By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Rugs: Oriental and Occidental, Antique & Modern - A Handbook for Ready Reference
Author: Holt, Rosa Belle
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Rugs: Oriental and Occidental, Antique & Modern - A Handbook for Ready Reference" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


SIZE 8 × 6.3

_This interesting and valuable rug is of antique Tabriz weave, of finely
blended colors, and rare design. It represents the individual squares on
the floor of a mosque, each one of which may be occupied by a worshipper
kneeling in prayer. Rugs with a single design of this kind are usual,
but a grouping of many such spaces in one rug is rare. Forms of the Tree
of Life are represented in different panels, and the border is very rich
and handsome. The fabric is fine, the texture soft and firm. The rich
and splendid hues of the various panels are so soft in tone that, while
there are several different colors in juxtaposition, these have been
arranged so deftly and artistically that the effect is perfectly
harmonious. It is impossible to describe in words the mellow richness
and rare art displayed in this unique product of the loom._




_A Handbook for Ready Reference_



New and Enlarged Edition, Entirely Reset

_With 33 full-page Illustrations, 12 in full color, and other drawings
in the text, and a Map of the Orient_





This Enlarged Edition published October 10, 1908




When the first edition of this book was published in 1901, it stood
almost alone as a reference work on Oriental Rugs. In the six years
which have since elapsed, several volumes dealing with the subject have
been published.

The extended knowledge of the public concerning the subject has
materially altered the conditions of buying and selling. It has also
served to increase curiosity and enthusiasm regarding these products of
Oriental workmanship. I have been gratified to observe that a desire for
additional information is sought. My mail has contained an increasing
number of requests for an enlarged edition of my book, and my own
enthusiasm for the subject makes me believe in the interest of my
readers. I take pleasure in sharing with them the results of recent
investigations made in the United States, in the art centres of Europe,
and in the Orient.


  _February 1, 1908_.


While there is a singular lack of books in the English language treating
directly of Rugs,--a theme which is so intensely interesting to
buyers,--it is noteworthy that under the category of Oriental Carpets
are to be found a few volumes of interest. These, however, are too rare
and expensive for the general reader. For this reason I have undertaken
to present in a concise form certain facts that may enable a novice to
appreciate the beauty and interest attaching to rugs, and assist a
prospective purchaser in judging of the merits of any particular rug he
may desire to possess.

For much valuable information on the subject I am indebted to
publications which are referred to in my Bibliography, to correspondence
with Ministers to Oriental countries and Consuls residing therein, to
interviews with rug-dealers in various cities, and to certain learned
Americans, Armenians, Greeks, Syrians and Turks. It has also been my
good fortune to be intrusted, for purposes of description and
reproduction, with many beautiful and rare rugs, from owners who cherish
them as treasures. These true rug-lovers have generously contributed to
whatever there may be of interest in this book.

  R. B. H.

  _August 1, 1901_.




  The History                                                         15
  The Loom and Its Work                                               22
  The Weavers                                                         26
  The Materials                                                       30
  The Quality                                                         32
  The Knotting                                                        34
  Designs                                                             37
  The Dyes                                                            44
  Oriental Colors                                                     47


  Rug-Weaving in Egypt                                                51
  Persian Rugs                                                        53
  Characteristics of Certain Persian Rugs                             58
  Turkish Rugs                                                        71
  Characteristics of Certain Turkish Rugs                             74


  Indian Rugs                                                         87
  Characteristics of Certain Indian Rugs                              90
  Afghanistan Rugs                                                    95
  Beluchistan Rugs                                                    97
  Turkoman Rugs                                                       98
  Characteristics of Certain Turkoman Rugs                           100
  Caucasian Rugs                                                     105


  Rugs of the Holy Land                                              111
  Chinese Rugs                                                       113
  Japanese Rugs                                                      116
  Khilim Rugs                                                        117
  Polish Rugs                                                        119
  Prayer Rugs                                                        120
  Silk Rugs                                                          123
  Felt Rugs                                                          126
  Hunting Rugs                                                       128


  Rug-Weaving in Europe and the United States                        131
  Greek Rugs                                                         132
  Moorish and Spanish Rugs                                           134
  Bosnian, Servian, Roumanian, and Bulgarian
  Rugs                                                               136
  English Rugs                                                       138
  French Rugs                                                        141
  Rugs of the United States                                          143


  Inscriptions on Rugs                                               153
  Concerning Oriental Symbols                                        156
  Chinese Symbols                                                    157
  Egyptian Symbols                                                   158
  Indian Symbols                                                     159
  Japanese Symbols                                                   160
  Persian Symbols                                                    160
  Turkish Symbols                                                    160
  Miscellaneous Symbols                                              161
  Meanings of Some of the Place-Names Associated with Rugs           162
  GEOGRAPHICAL DATA                                                  164
  Localities Arranged Geographically                                 165
  Localities Arranged Alphabetically                                 170

  LIST OF AUTHORITIES                                                175

  INDEX                                                              179


  Antique Tabriz Silk Rug                                  _Frontispiece_
  Oriental Rugs Decorating a Balcony                                  20
  Turkish Loom and Weavers                                            24
  Vats for Washing and Dyeing Wool--Turkey                            28
  Soumak Rug                                                          30
  Indian Rug Designers                                                32
  Sinna Rug                                                           34
  Rugs being Transported                                              38
  Wool Drying after Dyeing                                            44
  Antique Persian Rug                                                 54
  Khorassan Rug                                                       56
  Bijar (Sarakhs) Rug                                                 58
  Camel's Hair Rug from Hamadan                                       60
  Feraghan Rug                                                        62
  Shiraz Rug                                                          68
  Arabian Rug                                                         70
  Old Ghiordes Prayer Rug                                             74
  Indian Prayer Rug                                                   78
  Indian Loom and Weavers                                             82
  Afghanistan Rug                                                     95
  Tekké-Turkoman or "Bokhara" Rug                                     98
  Samarkand Rug                                                      102
  Daghestan Rug                                                      106
  Kazak Rug                                                          108
  Antique Chinese Wool Rug                                           114
  Khilim Rug                                                         117
  Old Kirman Prayer Rug                                              120
  Old Anatolian Prayer Rug                                           122
  Persian Silk Rug                                                   124
  Derbent Rug                                                        126
  Early English Rug                                                  138
  Navajo Rug                                                         146
  Antique Persian Rug                                                156
  Map of the Orient                                                  164


  A Loom                                                              25
  Persian or Sinna Knotting                                           35
  Turkish or Ghiordes Knotting                                        35
  Soumak Weave                                                        35
  Five Forms of the Palmette                                      39, 40
  Herati Border                                                       40
  Central Design                                                      41
  Running Hook Design                                                 41
  Pomegranate                                                         41
  Palm Leaves                                                         41
  Cloud Bands                                                         41
  Lozenge                                                             41
  Wave-like Designs                                                   42
  Rosette                                                             42
  Reciprocal Trefoil                                                  42
  Central Design                                                      42
  Four Characteristic Caucasian Designs                               42
  Fylfot, or Swastika                                                 42
  Guli Hinnai                                                         43
  Lotus                                                               43
  Medallion                                                           43




  _Fair warp and fitting woof
  Weave a web that bideth proof._






The History

Rugs, in the house beautiful, impart richness and represent refinement.
Their manufacture was one of the earliest incentives for the blending of
colors in such harmony as to please the eye and satisfy the mind;
consequently, it is one of the most important of the industrial arts.
Since the days when ancient peoples first lay down to sleep wrapped in
the skins of animals, the human intelligence has quickened, and as the
race has become more civilized, rugs have gradually taken the place of
skins. Thus began the industry of rug-weaving, and it has grown to such
an extent that it is now of world-wide importance.

The word _Rug_ is used in this volume in the following sense: "A
covering for the floor; a mat, usually oblong or square, and woven in
one piece. Rugs, especially those of Oriental make, often show rich
designs and elaborate workmanship, and are hence sometimes used for
hangings," In several books rugs and carpets are referred to as
identical. In fact most written information on rugs has been catalogued
under the term _carpets_; and there seems to be good reason for assuming
that the terms _tapestries_ and _carpets_, as used in ancient times,
were synonymous with the word _rugs_ of the present day, for these were
spread loosely on the floor without the aid of fastenings.

Historical references to spinning and to the weaving of tapestries date
back to a very early period. An ancient Jewish legend states that
Naamah, daughter of Lamech and sister of Tubal-Cain, was the inventor of
the spinning of wool and of the weaving of thread into cloth.

On at least two of the wonderful rock-cut tombs at Beni-Hassan, in
Egypt,--2800-2600 B.C.,--there are pictures of weavers at work. In one,
women are filling a distaff with cotton, twisting it with a spindle into
thread, and weaving this on an upright loom. Beside them is a man,
evidently an overseer, watching the weavers and their work. The other
wall-painting represents a man weaving a checkered rug on a horizontal
loom. Other monuments of ancient Egypt and of Mesopotamia bear witness
that the manufacture of rugs dates a considerable time prior to 2400

At Thebes a fresco, dating 1700-1000 B.C., represents three men weaving
at an upright loom. A small rug, discovered in that city some time
between the years 666 and 358 B.C., and now in the possession of Mr. Hay
in England, is described by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson as follows: "This
rug is eleven inches long by nine broad. It is made like many carpets of
the present day, with woollen threads on linen string. In the centre is
the figure of a boy in white, with a goose above it, the hieroglyphic of
'child' upon a green ground, around which is a border composed of red,
white, and blue lines. The remainder is yellow, with four white figures
above and below, and one at each side, with blue outlines and red
ornaments; and the outer border is made up of red, white, and blue
lines, with a fancy device projecting from it, with a triangular summit,
which extends entirely round the edge of the rug. Its date is uncertain,
but from the child, the combination of the colors, and ornamental
border, I am inclined to think it really Egyptian, not of the Pharaonic,
but of the Greek and Roman period." Dr. Samuel Birch, who edited the
last edition of Wilkinson's work, affirms that this is so.

On the marbles of Nineveh is represented the pectoral worn by
Sardanapalus. It is an exact miniature of a Kurdish rug of modern times.
The Tree of Life, the motif of most of the Persian rug designs, is in
the centre, and the border is ornamented with rosettes and bars.

Phoenician art is intermediate between Egyptian and Assyrian. The
color most prized in the art of Phoenicia was the rare and beautiful
purple (properly crimson) dye used exclusively for the garments of
royalty. For centuries the process of making this dye was lost, and even
at the time of its highest fame it was familiar only to the maritime
Canaanites, who procured the color from an animal juice of the murex, a
shellfish. The shellfish and the dye were known to the ancients as

When Cleopatra, the famous Queen of Egypt, went to meet Cæsar for the
first time, she knew that he would not allow her to enter his presence
if recognized, and therefore she cleverly had herself carried into his
palace wrapped in a rug of the finest texture. It may well be imagined
that the unexpected disclosure of the charms of this subtle Egyptian
shared largely in bringing the great Roman general into her toils.

Besides Biblical writers, Homer, Æschylus, Plautus, Metellus Scipio,
Horace, Pliny, Lucan, Josephus, Arrian, and Athenæus all speak of rugs.
To persons interested in rugs the search for these allusions is a most
fascinating occupation.

The Egyptians bestowed the greatest care and patience upon the rugs they
wove, as upon all else of their handiwork. They spread them before the
images of their gods, and also on the ground for their sacred cattle to
lie upon. They loved Nature intensely; like true lovers, they seemed to
have reached her very heart, and they symbolized her works in their
artistic designs. Even to this day many Oriental rugs have symbolic
signs borrowed from the works of Nature.

In design and color the rugs woven to-day in the Orient are similar to
the Assyrian and Babylonian textile fabrics of 1000-607 B.C. (Fall of
Nineveh) and 538 (Fall of Babylon). At that early period these were used
for awnings and floor-coverings in the palaces of the Assyrian kings
Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Sardanapalus. The designs on the
stone slab from the palace of Koyunjik, Nineveh, and on the door-sill
from the palace at Khorsabad, are probably copied from rugs.

From Egypt and Chaldea the manufacture of rugs was carried into Assyria,
and then into Asia Minor. Ancient Egypto-Chaldean designs are
occasionally seen in modern rugs, but usually in a modified form. For a
long time the industry of rug-weaving was supreme in the countries
mentioned, but about 480 B.C. it arrived at a high degree of perfection
in Greece. Later, the art was corrupted by the Byzantine (Lower Roman)
influence. In the seventh and eighth centuries the Saracens came into
power in the Persian Empire after the fall of the Sassanian dynasty,
and in the African and Syrian provinces. The Saracens believed that all
labor tended to the glory of God; consequently, on their western
campaigns they carried rug-manufacture into Sicily, Spain, France, and
Italy; and thus it was introduced throughout Europe. It should be here
noted that the name Saracen was given by the later Romans and Greeks to
certain of the nomadic tribes on the Syrian borders of the Roman Empire.
After the introduction of Mohammedanism the name was applied to the Arab
followers of Mohammed.

From earliest times it has been the custom in the East to hang rugs over
graves. About the vault of the mosque at Hebron where the patriarchs
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are said to be buried, rugs are hung at the
present day.

During times of grand _fêtes_ in Europe, when house decoration is done
with lavishness, people, to make their homes more attractive, drape with
beautiful rugs the balconies, the loggias, and the front walls of
buildings. The richness and color of these rugs blend harmoniously with
flags and other emblems, producing an effect of great magnificence and


_From a painting of the fifteenth century by Carpaccio Vittore, who was
born in Istria, 1450, and died in Venice, 1522. The original painting is
in the Correr Museum at Venice. On the balcony are several Oriental rugs
in shades of rich red and rose color._]

When we see the exquisite loom-work that has been wrought in the Orient,
we sometimes wonder how the weavers have achieved such success, for they
are destitute of what we call education, and they dwell amid the
humblest surroundings. But Nature has been their instructor, and the
rare shadings and varied designs of the rugs are excellent imitations of
the forms and hues of the natural world. The weavers have intuitively
grasped what is correct in color from the works of Nature surrounding
them, and we reap the benefit in the rich specimens of their art which
they export.

These patient toilers of the East delight in subdued colorings and
artistic designs; and without a doubt many a story is woven in with the
threads that go to form the fabric, many a song of joy, many a dirge of
woe and despair. The number of Orientals engaged in the manufacture of
rugs in the United States is increasing. It is now not an uncommon sight
to see these weavers at work before the loom in the show windows of the
rug-importing establishments of the larger cities.

The increasing use of polished hard wood and yellow pine floors and
mosaic work, even in buildings of moderate cost, is displacing the use
of cheap flooring, which could be covered satisfactorily only with
carpets or matting. This has enormously increased the demand for rugs;
and the selection of them affords a much wider range for the exercise of
personal taste and discrimination in securing an article not only of
greater artistic merit, but of greater durability.


The hand loom is Oriental, the power loom Occidental. The former adds
much to the fame of the Orient. The exquisite fabrics it produces have
made it world-renowned, and although it is simple in structure, its
products show careful and finished labor. Hand looms in all Oriental
countries are similar, and are to-day almost as imperfectly developed as
when used by the ancient Egyptians. To weave their mats, the ancient
Egyptians took the coarse fibre of the papyrus and, with the help of
pegs, stretched it between two poles which were fastened in the ground.
Two bars were placed in between these poles, the threads of the warp
serving to keep them apart. The woof thread was passed through and
pressed down tightly a number of times with a bent piece of wood.

The loom now generally used in the Orient is made by fastening two poles
perpendicularly in the ground to a sufficient depth, leaving above
ground as much of each pole as equals in length the desired rug. This
framework supports two horizontal rollers, the warp threads being wound
around the upper, while the ends are fastened to the lower; at this the
weaving is begun, and on it the rug is rolled while in process of
construction. To the warp threads of fine linen or cotton the weavers
tie the tufts of worsted that form the pile. This worsted, which has
been dyed previously, hangs over their heads in balls. When a row of
knots is finished, it is pressed down to the underlying woof by a long
and heavy comb with metal teeth. Then the tufts are clipped close with
shears, to make the pile. In the finer rugs there are seldom more than
two, or at the most three, threads between every two rows of knots, but
in the coarser kinds there are more threads. In many districts every
family possesses a loom, and it is generally small enough to be carried
from place to place.

Sir George C. Birdwood has seen the web in the horizontal loom in
Western India kept stretched by being wrapped, as worked, round the body
of the weaver. In some instances the spinners make thread from the
cotton wool by using the left hand as a distaff, and the right one as a
spindle. In other cotton rugs which he has seen, the warp threads were
placed horizontally, and the loom was without treadles and reed. The
woof threads were thrown across by the weaver and brought together with
a small hand comb. The same style of loom, arranged vertically, is that
on which some of the richly figured cotton rugs from the Deccan are

In some parts of Turkey there are European factories that have adopted
some of the native methods; but as the majority of Turkish rugs are apt
to be crooked, frames that weave them straight are now imported from

Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop describes a tribe of people living at
Biratori, on the Island of Yezo, Japan, and bearing the name of Ainos,
whose women employ their time in weaving mats. Their loom is certainly a
most primitive arrangement. A comb-like frame, through which the threads
pass, rests on the ankles of the weaver. There is a heavy hook fastened
in the ground or floor, and to this the threads at the far end of the
web are sewed. A cord fastens the near end to the waist of the weaver,
who by spinal rigidity supplies the necessary tension. As the work
proceeds, she drags herself along nearer and nearer the hook. This is
slow work, only about a foot being accomplished in a day; as in other
countries, however, the women enjoy the neighborly chats that their work
allows; and often two or more will bring to the house of a neighbor
their simple apparatus, and, hanging the hooks to the roof or to a tree,
will weave all day.


The power looms of modern civilization are chiefly to be found in the
United States and Great Britain, Philadelphia being the principal
American centre, and Kidderminster, Wilton, Worcester, Rochdale,
Halifax, Dewsbury, and Durham, the English centres. Brussels and
Scotland contain a number of such looms. In all Western countries
schools of art furnish most of the designs, and have done much to
improve taste. This can also be said of good colorists in their branch
of this industry.

[Illustration: A LOOM]


Rug-weaving in the Orient is an industry that, until recent years, has
been carried on almost exclusively by women and girls. From childhood to
womanhood, and on to old age, these weavers are at work. Girls of six
years of age help their mothers, until they become experienced by long
practice. Even ladies of rank and wealth weave rugs of fine quality for
their own homes. In some districts, besides weaving for the market,
girls weave one or two rugs for their dowry; this purpose furnishes them
with enough excitement to keep them interested in their work and
ambitious to excel. Now that there is a greater demand for rugs, and not
enough women to supply the demand, men and boys have come into the
business, but generally only in places where there are large factories,
and especially in the cities. This is noticeably the case in India,
where boys from nine to fifteen years of age do much of the weaving.

There are two classes of weavers, the sedentary and the nomadic. The
former weave in their houses during the Winter, and in their courtyards
during the Summer. The nomads spend the Winter in mud villages, and in
the Summer go to the mountains with their flocks and live in tents made
of goat's hair. The manner of life of the sedentary weaver works havoc
with her constitution even in her youth; and consequently one is not
surprised at her frail appearance. In Summer she is oppressed with heat
as she sits before the frame, and in Winter she is almost frozen, for
she has to work in the open air in order to have sufficient light. Hers
is not an easy life. It would be pleasant to believe that in her toil,
which she carries on with wondrous patience and in the humblest
surroundings, the conscientious weaver finds the same inward
satisfaction that comes to the true artist elsewhere.

The duties of the male portion of the family are to tend the flocks,
shear the sheep, separate the various qualities of the wool into
bundles, dye it, and make the framework for the rug. With the extension
of the industry, a class of workers has arisen whose sole task is to
manipulate and dye the wool for use. The reason why men do not usually
weave is that the occupation, besides not being a paying one, requires
an amount of patience not within the power of men accustomed to work out
of doors. Nor is it a remunerative occupation. The reader, who is
perhaps also a prospective rug-buyer, may be interested in the following
calculation of the amount of labor bestowed upon a given piece of the
best type, the cost of the materials, and its value when completed. A
square foot of the best Persian rug is worth about ten dollars, and it
takes a single weaver twenty-three days to complete this portion. This
allows the weaver about forty-four cents per day for her wool and her
labor; but as three-fourths of this amount goes to pay for the wool,
only eleven cents per day is left for her labor. The wages of the
producer of the inferior article are somewhat better. A square foot of
an inferior rug is sold for about sixty cents, and the time required for
weaving it is but two days, thus allowing the weaver thirty cents per
day for her wool and labor. She uses inferior wool, washes but little of
it, and pays only a nominal sum for a cheap dye. The framework of her
loom costs comparatively little, as the rug it produces is from twenty
to thirty times the size of the superior rug. Thus it appears that, in
the long run, the inferior weaver is better paid than the one who
fatigues her brain with her efforts to produce a rug of the best
quality. On the other hand, the weaver of the superior fabric has
advantages which the other has not. As a general rule, she weaves to
order, and is paid for her work in advance. This prepayment is of great
importance, considering the poverty of the weaver. The situation of the
weaver of the inferior article differs in that she has to buy her wool,
dye it, finish her rug, and then watch the market for buyers.


The weavers live on the simplest fare; bread, cheese, and a raw onion
make an average meal. In some districts the weavers have to work in
underground huts, for the air at the surface is so dry that the threads
would lose all their elasticity out of doors. In these underground
places the weavers produce enough moisture by keeping at hand utensils
full of water.

Although the business is conducted with the manufacturer on a strictly
commercial basis, it is very difficult to induce the weavers to keep
their appointments and finish a rug at the time it is promised. In
India, for example, the weavers are very superstitious; and if a boy
weaver be taken ill, the entire force on that loom will stop until he
recover. If he die, the entire force of native weavers may be changed.
This of course causes vexatious delay, not only of days, but often of
weeks and months.


The materials used in the manufacture of rugs cover a wide range, and
are indigenous to the place where the weavers are located. Sheep's wool,
camel's hair, mohair from the Angora goat, hair from the yak and from
the Thibetan goat, silk, cotton, linen, hemp, flax, and jute are all
used. In the Spring the raw wool is generally taken to the nearest
market, where it is cleaned, washed, and spun. The cleansing process is
very necessary, as it affects in an important degree the quality of the
material. The wool is usually washed in running water by the men, and
then sorted and cleansed a second time.

Persia, Turkey, and India all produce wool, the two former countries in
larger quantities than India, but some of the very finest wool comes
from that part of India known as Kashmir. The celebrated Turfani wool
comes from Chinese Thibet. It is very choice, and beautiful fabrics are
woven from it.

[Illustration: SOUMAK RUG

SIZE, 4.11 × 3.1

_The fine weaving of this Soumak Rug and its beautiful coloring are
especially admirable. The texture is very firm, the threads being
tightly drawn. On a field, which is a choice shade of blue, rest
geometrical forms, each one of which has a ground of terra cotta, pale
green, or soft yellow, and is ornamented with rich blue, ivory, or a
light shade of terra cotta. All are outlined with black. The hook design
is noticed in different parts of the rug, and especially in the border.
The artistic effect of this bit of weaving is most pleasing._


The pashim is the soft downy wool growing next the body of the goat. In
color it is white, dark gray, or drab; and of this many of the finest
India rugs are woven. Large-tailed sheep are common in Kabul, Peshawar,
and other districts; these furnish wool from which many a rug is
woven. It is possible that the very sheep watched over by the shepherds
of Judea the night of our Saviour's birth were reared partly for their
wool, with a view to rug-weaving.

The camel is useful not only as a beast of burden; its hair is woven
into fabrics both fine and durable, chief of which are rugs, beautiful,
much desired, and costly; the younger the animal the more is its hair
esteemed. The natural colors harmonize readily with the furnishings in
most rooms, and the soft texture of the best ones is attractive.

The process of carding is accomplished by means of a block with vertical
pins in even rows close together. The wool is drawn through these many
times, and then spun into yarn.


The fineness of a rug depends largely upon the quality of the wool and
the number of knots to the square foot. In one yard of the best made
Persian rugs there are between twenty thousand and thirty thousand
stitches made by hand. The wool must be of fine quality, but not too
soft. It should be closely woven, and evenly cropped. A great deal
depends upon the manipulation of the wool in the rough, and careful
attention should be given to this particular.

The quality of the wool is affected by whatever circumstances affect the
well-being of the sheep, and in a marked degree by climate. Hence there
is a decided difference in the wools of various districts and sections
of a country. It is a well-known fact that the wool produced in cold
countries is soft and fine, while that of the warmer climates is, on the
other hand, harder, firmer, and more lasting. Hard wool is easier for
the weaver to handle, and the tufts can be cropped with more facility.
It is partly owing to these facts that the rugs of the cold districts
are most in demand.


The fact that some rugs are so much better than others is a natural
result of the superior skill of the makers. Weavers are like other
workers, some doing perfect work, some indifferent, and others very
poor. But the quality of the rugs offered for sale in this country
depends also upon the knowledge and the conscience of the wholesale
buyer at the place of manufacture. When the buyer for an importing
establishment brings over quantities of rugs not all of which are
artistic, the question may be asked: "Why do you not always select rugs
that are beautiful?" He may reply that it is his business to get those
that will sell, and that as there is a great variety of taste among his
customers he must try to please every one; or he may say that he buys a
thousand rugs at a time, and does not see them individually. It is in
the retail shop that the final purchaser may pick and choose.

The most famous rugs of the Orient have been selected with great care by
men who have special knowledge of the subject, and they are owned by
museums and connoisseurs. Some have been brought to this country by
distinguished soldiers and statesmen, to whom they have been presented
by potentates as tokens of respect. Others have been obtained through
the fortunes of war.


Except in the Soumak and the Khilim, which have the flat stitch, there
are only two kinds of knotting used in Oriental rugs. These knots are
called the Persian or Sinna, and the Turkish or Ghiordes.

In the Persian manner of knotting there are more knots to the square
inch than in the Turkish, and the result is a finer surface. Often the
Persian knotting is so fine that the surface of the fabric is like
velvet. The Persian knot is tied in such a manner that one end of the
pile yarn extends from every spacing that separates the warp threads. It
is made in such a way that a noose is formed, which tightens as the yarn
is pulled. Occasionally it is turned in the opposite direction, and
executed from left to right. In this case two threads of yarn are
employed, this of course making the pile twice as thick as in the other.

The Turkish or Ghiordes knot has the yarn twisted about the warp threads
in such a manner that the two raised ends of the pile alternate with
every two threads of the warp.

[Illustration: SINNA RUG

SIZE, 4.6 × 6.6

_This is a beautiful example of the very fine texture and the even
clipping that characterize the Sinna rugs. Thickly studding the dark
blue field are minute designs in blue and rose hues, with which pale
green, yellow, and a sapphire blue blend most harmoniously. All these
small designs rest in the usual diaper design, which may be traced
throughout the rug. The border is charming, with its groundwork of fine
yellow, on which are delicate tracings of light green, ivory, and blue.
The effect of light and shade upon this exquisite piece of weaving
brings out plainly the marvellous sheen which is a feature of this rug.
The innumerable small figures which appear throughout the rug, with
their blending of soft hues, present a kaleidoscopic effect._


Experts have spent much time and invested much capital in the endeavor
to make the rug industry as perfect as possible. Judging from the
examples of India rugs I have seen,--some with a seven-by-six knot,
others with a sixteen-by-sixteen knot,--I am convinced that the beauty,
durability, and artistic effects produced by the efforts of the
manufacturers will be appreciated more and more. From the fact that the
best-known firms in the rug business in New York, Chicago, and other
cities in the United States, and several leading firms in England, are
sponsors for the present rug industry in India, it may naturally be
inferred that it is prosecuted with skill and care.



[Illustration: SOUMAK WEAVE]

The different stitches made are as follows: seven by eight, or fifty-six
hand-tied knots to the square inch; eight by eight, or sixty-four knots
to the square inch; ten by ten, or one hundred knots to the square inch;
twelve by twelve, or one hundred and forty-four knots to the square
inch; and sixteen by sixteen, or two hundred and fifty-six knots to the
square inch. These finer stitches are made in the very best examples
produced by the finest Persian weavers. A specimen recently shown me was
an exact reproduction of the rug owned by Prince Alexis
Lobanow-Rostowsky, in which the stitch was the sixteen by sixteen. It
was made in one of the factories in Kashmir.

The famous rug of Ardebil in the South Kensington Museum has three
hundred and eighty hand-tied knots to the square inch, or thirty-three
million in the whole fabric.


The designs of Eastern rugs are often the spontaneous outcome of the
fancy of the weaver. Sometimes they are handed down from one generation
to another; in some cases young girls are taught the design by an adult,
who marks it in the sand; at other times a drawing of the rug is made on
paper, the instructor showing her pupils the arrangement of every thread
and the color to be used. When all this has been done, the pupil must
make the rug without looking at the drawing.

Persian rugs excel those of other countries in artistic design as well
as in harmonious coloring. The Persians seem to have a natural intuition
in the use and blending of different shades, and in the designs that
contain these colors they achieve the happiest results. It is really
wonderful what exquisite fabrics these people, born and reared in
ignorance and poverty, produce.

The designs in Persian rugs are generally floral; and in some districts,
especially Fars, the women weavers invent the designs, varying them
every two or three years. The Mohammedan religion does not allow any
direct representation of animal forms; consequently rugs woven under its
influence take floral, geometric, and vegetable forms. The Shiah sect
of Moslems, however, numbering about fifteen millions,--of which eight
millions are Persians,--do not regard representations of animals as
unlawful. By the industry of this sect, and that of all who disregard
the law of the Koran, animal forms are seen on some Persian rugs.

Among the good antique Persian rugs there are about thirty designs, all
having different borders. Each design is the peculiar work of a family
or tribe, and is produced continuously, from generation to generation
without noticeable change, except in compliance with the demand of a
buyer, or by a weaver who carries out some special fancy. Many buyers
select the color, design, and size, leaving their orders with an
importer or a manufacturer.


In the modern Oriental rug the designs are not to be entirely depended
upon. They are apt to vary at the will of the weaver; and moreover,
Occidental designs are now sent to the Orient to be woven into rugs by
the native weavers of the Eastern country. The designs sent to India, to
be reproduced by the different European and American firms having
factories there, are almost universally strictly Oriental in character,
being copies from fine old Persian pieces, or rearrangements of Oriental
forms. When the design reaches India, it has to be re-drawn to the exact
size of the rug that is to be made. From this is copied what is
called a _talim_, which is the only direction the weavers have. This
talim, or guide, shows the weavers exactly how many knots of a color are
to be tied; and when these different colors are put together, the design
is formed. These talims are carefully kept, and as they are records of
the designs, can be reproduced at any time.

Large rugs show best in large and bold designs, for small and crowded
designs would not be artistic. Small designs are, however, preferable on
small rugs; a bold design on a small rug is inappropriate. The finer the
border of a rug of whatever size, the more beautiful and costly the rug.

An average size for a large rug is six yards by four, and for this a
bold vigorous design would be suitable.

Some designs found in rugs are here reproduced.

I. Five Forms of the Palmette.

_a._ With sharply marked outlines this palmette is a characteristic of
the Djushaghan rugs.

[Illustration: _a_]

_b._ This is a geometrical form of the palmette, frequently met with in
modern Caucasian rugs.

[Illustration: _b_]

_c._ This form of the palmette has an oblong central nucleus, surrounded
by wreaths of leaves. To the right and left lancet-shaped leaves nearly
encircle the whole. This design is most frequently seen in old Persian

[Illustration: _c_]

_d._ In some old Persian rugs this form of the palmette with its
diagonal projections is seen. It tends toward the geometrical, although
its centre contains a small floral spray.

[Illustration: _d_]

_e._ This palmette, with its two flanking lancet-shaped leaves, is
frequently seen in modern Feraghan and Kurdistan rugs.

[Illustration: _e_]

[Illustration: II]

II. The Herati Border, or some form of it, may often be seen in Herat,
Feraghan, Khorassan, Kurdistan, and Sinna rugs.

III. The central design is formed by eight valvular or four heart-shaped
leaves. This form is often seen in Kirmanshah and Shiraz, and sometimes
in Caucasian rugs.

[Illustration: III]

IV. The Running Hook design found in the Daghestan, Shirvan, and Soumak

[Illustration: IV]

V. Pomegranate. The fruit is often depicted on ancient Assyrian and
Egyptian sculptures. It had a religious significance in connection with
several Oriental cults and was early introduced into rug designs.

[Illustration: V]

VI. A palm leaf with regular contour, its centre containing a small
floral design. This form of design is found in more or less detail in
the rugs of Persia and India.

[Illustration: VI]

VII. A palm leaf formed by a floral branch and without distinct outline.

[Illustration: VII]

VIII. Cloud bands, seen in Chinese and old Ghiordes rugs.

IX. A lozenge surrounded by the Hook design. This is found in rugs made
by nomadic tribes of Asia.

[Illustration: VIII]

[Illustration: IX]

[Illustration: X]

X. A continued wave-like design with rosettes attached. At intervals a
delicate tendril effect is interposed on either side of the wave-line.

[Illustration: XI]

XI. A continued wave-like design interrupted by a two-cleft figure.

[Illustration: XII]

XII. A rosette, the tips of its leaves bending backward. The rosette is
often met with in old Khorassan, Herat, Feraghan, and other Persian

[Illustration: XIII]

XIII. Reciprocal trefoil, or spade design. Found as a border design in
many of the Caucasian and some Persian rugs, especially the Saraband.

[Illustration: XIV]

XIV. The central design holds a rosette, to which are joined four
blossoms resting in valvular calyxes, the complete design forming a

[Illustration: XV]

XV. Four designs characteristic of the Caucasian rug.

[Illustration: XVI]

XVI. The Fylfot is in the form of a Greek cross with each arm continuing
at right angles. It is also known as the Swastika, and is the symbol of
good fortune. It has been a favorite design in the rugs of Greece, and
of the Orient, while it predominates in the Navajo rugs of the United

XVII. The Guli Hinnai is a decorative floral design found at its best in
the old rugs of Feraghan. It is copied from the flowers which grow in
small clusters on the henna-plant, from which it derives its name.

[Illustration: XVII]

XVIII. The Lotus is the water lily of Egypt. In various forms it is
found in antique rugs of Persia.

[Illustration: XVIII]

XIX. The Medallion, in both floral and geometrical designs, is seen in
many rugs of all rug-weaving countries.

[Illustration: XIX]

There are many more designs which by careful investigation can be found.
Among others the Arabesque, Chinese fret, Circle, Comb, various forms of
the Cross, Mina Khani, Octagon, the S form, Scroll, Serrated leaves,
Shah Abbas, the Star,--six or eight pointed,--the Tarantula, Triangle,
the Y form, and the Zigzag.


When doing their best work, Oriental weavers use the softest of
permanent dyes. The result obtained is in every case a thing of beauty
and utility. The aniline dyes are, of course, not to be compared to the
vegetable, although the best of them are not to be utterly condemned.
The poorest aniline dye eats into the rug, and the color fades.


Madder ranks high among those plants which yield a permanent dye. It
belongs to the genus _Rubia_; the root employed is that of the _Rubia
tinctorum_. This is largely cultivated in certain districts of India,
but the best comes from near Smyrna, and from other parts of Asiatic
Turkey. The plant grows wild throughout a large section of Central Asia
and Russia. With both the European and the Indian madders the roots of
the plants are the only parts that yield the dye. In the roots three
coloring matters are obtained: alizarin and purpurin, which are both
red, and xanthin, which is yellow. Cochineal was introduced for dyeing
purposes in 1856. It is the product of an insect called _Coccus cacti_,
which lives on a species of cactus. Yellow is often produced from
Persian berries, turmeric, saffron, and sumac.

Tyrian purple dye was greatly prized by the Phoenicians. As stated
above, it was obtained from a shellfish; but the secret was known only
to the maritime Canaanites. The art of producing this dye has been lost,
although some aver that in recent years it has been re-discovered.

Kermes, red in color, is one of the oldest of all dyes. It was known in
Syria, 1200 B.C. It is not so brilliant as cochineal, but it is much
more durable. Plutarch is authority for the statement that after one
hundred and ninety years stuffs dyed with kermes retained their original
color. The dye is the product of the bodies of females of the species of
coccus which infest certain trees along the Mediterranean coasts. When
the Romans conquered Spain, a part of the tribute demanded was paid with
these little bodies.

Greens are obtained from various sources. The Chinese green is a dye
obtained from _Rhamnus chlorophorus_ and _Rhamnus utilis_, a genus of
shrubs. The fruit of several buckthorns, or the Persian berries, as they
are generally called by dyers, also give greens and brilliant yellows.
Most of the greens, however, are produced by the combination of indigo
with yellow.

Indigo, mentioned by Pliny as Indicum, yields the deep blue dye so much
prized by the Romans. Arrian speaks of indigo, and says that it was
exported from Barbarike, on the Indus, into Egypt. This plant is grown
in India, China, North and South America, Mexico, Central America,
Africa, Japan, Madagascar, and Jamaica. When the Indian indigo plant,
_Indigofera tinctoria_, is in flower, it contains the largest quantity
of coloring matter. The beautiful vegetable and animal dyes which were
compounded with consummate skill are now largely supplanted by the
chemical dyes which are easily obtained. But in years to come the
commercialism of the present will probably give way to the restoration
of the splendid dyeing of the past.


Among Orientals a good deal of significance has attached, from the
earliest days, to color. In Babylon scarlet was the symbol of fire, blue
of air, and purple of water. Tyrian purple was an exquisite and rare
shade of crimson. Many allusions are made to it by classical writers.
The principal colors of the ancient Egyptians were red, yellow, and
blue. Black was the symbol of error. White signified a holy life,
purity, innocence of soul. The priests of Zeus and of Osiris were robed
in white. Red was the symbol of zeal for the faith. Yellow was supposed
to bring evil and sorrow. Blue was the symbol of truth. Black and white
were often used to outline other colors.

The Persians, unlike most other Orientals, are not fond of bright
colors. They are apt to avoid the light shades of red and green as being
too showy, and further, as being liable to fade. Greens and yellows in
dark shades they treat with more favor. They consider black and indigo
as the symbols of sorrow; rose is the symbol of Divine Wisdom; green
represents initiation into the knowledge of the Most High.

Among the Chinese, yellow is the symbol of royalty. The Emperor of
China and his sons may wear yellow robes; their descendants wear yellow
sashes and have yellow bridles for their horses. Red is the symbol of
truth, virtue, and sincerity. It is the color of the highest degree of
official rank. White is the symbol of mourning; black represents vice
and depravity.

In Turkey, green is the most sacred color; and for that reason a true
follower of Mahomet will not permit it to be used in his rugs, for fear
it may be profaned by being stepped upon. Thirty-five or forty years ago
no Christian was allowed to wear even a vestige of green anywhere upon
him, while in Turkey; but this law is not now so rigidly enforced. If
the Prophet or any of his family wear this color, no objection is
raised, as he and they are considered holy, and thus exempt from the
penalty. White is the color permitted to a student or a teacher of the
law. To the Mohammedans of India and Persia, as to the Chinese, white is
the emblem of mourning. In India, orange signifies devotion or pious
resignation, and blue means ill-luck to the Hindoo.

Red was the favorite color of the Gauls, purple of the Romans, and
saffron of the Greeks.




The supply of skins having been found inadequate to the gratification of
their desire for comfort, the ancient Egyptians gradually developed the
art of making mats from papyrus, a plant as important to them as any of
our trees, fibrous grasses, or hemp are to us. While at work on the
manufacture of these mats, the weavers used to squat on the ground. They
became skilful, both in constructing the fabric and arranging the
colors; the latter were quite bright and effective, being chiefly red,
blue, yellow, and green, with black and white to define.

Egyptians used rugs in the decoration of their rooms, hanging them on
walls and also suspending them between the pillars. But as the glory of
Egypt departed, her skill in rug-making also declined; and the Egyptian
rugs of the present day are of a coarse quality, being made in private
houses under the primitive conditions that existed thousands of years
ago. The last manufactory in working order was at Boulak, a suburb of
Cairo, but it has been closed for several years. A great many rugs,
however, are imported into Egypt, the majority being from Persia,
Turkey, and India. Cairo is still one of the leading emporiums for the
sale to tourists of rugs of Eastern make.


In Persia the art of rug-making has attained a very high degree of
excellence, having been practised there during many centuries; indeed,
the exact period when this industry was introduced into that country is
not known. Tradition has it that long before the days of Alexander the
Great, rugs were woven at Shuster, then the capital; and being a luxury,
they were woven solely for kings' palaces, and on the finest gold warp.

The Persians having been an industrious and civilized people for many
centuries, and a large proportion of them having been accustomed to the
nomadic and pastoral life, it is a natural inference that love of gain
and the demand from the growing towns for articles of beauty and luxury
gave the wandering tribes the opportunity to utilize their wool by
supplying the demand for rugs. Encouraged as it was under the reign of
Shah Abbas, the industry prospered. Various kings of Persia cultivated
certain branches of art and industry, but Shah Abbas especially gave a
decided impetus to rug-weaving. He had a particular fondness for the
beautiful creations of this industrial art, and the rugs made during his
reign bring fabulous prices. After his death a reaction followed. Rugs
fell into comparative disuse, and the manufacture deteriorated until
about 1850, when, thanks to the demand in Europe, the industry revived.
To-day it is in a flourishing condition and the most important source of
Persia's income.

Persians, from the Shah to the peasant, sit upon rugs when eating, with
cushions placed behind them. It is only the lowest beggar who has no
rug. The rugs used by the Persians themselves are rather small, the
larger ones being exported to foreign countries. Usually the rooms of
Persian homes are small, and narrow in proportion to their length;
consequently only small rugs are required. But even when the rooms are
large, the Persians prefer several small rugs to one large rug, as a
floor covering. They often first cover the hard-beaten ground with a
matting of split reeds, and then lay over this so many small rugs that
the matting cannot be seen. This custom is becoming more and more common
in Persia. With their taste in design and color, they produce beautiful


SIZE, 15.3 × 6.7

_The tree design in its best and strongest elements is typified in this
wonderful and most interesting Persian fabrication of olden time. The
harmony of design and color is most impressive, and the size of the rug
enhances this effect. It was evidently woven by one weaver, and years of
patient labor and the greatest skill must have been bestowed on it. The
richness of coloring, the velvet-like texture, the repose of design, are
all unusual. The foundation is of a deep rich blue, and the exquisite
rose and sapphire blues and ivory tones are in the softest and richest
of permanent dyes. The border is wide, the main stripe of the rose
shade, and the coloring all so blended that the continuity of the rug is
complete. It is doubtless a product of Kurdistan._


The finest rugs are closely woven, with a pile like velvet, and with
stitches on the back that resemble needlework. A rug has scarcely
reached its prime until it has been down ten years; and it should last
for centuries, if carefully used. As a partial explanation of this
wonderful durability, it should be remembered that in their own homes
the Persians use their finest rugs for hangings, and also that they take
off their shoes before entering the house.

In ancient days rug-weaving in Persia was generally restricted to
Ispahan, Khorassan, and Shuster, but in modern times the most noted
districts are those of Sultanabad, Fars, Hamadan, Feraghan, Bijar,
Kurdistan, Khorassan, and Kirman. But the industry is so widely spread
over Persia that there is not a class of women who do not live by it,
and very often really fine pieces of work are produced in districts
where the art receives no encouragement. The districts mentioned above
are more noted for the quality of the rugs they produce than for
anything else. The rug of each district has a peculiar character of its
own, both as to the quality of the wool and the design. The
peculiarities characterizing each district are so noticeable that an
expert can generally tell at a glance where a rug was made.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to discover the exact value of
the export and import trade of Persia. The source of this information is
naturally the Customs Administration, which in Persia exists but in
name. The duties of the ports and principal towns are farmed out to
various persons, whose interest it is to send the inquirer away as
ignorant upon the subject as he was before the interview began. But it
is possible, after a great deal of labor in collecting statistics from
the dealers of a particular article, to form an estimate probably not
very far from the truth. By this method we judge that the average yearly
export value of rugs in Aaragh (the Sultanabad district) is three
hundred thousand dollars; Hamadan one hundred thousand; Bijar one
hundred and ten thousand; Malair one hundred thousand dollars; Kurdistan
fifty thousand; Fars seventy-five thousand; Kirman and Khorassan one
hundred thousand; and in the less known districts collectively, fifty
thousand dollars. The total of these figures classes the rug export in
the very first order of exports. It is plain that this amount does not
represent the full value of the manufacture, inasmuch as a great
quantity of the goods does not leave the country. This quantity is
perhaps small in comparison with that exported, but it is large enough
to make the value nearly a million dollars.

It may be of interest to mention here that the export duty on rugs on
the average is two and a half cents per square foot, and carriage to the
seaports ten cents per square foot, while the import duty to the United
States is forty per cent _ad valorem_ and the specific duty ten cents
per square foot.

[Illustration: KHORASSAN RUG

SIZE, 10 × 26

_This is a perfect example of a Meshhed rug. The capital city of
Khorassan has furnished many characteristic specimens of fine
handicraft, but none more representative or beautiful. Here, on a
splendid rich blue field, is the elongated palm leaf, with its markings
of magenta, red, and blue. These palm-leaf designs extend over the
entire rug, which is of enormous size. The border is in harmony with the
field, and in coloring has the same deep, rich hues. The texture is firm
and the rug is very heavy and imposing, with an air of solidity and
strength. The illustration shows a section of this rug, giving a clear
idea of its detail._


In Persia several firms have done a great deal in the way of encouraging
the industry of rug-weaving in that country. To supply the demand for
Persian rugs in Europe and America, these firms have erected buildings
in Sultanabad, where they keep the weavers under control and steadily
employed. These firms, having been long established, are conversant with
the Persians and their character; and to prevent any deception they pay
the weavers by the piece instead of by the day.

The rugs produced by these firms are of the medium quality. The wool is
bought in the rough and manipulated for use. Every day a quantity of it
is given out to the laborers, who must reproduce the design placed
before them, and each laborer is paid from two to four dollars per
square yard, according to the quality of her work. In the service of
these firms, the weaver is obliged to put aside her individual taste and
follow closely the designs, which are prepared in accordance with the
prevailing fashions abroad. The independent native weaver does not pay
any attention to the taste of the buyer. She places her work in the
local market, and the native merchant purchases it for exportation.


_Bakhshis_ rugs are made in a small village in the district of
Azerbijan, and in the neighborhood of Herez. Those of thirty years ago
were excellent, but now the materials of which they are made are poor,
the rugs badly woven and of indifferent coloring. They come in large
sizes, usually having a medallion in the centre.

_Bibikabad_ rugs are quite modern, and are supplied to the market at
Hamadan. Aniline dyes prevail, and the rugs are of inferior design and

_Bijar_ rugs of olden time were artistic; of those of to-day this
statement cannot be truthfully made. The wool is still fine and silky,
but there is an element of crudeness of design and a defiance of the
laws governing color. A pronounced medallion in the centre is usually
seen. This is set in a solid field of a strong contrasting color.
Sometimes the field is of a bright red or blue, with the medallion
omitted. The borders are generally in the same color as the field, or in
camel's hair, sometimes covered with crude figures of human beings or
animals, or decorated with flowers in vivid red, yellow, or green. The
rugs are heavy, and in the American markets are known as _Sarakhs_.

[Illustration: BIJAR (SARAKHS) RUG

SIZE, 6.9 × 11.4

_The texture of this rug is very fine. It is thick and soft, and very
compact and smooth. There is a force both in color and design. On a deep
blue field rests a medallion in rather strong colors, red, blue, green,
and ivory. Heavily ornamented corner areas in the same shades give to
the whole design a certain symmetry, and a wide floral border with much
ivory gives an air of solidity._]

_Birjand_ rugs (so called) are woven almost exclusively in the village
of Daraksh, about fifty miles northeast of Birjand. The weavers of these
rugs came originally from Herat. The rugs are generally satisfactory,
the weaving being fine, although the pile is often uneven.

_Burujird_ rugs are made sixty miles from Sultanabad, and south of
Hamadan. They resemble in their field and in the firm texture the
Saraband rug, the palm-leaf design being arranged throughout the field.
The border is mainly white, with minute variations of the palm design.

_Djushaghan_ rugs are woven in a district south of Feraghan. They are
durable and attractive. The Shah Abbas design is a favorite one in
antique rugs of this kind. The field is generally of a rich red, and
occasionally a rare sage green. Often there is a lighter shade in the
border than in the field. Crosses with angular ends are a feature, and
between these are floral designs.

_Feraghan_ rugs of olden time are as satisfactory as any rugs handed
down to us. They are so harmonious in coloring and design as to be most
restful to the eye. They have a richness and sheen that make them most
desirable, and when to the usual soft colors a deep violet is added the
attractiveness increases. A distinguishing feature is the Herati design,
covering a field usually of a rich deep blue. Sometimes the Guli Hinnai
design is observed, with its more elaborate treatment. The border is
often a light ground covered with a design in the form of rosettes and
palmettes connected by a running vine. The main border stripe is
frequently in a rich green and sometimes of a deep rose. When there are
corner areas and a centre medallion they are arranged so symmetrically
that the harmony is complete. The colors in these areas and the
medallion are often in cream, light green, or red. At the present time
Feraghan exports annually a large number of rugs rather loosely woven,
but soft and durable. These are made by the Bactrian tribes. The entire
centre is often filled with rather small irregular figures on a dark
blue field. Yellow is often employed in a modern Feraghan, both in the
border and in the field. Quite an important feature of Feraghan and
other places of high altitude is the rug-woven saddlebag. When stuffed,
such bags make comfortable sofa-pillows, or they can be placed as seats
on chairs. Throughout Asia, saddlebags are used for the transportation
of household and personal effects and other goods, and by children for
their schoolbooks.


SIZE, 4.1 × 2.8

_This rug is an example of the Hamadan weave, which is so frequently
met. The field of camel's hair is in the natural color. The medallion in
the centre is woven mainly in red, as is also the border of the mat.
Both these, however, are ornamented with green, white, maroon, orange,
and a few black lines. There is a fringe at each end of the rug, but at
one end it is much deeper than at the other._]

_Görevan_ rugs are woven in the neighborhood of Herez. They are exported
in large sizes, and are generally rather showy and elaborate. Quite firm
and durable, they are popular for dining-rooms. As they are in great
demand in the trade, they are turned out too rapidly, but careful
selection brings happy results, for sometimes a truly beautiful rug,
with rich warm coloring and a medallion not too pronounced, is found.

_Hamadan_ rugs are generally of camel's hair, although sometimes goat's
hair is added. The field is in the natural shade, as is the surrounding
border. An elongated medallion appears in the centre; this is ornamented
with floral designs in red, blue, and yellow, as are also the corner
areas. Antique Hamadans are very beautiful. Soft and silky, yet with
firmness of texture, and in subdued coloring, they seem appropriate for
any room. Some of them, with fine, delicate tracery, in soft shades,
remind one of beautiful stained glass seen in the old cathedrals of

_Herat_ rugs are now woven in Persia by tribes originally from
Afghanistan. The old city of Herat was under Persian influence, which
accounts for the fine character of its rugs. The modern Herat rug is of
excellent quality and durable. The leading design is naturally the
Herati, and again one sees the palm leaf with its apexes all pointing in
the same direction. The field is generally a deep blue, although
sometimes a rich red, and even ivory. Green is apt to be the main color
in the border, and occasionally the butterfly motif is noticed. Some of
the modern rugs have medallion centres, in which the wool is generally
red or blue, and sometimes green or yellow.

_Herez_ rugs are attractive, the chief color often being a fine blue,
upon which rests a pronounced medallion. The corners are defined by
serrated lines, and are in shades of the red in autumn leaves. Often
these corners are decorated with small designs. The main border stripe
is light in color--often cream--with good-sized markings. Herez rugs are
made in the province of Azerbaijan.

_Iran_ is the official name for Persia, and when a rug is called by this
name, the meaning is simply that it is a Persian rug.

[Illustration: FERAGHAN RUG

SIZE, 24.8 × 15

_This is a most unusual antique Feraghan. It is rare to find an antique
of such enormous size, and the marvellous sheen and good preservation of
the rug render it a choice specimen. The texture is like velvet in its
softness, the Persian knotting is firm, and the shadings of green, rose,
blue, yellow, purple, violet, and red all blend in perfect harmony. The
pile is even, and the border with its exquisite hues is a study in color
blending. The green of the widest border-stripe is particularly
reposeful in effect._


_Ispahan_ rugs are antiques. During the sixteenth century and the reign
of the great Shah Abbas, and even earlier, these magnificent fabrics
were woven. Superb in coloring, with beautiful designs and of superior
workmanship, the examples still in existence are indeed precious. In
these old rugs one finds a field of red that is rich and rare. It looks
like carmine, and then again it seems as if one were looking into a
goblet containing the choicest wine of past centuries. Once seen, the
shade is not forgotten. So also with the wonderful moss-like green that
occupies the main border and the running vines of the Ispahan rug.
Black--the most corrosive of all dyes--although used, has disappeared,
leaving only the foundation. A medallion, star-form in effect, often
occupies the centre. Over the field are scattered palmettes and lotus
forms, all connected by running vines. A wide middle border between two
narrow stripes holds the rosette and palmette, and also the lancet leaf,
in tiny form. When cloud bands are seen they show Chinese influence, as
do the lotus forms.

_Kara Dagh_ rugs are made by nomads who are called Aylauts, and who live
in the mountainous region north of Tabriz. In appearance, as well as in
texture and size, they resemble those produced in the Caucasian province
of Karabagh on the other side of the boundary. The natural color of the
camel's hair, and rose color too, are much used. Sometimes the camel's
hair is mixed with goat's hair. The designs are floral and rather
striking in effect.

_Kermanshah_ rugs of modern make have usually a medallion with a lotus
motif in the centre of the field. This is generally of ivory, ornamented
in soft tones of blue, green, or rose. The usual light effect of the rug
makes it rather more suitable for a reception room or a bedroom than for
other places. There are, however, deeper tones in these rugs, and
sometimes there are no medallions. Perhaps the rug is most pleasing
with the palm-leaf design and that of the tree, or with many birds and
various floral conceptions. The borders blend harmoniously with the rest
of the rug. The finest rugs of Kermanshah were formerly made in the
palace of the Governor, and many were presented to leading rulers.

_Khorassan_ rugs are woven in the province of that name and are
characterized by various forms. A long palm effect or floral design is
apt to be in the borders of antique Khorassans; and a prominent color in
these rugs is magenta, which, though sometimes rather harsh in the
modern rugs, is soft and beautiful in the antiques. Blue is also a
leading color, and animals, including the lion and the gazelle; birds of
several varieties; flowers symmetrically arranged, and geometrical
forms, are all often seen. The Herati design is a usual one. When
stripes occur in the field they are beautifully decorated with small
floral designs or with the palm, and occasionally with that migratory
insect, the locust. The rugs are unevenly clipped, which gives a soft,
lustrous effect. Meshhed, the capital city of Khorassan, weaves rugs of
fine colors; the palm leaf when represented on this rug is very large
and impressive, often on a deep blue field. Animals and birds are
frequently seen on the Meshhed rug.

_Kirman_ rugs, made in the province of Irak-Ajemi, frequently have a
medallion in the centre, entwined with flowers. Sometimes the Tree of
Life is represented, its branches bearing different fruits, and often
there are symbolical little birds in the border. Sometimes a vase of
flowers is the principal ornament, or several small trees either with or
without foliage. Silk has often been introduced into the old rugs with
charming effect. The Kirman rug is one of the most easily recognizable.
It is of very fine quality, and is highly decorative. Antique rugs of
this kind have the finest of wool, and, with the artistic arrangement of
beautiful flowers, cypress trees, and palm effects, are most pleasing.
One of the finest in this country is reproduced in this volume with a
description accompanying it.

_Kurdistan_ (the Persian portion) is a large region inhabited by the
nomadic tribes called Kurds; and the sheep and goats belonging to these
tribes furnish the fine wool that is woven into Kurdish rugs. The color
effects are generally good. Often dark blues and reds form the
groundwork, in the centre of which is a lozenge or large diamond form
ornamented with small designs of the palm leaf. Then, again, a repeated
design is laid out over the field. Designs of the tree, palm, and
rosette, and various floral forms appear. By examining the web at one
end, a design in colored wool is generally found. In one of these rugs
in my own collection the centre contains twelve different symbolical
designs, including the turtle, comb, star, and cross, while the corner
areas and borders hold at least thirty-five others. All of them are so
carefully woven that much thought must have been bestowed upon this very
strong, splendid rug.

_Laristan_ (see Niris) rugs.

_Meshhed_ (see Khorassan) rugs.

_Mir-Saraband_ (see Saraband) rugs.

_Muskabad_ (see Sultanabad) rugs.

_Niris_ rugs are made a little to the southeast of Shiraz, in the
province of Laristan, and the latter name is that used in the Western
markets. All around Lake Niris are pastured sheep with fine lustrous
wool which is used in the manufacture of rugs. In the modern ones floral
and geometric stripes often alternate through the field, or there is a
medallion in the centre of a plain field, with corner areas. The border
carries several designs. There is a checked effect in the webbing at the
ends. The rugs are very strong and excellent for hard use. In the older
ones blue was used in the field, with rather large forms of the palm

_Oustri-Nan_ rugs have the palm-leaf design over the field, and a good
deal of white in the borders. They are firm and durable.

_Saraband_ (Serebend) rugs are woven in the district of Sarawan. They
always have a distinct feature in the small palm leaves that fill the
field. These leaves have the hook turned at the top from left to right
in one row, and right to left in the next. Usually the field that these
palm leaves adorn is soft red or rose in color. Again it may be deep
blue, or occasionally ivory, in which case the palm design is in red or
blue. The border is always harmonious, and there are many narrow stripes
which form it. The widest one is generally in an ivory tone, while the
undulating vine and small flower forms appear in some of the borders.
Then, too, one finds the Caucasian influence in some of the borders, and
the reciprocal trefoil is often seen. Occasionally a human figure is
carefully outlined in the border, and this brings a personal element
into the rug. Then again, the date is woven in. Mir is the name of the
village in this district where the design had its source, and in the
trade to-day the finest of these rugs is often called _Mir-Saraband_.

_Sarakhs_ (see Bijar) rugs.

_Saruk_ rugs are very closely woven in the hamlet bearing this name. The
floral designs scattered over the field of rose, dark red, or blue show
a spontaneity of workmanship that is not governed by Western enterprise,
though, curiously enough, aniline dyes prevail. The wool is very fine.
The border is composed of a wide middle stripe, with a narrow one on
either side.

_Savalan_ (see Sultanabad) rugs.

_Serapi_ (see Sirab) rugs.

_Shiraz_, the capital city of Pars, has exported some of the most
interesting and exquisite rugs in existence. In the sixteenth century
Shiraz was at the height of its prosperity, and all the neighboring
country was noted for its flocks of sheep, which produced the finest of
wool. Rugs were made at Shiraz for the reigning Shahs, who had palaces
there, and the workmanship displayed in them was most beautiful. The
city was visited by an earthquake in 1853, and since that catastrophe
the manufacture of rugs has not regained its former prosperity; yet
great improvement has been shown in recent years, and the same vegetable
dyes are still in use. The Shiraz is often called the Mecca rug, as it
is the one frequently selected by pilgrims to that city. Deep rich blues
are often seen in a Shiraz rug, and frequently stripes extend throughout
the centre, as well as in the border, where diamond forms and crosses
are also frequently seen. The medallion and the palm leaf are also
found. Many Persian poets have sung of the wonderful rose gardens of
Shiraz, and the rug weaver there has faithfully reproduced in glorious
hues these beautiful flowers. Other flowers, too, decorate this rug. The
webbing at the ends is embroidered in colored yarns.

[Illustration: SHIRAZ RUG

SIZE, 4.3 × 7

_The field of this rug is marked with narrow perpendicular stripes of
soft yellows, rose, deep blues, and ivory. These mellow tones of color
are all thickly studded with a fine floral design in contrasting shades.
The palm-leaf design, minute but distinct, is in pale green, with
markings of blue and rose. The border stripes of tan, dark rich blue,
and rose are floral in effect. The rug is heavy, firm, and of fine
texture. Fringed ends finish this beautiful example of the Shiraz._


_Sinna_ rugs are made in the province of Irak-Ajemi. They have a very
fine texture, and are greatly prized by rug-lovers. The pile is of the
best wool, and very closely cut. The Herati design, minutely woven,
often occupies the entire field. Again, a lozenge-shaped figure is in
the centre, and covered with the most delicate tracery. The field of the
rug is often in white or ivory, or in soft blue, red, yellow, or even
peach-blow tint. Yellow is used frequently in the border and corner
areas. Often the finest of these rugs will be puckered near the edges;
that is because the yarn is so tightly twisted in the weaving. Owing in
part to this firm twisting and also to the fine, close knotting, there
is much durability in the best specimens.

_Sirab_ rugs are woven in the village of that name in the district of
Azerbaijan. In Western markets the name has been corrupted, and the rugs
are there called _Serapi_. These rugs come in large sizes, and are of
excellent colors. A medallion of good proportions occupies the field,
and about this floral designs are arranged. Sometimes inscriptions are
seen in the rug.

_Sultanabad_ is one of the most important of the modern rug-producing
regions of Western Asia. Factories are kept busy supplying the market,
and in many cases excellent rugs are manufactured. This is especially
true when old patterns are used, for no modern ones sent out by Western
firms can be deemed worthy to take the place of original Oriental
designs. Large quantities of rugs from this district are exported to the
United States, and are then frequently called _Savalans_. The groundwork
is generally light in color, and the designs are many, while the variety
of brilliant hues is perhaps the largest in Persia. _Muskabad_ is a
trade name for a certain grade of rug from this district.

_Tabriz_ rugs are now supplied in large bales to the trade from
factories that are under Western jurisdiction. They are of well selected
yarn, closely woven, and very durable. The weaving is faultless. The
centre medallion is in a rich color, set in a field of ivory or other
solid color, and decorated with floral forms. The sharply defined corner
areas and the borders also contain floral designs in attractive colors.
Sometimes cartouches with lines from a Persian poet or birds and animal
forms are seen in the borders.

_Yezd_, where the fire-worshippers live, furnishes rugs with a short
pile, but these are used chiefly in mosques, and seldom leave Persia.

A fine Persian rug is valuable, even at the seat of manufacture. A small
one, measuring three by four and a half feet, quite modern, but very
fine and with splendid colors, has been sold at Teheran for eight
hundred dollars.

[Illustration: ARABIAN RUG

SIZE, 4.10 × 7.5

_Although distinctly Arabic in style, this rug was probably woven in the
vicinity of Shiraz. The squares which form the design resemble an
old-fashioned log-cabin quilt in the variety of their colors and the
regularity of their stripes. Some hues are green, then red comes into
play, while plum, brown, yellow, and blue are also employed. The wide
border of stripes shows the Shiraz ornamentation in its beauty, and the
Greek crosses suggest the possibility of a Christian weaver. There is a
fine sheen on the surface. This rug is quite heavy, and its very oddity
makes it interesting to the collector._]


The term Turkish Rugs includes all those rugs that are manufactured
within the Turkish Empire, whether the manufacturers be Kurds or
Circassians or Christians; the last of these names comprises the
Armenians, the Greeks, and the Syrians. Turkish rugs are not so finely
woven as Persian; they have a longer pile and looser texture. As they
are usually very soft and thick, the foot when walking upon them feels
as if it were treading upon a bed of moss.

The principal rug-manufacturing district of Turkey is Karajah Dagh. Much
weaving is done also at Cæsarea. The rugs found at Adana are generally
from the latter region, while those sold at Urfa are either from the
Kurdish territory or from Persia. In Constantinople are seen rugs from
almost every part of Asia, but the greatest number are from within the
Turkish territory of Transcaucasia.

Each rug-weaving district of Turkey seems to have a distinct and
individual class of rugs; and this is not surprising, for there are a
number of different tribes, each of which impresses its individuality
upon the work. The surface configuration and the climate of a place
have much to do with the quality of the rugs manufactured within it.
Naturally, in the rocky, mountainous regions the flocks consist of goats
instead of sheep. The sheep would be injured among the steep, sharp
crags, and much of their wool would be lost, as it would adhere to the
rocks. The goats, however, being hardy, easily jump from crag to crag,
sustaining no injury to their hair.

The hair of the goat is woven into the mohair and so-called Smyrna rugs,
and also into what is known as Paul's Tent Cloth. This last is woven
quite differently from other rugs; it is the coarsest of all, and the
women weave it on the ground. To make it firm enough to keep out every
drop of rain requires laborious work with the fingers, but when the
cloth is woven with care it is a most excellent shelter from the storm.
A large Paul's Tent, such as a rich man owns, costs about four hundred
dollars. It shelters the women of the household, as well as the cattle;
and one part is partitioned off for a guest-room.

In Turkey the floor is always covered with matting, and the matting, in
its turn, is so closely covered with rugs as to be quite concealed. In
large cities rugs are used in the Summer for divan and couch covers; in
the Winter the same rugs serve as beds.

Constantinople is the greatest rug market in the world. Every known
nation is represented in that wonderful city, where the ancient
industrial skill of Asia meets the steadily increasing demands of the
West. Nothing can be more interesting to the rug-lover than to wander
through the streets and byways, observing the different phases of his
favorite industry. The Custom House, where enormous bales of rugs await
transportation; the great warehouses, which handle only at wholesale;
the bazaars, and even the street vendors, possess each an absorbing
interest. The travelling merchants from Persia, who yearly journey to
Constantinople, establish themselves in that busy section of the city
known as Stamboul. Here they erect their khans, covering the walls and
floors with rugs, many of which are really splendid in tone and quality.
The large retail houses at Constantinople usually have collections of
very choice rugs.


Akhissar rugs have a thick pile, and are loosely woven. Their colors are
usually red and green. Rugs of mohair are made at Akhissar.

_Anatolia_, or Asia Minor, produces both rugs and mats of good quality.
The Anatolian rug is large and very heavy. The Anatolian mats are made
in large numbers, and are very thick and soft. They are used by the
natives for pillows. Some are very beautiful; and although many are
turned out with aniline dyes, many others are splendidly colored with
vegetable dyes. The designs are many and varied.

_Bergamo_ (ancient Pergamos) rugs have a long, silky pile, and are
almost square. They are quite thick, and have geometrical figures in the
centre, while the borders are floral in effect. The colors are rich,
generally yellow, green, red, and blue. A red webbing at each end
carries a blue or yellow embroidered stripe. Antique Bergamos are very

_Brusa_ (Broussa) had a fresh impetus in the rug industry a few years
ago. Very fine and beautiful silk rugs are woven there now by Turkish
women and girls. The Great Mosque and the Mosque of the Thunderbolt at
Brusa both contain rare old rugs.


SIZE, 4.6 × 6.9

_The rich magenta which is the field of this rug has been mellowed by
time. There is throughout the rug a softness and harmony of tone that is
very pleasing. The niche is high, and the corner areas and the border
are in richly blended blues and yellows, with magenta. The delicacy of
the floral designs, and the warmth of tone, give it a particular

_Cæsarean_ rugs have a thicker pile than any of the rugs woven in
Anatolia. They are garish in color and are stained with chemical dyes.
Large numbers are turned out by the factories, but they in no way
resemble the good rugs of former years, except in their durability.

_Cassaba_ (see Sparta) rugs.

_Demirdji_ rugs are a product of modern growth, unknown thirty-five
years ago. To-day the town is a large manufacturing centre. The rugs
bear strong Turkish elements. They are heavy and durable, and woven of
excellent wool when of the first quality. There are, however, three
different qualities. The weavers of these rugs have a small pattern
which they reproduce in the large sizes.

_Ghiordes_ rugs of antiquity are not in the market. Once in a decade it
is possible such a rug changes hands, but this is either the result of
lack of knowledge on the part of the owner, or because he is in
pecuniary straits. The rug derives its name from the ancient town of
Ghiordium, and its form is that of a prayer rug. The weavers were most
painstaking, and used the finest of dyes and designs. The hanging mosque
lamp, or a tree form, is suspended from the high point of the niche, and
a column appears on either side of the field, extending to the
spandrels. Above is a horizontal panel, and there is generally one below
the field. In colors there is a discriminating use of the old porcelain
blue, rare green, red, yellow, ivory, and white. When white was chosen,
the weavers often substituted cotton for wool, thinking it would keep
its purity of tone longer. The field is generally in one of these solid
colors. The borders are most interesting and beautiful. The main stripe
is usually ornamented with well-defined designs of small flowers and
leaves, arranged with a square effect. The other borders are generally
floral, while the zigzag water motif encloses the field. The apex of the
mihrab or niche runs high in the Ghiordes rug. A silk fringe often
finishes the top. One collector in Constantinople has many very fine and
rare specimens. He began to collect Ghiordes rugs years ago, before the
value of the rug became generally known. The modern rugs are very
coarse, and have no resemblance to the old ones.

_Hereke_ rugs receive their name from the village about forty miles from
Constantinople, on the Gulf of Ismid, where the Sultan has established
the imperial factories and a school of art. About four hundred young
women, mostly Greeks, are here actively employed in weaving rugs in silk
and wool. His Imperial Majesty is anxious to give employment to the
village girls, and takes much interest in this industry, which was
started about fifteen years ago. The rugs are reproductions, for the
most part, of famous antiques belonging to the Sultan. In 1898 Emperor
William of Germany visited this factory. After his return home the
Sultan sent him a large number of Hereke rugs. In 1902, during one of my
sojourns in Berlin, I was permitted by the courtesy extended to me by
the court official in charge of these rugs to see the entire collection
arranged in one section of the Palace. Beside the magnificent antique
Persian rugs belonging to the Imperial House of Germany these modern
Turkish rugs were startling in color; but the texture was fine, and time
will, of course, subdue the glowing colors, which are now often softened
in the Western markets by a washing process known to certain firms. Old
mohair rugs are also being reproduced at the Hereke factory with good
results. Great attention is paid in all these rugs to exactness of
detail in reproduction.

_Kara-Geuz_ rugs are mostly of the runner order, with mixed designs and
fugitive colors.

_Karaman_ has a considerable trade with Smyrna. Its rugs are coarse,
loosely woven, and not at all attractive.

_Kir-Shehr_ rugs are made in the province of Angora. Because of their
durability and thickness they are both useful and desirable. Their
colorings are rather strong, but fine; green is the most usual color,
although red and blue are frequent. The designs are mostly of Arabic
origin, and quite highly decorative.

_Konieh_ rugs are of great weight and resemble Ouchaks. They usually
have a plain centre, and when there are panels these are also of one
shade. Being firm and strong they are very durable.

_Kulah_ prayer rugs of ancient make are most interesting and valuable.
They are about the size of the old Ghiordes prayer rug, and have other
points in common, which might be expected from the proximity of the
towns. The Kulah rug, however, instead of the solid centre of its
neighbor, is apt to have its field ornamented with small floral designs.
The colors most prominent are a yellowish-brown, a blue, or a soft red.
Green and white are seen at times. There are many narrow stripes as
borders, often alternating in dark and light colors, and these are
beautifully ornamented with floral effects in minute designs. The niche
of the prayer rug is of medium height, often with serrated sides.

[Illustration: INDIAN PRAYER RUG

SIZE, 5.10 × 3.4

_This rug is a modern product of India. The prayer niche, with long
lines leading to it, extends well toward the top. The niche is decorated
with a delicate, dark blue floral design in ivory, red, and fawn, and
the lines leading to it are ornamented in blue, red, and brown. The
field is a beautiful sage-green, and the main border is embellished with
reds, browns, ivory, and occasionally with light blue. The outer border
is of the same green as the field. At each end is a full fringe. This
rug was made in the jail at Amritsar, from a design sent from the United

_Kurdistan_ (the Turkish portion) rugs are woven by the women in odd
moments, and one of the ways a girl gains distinction among her
associates is by the skill she displays in rug-weaving. As the wool is
taken from the flocks that are kept near home, and is spun and dyed
there, and as the time consumed in the weaving is not counted, each rug
is considered clear gain. In fact, the Kurdish women do not make their
rugs entirely for the market, but for their own entertainment and
use. Kurdish rugs are very durable, and they are much prized in
Turkey; but they do not sell readily in America because of the lack of
that harmony of color which our taste demands. Their coloring is often
too bright and varied to attract us. An Armenian clergyman said to me
recently: "I find Americans more devoted to harmony than to anything
else. I have in my house one of the finest of Kurdish rugs, but I could
never sell it in this country, should I wish. An American looks at it
and says, 'What hideous colors!' and I doubt if I could even give it
away, although it would be considered a superior rug in Turkey."

_Kutahia_ sends out Anatolian rugs of goat's hair and wool. Some
improvement has been noticed in the rugs recently.

_Ladik_ prayer rugs were made in the ancient city of Laodicea. They are
among the finest rugs of old workmanship. The field is of a solid color,
often a rich wine-red. The niche is serrated on the inside to the apex,
which is enclosed by straight lines. On the outside of the niche one
often sees the hook design, extending into the upper field, which in its
turn is frequently ornamented with lancet-shaped leaves and floral
forms. The Rhodian lily sometimes plays a part in the border design.
White, red, blue, a light tan, and green, with an occasional touch of
violet, are used. The webbing is red, and extends about an inch and a
half, when a narrow fringe finishes the ends.

_Meles_ (Melhaz) rugs of modern make are of coarse texture, and
brilliant in fugitive dyes of red, yellow, blue, and green. They find a
market at Milassa. The modern prayer rug does not compare favorably in
any way with the antique. The texture of the ancient rug is thin, but
with a wealth of coloring and blending of hues, as beautiful as rare.
Sometimes, too, the Ghiordes panel is seen above the niche. A good deal
of black was used in the old rugs, but, as is usual in antiques, it has
gradually disappeared with age. Violet, too, is a color that was
sometimes used with great effect in old rugs.

_Mohair_ rugs are made of the soft, silky hair of the Angora goat; but
though beautiful, they are not durable, as experiments tried at Akhissar
and Kulah have shown.

_Mosul_ rugs are strong and rich in colorings of blue, yellow, green,
and red. The designs are rather striking, and with their silky softness
these rugs are generally desirable. The best are made of camel's hair,
including the outer border, but occasionally they are made partly of
goat's hair. They are now made in several Turkish provinces, and are
often wrongly called Persian rugs.

At _Ouchak_, with its large population, there are steadily at work about
two thousand looms, giving employment to fully four thousand weavers,
and as many as one hundred and fifty dyers. Ouchak is the principal city
of Asiatic Turkey for the dyeing of the wool of which the rugs are
woven, and that industry is carried on in many factories. Ouchak rugs
have a thick pile; and though green is forbidden by Mohammedan law, the
modern rugs frequently have green for their dominant color. The reason
for this innovation is that the influence of their religious faith has
waned, and consequently the law regarding that color is not now strictly
enforced. The weavers of these rugs are mostly Moslem women and girls.
The wool is generally bought in the interior from nomad tribes, and the
weaving is carried on in private houses in a manner similar to that of
other rugs, except that the yarn is spun more loosely. In the early
history of rug-weaving these rugs were known in the Western market as
the _Yapraks_, and the colors were, almost invariably, red with either
green or blue. Until recently, even the best Ouchak rugs were apt to
have inferior wool for their foundation, and hemp was frequently
employed. The wool was loosely woven, and the dyes were fugitive. There
are now, however, certain provinces in Turkey, including Ouchak, where
the products are controlled by European and American firms, and where
excellent wool and natural dyes are used. The rugs made under such
control are very durable and in every way satisfactory. In size Ouchaks
vary greatly, ranging from a few feet to fifty by twenty-five feet.

_Sivas_ rugs are always woven of wool, and almost every hamlet carries
on the industry of weaving in the homes. There are no factories, the
young girls and women doing the work here, as in other parts of Turkey.
Sivas rugs are in most cases small, measuring about eight by four feet;
but lately larger and more attractive rugs are being made. Even the
poorest families have fine rugs, and regard them as valuable property,
to be sold only under the pressure of great extremity. The weavers are
so frugal in their manner of living that their daily earning of fourteen
to nineteen cents is sufficient to supply their wants.


_Smyrna_, next to Constantinople, is the most important commercial
centre in the East. It is the open door to mysterious Asia, and within
its boundaries are found representatives of every race and religious
belief of that little-known continent, the land of mystics, nomads, and
fanatics. It is a mistake to imagine that the so-called Smyrna rugs are
made in that city. As a matter of fact, no rugs are manufactured there.
It is the export depot for goods from the interior, and dealers have
allowed the name to be used merely for convenience, for commercial
purposes. A student of rugs can readily understand that throughout the
vast territory which concentrates its commerce in Smyrna there are a
score or more of valuable manufactures which could never be known under
one descriptive name.

_Sparta_ rugs are made in a village bearing that name situated in the
interior not far from Smyrna. They are very heavy, firm, and in
different colors. Some of those recently made are especially fine.
Attention is being paid to harmonious coloring as well as to quality and
texture. A splendid specimen is in the home of the leading merchant of
Smyrna. It is in the softest shades of rose and blue, with a lustrous
sheen. The texture is as fine as velvet, and the medallion in the centre
is most gracefully designed. Many rugs are sold under the name of
_Cassaba_, which are really woven at Sparta.

_Yaprak_ (see Ouchak) rugs.

_Yuruk_ rugs are so called from a band of nomads who dwell among the
mountains of Anatolia. They have large flocks of sheep, and weave rugs
of strong, hardy texture. The colors are very good, the field often of
brown, ornamented with large, bold designs.




The manufacture of rugs was introduced into India by the Mohammedans at
their first invasion in the beginning of the eleventh century. Persian
rugs, however, were always preferred to those made in India, and princes
and nobles of the Delhi Court, when it was in its greatest splendor,
sought the fabrics woven in Herat, or by the Sharrokhs on the Attrek, or
the nomad tribes of Western Kurdistan. These were purchased only by the
princes and their wealthy followers. A few specimens of these rugs still
remain in India, and are now and then reproduced with more or less

In the sixteenth century, however, the Emperor Akbar, or more properly
Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed, sent for Persian weavers to make the exquisite
fabrics for which Persia was then so famous. At first these weavers
continued to weave according to the designs employed in their own land;
but it is not surprising that as time went on, and the natives of India
learned the art of weaving from the Persians, Hindoo ideas should have
found expression, in Southern India especially. Thus geometrical designs
were substituted for floral, although even now the designs of some
Indian rugs revive memories of Persian teachers in the careful
arrangement of flowers and leaves. The designs of Indian rugs were
frequently named after the original owners, in which cases the weavers
generally lived and worked in the houses of their employers. At the
present time the manufacture of many Indian rugs is carried on largely
in jails, where the old Persian designs are generally used.

In Indian rugs, as in those of other countries, there are certain
distinct characteristics that stamp them as coming from particular
districts, and in India alone are to be detected the few Assyrian types
still in existence. Genuine old India rugs are works of art, but they
are rarely seen.

The religion of the Hindoo does not permit of his tasting the flesh of
sheep; and as India is not a wool-producing country, except in the
northern part, cotton is often substituted. For this reason, and because
the time consumed for weaving is less, Indian rugs are generally less
expensive than Persian.

Mr. Julian Ralph, in an interesting account of his visit to the home of
a prince in India, published in one of our magazines, writes of the
splendid rugs shown him by his host: "They were state rugs, and one was
green with a border of gold that must have weighed twenty pounds or
more. The other was red with a similar border, so stiff and cumbrous
that it did not seem made to walk upon. However, the prince sent for his
stiff-soled heavy-heeled ceremonial shoes which were quite as richly
crusted with gold, and walked about on the rugs, crushing the gold
embroidery in a ruthless way." When Mr. Ralph spoke of the damage, he
said, "It is of no consequence, these borders have to be renewed very

An Indian rug of great beauty was taken to England from India by Lord
Clive, who ordered the architect of his magnificent
palace--Claremont--then in process of building, to design a room
especially for it. Such special care for the proper display of this work
of art may be exceptional, but it shows true appreciative power on the
part of Clive.

From the time of the decadence of the industry of weaving fine shawls,
which was so long a feature of Kashmir, the wool of which they were
woven was gradually transferred to the rug industry, and the weavers
turned their attention from the shawls to the rugs, on which they
displayed the same patience and skill.


_Agra_ sends out very satisfactory rugs. These are mostly of great
weight and thickness. Many of the best are woven in the jail. The finest
specimen that I have seen belongs to Mrs. Potter Palmer, of Chicago, and
is a duplicate of one owned by Mrs. Frederick D. Grant. The rug is of
enormous size and weight, and the tree design is arranged in shades of
exquisite blue upon a field of delicate fawn color. The border, in the
same coloring, gives the most perfect harmony to the entire rug. Many
more Agra rugs would be imported, but there is now a United States law
prohibiting the importation of goods made in jail.

_Allahabad_ rugs are similar to those of Agra, but the latter are as a
rule preferable.

_Amritsar_ gives employment to over twenty thousand men and boys, and
supplies the market with some of the finest of modern Indian rugs.
Leading English and American firms have factories located there, and for
that reason rugs brought into the Occident from Amritsar are reliable.
They are firm in texture, and have fast colors. The manufacturers
realize the importance of these attributes in a rug, and their own
responsibility in the matter.

The _Dhurrie_ (Durrie) is a strong, well-made rug of cotton, often in
stripes of blue, brown, or gray, with narrow yellow and red lines. Some
Dhurries end in a fringe, and are square. In India they are largely used
by the foreign population, and in the United States they are especially
appropriate for summer time. They are made chiefly at Agra, Cawnpur,
Delhi, Lucknow, and in the vicinity of Bombay.

_Ellore_ rugs belong to the inexpensive class, but the designs and
colors are pleasing. As they are made chiefly of fibre mixed with wool,
they are not durable.

Formerly _Haidarabad_ sent out rugs famous for their beauty, with
designs in the forms of medallions, filled with flat floral ornaments
and woven with wool pile on a cotton foundation. But the modern
Haidarabad by no means compares with the antique.

_Jaipur_ rugs are generally made in the schools of art. They contain
many Persian designs representing animals and the cypress tree. The
borders are floral, and the field is generally ivory, red, or blue.

_Lahore_, the British capital of the Punjab, has rugs woven in both wool
and cotton, and the work is done mostly in jails. The designs are
Persian, and the texture embraces from forty to one hundred knots to the
square inch.

_Madras_ rugs are chiefly made in large quantities for commercial and
export purposes.

_Masulipatam_ rugs were once noted for their beauty, but now many of
them are poor in design and workmanship.

_Mirzapur_ rugs are sometimes wrongly sold for Turkish, which they
somewhat resemble. The antiques are very durable, but this cannot be
said of all the modern ones, the vegetable fibre that is used in part in
the construction of them not being durable. Few are exported to the
United States. The colors are often black, orange, or grayish-white.

_Moodj_ is the name given to a coarse, hardy mat, suitable for the
veranda. It is made of buffalo grass, which grows six to twelve feet
high in India. This is harvested, the fibre extracted by pounding, and
then it is twisted into rope or yarn. Afterward it is dyed.

_Multan_ rugs have large geometrical figures in octagons, medallions,
and circles. These rugs are very lasting. Their general coloring is dark
red and blue. Sometimes a really beautiful modern Multan is discovered.
Occasionally an emerald green or a yellow alternates with the usual reds
and blues, and again we see a white ground with blue designs. The modern
ones are not largely imported into America. The antique Multan is very
fine, but scarce.

_Mysore_ rugs are cheap and not interesting.

_Patna_ rugs are usually in blue and white; in quality they resemble the
modern Multan.

_Pushmina_ rugs have their name from the manufacturers, who thus
designate rugs that are woven of pashim.

_Sindh_ rugs are the cheapest and least durable of all Indian rugs, and
on this account not many are imported into the Western market. The
colors are green and orange.

_Srinagar_, the capital city of Kashmir, makes very beautiful rugs from
the finest wool. This is soft and silky, and as natural dyes are
employed, the Srinagar rugs, as well as many other rugs from the
northern portion of India, are highly valued. Antique rugs of this
character are attractive in soft tones of rose and yellow.

_Warangul_ rugs. At Warangul, in the eastern part of the Deccan, modern
rugs have been woven for the past sixty years. The designs are chiefly
Persian, with a strong Indian influence. To show the beauty and delicacy
of some of the old rugs, I may mention that one was made at Warangul, in
the sixteenth century, which contained 3,500,000 knots on its entire
surface, or 400 knots to the square inch, and the designs were so
complicated that a change of needle was required for every knot.

Leading importers now give names to designate the different qualities of
India rugs, and therefore the name borne by a rug does not necessarily
indicate the district in which it was woven. For example the Dhurrie rug
is woven in several districts of the northern provinces.

[Illustration: AFGHANISTAN RUG

SIZE, 9.5 × 7.6

_This rug has a remarkably soft yet firm texture. The rough beauty and
the fine coloring are very attractive. The field is a rich shade of red
verging toward the hue of a blood orange, and again gleaming with far
deeper shades. The large octagons are defined by a very narrow dark
brown line. Two sides of these octagons are in a deep, sapphire blue,
while the remaining two sides are of an orange cast. The octagon
sections are all ornamented, the small red diamonds at the edges being
separated by dark green lines. The lattice-work design in the squares of
the border of the rug are decorated with green and ivory, the latter in
the hook design. The centres of all the octagons are of the orange
shade, and one only is crossed through the centre, the markings being
knots of green. Large diamond forms, barred with sapphire blue and rich
green, are between the octagons on the field. Occasionally a small
geometrical figure in either blue or green, with pale yellow or ivory,
is seen, and a wide red webbing with heavy dark brown lines across it
extends at some length beyond the border. The rug was woven in that
northern region of Afghanistan known as Afghan-Turkestan._



Afghanistan rugs are generally large and nearly square. They are coarser
than the Turkoman rugs, but resemble them in color and design. The
Afghans, however, are more striking, the octagon designs being larger
and bolder. At Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, and in other
cities rugs are found which are made by the nomad tribes on the
frontier. The same tribes weave also the cotton and silk rugs said to be
woven at Bhawulpore, India. The Great Rug in the Palace of Chehel Sitoon
(forty pillars) at Ispahan, Persia, is said to be the largest ever
woven, and to measure about sixty feet long by thirty feet wide. This
rug was made in the sixteenth century, and is of Herat design and
manufacture. Owing to political disturbances, weavers from Herat have
settled in the province of Khorassan, Persia, since 1838, and prefer to
call that their home.

Some rugs have a strong odor, which is especially noticeable in those of
Afghanistan. The reason for the presence of the odor is that the
animal's hair has not been properly washed. Nothing but a thorough
cleansing on the back as well as on the surface, with soap and hot water
seems to be effective in carrying it away, although certain atmospheric
changes affect it. A damp, wet day brings out the odor strongly.
Fortunately this disturbing element is not in all Afghan rugs. There is
a great deal of force and strength exhibited in these rugs, and a
richness most attractive in the finest specimens. A color plate in this
volume, with its accompanying description, explains the typical
Afghanistan rug.


Beluchistan rugs bear the marks of nomadic workmanship. They show that
they are woven by tribes who combine strength and skill. The designs are
generally geometric, and bold in effect. The rugs have rich dull tones
of blue, red, and often with markings of white or ivory on a foundation
of dark brown, in fact so dark sometimes as to give the appearance of
black. This is accounted for partly by the great abundance of goat's
hair and camel's hair woven into it, which is sometimes dyed even darker
than the natural color. There is a fine lustre in this rug, and it is
one of the hardiest and most durable of all the Oriental rugs. The wool
used is soft and the pile left rather long, which accounts in part for
the rug being so thick and heavy. Occasionally we find a beautiful old
prayer rug in brown tones, and with corner areas in fine dull reds and a
wonderful deep rich blue.

Some of the finest specimens are occasionally sold as blue Bokharas; and
people who imagine that they have purchased one of the latter are likely
to find themselves the possessors of a good Beluch, for there is no such
thing as a blue Bokhara.



Turkoman rugs are woven by nomad tribes living in Central Asia. The
tribes are known as the Ersari Goklan, Sarik, Tekké, and Yomud, and most
of these rugs have some points in common, although they vary a good deal
in detail. Generally speaking, the Turkoman takes the greatest care to
have his work perfectly done. In order to give fixity to the color the
dyer steeps the wool in a mordant of alum and water. The dye is almost
invariably brought from Bokhara. At Ashkabad the Turkomans dye the wool
themselves when it is intended to be yellow, but when any other shade is
desired it is sent to the city to be dyed. Camel's hair is largely used
in the rug-weaving of Central Asia. The camel itself is carefully
washed, and the soft hair growing next its skin is used for fine rugs.
The goats of this vast region also receive the same watchful attention
as the camel; the soft, silky fleece is accounted precious, and is used
for the finest Turkoman rugs. The natives use their rugs not only for
the floors of their tents, but as _portières_, thereby dividing the
tent into sections. This is one of the reasons for the heavy fringe one
so frequently sees on the ends. It permits of hanging, and is very
strong, as is the case with the Turkoman rugs themselves, no matter how
fine the texture.


SIZE, 6 × 3.1

_The field of this rug is of a deep rose hue, with a soft lustrous
sheen. The texture is like velvet, and every stitch shows that the rug
has been woven with the greatest care. The octagons are divided into
four sections by distinct lines. The colors are orange, turquoise blue,
and a deep blue with markings of yellow and ivory. Between the octagons
are eight-pointed stars. The border is minute in detail, and the rug
itself is a genuine treasure._



_Beshir_ rugs resemble in certain aspects the rugs of Afghanistan. The
texture is similar, and the same rich blues and reds are seen; a red
webbing at the ends extends at some length, and has dark lines crossing
it. The rug is longer than the Afghanistan. The field differs. There is
an Arabic effect in the design, and yet with a reminder of the Yomud in
the general aspect. But the hook, which plays so important a part in the
Yomud, is missing.

_Bokhara_ rugs which are made in the city and Khanate of that name, are
not the so-called Bokhara rugs of the Western world. The genuine Bokhara
rugs are of good size, with large patterns, and are very strong and
forceful in character. They are sold in the Occident under the name of
Khiva or Afghanistan.

_Genghis_ (often called Guendje) rugs are woven by a tribe of Turkomans
who live the life of nomads. They are named after Genghis Khan, the
great Mogul conqueror who invaded Central Asia in the year 1218. The
rugs are woven of brown wool, or strong goat's hair, and have rather a
long pile. The designs are mostly geometric, although the palm leaf and
vine are often seen.

_Guendje_ (see Genghis) rugs.

_Kashgar_ rugs are made in Eastern Turkestan. They are quite coarse,
with designs of a Chinese character in strong coloring. Yellows and a
sort of lead-white are much used in these rugs; again, blues and
ivory-white are seen, while reds, pinks, greens, and a deep orange are
common. The Chinese fret, the dragon, and fishes are among the designs
employed. The Tree of Life is of frequent occurrence, but is a crude

_Khalatch_ rugs are woven by a division of the Ersari tribe of the upper
Oxus, bearing the name Khalatch. They are included under the one greater
head of Turkomans. The rugs are recognized by the single stripes of
bands that divide the field both vertically and horizontally. These
bands are ornamented with single motifs, and are generally considered to
be the earliest decoration of woven fabrics. Besides the bands, stars,
crosses, forms of the hook, and small prayer niches,--one at the top and
one at the bottom, but each facing in the same direction,--are seen.
Often a stark tree effect is noticed. In the trade these Turkoman rugs
are commonly called Kchatchli (pronounced Hatchli--Bokhara).

_Khiva_ rugs are woven by Turkomans inhabiting Central Asia. The
firmness, durability, and bold grandeur of these rugs render them very
pleasing. The field is of one of the splendid reds so much favored by
this great race. Arranged over the field are large forms of the lozenge.
Frequently these large forms contain smaller lozenges, which are very
decorative. Often a part of the larger lozenge forms are indented at
both top and bottom. There is generally a stark tree form between the
lozenges, in a peacock blue color. Much ivory is used throughout the
field and border, in heavy lines of demarcation. These rugs are sold
under the name of Afghan in the Western market. Well-toned shades of
red, blue, tan, ivory, and an occasional green are the usual colors.
Sometimes a Khiva has a long panel centre, with a prayer niche. In many
fine specimens the lustre is an added attraction.

_Samarkand_ rugs are a product of Central Asia. They show distinctly
Chinese characteristics. Sometimes the field is covered with round
medallions, from one to five in number, holding odd figures. The Chinese
fret is common in the design, and sometimes a large crude flower
arrangement is noticed. Reds, magenta, green, blues, a soft fawn, white,
and much yellow, especially in the border, are the usual colors. Soft
and rich, these rugs have a distinctive character, and are attractive.
Their texture, however, is quite thin, and they are not very durable for
the floor, but attractive on the wall or divan.

[Illustration: SAMARKAND RUG

SIZE, 11.6 × 5.10

_This is a fine specimen of the Samarkand rug. As usual in rugs of this
class, the weaving is rather loose and the texture thin. The coloring is
extremely rich and mellow. The field of red is in a warm tone, and the
medallions are in fine shades of blue. One of the border stripes is a
Chinese design. As in all rugs of this description, the Chinese element
is plainly seen, both in design and color, showing what proximity of
location will effect._]

_Tekké-Turkoman_ rugs are sold in the Occident under the name of
Bokharas. The design has little variety, and generally the rugs are
among the easiest to distinguish. The design is usually octagon, in
white or ivory tones with blue and orange, and occasionally green, upon
a field of rich deep red, or rose. Brown and black, with white, are also
used in the lines of demarcation or in the border. Sometimes the smaller
designs are very decorative. Occasionally in the past this tribe, which
is considered the most savage of all the Turkomans, has woven a rug with
a diamond figure in place of the octagon, but this is not typical. Also
instead of the usual red field a wonderful mahogany shade is seen with a
rare green in place of the usual blue of the octagon. In the borders one
often finds the eight-pointed star. The Tekké tribe use their rugs as
_portières_, for divan covers, and for floor coverings. Rich in
coloring, fine, yet durable, these rugs are greatly prized.

_Yarkand_ rugs are very similar to Kashgar rugs, having the same general

_Yomud_ rugs are woven by the tribe bearing that name, whose territory
seems to include both Astrabad and Khiva. The rugs woven by this tribe
are in rich tones of deep red or plum, sometimes mahogany in tone. The
design most frequently seen is the diamond, surrounded by the hook. The
weaving is very satisfactory, and the coloring in brownish-reds is
particularly good. In some odd and rare pieces among the Yomud
Turkomans, blue figures conspicuously, as does green also. The border in
these rugs is sometimes in stripes, sometimes in a sort of crudely drawn


_Caucasus_ is a general government belonging to Russia, and including
Transcaucasia. The designs of the many rugs woven in this section of
country are all parts of a system, and each design bears certain marks
whereby its class may be identified.

_Daghestan_ rugs are made in fine wools, and the mosaic designs are
generally beautifully and skilfully done. The figures are nearly always
geometrical, and in the form of diamonds, long octagons, lozenges,
hooks, and small crosses. The colors of the best Daghestans are so well
selected, that although there is no shading there is seldom anything
aggressive or startling in the effect. Blues, reds, yellows, ivory, and
other hues are chiefly used. The rug has a short, close pile, and
although the texture is rather thin, the rug is very durable.

_Derbent_ rugs, though woven at Derbent, the chief city of the province
of Daghestan, differ somewhat from the Daghestans proper, being much
softer and thicker. They are also more loosely woven, and have a longer
pile. The designs are geometrical, several star devices often occupying
the field; and here again we see the hook, which is a feature of the
entire Daghestan province. There is a good lustre in the Derbent rugs,
and the coloring is often quiet and inconspicuous in dark blue, red,
yellow, and ivory. Sometimes a soft pink is noticed.

_Kabistan_ (Cabistan) rugs are woven at Kuba. They resemble the
Daghestans to such an extent that they are often sold under that name.
They have, however, more variety of design, although, as in the
Daghestans, the diamond is generally a prominent feature, and often
three large and many small diamonds are seen. The texture is firm, and
the pile cut very close. Soft reds, greens, a delicate fawn, and browns
are the usual colors. The borders may be in stripes, or with crude
animal or bird devices. The antique Kabistan is very beautiful. Its
texture is like velvet. Often one, and sometimes two borders contain the
small single pink which is a most decorative floral ornament. The reds,
light greens, ivory, and plum colors are arranged artistically, and
quaint animal forms are often seen.

_Karabagh_ rugs have characteristics of the other Caucasian rugs, but
are more crude in coloring. Red is the chief color used. The rugs are
coarse and quite crude in effect. The old-time rugs were vastly superior
in workmanship.

[Illustration: DAGHESTAN RUG

SIZE, 7 × 3.5

_This rug has a fine texture and is straighter than most Daghestans. It
is an antique, but its colors are as fast and clear as when it was first
woven. It has been cleaned again and again, but nothing seems to dim its
hues. The field of light blue is thickly studded with large and small
geometrical figures in reds, yellows, and white. Some of the forms are
in the lozenge design, with colors in red and yellow, the reds
containing fine shadings of blue. Again square forms are seen, many
holding the same colors, ornamented with contrasting but harmonious
hues. In the centre are two geometrical figures of considerable size,
one in yellow, and one in red. Each of these has yellow and white in its
centre. On either side are still larger forms in yellow and blue. The
border is geometrical, the hook design in a bracket being in evidence,
and outside of this is a narrower stripe in red, white, black, and
yellow. The many markings add greatly to the beauty of this interesting


_Kazak_ rugs are woven by a nomad tribe dwelling among the Caucasus
Mountains. There is a certain strength and vigor about the Kazak rugs
that seem to be in harmony with the tribe that weaves them. The word
Kazak is a corruption of Cossack; and the durability of these rugs, as
well as a certain boldness of effect in their designs and colors,
corresponds with the hardihood of the people who weave them. The rugs
are thick and soft; their colors are blues, soft reds, and greens. Often
the field is a deep rose or a green, sometimes with one or more
geometrical figures and several medallions, or with the palm-leaf design
in rather large size throughout. When the palm leaf is used, it is
generally decorated with a smaller leaf of a different hue. Many
varieties of small designs are also seen, including circles, diamonds,
squares, and the tau cross, which is almost always present. Some of the
antique Kazaks are very fine.

_Shirvan_ rugs are attractive from their quiet, agreeable tints, and
fine, even texture. They are made in large quantities, and readily sold.
The best are of white wool, but the inferior ones may hold cotton or
goat's hair. Often blues and whites are the colors employed, with
markings of red or yellow. Sometimes there are stripes in the border,
one wide stripe followed by a series of narrow ones. The hook is a
frequent design, and may be found in the field, incasing some
geometrical figure. Sometimes a conventionalized floral design is
observed in the border.

_Soumak_ rugs ought really to be called Shemakha, for that is the name
of the town in the government of Baku from which they are exported. But
the contraction of the word into Soumak is now universal. Erroneously
too, these rugs are known as "Kashmir," for the sole reason that they
are woven with a flat stitch and the loose ends left hanging at the
back, just as they are in the old Kashmir shawls. The designs bear a
resemblance to those of the Daghestans, and the hook is omnipresent. The
best are durable, and sometimes a rarely beautiful Soumak is discovered,
distinguished from the ordinary specimens by its soft hues and fine
texture. One that I have in mind is of a rich blue field, with
geometrical figures in terra cotta shades, and a rare bit of green in
the way of ornamentation; the field of another is rose, and the
geometrical forms are in deep blues, old blues, and ivory.

_Tchechen_ (Chichi or Tzitzi) rugs are made by the Chichi nomads living
among the mountains of Daghestan. The rugs have a strong resemblance to
the Shirvans, and are often sold under that name. They are of about the
same color and quality, but are wider. In the border there are
frequently geometrical designs arranged between two or more stripes, and
the tau cross is sometimes seen.

[Illustration: KAZAK RUG

SIZE, 8.3 × 4.10

_This is an unusually fine specimen of a Kazak rug. Its softness,
combined with its solidity, gives it force and beauty. On the wonderful
rose field a series of geometrical figures, five in number, are placed.
Odd figures, including stiff little animals, fill in the remaining
field. The wide border is composed of small diamonds, with varied forms
of the hook design. The strength of the Cossacks is displayed in this
hardy, forceful, and richly colored rug._





No rugs of importance are woven in Palestine. In several villages a
coarse cloth is made which is waterproof because of its firm texture. It
is used for cloaks or abas, and these are worn by all the men of the
land. In Bethlehem is made the coarse cloth which is used as tent
covering. This is produced from the sombre hair of the Palestine goat.

All Syrian rugs are made of pure wool, a home product of an average
quality. Looms operated by machinery are unknown. The rugs are made in a
primitive fashion by the peasant women and girls, who work at the looms
in their own homes when not engaged in field labor or domestic duties.
They also do the washing, dyeing, and spinning of the wool. The
introduction of rug-weaving into Syria took place about the beginning of
the nineteenth century, when a number of families emigrated from Brusa
to villages of Syria, where they taught their art. For many years
excellent rugs were woven, Haidamur especially taking the lead in
superiority of quality, design, and durability. Unfortunately, the
original designs and blending of colors introduced from Turkey have
entirely disappeared, and only inferior rugs are now made throughout the
country. The chief colors in the modern Haidamur rugs are red and black,
or sometimes crimson and black, with black or dark brown figures at each
end. At Damascus a few rugs are woven, but not of any great value or
distinctive beauty.


The Chinese rugs of antiquity are remarkable, and worthy of the closest
inspection. Their texture, designs, and symbolism show the greatest
patience and thought. Antique wool rugs woven in China are very scarce,
and because of this, and for their historical interest as well as their
uniqueness and attractiveness, they bring large prices. In fact, they
are almost unprocurable. A large and very fine specimen of this kind of
rug is in the home of the late Governor Ames of Boston. It measures
nineteen by twenty-one feet. The colors are yellow and white, and these
are arranged in odd designs over the entire rug. A member of the family
owning it writes: "This rug is said to have originally been in the
Emperor's Palace in China. As every emperor is obliged to have the
palace newly furnished when he succeeds to the throne, owing to some
superstition connected with the retaining of any of the former Emperor's
possessions, everything is removed and destroyed. Fortunately this rug
escaped destruction." A fine example of an antique Chinese rug is
represented in one of the illustrations of this book.

The modern Chinese rugs are vastly different from those of antiquity.
There is, however, much of interest attached to them. They are sought
because of their antique designs, their harmonious coloring, and their
durability. The monstrous and fantastic forms that distinguished the
antique are not so frequently met with in the modern production. The
predominating colors in a modern Chinese rug are yellow, blue, white,
and fawn, and these are arranged very effectively. The designs are
quaint and odd. A border distinctly separated from the field is almost
invariably seen. A most important geometrical motif observed in Chinese
rugs is the Meandrian, especially the continuous and that derived from
the hooked cross. The hooked cross we find with rounded arms, generally
in connection with a cloud band. The rosette from the vegetable motifs
is very frequent, especially in borders; also the branch and the
continuous creeper. Bats, butterflies, storks, and the goose are in many
borders. The lion--symbol of a happy omen--is often represented in those
rugs designed especially for wedding ceremonies.


SIZE, 7.10 × 5.2

_The modern Chinese wool rugs are not at all like this antique specimen,
which was woven in Shantung about the year 1750. The material is wool,
the pile is very thick and soft, and the texture, though loosely woven,
is lasting. A large circular form in the centre of the field is richly
decorated in a fine blue, yellow, and white floral design. Ivory is also
seen in the markings, but no other colors are used except light yellow
and a deep blue. The field is of a rare apricot hue, very unusual and
beautiful. The border holds a Chinese fret design, the symbol of long
life. This is in a rich deep blue, and the out-most part of it is in a
dark shade of blue. The separate sprays of flowers on this rug represent
the tea flower, which the Chinese use for decorative purposes, and the
larger sprays hold the imperial flower._


In the northern part of China rugs are decorated with colored threads in
crude imitation of figures; they are woven in sections, and then sewed
together. Camel's hair of a coarse quality is used extensively by the
Chinese for their rugs, and the laboring class use felts in their
houses. These are cheap and durable, and are placed on the tiled floors
so common in the colder parts of China. The skins of the doe, deer,
and fox are much used in China as rugs. These skins are sewed together
in sections, according to various designs, and resemble mosaic work.

There are more circular rugs found in China than in any other country,
and some are exported. But they are seldom called for in this country,
and clerks in the large establishments which import them express
surprise when inquiries are made for them. The warp of the ordinary
Chinese rug is mostly of cotton, and the woof and pile are of wool or
camel's hair.

Tsun-hua rugs are made of silk and camel's hair in the province of


In olden times woven rugs were not known in Japan. The wealthy classes
of Japan covered their floors with grass, over which they spread the
skins of animals. The poorer classes had not even skins, but only reeds
or straw. About four hundred years ago silk and wool rugs were
introduced into Japan from Persia, China, and India. For a time the
Japanese imitated these rugs, but later the industry ceased. Since the
opening up of the country, however, rug-weaving has prospered, and the
introduction of fine cotton yarns of uniform quality has increased
greatly the growth of all textile industries. The modern Japanese rugs
are made of cotton or jute, and are used extensively in the United
States in summer homes. In the towns which produce these rugs little
children may be seen busily engaged in weaving, their small fingers
being very deft at this work. The chief colors employed by the Japanese
in their rug-weaving are blue, white, and sometimes a beautiful pink. In
weaving, designing, and coloring, as in everything else the natives do,
their exactness of finish and thoroughness in detail are noticeable. The
Persian designs which were once reproduced in Japan are now supplanted
by designs purely Japanese. The dragon is a favorite design in some of
the older rugs.

[Illustration: KHILIM RUG

SIZE, 12.2 × 5.6

_This is an unusually fine specimen of the antique Shirvan Khilim. Its
hues are softened by time, and the contrasting colors are so carefully
blended that the artistic effect is not lost. This Khilim has been
carefully woven, and is firm and durable. The broad bands of apple green
and other hues, interrupted by narrower bands, give a certain character
and strength of appearance to this beautiful piece of Oriental
workmanship. Some of the bands are embroidered with much skill._




The largest number of Khilims are woven in Turkish Kurdistan, although
many are made in the adjoining territory, and at Sinna and Shirvan. They
are also woven by the nomads of Anatolia and Merv, and Turkey in Europe
now produces many Khilims, especially in the vicinity of Servia.

Khilims are made in different sizes, and are alike on both sides, with a
smooth surface. Perhaps the Khilims most familiar to us are those which
are long and narrow. But there are also smaller sizes, the smallest of
all being called mats. All are without nap, and are woven with the flat
stitch by the means of shuttles.

Karamanian is another name given to this decorative piece of tapestry.
The Karamanian is woven in the tents of the nomad Yuruks and other
Turkoman tribes. Occasionally this weave and the Kurdish have a mihrab
at one end, showing it to be a prayer rug. The Sinna Khilims have a
Herati design, and colors of green, yellow, and rose are frequent. The
webbing at the end often contains a narrow stripe.

A bit of romantic sentiment is woven into the Kis Khilims, as those made
by the Turks in Anatolia are often called. It is asserted that the word
means "Bride's rug," and that the name is derived from the fact that
these rugs are woven by young girls, each of whom endeavors to finish
her rug in time to win a husband. A lock of hair is often found in the
Kis Khilim, said to have been woven in by the girl who made it.

In Oriental countries the Khilim is used as a floor covering, and also
as a curtain to divide the dwelling portion of the tent from that in
which the cattle are sheltered from the storm. It is also used by the
natives on their journeys, and for general wear on the floors.

In the United States this fabric is exceedingly popular as a hanging,
and for the cover of a divan it is equally effective, whether used in
the home or in the studio.


There are few of the so-called Polish rugs in existence, and these are
priceless and cannot be bought. They are mostly seven feet long by four
wide. The name takes its origin from the fact that a Pole (by name
Mersherski), after travelling in Persia and India, established a rug
factory in Warsaw.

Polish rugs are of silk, with gold and silver thread interwoven. Their
texture is looser than that of the usual Oriental rug, and for this
reason they cannot stand hard wear; but they are exceedingly handsome
with their gold lustre and silky sheen. In these rugs a number of warp
threads are crossed by the metal threads and overspread, so that the
lines or ribs are brought out more prominently. This in part accounts
for the softness and looseness of the texture.

Some time ago Dr. Wilhelm Bode, the eminent German scholar and authority
on antique Oriental rugs, decided that these unusual rugs were of
Persian origin, because of their general style and design. Since then
Mr. R. Martin has proved this by documentary evidence.


The prayer rug is so distinctly _sui generis_ that it requires a little
explanation. It is to be found wherever dwell the followers of Mohammed,
and the design usually includes a representation of a mosque, or place
of public worship, showing the mihrab, which is the niche in the wall of
the mosque, so located that when the worshipper prostrates himself
before it he will be prostrating himself toward Mecca.[A]

[Footnote A: Some prayer rugs have a representation of the hands of
Mohammed, and on them the suppliant places his own as he throws himself
prostrate. In the corners of some of these rugs pulpits are represented,
and occasionally trees.]

The Mohammedan, if he build a mosque, locates it so that its axis
extends in the direction of Mecca; in such buildings the mihrab is not
necessary, as the natural position of the worshipper places him so that
his face is toward the sacred city. Where Christian buildings, such as
the great Basilica of St. Sophia at Constantinople have been
appropriated for Moslem worship, the niche or mihrab may be located well
toward one corner of the building.


SIZE, 6 × 4.1

_This beautiful and rare rug has an ivory field thickly studded with
small floral designs woven most carefully. The knots are very closely
tied, and the texture is soft and fine as velvet. A cypress tree
occupies the centre of the field, and above its base on either side
appears the head of a bird. Below there are two peacocks, in gorgeous
plumage. The upper parts of the bodies of the peacocks seem actually to
glisten like cloth-of-gold; silk threads appear in the tail feathers. At
the top of the rug rests a bird of brilliant plumage, and on either side
a bird evidently in the act of flying. The border of this fine rug is in
stripes, the widest of a golden hue, with turquoise blue, light green,
and soft reds in delicate tracery. The corner areas are deep and very
minutely woven, corresponding perfectly with the field. Toward the
centre of the corner areas and extending upward, is the mihrab,
proclaiming for what purpose this rug was woven._


The prayer rug was evidently invented for the purpose of providing the
worshippers with one absolutely clean place on which to offer
prayers. It is not lawful for a Moslem to pray on any place not
perfectly clean, and unless each one has his own special rug he is not
certain that the spot has not been polluted. With regard to the purity
of the place of prayer Mohammedans are especially careful when making
their pilgrimages, the rugs which they take with them having been
preserved from pollution by being rolled up until the journey is begun,
or until the hour of prayer arrives. It does not matter to these
followers of Mohammed how unclean a rug that is on the floor may be,
because over it they place the prayer rug when their devotions begin.

About two hundred years ago small embroidered rugs were largely made in
Persia, chiefly at Ispahan. These were prayer rugs, and on each of them,
near one end, was a small embroidered mark to show where the bit of
sacred earth from Mecca was to be placed. In obedience to a law in the
Koran that the head must be bowed to the ground in prayer, this was
touched by the forehead when the prostrations were made, and so the
letter of the law was carried out. The custom still prevails. The
Persian women who make the finest prayer rugs seldom weave any other
kind of rug. But the encroachments of civilization and commerce have
changed the original purpose of the prayer rug. Once it was sacred, and
the masterpieces of workmanship in the products of Asia Minor were
devotional in character. Upon these rugs many a soul prostrated himself
before Allah in reverence; but now in the further interior only is the
prayer rug made for aught but commerce.

As a class the modern Anatolian prayer rugs are quite inferior, being
woven irregularly, and without regard to details or finishing; yet there
are among them some fine specimens of Anatolian weaving. The famous
prayer rugs of Asia Minor (Anatolian) made at Ghiordes, Kulah, Laodicea,
and Meles are described in preceding pages. They are the joy of the
collector and the artist. The antique Ghiordes rugs are really fine in
colors, generally with much pale green, red, or blue. The design most
frequently seen is the Tree of Life. One special kind is distinguished
by a yellow vine on a dark blue field.


SIZE, 6 × 3.8

_A deep, soft pile, firmness of texture, and superb coloring,
characterize this rug. The lower section of the field is of cherry-red;
the upper portion is a lighter shade of red, but blending perfectly, and
forming by its shape at the top the niche which is characteristic of the
prayer rug. This extends into the wonderful moss green of the upper
section. The two tones (which appear exaggerated in the black and white
plate) suggest the thought of a passing shadow upon a mossy bed. The red
and green of the field are separated by heavy serrated lines of ivory,
which unite at the top, leading up to and enclosing a small red lozenge,
terminating beyond this in the hook design. It is in the centre of the
lozenge that the Moslem places the stone or bit of earth when at prayer.
Other hook designs and various geometrical forms are arranged upon the
field. The wide stripe of the border is of a fine yellow, rich and
lustrous, decorated in blue, green, and maroon devices. The outer border
is in brown, and it is interesting to observe the series of nomad tents
represented, each one worked in white wool, the entrances to the tents,
however, being in reds, blues, or yellows. Alternating with each little
dwelling are figures worked in red, blue, or green. This interesting rug
is a product of Cæsarea._



Long before other countries learned the art of cultivating silkworms,
China was at work weaving fabrics of silk. Chinese historians claim that
the origin of reeling silk and putting it to use was discovered by a
woman,--Se-Ling-She, wife of Hwang-te, third Emperor of China,--and for
that reason she has always been regarded by them as the "goddess of
silkworms," The date of this discovery is about 2640 B. C. For about two
thousand years the Chinese kept secret their methods of reeling and
weaving silk, but finally Japan, Persia, and India learned the art,
Persia having for many centuries transported raw silk between China and
the West. Very slowly grew the process of silk-weaving. Greece, Spain,
and Sicily by degrees attained the knowledge. In A. D. 550 it was
introduced into Constantinople, and in 1148 silk manufacture was carried
into Italy, and the cultivation of mulberry trees was enforced by law.
The industry soon spread into the south of France, where it rapidly

At the present day enormous quantities of silk are produced in various
parts of the world. The principal countries are China, Japan, India,
Southern Europe, and some parts of Persia and Asia Minor. During the
Middle Ages and down to the seventeenth century, the province of Ghilan
in Persia produced very fine silk and in large quantities. In all the
countries and districts just mentioned, magnificent silk rugs have been
woven for many centuries.

The silk rug when at its best is unsurpassed in beauty; it is
distinguished by its richness, exquisite coloring, and rare sheen. But
silk rugs require the most luxurious surroundings: nothing looks so out
of place as one of these costly fabrics of the loom in a poor setting.
They are more suitable for decorative purposes and museums than for
service; they should be used as hangings, not for floor coverings. An
exquisite silk rug interwoven with pearls is hung before the famous
Peacock Throne of the Shah at Teheran, Persia.

The most magnificent silk rugs have been woven in China, and these are
interesting from every point of view, especially as regards history,
color, and texture. The silk rugs of Khotan are remarkable for their
beauty and fineness; on important occasions of state and ceremony the
Chinese place them upon the table. Silk carpets of special beauty worked
with gold threads are made in Pekin for the Imperial Palace, although
many of this kind found at the Court are said to be of Central Asiatic

In making silk rugs, the greatest care is necessary in the shading.
Sometimes the shading of woollen rugs is made more effective by the
addition of silk.

[Illustration: PERSIAN SILK RUG

SIZE, 5.8 × 4.12

_This remarkable rug in some lights suggests the heart of a forest. Some
of its sections indicate Chinese inspiration, and recall, too, the
famous Hunting Rugs. The field is in an unusual shade of reddish bronze,
with a strong metallic lustre. In certain lights the surface looks like
a mass of gleaming gold. In the centre stands the Tree of Life, its
branches rich with foliage, among which birds of bright plumage seem to
flutter. At the base of the tree two wild animals are depicted,
apparently in search of prey. In the corner area at the top of the rug
two serpents are attacking young birds in a nest, which is guarded by an
agitated parent bird. On either side at the base of the rug is a cypress
tree. Across the top is an inscription in Arabic._


As the demand for silk rugs is comparatively small, they are seldom
woven on speculation. When made to order in Persia, they cost from ten
dollars to fifteen dollars per square foot; thus the usual price of a
silk rug of Persian make is from two hundred dollars up to thousands of
dollars. Those made in Turkey can be bought much cheaper.

The Turkoman silk rugs are generally twice the size of the usual sheep's
wool or camel's hair rugs. They are very fine, and often two hundred
dollars is paid for a rug of this kind eight feet square.

Rugs made of raw silk are exported from Samarkand, and silk rugs of old
Persian designs are copied and woven at Cæsarea. Some weavers of the
modern silk rug, however, do not have recourse to established designs;
they give play to their imagination, as do the weavers of wool rugs.
Other weavers copy chiefly designs from chintz, and still others work
from designs introduced from Europe.

Mrs. Bishop tells us that silk produced at Resht is brought to Kashan to
be spun and dyed. Then it is sent to Sultanabad to be woven into rugs.
It is next returned to Resht to have the pile cut by the sharp
instruments used for cutting the velvet pile. After the rugs are
finished, they are sent to Teheran to be sold.


In the Orient a large and heavy rug is made of felt. This is used
extensively by the natives, but is too heavy to export. Even the
shepherds of the Kotan-Daria and of the Keriya-Daria use it in their
primitive and isolated abodes. Sometimes an old felt rug is propped up
by poles and becomes a tent, in which dwell the shepherds of Central

This felt rug is made of the hair of the camel, goat, or sheep, or by a
mixture of all these kinds. It is matted together by heavy and constant
pounding, moistened with water, turned and beaten again and again until
it becomes compact and solid. Sometimes the felts are decorated with
colored threads and often the name of the weaver is woven in. Among the
best felts are those made at Astrabad and Yezd.

In color felts are gray, brown, or white. The last named are woven at
Khotan. No dye is used; the hue is that of the hair of the animal, or
the composite hue resulting from the mixture of the hair of different

[Illustration: DERBENT RUG

SIZE, 7.2 × 4.6

As a representative Derbent rug, this is an excellent example. It has
the soft thick texture and long pile characterizing this product of the
Caucasus. The entire dark blue field is covered with well-proportioned
lozenge-shaped forms, distinctly outlined with serrated lines. Every
centre has a cross of a color contrasting with the form containing it.
The main border stripe is geometrical, with a variety of the hook
design. Several floral devices are arranged in the maroon stripes on
either side the wide one. There is a good deal of lustre to the rug, and
the coloring is particularly charming in fine blues, soft rose, fawn,
copper brown, subdued yellows, ivory, and rich green.


The felts have no seams, and are from one to four inches thick. Although
this material is of far more ancient date than the days of St. Clement,
a legend connects his name with the discovery of felt. The tradition
is that while on a pilgrimage the Saint, having put a wad of carded wool
into his shoes to protect his feet from blisters, found at the end of
his journey that the pressure and moisture had converted the wool into


The hunting rugs of Persia are the most remarkable and interesting rugs
in existence. They had their origin in the Chinese pictures of hunting
scenes, from which they were copied. They were undoubtedly made as early
as the sixteenth century for the Shah. Exquisite in their weaving,
marvellous in coloring, and of rare sheen, they are worthy of the
closest attention. Nor is this their only merit; they serve as records
of ancient customs, depicting the method of the chase, and portraying
the mounted hunters in pursuit of the elephant, lion, phoenix, deer, and
other creatures, fabulous and real. There are perhaps twelve of these
precious rugs in existence. One, in silk, belongs to the Imperial House
of Austria, another to Baron Adolphe Rothschild, a third is in the
Palace at Stockholm, and a fourth, in wool, smaller than those
mentioned, is in the possession of M. J. Maciet, Paris.



In the preparation of this section of this work, there has been no
attempt or desire to slight in any way the weaving industry of the West.
It has not seemed advisable, however, to go into many details on the
subject, for it is one easily learned from many sources by any one who
desires. There is not the mystery about Occidental weaving that there is
about Oriental, the latter perhaps appealing to our innate desire of
acquiring knowledge difficult of access. A short account of rug-weaving
in Europe and the United States will, therefore, be quite as
satisfactory to the general reader as a more lengthy description.


Greek rugs are almost as ancient as Greece herself. Many an old
love-song of this land has praised the skill of the woman deftly plying
the hand loom. But if one expects to see the glory of ancient Greece, in
its perfection of form and design, transmitted in any degree to the
industry of modern rug-weaving he will be disappointed. From time
immemorial rugs have constituted a most important part of the dowry of a
young girl from the provinces. Even now the courting of a bride in Crete
is often prefaced with the question whether the girl is skilled in the
handling of a loom. But the modern Greek rug is seldom seen outside of
its own country, for it is generally made for home use, and the weaver
is not easily induced to part with it. Besides this, the foreign market
would not be large for them, especially in competition with the
well-known and excellent Oriental rugs.

Greek rugs are of two kinds--the heavy ones which serve for floor
coverings in the winter, and the thinner, which are used all the year
round. Both are made of home-produced wool, often with hemp woof, and
are worked by women and girls only, in wooden looms of a primitive

Athens is the only place in Greece where rugs are produced in a factory.
Under the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen, an Association for the
Education of Poor Women exists. This philanthropic association has
founded an industrial institution which employs four hundred women and
girls in its various departments, of whom about thirty are engaged in
rug-weaving. The best rugs are those purely Grecian in design and
quality, and for these special orders are generally sent in. The rugs
thus woven are durable and effective. Sometimes an attempt is made to
imitate Turkish rugs, but without their superb effect. Coarse rugs of an
inferior class are sold in the bazaars of Athens. The predominant color
in these is a dingy white, with stripes of various colors at the ends.
The rug is really durable, though the noticeable, fuzzy nap soon wears


The Arab conquerors of Spain, or the Moors as they are often called, are
believed to have taught the Spaniards and Venetians the art of
rug-weaving. The rugs now known as Moorish are made by the descendants
of this race. Their leading color is yellow, and in style and quality
they resemble the so-called Smyrna rug. Antique Moorish rugs are found
in the cathedrals of Toledo and Seville. These are relics of the
thirteenth century and have geometric designs.

_Morocco_ rugs are Moorish. Those of modern manufacture are very
inferior. The poorest aniline dyes are used, and it seems hardly
possible that the splendid specimens of the fourteenth to the end of the
seventeenth century were woven in Morocco. But the rugs in the Sultan's
palace at Fez prove this fact, as does the splendid antique rug in the
possession of Prince Schwarzenberg, at Vienna. Fez was formerly one of
the chief seats of the rug industry, which is now limited mostly to
Rabat. Unfortunately, aniline dyes are now largely used, and even the
designs are less artistic than in former years. There is, however, a rug
not known to the trade, and only rarely met with outside its home. It is
the _Tuareg_ rug, and is woven by the Berbers, a tribe occupying the
desert south of Algeria and Tunis, and known as Tuareg or Tawarek by the
Arabs. The Tuaregs are great traders, and control the principal caravan
routes. Their rugs are woven by the women, and seldom if ever leave the
families which weave them. The most beautiful are used as shrouds, and
are buried with their owners.

_Tunis_ sends out a few rugs woven at Kairuan. They are thick, heavy,
but inferior in many ways to rugs of Oriental workmanship.


Bosnian rugs in olden times were sometimes very fine. Then came years of
general depression, when the industry of weaving fell into decay.
Finally the Austro-Hungarian administration was established at Bosnia,
and new life was given to the work. Looms were erected by the
Government, and a number of women were sent to Vienna, where they were
taught the art of weaving. Returning to Bosnia, they were able to impart
to others the knowledge they had gained, and thus the work prospered. To
enhance further the value of these rugs, the latest designs in the old
Bosnian rugs were selected, and by the harmonious blending of these with
new designs and colors, modern rugs were made, which show decided

_Servian_ rugs are woven throughout all Servia, but the principal seat
of the industry is at Pirot, on the southern boundary of the Balkan
Mountains. The rugs are of wool, and the best are very durable. The dyes
are generally vegetable, the weaving is a home industry, and the designs
are all worked on a black or red ground. The preferment in the modern
rug is for red, but the older rugs had the black ground. The general
design is an extended square, in the centre of which is a panel. The
rest of the field is filled with stripes and geometrical forms in rather
bright and varied coloring.

_Roumanian_ rugs of modern make are quite inferior. They are woven on
ordinary hand looms in the villages and towns among the mountains of
Roumania. They are coarse, and the designs are in stripes, zigzag lines,
or straight-lined figures. Occasionally flower designs have appeared,
but these have been poorly reproduced, and in the most unsuitable
combinations of color. Old Roumanian rugs are not in the market. They
are owned by private individuals, and are not to be procured except at
very high prices, if at all. These rugs differ from the modern ones in
their better workmanship and designs.

_Bulgarian_ rugs, as a rule, are very coarse in texture, loosely woven,
and unattractive. Occasionally Bulgarian rugs are seen with finer
weaving and well-chosen colors. Both men and women take part in
preparing the wool, the former setting up the simple looms, preparing
the darker dyes, and arranging the warp. The women choose the designs
and colors, and weave the rugs. The colors commonly used are yellow,
blue, brown, black, white, green, and red.


In England the introduction of tapestries as hangings for walls was made
by Eleanora, sister of Alfonso the Tenth of Castile, when she became the
wife of Edward the First. In her journeyings these fabrics of the loom
were carried as part of the royal baggage, and must have given some
sense of cheer, particularly when they clothed the bare walls of the
dreary castle of Cærnarvon.

Edward the Third (1327-1377) invited Flemish weavers to settle in
England. At that time England produced wool in large quantities,
although very few fabrics were woven there, nine-tenths of the wool
being sent to Ghent or Bruges to be manufactured; for the Flemish were
the first people in the northern part of Europe who advanced in the arts
and in manufactures. Throughout Northern and Western Europe rugs were
seldom used, except for wall hangings and table covers, until the time
of the Reformation in Germany.

Great Britain is now quite active in the manufacture of rugs with
certain designs, a decided impetus to the improvement of this industry
being given by Mr. William Morris, the English poet and artistic
decorator, who was born near London in 1834.

[Illustration: EARLY ENGLISH RUG

_Centre portion of a carpet woven in wool, with a continuous pattern of
carnations, and a border of wavy floral design. In the diamond-shaped
panel of the centre are the Royal Arms and the letters E R (Elizabeth


_The Morris Rug._ With strong, firm texture, fine vegetable dyes, and
with purely artistic designs, the Morris rug bears testimony to-day to
the honesty, perseverance, and skill of the man for whom it is named. He
himself testifies: "I am an artist or workman with a strong inclination
to exercise what capacities I may have--a determination to do nothing
shabby if I can help it." Decorative art in many branches is the richer
to-day for the influence of Mr. Morris, but it is his rug-making that
now claims attention. Mr. Bernhard Quaritch informs me in a letter dated
August 31, 1899, that Mr. Morris learned the art of making rugs from a
volume of the work entitled "Descriptions des Arts et Metiers." Mr.
Morris had his own loom, and not only wove rugs, but dyed the wool for
them himself, and instructed pupils, to whom his inspiration was a
power. Long and laboriously he worked to achieve the best results, using
vegetable dyes only, and he was finally successful. No dyer of the
Orient could have been more pleased than was he when his efforts
resulted in soft, glowing tints.

In design Mr. Morris excelled. He educated the popular taste by bringing
forth the beauties of the simpler forms of the floral and vegetable
world; he delighted especially in displaying the acanthus in varied
conventional forms. Every rug he designed bears witness to his
enthusiasm for harmony. Too æsthetic, some critics declare him to have
been; but no one can deny the importance of his creations, for England
needed to be awakened to a knowledge of her own inability to appreciate
artistic decoration of the home, especially by means of the productions
of the loom. It was this very fact, and his inability to procure
artistic furniture such as would satisfy his æsthetic taste, that
started Mr. Morris to create those fabrics which he desired.


The art of rug-weaving was first introduced into the West by the Moors
when they conquered Spain. With the advance of civilization it proceeded
to the land of the Gauls, where during the reign of Henry the Fourth it
was brought from Persia. An inventor named Dupont was placed in charge
of a workroom by the King, in the _Palais du Louvre_ about the year
1605. In the year 1621 an apprentice of Dupont's, named Lourdes, was
instructed to establish the industry of weaving in a district near
Paris, where was the _Hospice de la Savonnerie_, an institution for poor
children. The factory was called _La Savonnerie_ because the building
had been previously used for the manufacture of soap. Since 1825 _La
Savonnerie_ has been consolidated with the Gobelins manufactory. In
1664, Colbert, minister to Louis the Fourteenth, founded the
establishment at Beauvais which is owned by the French Government, as is
also that of the Gobelins, which Colbert bought of the Gobelin family.
But it is to the Saracens that France ultimately owes the origin of her
famous tapestries, and it is to the Saracens, through France, that
Western and Northern Europe trace their obligation.

The industry has attained large proportions in France. At Aubusson alone
over two thousand work-men are employed in rug-weaving. A fine specimen
of the work done there is a rug of Oriental design made for a collector
in New York. The piece-work system is now generally used throughout the
weaving districts of France. The manufacturers themselves usually place
the rugs on the market. France buys the greater quantity, although many
are exported.

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Holland, and Italy have also had some
experience in rug-weaving, and even little Switzerland at one time
attempted its introduction, but with unsatisfactory results. Belgium,
however, was more successful, for Brussels still produces a large number
of rugs.


The United States is largely occupied in rug-weaving, and the centre of
the Eastern section of this manufacture is Philadelphia. But in various
sections of the country there are rug factories, both large and small.

The _Abenákee_ rug is made at Pequaket, New Hampshire. It is the result
of a desire on the part of Mrs. Helen R. Albee to give profitable
employment to the women of the rural community where she lives. Her
success is now assured, and the reward for much labor and thought has
come in a lively demand for the rug.

The Abenákee rugs are not woven. They are an evolved form of the much
despised New England hooked rug, which was made by drawing strips of old
rag through burlap. The thick, soft, velvety Abenákee rugs of the
present day are far removed in color, design, and texture from their
humble ancestors. These rugs are all wool, hand-dyed in warm tones of
terra-cotta, old rose, old pink, tans, dull yellows, rich old blues,
olive and sage greens, and old ivory. They are made to order usually, to
match in their ground color some special color in the room where they
are to be placed, and the borders are made in harmonious tones. The
range of design is wide, from Oriental to Occidental--from Japanese to
North American Indian. But all suggestions, so soon as received, are
modified and removed as far as possible from direct imitation of any
foreign rugs. Mrs. Albee has aimed, not to reproduce Oriental effects,
but to have the designs original and distinctive. Fortunately, for years
previous to the establishment of this industry, she had studied the
principles of design and their application to various textiles, and the
knowledge which she thus acquired has proved most valuable.

The designs are bold and effective, but fineness of detail is precluded
by the strips of material, each of which is a quarter of an inch wide.
The color is arranged in broad masses.

The _New England Hooked_ or _Rag_ rug has for its foundation a strip of
burlap or sacking. Through this, strips of cloth are hooked, which form
loops, and this surface may be sheared or not, as the maker desires.
There is such an absence of attractiveness in the old-time rag rug, that
several women of taste and experience in art methods have sought the
improvement of this industry. The results have been excellent, so that,
ugly as the original rug is, it is esteemed as being the progenitor of
the more artistic Abenákee, Sabatos, and Onteora rugs.

The _Sabatos_ rug is a product of the little mountain village of Center
Lovell, Maine, started in 1900 by Mrs. Douglas Volk of New York. She has
now about a dozen women engaged in the work, this number including the
spinners, dyers, and weavers.

The Sabatos rug is durable, harmonious in color and design, and is
distinctly a home product. The wool of which it is made is sheared from
the flocks of sheep in the vicinity. The shearing takes place annually
in June; the wool is then carded, spun, and dyed. The threads of
hand-spun wool are worked through a hand-woven webbing, and securely
knotted or tied with a specially devised knot. The designs thus far are
mainly adaptations from the native American Indian motives, which are
simple and characteristic, furnishing a chance for broad color effects.

A special point is made of the dyes employed, those of vegetable origin
ruling, and only those dyes which from experience have been found to be
practically fast are used,--such for instance as genuine old Indigo
blue, madder root, and butternut.

Berea College, Kentucky, is endeavoring to encourage the weaving of rag
rugs of a superior order. So far, the industry which was started in
1905, is in a primitive state, the natives preferring to weave cotton
and wool coverlets, the designs of which they brought across the
mountains with them from Virginia in the early settlement of Kentucky.
Floor rugs they consider troublesome. The weaving is carried on in the
homes throughout the mountains of that region known as "Appalachian
America"; it is really a survival of the old Colonial industry. The rugs
are woven of strips of new ticking, and are especially designed for
bath-rooms, children's nurseries, and porches. The coloring is done with
the vegetable dyes and native barks and roots. The color schemes are the
simple ones of a primitive people.

_Navajo Rugs._ The Navajo Indian Reservation covers about eleven
thousand square miles, about six hundred and fifty of which are in the
northwest corner of New Mexico, and the remainder in the northeast
portion of Arizona. The region is well adapted for the raising of sheep,
and every family possesses flocks, which are driven from place to place
for pasture. The Navajos, however, never go to any great distance for
this, but keep generally within a radius of fifty or sixty miles from
home. This tribe weaves a rug that is useful, unique, durable, and when
at its best, impervious to rain. Among the tribes, and in some Western
homes, they are used as blankets, but it has become a fashion in many of
the best houses in the Eastern States to use them entirely as rugs,
couch coverings, and _portières_.

[Illustration: NAVAJO RUG

SIZE, 3.9 × 4.9

_The field of this Navajo Rug is in a natural shade of grayish white.
Six large diamond forms in black, with reddish edges and white centres,
rest on the field. The centres contain a tiny red line, and there are
smaller diamonds--seven in number--four having red centres and the
remainder black, and at one end are two small figures. The border is in
stripes of red, black, and an addition of white. The rug is a fine
sample of the American Indian weaving, and its simplicity places it in
striking and pleasing contrast to many of the modern productions of the

It is believed that the Spaniards, when they arrived in that section of
North America inhabited by the Pueblo tribe of Indians, communicated to
them the industry of weaving these rugs, and that the Pueblos taught it
to the Navajos. Thus it appears that the weaving of the Navajo rug was a
result of the Moors' invasion of Europe. The sheep, which are raised by
thousands, were also introduced by the Spaniards. The wool is not washed
until after the shearing. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century
the Navajos began to use the shears of the white man; previously they
procured the wool by cutting it off the body of the animal with a knife,
and pulling it from the legs.

The native dyes are red, yellow, and black, and the natural colors of
the wool are black, gray, and white. The dyes of the white man are now
much used. Formerly there was a beautiful blue, which has given way to
the indigo. A scarlet cloth called Bayeta was once much used in the
weaving of these rugs, but Germantown yarn and other inventions of the
white man have largely superseded the old-time materials and methods.

The spindle is of the crudest form, and sometimes the wool is simply
picked out from the mass, and rolled into the yarn or thread on the

The looms are fashioned after the most primitive ones of the Orient,
and the weaver sits on the ground and weaves upward. Women do most of
the weaving, but occasionally a dusky-faced man may be seen at the loom.
It takes about a month to weave a rug six feet ten inches by five feet
seven inches.

The designs in the Navajo rugs are many, and mostly in angles and
straight lines, the serrated diamond design being common, as is the
swastika or fylfot. The weaver makes up her own designs as she goes
along, occasionally only tracing it in the sand.

There is a symbolism attached to many forms in these rugs. The square
with four knit corners represents the four quarters of heaven and the
four winds. A tau cross is a symbol of protection and safety, and a
prayer to the Great Spirit. A spiral form represents the purified soul,
and a double spiral is a symbol of the soul's struggle. A wave mark
represents the sea, over which the people came from a far country. Black
is the symbol of water, regarded as the mother or spirit. Red is the
symbol of fire, and is regarded as the father.

The native costume of the women of the Navajo tribe consists of two
small rugs in dark blue or black, with a bright stripe at each end. They
are of the same size, and sewed together at the sides, except where a
place is left open for the arms. Formerly the Indians reserved their
hand-made rugs for their own use, but now that there is so great a
demand for the work of their hands, they sell those rugs, and content
themselves with blankets of factory make.

Old Navajo rugs, like Oriental ones, are growing scarcer every year, and
naturally are becoming more valuable and desirable. The fine textures,
perfect workmanship, and glowing colors are seen at their best in
productions of the past.




We are occasionally indebted to an Oriental scholar for a translation of
an inscription on a rug; often these inscriptions show the religious
belief of the maker.

One fine rug in a museum in Austria has the following inscription:
"Allah! No God exists besides Him, the Living, the Eternal. Nothing
causes Him to slumber or to sleep. To Him belongs everything in heaven
and on earth. Who can intercede with Him without His permission? He
knows what is before and what is behind, and only so much of His wisdom
can be grasped as He permits. His throne fills heaven and earth, and the
support of both to Him is easy. He is the High One, the Exalted!"

A rug of Persian weave owned by Baron Nathaniel Rothschild has, worked
in the oval cartouches, an inscription translated by Professor F. Bayer
as follows:

  1. "Honored mayst thou be in the world,
  Among the clever and wise.

  2. May no sorrow be allotted thee by an unfavoring Heaven,
  And may no care torment thy heart.

  3. May earth be all to thee that thou wouldst have it, and destiny prove
  thy friend.
  May high Heaven be thy protector.

  4. May thy rising star enlighten the world,
  And the falling stars of thine enemies be extinguished.

  5. May every act of thine prosper,
  And may every year and every day be to thee Spring-time."

In the Industrial Museum at Berlin there is a rug with this inscription:
"There is no Deity but God, and Mahomet is His Prophet."

On a Persian silk rug is a line from the Koran: "All perisheth but His

Another rug has: "God is greatest! He is great!"

Often a marking in a corner of a rug is simply the name of the maker,
and the date.

The Holy Carpet of the Mosque at Ardebil, now in the South Kensington
Museum, at London, has the following interesting inscription woven in
black characters in the light cream cartouche at the top of the carpet.
Translated it reads:

  "I have no refuge in the world other than thy threshold.
  My head has no protection other than this porchway.
          The work of the slave of this Holy Place,
                   Maksoud of Kashan
                           In the year 946."

(The year 946 of the Hegira corresponds to A. D. 1568.)


All Oriental rugs have designs, and every design is symbolical. To the
connoisseur, as well as to the owners of rugs, it is vastly interesting
to understand the meaning attached to these symbols by the Orientals.
Every one is familiar with the tree design in some of its various forms,
and with the stiff little birds and the many odd and strange-looking
animals which frequently are seen on an Eastern fabric of the loom. Yet
each unique figure has a meaning, and it is a fascinating, as well as an
apparently endless task, to find the hidden significance of these
symbols. If one goes no further, he should at least become familiar with
the designs on his own rugs, and know, if possible, what they typify.

The rug itself symbolizes Eternity and Space, and the filling or plan is
the symbol of the world--beautiful, but fleeting and limited.


_This rug dates from about 1500 A. D., and is of wool, with animal and
floral forms._



  BAT                                             _Happiness._

  BUDDHIST SCEPTRE                                _Success in literary

  CHI-LIN (a kind of doe)                         _Nobleness; gentleness._

  CLOUD-BAND                                      _The Deity._

  COCK AND HEN ON AN ARTIFICIAL ROCK-WORK         _Pleasures of country

  CRANE                                           _Immortality._

  CROW                                            _Evil._

  DEER                                            _Official emolument._

  DRAGON                                          _The imperial emblem,
                                                   signifying increase and
                                                   imperial grandeur._


  DRAGON AND PHOENIX                              _Newly wedded pair._

  DUCK                                            _Conjugal affection._

  GOOSE                                           _Domestic felicity._

  GOURD                                           _Happiness._

  LION                                            _Victory._

  MAGPIE                                          _Good luck._

  OLD MAN LEANING ON A STAFF                      _Long life._

  OWL                                             _Dread._

  PEACH                                           _Old age._

  PHOENIX                                         _The Emblem of the

  STORK                                           _Long life._

  TORTOISE                                        _Long life._


  YOUNG STAGS                                      _Long life._


  ASPS                            _Intelligence_.


  BEE                             _Immortality_.

  BEETLE                          _Earthly life and the development of man
                                   in the future state._

  BLOSSOM                         _Life_.

  BOAT                            _Serene spirit gliding upon the waters._

  BULL                            _Source of life._

  BUTTERFLY                       _Soul._

  CARTOUCHE                       _Eternity._

  CRESCENT                        _Celestial virgin._

  CROCODILE                       _Beneficent Deity._

  DOVE                            _Love; mourning of a widow._

  EAGLE                           _Creation; preservation; destruction;

  EGG                             _Life._

  EYE OF OSIRIS                   _Eye of the Eternal Judge over all._

  FEATHER OF AN OSTRICH           _Truth; justice. (The ostrich itself does
                                   not appear In Egyptian art.)_

  FEATHERS OF RARE BIRDS          _Sovereignty._

  FROG                            _Renewed birth._

  HAWK                            _Power._

  IBIS                            _Usefulness; the heart._

  LIZARD                          _Divine wisdom._

  LOTUS                           _The Sun; creation; resurrection._

  NILE KEY                        _Life._

  PALM TREE                       _Immortality; longevity._

  PAPYRUS                         _Food for mind and body._

  PINE CONE                       _Fire._

  POMEGRANATE                     _Life._

  ROSETTE                         _A lotus motive._

  SAIL OF A VESSEL                _Breath; the belief that the soul is
                                   inactive and worthless until revived
                                   by the breath of the mind._

  SCARABÆUS                       _Immortality; resurrection; a ruling

  SOLAR DISK WITH SERPENTS        _Royalty._

  SPHINX                          _Beneficent Being._


  SUN                             _Deity; life._

  VIPER                           _Power._

  WHEEL                           _Deity._

  ZIGZAG                          _Water._


  ASS                             _Humility; austerity._

  BANIAN OR BURR TREE             _Deity (because of its outstretched
                                  branches and overshadowing beneficence)._

  BUTTERFLY                       _Beneficence of Summer._

  FYLFOT CROSS OF BUDDHISM        _Auspiciousness._

  KNOT AND FLOWER DESIGN          _Divine bounty and power._

  SERPENT                         _Desire._


  PINE TREES                      _Long life._

  STORKS                          _Long life._

  TORTOISES                       _Long life._


  DESCENDING EAGLE                _Bad luck._

  EAGLE                           _Light; height._

  FLYING EAGLE                    _Good luck._

  HOUNDS                          _Fame; ever increasing honor._

  LEOPARDS                        _Fame; ever increasing honor._

  LION                            _Power; victory._

  PEACOCK                         _Fire; light._

  PHOENIX                         _Immortality._

  STANDING EAGLE                  _Good luck._

  SUN                             _Light._

  SWORD                           _Force._

  TREE OF HEALTH                  _Immortality._

  TREE OF LIFE                    _Knowledge; truth._

     The Coat of Arms of Persia is the Lion holding a sword in his paw,
     and with the Sun at his back.


  CRESCENT                        _Increasing power._

     The Turkish Coat of Arms is the Crescent and the Star. These
     heavenly bodies are supposed to signify growth.


  ANEMONE      _Good fortune._

  BAT          _Maternity._

  BIRD         _Spirit._

  BOAR         _Winter._

  BUTTERFLY    _Ethereal soul._

  CIRCLE       _Eternity; perpetual continuity._

  CYPRESS TREE _Tree of life; immortality; perfect and renewed life._

  DOG          _Destruction; vigilance._

  ELEPHANT     _Patient endurance; self-restraint._

  EVERGREENS   _Immortality._

  FIR CONE     _An existence terminated but united--the union of the tribes
                against the dominion of Rome._

  FLY          _Destroying attribute._

  HARE         _Fertility._

  HEART         _Man morally._

  HIPPOPOTAMUS  _Destroying power._

  HOG           _Deep meditation._

  JUG           _Knowledge._

  LILY          _Purity._

  OLIVE        _Consecration to immortality._

  OWL          _Wisdom._

  OX           _Patience; gentleness._

  PEACOCK      _Resurrection (because of the annual renewing of its
                plumage, and from a belief in the incorruptibility
                of its flesh)._

  PHOENIX      _Good luck; herald of prosperity; birth of great men._

  PIG          _Universal kindness._

  RAM         _Spiritual leadership._

  REED        _Royalty._

  RHINOCEROS  _Religious recluse._

  SCORPION    _Invincible knowledge._

  SERPENT     _Life; immortality._

  SPEAR       _Destructive power._

  SPIDER      _Slave of passion._

  SQUIRREL    _Averter of evil._

  STARS       _Divinity._

  SWASTIKA    _Good fortune._

  TURTLE      _Constancy._

  WHEEL       _Universe._

  WINGS       _Spontaneous motion._

  WOLF        _Destroying power._


  AKHISSAR       _White Citadel._

  BAGDAD        _Abode of Peace._

  BAKU          _Place of Winds._

  BELUCHISTAN   _Land of the Beluchis._

  BHAGULPORE    _Tiger City._

  BOKHARA       _Treasury of Sciences; the Noble._

  DECCAN        _The South Land._

  DERBENT       _Fortified Gate._

  FARS          _Land of the Farsi or Persians._

  FU-CHAU      _Happy City._

  GILAN        _The Marshes._

  GULISTAN     _The Rose Garden._

  HAIDERABAD   _Gate of Salvation._

  HERAT        _The Pearl of Khorassan; the Gate of India._

  ISLAMABAD    _Abode of Islam._

  ISPAHAN      _Place of Horses._

  JERUSALEM    _Heir of Peace._

  KANDAHAR     _Key of India._

  KARABAGH     _Country of the Sun._

  KARA DAGH    _Black Mountains._

  KELAT        _Castle._

  KHORASSAN    _Land of the Sun._

  KWATAH       _Citadel._

  MECCA        _The Heart of Islam; the Holy City._

  MESHED       _Tomb of a Martyr._

  MIRZAPORE    _City of the Emir._

  NING-PO      _Peaceful Wave._

  PESHAWAR     _Advanced Fortress._

  SAMARKAND    _The Head of Islam._

  SHANG-HAI    _Approaching the Sea._

  SRINAGAR     _City of the Sun._

  TABRIZ       _Pinnacle of Islam._

  TEHERAN      _The Pure._

  YEZD         _City of Light; City of Worship._


Owing to the variety of ways in which the names of Oriental localities
are spelled when transliterated, it is extremely difficult to establish
a standard of spelling. Many curious examples of this occur both on maps
and in dictionaries. It is certainly confusing to open an atlas that is
supposed to be an authority, and find that the name one seeks differs in
spelling from that used in the atlas first consulted. Then by looking
into dictionaries it is found that each of these has a different way of
spelling the word sought. Then turning to a guide book of the country
there will probably be found not only another combination of the
letters, but also a conflict between the descriptive matter in the book
and the map accompanying it. When books of travel are consulted, the
embarrassment is still further increased.

After having accepted a mode of spelling geographical names for use in
this volume, I propose in the pages that follow to assist the reader to
locate the places mentioned, by assigning them to their respective
countries, so that at a glance he may identify them. This classification
will also be a key to the map.

[Illustration: Map.]

Occasionally the name of a place has been inserted which is not
rug-producing, but only a mart for the selling of rugs. This has seemed
advisable as the names are intimately associated with the rug industry.






Chinese Empire


Province of East Turkestan








Russian Empire


                    { DAGHESTAN.
  CAUCASIA          { DERBENT.
                    { KUBA.

                    { KARABAGH.
                    { SHIRVAN.

Central Asia


Turkey in Asia







  KAIROUAN (the only place
  where the genuine Tunisian
  rugs are now made).






























































     ALLEN, J. ROWELLY: _Early Christian Symbolism._

     _American Journal of Archeology._

     ASHENHURST, THOMAS R.: _Design in Textile Fabrics._

     AUBER, M.L., ABBÉ: _Bible Myths._

     BABELON, ERNEST: _Manual of Oriental Antiquities._

     BALL, J. DYER: _Things Chinese._

     BIRDWOOD, SIR GEORGE C.: _The Industrial Arts of India._

     BISHOP, Mrs. ISABELLA L. BIRD: _Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan._

     BISHOP, Mrs. ISABELLA L. BIRD: _Unbeaten Tracks in Japan._

     BLACKIE, C.: _Dictionary of Place Names._

     BODE, WILHELM: _Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche._

     _Bonnick's Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought._

     BRUMMER, MARTIN: _Egypt, Three Essays on the History, Art, and

     BUDGE, E.A. WALLIS: _The Mummy Badge._

     _Century Atlas, The._

     _Century Dictionary, The._

     _Chambers's Encyclopædia._

     CLARKE, SIR C. PURDON: _Oriental Carpets._ (English Edition.
     Published by the Imperial and Royal Austrian Commercial Museum.
     Vienna, 1892.)

     _Constable's Hand Atlas of India._

     COXON, HERBERT: _Oriental Carpets._

     CURSON, Hon. GEORGE N.: _Persia and the Persian Question._

     DAVIS AND COBERN: _Ancient Egypt._

     DENNY, M.B.: _The Folk Lore of China._

     DRESSER, CHARLES: _Carpets._

     EDWARDS, AMELIA: _Third Lecture, Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers._

     ELKINS, JOSEPH, D.D.: _Ancient Symbolism among the Chinese._

     ELY, TALFOURD: _Manual of Archæology._

     _Emmaus's Life in Ancient Egypt._

     EVANS, E. P.: _Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture._

     FABER, GEORGE STANLEY: _Origin of Pagan Idolatry._

     FERGUSSON, JAMES: _Tree and Serpent Worship._

     FUSENBETH, F. C., D.D.: _Emblems of Saints._

     GOODYEAR, WILLIAM H.: _The Grammar of the Lotus._

     HEDIN, SVEN: _Through Asia._

     HULME, F. EDWARD: _Symbolism in Christian Art._

     _Iconographic Encyclopædia of the Arts and Sciences._

     INMAN, THOMAS, M.D.: _Ancient Faiths._

     JAMES, A. G. F. ELIOT: _Indian Industries._

     JONES, OWEN: _The Grammar of Ornament._

     _Journal of the Society of Arts._

     KARABACEK, Dr. JOSEPH: _Die Persische Nadelmalerei._

     KNIGHT, RICHARD PAYNE: _The Symbolical Language of Ancient Art and

     LANDOR, A. HENRY SAVAGE: _In the Forbidden Land._

     LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: _Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh._

     LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: _Nineveh and Babylon._

     LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: _Nineveh and Its Remains._

     History of the East._

     LESSING, JULIUS: _Oriental Carpets._

     LÜBKE, WILHELM: _History of Ancient Art._

     MALCOM, Sir JOHN: _History of Persia._

     MARVIN, CHARLES: _Merv, the Queen of the World._

     MASPERO, GASTON C. CHARLES: _Manual of Egyptian Archæology._

     MASPERO, GASTON C. CHARLES: _Dawn of Civilization._

     _Meyer's Handbook of Ornament._

     MUMFORD, JOHN KIMBERLY: _Oriental Rugs._

     MÜNTZ, EUGENE: _A Short History of Tapestry._

     O'DAGREE, H. EUGENE: _Les Symbols Antiques._

     O'DONOVAN, EDMUND: _The Merv Oasis._

     PERROT, GEORGES AND CHIPIEZ, CHARLES: _History of Art In Ancient

     PERROT, GEORGES AND CHIPIEZ, CHARLES: _History of Art In Chaldæa
     and Assyria._


     PETRIE, WILLIAM MATTHEWS FLINDERS: _Ten Years' Digging In Egypt._

     PHILLIPS, G.: _British Manufactures and Industries._

     RACINET, M. A.: _L'Ornement Polychrome._

     REBER, FRANZ VON: _History of Ancient Art._

     RECLUS, ELISIE: _The Earth and Its Inhabitants._

     _Redgrave's Manual of Design._

     RENOUF, P. LEPAGE: _Religion of Ancient Egypt._

     RIEGL, DR. ALOIS: _Altorientalische Teppiche._

     ROBINSON, VINCENT: _Eastern Carpets._

     RYAN, CHARLES: _Egyptian Art._

     SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY, LL.D.: _Babylonians and Assyrians._

     _Sculpture, Manual of._ Paris.

     SHARPE, SAMUEL: _Mythology and Egyptian Christianity._

     SHELLEY, G. E.: _Birds of Egypt._

     _Smith's Greek and Roman Antiquities._

     SMITH, MAJOR R. MURDOCK, R. E.: _Persian Art._

     _Smith's Religion of the Semites._

     _Southesk's Origin of Pictish Symbolism._

     _Spon's Encyclopædia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, And Raw
     Commercial Products._ (edited by Charles G. W. Lock.)

     STRICKLAND, AGNES: _Lives of the Queens of England._

     STUART, H. VILLIERS: _Egypt After the War._

     SYKES, ELLA C.: _Through Persia on a Side Saddle._

     _Thompson's Paper on Beast and Bird in Ancient Symbolism._ (Trans.
     Roy. Soc., Edinburgh.)

     _Twining's Symbols of Early Christian Art._

     VÁMBÉRY, ARMINIUS: _History of Bokhara._

     VAN DYKE, JOHN CHARLES: _History of Painting._

     WATSON, DR. FORBES: _The Textile Manufactures and Costumes Of the
     People of India._

     WEALE, JOHN: _Quarterly Papers on Architecture._


     _Westwood's Illumination._

     WHEELER, SAMUEL GREEN: _Persia and the Persians._

     WILKINSON, SIR J. GARDNER: _The Ancient Egyptians._

     WILLIAMS, S. WELLS: _The Middle Kingdom._

     WILSON, THE REV. SAMUEL GRAHAM, M. A.: _Persian Life And Customs._

     WINKLEMAN, JOHANN JOACHIM: _History of Art Among The Greeks._

     WYATT, M. DIGBY: _Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century._

     ZERFFI, G. C.: _A Manual of the Historical Development of Art._



  Aaragh, value of rug trade, 56; spelling, 167, 170.

  Abbas, Shah, 53;
    rugs woven during reign of, 62;
    _see_ Shah Abbas design.

  Abenákee rugs, 143, 144.

  Acanthus forms employed by Morris, 139.

  Adana, 71, 168, 170.

  Adiaman, 168, 170.

  Adiyemen, 168.

  Afghan rugs, 96, 102.

  Afghan-Turkestan, 95 (plate).

  Afghanistan place-names, 165.

  Afghanistan rugs, 95 (and plate), 96, 100.

  Afium-Kara-hissar, 168, 170.

  African place-names, 169.

  Agra, 166, 170.

  Agra rugs, 90.

  Agrinion, 170.

  Ahmedabad, 166, 170.

  Aidin, 168, 170.

  Ainos, their method of weaving, 24.

  Aitsi-ken, 167, 170.

  Akbar, Emperor, 87.

  Akhissar rugs, 74, 80;
    meaning, 162;
    spelling, 168, 170.

  Akshehr, 168, 170.

  Albee, Mrs. Helen R., 143, 144.

  Aleppo, 168, 170.

  Alexander the Great, rug-weaving in time of, 53.

  Alizarin (red coloring matter), 44.

  Allahabad, 166, 170.

  Allahabad rugs, 90.

  Allen, J. Rowelly, 175.

  Alleppi, 166, 170.

  "Altorientalische Teppiche," Riegl, 177.

  Altun, 168, 170.

  Amabala, 170.

  Ambala, 166.

  American interests in India, 35;
    in Ouchak, 81;
    in Amritsar, 90.

  _American Journal of Archæology_, 175.

  American rug-weaving, 24.

  Ames, late Gov., rug owned by, 113.

  Amritsar, 78 (plate), 166, 170.

  Amritsar rugs, 90.

  Anatolia, 74, 117, 168, 170.

  Anatolian mats, 74.

  Anatolian rugs, 74, 79, 122 (and plate).

  "Ancient Egypt," Davis and Cobern, 175.

  "Ancient Egyptians, The," Wilkinson, 178.

  "Ancient Faiths," Inman, 176.

  "Ancient Symbol Worship," Westroff and Wake, 178.

  "Ancient Symbolism among the Chinese," Elkins, 176.

  Anemone, symbolism of, 161.

  Angora goat's hair, 30.

  Angora province, 77.

  Aniline dyes, 44, 46, 134.

  Animal forms, not allowed by Mohammedan religion, 37;
    employed by Shiah sect and certain others, 38;
    in Jaipur rugs, 91;
    in Chinese rugs, 114;
    symbolism of, 156.

  "Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture," Evans, 176.

  "Appalachian America," 146.

  Arabesque design, 43.

  Arabian place-names, 168.

  Arabian rug, 70 (plate).

  Ardebal (District), 167, 170.

  Ardebil rug in South Kensington Museum, 36, 154;
    spelling, 167, 170.

  Armenia, 168.

  Armenian Christian weavers, 71.

  Arrian, quoted, 45.

  Ashenhurst, Thomas R., 175.

  Ashkabad, 98.

  Asia Minor, 168.

  Asiatic Turkey produces madder, 44.

  Asium, 168, 170.

  Asps, symbolism of, 158.

  Ass, symbolism of, 159.

  Association for the Education of Poor Women, Athens, 133.

  Assyrian rug-weaving, 19, 88.

  Astrabad, 103, 126, 167, 170.

  Astrakan, 170.

  Astrakhan, 168.

  Athens rug industry, 133.

  Auber, Abbé M. L., 175.

  Aubusson rug manufactory, 142, 169, 170.

  Austria, rug-weaving in, 142.

  Austrian Imperial House, owner of hunting rug, 128.

  Authorities consulted, 175-178.

  Awnings and floor-coverings, ancient, 19.

  Aylauts, nomadic weavers of Kara Dagh rugs, 63.

  Azerbaijan province, 62, 69, 167, 170.

  Azerbijan district, 58.


  Babelon, Ernest, 175.

  Babylon, fall of, 19.

  Babylonian rug-weaving, 19;
    color symbolism, 47.

  "Babylonians and Assyrians," Sayce, 177.

  Bactrian tribes, rugs woven by, 60.

  Bagdad, 162, 168, 170.

  Bagh, 165, 170.

  Baghdad, 168.

  Bahadapur (District), 166, 170.

  Bakhshis rugs, 58.

  Baku, government of, 108;
    meaning of _Baku_, 162;
    spelling, 168, 170.

  Balkh, 165, 170.

  Ball, J. Dyer, 175.

  Bangalore, 166, 170.

  Banian or burr tree, symbolism of, 159.

  Barbarike, 46.

  Bardwan, 166, 170.

  Bareilly, 166.

  Bareli, 166.

  Basilica of St. Sophia at Constantinople, 120.

  Bat, symbolism of, 157, 161.

  Bat with a ring in its claws, symbolism of, 158.

  Batum, 168, 170.

  Bayer, Professor F., 153.

  Bayeta scarlet in Navajo rugs, 147.

  "Beast and Bird in Ancient Symbolism," Thompson's paper on, 178.

  Beauvais rug manufactory, 141, 169, 170.

  Bee, symbolism of, 158.

  Beetle, symbolism of, 158.

  Behesne, 168, 170.

  Beirut, 168, 170.

  Belar, 165, 170.

  Belgium, rug-weaving in, 142.

  Bellary, 166, 170.

  Beluch rug called "blue Bokhara," 97.

  Beluchistan rugs, 97;
    meaning of _Beluchistan_, 162;
    place-names, 165.

  Benares, 166, 170.

  Beni-Hassan, rug-weavers seen in wall-paintings at, 16.

  Berea College, Ky., rag rugs, 145.

  Bergama, 168, 170.

  Bergamo (Province), 168.

  Bergamo rugs, 74.

  Berbers, rugs woven by, 135.

  Beshir rugs, 100.

  Bethlehem tent cloth, 111.

  Beypur, 166, 170.

  Bhag, 165.

  Bhagalpur, 166, 170.

  Bhagulpore, 162.

  Bhawulpore, rugs said to be woven at, 95.

  Bibikabad, 167, 170.

  Bibikabad rugs, 58.

  "Bible Myths," Auber, 175.

  Bijapur, 166, 171.

  Bijar, 55, 56; spelling, 167, 171.

  Bijar rugs, 58 (and plate), 67.

  Birch, Dr. Samuel, quoted, 17.

  Bird, symbolism of, 161.

  "Birds of Egypt," Shelley, 177.

  Birdwood, Sir George C., quoted, 23, 175.

  Birjand, 167, 171.

  Birjand rugs, 59.

  Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird, quoted, 24, 125, 175.

  Black, symbolism of, 47, 48;
    corrosiveness of dye, 63, 80.

  Blackie, C., 175.

  Blaine, Mrs. Emmons, rugs owned by, 34 (plate), 124 (plate).

  Blossom, symbolism of, 158.

  "Blue Bokhara" a misnomer, 97.

  Blue, symbolism of, 47, 48.

  Boar, symbolism of, 161.

  Boat, symbolism of, 158.

  Bode, Wilhelm, 156 (plate), 175.

  Boglipoor, 166.

  Bokhara, dyes from, 98;
    meaning of _Bokhara_, 162;
    spelling, 168, 171.

  Bokhara rugs, no blue, 97;
    so-called and genuine, 98 (plate), 100, 103.

  Bombay, 166, 171.

  Bonnick's "Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought," 175.

  Borders, 38-42.

  Bosnia, 136.

  Bosnian rugs, 136.

  Boulak, Egypt, rug factory, 51.

  "Bride's rug," 118.

  "British Manufactures and Industries," Phillips, 177.

  Broussa, 74, 168;
    _see_ Brusa.

  Brummer, Martin, 175.

  Brusa, 74, 111, 168, 171.

  Brussels, power looms in, 24;
    rug-production, 142.

  Buckingham, Miss, rug owned by, 120 (plate).

  Buckthorns, certain species produce dyes, 45.

  Buddhist Sceptre, symbolism of, 157.

  Budge, E. A. Wallis, 175.

  Bujnurd, 167, 171.

  Bulgarian rugs, 137.

  Bull, symbolism of, 158.

  Burley, Clarence, rug owned by, 106 (plate).

  Burnham, Mrs. L. G., rug owned by, frontispiece plate.

  Burujird rugs, 59;
    spelling, 167, 171.

  Bushire, 167, 171.

  Butterfly, symbolism of, 158, 159, 161.

  Buyers' selection for Western market, 33, 38.

  Byzantine influence on rug-weaving, 19.


  Cabistan rugs, _see_ Kabistan rugs.

  Cabool, 165.

  Cabul, 165.

  Cæsar first saw Cleopatra wrapped in rug, 18.

  Cæsarea, 71, 168, 169.

  Cæsarean rugs, 75, 125.

  Cairo, rug emporium, 52, 169, 171.

  Calcutta, 166, 171.

  Camel's hair, 30, 31, 98.

  Canton, 165, 171.

  Carding, 31.

  Carpaccio Vittore, painting by, 20 (plate).

  Carpets, catalogue term for rugs, 16.

  "Carpets," Dresser, 176.

  Cartouche, symbolism of, 158.

  Cassaba rugs, 75, 83.

  Caucasian rugs, modern, characteristic designs of, 39, 41, 42;
    descriptions, 105-108;
    place-names, 168.

  Cawnpur, 91, 166, 171.

  Center Lovell, Maine, 145.

  Central Asia, rugs, 98;
    place-names, 168.

  "Century Atlas," 175.

  "Century Dictionary," 175.

  Chal, 169.

  "Chambers's Encyclopædia," 175.

  Chanda, 166, 171.

  Charikar, 165, 171.

  Chehel Sitoon, Palace of, Ispahan, 95.

  Chemical dyes, 46.

  Chevalier, Charles, 176.

  Chichi rugs, 108.

  Chinese dye, green, 45.

  Chinese fret design, 43, 101, 102, 114 (plate).

  Chinese influence seen in design of Ispahan rugs, 63;
    of Kashgar rugs, 101;
    of Samarkand rugs, 102 (and plate).

  Chinese pictures copied in Persian hunting rugs, 124 (plate), 128.

  Chinese place-names, 165.

  Chinese rugs, 41, 113-115 (and plate facing 114);
    of silk, 124.

  Chinese silk industry, 123;
    silk rugs, 124.

  Chinese symbolism of colors, 47, 48;
    of various designs, 157.

  Chintz designs in silk rugs, 125.

  Chipiez, Charles, 177.

  Christian weavers of Turkish rugs, 71.

  Circassian rug-weavers, 71.

  Circle design, 43, 161.

  Circular rugs, 115.

  Claremont, English home of Lord Clive, 89.

  Clarke, Sir C. Purdon, 175.

  Cleopatra borne before Cæsar in a rug, 18.

  Chi-lin (a kind of doe), symbolism of, 157.

  Climatic influences on rug-weaving, 32, 71;
    on odors of rugs, 90.

  Clive, Lord, 89.

  Cloud bands, 41, 63, 157.

  Coat of arms of Persia, 160.

  Coat of arms of Turkey, 160.

  Cobern, ----, 175.

  _Coccus cacti_, insect which produces cochineal, 44.

  Cochineal, 44.

  Cock and hen on an artificial rock-work, symbolism of, 157.

  Colbert, fostered rug industry in France, 141.

  Colors, sensed by weavers, 21;
    Persians' intuition for, 37;
    obtained by aniline and vegetable dyes, 44;
    importance to Orientals, 47;
    Persian choice of, 47;
    symbolism of, 47, 48;
    in modern Turkish rugs, 77;
    in Kurdish rugs, 79.

  Comb design, 43.

  _Conchylium_, ancient name of Phoenician purple, 18.

  Cone, pine, symbolism of, 159;
    fir, 161.

  Constable's "Hand Atlas of India," 175.

  Constantinople, rug market, 71-73, 82;
    silk-weaving introduced into, 123;
    spelling, 169.

  Cossac (Kazak), 107, 108 (plate).

  Cotton, 30, 76.

  Cotton rugs, Indian, 23, 88, 91;
    Japanese, 116.

  Coula, 169.

  Coverlets woven in "Appalachian America," 145.

  Coxon Herbert, 175.

  Crane, symbolism of, 157.

  Crescent, symbolism of, 158, 160.

  Crete girl weavers, 132.

  Crimson, 18, 47.

  Crocodile, symbolism of, 158.

  Crooked Turkish rugs, 24.

  Cross designs, 43.

  Crow, symbolism of, 157.

  Curson, Hon. George N., 175.

  Customs administration in Persia, 55.

  Cypress tree design in Jaipur rugs, 91;
    symbolism of, 161;
    _see_ 120 (plate) and 124 (plate).


  Daghestan, 168, 171.

  Daghestan rugs, 41, 105, 106 (and plate), 108.

  Damascus, 112.

  Daraksh, 59.

  Date woven into rugs, 67, 154, 155.

  Davis, ----, 175.

  Davis, Mr. Will J., rugs owned by, 30, 68.

  "Dawn of Civilization," Maspero, 177.

  Deccan, rugs from the, 23;
    meaning of _Deccan_, 162;
    spelling, 166, 171.

  "Decorative Art," Petrie, 177.

  Deer, symbolism of, 157.

  Definition of _rug_, 15.

  Dekkan-peninsula, 166.

  Delays caused by superstitious weavers, 29.

  Delhi, 91, 166, 171.

  Delhi Court, 87.

  Demirdji rugs, 75;
    spelling, 169, 171.

  Denny, M. B., 175.

  Derbent rugs, 105, 126 (plate);
    meaning of _Derbent_, 162;
    spelling, 168, 171.

  Descending eagle, symbolism of, 160.

  "Descriptions des Arts et Metiers," 139.

  Design, of Persian rugs, 17;
    Oriental designs adapted from Nature, 19;
    Egypto-Chaldean designs in modern rugs, 19;
    furnished by Western art schools, 25;
    hereditary, 37;
    manner of teaching to pupils, 37;
    of Persian rugs, 37;
    selected by buyer, 38;
    Occidental, copied by native weavers, 38;
    made from _talims_, or working drawings, 38, 39;
    proportioned to size of rug, 39;
    units described, 39-43;
    determines district where woven, 55;
    of modern Persian product, 57;
    Shah Abbas, 59;
    Herati border, 59, 61, 64, 69;
    Guli Hinnai, 60;
    Tree of Life, 17, 65;
    use of old patterns, 69;
    introduced by Persian weavers into India, 87;
    Hindoo, 88;
    floral, in Indian rugs, 88;
    Persian, in Jaipur rugs, 91;
    in Lahore rugs, 91;
    in Warangul rugs, 93;
    in Japanese rugs, 116;
    of silk rugs, 125;
    of Morris rugs, 139;
    of Navajo rugs, 148;
    symbolical, 156-162.

  "Design in Textile Fabrics," Ashenhurst, 175.

  Designers, Indian, 32 (plate).

  Dewsbury, power looms in, 24.

  Dhurrie, Indian, 91, 94.

  Diarbekir, 169, 171.

  "Dictionary of Place Names," Blackie, 175.

  Dining-rooms, Görevan rugs popular for, 61.

  "Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh," Layard, 176.

  Djushaghan rugs, characteristic palmette of, 39;
    description, 59.

  Dog, symbolism of, 161.

  Dove, symbolism of, 158.

  Dowry, girls weave rugs for, 26, 132.

  Dragon, symbolism of, 157.

  Dragon and Phoenix, symbolism of, 157.

  Dragon with five claws on each of its four feet, symbolism of, 157.

  Dresser, Charles, 176.

  Duck, symbolism of, 157.

  Dunlap, Mrs. Robert, rug owned by, 117 (plate).

  Dupont, French weaver, 141.

  Durability of fine Persian rugs, 54;
    of Kurdish rugs, 79.

  Durham, power looms in, 24.

  Durrie, _see_ Dhurrie, Indian.

  Duties, Persian system of collecting, 55;
    on rugs, 56.

  Dyes, 18, 44-46, 98, 139, 147.


  Eagle, symbolism of, 158, 160.

  Eagle, descending, symbolism of, 160.

  Eagle, flying, symbolism of, 160.

  Eagle, standing, symbolism of, 160.

  "Early Christian Symbolism," Allen, 175.

  Earnings of weavers, 27, 28, 82.

  "Earth and Its Inhabitants, The," Reclus, 177.

  East Turkestan place-names, 165.

  "Eastern Carpets," Robinson, 177.

  Edwards, Amelia, 176.

  Egg, symbolism of, 158.

  "Egypt after the War," Stuart, 178.

  "Egypt: Three Essays on the History, Art, and Religion," Brummer, 175.

  "Egyptian Art," Ryan, 177.

  "Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought," Bonnick, 175.

  Egyptian wall-paintings of weavers, 16, 17;
    ancient rug-weaving, 18, 22;
    symbolic colors, 47;
    substitution of woven rugs for skins, 51;
    modern rugs, 51;
    factory, 51;
    imported rugs, 52;
    symbols, 158, 159.

  Egypto-Chaldean designs in modern rugs, 19.

  Eleanora introduced tapestries into England, 138.

  Elephant, symbolism of, 161.

  El-Hosn, 169, 171.

  Elkins, Joseph, D.D., 176.

  Ellore, 160, 171.

  Ellore, rugs, 91.

  Ely, Talfourd, 176.

  "Emblems of Saints," Fusenbeth, 176.

  Emmaus's "Life of Ancient Egypt," 176.

  "Encyclopædia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw Commercial
     Products," Spon's, 177.

  English interests in India, 35;
    in Amritsar, 90.

  English rugs, 138-140 (and plate).

  English rug-weaving centres, 24.

  Enzeli, 167, 171.

  Erivan, 168, 171.

  Ersari Goklan tribe, 98.

  Ersari tribe of upper Oxus, 101.

  Erzerum, 169, 171.

  Europe, introduction of rug-weaving into, 20;
    use of rugs at _fêtes_, 20;
    imports looms into Turkey, 24;
    demand for rugs since 1850, 54;
    factories to supply trade with, 57;
    interest in Ouchak industry, 81.

  Evans, E. P., 176.

  Evergreens, symbolism of, 161.

  Experts can determine where rug was made, 55.

  Export trade (Persian) in rugs, 55, 56.

  Eye of Osiris, symbolism of, 158.


  Faber, George Stanley, 176.

  Factories, rug-weaving, 26, 38, 51, 56, 57, 69, 70, 90, 119.

  Fakeh, 169, 171.

  Fars, designs peculiar to, 37;
    modern rug-weaving district, 55;
    value of rug trade, 56;
    rugs exported from, 68;
    meaning of _Fars_, 162;
    spelling, 167, 171.

  Farsistan (Province), 167.

  Feather of an ostrich, symbolism of, 158.

  Feathers of rare birds, symbolism of, 158.

  Felt rugs, 126, 127.

  Felts, Chinese, 114.

  Feraghan, 167, 171.

  Feraghan rugs, characteristic designs of, 40, 42, 43;
    description, 59;
    plate, 62.

  Ferghana (Province), 168.

  Fergusson, James, 176.

  _Fêtes_, rugs used as decorations during, 20.

  Fez, 134.

  Fir cone, symbolism of, 161.

  Fire-worshippers of Yezd, 70.

  Flat stitch, in Soumak and Khilim rugs, 34, 117.

  Flax, 30.

  Flemish weavers, 138.

  Floor-coverings and awnings, ancient, 19.

  Floral designs in Indian rugs, 88;
    in Jaipur rugs, 91.

  Fly, symbolism of, 161.

  Flying eagle, symbolism of, 160.

  "Folk Lore of China, The," Denny, 175.

  France, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20;
    silk industry in, 123;
    place-names, 169.

  French rugs, 141, 142.

  Fringe on rugs intended for hanging, 99.

  Frog, symbolism of, 158.

  Fu-Chan, 171.

  Fu-Chau, 162, 165.

  Fusenbeth, F. C., D.D., 176.

  Fylfot design, 42, 148, 159.


  Gask, 167.

  Gauls, red favorite color of, 48.

  Gäzne, 165.

  Gemerik, 169, 171.

  Genghis Khan, 100.

  Genghis rugs, 100.

  Geometrical designs replace floral in India, 88.

  Germantown yarn used in Navajo rugs, 147.

  Germany, rug-weaving in, 142.

  Ghain, 167.

  Ghayn, 167.

  Ghazni, 165, 171.

  Ghilan, silk trade in, 124;
    spelling, 167, 171.

  Ghileem rugs, _see_ Khilim rugs.

  Ghiordes, 169, 171.

  Ghiordes knotting, 34, 35.

  Ghiordes panel in Meles prayer rug, 80.

  Ghiordes rugs, 41, 74 (plate), 75, 78, 122.

  Ghiordium, 75.

  Gilan, 163, 167.

  Goa, 166, 171.

  Goats replace sheep in rocky regions, 72;
    raised by Turkomans, 98.

  Gobelins manufactory, 141.

  "Goddess of silkworms," 123.

  Gold warp used for antique Persian rugs, 53;
    in state rugs of India, 89;
    in Polish rugs, 119;
    in Chinese silk rugs, 124.

  Goodyear, William H., 176.

  Goose, symbolism of, 157.

  Gorakhpur, 166, 171.

  Gordis, 169.

  Gordus, 169.

  Görevan rugs, 60.

  Gorukpore, 166.

  Gourd, symbolism of, 157.

  "Grammar of Ornament, The," Jones, 176.

  "Grammar of the Lotus, The," Goodyear, 176.

  Grant, Mrs. Frederick D., rug owned by, 90.

  Graves, custom of hanging rugs over, 20.

  Great Britain, power looms in, 24, 25;
    rug manufacture in, 138.

  Great Rug in the Palace of Chehel Sitoon, Ispahan, 95.

  Greece, rug-weaving in, 19;
    swastika design in rugs of, 43;
    saffron favorite color in, 48;
    silk-weaving in, 123;
    ancient and modern rugs of, 132, 133;
    place-names, 170.

  "Greek and Roman Antiquities," Smith, 177.

  Greek Christian weavers, 71; in Hereke, 76.

  Green dyes, how produced, 45;
    symbolism of, 47, 48;
    used though forbidden by law, 81.

  Guendje rugs, 100, 101.

  Guli Hinnai design, 43, 60.

  Gulistan, 163, 165, 171.

  Gundava, 165, 171.

  Gürdiz, 169.


  Haidamoor, 169, 171.

  Haidamur rugs, 111, 112.

  Haidarabad rugs, 91.

  Haiderabad, 163, 166, 171.

  Hair, lock of, woven in Kis Khilims, 118.

  Hakkam, 169, 171.

  Halifax, power looms in, 24.

  Hamadam, 171.

  Hamadan, 55, 56, 58, 59, 167.

  Hamadan rugs, 60 (plate), 61.

  "Hand Atlas of India," Constable, 175.

  Hand looms, 22.

  "Handbook of Ornament," Meyer, 177.

  Hang-chau, 165, 171.

  Hangings, rugs used as, 16, 55.

  Hare, symbolism of, 161.

  Havermeyer, late H. O., rug owned by estate of, 114 (plate).

  Hawk, symbolism of, 158.

  Hay, Mr., owner of Theban rug, 17.

  Hayzoor, 169, 172.

  Heart, symbolism of, 161.

  Hedin, Sven, 176.

  Hemp, 30, 81.

  Herat, 59, 61, 87,95, 163, 165, 172.

  Herat design in Great Rug, 95.

  Herat rugs, 40, 42, 61.

  Herati border, 40, 59, 61, 64, 69, 117.

  Hereke, 169.

  Hereke rugs, 76.

  Herez, 58, 60, 167, 172.

  Herez rugs, 62.

  Hindoo designs, 88;
    religious abstinence from sheep flesh, 88.

  Hippopotamus, symbolism of, 161.

  Hissan, 172.

  Hissar, 168, 169, 172.

  "History of Ancient Art," Lübke, 176.

  "History of Ancient Art," Reber, 177.

  "History of Art among the Greeks," Winkleman, 178.

  "History of Art in Ancient Egypt," Perrot and Chipiez, 177.

  "History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria," Perrot and Chipiez, 177.

  "History of Bokhara," Vámbéry, 178.

  "History of Painting," Van Dyke, 178.

  "History of Persia," Malcom, 176.

  Hog, symbolism of, 161.

  Holland, rug-weaving in, 142.

  Holt, George Hubbard, rugs owned by, 95 (plate), 122 (plate).

  Holy Land, rugs of the, 111, 112.

  Homs, 169, 172.

  Hooked rugs, New England, 143, 144.

  Hossu, 169.

  Hounds, symbolism of, 160.

  Hulme, F. Edward, 176.

  Human figure introduced into design, 67.

  Hunting rugs, Persian, 124 (plate), 128.

  Hyderabad, 166.


  Ibis, symbolism of, 158.

  "Iconographic Encyclopædia of the Arts and Sciences," 176.

  "Illumination," Westwood, 178.

  Import duties to United States on rugs, 56.

  "In the Forbidden Land," Landor, 176.

  India, looms used in, 23, 82 (plate);
    weavers, 26;
    superstitions among weavers, 29;
    wool from, 30;
    rugs woven of pashim, 30;
    rugs of various knottings, 35;
    firms having factories in, 35;
    Occidental designs introduced into, 38;
    use of talims in, 39;
    raises madder, 44;
    symbolism of colors, 48;
    of designs, 159;
    place-names, 166.

  Indian designers, 32 (plate).

  "Indian Industries," James, 176.

  Indian rugs, 78 (plate), 87-94;
    _see under_ India.

  Indicum, _see_ Indigo.

  Indigo, 45-47.

  _Indigofera tinctoria_, Indian indigo plant, 46.

  "Industrial Arts of India, The," Birdwood, 175.

  "Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century," Wyatt, 178.

  Industrial Museum at Berlin, rug in collection of, 154.

  Inman, Thomas, M.D., 176.

  Inscriptions on rugs, 70, 124 (plate), 153-155.

  Irak, 167.

  Irak-Ajemi province, 64, 69, 167, 172.

  Iran (Persia), 62.

  Islamabad, 163.

  Ispahan, 55, 95, 121, 163, 167, 172.

  Ispahan rugs, 62.

  Istalif, 165, 172.

  Italy, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20;
    silk culture in, 123.


  Jabalpur, 166, 172.

  Jails, rugs woven in, 78 (plate), 88, 90.

  Jaipur, 166, 172.

  Jaipur rugs, 91.

  Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed, 87.

  Jalandhar, 166, 172.

  James, A. G. F. Eliot, 176.

  Jammu, 166, 172.

  Jamu, 166.

  Japanese looms, 24;
    rugs, 116;
    symbols, 160;
    place-names, 167.

  Jelalabad, 165, 172.

  Jerusalem, 163, 169, 172.

  Jewish legend of invention of spinning and weaving, 16.

  Jeypore, 166.

  Jhalawan (District), 165, 172.

  Jodhpur, 166.

  Jones, Owen, 176.

  Joohpur, 172.

  _Journal of the Society of Arts_, 176.

  "Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan," Bishop, 175.

  Jubbulpore, 166.

  Jubbulpur, 166.

  Jug, symbolism of, 161.

  Jullinder, 166.

  Jute, 30, 116.


  Kabistan rugs, 106.

  Kabul, 95, 165, 172.

  Kabul sheep, 30.

  Kain, 167, 172.

  Kairouan, 169, 172.

  Kairuan, 135.

  Kaisarieh, 169, 172.

  Kandahar, 163, 165, 172.

  Karabacek, Dr. Joseph, 176.

  Karabagh province, 63;
    meaning of _Karabagh_, 163;
    spelling, 168, 172.

  Karabagh rugs, 106.

  Kara Dagh rugs, 63;
    meaning of _Kara Dagh_, 163;
    spelling, 167.

  Kara-Geuz rugs, 77.

  Karahissar, 169, 172.

  Karajah Dagh, 71.

  Karaman rugs, 77;
    spelling, 169, 172.

  Karamanian rugs, 117.

  Karashar, 165, 172.

  Kars, 168, 172.

  Kashan, 125, 167, 172.

  Kashgar, 165, 172.

  Kashgar rugs, 101, 103.

  Kashmir, capital of, 93;
    spelling, 166, 172.

  Kashmir shawls and rugs, 89, 108.

  Kashmir wool, 30.

  Kazak rugs, 106, 107, 108 (plate).

  Kazan, 168, 172.

  Kchatchli rugs, _see_ Khalatch rugs.

  Kelat, 163, 165, 172.

  Kelim rugs, _see_ Khilim rugs.

  Kerkuk, 169, 172.

  Kermanshah rugs, 63;
    spelling, 167, 172.

  Kermanshahan, 167.

  Kermes, red dye, 45.

  Khalatch rugs, 101.

  Khalatch tribe, 101.

  Khilim rugs, 34, 117 (and plate), 118.

  Khiva, 103, 168, 172.

  Khiva rugs, 100, 102.

  Khokand, 168.

  Khonsar, 167, 172.

  Khora-mabad, 167, 172.

  Khorasan (Province), 167.

  Khorassan province, 55, 56, 64, 95;
    meaning of _Khorassan_, 163;
    spelling, 167, 172.

  Khorassan rugs, 40, 42, 56 (plate), 64, 66.

  Khorsabad, 169, 172.

  Khotan silk rugs, 124; felt rugs, 126.

  Khozdar, 165, 172.

  Khuzistan, 167, 172.

  Khyrpur, 166, 172.

  Kiang-su, 165, 172.

  Kidderminster, power looms in, 24.

  Kilim rugs, _see_ Khilim rugs.

  Kioto, 167, 172.

  Kirman, modern rug-weaving district, 55;
    value of rug trade, 56;
    spelling, 167, 172.

  Kirman rugs, 64, 120 (plate).

  Kirmanshah rugs, 41.

  Kir-Shehr rugs, 77;
    spelling, 169, 172.

  Kis Khilims, 117.

  Knight, Richard Payne, 176.

  Knot and flower design, symbolism of, 159.

  Knots and knotting, 23, 32, 34-36, 93.

  Kohat, 166, 172.

  Kokand, 168, 172.

  Konieh rugs, 78; spelling, 169, 172.

  Kotah, 166, 172.

  Koula, 169.

  Kuba, 106, 168, 172.

  Kucha, 165, 172.

  Kuchan, 167.

  Kulah rugs, 78, 80, 122;
    spelling, 169, 172.

  Kurdish rug design represented in ancient Nineveh, 17.

  Kurdish rugs, wool used in, 65;
    woven by girls and women, 78;
    durability and colors, 79;
    mihrab in, 117.

  Kurdistan, modern rug-weaving district, 55;
    nomadic tribes of Western, 87;
    spelling 167, 168, 172.

  Kurdistan rugs, characteristic designs of 40;
    value of trade in, 56;
    descriptions, 65, 78.

  Kurds, nomadic tribes, 65, 71.

  Kushmore, 166, 172.

  Kutahia rugs, 79;
    spelling, 169, 172.

  Kutai, 169.

  Kutayah, 169.

  Kwatah, 163, 165.


  Ladik rugs, 79; spelling, 169, 173.

  Lahore, 166, 173.

  Landor, A. Henry Savage, 176.

  Laodicea, 79, 122.

  Lar, 167, 173.

  Largest rug woven, 95.

  Laristan province, 66, 167, 173.

  Laristan rugs, 66.

  Layard, Austen Henry, 176.

  Lenormant, François, 176.

  Leopards, symbolism of, 160.

  Lessing, Julius, 176.

  "Life in Ancient Egypt," Emmaus, 176.

  Lily, symbolism of, 161.

  Linen, 30.

  Lion, symbolism of, 157, 160.

  "Lives of the Queens of England," Strickland, 178.

  Lizard, symbolism of, 158.

  Lobanow-Rostowsky, Prince Alexis, rug owned by, 36.

  Lock, Charles G. W., 177.

  Looms, 22-24 (and plate), 82 (plate), 111, 147.

  Lotus design, 43, 158.

  Lourdes, French weaver, 141.

  _Louvre, Palais du_, rugs woven in, 141.

  Lübke, Wilhelm, 176.

  Lucknow, 91, 166, 173.

  Luristan (Province), 167, 173.


  Maciet, M.J., Paris, rug owned by, 128.

  Madder, 44.

  Madras, 166.

  Madras rugs, 92.

  Magpie, symbolism of, 157.

  Makran, 167, 173.

  Malabar (District), 166, 173.

  Malair, 56.

  Malcom, Sir John, 176.

  Mandalay, 166.

  "Manual of Archæology," Ely, 176.

  "Manual of Design," Redgrave, 177.

  "Manual of Egyptian Archæology," Maspero, 176.

  "Manual of Oriental Antiquities," Babelon, 175.

  "Manual of Sculpture," 177.

  "Manual of the Ancient History of the East," Lenormant and
    Chevalier, 176.

  "Manual of the Historical Development of Art, A," Zerffi, 178.

  Manufacturers of rugs, 35.

  Marash, 169, 173.

  Maresh, 169.

  Marvin, Charles, 176.

  Maspero, Gaston C. Charles, 176, 177.

  Mastung, 165, 173.

  Masulipatam rugs,92; spelling, 166,173.

  Materials used in rug-weaving, 30.

  Mazandaran, 167, 173.

  McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus H., rug owned by, 108 (plate).

  Meandrian motif in Chinese rugs, 114.

  Mecca rug, 68;
    meaning of _Mecca_, 163;
    spelling, 169, 173.

  Medallion design, 43.

  Medina, 169, 173.

  Mehran, 167, 173.

  Mekran (District), 167.

  Melasso, 169.

  Meles rugs, 80, 122.

  Melhaz, _see_ Meles rugs.

  Mersherski, established Polish rug factory, 119.

  Merut, 166, 173.

  Merv, 117.

  "Merv Oasis, The," O'Donovan, 177.

  "Merv, the Queen of the World," Marvin, 176.

  Meshed, 163.

  Meshhed, 64, 167, 173.

  Meshhed rugs, 56 (plate), 64, 66.

  Mesopotamia, monuments show ancient rug-weavers, 16;
    spelling, 168.

  Meyer's "Handbook of Ornament," 177.

  "Middle Kingdom, The," Williams, 178.

  Mihrab in prayer rug, 120.

  Milassa, 80, 169, 173.

  Mina Khani design, 43.

  Mir, 67.

  Mir-Saraband rugs, 66, 67.

  Mirzapore, 163.

  Mirzapur rugs, 92;
    spelling, 166, 173.

  Misratah, 169, 173.

  Mohair from Angora goat, 30, 72.

  Mohair rugs, 72, 77, 80.

  Mohammedan religion does not allow use of animal forms, 37;
    used by Shiah sect and others, 38;
    green sacred color, 48, 81;
    white emblem of mourning, 48;
    introduction of rug-weaving into India, 87.

  Moodj mats, 92.

  Moorish rugs, 134.

  Moors introduced rug-weaving into the West, 141;
    indirectly taught weaving of Navajo blankets, 147.

  Moradabod, 166.

  Morocco rugs, _see_ Moorish rugs.

  Morris rug, 139.

  Morris, William, 138-140.

  Moslems, _see under_ Mohammedan.

  Mosques, location of, 120.

  Mosul rugs, 80; spelling, 169, 173.

  Moussul, 169.

  Mujur, 173.

  Multan rugs, 92, 93;
    spelling, 166,173.

  Mumford, John Kimberly, 177.

  "Mummy Badge, The," Budge, 175.

  Müntz, Eugene, 177.

  Murex, source of Phoenician purple, 18, 45.

  Murshidabad, 166, 173.

  Muskabad rugs, 66, 70.

  Mylasso, 169.

  Mysore, 166, 173.

  Mysore rugs, 93.

  "Mythology and Egyptian Christianity," Sharpe, 177.


  Naamah, legendary inventor of spinning, 16.

  Nagpur, 166, 173.

  Names of rugs, 94.

  Natural forms in rug designs, 19, 21, 37, 65.

  Navajo Indian Reservation, 146.

  Navajo rugs, swastika design in, 43;
    description of, 146-149 (and plate).

  Navajo women's costume, 148.

  New England hooked or rag rugs, 143, 144.

  Nile Key, symbolism of, 158.

  "Nineveh and Babylon," Layard, 176.

  "Nineveh and its Remains," Layard, 176.

  Nineveh marbles, 17;
    fall of, 19.

  Ning-po, 163, 165, 173.

  Niris, Lake, 66.

  Niris rugs, 66.

  Niriz, 167, 173.

  Nishapur, 167, 173.

  Nomadic weavers, 26; design peculiar to, 41.

  North Arcot (District), 166, 173.


  Octagon design, 43.

  O'Dagree, H. Eugene, 177.

  O'Donovan, Edmund, 177.

  Odor of rugs, 95, 96.

  Old man leaning on staff, symbolism of, 157.

  Olive, symbolism of, 161.

  Onteora rugs, 144.

  Oorfa, 169.

  Orange, symbolism of, 48.

  "Oriental Carpets," Clarke, 175.

  "Oriental Carpets," Coxon, 175.

  "Oriental Carpets," Lessing, 176.

  "Oriental Rugs," Mumford, 177.

  Oriental symbols, 156-162.

  "Origin of Pagan Idolatry," Faber, 176.

  "Origin of Pictish Symbolism," Southesk, 177.

  Ormarah, 165, 173.

  "Ornement Polychrome, L'," Racinet, 177.

  Ouchak, 81, 169, 173.

  Ouchak rugs, 78, 81.

  Oushak, 169.

  Oustri-Nan rugs, 66;
    spelling, 167,173.

  Outlines of black and white, 47.

  Owephissa, 170, 173.

  Owl, symbolism of, 157, 161.

  Ox, symbolism of, 161.


  Palestine rugs, 111.

  Palm leaf designs, 41.

  Palm tree, symbolism of, 159.

  Palmer, Mrs. Potter, rug owned by, 90.

  Palmette, forms of, 39, 40.

  Papyrus, importance to Egyptians, 51;
    symbolism of, 159.

  Pashim (goat's wool), 30, 93.

  Patna, 166, 173.

  Patna rugs, 93.

  Patriarchs' graves, rugs hung over, 20.

  Patterns, small, used by Demirdji weavers, 75.

  Paul's Tent Cloth, 72.

  Peach, symbolism of, 157.

  Peacock, symbolism of, 160, 161.

  Peacock Throne at Teheran, 124.

  Pearls interwoven in silk rug, 124.

  Pequaket, N. H., 143.

  Pergamo, 168.

  Pergamos, 74.

  Perrot, Georges, 177.

  "Persia and the Persian Question," Curson, 175.

  "Persia and the Persians," Wheeler, 178.

  Persia, significance of white in, 48;
    antiquity of rug-making in, 53;
    civilization of, 53;
    rugs principal source of income, 54;
    use of rugs in, 54;
    export and import trade and value of rug industry, 55, 56;
    home consumption of part of product, 54, 56;
    manufacturing firms, 56, 57;
    official name, Iran, 62;
    silk trade with China, 123;
    place-names, 167.

  "Persian Art," Smith, 177.

  Persian berries, 44, 45.

  Persian coat of arms, 160.

  Persian designs in India, 87, 88;
    in Jaipur rugs, 91;
    in Lahore rugs, 91;
    in Warangul rugs, 93;
    once used in Japan, 116.

  Persian Empire, its conquest by Saracens, 19.

  Persian knotting, 34-36.

  "Persian Life and Customs," Wilson, 178.

  Persian rugs, Tree of Life design on, 17;
    value of, 28;
    excellence of design and coloring, 37;
    animal designs, 37, 38;
    designs and borders in good antiques, 38;
    characteristic designs, 40-43;
    choice of colors, 47;
    use of, in Persia, 54;
    small ones not exported, 54;
    durability of fine specimens, 54;
    used as hangings, 55;
    districts where woven, 55;
    experts can tell where woven, 55;
    value of trade in, 55, 56;
    export and import duties on, 56;
    manufactured for Western markets, 56, 57;
    descriptions of characteristic weaves, 58-70;
    preferred to Indian, 87;
    silk rugs, 124
    (plate), 125;
    hunting rugs, 128;
    antique rug, 156 (plate); symbols, 160.

  Persian weavers taken to India, 87.

  Persian wool, 30.

  "Persische Nadelmalerei, Die," Karabacek, 176.

  Peshawar sheep, 30;
    meaning of _Peshawar_, 163;
    spelling, 166, 173.

  Petrie, William Matthews Flinders. 177.

  "Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers," Third Lecture, Edwards, 176.

  Philadelphia, power looms in, 24;
    rug-production of, 143.

  Phillips, G., 177.

  Phoenician art, 18.

  Phoenician purple, 18.

  Phoenix, symbolism of, 157, 160, 162.

  Pig, symbolism of, 162.

  Pine cone, symbolism of, 169.

  Pine trees, symbolism of, 160.

  Pirot, Servia, 136.

  Place-names associated with rugs, meanings of, 162, 163;
    various spellings of, 164-174.

  Pliny, quoted, 45.

  Plutarch, quoted, 45.

  Polish rugs, 119.

  Pomegranate design, 41, 159.

  Poona, 166, 173.

  Pooneh, 166.

  Power looms, 22, 24.

  Prayer rugs, Ghiordes, 75;
    Ghiordes and Kulah, 78;
    Ladik, 79;
    modern and antique compared, 80;
    Beluchistan, 97;
    Karamanian and Kurdish, 117;
    description, 120-122.

  Puckered edges of Sinna rugs, 69.

  Pueblo Indians taught rug-weaving by Spaniards, 147.

  Punjab, capital of the, 91.

  Purple, _see_ Phoenician and Tyrian purple;
    symbolism of, 47;
    favorite color of Romans, 48.

  Purpurin (red coloring-matter), 44.

  Pushmina rugs, 93.


  Qourdes, 169.

  Quaritch, Bernhard, 139.

  "Quarterly Papers on Architecture," Weale, 178.

  Quetta, 165, 173.


  Rabat, 134.

  Rachova, 170, 173.

  Racinet, M. A., 177.

  Rag rugs, New England, 143, 144.

  Raipur, 166.

  Ralph, Julian, 88, 89.

  Ram, symbolism of, 162.

  Rampur, 166, 173.

  Rangpur, 166, 173.

  Rawar, 167.

  Reber, Franz von, 177.

  Reciprocal trefoil design, 42, 67.

  Reclus, Elisie, 177.

  Red, symbolism of, 47, 48.

  Redgrave's "Manual of Design," 177.

  Reed, symbolism of, 162.

  "Religion of Ancient Egypt," Renouf, 177.

  "Religion of the Semites," Smith, 177.

  Renouf, P. LePage, 177.

  Resht, 125, 167, 173.

  Restoration of old dyeing, 46.

  _Rhamnus chlorophorus_, 45.

  _Rhamnus utilis_, 45.

  Rhinoceros, symbolism of, 162.

  Rhodian lily design, 79.

  Riegl, Dr. Alois, 177.

  Robinson, Vincent, 177.

  Rochdale, power looms in, 24.

  Romans, dyes prized by, 45;
    purple favorite color of, 48.

  Rose color, symbolism of, 47.

  Rosette, symbolism of, 159.

  Rothschild, Baron Adolphe, rug owned by, 128.

  Rothschild, Baron Nathaniel, rug owned by, 153.

  Roubaix, 169.

  Roumanian rugs, 137.

  Royalty, yellow symbol of, in China, 47.

  _Rubia_, dye-yielding genus, 44.

  _Rubia tinctorum_, 44.

  Rugs, utility of, 15;
    origin of need for, 15;
    weaving of, began, 15;
    definition of name, 15;
    identical with carpets, 16;
    represented in Egyptian wall-paintings, 16, 17;
    on Nineveh marbles, 17;
    Egyptian, 18;
    Assyrians used, as awnings and floor-coverings, 19;
    rug-weaving in Egypt, Chaldea, Assyria, Asia Minor, and Greece, 19;
    introduced into Europe, 20;
    hung over graves, 20;
    used in Europe during _fêtes_, 20;
    increasing use of, 21, 26;
    value by square foot, 28;
    sometimes woven underground, 29;
    pashim rugs from India, 30;
    of camel's hair, 31;
    knotting in Persian, 32;
    product of cold districts in demand, 32;
    selected for Western market, 33;
    famous rugs in collections, 33;
    industry encouraged in India, 35;
    designs in Persian, 37, 38;
    designs in modern Oriental, 38;
    proportion between size and design, 39;
    replace skins in Egypt, 51;
    modern Egyptian, 51;
    imported into Egypt, 52;
    Cairo emporium for sale of, 52;
    antique Persian, 53;
    Shah Abbas's encouragement of rug-weaving, 53;
    value of Shah Abbas rugs, 53;
    decline and growth of industry in Persia, 54;
    use of, in Persia, 54;
    durability of, 54;
    district where woven determined by design and fabric, 55, 88;
    value of trade to Persia, 55, 56;
    export and import duties upon, 56;
    firms prosecute trade in, 56, 57;
    quality and design of modern Persian, 57;
    characteristics of Persian, 58-70;
    value in Orient, 70;
    characteristics of Turkish, 71-83;
    use of, in Turkey, 72;
    in Constantinople market, 72, 73;
    characteristics of Indian, 87-94;
    less expensive than Persian, 88;
    Indian gold-embroidered state rugs, 89;
    Lord Clive's rug, 89;
    rugs have replaced shawls in Kashmir, 89;
    rugs of Afghanistan, 95, 96;
    of Beluchistan, 97;
    Turkoman rugs, 98-104;
    Caucasian rugs, 105-108;
    rugs of Holy Land, 111, 112;
    of China, 113-115;
    of Japan, 116;
    Khilim, 117, 118;
    Polish, 119;
    prayer, 120-122;
    silk, 123-125;
    felt, 126, 127;
    hunting, Persian, 128;
    Greek, 132, 133;
    Moorish and Spanish, 134, 135;
    Bosnian, Servian, Roumanian, and Bulgarian, 136, 137;
    English, 138-140;
    French, 141, 142;
    United States, 143-149;
    inscriptions on, 153-155;
    Oriental symbols on, 156-162;
    meanings of place-names associated with, 162, 163.

  Running hook design, 41.

  Russian Empire, place-names, 168.

  Rustan Khan, 165, 173.

  Ryan, Charles, 177.


  S-form design, 43.

  Sabatos rugs, 144, 145.

  Saddlebags, rug-woven, 60.

  Saffron, 44, 48.

  Safieta, 169.

  Safita, 174.

  Sail of a vessel, symbolism of, 159.

  St. Clement, legendary discoverer of felt, 126, 127.

  Sakai, 167, 174.

  Samarkand rugs, 102 (and plate), 125;
    meaning of _Samarkand_, 163;
    spelling, 168, 174.

  Saraband rugs, 42, 59, 66.

  Saracens, their conquest and influence, 19;
    origin of name, 20;
    introduced tapestries to France, 141.

  Sarakhs rugs, 58 (and plate), 67;
    spelling, 174.

  Sarawan, 67, 165, 174.

  Sarik tribe, 98.

  Saruk rugs, 67.

  Savalan rugs, 68, 70.

  Savas, 169.

  _Savonnerie, La_, rug factory, 141.

  Sayce, Archibald Henry, LL.D., 177.

  Scarabæus, symbolism of, 159.

  Scarlet, symbolism of, 47.

  Schwarzenberg, Prince, Vienna, rug owned by, 134.

  Scorpion, symbolism of, 162.

  Scotland, power looms in, 25.

  Scroll design, 43.

  "Sculpture, Manual of," 177.

  Sedentary weavers, 26, 27.

  Se-Ling-She, legendary discoverer of silk-weaving, 123.

  Serampur, 166, 174.

  Serapi rugs, 69.

  Serebend rugs, 66.

  Serinuggar, 166.

  Serpent, symbolism of, 159, 162.

  Serrated leaf design, 43.

  Servian rugs, 136.

  Shah Abbas design, 43, 59.

  Shang-hai, 163, 165, 174.

  Shan-tung, 165, 174.

  Sharjah, 169, 174.

  Sharkah, 169.

  Sharpe, Samuel, 177.

  Sharrokhs on the Attrek, 87.

  Shawls, Kashmir, 89, 108.

  Shearing, Indian methods of, 147.

  Sheep, not raised in rocky regions, 72;
    not eaten by Hindoos, 88.

  Shelley, G. E., 177.

  Shemakha rugs, 108;
    spelling, 168,174.

  Shepherds use felt rugs, 126.

  Shiah sect of Moslems employ animal designs, 38

  Shikarpur, 166, 174.

  Shiraz, 66, 68, 167, 174.

  Shiraz rugs, 41, 68 (and plate).

  Shirvan, 117, 168, 169, 174.

  Shirvan, rugs, 41, 107, 108.

  Shirwan, 167, 174.

  Shoes removed in house by Persians, 55.

  "Short History of Tapestry, A," Müntz, 177.

  Show-window demonstrations by Oriental weavers, 21.

  Shrouds, rugs used as, 135.

  Shusha, 174.

  Shushu, 168.

  Shuster, ancient capital of Persia, 53, 55;
    spelling, 167, 174.

  Sicily, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20;
    silk-weaving in, 123.

  Silk for rug-weaving, 30;
    introduced into antique Kirman rugs, 65;
    silk rugs of Brusa, 74;
    silk Polish rugs, 119;
    use of, discovered in China, 123;
    use of, outside of China, 123;
    description and prices of silk rugs, 124 (and plate), 125;
    silk added to wool rugs, 124.

  Silver woven in Polish rugs, 119.

  Sindh rugs, 93.

  Sinna, 117, 167, 174.

  Sinna Khilims, 117.

  Sinna knotting, 34, 35.

  Sinna rugs, characteristic border of, 40;
    description, 69;
    plate, 34.

  Sirab rugs, 69; spelling, 167, 174.

  Sivas rugs, 82; spelling, 174.

  Skins sewed into rugs, 115.

  Smith, Byron L., rug owned by, 62 (plate).

  Smith, Ralph Oliver, rug owned by, 98 (plate).

  Smith, Major R. Murdock, R. E., 177.

  Smith's "Greek and Roman Antiquities," 177.

  Smith's "Religion of the Semites," 177.

  Smyrna, madder raised near, 44;
    trade with, 77, 82;
    spelling, 169, 174.

  Smyrna rugs, 72, 82, 134.

  Sohar, 169, 174.

  Solar disk with serpents, symbolism of, 159.

  Sonmeani, 165, 174.

  Soumak rugs, manner of knotting, 34, 35;
    characteristic design of, 41;
    description of, 108;
    _see_ plate, page 30.

  Southesk's "Origin of Pictish Symbolism," 177.

  Spade design, 42.

  Spain, rug-weaving in, 20, 134;
    silk-weaving in, 123.

  Spaniards taught weaving and sheep-raising to American Indians, 147.

  Sparta, 169.

  Sparta rugs, 83.

  Spear, symbolism of, 162.

  Spelling of place-names, 164-174.

  Sphinx, symbolism of, 159.

  Spider, symbolism of, 162.

  Spinning, legends of invention of, 16.

  Spon, ----, 177.

  Squirrel, symbolism of, 162.

  Srinagar rugs, 93;
    meaning of _Srinagar_, 163;
    spelling, 166, 174.

  Staff in the hands of the gods, symbolism of, 159.

  Stamboul, 73.

  Standing eagle, symbolism of, 160.

  Star designs, 43, 162.

  Stark tree form in Turkoman rugs, 101, 102.

  Stitches in Persian rugs, _see_ Knots.

  Stockholm Palace, rug in, 128.

  Stork, symbolism of, 157, 160.

  Strickland, Agnes, 178.

  Stuart, H. Villiers, 178.

  Subdued colors, preference given to, 21, 47.

  Su-chau, 165, 174.

  Sultanabad, 55, 56, 59, 69, 125;
    spelling, 167, 174.

  Sultanabad rugs, 69, 70.

  Sultan's factories and schools, 76.

  Sumac, 44.

  Sun, symbolism of, 159, 160.

  Superstitions among weavers, 29.

  Surat, 166, 174.

  Susiana, Ancient (Province), 167.

  Swastika design, 42, 148, 162.

  Switzerland, rug-weaving in, 142.

  Sword, symbolism of, 160.

  Sykes, Ella C., 178.

  "Symbolican Language of Ancient Art and Mythology, The," Knight, 176.

  "Symbolism in Christian Art," Hulme, 176.

  "Symbols Antiques, Les," O'Dagree, 177.

  Symbols, Navajo, 148;
    Oriental, 156;
    Chinese, 157;
    Egyptian, 158, 159;
    Indian, 159;
    Japanese, 160;
    Persian, 160;
    Turkish, 160;
    miscellaneous, 161, 162.

  "Symbols of Early Christian Art," Twining, 178.

  Syria, 168.

  Syrian Christian weavers, 71.

  Syrian rugs, 111.


  Tabor, Mrs. Sydney Richmond, rug owned by, 56 (plate).

  Tabriez, 168.

  Tabriz, 63, 163, 168, 174.

  Tabriz rugs, 70 and frontispiece (plate).

  Tajura, 169, 174.

  Talim, or working drawing of rug design, 39.

  Tanjore, 166, 174.

  Tapestries synonymous with rugs, 16;
    introduced into England, 138;
    introduced into France by Saracens, 141.

  Tarantula design, 43.

  Tawarek tribe, 135.

  Tchechen rugs, 108.

  Teheran rug market, 70, 125;
    meaning of _Teheran_, 163;
    spelling, 168, 174.

  Tekké tribe, 98, 103.

  Tekké-Turkoman rugs, 98 (plate), 103.

  "Ten Years' Digging in Egypt," Petrie, 177.

  "Textile Manufactures and Costumes of the People of India,
    The," Watson, 178.

  Theban fresco represents rug-weavers, 17.

  Thibetan goat's hair, 30.

  "Things Chinese," Ball, 175.

  Thompson, ----, 178.

  "Through Asia," Hedin, 176.

  "Through Persia on a Side Saddle," Sykes, 178.

  Tient-sing, 165, 174.

  Tokio, 167, 174.

  Tortoise, symbolism of, 157, 160.

  Tourcoing, 169, 174.

  Tourists, Cairo rug-market for, 52.

  Tournay, 169, 174.

  Trade in Ghiordes rugs, 75.

  Transcaucasia, 71, 105, 168.

  Trebizond, 169, 174.

  "Tree and Serpent Worship," Fergusson, 176.

  Tree of Health design, symbolism of, 160.

  Tree of Life design on Persian rugs, 17, 65;
    on Kashgar rugs, 101;
    on Ghiordes rugs, 122;
    symbolism of, 157, 160.
    _See_ frontispiece plate and 124 (plate).

  Triangle design, 43.

  Tribute paid in insects for dye purposes, 45.

  Tripoli, 169, 174.

  Tsi-nan,165, 174.

  Tsing-chau, 165, 174.

  Tsing-ning, 165, 174.

  Tsun-hua rugs, 115.

  Tuareg rugs, 135.

  Tuareg tribe, 135.

  Tunis rugs, 135, 169.

  Turfani wool, 30.

  Turkey in Asia, place-names, 168.

  Turkey in Europe, Khilims woven in, 117.

  Turkish coat of arms, 160.

  Turkish knotting, 34, 35.

  Turkish Kurdistan, Khilim rugs woven in, 117.

  Turkish loom and weavers, 24 (plate).

  Turkish rug factories, 24.

  Turkish rugs, 24, 71-83;
    of silk, 125.

  Turkish symbolism, of green, 48;
    of crescent and star, 160.

  Turkish wool, 30.

  Turkoman rugs, 95, 98-104, 125.

  Turmeric, 44.

  Turtle, symbolism of, 162.

  Twining, ----, 178.

  Tyrian purple (_see_ Phoenician purple), 45, 47.

  Tzitzi rugs, 108.


  Umballa, 166.

  "Unbeaten tracks in Japan," Bishop, 175.

  United States, Oriental weavers in, 21;
    power looms in, 24;
    import duties, 56;
    Persian rugs to supply trade of, 57;
    Sultanabad rugs imported into, 70;
    law against importation of jail-made goods, 90;
    rug-weaving in, 143-149.

  Urfa, 71, 169, 174.

  Ushak, 169.


  Value of square foot of best Persian rug, 28;
    of rug trade to Persia, 55, 56;
    of Persian rugs in the Orient, 70;
    of silk rugs, 125.

  Vámbéry, Arminius, 178.

  Van Dyke, John Charles, 178.

  Vegetable dyes, 44, 46, 139.

  Vegetable fibre in Mirzapur rugs, 92.

  Verulam, Earl of, rug owned by, 138 (plate).

  Vienna, rug-weaving at, 136.

  Violet in old rugs, 80.

  Viper, symbolism of, 159.

  Volk, Mrs. Douglas, 145.

  "Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche," Bode, 175.


  Wake, Charles Staniland, 178.

  Warangal, 166, 174.

  Warangul rugs, 93.

  Washing to subdue colors, 77;
    to overcome odor, 95.

  Watson, Dr. Forbes, 178.

  Weale, John, 178.

  Weavers, skilled Oriental, 20;
    correct color sense of, 20;
    demonstrating their craft in United States, 21;
    women and girls, 26;
    men and boys, 26;
    sedentary, 26, 27;
    nomadic, 26;
    men naturally unsuited, 27;
    profits of, 27, 28, 82;
    time consumed, 28;
    wages and advance payment, 28;
    fare, 29;
    work underground, 29;
    superstitions, 29;
    skill of, 32, 33;
    use of dyes by, 44;
    Egyptian, 51;
    women of all classes, 55;
    Persian, in employ of factories, 57;
    use small patterns, 75;
    Indian, 88;
    Japanese, 116;
    Greek, 132;
    Flemish, 138;
    Navajo, 148.

  Weaving, legends of invention of, 16;
    in ancient Egypt, 22;
    method of Oriental, 22;
    in India, 23.

  Westroff, Hodder M., 178.

  Westwood,----, 178.

  Wheel, symbolism of, 159, 162.

  Wheeler, Mrs. A. D., rug owned by, 126 (plate).

  Wheeler, Samuel Green, 178.

  White, symbolism of, 47, 48;
    use of cotton for, 76.

  Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner, quoted, 17, 178.

  William of Germany, Emperor, his rug collection, 77.

  Williams, S. Wells, 178.

  Wilson, Rev. Samuel Graham, M.A., 178.

  Wilton, power looms in, 24.

  Wings, symbolism of, 162.

  Winkleman, Johann Joachim, 178.

  Wolf, symbolism of, 162.

  Wool, preparation of, 27, 30, 32;
    where produced, 30;
    handling, 32;
    quality, 32;
    not produced in India, 88.

  Worcester, power looms in, 24.

  Worsted used in rug-weaving, 23.

  Writers, ancient, allude to rugs, 18.

  Wyatt, M. Digby, 178.


  Xanthin (yellow coloring matter), 44.


  Y-form design, 43.

  Yak's hair, 30.

  Yangi-hissar, 165.

  Yapraks (Ouchak rugs), 81, 83.

  Yarkand, 165, 174.

  Yarkand rugs, 103.

  Yellow-dyes, how produced, 44, 45;
    symbolism of, 47;
    used by Turkomans, 98.

  Yezd rugs, 70;
    felt rugs, 126;
    meaning of _Yezd_, 163;
    spelling, 168, 174.

  Yomud rugs, 100, 103, 104.

  Yomud tribe, 98, 103.

  Young stags, symbolism of, 157.

  Yuruk rugs, 83.

  Yuruk tribe, 117.


  Zarand, 168, 174.

  Zeli, 169.

  Zerffi, G.C., 178.

  Zerni, 165, 174.

  Zigzag design, 43, 159.

  Zileh, 169, 174.

  Zilleh, 169.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Rugs: Oriental and Occidental, Antique & Modern - A Handbook for Ready Reference" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.