This person, by the intrigues of the queen, (Rani,) was
displaced, and the power transferred to Mohan Singha, a person of the
chief’s family, who was in command of the army.  He soon displeased the
lady, and, being a man of ungovernable passions, he retired to Dundiyu
Khan, a Rohilla chief; and, having procured some assistance, returned and
put the lady to death.  Jaya Krishna now applied to Hafez, another chief
of the Rohillas, who gave him some men, with whom he put Mohan to flight.
This chief retired to Lakhnau, and watched there, until he learned that
Jaya Krishna was employed in collecting the revenues of the country.  He
then, with a small band, advanced suddenly, and privately seized Almora,
and, having sent the poor creature Dip, and his four sons, to the
fortified hill of Siragar, he declared himself Raja, and, as usual, took
the title of Chandra.  His first care was to inveigle Jaya Krishna into
his power, which he did by numerous assurances of friendship, and offers
of employment.  The Brahman was outwitted, and went into the castle of
Kotaghat, where, as he advanced to embrace the Raja, who stood with open
arms, a soldier struck off his head.  Mohan then imprisoned Harsha Dev,
the brother of Jaya Krishna; and, thinking himself firmly established,
ordered Dip and his four sons to be thrown over the castle wall, which
was done, and they were dashed to pieces.  Jaya Deva, however, an uncle
of Harsha Dev, went to Lalit Sa, Raja of Garhawal, and, having obtained
4000 men from him, drove out Mohan C.; but could not release his nephew,
who being very warlike, was considered as of great importance, and was
carried off by Mohan; soon after, however, he contrived to escape.  The
uncle and nephew then conferred the government on Pradyumna Sa, a younger
son of their benefactor, the Raja of Garhawal, who took the title of
Chandra, while the uncle was appointed (Nayeb) chief civil minister, and
the nephew commander of the forces, (Bukhshi.)  On the death of his
father, Pradyumna, during three years, disputed for the succession of
Garhawal with his elder brother Jayakirti; but without success.  The
elder brother, then dying without male issue, Pradyumna became undisputed
owner of Garhawal and Kumau.  He had a younger brother named Parakrama,
of a very intriguing disposition, who, having been gained by Mohan
Chandra, persuaded Pradyumna to dismiss Harsha Dev, who retired to the
low country; and Kumau, being entrusted to weak hands, was recovered by
Mohan Chandra, who held it for sixteen months.  Harsha Dev’ could no
longer suffer this, but attacked his enemy, and, having taken him and his
son prisoners, he put them both to death.  In this he vented his hatred
on the father by a barbarous refinement of cruelty.  Under pretence of
not shedding royal blood, he kept his unfortunate rival without food, and
daily beat him, until he expired.  It is said that he suffered for
seventeen days, but this seems incredible.  The Brahman then placed on
the throne a certain Siva Chandra, who was alleged to be of the family of
Kumau, and acted as his chief minister.  About this time the forces of
Golam Kader having been dispersed by the Mahrattas, many of them were
engaged by Lal Singha, whom some call the son, and others the brother of
Mohan Chandra.  With these troops this chief drove out Harsha, who fled
to Garhawal.  He there entered into an alliance with Parakrama, the
Raja’s brother, his former enemy, and both attacked and defeated Lal
Singha, who had advanced into Garhawal to meet them.  He was driven into
Almora, where he contrived to form a treaty with Parakrama, by which
Mahendra, the son of Mohan, was made Raja, and Harsha was placed in
confinement.  From this, however, he soon contrived to escape, and
retired to the plains.  Siva Chandra was allowed to escape, as having
been a mere tool in the hands of the Brahman.  In this state were
affairs, when Damodar Pangre, the officer commanding the troops of
Gorkha, sent his brother Jagajit and Amar Singha Thapa to attack the
country.  They were joined by Harsha Dev’, and met with very little
resistance.  Lal Singha and Mahendra Chandra the Raja retired to
Rudrapur, where Mahendra died, leaving a son named Pratap Singha.  Their
valuable estates in the low country are in the Company’s possession, nor
has it been determined to whom they will be given; for there are several
competitors.  Pratap claims as heir to the family, but his father was an
usurper, although it would appear, that all other more direct lines of
the family have now failed.  Harsha claims as heir of Jaydev, who, by the
agreement with Thor Chandra, should be Zemindar (collector) and Kanungoe
(register) for the whole, availing himself of the interpretation, which
has been given in our courts to the term Zemindar, (landlord.)  The widow
of Siva Lal claims, as her husband, being deputy of Harsha, was in actual
possession when the country was ceded by the Nawab.  The widow of Lal
Singha and Siva Lal are allowed pensions.

Almora on the Soyal contains, according to all accounts, about 1000
houses.  According to Hariballabh, it is situated on the narrow ridge of
a hill abounding in fine springs of water.  Champawati, the ancient
capital, called Kurmachal in the Sangskrita, may contain 200 or 300
houses, and is cooler than Almora.  The only other towns are Ganggoli and
Pali, each containing about 100 houses.  In these towns the houses are
built and roofed with stone, and several are two or three stories high.
The population of the hills was estimated by Prati Nidhi at 50,000
families.  All the impure tribes had been destroyed, except a very few
Jars and Magars in Baropathi, that had been lately taken from Yumila,
under which government these people enjoyed full toleration.  The
Brahmans are not numerous, all living a pure life, and abstaining from
intercourse with the low tribes.  The Rajputs form the most numerous
class, but all, who are poor, except the descendants of Shalivahan, hold
the plough.  The Sudra tribes of cultivators are Ahir, Jat, Lodi, and
Chauhan.  Near Agra the Jats by other casts are reckoned the same with
Ahirs; although, being there powerful, in their own territories they call
themselves Rajputs.  In the mountains they are considered as mere Sudras,
and different from the Ahirs, an undoubted tribe of the plains, as are
the Lodi; but I suspect, that the Jats and Chauhans of the mountains are
original tribes converted to Hindu purity; for one of the Chauhan chiefs,
at the time of the conquest of Gorkha, was still impure, although
acknowledged to be of the same family with those who pretend to have come
from Chitaur.

The mountains produced copper, lead, and iron, and the Panar river
produced gold; but no mine was of great value.  The chief crop is summer
rice, but there is also much wheat, and some barley.  The parts conquered
from Yumila are cold, but abound in pasture, and produce great flocks of
sheep.  The whole rents of the mountains, exclusive of lands granted to
Brahmans, amounted to 125,000 rupees a-year, the whole of which, as usual
west from the Kali river, was collected by the Raja’s officers; but since
the conquest, much has been granted to the army of Gorkha.  The
government is one of the best in the country, and with the title of Raja,
is held by Brahma Saha, one of the Chautariyas.

There is much intercourse with the part of Thibet subject to China, which
empire in the Khas dialect is called Hung.  Between the countries there
are three passes through the southern ridge of Emodus, Joyar, Dharma, and
Beyas.  The two last are the easiest, but they are inferior to Riti in
Garhawal.  Beyas is in a portion of Yumila that has been annexed to
Almora, since the conquest by Gorkha.

The country now called Garhawal or Gar, at least in part, formerly
belonged to a petty chief of low birth, but pure manners, who resided at
Chandpur, and paid tribute to Karuvirpur.  About 350 years ago, a Pangwar
Rajput, named Ajayapal, came from the plains, and entered into the
service of the chief of Chandpur, whom he soon after took occasion to
expel.  The descendants of Ajayapal paid the customary tribute to the
prince of Karuvirpur, who, as usual in India, seems to have given himself
no concern about these internal commotions among his tributaries.  After
Karuvirpur fell, the Rajas of Chandpur paid tribute to Almora; but, while
Lakshmi Chandra held the latter government, Mahipat Sa, Raja of Garhawal,
at the persuasion of a religious man, who promised success, declared
himself independent.  This person built Srinagar, and made it the capital
of his dominions, on which account his descendants are usually known to
Europeans as Rajas of Srinagar.  This chief was succeeded by his son Syam
Sa, who died without male issue, and was succeeded by Futeh Sa, his
uncle’s son.  This chief incurred a great stain by delivering up to
Aurungzeb one of that king’s brothers, who had taken refuge in the
mountains.  As a reward for his treachery he received the Jaygir of Dun
and Chandi, two low country estates.  Futeh had two sons, Upendra and
Dilip, and was succeeded by the former, who took from the chief of
Besariya the countries of Ranigar and Barahat, on the upper parts of the
Yamuna and Ganges rivers.  When he died, his lady was pregnant, and no
chief was appointed until the result was known, which shows that the
government and succession were firmly established.  The widow having been
delivered of a daughter, Pradipa Sa, the son of Dilip, a boy five years
old, succeeded quietly, and governed seventy-five years.  He was an
active prince, administered his affairs with great attention, and had
several wars with Nuzuf Khan, who governed the petty remains of the Mogul
empire.  His son and successor was Lalit Sa, who, as above mentioned,
made his younger son Raja of Kumau.  Mention has also been made of the
manner in which this son, named Pradyumna, succeeded his brother as Raja
of Garhawal.  After the conquest of Kumau, Jagajit Pangre and Amur
Singha, the officers commanding the army of Gorkha, in conjunction with
Harsha Dev, the turbulent Brahman often already mentioned, attacked
Garhawal.  They had fought two years, and were on the point of
succeeding, when they were recalled by Bahadur Saha, the regent of
Gorkha, in consequence of a Chinese army approaching the capital.  The
commanders of Gorkha, especially Jagajit, complied most reluctantly, and
made a peace with Garhawal.  The Brahman, their associate, now
considering their affairs desperate, on being desired to accompany them,
treated the request with insolence, asking who they were, that he should
follow.  They had, however, only retired a little way, when information
was brought, that peace had been made with the Chinese, on which the
Brahman immediately fled.

Garhawal enjoyed a respite, until Rana Bahadur returned from Banaras,
when he sent Amar Singha Karyi with 3000 fusileers, and an equal number
of irregulars, to extend his territories to the west.  No pretext, I
believe, was held out for the attack; indeed, so far as I can learn, the
natives do not consider the holding out any pretence as at all necessary
or proper in war, although, in treating with Europeans, they have now
learned to make very appropriate observations on the subject.  Rana
Bahadur, on the contrary, when collecting this force, I am credibly
informed, gave very publicly out, that it was destined to go either to
Calcutta or Pekin, he had not exactly determined which; and had he
considered the force adequate, there is no doubt that he would have made
the attempt, although he was on very good terms with both governments.
This violence, however, was suddenly directed against the helpless
Pradyumna, who made little or no resistance; but with his brothers
Parakrama and Pritama, and his son Sudarsan, retired to Dun, and from
thence to Keni near Haridwar, in the territory then lately acquired by
the Company.  There, very contrary to the wishes of his brother
Parakrama, the Raja sold the family throne for 150,000 rupees.  This sum
enabled him to raise some forces, with which the three brothers returned
to Dun, and fought the army of Gorkha near Gurudhana.  The Raja was
killed, Parakrama escaped to Haridwar, and Pritama, having been shot
through the foot, was taken prisoner, but is kindly used, and has married
a daughter of Brahma Sahi, the governor of Almora.  Sudarsan, the
undoubted heir of the family, in 1814, was with Sir Edward Colebroke at
Futehgar.  He was then about twenty six years of age, and has, it is
said, good abilities; but was addicted to an expense ill suited to his
means, which were very slender.  His uncle Parakrama died without
children, in the country of the Sikhs.

Chandi was taken from the family by Asof ud doulah, the Nawab Vazir.
Dun, having been a Jaygir from Aurungzeb, should belong to the king at
Dilli; but it has been seized by the government of Nepal.  It produced a
rent of 50,000 rupees a-year.  The rent of the mountains amounted to
400,000 rupees, the whole levied by the Rajah’s officers, but a large
proportion has been granted to the military establishment by the
government of Gorkha.  There are three valuable mines of copper, the
Raja’s share of which was 76,000 rupees.  Salt is imported from Thibet,
with which there are three communications.  One, a little west from
Ganggotri, is difficult.  The other two lead from the vicinity of
Badrinath.  That by Manu has no supply of fuel, but that by Riti is
reckoned the best passage through Emodus, at least in these western
parts.  At Tapoban, towards Badrinath, is a hot spring.  Rock crystal
abounds in the vicinity of the snow.

The country near Emodus is very cold, and produces many sheep.  The lower
hills are warm, and produce most rice and wheat, but also many other
crops.

Srinagar the capital is in a very hot valley, and contains about 2000
houses.  There is no other town, but many celebrated places of worship,
which seem to have been sacred among the Hindus for many ages.  How these
people came to establish places of worship in countries that, until of
late, were occupied entirely by impure infidels, can, in my opinion, be
only accounted for by supposing, that, when these places of worship
became fashionable, the Hindus had not become pure, nor had they adopted
the faith now reckoned orthodox.  Four of the five places called Prayag,
all celebrated as places of great sanctity for bathing, were in this
principality, as is also the source of the most sacred of rivers, called
therefore the Ganggotri, or source of the river.  It comes from the
southern face of the southern ridge of Emodus.  Kedarnath is a temple
dedicated to Siva, but the works are petty, and ruinous.  Badrinath,
dedicated to Vishnu, was lately rebuilt at a considerable expense by
orders of Daulat Rao Sendhiya.  Near the temple is the village called
Kalap gram.  The Hindus, who know nothing of the place except from books,
imagine that many holy persons have retired to this place, where they
have been living for many thousand years, in quiet expectation of better
times.  To pilgrims, who go there in expectation of meeting these
personages, a cave is shown as the place of their residence; but as the
cave is filled with snow, there is no fear of the good folks being
disturbed, until these degenerate times pass away, and the age of gold is
restored.

The whole original tribes have been expelled from this sacred territory.

West from Garhawal and the Yamuna, is the territory of Siramaura or
Sirmaur, the capital of which is Nahan.  It lately belonged to a family
of the Raythaur tribe, which had held the country for about fifteen
generations, and was descended from a younger son of the Jaysalmer
family.  The first Raja of Sirmaur, whom Hariballabh recollects, was
Vijay Prakas, who married a daughter of Jagat Chandra of Kumau.  He was
succeeded by his son Pradipa Prakas, who, like his father, was a tame
inoffensive man.  His son Kirti Prakas succeeded when eight years old,
and died in his twenty-sixth year; but during this period of youth he
fought many battles with the Mogul officers, and took from them Larpur,
Narayangar, Ramgar, and Pangjaur, all on the plains of India; but he left
there untouched Rayapur, which belonged to a Chauhan, whose sister he had
married.  He would not consent to pay any tribute for these acquisitions,
but obtained a grant of them in Jaygir from Ali Gouhur the Mogul, giving
100,000 rupees as a present.  Turning then against his neighbour chiefs,
he strengthened his frontier to the west by the conquest of Jagatgar,
reckoned a very strong place, which had belonged to the Raja of Nurpur.
He also attacked the Raja of Bilaspur, and wrested from his authority the
superiority of twelve petty chiefs, who did not obtain the title of Raja,
but were called Thakurs or Ranas.  These had formerly paid tribute to the
Raja of Bilaspur, and followed the standard of that chief in war; but
these duties were now transferred to the chief of Sirmaur.  This vigorous
youth then attacked Garhawal, and endeavoured to wrest from its chief the
fertile territory of Dun; but he died at Kalsi, after several fruitless
battles had taken place between his brother Iswari Singha, and Lalit Sa,
the chief of Garhawal.  This young chief, by three wives, left four sons,
and was succeeded by the eldest, Jagat Prakas, aged ten years.  When in
his fourteenth year, he set out for Kangra to marry the sister of Sangsar
Chandra, the chief of that country; but on the way was met by the Raja of
Bilaspur, his mortal enemy, who refused a passage through his territory.
The youth, with the premature vigour of his family, instantly cut his way
through his opponents, and married the lady.  His brother-in-law wished
to persuade him to return by the low country, and thus to avoid any
contest; but the young hero disdained to show any mark of fear before his
bride, and her brother giving an addition of 2000 men to his suite, they
forced their way back.  Having made a pilgrimage to Jaganath, Jagat
Prakas determined to accomplish the conquest of Dun, which had been
relinquished on his father’s death, and he soon succeeded.  He died at
the age of 28 years, leaving no male issue, and was succeeded by his
brother Dharma Prakas.

At this period Sangsar of Kangra, having become very violent, made an
attack on the Rajas of Mundi and Bilaspur, who applied for assistance to
Dharma of Sirmaur.  This chief having received from them 200,000 rupees,
and having been promised as much more, joined them with his forces, and
the three Rajas advanced together to fight Futeh Chandra, the brother of
Sangsar, who commanded the forces of Kangra.  They were, however,
entirely defeated, and Dharma fell in the battle.  He was succeeded by
his brother Karna Prakas.  Sangsar now persuaded the Raja of Hanur to
turn against his ally and chief, the Raja of Sirmaur, promising that he
would render him independent, and place him at the head of the twelve
chiefs that had been alienated from Bilaspur, and rendered tributary to
Sirmaur.  On this Karna invited to his assistance Amar Singha, the
officer who commanded the forces of the Nepal government in Garhawal.
This officer sent to his assistance Bhakti Thapa with 1000 fusileers, and
these, united to the troops of Sirmaur, advanced to the west in search of
their enemies.  They were soon, however, compelled to retire by the
united forces of Sangsar and Hanur.  On this Sangsar entered into a
negotiation with Krishna Singha, the son of Iswari Singha, the uncle of
Karna, and with his assistance plundered the family of that chief.  He
fled for assistance to Amar Singha, who advanced with his whole forces,
and soon subdued Hanur, and the adjacent countries, leaving Karna in the
possession of his estates.  Afterwards Amar Singha attacked Kangra; and,
when he was compelled by Ranjit Singha, king of Lahaur, to make a
disastrous retreat, he applied to Karna, requesting an interview.

The chief of Sirmaur, thinking the affairs of the Nepalese desperate, at
least in that quarter, sent an insolent reply, on which he was
immediately attacked by Ranajor, the son of Amar Singha, and fled without
resistance.  The troops at Gorkha then took possession of all his estates
on the hills, while various chiefs seized on those upon the plain.  His
cousin Krishna retains Narayangar, which he seized, when he plundered his
kinsman’s family.  Karna lives near Rayapur with the chief of that place,
who is his relation.  His wife and son have gone to Lodhyana, in hope of
procuring assistance from the English.

When the Raythaurs arrived, the territory of Sirmaur was occupied by two
tribes of Khas, called Bhats and Kanets, of which the former was, as it
still is, by far the most numerous, and they now form the greater part of
the cultivators or Zemindars.  Until the arrival of the Raythaurs, it is
admitted that no Brahmans resided in the country; yet Hariballabh
contends, that even then the Kanets and Bhats were not of the aboriginal
infidel Khasiyas, but were descended of pure Sudras, who had come from
the plains, on which their Gurus and Purohits resided, and made them
occasional visits.  These Bhats must not be confounded with the poets or
parasites of the plains, and in their own country do not wear the thread
of distinction; but some, who have gone to the low country, on finding
the high rank which the Bhats there enjoy, have put on the thread, and
call themselves poets.

The mountains of this state produced a rent of 70,000 or 80,000 rupees
a-year.  The low country gave 200,000.  The chief crops on the mountains
were rice and wheat.  West from the Yamuna there are no mines of copper,
and few even of iron; but one of these is in Sirmaur.

Nahan contained about 1000 houses, mostly built of stone, and in rather a
cool situation.  Kalsi, the only other town, contains about 100 houses.

Hariballabh does not remember the names and situations of all the twelve
petty states governed by Thakurs or Ranas, who were tributary to Sirmaur,
and followed its chief in war.  The tribute was very inconsiderable.
Among them were the following.

Dharmapur belonged to Dalel Singha, a Baghatiya Rajput, who was killed by
the chief of Hanur.  The lord (Thakur) did not live at Dharmapur, but the
name of his capital has escaped the memory of Hariballabh.  Taksal is the
largest place in the country, and has about 200 houses.  It is the
principal mart for ginger and turmeric, which are produced most
abundantly in the estates of the twelve lords, (Bara Thakurai,) and in
Sirmaur.

The lordship of Arki, east from Dharmapur, belonged to a Gagat Singha,
expelled by Amar Singha, who now has his head-quarters at the capital of
this petty state, a town containing about 300 houses, besides the huts in
the cantonments.  His force consists of 3000 fusileers, and 1000 men
armed with matchlocks, but they have a great body of followers, male and
female, and these last are eager and expert plunderers.

The lordship of Kothar was very petty.

Mahalok was a little better.

Bhajji was still better, having an annual rental of 15,000 rupees.

Kengothal was worth about 50,000 rupees a-year.

Kumarsen paid annually 30,000 rupees.

Borbhakan paid 15,000 or 16,000.

Between the three last mentioned there was another lordship, of which
Hariballabh does not recollect the name, nor does he recollect either the
names or situations of the three remaining lordships.

North from the countries of these lords is Besar, a country of little
value, but its chief was independent, and was called Raja.  Many of his
subjects were Bhotiyas, although he himself was a pure Rajput.  The
country is very cold, and produces many sheep.  By the side of the
Satrudra there is a very good route to Thibet, and much wool is imported
that way.  Rampur, the capital, contained between 400 and 500 houses.
Anup Singha, who was lately Raja, died four or five years ago, leaving an
infant son, who was immediately attacked by the troops of Gorkha.  These
seized on the capital; but the Bhotiyas carried their young chief to the
fastnesses of the country, and reject the yoke of strangers.

I have already mentioned the Raja of Hanur, whose country bounds Sirmaur
on the west, and whose rebellion and subsequent invasion of that state
introduced the overwhelming power of Gorkha.  The Rajas are of the
Chandel tribe, and of the same family with the chiefs of Kumau and
Kahalur.  The earliest Raja that Hariballabh remembers was Bhup Chandra,
who was a violent man, and held not only the country of Hanur on the
mountains, but that of Palasi on the plains.  This was worth 50,000
rupees a-year, while the mountains paid about twice as much.  The chiefs
did not pay any tribute, but in war they followed the standard of
Sirmaur.  Bhup Chandra was succeeded by his son Gaja Chandra, whose son
Rama Chandra joined Kangra against Sirmaur, as already mentioned.  On the
approach of Amar Singha he retired to Palasi, which was saved by the
interposition of Colonel Ochterlony, who threatened to interfere, and
Amar Singha contented himself with the hills.  Nalagar, which, until of
late, was the capital of Hanur, contained about 500 houses; but Rama
Chandra built a new town farther in the hills, and Nalagar was neglected.
The new town he called after his own name, as he does also another town
which he has built since he settled on the plain.



SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACCOUNT OF NEPAL.
SOME INFORMATION RESPECTING THE PETTY CHIEFS WHO STILL REMAIN INDEPENDENT
TO THE WEST OF THE DOMINIONS OF NEPAL OR GORKHA.


Kangra.—History.—State.—Kahalur.—Bhomor.—Kottahar.—Yasawal.—Datarpur.—
Gular.—Nurpur.—Chamba.—Kullu.—Mundi.—Sukhet.

The intelligence procured from Hariballabh extending somewhat farther
west than the present dominions of Gorkha, but to no great distance, it
may be given as a Supplement to the foregoing Account.

The country between the Satadru or Sutluj and Kasmira in ancient times
belonged to Susarma, a chief of the family of the Moon, who was a
principal ally (Paksha) of Durjadhan, competitor for the kingdom of
India, at the commencement of this iron age.  In the terrible battle,
which settled the succession in the family of his adversaries, Susarma
escaped, and his descendants long governed his country.  The genealogy of
this family is said to be contained in the Mahabharat, but is not to be
found in the Sri Bhagwat, or other books from which I have had the Indian
genealogies extracted.  The Raja of Kangra pretends to be descended of
this family, which, he alleges, has enjoyed uninterrupted possession of
at least a part of its original estate, until the present day.  The late
Rajas, however, have been called Katauch Rajputs, for what reason I do
not know; and the present chief is said to be desirous of being called a
Chandel, for this tribe is generally admitted to be descended of the
family of the Moon.  Many others, however, allege, that the Katauch tribe
sprang from the sweat of the goddess, spouse to Siva, when she was cut to
pieces; and, when these were scattered by her husband and Vishnu, her
thorax fell at Kangra, which has ever since been considered as holy; and
once, probably, this descent was considered more honourable than that
from the family of the Moon.  No one, in fact, knows the real origin of
the family, which, however, is generally admitted to be old, and to have
consisted of fifty or sixty chiefs, of whom the first is usually said to
have been a Bhup Chandra.  Hariballabh does not remember any of his
successors, until the time of Abhay Chandra.  He had three sons, the
eldest named Nirbhag C., and the youngest Gharnan Singha.  The former had
no son, and, when he died, his youngest brother was in the service of
Pradipa of Garhawal, who was then at war with Siva Dev’, the general of
Kumau.  This crafty Brahman gave the needy chief 700 Ashrufies of gold,
and induced him to withdraw his men, and return to his own country.  On
his arrival he found his brother just dead, and nine or ten of his
kinsmen squabbling about the succession.  He therefore took off their
heads, and ascended the throne, (Gadi.)  He subdued several Rajas, such
as Kottahar and Ghowasin, became a terror to all the petty chiefs in the
vicinity, and removed the seat of government from Jaya Singhapur to
Sujanpur, which he founded; for the fortress and town of Kangra had been
long in the hands of the Muhammedans.  He was succeeded by his son
Tikayit Chandra, who, in his fourteenth year of age, had a son named
Sangsar Chandra, the present chief.  When eighteen years of age, Tikayit
C. was caught by Khan Bahadur, who was Subahdar of Lahaur under Muhammed
Shah.  He was confined for some years, and then restored to liberty, but
died at the age of twenty-five years, leaving the country to his young
son.  This youth became the most violent and formidable chief of his
family, and recovered Kangra from the Muhammedans.  All the neighbouring
chiefs were then afraid, and he extended his conquests on the plains by
seizing on the estate called Rajawara, which belonged to the king of
Dilli.  He removed the seat of government to Nadaun, but has many places
of residence, especially a fine fortified garden at Alumnagar.  I have
already mentioned his dispute with Gorkha, during which Amar Singha
besieged, or rather blockaded, the citadel of Kangra, for he was in
possession of the town.  He was opposed by Anirudha, the son of Sangsar.
Bhakti Thapa besieged Sujanpur, which was defended by Man Singha, brother
of Sangsar, and by Harsha Dev’, the warlike Brahman of Kumau, often
already mentioned.  Sangsar himself, with a small body of chosen men,
hovered round the besieging armies; but, these being likely to prevail,
he invited to his assistance Ranjit Singha, who affects to be called king
of Lahaur; and with his assistance the forces of Gorkha were repulsed
with great loss.  For this assistance, however, he paid dearly, as he
ceded to Ranjit the fort and city of Kangra, and the fort of Kotta, with
a territory of 50,000 rupees a-year, and all the petty chiefs now despise
his authority, and respect the power of Lahaur.  He still, nevertheless,
retains a territory yielding from 900,000 to 1,000,000 rupees a-year.

The town of Kangra is open, and, before the attack by Amar Singha,
contained about 2000 houses.  Near it is the temple of the goddess, which
is supposed to contain many rich ornaments of gold.  The fort is the
strongest in these parts.  The situation is rather warm.  Kotta, although
inferior to Kangra, is considered as a stronghold of importance.

Sujanpur, which remains to Sangsar, contains about 2000 houses, and is
surrounded by lines, which are said to be twelve coses in circumference,
and besides the town, contain twenty-four villages, in which there may be
3000 houses.

Nadaun, the present capital, contains about 500 houses.  Jwalamukhi was a
considerable town, where many Gosaing merchants had settled; but during
the disturbances it was plundered by the Raja of Gular, who had joined
Amar Singha.  At this place, where the tongue of the Goddess fell, in the
dispersion of her members, above-mentioned, there is a small temple,
perhaps twenty feet square.  It is paved with large stones, and from a
hole in one corner, perhaps two inches in diameter, there issues a
constant flame, that at the lowest ebb rises about eighteen inches, but
in the rainy season it issues with great violence, and flame bursts from
several parts of the floor, and also from some places without the temple.

Although most parts of the country are high, the ascents from the plains
below are easy, and the summits of the hills are level, so that a large
proportion is fit for cultivation, and is well occupied.  The poor live
much on maize.  Great quantities of rice arc exported to Lahaur, and
there is plenty of sugar-cane.

None of the infidel tribes remain.  The most numerous cast is said to be
that called Jat, to which not only the Ranjit of Lahaur belongs, but also
Ranjit of Bharatpur.  The tribe is considered pure, but in Kangra, is not
permitted to wear the thread of distinction, belonging to the military
tribe.

Kahalur I have already mentioned as belonging to a branch of the Chandel
family, that governed Kumau and Hanur.  It was always able to resist
Kangra, but has been occasionally squeezed by the Muhammedans, and by the
Sikhs of Lahaur.  Devi Chandra is the first Raja that Hariballabh
remembers.  So long as he lived, he was able to resist all his
neighbours, and entered into a friendship with Prithwi Narayan of Gorkha,
which has continued uninterrupted between their descendants, so that Maha
Chandra, the son of Devi, lives under the protection of Amar Singha.  The
family at one time possessed Govindapur on the plain; but this was long
ago seized by various petty Sikh chiefs.  The country on the hills may
produce 100,000 rupees a-year.  Bilaspur, the capital, is the best town
in these parts, and contains about 3000 houses, better built than usual.
They consist entirely of stone, and are two or three stories high, with
flat roofs.  The air is very temperate, and snow falls occasionally in
winter.

On the west side of the Satadru or Sutluj is one of these vallies called
Dun, which is contained between the great range of mountains on the
north, and a low ridge on the south.  This valley is divided among many
petty chiefs.  Its east end, called Bhomor, belonged to a Rajput who had
only the title of Rana: but, although he always leagues himself with some
powerful chief, whom he follows in war, and from whom he receives
protection, he may be called independent, as he pays no tribute.  His
revenue may be 8000 or 9000 rupees a-year.

West from Bhomor, the Dun, or valley, is for some way occupied by petty
Sikh or Singha chiefs, who, like all those beyond the Satadru, are under
the king of Lahaur.

Between these Singhas and the territory of Kangra, the hills are occupied
by the petty state of Kottahar, which, as I have mentioned, was subdued
by the chiefs of Kangra; but Mahipat, its owner, having joined Amar
Singha, was by him replaced in his patrimony, which he retains.  Although
small, Kottahar is a fine country, and produces 50,000 or 60,000 rupees a
year.  Raypur, the capital, contains between 200 and 300 houses.

West from Kottahar is the lordship of Yasawal, to which belong part of
the hills, and part of the valley or Dun.  For its size, it is
exceedingly rich, as it produces about 200,000 rupees a-year.  It belongs
to Amed Singha, a pure Rajput, who is squeezed sometimes by Sangsar and
sometimes by Ranjit, and is compelled to follow them in war.  He resides
at Rajgar or Rajpur, which is by nature strong, and contains about 2000
houses.  It is colder than Nadaun.  The chief possesses on the plain a
fort called Setabgar.

West from Yasawal is the chief of Datarpur, who has also some territory
in the valley and some on the hills.  These may annually produce 40,000
rupees.

West from Datarpur is such another lordship, called Siva, the revenue of
which may be 25,000 rupees a-year.  Like the chief of Datarpur, the lord
of Siva is squeezed by both Sangsar and Ranjit.

On the hills between these two petty chiefs and Kangra is Gular, whose
chief is of the same family with Sangsar, but he pays tribute to Ranjit.
His country is very productive, and pays about 250,000 rupees a-year.
Haripur, his capital, contains from 1000 to 1500 houses, which are
reckoned very well built.

West from Gular and Siva is Nurpur, the Raja of which possesses part of
the hills, part of the Dun or valley, and part of the great Indian plain.
What he has on the latter is called Pathankot, from the name of his
tribe, for he is a Pathaniya Rajput, not a Pathan Muhammedan.  Dalel
Singha, the last chief, survived his son, and was succeeded by his
grandson, Vir Singha, who married a daughter of Sangsar.  His revenue may
be 250,000 rupees a-year.  Nurpur, the capital, contains about 2500
houses, among whom are some settlers from Kasmira, who have fifty looms
employed in weaving shawls.

North from Nurpur is an extensive dominion, situated on both sides of the
Rawi, and called Chamba.  A long ridge of mountains, the summits of which
are covered with perpetual snow, separates from the great ridge of
Emodus, near the source of the Bepasa, or Bayas, and, running to the
south-east, passes near Kangra, then crosses the Rawi, and finally bends
to the north-west, towards Kasmira.  This ridge, called Pariyat, in
general forms the south-east boundary of Chamba; but, on its south side,
the chief possesses a territory called Rillu.  This was invaded by
Sangsar, and Ray Singha, the chief of Chamba, was killed in its defence.
The territory was restored to Iswari, the son of Ray, on condition of his
paying annually 17,000 mans of rice.  This tribute was transferred to
Ranjit, along with the fortress of Kangra.

The parts of Chamba beyond the Pariyat mountains are very cold, and have
several communications with Thibet, but Hariballabh knows that part by
report alone.

Separated, in general, by the Pariyat mountains from Chamba, is the
country of Kullu, watered in the centre by the Bayas, called Bepasa in
the Sangskrita, but its territory extends to the Satadru of the sacred
language, which, in the dialect of men, is called Satarudra.  Kullu is
extensive, but cold, mountainous, and barren, producing, however, many
sheep.  The grains which grow there are mostly phaphar, chuya, and uya.
The chuya, from the description given, would seem to be the Holcus
sorghum, although the coldness of the situation renders this doubtful.
There is a very good communication between Kullu and Thibet; and the
intercourse has been so free, that all alliances with the chief, although
admitted to be a pure Rajput, are scouted by the purer inhabitants of the
southern mountains.  His name is Ratra Singha, the son of Pritama.

South from Kullu is Mundi, a smaller but better country, which possesses
a mine of iron, and another of culinary salt, the latter of which is
valuable.  So far as I can understand the description, it is a rock salt,
very full of impurities, so that one-half is lost in the processes of
lixiviation and evaporation, which are requisite to fit it for use.  The
two mines produce annually a revenue of 150,000 rupees, and the lands
produce as much.  The present chief, named Iswari Sen, is a pure Rajput.
Mundi, his capital, contains about 1000 houses, all of stone.  Kamalgar,
towards the southern frontier, is reckoned a very strong place, situated
on a great hill.

Sukhet is a narrow territory, hemmed in between Mundi and the Satadru,
which separates both from the dominions of Gorkha.  The Raja Prakas Sen
is related to the chiefs of Mundi, and Sangsar has married his sister.
The country produces about 100,000 rupees a-year, but has no mines.
Sukhet, the capital, may contain 500 houses.  The Raja possesses a fort
called Dahar, which defends him from the attacks of Kahalur.



NOTES.


{7}  Asiatick Researches, Vol. II. p. 307.

{10}  Nepaul, p. 150.

{11}  Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, pp. 159, 162, and 163.

{17}  Nepaul, p. 193, 196.

{21a}  Nepaul, p. 185.

{21b}  Nepaul, p. 184, 185.

{25}  Nepaul, pp. 184 and 281.

{26a}  Nepaul, pp. 249–252.

{26b}  Nepaul, p. 123.

{29}  Nepaul, pp. 149, 150.

{30}  Nepaul, pp. 183, 184.

{41a}  Nepaul p. 158.

{41b} Nepaul p. 159.

{43}  Nepaul, p. 186.

{46}  Nepaul, p. 265.

{49}  Vol. 1. p. 311.

{50a}  Nepaul, p. 265.

{50b}  Ib. p. 221–49.

{51}  Nepaul, p. 186.

{52}  Nepaul, p. 180.

{55}  Nepaul, pp. 249–252.

{59}  Nepaul, p. 148.

{67a}  Saul, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, pp. 17 and 35, Shoræa robusta, Roxb.

{67b}  Sissoo, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, pp. 17 and 35.

{67c}  Sulla, Surreen dhool, and Dboobke, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, pp. 33
and 43.

{70}  Nepaul, p. 171.

{74}  Kohrya, Kirkpatrick, p. 94.

{78a}  Nepaul, p. 177.

{78b}  Nepaul, p. 177.

{83a}  Phulaced, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 79, Bhang, id. p. 81.

{83b}  Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 81.

{83c}  Chillownia, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 79.

{84a}  Nepaul, p. 79.

{84b}  Vol. VII. p. 63.

{85a}  Nepaul, p. 79.

{85b}  Nepaul, p. 90.

{85c}  Nepaul, p. 76.

{85d}  Nepaul, p. 81.

{85e}  Nepaul, p. 81.

{88a}  Nepaul, p. 282.

{88b}  (From the Errata to this volume.)  “The map intended to have been
placed here, when this was printed, has been judged unnecessary, and the
capital letters, denoting the different peaks alluded to, have been
placed in the general map.”

{90}  Nepaul, p. 58.

{91}  Asiatick Researches, Volume XI. p. 444.

{92a}  Asiatick Researches, Volume XI. p. 443.

{92b}  P. 445.

{93}  Nepaul, p. 133.

{95a}  Moonal, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 131.

{95b}  Damphia, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 131.

{95c}  Nepaul, p. 131.

{101}  Nepaul, p. 196.

{104}  Nepaul, p. 204.

{107}  Nepaul, p. 201.

{110}  Nepaul, p. 124.

{111}  Nepaul, p. 102.

{112}  Nepaul, p. 214.

{154}  Nepaul, p. 42.

{168a}  See his Account, p. 40.

{168b}  Nepaul, p. 13.

{169}  Nepaul, p. 41.

{184}  Nepaul, p. 85.

{187a}  Nepaul, p. 256, etc.

{187b}  Nepaul, p. 169.

{187c}  Nepaul, p. 255.

{188a}  Page 169.

{188b}  Page 256.

{189a}  P. 148.

{189b}  P. 265.

{189c}  See his Treatise on the Languages of Eastern India, in the 10th
volume of the Asiatick Researches.

{190}  P. 148.

{191}  Page 268.

{193}  Nepaul, page 119.

{194}  Page 115.

{195}  Kheero, Kirk.

{197}  Nepaul, p. 22.

{198a}  Nepaul, page 14.

{198b}  Nepaul, page 30.

{204}  Nepaul, p. 66.

{206}  Nepaul, p. 170.

{208}  Nepaul, p. 147, &c.

{209}  Nepaul, p. 183.

{210}  Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 191.

{211}  Nepaul, p. 188–192.

{214a}  Nepaul, p. 134.

{214b}  Embassy to Thibet, p. 302.

{215}  Nepaul, p. 217.

{216}  Nepaul, p. 95.

{222}  Nepaul, p. 98.

{230}  Nepaul, p. 181.

{231a}  Nepaul, p. 94.

{231b}  Nepaul, p. 142, 143.

{238}  Nepaul, p. 284.

{242}  Nepaul, p. 290.

{244}  Nepaul, p. 123.

{245}  Page 270.

{248a}  Nepaul, Appendix, No. 1. by Mr Duncan.

{248b}  Embassy to Thibet, p. 437.

{250}  Nepaul, p. 120.

{273}  Nepaul, p. 287.

{274}  Nepaul, p. 289.

{276}  Nepaul, p. 288.

{279}  Nepaul, p. 283.

{280}  Nepaul, p. 297.

{284}  Nepaul, p. 292.

{285}  Chowri, Kirkpatrick’s Nepaul, p. 133.



REGISTER OF THE WEATHER,
FROM
FEBRUARY 1802
TO
MARCH 1803.


REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR FEBRUARY 1802.

Day.       PLACES.      Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                  Barometer.                                      Winds by the Compass.
                                       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       16 Hrs.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       16 Hrs.        Noon.        3 Hours.     9 Hours.     16 Hours.
1          Ghorasan     26°50′       76          79           61           54           29.58        29.32        29.51        29.48        S. 1            S. 1         W. 1         E. 1
2                                    76          77           62           53           29.62        29.56        29.57         29.57       S. 1            W. 1         W. 1         W. 1
3                                    72          76           62           55           29.67        29.60        29.59        29.58        S. 1            W. 1         W. 1         E. 1
4                                    73          77           63           58           29.72        29.65        29.64        29.64        SE. 1           W. ½         W. 1         E. 1
5                                    73          77           63           58           29.70        29.63        29.59        29.58        E. 1            E. 1         N. 1         E. 1
6                                    75          78           62           58           29.65        29.57        29.58        29.57        S. 2            E. 1         E. 1         E. 1
7                                    77          80           66           60           29.66        29.59        29.59        29.59        S. 1            SW. 1        E. 1         E. 1
8                                    77          80           66           61           29.65        29.61        29.59        29.58        SW. ½           SW. 1        E. 1         N. 1
9                                    79          82           71           68           29.67        29.64        29.63        29.62        E. 1            WSW. 1       E. 1
10                                   76          83           69           63           29.65        29.63        29.63        29.60        NE. ½           SW. ½        NE. ½
11                                   83          86           69           61           29.69        29.63        29.63        29.59        NW. 1           W. 2         W. 1
12                                   80          86           71½          65½          29.71        29.65        29.69        29.67        E. 1            W. 1              0       E. 1
13                                   81          87           71           65           29.69        29.65        29.69        29.67        E. 1            E. 2         NE. 1
14                                   79          84           68           59           29.77        29.71        29.69        29.67        NW. by N. 1     N. by W. 1   NW. by N.
                                                                                                                                                                         1
15                                   79          88           66           59           29.76        29.69        29.68        29.63        SW. 1           W. 2         W. 1
16                                   81          88           70½          63½          29.68        29.60        29.57        29.54        W. 2            W. 3         W. 1
17                                   77          83           68           57           29.63        29.57        29.58        29.61        W_. _3          W. 2         W. 1
18                                   80          83           65½          58½          29.71        29.67        29.64        29.64        E. by S. 1      E. by S. 1   E. ½
19         Kachruya     26°53′       69          66½          59½          54           29.73        29.57        29.64        29.63        E. 1            E. 2         E. 1
20                                   77          80           69           59           29.72        29.65        29.64        29.60        E. 1            E. by N. 1   E. 1
21                                   80          84           67           55           29.64        29.55        29.53        29.48        W. 1            W. by N. 2        0
22                                   79          81           66           53           29.56        29.49        29.51        29.49        SW. 1           W. 1              0
23                                   78          79           65½          62           29.57        29.50        29.48        29.44        N. 1            SW. 1             0
24                                   70          71           65½          62           29.56        29.54        29.52        29.50        E. 1            E. 1         E. 1
25                                   _75_        77           65           56           29.58        29.49        29.50         29.49       SW. 1           SW. 2             0
26                                   78          79           67           62           29.54        29.51        29.49        29.53        W. 1            W. 2              0
27                                   74          78           62           58           29.65        29.61        29.68        29.64        E. 1            SE. 1        E. 2
28                                   73          76           60           59           29.68        29.59        29.62        29.36        W. 2            W. 1              0
Particular average,                  76.68       80.02        64.87        50.06        29.6586      29.6092      29.5893      29.5807
General average,                                          70.155                                             29.60945

OBSERVATIONS FOR FEBRUARY 1802.

Day.
1          Moderate dew.    Few or no     Atmosphere
                            clouds.       hazy.
2                Id         A few              id       Wind in the
                            clouds.                     forenoon,
                                                        E. 3.
3                Id              id            id            id
4                Id         No clouds.         id            id
5                Id              id            id       Wind in the
                                                        forenoon,
                                                        2.
6                Id         A few              id            id
                            clouds.
7                Id              id            id            id
8                Id              id            id       A few drops
                                                        of rain in
                                                        the
                                                        morning.
9                Id         More               id            id
                            clouds.
10               Id         Thick         Atmosphere hazy.
                            clouds in
                            the
                            afternoon.
                            Clear in
                            the
                            morning.
11               Id         A few         Atmosphere
                            clouds.       hazy.
12               Id              id            id       A few drops
                                                        of rain at
                                                        night.
13               Id         Many          Atmosphere
                            clouds.       less hazy.
14               Id              id            id
15               Id         A few         Atmosphere
                            clouds.       clear in
                                          the
                                          forenoon.
16               Id         Few or no     Atmosphere
                            clouds.       hazy.
17         Little dew.           id            id
18               Id         Many               id
                            clouds.
19         Heavy dew.       Cloudy        Clear
                            afternoon,    atmosphere
                            with rain     in morning.
                            at 3
                            o’clock.
20               Id         Few or no     Atmosphere
                            clouds.       hazy.
21               Id         Some               id
                            clouds.
22               Id              id            id       Morning
                                                        foggy.
23         Little dew.      A cloudy      Atmosphere
                            morning,      hazy.
                            with a few
                            drops of
                            rain.
24         Heavy rain from 14 to 16 hours, with little wind from
           the NW. accompanied by moderate thunder.
25         Foggy morning.                 Atmosphere
                                          clear.
26         Clouds and                     Heavy rain
           sunshine.                      with
                                          thunder
                                          from the
                                          NW. between
                                          15 and 18
                                          hours.
27               Id                            id       at 9 hours.
28               Id         Heavy dew.         id       Atmosphere
                                                        hazy.

_N.B_.—In the columns of the winds 0 marks a calm, 1 denotes slight
breezes, 2 moderate breezes, and 3 strong winds.



REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR MARCH 1802.

Day.       PLACES.         Lat. N.                    Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                     Barometer.                                          Winds.
                                            Noon.        3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       16 Hrs.        Noon.       3 Hours.      9 Hours.     16 Hours.        Noon.        3 Hours.       9 Hours.
1          Kachruya        26° 53′       77            80           68           59            29.70        29.64         29.64         29.58         E. 1           SW. 1               0
2                                        79            81           68           57            29.61        29.54         29.51         29.51         E. 1           W. 1                0
3                                        79            81           67           58            29.63        29.56         29.54         29.51         S. 1           S. 1                0
4                                        78            81           69           57            29.63        29.56         29.55         29.49         N. 1           N. 1           E. 1
5                                        78            83           70           62            29.60        29.53         29.54         29.52         E. 1           E. 1                0
6                                        84            86           70           65            29.63        29.59         29.54         29.57         E. 1           E. ½                0
7                                        80            82           72           64            29.64        29.55         29.55         29.58         SW. 1          W. 1           E. ½
8                                        80            84           68           59            29.64        29.54         29.52         29.51         W. 1           W. 2                0
9                                        82            85           73           59            29.52        29.41         29.46         29.42         NW. 1          N. 2           W. 2
10                                       82            86           70           56            29.51        29.45         29.48         29.50         W. 3           W. 3           W. 1
11                                       83            87           70           58            29.57        29.47         29.47         29.50         W. NW. 2       W. NW. 2       E. 1
12                                       82            86           70           63            29.60        29.52         29.52         29.50         E. 2           E. 1                0
13                                       84            88           70           64            29.57        29 50         29.48         29.46         S. 1           SW. 1               0
14         Bhagawanpur     26° 55′       86            91           72           62            29.55        29.44         29.48         29.44         W. 1           W. 3                0
15                                       84            89           71           59            29.56        29.51         29.51         29.48         W. 1                 0             0
16                                       86            90           69           59            29.60        29.52         29.51         29.48         W. 1           W. 1                0
17         Kachruya        26° 53′       84            90           78           62            29.56        29.48         29.48         29.48         W. 1           W. 1                0
18         Ghorasan        26° 50′       88            89           69           60            29.56        29.52         29.55         29.54         W. 3           W. 2                0
19                                       86            91           74           60            29.56        29.53         29.55         29.54         W. 2           W. 1                0
20                                       86½           91           76           64            29.65        29.60         29.58         29.57         W. 1                 0        W. 1
21                                       86            90           72           68            29.66        29.58         29.56         29.54         W. 2           W. 1                0
22                                       84            89           75           68            29.57        29.49         29.44         29.43         E. by S. 3     E. by S. 2     E. 1
23                                       83            86           73           70            29.46        29.38         36.38         29.38         E. 2           E. 2           E. 3
24                                       78            84           73           67            29.43        29.39         29.41         29.39         E. 3           E. 1           E. 1
25         Norkatiya       26° 50′                                                                                        29.42         29.42         E. 3           E. 2
26                                       86            87           83           71            29.45        29.40         29.41         29.38         E. 2                 0             0
27         Dhonhara        26° 55′        84           88           78           70            29.42        29.37         29.42         29.42         E. 2           E. 1                0
28         Jukiyari        26° 59′       86            90           75           70            29.48        29.44         29.42         29.41         E. 2                 0             0
29         Gar Pasara      27° 8′        86            91           78           68            29.41        29.30         29.32         29.29         E. 1           W. 3
30         Bichhakor       27° 16′                     87           72           69                         28.68         28.67         28.64                                            0
31         Hethaura        27° 26′                                  73           67                                       28.38         28.31         E. 1                 0
Particular average on the plain,         82.91111      86.64        72.18        62.82         29.565       29.49         29.49         29.477
   Id for two last days,                               90½          76½          69                         29.37         29.37         29.35
Particular average among the hills,                    87           72½          68                         28.68         28.525        28.475
Particular average of the month,         82.9          86.8         72.11        65.41         29.565       29.08         28.93         28.98
   General average,                                             76.42                                                 29.124

OBSERVATIONS FOR MARCH 1802.

Day.
1          Heavy dews.       Clouds and sunshine.     Atmosphere
                                                      hazy, so that
                                                      the hills are
                                                      not visible.
2                 Id                   id                    id
3                 Id                   id                    id
4                 Id                   id             Atmosphere less
                                                      hazy than
                                                      usual.  Thunder
                                                      and a little
                                                      rain at 22
                                                      hours.
5          No dew.           Fewer clouds than        Atmosphere
                             usual.                   hazy.
6          Clouds and sunshine.  From 11 to 13 hours a strong wind at
           NW. with much thunder and a little rain.
7                 Id         Heavy clouds about 9.    Atmosphere less
                                                      hazy, so that
                                                      the hills were
                                                      visible.
8                 Id         Little dew                      id
9                 Id                   id             Atmosphere
                                                      continued clear
                                                      till the
                                                      morning,
                                                      afterwards
                                                      hazy.
10                Id         Moderate dew.            Atmosphere
                                                      hazy.
11                Id                   id                    id
12                Id                   id                    id
13                Id                   id                    id
14                Id                   id                    id
15                Id         Little dew.              Atmosphere
                                                      hazy.
16                Id         Moderate dew.                   id
17                Id                   id                    id
18                Id                   id                    id
19                Id                   id                    id
20                Id         Little dew.              id A few drops
                                                      of rain at 16
                                                      hours.
21                Id                   id                    id
22                Id                   id             id A few drops
                                                      of rain at 5
                                                      hours.
23                Id                   id             Sky clouded in
                                                      the morning,
                                                      but the
                                                      atmosphere less
                                                      hazy.
24                Id                   id                    id
25                Id         No dew.                  Atmosphere
                                                      hazy.
                                                      Thermometer
                                                      broken.
26                Id                   id             id New
                                                      Thermometer.
27                Id                   id                    id
28                Id         A little dew.                   id
29                Id         No dew.                         id
30                Id                   id                    id
31                Id                   id                    id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR APRIL 1802.

Day.       PLACES.       Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                  Barometer.                                             Winds.
                                        Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       16 Hrs.       Noon.      3 Hours.     9 Hours.     16 Hours.       Noon.       3 Hours.     9 Hours.     Sunrise.
        1  Hethaura      27° 26′                  80           69           60           28.56        28.49        28.43        28.42         E. 1          E. 1         E. 1         E. 1
        2                             80          85           73           63           28.46        28.36        28.32        28.29         E. 1          E. 1              0       E. 1
        3                             81          86           74           63           28.37        28.31        28.30        28.27         S. by W. 1    S.S.W. 1     N. 1         N. 2
        4                             78          86           74           68           28.27        28.21        28.18        28.18         E. 1          S. 1         N.W. 1       N.E. 1
        5                             81          81           76           63           28.24        28.16        28.22        28.19              0             0       N. 1         E. ½
        6                             82          85           73           64           28.27        28.22        28.26        28.21              0        S. 1         N.N.E. ½     S.W. 1

       19  Kathmandu     27° 41′      79          81           67           59           25.38        25.29        25.29        25.28         S.W. 1        S.W. 2       S.W. 1
       20                             83          82           63                        25.35        25.39        25.45                      S.W. by W.    S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                              1             1
       21                             81          83           69           59           25.44        25.44        25.44        25.44
       22                             83          83           75           64           25.47        25.47        25.47        25.47         W. 1          W. 1              0       N.N.W. 1
       23                             75          80           73           64           25.47        25.41        25.47        25.50         N.W. 1        W. 1              0            0
       24                             78          82           72           58           25.49        25.46        25.52        25.42         S. 1          S.W. 1                         0
       25                             73          79           71           57           25.44        25.39        25.41        25.41         W. ½          W. ½              0            0
       26                             74          80           72           64           25.47        25.44        25.49        25.54         W. 1          W. 1              0            0
       27                             77          79           72           62           25.52        25.44        25.49        25.48         W. 1          W. 1
       28                             75                                    62           25.50                                  25.44                                                 E. 1
       29                             79          82           74           60           25.46        25.37        25.47        25.44         W. 1          W. 1         W. 1         W. 1
       30                             76          82           70           61           25.46        25.43        25.51        25.41                                         0       W. 1
Average of the first 6 days below     80.4        83.8         73.1         63.5         28.3616      28.2916      28.285       28.26
the hills,
General average below the hills,                            75.2                                      29           29.955
Average of the last 12 days above     77.75       81.18        70.72        60.9         25.4541      25.4118      25.4555      25.439
the hills,
General average above the hills,                            72.63                                               25.44

OBSERVATIONS FOR APRIL 1802.

Day.
1          Heavy dews, clouds, and sunshine.          Atmosphere
                                                      thick and hazy.
2          Little dew.                     id                id
3                    Id                    id                id
4                    Id                    id                id
5                    Id                    id         id.  A few
                                                      drops of rain
                                                      at 3 hours.
6                    Id                    id                id
The mercury fell entirely below the scale, nor had I any convenience,
during the journey to Kathmandu, to cut down the case of the
barometer, nor to register the observations of the thermometer and
winds.
19         Clouds and sunshine.     Little dew.       Some showers on
                                                      the hills.
20                   Id             At 7 hours a      Atmosphere
                                    heavy shower of   hazy.
                                    hail.
21                   Id             Much dew.         Atmosphere
                                                      hazy.
22                   Id                    id                id
23                   Id                    id                id
24                   Id                    id         id.  Thunder
                                                      and rain at 7
                                                      hours.
25                   Id                    id                id
26                   Id                    id                id
27                   Id                    id         id.  Thunder
                                                      and some rain
                                                      in the evening.
28                   Id                    id                id
29                   Id                    id         id Thunder,
                                                      with a
                                                      threatening of
                                                      rain in the
                                                      evening.
30                   Id                    id         id      id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR MAY 1802.

Day.       PLACES         Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                  Barometer.                                             Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       16 Hrs.       Noon.      3 Hours.     9 Hours.     16 Hours.       Noon.      3 Hours.     9 Hours.     Sunrise.
1          Kathmandu.     27° 41′      76          83           74           63           25.47        25.45        25.49        25.49         W. 1              0            0       W. 1
2                                      81          82           75           61           25.52        25.47        25.51        25.55         W.S.W. 1     S. 1              0       N. 1
3                                      80          83           74           64           25.53        25.53        25.48        25.51         W. 2         S.W. 2                    W. 1
4                                      78                       75           70           23.57                     25.57        25.57         W. 2         W. 3         W. 3              0
5                                      76          82           72           61           25.52        25.43        25.56        25.51         W. 1         W. 2              0            0
6                                                  76           69                                     25.49        25.47                      W. 1         W. 2              0
7                                      71          75           67           64           25.48        25.43        25.46        25.46                                        0       N. 1
8                                      72          74           69           64            25.54       25.52        25.52        25.54         N. 1         N. 2              0       N. 1
9                                      76          78           66           60           25.54        25.51        25.62        25.59         S.W. by W.   N. 3         E. 1              0
                                                                                                                                               1
10                                     73          80           73           65           25.58        25.51        25.54        25.53         W. 1         W. 2         W. 1         N. 1
11                                     78          82           75           64            25.56       25.50        25.54        25.53         N. 1         W. 2              0       W. 1
12                                     69          76           71           63           25.56        25.50        25.51        25.51         W. 1         S.W. by S.   W. 1              0
                                                                                                                                                            1
13                                     73          75           70           66           25.55        25.51        25.53        25.49         W. 1         S.E. 1            0       W. 1
14                                     75          79           66           62           25.57        25.47        25.51        25.52         W. 1         S.W. 1            0            0
15                                     69          68                        61           25.53        25.44                     25.45         W. 1         W. 1         W. 1         W. 1
16                                     73          77           65           60           25.44        25.36        25.36        25.36         S.W. 1       S.W. by W.        0       W. 1
                                                                                                                                                            1
17                                     72          71           66           60           25.51        25.34        25.38        25.41         W. 1         W.N.W. 1     S.W. 1       N.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
18                                     74          75           69           61           25.43        25.36        25.39        25.40         W.S.W. 1     W.S.W. 2                  W. 1
19                                                 79           75           64                        25.40        25.37        25.41         W.N.W. 1     W.S.W. 1          0       S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
20                                     78          83           72           65           25.47        25.42        25.45        25.43         W. 1         N.W. by W.        0       S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                                            2                         1
21                                     76          80           72           67           25.48        25.42        25.38        25.42         W.S.W. 1     S.W. 2            0       S.E. 1
22                                     80          78           73           66           25.42        25.36        25.31        25.34         S.E. 1       S.E. 2       W. 1         W.N.W. 1
23                                                 80           73           64                        25.29        25.33        25.31         N.N.W. 1     N.N.W. 2          0       W. 1
24                                     81          82           74           66            25.33       25.26        25.26        25.29         W. 1         W. 2              0       S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
25                                     79          82           75           66           25.29        25.25        25.25        25.30         S.W. by W.   S.W. by W.   W. 1         W.S.W. 1
                                                                                                                                               1            2
26                                     78          81                        64           25.30        25.24        25.24        25.28         S.W. 1       S.W. 2       W. 1              0
27                                     80          85           74           68           25.34        25.28        25.28        25.28         S.W. by W.   S.W. by W.        0       S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                               1            1                         1
28                                     80          83           73           66           25.32        25.25        25.25        25.32         W. 1         S.W. by W.   W. 1         S.W. by W.
                                                                                                                                                            2                         1
29                                     75          80           72           67           25.34        25.33        25.33        25.37         W.S.W. 1     S.W. by W.   W. 1         S.W. 1
                                                                                                                                                            1
30                                                              74           64                                     25.31        25.32
31                                     80          81           74           66           25.37        25.39        25.31        25.33         S.W. 1       S.W. 2            0            0
Particular average,                    76          78.96        71.62        64.66        25.4652      25.4038      25.418       25.4306
General average,                                             72.81                                              25.4044

OBSERVATIONS FOR MAY 1802.

Day.
1          Moderate dews.   Atmosphere    Clouds and
                            hazy.         sunshine.
2                Id              id            id       Thunder in
                                                        the
                                                        evening.
3                Id              id            id
4                Id              id            id
5                Id         Atmosphere    Heavy rain
                            clear in      in the
                            the           evening.
                            morning.
6          Atmosphere       Heavy rain
           hazy.            at night.
7          Atmosphere       The hills as usual covered with clouds,
           clear.           and partially visible.
8                Id         Clouds and    Heavy dews.
                            sunshine.
9          Atmosphere            id       Thunder in
           hazy.                          the evening
                                          to the S.E.
10               Id              id       Moderate
                                          dew.
11         Atmosphere       Clouds with   Thunder and
           clear.           occasional    rain at
                            sunshine.     night.
12         Atmosphere       Clouds and    Moderate
           hazy.            sunshine.     dews.
13               Id              id            id       Thunder in
                                                        the
                                                        evening.
14               Id              id       Much rain
                                          in the
                                          afternoon.
15         Considerable rain in the afternoon.  A thick fog in the
           morning.
16               Id                       Morning
                                          clear.
17         A little rain                       id       Heavy dew.
           in_ _the
           afternoon.
18
19         Atmosphere       Clouds and    Heavy dew.
           clear.           sunshine.
20               Id              id           id.
21               Id              id       Heavy rain
                                          from 14 to
                                          16 hours.
22               Id              id       Dew.
23               Id              id           id.
24         Hazy.                 id       A little
                                          rain at 10
                                          hours.
25               Id              id
26               Id              id
27         Clear.                id
28         Cloudy.  Slight showers all night.
29         Clouds and       Atmosphere
           sunshine.        clear.
30               Id              id       A little
                                          rain in the
                                          afternoon.
31               Id              id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR JUNE 1802.

Day.       PLACES.       Lat. N.                 Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                   Barometer.                                      Winds by the Compass.
                                        Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.        Noon.      3 Hours.     9 Hours.     Dawn of Day.      Noon.      3 Hours.     9 Hours.     Sunrise.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′      80          85           76           65          25.34        25 37        25.36        25.35           WNW. 1       S W. by W.        0       W. ½ S. 1
                                                                                                                                                            3
2                                     81          84           76           66          25.35        25.30        23.24        25.30           WSW. 1       WSW. 2            0       W. 1
3                                     80          84           75           66          25.35        25.31        25.33        25.34           WSW. 2       SW. by S.
                                                                                                                                                            3
4                                     79          86           74           70          25.31        25.29        25.33        25 31
5                                     79                       72           68          25.40                     25.38        25.41                                          0       SW. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
6                                     77          80                        69          25.39        25.39                     25.41           NW. by W.    NW. 1        W. 1         WSW. 1
                                                                                                                                               1
7                                     76          81           76           71          25.43        25.38        25.38        25.37           W. 1         W. 1
8                                     77          81           73           68          25.39        25.34        25.37        25.42                                          0       SE. 1
9                                     77          82           73           70          25.37        25.37        25.35        25.31           SE. 1        SE. by S.    SW. 1        S. 1
                                                                                                                                                            1
10                                    79          83           73           70          25.31        25.23        25.23        25.20           S. 1         SE. 1        W. 1         SW. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
11                                    78                       73           68          25.22                     25.12        25.12           SW. by W.    W. 1              0       SW. 1
                                                                                                                                               1
12                                    76          75           70           68          23.10        23.08        25.06        25.05           S. 1         S. 1              0       W. 1
13                                    73          76           70           68          25.08        25.00        25.01        25.07           W. 1         W. 1              0       SE. by S.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
14                                    73          74           69           68          25.03        25.02        25.11        25.10           SE. by S.    SE. by S.         0       W. 1
                                                                                                                                               1            1
15                                    76          72           69           67          25.10        25.06        25.06        25.11           S. 1         S. 1         SW. by W.    SW. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                         1            1
16                                    78          78           71           70          25.08        25.08        25.07        25.07           W. 1         W. 1              0       SW. 1
17                                    80          80           74           70           25.11       25.06        25.03        25.07           SW. 1        SW. 2             0       SW. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
18                                    81          77           70           68          25.07        25.04        23.05        24.95           SW. 1        SW. 1             0       SE. by S.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
19                                    79          75           72           69          25.06        25.09        25.13        25.06           S. 1         S. 1         W. 1         S. 1
20                                    79          78           71           68          23.13        25.10        25.20        25.27           S. by W. 1   S. by W. 1        0       W. 1
21                                    76          79           73           69          25.09        25.18        25.21        25.18           W. 1         W. 1              0       SW. 1
22                                    76          74           70           68           25.17       25.15        25.14        25.11           S. 1         S. 1              0       SW. 1
23                                    75          72           70           69          25.17        25.20        25.14        25.08           W. 1         SW. by W.         0       E. 1
                                                                                                                                                            1
24                                    74          76           69           67          25.14        25.16        25.17        25.14           E. 1         S. by E. 1        0       SE. 1
25                                    74                       70           68          25.17                     25.22        25.14           SE. 1        SE. 1             0       SE. by S.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
26                                    78          77           72           68          25.24        25.17        25.19        25.16           SE. 1        E. by S. 1        0            0
27                                    78          77           73           70          23.23        25.21        25.18        25.15                0       SE. 2             0       W. 1
28                                    78          79           75           70          25.17        25.13        25.14        25.17           E. 1         W. 2         W. 1         SW. by W.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1
29                                    78          80           74           70          25.15        25.13        25.12        25.12           W. 1         W. 2         W. 1              0
30                                    79          77           72           70          25.15        25.17        25.11        25.12                0            0            0            0
Average at each hour,                 77.46       78.59        72.27        68.73       25.206       25.191       25.181       25.188
General average,                                           74.26                                               25.195

OBSERVATIONS FOR JUNE 1802.

Day.
1          Atmosphere       Clouds and    Thunder in
           hazy.            sunshine.     the
                                          afternoon.
2                Id              id
3                Id              id
4                Id              id
5                Id              id       Slight
                                          showers in
                                          the night.
6                Id              id       A very
                                          little rain
                                          at noon.
7                Id              id       A very
                                          little rain
                                          at night.
8                Id              id       Showers all
                                          day at
                                          intervals.
9                Id              id       Very slight
                                          showers.
10               Id              id       Much rain
                                          all night.
11         Atmosphere       Mountains     Id.  Capt.
           clear.           covered       Knox’s bar.
                            with          ¼ inch
                            clouds.       higher than
                                          mine.
12               Id              id       Much rain.    Clouds and
                                                        sunshine.
13               Id              id            id       Cloudy.
14               Id              id            id            id
15               Id              id            id       Sunshine in
                                                        the
                                                        forenoon.
16               Id              id       Little
                                          rain.
                                          Cloudy and
                                          sunshine.
17               Id              id            id            id
18               Id              id       A good deal   Cloudy.
                                          of rain.
19               Id              id       Rain in the   Clear
                                          afternoon.    morning.
20               Id              id       Much rain.    Cloudy and
                                                        sunshine.
21               Id              id       Some rain.         id
22               Id              id       Much rain
                                          in the
                                          afternoon.
23               Id              id       Much rain.    Cloudy.
24               Id              id            id            id
25               Id              id       id Clear
                                          forenoon.
                                          Emodus
                                          visible.
26               Id              id       Much rain
                                          in the
                                          evening.
27               Id              id       Heavy
                                          showers.
28               Id              id       Very little   Clouds and
                                          rain.         sunshine.
29               Id              id            id            id
30               Id              id            id            id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR JULY 1802.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                    Barometer.                        Pluviometer Inches.                            Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.        Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.       Dawn.                                Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.      Sunrise.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′       79          80           72           70          25.20         25.18         25.22         25.26                                     0             0             0        E. ½
2                                      76          80           71           70          25.24         25.24         25.24         25.24                                SE. 1         SE. 1              0             0
3                                                  76           70           69                        25.16         25.16         25.14                                SE. by E. 1   S. by E. 1         0             0
4                                      80          78           72           69          25.17         25.14         25.13         25.13                                     0        W. by S. 1         0        NW. ½
5                                      76          78           74           68          25.12         25.12         25.16         25.17         0.12                   NW. ½         W. ½               0             0
6                                      79          78           72           69          25.18         25.16         25.21         25.23         0.11                   SW. ½         SW. 1              0        E. ½
7                                      78          80           75           70          25.16         25.18         25 19         25.16         0.00                   E. ½               0             0             0
8                                      82          83           74           70          25.23         25.19         25.23         25.23         0.00                   W. ½          W. ½          W. 1               0
9                                      79          80           73           70          25.24         25.16         25.16         25.16         0.72                   W. 1          W. ½               0             0
10                                     80          76           74           71          25.16         25.13         25.17         25.08         0.62                   W. ½          W. 1               0        E. ½
11                                     78          81           74           70          25.10         25.09         25.13         25.13         0.04                   S. 1          W. 1               0        S. ½
12                                     79          75           73           70          25.14         25.16         25.10         25.10         0.84                   S. 1          SE. ½              0        W. 1
13                                     80          80           74           70          25.11         25.08         25.08         25.10         0.28                   W. 1          W. 1               0        W. ½
14                                     78          81           77           71          25.08         25.07         25.05         25.06         0.42                   W. 1          W. 1               0        W. 1
15                                     79          84           77           70          25.07         25.05         25.08         25.05         1.75                   W. 1          E. ½               0        W. ½
16                                     76          80                        70          25.14         25.12                       25.17         0.10                   E. ½          E. ½               0        W. 1
17                                     82          80           73           72          25.18         25.15         25.15         25.17         0.37                   W. 1          N. 2               0             0
18                                     77                       72           72          25.22                       25.15         25.14         0.00                   S. ½               0             0             0
19                                     81          81           73           70          25.16         25.11         25.15         25.14         0.00                   W. 1          W. 1               0             0
20                                     82          84           77           72          25.08         25.05         25.07         25.15         0.37                   S. 1          S. 2               0        W. ½
21                                     81                       76           68          25.10                       25.15         25.21         0.12                   W. ½          W. 1               0             0
22                                     78          78           72           71          25.16         25.13         25.16         25.12         0.11                   W. 1          W. 2               0        W. ½
23                                     79          81           75           71          25.11         25.04         25.08         25.10         0.73                   SW. 1         W. 2
24                                     80          84           77           70          25.12         25.14         25.16         25.12         0.00                                                    0             0
25                                     80          80                                    25.13         25.09                                     0.25                   W. 1          W. 1               0             0
26                                     75          74           72           70          25.15         25.09         25.15         25.10         0.06                   W. 1          W. 1               0        W. 1
27                                     76          80           72           70          25.12         25.10         25.08         25.10         0.00                   W. 1          NW. 2              0             0
28                                     80          80           73           70          25.04         25.09         25.08         25.07         0.62                   W. 1          W. 1          W. 1          SW. 1
29                                     74          78           73           71          25.07         25.05         25.05         25.05         0.70                   W. 2          W. 2               0             0
30                                     75                       74           70          25.05         25.00         25.06         25,05         0.00                        0        W. 1               0             0
31                                     76                       72           70          25.10                       25.13         25.10         0.00                   SW. 1         W. 1               0        W. 1
Average,                               78.5        80           73.55        70.13       25.1376       25.1131       25.1355       25.1343       8.32 in 27 days; of which 1.14 inches fell in the day time, and 7.18 in the
                                                                                                                                                 night time.
General average,                                            75.54                                                25.13

OBSERVATIONS FOR JULY 1802.


During the whole of this month the atmosphere in the valley was clear,
with a sky in general, when not raining, partly clouded, and partly
admitting of sunshine.  The clouds generally hung in patches upon the
lower hills, and entirely hid the snowy mountains.  I have marked every
day that Emodus was visible.  The pluviometer was erected on the 5th.  My
barometer stood a quarter of an inch lower than Captain Knox’s.

Day.
1          Showers.
2          Much rain in the afternoon.
3          Showers.                                Cloudy
4                            Id                        id
5                            Id                        id
6          Emodus visible.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15         Emodus visible.
16
17
18
19
20         Emodus visible.
21                           Id
22                           Id
23
24
25
26         Emodus visible.
27         Thunder about 3. A waterspout seen.
28         Thunder about 4.
29
30
31

REG1STER OF THE WEATHER FOR AUGUST 1802.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                   Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                     Pluviometer inches.                                 Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.        Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                                    Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.      Sunrise.
1          Kathmandu     27°41′        80          79           71           70           25.12       25.08        25.06        25.18       0.36                        S. 1                             0             0
2                                      76          74           70           68                                                             0.46                        SW. 1         SW. 3         W. 1          W. ½
3                                      75          74           71           69           24.96       24.92        24.92        24.93       0.23                             0             0             0        W. 1
4                                      72          72           70           69           24.94       24.90        24.92        24.93       0.09                        W. 1          W. 2               0             0
5                                      74          74           70           68           24.94       24.94        24.96        24.94       0.91                        W. 2          W. 1               0        W. 2
6                                      71          73           70           68           24.99       24.94        24.94        24.94       0.46                        W. 1          W. 1          W. 1          W. 1
7                                      74          76           74           71           24.92       24.86        24.86        24.77       0.00                        W. 2          W. 2               0        SW. 1
8                                      73          75           72           70           24.90       24.87        24.92        24.88       0.00                        W. by S. 1    W. 1               0        0
9                                      71          74           73           70           24.94       24.87        24.91        24.94       0.26                        SW. 1         WSW. 1
10                                     74          78           74           72           24.94       24.89        24.89        24.89       0.15                                                         0        W. 1
11                                     74          73           72           70           24.94       24.92        24.90        24.90       0.30                        SE. by S. 1   W. 1          W. 1          SW. 1
12                                                 76           72           70                       24.94        24.94        24.95       0.00                        W. 1          W. 1               0             0
13                                     77          76           73           69           24.97       24.95        24.97        24.97       0.32                        E. 1          E. by S. 1    E. 1          E. 1
14                                     74          73           68           69           24.97       24.94        25.02        25.01       1.95                        SE. 1         SE. 1              0        E. 1
15                                     74          76           72           68           25.01       24.96        25.00        24.92       0.46                        WSW. 1        WSW. 1             0        W. 1
16                                     74          74           70           67           25.05       25.02        25.08        25.14       1.80                        W. 1          W. 1               0        NW. by W. 1
17                                     75          74           72           68           25.14       25.12        25.14        25.14       0.00                        NW. by W. 1   WNW. 1             0        S. 1
18                                     74          76           72           70           25.12       25.08        25.03        25.04       0.00                        SE. by S. 2   S. by W. 2         0        S. by W. 1
19                                     74          73           72           68           25.03       24.99        24.99        24.94       1.15                        SW. by S. 2   W. by S. 1    W. 1               0
20                                     70          70           70           67           24.94       24.92        24.92        24.84       0.55                             0        W. 1          W. by S. 1         0
21                                     72          71           69           69           24.92       24.89        24.93        24.93       0.92                        E. 1          E. 1               0             0
22                                     70          70           70           67           24.94       24.94        24.95        25.01       0.05                                      E. 1          W. 1          W. ½
23                                     72          76           72           69           25.01       24.98        24.98        24.97       0.00                                                    W. ½          W. 1
24                                     75          77           73           70           24.95       24.89        24.93        24.89       0.00                        N W. 1        NW. by N. 1   E. 1               0
25                                     77          79           73           72           24.89       24.89        24.90        24.90       0.03                        SW. by W. 1   W. 1          E. ½               0
26                                     73          71           69           68           25.00       24.98        24.98        25.05       0.00                        WSW. 1        S. 1               0             0
27                                     73          78                                     25.01       24.97                                 0.00                        SW. by S. 1   SW. by S. 1   W. ½          W. ½
28                                     76          72                        70           25.00       24.92                     24.93       0.35                        SW. by S. 1   S. 2          E. ½          W. ½
29                                     76          78           74           72           24.96       24.92        24.96        24.97       0.05                        S. 1          S. 1               0             0
30                                     77          76           69           68           24.99       24.93        24.94        24.99       0.32                        S. 1          S. by E. 1    E. ½          W. 1
31                                     74          78           74           69           24.98       24.92        24.94        24.97       0.17                        W. 1          S. ½          W. 1
Particular average,                    74.13       77.71        71.414       69.166       24.98       24.94        24.96        24.96       10.34 of which 4.57 fell
                                                                                                                                            at night.
General average,                                             72.35                                             24.96

OBSERVATIONS FOR AUGUST 1802.


During the whole of this month, the atmosphere in the valley was clear,
and when not raining, the sky was in part clear, and in part covered with
clouds.  These generally hung in patches on the lower hills, and entirely
hid the snowy mountains.  I have marked every day on which these were
visible.  The barometer was emptied, and new filled on the 2d, and stood
afterwards a little lower, some air having probably got in, when we
removed from Sambhu.  A correction of 0.06 may be allowed in the
intermediate time.

Day.
1
2
3
4
5
6          Cloudy all day.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25         Thunder in the afternoon.  Emodus visible.
26
27
28
29
30
31         Thunder in the afternoon.  Emodus visible.

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR SEPTEMBER 1802.

Day.       PLACES.       Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                     Pluviometer Inches.                               Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                                Noon.         3 Hours.        9 Hours.       Sunrise.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′       74          76           72           70          24.94       24.91        24.92        24.93       0.00                    W.S.W. 1      W.S.W. 1              0              0
2                                      75          76           71           69          24.91       24.92        24.92        24.96       0.12                    W.N.W. ½      W.N.W. 1         E. ½          W. by S. 1
3                                      73          76                                    24.96       24.94                                 0.82                    W. ½          S. ½             W. ½                0
4                                                               74           70                                   25.04        25.04       0.57                    W. 1          W.S.W. ½         S. ½                0
5                                      77          76           73           68          25.00       24.94        24.95        24.97       0.13                    S.E. ½               0              0              0
6                                      74          74           75           70          24.98       24.95        24.93        24.96       0.00                         0        S.W. ½           W. ½          S.W. by S. ½
7                                      74          75           72           67          24.97       24.95        24.98        24.96       0.00                    W.S.W. ½      S.W. 1                0        E.S.E. ½
8                                      75          77           72           70          25.03       25.01        25.05        25.03       0.00                    E.S.E. 1      E.S.E. 1              0        W. ½
9                                      75          75           73           70          25.05       25.03        25.11        25.07       0.00                    W. 1          W. 1                  0        W. ½
10                                     74          78           74           71          25.08       25.04        25.07        25.04       0.00                    W. ½          S.W. ½                0        S.W. ½
11                                     77          78           73           70          25.03       25.01        25.04        25.05       0.09                    S.W. 1        S.W. 1
12                                     76          77           74           70          25.06       24.98        24.97        24.96       0.25                    W. ½          W. ½                  0        S.W. 1
13                                     74          77           72           70          25.01       24.97        24.99        25.03       0.25                    S.W. 1        S.W. 1                0              0
14                                     73          75           70           68          25.01       24.97        25.00        25.00       0.02                    W. ½          W. ½                  0              0
15                                     71          73           70           68          25.04       25.00        25.01        25.02       0.71                         0               0              0        S.W. ½
16                                     74          76           72           68          25.03       24.98        25.06        25.01       0.04                    S.W. ½        S.W. 1           W. ½          W. ½
17                                     72          74           70           68          25.06       25.01        25.04        25.02       0.30                    N.W. 1        N.W. 1           S.W. ½        S.W. by W. 1
18                                     70          70           68           66          25.07       25.01        25.03        25.03       0.06                    N.W. 1        N.W. 1           N.E. ½        E. ½
19                                     70          72           68           66          25.05       25.04        25.07        25.04       1.46                    S.E. ½        S.E. 1                0        S.W. ½
20                                     72          74           69           65          25.03       25.00        25.01        25.05       0.30                    S.W. ½        S.W. ½                0              0
21                                     74          74           70           67          25.06       24.97        25.07        25.04       0.00                    S.W. 1        S.W. by W. 1     N.W. ½        N.W. 1
22                                     72          74           69           65          25.05       25.02        25.05        25.05       0.00                    W. 1          W. 1             W. ½          W.S.W. ½
23                                     73          75           71           75          25.07       25.04        25.07        25.08       0.03                    W. 1          S.W. 2                0              0
24                                     71          73           70           67          25.11       25.07        25.09        25.07       0.11                    E. ½          E. ½                  0        N.W. 1
25                                     70          72           69           66          25.08       25.04        25.06        25.03       0.12                    N.W. 1        N.W. 1                0        E. 3
26                                     67          68           66           63          25.12       25.06        25.09        25.11       0.39                    E. 3          E. 2             E. ½          W. 1
27                                     69          74           70           67          25.12       25.08        25.10        25.10       0.00                    W. 1          S.W. 2           W. ½          S.W. 1
28                                     72          76                        65          25.14       25.10                     25.14       0.00                    S.W. 2        S.W. 2                0        N.W. 1
29                                     71          74                        66          25.20       25.12                     25.16       0.05                    S.W. 1        S.W. 1                0        S.W. 1
30                                     73          74           69           66          25.14       25.10        25.11        25.09       0.11                    S.W. 1        S.W. by S. ½     W. ½          S.W. 1
Particular average,                    72.82       74.58        70.98        67.96       25.05       25.01        25.03        25.03       5.54 Total.
General average,                                            71.585                                            25.03

OBSERVATIONS FOR SEPTEMBER 1802.


During this month the clouds hung upon the hills, and in general hid the
snowy mountains entirely.  The atmosphere in the valley generally clear,
with sunshine at times, interrupted by large clouds.

Day.
1
2
3
4          Much thunder at night.
5
6
7          Fog in the morning.  Thunder in the afternoon.
8
9
10
11         Thunder at night.
12
13
14         Thunder at night.
15
16
17
18
19         Thick fog in the morning.  Thunder in the evening.
20
21
22
23         A foggy morning.
24
25
26         A foggy morning.  Emodus visible for an instant.
27
28
29
30         Emodus visible in the evening.

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR OCTOBER 1802.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                         Pluviometer Inches.                              Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                                     Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′       73          76           71           65          25.12       25.09        25.05        25.08       0.00                         SW. 2         SW. 2         SW. by S. ½   W. by S. 1
2                                      73          75           65           64          25.04       25.04        25.07        25.09       0.00                         SW. 2         S.W. by S.         0             0
                                                                                                                                                                                      2
3                                      69          72           69           64          25.11       25.07        25.08        25.13       0.97                         SW. 1         SW. 2              0        W. ½
4                                      70          74           68           62          25.13       25.08        25.14        25.14       0.00                         SW. by S. 1   SW. by S. 1   W. ½          W. by S. 1
5                                      70          72           66           62          25.17       25.11        25.19        25.20       0.00                         SW. by W. 2   SW. by S. 3   SW. ½              0
6                                      72          75           69           66          25.19       25.15        25.19        25.17       0.97                         WSW. 2        SW. by W. 2        0        E. ½
7                                      72          70           68           66          25.14       25.08        25.10        25.10       0.44                         WSW. 1        SW. 1         E. ½          E. 1
8                                      64          65           65           64          25.17       25.12        25.14        25.19       0.95                         E. 1          E. 1               0        E. 1
9                                      68          70           67           66          25.21       25.14        25.14        25.22                                    W. 1          W. 2               0        W. by S. 1
10                                     71          70           67           61          25.17       25.15        25.19        25.22       None during remainder of     W. by S. 2    W. by S. 3    W. ½          SW. 1
                                                                                                                                           the month.
11                                     69          72           68           62          25.16       25.14        25.15        25.17                                    SW. 2         W. by S. 3         0        SW. 1
12                                     71          73           68           65          25.15       25.10        25.13        25.17                                                                     0        W. 2
13                                     69          73           68           62          25.17       25.14        25.16        25.16                                    W. 2          W. 3          W. ½          SE. 1
14                                     68                       65           59          25.18                    25.16        25.23                                    SE. 2         W. 2          E. 1          SE. 1
15                                     68          70           63           57          25.19       25.13        25.19        25.23                                    SE. by E. 2   SE. by S. 2
16                                     65          68           63           60          25 26       25.17        25.26        25.34
17                                     65          69           65           60          25.29       25.24        25.27        25.34                                                                0             SW. by S. 1
18                                     66          69           63           61          25.28       25.23        25.23        25.24                                    SW. by S. 2   S.W. by S.    W. ½          SW. by S. 1
                                                                                                                                                                                      2
19                                     67          69           66           59          25.28       25.24        25.26        25.31                                    NW. by N. 2   NW. by W. 3   SE. ½         SE. by E. 2
20                                     66          74           65           59          25.24       25.19        25.22        25.28                                    SW. 2         SW. 2              0        SE. by S. 1
21                                                 68           64           59                      25.23        25.25        25.29                                    SE. by S. 1   SW. by S. 1   SW. ½              0
22                                     65          68           64           59          25.26       25.21        25.19        25.26                                    WSW. 1        WSW. 1             0             0
23                                     65          68           64           57          25.22       25.18        25.17        25.27                                    WSW. 1        W. by S. 2
24                                     65          68           63           57          25.23       25.19        25.19        25.29
25                                                 68           63           59                      25.20        25.20        25.27                                                                     0             0
26                                     65          66           63           58          25.23       25.18        25.25        25.27                                    NW. by N. 1   NNW. 1
27                                     68          66           62           56          25.25       25.19        25.23        25.27                                                                     0        SE. by S. ½
28                                     62          65           60           57          25.24       25.19        25.23        25.28                                    NE. by E. ½   NW. 2         W. by N. ½    SW. by W. 1
29                                     63                       61           58          25 26                    25.22        25.28                                    SW. by W. 1   SW. by W. 1   WSW. ½        SE. by E. ½
30                                     64          66           62           58          25.23       25.19        25.24        25.26                                    WSW. 1        WSW. 2             0        SW. by W. ½
31                                     62          64           62           57          25.23       25.17        25.19        25.27                                    SW. by W. 1   W. 2               0        W. 1
Particular average,                    67.4        72.25        64.55        60.32       25.20       25.16        25.32        25.22       3.33 Total.
General average,                                            66.13                                             25.22

OBSERVATIONS FOR OCTOBER 1802.


Except during the fogs, the atmosphere in the valley was clear throughout
this month.  The sky was scattered with large clouds, which at times
rested on the faces of the hills.  The thermometer was hung up in an open
room.  When exposed to the open air at dawn, it sunk from 4 to 6 degrees
lower than when in the room at noon in the open air, but, well shaded, it
rose about 2 degrees higher than in the room.

Day.
1          A little thunder.
2          Emodus visible for a little in the
           evening.
3
4          Thick fog in the morning.
5                          Id                   Emodus visible in the
                                                forenoon.
6                          Id                   Thunder in the
                                                evening.
7                                               Much thunder at
                                                night.
8                                               Emodus visible in the
                                                morning.
9                                                         Id
10                                              Id and evening.
11         Thick fog in the morning.
12                         Id
13
14         Fog after sunrise.
15                         Id                   Emodus visible in the
                                                morning.
16         No fog.
17                         Id
18                         Id                   Emodus visible in the
                                                morning.
19         Fog after sunrise.
20         Thick fog in the morning.
21                         Id                   Emodus very clear.
22                         Id                             Id
23         Little fog.                                    Id
24         Foggy morning.                                 Id
25                         Id                             Id
26         Little fog.
27                         Id                             Id
28                         Id                             Id
29                         Id                             Id
30                         Id                             Id
31         Considerable fog.                              Id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR NOVEMBER 1802.

Day.       PLACES.       Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                         Pluviometer Inches.                              Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                                     Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′       62          65           61           57          25.18       25.15        25.16        25.23       0.00                         W. 1          W. 1               0        NE. by E. ½
2                                      63          65           62           57          25.20       25.18        25.22        25.29       0.00                         WNW. 1        WNW. 1             0             0
3                                      64          65           63           60          25.26       25.19        25.24        25.27       0.00                         W. by NW. 1   W. by N. 1    W. ½          W. 1
4                                      64          66           63           57          25.25       25.22        25.28        25.34       0.00                         W. by S. 1    W. by N. 1         0             0
5                                      63          63                        57          25.33       25.33                     25.40       0.00                         WNW. 1        WNW. 2        WSW. ½             0
6                                      64          65           62           56          25.33       25.27        25.33        25.35       0.00                         W. 1          W. 1               0             0
7                                      62          65           62           56          25.33       25.25        25.27        25.32       0.00                         NW. by W. 1   NW. 2
8                                      62          64           62           57          25.30       25.24        25.26        25.30       0.04
9                                      61                       61           57          25.30                    25.34        25.37       0.04                                                     W. by N. ½    W. by N. ½
10                                     62          65           61           56          25.33       25.25        23.27        25.30                                    NW. 1         NW. 1              0             0
11                                     61          64           61           56          25.29       25.24        25.26        25.37       None during remainder of     W. by S. 1    WNW. 1        W. ½               0
                                                                                                                                           the month
12                                     62          63           61           55          25.34       25.28        23.31        25.40                                         0        W. ½
13                                     61          64           60           54          25.34       25.28        23.34        25.45                                                                W. ½          W. ½
14                                     60          63           61           54          25.37       25.31        25.31        25.37                                    W. by S. 2    W. by S. 2         0             0
15                                     60          62           60           54          25.34       25.29        25.27        25.37                                    W. 1          W. 2          W. ½          W. ½
16                                     60          62           59           53          25.36       25.26        25.32        25.40                                    SW. by W. 1   SW. 2              0             0
17                                     59          62           60           53          25.37       25.28        25.34        25.13                                    SW. 1         W. 1          WNW. ½        WNW. ½
18                                     60          63           59           53          25.30       25.25        25.27        25.31                                    NW. by W. 1   NW. by W. 1        0             0
19                                     60          62           58           53          25.27       25.23        25.25        25.26                                    N. by W. 1    NW. by W. 1        0        E. ½
20                                     56          60           57           50          25.30       25.24        25.28        25.35                                    W. 1          W. 2          W. ½          W. 1
21                                     55          59           56           51          25.33       25.26        25.32        25.38                                    NW. by W. 1   WNW. 1             0        W. ½
22                                     55          58           55           52          25.36       25.26        25.32        25.38                                    NW. 1         NW. ½         E. ½          E. ½
23                                     56          58           56           52          25.32       25.26        25.25        25.26                                    NE. ½         NE. by E. 1        0        E. ½
24                                     57          57           55           51          25.30       25.26        25.28        25.35                                    E. ½          W. ½               0        NE. ½
25                                     55                       55           50          25.30                    25.27        25.37                                         0        WNW. 2             0        E. ½
26                                     55          60           56           50          25.34       25.24        25.29        25.35                                    E. ½          W. 1
27                                                 59           57           52                      25.26        25.33        25.37
28                                     70          70           58           51          25.35       25.24        23.30        25.31
29                                                 72           57           54                      25.20        25.25        25.25                                                                     0             0
30                                     72          70           58           50          25.22       25.17        25.22        25.27                                    NW. 1         NW. 2              0        E. ½
Particular average,                    60.75       61.          59.24        53.93       25.31       25.24        25.28        25.34       0.08 Total
General average,                                            58.73                                             25.29

OBSERVATIONS FOR NOVEMBER 1802.


The thermometer continued in the room, and six degrees must be subtracted
from that here given, to get the heat of the external air in the morning.
Throughout the month, except in the foggy mornings, the atmosphere was
clear, with a sky containing many clouds.

Day.
1          Foggy morning.       Emodus clear.
2          Little fog.          Emodus clouded.
3                  Id                    id
4          Thick fog.           Emodus clear.
5          Little fog.                   id
6                  Id           Emodus clouded.
7                  Id                    id
8          Much fog.                     id
9                  Id           Emodus clear.
10                 Id                    id
11                 Id                    id
12                 Id                    id
13                 Id                    id
14                 Id                    id
15         Little fog.          Emodus clouded.
16                 Id                    id
17         Much fog.                     id
18                 Id                    id
19                 Id                    id
20                 Id           Emodus clear.
21         Little fog.                   id
22                 Id                    id
23                 Id           Emodus clouded.
24         Some fog.                     id
25         Much fog.                     id
26                 Id                    id
27         Little fog.                   id
28                 Id                    id
29                 Id                    id
30         Some fog.                     id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR DECEMBER 1802.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                     Pluviometer Inches.                                  Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                                     Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Kathmandu     27°41′        70          68           54           50          25.23       25.18                     25.27       No rain during this month.   NW. by W. 1   NW. by W. 1        0        E. ½
2                                      59          62           57           50          25.23       25.19        25.26        25.32                                    W. ½          W. 1               0             0
3                                      57          61           56           48          25.28       25.25        25.29        25.38                                    NW. by N. ½   NW. by N. ½   E. 1          W. ½
4                                      56          61           55           47          25.35       25.22        25.33        25.39                                    W. ½          W. 1               0        E. 1
5                                                  60           55           46                      25.28        25.26        25.31                                    NW. 1         NW. by W. 2   E. ½               0
6                                      54          59           53           49          25.25       25.20        25.24        25.28                                    W. ½          W. 2               0             0
7                                      55          57           54           50          25.24       25.19        25.23        25.29                                    NW. by W. ½   W. 2               0             0
8                                      54          56           53           46          25.25       25.17        25.32        25.28                                         0             0        W. ½          W. ½
9                                      53          58           50           41          25.28       25.24        25.28        25.37                                    NW. by W. 1   NW. by W. 1        0             0
10                                     53          57           50           42          25.28       25.21        25.32        25.36                                    W. 1          W. 2          W. ½          W. ½
11                                     51          55           50           41          25.31       25.21        25.30        25.36                                    WNW. 1        WNW. 1        SW. ½         SW. ½
12                                     50          54           50           41          25.27       25.22        25.21        25.30                                    W. 1          W. 1               0             0
13                                     51          57           50           41          25.23       25.47        25.22        25.33                                    SW. 1         SW. 2              0             0
14                                     51          57           49           41          25.25       25.22        25.27        25.30                                         0        W. 2               0             0
15                                     50          56           50           42          25.24       25.17        25.24        25.33                                    W. 1          W. 3               0        E. ½
16                                     50          54           49           41          25.29       25.24        25.28        25.38                                    W. 1          W. 2          W. ½          W. ½
17                                     50          55           48           41          25.32       25.26        25.37        25.46                                    NW. by N. 1   NW. by N. 2        0             0
18                                     52          57           49           44          25.38       25.33        25.40        25.46                                    W. ½          W. 1               0             0
19                                     51                       50           45          25.41                    25.37        25.44                                    W. ½          W. 2               0             0
20                                     53          56           53           43          25.37       25.31        25.38        25.46                                    W. ½          W. 1               0        E. ½
21                                     53          57           51           43          25.44       25.36        25.39        25.46                                    W. ½          W. 1               0        NE. ½
22                                     52          56           50           42          25.40       25.28        25.34        25.38                                    W. 1          W. 2               0        W. 1
23                                     50          57           49           41          25.38       25.27        25.36        25.39                                    W. 1          W. 3               0             0
24                                                 55           50           41                      25.25        25.34        25.47                                    W. 1          W. 2               0             0
25                                     51          57           49           41          25.39       25.32        25.42        25.47                                    W. 1          W. 2               0             0
26                                     52          57           49           40          25.41       25.32        25.42        25.40                                    SW. 1         SW. 2
27                                     51          58           51           41          25.38       25.26        25.32        25.39
28                                     51          57           51           45          25.33       25.26        25.29        25.26
29                                     52          55           50           49          25 27       25.20        25.26        25.30
30                                     54          57           52           47          25.26       25.21        25.27        25.34                                                                     0             0
31                                     50                       52           46          25.28                    25.26        25.33                                    W. 2          W.                 0             0
Particular average,                    52.91       57.79        51.39        44.03       25.31       25.24        25.31        25.36
General average,                                            51.53                                             25.30

OBSERVATIONS FOR DECEMBER 1802.


The thermometer continued in the house in a room without a fire.
Atmosphere as in the preceding month.

Day.
1          Little fog.       Emodus clouded.
2                 Id                   id
3                 Id                   id
4          Much fog.         Emodus at times
                             visible.
5                 Id         Emodus clear.
6                 Id                   id
7          Little fog.       Emodus clouded.
8                 Id                   id
9          Much fog.                   id
10                Id         Emodus clear.            Hoar frost.
                                                      Thermometer at
                                                      dawn in the
                                                      open air 31½°.
11                Id                   id             No frost.
12         Little fog.                 id             Hoar frost.
                                                      Ther. exposed
                                                      33°.  A fall of
                                                      snow on the
                                                      mountain above
                                                      Nayakot.
13                Id                   id             id   id   31½°
14         Much fog.                   id                    id
15                Id                   id                    id
16                Id                   id             A little hoar
                                                      frost.
17                Id                   id                    id
18                Id                   id             No frost.
19         Little fog.       Cloudy.                         id
20         Much fog.                   id                    id
21                Id         Emodus clear                    id
22                Id                   id                    id
23         Little fog.                 id             Hoar frost.
24                Id                   id                    id
25         Some fog.                   id                    id
26                Id                   id                    id
27                Id                   id             No frost.
28                Id         Emodus clouded.          id
                                                      Thermometer at
                                                      dawn exposed
                                                      44°.
29                Id                   id                    id
30                Id                   id                    id
31

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR JANUARY 1803.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                  Barometer.                         Pluviometer Inches.                             Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.        Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.        Dawn.                                   Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′                   56           49           32                       25.21        25.27        25.29        No rain during this        W. 2          W. 3               0        E. ½
                                                                                                                                             month but on the 24th
                                                                                                                                             day.
2                                      49                       49           38          25.28                     25.35        25.45                                   SW. by W. 1   SW. by W. 2        0             0
3                                      50          55           50           38          25.35        25.26        25.33        25.41                                   W. 1          W. 1               0             0
4                                      51          55           51           35          25.35        25.26        25.30        25.36                                   NW. 1         NW. 1              0             0
5                                      52          55           51           34          25.31        25.25        25.27        25.33                                   W. 1          W. 1               0             0
6                                      50          55           50           38          25.27        25.18        25.27        25.25                                   W. 1          W. 2               0             0
7                                      50          56           51           38          25.22        25.16        25.18        25.22                                   NW. 1         NW. 1              0             0
8                                      55          58           52           42          25.24        25.15        25.24        25.32                                        0             0             0             0
9                                      51          57           52           42          25.31        25.23        25.31        25.34                                   W. 1          W. 3               0             0
10                                     51          58           51           36          25.35        25.26        25.32        25.42                                   N. by W. 1    NNW. 3             0             0
11                                     52          56           51           33          25.27        25.22        25.31        25.44                                   W. 2          W. 3               0             0
12                                     50          55           50           31          25.47        25.41        25.46        25.49                                   W. 1          W. 2               0             0
13                                     49          56           49           33                       25.33        25.40        25.46                                   SW. by W. 1   SW. by W. 2        0             0
14                                     50          56           51           32          25.43        25.34        25.42        25.52                                   W. 2          W. 3               0        E. ½
15                                     50          54           50           35          25.45        25.41        25.49        25.52                                   W. 1          SW. by W. 2        0             0
16                                     49          55           49           36          25.47        25.48        25.43        25.43                                        0        NW. 1              0             0
17                                     50          53           48           35          25.39        25.44        25.40        25.39                                        0        NW. 1              0             0
18                                     50          52           51           35          25.34        25.28        25.30        25.39                                   W. 1          W. 4               0        E. ½
19                                     50          56           50           36          25.35        25.27        25.33        25.39                                   W. 1          W. 2               0             0
20                                                 56           51           35                       25.27        25.29        25.42                                        0        W. 1               0             0
21                                     51          55           51           38          25.38        25.33        25.29        25.42                                   NW. by W. 1   N. by W 2          0             0
22                                     51          57           52           36          25.36        25.30        25.31        25.35                                   W. 2          W. 3               0
23                                     51          55           53           45          25.33        25.28        25.27        25.27                                                                    0             0
24                                     51          51           50           40          25.28        25.23        25.24        25.25        0.44                       W. 1          NW. 1              0        E. ½
25                                     51          53           50           42          25.21        25.18        25.16        25.24                                   E. 1          W. 1               0        SW. 1
26                                     51          55           50           40          25.25        25.25        25.31        25.34                                   SW. by S. 3                      0             0
27                                     52          54           52           42          25.31        25.25        25.29        25.30                                   W. 1          W. 1          W. 1          SE. by E. 1
28                                     52          55           51           40          25.30        25.24        25.28        25.33                                   W. 1          NW. 1              0        E. ½
29                                     52          55           53           39          25.35        25.27        25.30        25.38                                   E. 1          NW. 1              0        SE. ½
30                                     52          57           52                       25.32        25.25        25.27        25.28                                   W. 1          W. 3               0             0
31                                                 59           54           40          25.25        25.23        25.23        25.28                                   W. 1          W. 2               0        E. ½
Particular average,                    50.8        55.3         50.8         37.2        25.328       25.274       25.31        25.364       0.44 Total.
General average,                                             48.1                                              25.32

OBSERVATIONS FOR JANUARY 1803.


The thermometer was exposed every morning till quite cooled.  At other
times it was kept in a cool open room.  Sky and atmosphere as in the
preceding months.

Day.
1          Thick fog in the         Emodus clouded.   Hoar frost.
           morning.
2                    Id                    id         No frost.
3                    Id                    id                id
4          Little fog.                     id                id
5          Foggy morning.           Emodus clear.     A little frost.
6                    Id             Emodus hazy,      No frost.
                                    but visible at
                                    times.
7                    Id                    id                id
8                    Id                    id                id
9                    Id                    id                id
10         Clear morning.                  id         Slight hoar
                                                      frost.
11         Foggy morning.                  id         Hoar frost.
12         Little fog.                     id                id
13                   Id                    id                id
14         Foggy morning.                  id                id
15                   Id                    id         No frost.
16         Clear Morning.                  id                id
17         Foggy morning.                  id                id
18                   Id                    id                id
19                   Id                    id                id
20                   Id                    id                id
21                   Id                    id                id
22                   Id                    id                id
23         Clear morning.                  id         id Day clouded.
24         Snow on the tops of Shivapuri and Chandungiri.  Hills
           clouded.
25         Snow gone.  No fog.      Emodus clouded.
26         Little fog.              Emodus visible,
                                    but clouded in
                                    most parts.
27                   Id             Emodus clouded.
28         Foggy morning.                  id
29                   Id             Emodus clear.
30                   Id             Emodus clouded.
31                   Id                    id

REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR FEBRUARY 1803.

Day.       PLACE.        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                 Barometer.                     Pluviometer Inches.                             Winds.
                                         Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.                               Noon.        3 Hours.       9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Kathmandu     27° 41′                   59           49           35                      25.21        25.21        25.25       0                       W. 1        W. 3                 0        E. ½
2                                      53          57           54           39          25.26       25.20        25.27        25.30       0                       W. 1        SW. 3                0             0
3                                      53          57           52           32          25.29       25.22        25.24        25.28       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
4                                      51          56           52           34          25.21       25.18        25.23        25.27       0                           0       W. 2                 0             0
5                                      52          57           52           37          25.25       25.19        25.23        25.35       0                       NW. 1       W. 3                 0        E. ½
6                                      52          57           52           37          25.28       25.23        25.26        23.33       0                           0       SW. by W. 1     E. ½               0
7                                      52          58           51           40          25.29       25.22        25.24        25.31       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
8                                      51          53           51           39          25.31       25.26        25.24        25.28       0                           0       W. 2                 0             0
9                                      51          55           53           39          25.26       25.23        25.21        25.24       0                           0       W. 2                 0             0
10                                                 58           51           33                      25.20        25.19        25.27       0                       W. 1        W. 3
11                                     52          57           53           41          25.27       25.22        25.26        25.34       0                                                   E. 1          E. 2
12                                     56                       54                       25.34                    25.28        25.34       0                       W. 1        W. 4                 0             0
13                                     60          63           58           39          25.31       25.23        25.27        25.27       0                       W. 2        W. 4            W. ½          W. 1
14                                                 65           58           52                      25.22        25.24        25.23       0                       W. 2        W. 4                 0        E. 1
15                                     56          57           55           50          25.21       25.21        25.24        25.22       0.54                    W. 2        W. 2                 0        E. 1
16                                     55          57           55           45          25.22       25.22        25.24        25.21       0.10                    W. 1        W. 1                 0             0
17                                                 58           55           45                      25.19        25.21        25.22       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
18                                     55          60           55           34          25.22       25.15        25.18        25.21       0                       W. 1        W. 1                 0             0
19                                     54          58           55           41          25.21       25.15        25.18        25.19       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
20                                     55          55           53           36          25.19       25.15        25.18        25.24       0                       W. 1        W. 1                 0             0
21                                     54          59           54           44          25.23       25.19        25.25        25.29       0                       W. 1        W. 1                 0             0
22                                                 59           56           43                      25.20        25.26        25.28       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
23                                     57          60           58           48          25.29       25.22        25.28        25.28       0                       W. 1        SW. by W. 3          0        W. 1
24                                     59          63           59           44          25.28       25.24        25.29        25.36       0                       W. 1        SW. by W. 3     E. ½               0
25                                     58          64           59           44          25.33       25.23        25.33        25.31       0                       W. 1        W. 2            E. ½               0
26                                     61          61           57           47          25.33       25.26        25.34        25.37       1.15                    W. 1        W. 3            E. ½          E. ½
27                                     52          52           50           41          25.44       25.32        25.34        25.31       0                       E. 1        E. 2                 0             0
28                                     53          58           56           44          25.32       25.26        25.28        25.25       0                       W. 1        W. 2                 0             0
Particular average,                    52.70       58.26        54.18        41.22       25.28       25.21        25.25        25.26       1.79 Total.
General average,                                            51.58                                             25.25

OBSERVATIONS FOR FEBRUARY 1803.


Sky and atmosphere as in the three preceding months.  Thermometer exposed
in the morning.

Day.
1          Thick fog in the         Emodus clouded.
           morning.
2                    Id                    id
3          No fog.                         id         Hard frost in
                                                      the morning.
4          Little fog.                     id         Frosty morning.
5          Much fog.                       id         No frost.
6          Some fog.                       id
7          Thick fog.                      id
8          Some fog.                       id
9          Thick fog.                      id
10         No fog.                  Emodus visible    Hoar frost.
                                    in the morning.
11                   Id                    id
12                   Id             Emodus clear at
                                    sunrise.
13                   Id                    id
14                   Id             Emodus entirely   No snow on the
                                    hid.              hills of Nepal.
15                   Id                    id
16         Little fog.                     id
17                   Id             Emodus at times
                                    visible.
18                   Id             Emodus clear.     Hoar frost.
19                   Id             Emodus clear in
                                    the afternoon.
20                   Id             Emodus clear in
                                    the morning.
21                   Id             Emodus entirely
                                    hid.
22                   Id                    id
23                   Id                    id
24         Much fog.                       id
25         Little fog.              Emodus clear at
                                    times.
26         Hail in the afternoon.   Much snow at
                                    night on
                                    Chandungiri,
                                    etc.
27         Thick fog in the         Emodus clouded.
           morning.
28                   Id                    id

N.B.  The thermometer on the 6th was immersed into the spring below
Hilchuck, and stood at 65°.  In the open air, it had been previously at
52°.



REGISTER OF THE WEATHER FOR MARCH 1803.

Day.       PLACES,        Lat. N.                  Fahrenheit’s Thermometer.                                   Barometer.                       Pluviometer Inches.                             Winds.
                                          Noon.       3 Hrs.       9 Hrs.       Dawn.       Noon.        3 Hrs.        9 Hrs.        Dawn.                                 Noon.        3 Hours.      9 Hours.     19 Hours.
1          Suburbs of     27° 41′       54          56           54           40          25.39       25.22         25.21         25.15         0                       W. 1          W. 1               0             0
2          Kathmandu                                61           55           38                      25.04         25.04         25.04         0                       WNW. 1        WNW. 1             0             0
3                                       55          60           56           43          25.05       25.02         25.08         25.11         0                       W. 1          W. 2               0             0
4                                       57          64           59           44          25.19       25.12         25.13         25.16         0                       W. 1          W. 2               0             0
5                                       58          64           57           44          25.14       25.11         25.11         25.18         0                       W. 1          W. 3               0             0
6                                       60          63           56           35          25.21       25.19         25.17         24.24         0                       W. 2          W. 2               0        NW. by W. 1
7                                       57          64           58           38          25.24       25.19         25.21         25.25         0                       W. 1          W. 2               0             0
8                                       59          68           58           42          25.26       25.18         25.20         25.29         0                       W. 2          W. 3               0             0
9                                       58          63           60           40          25.33       25.26         25.28         25.35         0                       NW. by W. 2   NW. by W. 3        0        E. 1
10                                      65          69           61           40          25.37       25.31         25.36         25.3          0                       NW. by W. 2   NW. by W. 3        0        E. ½
11                                      62          67           60           37          25.27       25.22         25.23         25.23         0                       W. 2          W. 3               0             0
12                                      61          68           63           42          25.29       25.22         25.25         25.25         0                       E. 2          W. 4               0        E. ½
13                                      62          67           63           44          25.26       25.19         25.20         25.23         0                       W. 1          W. 3               0             0
14                                      62          67           63           45          25.24       25.21         25.20         25.24         0                       W. 1          W. 2               0        E. ½
15                                      63          66           62           44          25.27       25.25         25.27         25.28         0                       SW. by W. 1   SW. by W. 2        0             0
16                                      63          69           64           49          25.24       25.19         25.20         25.22         0                       W. 1          W. 2               0             0
Particular average,                     59.70       64.75        59.3         41.5        25.25       25.1825       25.1962       25.2231
General average,                                              56.2                                               25.21

OBSERVATIONS FOR MARCH 1803.

Day.
1          Thick fog.          Emodus clouded.  Valley clear.
2
3          No fog.             Emodus clear.  In the morning a little
                               hoar-frost on the straw, but none on
                               grass.
4          Some fog.           Emodus clouded.
5          Much fog.                             id
6                  Id          Emodus clear in the forenoon.
7          No fog.             Hoar-frost.  Emodus clear.
8                  Id          Emodus clear.
9                  Id          Emodus clouded.
10                 Id          Emodus at times visible.
11                 Id                            id
12                 Id                            id
13         A little fog.       Emodus clouded.
14                 Id                            id
15         No fog.                               id
16                 Id                            id

CALCULATION OF THE ALTITUDES
OF SOME OF THE
SNOWY MOUNTAINS FROM THE VALLEY OF NEPAL.
BY COLONEL CRAWFORD.

Time of Observation                                                26th October 1802 at 3 hours P.M.
Name of the Mountain                                               A                  C              D              E              F              K               L Dhaya-bung       M
Double Altitude as taken in the Mercury                            4°.16′.00′′        5.37.30        6.47.30        6.03.25        6.18.45        10.09.15        10.10.00           9.07.30
Double Altitude as corrected for the error in Sextant = 1′18′′     4°.14′.42′′        5.36.12        6.46.12        6.02.07        6.17.27        10.07.57        10.08.42           9.06.12
Angle of Altitude                                                  2°.07′.21′′        2.48.06        3.23.06        3.01.03        3.08.43        5.03.58         5.04.21            4.33.06
Allowance for Terrestrial Refraction = 1/12 distance               5′.39′′            4.55           3.41           2.44           3.15           2.10            2.44               1.55
Angle at the Station corrected for Terrestrial Refraction          2°.01′.42′′        2.43.11        3.19.25        2.58.21        3.05.28        5.01.48         5.01.37            4.31.13
Angle at the Mountain’s top                                        87°.58′.18′′       87.16.49       86.40.35       87.01.39       86.54.32       84.58.12        84.58.23           85.28.47
Base or distance (Miles & Furlongs)                                78. -              68. 3          51. -          40. -          45. 2          30. 2           40. 7              26. -
Height by Trigonometry (Feet & Decimals)                           14,548.8           17,016.6       15,637.2       10,966.8       12,830.7       13,941.6        18,900             10,890.1
Additional Height for the Earth’s Curvature (Feet & Decimals)      4,050              3,098          1,727          1,062.4        1,345.5        607.59          1,060.32           448.86
Height of the Mountain above the Station (Feet & Decimals)         19,634.8           20,114.6       17,364.2       12,029.2       14,176.2       14,549.19       19,960.32          11,346.97
Thermometer                                                        63°
Barometer (Inches & Decimals)                                      25.18

No correction for the state of the air has been attempted.



INDEX.


ABORIGINES, page 9, 23, 24, 25, 287, 305

Acham, a lordship, 280

Achar, a priest of the sect of Siva among the Newars, 29, 30

Adhikar, see Negi

Adhiyar, people cultivating for a (half) share of the crop, 149

Adultery subject to fine, 161

Agalmatolite, 79

Agam Singha, hereditary chief of the Kirata tribe, 2, 54, 133, 140

Aggregate rocks, including granite, etc. 66, 76, 82, 203

Agnidanda, a family of Brahmans, 103

Agriculture, general state of, 64, 68, 73, 217, 221, 274,

     275, 282, 298, 305, 312

     See also for a detail, Cattle, Crops, Gardens, Grains, Implements,

     Labourers, Pasture, Produce, Rent, Tenures, Vegetables for the
kitchen.

Ahira or Cowherd, a dynasty, see Gupt

Ahir, a tribe or cast, 297

Air, temperature of, see Weather: degree of salubrity, see Ayul,

     and pages 65, 69, 71

Ajil Sen, a powerful chief, 129, 130

Alamnagar, a stronghold in Kangra, 311

Alangchang, a mart, 157

Ale, a tribe, 279

Alluvial matter, 80, 205

Almora, a principality and town, the former most commonly called

     Kumau, see also 112, 287, 293, 297, 298

Alpine region, 75, 87, etc.

Amaranthus, a species called Anardana or Phaphar, 275, 284, 315

Amar Singha Karyi, or Bara Amar Sigha, a chief of Gorkha, 19, 112,

     259, 260, 300, 304, 307, 311, 312

Amar Singha Thapa, a general of Gorkha, father of Bhim Sen, 112, 176,

     178, 179, 261, 266, 296, 299

Ambar Sen, first Raja of Palpa and Butaul, 170

Ammonite, a petrifaction, see Salagram

Ana, a money of account, 214

Anirudha, grandson of the god Krishna, 206

Anirudha, a chief of Kangra, 311

Antimony, the mineral, 78

Aniwar, a tribe of military Brahmans, 48, 164, 169

Architecture, 38, 210

Argha, a lordship, 172, 173, 238, 239, 263

Aristocracy or nobility, 108, 110, 255, 257

Arjal, a family of Brahmans, 103

Arki, one of the twelve lordships, and a town and military station, 306

Arms, military, 111, 112, 116 148, 246

Army, see Arms, Company, Military

Arsenic the mineral, 79

Artificers, 233

Arun river, 89, 91, 166

Asanti, Raja of Karuvirpur, leader of a Hindu colony, 12, 287, 293

Ashruffy, a coin, 214

Asoph ud Doulah, the Nawab Vazir, 173, 174

Astrology, or Jyotish, 251

Athabhai, see League

Ayul, an unhealthy air, 65, 194, 196, 199, 200



BADRINATH, a temple, 301, 302

Baglungchaur, a town, 274

Bahadur Sahi, regent of Gorkha, 173, 174, 247-250, 271, 277,

     281, 299

Baisi Raja, or twenty-two lordships, a part of the dominions of

     Gorkha, 268, 270, 276, 278, 279

Bala, a cast of Newars, 87

Balihang, a lordship, 171, 172, 264, 280

Balance of power, 283

Bandar, a small district, 172

Bandari, a collector of revenue, 113, 114

Bangra or Baryeau, called Bahauras and Bhauras by Colonel Kirkpatrick,
priests

     of the Bouddha sect among the Newars, 29, 31, 219

Bangphi, a lordship, 270, 276, 280

Bangsi Raja, a Hindu chief, subject to the Company, 268

Baragarhi, a town and district, 167, 168

Barahat, a territory, 299

Barakadwar, a mart, 265

Barapul, a weight, 216

Bara Thakurai, or twelve lordships, a territory

     subject to Gorkha, 303, 304, 306, 307

Barley or Hordeum sativum, 226, 274, 282, 284, 298

Barometer, the instrument, its height, see Meteorological Tables at the

     end, and page 200

Baropathi, a territory, 293

Baryeau, see Bangra

Basnat, a tribe, 18, 28

Batar, a tribe, 164

Bayas river, see Bepasa

Baz Bahadur, a chief of Kumau, 293

Bear, the wild beast, 68

Belahari, a territory, 293

Belka, a lordship, 129

Bell metal, 232

Belortag, a mountain, 94

Beni means the junction of two rivers

Beniji or Benishahar, the town of Malebum, which, with Dhorali, the
chief’s

      residence, formed the capital of that lordship, 271, 274

Bepasa or Bayas river, 315

Bera river, 195

Bera, a vegetable, see Solanum Melongena

Berberis, called Chootraphul, 85

Besar, a lordship, 307

Besariya, a lordship, 299

Beyas, a passage between the Snowy Mountains, 298

Bhairopati, a medicinal herb, 97

Bhajji, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Bhar, see Bhawar

Bharadar, the great council of state, and supreme court of justice, 103,

     108

Bhat, a cast of Newars, 34

Bhat, a cast of Kasiyas, 305

Bhatgang, a principality, and its capital town, 209, 210, 211

Bhawani, see Devi and Tulasi

Bhawar or Bhar, a tribe, 47, 128, 164

Bhemagarhi, a town, 161

Bhimphedi, a station, 200

Bhim Sen, son of Pandu, first Hindu colonist, 9, 25, 167

Bhim Sen, a chief of Gorkha, 19, 108, 112, 176, 258,

     260-262, 277

Bhingri, a lordship, 239, 268, 270

Bhitari Tarayi, a territory, 278

Bhomor, a lordship, 313

Bhot or Bhotan, the country occupied by Bhotiyas, including what

     Europeans call Bhotan and Thibet, 55-60, 90, 243

Bhotan, formerly Madra and Sailya, see these words, Deva Dharma Raja, and

     page 8

Bhotiyas, Hindus, so called from living near the frontier, 24, 215 see

     also Kath Bhotiyas, and Seyena Bhotiyas

Bhotiyas, a nation occupying Bhot, 25, 50-60, 118, 158, 165,

     194, 242, 243, 248, 287, 288, 293, 307



Bhurjapatra, ) a medicinal herb, 97

Bhuryapatra, )



Bhutkes,   ) a medicinal plant, 86, 98

Bhutkesar, )



Bichari, a judge, 102, 105, 150

Bichhakor, a custom-house, 196

Bidur Sahi, a chief of Gorkha, 261

Biga, a measure of land, 153, 154, 216

Bihadani, a duty on marriages, 161



Bikh,    ) a medicinal herb, 98, 99

Bikhma,  )



Bilasi, a mart, 124

Bilaspur, Easter, see Dalu Dailek

Bilaspur, Wester, a lordship, 303, 304

Bilaspur, a town in Kahalur, 313

Binayak, first Raja of Butaul, 132, 170

Binayakpur, see Butaul

Birch tree, 83, 97

Birds, kinds of, 67, 95

Birkot, a lordship, 238, 239, 241

Birtha, a kind of melk land, 219



Bish     ) a medicinal herb, 98, 99

Bishma,  )



Bishtako, a tribe, 18, 28

Bist, see Karyi

Bisuli, a weight, 216

Bitalpa, a person holding land by a certain kind of tenure, 107, 219

Bitrawati river, 194

Bombax heptaphyllum or Simul tree, 63

Borax the drug, 214

Borbhakan, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Bos Bubalus, see Buffalo

Bos grunniens or cattle, the tails of which are called Chamari,
Changwari,

     Chaungri, or Chauri, with different breeds of the same species,

     called Lulu and Jhogo, 76, 93, 217, 285

Bos Taurus, see Neat cattle

Bouddha, sect of, see Buddhas, and pages 10, 25, 30, 32, 40,

     189, 208, 209

Bouddhama, a temple, 209, 211

Brahma, a deity, 32

Brahma, a sect and tribe, 189, 279

Brahmans

     Introduction into Nepal, etc. 10, 25, 305

     Manners, 16

     Privileges, 104, 179, 219, 234, 251

     Number, 242, 244, 252, 265, 266, 267, 269,

     275, 277, 279, 281, 282, 286, 297

     Military, 48

     Of Mithila, 46

Brahmaputra river, 91, 214

Brahma Sahi, a chief of Gorkha, 254, 255, 261, 298, 301

Brahmutra or Brehmoter, lands held by a peculiar tenure, 219

Brass, the metal, 232

Breccia, a rock, 66

Brehmoter, see Brahmutra

Brick, 39, 233

Bridges, see Sangga and Ihola

Brim, a medicinal herb, 100

Brittiya, a person holding a kind of landed estate, 107, 219

Buddha, a deity or lawgiver of the Bouddha sect, 25, 29, 32, 56,

     57, 190, 206

Budhkarna, a chief of the Kiratas, 140

Buffalo or Bos Bubalus, a kind of cattle, 76, 217

Bukhshi, a high military officer, 115

Burmah, a nation, 189

Burmah dynasty, see Varma

Burning rock, 312, see also Spring burning

Butaul or Binayakpur, a town and lordship, 132, 170, 180, 265,

     274, 277

CALTHA, a kind of plant, 99

Cannabis sativa, Charas, Gangja, Hemp, Ieea, or Subje, a plant,

     226, 231

Capitation tax, see Rajangka and Sayer

Cardamon, a seed, 74

Casts, a hereditary division of professions, 16, etc. 30, etc.

     234, 242, 265, 266, 267, 268, 274, 275,

     277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 286, 297

Catechu, see Khayer and Mimosa

Cattle, see Bos grunniens, Buffalo, Goat, Horse, Neat, Sheep, Swine

Cedrella, a kind of tree called Tungd or Toon, 67



Chakor,   ) a bird, see Perdix rufa

Chakuri   )



Chakran, lands granted in fee for service, see Feodal

Cham, a lordship, 280

Chamari, see Bos grunniens

Chamba, a lordship, 315

Chamkal, a cast of Newars, 37

Champa, a tree, see Michelia

Champaranya, a lordship, often called Rajapur, or Rajpur, from its

     capital, see Rajapur

Champawati, a town, see Kumau

Chana, a grain, see Cicer arietinum

Chancelor, a high law officer, see Dharm’adikar

Chandangiri mountain, 204, 205

Chandi, a territory in Garhawal, 299, 301

Chandpur, a town and lordship, 298

Chandel Rajputs, a tribe, 268, 269, 307, 310

Changgu Narayan, a temple, 219

Changiya, a fortress, 157

Changra, see Goat

Changwari, see Bos grunniens

Charas see Cannabis

Charity lands or Khairat zemin, see Melk

Chariyagarhi, a fortress, 165

Chaturbhuja Raja of Yumila, 15

Chaubisi, Chaubisiya, or twenty-four Rajas, a portion of the Gorkha

     territory, 145, 237, 268, 269, 270, 276, 278

Chaudanda, a town, 151

Chaudandi Raja, 146, 165

Chaudas, a territory, 294

Chaudhuri, an officer of government, 102, 105, 150, 152

Chauhan or Sisaudhiya tribe of Rajputs, 129, 130, 240, 297



Chaungri ) see Bos grunniens

Chaury,  )



Chautariya or Choutra, called Hitan in Yumila, chief officer of

     state, 107, 108, 147, 255, 260, 261, 262, 287

Chayenpur, a province or large district, and its capital, 156

Chayenpur, a town on the San Kosi, 168

Chesnut tree, 83, 217

Chhawa Raja, the title among the Bengalese for the heir-apparent of

     Sikim, 120

Chhinachhin, a town, 283, 285

Chhipi, a cast of Newars, 37

Chilli, a lordship and town, 279

China and Chinese empire called Hung (Hun) by the Gorkhalese,

     51, 122, 176, 248, 272, 288, 289, 298,

     299; commerce with, 212

Chirata, a kind of Gentiana used in medicine, 85

Chiriyaghat hills and defile, 197

Chiriyamahal, a duty on birds, 68, 153, 163

Chisapani, a fortress, 168, 199, 201

Chitaur, colony from, 12, 15, 18, 20, 128, 129, 130,

     178, 184, 240, 297

Chitlong, a town, 204

Chootraphul, see Berberis

Choutra, see Chautariya

Christians, 38

Chronology of the Hindus, 188

Chunra, 20

Chuya, a grain, perhaps the Holcus Sorghum, 315

Cicer arietinum, or Chana, a grain, 284

Cinnabar, a mineral, see Mercury

Civil power subordinate to the military, 109, see Establishment

Clay, 81, 83

Climate healthiness, see Air, Ayul ; influence on the human

     appearance or colour, 60; state of, or weather, see Register at

     the end, and Weather

Clothing, see Dress

Coins, 154, 214, 215

Colebrooke, Colonel, 3

Colebrooke, H. T. Esq. 3

Collector of revenue, see Bandari

Colonies of Hindus, see Asanti, Bhim Sen, Chitaur, Thor Chandra

Colour of men, 60

Commerce, state of, see Custom-houses, Porterage, and

     pages 104, 212, 243

     Exports and imports, 124, 126, 157, 212, 284

Company, English East India, 143, 176, 177, 291

Company of troops, its establishment, 110, etc.

Convolvulus Batatas, Sakarkandh, or sweet potatoe, 230

Copper, the metal, 76, 203, 242, 264, 267, 269,

     272, 275, 297, 301, 306

Copper manufacture, 232, 233

Corporal punishments, 103, 104

Corundum, a stone, 79, 267

Cotton, 64, 68, 74, 232

Cotton manufacture, 232

Court of the Raja, see Rajdani

Courts of justice, see Law

Crawford, Colonel Charles, his maps and drawings, 3, etc.

Crops of cultivated lands, 217, 222, etc.; see Produce, Grains

Crystal rock, 94, 195, 272, 301

Cuckoo, the bird, 203

Cucumber, the fruit, 229

Cultivation, extent of, see Agriculture

Cultivation by clearing forests, 68

Cultivation by the hoe, 274, 275

Custom-houses, Golas, or Marts, 125, 126, 150, 152, 153,

     156, 157, 161, 163, 164, 165, 168, 180, 218,

     242, 265

Cynosurus, or Eleusine Corocanus, Maruya, or Pangdu Kodo, a grain,

     226, 275

Cypressus, a tree, 97



DAHAR, a fortress, 316

Daibyghaut, see Devighat

Dalbergia, a tree called Sisau, 67

Dalka, a town, 167

Dalu Basandra, burning springs, 281

Dalu Dailek, or Bilaspur, a lordship, 279, 280, 281

Dama, a coin and money, 214, 215

Damai, a cast, 20

Dami, a priest of the Magar tribe, 26

Damodar kund, a place in Thibet, 273

Damodar Pangre, an officer of Gorkha, 173, 175, 176, 248,

     252, 254, 255, 257-259, 269, 296

Danakoti, a town, 274

Dang, a lordship and town, 238, 239, 277, 278, 288

Danpur, a territory, 293

Daphne, a tree called Siedburrooa, 85, 236

Darjiling, a fortress in Sikim, 119, 127, 157

Darogha, a judge, 102, 114

Darwe, a tribe, 279

Datarpur, a lordship, 314

Debt, recovery of, 104

Degarchi, a town of Thibet, residence of the Tishu Lama, see

     Tishu, and pages 57, 212, 213

Desa, in Hindu geography, denotes the 56 divisions of their

     country Bharatkhanda, 192

Desali, or Kamin, an officer of government, 102, 105, 113

Deva Dharma Raja, title of the prince of Bhotan, 56, 119, 120,

     121, 122

Devatas, deities of an inferior rank, 32

Devi, Bhawani, Guhyiswari, Mahamaia, Parwati, Sakti, or Tulasi, a

     goddess, spouse of Siva, 193, 204, 310, 312

Devighat, or, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, Daibyghaut, a

     town and place of pilgrimage, 193

Devikot mountain, 205

Dewan, chief minister of finance, 2, 148, 149, 150

Dewapatun, a town, 209, 212

Dewghat, a town and place of pilgrimage, 185

Dhaka, a town in Bengal, 212

Dhama, the holy land of Nepal, 192

Dhana, gifts for the remission of sins, 219

Dhangphiya, a bird, see Phasianus

Dharma, a territory and passage among the snowy mountains, 276,

     280, 293, 298

Dharm’Adikar, or Chancelor, a high officer of law, 102, 103,

     105, 114

Dharma Prakas, chief of Sirmaur, 304

Dharmapur, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Dharni, a weight, 216

Dhayabung, a town, 194

Dherna, a manner of recovering debt, 104

Dhewar, a tribe, 21

Dhimsa, a village, 194

Dhor, a lordship, 238, 239, 241

Dhoral, the castle of the chiefs of Malebum, 271

Dhui, a tribe of Newars, 36

Dhunchi, a village, 194

Dhupi, a tree, see Juniperus

Dhurkot, a lordship, 238, 240, 263, 266

Dilli, Mogul kings of, 299, 301, 303, 311, 312

Dimali, a tribe, see Mech

Dimali, a mart, see Siumali

Dimba Ray, chief of Malebum, 270

Dinajpur, a district, formerly Matsya, 7

Dip Chandra, a chief of Kumau, 294

Dipal, a town, 282

Diseases, 71

Ditha, a minister of justice, 105

Dolichos Mungo, Muk and Mugy May, or Mung, a grain, 227

Dolichos Soia, Gya, Bhotmas, or Musa, 228

Domestics, 234

Dress or clothing, 232

Drugs, 74, 85, 285

Duck, a bird, 223

Dudhkunda, a mart in Thibet, 166

Duhalde’s account of China, 289

Dun, a large valley in the hilly region, 68, 313

Dun, a territory in Garhawal, 299, 301, 303

Dun, a territory west from the Satrudra, 313

Dungoda, a mineral concretion, 81

Durbar, a term adopted from the Muhammedans for the Raja’s

     court, 108 ; see Rajdani

Duti, a lordship, 279, 282, 287, 292, 293

Duties on adultery, see Adultery

     on birds, see Chiriyamabal

     on boats, 163

     on catechu, see Khayersal

     on concubines, see Sagora

     on goods imported, see Custom-house

     on marriage, see Bihadani

     on timber, see Kathmahal

Duyariya, chief and magistrate of a small extent of

     territory, 149, 150



ELEPHANT, 63, 66, 218

Eleusine, a grain, see Cynosurus

Emodus mountain, see Himaliya

Ervum Lens, Mosu, or Mosuri, a grain, 228, 284

Erythrina monosperma, or Palas tree, 63

Establishment of civil government, 149, etc. 155, 162

Establishment, military, see Military Estates, landed, management of, 220

Europeans, 246, 300

FAGARA, a kind called Tinmue or Taizbul, 84

Fairs or Melas at Devighat, 193,

     at Dudhkunda, 165,

     at Kalesi, 165,

     at Nilkantha, 194,

     at Rerighat, 180

Fallow in agriculture, 231

Farms and gardens cultivated on the Raja’s account, 217

Farmers who rent land to cultivate, 220

Farmers of rents and duties, 162, 163

Fenugreek, a pot herb, 229

Feodal tenure, or lands held in fee for service, called Chakran and

     Jaygir by the natives; see Jaygir, and pages 107, 150,

     156, 163, 164, 212, 218

Fevers, 71

Fines imposed as a punishment or expiation, 103

Fines as a source of revenue, 103, 161, 164, 218

Fir tree, see Pinus picea

Fish, 65

Fluxes, 71

Food, 236

Forests, 64, 196, 197, 198, 200, 202, 217, 218

Foujdar, the military chief of a district or Taluk, 114

Fouzdar, the chief officer of revenue in a district or Taluk, 105, 150,

     152, 155, 161

Fox, 63

Fruit, 73, 230

Fuel, 225

Futeh Sa, a chief of Garhawal, 299



GAJAL, a lordship, 276, 280

Gajarkot, a lordship, 171, 184, 238, 239

Galkot, a lordship and town, perhaps the Ghoorikote of

     Kirkpatrick, 238, 239, 269, 275

Gandaki, Kali, Krishna, Narayani, or Salagrami river, 79, 91, 181,

     272, 273

Gandharbha Sen, Raja of Palpa, 171

Gandhauk, capital of the part of Sikim remaining independent, 122

Gandi river, 244

Gang or Gram, a small division of territory, a village, a

     manor, 102, 113, 150, 155

Gangaye, a tribe, 156, 164

Ganges river sources, or Ganggotri, 3, 301, 302

Ganggoli, a town, 297

Ganggotri, see Ganges

Gangja, see Cannabis

Gar, see Garhawal

Garahang, a lordship, 238, 239, 241

Gardens, kitchen, 230, see also Fruit

Garhawal or Gar, a principality, often called Srinagar from its modern

     capital, 248, 283, 295, 298-302, 303

Garhi, a district or considerable portion of territory, 150

Garlic, the root, 228, 229

Gar Pasara, a fortress, 168, 196

Gar Samaran, a ruined city, once the capital of Mithila or

     Tirahut, 45, 49, 129, 188, 190, 191

Gautama, a deity of the Buddhas, 57

Gautamiya, a tribe, 270, 271

Gelpo, title of the chief of Sikim, 118

Gengdi, a town, 241

Gentiana, called Chirata, 85

Ghaman, chief of Kangra, 310

Gharti, a tribe, 18, 19, 28, 279

Ghiring, a lordship, 171, 184, 238, 239

Ghosts, worship of, 26

Ghowasin, a lordship, 310

Ginger root, 75, 229, 306

Giuseppe, Father, his account of Nepal, 7

Goat, common, 76, 217

Goat producing the shawl-wool or Changra, and its wool, 76, 93, 217

Gods of the Hindus, 288 ; see also Brahma, Devi, Gautama, Gorakhanath,

     Kangkali, Salagram, Siva, Tulasi, Temples, Vishnu

Goitre or swelled throat, 72, 87

Gola, see Custom-house

Gold, 76, 93, 272, 289, 298

Gomashtah, an officer of revenue, 103

Gootum, a lordship, 280

Gopal dynasty, or second family of Cowherd kings in

     Nepal, 188, 191, see Gupt

Gorakhanath, tutelar deity of the reigning family, 210, 211 244

Gorakhpur district, once subject to Tirahut, 129

Gorayit, a messenger employed in the police and revenue departments, 155

Gordonia, a tree, 83

Gorkha, a lordship, 238, 242, 243

Gorkha Rajas extraction and genealogy, 26, 52, 240, 243, 262,

     263

     policy, 64, 120, 172, 174, 175, 178, 179, 180,

     239, 249, 278, 284, 300

     present power, 7, 117, etc.

     conquest of the Baisi and Chaubisi Rajas, 145, 173, 248,

     269, 271

     conquest of Butaul, etc. 177

     conquest of Chaudandi, 146

     conquest of Garhawal and the countries to the west of the

             Ganges, 259, 299, 304, 307, 311

     conquest of Khidim, 171

     conquest of Kumau, 174, 296,

     conquest of Makwanpur, 144, etc.

     conquest of Morang, 140, etc.

     conquest of Nepal, 145, 192, 245

     conquest of Palpa, 177, 261,

     conquest of Sikim, 120, etc. 248

     conquest of Yumila, 250, 287

Gosaignsthan, one of the chief peaks of Emodus 194

Got, a cast of Newars, 34

Gotoo, a cast of Newars, 37

Government, 101, etc. 287

Govindapur, a town, 313

Grains, see Amaranthus, Barley, Cynosurus, Dolichos, Ervum, Holcus,

     Paspalum, Phaseolus, Pisura, Rice, Sesamum, Uya, Wheat, Produce

Gram, see Gang

Granite, see Aggregate rocks

Guhyiswari, an idol and temple of Devi, 208

Gular, a lordship, 312, 314

Gulmi, a lordship and town, 171, 173, 174, 238, 239,

     251, 263

Gunpowder, 164

Gupt or Ahira, that is, the (1st) cow-herd dynasty in Nepal 188,

     189, 190, 191, see Gopal

Guru, the spiritual guide of a Hindu, 211, 255

Gurung, a people, 25, 27, 28, 242, 274, 275, 287

HAKUYA, a preparation of rice, 224

Hamo, see Sesamum

Hang, chief of the Kirata nation, 133, 146

Hang, chief of the Lapcha nation, 118, 121

Hanur, a lordship, 304, 307

Harbhang Rajas, a dynasty governing the Kiratas, 132

Hare the animal, 68

Hariballabh, his information concerning the countries west from the

     Kali river, 5

Hariharpur, a fortress, 168, 197

Haripur, capital of Gular, 314

Hari Singha, Raja of Mithila and Garsamaran, 190, 191

Harsha Deva, a turbulent Brahman, 295, 296, 299, 311

Hasthadal, a chief of Gorkha, 261

Hatiya, a mart, 157, 159

Hatuya, a fortress, 165

Hawoo tribe, 25

Hedang, a town, 157, 158, 165

Heir apparent, 107

Hemp, see Cannabis

Hethaura, an important station, 198

Hial, a cast of Newars, 36

Hilly country or region, 66, 125, 168, 197, 199, 200



Himachul,   ) Also called Humla, the Emodus

Himadri,    ) of the ancients, 28, 62,

Himaleh,    ) 88-93, 124, 159, 164 242,

Himalichul, ) 243, 284, 288, 298, 301,

Himaliya,   ) 315



Hindus of the mountains, called Parbatiyas or Highlanders, Colonies, see

     Colony, and 9, etc. 23, 28, 165, 286, 287,

     291, 302, 305

     Conversion, 98

     Intolerance, 23, 37, 293, 297, 302, 312, 315

     Manners, 21, 204, 208, 247

Hindustan, 91

Hindoo Coosh mountain, 92

Hingwalka bara Saral, see Yew tree

Hingwalka chhota Saral, see Pinus picea

Hitan, see Chautariya

Hodoya Bikh or Bish, a drug, 99

Hoe, the implement, 221

Hog deer, 68

Hog wild, 68

Holcus Sorghum, Kaungni, Muccai, or Muruli, a grain, 227, 231,

     see Chuya

Holly tree, 83

Hornbeam tree, 83

Hornstone rock, 66

Horse, 76, 217, 284

Houses, kind, 38, etc. 210, 241, 242, 263, 265,

     266, 267, 268, 275, 277, 278, 281,

     297, 313

     Number, see Population

     Taxed, 154, 162, 217

Humla, see Himaliya

Hung, see China.



ICHHANG LIMA, a part of the snowy mountains, see Himaliya

Ika, see Sinapis

Implements of agriculture, 221, 226

Indus river, 91, 289

Information, sources of, 1, etc.

Inhabitants, 9, etc. see Aborigines, Population

Intoxication, 22, 25, 26, 35, 38, 55, 224, 226, see

     also Cannabis

Iron, blue earthy ore, a mineral, 81

Iron manufacture, 232

Iron mines, 76, 77, 264, 265, 266, 269, 272,

     275, 278, 297, 306, 316

Irrigation, as a manure, 195, 203, 223

Ischæmum, called Sabe, a grass used for ropes, 64

Isma, a lordship, 238, 239, 263, 267

Izaradar or Renter, an officer of revenue, 105

JACKAL, the wild beast, 68

Jagajit, a chief of the Pangre family, 296, 299

Jagannath, an idol’s temple, 209

Jagat Chandra, a chief of Kumau, 294

Jagat Gar, a fortress, 303

Jagat Prakas, chief of Sirmaur, 303

Jahari lordship, 270, 276, 280

Jainti, a drug, 86

Jajarkot, lordship and town, 270, 276, 280, 283, 284, 286

Janaka Rajas, ancient chiefs of Mithila, 45, 161

Janaka Pur, their capital, 45, 161

Jar or Jariya tribe, 25, 28, 270, 291, 297

Jarapani, a mart, 277

Jat, a tribe, 297, 312

Jatamangsi, a drug, 97

Jausi, a tribe of illegitimate Brahmans, 17, 178, 275, 277,

     279, 281, 282

Jausi, a tribe of Newars, 33

Jayadeva, see Jaydeva

Jaya Kirti, chief of Garhawal, 295

Jaya Krishna, a turbulent Brahman, 294

Jaya Singhapur, a town, 310

Jaydeva or Jayadeva, a Brahman of note, 291, 294

Jaygir, land held by feodal tenure for the performance of

     service, 107 155, 156, 164, 169, 212, 298,

     299, 301, 303, see Feodal

Jaysalmer, a lordship in the Rajput country, 302

Jajurbedi Brahmans, a sect, 17

Jeea, see Cannabis

Jethabura, a chief officer of government, 107

Jhausi, a town on the Ganges, 291

Jhogo, see Bos grunniens

Jhola, a bridge made of rattan ropes, 27

Jhula, a drug, see Lichen

Jimri, see Rapti river

Jopu, a cast of Newars, 34

Joyar, a territory and passage among the snowy mountains, 293, 298

Jumnemundru, a tree, see Leontice

Juniperus, called Dhupi, a tree, 96

Juniperus, called Thumuriya Dhupi, a tree, 96

Jury, or Pangchayit, 102, 114

Jyotish, see Astrology

Jwalamukhi, a town, temple, and burning rock, 312



KAHALUR, a lordship, 307, 312, 316

Kaigo, a pulse, see Pisum

Kailasa mountain, 90, 288

Kajy, an officer, see Karyi

Kakun, a grain, see Panicum italicum

Kalagong lordship, 280

Kalamakwani family, 263

Kalap gram, a cave famous in legend, 302

Kali river, there are two of this name, see Gandaki, and 282

Kaliya, see Secretary

Kalsi, a town, 303, 306

Kamalgar, a fortress, 316

Kamal Lochan his maps, 4

Kami, a tribe, 20

Kamm, an inferior officer of government, see Desali

Kamiya Brahmans 17

Kamrup, the district of Ranggapur and the adjacent part of Asam, 7,

     119, 156

Kanak Nidhi Tiwari, his account and map of the Khas country, 4, 291

Kanet, a tribe, 305

Kangkali, a deity, 48

Kangkari, a fruit, 229

Kangra, a lordship, temple, and town, 304, 305, 309-312, 313

Kanguni, a grain, see Panicum italicum

Kankayi river, 124, 159

Kanungo, register in a Subah’s office, 155

Karanali, Salasu, Sarayu, or Sonabhadra river, 5, 91, 289

Karara river, 197

Karki, tribe, 18, 28

Karmi, cast, 20, 36

Karna Prakas, chief of Sirmaur, 304, 305

Karphul tree, see Myrica

Karuvirpur, a principality and town, 12, 129, 291, 292,

     293, 298

Karyi, Kazi, or, according to Kirkpatrick, Kajy, in Yumila called

     Bist, 102, 107, 108, 147, 259 287

Kasachiet, a town, 209

Kasai, a cast of Newars, 37

Kasipur, a territory, 293

Kaski, a lordship, 27, 238, 239, 242

Kasmir, a country, 212

Kasuliya, a cast of Newars, 37

Katauch Rajputs, 310

Katha, a measure of land, 216

Kath Bhotiya, a dynasty of princes from Thibet, called also Burmahs or

     Varmas, 59, 189, 190, 191, 209

Kath Mahal, duties on timber, 153, 155 163



Kathmandu  ) modern name of the capital of Nepal, and a

Kathmaro   ) principality, 209, 210, 211, 212



Kausiki river, see Kosi

Kawa karpola mountain, part of Himaliya, 124

Kazi, see Karyi

Kedarnath, a temple, 302

Kengothal, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Kerao, a grain, see Pisum

Kerung, or Kheero, a town and district of Thibet, 195, 272

Khachi, a lordship, 171, 173, 238, 239, 263, 265

Khaira, a tree, see Mimosa

Khanal, a family of Brahmans, 103

Khari, space between two rivers, 150

Kharka, tribe, 18, 28

Khas, the country between Nepal and the Kali river, with its

     aboriginal inhabitants, 4, 8, 18, 19, 23,

     28, 281, 305

Khas, or Khasiya, a mixed breed between Hindu colonists and

     aborigines, 19, 156, 160, 164, 169, 178, 242,

     244, 265, 266, 268, 270, 275, 277, 279,

     282, 286

Khasant, part of the lordship of Malebum, 275

Khasant, another name for Saliyana

Khasbasha, language of the mountain Hindus, 16, 287

Khasiya, see Khas

Khatang, a district, 164, 166

Khati, a tribe, 287

Khatri, see Kahatri

Khawa, a cast or tribe, 20

Khayersal, duties on Catechu, 67, 153, 154, 155, 163

Kheero, see Kerung

Khet, or field, a measure of land, 216

Khidim, a small territory, 171, 181

Khor, a mart, 265

Khukri, a large knife or dagger, 111

Khungri, a lordship, 239, 268, 270

Khurchah, arbitrary exactions, under pretence of defraying expense,

     105, 154

Khurdar, see Secretary

Khuzanchee, or treasurer, a chief officer of the Raja’s household. 108

Kichak, a dynasty, see Kirata

Kichak, a people, see Kirata

Kichak jhar, a ruin, 152

King, see Raja

King supreme, 283

Kirata, or Kichak, a nation, 2, 7, 25, 53, 128, 132,

     148, 160

Kirata, or Kichak, dynasty in Nepal, 132, 189, 191

Kirkpatrick, Colonel, his account of Nepal, 5, 217

Kirti Prakas, chief of Sirmaur, 302

Kirtipur, a town, 158, 205, 209, 211

Koch, or Rajhungzi, a tribe, 119, 125, 156

Kodo, a grain of two kinds, Pangdu and Sana, 226, 227

Kohrya, land, 231

Koncha, a kind of turf, 81, 223

Kosar, a cast of Newars, 37

Kosi, or Kausiki, river, 166, 195

Kothar, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Kotta, a fortress, 311, 312

Kottahar, a lordship, 310, 313

Kotwal, a beadle or messenger, 150

Kow, a cast of Newars, 37

Krishna river, see Gandaki

Kritimohun, a chief of Gorkha, 254

Kshatri, Kshatriya, or Khatri, a cast, 18, 52, 275

Kshir kangkri, a drug, 86

Kuchar, a part of Bhotan or Thibet, south from the highest

     Himaliya mountains, 90

Kullu, a lordship, 315

Kumarsen, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Kumau or Almora, a principality and town, called also

     Champawati and Kurmachul, 12, 13 174, 261, 291-298

Kumbi, a fortress, 168

Kuppardar or storekeeper, 108

Kurarbas, a fortress, 168

Kurin Namki, chief of Sikim, 121

Kuriya, see Farmers who rent land

Kurmachul, see Kumau

Kurthi, a pulse, 282

Kutki, a drug, 100

Kutti, a province and town of Thibet, 121, 212

LABOUR, agricultural, 233, 234

Labour, rate of, 233

Ladak, a town in Thibet, 212, 289

Lahaur, (vulgo Lahore,) king or chief of, see Ranjit Singha, and 313

Lahuri Nepal, 202, 203, 204

Lalita Patun, a town and principality, 204, 209, 210, 211

Lalit Sa, chief of Garhawal, 295, 299, 303

Lal Singha, chief of Kumau, 295

Lama, an incarnation of a Buddha, and a priest of that sect in

     Thibet, 1, 25, 27, 52-57, 158, 287

Lama dangra, a chain of mountains, 167, 200

Lama, residing at Lassa, 10, 56, 58

Lama Tishu, see Tishu

Lamja, a mart, 165

Lamjun, a lordship, 238, 239, 243

Land measures, 153

Land rent, see Rent of land

Land, value by sale, 220

Langna, narrow vallies among the Alpine mountains, 28

Language of the Gods, that is, according to the Hindus, Sangskritta, 292

Language of men, that is, spoken language, 292

     Gurung, 29

     Jariya, 28

     Khas or Parbatiya, 16

     Kirata, 54

     Limbu, 54

     Magar, 26

     Murmi, 52

     Newar, 50

     Parbutiya, see Khas

Lapcha, a people, 25, 55, 118

Lassa, a country in Thibet, 10, 56, 212, 213, see Lama



Laurel, ) called Sinkauli, Sinkauri, and Tejpat, 83, 84

Laurus, )



Law, courts of, 102, etc. 114, 150, 155, 212

Laws, 101, etc. 150, see also Torture, Corporal punishment, Process,

     Fine, Prayaschitta, Panchayit, Police

Lead, the metal, 76, 78, 297

League for defence, called Athabhai, 239

League for defence, called Satbhai, 239

Leontice, a tree called Jumne Mundroo, 85

Leprosy, 72

Liberty, 108

Lichens, a drug called Jhul, 87

Limbu, a people, 25, 54, 118, 160, 164

Limestone, 66, 82

Limi, a town, 241

Lodi, a tribe, 297

Lohangga, founder of a dynasty, and its history, 132, 134, etc.

     146, etc.

Lordships Twelve, a territory subject to Gorkha, see Bara Thakurai

Lulu, see Bos grunniens



MADARMALI, the common silver coin 215

Madder Indian, see Manjit

Madra, an ancient name for Bhotan, derived from a prince by

     whom that country called properly Sailya, was governed, 8

Magar, (Mungur of Kirkpatrick,) a people, 25, 28, 156, 160,

     164, 169, 171, 178, 240, 244, 264, 291, 297

Mahadatta, Raja of Palpa, 170, 172, 250, 268

Mahalok, one of the twelve lordships, 306

Maha Maia, see Devi

Mahamandal, a peak of Himaliya, containing mines, 195

Mahatari, a district, 135, 160, 162, 168

Mahato, a petty officer, 102, see Mokkuddum

Mahes, a river, 193

Mahes Domohana, a town, 193

Mahipat Sa, chief of Garhawal, 298

Maingmo or Meyangma, part of the Himaliya mountains, 89, 158, 160

Maize, a grain, 284, 312

Majhi, a tribe, 18, 21, 28, 279

Majhoya, a mart, 124

Makunda Sen, son of Rudra, Raja of Palpa, 131, 170

Makunda Sen, son of Udyata, Raja of Palpa, 170, etc. 245,

     264, 268



Makwani,    ) a principality and district, 130, 132, 133,

Makwanpur,  ) 144, 164, 167, 195, etc.



Makwanpur, a fortress, 168, 198

Mal family, chiefs of the Newar tribe, 29, 52, 187, 191

Mal family, chiefs of Malebum, 271

Malaneta, a lordship, 276, 280

Malay, a nation, 52

Malayagiri, a tree, 84



Malebamba, ) called also Parbat, a lordship, 28, 238, 239, 245, Malebum,
)269, 275, see Mal



Malebum, a town, see Beni shahar

Malibang, a lordship, 269

Mana, a measure of grain, 216

Manal, a bird, see Meleagris



Manasa Sarawar, ) a lake, 90, 288

Manasarawar,    )



Mandhata, Raja of Vijayapur, and his descendants, 139, etc.

Manik, Raja of Makwanpur, and his descendants, 144

Manjit or Indian madder, 74

Manners, dissoluteness, 72, 204

Manu, a passage among the snowy mountains, 301

Manufactures, 232, see also Bell metal, Brass, Cotton, Iron,

     Mint, Paper, Woollen

Manure, in agriculture, 223

Manuriya Rajputs, a tribe, 293

Maps, by Colonel Crawford, 3

Maps, by various natives, 2, 3, 4, 5, 124, 160

Marichangdi river, 244, 246

Markets, 152, 161, 164, 168, 220

Marts, for trade, see Custom-houses

Maruya, a grain, see Cynosurus

Mas, May, or Mung, several kinds of pulse, see Dolichos and Phaseolus

Masha, a weight, 290

Mastang, a lordship in Thibet, 272, 273, 283

Matagari, a town, 281

Materia Medics of India, 100

Mataya, an ancient kingdom, now the district of Dinajpur, 7, 119

Matsyendranath, a deity, and his temple, 32, 211

May, a pulse, see Mas

Measures, 153, 154, 216

Mech or Dimali, a tribe, 119, 125, 156

Meleagris Satyra or Manal, a bird, 95, 285

Melk or charity land, or Khairat zemin, land held in perpetuity, which

     does not pay rent to the prince, 149, 179, 212, 218,

     see also Bitalpa and Brittiya

Menjoo Dev’, a deity, (probably Manyu, son of Brahma,) 206

Mercury, the metal, 78, 264, 272

Meyangma, see Maingmo

Mica, a mineral, 94, 195, 272

Michelia or Champa, a tree, 83, 217

Military establishment or army, 110, 115, 148, 149, 246,

     262, 298, 306, see Seapoy, Telangga

Military rank, higher than civil, 109

Military tenure, see Feodal

Mill water for grain, 221

Mimosa, called Khaira, 67

Minerals, 66, 76, 195, see Mines

Mines, see Copper, Corundum, Crystal, Gold, Iron, Lead, Mercury,

     Mica, Salt, Sulphur, Zinc, also 76, 154, 156, 164,

     166, 169, 181, 184, 195, 218, 264, 275,

     277, 306

Mint at Almora, 293, at Kathmandu, 213, 293

Mirgu, part of the snowy mountains, 89, 158, 159

Mitha, a root, 99

Mithila or Tirahut, an ancient kingdom, 156, 191

Mohan Singha, a chief of Kumau, 294

Mohur, a coin, 214, 215

Mohurer, register in the Fouzdars office, 155

Mokuddum, a petty officer, called also Mahato, Pradhan, and

     Umra, 102, 113, 150, 153, 155

Money of accounts, 214, see Coin

Money, rent, 220

Moon, family of, 291

Morang, a lordship and district, 138, 151, etc.



Mosu,   ) a pulse, see Ervum Lens

Mosuri, )



Mountainous region, 69, 87, 168, 202

Muhammedans, see Musulman

Mujumdar, an officer of accounts, 102

Mukhola, salt mine, 286

Muktanath, hot springs, a place of pilgrimage, 79, 272

Mundi, a lordship and town, 304, 318

Mung a pulse, see Mas

Mungur a people, see Magar

Munsiyari, a territory, 293

Munsuf of Bahadurgunj, his information, 2

Muri, a measure of grain, 216

Murmi, a people, 25, 52, 59, 169

Musa, a fruit tree, called Plantain by the English, 230

Musa, a kind of pulse, see Dolichos

Music, 37 111

Musikot, two lordships, 238, 239, 263, 266, 270,

     276, 280

Musk, a drug, and the animal producing it, 94

Mustard, see Sinapis

Musulmans, properly Moslemin or Muhammedan, 38

Myrica, called Karphul, a tree, 85

NADAUN, a town, 311, 312, 314

Nahan, a town, 302, 306

Nagarjun, a mountain, 205

Nag Bamba Mal, chief of Malebum, 270, 271

Nai, a cast, 20

Nalagar, a town, 308

Nanakamata, a territory, 293

Nandapur Tisuti, a lordship, 129

Narabhupal or Nribhupal, Raja of Gorkha, 244, 262

Naragarhi a town, 161

Narayan Das, a chief of Morang, 2

Narayani river, see Gandaki

Nau, a cast of Newars, 36

Nawab Singha, chief of Dang, 278

Nawab Vazir, Muhammedan Prince of Oude or Ayodhya, 277, 278, 301

Nawalpur, a town, 183

Nayakot, a lordship, and its capital, 238, 239, 241

Nayakot, a town of Nepal Proper, 194

Neat cattle, including oxen, (Bos taurus,) 76, 217

Neb, an inferior minister of a prince, 2, 147

Negi or Adhikar, an inferior officer of government, 114

Nepal Proper, conquest by the Gorkhalese, 7

     Definition, 7, 164, 167, 186 192

     Description, 3, 80, 88, 205, etc,

     History, 187, etc,

     Name, 187, 192

     Originally a lake, 206

Newar, a people 25, 29, etc, 48, 50, 59, 190, 191

     210, 225 229, 269

Nilkantha or Bara Nilkantha, a place of pilgrimage among the snow,

     192, 194



Nirbikhi,  ) a root, 99

Nirbishi,  )



Nitre or saltpetre, 164

Niyam Muni, (Nymuni of Kirkpatrick,) first king of Nepal, 187, 190

Nobility, see Aristocracy

Nribhupal, see Narabhupal

Nuggerkotie, tribe, 25

Nurpur, a lordship and town, 303, 314

Nymuni, see Niyam Muni,



OAK TREES, 83, 202, 217

Oaths, 103

Orange, a fruit, 73, 230

Ordeal, trial by, 103, 104

Oriswa, a country, 46

Ox, see Neat cattle,



PADAM CHHAL, a medicinal herb,100

Pagan, Mr, his accounts of the country, 2

Paisah, a copper coin and money, 214, 215

Palaces, 210

Palas tree, see Erythrina

Pali, a district and town, 293, 297

Paliya, a people, 119

Palpa, a principality, 131, 170, etc, 238, 239, 245,

     247, 251, 258

Pamar or Pangwar, a tribe, 240, 298

Panauni, river, 202

Panar river, 298

Pangchayit, a kind of jury, 102, 114

Pangdu Kodo, a grain, see Cynosurus

Pangre, a family of Brahmans, 103

Pangre, a noble family of Gorkha, 110, 254, 259, see also

     Damodar, Jagajit, and Ranjit

Pangtha, a family of Brahmans, 103

Pangwar, see Pamar

Panicum colonum, Tangri, or Kakun, a grain, 231

Panicum italicum, Kanguni, or Sami, a grain, 231, 275

Paper manufacture, 232

Papti, a part of the snowy mountains, 159

Parakeet, 67, 68

Parakrama, a turbulent chief, 295, 300

Parbat, a lordship, see Malebum

Parbatiya Basha or Khas Basha, the language spoken by the

     Parbatiya Hindus, 16

Parbatiya Hindu, a Hindu of the mountains, 11, 16, 210, 212

Pariyat mountains, 315

Parwati, see Devi

Pasara, a district, 168

Paspalum, called Sana Kodo, a grain, 227, 284

Pasture, 64, 75, 90, 204, 217, 288, 297

Pasupatinath, a temple of Siva, 208, 212, 219

Pathaniya, a tribe of Rajputs, 314

Pathankot, a territory, 314

Pathi, a measure of grain, 216

Pati or squad, a subdivision of a company of regular troops, 111

Patna, a city of Behar, 195, 212

Patwari, the clerk or register of a village, 155

Pauriyal, a tribe, 18

Pea, see Pisum

Peach tree, 73

Peasantry, 169

Perdix rufa, Chakor or Chakuri, a bird, 95, 235

Pergunah, a district or division of territory, 114, 150, 152,

     153, 161, 162, 182

Phakali, a passage among the snowy mountains between Bhotan

     and Thibet, 127

Phakphok, part of the Himaliya mountains, 159

Phala, a mart, 166

Phalabam or New Dang, a town, 278

Phaphar, a grain, see Amaranthus

Phaseolus calcaratus, Roxb. Lata Rato and Ruta Mas or

     Hayngu May, a grain, 227

Phaseolus Minimoo Roxb. Urid, and Kala Mas or May,

     a grain, 227, 232, 284

Phaseolus ocultatus Roxb. Seta Mas, or Chika May, a grain, 227

Phaseolus racemosus Roxb. Lal Mung or Hayngu May, a grain, 227

Phasianus Impeyanus or Dhangphiya, a bird, 95, 285

Pilgrimage, 152, 161, 185, 192, 301, 302

Pine apple, 73, 230

Pine trees, 202, 217, see also Pinus

Pinus longifolia, Salla or long-leafed pine, a tree, 67, 197

Pinus strobus, or Weymouth pine, a tree, 83

Pinus picea, common spruce fir, or Hingwalka chhota Saral, 83, 96

Pisum arvense, Pea, Kerao, or Kaigo, 228, 284

Piuthana, a lordship, 231, 238, 268

Plain region subject to Nepal, see Tariyani

Plants, spontaneous, 63, 67, 83, 200

Pluviometer, see Register of the Weather at the end

Poin, a lordship, 238, 239, 269

Poison root, 55, 99

Pokang, a mart, 158, 159

Pokhara, a town and mart, 242

Police, 102, etc, 149, 212

Policy, see Gorkha

Population, 209, 242, 266, 267, 268, 269, 274,

     275, 279, 297

Portaw, a province of Thibet, 121

Porters and porterage, 233

Potatoe, common, see Solanum

Potatoe, sweet, see Convolvulus

Pradhan, a petty officer, see Mokuddum

Pradipa Sa, a chief of Garhawal, 299, 310

Pradyumna Sa, a chief of Garhawal, 295, 299, 300

Praja, see Farmer who rents land to cultivate

Pratap Chandra, chief of Kumau, 296

Prati Nidhi Tiwari, his account of the Khas country, 4, 291

Prayag, five places of worship at the junctions of the principal

     branches of the Ganges, 302

Prayaschitta, an expiation or fine, 21, 103

Presents, a source of revenue, 106, 154

Prithwi Narayan, king of Gorkha, 141, 144, 171, 192, 211,

     213, 214, 245, 262, 277

Prithwi Pal, Raja of Palpa, 174, 260

Process in law, 102

Produce of an acre, see Crops, and 216, 225

Prostitution, 235

Pujari, a priest who conducts the ceremonies of worship, 211, 219

Pulihu mountain, 205

Pun, a tribe, 279

Punishments, see Corporal, Fine, Prayaschitta

Puria, a tribe of Newars, 37

Purubi Brahmans, 17

Putaul, a tribe of Newars, 36

QUEEN, Rani, Maha Rani, or virgin spouse of a Raja, 105, 211, 212,

     224, 235

Queen of Rana Bahadur, regent of Gorkha, 175, 212, 251,

     252-258, 261, 264

Queen of Singha Pratap, regent of Gurkha, see Rajendra Lakshmi

Queen regent, concubine of Rana Bahadur, 251, 252-257



RADISH ROOT, 229

Rahal, a tribe, 287

Raja, the king, his authority and establishment, 102, 105, 147,

     165, 219

Raja, a chief, often very petty, 261, 298

Rajangka, a kind of capitation or income tax, 106, 154, 156,

     164, 169

Rajbungsi, a tribe, see Koch

Rajdani, the court of the king, 108

Rajendra Lakshmi, regent of Gorkha, 247



Rajgar or ) a town, capital of Yasawal, 314

Rajpur,   )



Rajpur or Champaranya, a lordship, 129, 131, 170, 172

Rajput, a tribe, see Chandel, Chauhan, Gautamiya, Katauch, Manuriya,

     Pathaniya, Raythaur, Samal, Shalivahana, Suryabangsi, also

     15, 18, 19, 156, 160, 164, 169, 253,

     266, 267, 269, 286, 297

Rama, ancestor of the Rajpur family, 170

Ramagar, a town in Hanur, 308

Ramajai Batacharji, his collections for the materials of this work, 1

Ramnagar, a district, 182

Rampur, chief town of Besar, 307

Rana or Thakur, a title inferior to Raja, a lord, 303, 313

Rana, a tribe, 18, 19

Rana Bahadur or Swamiji, king and regent of Gorkha, 174, 175,

     213, 216, 247, 250-253, 258-261, 262, 264,

     287, 300

Ranadhwar, a chief of Gorkha, 262

Ranajor, an officer of Gurkha, 305

Ranggapur, a district of Bengal, part of the ancient kingdom of

     Kamrup, 7

Rani, see Queen

Ranigar, a territory, 299

Ranjit Pangre, an officer of Nepal, 216

Ranjit Singha, the Sikh chieftain of Lahaur, 259, 305, 311,

     312, 313, 314, 315

Rape seed, see Sinapis

Rapti or Jimri river, 268

Raputi river, 198, 199

Ratna Sen, Raja of Palpa, 177

Ravan Hrad lake, 288

Rawa, a fortress, 165

Rayapur, a lordship, 304, 305

Rayapur, a town, capital of Kottahar, 314

Raythaur, a family, chiefs of Jaysalmer and Sirmaur, 302

Reeds, 64

Register, an office in several courts, see Kanungo, Mohurir,

     Patwari, Suduriya

Reher, a territory, 293

Rent of arable land, 153, 161, 162, 211, 218, 220,

     284

     of houses, see House

     of pasture, 153, 155, 162, 217

Rerighat, a town, 180, 264

Revenue, see Customs, Duties, Farms, Fines, Law courts of, Mines,

     Mint, Presents, Rajangku, Rent, Sayer, and also 105, 106,

     112, 115, 149, 150, 153, 154, 156, 161,

     164, 169, 211, 242, 243, 265, 267, 275,

     277, 279, 293, 298, 301, 305, 307, 311

     313, 314, 316

Rhinoceros, 63

Rhododendrum, a tree, 97

Rice, 63, 65, 73, 74, 82, 217, 222, 265,

     267, 282, 284, 297, 301, 305, 312,

     see also Hakuya, Takmaro

Rillu, a territory, 315

Rising, a lordship, 171, 182, 184, 238, 239

Riti, a passage among the snowy mountains, 298, 301

Rivers in general, 65, 66, 89, 91, 195

Roads and routes in general, 180, 181, 220, 233,

     265, 274, 280, 285, 286

Routes by Bareh from Kathmandu to the Low Country, 198

     from Chatra on the Kosi to Nepal valley, 166

     from Dudhkunda to Lengleng, 165

     by Dudhkunda from the Kosi to Thibet, 165

     from Dewghat to Nilkantha, 192-195

     from the Gandaki to Nepal Proper, 183

     by Gar Pasara from Kathmandu to the Low Country, 195

     from Halesi to Lamja, 165

     from Hethaura to the Low Country, 182

     from Kathmandu to the Low Country by Gar Pasara, 195,

          by Bareh, 198

     from the Kosi to Thibet by Lamja, 165,

          by Dudhkunda, ib.

     from Lamja to Halesi, 165

     from Lengleng to Dudhkunda, 165

     from the Low Country to Hethaura, 182,

          to Kathmandu by Bareh, 198,

          by Gar Pasara, 195, to Siklik, 243

     from Nepal valley to Chatra on the Kosi, 166,

          to Sivapur on the Gandaki, 193

     from Nilkantha to Dewghat, 192-195,

          to Sivapur on the Gandaki, 193

     from Pokang to Vijaypur, 157

     from Siklik to the Low Country, 243

     from Sivapur on the Gandaki to Nepal valley, 183,

          to Nilkantha and Thibet, 193

     from Thibet to Chatra on the Kosi by Lamja, 165,

          by Dudhkunda, 165,

          to Sivapur on the Gandaki, 193

     from Vijaypur to Pokang, 157

Roalpa, lordship, 280

Rohani, a tribe, 287

Rohuttut, a district, 168

Routes, see Roads

Rudra Chandra, a chief of Kumau, 292

Rudrapur, a fortress and territory, 293

Rudravir, a chief of Gorkha, 261

Rugun, a lordship, 270, 276, 280

Rup Chiring, a chief of Sikim, 119

Rupee, properly Rupiya, a coin, 154, 215,

     That of Calcutta worth nearly 25 pence at the mint price,

Rupini, a land measure, 216

Rupiya, see Rupee

SA, SAHA, or SAHI, a surname among the Rajputs of the Gorkha,

     Garhawal, Kalamakwani, and Shalivabana tribes, 262,

     263, 282

Sabe, a kind of grass, see Ischæmum

Sabna, a territory, 293

Sacrifice, 236

Sacrifice, human, 35, 211, see also Samadi

Sadhu Ram Upadhyaya, his account and map of the Khas country, 4, 173

Sagora, a duty on each contract with a concubine, 161



Saha, ) see Sa

Sahi, )



Sailya, a country, see Madra

Sakarkandh, see Convolvulus

Sakhuya, a tree, see Shoræa

Sakti, see Devi

Sakya, a teacher or prophet of the sect of Buddha, 10, 27, 29,

     32, 56-58 190, 191

Sal tree, see Shoræa

Salagram, a stone worshipped by the Hindus, 79, 273

Salagrami, a river, see Gandaki

Salasu river, see Karanali,

Salim, a cast of Newars, 36

Saliyana, a lordship, town, and government, 261, 270, 277,

     278, 280

Salpa pahar, part of the Himaliya mountains, 160

Salt, culinary, 93, 214, 286, 301, 316

Sama, a grain, see Panicum

Samadi, the custom of burying alive, 138, 152

Samal, a tribe, 270, 278, 279

Samar Bahadur, his account of the Khas country, 4, 173

Samaran, see Gar Samaran

Sambhu, see Swayambhu

Sambhunath, see Swayambhunath

Samrigarhi, a fortress, 151

Sand, 80, 82

Sanders, red, or Lal Chandan, a tree, 85

Sandstone, 82

Sangga, a kind of wooden bridge, 274

Sanghu, a town, 209, 212

Sangkhasur, original lord of Nepal, 207

Sangsar Chandra, chief of Kangra, 303, 304, 310, 311, 314,

     315, 316

Sankara Acharya, sect of, 30

Sankosi river, 166

Sanpati, a medicinal plant, 97

Saptari, a district, 135, 160, 168

Sarayu, a river, see Karanali

Sarisha, a grain, see Sinapis

Sarki, a cast, 18

Satadru river, see Satrudra

Satahung, a lordship, 238, 239, 241

Satatala, a territory, 276, 279, 280

Satbhai, see League

Satrudra, Satadru, or Sutluj river, 91, 288, 307, 315

Satya Raja, a dynasty governing the Kiratas, together with

     their residence, 133, 152

Sayer, or direct taxes, 153, 154, 156, 161, 162

Sayn, the name given by the Newars to the people of Thibet, etc, 56

Scorpion, the insect, 196

Seapoy, properly Sipahi, in Nepal applied to irregular armed

     men employed in the police and revenue, 106

Secretary, Kaliya, or Khurdar, 107, 108

Ser, a weight, that of Kathmandu weighing about 11,664 grains, that

     of Calcutta about 14,360, page 216

Serdar or Sirdar, one of the Baradar, or chief officers of government,

     107, 257

Serdar, a very high military rank, 109, 151, 165

Serdar, a military officer among the Kiratas, 148, 149

Sesamum, Hamo, or Til, a seed used for oil, 228, 282

Seshant, a division of Malebum, 274

Seshant or Siklik, a mart and passage through the Himaliya mountains, 243

Setigangga, a river, 244, 282

Shalivahana Raja, and his descendants, the Shalivahana Rajputs,

     12, 282, 287

Shawl goat, its wool, and shawls, 315, see also Goat

Sheep, tame, 75, 214, 217, 274, 298, 301, 307

Sheep, wild, called Argali, 94

Sher Bahadur, a chief of Gorkha, 254, 260

Shivapuri or Siwapuri, a mountain, 205

Shops, 166

Shoræa robusta, Sal, or Sakhuya tree, 67, 198

Sial, a cast of Newars, 36

Sidhi Pratap, chief of Gulmi, 265

Siedburrooa, see Daphne

Sikh, a religious sect, 313, see also Ranjit Singha

Sikim, a principality, 1, 118, 119, 124, 126, 127,

     140, 156, 157

Siklik, a mart, see Seshant

Silajit, a mineral, 80

Sili, a tribe, 18

Siling, see Sining

Silkauli, see Laurus

Silver, 76, see also Coin

Simul tree, see Bombax

Sinapis ramosa Roxb. or Ika, a grain, 228

Sinapis, called Sarisha or Turi, a kind of mustard or rape, 228

Sinduli, a fortress, 168, 199

Singgiya Bikh or Bish, 86, 98

Singha, a division of the Sikh sect, 313, see also Ranjit Singha

Singha Pratap, king of Gorkha, 171, 196, 246, 247

Sining or Siling, a town in China, 212

Sinkauri tree, see Laurus

Siragar, a territory, 293

Sirdar, see Serdar

Sirmaur, a lordship, 302-307,

Sirnet, a family or Rajputs, 269

Sisau, a tree, see Dalbergia

Sisaudhiya, a tribe of Rajputs, see Chauhan

Sitakund, a burning spring near Chitagang, 273

Siumali or Dimali, a mart, 125

Siva, a deity, 32, 193, 208, 285, 302, 310, see also

     Kedarnath, Nilkantha, and Pasupatinath

Siva, sect of, or Sivamarga, which worships Siva as the chief

     deity, 29, 30

Siva, a lordship, 314

Siva Chandra, a chief of Kumau, 296

Siva Marga, see Siva

Siva Saha, chief of Gulmi, 264

Siwapuri or Shivapuri mountain, 205

Siwaraj, a territory, 268, 269

Siyena Bhotiya, a people, see Murmi

Slavery, 37, 234

Small-pox, 25

Smilax, a plant, 98

Smith, Mr, gave me information, 2

Snow, 69, 88, 89, 90, 234 see also Himaliya

Sobhan Sahi, chief of Yumila, 287

Solanum melongena, or Bera, a vegetable, 229

Solanum tuberosum, or common potatoe, 229

Sonabhadra river, see Karanali

Songat, a cast of Newars, 36

Sor, a territory, 292

Sorahbag, a ruin, 152

Spikenard, 98

Springs, burning, 194, 272, 281 ; see Burning rock

Springs, heat of, 197, 200, 203, 204, 205

Springs, warm, 194, 301

Subje, see Cannabis

Srinagar, present capital of Garhawal, often used for the whole

     principality, 299, 301

Srishtas, a cast of Newars, 33

Strata of minerals, 66

Subah, governor of a large district, zila, or province 104, 105,

     109, 110, 149, 151, 154, 155, 160, 164,

     167, 179, 183

Subahdar, a military officer, 110

Sri Krishna Sahi, a chief of Gorkha, 254, 262

Suduriya, a register of lands, 150

Sudarsan Sa, heir of Garhawal, 301

Sugar and sugar-cane, 228, 284, 312

Sujanpur, a town, 310, 312

Sukhet, a lordship and town, 316

Suki, a coin, 215

Sulphur, 78, 94, 272

Superstition, 33, 208

Survey of Nepal, in 1792, by Ranjit Pangre, 216

Suryabangsi, a tribe of Rajputs, 287

Susarma, an ancient chief of Kangra, 309

Sutluj river, see Satrudra

Swayambhu, or Sambhu, the Supreme being among the Bouddhas of

     Nepal, 32, 208

Swayambhunath, or Sambhunath, a temple of Swayambhu, 208, 211

Swine, 76

Syamphelang, part of the Himaliya mountains, 160

Syphilis, the disease, 71

TADI, or TAZI, a river, 193

Taizbul, a tree, see Fagara

Takam, a town, 270

Taklakhar, or Taolakhar Bhotiya, a lordship, 288

Taklakot, a town, 288

Taksal, a mart, 306

Takmaro, a kind of rice, 88

Talc, a mineral, 79, 94

Taluk, a division of territory subordinate to a zila, 114, 152

Tamlingtar, a town, 158

Tamra khani, a village, 203

Tanahung,a lordship, 132, 145, 181, 238, 239

Tangni, a grain, see Panicum colonum

Tansen, a town and great military station, 179

Taolakhar, see Taklakhar

Tapoban, a hot spring, 301



Tarai,     ) or Hetoni, the low country, subject to Gorkha, 60, etc.,

Tariyani,  ) 65, 125, 150, 168, 169



Tarki, a lordship, 238, 239, 240, 269

Taxes, direct, 153; see Sayer, also Revenue

Tazi river, see Tadi

Tejpat, a tree, see Laurus

Telangga, the regular soldiers, 110

Temperature, see Weather, and also Springs, and 69, 70, 197

Temples, 40, 208, 209, 210, 211, 219, 285, 286,

     302, 311

Tenures of land, see Adhiyar, Feodal, Jaygir, Melk, Praja, Zemindar,

     and also 107, 112, 114, 149, 163, 164,

     218-221

Tepai, a cast of Newars, 37

Terraces used in agriculture, 223

Thakakuti, a town, 273

Thakur, a title, see Rana

Thankot, a town, 204, 209

Thapa, a tribe, 18, 19, 28

Tharu, a tribe, 164, 169

Thermometer, see Register of the Weather at the end

Thibet, a country of great extent, north from India, see Degarchi,

     Kerung, Kutti, Ladak, Lassa, Mastang, Tishu Lama, and also 51,

     52, 56, 89, 90, 91, 92, 121, 122, 123,

     127, 156, 157, 164, 165, 180, 190, 191,

     212, 289, 298, 301, 307, 315

Thor Chandra, a chief of Kumau, 12, 291

Thumuriya Dhupi, a tree, see Juniperus

Tibri, a fort and temple, 286

Tiger, 63

Tika, a mark of royalty placed on the forehead, 283

Tikayit Chandra, chief of Kangra, 310

Til, a grain, see Sesamum

Tilpur, a district, 170, 172

Timber, duties on, see Kathmahal

Timber, kinds, 63, 67, 83, 84, 217

Timmi, a town, 167, 209

Tinmue, a tree, see Fagara

Tirahut, a principality, 45, 129 ; see also Mithila

Tishu Lama, a supposed incarnation of God, spiritual guide of the

     Chinese emperor, 57, 248

Tista river, 127

Titi Piralu, a drug, 86

Tiurar Singha, a military officer of Gorkha, 120

Tobacco, 20

Toon, a tree, see Cedrella

Torture in criminal proceedings, 103, 257

Towns in general, 39

Transplanting rice, a festivity, 224

Travelling, 233

Trisulgangga river, 193, 244

Tufa calcareous, 66

Tula Sen, first Raja of Makwanpur, 130

Tulasi Bhawani, tutelar deity of Nepal, 210

Tulasipur, a territory, 278

Tungd, a tree, see Cedrella

Turi, a grain, see Sinapis

Turmeric, a root, 306

Tutenague, see Zinc

Twelve chiefs, a district subject to Gorkha, see Bara Thakurai

Twenty-four Rajas, a territory subject to Gorkha, see Chaubisi Raja

Twenty-two Rajas, a territory subject to Gorkha, see Baisi Raja



UDA, a cast of Newars, 34

Umra, a petty officer, see Mokuddum

Upadhyaya Brahmans, 17

Upendra Sa, chief of Garhawal, 299

Urid, a pulse, see Phaseolus

Uya, a kind of rice, see Rice

Uya, a grain, perhaps rye, 88, 274, 284, 315



VAGMATI river, 205, 207, 208

Vairagi, a kind of religious mendicant, 246

Valeriana, an herb, 97

Vallies, see Nepal and Lahuri Nepal, and also 68, 69, 80,

     87, 198, 274, 282, 284, 288, 313

Varaha Chhatra, or Kshetra, a place of worship, and its Mahanta or

     Priest, 134, 136, 137, 151

Varma, or Burmah, dynasty, 189, 190, 191

Vazir, a high officer of government, 102, 115

Vedas, doctrine of, 30, 208, 301

Vegetables for the kitchen, 228, 229

Vegetable productions, see Plants

Vijayapur, a town, capital of Morang, 133, 137, etc, 151

Vines, grape, 73

Vishnu, a deity, 32, 281, 302, 310

Visi, a measure of land, 112

Viswanath, a noble family, 110, 154



WAGES, 233

Walnut tree, 83

War, 300

Water-spouts, 70

Weather, see Register at the end, Climate, Springs, temperature of,

     and also 64, 71, 89, 196, 199, 203, 205,

     242, 277, 284, 301, 307, 313, 314, 315

Weavers, 232

Webb, Mr, his survey, 4

Weights, 215, 290

Wheat, 226, 282, 297, 301, 305

Wool, 76, 307; see also Shawl

Woollen manufacture, 232

Women, condition of, 103



YAMAPATRI, a kind of melk land, 219

Yasawal, a lordship, 314

Yew tree, or Hingwalka bara Saral, 217

Yogimara, a town and military station, 183, 184, 193

Yuddha Vikram Sahi, king of Gorkha, 174, 251, 255, 260-262

Yumila, a principality, 15, 129, 174, 237, 239, 240,

     250, 276, 280, 282, 293, 294, 298



ZEDOARY, a root, 99

Zemindar, a person holding land for rent, 112, 115, 149

Zemindar, a person managing the revenue of one or more landed

     estates, (Pergunahs,) 152, 292, 296

Zila, a considerable territory managed by a Subah, 151, 161,

     162, 168

Zinc, Dasta, or Tutenague, a metal, 76, 195, 264, 272



ERRATA


Which it is hoped the Reader will correct, and in some part excuse, as,
owing to the Author’s residing at a distance from the Printer, the
proof-sheets were once only revised, and this has been found totally
inadequate to avoid numerous errors in printing so many foreign names.

Page       Line
8          13            for Kasiyas read Khasiyas
11         8             for Vyas read Vayasa
29         17 & 18       for Lalita, Patan read Lalita-Patan
30         26            for Shivamarg read Sivamarg
46         19            for Laksham read Lakshman
‘‘         25            for Samaram read Samaran
55         11            between and and from insert east
56         29            for Budha read Buddhas
67         10            for Khoira read Khaira
79         21            for Muktinath read Muktanath
88         23            The map intended to have been placed here,
                         when this was printed, has been judged
                         unnecessary, and the capital letters,
                         denoting the different peaks alluded to,
                         have been placed in the general map.
90         10            between there and two insert are
91         11 & 24       for Karnali read Karanali, and for
                         Manasarovara read Mansarawar
98         25            for Bikk read Bikh
102        12            for Mukudum read Mokuddum
115        16            for expence read expense
129        26            for Salgrami read Salagrami
144        22            for Kemkarna read Hemcarna
153        28 & 31       for bigah read biga
157        11 & 13       for Pakang read Pokang
160        30            for Kotang read Khatang
162        9             for bigah read biga
163        10            for kshatra read kshetra
165        6 & 12        for Kalesi read Halesi
170        2 & 17        for Mukunda read Makunda
171        3             for Rama read Rana
‘‘         7 & 22        for Kachi read Khachi
173        5             for so read to
‘‘         10            for Bakadur read Bahadur
‘‘         24            for Kachi read Khachi
174        22            for Yudda read Yuddha
190        13            for Letehmi read Letchmi
191        4             for Buddha read Bouddha
193        9             for Bhenhongga read Bhenjhongga
195        23            for is read are
198        5             for and read which
199        26            for Chispani read Chisapani
‘‘         28            for Kethaura read Hetaura
207        13            for Anirudhra read Anirudha
209        23            for Timi read Timmi
212        5             for Guhyeswari read Guhyiswari
‘‘         17 & 28       for shal read shawl
‘‘         19            for Digarche read Degarche
213        2                    “            “
216        7             for Pathil read Pathi
‘‘         27            for Katahs read Kathas
217        23            for shal read shawl
218        20            for feu read fee
219        3             for Baras read Bangras
‘‘         12            for Pasupanath read Pasupatinath
232        21            for shals read shawls
233        8             for Hethama read Hethaura
239        27            for Kachi read Khachi
246        6             for Marchangdi read Marichangdi
248        16            for Digarchi read Degarchi
249        17                  “              “
261        30            for Kasthadal read Hasthadal
262        1                   “              “
268        9             for Khungni read Khungri
270        9             for Jahuri, Baphi read Jahari, Bangphi
273        17            for Saligrami read Salagrami
274        19            for frot read fort
279        19            for Tishta read Tista
‘‘         22            for Banghpi read Bangphi
280        1             for Beesci read Baessi
‘‘         5             for Rugum read Rugun
288        21            for Mansarowar read Manasarawar
‘‘         31            for Satudra read Satadru
‘‘         32            for Satluj read Sutluj
292        14            for Kunungoe read Kanungo
300        9             for Thapa read Karyi
305        16            for Karets read Kanets
311        14            for Anirudra read Anirudha

View Part 1


               [Picture: View of Himaliya Mountains Part 1]



View Part 2


               [Picture: View of Himaliya Mountains Part 2]



View Part 3


               [Picture: View of Himaliya Mountains Part 3]



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View Part 5


               [Picture: View of Himaliya Mountains Part 5]





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