By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Biographia Scoticana (Scots Worthies) - A Brief Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Memorable Transactions of the Most Eminent Scots Worthies
Author: Howie, John, 1735-1793
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Biographia Scoticana (Scots Worthies) - A Brief Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Memorable Transactions of the Most Eminent Scots Worthies" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note:

   In the original text, Scottish names, such as M'Clelland or
   M'Kail, sometimes use a regular apostrophe and sometimes a
   reversed apostrophe. In this transcription, the ASCII apostrophe
   character (') has been used throughout.

   Greek has been transliterated in this version of the e-text,
   and is surrounded by braces, {like this}.

   A caret character (^) is used to indicate a superscript in "Rob^t."
   and "ALEX^R."

   Page numbers in the Contents, Errata, and these notes, refer to
   the page numbers in the original text. The original page numbers
   have an error: the page following 336 is numbered 347.

   Missing quotation marks and other minor punctuation errors and
   inconsistencies such as differing hyphenations of words have been
   silently corrected.

   Missing or poorly printed letters in words have been silently

   Illegible text that could not be supplied from other sources
   is marked {illegible}.

   Where a word differs from modern spelling, but is consistent
   within the text, e.g. atchievement, the original spelling is
   retained. Other typographical errors have been corrected,
   particularly where there is inconsistency within the text. A
   detailed list of these changes (including those described in
   the Errata) can be found at the end of the text.


      Biographia Scoticana
      The Preface
      The Introduction
      The Lives and Characters of the Scots Worthies
      Footnotes to Biographia Scoticana

      The Judgment and Justice of God Exemplified, &c.
      Footnotes to The Judgment and Justice of God Exemplified
      The Subscribers

      Transcriber's Notes

          _Biographia Scoticana:_

                   of the
      TRANSACTIONS of the most eminent

              SCOTS WORTHIES,

Noblemen, Gentlemen, Ministers, and others:
From Mr. _Patrick Hamilton_, who was born about
the year of our Lord 1503, and suffered martyrdom
at _St. Andrews_, Feb. 1527, to _Mr. James Renwick_,
who was executed in the Grass-market of _Edinburgh_
Feb. 17, 1688.

               TOGETHER WITH
A succinct Account of the Lives of other seven
eminent Divines, and Sir _Robert Hamilton_ of Preston,
who died about, or shortly after the Revolution.

                 AS ALSO,
An Appendix, containing a short historical Hint of the
wicked Lives and miserable Deaths of some of the most
remarkable apostates and bloody persecutors in Scotland
from the Reformation to the Revolution.

Collected from historical Records, Biographical Accounts,
and other authenticated Writings:--The whole including a
Period of near Two Hundred Years.

               By JOHN HOWIE.

The SECOND EDITION, corrected and enlarged.

_The Righteous shall be had in everlasting Remembrance_,
Psal. cxii. 6.

_And of Zion it shall be said, This and that man was born in her_,
Psal. lxxxvii. 5

  Printed by JOHN BRYCE, and Sold at his Shop,
    opposite Gibson's-Wynd, _Salt-market_.


Entered in Stationers-Hall, according to Act of Parliament.



The design of the following work was to collect from the best
authorities, a summary account of the lives characters and contendings
of a certain number of our more RENOWNED SCOTS WORTHIES, who for their
faithful services, ardent zeal, constancy in sufferings, and other
Christian graces and virtues, deserve a most honourable memorial in the
church of Christ;--and for which their names both have and will be
savoury to all the true lovers of our Zion, while reformation-principles
are regarded in Scotland.

But then perhaps at first view, some may be surprized to find one so
obscure appear in a work of this nature, especially when there are so
many fit hands for such an employment. But if the respect I have for the
memories of these worthies; the familiar acquaintance and sweet
fellowship that once subsisted betwixt some of my ancestors and some of
them; but, above all, the love and regard which I have for the same
cause which they owned and maintained, be not sufficient to apologize
for me in this; then I must crave thy patience to hear me in a few
particulars; and that both anent the reasons for this publication, and
its utility: Which I hope will plead my excuse for this undertaking.

And _First_, Having for some time had a desire to see something of this
kind published, but finding nothing thereof, except a few broken
accounts interspersed throughout different publications yet in print, at
last I took up a resolution to publish a second edition of the life of
one of these worthies already published at large[1].--Yet, upon farther
reflection, considering it would be better to collect into one volume,
the most material relations (of as many of our Scots worthies as could
be obtained) from such of the historical records, biographical
accounts, and other authenticated manuscripts, as I could have access
unto, with the substance of these lives already in print, which, being
put altogether, I thought would not only prove more useful in giving the
reader the pleasure of viewing that all at once, which before was
scattered up and down in so many corners, but also at the same time it
might be free of the inconveniences that little pamphlets often fall
under. And yet at the same time I am aware that some may expect to find
a more full account of these worthies, both as to their number and the
matters of fact in the time specified, than what is here to be met
with--But in this publication, it is not pretended to give an account of
all our Scots worthies, or their transactions: For that were a task now
altogether impracticable, and that upon several accounts. For,

_1st_, There have been many of different ranks and degrees of men famous
in the church of Scotland, of whom little more is mentioned in history
than their names, places of abode, and age wherein they existed, and
scarcely that. Again, there are many others, of whom the most that can
be said is only a few faint hints, which of necessity must render their
lives (if they may properly be so called) very imperfect, from what they
might and would have been, had they been collected and wrote near a
century ago, when their actions and memories were more fresh and recent;
several persons being then alive, who were well acquainted with their
lives and proceedings, whereby they might have been confirmed by many
uncontestible evidences that cannot now possibly be brought in; yea, and
more so, seeing there is a chasm in our history during the time of the
Usurper, not to mention how many of our national records were about that
time altogether lost.[2]

_2dly_, There are several others, both in the reforming and suffering
periods, of whom somewhat now is recorded, and yet not sufficient to
form a narrative of, so that, excepting by short relations or marginal
notes, they cannot otherwise be supplied.--For it is with regret that
the publishers have it to declare, that, upon application unto several
places for farther information concerning some of these worthy men, they
could find little or nothing in the most part of their registers
(excepting a few things by way of oral tradition) being through course
of time either designedly, or through negligence lost.

_3dly_, Some few of these lives already in print being somewhat prolix,
it seemed proper to abridge them; which is done in a manner as
comprehensive as possible, so that nothing material is omitted, which it
is hoped will be thought to be no way injurious to the memory of these
worthy men.

_Secondly_, As to the utility of this subject, biography in general, (as
a historian has observed[3]), must be one of the most entertaining parts
of history; and how much more the lives and transactions of our _noble_
SCOTS WORTHIES, wherein is contained not only a short compend of the
testimony and wrestlings of the church of Scotland for near the space of
200 years, yea from the earliest period of Christianity in Scotland (the
introduction included) but also a great variety of other things, both
instructing and entertaining, which at once must both edify and refresh
the serious and understanding reader.--For,

_1st_, In these lives we have a short view of the actions,
atchievements, and some of the failings of our ancestors set forth
before us, as examples for our caution and imitation; wherein by the
experience, and at the expence of former ages, by a train of prudent
reflections, we may learn important lessons for our conduct in life,
both in faith and manners, for the furnishing ourselves with the like
Christian armour of zeal, faithfulness, holiness, stedfastness,
meekness, patience, humility, and other graces.

_2dly_, In them we behold what the wisest of men could not think on
without astonishment, that _God does in very deed dwell with men upon
earth_, (men a little too low for heaven, and much too high for earth);
nay more, dealeth "so familiarly with them, as to make them previously
acquainted with his secret designs, both of judgment and mercy,
displaying his divine power, and the efficacy of his grace thro' their
infirmities, subduing the most hardened sinners to himself, while he as
it were reigns himself to their prayers, and makes them the subject of
his divine care and superintendency."

_3dly_, Here we have as it were a mirror exemplifying and setting forth
all the virtues and duties of a religious and a domestic life.--Here is
the example of a virtuous nobleman, an active statesman, a religious
gentleman, a faithful and painful minister in the exercise of his
office, _instant in season and out of season_, a wise and diligent
magistrate, _one fearing God and hating covetousness_, a courageous
soldier, a good christian, a loving husband, an indulgent parent, a
faithful friend in every exigence; and in a word, almost every character
worthy of our imitation. And,

_Lastly_, In them we have the various changes of soul exercise,
experiences, savoury expressions and last words of those, once living,
now glorified witnesses of Christ. And "as the last speeches of men are
remarkable, how remarkable then must the last words and dying
expressions of these NOBLE WITNESSES and MARTYRS of Christ be?" For the
nearer the dying saint is to heaven, and the more of the presence of
Christ that he has in his last moments, when death looks him in the
face[4], the more interesting will his conversation be to survivors, and
particularly acceptable to real Christians, because all that he says is
supported by his example, which commonly has considerable influence upon
the human mind.--It is true, there is an innate and latent evil in man's
nature, that makes him more prone and obsequious to follow bad than good
examples; yet sometimes, (yea often) there is a kind of compulsive
energy arising from the good examples of such as are eminent either in
place or godliness, leading forth others to imitate them in the like
graces and virtues. We find the children of Israel followed the Lord all
the days of Joshua, and the elders that out-lived him; and Christ's
harbinger, John Baptist, gained as much by his practice and example as
by his doctrine: His apparel, his diet, his conversation, and all, did
preach forth his holiness. Nazianzen saith of him, "That he cried louder
by the holiness of his life, than by the sincerity of his doctrine."
And were it not so, the apostle would not have exhorted the Philippians
unto this, saying, _Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them
which walk, so as ye have us for an ensample_, &c. chap. iii. 17.--And
so says the apostle James, _Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have
spoken in the name of the Lord, for an ensample_, &c. chap. v. 10. And
no question, that next to the down-pouring of the Spirit from on high,
the rapid and admirable success of the gospel, both in the primitive
times, and in the beginning of our reformations (from popery and
prelacy) in a great measure must have been owing to the simplicity, holy
and exemplary lives of the preachers and professors thereof. A learned
expositor observes, "That ministers are likely to preach most to the
purpose, when they can press their hearers to follow their example[5]."
For it is very observable that without this, the church of Christ is so
far from gaining ground, that it loses what it hath already gained in
the world; of which the church of Scotland is a most glaring document;
yea truth itself suffers by this means, and can gain no credit from
their mouths; and how despicable must that man's character be, whose
authority is lost, and his example goes for nothing. So that upon the
whole, I flatter myself that no small advantage (thro' the divine
blessing) might accrue to the public from this subject in general, and
from the lives of our Scots worthies in particular, providing these or
the like cautions following were observed: And that is, 1. We are not to
sit down or rest ourselves upon the person, principle or practice of any
man, yea the best saint we have ever read or heard of, but only to seek
these gifts and graces that most eminently shone forth in
them.--_Præceptis, non exemplis, standum_, i.e. "we must not stand by
examples but precepts:" For it is the peculiar honour and dignity of
Jesus Christ only to be imitated by all men absolutely, and for any
person or persons to idolize any man or men, in making them a pattern in
every circumstance or particular, were nothing else than to pin an
implicit faith upon other mens sleeves. The apostle to the Corinthians
(in the forecited text) gives a very good caveat against this, when he
says, _Be ye followers_ (or as the Dutch annotators translate, _Be ye
imitators_) _of me, as I am of Christ._--And, 2. Neither are we on the
other hand to dwell too much upon the faults, or failings that have
sometime been discovered in some of God's own dear children; but at the
same time to consider with ourselves, that although they were eminent
men of God, yet at the same time were they the sons of Adam also: For it
is possible yea many times has been the case for good men not only to
make foul falls themselves but also when striking against the errors and
enormities of others to over-reach the mark, and go beyond the bounds of
truth in some degree themselves; perfection being no inherent plant in
this life, so says the apostle, _They are earthen vessels, men of like
passions with you_, &c. 2 Cor. iv. 7. Acts xiv. 15.

_Thirdly_, As to the motives leading us to this publication. Can it be
supposed that there was ever an age, since reformation commenced in
Scotland, that stood in more need of useful holy and exemplary lives
being set before them; and that both in respect to the actions and
memories of these worthies, and with regard to our present
circumstances. For in respect to the memories and transactions of these
worthies, it is now a long time since bishops Spotiswood, Guthry and
Burnet (not to mention some English historians) in their writings,
clothed the actions and proceedings of those our ancestors (both in this
reforming and suffering period) in a most grotesque and frantic dress,
whereby their names and noble attainments have been loaded with
reproach, sarcasms and scurrility; but as if this had not been enough,
to expose them in rendering them, and their most faithful contendings,
odious, some modern writers, under the character of monthly reviewers,
have set their engines again at work, to misrepresent some of them, and
set them in such a dishonourable light, by giving them a character that
even the above-mentioned historians, yea their most avowed enemies, of
their own day, would scarcely have subscribed[6]: to such a length is
poor degenerate Scotland arrived.--And is it not high time to follow the
wise man's advice, _Open thy mouth for the dumb, in the cause of all
such as are appointed to destruction?_ Prov. xxxi. 8.

Again, with regard to our present circumstances, there needs little more
to prove the necessity of this collection at present, than to shew how
many degrees we have descended from the worthy deeds or merit of our
_Renowned forefathers_, by running a parallel betwixt their contendings
and attainments, and our present national defections and backsliding,
courses, in these few particulars following.

Our venerable reformers were not only highly instrumental in the Lord's
hand in bringing a people out of the abyss of gross Popish darkness
(under which they had for a long time continued), but also brought
themselves under most solemn and sacred vows and engagements to the Most
High, and whenever they were to set about any further piece of
reformation in their advancing state, they always set about the
renovation of these covenants.--They strenuously asserted the divine
right of presbytery, the headship of Christ, and intrinsic rights of his
church in the reign of James VI. and suffered much on that
account--lifted arms once and again in the reign of Charles I.; and
never ceased until they got an uniformity in doctrine, worship,
discipline, and church-government, brought out and established betwixt
the three kingdoms for that purpose[7], whereby both church and state
were enabled to exert themselves in rooting out every error and heresy
whatever, until they obtained a complete settlement according to the
word of God, and our covenants established thereon; which covenants were
then by several excellent acts both civil and ecclesiastic[8] made the
MAGNA CHARTA of these nations, with respect to every civil and religious
privilege; none being admitted unto any office or employment in church
or state, without scriptural and covenant qualifications.--And then was
that part of the antient prophecy further fulfilled, _In the wilderness
shall waters break forth, and streams in the desart,--and the isles
shall wait for his law_. Christ then reigned gloriously in Scotland. His
church appeared _beautiful as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem:--For from the
outmost parts were heard songs, even glory to the righteous_.

And although Charles II. and a set of wicked counsellors overturned the
whole fabric of that once-glorious structure of reformation, openly
divested the Son of God of his headship in and over his own church, as
far as human laws could do, burned these solemn covenants by the hands
of the hangman (the owning of which was by act of parliament[9] made
high treason afterward).--Yet even then the seed of the church produced
a remnant who kept the word of Christ's patience stood in defence of
the whole of his persecuted truths, in face of all opposition, and that
to the effusion of the last drop of their blood: "These two prime
truths, Christ's headship and our covenants, being in the mouths of all
our late martyrs, when they mounted their bloody theatres;" and in the
comfort of suffering on such clear grounds, and for such valuable
truths, they went triumphing off the stage of time to eternity.

But alas! how have we their degenerate and renegade posterity followed
their example or traced their steps, yea we have rather served ourselves
heirs to them who persecuted and killed them, by our long accession to
their perjury and apostacy in a general and avowed denial of our most
solemn vows and oaths of allegiance to Jesus Christ. To mention nothing
more of the total extermination of our ancient and laudable
constitution, during the two tyrants reigns, with the many grave stones
cast thereon by the acts rescissory, &c. (which acts seem by no act in
particular yet to be repealed) and claim of right at the revolution,
whereby we have in a national way and capacity (whatever be the
pretences) declared ourselves to be on another footing than the footing
of the once-famous covenanted church of Scotland. How many are the
defections and encroachments annually and daily made upon our most
valuable rights and privileges! For since the revolution, the duty of
national covenanting has not only been slighted and neglected, yea
ridiculed by some, but even some leading church-men, in their
writings[10], have had the effrontery to impugn (though in a very sly
way) the very obligation of these covenants, asserting that there is
little or no warrant for national covenanting under the new Testament
dispensation: And what awful attacks since that time have been made upon
the crown-rights of our Redeemer (notwithstanding some saint acts then
made to the contrary) as witness the civil magistrate's still retaining
his old usurped power, in calling and dissolving the supreme
judicatories of the church, yea, sometimes to an indefinite
time.--Likewise appointing diets of fasting and thanksgiving to be
observed, under fines and other civil pains annexed; imposing oaths,
acts and statutes upon church-men, under pain of ecclesiastic censure,
or other Erastian penalties. And instead of our covenants, an
unhallowed union is gone into with England, whereby our rights and
liberties are infringed not a little, _bow down thy body as the ground
that we may pass over_.--Lordly patronage[11], which was cast out of the
church in her purest times, is now restored and practised to an
extremity.--A toleration bill[12] is granted, whereby all and almost
every error, heresy and delusion appears now rampant and triumphant,
prelacy is now become fashionable and epidemical, and of popery we are
in as much danger as ever[13]; Socinian and deistical tenets are only in
vogue with the wits of the age, _foli rationi cedo_, the old Porphyrian
maxim having so far gained the ascendant at present, that reason (at
least pretenders to it, who must needs hear with their eyes, and see
with their ears, and understand with their elbows till the order of
nature be inverted) threaten not a little to banish revealed religion
and its most important doctrines out of the professing world.--A
latitudinarian scheme prevails among the majority, the greater part,
with the Athenians, spending their time only to hear and see something
new, _gadding about to change their ways, going in the ways of Egypt and
Assyria, to drink the waters of Shichor and the river_, unstable souls,
like so many light combustibles wrapt up by the eddies of a whirlwind,
tossed hither and thither till utterly dissipated.--The doctrine of
original sin[14] is by several denied, others are pulling down the very
hedges of church government, refusing all church-standards, "covenants,
creeds and confessions, whether of our own or of other churches, yea and
national churches also, as being all of them carnal, human or
antichristian inventions," contrary to many texts of scripture,
particularly 2 Tim. i. 13. _Hold fast the form of sound words_: and the
old Pelagian and Arminian errors appear again upon the stage, the merit
of the creature, free will and good works[15] being taught from press
and pulpit almost every where, to the utter discarding of free grace,
Christ's imputed righteousness, and the power of true godliness.--All
which pernicious errors were expunged and cast over the hedge by our
reforming forefathers: And is it not highly requisite, that their
faithful contendings, orthodox and exemplary lives, should be copied out
before us, when walking so repugnant to _acknowledging the God of our
fathers, and walking before him with a perfect heart_.

Again, if we shall run a comparison betwixt the practice of those who
are the subject-matter of this collection, and our present prevailing
temper and disposition, we will find how far they correspond with one
another. How courageous and zealous were they for the cause and honour
of Christ! How cold and lukewarm are we, of whatever sect or
denomination! How willing were they to part with all for him! And what
honour did many of them count it, to suffer for his name! How unwilling
are we to part with any thing for him, much less to suffer such
hardships for his sake! Of that we are ashamed, which they counted their
ornament; accounting that our glory which they looked on as a disgrace!
How easy was it for them to choose the greatest suffering rather than
the least sin! How hard is it for us to refuse the greatest sin before
the least suffering! How active were they for the glory of God and the
good of souls, and diligent to have their own evidences clear for
heaven! But how little concern have we for the cause of Christ, his work
and interest, and how dark are the most part with respect to their
spiritual state and duty! They were sympathizing christians; but, alas!
how little fellow-feeling is to be found among us: it is rather _Stand
by, for I am holier than thou._ Oh! that their christian virtues,
constant fidelity, unfeigned love and unbiassed loyalty to Zion's King
and Lord, could awaken us from our neutrality and supine security,
wherein instead of imitating the goodness and virtuous dispositions of
these our ancestors, we have by our defections and vicious courses
invited neglect and contempt on ourselves, being (as a philosopher once
observed of passionate people) like men standing on their heads who see
all things the wrong way; giving up with the greater part of these our
most valuable rights and liberties, all which were most esteemed by our
RENOWNED PROGENITORS.--_The treacherous dealers have dealt very

And if we shall add unto all these, in our progressive and increasing
apostacy, our other heinous land-crying sins and enormities, which
prevail and increase among all ranks and denominations of men (few
mourning over the low state of our Zion, and the daily decay of the
interest of Christ and religion). Then we not only may say as the poet
once said of the men of Athens, Thebes and Oedipus, "That we live only
in fable, and nothing remains of ancient Scotland but the name;" but
also take up this bitter complaint and lamentation.

"Ah Scotland, Scotland! _How is the gold become dim, how is the most
fine gold changed!_ Ah! Where is the God of Elijah, and where is his
glory! Where is that Scottish zeal that once flamed in the breasts of
thy nobility, barons, ministers and commoners of all sorts! Ah, where is
that true courage and heroic resolution for religion and the liberties
of the nation that did once animate all ranks in the land! Alas, alas!
True Scots blood now runs cool in our veins! The cloud is now gone up in
a great measure from off our assemblies; because we have deserted and
relinquished the Lord's most noble cause and testimony, by a plain,
palpable and perpetual course of backsliding."--_The crown is fallen
from our head, wo unto us, for we have sinned._

For surely we may say of these our times (and with as much propriety)
what some of these worthies said of theirs, _Quam graviter ingemescerent
illi fortes viri qui ecclesiæ Scoticanæ pro libertate in acte
decertarunt, si nostram nunc ignaviam (ne quid gravius dicam)
conspicerent_, said Mr. Davidson in a letter to the general Assembly
1601, _i. e._ "How grievously would they bewail our stupenduous
slothfulness, could they but behold it, who of old thought no expence of
blood and treasure too much for the defence of the church of Scotland's
liberties."--Or to use the words of another[16] in the persecuting
period, "Were it possible that our reformers (and we may add our late
martyrs) who are entered in among the glorious choristers in the kingdom
of heaven, (singing their melodious songs on harps about the throne of
the Lamb) might have a furlough for a short time, to take a view of
their apostatizing children, what may we judge would be their
conceptions of these courses of defection, so far repugnant to the
platform laid down in that glorious work of reformation." For if
innocent Hamilton, godly and patient Wishart, apostolic Knox, eloquent
Rollock, worthy Davidson, the courageous Melvils, prophetic Welch,
majestic Bruce, great Henderson, renowned Gillespie, learned Binning,
pious Gray, laborious Durham, heavenly-minded Rutherford, the faithful
Guthries, diligent Blair, heart-melting Livingston, religious Welwood,
orthodox and practical Brown, zealous and stedfast Cameron,
honest-hearted Cargil, sympathizing M'Ward, persevering Blackadder, the
evangelical Traills, constant and pious Renwick, &c. "were filed off
from the assembly of the first-born, sent as commissioners to haste down
from the mount of God, to behold how quickly their offspring are gone
out of the way, piping and dancing after a golden calf: Ah! with what
vehemency would their spirits be affected, to see their laborious
structure almost razed to the foundation, by those to whom they
committed the custody of the word of their great Lord's patience; they
in the mean time sheltering themselves under the shadow of a rotten lump
of fig-tree leaf distinctions, which will not sconce against the wrath
of an angry God in the cool of the day, &c."

And _Finally_, What can have a more gloomy aspect in the midst of these
evils, (with many more that might be noticed) _when our pleasant things
are laid waste_, than to see such a scene of strife and division
carried on, and maintained among Christ's professing witnesses in these
lands, whereby true love and sympathy is eradicated, the very vitals of
religion pulled out, and the ways of God and godliness lampooned and
ridiculed, _giving Jacob to the curse, and Israel to the
reproaches_.--And it is most lamentable, that while malignants (now as
well as formerly) from without are cutting down the carved work of the
sanctuary, Christ's professed friends and followers from within are
busied in contention and animosities among themselves, by which means
the enemy still advances and gains ground, similar to the case
(exteriorly) of that once famous and flourishing city and temple of
Jerusalem, when it was by Titus Vespasian utterly demolished[17].--All
which seem to prelude or indicate, that the Lord is about to inflict
these long-threatened, impending but protracted judgments[18] upon such
a sinning land, church and people. And as many of these worthies have
assured us, that judgments are abiding this church and nation; so our
present condition and circumstances seem to say, that we are the
generation ripening for them apace.--How much need have we then of the
Christian armour that made them proof against Satan, his emissaries, and
every trial and tribulation they were subjected unto? _Wherefore take
unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in
the evil day._

But by this time somewhat might have been said concerning the testimony
of the church of Scotland, as it was carried on and handed down by these
witnesses of Christ to posterity, in its different parts and
periods--But as this has been somewhat (I may say needlessly)
controverted in these our times, it were too large a subject (for the
narrow limits of a preface) to enter upon at present, any further than
to observe, that,

(1.) The testimony of the church of Scotland is not only a free, full
and faithful testimony, (yea more extensive than the testimony of any
one particular church since Christianity commenced in the world) but
also a sure and costly testimony, confirmed and sealed with blood; "and
that of the best of our nobles, ministers, gentry, burgesses and commons
of all sorts;"--_who loved not their lives unto the death, but overcame
by the word of their testimony.--Bind up the testimony, seal the law._

(2.) Altho' there is no truth whatsoever, when once controverted, but it
becomes the word of Christ's patience, and so ought to be the word of
our testimony, Rev. v. 10. xii. 11.; truth and duty being always the
same in all ages and periods of time, so that what injures one truth, in
some sense, injures and affects all; _For whosoever shall keep the whole
law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all_, Jam. ii. 10. Yet
at the same time it is pretty evident, that the church of Christ in this
world is a passing church, still circulating through ages and periods of
time, so that she seldom or never turns back under the same point, there
being scarcely a century of years elapsed without an alteration of
circumstances; yea and more, I suppose that there is no certain book
that has or can be written, that will suit the case of one particular
church at all times, and in all circumstances: This pre-eminency the
holy scriptures only can claim as a complete rule for faith and manners,
principle and practice, in all places, ages and times.

(3.) These things premised, let it be observed, That the primitive
witnesses had the divinity of the Son of God, and an open confession of
him, for their testimony; our reformers from Popery had Antichrist to
struggle with, in asserting the doctrines of the gospel, and the right
way of salvation in and through Jesus Christ: again, in the reigns of
James VI. and Charles I. Christ's REGALIA[19], and the divine right of
presbytery became the subject-matter of their testimony. Then in the
beginning of the reign of Charles II. (until he got the whole of our
ancient and laudable constitution effaced and overturned) our WORTHIES
only saw it their duty to hold and contend for what they had already
attained unto.--But then in the end of this and subsequent tyrant's
reign, they found it their duty (a duty which they had too long
neglected) to advance one step higher, by casting off their authority
altogether, and that as well on account of their manifest usurpation of
Christ's crown and dignity, as on account of their treachery, bloodshed
and tyranny. And yet as all these faithful witnesses of Christ did
harmoniously agree in promoting the kingdom and interest of the Messiah,
in all his threefold offices, they stood in defence of religion and
liberty (and that not only in opposition to the more gross errors of
Popery, but even to the more refined errors of English hierarchy) we
must take their testimony to be materially all and the same testimony,
only under different circumstances, which may be summed up thus; "The
primitive martyrs sealed the prophetic office of Christ in opposition to
Pagan idolatry.--The reforming martyrs sealed his priestly office with
their blood, in opposition to Popish idolatry.--But last of all, our
late martyrs have sealed his kingly office with their best blood, in
despite of supremacy and bold Erastianism. They indeed have cemented it
upon his royal head, so that to the world's end it shall never drop off

But, candid reader, to detain thee no longer upon these or the like
considerations,--I have put the following sheets into thy hands, wherein
if thou findest any thing amiss, either as to matter or method, let it
be ascribed unto any thing else, rather then want of honesty or
integrity of intention; considering, that all mankind are liable to err,
and that there is more difficulty in digesting such a great mass of
materials into such a small composition, than in writing many volumes.
Indeed there is but little probability, that a thing of this nature can
altogether escape or evade the critical eye of some carping Momus[20],
particularly such as are either altogether ignorant of reformation
principles, or, of what the Lord hath done for covenanted Scotland; and
those who can bear with nothing but what comes from those men who are of
an uniform stature or persuasion with themselves: and yet were it
possible to anticipate anything arising here by way of objection, these
few things following might be observed.

Here some may object, That many things more useful for the present
generation might have been published, than the deeds and public actings
of those men, who have stood so long condemned by the laws of the
nation, being exploded by some, and accounted such a reproach, as unfit
to be any longer on record.--In answer to this, I shall only notice,
(1.) That there have been some hundreds of volumes published of things
fabulous, fictitious and romantic, fit for little else than to amuse the
credulous reader; while this subject has been in a great measure
neglected. (2.) We find it to have been the constant practice of the
Lord's people in all ages, to hand down and keep on record what the Lord
had done by and for their forefathers in former times. We find the royal
psalmist, in name of the church, oftener than once at this work, Psal.
xliv. and lxxviii. _We have heard with our ears, O God; our fathers have
told us, what works thou didst in their days, in the times of old: We
will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to
come the praises of the Lord_, &c. (3.) It has been the practice of
almost all nations (yea and our own also) to publish the warlike
exploits and martial atchievements of their most illustrious heroes, who
distinguished themselves in defence of their native country, for a
little worldly honour, or a little temporary subsistence; and shall we
be behind in publishing the lives, characters, and most memorable
actions of these _noble_ CHAMPIONS of Christ, who not only stood in
defence of religion and liberty, but also fought the battles of the Lord
against his and their avowed enemies, till in imitation of their
princely Master, their garments were all stained with blood, for which
their names shall be had in everlasting remembrance. (4.) As to the last
part of the objection, it must be granted, that in _foro homines_, their
actions and attainments cannot now be pled upon, but _in foro Dei_, that
which was lawful from the beginning cannot afterwards be made sinful[21]
or void; and the longer they have been buried under the ashes of neglect
and apostacy, the more need have they to be raised up and revived. It is
usual for men to keep that well which was left them by their fathers,
and for us either to oppose or industriously conceal any part of these
their contendings, were not only an addition to the contempt already
thrown upon the memories of these RENOWNED SIRES, but also an injury
done to posterity.--"Your honourable ancestors, with the hazard of their
lives, brought Christ into our lands, and it shall be cruelty to
posterity if ye lose him to them," said one of these worthies to a Scots

Again, some sceptical nullifidian or other may be ready to object
farther, "That many things related in this collection smell too much of
enthusiasm; and that several other things narrated therein, are beyond
all credit." But these we must suppose to be either quite ignorant of
what the Lord did for our forefathers in former times, or else in a
great measure destitute of the like gracious influences of the Holy
Spirit, by which they were actuated and animated. For,

(1.) These worthies did and suffered much for Christ and his cause, in
their day and generation, and therefore in a peculiar and singular
manner were honoured and beloved of him; and although there are some
things here narrated, of a pretty extraordinary nature, yet as they
imply nothing contrary to reason, they do not forfeit a title to any
man's belief, since they are otherwise well attested, nay obviously
referred to a cause, whose ways and thoughts surmount the ways and
thoughts of men, as far as the heavens are above our heads.--The sacred
history affords us store of instances and examples of a more
transcendent nature than any thing here related; the truth of which we
are at as little liberty to question, as the divinity of the book in
which they are related.

(2.) As to the soul-exercise and pious devotion of these men herein
related, they are so far supported by the authority of scripture, that
there is mentioned by them (as a ground of their hope) some text or
passage thereof, carried in upon their minds, suited and adapted to
their cases and circumstances; by which faith they were enabled to lay
claim to some particular promise, _as a lamp unto their feet_, _a light
unto their path_, and this neither hypocrite nor enthusiast can do: _For
other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus
Christ_, 1 Cor. iii. 11.

But then, it may be alleged by those who have a high esteem for this
subject, That nothing is here given as a commendation suitable or
adequate to the merit of these Worthies, considering their zeal,
diligence and activity in the discharge of their duty, in that office or
station which they filled. This indeed comes nearest the truth; for it
is very common for biographers to pass eulogiums of a very high strain
in praise of those whom they affect. But in these panegyrical orations,
they oftimes rather exceed than excel.--It was an ancient (but true)
saying of the Jews, "That great men (and we may say good men) commonly
find stones for their own monuments;" and laudable actions always
support themselves: And a thing (as an author[23] observes on the like
subject) "if right, it will defend itself; if wrong, none can defend it:
Truth needs not, falsehood deserves not a supporter."

Indeed it must be regretted, that this collection is not drawn out with
more advantage to the cause of Christ, and the interest of religion in
commending the mighty acts of the Lord done for and by these worthy
servants or his, in a way suitable to the merit and dignity of such a
subject. But in this case it is the greater pity, "That those who have a
goodwill to such a piece of service cannot do it, while those who should
and can do it will not do it."--But in this I shall make no other
apology, than what our Saviour (in another case) said to the woman,
_She hath done what she could._

All that I shall observe anent the form or method used in the following
lives, is, that they are all, except one, ranged in order, according to
the time of their exit, and not according to their birth; and that in
general, the historical account of their birth, parentage, and memorable
transactions is first inserted; and with as few repetitions as possible:
Yea, sometimes to save a repetition, a fact is related of one Worthy in
the life of another, which is not in his own life. Then follows their
characteristic part, which oftimes is just one's testimony successively
of another; and last of all, their works[24].--That which is given in
their own words, mostly stands in commas.

I know it is usual, when relating matters of fact, to make remarks or
reflections, yet as this oftimes brings authors under suspicion of party
zeal or partiality, they are designedly waved in the body of the
book.--Any thing of this kind is placed among other things in the
marginal notes, where the reader is at a little more freedom to chuse or
refuse as he pleases, only with this proviso, That truth be always

The last thing to be observed is, That as the credit due to this
collection depends so much upon the authors from whom it was extracted,
their names should have been inserted. However, the reader will find the
most part of them mentioned in the notes; so that if any doubt of the
veracity of any thing here related, they may have recourse to the
original authors, some of whom, though enemies to reformation
principles, nevertheless serve to illustrate the facts narrated in these
memoirs, as nothing serves more to confirmation of either truth or
historical facts, than the testimony of its opposers.

But to conclude; May the Lord arise and plead his own cause in putting a
final stop to all manner of prevailing wickedness; and hasten that day
when the glorious light of the gospel may shine forth in purity, and
with such power and success as in former times, with an enlargement of
the Mediator's kingdom,--_That his large and great dominion may be
extended from the river to the ends of the earth,_ when all these heats,
animosities and breaking divisions, that now prevail and increase among
Christ's professed friends and followers, may be healed; that being
cemented and knitted to one another, they may join heart and hand
together in the matters of the Lord, and the concerns of his glory;
_when Ephraim shall no more envy Judah, and Judah shall no more vex
Ephraim, but both shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines_, Isa.
xi. 13.; with a further accomplishment of these with other gracious
promises,--_And thine officers shall be peace, and thine exactors
righteousness_, &c.; _and they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall
bring again the captivity of Zion._--And that when we are endeavouring
to perpetuate the memory of these worthies, or commemorate what the Lord
did for and by our forefathers, in the days of old, we may be so
auspicious as to have somewhat to declare of his goodness and wonderful
works done for us in our day and generation also.

And if the following sheets shall in the least through divine grace,
under the management of an over-ruling providence (which claims the care
of directing every mean to its proper end) prove useful to the
reclaiming of neutrals from backsliding courses, to the confirming of
halters, and the encouraging of others to the like fortitude and
vigorous zeal, to contend for our most valuable privileges (whether of a
civil or a religious nature), then I shall think all my pains
recompensed, and the end gained. For that many may be found _standing in
the way, to see and ask for the good old paths, and walk therein,
cleaving to the law and to the testimony,_ would be the joy, and is the
earnest desire of one, impartial reader, who remains thy friend and
well-wisher in the truth,

                            JOHN HOWIE.
_July_ 21, 1775.

_N. B._ If any person or persons have or shall object to this or the
former edition, that in transcribing these lives (particularly those who
were formerly in print) I have curtailed them in favours of my own
particular sentiment; I must here let them know, that it is entirely
false; for I never omitted any thing to my knowledge, that I thought
would be for the benefit of the public, where I had room to insert it:
For I could heartily wish, that these lives were in whole re-printed; in
the mean time, I cannot help thinking, that such reflections are or
would be but a very slender or ungenteel requital for my past pains and

ADVERTISEMENT to the Public, concerning this Edition.

That, after what I formerly observed on the subject in the foregoing
pages, it were needless to add any thing farther here, than to notice to
the Reader, that besides a number of small corrections, there are four
lives added, and upwards of fifty other additions or short
improvements;--only as Mr. Vetch's life and practice, especially since
the Revolution, was not so consonant to the rest as could have been
wished, it was desired by some friends to be deleted; but others
alledging that he was a sufferer, and that his life being once
providentially cast into this number, it might be accounted an injury,
if not to the book, yet to the purchasers of this edition, therefore I
have abridged it as concisely as possible, and placed it in its own
proper place, in the end; which is no more nor no less freedom used with
his memory, than what has been done with others as deserving, might I
say, as faithful as he: besides his life in full still stands entire in
the first edition, which may be either consulted or printed again at

I am further to acquaint the reader, that I have been sometimes
solicited by acquaintance to write another volume of the wicked lives
and characters of some of the late wicked persecutors; but not finding
proper materials for all that should have had a place in this catalogue,
I have presumed to add, by way of appendix unto this edition, a short
sketch or historical account of the wicked lives and miserable deaths of
some of the most notable apostate church-men and violent persecutors,
from the Reformation to the Revolution, which it is hoped will be no
ways unapt unto the subject, and, through a divine blessing, may not
want its own proper use; for while we are made to behold the Lord's
admirable goodness and mercy, yea miracles of mercy, extended towards
his church and people, we, at the same time, have a view of his
displeasure and the severity of his judgments inflicted upon his and
their enemies, according to his own promise, _I will punish them that
afflict thee_, and even in this life; which must be an eminent
accomplishment, display and illustration of divine revelation, in
opposition to all deistical scribblers.--_The righteousness of the
perfect shall direct his way; but the wicked shall fall by his own
wickedness_, &c. But to insist no further, I remain as above,


_June_, 1781.


Christianity seems to have made its appearance in Scotland in a very
early period, being, according to some writers, propagated in this
kingdom by the Apostles themselves; some saying that Simon Zelotes,
others that Paul was some time in this part of the world; but as this
opinion is not supported by proper vouchers, it merits only the regard
due to conjecture, not the attention which an undoubted narrative calls

Another, and more probable account, is, that during the persecution
raised by Domitian, (who was the twelfth and last Cæsar, about A. D.
96.) some of the disciples of the apostle John fled into our Island, and
there taught the religion of Jesus. It does not seem that Christianity
made any very rapid progress for a considerable time. The first account
of the success of the gospel that can be depended on, is that about A.
D. 203. King Donald I. with his Queen, and several courtiers were
baptized, and continued afterwards to promote the interest of
Christianity, in opposition to Pagan idolatry. But the invasion of the
Emperor Severus soon disturbed this king's measures, so that for the
space of more than seventy years after, religion was on the decline, and
the idolatry of the Druids prevailed; they were an order of Heathen
priests, who performed their rites in groves of oak trees; this was a
species of Paganism of great antiquity, being that kind of idolatry to
which the Jews were often revolting, of which mention is made in the
lives of Ahab, Manasseh, &c. in the books of the kings. These Druids
likewise possessed a considerable share of civil power, being the
ordinary arbitrators in almost all controversies, and highly esteemed by
the people; this made it a very difficult task to establish a religion
so opposite to, and subversive of that institution: but the difficulties
which Christianity has in every age and country had to encounter, have
served its interest, and illustrated the power and grace of its divine
Author. These Druids were expelled by king Cratilinth, about the year
277, who took special care to obliterate every memorial of them; and
from this period we may date the true æra of Christianity in Scotland,
because from this time forward, until the persecution under the emperor
Dioclesian, in the beginning of the fourth century, there was a gradual
increase of the true knowledge of God and religion, that persecution
became so hot in the south parts of Britain, as to drive many, both
preachers and professors, into Scotland, where they were kindly
received, and had the Isle of Man (then in possession of the Scots)
given them for their residence, and a sufficient maintenance assigned
them. King Cratilinth built a church for them, which was called the
church of our SAVIOUR, in the Greek, {sôtêr}, and is now by
corruption SODOR, in Icolumbkil, one of the western isles. They were not
employed, like the Druidical priests, in whose place they had come, in
settling the worldly affairs of men, but gave themselves wholly to
divine services, in instructing the ignorant, comforting the weak,
administering the sacraments, and training up disciples to the same

Whether these Refugees were the ancient Culdees or a different set of
men, is not easily determined, nor would be very material, though it
could. The Culdees (from _cultores Dei_, worshippers of God) flourished
at this time, they were called {mona'choi}, or Monks, from the
retired religious lives which they led; the cells into which they had
retired, were, after their deaths, mostly converted into churches, and
to this day retain their names, as Cell or Kill or church of Marnock;
Kil-Patrick, Kil-Malcolm, &c. The Culdees chose superintendents from
among themselves, whose office obliged them to travel the country, in
order to see that every one discharged his duty properly: but they were
utter strangers to the lordly power of the modern Prelate, having no
proper diocese, and only a temporary superintendency, with which they
were vested by their brethren, and to whom they were accountable. It was
an institution, in the spirit of it, the same with the privy censures of
ministers among Presbyterians.

During the reigns of Cratilinth, and Fincormac his successor, the
Culdees were in a flourishing state: but after the death of the latter,
both the church and state of Scotland went into disorder. Maximus the
Roman Præfect, stirred up the Picts to aid him against the Scots, who
were totally defeated, their King Ewing, with most part of the nobility,
being slain. This overthrow was immediately succeeded by an edict
commanding all the Scots, without exception, to depart the kingdom
against a certain day, under pain of death. This drove them entirely
into Ireland and the western isles of Denmark and Norway, excepting a
few ecclesiastics, who wandered about from place to place. This bloody
battle was fought about the year 380, at the water of Dunne in Carrick.

After an exile of 44, or according to Buchanan, 27 years which the Scots
endured, the Picts became sensible of their mistake, in assisting the
Romans against them, and accordingly strengthened the hands of the few
who remained, and invited the fugitives back into their own land. These
were joined by some foreigners, and returned with Fergus II. (then in
Denmark) upon their head, their enterprise was the more successful, that
at this time many of the Roman forces were called home. Their king was
crowned with the usual rites in his own country, and the news of his
success drew great numbers to him, in so much that he recovered all the
country out of which the Scots had been expelled: most of the foreign
forces returned home, except the Irish, who possessed the country of
Galloway for their reward. This successful undertaking happened about
the year 404, or as others would have it, 420.

The Culdees were now recalled out of all their lurking places, restored
to their livings, and had their churches repaired; at this time they
possessed the peoples esteem to a higher degree than ever: but this
tranquility was again interrupted by a more formidable enemy than
before. The Pelagian heresy had now gained considerable ground in
Britain, it is so called from Pelagius a Monk at Rome; its chief
articles are, 1. That original sin is not inherent. 2. That faith is a
thing natural. 3. That good works done by our own strength, of our own
free-will, are agreeable to the law of God, and worthy of
heaven.--Whether all, or only part of these errors then infected the
Scottish church, is uncertain; but Celestine, then bishop of Rome,
embraced this opportunity to send Palladius among them, who, joining
with the orthodox of south Britain, restored peace to that part of the
church, by suppressing the heresy. Eugenius the second, being desirous
that this church should likewise be purged of the impure leaven, invited
Palladius hither, who obtaining liberty from Celestine, and being
enjoined to introduce the hierarchy as opportunity should offer, came
into Scotland, and succeeded so effectually in his commission, as both
to confute Pelagianism and new-model the government of the church.

The church of Scotland knew no officers vested with pre-eminence above
their brethren, nor had any thing to do with the Roman pontiff, until
the year 450. Bede says, that "Palladius was sent unto the Scots who
believed in Christ, as their first bishop.[25]" Boetius likewise says,
"that Palladius was the first of all who did bear holy magistracy among
the Scots, being made bishop by the Great Pope." Fordun in his
chronicle, tells us, that "before the coming of Palladius, the Scots had
for teachers of the faith, and ministers of the sacraments, Presbyters
only, or Monks, following the customs of the primitive church[26]."

But we are not even to fix the æra of diocesan Bishops so early as this,
for there were no such office-bearers in the church of Scotland, until
the reign of Malcolm II. in the eleventh century. During the first 1000
years after Christ, there were no divided dioceses, nor superiorities
over others, but they governed in the church in common with Presbyters;
so that they were no more than nominally bishops, possessing little or
nothing of that lordly dignity, which they now, and for a long time past
have enjoyed. Spotiswood (history page 29.) himself testifies, that the
Scottish bishops before the eleventh century, exercised their functions
indifferently in every place to which they came. Palladius may be said
to have rather laid the foundation of the after degeneracy of the church
of Scotland, than to have built that superstructure of corruption and
idolatry which afterwards prevailed, because she continued for near two
hundred years in a state comparatively pure and unspotted, when we cast
our eyes on the following times.

About the end of the sixth and beginning of the seventh century, a
number of pious and wise men flourished in the country, among whom was
Kentigern, commonly called Mungo, some of these persons were employed by
Oswald a Northumbrian king, to instruct his people; they are
represented by Bede, as eminent for their love to God and knowledge of
the holy scriptures: the light of the gospel by their means broke into
other parts of the Saxon dominions, which long maintained an opposition
to the growing usurpation of the church of Rome, which after the middle
of this century was strenuously supported by Austin's disciples.

Beside these men, the church of Scotland at this time sent many other
worthy and successful missionaries into foreign parts, particularly
France, and Germany. Thus was Scotland early privileged, and thus were
her privileges improven: But soon _the gold became dim, and the most
fine gold was changed_.

Popery came now by degrees to show her horrid head; the assiduity of
Austin and his disciples in England, was attended with melancholy
consequences to Scotland, by fomenting divisions, corrupting her princes
with Romish principles, and inattention to the lives of her clergy, the
Papal power soon came to be universally acknowledged. In the seventh
century a hot contest arose betwixt Austin and his disciples on the one
part, and the Scots and northern Saxons on the other, about the time of
keeping Easter, immersing three times in baptism, shaving of priests,
&c. which these last would not receive, nor submit to the authority
that imposed them; each refused ministerial communion with the other
party, until an arbitral decision was given by Oswy king of the
Northumbrians, at Whitby in Yorkshire, in favours of the Romanists, when
the opinions of the Scots were exploded, and the modish fooleries of
Papal Hierarchy were established. This decision, however, was far from
putting an end to the confusion which this dissention had occasioned;
the Romanists urged their rites with rigour, the others rather chose to
yield their places than conform: their discouragements daily increased,
as the clerical power was augmented, In the year 886, they obtained the
act exempting them from taxes, and all civil prosecutions before
temporal judges, and ordaining that all matters concerning them should
be tried by their bishops, who were at this time vested with those
powers, which are now in the hands of commissaries, respecting
matrimonial causes, testaments, &c. They were likewise by the same
statute impowered to make canons, try heretics, &c. and all future
kings were ordained to take an oath at their coronation, for maintaining
these privileges to the church. The convention of estates which passed
this act was held at Forfar, in the reign of that too indulgent prince,

Malcolm III. Alexander, David, &c. successively supported this dignity
by erecting particular bishopricks, abbeys, and monasteries; the same
superstitious zeal seized the nobility of both sexes, some giving a
third, others more, and others their whole estates, for the support of
pontifical pride and spiritual tyranny, which soon became insupportable,
and opened the eyes of the nation, so that they discovered their mistake
in raising the clerical authority to such a height. Accordingly, we find
the nobles complaining of it to Alexander III. who reigned after the
middle of the thirteenth century, but he was so far from being able to
afford them redress, that when they were excommunicated by the church on
account of this complaint, to prevent greater evils, he was obliged to
cause the nobility satisfy both the avarice and arrogance of the clergy,
who had now resolved upon and begun a journey to Rome, with a view to
raise as great commotions in Scotland, as Thomas Becket had lately made
in England.

The Pope's power was now generally acknowledged over Christendom,
particularly in our nation, for which, in return, the church of Scotland
was declared free from all foreign spiritual jurisdiction, that of the
"Apostolic fee only excepted." This bull was occasioned by an attempt
of one Roger bishop of York, in the year 1159, to raise himself to the
dignity of Metropolitan of Scotland, and who found means to be Legate of
this kingdom, but lost that office upon the remonstrance of the Scottish
clergy: which likewise procured the above bull in their favours, with
many other favours of a like nature at this time conferred upon them, by
all which they were exempted from any other jurisdiction than that of
Rome, in so much that we find pope Boniface VIII. commanding Edward of
England to cease hostilities against the Scots, alledging that "the
sovereignty of Scotland belonged to the church;" which claim seems to
have been founded in the papal appointment for the unction of the Scots
kings, which was first used on king Edgar, A. D. 1098. and at that time
regarded by the people as a new mark of royalty, but which, as it was
the appointment of the Pope, was really the mark of the beast.

There were now in Scotland all orders of Monks and Friars, Templars, or
Red Monks, Trinity Monks of Aberdeen, Cisternian Monks, Carmelite, Black
and Grey Friars, Carthusians, Dominicans, Franciscans, Jacobites,
Benedictines, &c. which shows to what a height Antichrist had raised
his head in our land, and how readily all his oppressive measures were
complied with by all ranks.

But the reader must not think that during the period we have now
reviewed, there were none to oppose this torrent of superstition and
idolatry; for from the first appearance of the Romish Antichrist in this
kingdom, God wanted not witnesses for the truth, who boldly stood forth
for the defence of the blessed and pure gospel of Christ: Mention is
first made of Clemens and Samson, two famous Culdees, who in the seventh
century supported the authority of Christ as the only king and head of
his church, against the usurped power of Rome, and who rejected the
superstitious rites of Antichrist, as contrary to the simplicity of
gospel institutions. The succeeding age was no less remarkable for
learned and pious men, to whom Scotland gave birth, and whole praise was
in the churches abroad; particularly Joannes Scotus, who wrote a book
upon the Eucharist, condemned by Leo IX. in the year 1030, long after
his death. In the ninth century, a convention of estates was held at
Scoon for the reformation of the clergy, their lives and conversations
being at that time a reproach to common decency and good manners; not to
say, piety and religion. The remedies provided at this convention,
discover the nature of the disease. It was ordained, that church-men
should reside upon their charge; that they should not intermeddle with
secular affairs, but instruct the people, and be good examples in their
conversations; that they should not keep hawks, hounds, nor horses for
their pleasure, &c. And if they failed in the observance of these
injunctions, they were to be fined for the first, and deposed for the
second transgression. These laws were made under King Constantine II.
but his successor Gregory rendered them abortive by his indulgence. The
age following this, is not remarkable for witnesses to the truth, but
historians are agreed, that there were still some of the Culdees who
lived and ministred apart from the Romanists and taught the people that
Christ was the only propitiation for sin, and that his blood could only
wash them from the guilt of it, in opposition to the indulgences and
pardons of the Pope. Mr. Alexander Shields says, that the Culdees
transmitted their testimony to the Lollards[27] and Pope John XXII. in
his bull for anointing King Robert Bruce, complains that there were many
heretics in Scotland; so that we may safely affirm there never was any
very great period of time without witnesses for the truth and against
the gross corruptions of the church of Rome. Some of our kings
themselves opposed the Pope's supremacy, and prohibited his Legates
from entering their dominions; the most remarkable instance of this kind
is that of Robert Bruce. After his having defeated the English at
Bannock-burn, they became suppliants to the Pope for his mediation, who
accordingly sent a Legate into Scotland, proposing a cessation of arms,
till the Pope should hear and decide the quarrel betwixt the two crowns,
that he might be informed of the right which Edward had to the crown of
Scotland; to this king Robert replied, "that the Pope could not be
ignorant of that business, because it had been often explained to his
predecessors, in the hearing of many cardinals then alive, who could
tell him if they pleased, what insolent answers pope Boniface received
from the English, while they were desired to desist from oppressing the
Scots: And now (said he) when it hath pleased God to give us the better
by some victories, by which we have not only recovered our own, but can
make them live as good neighboors, they have recourse to such treaties,
seeking to gain time in order to fall upon us again with greater force:
But in this his holiness must excuse me, for I will not be so unwise as
to let the advantage I have slip out of my hand." The Legate regarding
this answer as contemptuous, interdicted the kingdom and departed; but
K. Robert paying little regard to such proceedings, followed hard after
the Legate, and entering England, wasted all the adjacent countries with
fire and sword.

In the beginning of the fifteenth century, the reformation from Popery
began to dawn in Scotland; at this time there was pope against pope, nay
sometimes three of them at once, all excommunicating one another; which
schism lasted for about thirty years, and by an over-ruling providence
contributed much to the downfal of Antichrist, and to the revival of
real religion and learning in Scotland, and many parts in Europe; for
many embracing the opportunity now afforded to them, began to speak
openly against the heresy, tyranny, and immorality of the clergy. Among
those who preached publicly against these evils were John Huss, and
Jerome of Prague in Bohemia, John Wickliff in England, and John Resby,
an Englishman and scholar of Wickliff's in Scotland, who came hither
about the year 1407, and was called in question for some doctrines which
he taught against the Pope's supremacy; he was condemned to the fire,
which he endured with great constancy. About ten years after, one Paul
Craw a Bohemian and follower of Huss, was accused of heresy before such
as were then called Doctors of theology. The articles of charge were,
that he followed Huss and Wickliff in the opinion of the sacrament of
the supper, who denied that the substance of bread and wine were changed
by virtue of any words, or that auricular confession to priests, or
praying to saints departed were lawful. He was committed to the secular
judge, who condemned him to the fire at St. Andrews, where he suffered,
being gagged when led to the stake, that he might not have the
opportunity of making his confession.----Both the above-mentioned
martyrs suffered under Henry Wardlaw bishop of St. Andrews, who founded
that university, 1412; which might have done him honour, had he not
imbrued his hands in innocent blood.

These returnings of the gospel light were not confined to St. Andrews,
but Kyle, Carrick, Cunningham, and other places in the west of Scotland
were also thus favoured about the same time; for we find that Robert
Blackatter, the first arch-bishop of Glasgow, _anno_ 1494, caused summon
before King James IV, and his great council at Glasgow, George Campbel
of Ceffnock, Adam Reid of Barskimming, and a great many others, mostly
persons of distinction, opprobriously called the Lollards of Kyle, from
one Lollard an eminent preacher among the antient Waldenses, for
maintaining that images ought not to be worshipped; that the relicts of
saints should not be adored, &c. But they answered their accusers with
such constancy and boldness, that it was judged most prudent to dismiss
them with an admonition, to content themselves with the faith of the
church, and to beware of new doctrines.

Thus have we brought this summary of church-affairs in Scotland, down to
the time of Mr. Patrick Hamilton, whose life stands upon the head of
this collection: for he was the next sufferer on account of opposition
to Romish tyranny and superstition in our country.

The following BOOKS to be had at the Shop of JOHN BRYCE, Printer and
Bookseller, opposite Gibson's-Wynd, _Salt-market_.


Mr. Ralph Erskine's Works, in 10 large vols
Trail's sermons, 3 vols
Pike and Hayward's cases of conscience, with the spiritual companion
Dickenson's religious letters
Neil's 23 sermons on important subjects
Durham's exposition of the ten commands
Owen on the CXXX Psalm
Sibb's soul's conflict, together with the bruised reed and smoaking flax
Dickson's truth's victory over error
Durham's unsearchable riches of Christ, in fourteen communion sermons
Adamson's loss and recovery of elect sinners
Rawlin's sermons on justification
Durham's 72 sermons on the LIII of Isaiah
Watt's Logick
Marshal on sanctification
Erskine's scripture songs
Shield's faithful contendings
Welwood's glimpse of glory
Blackwell's sacred scheme
Ridgley's body of divinity, in Folio

The following ARTICLES to be had Stitched,

Act, Declaration and Testimony
The Doctrine of Grace
The full state of the marrow controversy
The holy life of Mr John Janeway
The life of Mr John Livinston
Borland's history of Darien
Form of process used in kirk courts
Mr Graham's four discourses on covenanting

Where also may be had, Bibles gilt and plain, New Testaments, psalm
books, confessions of faith, Catechisms large and small, Proverbs,
Syllabing Catechisms, Brown's Catechism, Henry's catechism, Muckarsie's
catechism, Oliphant's catechism, Proof catechism, Mother's catechism,
Watt's catechism, Watt's songs for children, Paper and Pens, Letter
cases and Pocket books _&c. &c._

       OF THE


He was born about the year of our Lord 1503, and he was nephew to the
earl of Arran by his father, and to the duke of Albany by his mother; he
was also related to king James. V. of Scotland. He was early educated
with a design for future high preferment, and had the abbey of _Ferm_
given him, for the purpose of prosecuting his studies; which he did with
great assiduity.

In order to complete this laudable design, he resolved to travel into
Germany. The fame of the university of Wittemberg was then very great,
and drew many to it from distant places, among which our Hamilton was
one. He was the first who introduced public disputations upon faith and
works, and such theological questions, into the university of Marpurg,
in which he was assisted by Francis Lambert; by whose conversation he
profited not a little.--Here he became acquainted with these eminent
reformers, Martin Luther and Philip Melancthon, besides other learned
men of their society. By these distinguished masters he was instructed
in the knowledge of the true religion, which he had little opportunity
to become acquainted with in his own country, because the small remains
of it which were in Scotland at this time, were under the yoke of
oppression which we have already shown in the close of the
introduction.--He made an amazing proficiency in this most important
study, and became soon as zealous in the profession of the true faith,
as he had been diligent to attain the knowledge of it.--This drew the
eyes of many upon him, and while they were waiting with impatience to
see what part he would act, he came to this resolution, to return into
his own country, and there in the face of all dangers to communicate the
light which he had received.

Accordingly, being as yet a youth, and not much past twenty-three years
of age, he began, sowing the seed of God's word where-ever he came,
exposing the corruptions of the Romish church, and pointing out the
errors which had crept into the Christian religion as professed in
Scotland.--He was favourably received and followed by many, unto whom he
readily _showed the way of God more perfectly_. His reputation as a
scholar and courteous demeanour, contributed not a little to his
usefulness in this good work.

The city of St. Andrews was at this time the grand rendezvous of the
Romish clergy, and may, with no impropriety, be called the metropolis of
the kingdom of darkness. James Beaton was arch-bishop, Hugh Spence dean
of divinity, John Waddel rector, James Simson official, Thomas Ramsay
canon and dean of the abbey, with the several superiors of the different
orders of monks and friars.--It could not be expected, that Mr
Hamilton's conduct would be long concealed from such a body as this.
Their resentment against him soon rose to the utmost heights of
persecuting rage; particularly the arch-bishop, who was chancellor of
the kingdom, and otherwise very powerful, became his inveterate enemy.
But being not less politic than cruel, the arch-bishop concealed his
wicked design against him, until he had drawn him into the ambush
prepared for him, which he effected by prevailing on him to attend a
conference at St. Andrews.--Being come thither, Alexander Campbel prior
of the black friars, who had been appointed to exert his faculties in
reclaiming him, had several private interviews with him, in which he
seemed to acknowledge the force of Mr. Hamilton's objections against the
prevailing conduct of the clergy and errors of the Romish church. Such
persuasions as Campbel used to bring him back to popery, had rather the
tendency to confirm him in the truth. The arch-bishop and inferior
clergy appeared to make concessions to him, allowing that many things
stood in need of reformation, which they could wish had been brought
about. Whether they were sincere in these acknowledgments, or only
intended to conceal their bloody designs, and render the innocent and
unsuspecting victim of their rage more secure, is a question to which
this answer may be returned, That had they been sincere, the
consciousness that Mr. Hamilton spoke truth, would perhaps have warded
off the blow, for, at least some longer time, or divided their councils
and measures against him. That neither of these was the case will now
appear.--He was apprehended under night, and committed prisoner to the
castle: at the same time, the young king was, at the earnest
solicitation of the clergy, prevailed upon to undertake a pilgrimage to
St. Dothess in Ross-shire, that he might be out of the way of any
applications made to him for the life of Mr. Hamilton, which there was
reason to believe would be granted. This measure affords full proof,
that notwithstanding the friendly conferences which they kept up with
him for some time, they had resolved on his ruin from the beginning: but
such instances of Popish dissembling were not new even in Mr. Hamilton's

The next day after his imprisonment, he was brought before the
arch-bishop and his convention, and there charged with maintaining and
propagating sundry heretical opinions; and though articles of the utmost
importance had been debated betwixt him and them, they restricted their
charge to such trifles as _pilgrimage_, _purgatory_, _praying to
saints_, and _for the dead_; perhaps because these were the grand
pillars upon which Antichrist built his empire, being the most lucrative
doctrines ever invented by men. We must, however, take notice that
Spotswood afterwards arch-bishop of that see, assigns the following
grounds for his suffering, 1. That the corruption of sin remains in
children after their baptism. 2. That no man by the power of his
free-will can do any good. 3. That no man is without sin so long as he
liveth. 4. That every true Christian may know himself to be in a state
of grace. 5. That a man is not justified by works but by faith only. 6.
That good works make not a man good, but that a good man doth good
works, and that an ill man doth ill works, yet the same ill works, truly
repented of, make not an ill man. 7. That faith, hope and charity are so
linked together, that he who hath one of them hath all, and he that
lacketh one lacketh all. 8. That God is the cause of sin, in this sense,
that he withdraweth his grace from man; and grace withdrawn, he cannot
but sin. These articles with the following make up the whole charge,
(1.) That auricular confession is not necessary to salvation. (2.) That
actual penance cannot purchase the remission of sin. (3.) That there is
no purgatory, and that the holy patriarchs were in heaven before
Christ's passion. (4.) That the pope is Antichrist, and that every
priest hath as much power as he.----For these articles, and because he
refused to abjure them, he was condemned as an obstinate heretic, and
delivered to the secular power by the arch-bishops of St. Andrews and
Glasgow, three bishops, and fourteen underlings, who all set their hands
to the sentence, which, that it might have the greater authority, was
likewise subscribed by every person of note in the university, among
whom the earl of Cassils was one, then not exceeding thirteen years of
age. The sentence follows as given by Mr. Fox, in his acts and
monuments, vol. II. p. 1108.

"_CHRISTI nomine invocato_: We James, by the mercy of God, arch-bishop
of St. Andrews, primate of Scotland, with the counsel, decree and
authority of the most reverend fathers in God, and lords, abbots,
doctors of theology, professors of the holy scripture and masters of the
university, assisting us for the time, sitting in judgment, within our
metropolitan church of St. Andrews, in the cause of heretical pravity,
against Mr Patrick Hamilton, abbot or pensionary of Ferm, being summoned
to appear before us, to answer to certain articles affirmed, taught and
preached by him, and so appearing before us, and accused, the merits of
the cause being ripely weighed, discussed, and understood by faithful
inquisition made in Lent last passed: We have found the same Mr.
Hamilton, many ways infamed with heresy, disputing, holding and
maintaining divers heresies of Martin Luther and his followers,
repugnant to our faith, and which is already condemned by general
councils and most famous universities. And he being under the same
infamy, we decerning before him to be summoned and accused upon the
premises, he of evil mind, (as may be presumed) passed to other parts,
forth of the realm, suspected and noted of heresy. And being lately
returned, not being admitted, but of his own head, without licence or
privilege, hath presumed to preach wicked heresy.

"We have found also, that he hath affirmed, published and taught divers
opinions of Luther, and wicked heresies after that he was summoned to
appear before us and our council: That man hath no free-will: That man
is in sin so long as he liveth: That children, incontinent after their
baptism, are sinners: All Christians that be worthy to be called
Christians, do know that they are in grace: No man is justified by
works, but by faith only: Good works make not a good man, but a good man
doth make good works: That faith, hope and charity are so knit, that he
that hath the one hath the rest, and he that wanteth the one of them
wanteth the rest, &c. with divers other heresies and detestable
opinions; and hath persisted so obstinate in the same, that by no
counsel nor persuasion, he may be drawn therefrom, to the way of our
right faith.

"All these premises being considered, we having God and the integrity of
our faith before our eyes, and following the counsel and advice of the
professors of the holy scripture, men of law and others assisting us for
the time, do pronounce, determine and declare the said Mr. Patrick
Hamilton, for his affirming, confessing, and maintaining of the foresaid
heresies, and his pertinacity (they being condemned already by the
church, general councils, and most famous universities) to be an
heretic, and to have an evil opinion of the faith, and therefore to be
condemned and punished, like as we condemn, and define him to be
punished, by this our sentence definitive, depriving and sentencing him,
to be deprived of all dignities, honours, orders, offices, and benefices
of the church; and therefore do judge and pronounce him to be delivered
over to the secular power, to be punished, and his goods to be

"This our sentence definitive, was given and read at our metropolitan
church of St. Andrews, the last day of the month of February, _anno_
1527. being present, the most reverend fathers in Christ and lords,
Gawand bishop of Glasgow, George bishop of Dunkelden, John bishop of
Brecham, William bishop of Dunblane, Patrick, prior of St. Andrews,
David abbot of Aberbrothock, George abbot of Dunfermline, Alexander
abbot of Cambuskeneth, Henry abbot of Lendors, John prior of
Pitterweeme, the dean and subdean of Glasgow, Mr. Hugh Spence, Thomas
Ramsay, Allan Meldrum, &c. In the presence of the clergy and the

The same day that this doom was pronounced, he was also condemned by the
secular power; and in the afternoon of that same day, (for they were
afraid of an application to the king on his behalf) he was hurried to
the stake, the fire being prepared, immediately after dinner, before the
old college.--Being come to the place of martyrdom, he put off his
clothes and gave them to a servant who had been with him of a long time,
saying, "This stuff will not help me in the fire, yet will do thee some
good; I have no more to leave thee, but the ensample of my death, which,
I pray thee, keep in mind; for albeit the same be bitter and painful in
man's judgment, yet it is the entrance to everlasting life, which none
can inherit who deny Christ before this wicked generation." Having so
said, he commended his soul into the hands of God, with his eyes fixed
towards heaven, and being bound to the stake in the midst of some
coals, timber, and other combustibles, a train of powder was made, with
a design to kindle the fire, but did not succeed, the explosion only
scorching one of his hands and face. In this situation he remained until
more powder was brought from the castle, during which time his
comfortable and godly speeches were often interrupted, particularly by
friar Campbel calling upon him "to recant, pray to our lady and say,
_Salve regina_." Upon being repeatedly disturbed in this manner by
Campbel, Mr. Hamilton said, "Thou wicked man, thou knowest that I am not
an heretic, and that it is the truth of God, for which I now suffer; so
much didst thou confess unto me in private, and thereupon I appeal thee
to answer before the judgment-seat of Christ:" By this time the fire was
kindled, and the noble martyr yielded his soul to God, crying out, "How
long, O Lord, shall darkness overwhelm this realm? How long will thou
suffer this tyranny of men?" And then ended his speech with Stephen,
saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."

Friar Campbel became soon after distracted, and died within a year after
Mr. Hamilton's martyrdom, under the most awful apprehensions of the
Lord's indignation against him.--The Popish clergy abroad congratulated
their friends in Scotland, upon their zeal for the Romish faith
discovered in the above tragedy--But it rather served the cause of
reformation than retarded it, especially when the people began to
compare deliberately the behaviour of Mr. Hamilton and friar Campbel
together, they were induced to inquire more narrowly into the truth than
before. The reader will find a very particular account of the doctrines
maintained by Mr. Hamilton in Knox's history of the reformation of
Scotland nigh the beginning.

_The Life of Mr. GEORGE WISHART._

This gentleman was a brother of the laird of Pittarro in Mearns, and was
educated at the university of Cambridge, where his diligence and
progress in useful learning, soon made him be respected. From an ardent
desire to promote the truth in his own country, he returned to it in the
summer of 1544, and began teaching a school in the town of Montrose,
which he kept for some time with great applause. He is particularly
celebrated for his uncommon eloquence, and agreeable manner of
communication. The sequel of this narrative will inform the reader,
That he possessed the spirit of prophecy to an extraordinary degree, and
was at the same time humble, modest, charitable and patient, even to
admiration. One of his own scholars gives the following picture of him,
"That he was a man of a tall stature, black-hair'd, long-bearded, of a
graceful personage, eloquent, courteous, ready to teach and desirous to
learn; that he ordinarily wore a French cap, a frieze gown, plain black
hose, and white bands and hand cuffs; that he frequently gave away
different parts of his apparel to the poor; in his diet he was very
moderate, eating only twice a day, and fasting every fourth day; his
lodging, bedding, and such other circumstances, were correspondent to
the things already mentioned." But as these particulars are rather
curious than instructive, we shall say no more of them.

After he left Montrose, he came to Dundee, where he acquired still
greater fame, in public lectures on the epistle to the Romans; insomuch
that the Romish clergy began to think seriously on the consequences
which they saw would inevitably ensue, if he was suffered to go on,
pulling down that fabric of superstition and idolatry, which they with
so much pains had reared; they were particularly disgusted at the
reception which he met with in Dundee, and immediately set about
projecting his ruin.

From the time that Mr. Patrick Hamilton suffered, until this period,
papal tyranny reigned by fire and faggot without controul. In the year
1539, cardinal David Beaton succeeded his uncle in the see of St.
Andrews, and carefully trod the path his uncle had marked out; to show
his own greatness, and to recommend himself to his superior of Rome, he
accused Sir John Borthwick of heresy, whose goods were confiscated, and
himself burnt in effigy (for being forewarned of his danger, he had
escaped out of the country). After this he suborned a priest to forge a
will of K. James V. who died about this time, declaring himself, with
the earls of Huntly, Argyle and Murray to be regents of the kingdom: The
cheat being discovered, the earl of Arran was elected governor, and the
cardinal was committed prisoner to the castle of Dalkeith; he soon found
means to escape from his confinement, and prevailed with the regent to
break all his promises to the party who had elected him into that
office, and to join with him in imbruing his hands in the blood of the
saints. Accordingly, several professors of the town of Perth were
arraigned, condemned, hanged and drowned; others were sent into
banishment, and some were strangled in private. We have departed thus
far from the course of our narrative, to shew the reader, that the
vacancies betwixt the respective lives in this collection, were as much
remarkable for persecution, as the particular instances which are set
before him in the lives themselves.

It was this cardinal who, incensed at Mr. Wishart's success in Dundee,
prevailed with one Robert Mill (formerly a professor of the truth, and
who had been a sufferer on that account, but who was now a man of
considerable influence in that town,) to give Mr Wishart a charge in the
queen and governor's names, to trouble them no more with his preaching
in that place. This commission was executed by Mill one day, in public,
just as Mr Wishart had ended his sermon. Upon hearing it, he kept
silence for a little with his eyes turned towards heaven, and then
casting them on the speaker with a sorrowful countenance, he said, "God
is my witness, that I never minded your trouble, but your comfort; yea,
your trouble is more grievous unto me than it is unto yourselves; but
sure I am, to reject the word of God, and drive away his messengers, is
not the way to save you from trouble, but to bring you into it: When I
am gone, God will send you messengers, who will not be afraid either for
burning or banishment. I have, at the hazard of my life, remained among
you, preaching the word of salvation; and now, since you yourselves
refuse me, I must leave my innocence to be declared by God. If it be
long well with you, I am not led by the Spirit of truth; and if
unexpected trouble come upon you, remember this is the cause, and turn
to God by repentance, for he is merciful." These words being pronounced,
he came down from the pulpit or preaching place. The earl of Marshal and
some other noblemen who were present at the sermon, entreated him
earnestly to go to the north with them, but he excused himself, and took
journey for the west country, where he was gladly received by many.

Being come to the town of Air, he began to preach the gospel with great
freedom and faithfulness. But Dunbar, the then arch-bishop of Glasgow,
being informed of the great concourse of people who crouded to his
sermons, at the instigation of cardinal Beaton, went to Air with the
resolution to apprehend him; the bishop first took possession of the
church, to prevent him from preaching in it. The news of this brought
Alexander earl of Glencairn, and some gentlemen of the neighbourhood,
immediately to the town; they offered to put Mr. Wishart in the church,
but he would not consent, saying, "The bishop's sermon would not do much
hurt, and that, if they pleased, he would go to the market-cross:" which
he did, and preached with such success, that several of his hearers,
formerly enemies to the truth, were converted on that occasion. During
the time Mr. Wishart was thus employed, the bishop was haranguing some
of his underlings and parasites in the church; having no sermon to give
them, he promised to be better provided against a future occasion, and
speedily left the town.

Mr. Wishart continued with the gentlemen of Kyle after the arch-bishop's
departure, and being desired to preach next Lord's day at the church of
Mauchlin, he went thither with that design; but the sheriff of Air had,
in the night-time, put a garrison of soldiers in the church to keep him
out. Hugh Campbel of Kinzeancleugh with others of the parish were
exceedingly offended at such impiety, and would have entered the church
by force; but Mr. Wishart would not suffer it, saying, "Brethren, it is
the word of peace which I preach unto you, the blood of no man shall be
shed for it this day; Jesus Christ is as mighty in the fields as in the
church, and he himself, while he lived in the flesh, preached oftener in
the desart, and upon the sea-side, than in the temple of Jerusalem."
Upon this the people were appeased, and went with him to the edge of a
muir on the south-west side of Mauchlin, where having placed himself
upon a ditch-dyke, he preached to a great multitude who resorted to him;
he continued speaking for more than three hours, God working wondrously
by him, insomuch that Laurence Rankin the laird of Sheld, a very profane
person, was converted by his means; the tears ran from his eyes, to the
astonishment of all present, and the whole of his after-life witnessed
that his profession was without hypocrisy. While in this country, Mr.
Wishart often preached with most remarkable success, at the church of
Galston and other places. At this time and in this part of the country,
it might be truly said, That _the harvest was GREAT, but the labourers
were FEW_.

After he had been about a month thus employed in Kyle, he was informed,
That the plague had broke out in Dundee the fourth day after he had left
it, and that it still continued to rage in such a manner that great
numbers were swept off every day; this affected him so much, that he
resolved to return again unto them: Accordingly he took leave of his
friends in the west, who were filled with sorrow at his departure. The
next day after his arrival at Dundee, he caused intimation to be made
that he would preach; and for that purpose chose his station upon the
head of the east-gate, the infected persons standing without, and those
that were whole within: his text was Psalm cvii. 20. _He sent his word
and healed them, and delivered them from their destruction._ By this
discourse he so comforted the people, that they thought themselves happy
in having such a preacher, and intreated him to remain with them while
the plague continued; which he complied with, preaching often and taking
care that the poor should not want necessaries more than the rich; in
doing which he exposed himself to the infection, even where it was most
malignant, without reserve.

During all this his sworn adversary the cardinal had his eye close upon
him, and bribed a priest called Sir John Wighton, to assassinate him; he
was to make the attempt as Mr. Wishart came down from the preaching
place, with the expectation of escaping among the crowd after the deed
was done. To effect this, he posted himself at the foot of the steps
with his gown loose, and a dagger under it in his hand. Upon Mr.
Wishart's approach, he looked sternly upon the priest, asking him, What
he intended to do? and instantly clapped his hand upon the hand of the
priest that held the dagger, and took it from him. Upon which he openly
confessing his design, a tumult immediately ensued, and the sick without
the gate rushed in, crying, To have the assassin delivered to them; then
Mr. Wishart interposed and defended him from their violence, telling
them, He had done him no harm, and that such as injured the one injured
the other likewise; so the priest escaped without any harm.

The plague was now considerably abated, and he determined to pay a visit
to the town of Montrose, intending to go from thence to Edinburgh, to
meet the gentlemen of the west. While he was at Montrose, he administred
the sacrament of our Lord's supper in both kinds of the elements, and
preached with success. Here he received a letter directed to him from
his intimate friend the laird of Kinnier, acquainting him, That he had
taken a sudden sickness, and requesting him to come to him with all
diligence. Upon this, he immediately set out on his journey, attended by
some honest friends of Montrose, who out of affection would accompany
him part of the way. They had not travelled above a quarter of a mile,
when all of a sudden he stopped, saying to the company, "I am forbidden
by God to go this journey. Will some of you be pleased to ride to yonder
place (pointing with his finger to a little hill), and see what you
find, for I apprehend there is a plot against my life:" whereupon he
returned, to the town, and they who went forward to the place, found
about sixty horsemen ready to intercept him: By this the whole plot came
to light: they found that the letter had been forged; and, upon their
telling Mr. Wishart what they had seen, he replied, "I know that I shall
end my life by the hands of that wicked man, (meaning the cardinal) but
it will not be after this manner."

The time which he had appointed for meeting the west-country gentlemen
at Edinburgh, drawing near, he undertook that journey, much against the
inclination and advice of the laird of Dun; the first night after
leaving Montrose, he lodged at Innergowrie, about two miles from Dundee,
with one James Watson a faithful friend, where, being laid in bed, he
was observed to rise a little after midnight, and to go out into an
adjacent garden, that he might give vent to his sighs and groans without
being observed; but being followed by two men, William Spaldin and John
Watson, at a distance, in order that they might observe his motions,
they saw him prostrate himself upon the ground, weeping and making
supplication for near an hour, and then return to his rest. As they lay
in the same apartment with him, they took care to return before him, and
upon his coming into the room they asked him, (as if ignorant of all
that had past) where he had been? But he made no answer, and they ceased
their interrogations. In the morning they asked him again, Why he rose
in the night, and what was the cause of such sorrow? (for they told him
all that they had seen him do) he answered with a dejected countenance,
"I wish you had been in your beds, which had been more for your ease,
for I was scarce well occupied." But they praying him to satisfy their
minds further, and to communicate some comfort unto them, he said, "I
will tell you, that I assuredly know my travail is nigh an end,
therefore pray to God for me, that I may not shrink when the battle
waxeth most hot."--Hearing these words, they burst out into tears,
saying, That was but small comfort to them. To this he replied, "God
will send you comfort after me; this realm shall be illuminated with the
light of Christ's gospel, as clearly as any realm ever was since the
days of the apostles; the house of God shall be built in it; yea, it
shall not lack (whatsoever the enemies shall devise to the contrary) the
very cope stone; neither shall this be long in doing, for there shall
not many suffer after me. The glory of God shall appear, and truth shall
once triumph in despite of the devil, but, alas, if the people become
unthankful, the plagues and punishments which shall follow will be
fearful and terrible." After this prediction, which was accomplished in
such a remarkable a manner afterwards, he proceeded on his journey, and
arrived at Leith about the 10th of December, where being disappointed of
a meeting with the west-country gentlemen, he kept himself retired for
some days, and then became very uneasy and discouraged, and being asked
the reason, he replied, "I have laboured to bring people out of
darkness, but now I lurk as a man ashamed to shew himself before men:"
by this they understood that he desired to preach, and told him that
they would gladly hear him; but the danger into which he would throw
himself thereby, prevented them from advising him to it, he answered,
"If you and others will hear me next Sabbath, I will preach in Leith,
let God provide for me as best pleaseth him;" which he did upon the
parable of the sower, Matth. xiii. After sermon, his friends advised him
to leave Leith, because the regent and cardinal were soon to be in
Edinburgh, and that his situation would be dangerous on that account; he
complied with this advice, and resided with the lairds of Brunston,
Longniddry and Ormiston, by turns; the following sabbath he preached at
Inneresk both fore and after noon, to a crowded audience, among whom was
Sir George Douglas, who after the sermon publicly said, "I know that the
governor and cardinal shall hear that I have been at this preaching,
(for they were now come to Edinburgh) say unto them, that I will avow
it, and will not only maintain the doctrine which I have heard, but also
the person of the teacher to the uttermost of my power;" which open and
candid declaration was very grateful to the whole congregation. During
the time of this sermon, Mr. Wishart perceived two grey friars standing
in the entry of the church, and whispering to every person that entered
the door; he called out to the people to make room for them, because,
said he, "perhaps they come to learn;" and then addressed them,
"requesting them to come forward, and hear the word of truth;" but they
still continued to trouble the people, upon which he reproved them in
the following manner: "O ye servants of Satan, and deceivers of souls
of men, will ye neither hear God's truth, nor suffer others to hear it?
depart and take this for your portion, God shall shortly confound and
disclose your hypocrisy within this realm; ye shall be abominable unto
men, and your places and habitations shall be desolate."

The two sabbaths following he preached at Tranent, and in all his
sermons after leaving Montrose, he more or less hinted that his ministry
was near an end. The next place he preached at was Haddington, where his
congregation was at first very throng, but the following day very few
attended him, which was thought to be owing to the influence of the earl
of Bothwel, who, at the instigation of the cardinal, had inhibited the
people from attending him, for his authority was very considerable in
that part of the country. At this time he received a letter from the
gentlemen of the west, declaring, That they could not keep the diet
appointed at Edinburgh; this, with the reflection that so few attended
his ministrations at Haddington, grieved him exceedingly. He called upon
Mr. Knox, who then attended him, and told him, That he was weary of the
world, since he perceived that men were become weary of
God.--Notwithstanding the anxiety and discouragement which he laboured
under, he went immediately to the pulpit, and sharply rebuking the
people of that town for their neglect of the gospel, he told them, "That
sore and fearful should be the plagues that should ensue; that fire and
sword should waste them; that strangers should possess their houses, and
chase them from their habitations." This prediction was soon after
verified, when the English took and possessed that town, while the
French and Scots besieged it in the year 1548. This was the last sermon
which he preached, in which, as had for some time been usual with him,
he spoke of his death as near at hand; and after it was over, he bade
his acquaintance farewel, as if it had been for ever. He went to
Ormiston, accompanied by the lairds of Brunston and Ormiston, and Sir
John Sandilands, the younger of Calder. Mr. Knox was also desirous to
have gone with him, but Mr. Wishart desired him to return, saying, "One
is enough for a sacrifice at this time."

Being come to Ormiston, he entered into some spiritual conversation in
the family, particularly concerning the happy state of God's children,
appointed the 51st psalm, according to an old version then in use, to be
sung, and then recommended the company to God; he went to bed some time
sooner than ordinary; about midnight the earl of Bothwel beset the
house, so as none could escape, and then called upon the laird,
declaring the design to him, and intreating him not to hold out, for it
would be to no purpose, because the cardinal and governor were coming
with all their train; but if he would deliver Mr. Wishart up, Bothwel
promised upon his honour that no evil should befal him. Being inveigled
with this, and consulting with Mr. Wishart who requested that the gates
should be opened, saying, "God's will be done," the laird complied. The
earl of Bothwel entered, with some gentlemen, who solemnly protested,
That Mr. Wishart should receive no harm, but that he, _viz._ Bothwel,
would either carry him to his own house, or return him again to Ormiston
in safety: Upon this promise hands were stricken, and Mr. Wishart went
along with him to Elphiston where the cardinal was, after which he was
first carried to Edinburgh, then to the earl of Bothwel's house (perhaps
upon pretence of fulfilling the engagement which Bothwel had come under
to him) after which he was re-conducted to Edinburgh, where the cardinal
had now assembled a convocation of prelates for reforming some abuses,
but without effect. Buchanan says, that he was apprehended by a party of
horse detached by the cardinal for that purpose; that at first the laird
of Ormiston refused to deliver him up, upon which the cardinal and
regent both posted thither, but could not prevail until the earl of
Bothwel was sent for, who succeeded by flattery and fair promises, not
one of which were fulfilled.

Mr. Wishart remained at Edinburgh only a few days, until the
blood-thirsty cardinal prevailed with the governor to deliver up this
faithful servant of Jesus Christ unto his tyranny, and was accordingly
sent to St. Andrews; and being advised to it by the arch-bishop of
Glasgow, he would have got a civil judge appointed to try him, if David
Hamilton of Preston, a kinsman to the regent, had not remonstrated
against it, and represented the danger of attacking the servants of God,
who had no other crime laid to their charge, but that of preaching the
gospel of Jesus Christ. This speech, which Buchanan gives at large,
affected the governor in such a manner, that he absolutely refused the
cardinal's request, upon which he replied in anger, "That he had only
sent to him out of mere civility, without any need for it, for that he
with his clergy had power sufficient to bring Mr. Wishart to condign
punishment."--Thus was this servant of God left in the hands of that
proud and merciless tyrant, the religious part of the nation loudly
complaining of the governor's weakness.

Mr. Wishart being now in St. Andrews, the cardinal without delay caused
summon the bishops and superior clergy to meet at that place on the 27th
of February 1546, to deliberate upon a question about which he was
already resolved. The next day after this convocation, Mr. Wishart
received a summons in prison, by the dean of the town, to answer
to-morrow, for his heretical doctrine, before the judges. The next day,
the cardinal went to the place of judgement, in the abbey church, with a
train of armed men marching in warlike order; immediately Mr. Wishart
was sent for from the sea-tower, which was his prison, and being about
to enter the door of the church, a poor man asked alms of him, to whom
he threw his purse. When he came before the cardinal, John Wirnam the
sub-prior went up into the pulpit by appointment, and made a discourse
upon the nature of heresy from Matth. xiii. which he did with great
caution, and yet in such a way as applied more justly to the accusers,
for he was a secret favourer of the truth. After him came up one John
Lander, a most virulent enemy of religion, who acted the part of Mr.
Wishart's accuser, he pulled out a long roll of maledictory charges
against Mr. Wishart, and dealt out the Romish thunder so liberally as
terrified the ignorant by-standers, but did not in the least discompose
this meek servant of Christ; he was accused of disobedience to the
governor's authority, for teaching that man had no free-will, and for
contemning fasting, (all which he absolutely refused) and for denying
that there are seven sacraments; that auricular confession, extreme
unction, and the sacrament of the altar, so called, are sacraments; that
we should pray to saints; and for saying, That it was necessary for
every man to know and understand his baptism; that the pope hath no more
power than another man; that it is as lawful to eat flesh upon Friday as
upon Sunday; that there is no purgatory, and that it is vain to build
costly churches to the honour of God, and for condemning conjuration,
the vows of single life, the cursings of the holy church, &c. While
Lauder was reading these accusations, he had put himself into a most
violent sweat, frothing at the mouth and calling Mr. Wishart a runagate
traitor, and demanded an answer, which he made in a short and modest
oration: At which they cried out with one content against him in a most
tumultuous manner; by which he saw, they were resolved to proceed
against him to the utmost extremity, he therefore appealed to a more
equitable and impartial judge. Upon which Lauder (repeating the several
titles of the cardinal) asked him, "If my lord cardinal was not an
equitable judge?" Mr. Wishart replied, "I do not refuse him, but I
desire the word of God to be my judge, the temporal estates, with some
of your lordships, because I am my lord governor's prisoner." After some
scornful language thrown out both against him and the governor, they
proceeded to read the articles against him a second time, and hear his
answers, which he made with great solidity of judgment: After which they
condemned him to be burnt as an heretic, paying no regard to his
defences, nor to the emotions of their own consciences, but thought that
by killing him they should do _God good service_. Upon this resolution,
(for their final sentence was not yet pronounced) Mr. Wishart kneeled
down and prayed in the following manner.

"O immortal God, how long wilt thou suffer the rage of the ungodly, how
long shall they exercise their fury upon thy servants, who further thy
word in this world, seeing they desire to choke and destroy thy true
doctrine and verity, by which thou hast shewed thyself unto the world,
which was drowned in blindness and ignorance of thy name? O Lord, we
know surely that thy true servants must suffer for thy name's sake, both
persecution, affliction and troubles in this present life, which is but
a shadow, as thy prophets and apostles have shewed us, but yet we desire
thee, merciful Father, that thou wouldst preserve, defend and help thy
congregation, which thou hast chosen from before the foundation of the
world, and give them thy grace to hear thy word, and to be thy true
servants in this present life."

After this, the common people were removed until their definitive
sentence should be pronounced, which being so similar to Mr. Hamilton's,
need not be here inserted. This being done, he was re-committed to the
castle for that night; in his way thither, two friars came to him
requesting him to make his confession to them, which he refused, but
desired them to bring Mr. Wirnam who had preached that day, to him; who
being come, after some discourse with Mr. Wishart, he asked him, If he
would receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper? Mr. Wishart answered,
"Most willingly, if I may have it administered according to Christ's
institution, under both kinds, of bread and wine." Hereupon the
sub-prior went to the bishops, and asked, If they would permit the
sacrament to be given to the prisoner? But the cardinal, in all their
names, answered, That it was not reasonable to give any spiritual
benefit to an obstinate heretic condemned by the church.

All this night Mr. Wishart spent in prayer, and next morning the captain
of the castle gave him notice that they had denied him the sacrament,
and at the same time invited him to breakfast with him, which Mr.
Wishart accepted, saying, "I will do that very willingly, and so much
the rather, because I perceive you to be a good Christian, and a man
fearing God." All things being ready, and the family assembled to
breakfast, Mr. Wishart turning himself to the captain, said, "I beseech
you, in the name of God, and for the love ye bear to our Saviour Jesus
Christ, to be silent a little while, till I have made a short
exhortation, and blessed this bread which we are to eat, so that I may
bid you farewel." The table being covered and bread let upon it, he
spake about the space of half an hour, of the institution of the supper,
and of our Saviour's death and passion, exhorting those who were present
to mutual love and holiness of life. Then, giving thanks, he brake the
bread, distributing a part to those about him, who were disposed to
communicate, intreating them to remember that Christ died for them, and
to feed on it spiritually; then taking the cup, he bade them remember
that Christ's blood was shed for them; And having tasted it himself, he
delivered it unto them, and then concluding with thanksgiving and
prayer, he told them, "That he would neither eat nor drink more in this
life," and retired to his chamber.

Soon after, by the appointment of the cardinal, two executioners came to
him, and arraying him in a black linen coat, they fastened some bags of
gun-powder about him, put a rope about his neck, a chain about his
waist, and bound his hands behind his back, and in this dress they led
him one to the stake, near the cardinal's palace; opposite to the stake
they had placed the great guns of the castle, lest any should attempt to
rescue him. The fore tower, which was immediately opposite to the fire,
was hung with tapestry, and rich cushions were laid in the windows, for
the ease of the cardinal and prelates, while they beheld the sad
spectacle. As he was going to the stake, it is said, that two beggars
asked alms of him, and that he replied, "I want my hands wherewith I
used to give you alms, but the merciful Lord vouchsafe to give you all
necessaries, both for soul and body." After this the friars came about
him, urging him to _pray to our Lady_, &c. to whom he answered, "Cease,
tempt me not, I intreat you."

Having mounted a scaffold prepared on purpose, he turned towards the
people and declared that "he felt much joy within himself in offering
up his life for the name of Christ, and told them that they ought not to
be offended with the good word of God, because of the afflictions I have
endured, or the torments which ye now see prepared for me; but I intreat
you, that you love the word of God for your salvation, and suffer
patiently and with a comfortable heart for the word's sake, which is
your everlasting comfort; but for the true gospel which was given me by
the grace of God, I suffer this day with a glad heart. Behold, and
consider my visage, ye shall not see me change my colour; I fear not
this fire, and I pray that you may not fear them that slay the body, but
have no power to slay the soul. Some have said that I taught that the
soul shall sleep till the last day, but I know surely, and my faith is
such, that my soul shall sup with my Saviour this night." Then he prayed
for his accusers, that they might be forgiven, if, through ignorance or
evil design, they had forged lies upon him. After this the executioner
asked his forgiveness, to whom he replied, "Come hither to me;" and when
he came, he kissed his cheek, and said, "Lo, here is a token that I
forgive thee, do thine office." Being raised up from his knees, he was
bound to the stake, crying with a loud voice _O Saviour of the world,
have mercy upon me; Father of heaven, I commend my spirit into thy holy
hands_: whereupon the executioner kindled the fire, and the powder that
was fastened to his body blew up. The captain of the castle perceiving
that he was still alive, drew near, and bid him be of good courage,
whereupon Mr. Wishart said, "This flame hath scorched my body, yet it
hath not daunted my spirit; but he who, from yonder place beholdeth us
with such pride, shall within a few days lie in the same as
ignominiously as he is now seen proudly to rest himself." But as he was
thus speaking, the executioner drew the cord that was about his neck so
strait that he spoke no more; and thus, like another Elijah, he took his
flight by a fiery chariot into heaven, and obtained the martyr's crown
on the 1st of March, 1546.

Thus lived, and thus died this faithful witness of Jesus Christ; he was
early marked out as a sacrifice to papal tyranny, being delated to the
bishop of Brichen for an heretic, because he taught the Greek new
Testament to his scholars, while he kept school at Montrose; he was
summoned by him, to appear before him, but escaped into England, and at
the university of Cambridge completed his education, and was himself an
instructor of others; During the whole time he was in his own country,
he was hunted as a _partridge in the mountains_, until the cardinal got
him brought to the stake. Through the whole of his sufferings, his
meekness and patience were very remarkable, as was that uncommon measure
of the spirit of prophecy which he possessed; witness the circumstances
relative to Dundee, Haddington, the reformation from popery, and the
cardinal's death, all of which were foretold by him, and soon after

The popish clergy rejoiced at his death, and extolled the cardinal's
courage, for proceeding in it against the governor's order; but the
people very justly looked upon him as both a prophet and a martyr. It
was also did, that abstracting from the grounds of his suffering, his
death was no less than murder, in regard no writ was obtained for it,
and the clergy could not burn any without a warrant from the secular
power. This stirred up Norman, and John Lefties of the family of Rothes,
William Kircaldie of Grange, James Melvil of the family of Carnbee,
Peter Carmichael and others, to avenge Mr. Wishart's death. Accordingly
upon the 28th of May, 1546, (not three months after Mr. Wishart
suffered) they surprized the castle early in the morning, and either
secured or turned out the persons who were lodged in it; came to the
cardinal's door, who was by this time alarmed, and had secured it, but
upon their threatening to force open the door, he opened it, (relying
partly upon the sanctity of his office, and partly on his acquaintance
with some of them) crying, "I am a priest, I am a priest;" but this had
no effect upon them, for James Melvil having exhorted him in a solemn
manner to repentance, and having apprized him, that he was now to avenge
Mr. Wishart's death, he stabbed him twice or thrice; which ended his
wretched days. These persons, with some others who came in to them, held
the castle out for near two years, being assisted by England; they had
the governor's eldest son with them, for he had been put under the
cardinal's care, and was in the castle at the time they surprized it.
The castle was at last besieged by the French, and surrendered upon
having the lives of all that were in it secured.

Betwixt this and the time of Mr. Walter Mill's sufferings, whose life
follows, one Adam Wallace, _alias_ Fean, a simple but very zealous man,
was taken at Winton, and was brought to his trial in the Blackfriars
church in Edinburgh, where he was charged with articles of heresy,
similar to those with which others before him had been charged. He was
condemned and burnt in the castle-hill, suffering with great patience
and resolution.

There were others condemned before that time, among whom were Robert
Forrester gentleman, Sir Duncan Simson priest, Friar Killore, Friar
Beveridge, and dean Thomas Forrest a canon, regular and vicar of Dollar,
who were all burnt at one stake upon the castle-hill of Edinburgh,
February 1538.

_The Life of Mr. WALTER MILL._

He was born about the year 1476, was educated in the Popish religion,
and made priest of Lunan in the shire of Angus, where he remained until
he was accused by the bishop of St. Andrews of having left off saying
mass, which he had done long before this time, being condemned by the
cardinal on that account, in the year 1538; but he escaped the flames
for this time, by flying into Germany, where he married a wife, and was
more perfectly instructed in the true religion; after which he returned
home, but kept himself as retired as possible; during which time he went
about reproving vice and instructing people in the grounds of religion,
which coming at length to the ears of the ecclesiastics, in 1558, he
was, by order of the bishops, apprehended in Dysart in the shire of
Fife, by two priests, and imprisoned in the castle of St. Andrews, where
the Papists, both by threatening and flattery, laboured with him to
recant, offering him a place in the abbey of Dunfermline all the days of
his life, if he would deny what he had already taught. But continuing
constant in his opinions, he was brought to a trial before the bishops
of St. Andrews, Murray, Brechin, Caithness, &c. who were assembled in
the cathedral of St. Andrews. When he came to make his defence, he was
so old, feeble and lame, that it was feared none would hear him; but as
soon as he began to speak, he surprized them all, his voice made the
church to ring, and his quickness and courage amazed his very enemies.

At first he kneeled and prayed for some time, after which one Sir Andrew
Oliphant a priest, called to him to arise, and answer to the articles of
charge, saying, "You keep my lord of St. Andrews too long here;"
nevertheless he continued some time in prayer, and when he arose, said,
"I ought to obey God more than man. I serve a mightier Lord than your
lord is, and whereas you call me _Sir Walter_, they call me _Walter_; I
have been too long one of the pope's knights: Now say what you have to

       *       *       *       *       *

Oliphant _began his Interrogations as follows_:

_Olip._ Thou sayest there are not seven sacraments?

_Mill._ Give me the Lord's Supper and Baptism, and take you all the

_Oliph._ What think you of a priest's marriage?

_Mill._ I think it a blessed bond ordained by God, and approved of by
Christ, and free to all sorts of men; but ye abhor it, and in the
meanwhile take other men's wives and daughters: Ye vow chastity, and
keep it not.

_Oliph._ How sayest thou that the mass is idolatry?

_Mill._ A lord or king calleth many to dinner, they come and sit down,
but the lord himself turneth his back, and eateth up all; and so do you.

_Olip._ Thou deniest the sacrament of the altar to be the real body of
Christ in flesh and blood?

_Mill._ The scriptures are to be understood spiritually and not
carnally, and so your mass is wrong, for Christ was once offered on the
cross for sin, and will never be offered again, for then he put an end
to all sacrifice.

_Oliph._ Thou deniest the office of a bishop?

_Mill._ I affirm that those you call bishops do no bishop's work, but
live after sensual pleasure, taking no care of Christ's flock, nor
regarding his word.

_Oliph._ Thou speakest against pilgrimage, and sayest, It is a
pilgrimage to whoredom?

_Mill._ I say pilgrimage is not commanded in scripture, and that there
is no greater whoredom in any place, except in brothel-houses.

_Oliph._ You preach privately in houses, and sometimes in the field?

_Mill._ Yea, and on the sea also when sailing in a ship.

Then said _Oliphant_, "If you will not recant, I will pronounce sentence
against you."

To this he replied, "I know I must die once, and therefore as Christ
said to Judas, _What thou dost, do quickly_: you shall know that I will
not recant the truth, for I am corn and not chaff: I will neither be
blown away by the wind, nor burst with the flail, but will abide both."

Then Oliphant, as the mouth of the court, was ordered to pronounce
sentence against him, ordaining him to be delivered to the temporal
judge, and burnt as an heretic. But they could not procure one as a
temporal judge to condemn him. One Learmond, then provost of the town,
and bailie of the bishop's regality, refused it, and went out of town;
the people of the place were so moved at his constancy, and offended at
the wrong done to him, that they refused to supply ropes to bind him,
and other materials for his execution, whereby his death was retarded
for one day. At last one Somerville, a domestic of the bishop, undertook
to act the part of temporal judge, and the ropes of the bishop's
pavilion were taken to serve the purpose.

All things being thus prepared, he was led forth by Somerville with a
guard of armed men to his execution; being come to the place, some cried
out to him to recant, to whom he answered, "I marvel at your rage, ye
hypocrites, who do so cruelly pursue the servants of God; as for me, I
am now eighty-two years old, and cannot live long by course of nature;
but an hundred shall rise out of my ashes, who shall scatter you, ye
hypocrites and persecutors of God's people; and such of you as now think
yourselves the best, shall not die such an honest death as I now do; I
trust in God, I shall be the last who shall suffer death, in this
fashion, for this cause in this land." Thus his constancy increased as
his end drew near. Being ordered by Oliphant to go up to the stake, he
refused, and said, "No, I will not go, except thou put me up with thy
hand, for by the law of God I am forbidden to put hands to myself, but
if thou wilt put to thy hand, and take part of my death, thou shalt see
me go up gladly." Then Oliphant putting him foreward, he went up with a
cheerful countenance, saying, _Introibo ad altare Dei_, and desired that
he might be permitted to speak to the people; he was answered by
Oliphant, "That he had spoken too much already, and the bishops were
exceedingly displeased with what he had said." But some youths took his
part, and bid him say on what he pleased; he first bowed his knees and
prayed, then arose and standing upon the coals addressed the people to
this effect, "Dear friends, the cause why I suffer this day, is not for
any crime laid to my charge, though I acknowledge myself a miserable
sinner before God, but only for the defence of the truths of Jesus
Christ set forth in the old and new Testament; I praise God that he
hath called me among the rest of his servants, to seal up his truth with
my life; as I have received it of him, so I again willingly offer it up
for his glory, therefore, as ye would escape eternal death, be no longer
seduced with the lies of bishops, abbots, friars, monks, and the rest of
that sect of Antichrist, but depend only upon Jesus Christ and his
mercy, that so ye may be delivered from condemnation."--During this
speech, loud murmurs and lamentations were heard among the multitude,
some admiring the patience, boldness and constancy of this martyr,
others complaining of the hard measures and cruelty of his persecutors.
After having spoken as above, he prayed a little while, and then was
drawn up and bound to the stake, and the fire being kindled, he cried,
"Lord, have mercy on me; Pray, pray, good people, while there is time."
And so cheerfully yielded up his soul into the hands of his God on the
twenty-eighth of April, _anno_ 1558, being then about the eighty-second
year of his age.

The fortitude and constancy of this martyr affected the people so much,
that they heaped up a great pile of stones on the place where he had
been burned, that the memory of his death might be preserved, but the
priests gave orders to have it taken down and carried away, denouncing a
curse on any who should lay stones there again; but that anathema was so
little regarded, that what was thrown down in the day-time was raised
again in the night, until at last the papists carried away the stones to
build houses in or about the town, which they did in the night, with all
possible secresy.

The death of this martyr brought about the downfal of popery in
Scotland, for the people in general were so much inflamed, that
resolving openly to profess the truth, they bound themselves by
promises, and subscriptions of oaths, That before they would be thus
abused any longer they would take arms, and resist the papal tyranny,
which they at last did.

_The Life of JAMES STUART, Earl of Moray._

He was a natural son of K. James V. and brother by the father's side to
Mary queen of Scots; in his infancy he was put under the celebrated
George Buchanan, who instilled such principles into his mind in early
life, as by the divine blessing made him an honour to the Scottish

The reader cannot expect a very minute detail of all the heroic and
patriotic deeds of this worthy nobleman, considering the station which
he filled, and his activity in the discharge of the duties belonging to

He was the principal agent in promoting the work of reformation from
popery. On the first dawning of it in the year 1555, he attended the
preaching of Mr. John Knox at Calder, where he often wished that his
doctrine had been more public, which was an open profession of his love
and zeal for the true religion.

He went over to France with some other Scottish noblemen at the time of
his sister's marriage with the dauphine, where his companions were
supposed to have been poisoned, for they died in France: He escaped by
the interposition of a kind providence, but retained a weak and
disordered stomach all his life; this did not however unfit him for
these services which he did to religion and his country after this.

In the year 1556, he and Argyle wrote to Mr. Knox at Geneva, to return
to Scotland, in order to further the reformation. Upon which, after
having been detained some time at Diep, Mr Knox returned in the year
1559, and went to St. Johnstoun, where the reforming congregation
resorted to him; which coming to the ears of the queen-regent, she sent
the earl of Argyle and Lord James (for that was the earl of Moray's
title at this time) to know the intent of so great an assembly. Mr. Knox
returned this answer, That "her enterprize would not prosper in the end,
seeing that she intended to fight against God, &c." Upon receiving
this reply, she summoned them to depart from the town of St. Johnstoun;
but afterwards hearing of the daily increase of their numbers, she gave
them leave to depart peaceably, with many fair promises, that they
should meet with no further danger. On which they obeyed and left the
town, but they had no sooner done so, than she with her French guards
entered it in a most outrageous manner, telling the inhabitants, That
no faith should be kept with heretics.--This flagrant breach of promise
provoked Lord James to that degree, that he left the queen, and joined
the lords of the congregation (for so they were afterwards called). As
soon as the queen got intelligence of this, she sent a threatening
letter to him and Argyle (for they stuck together on almost all
occasions) commanding them to return, but to no purpose; for they went
to Fife, and there began to throw down and remove the monuments of
idolatry: Here they continued for some time; but being informed that the
queen intended to go to Stirling, they went off from Perth late in the
night, and entered Stirling with their associates where they immediately
demolished the monasteries, and purged the churches of idolatry. Such
was the zeal of these worthy noblemen for the interest of the reformed
religion in Scotland.

From Stirling they marched for Edinburgh, purging all the superstitious
relicts of idolatry out of Linlithgow in their way.--These summary
proceedings alarmed the queen regent, insomuch that her zeal for the
Romish idolatry, gave way to her fears about her civil authority. To
make the conduct of these reformers the more odious to the unthinking
part of the nation, she gave out that they were in open rebellion
against her, and that they made a pretence of religion, but that the
real design was to set lord James on the throne (there being now no
male-heir to the crown), These insinuations she found means to transmit
to lord James himself, in a letter said to be forged in the names of
Francis and Mary the king and queen of France, wherein he was further
upbraided with ingratitude on account of the favours they pretended that
they had shown him, and threatened to lay down his arms and return to
his allegiance. To this letter, (notwithstanding there were strong
reasons to suspect it was forged) he nevertheless returned a resolute
answer, declaring that he was not conscious to himself, either in word
or deed, of any offence either against the regent or laws; but in regard
the nobility had undertaken the reformation of religion, which was
delayed, and seeing they aimed at nothing but the glory of God, he was
willing to bear the reproach which the enemies of religion would load
him with, neither was it just for him to desert that cause which had
Christ himself for its head and defender, whom, unless they would
voluntarily deny, they could not give up that enterprise in which they
were imbarked.

While these things were transacting, the lords of the congregation being
then in and about Edinburgh, there were to the number of 3000 French
landed at Leith at different times, to support the queen regent, between
whom and the lords of the congregation there were several skirmishes,
with little success on either side; yet the lords retired to Stirling,
leaving the French for a time masters of the field, but not without
apprehensions of danger from the arrival of an English fleet, which was
then expected. In the mean time, they went over to Fife, spreading
devastation every where around them without resistance: Whereupon the
queen regent thus expressed herself, "Where is John Knox's God now, my
God is stronger, even now in Fife." This impious boast lasted not long,
for Argyle and lord James went to the town of Dysart immediately to stop
their career along the coast. The French were 4000 strong, besides the
Scots who adhered to them; the army of the congregation were not above
600 men, yet they behaved with such courage and resolution, as for
twenty days successively they faced this army, and for each man they
lost in every skirmish, the French lost four. As an evidence of the
uncommon attention which these two noblemen bestowed on this business,
they never put off their cloaths during the whole time, and slept but

In the month of June the queen regent died, and a little after her
Francis king of France died likewise, by which Scotland was delivered
from this foreign army.--About this time lord James went over to France,
to visit his sister Mary; after settling matters in Scotland as well as
he could, he was attended by a splendid retinue, but appears to have met
with a cold reception: After several conversations with Queen Mary, she
told him, That she intended to return home. During his stay at Paris, he
met with many insults on account of his known attachment to the reformed
religion: A box containing some valuable things was stole from him;
several persons were likewise hired to assassinate him in the street: he
was apprized of his danger by an old friend of his own, but not before
he was almost involved in it, being instantly surrounded by a rabble,
calling out _Hugenot, hugenot_, and throwing stones; he made his way
through them on horseback. Soon after this he left Paris, and returned
home in May 1561, with a commission from the queen, appointing him
regent until her return, which was in August following, when, as Knox
expresses it, "Dolour and darkness came along with her," for tho'
justice and equity were yet administered, and crimes were punished,
because the administration of civil affairs was yet in the hands of lord
James, who for his management of public concerns was beloved by all, yet
upon the queen's arrival, French levity and dissipation soon corrupted
the court to a very high degree.

About this time a banditti called the moss-troopers broke in upon the
borders of Scotland, committing very alarming depredations, by robbing
and murdering all that came in their way. The queen sent lord James with
a small force to oppose them, not with the intention that he might have
the opportunity of acquiring military reputation, but to expose him to
danger, that, if possible, she might get rid of him, for his popularity
made her very uneasy, and his fidelity and boldness in reproving her
faults, and withstanding her tyrannical measures, made him still more
the object of her hatred and disgust. But, contrary to the expectations
of many, God so prospered him in this expedition, that in a short time
he brought twenty-eight ring-leaders of this band to public execution,
and obliged the rest to give hostages for their better behaviour in
time-coming. Thus he returned crowned with laurels, and was immediately
created earl of Marr, and in the February following he was made earl of
Moray, with the universal approbation of all good men. Some thought this
act of the queen was intended by her to conciliate his affections, and
make him of her party. About this time he married a daughter of the earl
of Marshal, according to Knox, (Buchanan says, the earl of March); the
marriage was made publicly in the church of Edinburgh; after the
ceremony was over, the preacher (probably Mr. Knox) said to him, "Sir,
the church of God hath received comfort by you, and by your labours unto
this day; if you prove more saint therein afterward, it will be said
that your wife hath changed your nature, &c."

It may be observed, that hitherto the nobility appeared very much united
in their measures for promoting the interest of religion; this was soon
at an end, for the noblemen at court broke out into factions: Among whom
the earl of Bothwel, envying the prosperity of Moray, stirred up some
feuds between him and the Hamiltons, which increased to that height,
that they laid a plot for his life, which Bothwel took in hand to
execute, while he was with the queen his sister at Falkland; but the
earl of Arran detesting such an action, sent a letter privately to the
earl of Moray discovering the whole conspiracy, by which he escaped that
danger: Bothwel fled from justice into France, but his emissaries were
not less active in his absence than they had been while he headed them
in person, for another design was formed against his life, by one
Gordon, while he was with the queen at Dumbarton. But this proved
ineffectual also.

Soon after, the queen received letters from the pope and her uncles the
Guises of France, requesting her to put the earl of Moray out of the
way, because, they found by experience, that their interest in Scotland
could not prosper while he was alive; upon this the faction against him
became more insolent and appeared in arms: they were at first
suppressed, but soon assembled again, to the number of eight hundred
men: This body he was obliged to fight, with little more strength, in
which he could confide, than an hundred horse; notwithstanding this
disparity, by the divine blessing, he obtained a complete victory,
killing of them a hundred and twenty, and taking a hundred prisoners,
among whom were Huntly himself and his two sons; it is said he did not
lose a single man. He returned to Aberdeen with the prisoners, late in
the night, where he had appointed a minister of the gospel to meet him,
with whom he returned thanks to God for such a deliverance, exceeding
the expectations of all men.

The earl of Bothwel was soon after this recalled by the queen from
France; upon his arrival, Moray accused him for his former treasonable
practices, and commenced a process at law against him. Bothwel knew he
could not stand an open scrutiny, but relied upon the queen's favour,
which he knew he possessed in a very high degree, and which increased so
much the more as her enmity to Moray on account of his popularity was
augmented. This led her to join more warmly in the conspiracy with
Bothwel against his life; a new plot was the result of their joint
deliberations, which was to be executed in the following manner; Moray
was to be sent for, with only a few attendants, to speak with the queen
at Perth, where Lord Darnly (then in suit to her for marriage) was; they
knew that Moray would speak his mind freely, upon which they were to
quarrel with him, in the heat of which David Rizzio was to strike the
first blow, and all the rest were to follow: But of this design also he
got previous intelligence by a friend at the court, nevertheless he
resolved to go, until advised by one Patrick Ruthven; he turned aside to
his mother's house, and there staid till this storm was over also.

The earl of Moray foreseeing what would be the consequence of the
queen's marriage with Lord Darnly[28], set himself to oppose it, but
finding little attention paid to any thing he said on that subject in
the convention of estates, he chose rather to absent himself for some
time, and accordingly retired to the border, where he staid until the
queen's marriage with Darnly was over.

The remarkable tragical events which succeeded, disgusted Moray more and
more at the court; with these the public are well acquainted: The murder
of Darnly, and Mary's after-marriage with the assassin of her husband,
has occasioned too much speculation of late years, not to be known to
every one in the least acquainted with the Scottish history. Moray now
found it impossible to live at a court where his implacable enemy was so
highly honoured; Bothwel insulted him openly; whereupon he asked leave
of the queen to travel abroad, and she, being willing to get rid of him
at all events, granted his desire, upon his promise not to make any stay
in England. He went over to France, where he remained until he heard
that the queen was in custody in Lochlevin, and that Bothwel had fled to
Denmark; and then returned home. Upon his arrival he was made regent, by
the joint consent of the queen and nobles, _anno_ 1567, during the young
king's minority.

He entered on the exercise of his office as regent, in the spring
following, and resolved with himself to make a tour through the whole
kingdom to settle the courts of justice, to repair what was wrong, &c.
But his adversaries the Hamiltons, perceiving, that by the prudence and
diligence of this worthy nobleman, the interest of religion would be
revived, than which nothing could be more disagreeable to them, who were
dissipated and licentious in an extreme degree, they could not endure to
be regulated by law, and never ceased crying out against his
administration. They fixed up libels in different places, full of dark
insinuations, by which it was understood that his destruction was
meditating[29]. Some astrologers told him that he would not live beyond
such a day; by which it appeared they were not ignorant of the designs
formed against him. All this had no effect upon his resolution; his
common reply was, That "he knew well enough he must die one time or
other, and that he could not part with his life more nobly, than by
procuring the public tranquillity of his native country." He caused
summon a convention of estates to meet at Glasgow for the redress of
some grievances, which that part of the country particularly laboured

But while he was thus engaged, he received intelligence that the queen
had escaped from Lochlevin castle, and was come to Hamiltoun, where
those of her faction were assembling with the utmost haste, whereupon a
hot dispute arose in council, whether the regent, and his attendants
should repair to the young king at Stirling, or stay and observe the
motions of the queen and her party; but in the very time of these
deliberations, a hundred chosen men arrived in town from Lothian, and
many more from the adjacent country were approaching: This made them
resolve to stay where they were, and refresh themselves for one day,
after which they determined to march out and face the enemy. But the
queen's army, being 6500 strong, resolved to make their way by Glasgow
to lodge the queen in Dumbarton castle, and afterwards either to fight
the regent, or protract the war at pleasure.

The regent being let into this design of the enemy, drew his army out
the town, to observe which way they intended to pass; he had not above
4000 men; they discovered the queen's army passing along the south-side
of the river Clyde. Moray commanded the foot to pass the bridge, and the
horse to ford the river, and marched out to a small village, called
Langside, upon the river Cart. They took possession of a rising ground
before the enemy could well discover their intention, and drew up in the
order of battle. The earls of Morton, Semple, Hume and Patrick Lindsay
on the right, and the earls of Marr, Glencairn, Monteith with the
citizens of Glasgow, were on the left, and the musqueteers were placed
in the valley below. The queen's army approaching, a very brisk but
short engagement ensued; the earl of Argyle, who was commander in chief
of the queen's troops, falling from his horse, they gave way, so that
the regent obtained a complete victory; but, by his clement conduct,
there was very little blood spilt in the pursuit. The queen, who all the
while remained with some horse at about the distance of a mile from the
place of action, seeing the rout, escaped and fled for England, and the
regent returned to Glasgow, where they returned thanks to God for their
deliverance from popery and papists, who threatened to overturn the work
of God among them. This battle was fought upon the 13th of May, 1568.

After this the regent summoned a parliament to meet at Edinburgh; which
the queen's party laboured to hinder, with all their power. In the mean
time, letters were received from the queen of England, requiring them to
put off the meeting of parliament until she was made acquainted with the
whole matter, for she said, She could not bear with the affront which
her kinswoman said she had received from her subjects.--The parliament
however assembled, and after much reasoning it was resolved to send
commissioners to England to vindicate their conduct; but none consenting
to undertake this business, the regent resolved upon going himself, and
accordingly chose three gentlemen, two ministers, two lawyers, and Mr.
George Buchanan to accompany him; and with a guard of 100 horse they set
out, and arrived at York, the appointed place of conference, on the 4th
of October. After several meetings with the English commissioners to
little purpose, the queen called the regent up to London, that she might
be better satisfied by personal conversation with him, about the state
of these affairs. But the same difficulties stood in his way here as at
York; he refused to enter upon the accusation of his sister the queen of
Scots, unless Elizabeth would engage to protect the king's party,
provided the queen was found guilty.

But, while matters were thus remaining in suspence at London, Mary had
stirred up a new commotion in Scotland by means of one James Balfour,
so that the regent found himself exceedingly embarrassed, and therefore
resolved to bring the matter to a conclusion as soon as possible. After
several interviews with the queen and council, in which the regent and
his party supported the ancient rights of their country, and wiped off
the aspersions many had thrown on themselves, which Buchanan narrates at
large, book XIX, A decision was given in their favours, and the regent
returned home loaded with honours by Elizabeth, and attended by the most
illustrious of the English court, escorted by a strong guard to Berwick,
and arrived at Edinburgh on the 2d of February, where he was received
with acclamations of joy, particularly by the friends of the true

During his administration, many salutary laws in favour of civil and
religious liberty, were made, which rendered him more and more the
object of popish malice. At last they resolved at all events to take his
life; the many unsuccessful attempts formerly made, only served to
render them more bold and daring. Though the queen was now at a
distance, yet the found means to encourage her party, and perhaps the
hope of delivering her at length, gave strength to their resolution. One
James Hamilton of Bothwel-haugh, nephew to the arch-bishop of St.
Andrews, incited by his uncle and others, undertakes to make away with
the regent, when a convenient opportunity offered itself: He first lay
in wait for him at Glasgow, and then at Stirling, but both failed him;
after which, he thought Linlithgow the most proper place for
perpetrating that execrable deed; his uncle had a house near the
regent's, in which he concealed himself, that he might be in readiness
for the assassination. Of this design the regent got intelligence
likewise, but paid not that regard to the danger he was exposed to,
which he should; and would go no other way than that in which it was
suspected the ambush was laid; he trusted to the fleetness of his horse
in riding swiftly by the suspected place; but the great concourse of
people who crouded together to see him, stopped up the way. Accordingly,
he was shot from a wooden balcony, the bullet entering a little below
the navel, came out at the reins, and killed the horse of George Douglas
behind him: The assassin escaped by a back-door. The regent told his
attendants that he was wounded, and returned to his lodgings; it was at
first thought the wound was not mortal, but his pain increasing, he
began to think of death. Some about him told him, That this was the
fruit of his lenity, in sparing so many notorious offenders, and among
the rest his own murderer; but he replied, "Your importunity shall not
make me repent my clemency." Having settled his private affairs, he
committed the care of the young king to the nobles there present, and
without speaking a reproachful word of any, he departed this life on the
24d of January, 1570. according to Buchanan, 1571. but according to
Spotiswood, 1569.

Thus fell the earl of Moray (whom historians ordinarily call, The good
regent) after he had escaped so many dangers: He was certainly a worthy
governor. Both Buchanan and Spotswood give him the following character:
"His death was lamented by all good men, who loved him as the public
father of his country, even his enemies confessed his merit when dead;
they admired his valour in war, his ready disposition for peace, his
activity in business, in which he was commonly very successful; the
divine favour seemed to shine on all his actions; he was very merciful
to offenders, and equitable in all his decisions. When the field did not
call for his presence, he was busied in the administration of justice;
by which means the poor were not oppressed, and the terms of law-suits
were shortened.--His house was like a holy temple; after meals he caused
a chapter of the bible to be read, and asked the opinions of such
learned men as were present upon it, not out of a vain curiosity, but
from a desire to learn, and reduce to practice what it contained[30]."
In a word, he was both in his public and private life, a pattern worthy
of imitation, and happy would it be for us, that our nobles were more
disposed to walk in the paths which he trode;--for, "Above all his
virtues, which were not a few, he shined in piety towards God, ordering
himself and his family in such a sort as did more resemble a church than
a court; for therein, besides the exercise of devotion, which he never
omitted, there was no wickedness to be seen, nay not an unseemly or
wanton word to be heard. A man truly good, and worthy to be ranked
amongst the best governors, that this kingdom hath enjoyed, and
therefore to this day honoured with the title of _The good Regent_[31]."

_The Life of Mr. JOHN KNOX._

Mr. Knox was born in Gifford near Haddington in East Lothian, in the
year 1505. His father was related to the antient house of Ranferlie.
When he left the grammar school, he was sent to the university of St.
Andrews, to study under Mr. John Mair, (a man of considerable learning
at that time), and had the degree of master of arts conferred upon him,
while very young. He excelled in philosophy and polemical divinity, and
was admitted into church orders before the usual time appointed by the
canons. Then laying aside all unnecessary branches of learning, he
betook himself to the reading of the antients, particularly Angustine's
and Jerome's works, with whom he was exceedingly pleased. He profited
considerably by the preaching of Thomas Guilliam, a black friar, of
sound judgment and doctrine; his discourses led him to study the holy
scriptures more closely, by which his spiritual knowledge was increased,
and such a zeal for the interest of religion begotten in him, as he
became the chief instrument in accomplishing the primitive reformation.

He was a disciple of Mr. George Wishart (as the reader has already seen
in the account of his life), which procured him the hatred of the Popish
clergy, who could not endure that light which, discovered their
idolatrous darkness.

After the death of cardinal Beaton, he retired into the castle of St.
Andrews, where he was confined for some time, but the castle being
obliged to surrender to the French, he became their prisoner, and was
sent aboard the gallies, from whence he made his escape about the year
1550, and went to England, where he preached for several years in
Berwick, Newcastle and London, with great applause; his fame at last
reached the years of king Edward VI. who offered him a bishopric, which
he rejected, as contrary to his principles.

During his stay in England, he was called before the council, and
required to answer the following questions:

1. Why he refused the benefice provided for him at London?

2. Whether he thought that no Christian might serve in the
ecclesiastical ministration, according to the laws and rites of the
realm of England?

3. If kneeling at the Lord's table was not indifferent?

To the first he said, That his conscience witnessed to him that he might
profit more in some other place than in London. To the second, That many
things needed reformation in the ministry of England, without which no
minister did or could discharge his duty before God; for no minister in
England had authority to separate the leprous from the whole, which was
a chief part of his office, and that he refused no office which might in
the least promote God's glory and the preaching of Christ's gospel. And
to the third he replied, That Christ's action was most perfect, that it
was most safe to follow his example, and that kneeling was a human
invention. The answer which he gave to this question, occasioned a
considerable deal of altercation betwixt the council and him. There were
present the bishops of Canterbury and Ely, the lord treasurer, the earls
of Northampton, Shrewsbury, &c. the lord chamberlain and the
secretaries: After long reasoning with him, he was desired to take the
matter into farther consideration, and so was dismissed.

After the death of king Edward, he retired to Geneva, but soon left that
place and went to Francfort, upon the solicitation of the English
congregation there; their letter to him was dated September 24th, 1554.
While he was in this city, he wrote his admonition to England, and was
soon involved in troubles, because he opposed the English liturgy, and
refused to communicate after the manner it enjoined. Messrs Isaac and
Parry, supported by the English doctors, not only got him discharged to
preach, but accused him before the magistrates of high treason against
the emperor's son Philip and the queen of England, and to prove the
charge, they had recourse to the above-mentioned admonition, in which
they alledged he had called the one little inferior to Nero, and the
other more cruel than Jezebel. But the magistrates perceiving the design
of his accusers, and fearing lest he should some way or other fall into
their hands, gave him secret information of his danger, and requested
him to leave the city, for they could not save him if he should be
demanded by the queen of England in the emperor's name; and having taken
the hint, he returned to Geneva.

Here he wrote an admonition to London, Newcastle and Berwick; a letter
to Mary dowager of Scotland; an appeal to the nobility, and an
admonition to the commons of his own country; and his first blast of the
trumpet, &c. He intended to have blown this trumpet three times, if
queen Mary's death had not prevented him; understanding that an answer
was to be given to his first blast, he deferred the publication of the
second, till he saw what answer was necessary for the vindication of the

While he was at Geneva, he contracted a close intimacy with Mr. John
Calvin, with whom he consulted on every emergency. In the end of harvest
1654, he returned home upon the solicitation of some of the Scots
nobility, and began privately to instruct such as resorted to him in the
true religion, among whom were the laird of Dun, David Forrest and
Elizabeth Adamson, spouse to James Baron burgess of Edinburgh; The
idolatry of the mass particularly occupied his attention, as he saw some
remarkable for zeal and godliness drawn aside by it; both in public and
private he exposed its impiety and danger; his labours succeeded so far,
as to draw off some and alarm many others: In a conversation upon this
subject at the laird of Dun's house in presence of David Forrest, Mr.
Robert Lockhart, John Willock and William Maitland junr. of Lethington,
he gave such satisfactory answers to all the objections which were
started by the company, that Maitland ended the conversation, saying, "I
see very well that all our shifts will serve nothing before God, seeing
they stand us in so small stead before men." From this time forward the
mass was very little respected.

Mr. Knox continued a month at the laird of Dun's, preaching every day;
the principal gentlemen of that country resorted to his ministry. From
thence he went to Calder, where the earl of Argyle (then lord Lorn) and
lord James (afterwards earl of Moray) heard his doctrine, and highly
approved of it--During the winter he taught in Edinburgh, and in the
beginning of the spring went to Kyle, where he preached in different
places; The earl of Glencairn sent for him to Finlaston, where, after
sermon, he administered the Lord's supper, and then returned to Calder.

The people being thus instructed, began to refuse all superstition and
idolatry, and set themselves to the utmost of their power to support the
true preaching of the gospel. This alarmed the inferior popish clergy so
much, that they came from all quarters complaining to the bishops;
whereupon Mr. Knox was summoned to appear in the black friars church of
Edinburgh on the 15th of May following: which appointment he resolved to
observe, and accordingly came to Edinburgh in company with the laird of
Dun, and several other gentlemen, but the diet did not hold, because the
bishops were afraid to proceed further against him, so that, on the
same day that he should have appeared before them, he preached to a
greater audience in Edinburgh than ever he had done before. The earl of
Marshal being desired by Lord Glencairn to hear Mr. Knox preach,
complied, and was so delighted with his doctrine, that he immediately
proposed that something should be done to draw the queen regent to hear
him likewise; he made this proposal in a letter, which was delivered
into her own hand by Glencairn. When she had read it, she gave it to
Beaton[32], arch-bishop of Glasgow, saying in ridicule, "Please you, my
lord, to read a pasquille."

About this time (1555) he received a letter from the English
congregation at Geneva (who were not in communion with the congregation
of that name at Francfort), in which they beseech him, in the name of
God, that as he was their chosen pastor, he would speedily come to them:
In obedience to this call, he sent his wife and mother-in-law before him
to Dieppe, but by the importunity of some gentlemen he was prevailed on
to stay some time behind them in Scotland, which he spent in going about
exhorting the several congregations in which he had preached, to be
fervent in prayer, frequent in reading the scriptures, and in mutual
conferences till God should give them greater liberty. The earl of
Argyle was solicited to press Mr. Knox's stay in this country, but he
could not succeed. Mr. Knox told them, That, if they continued earnest
in the profession of the faith, God would bless these small beginnings,
but that he must for once go and visit that little flock which the
wickedness of men had compelled him to leave; and being thus resolved,
he went immediately to Geneva. As soon as he was gone, the bishops
caused summon him to their tribunal, and for _non_-compearance they
burnt him _in effigy_ on the cross of Edinburgh; from which unjust
sentence, when he heard of it, he appealed to the nobility and commons
of Scotland.

Upon the receipt of a letter dated March 10, 1556, subscribed by the
earls of Glencairn, Erskine, Argyle, and Moray, Mr. Knox resolved to
return again into Scotland. Committing the care of his flock at Geneva
to Mr. John Calvin, and coming to Dieppe, he wrote from thence to Mrs.
Anna Locke, a declaration of his opinion of the English service-book,
expressing himself thus, "Our captain Christ Jesus and Satan his
adversary are now at open defiance, their banners are displayed, and the
trumpet is blown on both sides for assembling their armies: our master
calleth upon his own, and that with vehemency, that they may depart from
Babylon, yea he threateneth death and damnation to such as either in
their forehead or right-hand have the mark of the beast, and a portion
of this mark are all these dregs of papistry, which are left in your
great book of England (_viz._ crossing in baptism, kneeling at the
Lord's table, mumbling or singing of the litany, _&c. &c._) any one jot
of which diabolical inventions will I never counsel any man to use,

He was detained in this place much longer than expectation, which
obliged the Scots nobility to renew their solicitations; which he
complied with, and arrived in Scotland on the second of May 1559, being
then 54 years old.--He preached first at Dundee and afterwards at St.
Johnstoun, with great success. About this time the queen put some
preachers to the horn, prohibiting all upon pain of rebellion to
comfort, relieve, or assist them; which enraged the multitude to that
degree, that they would be restrained, neither by the preachers nor
magistrates, from pulling down the images and other monuments of
idolatry in St. Johnstoun: which being told to the queen, it so enraged
her, that she vowed to destroy man, woman and child, in that town, and
burn it to the ground. To execute this threat, she caused her French
army to march towards the place, but being informed that multitudes from
the neighbouring country were assembling in the town for the defence of
its inhabitants, her impetuosity was checked, and she resolved to use
stratagem where force could not avail her; accordingly she sent the
earls of Argyle and Moray, to learn what was their design in such
commotions, Mr. Knox, in name of the rest, made answer, "That the
present troubles ought to move the hearts of all the true servants of
God, and lovers of their country, to consider what the end of such
tyrannical measures would be, by which the emissaries of Satan sought
the destruction of all the friends of religion in the country. Therefore
I most humbly require of you, my lords, to tell the queen, in my name,
that we, whom she, in her blind rage doth thus persecute, are the
servants of God, faithful and obedient subjects of this realm, and that
the religion which she would maintain by fire and sword, is not the true
religion of Jesus Christ, but expresly contrary to the same; a
superstitious device of men, which I offer myself to prove, against all
who, in Scotland, maintain the contrary, freedom of debate being
allowed, and the word of God being the judge. Tell her from me, that her
enterprize shall not succeed in the end, for she fights not against man
only, but against the eternal God, &c." Argyle and Moray promised to
deliver this message, and Mr. Knox preached a sermon, exhorting them to
constancy, adding, "I am persuaded that this promise" (meaning the
promise she had made to do them no harm if they would leave the town
peaceably) "shall be no longer kept than the queen and her Frenchmen can
get the upper hand;" which accordingly happened when she took possession
of the town, and put a garrison of French in it. This breach of promise
disgusted the earls of Argyle and Moray to that degree, that they
forsook her and joined the congregation. Having assembled with the laird
of Dun and others, they sent for Mr. Knox, who, in his way to them
preached in Crail in Anstruther, intending to preach next day at St.

This design coming to the ears of the bishop, he raised 100 spear-men,
and sent this message to the lords, "That if John Knox offered to preach
there, he should have a warm military reception;" They, in their turn,
forewarned Mr. Knox of his danger, and dissuaded him from going; he made
answer, "God is my witness, that I never preached Jesus Christ in
contempt of any man, neither am I concerned about going thither: tho' I
would not willingly injure the worldly interest of any creature, I
cannot, in conscience, delay preaching to-morrow, if I am not detained
by violence; as for fear of danger to my person, let no man be
solicitous about that, for my life is in the hand of him whose glory I
seek, and therefore I fear not their threats, so as to cease from doing
my duty, when of his mercy God offereth the occasion. I desire the hand
and weapon of no man to defend me, only I crave audience, which if
denied to me here, at this time, I must seek further where I may have
it." The lords were satisfied that he should fulfil his intention, which
he did, with such boldness and success (without any interruption), that
the magistrates and people of the town immediately after sermon agreed
to remove all monuments of idolatry; which they did, with great

After this, several skirmishes ensued between the queen and lords of the
congregation. But at last, the queen sickened and died, and a general
peace, which lasted for some time, was procured, during which, the
commissioners of the Scots nobility (anno 1560), were employed in
settling minsters in different places. Mr. Knox was appointed to
Edinburgh, where he continued until the day of his death.

The same year the Scots confession was compiled and agreed upon; and
that the church might be established upon a good foundation, a
commission and charge was given to Mr. Knox and five others, to draw up
a form of government and discipline of the church. When they had
finished it, they presented it to the nobility, by whom it was
afterwards ratified and approved of.

But this progress which was daily making in the reformation, soon met
with a severe check by the arrival of queen Mary from France in August
1561.; with her came popery and all manner of profanity; the mass was
again publicly set up, at which the religious part of the nation were
highly offended, and none more than Mr. Knox, who ceased not to expose
the evil and danger of it on every occasion: On which account the queen
and court were much exasperated. They called him before them, and
charged him as guilty of high treason. The queen being present, produced
a letter, wrote by him, wherein it was alledged that he had convocated
her majesty's lieges against law; whereupon a long reasoning ensued
between him and secretary Lethington upon the contents of said letter;
in which Mr. Knox gave such solid and bold answers, in defence of
himself and doctrine, that at last he was acquitted by the lords of the
council, to the no small displeasure of the queen and those of the
popish party.

Mr. Knox, in a conference with the queen about this time, said, "If
princes exceed their bounds, they may be resisted even by power, for
there is no greater honour and obedience to be paid to princes than God
hath commanded to be given to father and mother. If children join
together against their father stricken with a frenzy, and seeking to
slay his own children, apprehend him, take his sword or other weapons
from him, bind his hands, and put him in prison till his frenzy
overpass, do they any wrong, or will God be offended with them for
hindering their father from committing horrible murder?--Even so,
madam, if princes will murder the children of God their subjects, their
blind zeal is but a mad frenzy. To take the sword from them, to bind
them, and to cast them into prison till they be brought to a sober mind,
is not disobedience, but just obedience, because it agreeeth with the
word of God." The queen hearing this, stood for some time as one amazed,
and changed countenance. No appearance was, at this time, of her

After the queen's marriage with Henry earl of Darnly, a proclamation was
made in 1565, signifying, That forasmuch as certain rebels who, under
the colour of religion, (meaning those who opposed the measures of the
court) intended nothing but the subversion of the commonwealth,
therefore they charged all manner of men, under pain of life, lands, and
goods, to resort and meet their majesties at Linlithgow on the 24th of
August. Upon Sabbath the 19th, the king came to the high church of
Edinburgh, where Mr. Knox preached from these words, _O Lord our Lord,
other lords, beside thee, have had the dominion over us_, &c. In his
sermon he took occasion to speak of wicked princes, who, for the sins of
a people, were sent as scourges upon them, and also said, "That God set
in that room boys and women; and that God justly punished Ahab and his
posterity, because he would not take order with the harlot Jezebel."
These things enraged the king to a very high degree. Mr. Knox was
immediately ordered before the council, who went thither attended by
some of the most respectable citizens; when called in, the secretary
signified that the king was much offended with some words in his
sermons, (as above-mentioned), and ordered him to abstain from preaching
for fifteen or twenty days; to which Mr. Knox answered, That he had
spoken nothing but according to his text, and if the church would
command him either to speak or refrain from speaking, he would obey so
far as the word of God would permit him. Nevertheless, for this and
another sermon which he preached before the lords, in which he shewed
the bad consequences that would follow upon the queen's being married to
a papist, he must be, by the queen's order, prohibited from preaching
for a considerable time.

It cannot be expected, that we should enumerate all the indefatigable
labours, and pertinent speeches which, on sundry occasions, he made to
the queen, nor the opposition which he met with in promoting the work of
reformation; these will be found at large in the histories of these

The popish faction now found, that it would be impossible to get their
idolatry re-established, while the reformation was making such progress,
and while Mr. Knox and his associates had such credit with the
people.--They therefore set other engines to work, than these they had
hitherto used; they spared no pains to blast his reputation by malicious
calumnies, and even by making attempts upon his life; for, one night as
he was sitting at the head of a table in his own house, with his back to
the window, (as was his custom), he was fired at from the other side of
the street, on purpose to kill him; the shot entered at the window, but
he being near to the other side of the table, the assassin missed his
mark; the bullet struck the candlestick before him, and made a hole in
the foot of it: Thus was _he that was with him, stronger than they that
were against him_.

Mr. Knox was an eminent wrestler with God in prayer, and like a prince
prevailed; the queen regent herself gave him this testimony, when, upon
a particular occasion, she said, She was more afraid of his prayers than
of an army of ten thousand men. He was likewise warm and pathetic in his
preaching, in which such prophetical expressions as dropt from him, had
the most remarkable accomplishment; as an instance of this, when he was
confined in the castle of St. Andrews, he foretold both the manner of
their surrender, and their deliverance from the French gallies; and when
the lords of the congregation were twice discomfited by the French army,
he assured them, in the mean time, that the Lord would prosper the work
of reformation. Again, when queen Mary refused to come and hear sermon,
he bid them tell her, That she would yet be obliged to hear the word of
God whether she would or not; which came to pass at her arraignment in
England. At another time he thus addressed himself to her husband Henry,
lord Darnly, while in the king's seat in the high church of Edinburgh,
"Have you for the pleasure of that dainty dame cast the psalm book in
the fire; the Lord shall strike both head and tail;" both king and queen
died violent deaths. He likewise said, when the castle of Edinburgh held
out for the queen against the regent, that "the castle should spue out
the captain (meaning the laird of Grange) with shame, and that he should
not come out at the gate, but over the wall, and that the tower called
Davies tower should run like a sand-glass;" which was fulfilled in a
few years after, the same captain being obliged to come over the wall on
a ladder, with a staff in his hand, and the said forework of the castle
running down like a sand brae.

On the 24th of January 1570, Mr. Knox being in the pulpit, a paper was
put into his hands among others, containing the names of the sick people
to be prayed for; the paper contained these words, "Take up the man whom
you accounted another God," (this alluded to the earl of Moray who was
slain the day before). Having read it he put it in his pocket, without
shewing the least discomposure. After sermon, he lamented the loss which
both church and state had met with in the death of that worthy nobleman,
(meaning the regent) shewing, that God takes away good and wise rulers
from a people in his wrath, and, at last, said, "There is one in the
company who maketh that horrible murder, at which all good men have
occasion to be sorrowful, the subject of his mirth; I tell him, he shall
die in a strange land, where he shall not have a friend near him to hold
up his head," One Mr. Thomas Maitland being the author of that insulting
speech, and hearing what Mr. Knox said, confessed the whole to his
sister the lady Trabrown, but said, That John Knox was raving to speak
of he knew not whom; she replied with tears, That none of Mr. Knox's
threatenings fell to the ground. This gentleman afterwards went abroad,
and died in Italy, on his way to Rome, having no man to assist him.

Mr. Knox's popularity was now so well established, that the malignant
party, finding it impossible to alienate the hearts of the people from
him, began now openly to work his destruction, fortifying the town and
castle with their garrisons; they vented their malice against him by
many furious threatenings. Upon which he was urged by his friends to
leave Edinburgh for his own safety, which at last he did in May 1571,
and went to St. Andrews, where the earl of Morton (who was then regent),
urged him to inaugurate the arch-bishop of that see. This he declined,
with solemn protestations against it, and denounced an anathema on the
giver and receiver. Though he was then very weak in body, he would not
refrain from preaching, and was obliged to be supported by his servant
Richard Bannantyne, in going to church; and, when in the pulpit, he
behoved to rest sometime before he could proceed to preach, but before
he ended his sermon, he became so vigorous and active, that he was like
to have broken the pulpit to pieces.

Here he continued till the end of August 1572, when the civil broils
were a little abated, upon which receiving a letter from Edinburgh, he
returned to his flock. He was now much oppressed with the infirmities of
old age, and the extraordinary fatigues he had undergone; the death of
the good regent, the earl of Moray, had made deep impressions on him,
but when he heard of the massacre of Paris[34], and the murder of the
good admiral Coligni, these melancholy news almost deprived him of his
life. Upon finding his dissolution approaching, he prevailed with the
council and kirk-session of Edinburgh, to concur with him in admitting
one Mr. James Lawson as his successor, who was at that time professor of
philosophy in the college of Aberdeen; he wrote a letter to Mr. Lawson,
intreating him to accept of this charge, adding this postscript,
_Accelera, mi frater, alioqui sero venies_, i. e. Make haste, my
brother, otherwise you will come too late, meaning, that if he came not
speedily, he would find him dead: which words had this effect on Mr.
Lawson, that he set out immediately, making all possible haste to
Edinburgh, where, after he had preached twice to the full satisfaction
of the people, the ninth of November was appointed for his admission
unto that congregation. Mr. Knox (though then still weaker) preached
upon that occasion with much power, and with the greatest comfort to the
hearers. In the close of his sermon, he called God to witness, that he
had walked in a good conscience among them, not seeking to please men,
nor serving his own nor other men's inclinations, but in all sincerity
and truth preaching the gospel of Christ. Then praising God, who had
given them one in his room, he exhorted them to stand fast in the faith
they had received, and having prayed fervently for the divine blessing
upon them, and the increase of the Spirit upon their new pastor, he gave
them his last farewel, with which the congregation were much affected.

Being carried home, that same day he was confined to his bed, and, on
the thirteenth of the month, was so enfeebled that he was obliged to
lay aside his ordinary reading of the scripture. The next day he would
rise out of bed, being asked, what he intended by getting out of bed? he
replied, he would go to church, thinking that had been the Lord's day;
he told them, he had been all the night meditating upon the resurrection
of Christ, which he should have preached on in order after the death of
Christ, which he had finished the sabbath before. He had often desired
of God, that he would end his days in teaching, and meditating upon that
doctrine; which desire seems to have been granted to him. Upon monday
the 17th, the elders and deacons being come to him, he said, "The time
is approaching, for which I have long thirsted, wherein I shall be
relieved and be free from all cares, and be with my Saviour for ever;
and now, God is my witness, whom I have served with my spirit in the
gospel of his Son, that I have taught nothing but the true and solid
doctrines of the gospel, and that the end which I purposed in all my
doctrine, was to instruct the ignorant, to confirm the weak, to comfort
the consciences of those that were humbled under the sense of their
sins, and to denounce the threatenings of God's word against such as
were rebellious. I am not ignorant, that many have blamed me, and yet do
blame my too great rigour and severity, but God knoweth, that, in my
heart, I never hated the persons of those against whom I thundered God's
judgments; I did only hate their sins, and laboured, according to my
power, to gain them to Christ; that I did forbear none of whatsoever
condition, I did it out of the fear of my God, who placed me in this
function of the ministry, and I know will bring me to an account." Then
he exhorted them to constancy, and intreated them never to join with the
wicked, but rather to choose with David to flee to the mountains, than
to remain with such company. After this exhortation to the elders and
deacons, he charged Mr. David Lindsay and Mr. James Lawson to take heed
to feed the flock over which the Holy Ghost had made them overseers: To
Mr. Lawson in particular, he said, "Fight the good fight, do the work of
the Lord with courage and with a willing mind; and God from above bless
you and the church whereof you have the charge, against which the gates
of hell shall not prevail." Then by prayer he recommended the whole
company present to the grace of God, and afterwards desired his wife, or
Richard Bannantyne to read the 17th chapter of John, a chapter of the
Ephesians, and the 33d chapter of Isaiah daily, after he was unable to
read himself: Sometimes he desired part of Mr. Calvin's sermons in
French to be read to him. One time when reading these sermons, they
supposed him to be sleeping, and asked him, If he heard what was read?
he replied, "I hear, I praise God, and understand far better."

One day after this, Mr. David Lindsay coming to see him, he said unto
him "Well, brother, I thank God I have desired all this day to have had
you, that I might send you to that man in the castle, the laird of
Grange, whom you know I have loved dearly. Go, I pray you, and tell him
from me, in the name of God, that unless he leave that evil course
wherein he has entered, neither shall that rock (meaning the castle of
Edinburgh, which he then kept out against the king) afford him any help,
nor the carnal wisdom of that man, whom he counteth half a god (meaning
young Lethington), but he shall be pulled out of that nest, and brought
down over the wall with shame, and his carcase shall be hung before the
sun, so God hath assured me." When Mr. David delivered this message, the
captain seemed to be much moved, but after a little conference with
Lethington, he returned to Mr. Lindsay, and dismissed him with a
disdainful countenance and answer. When he reported this to Mr. Knox, he
said, "Well, I have been earnest with my God anent that man, I am sorry
that it should so befal his body, yet God assureth me, there is mercy
for his soul. But for the other (meaning Lethington), I have no warrant
to say that it shall be well with him." The truth of this seemed to
appear in a short time thereafter; for it was thought that Lethington
poisoned himself to escape public punishment; he lay unburied in the
steeple of Leith until his body was quite corrupted; but Sir William
Kirkaldie of Grange was, on the third of August next, executed at the
cross of Edinburgh; he caused Mr. Lindsay to repeat Mr. Knox's words
concerning him a little before his execution, and was much comforted by
them; he said to Mr. Lindsay, (who accompanied him to the scaffold) "I
hope, when men shall think I am gone, I shall give a token of the
assurance of God's mercy to my soul, according to the speech of that man
of God." Accordingly, when he was cast over the ladder, with his face
towards the east, when all present thought he was dead, he lifted up his
hands, which were bound, and let them fall softly down again, as if
praising God for his great mercy towards him. See Spotswood's history,
page 266, 272. and Calderwood's history, page 62, 63.

Another of Mr. Knox's visitors desired him to praise God for the good he
had done. He answered, "Flesh of itself is too proud, and needs nothing
to puff it up," and protested that he only laid claim to the free mercy
of God in Christ among others. To the earl of Morton (who was then about
to receive the regency, the earl of Moray being dead) he was heard to
say, "My lord, God hath given you many blessings; he hath given you high
honour, birth, great riches, many good friends, and is now to prefer you
to the government of the realm: In his name, I charge you, that you will
use these blessings better in time to come, than you have done in time
past: in all your actions seek first the glory of God, the furtherance
of his gospel, the maintenance of his church and ministry, and then be
careful of the king, to procure his good and the welfare of the kingdom.
If you act thus, God will be with you; if otherwise, he shall deprive
you of all these benefits, and your end shall be shameful and
ignominious." This threatening, Morton, to his melancholy experience,
confessed was literally accomplished. At his execution in June 1581, he
called to mind Mr. Knox's words, and acknowledged, that in what he had
said to him he had been a true prophet.

Upon the Lord's day, November 23, after he had lain for some time very
quiet, he said, "If any man be present, let him come and see the work of
God;" for he thought (as was supposed) then to have expired. His servant
having been sent for Mr. Johnston writer, he burst forth into these
words, "I have been in meditation these two last nights upon the
troubled kirk of God, despised in the world, but precious in his fight.
I have called to God for her, and commended her to Christ her head: I
have been fighting against Satan, who is ever ready for the assault; I
have fought against spiritual wickednesses and have prevailed; I have
been as it were in heaven, and have tasted of its joys." After sermon,
several persons came to visit him; one asked him (upon perceiving his
breathing shortened), If he had any pain? He answered, "I have no more
pain than he that is now in heaven, and am content, if it please God, to
lie here seven years." Many times, when he was lying as if asleep, he
was in meditation, and was heard to say, "Lord, grant true pastors to
thy church, that purity of doctrine may be retained. Restore peace again
to this commonwealth, with godly rulers and magistrates. O serve the
Lord in fear, and death shall not be troublesome to you. Blessed is the
death of those that have part in the death of Jesus. Come, Lord Jesus,
sweet Jesus, into thy hand I commend my spirit."

That night, Dr. Preston being come to him, and was told by some of his
constant attendants that he was often very uneasy in his sleep, the
doctor asked him after he awoke, how he did, and what made him mourn so
heavily in his sleep, he answered, "In my life-time, I have been often
assaulted by Satan, and many times he hath cast my sins in my teeth, to
bring me to despair; yet God gave me strength to overcome his
temptations: and now that subtile serpent, who never ceaseth to tempt,
hath taken another course, and seeks to persuade me, that all my labours
in the ministry, and the fidelity I have showed in that service have
merited heaven and immortality. But blessed be God, that he hath brought
to my mind that scripture, _What hast thou that thou hast not received_,
and _not I, but the grace of God which is in me_, with which he hath
gone away ashamed, and shall no more return, and now I am sure my battle
is at an end, and that I shall shortly, without pain of body or trouble
of spirit, change this mortal and miserable life, for that happy and
immortal life that shall never have an end."

Having, some time before, given orders for making his coffin, he rose
out of bed, Nov. 24. about ten o'clock, and put on his hose and doublet,
and sat up about the space of half an hour, and then returned to bed
again. Being asked by Kingincleugh, if he had any pain, he answered, "No
pain, but such as, I trust, will soon put an end to this battle, yea, I
do not esteem that pain to me, which is the beginning of eternal joy."
In the afternoon he caused his wife to read the 15th chapter of 1 Cor.
When it was ended, he said, "Is not that a comfortable chapter?" A
little after, "I commend my soul, spirit and body into thy hands, O
Lord." About five o'clock at night, he said to his wife, "Go, read where
I cast my first anchor;" this was the 17th chapter of John, which she
read, together with part of Calvin's sermons on the Ephesians. They then
went to prayer, after which Dr. Preston asked him, If he heard the
prayer? he answered, "Would to God that you and all men had heard it as
I have done; I praise God for that heavenly sound;" adding, "Lord Jesus,
receive my spirit." His servant, Richard Bannantyne, hearing him give a
long sigh, said, "Now, Sir, the time you have long called to God for,
doth instantly come, and, seeing all natural power fails, give us some
sign, that you live upon the comfortable promises which you have so
often shewed to us." At this speech he lifted up one of his hands, and
immediately after, without any struggle, as one falling asleep, he
departed this life about eleven o'clock at night, finishing his
Christian warfare, he entered into the joy of his Lord, to receive a
crown of righteousness prepared for him (and such as him), from before
the foundation of the world.

He was buried in the church-yard of St. Giles (now that square called
the parliament closs), upon Wednesday the 26th of November. His funeral
was attended by the earl of Morton regent, other lords, and a great
multitude of people of all ranks. When he was laid in the grave, the
earl of Morton said, "There lies a man, who, in his life, never feared
the face of man: who hath been often threatened with dag and dagger, but
hath ended his days in peace and honour."

He was low in stature and of a weakly constitution, which made Mr.
Thomas Smeaton, one of his contemporaries, say, "I know not if ever God
placed a more godly and great spirit in a body so little and frail. I am
certain, that there can scarcely be found another, in whom more gifts of
the Holy Ghost for the comfort of the church of Scotland, did shine. No
one spared himself less, no one more diligent in the charge committed to
him, and yet no one was more the object of the hatred of wicked men, and
more vexed with the reproach of evil speakers; but this was so far from
abating, that it rather strengthened his courage and resolution in the
ways of God." Beza calls him the great apostle of the Scots. His
faithfulness in reproving sin, in a manner that shewed he was not to be
awed by the fear of man, made up the most remarkable part of his
character, and the success wherewith the Lord blessed his labours, was
very singular, and is enough to stop the mouth of every enemy against

His works are, an admonition to England; an application to the Scots
nobility, &c.; a letter to Mary the queen-regent, a history of the
reformation; a treatise on predestination, the first and second blast of
the trumpet; a sermon preached August 1565, on account of which he was
for some time prohibited from preaching. He left also sundry
manuscripts, sermons, tracts, &c. which have never been printed.

_The Life of Mr. GEORGE BUCHANAN._

George Buchanan was born in Lennoxshire (commonly called the sheriffdom
of Dumbarton), in Scotland, in a country town, situated near the river
or water of Blane[35], in the year of our Lord 1506, about the beginning
of February, of a family rather ancient than rich. His father died of
the stone, in the flower of his age, whilst his grandfather was yet
alive, by whose extravagance, the family, which was below before, was
now almost reduced to the extremity of want. Yet such was the frugal
care of his mother Agnes Herriot, that she brought up five sons and
three daughters to men's and women's estate. Of the five sons, George
was one. His uncle, James Herriot, perceiving his promising ingenuity in
their own country schools, took him from thence, and sent him to Paris.
There he applied himself to his studies, and especially to poetry;
having partly a natural genius that way, and partly out of necessity,
(because it was the only method of study propounded to him in his
youth). Before he had been there two years, his uncle died, and he
himself fell dangerously sick; and being in extreme want, was forced to
go home to his friends. After his return to Scotland, he spent almost a
year in taking care of his health; then he went into the army, with some
French auxiliaries, newly arrived in Scotland, to learn the military
art: But that expedition proving fruitless, and those forces being
reduced by the deep snow of a very severe winter, he relapsed into such
an illness as confined him all that season to his bed. Early in the
spring he was sent to St. Andrews, to hear the lectures of John Major,
who, though very old, read logic, or rather sophistry, in that
university. The summer after, he accompanied him into France; and there
he fell into the troubles of the Lutheran sect, which then began to
increase. He struggled with the difficulties of fortune almost two
years, and at last was admitted into the Barbaran college, where he was
grammar professor almost three years. During that time, Gilbert Kennedy,
earl of Cassils, one of the young Scottish nobles, being in that
country, was much taken with his ingenuity and acquaintance; so that he
entertained him for five years, and brought him back with him into

Afterwards, having a mind to return to Paris to his old studies, he was
detained by the king, and made tutor to James his natural son. In the
mean time, an elegy made by him, at leisure times, came into the hands
of the Franciscans; wherein he writes, that he was solicited in a dream
by St. Francis, to enter into his order. In this poem there were one or
two passages that reflected on them very severely; which those ghostly
fathers, notwithstanding their profession of meekness and humility, took
more heinously, than men (having obtained such a vogue for piety among
the vulgar) ought to have done, upon so small an occasion of offence.
But finding no just grounds for their unbounded fury, they attacked him
upon the score of religion; which was their common way of terrifying
those they did not wish well to. Thus, whilst they indulged their
impotent malice, they made him, who was not well affected to them
before, a greater enemy to their licentiousness, and rendered him more
inclinable to the Lutheran cause. In the mean time, the king, with
Magdalen his wife, came from France, not without the resentment of the
priesthood; who were afraid that the royal lady, having been bred up
under her aunt the queen of Navarre, should attempt some innovation in
religion. But this fear soon vanished upon her death, which followed
shortly after.

Next, there arose jealousies at court about some of the nobility, who
were thought to have conspired against the king; and, in that matter,
the king being persuaded the Franciscans dealt insincerely, he commanded
Buchanan, who was then at court, (though he was ignorant of the disgusts
betwixt him and that order), to write a satyr upon them. He was loath to
offend either of them, and therefore, though he made a poem, yet it was
but short, and such as might admit of a doubtful interpretation, wherein
he satisfied neither party; not the king, who would have had a sharp and
stinging invective; nor the fathers neither, who looked on it as a
capital offence, to have any thing said of them but what was honourable.
So that receiving a second command to write more pungently against them,
he began that miscellany, which now bears the title of The Franciscan,
and gave it to the king. But shortly after, being made acquainted by his
friends at court, that cardinal Beaton sought his life, and had offered
the king a sum of money as a price for his head, he escaped out of
prison, and fled for England[36]. But there also things were at such an
uncertainty, that the very same day, and almost with one and the same
fire, the men of both factions (protestants and papists) were burnt;
Henry VIII. in his old age, being more intent on his own security, than
the purity or reformation of religion. This uncertainty of affairs in
England, seconded by his ancient acquaintance with the French, and the
courtesy natural to them, drew him again into that kingdom.

As soon as he came to Paris, he found cardinal Beaton, his utter enemy,
ambassador there; so that, to withdraw himself from his fury, at the
invitation of Andrew Govean, he went to Bourdeaux.----There he taught
three years in the schools, which were erected at the public cost. In
that time he composed four tragedies, which were afterwards occasionally
published. But that which he wrote first, called The Baptist, was
printed last, and next the Medea of Euripides. He wrote them in
compliance with the custom of the school, which was to have a play
written once a-year, that the acting of them might wean the French youth
from allegories, to which they had taken a false taste, and bring them
back, as much as possible, to a just imitation of the ancients. This
affair succeeding even almost beyond his hopes, he took more pains in
compiling the other two tragedies, called Jephtha and Alcestes, because
he thought they would fall under a severer scrutiny of the learned. And
yet, during this time, he was not wholly free from trouble, being
harassed with the menaces of the cardinal on the one side, and of the
Franciscans on the other: For the cardinal had wrote letters to the
arch-bishop of Bourdeaux, to apprehend him; but, providentially, those
letters fell into the hands of Buchanan's best friends. However, the
death of the king of Scots, and the plague, which then raged over all
Aquitain, dispelled that fear.

In the interim, an express came to Govean from the king of Portugal,
commanding him to return, and bring with him some men, learned both in
the Greek and Latin tongues, that they might read the liberal arts, and
especially the principles of the Aristotelian philosophy, in those
schools which he was then building with a great deal of care and
expence. Buchanan, being addressed to, readily contented to go for one.
For, whereas he saw that all Europe besides, was either actually in
foreign or domestic wars, or just upon the point of being so, that one
corner of the world was, in his opinion, likeliest to be free from
tumults and combustions; and besides his companions in that journey were
such, that they seemed rather his acquaintances and familiar friends,
than strangers or aliens to him: for many of them had been his intimates
for several years, and are well known to the world by their learned
works, as Micholaus Gruchius, Gulielmus Garentæus, Jacobus Tevius, and
Elias Vinetus. This was the reason that he did not only make one of
their society, but also persuaded a brother of his, called Patrick, to
do the same. And truly the matter succeeded excellently well at first,
till, in the midst of the enterprize, Andrew Govean was taken away by a
sudden death, which proved mighty prejudicial to his companions: For,
after his decease, all their enemies endeavoured first to ensnare them
by treachery, and soon after ran violently upon them as it were with
open mouth; and their agents and instruments being great enemies to the
accused, they laid hold of three of them, and haled them to prison;
whence, after a long and lothsome confinement, they were called out to
give in their answers, and, after many bitter taunts, were remanded to
prison again; and yet no accuser did appear in court against them. As
for Buchanan, they insulted most bitterly over him, as being a stranger,
and knowing also, that he had very few friends in that country, who
would either rejoice in his prosperity, sympathize with his grief, or
revenge the wrongs offered to him. The crime laid to his charge, was the
poem he wrote against the Franciscans; which he himself, before he went
from France, took care to get excused to the king of Portugal; neither
did his accusers perfectly know what it was, for he had given but one
copy of it to the king of Scots, by whose command he wrote it. They
farther objected "his eating of flesh in Lent;" though there is not a
man in all Spain but uses the same liberty. Besides, he had given some
sly side blows to the monks, which, however, nobody but a monk himself
could well except against.

Moreover, they took it heinously ill, that, in a certain familiar
discourse with some young Portuguese gentlemen, upon mention made of the
Eucharist, he should affirm, that, in his judgment, Austin was more
inclinable to the party condemned by the church of Rome. Two other
witnesses (as some years after it came to his knowledge), _viz._ John
Tolpin, a Norman, and John Ferrerius of Sub alpine Liguria, had
witnessed against him, that they had heard from divers creditable
persons, "That Buchanan was not orthodox as to the Roman faith and

But to return to the matter; after the inquisitors had wearied both
themselves and him for almost half a year, at last, that they might not
seem to have causelesly vexed a man of some name and note in the world,
they shut him up in a monastery for some months, there to be more
exactly disciplined and instructed by the monks, who (to give them their
due), though very ignorant in all matters of religion, were men
otherwise neither bad in their morals, nor rude in their behaviour.

This was the time he took to form the principal part of David's psalms
into Latin verse. At last he was set at liberty; and sueing for a pass,
and accommodations from the crown, to return into France, the king
desired him to stay where he was, and allotted him a little sum for
daily necessaries and pocket expences, till some better provision might
be made for his subsistence. But he, tired out with delay, as being put
off to no certain time, nor on any sure grounds of hope; and having got
the opportunity of a passage in a ship then riding in the bay of Lisbon,
was carried over into England. He made no long stay in that country,
though fair offers were made him there; for he saw that all things were
in a hurry and combustion, under a very young king; the nobles at
variance one with another, and the minds of the commons yet in a
ferment, upon the account of their civil combustions. Whereupon he
returned into France, about the time that the siege of Metz was raised.
There he was in a manner compelled by his friends to write a poem
concerning that siege; which he did, though somewhat unwillingly,
because he was loth to interfere with several of his acquaintances, and
especially with Mellinus Sangelasius, who had composed a learned and
elegant poem on that subject. From thence he was called over into Italy,
by Charles de Cosse of Brescia, who then managed matters with very good
success in the Gallic and Ligustic countries about the Po. He lived with
him and his son Timoleon, sometimes in Italy, and sometimes in France,
the space of five years, till the year 1560; the greatest part of which
time he spent in the study of the holy scriptures, that so he might be
able to make a more exact judgment of the controversies in religion,
which employed the thoughts, and took up all the time of most of the men
of these days. It is true, these disputes were silenced a little in
Scotland, when that kingdom was freed from the tyranny of the Guises of
France; so he returned thither, and became a member of the church of
Scotland, 1560[37].

Some of his writings, in former times, being, as it were, redeemed from
shipwreck, were by him collected and published: the rest, which were
scattered up and down in the hands of his friends, he committed to the
disposal of providence[38]. After his return, he professed philosophy in
St. Andrews, and in the year 1565, he was appointed tutor to James VI.
king of Scotland; and in 1568, went with the regent to the court of
England, at which time and place he did no small honour to his country.

Sir James Melvil, in his memoirs, page 234, gives him the following
character.--"He was a Stoic philosopher, who looked not far before him;
too easy in his old age; somewhat revengeful against those who had
offended him:" But notwithstanding, "a man of notable endowments, great
learning, and an excellent Latin poet; he was much honoured in foreign
countries; pleasant in conversation, into which he happily introduced
short moral maxims, which his invention readily supplied him with upon
any emergency. He was buried at Edinburgh in the common place, though
worthy to have been laid in marble, as in his life pompous monuments he
used to contemn and despise."

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT ROLLOCK._

Mr. Rollock was descended from the antient family of the Livingstons. He
was born about the year 1555. His father, David Rollock, sent him to
Stirling to be educated for the university under Thomas Buchanan, where
his genius, modesty and sweetness of temper soon procured to him the
particular friendship of his master, which subsisted ever after. From
this school, he went to the university of St Andrews, where he
prosecuted his studies for four years; at the end of which, his progress
had been so great, that he was chosen professor of philosophy, the
duties of which office he discharged with applause for other four years,
until, about the year 1583, he was invited, by the magistrates of
Edinburgh, to a profession in their university, which was, not long
before this time, founded by K. James VI. He complied with their
invitation, at the earnest desire of Mr James Lawson, who succeeded Mr
Knox. His reputation, as a teacher, soon drew a number of students to
that college, which was soon afterwards much enlarged, by being so
conveniently situated in the capital of the kingdom. At first he had the
principal weight of academical business laid upon him, but in process of
time, other professors were chosen from among the scholars which he
educated. After which, his chief employment was to exercise the office
of principal, by superintending the several classes, to observe the
proficiency of the scholars, to compose such differences as would arise
among them, and to keep every one to his duty. Thus was the principality
of that college, in his time, a useful institution, and not what it is
now, little better than a mere sine-cure.--Every morning, he called the
students together, when he prayed among them, and one day in the week,
he explained some passage of scripture to them, in the close of which,
he was frequently very warm in his exhortations, which wrought more
reformation upon the students, than all the laws which were made, or
discipline which was exercised besides. After the lecture was over, it
was his custom to reprove such as had been guilty of any misdemeanour
through the week. _How is the gold become dim! how is the most fine gold
changed!_ He was likewise very attentive to such as were advanced in
their studies, and intended the ministry. His care was productive of
much good to the church. He was as diligent in his own studies, as he
was careful to promote those of others.--Notwithstanding all this
business in the university, he preached every Lord's day in the church,
with such fervency and demonstration of the Spirit, that he became the
instrument of converting many to God. About this time he also wrote
several commentaries on different passages of scripture. His exposition
of the epistles to the Romans and Ephesians, coming into the hands of
the learned Beza, he wrote to a friend of his, telling him, That he had
an incomparable treasure, which for its judiciousness, brevity and
elegance of style had few equals.

He was chosen moderator to the assembly held at Dundee, _anno_ 1567,
wherein matters went not altogether in favours of Presbytery; but this
cannot be imputed to him, although Calderwood in his history, page 403.
calls him "a man simple in matters of the church," He was one of those
commissioned by the assembly to wait on his majesty about seating the
churches of Edinburgh, but in the mean time he sickened, and was
confined to his house. Afterwards, at the entreaty of his friends, he
went to the country for the benefit of the air; at first he seemed as if
growing better, but his distemper soon returned upon him with greater
violence than before: This confined him to his bed. He committed his
wife (for he had no children) to the care of his friends. He desired two
noblemen, who came to visit him, to go to the king, and intreat him in
his name to take care of religion and preserve it to the end, and that
he would esteem and comfort the pastors of the church; for the ministry
of Christ, though low and base in the eyes of men, yet it should at
length shine with great glory. When the ministers of Edinburgh came to
him, he spoke of the sincerity of his intentions in every thing done by
him, in discharge of the duties belonging to the office with which he
had been vested. As night drew on, his distemper increased, and together
therewith his religious fervor was likewise augmented. When the
physicians were preparing some medicines, he said, "Thou, Lord, wilt
heal me;" and then began, praying for the pardon of his sins through
Christ, and professed that he counted all things but dung for the cross
of Christ. He prayed farther, that he might have the presence of God in
his departure, saying, "Hitherto have I seen thee darkly, through the
glass of thy word: O Lord, grant that I may have the eternal enjoyment
of thy countenance, which I have so much desired and longed for;" and
then spoke of the resurrection and eternal life, after which he blessed
and exhorted every one present according as their respective
circumstances required.

The day following, when the magistrates of Edinburgh came to see him, he
exhorted them to take care of the university, and nominated a successor
to himself. He recommended his wife to them, declaring, that he had not
laid up one halfpenny of his stipend, and therefore hoped they would
provide for her; to which request they assented, and promised to see her
comfortably supplied. After this he said, "I bless God, that I have all
my senses entire, but my heart is in heaven, and, Lord Jesus, why
shouldst not thou have it? it has been my care, all my life, to dedicate
it to thee; I pray thee, take it, that I may live with thee for ever."
Then, after a little sleep, he awaked, crying, "Come, Lord Jesus, put an
end to this miserable life; haste, Lord, and tarry not; Christ hath
redeemed me, not unto a frail and momentary life, but unto eternal life.
Come, Lord Jesus, and give that life for which thou hast redeemed me."
Some of the people present, bewailing their condition when he should be
taken away, he said unto them, "I have gone through all the degrees of
this life, and am come to my end, why should I go back again? help me, O
Lord, that I may go thro' this last degree with thy assistance, &c."
And when some told him, that the next day was the Sabbath, he said, "O
Lord, shall I begin my eternal Sabbath from thy Sabbath here." Next
morning, feeling his death approaching, he sent for Mr. Balcanquhal,
who, in prayer with him, desired the Lord, if he pleased, to spare his
life, for the good of the church, he said, "I am weary of this life; all
my desire is, that I may enjoy the celestial life, that is hid with
Christ in God," And, a little after, "Haste, Lord, and do not tarry, I
am weary both of nights and days. Come, Lord Jesus, that I may come to
thee. Break these eye-strings and give me others. I desire to be
dissolved, and to be with thee. O Lord Jesus, thrust thy hand into my
body and take my soul to thyself. O my sweet Lord, let this soul of mine
free, that it may enjoy her husband." And when one of the by-standers
said, Sir, let nothing trouble you, for now your Lord makes haste, he
said, "O welcome message, would to God, my funeral might be to-morrow."
And thus he continued in heavenly meditation and prayer, till he
resigned up his spirit to God, _anno_ 1598, in the 54d year of his age.

His works are, a commentary on some select psalms, on the prophecy of
Daniel, and the gospel of John, with its harmony. He wrote also on the
epistle to the Ephesians, Colossians, Thessalonians, and Galatians; an
analysis of the epistles to the Romans and the Hebrews, with respect to
effectual calling.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN CRAIG._

Mr. John Craig, was a man of considerable learning and singular
abilities; he travelled abroad in his youth, and was frequently
delivered out of very great dangers, by the kind interposition of a
gracious providence; an instance of which we have while he was in Italy:
Being obliged to fly out of that country, on account of his regard for
the reformation, in order to avoid being apprehended, he was obliged to
lurk in obscure places in the day-time, and travel over night; by this
means any little money he had was soon exhausted, and being in the
extremity of want, a dog brought a purse to him with some gold in it, by
which he was supported until he escaped the danger of being taken.

After his return home, he was settled minister at Edinburgh, where he
continued many years, and met with many trials of his fortitude and
fidelity. In the year 1567, the earl of Bothwel, having obtained a
divorce from his lawful wife, as preparatory to his marriage with queen
Mary she sent a letter to Mr. Craig, commanding him to publish the banns
of matrimony betwixt her and Bothwel. But the next sabbath, having
declared at length that he had received such a command, he added, that
he could not in conscience obey it, the marriage being altogether
unlawful, and that he would declare to the parties if present. He was
immediately sent for by Bothwel, unto whom he declared his reasons with
great boldness, and the very next Lord's day, he told the people what he
had said before the council, and took heaven and earth to witness, that
he detested that scandalous marriage, and that he had discharged his
duty to the lords, &c. Upon this, he was again called before the
council, and reproved by them as having exceeded the bounds of his
calling, he boldly answered, that "the bounds of his commission was the
word of God, right reason, and good laws, against which he had said
nothing;" and by all these offered to prove the said marriage
scandalous, at which he was stopt, and set out of the council.

Thus Mr. Craig continued, not only a firm friend to the reformation, but
a bold opposer of every incroachment made upon the crown and dignity of
the Lord Jesus Christ. In the year 1584, when an act of parliament was
made that all ministers, masters of colleges, &c. should within
forty-eight hours, compear and subscribe the act of parliament,
concerning the king's power over all estates spiritual and temporal, and
submit themselves to the bishops, &c. Upon which, Mr. Craig, John
Brand and some others were called before the council, and interrogate,
how he could be so bold as to controvert the late act of parliament? Mr.
Craig answered, That they would find fault with any thing repugnant to
God's word; at which, the earl of Arran started up on his feet, and
said, They were too pert; that he would shave their head, pair their
nails, and cut their toes, and make them an example unto all who should
disobey the king's command and his council's orders, and forthwith
charged them to appear before the king at Falkland, on the 4th of
September following.

Upon their appearance at Falkland, they were again accused of
transgressing the foresaid act of parliament, and disobeying the
bishop's injunctions, when there arose some hot speeches betwixt Mr.
Craig and the bishop of St. Andrews, at which the earl of Arran spake
again most outrageously against Mr. Craig, who coolly replied, That
there had been as great men set up higher, that had been brought low.
Arran returned, "I shall make thee of a false friar a true prophet;" and
sitting down on his knee, he said, "Now am I humbled." "Nay," said Mr.
Craig, "Mock the servants of God as thou wilt, God will not be mocked,
but shall make thee find it in earnest, when thou shalt be cast down
from the high horse of thy pride, and humbled." This came to pass a few
years after, when he was thrown off his horse with a spear, by James
Douglas of Parkhead, killed, and his corpse exposed to dogs and swine,
before it was buried.

Mr. Craig was forthwith discharged to preach any more in Edinburgh, and
the bishop of St. Andrews was appointed to preach in his place; but as
soon as he entered the great church of Edinburgh, the whole congregation
(except a few court-parasites) went out.--It was not long before Mr.
Craig was restored to his place and office.

In the year 1591, when the earl of Bothwel and his accomplices, on the
27th of December, came to the king and chancellor's chamber-doors with
fire, and to the queen's with a hammer, in the palace of Holyrood-house,
with a design to seize the king and the chancellor. Mr. Craig upon the
29th, preaching before the king upon the two brazen mountains in
Zechariah, said, "As the king had lightly regarded the many bloody
shirts presented to him by his subjects craving justice, so God, in his
providence, had made a noise of crying and fore-hammers to come to his
own doors." The king would have the people to stay after sermon, that he
might purge himself, and said "If he had thought his hired servant
(meaning Mr. Craig who was his own minister) would have dealt in that
manner with him, he should not have suffered him so long in his house."
Mr. Craig, (by reason of the throng) not hearing what he said, went

In the year 1595, Mr. Craig being quite worn out by his labours and the
infirmities of age, the king's commissioner presented some articles to
the general assembly, wherein, amongst other things, he craved, That, in
respect Mr. Craig is awaiting what hour God shall please to call him,
and is unable to serve any longer, and His Majesty designing to place
John Duncanson with the prince, therefore his highness desired an
ordinance to be made, granting any two ministers he shall choose; which
was accordingly done, and Mr. Craig died a short time after this.

Mr. Craig will appear, from these short memoirs, to have been a man of
uncommon resolution and activity. He was employed in the most part of
the affairs of the church during the reign of queen Mary and in the
beginning of that of her son. He compiled the national covenant, and a
catechism, commonly called Craig's catechism, which was first printed by
order of the assembly, in the year 1591.

_The Life of Mr. DAVID BLACK._

Mr. Black was for some time colleague to the worthy Mr. Andrew Melvil
minister at St. Andrews. He was remarkable for zeal and fidelity in the
discharge of his duty as a minister, applying his doctrine closely
against the corruptions of that age, prevailing either among the highest
or lowest of the people; in consequence of which, he was, in the year
1596, cited before the council for some expressions uttered in a sermon,
alledged to strike against the queen and council. But his brethren in
the ministry thinking, that, by this method of procedure with him, the
spiritual government of the house of God was intended to be subverted,
they resolved that Mr. Black should decline answering the king and
council, and, that in the mean time, the brethren should be preparing
themselves to prove from the holy scriptures, That the judgment of all
doctrine in the first instance, belonged to the pastors of the church.

Accordingly Mr. Black, on the 18th of Nov 1596. gave in a declinature to
the council to this effect, That he was able to defend all that he had
said, yet, seeing his answering before them to that accusation, might be
prejudicial to the liberties of the church, and would be taken for an
acknowledgment of his majesty's jurisdiction in matters merely
spiritual, he was constrained to decline that judicatory. 1. Because the
Lord Jesus Christ had given him his word for a rule, and that therefore
he could not fall under the civil law, but in so far as, after trial, he
should be found to have passed from his instructions, which trial only
belonged to the prophets, &c. 2. The liberties of the church and
discipline presently exercised, were confirmed by divers acts of
parliament, approved of by the confession of faith, and the
office-bearers of the church, were now in the peaceable possession
thereof; that the question of his preaching ought first, according to
the grounds and practice foresaid, to be judged by the ecclesiastical
senate, as the competent judges thereof at the first instance. This
declinature, with a letter sent by the different presbyteries, were, in
a short time, subscribed by between three and four hundred ministers,
all assenting to and approving of it.

The commissioners of the general assembly then sitting at Edinburgh,
knowing that the king was displeased at this proceeding, sent some of
their number to speak with his majesty, unto whom he answered, That if
Mr. Black would pass from his declinature he would pass from the
summons; but this they would not consent to do. Upon which, the king
caused summon Mr. Black again on the 27th of November, to the council to
be held on the 30th. This summons was given with sound of trumpet and
open proclamation at the cross of Edinburgh; and the same day, the
commissioners of the assembly were ordered to depart thence in
twenty-four hours, under pain of rebellion.

Before the day of Mr. Black's second appearance before the council, he
prepared a still more explicit declinature, especially as it respected
the king's supremacy, declaring, That there are two jurisdictions in the
realm, the one spiritual and the other civil; the one respecting the
conscience and the other concerning external things; the one persuading
by the spiritual word, the other compelling by the temporal sword; the
one spiritually procuring the edification of the church, the other by
justice procuring the peace and quiet of the commonwealth, which being
grounded in the light of nature, proceeds from God as he is Creator, and
is so termed by the apostle, 1 Pet. ii. but varying according to the
constitution of men; the other above nature grounded upon the grace of
redemption, proceeding immediately from the grace of Christ, only king
and only head of his church, Eph. 1. Col. ii. Therefore in so far as he
was one of the spiritual office-bearers, and had discharged his
spiritual calling in some measure of grace and sincerity, he should not,
and could not lawfully be judged for preaching and applying the word of
God by any civil power, he being an ambassador and messenger of the Lord
Jesus, having his commission from the king of kings, and all his
commission is set down and limited in the word of God, that cannot be
extended or abridged by any mortal, king or emperor, they being sheep,
not pastors, and to be judged by the word of God, and not the judges

A decree of council was passed against him, upon which his brethren of
the commission directed their doctrine against the council. The king
sent a message to the commissioners, signifying, That he would rest
satisfied with Mr. Black's simple declaration of the truth; but Mr.
Bruce and the rest replied, That if the affair concerned Mr. Black
alone, they should be content, but the liberty of Christ's kingdom had
received such a wound by the proclamation of last Saturday, that if Mr.
Black's life and a dozen of others besides, had been taken, it had not
grieved the hearts of the godly so much, and that either these things
behoved to be retracted, or they would oppose so long as they had
breath. But, after a long process, no mitigation of the council's
severity could be obtained, for Mr. Black was charged by a macer to
enter his person in ward, on the north of the Tay, there to remain on
his own expence during his majesty's pleasure; and, though he was, next
year, restored back to his place at St. Andrews, yet he was not suffered
to continue, for, about the month July that same year, the king and
council again proceeded against him, and he was removed to Angus, where
he continued until the day of his death. He had always been a severe
check on the negligent and unfaithful part of the clergy, but now they
had found means to get free of him.

After his removal to Angus he continued the exercise of his ministry,
preaching daily unto such as resorted to him, with much success, and an
intimate communion with God, until a few days before his death.

In his last sickness, the Christian temper of his mind was so much
improven by large measures of the Spirit, that his conversation had a
remarkable effect in humbling the hearts and comforting the souls of
those who attended him, engaging them to take the easy yoke of Christ
upon them. He found in his own soul also, such a sensible taste of
eternal joy, that he was seized with a fervent desire to depart and to
be with the Lord, longing to have the earthly house of this his
tabernacle put off, that he might be admitted into the mansions of
everlasting rest. In the midst of these earnest breathings after God,
the Lord was wonderfully pleased to condescend to the importunity of his
servant, to let him know that the time of his departure was near. Upon
which, he took a solemn farewel of his family and flock with a
discourse, as Mr. Melvil says[39], that seemed to be spoken out of
heaven, concerning the misery and grief of this life, and the
inconceivable glory which is above.

The night following, after supper, having read and prayed in his family
with unusual continuance, strong crying and heavy groans, he went a
little while to bed, and the next day, having called his people to the
celebration of the Lord's supper, he went to church, and having brought
the communion-service near a close, he felt the approaches of death, and
all discovered a sudden change in his countenance, so that some ran to
support him; but pressing to be at his knees, with his hands and eyes
lifted up to heaven in the very act of devotion and adoration, as in a
transport of joy, he was taken away, with scarce any pain at all. Thus
this holy man, who had so faithfully maintained the interest of Christ
upon earth, breathed forth his soul in this extraordinary manner, that
it seemed rather like a translation than a real death. See more of him
in Calderwood's history, page 335. De Foe's memoirs, page 138. Hind let
loose, page 48, old edit.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN DAVIDSON._

He was minister at Salt-Preston (now known by the name of Preston-pans),
and began very early to discover uncommon piety and faithfulness in the
discharge of his duty. He was involved in the sufferings brought upon
several ministers on account of the raid of Ruthven[40], and the
enterprise at Stirling[41] _anno_ 1584, on which account he fled for
England, and remained there some considerable time.

Being returned to Scotland, in the year 1596, when the ministers and
other commissioners of the general assembly were met at Edinburgh for
prayer, in order to a general and personal reconciliation (they were
about four hundred ministers, besides elders and private Christians),
Mr. Davidson was chosen to preside amongst them. He caused the 33d and
34th chapters of Ezekiel to be read, and discoursed upon them in a very
affecting manner, shewing what was the end of their meeting, in
confessing sin and resolving to forsake it, and that they should turn to
the Lord, and enter into a new league and covenant with him, that so, by
repentance, they might be the more meet to stir up others to the same
duty. In this he was so assisted by the Spirit working upon their
hearts, that, within an hour after they had conveened, they began to
look with another countenance than at first, and while he was exhorting
them to these duties, the whole meeting were in tears, every one
provoking another by his example, whereby that place might have justly
been called _Bochim_.

After prayer, he treated one Luke xii. 22. wherein the same assistance
was given him. Before they dismissed, they solemnly entered into a new
league and covenant, holding up their hands, with such signs of
sincerity as moved all present. That afternoon, the assembly enacted the
renewal of the covenant by particular synods.

In the general assembly held at Dundee 1598. (where the king was
present), it was proposed, Whether ministers should vote in parliament
in the name of the church. Mr Davidson intreated them not to be rash in
concluding so weighty a matter; he said, "Brethren, ye see not how
readily the bishops begin to creep up." Being desired to give his vote,
he refused, and protested in his own name and in the name of those who
should adhere to him; and required that his protest should be inserted
in the books of assembly. Here the king interposed, and said, "That
shall not be granted, see if you have voted and reasoned before:" "never
Sir," said Mr. Davidson, "but without prejudice to any protestation made
or to be made." And then presented his protestation in writing, which
was handed from one to another, till it was laid down before the clerk.
The king, taking it up and reading it, shewed it to the moderator and
others about, and at last put it in his pocket, (see this protest and a
letter sent by him to the assembly 1601, in Calderwood, pages 420 and
450.) This protest and letter was the occasion of farther trouble to
him. For in the month of May following, he was charged to compear before
the council on the 26th, and answer for the same, and was by the king
committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh; but, on account of bodily
infirmity, this place of confinement was changed to his own dwelling
house; after which he obtained liberty to exercise his office in his own
parish. When the king was going for England _anno_ 1603, as he was
passing through Preston-pans, the laird of Ormiston intreated him to
relieve Mr Davidson from his confinement to the bounds of his own
parish, but this could not be obtained.----He likewise, in some
instances, shewed that he was possessed in a considerable measure of the
spirit of prophecy.--He was, while in Preston, very anxious about the
building of a church in that parish, and had, by his own private
interest, contributed liberally to it; Lord Newbattle, having
considerable interest in that parish, likewise promised his assistance,
but afterwards receded from his engagements; upon which Mr. Davidson
told him, That these walls that were there begun should stand as a
witness against him, and that, ere long, God should root him out of that
parish, so that he should not have one bit of land in the same; which
was afterwards accomplished. At another time being moderator at the
synod of Lothian, Mr John Spotswood minister at Calder, and Mr James Law
minister at Kirkliston were brought before them for playing at the
foot-ball on the sabbath. Mr Davidson urged that they might be deposed,
but the synod, because of the fewness of the ministers present, &c.
agreed that they should be rebuked, which, having accordingly done, he
turned to his brethren and said, "Now let me tell you what reward you
shall have for your lenity, these two men shall trample on your necks,
and on the necks of the ministers of Scotland." How true this proved was
afterwards too well known, when Spotswood was made arch-bishop of St
Andrews, and Law of Glasgow. Being at dinner one time with Mr Bruce, who
was then in great favour with the king, he told him, he should soon be
in as great discredit; which was likewise accomplished. At another time,
when dining in the house of one of the magistrates of Edinburgh with Mr
Bruce, in giving thanks, he brake forth in these words, "Lord, this good
man hath respect, for thy sake, to thy servants, but he little knoweth,
that in a short time, he shall carry us both to prison;" which
afterwards came to pass, although, at the time, it grieved the baillie
exceedingly. Mr Fleming, in his fulfilling of the scriptures, relates
another remarkable instance of this kind--A gentleman nearly related to
a great family in that parish, but a most violent hater of true piety,
did, on that account, beat a poor man who lived there, although he had
no manner of provocation. Among other strokes which he gave him, he gave
him one on the back, saying, "Take that for Mr Davidson's sake." This
mal-treatment obliged the poor man, to take to his bed; he complained
most of the blow which he had received on his back. In the close of his
sermon on the sabbath following, Mr. Davidson, speaking of the
oppression of the godly, and the enmity which the wicked had to such,
and, in a particular manner, mentioned this last instance, saying, "It
was a sad time, when a profane man would thus openly adventure to vent
his rage against such as were seekers of God in the place, whilst he
could have no cause but the appearance of his image," and then said,
with great boldness, "He, who hath done this, were he the laird or the
laird's brother, ere a few days pass, God shall give him a stroke, that
all the monarchs on earth dare not challenge." Which accordingly came to
pass in the close of that very same week, for this gentleman, while
standing before his own door, was struck dead with lightening, and had
all his bones crushed to pieces.

A little before his death, he happened occasionally to meet with Mr
Kerr, a young gentleman lately come from France, and dressed in the
court fashion. Mr Davidson charged him to lay aside his scarlet cloke
and gilt rapier, for, said he, "You are the man who shall succeed me in
the ministry of this place;" which surprized the youth exceedingly, but
was exactly accomplished, for he became an eminent and faithful minister
at that place.

Such as would see more of Mr Davidson's faithful labours in the work of
the ministry may consult the apologetical relation, § 2. p. 30. and
Calderwood, p. 310,--373.

_The Life of Mr. WILLIAM ROW._

He was a son of Mr. John Row minister at Perth, who gave him a very
liberal education under his own eye. He was settled minister at
Strathmiglo, in the shire of Fyfe, about the year 1600, and continued
there for several years.

He was one of those ministers who refused to give public thanks for the
king's deliverance from his danger in Gowrie's conspiracy, until the
truth of that conspiracy was made to appear. This refusal brought upon
him the king's displeasure; he was summoned to appear before the king
and council at Stirling, soon after. On the day appointed for his
compearance, two noblemen were sent, the one before the other, to meet
him on the road, and, under the pretence of friendship, to inform him,
that the council had a design upon his life, that he might be prevailed
on to decline going up to the council; the first met him nigh his own
house, the second a few miles from Stirling, but Mr. Row told them, that
he would not, by disobedience to the summons, make himself justly liable
to the pains of law, and proceeded to Stirling, to the amazement of the
king and his court. When challenged for disbelieving the truth of that
conspiracy, he told them, That one reason of his hesitation was, That
one Henderson, who was said to have confessed that Gowrie hired him to
kill the king, and to have been found armed in his majesty's chamber for
that purpose, was, not only suffered to live, but rewarded; whereas,
said he, "if I had seen the king's life in hazard, and not ventured my
life to rescue him, I think, I deserved not to live."

The two following anecdotes will show what an uncommon degree of courage
and resolution he possessed.

Being at Edinburgh, before the assembly there, at which the king wanted
to bring in some innovation, and meeting with Mr. James Melvil, who was
sent for by the king, he accompanied him to Holyrood-house. While Mr.
Melvil was with the king, Mr. Row stood behind a screen, and not getting
an opportunity to go out with his brother undiscovered, he overheard the
king say to some of his courtiers, "This is a good simple man, I have
stroked cream on his mouth, and he will procure me a good number of
voters, I warrant you." This said, Mr. Row got off, and overtaking Mr.
Melvil, asked him, what had passed? Mr. Melvil told him all, and said,
The king is well disposed to the church, and intend to do her good by
all his schemes. Mr. Row replied, The king looks upon you as a fool and
a knave, and wants to use you us a coy duck to draw in others, and told
him what he had overheard. Mr. Melvil suspecting the truth of this
report, Mr. Row offered to go with him, and avouch it to the king's
face; accordingly, they went back to the palace, when Mr. Melvil seeing
Mr. Row as forward to go in as he was, believed his report and stopped
him: And next day, when the assembly proceeded to voting, Mr. Melvil
having voted against what the king proponed, his majesty would not
believe that such was his vote, till he, being asked again, did repeat

Again, he being to open the synod of Perth, _anno_ 1607, to which King
James sent Lord Scoon captain of his guards, to force them to accept a
constant moderator, Scoon sent notice to Mr. Row, That if, in his
preaching, he uttered ought against constant moderators, he should
cause ten or twelve of his guards discharge their culverins at his nose;
and when he attended the sermon which preceded that synod, he stood up
in a menacing posture to outbrave the preacher. But Mr. Row no way
dismayed, knowing what vices Scoon was chargeable with, particularly
that he was a great belly-god, drew his picture so like the life, and
condemned what was culpable in it with so much severity, that Scoon
thought fit to sit down, and even to cover his face. After which Mr. Row
proceeded to prove that no constant moderator ought to be suffered in
the church, but knowing that Scoon understood neither Latin nor Greek,
he wisely avoided naming the constant moderator in English, but always
gave the Greek or Latin name for it. Sermon being ended, Scoon said to
some of the nobles attending him, You see I have scared the preacher
from meddling with the constant moderator, but I wonder who he spoke so
much against by the name of _præstes ad vitam_. They told him, That it
was in Greek and Latin the constant moderator; which so incensed him,
that when Mr. Row proceeded to constitute the synod in the name of our
Lord Jesus Christ, Scoon said, The devil a Jesus is here, and when Mr.
Row called over the roll to choose their moderator after the ancient
form, Scoon would have pulled it from him; but he, being a strong man,
held off Scoon with the one hand, and holding the synod-roll in the
other, called out the names of the members.

After this, Mr. Row was put to the horn, and on the 11th of June
following, he and Mr. Henry Livingstone the moderator were summoned
before the council, to answer for their proceedings at the synod
above-mentioned. Mr. Livingston compeared, and with great difficulty
obtained the favour to be warded in his own parish; but Mr. Row being
advised not to compear unless the council would relax him from the
horning, and make him free of the Scoon-comptrollers, who had letters of
caption to apprehend him, and to commit him to Blackness. This was
refused, and a search made for him, which obliged him to abscond and
lurk among his friends for a considerable time.

He was subjected to several other hardships during the remainder of his
life, but still maintained that steady faithfulness and courage in the
discharge of his duty, which is exemplified in the above instances,
until the day of his death, of which we have no certain account.

_The Life of Mr. ANDREW MELVIL._

Mr. Melvil, after finishing his classical studies, went abroad, and
taught, for some time, both at Poictiers in France, and at Geneva. He
returned to Scotland in July 1574, after having been absent from his
native country near ten years. Upon his return, the learned Beza, in a
letter to the general assembly of the church of Scotland, said, "That
the greatest token of affection the kirk of Geneva could show to
Scotland, was, that they had suffered themselves to be spoiled of Mr.
Andrew Melvil."

Soon after his return, the general assembly appointed him to be the
principal of the college of Glasgow, where he continued for some years.
In the year 1576, the earl of Morton being then regent, and thinking to
bring Mr. Melvil into his party, who were endeavouring to introduce
episcopacy, he offered him the parsonage of Govan, a benefice of
twenty-four chalders of grain, yearly, beside what he enjoyed as
principal, providing he would not insist against the establishment of
bishops, but Mr. Melvil rejected his offer with scorn.

He was afterwards transported to St. Andrews, where he served in the
same station he had done at Glasgow, and was likewise a minister of that
city. Here he taught the divinity class, and as a minister continued to
witness against the incroachments then making upon the rights of the
church of Christ.

When the general assembly sat down at Edinburgh, _anno_ 1582, Mr. Melvil
inveighed against the absolute authority, which was making its way into
the church, whereby he said, they intended to pull the crown from
Christ's head, and wrest the sceptre out of his hand, and when several
articles, of the same tenor with his speech, were presented by the
commission of the assembly, to the king and council, craving redress,
the earl of Arran cried out, "Is there any here that dare subscribe
these articles." Mr. Melvil went forward and said, "We dare, and will
render our lives in the cause," and then took up the pen and subscribed.
We do not find that any disagreeable consequences ensued at this time.

But in the beginning of February 1584, he was summoned to appear before
the secret council on the 11th of that month, to answer for some things
said by him in a sermon on a fast day from Dan. iv. At his first
compearance, he made a verbal defence, but being again called, he gave
in a declaration with a declinature, importing that he had said nothing
either in that or any other sermon tending to dishonour the king, but
had regularly prayed for the preservation and prosperity of his majesty;
that, as by acts of parliament and laws of the church, he should be
tried for his doctrine by the church, he therefore protested for, and
craved a trial by them, and particularly in the place (St Andrews) where
the offence was alledged to have been committed; that as there were
special laws in favour of St. Andrews to the above import, he
particularly claimed the privilege of them; he farther protested that
what he had said was warranted by the word of God; that he appealed to
the congregation who heard the sermon; that he craved to know his
accusers; that if the calumny was found to be false, the informers might
be punished; that the rank and character of the informer might be
considered, _&c. &c._: After which he gave an account of the sermon in
question, alledging that his meaning had been misunderstood, and his
words perverted.

When he had closed his defence, the king and the earl of Arran, who was
then chancellor, raged exceedingly against him. Mr. Melvil remained
undisquieted, and replied, that they were too bold in a constitute
Christian kirk to pass by the pastors, &c. and to take upon them to
judge the doctrine, and controul the messengers of a greater than any
present; "that you may see your rashness in taking upon you that which
you neither ought nor can do, (taking out a small Hebrew Bible and
laying it down before them,) there are," said he, "my instructions and
warrant,--see if any of you can controul me, that I have passed my
injunctions." The chancellor, opening the book, put it into the king's
hand, saying, "Sire, he scorneth your majesty and the council." "Nay,"
said Mr. Melvil, "I scorn not, but I am in good earnest." He was, in the
time of this debate, frequently removed and instantly recalled, that he
might not have time to consult with his friends. They proceeded against
him, and admitted his avowed enemies to prove the accusation. Though the
whole train of evidence, which was led, proved little or nothing against
him, yet they resolved to involve him in troubles, because he had
declined their authority, as incompetent judges of doctrine, and
therefore remitted him to ward in the castle of Edinburgh, during the
king's will. Being informed, that, if he entered into ward, he would not
be released, unless it should be to bring him to the scaffold, that the
decree of the council was altered, and Blackness was appointed for his
prison, which was kept by some dependants on the earl of Arran, he
resolved to get out of the country. A macer gave him a charge, to enter
Blackness in 24 hours: and, in the mean while, some of Arran's horsemen
were attending at the west-port to convoy him thither: But, by the time
he should have entered Blackness, he had reached Berwick. Messrs. Lawson
and Balcanquhal gave him the good character he deserved, and prayed
earnestly for him in public, in Edinburgh, which both moved the people
and galled the court exceedingly.

After the storm had abated, he returned to St. Andrews in 1586, when the
synod of Fife had excommunicated P. Adamson, pretended bishop of St.
Andrews, on account of some immoralities. He (Adamson) having drawn up
the form of an excommunication against Messrs. Andrew and James Melvils,
and sent out a boy, with some of his own creatures, to the kirk to read
it, but the people paying no regard to it, the bishop (though both
suspended and excommunicated) would himself go to the pulpit to preach,
whereupon some gentlemen &c. in town conveened in the new college to
hear Mr. Melvil. But the bishop being informed that they were assembled
on purpose to put him out of the pulpit and hang him, for fear of which,
he called his friends together, and betook himself to the steeple; but
at the entreaty of the magistrates and others he retired home.

This difference with the bishop brought the Melvils again before the
king and council, who (pretending that there was no other method to end
that quarrel,) ordained Mr. Andrew to be confined to the Mearns, Angus,
&c. under pretext that he would be useful in that country in
reclaiming papists. And, because of his sickly condition, Mr. James was
sent back to the new college; and, the university sending the dean of
faculty, and the masters, with a supplication to the king in Mr.
Andrew's behalf, he was suffered to return, but was not restored to his
place and office until the month of August following.

The next winter, he laboured to give the students in divinity, under his
care, a thorough knowledge of the discipline and government of the
church, which was attended with considerable success; the specious
arguments of episcopacy evanished, and the serious part both of the
town and university repaired to the college to hear him, and Mr. Robert
Bruce, who began preaching about this time.

After this he was chosen moderator in some subsequent assemblies of the
church, in which several acts were made in favours of religion, as
maintained in that period.

When the king brought home his queen from Denmark _anno_ 1590, Mr.
Melvil made an excellent oration, upon the occasion in Latin, which so
pleased the king, that he publicly declared, he had therein both
honoured him and his country, and that he should never be forgot; yet
such was the instability of this prince, that, in a little after this,
because Mr. Melvil opposed himself unto his arbitrary measures, in
grasping after an absolute authority over the church[42], he conceived a
daily hatred against him ever after, as will appear from the sequel.

When Mr. Melvil went, with some other ministers, to the convention of
estates at Falkland _anno_ 1596, (wherein they intended to bring home
the excommunicated lords who were then in exile), and though he had a
commission from last assembly, to watch against every imminent danger
that might threaten the church, yet, whenever he appeared upon the head
of the ministers, the king asked him, Who sent for him there? To which
he resolutely answered, "Sire, I have a call to come here from Christ
and his church, who have a special concern in what you are doing here,
and in direct opposition to whom, ye are all here assembled; but be ye
assured, that no counsel taken against him shall prosper, and I charge
you, Sire, in his name, that you, nor your estates here conveened,
favour not God's enemies whom he hateth." After he had said this,
turning himself to the rest of the members, he told them, that they were
assembled with a traiterous design against Christ, his church, and their
native country. In the midst of this speech, he was commanded by the
king to withdraw.

The commission of the general assembly was now sitting, and
understanding how matters were going on at the convention, they sent
some of their members, among whom Mr. Melvil was one, to expostulate
with the king. When they came, he received them in his closet. Mr. James
Melvil being first in the commission, told the king his errand, upon
which he appeared angry, and charged them with sedition, &c. Mr. James
being a man of cool passion and genteel behaviour, began to answer the
king with great reverence and respect; but Mr. Andrew, interrupting him,
said, "This is not a time to flatter, but to speak plainly, for our
commission is from the living God, to whom the king is subject;" and
then approaching the king, said, "Sire, we will always humbly reverence
your majesty in public, but having opportunity of being with your
majesty in private, we must discharge our duty or else be enemies to
Christ: and now, Sire, I must tell you, that there are two kingdoms, the
kingdom of Christ, which is the church, whose subject K. James VI. is,
and of whose kingdom he is not a head, nor a lord, but a member, and
they, whom Christ hath called, and commanded to watch over his church,
and govern his spiritual kingdom, have sufficient authority and power
from him so to do, which no Christian king nor prince should controul or
discharge, but assist and support, otherwise they are not faithful
subjects to Christ; and, Sire, when you was in your swaddling clothes,
Christ reigned freely in this land; in spight of all his enemies, his
officers and ministers were conveened for ruling his church, which was
ever for your welfare, &c. Will you now challenge Christ's servants,
your best and most faithful subjects, for conveening together, and for
the care they have of their duty to Christ and you, &c. the wisdom of
your council is, that you may be served with all sorts of men, that you
may come to your purpose, and because the ministers and protestants of
Scotland are strong, they must be weakened and brought low, by stirring
up a party against them, but, Sire, this is not the wisdom of God, and
his curse must light upon it, whereas, in cleaving to God, his servants
shall be your true friends, and he shall compel the rest to serve you."
There is little difficulty to conjecture how this discourse was relished
by the king; however, he kept his temper, and promised fair things to
them for the present, but it was the word of him whose standard maxim
was, _Qui nescit dissimulare, nescit regnare_, "He who knows not how to
dissemble, knows not how to reign:" In this sentiment, unworthy of the
meanest among men, he gloried, and made it his constant rule of conduct;
for in the assembly at Dundee _anno_ 1598, Mr. Melvil being there, he
discharged him from the assembly, and would not suffer business to go on
till he was removed.

There are other instances of the magnanimity of this faithful witness of
Christ, which are worthy of notice. In the year 1606, when he and seven
of his brethren, who stood most in the way of having prelacy advanced in
Scotland, were called up to England, under pretence of having a hearing
granted them by the king, &c. with respect to religion, but rather to
be kept out of the way, as the event afterwards proved, until episcopacy
should be better established in this kingdom. Soon after their arrival
they were examined by the king and council at Hampton-court on the 20th
of September, concerning the lawfulness of the late assembly at
Aberdeen. The king, in particular, asked Mr. Melvil, whether a few
clergy, meeting without moderator or clerk, could make an assembly? He
replied, there was no number limited by law; that fewness of number
could be no argument against the legality of the court, especially when
the promise was, in God's word, given to two or three conveened in the
name of Christ; that the meeting was an ordinary established by his
majesty's laws. The rest of the ministers delivered themselves to the
same purpose; after which Mr. Melvil, with his usual freedom of speech,
supported the conduct of his brethren at Aberdeen; recounted the wrongs
done them at Linlithgow, whereof he was a witness himself; he blamed the
king's advocate, Sir Thomas Hamilton, who was then present, for
favouring popery, and mal-treating the ministers, so that the accuser of
the brethren could not have done more against the saints of God than had
been done; the prelatists were encouraged, though some of them were
promoting the interest of Popery with all their might, and the faithful
servants of Christ were shut up in prison; and addressing the advocate,
personally, he added, "Still you think all this is enough, but continue
to persecute the brethren with the same spirit you did in Scotland."
After some conversation betwixt the king and arch-bishop of Canterbury,
they were dismissed with the applause of many present, for their bold
and steady defence of the cause of God and truth, for they had been much
misrepresented to the English. They had scarce retired from before the
king, until they received a charge not to return to Scotland, nor come
near the king's, queen's or princes court, without special licence and
being called for. A few days after, they were again called to court, and
examined before a select number of the Scots nobility, where, after Mr.
James Melvil's examination[43], Mr. Andrew being called, told them
plainly, "That they knew not what they were doing; they had degenerated
from the ancient nobility of Scotland, who were wont to hazard their
lives and lands for the freedom of their country, and the gospel which
they were betraying and overturning:" But night drawing on, they were

Another instance of his resolution is, that, when called before the
council for having made a Latin epigram[44], upon seeing the king and
queen making an offering at the altar (whereon were two books, two
basons, and two candlesticks with two unlighted candles, it being a day
kept in honour of St. Michael); when he compeared, he avowed the verses,
and said, "He was much moved with indignation at such vanity and
superstition in a Christian church, under a Christian king, born and
brought up under the pure light of the gospel, and especially before
idolators, to confirm them in idolatry, and grieve the hears of true
professors," The bishop of Canterbury began to speak, but Mr. Melvil
charged him with a breach of the Lord's day, with imprisoning, silencing
and bearing down of faithful ministers, and with upholding antichristian
hierarchy and popish ceremonies; and, shaking the white sleeve of his
rochet, he called them Romish, rags, and told him, That he was an avowed
enemy to all the reformed churches in Europe, and therefore he (Mr.
Melvil) would profess himself an enemy to him in all such proceedings,
to the effusion of the last drop of his blood; and said, he was grieved
to the heart to see such a man have the king's ear, and sit so high in
that honourable council. He also charged bishop Barlow with having said,
after the conference at Hampton-court, That the king had said, he was in
the church of Scotland, but not of it; and wondered that he was suffered
to go unpunished, for making the king of no religion. He refuted his
sermon which had been preached before; and was at last removed, and
order was given to Dr. Overwall dean of St. Pauls to receive him to his
house, there to remain, with injunctions not to let any have access to
him, till his majesty's pleasure was signified. Next year he was ordered
from the dean's house to the bishop of Winchester's, where, not being so
strictly guarded, he sometimes kept company with his brethren, but was
at last committed to the tower of London, where he remained for the
space of four years.

While he was in the tower, a gentleman of his acquaintance got access to
him, and found him very pensive and melancholy concerning the prevailing
defections amongst many of the ministers of Scotland, and, having lately
got account of their proceedings at the general assembly held at
Glasgow, _anno_ 1610, where the earl of Dunbar had an active hand in
corrupting many with money; the gentleman, desiring to know what word he
had to send to his native country, got no answer at first, but, upon a
second enquiry, he said, "I have no word to send, but am heavily
grieved, that the glorious government of the church of Scotland should
be so defaced, and a popish tyrannical one set up; and thou, Manderston,
(for out of that family Dunbar had sprung), hadst thou no other thing to
do, but to carry such commissions down to Scotland, whereby the poor
church is wrecked, the Lord shall be avenged on thee; thou shalt never
have that grace to set thy foot in that kingdom again." These last words
impressed the gentleman to that degree, that he desired some who
attended the court, to get some business, which was managing through
Dunbar's interest, expeded without any delay, being persuaded that the
word of that servant of Christ should not fall to the ground, which was
the case, for that earl died at Whitehall a short time after, while he
was building an elegant house at Berwick, and making grand preparations
for his daughter's marriage with Lord Walden.

In 1611, after four years confinement, Mr. Melvil was, by the interest
of the duke of Bolloigne, released, on condition that he would go with
him to the university of Sedan, where he continued, enjoying that calm
repose denied him in his own country, but maintaining his usual
constancy and faithfulness in the service of Christ, which he had done
through the whole of his life.

The reader will readily observe, that a high degree of fortitude and
boldness appeared in all his actions; where the honour of his Lord and
Master was concerned, the fear of man made no part of his character. He
is by Spotswood styled the principal agent or apostle of the
presbyterians in Scotland[45]. He did indeed assert the rights of
presbytery to the utmost of his power against diocesan episcopacy; he
possessed great presence of mind, and was superior to all the arts of
flattery, that were sometimes tried with him; he was once blamed, as
being too fiery in his temper, he replied, "If you see my fire go
downward, set your foot upon it, but if it goes upward, let it go to its
own place." He died at Sedan in France, in a few years after.

_The Life of Mr. PATRICK SIMPSON._

Mr. Simpson, after having finished his academical course, spent some
considerable time in retirement, which he employed in reading the Greek
and Latin classics, the antient Christian fathers, and the history of
the primitive church. Being blamed by one of his friends for wasting so
much time in the study of pagan writers, he replied, That he intended to
adorn the house of God with these Egyptian jewels.

He was first ordained minister at Cramond, but was afterwards
transported to Stirling, where he continued until his death. He was a
faithful contender against the lordly encroachments of prelacy. In the
year 1584, when there was an express charge given by the king to the
ministers, either to acknowledge Mr. Patrick Adamson as arch-bishop of
St. Andrews, or else to lose their benefices, Mr. Simpson opposed that
order with all his power, although Mr. Adamson was his uncle by the
mother's side; and when some of his brethren seemed willing to acquiesce
in the king's mandate, and subscribe their submission to Adamson, so far
as it was agreeable to the word of God, he rebuked them sharply, saying,
It would be no salvo to their consciences, seeing it was altogether
absurd to subscribe an agreement with any human invention, when it was
condemned by the word of God. A bishopric was offered him, and an yearly
pension besides from the king, in order to bring him into his designs,
but he positively refused all, saying, That he regarded that preferment
and profit as a bribe to enslave his conscience, which was dearer to him
than any thing whatever; he did not stop with this, but having occasion
_anno_ 1593, to preach before the king, he publicly exhorted him to
beware that he drew not the wrath of God upon himself in patronizing a
manifest breach of divine laws: Immediately after sermon, the king stood
up and charged him not to intermeddle in these matters.

When the assembly which was held at Aberdeen _anno_ 1684, was condemned
by the state, and in a very solemn manner denounced the judgment of God
against all such as had been concerned in distressing, and imprisoning
the ministers of Linlithgow, who maintained the lawfulness and justified
the conduct of that assembly, and the protestation given in to the
parliament in 1606, which did many things to the further establishment
of prelacy. This protestation[46] was wrote by him, and delivered out of
his own hands to the earl of Dunbar.

He was not more distinguished for zeal in the cause of Christ, than for
piety and an exemplary life, which had a happy effect upon the people
with whom he stood connected. He was in a very eminent degree blessed
with the spirit and return of prayer; the following fact attested by
old Mr. Row of Carnock, shews how much of the divine countenance he had
in his duty:--His wife, Martha Baron, a woman of singular piety, fell
sick, and, under her indisposition, was strongly assaulted by the
common enemy of salvation; suggesting to her, that she should be
delivered up to him, which soon brought her into a very distracted
condition, and continued, for some time, increasing; she broke forth
into very dreadful expressions:--She was in one of these fits of
despair, one Sabbath morning, when Mr. Simpson was going to preach; he
was exceedingly troubled at her condition, and went to prayer, which
she took no notice of. After he had done, he turned to the company
present, and said, That they who had been witnesses to that sad hour,
should yet see a gracious work of God on her, and that the devil's
malice against that poor woman, should have a shameful foil. Her
distraction continued for some days after. On a Tuesday morning, about
day-break, he went into his garden as private as possible, and one Helen
Gardiner, wife to one of the baillies of the town, a godly woman, who
had sate up that night with Mrs. Simpson, being concerned at the
melancholy condition he was in, climbed over the garden wall, to observe
him in this retirement, but, coming near the place where he was, she was
terrified with a noise which she heard, as of the rushing of multitudes
of people together, with a most melodious sound intermixed; she fell on
her knees and prayed that the Lord would pardon her rashness, which her
regard for his servant had caused. Afterwards, she went forward, and
found him lying on the ground; she intreated him to tell her what had
happened unto him, and, after many promises of secrecy, and an
obligation, that she should not reveal it in his life-time, but, if she
survived him, she should be at liberty, he then said, "O! what am I!
being but dust and ashes! that holy ministring spirits should be sent
with a message to me!" And then told her, That he had had a vision of
angels, who gave him an audible answer from the Lord, respecting his
wife's condition; and then, returning to the house, he said to the
people who attended his wife, "Be of good comfort, for I am sure that
ere ten hours of the day, that brand shall be plucked out of the fire."
After which he went to prayer, at his wife's bed-side;--she continued
for some time quiet, but, upon his mentioning Jacob wrestling with God,
she sat up in the bed, drew the curtain aside, and said, "Thou art this
day a Jacob, who hast wrestled and hast prevailed, and now God hath made
good his word, which he spoke this morning to you, for I am pluckt out
of the hands of Satan, and he shall have no power over me." This
interruption made him silent for a little, but afterwards, with great
melting of heart, he proceeded in prayer, and magnified the riches of
grace towards him. From that hour she continued to utter nothing but the
language of joy and comfort, until her death, which was on the Friday
following, August 13th, 1601.

Mr. Simpson lived for several years after this, fervent and faithful in
the work of the ministry. In the year 1608 when the bishops and some
commissioners of the general assembly conveened in the palace of
Falkland, the ministers assembled in the kirk of the town, and chose him
for their moderator; After which they spent some time in prayer, and
tasted some of the comfort of their former meetings. They then agreed
upon some articles for concord and peace to be given into the bishops,
&c.----This Mr. Simpson and some others did in the name of the rest,
but the bishops shifted them off to the next assembly, and in the mean
time, took all possible precautions to strengthen their own party, which
they effected.

In 1610, the noblemen and bishops came to Stirling, after dissolving the
assembly. In preaching before them, he openly charged the bishops with
perjury and gross defection. They hesitated for some time, whether they
should delate him, or compound the matter:--But, after deliberation,
they dropt the affair altogether for the present.----There is no reason
to doubt but he would have been subjected to the same sufferings with
many others of his brethren, had he lived, but before the cope-stone was
laid on prelacy in Scotland, he had entered into the joy of his
Lord.----For, in the month of March 1618, which was about four months
before the Perth assembly, when the five articles were agreed upon[47],
he said that this month should put an end to all his troubles, and he
accordingly died about the end of it, blessing the Lord, that he had not
been perverted by the sinful courses of these times; and said, As the
Lord had said to Elijah in the wilderness, so, in some respects he had
dealt with him all the days of his life.

He wrote a history of the church, for the space of about ten centuries.
There are some other little tracts, besides a history of the councils of
the church, which are nearly out of print altogether. Upon some of his
books he had written, "Remember, O my soul, and never forget the 9th of
August, what consolation the Lord gave thee, and how he performed what
he spake according to Zech. iii. 2, _Is not this a brand pluckt out of
the fire?_" &c.

_The Life of Mr. ANDREW DUNCAN._

Mr. Duncan was settled minister at Crail, in the shire of Fyfe, and was
afterwards summoned before the high commission court at St. Andrews, in
the year 1619. on account of his faithfulness in opposing the five
articles of Perth. At the first time of his compearance, he declined
their authority; and at the second, he adhered to his former
declinature, upon which the high commission court passed the sentence of
deposition against him, and ordained him to enter himself in ward at
Dundee. After the sentence was pronounced, he gave in a protestation,
which was as follows, "Now, seeing I have done nothing of this business,
whereof I have been accused by you, but have been serving Jesus Christ
my master in rebuking vice, in simplicity and righteousness of heart. I
protest (seeing ye have done me wrong) for a remedy at God's hand, the
righteous Judge, and summon you before his dreadful judgment-seat, to be
censured and punished for such unrighteous dealings, at such a time as
his majesty shall think expedient, and, in the mean time decline this
your judgment _simpliciter_ now as before, and appeal to the ordinary
assembly of the church, for reasons before produced in write. Pity
yourselves for the Lord's sake; lose not your own dear souls, I beseech
you for Esau's pottage: Remember Balaam, who was cast away by the deceit
of the wages of unrighteousness; forget not how miserable Judas was, who
lost himself for a trifle of money, that never did him good. Better be
pined to death by hunger, than for a little pittance of the earth, to
perish for ever, and never be recovered, so long as the days of heaven
shall last, and the years of eternity shall endure. Why should ye
distress your own brethren, sons and servants of the Lord Jesus; this is
not the doing of the shepherds of the flock of Christ: if ye will not
regard your souls nor consciences, look I beseech you, to your fame, why
will ye be miserable both in this life and in the life to come."

When the bishop of St. Andrews had read some few lines of this
admonition, he cast it from him, the bishop of Dumblane took it up, and
reading it, said he, calls them Esau's, Balaams and Judases "Not so,
said Mr. Duncan, read again, beware that ye be not like them." In the
space of a month after, he was deposed for non-conformity.

In the month of July 1621, he presented a large supplication, in name of
himself, and some of his faithful brethren, who had been excluded the
general assembly, to Sir George Hay clerk register, on which account he
was in a few days after, apprehended by the captain of the guards, and
brought before the council, who accused him for breaking ward, after he
was suspended and confined to Dundee, because he had preached the week
before at Crail. Mr. Duncan denied that he had been put to the horn; and
as for breaking ward, he said, That, for the sake of obedience, he staid
at Dundee, separated from a wife and six children for a half a year, and
the winter approaching forced him to go home. In the end, he requested
them not to imprison him on his own charges, but the sentence had been
resolved on before he compeared. He was conveyed to Dumbarton castle
next day (some say to Blackness castle); here he remained until the
month of October thereafter, when he was again brought before the
council, and by them was confined to Kilrinnie, upon his own charges;
This was a parish neighbouring to his own.

Upon another occasion, of the same nature with this just now narrated,
this worthy man was banished out of the kingdom, and went to settle at
Berwick, but having several children, and his wife big with another,
they were reduced to great hardships, being obliged to part with their
servant, they had scarcely subsistence sufficient for themselves. One
night in particular, the children asking for bread, and there being none
to give them, they cried very sore; the mother was likewise much
depressed in spirit, for Mr. Duncan had resource sometimes to prayer,
and in the intervals endeavoured to cherish his wife's hope, and please
the children, and at last got them to bed, but she continued to mourn
heavily. He exhorted her to wait patiently upon God, who was now trying
them, but would undoubtedly provide for them, and added, that if the
Lord should rain down bread from heaven, they should not want. This
confidence was the more remarkable, because they had neither friend nor
acquaintance in that place to whom they could make their case known. And
yet before morning, a man brought them a sackful of provision, and went
off without telling them from whence it came, though entreated to do it.
When Mr. Duncan opened the sack, he found in it a bag with twenty pounds
Scots, two loaves of bread, a bag of flour, another of barley and
such-like provisions; and having brought the whole to his wife, he said,
"See what a good master I serve." After this she hired a servant again,
but was soon reduced to a new extremity; the pains of child-bearing came
upon her, before she could make any provision for her delivery, but
providence interposed on their behalf at this time also: While she
travailed in the night-season, and the good man knew not where to apply
for a midwife, a gentlewoman came early in the morning riding to the
door, and having sent her servant back with the horse, with orders when
to return. She went in, and asked the maid of the house, How her
mistress was, and desired access to her, which she obtained; she first
ordered a good fire to be made, and ordered Mrs. Duncan to rise, and
without any other assistance than the house afforded, she delivered her,
and afterwards accommodated Mrs. Duncan and the child with abundance of
very fine linen, which she had brought along with her. She gave her
likewise a box, containing some necessary cordials and five pieces of
gold, bidding them both be of good comfort, for they should not want.
After which, she went away on the horse, which was by this time
returned for her, but would not tell her name, nor from whence she

Thus did God take his own servant under his immediate care and
providence, when men had wrongfully excluded him from enjoying his
worldly comforts. He continued zealous and stedfast in the such, and, to
the end of his life, his conduct was uniform with the circumstances of
this narrative.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN SCRIMZEOR._

He was settled minister at Kinghorn, in the shire of Fyfe, and went as
chaplain with King James in the year 1590, to Denmark, when he brought
home his queen. He was afterwards concerned in several important affairs
of the church, until that fatal year 1618, when the five articles of
Perth were agreed on in an assembly held at that place. He attended at
this assembly, and gave in some proposals[48], upon being (along with
others of his faithful brethren) excluded from having a vote by the
prevailing party of that assembly.

In 1620, he was with some others, summoned before the high
commission-court, for not preaching upon holy days, and not administring
the communion conform to the agreement at Perth, with certification if
this was proven, that he should be deprived of exercising the functions
of a minister in all time coming. But there being none present on the
day appointed, except the bishops of St. Andrews, Glasgow and the isles,
and Mr. Walter Whiteford, they were dismissed at that time; but were
warned to compear again on the first of March. The bishops caused the
clerk to exact their consent to deprivation, in case they did not
compear against that day. Nevertheless, they all protested with one
voice, That they would never willingly renounce their ministry, and such
was the resolution and courage of Mr. Scrimzeor, that notwithstanding
all the threatening of the bishops, he celebrated the communion conform
to the antient practice of the church, a few days thereafter.

On the day appointed for their next compearance, the bishops of St.
Andrews, Dunkeld, Galloway, the isles, Dumblain, Mr. Hewison commissary
of Edinburgh, and Dr. Blair, being assembled in the bishop of St.
Andrews lodging in Edinburgh, Mr. John Scrimzeor was again called upon
to answer, and the bishop of St. Andrews alleged against him, that he
had promised either to conform or quit his ministry, as the act at his
last compearance on January 26th reported; he replied, "I am fore
straitned, I never saw reason to conform; and as for my ministry, it was
not mine and so I could not quit it." After long reasoning betwixt him
and the bishops, concerning church policy and the keeping of holy days,
he was removed for a little. Being called in again, the bishop of St.
Andrews told him, "You are deprived of all function within the kirk, and
ordained within six days to enter in ward at Dundee." "It is a very
summary and peremptory sentence," said Mr. Scrimzeor, "ye might have
been advised better, and first have heard what I would have said." "You
shall be heard," said the bishop. This brought on some further
reasoning, in the course of which Mr. Scrimzeor gave a faithful
testimony against the king's supremacy over the church, and among other
things said, "I have had opportunity to reason with the king himself on
this subject, and have told him that Christ was the sovereign, and only
director of his house; and that his majesty was subject to him. I have
had occasion to tell other mens matters to the king, and could have
truly claimed this great preferment." "I tell you Mr. John," said the
bishop of St. Andrews, "that the king is pope, and shall be so now;" He
replied, "That is an evil style you give him:" And then gave in his
reasons in write, which they read at leisure. Afterwards the bishop of
St. Andrews said to him, "Take up your reasons again, if you will not
conform, I cannot help it; the king must be obeyed, the lords have given
sentence and will stand to it." "Ye cannot deprive me of my ministry,"
said Mr. Scrimzeor, "I received it not from you; I received it from the
whole synod of Fyfe, and, for any thing ye do, I will never think myself
deposed." The bishop of St. Andrews replied, "You are deprived only of
the present exercise of it."--Then he presented the following
protestation, "I protest before the Lord Jesus, that I get manifest
wrong; my reasons and allegations are not considered and answered. I
attest you to answer at his glorious appearance, for this and such
dealings, and protest that my cause should have been heard as I pled,
and still plead and challenge. I likewise appeal to the Lord Jesus, his
eternal word, to the king my dread sovereign, his law, to the
constitution of this kirk and kingdom, to the councils and assemblies of
both, and protest that I stand minister of the evangel, and only by
violence I am thrust from the same." "You must obey the sentence," said
the bishop of St. Andrews; he answered, "That Dundee was far off, and he
was not able for far journeys, as physicians can witness." And he added,
"Little know ye what is in my purse." "Then where will you choose the
place of your confinement," said the bishop: He answered, "At a little
room of my own called Bowhill, in the parish of Auchterderran." Then
said the bishop, "Write, At Bowhill, during the king's pleasure." Thus
this worthy servant of Christ lived the rest of his days in
Auchterderran. In his old age he was grievously afflicted with the
stone. He said to a godly minister, who went to see him a little before
his death, "I have been a rude stunkard all my life, and now by this
pain the Lord is humbling me to make me as a lamb, before he take me to

He was a man somewhat rude-like in his clothing, and in some of his
expressions and behaviour; and yet was a very loving tender hearted man;
of a deep natural judgment; and very learned, especially in Hebrew. He
often wished that most part of books were burnt, except the bible, and
some short notes thereon. He had a peculiar talent for comforting the
dejected. He used a very familiar but pressing manner of preaching. He
was also an eminent wrestler with God, and had more than ordinary power
and familiarity with him, as appears from the following instances.

When he was minister at Kinghorn, there was a certain godly woman under
his charge, who fell sick of a very lingering disease, and was all the
while assaulted with strong temptations, leading her to think that she
was a cast-away, notwithstanding that her whole conversation had put the
reality of grace in her beyond a doubt. He often visited her while in
this deep exercise, but her trouble and terrors still remained; as her
dissolution drew on, her spiritual trouble increased. He went with two
of his elders to her, and began first, in their presence, to comfort her
and pray with her, but she still grew worse: He ordered his elders to
pray, and afterwards prayed himself, but no relief came. Then sitting
pensive for a little space, he thus broke silence, "What is this! Our
laying grounds of comfort before her will not do; prayer will not do: We
must try another remedy. Sure I am, this is a daughter of Abraham; sure
I am, she hath sent for me, and therefore, in the name of God, the
Father of our Lord Jesus, who sent him to redeem sinners; in the name
of Jesus Christ, who obeyed the Father, and came to save us; and in the
name of the Holy and blessed Spirit, our Quickner and Sanctifier--I, the
elder, command thee, a daughter of Abraham, to be loosed from these
bonds." And immediately peace and joy ensued.

Mr. Scrimzeor had several friends and children taken away by death, and
his only daughter who, at that time survived (and whom he dearly loved),
being seized with the king's evil, by which she was reduced to the very
point of death, so that he was called up to see her die; and finding her
in this condition, he went out to the fields (as he himself told) in the
night-time, in great grief and anxiety, and began to expostulate with
the Lord, with such expressions as, for all the world, he durst not
again utter. In a fit of displeasure he said, "Thou, O Lord, knowest
that I have been serving thee in the uprightness of my heart, according
to my power and measure, nor have I stood in awe to declare thy mind
even unto the greatest in the time, and thou seest that I take pleasure
in this child. O that I could obtain such a thing at thy hand, as to
spare her." And being in great agony of spirit, at last it was said to
him from the Lord, "I have heard thee at this time, but use not the like
boldness in time coming, for such particulars." When he came home the
child was recovered, and, sitting up in the bed, took some meat, and
when he looked at her arm it was perfectly whole.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN WELCH._

Mr. John Welch was born a gentleman, his father being laird of Colieston
(an estate rather competent than large, in the shire of Nithsdale),
about the year 1570, the dawning of our reformation being then but dark.
He was a rich example of grace and mercy, but the night went before the
day, being a most hopeless extravagant boy: It was not enough to him,
frequently when he was a young stripling to run away from the school,
and play the truant; but, after he had past his grammar, and was come to
be a youth, he left the school, and his father's house, and went and
joined himself to the thieves on the English border, who lived by
robbing the two nations, and amongst them he stayed till he spent a suit
of clothes. Then when he was clothed only with rags, the prodigal's
misery brought him to the prodigal's resolution, so he resolved to
return to his father's house, but durst not adventure, till he should
enterpose a reconciler. In his return homeward, he took Dumfries in his
way, where he had an aunt, one Agnes Forsyth, and with her he spent some
days, earnestly intreating her to reconcile him to his father. While he
lurked in her house, his father came providentially to the house to
visit his cousin Mrs. Forsyth; and after they had talked a while, she
asked him, Whether ever he had heard any news of his son John; to her he
replied with great grief, O cruel woman, how can you name him to me? The
first news I expect to hear of him, is, That he is hanged for a thief.
She answered, Many a profligate boy had become a virtuous man, and
comforted him. He insisted upon his sad complaint, but asked, Whether
she knew his lost son was yet alive. She answered, Yes, he was, and she
hoped he should prove a better man than he was a boy, and with that she
called upon him to come to his father. He came weeping, and kneeled,
beseeching his father, for Christ's sake, to pardon his misbehaviour,
and deeply engaged to be a new man. His father reproached him and
threatened him. Yet at length, by his tears, and Mrs. Forsyth's
importunities, he was persuaded to a reconciliation. The boy entreated
his father to send him to the college, and there to try his behaviour,
and if ever thereafter he should break, he said, He should be content
his father should disclaim him for ever: So his father carried him home,
and put him to the college, and there he became a diligent student, of
great expectation, and shewed himself a sincere convert; and so he
proceeded to the ministry. His first settlement was at Selkirk, while he
was yet very young, and the country rude. While he was there, his
ministry was rather admired by some, than received by many; for he was
always attended by the prophet's shadow, the hatred of the wicked; yea,
even the ministers of that country, were more ready to pick a quarrel
with his person, than to follow his doctrine, as may appear to this day
in their synodal records, where we find he had many to censure him, and
only some to defend him; yet it was thought his ministry in that place
was not without fruit, though he stayed but short time there. Being a
young man unmarried, he boarded himself in the house of one Mitchelhill,
and took a young boy of his to be his bedfellow, who to his dying day
retained both a respect to Mr. Welch and his ministry, from the
impressions Mr. Welch's behaviour made upon his apprehension, though
but a child. His custom was when he went to bed at night, to lay a Scots
plaid above his bed-clothes, and when he went to his night-prayers, to
sit up and cover himself negligently therewith, and so to continue. For
from the beginning of his ministry to his death, he reckoned the day ill
spent if he stayed not seven or eight hours in prayer; and this the boy
did not forget even to old age.

An old man of the name of Ewart in Selkirk, who remembered Mr. Welch's
being in that place said, He was a type of Christ; an expression more
significant than proper, for his meaning was, That he was an example
that imitated Christ, as indeed in many things he did: He also said,
That his custom was to preach publicly once every day, and to spend his
whole time in spiritual exercises, that some in that place waited well
upon his ministry with great tenderness, but that he was constrained to
leave that place, because of the malice of the wicked.

The special cause of his departure was, a prophane gentleman in the
country (one Scot of Headschaw, whose family is now extinct), because
Mr. Welch had either reproved him, or merely from hatred, Mr. Welch was
most unworthily abused by the unhappy man, and among the rest of the
injuries he did him, this was one:--Mr. Welch kept always two good
horses for his own use, and the wicked gentleman, when he could do no
more, either with his own hand, or by his servants, cut off the rumps of
the two innocent beasts, upon which they both died. Such base usage as
this persuaded him to listen to a call to the ministry at Kirkcudbright,
which was his next post.

But when he was to leave Selkirk, he could not find a man in all the
town to transport his furniture, except only Ewart, who was at that time
a poor young man, but master of two horses, with which he transported
Mr. Welch's goods, and so left him; but as he took his leave, Mr. Welch
gave him his blessing, and a piece of gold for a token, exhorting him to
fear God, and promised he should never want, which promise, providence
made good through the whole course of the man's life, as was observed by
all his neighbours.

At Kirkcudbright he stayed not long; but there he reaped a harvest of
converts, which subsisted long after his departure, and were a part of
Mr. Samuel Rutherford's flock, though not his parish, while he was
minister at Anwoth. Yet when his call to Ayr came to him, the people of
the parish of Kirkcudbright never offered to detain him, so his
transportation to Ayr was the more easy.

While he was at Kirkcudbright, he met with a young man in scarlet and
silver lace (the gentleman's name was Mr. Robert Glendining) new come
home from his travels, he much surprised the young man by telling him,
he behoved to change his garb, and way of life, and betake himself to
the study of the scriptures, which at that time was not his business,
for he should be his successor in the ministry at Kirkcudbright, which
accordingly came to pass sometime thereafter.

Mr. Welch was transported to Ayr in the year 1590, and there he
continued till he was banished, there he had a very hard beginning, but
a very sweet end; for when he came first to the town, the country was so
wicked and the hatred of godliness so great, that there could not one in
all the town be found, who would let him a house to dwell in, so he was
constrained to accommodate himself the best he might, in a part of a
gentleman's house for a time; the gentleman's name was John Stuart
merchant, and sometime provost of Ayr, an eminent Christian, and great
assistant of Mr. Welch.

And when he had first taken up his residence in that town, the place was
so divided into factions, and filled with bloody conflicts, a man could
hardly walk the streets with safety; wherefore Mr. Welch made it his
first undertaking to remove the bloody quarrelings, but he found it a
very difficult work; yet such was his earnestness to pursue his design,
that many times he would rush betwixt two parties of men fighting, even
in the midst of blood and wounds. He used to cover his head with a
head-piece before he went to separate these bloody enemies, but would
never use a sword, that they might see he came for peace and not for
war, and so, by little and little, he made the town a peaceable

His manner was, after he had ended a skirmish amongst his neighbours,
and reconciled these bitter enemies, to cause cover a table upon the
street, and there brought the enemies together, and beginning with
prayer he persuaded them to profess themselves friends, then to eat and
drink together, then last of all he ended the work with singing a psalm:
For after the rude people began to observe his example, and listen to
his heavenly doctrine, he came quickly to that respect amongst them,
that he became not only a necessary counsellor, without whose council
they would do nothing, but an example to imitate.

He gave himself wholly to ministerial exercises, he preached once every
day, he prayed the third part of his time, was unwearied in his studies,
and for a proof of this, it was found among his papers, that he had
abridged Suarez's metaphysics when they came first to his hand, even
when he was well stricken in years. By all which it appears, that he has
not only been a man of great diligence, but also of a strong and robust
natural constitution, otherwise he had never endured the fatigue.

Sometimes, before he went to sermon, he would send for his elders and
tell them, he was afraid to go to pulpit; because he found himself sore
deserted: and thereafter desire one or more of them to pray, and then he
would venture to pulpit. But, it was observed, this humbling exercise
used ordinarily to be followed with a flame of extraordinary assistance:
So near neighbours are many times contrary dispositions and frames. He
would many times retire to the church of Ayr, which was at some distance
from the town, and there spend the whole night in prayer; for he used to
allow his affections full expression, and prayed not only with audible,
but sometimes a loud voice.

There was in Ayr before he came to it, an aged man, a minister of the
town, called Porterfield, the man was judged no bad man, for his
personal inclinations, but so easy a disposition, that he used many
times to go too great a length with his neighbours in many dangerous
practices; and amongst the rest, he used to go to the bow-butts and
archery, on the sabbath afternoon, to Mr. Welch's great dissatisfaction.
But the way he used to reclaim him was not bitter severity, but this
gentle policy; Mr. Welch together with John Stuart, and Hugh Kennedy,
his two intimate friends, used to spend the sabbath afternoon in
religious conference and prayer, and to this exercise they invited Mr.
Porterfield, which he could not refuse, by which means he was not only
diverted from his former sinful practice, but likewise brought to a more
watchful and edifying behaviour in his course of life.

While Mr. Welch was at Ayr, the Lord's day was greatly profaned at a
gentleman's house about eight miles distance from Ayr, by reason of
great confluence of people playing at the foot-ball, and other pastime.
After writing several times to him to suppress the profanation of the
Lord's day at his house, (which he slighted, not loving to be called a
puritan) Mr. Welch came one day to his gate and calling him out to tell
him, that he had a message from God to shew him, that because he had
slighted the advice given him from the Lord, and would not restrain the
profanation of the Lord's day committed in his bounds; therefore the
Lord would cast him out of his house, and none of his posterity should
enjoy it: which accordingly came to pass; for although he was in a good
external situation at this time; yet henceforth all things went against
him until he was obliged to sell his estate; and when giving the
purchaser possession thereof, he told his wife and children that he had
found Mr. Welch a true prophet[49].

He married Elizabeth Knox, daughter to the famous Mr. John Knox minister
at Edinburgh, and she lived with him from his youth till his death. By
her he had three sons[50].

As the duty wherein Mr. Welch abounded and excelled most in his prayer,
so his greatest attainments fell that way. He used to say, He wondered
how a Christian could ly in bed all night, and not rise to pray, and
many times he rose, and many times he watched. One night he rose from
his wife, and went into the next room, where he staid so long at secret
prayer, that his wife, fearing he might catch cold, was constrained to
rise and follow him, and, as she hearkened, she heard him speak as by
interrupted sentences, Lord, wilt thou not grant me Scotland, and after
a pause, Enough, Lord, enough; and so she returned to her bed, and he
following her, not knowing she had heard him, but when he was by her,
she asked him, What he meant by saying, Enough, Lord, enough? he shewed
himself dissatisfied with her curiosity, but told her, He had been
wrestling with the Lord for Scotland, and found there was a sad time at
hand, but that the Lord would be gracious to a remnant. This was about
the time when bishops first overspread the land, and corrupted the
church. This is more wonderful still, An honest minister, who was a
parishioner of Mr. Welch many a day, said, "That one night as he watched
in his garden very late, and some friends waiting upon him in his house,
and wearying because of his long stay, one of them chanced to open a
window toward the place where he walked, and saw clearly a strange light
surround him, and heard him speak strange words about his spiritual
joy." But though Mr. Welch had upon the account of his holiness,
abilities and success, acquired among his subdued people, a very great
respect, yet was he never in such admiration, as after the great plague
which raged in Scotland in his time.

And one cause was this: The magistrates of Ayr, forasmuch as this town
alone was free, and the country about infected, thought fit to guard the
ports with centinels and watchmen; and one day two travelling merchants,
each with a pack of cloth upon a horse, came to the town desiring
entrance that they might sell their goods, producing a pass from the
magistrates of the town from whence they came, which was at that time
sound and free; yet notwithstanding all this, the centinels stopt them
till the magistrates were called, and when they came they would do
nothing without their minister's advice; so Mr. Welch was called, and
his opinion asked: He demurred, and putting off his hat, with his eyes
towards heaven for a pretty space, though he uttered no audible words,
yet continued in a praying posture; and after a little space told the
magistrates, They would do well to discharge these travellers their
town, affirming, with great asseveration, the plague was in these packs,
so the magistrates commanded them to be gone, and they went to Cumnock,
a town about twenty miles distant, and there sold their goods, which
kindled such an infection in that place, that the living were hardly
able to bury their dead. This made the people begin to think of Mr.
Welch as an oracle: Yet, as he walked with God, and kept close with him,
so he forgot not man, for he used frequently to dine abroad with such of
his friends as he thought were persons with whom he might maintain the
communion of the saints; and once in the year, he used always to invite
all his familiar acquaintances in the town, to a treat in his house,
where there was a banquet of holiness and sobriety.

He continued the course of his ministry in Ayr, till king James's
purpose of destroying the church of Scotland, by establishing bishops
was ripe, and then it became his duty to edify the church by his
sufferings, as formerly he had done by his doctrine.

The reason why king James was so violent for bishops, was neither their
divine institution, which he denied they had, nor yet the profit the
church should reap by them, for he knew well both the men and their
communications, but merely because he believed they were useful
instruments to turn a limited monarchy into absolute dominion, and
subjects into slaves; the design in the world he minded most.

Always in the pursuit of his design, he followed this method; in the
first place, he resolved to destroy general assemblies, knowing well
that so long as assemblies might convene in freedom, bishops could never
get their designed authority in Scotland; and the dissolution of
assemblies he brought about in this manner.

The general assembly at Holyrood-house, _anno_ 1602, with the king's
consent, indict their next meeting to be kept at Aberdeen, the last
tuesday of July _anno_ 1604, and before that day came, the king by his
commissioner the laird of Laureston, and Mr. Patrick Galloway moderator
of the last general assembly, in a letter directed to the several
presbyteries, prorogued the meeting till the first tuesday of July
1605, at the same place; last of all, in June 1605, the expected meeting
to have been kept in July following, is by a new letter from the king's
commissioner, and the commissioners of the general assembly, absolutely
discharged and prohibited, but without naming any day or place, for any
other assembly; and so the series of our assemblies expired, never to
revive again in due form, till the covenant was renewed _anno_ 1638.
However, many of the godly ministers of Scotland, knowing well, if once
the hedge of the government was broken, the corruption of the doctrine
would soon follow, resolved not to quit their assemblies so. And
therefore a number of them convened at Aberdeen, upon the first tuesday
of July 1605, being the last day that was distinctly appointed by
authority; and when they had met, did no more but constitute themselves
and dissolve. Amongst those was Mr. Welch, who, though he had not been
present upon that precise day, yet because he came to the place, and
approved what his brethren had done, he was accused as guilty of the
treasonable fact committed by them. So dangerous a point was the name of
a general assembly in king James's jealous judgment.

Within a month after this meeting, many of these godly men were
incarcerate, some in one prison, some in another. Mr. Welch was sent
first to Edinburgh tolbooth, and then to Blackness; and so from prison
to prison, till he was banished to France, never to see Scotland again.

And now the scene of his life begins to alter; but, before his
sufferings, he had this strange warning.

After the meeting at Aberdeen was over, he retired immediately to Ayr;
and one night he rose from his wife, and went into his garden, as his
custom was, but stayed longer than ordinary, which troubled his wife,
who, when he returned, expostulated with him very hard for his staying
so long to wrong his health; he bid her be quiet, for it should be well
with them. But he knew well, he should never preach more at Ayr; and
accordingly, before the next sabbath, he was carried prisoner to
Blackness castle. After that, he, with many others, who had met at
Aberdeen, were brought before the council of Scotland at Edinburgh, to
answer for their rebellion and contempt, in holding a general assembly,
not authorized by the king. And because they declined the secret
council, as judges competent in causes purely spiritual, such as the
nature and constitution of a general assembly is, they were first
remitted to the prison at Blackness, and other places, and thereafter,
six of the most considerable of them, were brought under night from
Blackness to Linlithgow before the criminal judges, to answer an
accusation of high treason at the instance of Sir Thomas Hamilton the
king's advocate, for declining, as he alleged, the king's lawful
authority, in refusing to admit the council judges competent in the
cause of the nature of church judicatories; and, after their accusation
and answer was read, by the verdict of a jury of very considerable
gentlemen, they were condemned as guilty of high treason, the punishment
deferred till the king's pleasure should be known; and thereafter their
punishment was made banishment, that the cruel sentence might somewhat
seem to soften their severe punishment, as the king had contrived it.

While he was in Blackness, he wrote his famous letter to Lilias Graham
countess of Wigton; in which he utters, in the strongest terms, his
consolation in suffering; his desire to be dissolved, that he might be
with the Lord; the judgments he foresaw coming upon Scotland, &c. He
also seems most positively to shew the true cause of their sufferings,
and state of the testimony in these words:

"Who am I, that he should first have called me, and then constituted me
a minister of the glad tidings of the gospel of salvation these years
already, and now last of all to be a sufferer for his cause and kingdom.
Now, let it be so, that I have fought my fight, and run my race, and now
from henceforth is laid up for me that crown of righteousness, which the
Lord that righteous God will give, and not to me only, but to all that
love his appearance, and choose to witness this, that Jesus Christ is
the king of saints, and that his church is a most free kingdom, yea as
free as any kingdom under heaven, not only to convocate, hold, and keep
her meetings, and conventions and assemblies; but also to judge of all
her affairs, in all her meetings and conventions amongst her members and
subjects. These two points, 1. That Christ is the head of his church. 2.
That she is free in her government, from all other jurisdiction except
Christ's: These two points, I say, are the special cause of our
imprisonment; being now convict as traitors for the maintaining thereof.
We have been ever waiting with joyfulness to give the last testimony of
our blood in confirmation thereof, if it should please our God to be so
favourable as to honour us with that dignity; yea, I do affirm, that
these two points above-written, and all other things which belong to
Christ's crown, sceptre and kingdom, are not subject, nor cannot be, to
any other authority, but to his own altogether. So that I would be most
glad to be offered up as a sacrifice for so glorious a truth: It would
be to me the most glorious day, and the gladdest hour I ever saw in this
life; but I am in his hand to do with me whatsoever shall please his

"I am also bound and sworn, by a special covenant, to maintain the
doctrine and discipline thereof, according to my vocation and power all
the days of my life, under all the pains contained in the book of God,
and danger of body and soul, in the day of God's fearful judgment; and
therefore, though I should perish in the cause, yet will I speak for it,
and to my power defend it, according to my vocation."

He wrote about the same time to Sir William Livingston of Kilsyth: There
are some prophetical expressions in this letter that merit notice.

"As for that instrument Spotswood, we are sure the the Lord will never
bless that man, but a malediction lies upon him, and shall accompany all
his doings; and it may be, Sir, your eyes shall see as great confusion
covering him, ere he go to his grave, as ever did his predecessors. Now
surely, Sir, I am far from bitterness, but here I denounce the wrath of
an everlasting God against him, which assuredly shall fall, except it be
prevented. Sir, Dagon shall not stand before the ark of the Lord, and
these names of blasphemy that he wears of arch and lord bishop, will
have a fearful end. Not one book is to be given to Haman, suppose he
were as great a courtier as ever he was; suppose the decree was given
out, and sealed with the king's ring, deliverance will come to us
elsewhere, and not by him, who has been so sore an instrument, not
against our persons, that were nothing, (for I protest to you, Sir, in
the sight of God, I forgive him all the evil he has done, or can do, to
me) but unto Christ's poor kirk, in stamping under foot so glorious a
kingdom and beauty as was once in this land; he has helped to cut
Sampson's hair, and to expose him to mocking, but the Lord will not be
mocked: He shall be cast away as a stone out of a sling, his name shall
rot, and a malediction shall fall upon his posterity after he is gone.
Let this, Sir, be a monument of it, that it was told before, that when
it shall come to pass, it may be seen there was warning given him: And
therefore, Sir, seeing I have not the access myself, if it would please
God to move you, I wish you would deliver this hand-message to him, not
as from me, but from the Lord."

The man of whom he complains, and threatens so sore, was bishop
Spotswood, at that time designed arch-bishop of Glasgow; and this
prophecy was punctually accomplished, though after the space of forty
years: For, first the bishop himself died in a strange land, and, as
many say, in misery; next his son Robert Spotswood, sometime president
of the session, was beheaded by the parliament of Scotland, at the
market-cross of St. Andrews, in the winter after the battle of
Philiphaugh, to which many thousands witnessed, and as soon as ever he
came upon the scaffold, Mr. Blair, the minister of the town, told him,
That now Mr. Welch's prophecy was fulfilled upon him; to which he
replied in anger, That Mr. Welch and he were both false prophets.

But before he left Scotland, some remarkable passages in his behaviour
are to be remembered. And first, when the dispute about
church-government began to warm, as he was walking upon the street of
Edinburgh, betwixt two honest citizens he told them, They had in their
town two great ministers, who were no great friends to Christ's cause
presently in controversy, but it should be seen, the world should never
hear of their repentance. The two men were Mr. Patrick Galloway and Mr.
John Hall; and accordingly it came to pass, for Mr. Patrick Galloway
died easing himself upon a stool; and Mr. John Hall, being at that time
in Leith, and his servant woman having left him alone in his house while
she went to the market, he was found dead at her return.

He was sometime prisoner in Edinburgh castle before he went into exile,
where one night sitting at supper with the Lord Ochiltry, who was uncle
to Mr. Welch's wife, as his manner was, he entertained the company with
godly and edifying discourse, which was well received by all the
company, except a debauched popish young gentleman, who sometimes
laughed, and sometimes mocked and made wry faces; whereupon Mr. Welch
brake out into a sad abrupt charge upon all the company to be silent,
and observe the work of the Lord upon that profane mocker, which they
should presently behold; upon which the profane wretch sunk down and
died beneath the table, to great astonishment of all the company.

Another wonderful story they tell of him at the same time:--The Lord
Ochiltry the captain, being both son to the good Lord Ochiltry, and Mr.
Welch's uncle in law, was indeed very civil to Mr. Welch, but being for
a long time, through the multitude of affairs, kept from visiting Mr.
Welch in his chamber, as he was one day walking in the court, and
espying Mr. Welch at his chamber window, asked him kindly how he did,
and if in any thing he could serve him? Mr. Welch answered him, He would
earnestly intreat his lordship, being at that time to go to court, to
petition king James in his name, that he might have liberty to preach
the gospel; which my lord promised to do. Mr. Welch answered, My lord,
both because you are my kinsman, and for other reasons, I would
earnestly intreat and bidest you not to promise, except you faithfully
perform. His lordship answered. He would faithfully perform his promise;
and so went for London. But though at his first arrival, he was really
purposed to present the petition to the king, when he found the king in
such a rage against the godly ministers, that he durst not, at that
time, present it; so he thought fit to delay it, and thereafter entirely
forgot it.

The first time that Mr. Welch saw his face after his return from court,
he asked him what he had done with his petition. His lordship answered,
He had presented it to the king, but that the king was in so great a
rage against the ministers at that time, he believed it had been
forgotten, for he had got no answer. Nay, said Mr. Welch to him, My
lord, you should not lie to God, and to me; for I know you never
delivered it, though I warned you to take heed not to undertake it,
except you would perform it; but because you have dealt so unfaithfully,
remember God shall take from you both estate and honours, and give them
to your neighbour in your own time: which accordingly came to pass, for
both his estate and honours were in his own time translated to James
Stuart, son of captain James, who was indeed a cadet, but not the lineal
heir of the family.

While he was detained prisoner in Edinburgh castle, his wife used for
the most part to stay in his company, but upon a time fell into a
longing to see her family in Ayr, to which with some difficulty he
yielded; but when she was to take her journey, he strictly charged her
not to take the ordinary way to her own house, when she came to Ayr, nor
to pass by the bridge through the town, but to pass the river above the
bridge, and so get the way to his own house, and not to come into the
town, for, said he, before you come thither, you shall find the plague
broken out in Ayr, which accordingly came to pass.

The plague was at that time very terrible, and he being necessarily
separate from his people, it was to him the more grievous; but when the
people of Ayr came to him to bemoan themselves, his answer was, that
Hugh Kennedy, a godly gentleman in their town, should pray for them, and
God should hear him. This counsel they accepted, and the gentleman
conveening a number of the honest citizens, prayed earnestly for the
town, as he was a mighty wrestler with God, and accordingly after that
the plague decreased.

Now the time is come when he must leave Scotland, and never to see it
again. So upon the 7th of November 1606, in the morning he with his
neighbours took ship at Leith, and though it was but two o'clock in the
morning, many were waiting on with their afflicted families, to bid them
farewel[51]. After prayer, they sung the 23d psalm, and so to the great
grief of the spectators, set sail for the south of France, and landed in
the river of Bourdeaux. Within fourteen weeks after his arrival, such
was the Lord's blessing upon his diligence, he was able to preach in
French, and accordingly was speedily called to the ministry, first in
one village, then in another; one of them was Nerac, and thereafter was
settled in St. Jean d' Angely, a considerable walled town, and there he
continued the rest of the time he sojourned in France, which was about
sixteen years. When he began to preach, it was observed by some of his
hearers, that while he continued in the doctrinal part of his sermon, he
spoke very correct French, but when he came to his application, and when
his affections kindled, his fervor made him sometimes neglect the
accuracy of the French construction: But there were godly young men who
admonished him of this, which he took in very good part, so for
preventing mistakes of that kind, he desired the young gentlemen, when
they perceived him beginning to decline, to give him a sign, _viz._ that
they were to stand up; and thereafter he was more exact in his
expression through his whole sermon: So desirous was he, not only to
deliver good matter, but to recommend it in neat expression.

There were many times persons of great quality in his auditory, before
whom he was just as bold as ever he had been in a Scots village; which
moved Mr. Boyd of Trochrig once to ask him (after he had preached before
the university with Saumur with such boldness and authority as if he had
been before the meanest congregation), How he could be so confident
among strangers, and persons of such quality? To which he answered, That
he was so filled with the dread of God, he had no apprehensions from man
at all; and this answer, said Mr. Boyd, did not remove my admiration,
but rather increase it.

There was in his house, amongst many others who boarded with him for
good education, a young gentleman of great quality, and suitable
expectations, and this was the heir of Lord Ochiltry, captain of the
Castle of Edinburgh. This young nobleman, after he had gained very much
upon Mr. Welch's affections, fell ill of a grievous sickness, and after
he had been long wasted with it, closed his eyes, and expired, to the
apprehension of all spectators, and was therefore taken out of his bed,
and laid on a pallet on the floor, that his body might be the more
conveniently dressed. This was to Mr. Welch a very great grief, and
therefore he stayed with the dead body full three hours, lamenting over
him with great tenderness. After twelve hours, the friends brought in a
coffin, whereinto they desired the corpse to be put, as the custom is;
but Mr. Welch desired, that for the satisfaction of his affections, they
would forbear it for a time, which they granted, and returned not till
twenty-four hours after his death were expired; then they desired, with
great importunity, that the corpse might be coffined, and speedily
buried, the weather being extremely hot; yet he persisted in his
request, earnestly begging them to excuse him once more; so they left
the corpse upon the pallet for full thirty-six hours; but even after all
that, though he was urged, not only with great earnestness, but
displeasure, they were constrained to forbear for twelve hours more.
After forty-eight hours were past, Mr. Welch still held out against
them, and then his friends perceiving that he believed the young man was
not really dead, but under some apoplectic fit, proposed to him, for his
satisfaction, that trial should be made upon his body by doctors and
chirurgeons, if possibly any spark of life might be found in him, and
with this he was content.--So the physicians are let to work, who
pinched him with pincers in the fleshy parts of his body, and twisted a
bow-string about his head with great force, but no sign of life
appearing in him, the physicians pronounced him stark dead, and then
there was no more delay to be made; yet Mr. Welch begged of them once
more, that they would but step into the next room for an hour or two,
and leave him with the dead youth; and this they granted. Then Mr. Welch
fell down before the pallet, and cried to the Lord with all his might,
and sometimes looked upon the dead body, continuing in wrestling with
the Lord, till at length the dead youth opened his eyes, and cried out
to Mr. Welch, whom he distinctly knew, O Sir, I am all whole, but my
head and legs; and these were the places they had sore hurt with their

When Mr. Welch perceived this, he called upon his friends, and shewed
them the dead young man restored to life again, to their great
astonishment. And this young nobleman, though he lost the estate of
Ochiltry, lived to acquire a great estate in Ireland, and was Lord
Castle-Stuart, and a man of such excellent parts, that he was courted by
the earl of Stafford to be a councellor in Ireland; which he refused to
be, until the godly silenced Scottish ministers, who suffered under the
bishops in the north of Ireland, were restored to the exercise of their
ministry, and then he engaged, and continued to for all his life, not
only in honour and power, but in the profession and practice of
godliness, to the great comfort of the country where be lived. This
story the nobleman himself communicated to his friends in Ireland.

While Mr. Welch was minister in one of these French villages, upon an
evening a certain popish friar travelling through the country, because
he could not find lodging in the whole village, addressed himself to Mr.
Welch's house for one night. The servants acquainted their master, and
he was content to receive this guest. The family had supped before he
came, and so the servants convoyed the friar to his chamber, and after
they had made his supper, they left him to his rest. There was but a
timber partition betwixt him and Mr. Welch, and after the friar had
slept his first sleep, he was surprized with the hearing of a silent,
but constant whispering noise, at which he wondered very much, and was
not a little troubled.

The next morning he walked in the fields, where he chanced to meet with
a country man, who saluting him because of his habit, asked him, Where
he had lodged that night? The friar answered, He had lodged with the
hugenot minister. Then the country man asked him, what entertainment he
had? The friar answered, Very bad: for, said he, I always held, that
devils haunted these ministers houses, and I am persuaded there was one
with me this night, for I heard a continual whisper all the night over,
which I believe was no other thing, than the minister and the devil
conversing together. The country man told him, he was much mistaken, and
that it was nothing else than the minister at his night prayer. O, said
the friar, does the minister pray any? Yes, more than any man in France,
answered the country man, and if you please to stay another night with
him you may be satisfied. The friar got home to Mr. Welch's house, and
pretending indisposition, intreated another night's lodging, which was
granted him.

Before dinner, Mr. Welch came from his chamber, and made his family
exercise, according to his custom. And first he sung a psalm, then read
a portion of scripture, and discoursed upon it, thereafter he prayed
with great fervor, to all which the friar was an astonished witness.
After exercise they went to dinner, where the friar was very civilly
entertained, Mr. Welch forbearing all question and dispute with him for
the time; when the evening came, Mr. Welch made exercise as he had done
in the morning, which occasioned more wonder to the friar, and after
supper they Went to bed; but the friar longed much to know what the
night whisper was, and therein he was soon satisfied, for after Mr.
Welch's first sleep, the noise began; then the friar resolved to be
certain what it was, and to that end he crept silently to Mr. Welch's
chamber-door, and there he heard not only the sound, but the words
distinctly, and communications betwixt man and God, such as he thought,
had not been in this world. The next morning, as soon as Mr. Welch was
ready, the friar went to him, and told him, that he had lived in
ignorance the whole of his life, but now he was resolved to adventure
his soul with Mr. Welch, and thereupon declared himself protestant: Mr.
Welch welcomed and encouraged him, and he continued a protestant to his

When Lewis XIII. king of France made war upon the protestants there,
because of their religion, the city of St. Jean d' Angely was besieged
by him with his whole army, and brought into extreme danger. Mr Welch
was minister of the town, and mightily encouraged the citizens to hold
out, assuring them, God would deliver them. In the time of the siege, a
cannon ball pierced the bed where he was lying, upon which he got up,
but would not leave the room, till he had, by solemn prayer,
acknowledged his deliverance. During this siege, the townsmen made
stout defence, till one of the king's gunners planted a great gun so
conveniently upon a rising ground, that therewith he could command the
whole wall upon which the townsmen made their greatest defence. Upon
this, they were constrained to forsake the whole wall in great terror,
and tho' they had several guns planted upon the wall, no man durst
undertake to manage them. This being told to Mr. Welch, he
notwithstanding encouraged them still to hold out, and running to the
wall, found the cannonier, who was a Burgundian, near the wall, him he
entreated to mount the wall, promising to assist him in person. The
cannonier told Mr. Welch, that they behoved to dismount the gun upon the
rising ground, else they were surely lost; Mr. Welch desired him to aim
well, and he would serve him, and God would help him; the gunner fell to
work, and Mr. Welch ran to fetch powder for a charge, but, as he was
returning, the king's gunner fired his piece, which carried the laddle
with the powder out of his hands: This did not discourage him, for
having left the laddle, he filled his hat with powder, wherewith the
gunner dismounted the king's gun at the first shot, and the citizens
returned to their post of defence.

This discouraged the king so much, that he sent to the citizens to offer
them fair conditions, _viz._ That they should enjoy the liberty of their
religion, their civil privileges, and their walls should not be
demolished; the king only desired that he might enter the city in a
friendly manner with his servants. This the city thought fit to grant,
and the king with a few more entered the city for a short time. While
the king was in the city, Mr. Welch preached as usual, which offended
the French court, for while he was at sermon the king sent the duke de
Espernon to fetch him out of the pulpit into his presence. The duke went
with his guard, and when he entered the church where Mr. Welch was
preaching, Mr. Welch commanded to make way, and to place a seat that the
duke might hear the word of the Lord. The duke instead of interrupting
him, sat down, and gravely heard the sermon to an end, and then told Mr.
Welch he behoved to go with him to the king, which he willingly did.
When the duke came to the king, the king asked him why he brought not
the minister with him; and why he did not interrupt him? The duke
answered, Never man spake like this man, but he had brought him along
with him. Whereupon Mr. Welch is called, and when he had entered the
king's room, he kneeled and silently prayed for wisdom and assistance.
Thereafter the king challenged him, how he durst preach in that place,
since it was against the laws of France, that any man should preach
within the verge of his court? Mr. Welch answered, Sir, if you did
right, you would come and hear me preach, and make all France hear me
likewise. For, said he, I preach you must be saved by the death and
merits of Jesus Christ, and not your own; and I preach, that as you are
king of France, you are under the authority of no man on earth: Those
men, he said, whom you hear, subject you to the Pope of Rome, which I
will never do. The king replied, Well, well, you shall be my minister;
and, as some say, called him father, which is an honour bestowed upon
few of the greatest prelates in France: However, he was favourably
dismissed at that time, and the king also left the city in peace.

But within a short time thereafter the war was renewed, and then Mr.
Welch told the inhabitants of the city, That now their cup was full, and
they should no more escape; which accordingly came to pass, for the king
took the town, and commanded Vitry the captain of his guard to enter and
preserve his minister from all danger; then horses and waggons were
provided for Mr. Welch, to transport him and his family for Rochelle,
whither he went, and there sojourned for a time.

After his flock in France was scattered, he obtained liberty to return
to England, and his friends intreated that he might have permission to
come to Scotland, because the physicians declared there was no other
method to preserve his life, but by the freedom he might have in his
native air. But to this king James would never yield, protesting he
would be unable to establish his beloved bishops in Scotland, if Mr.
Welch was permitted to return thither; so he languished at London a
considerable time; his disease was considered by some to have a tendency
to a sort of leprosy, physicians said he had been poisoned; a languor he
had together with a great weakness in his knees, caused by his continual
kneeling at prayer, by which it came to pass, that though he was able to
move his knees, and to walk, yet he was wholly insensible in them, and
the flesh became hard like a sort of horn. But when in the time of his
weakness, he was desired to remit somewhat of his excessive painfulness,
his answer was, He had his life of God, and therefore it should be spent
for him.

His friends importuned king James very much, that if be might not return
to Scotland, at least he might have liberty to preach in London, which
he would not grant, till he heard all the hopes of life were past, and
then he allowed him liberty to preach, not fearing his activity.

Then as soon as ever he heard he might preach, he greedily embraced this
liberty, and having access to a lecturer's pulpit, he went and preached
both long and fervently: which was his last performance: For after he
had ended his sermon, he returned to his chamber, and within two hours,
quietly and without pain, he resigned his spirit into his Maker's hands,
and was buried near Mr. Deering, the famous English divine, after he had
lived little more than fifty two years.

During his sickness, he was so filled and overcome with the sensible
enjoyment of God, that he was overheard to utter these words, "O Lord,
hold thy hand, it is enough, thy servant is a clay vessel, and can hold
no more."----

If his diligence was great, so it may be doubted whether his sowing in
painfulness, or his harvest in success was greatest; for if either his
spiritual experiences in seeking the Lord, or his fruitfulness in
converting souls be considered, they will be found unparallelled in
Scotland; And many years after Mr. Welch's death, Mr. David Dickson, at
that time a flourishing minister at Irvine, was frequently heard to say,
when people talked to him of the success of his ministry, That the
grape-gleanings in Ayr, in Mr. Welch's time, were far above the vintage
of Irvine in his own. Mr. Welch in his preaching was spiritual and
searching, his utterance tender and moving, he did not much insist upon
scholastic purposes and made no shew of his learning. One of his
hearers, who was afterward minister at Moor-kirk in Kyle, used to say,
That no man could hear him and forbear weeping, his conveyance was so

There is a large volume of his sermons now in Scotland, only a few of
them have come to the press, nor did he ever appear in print, except in
his dispute with Abbot Brown, wherein he makes it appear, his learning
was not behind other virtues; and in another called Dr. Welch's
Armagaddon, supposed to have been printed in France, wherein he gives
his meditation upon the enemies of the church, and their destruction;
but the piece itself rarely to be found.

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT BOYD._

He was first settled minister at Vertal in France, but was afterwards by
the interest of Sieur du Plessis translated to be professor of divinity
at Saumur, and some time after was invited home by king James and
settled principal of the college of Glasgow and minister of Govan, at
which place he ordinarily wrote his sermons in full, and yet when he
came to the pulpit he appeared with great life and power of affection.
While he was in France the popish controversy employed his thoughts, but
the church of Scotland engrossed almost his whole attention after his
return home, and he became a zealous friend and supporter of the more
faithful part of the ministry, against the usurpation of the bishops and
their ceremonies.

But the prelatists knowing that the eminency of his place, his piety and
learning would influence many to take part with that way, they therefore
laboured with great assiduity, both by intreaties, threatenings and the
persuasions of some of his friends, in so much that he gave in a paper
to Law arch-bishop of Glasgow, in which he seemed in some sort to
acknowledge the pre-eminence of bishops, but he got no rest the next
night after this, being sore troubled for what he had done, he went back
and sought his paper again with tears, but the bishop pretended that he
had already sent it up to the king, so that he could not obtain it.

Mr. Boyd, finding that from this time forward he could enjoy no peace in
this place, he demitted both, and was chosen principal of the college of
Edinburgh, and one of the ministers of that city; Dr. Cameron came into
his places at Glasgow in October 1622. Some of the other ministers of
Edinburgh, particularly one Ramsay, envied him on account of his high
reputation both as a preacher, and as a teacher (the well-affected part
of the people both in town and country crowding to his church), and gave
the king information against him as a non-conformist: the king sent a
letter December the 13th to the magistrates of the town, rebuking them
for admitting him, and commanding him to be removed: The magistrates
were not obedient to the command, and by a courtier intreated he might
be continued, but the king would not grant their request. Accordingly on
the last of January 1623, he renewed the order to remove him, and he
was in a little time after that turned out of his place and office.

Some short time after this, bishop Law was again prevailed on to admit
Mr. Boyd to be minister of Paisley, for although no man was more
opposite to the Perth articles than Mr. Boyd, as he had refused
conformity to them both at Glasgow and Edinburgh, yet his learning and
prudence recommended him to the bishop's esteem. Here he remained in
security and peace until the earl of Abercorn's brother (a zealous
papist) dispossessed him on a Sabbath afternoon while he was preaching,
and threw all his books out of the house where he had his residence.
Upon complaining to the privy-council the offender was imprisoned, and
the court and bailies of Paisley having undertaken to repossess Mr. Boyd
again, and the gentleman professing his sorrow for what he had done, Mr.
Boyd interceeding with them for him, the council passed the matter over.

But no sooner went he to take possession, than he found the church doors
secured, so that no access could be had, and though the magistrates
would have broke them open, yet the mob (urged on as was supposed by the
earl's mother) pressed so hard upon the good man, not only by
opprobrious speeches, but also threw stones at him as if he had been a
malefactor, that he was forced to fly to Glasgow, and afterwards, seeing
no prospect of a peaceable settlement at Paisley, he returned to his own
house at Trochrig in Carrick, where he (probably) continued to his
death, which was some years after.

He was a man of great learning for that time, as his commentary on the
Ephesians testifies. He would sometimes say, If he had his choice of
languages wherein to deliver his sentiments it would be in Greek. He was
of an austere countenance and carriage, and yet very tender-hearted. He
had but a mean opinion of himself, but a high esteem of others in whom
he perceived any signs of grace and ingenuity. In the time of that
convincing and converting work of the Lord (commonly called Stuarton
sickness) he came from his own house in Carrick, and met with many of
the people; and having conversed with them, he heartily blessed the Lord
for the grace that was given unto them.

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT BRUCE._

Mr. Robert Bruce was born about the year 1554. He was second son to the
laird of Airth (of whom he had the estate of Kinnaird), who being at
that time a baron, of the best quality in the kingdom, educated Mr.
Robert with intention of being one of the lords of session, and for his
better accomplishment, sent him to France to study the civil law. After
his return home, his father injoined him to wait upon some affairs of
his that were then before the court of session, as he had got a patent
insured for his being one of these lords. But God's thoughts being not
as mens thoughts, and having other designs with him, he began then to
work mightily upon his conscience, that he could get no rest till he was
suffered to attend Mr. Andrew Melvil at St. Andrews to study divinity
under him; but to this his mother was averse, for she would not
condescend until he first gave up some lands and casualities wherein he
was infest: This he most willingly did, and shaking off all impediments
he fully resolved upon an employment more fitted to the serious turn of
his mind.

He went to St. Andrews sometime before Mr. Andrew Melvil left the
country, and continued there until his return. Here he wanted not some
sharp conflicts on this head, insomuch that upon a certain time, walking
in the fields with that holy and religious man Mr. James Melvil, he said
to him, "Before I throw myself again into such torment of conscience
which I have had in resisting the call to the ministry, I would rather
choose to walk through a fire of brimstone, even tho' it were half a
mile in length." After he was accomplished for the ministry, Mr. Andrew
Melvil perceiving how the Lord wrought with him, brought him over to the
general assembly in 1587, and moved the church of Edinburgh to call him
to a charge there.

And although he was moved by some brethren to accept the charge of the
ministry in place of Mr. James Lawson, yet he could not be prevailed
upon to take the charge _simpliciter_ (although he was willing to bestow
his labour thereon for a time), until by the joint advice of the
ministry of the city, and this stratagem, he was as it were trapped into
it: thus, on a time, when the sacrament was to be dispensed at
Edinburgh, one of the ministers desired Mr. Bruce, who was to preach in
the afternoon, to sit by him, and after he had served two or three
tables, he went out of the church, as if he had been to return in a
little, but instead of that he sent notice to Mr. Bruce, that unless he
served the rest of the tables the work behoved to stop; Mr. Bruce not
knowing but the minister had been seized on a sudden with some kind of
sickness, and, the eyes of all the people being fixed on him, many
intreating him to supply the minister's place, he proceeded to the
administration of the remainder, and that with such assistance to
himself and emotion amongst the people, that the like had never before
been seen in that place.

When he was afterward urged by the rest of his brethren to receive, in
the ordinary way, the imposition of hands, he refused it, because he
wanted not the material part of ordination, _viz._ the call of the
people and the approbation of the ministry, and besides he had already
celebrated the sacrament of the supper, which was not, by a new
ordination to be made void.----So having made trial of the work, and
found the blessing of God upon his labours, he accepted the charge, and
was from that time forth principal actor in the affairs of the church,
and a constant and strenuous maintainer of the established doctrine and
discipline thereof.

While he was minister at Edinburgh he shined as a great light through
all these parts of the land, the power and efficacious energy of the
Spirit accompanying the word preached by him in a most sensible manner,
so that he was a terror to evil doers, the authority of God appearing
with him, in so much that he forced fear and respect even from the
greatest in the land. Even king James himself and his court had such
high thoughts of him, that when he went to bring home his queen _anno_
1590, at his departure, he expressly desired Mr. Bruce to acquaint
himself with the affairs of the country and the proceedings of the
council, professing that he reposed more in him than the rest of his
brethren, or even all his nobles; and indeed in this his hopes were not
disappointed, for the country was more quiet during his absence than
either before or afterward: In gratitude for which Mr. Bruce received a
congratulatory letter dated February 19th, 1590, wherein the king
acknowledgeth, "He would be obligated to him all his life for the pains
he had taken in his absence to keep his subjects in good order." Yea, it
is well known that the king had that esteem for Mr. Bruce, that, upon a
certain time before many witnesses, he gave him this testimony, That he
judged him worthy of the half of his kingdom; but he proved in this, as
in others of his fair promises, no slave to his word, for not many
year's after he obliged this good man, for his faithfulness, to depart
and leave the kingdom.

Mr. Bruce being a man of public spirit and heroic mind, was always on
that account pitched upon to deal in matters of high moment, and amongst
other things, upon the 19th of November 1596, he, Messrs. Andrew Melvil
and John Davidson, were directed by the counsel of the brethren, to deal
with the queen concerning her religion, and, for want of religious
exercises and virtuous occupation amongst her maids to move her to hear
now and then the instructions of godly and discreet men; they went to
her, but were refused admittance until another time.

About the same time he was sent to the king then sitting with the lords
in session, to present some articles for redress of the wrongs then done
to the church; but, in the mean time, a bustle falling out at Edinburgh
by the mob, he removed to Linlithgow. Upon the Sabbath following, Mr.
Bruce preaching upon the 51st psalm said, "The removal of your ministers
is at hand, our lives shall be bitterly fought after, but ye shall see
with your eyes, that God shall guard us, and be our buckler and defence
&c." and the day following, this was in part accomplished, for the
king sent a charge from Linlithgow to Mr. Bruce and the rest of the
ministers of Edinburgh, to enter in ward at the castle there within six
hours after the proclamation, under pain of horning. The rest of the
ministers, knowing the king's anger was kindled against them, thought
proper to withdraw, but Mr. Bruce knowing his own innocency, stayed, and
gave in an apology for himself and the rest of his faithful brethren. In
April 13th 1599, the king returned to Edinburgh, and was entertained in
the house of Mr. Bruce, although he himself was not yet released.

But all this was nothing more than the drops before the shower, or as
the gathering of waters before an inundation breaks forth, for the king,
having for some time laboured to get prelacy established in Scotland,
and because Mr. Bruce would not comply with his measures, and refused to
give praise to God in public for the kings deliverance from the
pretended conspiracy in the year 1600, until he was better ascertained
of the fact, he not only discharged him from preaching in Edinburgh, but
also obliged him to leave the kingdom. When he embarked at the queen's
ferry on the 3d of November the same year, there appeared such a great
light as served him and the company to sail, although it was near
midnight. He arrived at Dieppe on the eight of November.

And although, by the king's permission, he returned home the year
following, yet because he would not, (1.) Acknowledge Gowrie's
conspiracy; (2.) Purge the king in such places as he should appoint; and
(3.) Crave pardon of the king for his long distrust and disobedience,
&c. he could not be admitted to his place and office again, but was
commanded by the king to keep ward in his own house of Kinnaird. After
the king's departure to England, he had some respite for about a year or
more, but in the year 1605, he was summoned to compear at Edinburgh on
the 29th of February, before the commission of the general assembly, to
hear and see himself removed from his function at Edinburgh; they had
before, in his absence, decerned his place vacant, but now they
intimated the sentence, and Livingston had a commission from the king to
see it put in execution; he appealed; they prohibited him to preach; but
he obeyed not. In July thereafter, he was advertized by chancellor
Seaton, of the king's express order, discharging him to preach any more,
and said, He would not use his authority in this, but only request him
to desist for nine or ten days; to which he consented, thinking it but
of small moment for so short a time. But he quickly knew, how deep the
smallest deviation from his Master's cause and interest might go; for
that night (as he himself afterward declared) his body was cast into a
fever, with such terror of conscience, that be promised and fully
resolved to obey their commands no more.

Upon the 18th of August following, he was charged to enter in ward at
Inverness, within the space of ten days, under pain of horning, which he
obeyed upon the 17th following. And in this place he remained for the
space of four years, teaching every Wednesday and Sabbath forenoon, and
was exercised in reading public prayers every other night, in which his
labours were blessed, for this dark country was wonderfully illuminated,
and many brought to Christ by means of his ministry, and a seed sown in
these remote places, which remained for many years afterwards.

When he returned from Inverness to his own house, and though his son had
obtained a licence for him, yet here he could find nothing but grief and
vexation, especially from the ministers of the presbyteries of Stirling
and Linlithgow, and all for curbing the vices some of them were subject
to.--At last he obtained liberty of the council to transport his family
to another house he had at Monkland, but, because of the bishop of
Glasgow, he was forced to retire back again to Kinnaird. Thus this good
man was tossed about, and obliged to go from place to place.

In this manner he continued, until he was by the king's order summoned
before the council in September the 19th, 1621, to answer for
transgressing the law of his confinement, &c. When he compeared, he
pleaded the favour granted him by his majesty when in Denmark, and
withal purged himself of the accusation laid against him, and yet
notwithstanding of all these (said he), the king hath exhausted both my
estate and person, and has left me nothing but my life, and that
apparently he is seeking; I am prepared to suffer any punishment, only I
am careful not to suffer as a malefactor or evil doer.----A warrant was
delivered to him to enter in ward in the castle of Edinburgh, where he
continued till the first January; the bishops absented from the council
that day, however they were his delators. He was again brought before
the council, where the king's will was intimate to him, _viz._ That he
should return to his own house until the 21st of April, and then
transport himself again to Inverness, and remain within four miles
thereof during the king's pleasure.

Here he remained, for the most part, until September 1624, when he
obtained licence again to return from his confinement to settle some of
his domestic affairs; the condition of his licence was so strait, that
he purposed with himself to return back to Inverness, but in the mean
time the king died, and so he was not urged to go back to his
confinement; and although king Charles I. did again renew this charge
against him some years after this, yet he continued mostly in his own
house, preaching and teaching wherever he had occasion.

About this time the parish of Larber, having neither church nor stipend,
Mr. Bruce repaired the church and discharged all the parts of the
ministry there, and many besides the parish attended upon his ministry
at that place with great success; and it would appear, that about this
time Mr. Henderson then minister at Leuchars, (afterward the famous
Henderson) was at first converted by his ministry.

At this place it was his custom after the first sermon to retire by
himself some time for private prayer, and on a time some noblemen who
had far to ride, sent the beadle to learn if there was any appearance
of his coming in;--the man returned, saying, I think he shall not come
out this day, for I overheard him say to another, "I protest, I will not
go unless thou goest with me." However, in a little time he came,
accompanied by no man, but in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel
of Christ; for his very speech was with much evidence and demonstration
of the Spirit. It was easy for his hearers to perceive that he had been
in the mount with God, and that indeed he had brought that God whom had
met in private, _unto his mother's house, and unto the chambers of her
that conceived him_.

Mr. Bruce was also a man who had somewhat of the spirit of discerning
future events, and did prophetically speak of several things that
afterward came to pass, yea, and divers persons distracted (says an
author[52]) and those who were past recovery with the epileptical
disease, or falling sickness, were brought to Mr. Bruce, and were, after
prayer by him in their behalf, fully restored from that malady. This may
seem strange (but true), for he was such a wrestler with God, and had
more than ordinary familiarity with him.

Some time before his death, being then at Edinburgh, where through
weakness he often kept his chamber, whither a meeting of godly
ministers, anent some matter of church-concernment, (hearing he was in
town), came and gave him an account of the prelates actings. After this,
Mr. Bruce prayed, in which he repeated over again to the Lord the very
substance of their discourse (which was a very sad representation of the
case of the church), all which time there was an extraordinary motion in
all present, and such a sensible down-pouring of the Spirit, that they
could hardly contain themselves. Mr. Weemes of Lathockar being
occasionally present, at departing said, O how strange a man is this,
for he knocketh down the Spirit of God upon us all; this he said,
because Mr. Bruce, in the time of that prayer, divers times knocked with
his fingers upon the table.

About this time he related a strange dream; how he had seen a long broad
book with black boards, flying in the air, with many black fowls like
Crows flying about it; and as it touched any of them, they fell down
dead; upon which he heard an audible voice speak to him, saying, _Hæc
est ira Dei contra pastores ecclesiæ Scoticanæ_; upon which he fell
a-weeping and praying that he might be kept faithful, and not be one of
these who were thus struck down by a torch of his wrath, through
deserting the truth. He said, when he awakened, he found his pillow all
wet and drenched with tears.--The accomplishment of this dream, I need
not describe: all acquainted with our church-history, know, that soon
after that, prelacy was introduced into Scotland. Bishops set up, and
with them ushered in Popish and Arminian tenets, with all manner of
corruptions and profanity, which continued in Scotland a number of

One time, says Mr. Livingston, I went to Edinburgh to see him, in the
company of the tutor of Bonington. When we called on him at eight
o'clock in the morning, he told us, He was not for any company, and when
we urged him to tell us the cause, he answered, That when he went to bed
he had a good measure of the Lord's presence, and that he had wrestled
with him about an hour or two before we came in, and had not yet got
access; and so we left him. At another time I went to his house, but saw
him not till very late; when he came out of his closet, his face was
foul with weeping, and he told me, That, that day, he had been thinking
on what torture and hardships Dr. Leighton our country-man had been put
to at London[53]; and added, If I had been faithful, I might have had
the pillory, and some of my blood shed for Christ as well as he; but he
hath got the crown from us all. I heard him once say, faith be, I would
desire no more at my first appeal from king James, but one hour's
converse with him: I know he hath a conscience; I made him once weep
bitterly at Holyrood-house. About the year----, I heard him say, I
wonder how I am kept so long here; I have lived two years already in
violence; meaning that he was then much beyond seventy years of age[54].

When the time of his death drew near (which was in the month of August
1631), through age and infirmity he was mostly confined to his chamber,
where he was frequently visited by his friends and acquaintances; and
being on a certain time asked by one of them, How matters stood betwixt
God and his soul? He made this return, "When I was young, I was
diligent, and lived by faith on the Son of God; but now I am old, and am
not able to do so much, yet he condescends to feed me with lumps of
sense." And that morning before he was removed, his sickness being
mostly a weakness through age, he came to breakfast and having as usual
eaten an egg, he said to his daughters "I think I am yet hungry, ye may
bring me another egg." But instantly thereafter, falling into deep
meditation, and after having mused a little he said, "Hold, daughter, my
Master calls me." With these words his sight failed him; and called for
his family bible, but finding his sight had failed him, he said, "Cast
up to me the eight chapter of the epistle to the Romans, and set my
fingers on these words, _I am persuaded that neither death nor life_,
&c. _shall be able to separate me from the love of God which is in
Christ Jesus my Lord._ Now, said he, is my finger upon them?" and being
told it was, he said, "Now God be with you my children; I have
breakfasted with you, and shall sup with my Lord Jesus Christ this
night." And so like Abraham of old, he gave up the ghost in a good
age[55], and was gathered to his people.

In this manner did this occidental star set in our horizon. There was
none, in his time, who did speak with such evidence of the power of the
Spirit; and no man had more seals of his ministry, yea many of his
hearers thought, that no man since the apostles days ever spoke with
such power. And although he was no Boanerges (as being of a slow but
grave delivery), yet he spoke with such authority and weight as became
the oracles of the living God: so that some of the most stout-hearted of
his hearers were ordinarily made to tremble, and by having this door
which had formerly been shut against Jesus Christ, as by an irresistable
power broke open and the secrets of their hearts made manifest, they
often times went away under deep convictions. He had a very majestic
countenance, in prayer he was short, especially when in public, but
every word or sentence he spoke was as a bolt shot from heaven; he spent
much of his time in private prayer. He had a very notable faculty in
searching the scriptures, and explaining the most obscure mysteries
therein, and was a man who had much inward exercise of conscience anent
his own personal case, and was oftentimes assaulted anent that grand
fundamental truth, The being of a God, insomuch that it was almost
customary to him to say when he first spoke in the pulpit, "I think it a
great matter to believe there is a God," and by this he was the more
fitted to deal with others under the like temptations.[56]

Mr. Bruce was also an eloquent and substantial writer, as the
forementioned apology, and his excellent letters to M. Espignol, the
duke of Parma, Col. Semple, &c. doth copiously evidence, Argal's
sleep, &c. He was also deeply affected with the public cause and
interest of Jesus Christ, and much depressed in spirit when he beheld
the naughtiness and profanity of many ministers then in the church, and
the unsuitable carriage and deportment of others to so great a calling,
which made him express himself with much fear, that the ministry in
Scotland would prove the greatest persecutors it had, which so lately
came to pass.

_The Life of Mr. JOSIAS WELCH._

Mr. Josias Welch was a younger son to the famous Mr. John Welch sometime
minister of the gospel at Ayr, and Elizabeth Knox daughter to the great
Mr. John Knox, who was minister at Edinburgh, from whom he received a
most liberal and religious education. But what enhanced his reputation
more, was, that he was, heir to his father's graces and virtues. And
although he had received all the branches of useful learning in order
for the ministry, yet, prelacy being then prevalent in Scotland, he was
detained for some time from that function, seeing he was not clear in
his own mind to enter into that office by the door of episcopacy. But
some time after, it so fell out, that meeting with worthy Mr. Blair,
(who was then settled a minister at Bangor in Ireland) he finding how
zealous a spirit Mr. Welch was of, exhorted and solicited him much to
hasten over there, where he would find work enough, and he hoped success
likewise, which accordingly came to pass, for upon his going thither he
was highly honoured and provided of the Lord to bring the covenant of
grace to the people at the six-mile water, (on whom Mr. Glendining
formerly minister there had wrought some legal convictions) and having
preached sometime at Oldstone, he was settled at Temple-Patrick, where
he with great vigilance and diligence exercised his office, which by the
blessing of God upon his labours, gained him many seals of his ministry.

But the devil envying the success of the gospel in that quarter, stirred
up the prelatical clergy, whereupon the bishop of Down, in May 1632,
caused cite him, Messrs. Blair, Livingston and Dumbar before him, and
urged them to conform and give their subscription to that effect, but
they answered with great boldness, That there was no law nor canon in
that kingdom requiring this; yet notwithstanding they were all four
deposed by him from the office of the holy ministry.

After this, Mr. Welch continued for some time preaching in his own
house, where he had a large auditory, and such was his desire to gain
souls to Christ, that he commonly stood in a door looking towards a
garden, that so he might be heard without as well as within, by means of
which, being of a weakly constitution, he contracted such a cold as
occasioned his death in a short time thereafter.

He continued in this way, until May 1634, when by the intercession of
Lord Castle-Stuart with the king in their behalf, the foresaid ministers
received a grant from the bishop of six months liberty, which freedom
none more willingly embraced than Mr. Welch, but he had preached only a
few weeks in his own pulpit before he sickened, and the Sabbath
afternoon before his death, which was on the Monday following. "I heard
of his sickness," saith Mr. Livingston, "and came to him about eleven
o'clock at night, and Mr. Blair came about two hours thereafter. He had
many gracious discourses, as also some wrestling and exercise of mind.
One time cried out, Oh for hypocrisy; on which Mr. Blair said, See how
Satan is nibbling at his heels before he enter into glory. A very little
before he died, being at prayer by his bed-side, and the word victory
coming out of my mouth, he took hold of my hand and desiring me to
forbear a little, and clapping his hands, cried out, Victory, victory,
victory for ever more, then he desired me to go on, and in a little
expired--on the 23d of June 1634."

Thus died the pious and faithful Mr. Josias Welch, in the flower of his
youth, leaving only one son behind him, _viz._ Mr. John Welch, who was
afterward minister at Irongray in Galloway.


John Gordon of Lochinvar (afterwards viscount Kenmuir) was born about
the year 1599. He received a reasonable measure of education, and yet,
through the circumstance of his birth, the corruption of the age, but
above all the depravity of nature, and want of restraining grace in his
younger years, he became somewhat irreligious and profane, which, when
he arrived at manhood, broke out into more gross acts of wickedness, and
yet all the while the Lord never left him altogether without a check or
witness in his conscience, yet sometimes when at ordinances,
particularly sacramental occasions, he would be filled with some sense
of sin, which being borne powerfully in upon his soul, he was scarce
able to hold out against it. But for a long time he was a stranger to
true and saving conversion. The most part of his life after he advanced
in years, he spent like the rich man in the gospel, casting down barns
and building greater ones, for at his houses of Rusco and Kenmuir he was
much employed in building, parking, planting, and seeking worldly

About the year 1628, he was married to that virtuous and religious lady,
Jean Campbel sister to the worthy marquis of Argyle, by whom he had some
children, two at least, one of whom it appears died about the beginning
of the year 1635, for we find Mr. Rutherford in one of his letters,
about that time, comforting this noble lady upon such a mournful

In the year 1633, Charles I. to honour his coronation, in the place of
his birth and first parliament, dignified many of the Scots nobility and
gentry with higher titles, and places of office and honour, among whom
was Sir John Gordon, who upon the eighth of May was created Viscount
Kenmuir and Lord Gordon of Lochinvar[57].

Accordingly the viscount came to the parliament which sat down at
Edinburgh June 16th 1633, and was present the first day, but stayed only
a few days thereafter, for being afraid to displease the king, from whom
he had both received some, and expected more honours, and not having the
courage to glorify God by his presence, when his cause was at stake,
deserted the parliament under pretence of indisposition of body, and
returned home to his house at Kenmuir in Galloway, and there slept
securely for about a year without check of conscience, till August 1634,
that his affairs occasioned his return to Edinburgh, where he remained
some days, not knowing that with the ending of his affairs he was to end
his life. He returned home with some alteration of bodily health, and
from that day his sickness increased until September 12th ensuing, which
was the day of his death.

But the Lord had other thoughts than that this nobleman should die
without some sense of his sin, or yet go out of this world
unobserved.--And therefore it pleased him with his bodily affliction to
shake his soul with fears, making him sensible of the power of eternal
wrath, for his own good, and for an example to others in after-ages
never to wrong their own consciences, or to be wanting to the cause or
interest of God, when he gives them an opportunity to that purpose.

Upon the Sabbath August 31st, being much weakened, he was visited by a
religious and learned minister who then lived in Galloway not far from
the house of Kenmuir, his lordship much rejoiced at his coming,
observing the all-ruling providence in sending him such a man (who had
been abroad from Galloway some time) sooner home than he expected. After
supper his lordship drew on a conference with the minister, shewing he
was much taken up with the fears of death, and extremity of pain. "I
never dreamed, said he, that death had such a terrible, austere and
gloomy countenance. I dare not die, howbeit I know I must die. What
shall I do, for I dare not venture in gripes with death, because I find
my sins grievous and so many that I fear my account is out of order, and
not so as becomes a dying man."

The minister for some time discoursed to him anent this weakness of
nature, which was in all men, believers not excepted, which made them
afraid of death, but he hoped Christ would be his second in the combat,
willing him to rely upon the strength of Christ; but withal said, "My
lord, I fear more the ground of your fear of death, which is (as you
say) the consciousness of your sins, for there can be no plea betwixt
you and your Lord if your sins be not taken away in Christ, and
therefore make that sure, and fear not." My lord answered, "I have been
too late in coming to God, and have deferred the time of making my
account, so long that I fear I have but the foolish virgins part of it,
who came and knocked at the door of the bridegroom so late, and never
got in."

The minister having resumed somewhat both of his own and his father's
sins, particularly their cares for this world and worldly honours, and
thinking his lordship designed to extenuate his fault in this, he drew
several weighty propositions in way of conference about the fears of
death and his eternal all, which depended upon his being in or out of
Christ, and obtested him in these words,--"Therefore I intreat you, my
lord, by the mercies of God, by your appearing before Christ your Judge,
and by the salvation of your soul, that you would look ere you leap, and
venture not into eternity without a certificate under Jesus Christ's
hand, because it is said of the hypocrite, Job xx. 11. _He lieth down in
the grave, and his bones are full of the sins of his youth._"

My lord replied, "When I begin to look upon my life, I think all is
wrong in it, and the lateness of my reckoning affrighteth me, therefore
stay with me, and shew me the marks of a child of God, for you must be
my second in this combat and wait upon me." His lady answered, "You must
have Jesus Christ to be your second," to which he heartily said
"Amen--but, continued he, how shall I know that I am in the state of
grace, for while I be resolved my fears will still overburthen me." The
minister said, "My lord, scarcely or never doth a cast-a-way anxiously
and carefully ask the question, Whether he be a child of God or not?"
But my lord excepted against that saying, "I do not think there is any
reprobate in hell, but he would with all his heart have the kingdom of
heaven." The minister having explained the different desires in
reprobates, his lordship said, "You never saw any tokens of true grace
in me, and that is my great and only fear."

The minister said, "I was indeed sorry to see you so fearfully carried
away with temptation, and you know, I gave you faithful warning that it
would come to this. I wish your soul was deeply humbled for sin; but to
your demand, I thought you ever had a love for the saints, even to the
poorest, who carried Christ's image, altho' they could never serve nor
profit you in any way, 1 John iii. 14. _By this we know we are
translated from death unto life_, &c." And at last with this mark after
some objections he seemed convinced. The minister asked him, "My lord,
dare you now quit your part in Christ, and subscribe an absolute
resignation of him?" My lord said, "O Sir, that is too hard, I hope he
and I have more to do together, and I will be advised ere I do that,"
and then asked, "What mark is it to have judgment to discern a minister
called and sent of God from an hirling?" The minister allowed it to be a
good mark, and cited John x. 4. _My sheep know my voice._

At the second conference the minister urged deep humiliation. He
acknowledged the necessity thereof, but said, "Oh! if I could get him!
But sin causeth me to be jealous of his love, to such a man as I have
been." The minister advised him "to be jealous of himself, but not of
Jesus Christ, there being no meeting betwixt them without a sense of
sin," Isa. lxi. 2, 3. Whereupon my lord said with a deep sigh
accompanied with tears, "God send me that," and thereafter reckoned out
a certain number of his sins, which were as serpents or crocodiles
before his eyes. The minister told him, "that death and him were yet
strangers, and hoped he would tell another tale ere all the play be
ended, and you shall think death a sweet messenger to carry you to your
Father's house." He said with tears, "God make it so," and desired him
to pray.

At the third conference he said, "Death bindeth me strait. O how sweet a
thing it is to seek God in health, and in time of prosperity to make our
accounts, for now I am so distempered that I cannot get my heart framed
to think on my account, and the life to come." The minister told him,
"He behoved to fight against sickness and pain, as well as sin and
death, seeing it is a temptation."----He answered, "I have taken the
play long. God hath given me thirty-five years to repent, but alas! I
have mispent it:" and with that he covered his face and wept. The
minister assured him, that although his day was far spent, yet he
behoved in the afternoon, yea when near evening, to run fast, and not to
lie in the field, and miss his lodging, upon which he, with uplifted
eyes, said, "Lord, how can I run? Lord, draw me, and I shall run," Cant.
i. 4. The minister hearing this, desired him to pray, but he answered
nothing; yet within an hour he prayed before him and his own lady very
devoutly, and bemoaned his own weakness both inward and outward, saying,
"I dare not knock at thy door, I ly at it scrambling as I may, till thou
come out and take me in; I dare not speak; I look up to thee, and look
for one kiss of Christ's fair face. O when wilt thou come!"

At the fourth conference he charged the minister to go to a secret place
and pray for him, and do it not for the fashion; I know, said he, prayer
will pull Christ out of heaven. The minister said, "What shall we seek,
give us a commission." He answered, "I charge you to tell my beloved,
_that I am sick of love_." The minister desired if they should seek life
or recovery, he said, "Yea, if it be God's good pleasure, for I find my
fear of death now less, and I think God is now loosing the root of the
deep-grown tree of my soul so firmly fastened to this life." The
minister told him, If it were so, he behoved to covenant with God in
dedicating himself and all he had to God and his service, to which he
heartily consented, and after the minister had recited several
scriptures for that purpose, such as Psal. lxxviii. 36. &c. He took
the Bible, and said, Mark other scriptures for me, and he marked 2 Cor.
v. Rev. xxi. and xxii. Psal. xxxviii. John xv. These places he turned
over, and cried often for one love blink, "O Son of God, for one sight
of thy face."

When the minister told him his prayers were heard, he took hold of his
hand and drew him to him, and said with a sigh, Good news indeed, and
desired him and others to tell him what access they had got to God in
Christ for his soul,--They told him they had got access, at which he
rejoiced, and said, "Then will I believe and wait on, I cannot think but
my beloved is coming leaping over the hills."

When friends or others came to visit him, whom he knew feared God, he
would cause them go and pray for him, and sent some of them expresly to
the wood of Kenmuir on that errand. After some cool of a fever (as was
thought), he caused one of his attendants call for the minister, to whom
he said smiling, "Rejoice now, for he is come. O! if I had a tongue to
tell the world what Jesus Christ hath done for my soul."

And yet after all this, conceiving hopes of recovery, he became more
careless, remiss, and dead, for some days, and seldom called for the
minister (though, he would not suffer him to go home to his flock),
which his lady and others perceiving went to the physician, and asked
his judgment anent him.----He plainly told them, There was nothing but
death for him if his flux returned, as it did. This made the minister go
to him and give him faithful warning of his approaching danger, telling
him, his glass was shorter than he was aware of, and that Satan would be
glad to steal his soul out of the world sleeping; this being seconded by
the physician, he took the minister by the hand, thanked him for his
faithful and plain dealing, and acknowledged the folly of his deceiving
heart in looking over his affection to this life when he was so fairly
once on his journey toward heaven; then ordered them all to leave the
chamber except the minister, and causing him to shut the door, he
conferred with him anent the state of his soul.

After prayer the minister told him, He feared that his former joy had
not been well grounded, neither his humiliation deep enough, and
therefore desired him to dig deeper, representing his offence both
against the first and second table of the law, &c. whereupon his
lordship reckoned out a number of great sins, and, amongst the rest,
freely confessed his sin in deserting the last parliament, saying, "God
knoweth I did it with fearful wrestling of conscience, my light paying
me home within, when I seemed to be glad and joyful before men, &c."
The minister being struck with astonishment at this reckoning after such
fair appearance of sound marks of grace in his soul, stood up and read
the first eight verses in the 6th of the epistle to the Hebrews and
discoursed thereon, then cited Rev. xxi. _But the fearful and
unbeliever_, &c. and told him he had not one word of mercy from the Lord
to him, and so turned his back, at which he cried out with tears (that
they heard him at some distance) saying, "God armed is coming against me
to beat out my brains; I would die; I dare not die; I would live; I dare
not live; O what a burthen is the hand of an angry God! Oh! what shall I
do! Is there no hope of mercy?" In this agony he lay for some time. Some
said, The minister would kill him,--Others, He would make him despair.
But he bore with them, and went to a secret place, where he sought
words from God to speak to this patient.

After this another minister came to visit him, to whom he said, "He hath
slain me," and before the minister could answer for himself said, "Not
he, but the Spirit of God in him." The minister said, Not I, but the law
hath slain you, and withal told him of the process the Lord had against
the house of Kenmuir. The other minister read the history of Manasseh,
and of his wicked life, and how the Lord was intreated of by him. But
the former minister[58] went still upon wrath, telling him, He knew he
was extremely pained both in body and mind, but what would he think of
the lake of fire and brimstone, of everlasting burning and of utter
darkness with the devil and his angels. My lord answered, "Woe is me, if
I should suffer my thoughts to dwell upon it any time, it were enough to
cause me go out of my senses, but I pray you, what shall I do?" The
minister told him he was still in the same situation, only the sentence
was not given out, and therefore desired him to mourn for offending God.
And farther said, What, my lord, if Christ had given out the sentence of
condemnation against you, and come to your bed-side and told you of it,
would you not still love him, trust in him, and hang upon him? He
answered, "God knoweth I durst not challenge him, howbeit he should slay
me, I will still love him; yea though the Lord should slay me, yet will
I trust in him, I will ly down at God's feet, let him trample upon me, I
will die, if I die, at Christ's feet." The minister, finding him
claiming kindness to Christ, and hearing him often cry, O Son of God,
where art thou, when wilt thou come to me! Oh! for a love-look! said, Is
it possible, my lord, that you can love and long for Christ, and he not
love and long for you? Can love and kindness stand only on your side? Is
your poor love more than infinite love, seeing he hath said Isa. xlix.
15. _Can a woman forget_, &c.? My lord, be persuaded yourself, you are
graven upon the palms of God's hands. Upon this, he, with a hearty
smile, looked about to a gentleman (one of his attendants) and said, I
am written, man, upon the palms of Christ's hands, he will not forget
me, is not this brave talking.

Afterwards the minister, finding him weaker, said, My lord, the marriage
day is drawing near; make ready; set aside all care of your estate and
the world, and give yourself to meditation and prayer and spiritual
conference. After that he was observed to be still upon that exercise,
and when none were near him, he was found praying; yea, when to
appearance sleeping, he was overheard to be engaged in that duty. After
some sleep, he called for one of his kinsmen with whom he was not
reconciled, and also for a minister who had before offended him, that
they might be friends again, which was done quickly. To the preacher he
said, "I have ground of offence against you, as a natural man, and now I
do to you that which all men breathing could not have moved me to do;
but now because the Holy Spirit commands me, I must obey, and therefore
freely forgive you as I would wish you to forgive me. You are in an
eminent station, walk before God and be faithful to your calling; take
heed to your steps; walk in the right road; hold your eye right; for all
the world decline not from holiness; and take example by me." To his
cousin he said, "Serve the Lord, and follow not the footsteps of your
father-in-law" (for he had married the bishop of Galloway's daughter);
"learn to know that you have a soul, for I say unto you the thousandth
part of the world know not that they have a soul: The world liveth
without any sense of God."

He desired the minister to sleep in a bed made upon the ground in the
chamber by him, and urged him to take a sleep, saying, "You and I have a
far journey to go; make ready for it." Four nights before his death, he
would drink a cup of wine to the minister, who said, "Receive it, my
lord, in hope you shall drink of the pure river of the water of life,
proceeding from the throne of God and from the Lamb." And when the cup
was in his hand, with a smiling countenance he said "I think I have good
cause to drink with a good will to you." After some heaviness the
minister said, "My lord, I have good news to tell you.----Be not afraid
of death and judgment, because the process that your Judge had against
you is cancelled and rent in pieces, and Christ hath trampled it under
his feet."----My lord answered with a smile, "Oh! that is a lucky tale,
I will then believe and rejoice, for sure I am, that Christ and I once
met, and will he not come again." The minister said, "You have gotten
the first fruit of the Spirit, the earnest thereof, and Christ will not
lose his earnest, therefore the bargain betwixt him and you holdeth."
Then he asked, What is Christ like, that I may know him? The minister
answered, He is like love, and altogether lovely, Cantic. v. &c.

The minister said, "My lord, if you had the man Christ in your arms,
would your heart, your breast and sides be pained with a stitch?" He
answered, "God knoweth I would forget my pain, and thrust him to my
heart, yea if I had my heart in the palm of my hand I would give it to
him, and think it a gift too unworthy of him." He complained of Jesus
Christ in coming and going--"I find, said he, my soul drowned in
heaviness; when the Lord cometh he stayeth not long." The minister said,
"Wooers dwell not together, but married folk take up house and sunder
not, Jesus Christ is now wooing and therefore he feedeth his own with
hunger; which is as growing meat as the sense of his presence." He said
often, "Son of God, when wilt thou come; God is not a man that he should
chance, or as the son of man that he should repent. Them that come to
Christ he casteth not away, but raiseth them up at the last day." He was
heard to say in his sleep, "My beloved is mine, and I am his." Being
asked if he had been sleeping? he said, he had, but he remembered he had
been giving a claim to Christ &c. He asked, "When will my heart be
loosed and my tongue untied, that I may express the sweetness of the
love of God to my own soul;" and before the minister answered any thing,
he answered himself, "Even when the wind bloweth."

At another time, being asked his judgment anent the ceremonies then used
in the church; he answered, "I think and am persuaded in my conscience
they are superstitious, idolatrous and antichristian, and come from
hell. I repute it a mercy that my eyes shall not see the desolation that
shall come upon this poor church. It is plain popery that is coming
among you. God help you, God forgive the nobility, for they are either
very cold in defending the true religion, or ready to welcome popery,
whereas they should resist; and woe be to a dead time-serving and
profane ministry."

He called his lady, and a gentleman come from the east country to visit
him, and caused shut the door; then from his bed directed his speech to
the gentleman thus, "I ever found you faithful and kind to me in my
life, therefore I must now give you a charge which you shall deliver to
all noblemen you are acquainted with; go through them and show them
from me that I have found the weight of the wrath of God for not giving
testimony for the Lord my God, when I had occasion once in my life at
the last parliament, for which fault how fierce have I found the wrath
of the Lord! My soul hath raged and roared; I have been grieved at the
remembrance of it. Tell them that they will be as I am now, encourage my
friends that stood for the Lord; tell them that failed, if they would
wish to have mercy when they are as I am, now, they must repent and
crave mercy of the Lord. For all the earth I would not do as I have

To a gentleman one of his kinsmen, he said, "I love you soul and body,
you are a blessed man if you improve the blessed means of the word
preached beside you. I would not have you drown yourself so much with
the concerns of this world (as I did). My grief is, that I had not the
occasion of good means as you have, and if you yourself make not a right
use of them, one day they shall be a witness against you, &c."

To Lord Herries his brother-in-law he said, "Mock not at my council, my
lord. In case you follow the course you are in, you shall never see the
face of Jesus Christ, you are deceived with the merchandise of the whore
that makes the world drunk out of the cup of her fornication; your soul
is built upon a sandy foundation. When you come to my state, you will
find no comfort in your religion. You know not what wrestling I have had
before I came to this state of comfort. The kingdom of heaven is not
gotten with a skip or leap, but with much, seeking and thrusting, &c."

To his own sister he said, "Who knows, sister, but the words of a dying
brother may prevail with a loving sister. Alas; you incline to a rotten
religion; cast away these rotten rags, they will not avail you when you
are brought to this case, as I am. The half of the world are ignorant,
and go to hell, and know not that they have a soul. Read the Scriptures,
they are plain easy language to all who desire wisdom from God, and to
be led to heaven."

To a gentleman, his neighbour, he said, "Your soul is in a dangerous
case, but you see it not. Leave these sinful courses. There are small
means of instruction to be had seeing the most part of the ministry are
profane and ignorant. Search God's word for the good old way, and search
and find out all your own ways."

To a gentleman his cousin he said, "You are a young man, and know not
well what you are doing. Seek God's direction for wisdom in your
affairs, and you shall prosper; and learn to know that you have need of
God to be your friend."

To another cousin he said, "David, you are an aged man, and you know not
well what an account you have to make. I know you better than you
believe, for you worship God according to men's devices; you believe
lies of God; your soul is in a dreadful case; and till you know the
truth you shall never see your own way aright."

To a young man his neighbour, "Because you are but young, beware of
temptation and snares; above all, be careful to keep yourself in the use
of means; resort to good company, and howbeit you be named a puritan and
mocked, care not for that, but rejoice, and be glad that they would
admit you to their society, for I must tell you, when I am at this point
in which you see me, I get no comfort to my soul from any other second
means under heaven, but from these who are nicknamed puritans; they are
the men that can give a word of comfort to a wearied soul in due season,
and that I have found by experience."

To one of his natural sisters, "My dove, thou art young, and alas
ignorant of God. I know thy breeding and upbringing well enough, seek
the Spirit of regeneration. Oh! if thou knew it, and felt the power of
the Spirit as I do now. Think not all is gone because your brother is
dead. Trust in God, and beware of the follies of youth. Give yourself to
reading and praying, and be careful in hearing God's word, and take heed
whom you hear, and how you hear, and God be with you."

To a minister he said, "Mr. James, it is not holiness enough to be a
minister, for you ministers have your own faults, and those more heinous
than others. I pray you, be more painful in your calling, and take good
heed of the flock of God, know that every soul that perisheth by your
negligence, shall be counted to your soul, murdered before God. Take
heed in these dangerous days how you lead the people of God, and take
heed to your ministry."

To Mr. George Gillespie, then his chaplain, "You have carried yourself
discreetly to me, so that I cannot blame you. I hope you shall prove an
honest man; if I have been at any time harsh to you, forgive me. I would
I had taken better heed to many of your words, I might have gotten good
by the means God gave me, but I made no use of them, &c. I am grieved
for my ingratitude against my loving Lord, and that I should have sinned
against him who came down from heaven to the earth for my cause, to die
for my sins; the sense of this love borne in upon my heart hath a
reflex, making me love my Saviour, and grip to him again."

To another kinsman he said, "Learn to use your time Well. Oh alas! the
ministry in this country are dead, God help you, ye are not led right,
ye had need to be busy among yourselves. Men are as careless in the
practice of godliness as it were but words, fashions, signs and shews,
but all these will not do the turn. Oh! but I find it hard now to trust
in and take the kingdom of heaven by force."

To two neighbouring gentlemen he said, "It is not rising soon in the
morning, and running to the park or stone-dyke, that will bring peace to
the conscience, when it comes to this part of the play. You know how I
have been beguiled with this world, I would counsel you to seek that one
thing necessary, even the salvation of your souls, &c."

To a cousin, bailie of Ayr, he said, "Robert, I know you have light and
understanding, and though you need not be instructed by me, yet you need
be incited. Care not over-much for the world, but make use of good means
which you have in your country, for here is a pack of dumb dogs that
cannot bark, they tell over a clash of terror, and clatter of comfort
without any sense or life."

To a cousin and another gentleman who was along with him he said, "Ye
are young men and have far to go, and it may be some of you have not far
to go, and tho' your journey be short, howsoever it is dangerous. Now
are you happy, because you have time to lay your accounts with Jesus
Christ. I intreat you to give your youth to Christ, for it is the best
and most acceptable gift you can give him. Give not your youth to the
devil and your lusts, and then reserve nothing to Jesus Christ but your
rotten bones, it is to be feared that then he will not accept you. Learn
therefore to watch and take example by me."

He called Mr. Lamb, who was then bishop of Galloway, and commanding all
others to leave the room, he had a long conference with him, exhorting
him earnestly not to molest or remove the Lord's servants, or enthrall
their consciences to receive the five articles of Perth, or do any
thing against their consciences, as he would wish to have mercy from
God.----The bishop answered, "My lord, our ceremonies are, of their own
nature, but things indifferent, and we impose them for decency and order
in God's kirk. They need not stand so scrupulously on them as matter of
conscience in God's worship."----My lord replied, "I will not dispute
with you, but one thing I know and can tell you from dear experience,
that these things indeed are matters of conscience, and not indifferent,
and so I have found them. For since I lay on this bed, the sin that lay
heaviest on my soul, was withdrawing myself from the parliament, and not
giving my voice for the truth against these things which they call
indifferent, and in so doing I have denied the Lord my God." When the
bishop began to commend him for his well-led life, putting him in hopes
of health, and praised him for his civil carriage and behaviour, saying,
He was no oppressor, and without any known vice;--he answered, "No
matter, a man may be a good civil neighbour, and yet go to hell."----The
bishop answered, "My lord, I confess we have all our faults," and
thereafter he insisted so long, that my lord thought him impertinent;
this made him interrupt the bishop, saying, "What should I more, I have
got a grip of Jesus Christ, and Christ of me, &c." On the morrow the
bishop came to visit him, and upon asking how he did, he answered, I
thank God, as well as a saved man hastening to heaven can.

After he had given the clerk of Kirkudbright some suitable advice anent
his Christian walk and particular calling, he caused him swear in the
most solemn terms, that he should never consent to, but oppose the
election of a corrupt minister and magistrate.--And to his coachman he
said, You will go to any one who will give you the most hire, but do not
so, go where you can get the best company; though you get less wages,
yet you will get the more grace. Then he made him hold up his hand, and
promise before God so to do.--And to two young serving-men, who came to
him weeping to get his last blessing, he said, Content not yourselves
with a superficial view of religion, blessing yourselves in the morning
only for a fashion, yea though you would pray both morning and evening,
yet that will not avail you, except likewise ye make your account every
day. Oh! ye will find few to direct or counsel you; but I will tell you
what to do, first pray to the Lord fervently to enlighten the eyes of
your mind, then seek grace to rule your affections; you will find the
good of this when you come to my situation. Then he took both their
oaths to do so.

He gave many powerful exhortations to several persons, and caused each
man to hold up his hand and swear in his presence that by God's grace
they should forbear their former sins and follow his counsel, &c.

When giving a divine counsel to a friend, he rested in the midst of it,
and looked up to heaven, and prayed for a loosened heart and tongue, to
express the goodness of God to men, and thereafter went on in his
counsel (not unlike Jacob, Gen. xlix. 18. who in the midst of a
prophetical testament, rested a little and said, _I have waited for thy

He gave his lady divers times openly an honourable and ample testimony
of holiness, goodness and respective kindness to him, and earnestly
craved her forgiveness wherein he had offended her, and desired her to
make the Lord her comforter, and said, He was but gone before, and it
was but fifteen or sixteen years up or down[59].

He spoke to all the boys of the house, the butler, cook, &c. omitting
none, saying, Learn to serve and fear the Lord, and use carefully the
means of your salvation. I know what is ordinarily your religion, ye go
to kirk, and when ye hear the devil or hell named in the preaching, ye
sigh and make a noise, and it is forgot by you before you come home, and
then ye are holy enough. But I can tell you, the kingdom of heaven is
not got so easily. Use the means yourself, and win to some sense of God,
and pray as you can, morning and evening. If you be ignorant of the way
to salvation, God forgive you, for I have discharged myself in that
point towards you, and appointed a man to teach you, your blood be upon
yourselves. He took an oath of his servants, that they should follow his
advice, and said to them severally, If I have been tough to or offended
you, I pray you for God's sake to forgive me; and amongst others one to
whom he had been rough said, Your lordship never did me wrong, I will
never get such a master again. Yet he urged the boy to say, My lord, I
forgive you; howbeit the boy was hardly brought to utter these words. He
said to all the beholders about him, Sirs, behold, how low the Lord hath
brought me.

To a gentleman burthened in his estate he said, "Sir, I counsel you to
cast your burthen upon the Lord your God."----A religious gentleman of
his own name coming to visit him four days before his death, when he
beheld him he said, Robert, come to me and leave me not till I die.
Being much comforted with his speeches, he said, Robert, you are a
friend to me both in soul and body.--The gentleman asked him, What
comfort he had in his love towards the saints?--He answered, I rejoice
at it.--Then he asked him, What comfort he had in bringing the minister
who attended him from Galloway? He answered, God knoweth that I rejoice,
that ever he put it in my heart so to do, and now because I aimed at
God's glory in it, the Lord hath made me find comfort to my soul in the
end; the ministers of Galloway murdered my father's soul, and if this
man had not come they had murdered mine also.

Before his sister lady Herries, who was a papist, he testified his
willingness to leave the world, That papists may see, said he, that
those who die in this religion, both see and know whither they go, for
the hope of our father's house. When letters were brought him from
friends, he caused deliver them to his lady, saying, "I have nothing to
do with them. I had rather hear of news from heaven concerning my
eternal salvation." It was observed that when any came to him anent any
worldly business, before they were out of doors he was returned to his
spiritual exercises, and was exceeding short in dispatching all needful
writes. He recommended the poor's case to his friends. Upon coming out
of a fainting fit, into which his weakness had thrown him, he said with
a smiling countenance to all about him, "I would not exchange my life
with you all: I feel the smell of the place where I am going."

Upon Friday morning, the day of his departure from this life, he said,
"This night must I sup with Jesus Christ in paradise." The minister read
to him 2 Cor. v. Rev. xxii. and some observations on such places as
concerned his state. After prayer, he said, "I conceive good hopes that
God looketh upon me when he granteth such liberty to pray for me. Is it
possible that Jesus Christ can lose his grip of me? neither can my soul
get itself plucked from Jesus Christ." He earnestly desired a sense of
God's presence; and the minister said, What, my lord, if that be
suspended, till you come to your own home, and be before the throne
clothed in white, and get your harp in your hand, to sing salvation to
the Lamb, and to him that sitteth on the throne, for that is heaven; and
who dare promise it to you upon earth? There is a piece of nature in
desiring a sense of God's love, it being an apple that the Lord's
children delight to play with. But, my Lord, if you would have it only
as a pledge of your salvation, we shall seek it from the Lord for you,
and you may lawfully pray for it.--Earnest prayers were made for him,
and he testified that he was filled with the sense of the Lord's love.
Being asked, What he thought of the world? he answered, "It is more
bitter than gall or wormwood." And being demanded, if he now feared
death, he answered, I have tasted death, now it is more welcome, the
messenger of Jesus Christ, &c.

The minister said, There is a process betwixt the Lord and your father's
house, but your name is taken out of it. How dear was heaven bought for
you by Jesus Christ? he frequently said, "I know there is wrath against
it, but I shall get my soul for a prey."----Oftimes he said, "It is a
sweet word God saith, _As I live, I delight not in the death of a
sinner._ I will not let go the hold I have got of Jesus Christ; _though
he should slay me, yet will I trust in him._"

In deep meditation on his change, he put this question, What will Christ
be like when he cometh? It was answered, Altogether lovely. Before he
died, he was heard praying very fervently, and said to the doctor, "I
thought to have been dissolved ere now."--The minister said, Weary not
of the Lord's yoke, Jesus Christ is posting fast to be at you, he is
within a few miles.--He answered, This is my infirmity. I will wait on,
he is worth the onwaiting, though he be long in coming, yet I dare say
he is coming, leaping over the mountains and skipping over the
hills.----The minister said, Some have gotten their fill of Christ in
this life, howbeit he is often under a mask to his own. Even his best
saints, Job, David, Jeremiah, &c. were under desertions.--My lord
said, But what are these examples to me? I am not in holiness near to
them. The minister said, It is true you cannot take so wide steps as
they did, but you are in the same way with them. A young child followeth
his father at the back, though he cannot take such wide steps as he.--My
lord, your hunger overcometh your faith, only but believe his word;--you
are longing for Christ, only believe he is faithful, and will come
quickly. To which he answered, "I think it is time--Lord Jesus, come."

Then the minister said, My lord, our nature is anxious for our own
deliverance, whereas God seeketh first to be glorified in our faith,
patience and hope. He answered, Good reason to be first served. Lord,
give me to wait on; only, Lord, turn me not to dross.

Another said, Cast back your eyes, my lord, on what you have received,
and be thankful.--At the hearing of which he brake forth in praising of
God, and finding himself now weak, and his speech failing more than an
hour before his death, he desired the minister to pray. After prayer,
the minister cried in his ear, "My lord, may you now sunder with
Christ?" To which he answered nothing, nor was it expected that he would
speak any more.--Yet in a little the minister asked, Have you any sense
of the Lord's love?--He answered, I have. The minister said, Do you now
enjoy?--He answered, I do enjoy. Thereafter he asked him, Will ye not
sunder with Christ?----He answered, By no means:--This was his last
word, not being able to speak any more. The minister asked if he should
pray, and he turned his eyes towards him. In the time of the last prayer
he was observed joyfully smiling and looking upward. He departed this
life about sun setting, September 12, 1634. aged 35 years. It was
observed, that he died at the same instant that the minister concluded
his prayer.

Mr. Rutherford in one of his letters to the viscountess of Kenmuir a
little after the death of her husband, to comfort her, among other
things lets fall this expression, "In this late visitation that hath
befallen your ladyship, ye have seen God's love and care in such a
measure, that I thought our Lord brake the sharp point of the cross, and
made us and your ladyship see Christ take possession and infestment upon
earth, of him who is now reigning and triumphing with the hundred and
forty and four thousand who stand with the Lamb on mount Zion, &c."

       *       *       *       *       *

Some may object, what did this nobleman for the cause of Christ, or
Scotland's covenanted work of reformation, that he should be inserted
among the Scottish worthies? To this it may be answered, What did the
most eminent saint that ever was in Scotland, or any where else, until
they were enabled by the grace of God. So it was with reference to him;
for no sooner was he made partaker of this, than he gave a most ample
and faithful testimony for his truths and interest; and although the
Lord did not see it proper that he should serve him after this manner,
in his day and generation, yet he no doubt accepted of the will for the
deed, and why should we not inroll his name among these worthies on
earth, seeing he hath written his name among the living in Jerusalem.


After Mr. Robert Cunningham had received a good education, he became
chaplain to the duke of Buccleugh's regiment in Holland, and was
afterward settled minister at Holywood in Ireland, sometime before Mr.
Blair was settled at Bangor, and with whom Mr. Blair, after his
settlement in that place, contracted such an acquaintance as was
comfortable to them both.

He applied himself close unto the work of the ministry, which no doubt
to him was the most desireable of all employments, being in the pulpit
in his own element, like a fish in the water, or bird in the air, always
judging that therein a Christian might enjoy much fellowship with Christ
and have an opportunity of doing him the best of services, considering
what Christ said to Peter, John xxi. 15. &c. _Lovest thou me more than
these----feed my lambs----feed my sheep._

Here he continued to exercise his office as a faithful pastor over the
flock to whom he was appointed overseer, until the time that several of
his faithful brethren were deposed and ejected by the bishops, at which
time the bishop of Down threatening Mr. Blair with a prosecution against
him, Mr. Cunningham and some others; to whom Mr. Blair said, "Ye may do
with me and some others as you please, but if ever ye meddle with Mr.
Cunningham your cup will be full," and indeed he was longer spared than
any of the rest, which was a great benefit to their flocks, for when
they were deposed, he preached every week in one or other of their
kirks. So with great pains both at home and abroad he wore out his body
which before was not very strong.

When Mr. Blair and Mr. Livingston were summoned before the bishop to be
deposed, they went the night before their appearance, to take their
leave of Mr. Cunningham, but the next day as they were going to the
church of Parphilips, he came up to them, whereat being surprised they
asked, Why he came thither? To which he answered, "All night I have been
troubled with that place, _at my first answer no man stood with me_,
therefore I am come to stand by you." But being the eye-sore of the
devil and the prelatical clergy in that part of the country, he could
not be suffered long to exercise his ministry, and in August 1636, he,
with other of his faithful brethren, was thrust out and deposed. He
continued mostly after this with the rest of his suffering brethren,
until after the defeat of their enterprise to New-England, that they
were obliged to leave Ireland and come over to Scotland, and not long
after he took his last sickness in Irvine, whereof he soon after died.

During his sickness, besides many other gracious expressions, he said,
"I see Christ standing over death's head, saying, Deal warily with my
servant, loose thou this pin, then that pin, for his tabernacle must be
set up again."

The day before his death, the members of the presbytery of Irvine made
him a visit, whom he exhorted to be faithful to Christ and his cause,
and to oppose the service-book (then pressed upon the church). "The
bishop," said he, "hath taken my ministry from me, and I may say, my
life also, for my ministry is dearer to me than my life." A little
before his departure, his wife sitting by his bed-side with his hand in
hers, he did by prayer recommend the whole church of Ireland, the parish
of Holywood, his suffering brethren in the ministry, and his children to
God, and withal added, "Lord, I recommend this gentlewoman to thee, who
is no more my wife:"--and with that he softly loosed his hand from hers,
and thrust it a little from him, at which she and several of the company
fell a-weeping, he endeavoured to comfort them with several gracious
expressions, and with the Lord's servant of old, mentioned, Acts xiii.
36. _Having served his own generation by the will of God, he fell on
sleep_, March 27. 1637.

Mr. Cunningham was a man mostly under deep exercises of mind, and
although in public preaching he was to his own sense sometimes not so
assisted as ordinarily, yet even then the matter he treated of was
edifying and refreshful, being still carried through with a full gale,
using more piercing expressions than many others. For meekness he was
Moses-like, and in patience another Job,--"to my discerning (says one of
our Scots worthies[60]) he was the man, who most resembled the meekness
of Jesus Christ in all his carriage, that ever I saw, and was so far
reverenced of all, even by the wicked, that he was often troubled with
that scripture, _Wo to you when all men speak well of you._"

_The Life of Mr. JAMES MITCHEL._

He was son to James Mitchel of Dykes in the parish of Ardrossan, and was
born about the year 1621. His father, being factor to the earl of
Eglinton and a very religious man himself, gave his son a most liberal
and religious education.----For, being sent to the university of St.
Andrews, when very young, he profited to such a degree, that by the time
that he was eighteen years of age he was made master of arts.

After this he returned home to his father's house, where he studied for
near two years and a half, the Lord in a good measure blessing his pains
and endeavours therein. Mr. Robert Bailie, then minister at Kilwinning,
shewed him no small kindness, both by the loan of his books, by his
counsel, and by superintending his studies.

Thereafter he was called by the lady Houston to attend her eldest son at
the college, in which employment he continued other two years and a
half, in the which time the Lord blessed his studies there exceedingly,
and the great pains taken upon him by Mr. David Dickson (then professor
of the university of Glasgow), Mr. Bailie and others, had such a
blessing from heaven that he passed both his private and public trials
in order for the ministry to their great contentment.

After he was licensed, he came west and preached in Kilwinning and
Stevenson, to the satisfaction of all who heard him, so that they
blessed God in his behalf, and were very hopeful of his great abilities.

But before Martinmas 1643, he went back to Glasgow, where he both
attended his studies and his pupil. He preached some few times in
Glasgow, wherewith all those who loved Christ, and his cause and gospel
were exceeding well pleased. At this time, Mr. Dickson, Mr. Bailie, and
Mr. Robert Ramsay having great hopes of his gifts in preaching told his
father, that he had great reason to bless God for the gifts and graces
bestowed upon him above all their expectation, for besides these, the
Lord had taken him truly by the heart, and wrought graciously with his
soul. He had given himself much up to fasting and prayer, and the study
of the word of God and reading thereof was now become his delight.

But the Lord having other thoughts concerning him, in a short time all
their great expectations of him in the ministry were frustrated. For by
his extreme abstinence, drinking of water, and indefatigable pains, he
contracted that sickness, of which he died soon after. His body began to
languish, his stomach to refuse all meat, and his constitution to alter.
Mr. Dickson laid his condition much to heart (Mr. Bailie being at
London) and kept him fifteen days with him; thereafter he went to
Houston, and stayed as long there, where the lady and her daughter
shewed more love and kindness than can be expressed, and that not only
for the care he had of her son, but also for the rare gifts and graces
God had bestowed on him. His father having sent for them he returned
home.----The first night on his journey, he was with Ralston, and the
laird of Ducathall, being there occasionally, attended him all the rest
of the way homeward; for not being able to ride two miles together, he
behoved to go into a house to rest himself for an hour, such was his
weakly condition.

After his arrival at home, he put on his clothes every day for fifteen
days, and after that lay bedfast for ten weeks until the day of his
death, during which time the Lord was very merciful and gracious to him,
both in an external and internal way.----For his body by degrees daily
languished till he became like a skeleton, and yet his face remained
ever pleasant, beautiful and well-coloured, even to his last.

The last five or six weeks he lived, there were always three or four
waiting on him and sometimes more, yet they never had occasion to weary
of him, but were rather refreshed with every day's continuance, by the
many wise, sweet and gracious discourses which proceeded out of his

In the time of his sickness the Lord was graciously pleased to guard his
mind and heart from the malice of Satan, so that his peace and
confidence in God was not much disturbed, or if the Lord was pleased to
suffer any little assault, it soon evanished. His feeling and sense was
not frequent nor great, but his faith and confidence in God through
Jesus Christ was ever strong, which he told his father divers times was
more sure and solid than the other. He said, that the Lord before his
sickness, had made fast work with him about the matters of his soul, and
that before that, he had been under sore exercises of mind, by the sense
of his own guiltiness for a long time, before ever he had solid peace
and clear confidence, and often said, "Unworthy I and naughty I, am
freely beloved of the Lord, and the Lord knows, my soul dearly loves him
back again." And that the Lord knew his weakness to encounter with a
temptation, and so out of tender compassion thus pitied him.

He was also possest of all manner of patience and submission under all
this sore trouble, and never was heard to murmur in the least, but often
thought his Master's time well worth the waiting on, and was frequently
much refreshed with the seeing and hearing of honest and gracious
neighbours, who came to visit him, so that he had little reason with
Heman to complain, Psal. lxxxviii. 8. _Lovers and friends hast thou put
far from me, and mine acquaintance unto darkness._

Among other of his gracious discoveries, he declaimed much against
unprudent speaking, wishing it might be amended, especially in young
scholars and young ministers, as being but the froth and vanity of the
foolish mind. Among other things he lamented the pride of many young
preachers and students, by usurping priority of place, &c. which
became them not, and exclaimed frequently against himself for his own
practice, yet he said he was in the strength of God brought to mortify
the same. He frequently exhorted his parents to carry themselves to one
another as the word of God required, and above all things to fear God
and delight in his word, and often said, That he dearly loved the book
of God, and sought them to be earnest in prayer, showing that it was an
unknown thing, and a thing of another world, and that the influence of
prayer behoved to come out of heaven, therefore the Spirit of
supplication must be wrestled for, or else all prayer would be but
lifeless and natural, and said, That being once with the Lady Houston
and some country gentlemen at Bagles, the Spirit of prayer and
supplication was poured upon him, in such a powerful and lively manner,
two several days before they went to dinner that all present were much
affected, and shed tears in abundance, and yet at night he found himself
so emptied and dead that he durst not adventure to pray any at all these
two nights, but went to bed, and was much vexed and cast down, none
knowing the reason. By this he was from that time convinced that the
dispensation and influence of spiritual and lively prayer came only from
heaven, and from no natural abilities that were in man.

The laird of Cunningham coming to visit him (as he did frequently), he
enumerated all the remarkable passages of God's goodness and providence
to him (especially since he contracted sickness), as in shewing infinite
mercies to his soul, tender compassion towards his body and natural
spirits, patience and submission to his will without grudging, calmness
of spirit without passion, solid and constant peace within and without,
&c.:--This is far beyond the Lord's manner of dealing with many of his
dear saints, &c. "Now Sir, think ye not but I stand greatly indebted
to the goodness and kindness of God, that deals thus graciously and
warmly with me every way;" and then he burst out in praise to God in a
sweet and lively manner.

At another time, the laird being present, May 26, looking out of his bed
to the sun shining brightly on the opposite side of the house, he said,
"O what a splendor and glory will all the elect and redeemed saints have
one day, and O! how much more will the glory of the Creator be, who
shall communicate that glory to all his own, but the shallow thoughts of
silly men are not able to conceive the excellency thereof, &c."

Again, Mr. Macqueen being present, his father inquired at him, Wherein
our communion with God stood? He said, In reconciliation and peace with
him, which is the first effect of our justification, then there was
access and love to God, patience and submission to his will, &c. then
the Lord's manifestation of himself to us, as Christ says, John xiv. 21.
See the 20th verse which he instanced.

He said one morning to Hugh Macgaven and his father, "I am not afraid of
death, for I rest on infinite mercy, procured by the blood of the Lamb."
Then he spake as to himself, "Fear not, little flock, it is the Father's
will to give you the kingdom. Then he said, What are these who are of
this little flock? Even sinners. I came not to call the righteous, but
sinners to repentance;" but what kind of sinners? Only those who are
sensible of sin and wrath, and see themselves to be lost, therefore,
says Christ, "I came to seek and to save them who are lost." There are
two words here, seeking and saving; and who are these? Even those who
are lost bankrupts, who have nothing to pay. These are they whom Christ
seeks, and who are of his flock.

To John Kyle another morning he said twice over, "My soul longeth for
the Lord more than they that watch for the morning." And at another
time, perceiving his father weeping, he said, "I cannot blame you to
mourn, for I know you have thought that I might (with God's blessing)
have proved a comfortable child to you, but comfort yourself in this,
that ere it be long I will be at a blessed rest, and in a far better
state than I can be in this life, free from sin and every kind of
misery, and within a short time ye will follow after me. And in the mean
time encourage yourself in the Lord, and let not your mourning be like
those who have no hope. The Lord by degrees will assuage your grief, for
so he has appointed, else we would be swallowed up and come to nought,
&c. for I could never have been removed out of this life in a more
seasonable time than now, having both the favour of God and man (being
hopeful that my name shall not be unsavoury when I am gone) for none
knoweth what affronts, grief and calamities I might fall into, had I
lived much longer in this life.----And for crosses and trouble, how
might my life have been made bitter to me, for when I think what
opposition I might have ere I was an actual minister, by divisions of
the people, the patron and the presbytery, it could not but overwhelm
me, and then being entered, what a fighting life, with a stubborn
people, might be my lot I know not, and then what discontentment I might
have in a wife, (which is the lot of many an honest man,) is uncertain,
then cares, fears, straits of the world, reproaches of men, personal
desires and the devil and an evil world to fight with, these and many
more cannot but keep a man in a struggling state in this life. And now
lest this should seem a mere speculation, I could instance these things
in the persons of many worthy men, I pass all, and only point out one
whose gifts and graces are well known to you, _viz._ Mr. David Dickson,
who I am sure, God has made the instrument of the conversion of many
souls, and of much good to the country, and yet this gracious person has
been tossed to and fro.--And you know that the Lord made him a gracious
instrument in this late reformation, and yet he has in a great measure
been slighted by the state and the kirk also. What reason have I then to
bless God, that in mercy is timeously removing me from all trouble, and
will make me as welcome to heaven as if I had preached forty years, for
he knows it was my intention (by his grace) to have honoured him in my
ministry, and seeing he has accepted the will for the deed, what reason
have I to complain, for now I am willing and ready to be dissolved and
to be with Christ, which is best of all, wherefore dear father, comfort
yourself with this."

One time in conference concerning the sin in the godly, his father said
to him, "I am sure you are not now troubled with corruption, being so
near death. He answered, Ye are altogether deceived, for so long as my
foot remaineth on this earth, though the other were translated above the
clouds, my mind would not be free of sinful motions." Whereupon he
regretted that he could not get his mind and his affections so lifted
up, to dwell or meditate on God, his word, or that endless life, as he
could have wished, and that he could not find that spirituality by
entertaining such thoughts of God's greatness and goodness as became
him, and was often much perplexed with vain thoughts, but he was
confident that the Lord in his rich mercy would pity and pass by this
his weakness and infirmity, &c.

Some time before his death, he fell into several fainting fits, and
about ten or twelve days before his dissolution, he fell into one, and
was speechless near an hour, so that none present had any hopes that he
would again recover; but in the mean time, he was wrapt up in divine
contemplation. At last he began to recover, and his heart being
enlarged, he opened his mouth with such lively exhortations as affected
all present, and directing his speech to his father, he said, "Be glad,
Sir, to see your son, yea, I say, your second son, made a crowned king."
And to his mother he said, "Be of good courage, and mourn not for want
of me, for ye will find me in the all-sufficiency of God." Then he said,
"O death, I give thee a defiance through Jesus Christ," and then again
he said to on-lookers, "Sirs, this will be a blythe and joyful
goodnight." In the mean time Mr. Bell came in, to whom he said, "Sir,
you are welcome to be witness to see me fight out my last fight." After
which he fell quiet, and got some rest. Within two days, Mr. Bell being
come to visit him, he said, "O Sir, but I was glad the last night when
you was here, when I thought to be dissolved, that I might have met with
my Master, and have enjoyed his presence for ever, but I was much
grieved when I perceived a little reverting, and that I was likely to
live longer, &c."

To Mr. Gabriel Cunningham, when conferring about death and the manner of
dissolution, he said, "O! how sweet a thing it were, for a man to sleep
till death in the arms of Christ."----He had many other lively and
comfortable speeches which were not remembered, the day never passing,
in the time of his sickness, but the onwaiters were refreshed by him.

The night before his departure, he was sensible of great pain, whereupon
he said, "I see it is true, that we must enter into heaven through
trouble, but the Lord will help us through it."--Then he said, "I have
great pain, but mixed with great mercy and strong confidence." He called
to mind that saying of Mr. John Knox on his death-bed, "I do not esteem
that pain, which will be to me an end of all trouble, and the beginning
of eternal felicity."

His last words were these, "Lord, open the gates that I may enter in,"
and a little after his father asked, What he was doing? Whereupon he
lifted up his hands, and caused all his fingers shiver and twinkle, and
in presence of many honest neighbours he yielded up his spirit and went
to his rest a little after sun-rising, upon the 11th of June, 1643,
being 23 years of age.

Thus, in the bloom of youth, he ended his Christian warfare, and entered
into the heavenly inheritance, a young man, but a ripe Christian. There
were three special gifts vouchsafed to him by the Lord, a notable
invention, a great memory, with a ready expression.

Among other fruits of his meditation and pains, he drew up a model of
and frame of preaching, which he intituled, The method of preaching.
Many other manuscripts he left behind him, (as evidences of his
indefatigable labour) which if yet preserved in safe custody, might be
of no small benefit to the public, as it appears that they have not
hitherto been published.


When Mr. Alexander Henderson had passed his degrees at the university
with great applause, he was by the bishop of St. Andrews, about the year
1620, preferred to be minister of Leuchars, in the shire of Fyfe. But
being brought in there against the consent of that parish unto such a
degree, that on the day of his ordination, the church-doors were shut so
fast by the people, that they were obliged to break in by a window.

And being very prelatical in his judgment at this time, until a little
after, that upon the report of a communion to be in the neighbourhood,
where Mr. Bruce was to be an helper, he went thither secretly, and
placed himself in a dark corner of the church, where he might not be
readily seen or known. When Mr. Bruce was come to the pulpit, he did
for some time keep silence (as his usual manner was) which did astonish
Mr. Henderson, but it astonished him much more, when he heard him begin
with these words, _He that entereth not in by the door, but climbeth
some other way, the same is a thief and a robber_--which words, by the
blessing of God, and the effectual working of the Holy Spirit, took such
hold on him at that very instant, and made such impressions on his heart
afterward, as proved the very first mean of his conversion unto Christ.

After this he became not only a most faithful and diligent minister of
the gospel, but also a staunch presbyterian, and had a very active hand
in carrying on the covenanted work of reformation, from the year 1638,
to the day of his death, and was among the very first who got a charge
of horning from the bishop of St. Andrews, for refusing to buy and use
the service-book, and book of canons then imposed by the king upon the
church; which occasioned him and some others to give in several
petitions and complaints to the council, both craving some mitigation
therein, and shewing the sinfulness thereof, for which and some other
considerations and overtures for relief, (mostly compiled by Mr.
Henderson) they were by order of proclamation charged, within
twenty-four hours, to leave the town of Edinburgh under the pain of

Again in the year 1638, when the national confession or covenant was
agreed upon and sworn unto by almost all ranks in the land, the marquis
of Hamilton being sent by the king to suppress the covenanters, who
having held several conferences with him to little or no purpose, at
last, he told them that the book of canons and liturgy should be
discharged, on condition they should yield up their covenants, which
proposition did not only displease them, but also made them more
vigilant to support and vindicate that solemn deed. Whereupon Mr.
Henderson was again set to work, and in a short time savoured the public
with sufficient grounds and reasons why they could not recede from any
part of that covenant.

Some time after this, the table (so called) which was erected at
Edinburgh for carrying on the reformation, being sorry that the town and
shire of Aberdeen, (excited by the persuasion of their doctors) stood
out and opposed the covenant and work of reformation, sent some earls
with Messrs. Henderson, Dickson and Cant, to deal with them once more,
and to see if they could reclaim that town and country.----But upon
their arrival there, they could have no access to preach in any church;
whereupon the three ministers resolved to preach in the earl of
Marshal's close and hall as the weather favoured them. Accordingly they
preached by turns, Mr. Dickson preached in the morning to a very
numerous multitude, at noon Mr. Cant preached, and Mr. Henderson
preached at night to no less an auditory than in the morning; and all of
them pressed and produced arguments for subscribing the covenant; which
had such effect upon the people, that, after public worship was over,
about 500 persons subscribed the covenant, at one table there, of whom
severals were people of the best quality in that place.[61]

And here one thing was very observable, that while Mr. Henderson
preached, the crowd being very great, there were several mockers, and
among the rest, one John Logie a student threw clods at the
commissioners, but it was remarked, that within a few days after, he
killed one Nicol Torrie, a young boy, because the boy's father had beat
him for stealing his pease, and though at that time he escaped justice,
yet he was again taken and executed in the year 1644. Such was the
consequence of disturbing the worship of God, and mocking at the
ambassadors of Jesus Christ.

In the same year, at that famous general assembly convened at Glasgow
(where many of the nobility were present) Mr. Henderson, without one
contrary vote, was chosen moderator, when he did by solemn prayer,
constitute that assembly _de novo_ in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ;
for "among that man's other qualifications (saith Mr. Bailey) he had a
faculty of grave, good and fervent prayer, which he exercised without
fainting unto the end of that assembly[62]."

It was in the 20th session of this assembly, that Mr. Henderson the
moderator, after a most pious and learned sermon (to a very great
auditory) from Psal. cx. 1. _The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my
right hand_, &c. did in a most grave and solemn manner, excommunicate
and depose the bishops, according to the form published among the
printed acts of that assembly. In the 21st session, a supplication was
given in for liberty to transport him from Leuchars to Edinburgh, but
this he was unwilling to do, having been near eighteen years minister
there.--He pled that he was now too old a plant to take root in another
soil, &c. yet, after much contest betwixt the two parties for some
day, Edinburgh carried it by 75 votes, very much against his own
inclination. However he submitted, on condition that when old age should
overtake him, he should be again removed to a country charge. At the
conclusion of this assembly he said, "We have now cast down the walls of
Jericho (meaning prelacy) let him that buildeth them beware of the curse
of Hiel the Bethelite, &c."

In the year 1639. he was one of those commissioned for the church, to
treat upon the articles of pacification[63] with the king and his
commissioners at Birks near Berwick, where he behaved with great
prudence and candor. And when the general assembly, the same year, sat
down at Edinburgh, _August_ 12, Mr. Henderson (having been the former
moderator) preached to them from Acts v. 33 when _they heard that, they
were cut to the heart_, &c. did towards the close of his discourse,
address John earl of Traquair, his majesty's commissioner, in these
words,--"We beseech your grace to see that Cæsar have his own, but let
him not have what is due to God, by whom kings reign. God hath exalted
your grace unto many high places, within these few years, and is still
doing so. Be thankful and labour to exalt Christ's throne.----Some are
exalted like Haman, some like Mordecai, &c. When the Israelites came
out of Egypt, they gave all the silver and gold they had carried thence
for the building of the tabernacle: in like manner, your grace must
employ all your parts and endowments for the building up the church of
God in this land, &c."

And to the members chosen, he said, "Right honourable, worshipful, and
reverend, go on in your zeal and constancy: true zeal doth not cool, but
the longer it burns, the more fervent it will grow: if it shall please
God that by your means the light of the gospel shall be continued, and
that you have the honour of being instrumental of a blessed reformation,
it shall be useful and comfortable to yourselves and your posterity. But
let your zeal be always tempered with moderation; for zeal is a good
servant but a bad master; like a ship that hath a full sail but no
rudder. We had much need of Christian prudence, for we know what
advantage some have attempted to take of us this way. For this reason
let it be seen to the world, that presbytery, the government we contend
for in the church, can consist very well with monarchy in the state;
and thereby we shall gain the favour of our king, and God shall get the
glory." After this discourse and the calling of the commissions,
Traquair desired that Mr. Henderson might be continued moderator.
Whether this was to corroborate his master's design, or from a regard to
Mr. Henderson's abilities (as he himself professed) is not certain, but
the assembly opposed this as favouring too much of the constant
moderator, the first step taken of late to introduce prelacy; and no man
opposed Traquair's motion more than Mr. Henderson himself, and by that
means it was over-ruled.

Mr. Henderson was one of those ministers who went with the Scots army to
England in the year 1640, every regiment having one of the most able
ministers in the bounds where they were raised as chaplain, and when the
treaty was set on foot which began at Rippon, and ended at London, he
was also one nominated as commissioner for the church, the duties of
which he discharged with great prudence and advantage, and the very next
year, he was, by the commission of the general assembly, authorized to
go with lord Loudon, Warriston and Barclay, to the king, to importune
him to call his English parliament, as the only and best expedient to
obtain an honourable and lasting peace; but his embassy had not the
desired effect.

After his return, he was chosen moderator to the general assembly _anno_
1643, and when the English commissioners, _viz._ Sir William Armyn, Sir
Harry Vane the younger, Mr. Hatcher and Mr. Darly from the parliament,
and two ministers, Mr. Stephen Marshal a presbyterian, and Philip Nye an
independent, from the general assembly of divines at Edinburgh, where
the general assembly of the church of Scotland was then fitting, craving
their aid and counsel upon such an emergent occasion, he was among the
first of those nominated as commissioners to go up to the parliament and
assembly of England. And so in a little after, Mr. Henderson and Mr.
Gillespie, with Mr. Hatcher and Mr. Nye, set out for London to get the
solemn league ratified there (the rest of the commissioners staying
behind until it should be returned). Upon their arrival at London, and
having received a warrant from the parliament to sit in the next
assembly (which warrant was presented by Mr. Henderson), the assembly
sent out three of their number to introduce them; at their entry Dr.
Twisse the prolocutor welcomed them unto the assembly, and complimented
them for the hazard they had undergone on their account both by sea and
land, in such a rigorous season (it being then November); after which
they were led to a place the most convenient in the house, which they
kept ever after[64].

Again in the year 1646, being sent down from London to attend the king,
then with the Scots army at Newcastle, at which time the general
Assembly appointed also Messrs. Robert Blair, James Guthrie, Robert
Douglas, and Andrew Cant, to wait on his majesty; here Mr. Henderson
officiated for some time as his chaplain; and although he and Mr. Blair,
of all the presbyterians were the best beloved of the king, yet they
could by no means prevail upon him to grant the first demand of his
subjects, yea, he obstinately refused, though they besought him on their

In the interval of these affairs, a series of letters was continued
betwixt the king, assisted by Sir Robert Murray on the one hand, and Mr.
Henderson on the other; the one in defence of Episcopacy, and the other
of Presbytery, which were exchanged from the 10th of May to the midst of
July as each person was in readiness.

But during this controversy, Mr. Henderson's constitution much worn out
with much fatigue and travel, he was obliged to break off an answer to
the king's last paper, and to return to Edinburgh, where, in a little
time after his arrival, he laid down his earthly tabernacle in exchange
for an heavenly crown, about the middle of August 1646.

Some of the abettors of prelacy, sensible of his great abilities, were
earnestly desirous to bring him over to their side at his death[65], and
for that purpose palmed upon the world most groundless stories of his
changing his principles at his last hours; yea, the anonymous author of
the civil wars of Great Britain goes farther, when he says, page 200.
"Mr. Henderson had the honour to be converted by his majesty's discourse
at Newcastle, and died reconciled to the church of England." But from
these false calumnies he hath been sufficiently vindicated a long time
ago, by a declaration of the 9th act of the general assembly in 1648.
See also Mr. Logan's letter in vindication of Mr. Henderson, from these
aspersions cast on him by Messrs. Sage and Ruddiman.

Some time after his death a monument was erected on his grave in the
Gray-friar's church-yard of Edinburgh, in form of a quadrangular urn,
inscribed on three sides; and because there was some mention thereon of
the solemn league and covenant (or rather because Mr. Henderson had done
much for and in behalf of the covenant), commissioner Middleton, some
time in the month of June or July 1662, stooped so low as to procure an
order of parliament, to raze and demolish said monument, which was all
the length their malice could go against a man who had been near sixteen
years in his grave. Hard enough, if he had died in the prelatical
persuasion, from those who pretended to be the prime promoters of the

Mr. Henderson was a man who spared no pains in carrying on the work of
reformation in that period.----For whether he was called forth to
church-judicatories, to the pulpit, or any other business, no trouble or
danger could make him decline the work. One of his colleagues and
intimate acquaintances give him no mean testimony, when he says, "May I
be permitted to conclude with my earnest wish, that that glorious soul
of worthy memory, who is now crowned with the reward of all his labours
for God and us, may be fragrant among us as long as free and pure
assemblies remain in this land, which, I hope, shall be to the coming of
our Lord. You know he spent his strength, wore out his days, and that he
did breathe out his life in the service of God, and of this church; this
binds it on us and posterity, to account him the fairest ornament after
Mr. John Knox of incomparable memory, that ever the church of Scotland
did enjoy[67]."

Beside the forenamed papers, with another intitled the remonstrance of
the nobility, &c. a tract on church government, and an instruction for
defensive arms, &c. the general assembly appointed him, Mr. Calderwood
and Mr. Dickson, to prepare a directory for the worship of God, which
not only had the desired effect, but at length brought about uniformity
in all our churches. There are also some few of his sermons in print,
some of which were preached before the parliament.


Mr. George Gillespie was son to Mr. John Gillespie, sometime minister of
the gospel at Kirkaldy. After Mr. George had been some time at the
university (where he surpassed the most part of his fellow-students) he
was licensed to preach some time before the year 1638, but could have no
entry into any parish because the bishops had then the ascendant in the
affairs of the church. This obliged him to remain for some time
chaplain[68], in the family of the earl of Cassils.----And here it was,
that he wrote that elaborate piece (though he was scarce twenty-five
years of age) intitled, a dispute against the English popish ceremonies,
&c. which book was, in the year 1637, discharged, by order of
proclamation, to be used, as being of too corrosive a quality to be
digested by the bishops weak stomachs.

After this he was ordained minister of Weemes, by Mr. Robert Douglas,
_April 26, 1638_, being the first who was admitted by a presbytery in
that period, without an acknowledgment of the bishops.----And now Mr.
Gillespie began in a more public way to exert himself in defence of the
presbyterian interest, when at the 11th session of that venerable
assembly held at Glasgow 1638, he preached a very learned and judicious
sermon from these words, _The king's heart is in the hand of the Lord_,
&c. in which sermon, the earl of Argyle thought that he touched the
royal prerogative too near, and did very gravely admonish the assembly
concerning the same, which they all took in good part, as appeared from
a discourse then made by the moderator for the support of that

At the general assembly held at Edinburgh 1641, Mr. Gillespie had a call
tabled from the town of Aberdeen, but the lord commissioner and himself
here pled his cause so well, that he was for sometime continued at
Weemes----Yet he got not staying there long, for the general assembly in
the following year ordered him to be transported to the city of
Edinburgh, where it appears he continued until the day of his death,
which was about six years after.

Mr. George Gillespie was one of those four ministers who were sent as
commissioners from the church of Scotland to the Westminster assembly in
the year 1643, where he displayed himself to be one of great parts and
learning, debating with such perspicuity, strength of argument, and
calmness of spirit, that few could equal, yea none excel him, in that
assembly.----As for instance, One time when both the parliament and the
assembly were met together, and a long studied discourse being made in
favours of Erastianism to which none seemed ready to make an answer, and
Mr. Gillespie being urged thereunto by his brethren the Scots
commissioners, repeated the subject-matter of the whole discourse, and
refuted it, to the admiration of all present,--and that which surprised
them most was, that though it was usual for the members to take down
notes of what was spoken in the assembly for the help of their memory,
and that Mr. Gillespie seemed to be that way employed during the time of
that speech unto which he made answer, yet those who sat next him
declared, that having looked into his note-book, they found nothing of
that speech written, but here and there, "Lord, defend thine
light,----Lord, give assistance,----Lord, defend thine own cause, &c."

And although the practice of our church gave all our Scots commissioners
great advantages (the English divines having so great a difference) that
they had the first forming of all these pieces[69] which were afterward
compiled and approved of by that assembly, yet no one was more useful
at supporting them therein than Mr. Gillespie the youngest of
them.----"None (says one of his colleagues who was there present) in all
the assembly, did reason more, nor more pertinently, than Mr.
Gillespie,--he is an excellent youth, my heart blesses God in his
behalf." Again, when Acts xvii. 28. was brought for the proof of the
power of ordination, and keen disputing arose upon it, "The very learned
and accurate Gillespie, a singular ornament to our church, than whom not
one in the assembly spoke to better purpose, nor with better acceptance
of all the hearers, shewed that the Greek word of purpose, by the
Episcopals, translated ordination, was truly choosing, importing the
people's suffrage in electing their own office-bearers." And elsewhere
says, "We get good help in our assembly debates of lord Warriston (an
occasional commissioner), but of none more than that noble youth Mr.
Gillespie. I admire his gifts, and bless God, as for all my colleagues,
so for him in particular, as equal in these to the first in the

After his return from the Westminster assembly, he was employed mostly
in the public affairs of the church, until the year 1648, when he was
chosen moderator to the general assembly, in which assembly several
famous acts were made in favour of the covenanted work of reformation,
particularly that against the unlawful engagement then made against
England by the duke of Hamilton, and those of the malignant faction. In
this assembly, he was one of these nominated to prosecute the treaty of
uniformity in religion with England, but in a short time after this, the
sickness seized him, whereof he died about the 17th of December

Says Mr. Rutherford to him in a letter when on his death bed; "Be not
heavy, the life of faith is now called for; doing was never reckoned on
your accounts (though Christ in and by you hath done more then by
twenty, yea, an hundred grey haired and godly pastors.) Look to that
word, Gal. ii. 20. _Nevertheless, I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth
in me_, &c."

In his life-time he was always firmly attached to the work of
reformation, and continued so to the end of his life.--For about two
months before his decease, he sent a paper to the commission of the
general assembly, wherein he gave faithful warning against every sin and
backsliding that he then perceived to be on the growing hand both in
church and state, and last of all, he emitted the following faithful
testimony against association and compliance with the enemies of truth
and true godliness, in these words.

"Seeing now in all appearance, the time of my dissolution draweth near,
although I have, in my latter will, declared my mind of public affairs,
yet I have thought good to add this further testimony, that I esteem the
malignant party in these kingdoms to be the seed of the Serpent, enemies
to piety and presbyterial government (pretend what they will to the
contrary), a generation who have not set God before them. With the
malignant are to be joined the profane and scandalous, from all which,
as from heresy and error, the Lord, I trust, is about to purge his
church. I have often comforted myself (and still do) with the hopes of
the Lord's purging this polluted land. Surely the Lord hath begun and
will carry on that great work of mercy, and will purge out the rebels. I
know there will be always a mixture of hypocrites, but that cannot
excuse the conniving at gross and scandalous sinners, &c. I recommend
to them that fear God, seriously to consider, that the holy scriptures
do plainly hold forth, 1. That the helping of the enemies of God,
joining or mingling with wicked men is a sin highly displeasing. 2. That
this sin hath ordinarily insnared God's people into divers other sins.
3. That it hath been punished of God with grievous judgments. And, 4.
That utter destruction is to be feared, when a people, after great
mercies and judgments, relapse into this sin, Ezra ix. 13, 14.

"Upon these and the like grounds, for my own exoneration, that so
necessary a truth want not the testimony of a dying witness of Christ,
altho' the unworthiest of many thousands, and that light may be held
forth, and warning given, I cannot be silent at this time, but speak by
my pen when I cannot by my tongue, yea now also by the pen of another
when I cannot by my own, seriously, and in the name of Jesus Christ,
exhorting and obtesting all that fear God, and make conscience of their
ways, to be very tender and circumspect, to watch and pray, that he be
not ensnared in that great and dangerous sin of compliance with
malignant or profane enemies of the truth, &c. which if men will do,
and trust God in his own way, they shall not only not repent it, but to
the greater joy and peace of God's people, they shall see his work go on
and prosper gloriously. In witness of the premises, I have subscribed
the same. At Kircaldy December 5th, 1648, before these witnesses, &c."
And in about two days after, he gave up the ghost, death shutting his
eyes, that he might then see God, and be for ever with him.

Thus died Mr. George Gillespie, very little past the prime of life. A
pregnant divine, a man of much boldness, and great freedom of
expression, He signalized himself on every occasion where he was called
forth to exercise any part of his ministerial function. No man's death,
at that time, was more lamented than his, and such was the sense the
public had of his merit, that the committee of estates, by an act dated
December 20th, 1648, did, "as an acknowledgment for his faithfulness in
all the public employments entrusted to him by this church, both at home
and abroad, his faithful labours and indefatigable diligence in all the
exercises of his ministerial calling, for his master's service, and his
learned writings published to the world, in which rare and profitable
employments, both for church and state, he truly spent himself, and
closed his days,--ordain, That the sum of one thousand pounds sterling
be given to his widow and children, &c." And though the parliament
did, by their act dated June 8th, 1650, unanimously ratify the above
act, and recommended to their committee, to make the same effectual;
yet, the Usurper presently over-running the country, this good design
was frustrated, as his grandson the Rev. Mr. George Gillespie minister
at Strathmiglo did afterwards declare[71].

Besides the English popish ceremonies already mentioned, he wrote also
Aaron's rod blossoming, &c. and his miscellany questions first printed
1649, all which with the forecited testimony and some other papers, shew
that he was a man of most profound parts, learning and abilities.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN M'CLELLAND._

Mr. John M'Clelland having gone through several branches of useful
learning, kept a school for some time at Newton in Ireland, where he
became instrumental in training up several hopeful young men for the
university. Afterwards he was tried and approven of by the honest
ministers in the county of Down, and being licensed, he preached in
their churches, until (among others) for faithfulness, he was deposed
and excommunicated by the bishops.

He was also engaged with the rest of his faithful brethren in their
intended voyage to New England in the year 1636, but that enterprise
proving abortive (by reason of a storm which forced them to return back
to Ireland), he preached for some time through the counties of Down,
Tyron and Dunnegal in private meetings, till being pursued by the
bishop's official, he was obliged to come over in disguise to Scotland,
where about the year 1638, he was admitted minister at Kirkcudbright, in
which place he continued until the day of his death.

It would appear that he was married to one of Mr. Livingston's wife's
sisters, and the strictest friendship subsisted betwixt these two worthy
men, both while in Ireland, and after their return to Scotland. While he
was minister at Kirkcudbright, he discovered more than ordinary
diligence, not only in testifying against the corruptions of the time,
but also for his own singular walk and conversation, being one who was
set for the advancement of all the practical parts of religion, and that
as well in private duties as in public.----For instance, When Mr. Henry
Guthrie then minister at Stirling (but afterwards bishop of Dunkeld),
thought to have brought in a complaint to the general assembly 1639,
against private society meetings (which were then become numerous
through the land), yet some of the leading members, knowing that Mr.
Guthrie did it partly out of resentment against the laird of Leckie (who
was a great practiser and defender of these meetings), thought proper,
rather than it should come to the assembly, to yield that Mr. Guthrie
should preach up the duty of religious exercise in families, and that
Messrs. M'Clelland, Blair and Livingston should preach against
night-meetings (for they were so called then because mostly kept in the
night) and other abuses, but these brethren endeavoured by conference to
gain such as had offended by excess in this matter, but by no means
could be prevailed with to preach against them, which so offended Mr.
Guthrie, that he gave in a charge or complaint to the general assembly
1640, wherein he alledged these three ministers were the only
encouragers of these meetings, Mr. M'Clelland roundly took him up, and
craved that a committee might be appointed to try these disorders, and
to censure the offenders, whether those complained of or the
complainers, which so nettled Mr. Guthrie, the earl of Seaforth and
others of their fraternity, that nothing was heard in the assembly for
sometime for confusion and noise stirred up by them.

Mr. M'Clelland was also one who was endued with the Spirit of discerning
what should afterwards come to pass, as is evident from some of his
prophetical expressions, particularly that letter which he wrote to John
Lord of Kirkcudbright dated February 20th, 1649, a little before his
death, an abstract of which may not be improper, and is as follows,

"_My noble Lord_,

"I have received yours, and do acknowledge my obligation to your
lordship is redoubled. I long much to hear what decision followed on
that debate concerning patronages[72]. Upon the most exact trial they
will be found a great plague to the kirk, an obstruction to the
propagation of religion. I have reason to hope that such a wise and
well-constitute parliament will be lothe to lay such a yoke upon the
churches, of so little advantage to any man, and so prejudicial to the
work of God as hath been many times represented. Certainly the removing
it were the stopping the way of simony, except we will apprehend that
whole presbyteries will be bribed for patronage. I can say no more but
what Christ said to the Pharisees. It was not so from the beginning, the
primitive church knew nothing of it.

"But as for their pernicious disposition to a rupture among sectaries, I
can say nothing to them, only this, I conclude their judgment sleeps
not: _Shall they escape, shall they break the covenant, and be
delivered?_ &c. Ezek. xvii. 16, &c. which I dare apply to England, I
hope, without wresting of scripture, _And therefore thus saith the Lord
God, as I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant
that he hath broken, even it will I recompense on his own head_, &c.
This covenant was made with Nebuchadnezzar, the matter was civil, but
the tie was religious, wherefore the Lord owns it as his covenant,
because God's name was invoked and interponed in it, and he calls
England to witness. England's covenant was not made with Scotland only,
but with the high and mighty God, principally for the reformation of his
house, and it was received in the most solemn manner that I have heard,
so that they may call it God's covenant both formally and materially;
and the Lord did second the making of it with more than ordinary success
to that nation. Now it is manifestly despised and broken in the sight of
all nations, therefore it remains that the Lord avenge the quarrel of
his covenant[73].----England hath had to do with the Scots, French,
Danes, Picts, Normans and Romans, but they never had such a party to
deal with as the Lord of armies, pleading for the violation of his
covenant, &c. Englishmen shall be made spectacles to all nations for a
broken covenant, when the living God swears, _As I live, even the
covenant that he hath despised, and the oath that he hath broken will I
recompense upon his own head._ There is no place left for doubting.
_Hath the Lord said it_, hath the Lord sworn it? _and will he not do
it?_ His assertion is a ground for faith, his oath a ground of full
assurance of faith, if all England were as one man united in judgment
and affection, and if it had a wall round about it reaching to the sun,
and if it had as many armies as it has men, and every soldier had the
strength of Goliah, and if their navies could cover the ocean, and if
there were none to peep out or move the tongue against them, yet I dare
not doubt of their destruction, when the Lord hath sworn by his life,
that he will avenge the breach of covenant. When, and by whom, and in
what manner, he will do it, I do profess ignorance, and leave it to his
glorious majesty, his own latitude, and will commit it him, &c.

"My lord, I live and will die, and if I be called home before that time,
I am in the assured hopes of the ruin of all God's enemies in the land,
so I commit your lordship and your lady to the grace of God.


A very little after he wrote this letter, in one of his sermons he
exprest himself much to the same purpose, thus, "The judgments of
England shall be so great, that a man shall ride fifty miles through the
best plenished parts of England, before they hear a cock crow, a dog
bark, or see a man's face." Also he further asserted, "That if he had
the best land of all England, he would make sale of it for two shillings
the acre, and think he had come to a good market[74]." And although this
may not have had its full accomplishment as yet, yet there is ground to
believe that it will be fulfilled, for the Lord will not alter the word
that is gone out of his mouth.

Mr. M'Clelland continued near twelve years at Kirkcudbright. About the
year 1650, he was called home to his Father's house, to the full
fruition of that which he had before seen in vision.

He was a man most strict and zealous in his life, and knew not what it
was to be afraid of any man in the cause of God, being one who was most
nearly acquainted with him, and knew much of his Master's will. Surely
the Lord doth nothing but what he revealeth to his servants the

A little before his death he made the following epitaph on himself.

    Come, stingless death, have o'er, lo! here's my pass,
    In blood character'd, by his hand who was
    And is and shall be. Jordan cut thy stream,
    Make channels dry. I bear my Father's name
    Stampt on my brow. I'm ravish'd with my crown.
    I shine so bright, down with all glory, down,
    That world can give. I see the peerless port,
    The golden street, the blessed soul's resort,
    The tree of life, floods gushing from the throne
    Call me to joys. Begone, short woes, begone,
    I lived to die, but now I die to live,
    I do enjoy more than I did believe.
    The promise me unto possession sends,
    Faith in fruition, hope, in having, ends.


Mr. David Calderwood, having spent some time at the grammar-school, went
to the university to study theology, in order for the ministry, where
after a short space, being found fit for that office, he was made
minister at Crelling near Jedburgh, where, for some considerable time,
he preached the word of God with great wisdom, zeal and diligence, and
as a faithful wise harvest man, brought in many sheaves into God's
granary. But it being then a time, when prelacy was upon the advance in
the church, and faithful ministers every where thrust out and
suppressed, he, among the rest, gave in his declinature in the year
1608, and thereupon took instruments in the hands of James Johnston
notary public, in presence of some of the magistrates and council of the
town, whereupon, information being sent to the king by the bishops, a
direction was sent down from him to the council, to punish him (and
another minister who declined) exemplarily, but by the earnest dealing
of the earl of Lothian with the chancellor in favours of Mr. Calderwood,
their punishment resolved only in a confinement within their own parish,

Here he continued until June 1617, that he was summoned to appear before
the high commission court at St. Andrews, upon the 8th of July
following. Being called upon (the king being present) and his libel read
and answered, the king among other things said, "What moved you to
protest?"----"An article concluded among the lords of the articles," Mr.
David answered. "But what fault was there in it," said the king.----"It
cutteth off our general assemblies," answered Mr. Calderwood. The king,
having the protestation[75] in his hand, challenged him for some words
of the last clause thereof.----He answered, "Whatsoever was the phrase
of speech, they meant no other thing but to protest, that they would
give passive obedience to his majesty, but could not give active
obedience unto any unlawful thing which should flow from that article."
"Active and passive obedience!" said the king.--"That is, we will rather
suffer than practise," said Mr. David. "I will tell thee, said the king,
what is obedience man,----What the centurion said to his servant, _To
this man, Go, and he goeth, and to that man, Come, and he cometh_, that
is obedience."----He answered, "To suffer, Sir, is also obedience,
howbeit not of the same kind, and that obedience was not absolute but
limited with exception, of a countermand from a superior power." "I am
informed, said the king, ye are a refractor, the bishop of Glasgow your
ordinary, and bishop of Caithness the moderator and your presbytery,
testify ye have kept no order, ye have repaired to neither presbytery
nor synod, and are no way conform." He answered, "I have been confined
these eight or nine years, so my conformity or non-conformity in that
point could not well be known." "Gude faith, thou art a very knave,"
said the king, "see these same false puritans, they are ever playing
with equivocations."--The king asked, If he was relaxed if he would obey
or not?--He answered, "I am wronged, in that I am forced to answer such
questions, which are besides the libel, &c." after which he was

When called in again, it was intimated to him, that if he did not
repair to synods and presbyteries between this and October, conform in
the time, and promise obedience in all time coming, the bishop of
Glasgow was to deprive him. Then Mr. David begged leave to speak to the
bishops, which being granted, he reasoned thus, "Neither can ye suspend
or deprive me, in this court of high commission, for ye have no power in
this court, but by commission from his majesty; his majesty cannot
communicate that power to you, which he claims not to himself." At which
the king wagged his head, and said to him, "Are there not bishops and
fathers in the church, &c. persons clothed with power and authority to
suspend and depose."--"Not in this court," answered Mr. Calderwood. At
which word there arose a confused noise, so that he was obliged to
extend his voice, that he might be heard. In the end the king asked him,
If he would obey the sentence?--To which he answered, Your sentence is
not the sentence of the kirk, but a sentence null in itself, and
therefore I cannot obey it. At which some reviling called him proud
knave. Others were not ashamed to shake his shoulders in a most insolent
manner, till at last he was removed a second time.

Being again called in, the sentence of deprivation was pronounced, and
he ordained to be committed to close ward in the tolbooth of St.
Andrews, till afterward that farther orders were taken for his
banishment, after which he was upbraided by the bishop, who said, That
he deserved to be used as Ogilvy the Jesuit who was hanged. When he
would have answered, the bishops would not allow him, and the king, in a
rage, cried, Away with him:--And lord Scoone taking him by the arm, led
him out, where they staid some time waiting for the bailiffs of the
town. In the mean time Mr Calderwood said to Scoone, "My lord, this is
not the first like turn that hath fallen into your hands."----"I must
serve the king," said Scoone. And to some ministers then standing by he
said, "Brethren, ye have Christ's cause in hand at this meeting, be not
terrified with this spectacle, prove faithful servants to your master."
Scoone took him to his house till the keys of the tolbooth were had. By
the way one demanded, "Whither with the man, my lord?"----"First to the
tolbooth, and then to the gallows," said Scoone.

He was committed close prisoner, and the same afternoon a charge was
given to transport him to the jail of Edinburgh. After the charge, he
was delivered to two of the guard to be transported thither, although
severals offered to bail him, that he might not go out of the country.
But no order of council could be had for that end, for the king had a
design to keep him in close ward till a ship was ready to convey him
first to London and then to Virginia, but providence had ordered
otherwise, for upon several petitions in his behalf he was liberate out
of prison, upon lord Cranston's being bail that he should depart out of
the country.

After this Mr. Calderwood went with lord Cranston to the king at
Carlisle, where the said lord presented a petition to him, that Mr.
David might only be confined to his parish, but the king inveighed
against him so much, that at last he repulsed Cranston with his elbow.
He insisted again for a prorogation of time for his departure till the
last of April, because of the winter season, that he might have leisure
to get up his years stipend.--The king answered, Howbeit he begged it
were no matter, he would know himself better the next time, and for the
season of the year, if he drowned in the seas, he might thank God that
he had escaped a worse death. Yet Cranston being so importunate for the
prorogation, the king answered, I will advise with my bishops. Thus the
time was delayed until the year 1619, that he wrote a book called Perth
Assembly, which was condemned by the council in the month of December
that same year,--but as he himself says[76], Neither the book nor the
author could be found, for in the month of August preceding, he had
embarked for Holland.

During his abode there, one Patrick Scot a landed gentleman near
Falkland, having wasted his patrimony, had no other means to recover his
state, but by some unlawful shift at court, and for that end in the year
1624, he set forth a recantation under the name of a banished minister,
_viz._ Mr. David Calderwood, who, because of his long sickness before,
was supposed by many to have been dead. The king (as he had alledged to
some of his friends) furnished him with the matter, and he set it down
in form. This project failing, he went over to Holland, and sought Mr.
Calderwood in several towns, particularly in Amsterdam, in the month of
November, in order to dispatch him, as afterward appeared. After he had
stayed twenty days in Amsterdam, making all the search he could, he was
informed that Mr. Calderwood had returned home privately to his native
country, which frustrated his intention.----After the death of king
James he put out a pamphlet full of this, intitled _vox vera_, and yet
notwithstanding of all his wicked and unlawful pursuits, he died soon
after, so poor, that he had not wherewith to defray the charges of his

Mr. Calderwood, being now returned home after the death of king James,
remained as private as possible, and was mostly at Edinburgh (where he
strengthened the hands of non-conformists, being also a great opposer of
sectarianism) until after the year 1638, that he was admitted minister
at Pancaitland in East Lothian.

He contributed very much to the covenanted work carried in that period;
for first he had an active hand in drawing up several excellent papers,
where were contained the records of church-policy betwixt the year 1576
and 1596, which were presented and read by Mr. Johnston the clerk at the
general assembly at Glasgow _anno_ 1638, as also by recommendation of
the general assembly 1646, he was ordered to consider the order of the
visitation of kirks, and trials of presbyteries, and to make report
thereof unto the next general assembly; and likewise at the general
assembly 1648, a further recommendation was given him to draw a draught
of the form of visitation of particular congregations, against the next
assembly; and was also one of those appointed with Mr. David Dickson, to
draw up the form of the directory for the public worship of God, by the
general assembly 1643[77].

After he had both spent and been spent, with the apostle, for the cause
and interest of Jesus Christ, when the English army lay at Lothian
_anno_ 1651, he went to Jedburgh, where he sickened and died in a good
old age. He was another valiant champion for the truth, who, in pleading
for the crown and interest of Jesus Christ, knew not what it was to be
daunted by the face and frowns of the highest and most incensed

Before he went to Holland, he wrote the book intitled, Perth Assembly.
While in Holland he wrote that learned book called, _Altare Damascenum_
with some other pieces in English, which contributed somewhat to keep
many straight in that declining period. After his return he wrote the
history of our church as far down as the year 1625, of which the
printed copy that we have is only a short abstract of that large written
history, which both as to the stile and the manner wherein it is
executed, is far preferable to the printed copy; and whoever compares
the two or the last with his _Altare Damascenum,_ both of which are yet
in the hands of some, will readily grant the truth of this assertion;
and yet all this derogates nothing from the truth of the facts reported
in the printed copy, and therefore no offence need be taken at the
information, that there is a more full and better copy than is yet
extant. See the note on the 78th page of Mr. Livingston's life and
memorable characteristics, &c.

_The Life of Mr. HUGH BINNING._

He was son to John Binning of Dalvennan, and Margaret M'Kell daughter of
Mr. Matthew M'Kell minister at Bothwel, and sister to Mr. Hugh M'Kell
one of the ministers of Edinburgh, His father's worldly circumstances
were so good (being possest of no inconsiderable estate in the shire of
Ayr), that he was enabled to give his son Hugh a very liberal education,
the good effects of which appeared very early upon him;--for the
greatness of his spirit and capacity of judgment, gave his parents good
grounds to conceive the pleasing hopes of his being a promising child.

When he was at the grammar-school, he made so great proficiency in the
knowledge of the Latin tongue, and the Roman authors, that he
out-stripped his fellow-scholars, even such as were by some years older
than himself. When they went to their diversions he declined their
society, and choosed to employ himself either in secret duty with God,
or conference with religious people, thinking time was too precious to
be lavished away in these things. He began to have sweet familiarity
with God, and to live in near communion with him, before others began
seriously to lay to heart their lost and undone state and condition by
nature, &c. so that before he arrived at the 13th or 14th year of his
age, he had even attained to such experience in the way of God, that the
most judicious and exercised Christians in the place confessed they were
much edified, strengthened and comforted by him, nay that he provoked
them to diligence in the duties of religion, being abundantly sensible
that they were much out-run by such a youth.

Before he was fourteen years of age, he entered upon the study of
philosophy in the university of Glasgow, wherein he made a very
considerable progress, by which means he came to be taken notice of in
the college by the professors and students, and at the same time he
advanced remarkably in religion also. The abstruse depths of philosophy,
which are the torture of a slow genius and a weak capacity, he dived
into without any pain or trouble, so that by his ready apprehension of
things, he was able to do more in one hour than others could do in many
days by hard study and close application; and yet he was ever humble,
and never exalted with self-conceit, the common foible of young men.

As soon as his course of philosophy was finished, he commenced master of
arts with great applause. He began the study of divinity with a view to
serve God in the holy ministry, at which time there happened to be a
vacancy in the college of Glasgow, by the resignation of Mr. James
Dalrymple[78] of Stair, who had some time been his master. And though
Mr. Binning was but lately his scholar, yet he was determined, after
much intreaty, to stand as a candidate for that post.

According to the usual laudable custom, the masters of the college
emitted a program, and sent it to all the universities of the kingdom,
inviting such as had a mind for a profession of philosophy, to sift
themselves before them, and offer themselves to compete for that
preferment, giving assurance that without partiality the place should be
conferred upon him who should be found _dignior et doctior_.

The ministers of the city of Glasgow, considering how much it was the
interest of the church that well-qualified persons be put into the
profession of philosophy, &c. and knowing that Mr. Binning was
eminently pious, and of a bright genius, as well as solid judgment, let
upon him to sift himself among the other competitors; but they had
difficulty to overcome his modesty. They at last prevailed upon him to
declare his willingness to undertake the dispute before the masters.
Among others, there were other two candidates, one of whom had the
advantage of great interest with Dr. Strang principal of the college at
that time, and the other a scholar of great abilities, yet Mr. Binning
so managed the dispute, and acquitted himself in all parts of his trial,
that to the conviction of the judges, he darkened his rivals. But the
doctor and some of the faculty who joined him, though they could not
pretend the person they inclined to prefer, had an equality, much less a
superiority in the dispute, yet they argued, _cæteris paribus_, that
this person they intended was a citizen's son, of a competency of
learning, and a person of more years, and by that means had greater
experience than what Mr. Binning, who was in a manner but of yesterday,
could be supposed to have.----But to this it was replied, That Mr.
Binning was such a pregnant scholar, so wise and sedate, as to be above
all the follies and vanities of youth, and what was wanting in years was
made up sufficiently by his more than ordinary and singular endowments.
Whereupon a member of the faculty, perceiving the struggle to be great,
(as indeed there were plausible reasons on both sides), proposed a
dispute between the two candidates _ex tempore_, upon any subject they
should be pleased to prescribe. This being considered, soon put a period
to the division amongst them, and those who had opposed him not being
willing to engage their friend with such an able antagonist a second
time, Mr. Binning was elected.

Mr. Binning was not quite 19 years of age when he commenced regent and
professor of philosophy, and, though he had not time to prepare a system
of any part of his profession, as he had instantly to begin his class,
yet such was the quickness and fertility of his invention, the
tenaciousness of his memory and the solidity of his judgment, that his
dictates to his scholars had a depth of learning and perspicuity of
expression, and was among the first in Scotland, that began to reform
philosophy from the barbarous terms and unintelligible jargon of the

He continued in this profession three years, and discharged his trust so
as to gain the general applause of the university for academical
exercises:--And this was the more remarkable, that having turned his
thoughts towards the ministry, he carried on his theological studies at
the same time, and made great improvements therein, for his memory was
so retentive, that he scarcely forgot any thing had heard or read. It
was easy and ordinary for him to inscribe any sermon, after he returned
to his chamber, at such a length, that the intelligent and judicious
reader, who had heard it preached, would not find one sentence wanting.

During this period, he gave full proof of his progress and knowledge in
divinity, by a composition from 2 Cor. v. 14 _For the love of Christ
constraineth us_, &c. Which performance he sent to a gentlewoman who had
been some time at Edinburgh, for her private edification, who having
perused the same, judged it to have been a sermon of some eminent
minister in the west of Scotland, and put it into the hands of the then
provost of Edinburgh, who judged of it in the same manner. But when she
returned to Glasgow, she found her mistake by Mr. Binning's asking it at
her:----This was the first discovery he had given of his dexterity and
abilities in explaining the scripture.

At the expiration of three years as a professor of philosophy, the
parish of Govan, which lies adjacent to the city of Glasgow, happened to
be vacant, and before this whoever was principal of the college of
Glasgow was also minister there; but this being attended with
inconveniencies, an alteration was made, and the presbytery having a
view to supply that vacancy with Mr. Binning, they took him upon trials,
in order to be licensed a preacher;--and preaching there to the great
satisfaction of that people, he was some time after called to be
minister of that parish, which call the presbytery approved of, and
entered him upon trials for ordination about the 22d year of his age,
and went through them to the unanimous approbation of the presbytery,
giving their testimony of his fitness to be one of the ministers of the
city upon the first vacancy,----having a view at the same time to bring
him back to the university, whenever the profession of divinity should
be vacant.

He was, considering his age, a prodigy of learning. For before he had
arrived at the 26th year of his life, he had such a large stock of
useful knowledge, as to be _philologus, philosophus et theologus
eximius_, and might well have been an ornament to the most famous and
flourishing university in Europe. This was the more surprising,
considering his weakness and infirmity of body, as not being able to
read much at a time, or to undergo the fatigue of continual study, in so
much that his knowledge seemed rather to have been born with him, than
to have been acquired by hard and laborious study.

Though he was bookish, and much intent upon the fulfilling his ministry,
yet he turned his thoughts to marriage, and did espouse a virtuous and
excellent person Mrs. Barbara Simpson, daughter to Mr. James Simpson a
minister in Ireland. Upon the day he was to be married, he went
accompanied with his friend (and some others, among whom were several
worthy ministers) unto an adjacent country congregation, upon the day of
their weekly sermon. The minister of the parish delayed sermon till they
would come, hoping to put the work upon one of the ministers whom he
expected to be there, but all declining it, he tried next to prevail on
the bridegroom, with whom he succeeded, though the invitation was not
expected. It was no difficult task to him to preach upon a short
warning; he stepped aside a little to pre-meditate and implore his
Master's presence and assistance (for he was ever afraid to be alone in
this work), and entered the pulpit immediately, and preached upon 1 Pet.
i. 15. _But as he that hath called you is holy_, &c. At which time he
was so remarkably helped, that all acknowledged that God was with him of
a truth, &c.

When the unhappy differences betwixt the resolutioners and protesters
fell out, among whom Mr. Binning was of the last denomination, this
distinction proved to be of fatal consequence. He saw some of the evils
of it in his own time, and being of a catholic and healing spirit, with
a view to the cementing of differences, he wrote an excellent treatise
of Christian love, which contains very strong and pathetic passages most
apposite to this subject. He was no fomenter of factions, but studious
of the public tranquillity. He was a man of moderate principles and
temperate passions, never imposing or overbearing upon others but
willingly hearkened to advice, and always yielded to reason.

The prevailing of the English sectarians under Oliver Cromwel[79] to the
overthrow of the presbyterian interest in England, and the various
attempts which they made in Scotland on the constitution and discipline
of this church was one of the greatest difficulties, which the
ministers had then to struggle with. Upon this he hath many excellent
reflections in his sermons, particularly in that sermon from Deut.
xxxii. 4, 5. See his works, page 502, 557, &c.

After he had laboured four years in the ministry, serving God with his
spirit in the gospel of his Son, he died in the year 1653, of a
consumption, when he was scarce come to the prime and vigour of his
life, being only in the 26th year of his age, leaving behind him a sweet
favour and an epistle of commendation upon the hearts of those who were
his hearers.

He was a person of singular piety, of a humble, meek, and peaceable
temper, a judicious and lively preacher, nay so extraordinary a person,
that he was justly accounted a prodigy of human learning and knowledge
of divinity. From his childhood he knew the scriptures, and from a boy
had been much under deep and spiritual exercise, until the time (or a
little before) that he entered upon the office of the ministry, when he
came to a great calm and tranquillity of mind, being mercifully relieved
from all these doubtings, which for a long time he had been exercised
with, and though he studied in his discourses to condescend to the
capacity of the meaner sort of hearers, yet it must be owned that his
gift of preaching was not so much accommodated to a country
congregation, as it was to the judicious and learned. Mr. Binning's
method was peculiar to himself, much after the haranguing way; he was no
stranger to the rules of art, and knew well how to make his matter
subservient to the subject he handled. His diction and language was easy
and fluent, void of all affectation and bombast, and has a kind of
undesigned negligent elegance which arrests the reader's attention.
Considering the time he lived in, it might be said, that he carried the
orator's prize from his contemporaries in Scotland, and was not at that
time inferior to the best pulpit orator in England. While he lived he
was highly esteemed, having been a successful instrument of saving
himself, and them that heard him, of turning sinners unto righteousness
and of perfecting the saints. He died much lamented by all good people
who had the opportunity of knowing him. That great divine Mr. James
Durham gave him this verdict, "That there was no speaking after Mr.
Binning;" and truly he had the tongue of the learned, and knew how to
speak a word in season.

Besides his works which are bound up in one quarto volume, and that
wrote upon occasion of the public resolutioners, which has been already
mentioned, some other little pieces of his have been published since.
There is also a book in quarto said to be his, intitled, An useful case
of conscience learnedly and acutely discussed and resolved, concerning
association and confederacies with idolators, heretics, malignants,
&c. first printed _anno_ 1693, which was like to have had some
influence at that time upon king William's soldiers while in Flanders,
which made him suppress it. And raise a persecution against Mr. James
Kid for publishing the same at Utrecht in the Netherlands.

_The Life of Mr. ANDREW GRAY._

Mr. Andrew Gray (by the calculation of his age and the date of his entry
into the ministry) seems to have been born about the year 1634, and
being very early sent to school, where he learned so fast, that in a
short time he was sent to the university, and here, by the vivacity of
his parts and ready genius, he made such proficiency both in scholastic
learning and divinity, that before he was twenty years of age he was
found accomplished for entering into the holy office of the ministry.

From his very infancy he had studied to be acquainted with the
scriptures, and, like another young Samson, the Spirit of God began very
early to move him, there being such a delightful gravity in his young
conversation, that what Gregory Nazianzen once said of the great Bazil,
might be applied to him,--"That he held forth learning beyond his age,
and fixedness of manners beyond his learning."

This earthly vessel being thus filled with heavenly treasure, he was
quickly licensed to preach, and got a call to be minister of the outer
kirk of the high church of Glasgow, though he was scarce twenty years of
age complete (far below the age appointed by the constitution of this
church unless in cases extraordinary).

No sooner was this young servant of Christ entered into his Master's
vineyard, than the people from all quarters flocked to attend his
sermons, it being their constant emulation who should be most under the
refreshing drops of his ministry, in so much that as he and his learned
colleague Mr. Durham were one time walking together, Mr. Durham,
observing the multitude thronging into that church where Mr. Gray was
to preach, and only a very few going into the church in which he was to
preach, said to him, "Brother, I perceive you are to have a throng
church to-day."--To which he answered, "Truly, brother, they are fools
to leave you and come to me."----Mr. Durham replied, "Not so dear
brother, for none can receive such honour and success in his ministry,
except it be given him from heaven, I rejoice that Christ is preached
and that his kingdom and interest is getting ground, for I am content to
be any thing or nothing that Christ may be all and all."

And indeed Mr. Gray had a notable and singular gift in preaching, being
one experienced in the most mysterious points of a Christian practice
and profession; and in handling of all his subjects, free of youthful
vanity, or affectation of human literature, though he had a most
scholastic genius and more than ordinary abilities; that he did outstrip
many that entered into the Lord's vineyard before him, his experience
being every way warm and rapturous, and well adapted to affect the
hearts of his hearers, yea he had such a faculty, and was so helped to
press home God's threatenings upon the consciences of his hearers, that
his contemporary the foresaid Mr. Durham observed, That many times he
caused the very hairs of their head to stand up.

Among his other excellencies in preaching (which were many) this was
none of the least, that he could so order his subject as to make it
relish every palate. He could so dress a plain discourse as to delight a
learned audience, and at the same time preach with a learned plainness,
having so learned to conceal his art. He had such a clear notion of high
mysteries, as to make them stoop to the meanest capacity. He had so
learned Christ, and being a man of a most zealous temper, the great bent
of his spirit and that which he did spend himself anent, was to make
people know their dangerous state by nature, and to persuade them to
believe and lay hold of the great salvation.

All which singularities seem to have been his peculiar mercy from the
Lord, to make him a burning and shining light in the western climate,
for about the space of two years[80] only, the Spirit of the Lord as it
were stirring up a lamp unto a sudden blaze, that was not to continue
long in his church. On which a late prefacer of some of his sermons has
very pertinently observed,----"Yea, how awakening, convincing and
reproving may the example of this very young minister be to many
ministers of the gospel, who have been many years in the vineyard, but
fall far short of his labours and progress! God thinks fit now and then
to raise up a child to reprove the sloth and negligence of many
thousands of advanced years, and shews that he can perfect his own
praise out of the mouth of babes, &c."

His sermons are now in print, and well known in the world. His works do
praise him in the gates, and though they are free from the metaphysical
speculations of the schools, yet it must be granted that the
excellencies of the ancient fathers and school-men do all concenter in
them: For his doctrine carries light, his reproofs are weighty, and his
exhortations powerful, and though they are not in such an accurate or
grammatical style as some may expect, yet that may be easily accounted
for, if we consider, (1.) The great alteration and embellishment in the
style of the English language since his time. And (2.) There can be no
ground to doubt but they must be far inferior unto what they were when
delivered by the author, who neither corrected, nor, as appears,
intended that they should ever be published, and yet all this is
sufficiently made up otherwise, for what is wanting in symmetry of parts
or equality of style, in the pleasure of variety, like the grateful
odours of various flowers, or the pleasant harmony of different sounds,
for so is truth in its own native dress.

It hath been often said that Mr. Gray many times longed for the 22d year
of his age, wherein he expected to rest from his labours by a perpetual
jubilee, to enjoy his blessed Lord and Master. However it is certain
that in his sermons we often find him longing for his majority, that he
might enter into the possession of his heavenly Father's inheritance
prepared for him before the foundations of the world were laid.

He escaped death very narrowly, when going to Dundee in company with Mr.
Robert Fleming (some time minister at Cambuslang) which remarkable
sea-deliverance was matter of his thankfulness to God all his life

There is one thing that may be desiderated by the inquisitious, _i. e._
what Mr. Gray's sentiments were concerning the public resolutions,
seeing he entered the ministry about the third year after these
resolutions took place.----Whatever his contentions in public were, it
is creditably reported, that he debated in private against these
defections with his learned colleague Mr. Durham, who afterwards on his
death-bed asked, What he thought of these things?--He answered, That he
was of the same mind with what he had formerly heard--and did much
regret that he had been so sparing in public against these woeful
resolutions, speaking so pathetically of their sinfulness and the
calamities they would procure, that Mr. Durham, contrary to his former
practice, durst never after speak in defence of them.

But the time now approaching that the Lord was about to accomplish the
desire of his servant, he fell sick, and was cast into a high fever for
several days. He was much tossed with sore trouble, without any
intermission, and all the time continued in a most sedate frame of mind.

It is a loss that his last dying words were neither wrote nor
remembered, only we may guess what his spiritual exercises were, from
that short but excellent letter sent from him, a little before his
death, to lord Warriston, bearing date Feb. 7, 1656, wherein he shows
that he not only had a most clear discovery of the toleration then
granted by Cromwel, and the evils that would come upon these lands for
all these things, but also was most sensible of his own case and
condition, as appears from the conclusion of that letter, where he
accosts his lordship thus, "Now, not to trouble your lordship, whom I
highly reverence, and my soul was knit to you in the Lord, but that you
will bespeak my case to the great Master of requests, and lay my broken
state before him who hath pled the desperate case of many according to
the sweet word in Lam. iii. 5, 6. _Thou hast heard my voice, hide not
thine ear_, &c. This is all at this time from one in a very weak
condition, in a great fever, who, for much of seven nights, hath sleeped
little at all, with many other sad particulars and circumstances."

Thus in a short time, according to his desire, it was granted to him, by
death, to pass unto the author of life, his soul taking its flight into
the arms of his blessed Saviour, whom he had served faithfully in his
day and generation (being about twenty-two years old). He shone too
conspicuous to continue long, and burned so intensely, he behoved soon
to be extinguished, but now shines in the kingdom of his Father, in a
more conspicuous refulgent manner, even as the brightness of the
firmament and the stars for ever and ever.

He was in his day a most singular and pious youth, and though he died
young, yet was old in grace, having lived long, and done much for God in
a little time, being one, both in public and private life, who possessed
in a high degree, every domestic and social virtue that could adorn the
character of a most powerful and pathetic preacher, a loving
husband[81], an affable friend, ever cheerful and agreeable in
conversation, always ready to exert himself for the relief of all who
asked or stood in need of his assistance, which uncommon talents not
only endeared him to his brethren the clergy, but also to many others
from the one extremity of the lands to the other (that heard or knew any
thing of him) who considered and highly esteemed him as one of the most
able advocates for the propagation and advancement of Christ's kingdom.

His well-known sermons are printed in several small pieces. Those called
his works are bound in one volume octavo. To the eleven sermons printed
sometime ago, are lately published a large collection to the number of
fifty-one, intitled his select sermons, whereof only three, for
connection sake, and his letter to lord Warriston are inserted, which
were before published in his works. So that by this time most (if not
all) of the sermons are now in print that ever were preached by him.

_The Life of Mr. JAMES DURHAM._

Mr. James Durham was born about the year 1622, and lineally descended
from the ancient and honourable family of Grange Durham, in the parish
of Monuseith in the shire of Angus. He was the eldest son of John Durham
of Easter Powrie, Esq; now called Wedderburn after the gentleman's name
who is the present professor thereof.

Having gone through all the parts of useful learning with success and
applause, he left the university before he was graduate, and for
sometime lived as a private gentleman at his own dwelling house in the
country, without any thought then of farther prosecuting his studies
especially for the ministry, and though he was always blameless and
moral in his life, both in the university and when he left it, yet he
was much a stranger to religion in the serious exercise and power of it,
and, through prejudice of education, did not stand well affected to the
presbyterial government. He first married a daughter of the laird of
Duntervie: his wife and her mother were both very pious women.

His conversion to the Lord was very remarkable. For going with his lady
to visit her mother in the parish of Abercorn, some miles west from
Edinburgh,--it happened, that at this time the sacrament was to be
administered in that parish upon Saturday,--his mother-in-law earnestly
pressed them to go with them to church and hear sermon; at first he
shewed much unwillingness, but partly by their persuasion, and partly by
his complaisant disposition, he went along with them. The minister that
preached that day was extremely affectionate and serious in his
delivery, and though the sermon was a plain familiar discourse, yet his
seriousness fixed Mr. Durham's attention very closely, and he was much
affected therewith. But the change was reserved till the morrow. When he
came home, he said to his mother-in-law, The minister hath preached very
seriously this day, I shall not need to be pressed to go to church
to-morrow. Accordingly on Sabbath morning, rising early, he went to
church, where Mr. Melvil preached from 2 Pet. ii. 7. _To you that
believe he is precious_, &c. where he so sweetly and seriously opened up
the preciousness of Christ, and the Spirit of God wrought so effectually
upon his spirit, that in hearing of this sermon, he first closed with
Christ, and then went to the Lord's table, and took the seal of God's
covenant. After this he ordinarily called Mr. Melvil father when he
spoke of him.

Afterward he made serious religion his business both in secret and in
his family, and in all places and companies where he came, and did
cordially embrace the interest of Christ and his church as then
established, and gave himself much up to reading; for which reason, that
he might be free of all disturbance, &c. he caused build a study for
himself; in which little chamber, he gave himself to prayer, reading and
meditation, and was so close a student there, that he often forgot to
eat his bread, being sometimes so intent upon his studies, that servants
who were sent to call him down, often returned without answer, yea, his
lady frequently called on him with tears, before he would come:--Such
sweet communion he had with the Lord sometimes in that place.

He made great proficiency in his studies, and not only became an
experimental Christian, but also a very learned man. One evidence of
which he gave in a short dispute with one of the then ministers of
Dundee, while he was in that town: He met (in a house where he was
occasionally) with the parson of the parish (for so the ministers were
then called), who knew not Mr. Durham. After some discourse he fell upon
the Popish controversy with him, and so put him to silence, that he
could not answer a word but went sneakingly out of the room from Mr.
Durham to the provost, craving his assistance to apprehend Mr. Durham as
a Jesuit, assuring the provost, that if ever there was a jesuit in Rome
he was one, and that if he were suffered to remain in the town or
country, he might pervert many from the faith.----Upon which the
provost, going along with him to the house where the pretended jesuit
was, and entering the room, he immediately knew Mr. Durham, and saluted
him as laird of Easter Powrie, craving his pardon for their mistake, and
turning to the parson, asked where the person was he called the
jesuit?--Mr. Durham smiled, and the parson ashamed, asked pardon of them
both, and was rebuked by the provost, who said, Fy, fy! that any country
gentleman should be able to put our parson thus to silence.

His call and coming forth to the ministry was somewhat remarkable, for
in the time when the civil wars broke forth, several gentlemen being in
arms for the cause of religion, among whom he was chosen and called to
be a captain, in which station he behaved himself like another
Cornelius, being a devout man, and one that feared God with all his
house, and prayed to God always with his company, &c. When the Scots
army were about to engage with the English, he judged meet to call his
company to prayer before the engagement, and as he began to pray, Mr.
David Dickson, then professor of divinity at Glasgow coming past the
army, seeing the soldiers addressing themselves to prayer, and hearing
the voice of one praying, drew near, alighted from his horse, and joined
with them; and was so much taken with Mr. Durham's prayer, that he
called for the captain, and having conversed with him a little, he
solemnly charged him, that as soon as this piece of service was over, he
should devote himself to serve God in the holy ministry, for to that he
judged the Lord called him. But though, as yet, Mr. Durham had no
clearness to hearken to Mr. Dickson's advice, yet two remarkable
providences falling out just upon the back of this solemn charge,
served very much to clear his way to comply with Mr. Dickson's
desire:--The first was, In the engagement his horse was shot under him,
and he was mercifully preserved: the second was, In the heat of the
battle, an English soldier was on the point of striking him down with
his sword, but apprehending him to be a minister by his grave carriage,
black cloth and band (as was then in fashion with gentlemen), he asked
him if he was a priest? To which Mr. Durham replied, I am one of God's
priests;--and he spared his life. Mr. Durham, upon reflecting how
wonderfully the Lord had spared him, and preserved his life, and that
his saying he was a priest had been the mean thereof, resolved
therefore, as a testimony of his grateful and thankful sense of the
Lord's goodness to him, henceforth to devote himself to the service of
God in the holy ministry, if the Lord should see meet to qualify him for
the same.

Accordingly, in pursuance of this resolution, he quickly went to
Glasgow, and studied divinity under Mr. David Dickson then professor
there, and made such proficiency therein, that in a short time (being
called thereto) he humbly offered himself to trials _anno_ 1646, and so
was licensed by the presbytery of Irvine to preach the gospel, and next
year, upon Mr. Dickson's recommendation, the session of Glasgow
appointed Mr. Ramsay one of their ministers, to intreat Mr. Durham so
come and preach in Glasgow. Accordingly he came and preached two sabbath
days and one week day. The session being fully satisfied with his
doctrine and the gifts bestowed on him by the Lord for serving him in
the holy ministry, did unanimously call him to the ministry of the
Black-friar church then vacant, in consequence of which he was ordained
minister there in November 1647.

He applied himself to the work of the ministry with great diligence, so
that his profiting did quickly appear to all; but considering that no
man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life, he
obtained leave of his people to return to his own country for a little
time to settle his worldly affairs there; yet he was not idle here, but
preached every sabbath. He first preached at Dundee, before a great
multitude, from Rom. i. 16. _I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ_,
and shewed that it was no disparagement for the greatest to be a
gospel-minister; and a second time he preached at Ferling (in his own
country) upon 2 Cor. v. 18. _He hath given to us the ministry of
reconciliation_, &c.; and a third time at Monuseith, at the desire of
the minister there, he preached from 2 Cor. v. 20. _We then are
ambassadors for Christ_, &c. In both places he indeed acted like an
ambassador for Christ, and managed the gospel-treaty of peace to good
purpose. The next sabbath he designed to have preached at Murrose, but
receiving an express to return to Glasgow in haste, his wife being
dangerously sick, he came away, leaving his affairs to the care of his
friends, and returned to Glasgow, where, in a few days, his wife, who
had been the desire of his eyes, died. His Christian submission under
this afflicting dispensation was most remarkable. After a short silence,
he said to some about him, "Now, who could persuade me that this
dispensation of God's providence was good for me, if the Lord had not
said it was so," He was afterward married to Margaret Muir relict of Mr.
Zechariah Boyd, minister of the Barony of Glasgow.

In the year 1650, Mr. Dickson professor of divinity in the college of
Glasgow, being called to be professor of divinity in the university of
Edinburgh, the commissioners of the general assembly authorized for
visiting the university of Glasgow, unanimously designed and called Mr.
Durham to succeed Mr. Dickson as professor there. But before he was
admitted to that charge, the general assembly of this church, being
persuaded of his eminent piety and stedfastness, prudence and
moderation, &c. did, after mature deliberation, that same year, pitch
upon him, though then but about twenty-eight years of age, as among the
ablest and best accomplished ministers then in the church, to attend the
king's family as chaplain. In which station, tho' the times were most
difficult, as abounding with snares and temptations, he did so wisely
and faithfully acquit himself, that there was a conviction left upon the
consciences of all who observed him. Yea, during his stay at court, and,
whenever he went about the duty of his place, they did all carry
gravely, and did forbear all lightness and profanity, none allowing
themselves to do any thing offensive before him. So that while he served
the Lord in the holy ministry, and particularly in that post and
character of the king's chaplain, his ambition was to have God's favour,
rather than the favour of great men, and studied more to profit and
edify their souls, than to tickle their fancy, as some court-parasites
in their sermons do: One instance whereof was, that being called to
preach before the parliament, where many rulers were present, he
preached from John iii. 10. _Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest
not these things?_ when he mostly insisted that it was a most
unaccountable thing for rulers and nobles in Israel, &c. to be
ignorant of the great and necessary things of regeneration, and being
born again of the Spirit; and did most seriously press all, from the
king to the beggar, to seek and know experimentally these things. A good
pattern for all ministers who are called to preach on the like occasion.
He continued with the king till he went to England, and then returned.

Towards the end of January 1651, the common session of Glasgow,
appointed Mr. Patrick Gillespie to write a letter to Mr. Durham,
concerning Mr. Robert Ramsay's being professor of divinity in place of
the said Mr. James Durham, in the university of Glasgow. In consequence
of which, Mr. Durham came to Glasgow, for he is mentioned present in the
session in the beginning of April next. At the same time, Cromwel and
his army were in Glasgow, and on the Lord's day Cromwel heard Mr. Durham
preach, when he testified against his invasion to his face. Next day he
sent for Mr Durham, and told him, He always thought he had been a wiser
man, than to meddle with matters of public concern in his sermons.--To
which he answered, It was not his practice, but that he judged it both
wisdom and prudence to speak his mind on that head seeing he had the
opportunity to do it in his presence.----Cromwell dismissed him very
civilly, but desired him to forbear insisting on that subject in public;
and at the same time sundry ministers both in town and country met with
Cromwel and his officers, and represented in strong terms the injustice
of his invasion.

It would appear that Mr. Durham, some time after this, had withdrawn
from Glasgow, and therefore a letter was, in August next, ordered to be
sent to him to come and visit them and preach; and in September next,
there being a vacancy in the inner kirk by the death of Mr. Ramsay, the
common session gave an unanimous call (with which the town-council
agreed) to Mr Durham to be minister there. And some time after this he
was received minister in the inner kirk, Mr. John Carstairs his
brother-in-law being his colleague in that church.

In the whole of his ministry he was a burning and shining light, and
particularly he shined in humility and self-denial. An instance of which
was, Upon a day when Mr. Andrew Gray and he were to preach, being
walking together, Mr. Durham observing multitudes thronging to Mr.
Gray's church, and only a few into his, said to Mr. Gray, "Brother, you
are like to have a throng church to-day." To which Mr. Gray answered,
"Truly, brother, they are fools to leave you and come to me."--"Not so,
dear brother, replied Mr. Durham, for a minister can receive no such
honour and success in his ministry, except it be given him from heaven.
I rejoice that Christ is preached, though my esteem in people's hearts
should decrease and be diminished; for I am content to be any thing so
that Christ be all in all."

He was also a person of the utmost gravity, and scarce smiled at any
thing. Once when Mr. William Guthrie being exceeding merry, made Mr.
Durham smile with his pleasant, facetious and harmless conversation, at
which Mr. Durham was at first a little disgusted, but it being the
laudable custom of that family to pray after dinner, which Mr. Guthrie
did, upon being desired, with the greatest measure of seriousness and
fervency, to the astonishment of all present: when they arose from
prayer, Mr. Durham embraced him and said, "O William, you are a happy
man, if I had been so merry as you have been, I could not have been in
such a serious frame for prayer for the space of forty-eight hours."

As Mr. Durham was devout in all parts of his ministerial work, so more
eminently at communion occasions. Then he endeavoured through grace to
rouse and work up himself to such a divineness of frame, as very much
suited the spiritual state and majesty of that ordinance. Yea, at some
of these solemn and sweet occasions, he spoke some way as a man that had
been in heaven commending Jesus Christ, making a glorious display of
free grace, &c. and brought the offers thereof so low that they were
made to think the rope or cord of the salvation offered, was let down to
sinners, that those of the lowest stature might catch hold of it. He
gave himself much up to meditation, and usually said little to persons
that came to propose their cases to him, but heard them patiently, and
was sure to handle their case in his sermons.

His healing disposition and great moderation of spirit remarkably
appeared when this church was grievously divided betwixt the
resolutioners and protestors; and as he would never give his judgment
upon either side, so he used to say, That division was worse by far than
either of the sides. He was equally respected by both parties, for at a
meeting of the synod in Glasgow, when those of the different sides met
separately, each of them made choice of Mr. Durham for their moderator,
but he refused to join either of them, till they would both unite
together, which they accordingly did. At this meeting he gave in some
overtures for peace, the substance of which was, that they should
eschew all public awakening or lengthening out the debate either by
preaching or spreading of papers on either side, and that they should
forbear practising, executing or pressing of acts made in the last
assembly at St. Andrews and Dundee, and also pressing or spreading
appeals, declinatures, &c. against the same, and that no
church-officer should be excepted at on account of these things, they
being found otherwise qualified, &c.[82]

So weighty was the ministerial charge upon his spirit, that if he were
to live ten years longer, he would choose to live nine years in study,
for preaching the tenth; and it was thought his close study and
thoughtfulness cast him into that decay whereof he died. In the time of
his sickness, the better part being afraid that the magistrates and some
of the ministry who were for the public resolutions, would put in one of
that stamp after his death, moved Mr. Carstairs his colleague, in a
visit to desire him to name his successor, which after some demur,
injoining secrecy till it was nearer his death, he at last named Mr.
David Vetch then minister of Govan; but afterwards when dying, to the
magistrates, ministers and some of the people, he named other three to
take any of them they pleased.--This alteration made Mr. Carstairs
inquire the reason after the rest were gone, to whom Mr. Durham replied,
O Brother, Mr. Vetch is too ripe for heaven to be transported to any
church on earth; he will be there almost as soon as I.--Which proved so;
for Mr. Durham died the Friday after, and next Sabbath Mr. Vetch
preached, and (though knowing nothing of this) told the people in the
afternoon it would be his last sermon to them, and the same night taking
bed, he died next Friday morning about three o'clock; the time that Mr.
Durham died, as Dr. Rattray, who was witness to both, did declare.--When
on his death-bed, he was under considerable darkness about his state,
and said to Mr. John Carstair's brother, "For all that I have preached
or written, there is but one scripture I can remember or dare gripe
unto; tell me if dare lay the weight of my salvation upon it, _Whosoever
cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out._"--Mr. Carstairs answered,
"You may depend on it, though you had a thousand salvations at hazard."
When he was drawing towards his departure in a great conflict and agony,
finding some difficulty in his passage, yet he sensibly, through the
strength of God's grace, triumphantly overcame; he cried out in a
rapture of holy joy some little time before he committed his soul to
God, "Is not the Lord good! Is he not infinitely good! See how he
smiles! I do say it, and I do proclaim it." He died on Friday the 25th
of June 1658, in the thirty-sixth year of his age.

Thus died the eminently pious, learned and judicious Mr. James Durham,
whose labours did always aim at the advancement of practical religion,
and whose praise in the gospel is throughout all the churches both at
home and abroad. He was a burning and a shining light, a star of the
first magnitude, and of whom it may be said (without derogating from the
merit of any), that he attained unto the first three and had a name
among the mighty. He was also one of great integrity and authority in
the country where he lived, insomuch, that when any difference fell out,
he was always chosen by both parties as their great referee or judge,
unto whose sentence all parties submitted. Such was the quality of his
calm and healing spirit.

His colleague Mr. John Carstairs, in his funeral sermon from Isa. lvii.
1, 2. _The righteous man perisheth, and no one layeth it to heart,_ &c.
gives him this character,--"Know ye not that there is a prince among
pastors fallen to-day! a faithful and wise steward, that knew well how
to give God's children their food in due season, a gentle and kind
nurse, a faithful admonisher, reprover, &c. a skilful counsellor in
all straits and difficulties; in dark matters he was eyes to the blind,
feet to the lame, a burning and shining light in the dark world, an
interpreter of the word among a thousand, to him men gave ear, and after
his words no man spake again."

His learned and pious works, (wherein all the excellencies of the
primitive and ancient fathers seem to concenter) are a commentary on the
Revelation; seventy-two sermons on the fifty-third chapter of the
prophecy of the prophet Isaiah; an exposition of the ten commandments;
an exposition of the Song of Solomon; his sermons on death; on the
unsearchable riches of Christ; his communion sermons, sermons on
godliness and self-denial; a sermon on a good conscience. There are also
a great many of his sermons in manuscript (never yet published), _viz._
three sermons upon resisting the Holy Ghost from Acts vii 51.; eight on
quenching the Spirit; five upon giving the Spirit; thirteen upon
trusting and delighting in God; two against immoderate anxiety; eight
upon the one thing needful; with a discourse upon prayer, and several
other sermons and discourses from Eph. v. 15. 1 Cor. xi. 24. Luke i. 6.
Gal. v. 16, Psal. cxix. 67. 1 Thess. v. 19. 1 Pet. iii. 14. Matth. viii.
7. There is also a treatise on scandal, and an exposition by way of
lecture upon Job said to be his, but whether these, either as to style
or strain, co-here with the other works of the laborious Mr. Durham,
must be left to the impartial and unbiased reader.


Mr. Samuel Rutherford a gentleman by extraction, having spent sometime
at the grammar-school, went to the university of Edinburgh, where he was
so much admired for his pregnancy of parts, and deservedly looked upon
as one from whom some great things might be expected, that in a short
time (though then but very young) he was made professor of philosophy in
that university.

Sometime after this he was called to be minister at Anwoth, in the shire
of Galloway, unto which charge he entered by means of the then viscount
of Kenmuir, without any acknowledgment or engagement to the bishops.
There he laboured with great diligence and success, both night and day,
rising usually by three o'clock in the morning, spending the whole time
in reading, praying, writing, catechising, visiting, and other duties
belonging to the ministerial profession and employment.

Here he wrote his _exercitationes de gratia_, &c. for which he was
summoned (as early as June 1630) before the high commission court, but
the weather was so tempestuous as to obstruct the passage of the
arch-bishop of St. Andrews hither, and Mr. Colvil one of the judges
having befriended him, the diet was deserted. About the same time his
first wife died after a sore sickness of thirteen months, and he himself
being so ill of a tertian fever for thirteen weeks, that then he could
not preach on the Sabbath day, without great difficulty.

Again in April 1634, he was threatened with another prosecution at the
instance of the bishop of Galloway, before the high commission court,
and neither were these threatenings all the reasons Mr. Rutherford had
to lay his account with suffering, and as the Lord would not hide from
his faithful servant Abraham the things he was about to do, neither
would he conceal from this son of Abraham what his purposes were
concerning him; for in a letter to the provost's wife of Kirkcudbright,
dated April 20, 1633, he says, "That upon the 17th and 18th of August he
got a full answer of his Lord to be a graced minister, and a chosen
arrow hid in his quiver[83]." Accordingly the thing he looked for came
upon him, for he was again summoned before the high commission court for
his non-conformity, his preaching against the five articles of Perth,
and the forementioned book of _exercitationes apologetica pro divina
gratia_, which book they alledged did reflect upon the church of
Scotland, but the truth was, says a late historian[84], The argument of
that book did cut the sinews of Arminianism, and galled the Episcopal
clergy to the very quick, and so bishop Sydresert could endure him no
longer. When he came before the commission court he altogether declined
them as a lawful judicatory, and would not give the chancellor (being a
clergyman) and the bishops their titles by lording of them, yet some had
the courage to befriend him, particularly, the lord Lorn (afterwards the
famous marquis of Argyle), who did as much for him as was within his
power to do; but the bishop of Galloway, threatening that if he got not
his will of him, he would write to the king; it was carried against him,
and upon the 27th of July 1636, he was discharged to exercise any part
of his ministry within the kingdom of Scotland, under pain of rebellion,
and ordered within six months to confine himself within the city of
Aberdeen, &c. during the king's pleasure, which sentence he obeyed,
and forthwith went toward the place of his confinement.

From Aberdeen he wrote many of his famous letters, from which it is
evident that the consolation of the Holy Spirit did greatly abound with
him in his sufferings, yea, in one of these letters, he expresses it in
the strongest terms, when he says, "I never knew before, that his love
was in such a measure. If he leave me, he leaves me in pain, and sick of
love, and yet my sickness is my life and health. I have a fire within
me, I defy all the devils in hell and all the prelates in Scotland to
cast water on it." Here he remained upwards of a year and a half, by
which time he made the doctors of Aberdeen know that the puritans (as
they called them) were clergymen as well as they. But upon notice that
the privy council had received in a declinature against the high
commission court in the year 1638, he adventured to return back again
to his flock at Anwoth, where he again took great pains, both in public
and private, amongst that people, who from all quarters resorted to his
ministry, so that the whole country side might account themselves as his
particular flock, and it being then in the dawning of the reformation,
found no small benefit by the gospel, that part of the ancient prophecy
being farther accomplished, _for in the wilderness shall waters break
out, and streams in the desert_, Isa. xxxv. 6.

He was before that venerable assembly held at Glasgow in 1638, and gave
an account of all these his former proceedings with respect to his
confinement, and the causes thereof. By them he was appointed to be
professor of divinity at St. Andrews, and colleague in the ministry with
the worthy Mr. Blair, who was translated hither about the same time. And
here God did again so second this his eminent and faithful servant, that
by his indefatigable pains both in teaching in the schools and preaching
in the congregation, St. Andrews the seat of the arch-bishop (and by
that means the nursery of all superstition, error and profaneness) soon
became forthwith a Lebanon out of which were taken cedars, for building
the house of the Lord, almost through the whole land, many of whom he
guided to heaven before himself (who received the spiritual life by his
ministry), and many others did walk in that light after him.

And as he was mighty in the public parts of religion, so he was a great
practiser and encourager of the private duties thereof. Thus in the year
1640, when a charge was foisted in before the general assembly at the
instance of Mr. Henry Guthrie minister at Stirling (afterward bishop of
Dunkeld), against private society meetings (which were then abounding in
the land), on which ensued much reasoning, the one side yielding that a
paper before drawn up by Mr. Henderson should be agreed unto concerning
the order to be kept in these meetings, &c. but Guthrie and his
adherents opposing this, Mr. Rutherford, who was never much disposed to
speak in judicatories, threw in this syllogism, "What the scriptures do
warrant no assembly may discharge; but private meetings for religious
exercises the scriptures do warrant, Mal. v. 16. _Then they that feared
the Lord spake often one to another_, &c. James v. 16. _Confess your
faults one to another, and pray one for another_, &c. These things could
not be done in public meetings, &c." And although the earl of Seaforth
there present, and those of Guthrie's faction upbraided this good man
for this, yet it had influence upon the majority of the members, so
that all the opposite party got done, was an act anent the ordering of

He was also one of the Scots commissioners appointed _anno_ 1643, to the
Westminster assembly, and was very much beloved there for his
unparalleled faithfulness and zeal in going about his Master's business.
It was during this time that he published _lex rex_, and several other
learned pieces against the Erastians, Anabaptists, Independents, and
other sectaries that began to prevail and increase at that time, and
none ever had the courage to take up the gauntlet of defiance thrown
down by this champion[85].

When the principal business of this assembly was pretty well settled,
Mr. Rutherford, on October 24, 1647, moved that it might be recorded in
the scribe's book, that the assembly had enjoyed the assistance of the
commissioners of the church of Scotland, all the time they had been
debating and perfecting these four things mentioned in the solemn
league, _viz._ Their composing a directory for worship, an uniform
confession of faith, a form of church-government and discipline, and the
public catechism, which was done in about a week after he and the rest
returned home.

Upon the death of the learned Dematius _anno_ 1651, the magistrates of
Utrecht in Holland, being abundantly satisfied as to the learning,
piety, and true zeal of the great Mr. Rutherford, invited him to the
divinity chair there, but he could not be persuaded. His reasons
elsewhere (when dissuading another gentleman from going abroad) seem to
be expressed in these words:--"Let me intreat you to be far from the
thoughts of leaving this land. I see it and find it, that the Lord hath
covered the whole land with a cloud in his anger, but though I have been
tempted to the like, I had rather be in Scotland beside angry Jesus
Christ (knowing he mindeth no evil to us), than in any Eden or garden on
the earth[86]." From which it is evident that he chose rather to suffer
affliction in his own native country, than to leave his charge and flock
in time of danger. He continued with them till the day of his death in
the free and faithful discharge of his duty.

When the unhappy difference fell out between those called the
protesters and the public resolutioners, _anno_ 1650, and 1651, he
espoused the protestors quarrel, and gave faithful warning against these
public resolutions, and likewise during the time of Cromwel's usurpation
he contended against all the prevailing sectaries that then ushered in
with the sectaries by virtue of his toleration[87]. And such was his
unwearied assiduity and diligence, that he seemed to pray constantly, to
preach constantly, to catechise constantly, and to visit the sick
exhorting them from house to house, to teach as much in the schools, and
spend as much time with the students and young men in fitting them for
the ministry, as if he had been sequestrate from all the world besides,
and yet withal to write as much as if he had been constantly shut up in
his study.

But no sooner did the restoration of Charles II. take place, than the
face of affairs began to change, and after his forementioned book _lex
rex_ was burnt at the cross of Edinburgh, and at the gates of the new
college of St. Andrews, where he was professor of divinity, the
parliament in 1661, were to have an indictment laid before them against
him, and such was their humanity (when every body knew he was a-dying)
that they caused summon him to appear before them at Edinburgh, to
answer to a charge of high treason[88]: But he had a higher tribunal to
appear before, where his judge was his friend, and was dead before that
time came, being taken away from the evil to come.

When on his death-bed, he lamented much that he was with-held from
bearing witness to the work of reformation since the year 1638, and
upon the 28th of February he gave a large and faithful testimony[89]
against the sinful courses of that time, which testimony he subscribed
twelve days before his death, being full of joy and peace in believing.

During the time of his last sickness, he uttered many savoury speeches
and often broke out in a kind of sacred rapture, exalting and commending
the Lord Jesus, especially when his end drew near. He often called his
blessed Master his kingly King. Some days before his death he said, "I
shall shine, I shall see him as he is, I shall see him reign and all his
fair company with him, and I shall have my large share. Mine eyes shall
see my Redeemer, these very eyes of mine, and none other for me. This
may seem a wide word, but it is no fancy or delusion.--It is true.--Let
my Lord's name be exalted, and, if he will, let my name be grinded to
pieces, that he may be all in all. If he should slay me ten thousand
times, I will trust."--He often repeated Jer. xv. 16. _Thy words were
found and I did eat them_, &c.

When exhorting one to diligence, he said, "It is no easy thing to be a
Christian. For me I have got the victory, and Christ is holding out both
his arms to embrace me." At another time to some friends present he
said, "At the beginning of my sufferings I had mine own fears like other
sinful men, lest I should faint and not be carried creditably through,
and I laid this before the Lord, and as sure as ever he spoke to me in
his word, as sure as his Spirit witnesseth to my heart, he hath accepted
my sufferings. He said to me, Fear not, the outgate shall not be simply
matter of prayer, but matter of praise. I said to the Lord, If he should
slay me five thousand times five thousand I would trust in him, and I
speak it with much trembling, fearing I should not make my part good,
but as really as ever he spoke to me by his Spirit, he witnessed to my
heart that his grace should be sufficient." The Thursday night before
his death, being much grieved with the state of the public, he had this
expression, "Horror hath taken hold on me." And afterwards, falling on
his own condition, he said, "I renounce all that ever he made me will
and do, as defiled and imperfect, as coming from me; I betake myself to
Christ for sanctification as well as justification:"--Repeating these
words, "_He is made of God to me wisdom, righteousness_, &c."--adding,
"I close with it, let him be so, he is my all in all."

March 17th, three gentlewomen came to see him, and after exhorting them
to read the word, and be much in prayer, and much in communion with God,
he said, "My honourable Master and lovely Lord, my great royal King hath
not a match in heaven nor in earth. I have my own guilt even like other
sinful men, but he hath pardoned, loved, washed, and given me joy
unspeakable and full of glory. I repent not that ever I owned his cause.
These whom ye call protestors, are the witnesses of Jesus Christ. I hope
never to depart from that cause nor side with those that have burnt the
causes of God's wrath. They have broken their covenant oftener than once
or twice, but I believe _the Lord will build Zion, and repair the waste
places of Jacob_. Oh! to obtain mercy to wrestle with God for their
salvation. As for this presbytery, it hath stood in opposition to me
these years past. I have my record in heaven I had no particular end in
view, but was seeking the honour of God, the thriving of the gospel in
this place, and the good of the new college, that society which I have
left upon the Lord. What personal wrongs they have done me, and what
grief they have occasioned to me, I heartily forgive them, and desire
mercy to wrestle with God for mercy to them, and for the salvation of
them all."

The same day Messrs. James M'Gil, John Wardlaw, William Vilant, and
Alexander Wedderburne, all members of the same presbytery with him,
coming to visit him, he made them welcome, and said, "My Lord and Master
is the chief of ten thousand, none is comparable to him in heaven or
earth. Dear brethren, do all for him, pray for Christ, preach for
Christ, feed the flock committed to your charge for Christ, do all for
Christ, beware of men-pleasing, there is too much of it amongst us. The
new college hath broke my heart, I can say nothing of it, I have left it
upon the Lord of the house, and it hath been and still is my desire that
he may dwell in this society, and that the youth may he fed with sound
knowledge."--After this he said, "Dear brethren, it may seem
presumptuous in me a particular man, to send a commission to a
presbytery;--and Mr. M'Gill replying, It was no presumption, he
continued,--Dear brethren, take a commission from me a dying man, to
them to appear for God and his cause, and adhere to the doctrine of the
covenant, and have a care of the flock committed to their charge, let
them feed the flock out of love, preach for God, visit and catechise for
God, and do all for God, beware of men-pleasing, the chief shepherd
will appear shortly, &c. I have been a sinful man, and have had mine
own failings, but my Lord hath pardoned and accepted my labours. I
adhere to the cause and covenant, and resolve never to depart from the
protestation[90] against the controverted assemblies. I am the man I
was. I am still for keeping the government of the kirk of Scotland
intire, and would not for a thousand worlds have had the least hand in
the burning of the causes of God's wrath. Oh! for grace to wrestle with
God for their salvation."

Mr. Vilant having prayed at his desire, as they took their leave he
renewed their charge to them to feed the flock out of love. The next
morning, as he recovered out of a fainting, in which they who looked on
expected his dissolution, he said, "I feel, I feel, I believe, I joy and
rejoice, I feed on manna." Mr. Blair (whose praise is in the churches)
being present, he took a little wine in a spoon to refresh himself,
being then very weak, he said to him, "Ye feed on dainties in heaven,
and think nothing of our cordials on earth."--He answered, "They are all
but dung, but they are Christ's creatures, and out of obedience to his
command I take them.----Mine eyes shall see my Redeemer, I know he shall
stand the last day upon the earth, and I shall be caught up in the
clouds to meet him in the air, and I shall be ever with him, and what
would you have more, there is an end."--And stretching out his hands he
said again, "There is an end."----And a little after he said, "I have
been a single man, but I stand at the best pass that ever a man did,
Christ is mine and I am his."--And spoke much of the white stone and new
name. Mr. Blair (who loved with all his heart to hear Christ commended)
said to him again--"What think ye now of Christ?--To which he answered,
I shall live and adore him. Glory! glory to my Creator and my Redeemer
for ever! Glory shines in Emmanuel's land." In the afternoon of that day
he said, "Oh! that all my brethren in the public may know what a Master
I have served, and what peace I have this day, I shall sleep in Christ,
and when I awake I shall be satisfied with his likeness. This night
shall close the door and put my anchor within the vail, and I shall go
away in a sleep by five of the clock in the morning" (which exactly
fell out). Though he was very weak, he had often this expression, "Oh!
for arms to embrace him! Oh! for a well tuned harp!" He exhorted Dr.
Colvil (a man who complied with prelacy afterward) to adhere to the
government of the church of Scotland, and to the doctrine of the
covenant, and to have a care to feed the youth with sound
knowledge.----And the doctor being the professor of the new college, he
told him, That he heartily forgave him all the wrongs he had done him.
He spake likewise to Mr. Honeyman (afterward bishop Honeyman) who came
to see him, saying, "Tell the presbytery to answer for God and his cause
and covenant, saying, The case is desperate, let them be in their
duty."----Then directing his speech to Mr. Colvil and Mr. Honeyman, he
said, "Stick to it. You may think it an easy thing in me a dying man,
that I am now going out of the reach of all that men can do, but he
before whom I stand knows I dare advise no colleague or brother to do
what I would not cordially do myself upon all hazard, and as for the
causes of God's wrath that men have now condemned, tell Mr. James Wood
from me, that I had rather lay down my head on a scaffold, and have it
chopped off many times (were it possible), before I had passed from
them." And then to Mr. Honeyman he said, "Tell Mr. Wood, I heartily
forgive him all the wrongs he has done me, and desire him from me to
declare himself the man that he is still for the government of the
church of Scotland."

Afterwards when some spoke to him of his former painfulness and
faithfulness in the ministry, he said, "I disclaim all that, the port
that I would be at, is redemption and forgiveness through his blood,
_thou shalt shew me the path of life, in thy sight is fulness of joy_,
there is nothing now betwixt me and the resurrection _but to-day thou
shalt be with me in paradise_." Mr. Blair saying, Shall I praise the
Lord for all the mercies he has done and is to do for you? He answered,
"Oh! for a well tuned harp." To his child[91] he said, "I have again
left you upon the Lord, it may be, you will tell this to others, that
_the lines are fallen to me in pleasant places, I have got a goodly
heritage_. I bless the Lord that he gave me counsel."

Thus by five o'clock in the morning (as he himself foretold) it was said
unto him, Come up hither, and he gave up the ghost, and the renowned
eagle took its flight unto the mountains of spices.

In the foresaid manner died the famous Mr. Rutherford who may justly be
accounted among the sufferers of that time, for surely he was a martyr
both in his own design and resolution, and by the design and
determination of men. Few men ever ran so long a race without cessation,
so constantly, so unweariedly, and so unblameably. Two things (rarely to
be found in one man) were eminent in him, _viz._ a quick invention and
sound judgment, and these accompanied with a homely but clear
expression, and graceful elocution; so that such as knew him best were
in a strait whether to admire him most for his penetrating wit and
sublime genius in the schools, and peculiar exactness in disputes and
matters of controversy, or his familiar condescension in the pulpit,
where he was one of the most moving and affectionate preachers in his
time, or perhaps in any age of the church.----To sum up all in a word,
He seems to be one of the most resplendent lights that ever arose in
this horizon.

In all his writings he breathes the true spirit of religion, but in his
every-way admirable letters he seems to have out-done himself, as well
as every body else, which, although jested on by the profane wits of
this age because of some homely and familiar expressions in them, it
must be owned by all who have any relish for true piety, that they
contain such sublime flights of devotion that they must at once ravish
and edify every sober, serious, and understanding reader.

Among the posthumous works of the laborious Mr. Rutherford are his
letters; the trial and triumph of faith; Christ's dying and drawing of
sinners, &c.; and a discourse on prayer; all in octavo. A discourse on
the covenant; on liberty of conscience; a survey of spiritual
antichrist; a survey of antinomianism; antichrist stormed; and several
other controverted pieces, such as _lex rex_, the due right of
church-government; the divine right of church-government; and a
peaceable plea for presbytery; are for the most part in quarto, as also
his summary of church discipline, and a treatise on the divine influence
of the Spirit. There are also a variety of his sermons in print, some of
which were preached before both houses of parliament _annis_ 1644, and
1645. He wrote also upon providence, but this being in Latin, is only in
the hands of a few; as are also the greater part of his other works,
being so seldom republished. There is also a volume of sermons,
sacramental discourses, &c. which I have been desired to publish.

_An EPITAPH on his Grave-stone._

    What tongue! What pen, or skill of men
    Can famous Rutherford commend!
    His learning justly rais'd his fame,
    True goodness did adorn his name.
    He did converse with things above,
    Acquainted with Emmanuel's love.
    Most orthodox he was and sound,
    And many errors did confound.
    For Zion's King, and Zion's cause,
    And Scotland's covenanted laws,
    Most constantly he did contend,
    Until his time was at an end.
    At last he wan to full fruition
    Of that which he had seen in vision.

_October 9th, 1735._               W. W.

_The Life of the honourable ARCHIBALD CAMPBEL Marquis of Argyle._

Archibald Campbel having, after a good classical education, applied
himself to the study of the holy scriptures, became well acquainted with
the most interesting points of religion, which he retained and
cultivated amidst his most laborious and highest employments both in
church and state ever after.

From his earlier years he stood well affected to the presbyterian
interest, and being still a favourer of the puritans (the presbyterians
then so called) when Mr. Rutherford was, for his non-conformity, brought
before the high commission court _anno_ 1638, he interposed to his
utmost in his behalf; concerning which Mr. Rutherford in his letters
says,[92] "My Lord hath brought me a friend from the highlands of
Argyle, my lord Lorn, who hath done as much as was within the compass of
his power. God give me favour in his eyes." And elsewhere to the lady
Kenmuir, "And write thanks to your brother, my lord of Lorn, for what he
has done for me, a poor unknown stranger to him. I shall pray for him
and his house while I live. It is his honour to open his mouth in the
streets for his wronged and oppressed Master Christ Jesus." Nor was this
all: for about the same time, he so laboured and prevailed with the
bishop of Galloway, that worthy Earlston was relaxed from the sentence
of banishment unto which he was assigned for the same noble cause.

And no sooner did our reformation (commonly called the second
reformation) begin to dawn _anno_ 1637, than he espoused the same cause
himself; for we find next year, that the earl of Argyle (his father
dying about that time), though a private counsellor, diligently
attending all the sessions of that famous general assembly held then at
Glasgow, in order to hear their debates and determinations concerning
diocesan episcopacy, and the five articles of Perth, wherein he declared
his full satisfaction with their decisions. And here it was that this
noble peer began to distinguish himself by a concern for the Redeemer's
glory, in which he continued, and was kept faithful therein, until he
got the crown of martyrdom at last.

At this meeting, amongst many other things, his lordship proposed an
explication of the confession and covenant, in which he wished them to
proceed with great deliberation, lest (said he) they should bring any
under suspicion of perjury, who had sworn it in the sense he had done,
which motion was taken in good part by the members, and entered upon in
the 8th session of that assembly. Mr. Henderson the moderator, at the
conclusion of this assembly, judging that, after all, the countenance
give to their meetings by this noble peer deserved a particular
acknowledgment, wished his lordship had joined with them sooner, but he
hoped God had reserved him for the best times, and would honour him here
and hereafter. Whereupon his lordship rose, and delivered an excellent
speech _ex tempore_, before the assembly, in which amongst other things
he said, "And whereas you wished I had joined you sooner; truly it was
not for want of affection for the good of religion, and my own country
which detained me, but a desire and hope that by staying with the court
I might have been able to bring a redress of grievances, and when I saw
that I could no longer stay without proving unfaithful to my God and my
country, I thought good to do as I have done, &c.----I remember I told
some of you that pride and avarice are two evils that have wrought much
woe to the church of Christ, and as they are grievous faults in any man,
they are especially so in church-men, &c.--I hope every man here,
shall walk by the square and rule which is now set before him, observing
duty, 1. To superiors. 2. To equals; and 3. To inferiors.--Touching our
duty to superiors, there needs nothing be added to what has been wisely
said by the moderator. Next, concerning equals, there is a case much
spoken of in the church, _i. e._ the power of ruling elders, some
ministers apprehending it to be a curbing of their power; truly it may
be some elders are not so wise as there is need for.--But as unity ought
to be the endeavour of us all, let neighbouring parishes and
presbyteries meet together for settling the same, &c. And thirdly, for
inferiors, I hope ministers will discharge their duty to their flocks,
and that people will have a due regard to those that are set over them
to watch for their souls, and not to think, that because they want
bishops, they may live as they will, &c."[93]

After this, when the Scots covenanters were obliged to take arms in
their own defence, _anno_ 1639, and having marched towards the borders
of England, under the command of general Leslie, this noble lord being
set to guard the western coast, contributed very much by his diligence
and prudence to preserve peace in these parts, and that not only in
conveening the gentlemen in these quarters, and taking security of them
for that purpose, but also raised four hundred men in the shire of
Argyle, which he took in hand to maintain at his own charges. Which
number he afterward increased to nine hundred able men, one half whereof
he set on Kintyre to wait on the marquis of Antrim's design, and the
rest on the head of Lorn to attend the motions of those of Lochaber, and
the western isles. From thence he himself went over to Arran with some
cannon, and took the castle of Brodick, belonging to Hamilton; which
surrendered without resistance.

He was again, in the absence of the covenanters army, _anno_ 1640,
appointed to the same business, which he managed with no less success,
for he apprehended no less than eight or nine of the ring-leaders of the
malignant faction, and made them give bonds for their better behaviour
in time coming. Which industrious and faithful conduct in this great man
stirred up the malice of his and truth's adversaries, that they fought
on all occasions to vent their mischief against him afterward.

For, at the very next sitting down of the Scots parliament, the earl of
Montrose discovered a most mischievous attempt to wound his reputation,
and to set the king at perpetual variance with his lordship; and among
other offensive speeches uttered by Montrose, one was, That when the
earl of Athol and the other eight gentlemen taken up by him last year
(for carrying arms against their country), were in his lordship's tent
at the ford of Lyons, he (_viz._, Argyle) should have said publicly,
"That they (meaning the parliament) had consulted both lawyers and
divers others, anent the deposing of the king, and had got resolution
that it might be done in three cases, _viz._ 1. Desertion. 2. Invasion;
and 3. Vendition. And that they once thought to have done it at the last
sitting of parliament, but would do it at the next sitting thereof."
Montrose condescended on Mr. James Stuart commissary of Dunkeld, one of
the foresaid eight taken by Argyle, as his informer; and some of his
lordship's friends, having brought the said commissary to Edinburgh, he
was so fool-hardy as to subscribe the acknowledgment of the above report
to Montrose. The earl of Argyle denied the truth of this in the
strongest terms, and resolved to prosecute Mr. Stuart before the court
of justiciary where his lordship insisted for an impartial trial, which
was granted, and according to his desire four lords of the session were
added _hac vice_ to the court of justiciary. Stuart was accused upon the
laws of leasing, particularly of a principal statesman, to evite the
eminent danger of which he wrote to Argyle, wherein he cleared him of
the charge as laid against him, and acknowledged that he himself forged
them, out of malice against his lordship, &c. But though Argyle's
innocency was thus cleared, it was thought necessary to let the trial go
on, and the fact being proven he was condemned to die. Argyle would
willingly have seen the royal clemency extended to the unfortunate
wretch; but others thought the crime tended to mar the design of the
late treaty, and judged it needful as a terror to others, to make an
example. At his execution, he discovered a great deal of remorse for
what he had done, and although this worthy nobleman was vindicated in
this, yet we find that after the restoration it was made one of the
principal handles against this noble martyr.

During these transactions, the king disagreeing with his English
parliament, made another tour to Scotland, and attended the Scots
parliament there; in which parliament, (that he might more effectually
gain the Scots over to his interest) he not only granted a ratification
of all their former proceedings, both in their own defence, and with
respect to religion, but also dignified several of the Scots nobility:
and being sensible of the many great and good services done by this
noble earl, he was placed at the head of the treasury, and the day
before the rising of the parliament all the commissions granted to, and
services and employments performed by Archibald, earl of Argyle, in the
service of his country were approved of; and an act of parliament made
thereon was read and voted, the king giving him this testimony in
public, That he dealt over honestly with him, though he was still stiff
as to the point in controversy. And on the same day, Nov, 15th, 1641,
the king delivered a patent to the lion king at arms, and he to the
clerk register, who read it publicly, whereby his majesty created
Archibald earl of Argyle, &c. marquis of Argyle, earl of Kintyre, lord
Lorn, &c. which being read, and given back to the king, his majesty
delivered the same with his own hand to the marquis, who rose and made a
very handsome speech in gratitude to his majesty, shewing that he
neither expected nor deserved such honour or preferment.

During the sitting of the foresaid parliament, another incident
occurred, wherein a plot was laid to destroy this nobleman, in the
following manner: Some of the nobility, envying the power, preferment
and influence that he and the marquis of Hamilton had with the king,
laid a close design for their lives. The earl of Crawford, colonel
Cochran, and lieut. Alexander Stuart, were to have been the actors (in
which it was insinuated, that his majesty, lord Almond, &c. were privy
to the design), which was, that Hamilton and Argyle should be called for
in the dead of the night to speak with the king; in the way they were to
have been arrested as traitors, and delivered to earl Crawford, who was
to wait for them with a considerable body of armed men. If any
resistance was made, he was to stab them immediately, if not, carry them
prisoners to a ship of war in the road of Leith, where they were to be
confined until they should be tried for treason.--But this breaking out
before it was fully ripe, the two noblemen the night before went off to
a place of more strength, twelve miles distant, and so escaped this
danger, as a bird out of the hands of the fowler. Yet such was their
lenity and clemency, that upon a petition from them, the foresaid
persons were set at liberty.

After this, the earl (now marquis) of Argyle had a most active hand in
carrying on the work of reformation, and uniformity in religion _anno_
1643. And while he was busied among the covenanters _anno_ 1644,
Montrose and some others associated themselves to raise forces for the
king, intending to draw the Scots army forth of England.--To effect
which, the earl of Antrim undertook to send over ten thousand Irish,
under the command of one Alaster M'Donald, a Scotsman, to the north of
Scotland. A considerable body was accordingly sent, who committed many
outrages in Argyle's country.--To suppress this insurrection, the
committee of estates _April_ 10, gave orders to the marquis to raise
three regiments; which he accordingly did, and with them marched
northward, took several of their principal chieftains, and dispersed the
rest for some time. But Montrose being still on the field, wherein he
gained several victories during this and the following year, and in the
mean time plundered and murdered the greater part of Argyle-shire, and
other places belonging to the covenanters, without mercy, and although
he was at last defeated and totally routed by general Lesly at
Philiphaugh, yet such was the cruelty of those cut-throats, that the
foresaid M'Donald and his Irish band returned to Argyle-shire (in the
beginning of the year 1646) and burnt and plundered the dwellings of the
well-affected, in such a terrible manner, that about twelve hundred men
assembled in a body under Acknalase, who brought them down to Monteith,
to live upon the disaffected in that country, but the Athol men falling
upon them at Calender (and being but poorly armed) several of them were
killed, and the rest fled towards Stirling, where their master the noble
marquis met them, and commiserating their deplorable condition, carried
them through to Lennox, to live upon the lands of the lord Napier and
others of the disaffected, until they were better provided for. And in
the mean time went over himself to Ireland, and brought over the remains
of the Scots forces, and with those landed in Argyle-shire, upon which
M'Donald betook himself to the isles, and from thence returned back to
Ireland; whereby peace was restored in those parts.[94]

Again _anno_ 1648, when the state fell into two factions, that of the
malignants was herded by the duke of Hamilton; and the other (the
covenanters) by the marquis of Argyle, from which it is easy to
conclude, that from the year 1643, (when he had such an active hand in
calling the convention of estates, and entering into the solemn league
and covenant) to 1648, he was the principal agent amongst the
covenanters, and never failed on all occasions to appear in defence of
the civil and religious liberties of his native country.

And for what was enacted _anno_ 1649, it is well known what appearances
he made, and what interest he had in the parliament, and to the utmost
of his power did employ the same for bringing home Charles II. and
possessing him of his crown and the exercise of his royal authority, and
in this he succeeded to good purpose, as long as the king followed his
counsel and advice. But afterwards taking in the malignant faction into
places of power and trust, all went to shipwreck together, which was no
small matter of grief to this worthy and religious nobleman.

And as the king was well received then by the marquis of Argyle, so he
pretended a great deal of regard and kindness for him about that time;
as appears from a letter or declaration given under his own hand at St.
Johnston Sept. 24, 1650, in which he says, "Having taken to my
consideration the faithful endeavours of the marquis of Argyle, for
restoring me to my just rights, &c.----I am desirous to let the world
see how sensible I am of his real respect to me, by some particular
favour to him.----And particularly I do promise that I shall make him
duke of Argyle, a knight of the garter, and one of the gentlemen of my
bed-chamber, and this to be performed when he shall think fit. I do
further promise to hearken to his counsel, whenever it shall please God
to restore me to my just rights in England, I shall see him paid the
40,000 pounds sterling which are due to him. All which I do promise to
make good upon the word of a king.  _C. R._"

       *       *       *       *       *

But how all these fair promises were performed will come afterwards to
be observed. For this godly nobleman taking upon him to reprove the king
for some of his immoralities[95], which faithful admonition, however
well it appeared to be taken off the marquis's hand for the present, yet
it appeared afterwards that this godly freedom was never forgot, until
it was again repaid him with the highest resentment (such was the way to
hearken to his counsel); for if debauchery and dissimulation had ever
been accounted among the liberal sciences, then this prince was
altogether a master in that faculty[96].

In the mean time January 1. 1651, the king was crowned at Scone, where
after an excellent sermon by Mr. Robert Douglas from 2 Kings ii. 17, the
king took the coronation oath, then sitting down in the chair of state
(after some other ceremonies were performed), the marquis of Argyle
taking the crown in his hands, (Mr. Douglas prayed) he set it on the
king's head; and so ascending the stage, attended by the officers of the
crown, he was installed unto the royal throne by Archibald marquis of
Argyle, saying, "Stand, &c. fast from henceforth the place whereof you
are the lawful and righteous heir, by a long and lineal succession of
your fathers, which is now delivered to you by the authority of God
Almighty.[97]" Then the solemnity was concluded by a pertinent
exhortation, both to king and people, wherein they were certified, that
if they should conspire together against the kingdom of Jesus Christ,
both supporters and supported should fall together.

But the king's forces having been before that defeated by Cromwel at
Dunbar, and being no longer able to make head against the English, he
went for England, and here by his particular allowance the marquis of
Argyle (after kissing his hand) was left at Stirling. But the king's
army being totally routed on the third of September at Worcester, and
from thence driven from all his dominions; in the mean time the English
over-run the whole country, so that the representatives of the nation
were either obliged to take the tender, or else suffer great hardships,
which tender the marquis had refused at Dunbarton, whereupon they
resolved to invade the highlands and the shire of Argyle, being inclosed
on all hands with regiments of foot and horse. Major Dean coming to the
marquis's house at Inverary where he was lying sick, presented a paper,
which he behoved to subscribe against to-morrow, or else be carried off
prisoner, which (though sore against his will) for his own and his
vassals and tenants safety he was obliged to subscribe with some
alterations, which capitulation was made a mighty handle against him
afterwards. And although he had some influence upon the usurper, and was
present at several meetings wherein he procured an equal hearing to the
protestors at London, while he was there _anno_ 1657, yet he was rather
a prisoner on demand than a free agent, and so continued until the

Soon after the king's return, this noble marquis being very much
solicited to repair to court, and no doubt he himself inclined to wait
on a prince on whose head he had set the crown, and though some of his
best friends used several arguments to divert him from his purpose till
matters were better settled, yet from the testimony of a good
conscience, knowing that he was able to vindicate himself from all
aspersions, if he was but once admitted to the king's presence. He set
out for London, where he arrived on the 8th of July, and went directly
to Whitehall to salute his majesty, but whenever the king heard he was
come thither (notwithstanding his former fair promises) he ordered Sir
William Fleming to apprehend him, and carry him to the tower, where he
continued till toward the beginning of December, that he was sent down
in a man of war, to abide his trial before the parliament in Scotland.
On the 20th they landed at Leith, and next day he was taken up (the
streets of Edinburgh covered) betwixt two of the town-baillies to the
castle, where he continued until his trial came on.

On Feb. 13, 1661, his lordship was brought down from the castle in a
coach, with three of the magistrates of Edinburgh, attended by the
town-guard, and presented before the bar of the house, where the king's
advocate Sir John Fletcher accused him in common form of high treason,
and producing an indictment, craved that it might be read. The marquis
himself begged liberty to speak before that was done, but the house
refused his reasonable desire, and ordered it to be read, and though he
intreated them to hear a petition he had to present, yet that was too
great a favour to be granted. The indictment, which was more months in
forming than he had days allowed at first to bring his defence,
consisted of fourteen articles, the principal of which were, his
entering into the solemn league and covenant with England; and his
complying with Oliver Cromwel, &c.; all the rest being a heap of
slanders, and perversion of matters of fact, gathered up against this
good and great man, all which he abundantly takes off in his information
and answers[98].

After his indictment was read, he had leave to speak and discoursed for
sometime to good purpose. Among other things he said with Paul in
another case, "The things laid against him cannot be proven;"--but this
he confessed, that in the way allowed by solemn oath and covenant, he
served God, his king, and his country; and though he he owned he wanted
not failings common to all persons in public business in such a time,
yet he blessed God that he was able to make the falsehood of every
article of his charge appear, that he had done nothing with a wicked
mind, but with many others had the misfortune to do many things, the
unforeseen events of which had proved bad.

The parliament fixed on the 27th of February for bringing in his
defence, which was too short a time for replying to so many articles.
However, at his request it was put off till the 5th of March, when he
appeared before the lord of the articles, who ordered him immediately to
produce his defence, whereupon he delivered a very moving speech, and
gave in a most affecting petition, remitting himself to the king's
mercy, and beseeching the parliament to intercede for him, which are too
long here to be inserted. March the 6th, he was brought before the
parliament--It was reported from the articles, that he had offered a
submission to his majesty, &c. but his submission was voted not
satisfactory, and he commanded on the morrow to give in his defence to
the lords of the articles. When he came before them, and told his
defence was not ready, he was appointed to give them in on Monday April
9th, otherwise they would take the whole business before them, without
any regard to what he should afterwards say, but it seems on the day
appointed, his defence was given in, which contained fifteen sheets of
small print, wherein the marquis's management was fully vindicated from
all the falsehoods and calumnies in the indictment.

Upon the 16th of April he was again before the parliament, where after
the process was read, he had a very handsome and moving speech, wherein
at a considerable length[99], he removed several reproaches cast upon
him, and touched at some things not in his papers, but whatever he or
his lawyers could say, had little weight with the members of parliament.
Some of them were already resolved what to do, the house had many
messages to hasten his process to an end, but the misgiving of many of
their designed probations against this good man embarrassed them
mightily for some time, for it appears that there were upwards of thirty
different libels all formed against him, and all came to nothing when
they began to prove them, as other lies usually do; so that they were
forced to betake themselves to the innocent but necessary compliance
with the English, after every shire and burgh in Scotland had made
their submission to their conquerors.

In the beginning of May witnesses were examined and depositions taken
against him, after which he was upon the 25th brought before the bar of
the house to receive his sentence from his judges, who were _socii
criminis_ (or accomplices, as he told the king's advocate). The house
was very thin, all withdrawing except those who were resolved to follow
the courses of the time. He put them in mind of the practice of
Theodosius the emperor, who enacted that the sentence of death should
not be executed till thirty days after it was passed, and added, I crave
but ten that the king may be acquainted with it--but this was refused.
Then the sentence was pronounced, "That he was found guilty of high
treason, and adjudged to be executed to the death as a traitor, his head
to be severed from his body at the cross of Edinburgh, upon Monday the
27th instant, and affixed on the same place where the marquis of
Montrose's head formerly was, and his arms torn before the parliament at
the cross." Upon this he offered to speak, but the trumpet sounding he
stopped till they ended, and then said, "I had the honour to set the
crown on the king's head, and now he hastens me to a better crown than
his own." And directing himself to the commissioner and parliament, he
said, "You have the indemnity of an earthly king among your hands, and
have denied me a share in that, but you cannot hinder me from the
indemnity of the King of kings, and shortly you must be before his
tribunal. I pray he mete not out such measure to you as you have done to
me, when you are called to an account for all your actings, and this
amongst the rest."

After his sentence he was ordered to the common prison, where his
excellent lady was waiting for him. Upon seeing her he said, "They have
given me till Monday to be with you, my dear, therefore let us make for
it." She embracing him wept bitterly and said, "The Lord will require
it: The Lord will require it." Which drew tears from all in the
room.----But being himself composed, he said, "Forbear, forbear. I pity
them, they know not what they are doing. They may shut me in where they
please, but they cannot shut God out from me. For my part I am as
content to be here as in the castle, and as content in the castle as in
the tower of London, and as content there as when at liberty, and I hope
to be as content on the scaffold as any of them all, &c." He added,
"He remembered a scripture cited by an honest minister to him while in
the castle, which he intended to put in practice. When Ziklag was taken
and burnt, the people spake of stoning David, but he encouraged himself
in the Lord."

He spent all his short time till Monday with the greatest serenity and
cheerfulness, and in the proper exercise of a dying Christian. To some
ministers, who were permitted to attend him, he said, "That shortly they
would envy him who was got before them,----and added, Remember that I
tell you, my skill fails me, if you who are ministers will not either
suffer much or sin much; for tho' you go along with these men in part,
if you do not in all things, you are but where you were, and so must
suffer, and if you go not at all with them you must but suffer."

During his life he was reckoned rather timorous than bold to any excess.
In prison, he said he was naturally inclined to fear in his temper, but
desired those about him as he could not but do, to observe that the Lord
had heard his prayer, and removed all fear from him, &c. At his own
desire his lady took her leave of him on the Sabbath night. Mr. Robert
Douglas and Mr. George Hutcheson preached to him in the tolbooth on the
Lord's day, and his dear and much valued friend Mr. David Dickson (I am
told, says Mr. Wodrow) was his bedfellow the last night he was in time.

The marquis had a sweet time in the tolbooth as to his souls case, and
it still increased nearer his end, as he had sleeped calmly and
pleasantly his last night, so in the intervals of his necessary
business, he had much spiritual conservation. On Monday morning though
he was much engaged in settling his affairs in the midst of company, yet
he was so overpowered with a sensible effusion of the Holy Spirit, that
he broke out in a rapture and said, "I thought to have concealed the
Lord's goodness, but it will not do. I am now ordering my affairs, and
God is sealing my charter to a better inheritance, and just now saying
to me, _Son, be of good cheer, thy sins are forgiven thee._"

Some time before he went to the place of execution, he received an
excellent letter from a certain minister, and wrote a most moving one to
the king, and dined precisely at twelve o'clock along with his friends
with great cheerfulness, and then retired a little. Upon his opening the
door Mr. Hutcheson said, What cheer, my lord? He answered, "Good cheer,
sir, the Lord hath again confirmed and said to me from heaven, _Thy
sins be forgiven thee._" Upon this tears of joy flowed in abundance; he
retired to the window and wept there; from that he came to the fire, and
made as if he would stir it a little to conceal his concern, but all
would not do, his tears ran down his face, and coming to Mr. Hutcheson
he said, "I think his kindness overcomes me. But God is good to me, that
he let not out too much of it here, for he knows I could not bear
it[100]. Get me my cloke and let us go." But being told that the clock
was kept back till one, till the bailies should come,----He answered,
They are far in the wrong; and presently kneeled and prayed before all
present, in a most sweet and heavenly manner. As he ended, the bailies
sent up word for to come down; upon which he called for a glass of wine,
and asked a blessing to it, standing, and continuing in the same frame,
he said, "Now let us go, and God be with us."

After having taken his leave of such in the room, who were not to go
with him to the scaffold, when going towards the door he said, "I could
die like a Roman, but choose rather to die like a Christian. Come away,
gentlemen, he that goes first goes cleanliest." When going down stairs,
he called the reverend Mr. James Guthrie to him, and embracing him in a
most endearing way, took his farewel of him; Mr. Guthrie at parting
addressed the marquis thus, "My lord, God hath been with you, he is with
you, and will be with you. And such is my respect for your lordship,
that if I were not under sentence of death myself, I would cheerfully
die for your lordship." So they parted, to meet again in a better place
on the Friday following.

Then the marquis accompanied with several noblemen and gentlemen mounted
in black, with his cloke and hat on, went down the street, and mounted
on the scaffold with great serenity and gravity, like one going to his
Father's house, and saluted all on it. Then Mr. Hutcheson prayed, after
which his lordship delivered his speech, in which among other things he
said, "I come not here to justify myself, but the Lord, who is holy in
all his ways, righteous in all his works, holy and blessed is his name.
Neither come I to condemn others. I bless the Lord, I pardon all men,
and desire to be pardoned of the Lord myself. Let the will of the Lord
be done, that is all I desire.----I was real and cordial in my desires
to bring the king home, and in my endeavours for him when he was home,
and had no correspondence with the adversaries army, nor any of them
when his majesty was in Scotland, nor had I any hand in his late
majesty's murder. I shall not speak much to these things for which I am
condemned, lest I seem to condemn others.--It is well known it is only
for compliance, which was the epidemical fault of the nation; I wish the
Lord to pardon them. I say no more----but God hath laid engagements on
Scotland. We are tied by covenants to religion and reformation, those
who were then unborn are yet engaged, and it passeth the power of all
the magistrates under heaven to absolve from the oath of God. These
times are like to be either very sinning or suffering times, and let
Christians make their choice, there is a sad dilemma in the business,
sin or suffer, and surely he that will choose the better part will
choose to suffer, others that will choose to sin will not escape
suffering. They shall suffer, but perhaps not as I do (pointing to the
maiden) but worse. Mine is but temporal, theirs shall be eternal. When I
shall be singing, they shall be howling. Beware therefore of sin,
whatever you are aware of, especially in such times.--And hence my
condition is such now, as, when I am gone, will be seen not to be as
many imagined. I wish, as the Lord hath pardoned me, so may he pardon
them, for this and other things, and what they have done to me may never
meet them in their accounts.----I have no more to say, but to beg the
Lord that when I go away, he would bless every one that stayeth behind."

When he had delivered this his seasonable and pathetic speech, which
with his last words is recorded at length in Naphtali[101]. Mr. Hamilton
prayed, after which he prayed most sweetly himself, then he took his
leave of all his friends on the scaffold. He first gave to the
executioner a napkin with some money in it; to his sons in law
Caithness and Ker his watch and some other things out of his pocket, he
gave to Loudon his silver penner, to Lothian a double ducat, and then
threw off his coat. When going to the maiden, Mr. Hutcheson said, My
lord, now hold your grip sickker.----He answered, "You know Mr.
Hutcheson, what I said to you in the chamber. I am not afraid to be
surprised with fear." The laird of Shelmerlie took him by the hand, when
near the maiden, and found him most composed. He kneeled down most
cheerfully, and after he had prayed a little, he gave the signal (which
was by lifting up his hand), and the instrument called the maiden struck
off his head from his body, which was fixed on the west end of the
tolbooth, as a monument of the parliaments injustice and the land's
misery. His body was by his friends put in a coffin and conveyed with a
good many attendants through Linlithgow and Falkirk to Glasgow, and from
thence to Kilpatrick, where it was put in a boat, carried to Denune, and
buried in Kilmunn church.

Thus died the noble marquis of Argyle, the proto-martyr to religion
since the reformation from popery, the true portrait of whose character
cannot be (a historian[102] says I dare not) drawn. His enemies
themselves will allow him to have been a person of extraordinary piety,
remarkable wisdom and prudence, great gravity and authority, and
singular usefulness. He was the head of the covenanters in Scotland, and
had been singularly active in the work of reformation there, and of any
almost that had engaged in that work he stuck closest by it, when most
of the nation quitted it very much, so that this attack upon him was a
stroke at the root of all that had been done in Scotland from 1638, to
the usurpation. But the tree of prelacy and arbitrary measures behoved
to be soaked when planting, with the blood of this excellent patriot,
staunch presbyterian, and vigorous assertor of Scotland's liberty, and
as he was the great promoter thereof during his life, and stedfast in
witnessing to it at his death, so it was to a great degree buried with
him in Scotland, for many years. In a word, he had piety for a
christian, sense for a counsellor, carriage for a martyr, and soul for a
king. If ever any was, he might be said to be a born Scotsman.

_The Life of Mr. JAMES GUTHRIE._

Mr. James Guthrie son to the laird of Guthrie (a very honourable and
ancient family) having gone through his course of classical learning at
the grammar school and college, taught philosophy in the university of
St. Andrews, where for several years he gave abundant proof that he was
an able scholar. His temper was very steady and composed; he could
reason upon the most subtle points with great solidity, and when every
one else was warm his temper was never ruffled. At any time when
indecent heats or wranglings happened to fall in when reasoning, it was
his ordinary custom to say, "Enough of this, let us go to some other
subject; we are warm, and can dispute no longer with advantage." Perhaps
he had the greatest mixture of fervent zeal and sweet calmness in his
temper, of any man in his time. But being educated in opposition to
presbyterian principles he was highly prelatical in his judgment when he
came first to St. Andrews, but by conversing with worthy Mr. Rutherford
and others, and especially through his joining the weekly society's
meetings there, for prayer and conference, he was effectually brought
off from that way, and perhaps it was this that made the writer of the
diurnal (who was no friend of his) say, "That if Mr. Guthrie had
continued fixt to his first principles, he had been a star of the first
magnitude in Scotland." Whenas he came to judge for himself, he happily
departed from his first principles, and upon examination of that way
wherein he was educated, he left it, and thereby became a star of the
first magnitude indeed. It is said, that while he was regent in the
college of St. Andrews, Mr. Sharp being then a promising young man
there, he several times wrote this verse upon him,

    If thou, Sharp, die the common death of men,
    I'll burn my bill, and throw away my pen.

Having passed his trials, _anno_ 1638, he was settled minister at
Lauder, where he remained for several years. _Anno_ 1646, he was
appointed one of those ministers who were to attend the king, while at
Newcastle, and likewise he was one of those nominated in the commission
for the public affairs of the church, during the intervals betwixt the
general assemblies. And in about three years after this, he was
translated to Stirling, where he continued until the restoration, a most
faithful watchman upon Zion's walls, who ceased not day and night to
declare the whole counsel of God to his people, _shewing Israel their
iniquities, and the house of Jacob their sins_.

After he came to Stirling, he again not only evidenced a singular care
over that people he had the charge of, but also was a great assistant in
the affairs of the church, being a most zealous enemy to all error and
profanity. And when that unhappy difference fell out with the public
resolutioners, he was a most staunch protestor, opposing these
resolutions unto the utmost of his power, insomuch as after the
presbytery of Stirling had wrote a letter to the commission of the
general assembly, shewing their dislike and dissatisfaction with the
resolutioners, after they had been concluded upon at Perth Dec. 14.
1650. Mr. Guthrie and his colleague Mr. Bennet went somewhat further,
and openly preached against them, as a thing involving the land in
conjunction with the malignant party, for which by a letter from the
chancellor they were ordered to repair to Perth on Feb. 19th, 1651, to
answer before the king[103] and the committee of estates for that
letter and their doctrine: but upon the indisposition of one of them,
they excused themselves by a letter, for their non-appearance that day,
but promised to attend upon the end of the week. Accordingly on the 22d
they appeared at Perth, where they gave in a protestation; signifying,
that although they owned his majesty's civil authority, yet was Mr.
Guthrie challenged by the king and his council for a doctrinal thesis
which he had maintained and spoken to in a sermon,----whereof they were
incompetent judges in matters purely ecclesiastical, such as is the
examination and censuring of doctrines,--he did decline them on that

The matter being deferred for some days, till the king returned from
Aberdeen, in the mean time the two ministers were confined to Perth and
Dundee, whereupon they (Feb. 28.) presented another paper or
protestation[105], which was much the same, though in stronger terms,
and supported by many excellent arguments. After this the king and
committee thought proper to dismiss them, and to proceed no farther in
the affair at present, and yet Mr. Guthrie's declining the king's
authority in matters ecclesiastical here, was made the principal article
in his indictment some ten years after, to give way to a personal pique
Middleton had against this good man, the occasion of which is as

By improving an affront the king met with _anno_ 1659, some malignants
about him so prevailed to heighten his fears of the evil designs of
those about him, that by a correspondence with the papists, malignants,
and such as were disaffected to the covenants in the north, matters came
in a little to such a pass, that a considerable number of noblemen,
gentlemen, and others were to rise and form themselves into an army
under Middleton's command, and the king was to cast himself into their
arms, &c. Accordingly the king with a few in his retinue, as if he
were going a-hunting, left his best friends, crossed the Tay, and came
to Angus, where he was to have met with those people, but soon finding
himself disappointed, he came back to the committee of estates, where
indeed his greatest strength lay. In the meanwhile several who had been
in the plot fearing punishment, got together under Middleton's command.
General Leslie marched towards them, and the king wrote to them to lay
down their arms. The committee sent an indemnity to such as should
submit, and while the dates were thus dealing with them, the commission
of the assembly were not wanting to shew their zeal against such as
ventured to disturb the public peace, and it is said that Mr. Guthrie
here proposed summary excommunication, as a censure Middleton deserved,
and as what he thought to be a suitable testimony from the church at
this juncture. This highest sentence was carried in the commission by a
plurality of votes, and Mr. Guthrie was appointed the next sabbath to
pronounce the sentence. In the mean time the committee of estates (not
without some debates) had agreed upon an indemnity to Middleton.--There
was an express sent to Stirling with an account how things stood, and a
letter desiring Mr. Guthrie to forbear the intimation of the
commission's sentence. But this letter coming to him just as he was
going to the pulpit, he did not open it till the work was over, and
though he had, it is a question if he would have delayed the
commission's sentence upon a private missive to himself. However the
sentence was inflicted, and although the commission of the church Jan.
3, 1651. (being their next meeting) did relax Middleton from that
censure, (and laid it on a better man, col. Strachan[106]) yet it is
believed Middleton never forgave or forgot what Mr. Guthrie did upon
that day, as will afterward be made more fully to appear.

Mr. Guthrie about this time wrote several of the papers upon the
protestors side, for which, and his faithfulness, he was one of those
three who were deposed by the pretended assembly at St. Andrews 1657.
Yea, such was the malice of these woeful resolutioners, that upon his
refusal of one of that party, and accession to the call of Mr. Rule, to
be his colleague at Stirling (upon the death of Mr. Bennet _anno_ 1656)
they proceeded to stone this seer in Israel with stones, his testimony
while alive so tormented the men who dwell upon the earth.

And as Mr. Guthrie did faithfully testify against the resolutioners and
the malignant party, so he did equally oppose himself to the sectaries
and to Cromwell's usurpation; and although he went up to London _anno_
1657, when the marquis of Argyle procured an equal hearing betwixt the
protestors and the resolutioners, yet he so boldly defended the king's
right in public debate with Hugh Peters, Oliver's chaplain, and from the
pulpit asserted the king's title in the face of the English officers, as
was surprizing to all gainsayers. Yet for this and other hardships that
he endured on this account, at this time, he was but sorrily rewarded,
as by and by will come to be observed.

Very soon after the restoration, while Mr. Guthrie and some other of his
faithful brethren (who assembled at Edinburgh) were drawing up a paper,
_Aug._ 23d, in way of supplication to his majesty, they were all
apprehended (except one who happily escaped) and imprisoned in the
castle of Edinburgh, and from thence Mr. Guthrie was taken to Stirling
castle (the author of the apologetical relation says to Dundee), where
he continued till a little before his trial, which was upon the 20th of
February, 1661. When he came to his trial, the chancellor told him, He
was called before them to answer to the charge of high treason, (a copy
of which charge he had received some weeks before) and the lord advocate
proposed, his indictment should be read; which the house went into: The
heads of which were:

(1.) His contriving, consenting to, and exhibiting before the committee
of estates, the paper called, The western remonstrance.

(2.) His contriving, writing and publishing that abominable pamphlet,
called, the causes of the Lord's wrath.

(3.) His contriving, writing and subscribing the paper called the humble
petition[107] of the twenty-third of _August_ last.

(4.) His convocating of the king's lieges, &c.

(5.) His declaring his majesty, by his appeals and protestations
presented by him at Perth, incapable to be judge over him. And,

(6.) Some treasonable expressions he was alledged to have uttered in a
meeting in 1650 or 1651.

His indictment being read, he made an excellent speech before the
parliament (wherein he both defended himself, and that noble cause for
which he suffered), which being too nervous to abridge, and too prolix
to insert in this place: The reader will find it elsewhere[108].

After he had delivered this speech, he was ordered to remove. He humbly
craved, that some time might be given him to consult with his lawyers.
This was granted; and he was allowed till the 29th to give in his
defence.--It is affirmed, upon very good authority, that when he met
with his lawyers to form his defence, he very much surprized them by his
exactness in our Scots laws, and suggested several things to be added
that had escaped his advocate, which made Sir John Nisbet express
himself to this purpose, "If it had been in the reasoning part, or in
consequences from scripture and divinity, I would have wondered the less
if he had given us some help, but even in the matter of our own
profession, our statutes and acts of parliament, he pointed out several
things that had escaped us." And likewise the day before his first
appearance in parliament, it is said he sent a copy of the forementioned
speech to Sir John and the rest of his lawyers of the reasoning and law
part, and they could mend nothing therein.

The advocate's considering his defence, and the giving of it in, took up
some weeks, until April the 11th, when the process against him was read
in the house, upon which he made a speech affecting and close to the
purpose; in which he concludes thus:

"My Lord, in the last place, I humbly beg, that having brought so
pregnant and clear evidence from the word of God, so much divine reason
and human laws, and so much of the common practice of kirk and kingdom
in my defence; and being already cast out of my ministry, out of my
dwelling and maintenance; myself and my family put to live on the
charity of others; having now suffered eight months imprisonment, your
Lordships, would put no other burden upon me. I shall conclude with the
words of the prophet Jeremiah, _Behold, I am in your hands_, saith he,
_do to me what seemeth good to you: I know, for certain, that the Lord
hath commanded me to speak all these things, and that if you put me to
death, you shall bring innocent blood upon yourselves, and upon the
inhabitants of this city_."

"My Lords, my conscience I cannot submit; but this old crazy body and
mortal flesh I do submit, to do with it whatever ye will, whether by
death, or banishment, or imprisonment, or any thing else; only I beseech
you to ponder well what profit there is in my blood: it is not the
extinguishing of me or many others, that will extinguish the covenant
and work of reformation since the year 1638. My blood, bondage, or
banishment will contribute more for the propagation of these things,
than my life or liberty could do, though I should live many years,

And though this speech had not that influence that might have been
expected, yet it made such impression upon some of the members that they
withdrew, declaring to one another, that they would have nothing to do
with the blood of this righteous man. But his judges were determined to
proceed, and accordingly his indictment was found relevant. Bp.
Burnet[109] says, "The earl of Tweeddale was the only man that moved
against putting him to death; he said, Banishment had hitherto been the
severest censure laid upon preachers for their opinions,--yet he was
condemned to die." The day of his execution was not named till the 28th
of May, when the parliament ordered him and William Govan to be hanged
at the cross of Edinburgh, on the first of June, and Mr. Guthrie's head
to be fixed on the Nether-bow, his estate to be confiscated, and his
arms torn; and the head of the other upon the west-port of Edinburgh.

And thus a sentence of death was passed upon Mr. Guthrie, for his
accession to the causes of God's wrath, his writing the petition last
year, and the protestation above-mentioned; matters done a good many
years ago, and every way agreeable and conform to the word of God, the
principles and practice of this and other churches and the laws of the
kingdom. After he received his sentence, he accosted the parliament
thus, "My lords, let never this sentence affect you more than it does
me, and let never my blood be required of the king's family."

Thus it was resolved that this excellent man should fall a sacrifice to
private and personal pique, as the marquis's was said to be to a more
exalted revenge; and it is said, that the managers had no small debate
what his sentence should be, for he was dealt with by some of them to
retract what he had done and written, and join with the present
measures, and he was even offered a bishopric. The other side were in no
hazard in making the experiment, for they might be assured of his
firmness in his principles. A bishopric was a very small temptation to
him, and the commissioner improved his inflexibility to have his life
taken away, to be a terror to others, that they might have the less
opposition in establishing prelacy.

Betwixt Mr. Guthrie's sentence and his execution, he was in perfect
composure and serenity of spirit, and wrote a great many excellent
letters to his friends and acquaintances. In this interval, he uttered
several prophetical expressions, which, together with the foresaid
religious letters, could they now be recovered, might be of no small use
in this apostate and backslidden age. June 1st, the day on which he was
executed, upon some reports that he was to buy his life at the expence
of retracting some of the things he had formerly said and done, he wrote
and subscribed the following declaration.

"There are to declare that I do own the causes of God's wrath, the
supplication at Edinburgh August last, and the accession I had to the
remonstrances. And if any do think, or have reported that I was willing
to recede from these, they have wronged me, as never having any ground
from me to think, or to report so. This I attest under my hand at
Edinburgh, about eleven o'clock forenoon, before these witnesses."

    Mr. Arthur Forbes, Mr. John Guthrie,
    Mr. Hugh Walker, Mr. James Cowie.

That same day he dined with his friends with great cheerfulness. After
dinner he called for a little cheese, which he had been dissuaded from
taking for some time, as not good for the gravel, which he was troubled
with, and said, I am now beyond the hazard of the gravel.----When he had
been secret for sometime, he came forth with the utmost fortitude and
composure, and was carried down under a guard from the tolbooth to the
scaffold, which was erected at the cross. Here he was so far from
shewing any fear, that he rather expressed a contempt at death, and
spake an hour upon the ladder with the composure of one delivering a
sermon. His last speech is in Naphtali, where among other things
becoming a martyr, he saith, "One thing I warn you all of, That God is
very wroth with Scotland, and threatens to depart, and remove his
candlestick. The causes of his wrath are many, and would to God it were
not one great cause, that causes of wrath are despised. Consider the
case that is recorded, Jer. xxxvi. and the consequences of it, and
tremble and fear. I cannot but also say that there is a great addition
of wrath by that deluge of profanity that overfloweth all the land, in
so far that many have not only lost all use and exercise of religion,
but even of morality. 2. By that horrible treachery and perjury that is
in the matters of the covenant and cause of God. Be ye astonished, O ye
heavens, at this! &c. 3. Horrible ingratitude. The Lord, after ten
years oppression, hath broken the yoke of strangers, from oft our necks,
but the fruits of our delivery, is to work wickedness and to strengthen
our hands to do evil, by a most dreadful sacrificing to the creature. We
have changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the image of a
corruptible man, in whom many have placed almost all their salvation.
God is also wroth with a generation of carnal corrupt time-serving
ministers. I know and do bear testimony, that in the church of Scotland
there is a true and faithful ministry, and I pray you to honour these;
for their works sake. I do bear my witness to the national covenant of
Scotland, and solemn league and covenant betwixt the three kingdoms.
These sacred solemn public oaths of God, I believe can be loosed or
dispensed with by no person or party or power upon earth, but are still
binding upon these kingdoms, and will be so for ever hereafter, and are
ratified and sealed by the conversion of many thousand souls, since our
entering thereinto. I bear my testimony to the protestation against the
controverted assemblies, and the public resolutions. I take God to
record upon my soul, I would not exchange this scaffold with the palace
or mitre of the greatest prelate in Britain. Blessed be God, who hath
shewed mercy to me such a wretch, and has revealed his Son in me, and
made me a minister of the everlasting gospel, and that he hath deigned,
in the midst of much contradictions from Satan and the world, to seal my
ministry upon the hearts of not a few of his people, and especially in
the station wherein I was last, I mean the congregation and presbytery
of Stirling. Jesus Christ is my light and my life, my righteousness, my
strength and my salvation, and all my desire. Him! O him! I do with all
the strength of my soul commend to you. Bless him, O my soul, from
henceforth, even for ever!" He concluded with the words of old Simeon,
_Now let thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy
salvation._ He gave a copy of this his last speech and testimony,
subscribed and sealed, to a friend to keep, which he was to deliver to
his son, then a child, when he came to age. When on the scaffold he
lifted the napkin off his face just before he was turned over and cried,
The covenants, the covenants shall yet be Scotland's reviving.

A few weeks after he was executed, and his head placed on the
Neitherbow-port, Middleton's coach coming down that way, several drops
of blood fell from the head upon the coach, which all their art and
diligence could not wipe off, and when physicians were called, and
desired to inquire, If any natural cause could be given for this, but
they could give none. This odd incident being noised abroad, and all
means tried, at length the leather was removed, and a new cover put on:
But this was much sooner done, than the wiping off the guilt of this
great and good man's blood upon the shedders of it, and this poor

Thus fell the faithful Mr. James Guthrie, who was properly the first who
suffered unto death in that period, for asserting the kingly prerogative
of Jesus Christ in opposition to Erastian supremacy. He was a man
honoured of God to be zealous and singularly faithful in carrying on the
work of reformation, and had carried himself straight under all changes
and revolutions, and because he had been such, he must live no longer.
He did much for the interest of the king in Scotland, which the king no
doubt was sensible of: When he got notice of his death, he said with
some warmth, "And what have you done with Mr. Patrick Gillespie." He was
answered, that having so many friends in the house, his life could not
be taken. Well, said the king, "If I had known you would have spared Mr.
Gillespie, I would have spared Mr. Guthrie." And indeed he was not far
out with it; for Mr. Guthrie was capable to have done him as much
service. For he was one accomplished with almost every qualification
natural or acquired, necessary to complete both a man and a Christian.

But it is a loss we are favoured with so few of the writings of this
worthy. For beside those papers already mentioned, he wrote several
others upon the protestors side, among which was also a paper wrote
against the usurper Oliver Cromwel, for which he suffered some hardships
during the time of that usurpation. His last sermon at Stirling preached
from Matth xiv. 22. was published in 1738, intitled a cry from the dead,
&c.; with his ten considerations anent the decay of religion, first
published by himself in 1660; and an authentic paper wrote and
subscribed by himself upon the occasion of his being stoned by the
resolution party about 1656, for his accession to the call of Mr. Robert
Rule to be his colleague, after the death of Mr. Bennet. He also wrote
a treatise on ruling elders and deacons, about the time he entered into
the ministry, which is now affixed to the last edition of his cousin Mr.
William Guthrie's treatise of the trial of a saving interest in Christ.

_The Life of JOHN CAMPBEL Earl of Loudon._

He was heir to Sir James Campbel of Lawer, and husband of Margaret
Baroness of Loudon.

The first of his state-preferments was _anno_ 1633. when king Charles I.
came to Scotland, in order to have his coronation performed there[111].
At which time he dignified several of the Scots nobility with higher
titles of honour; and among the rest this nobleman, who was created earl
of Loudon May 12th, 1633.

It appears, that from his youth he had been well affected to the
presbyterian interest, for no sooner did that reformation (commonly
called the second reformation) begin to take air, which was about the
year 1637, than he appeared a principal promoter thereof, and that not
only in joining these petitioners, afterwards called the covenanters,
but also when the general assembly sat down at Glasgow in Nov. 1638, he
thought it his honour to attend the same in almost every session
thereof, and was of great service both by his advice in difficult cases,
and also by several excellent speeches that he delivered therein. As
witness Upon the very entry, when the difference arose between the
marquis of Hamilton the king's commissioner, and some of the rest, anent
choosing a clerk to the assembly, the marquis refusing to be assisted by
Traquair and Sir Lewis Stuart, urged several reasons for compliance with
his majesty's pleasure, &c. and at last renewed his protest, where
upon lord Loudon, in name of commissioners to the assembly, gave in
reasons of a pretty high strain, why the lord commissioner and his
assessors ought to have but one vote in the assembly, &c. Of these
reasons Traquair craved a double, and promised to answer them, but it
appears never found leisure for this employment.

About this time, he told the king's commissioner roundly, "They knew no
other bonds betwixt a king and his subjects but religion and laws; and
if these were broken, mens lives were not dear to them. They would not
be so; such fears were past with them[112]."

The king and the bishops being galled to the heart to see that, by the
assembly, presbytery was almost restored, and prelacy well nigh
abolished, he immediately put himself at the head of an army in order to
reduce them, &c. The Scots, hearing of the preparation, provided as
well as they could. Both armies marched towards the border, but upon the
approach of the Scots, the English were moved with great timidity,
whereupon ensued a pacification.----Commissioners being appointed to
treat on both sides, the Scots were permitted to make known their
desires; the lord Loudon being one of the Scots commissioners, upon his
knees said, "That their demand was only to enjoy their religion and
liberties, according to the ecclesiastical and civil laws of the
kingdom." The king replied, "That if that was all that was to be
desired, the peace would soon be made." And after several particulars
were agreed upon, the king promised, "That all ecclesiastical matters
should be decided by an assembly, and civil matters by the parliament,
which assembly should be kept once a-year. That on the 6th of August
should be held a free general assembly when the king would be present,
and pass an act of oblivion, &c." The articles of the pacification
were subscribed June 18th, by the commissioners of both sides, in view
of both armies at kirks near Berwick, _anno_ 1639.

But this treaty was short-lived and ill observed, for the king irritated
by the bishops, soon after burnt the pacification by the hands of the
hangman, charging the Scots with a breach of the articles of the treaty,
although the earl of Loudon gave him sufficient proofs to the contrary.
Which freedom used by his lordship no way pleased the king; but he was
suffered to return home, and the king kept his resentment unto another

In the mean time, the general assembly sat down at Edinburgh, August
12th. Mr. Dickson was chosen moderator, and at this assembly, after
several matters were discussed, Messrs. Henderson and Ramsay entered
upon a demonstration, that episcopacy hath its beginning from men, and
is of human institution, &c. But they had not proceeded far, till they
were interrupted by Traquair, the king's commissioner, who declared he
did not desire them to fall upon any scholastic dispute, but how far
those in the reformation had found episcopacy contrary to the
constitution of this church; whereupon the truly noble lord Loudon
(being present) did most solidly explain the act of the general
assembly, 1580, which condemned the office of bishops in the most
express terms, prior to the subscription of the national covenant, and
because of a difficulty raised from these words in that act, _viz._ (as
it was then used) his lordship observed that in the assemblies 1560,
1575, 1576, 1577, and 1578, episcopacy came still under consideration,
though not directly as to the office, yet as to the corruption, &c.
and having enlarged upon the office of bishops as without a warrant from
the word of God, he concludes--"As we have said, so that the connection
between the assemblies of 1574, and of 1581, is quite clear; episcopacy
is put out as wanting warrant from the word of God, and presbytery put
in, as having that divine warrant; and was accordingly sworn unto."

The same day on which the assembly arose, the parliament sat down, but
falling upon matters that did not correspond with the king's design,
Traquair did all he could to stop them that they might have nothing
done, whereupon they agreed to send up the earls of Dunfermline and
Loudon to implore his majesty to allow the parliament to proceed, and to
determine what was before them, &c. But ere these two lords had
reached the court, orders were sent them discharging them in the king's
name, from coming within a mile of him, on supposition they had no
express warrant from the lord commissioner; and they were returned home.

In the mean time the parliament by the kings orders is prorogued to the
2d of June 1640, and matters continued so till Jan. 1641, that the
committee of parliament having obtained leave to send up commissioners
to represent their grievances, did again commission the two foresaid
earls, to whom they added Sir William Douglas of Cavers, and Mr. Barclay
provost of Irvine. On their arrival they were allowed to kiss the king's
hand, and some time after were appointed to attend at the council
chamber, but understanding they were not to have a hearing of the king
himself, they craved a copy of Traquair's information to the council of
England, which was denied. At last the king gave them audience himself
upon the third of March, when the lord Loudon, after having addressed
his majesty, shewed that his ancient and native kingdom is independent
upon any other judicatory whatever, and craved his majesty's protection
in defence of religion, liberty, and the cause of the church and
kingdom, and then speaking concerning those who have or may misrepresent
or traduce these his most loyal Scots subjects, he says, "If it please
God, for our sins to make our condition so deplorable as they may get
the shadow of your majesty's authority, (as we hope in God they will
not) to palliate their ends, then as those who are sworn to defend our
religion, our recourse must be only to the God of Jacob for our refuge,
who is the Lord of lords, and king of kings, and by whom kings do reign
and princes decree justice. And if, in speaking thus out of zeal to
religion, and the duty we owe to our country, and that charge which is
laid upon us, any thing hath escaped us, sith it is spoken from the
sincerity of our hearts, we fall down at your majesty's feet, craving
pardon for our freedom." Again having eloquently expatiated upon the
desires of his subjects, and the laws of the kingdom, he speaks of the
laws of God and power of the church, and says, "Next, we must
distinguish betwixt the church and the state, betwixt the ecclesiastical
and civil power; both which are materially one, yet formally they are
contradistinct in power, in jurisdiction, in laws, in bodies, in ends,
in offices and officers, and although the church and ecclesiastic
assemblies thereof be formally different and distinct from the
parliament and civil judicatories, yet there is so strict and necessary
a conjunction betwixt the ecclesiastic and civil jurisdiction, betwixt
religion and justice; as the one cannot firmly subsist and be preserved
without the other, and therefore they must stand and fall, live and die
together, &c." He enlarged further upon the privileges of both church
and state, and then concluded with mentioning the sum of their desires,
which----"is that your majesty (saith he) may be graciously pleased to
command that the parliament may proceed freely to determine all these
articles given in to them, and whatsoever exceptions, objections, or
informations are made against any of the particular overtures, &c. we
are most willing to receive the same in write, and are content in the
same way, to return our answers and humble desires[113]."

March 11, the commissioners appeared, and brought their instructions,
whereupon ensued some reasonings betwixt them and the king, in which
time arch-bishop Laud, who sat on the king's right-hand, was observed to
mock the Scots commissioners, causing the king put such questions to
them as he pleased. At last Traquair gave in several queries and
objections to them, unto which they gave most solid and sufficient
answers in every particular.

But this farce being over, for it seems nothing else was here intended
by the court than to intrap the commissioners, (and particularly this
noble earl who had so strenuously asserted the laws and liberties of his
native country). In the end, all the deputies, by the king's order, were
taken into custody, and the earl of Loudon sent to the tower for a
letter alledged to be wrote by him, and sent by the Scots to the French
king, as to their sovereign, imploring his aid against their natural
king, of the following tenor:


"Your majesty being the refuge and sanctuary of afflicted princes and
states, we have found it necessary to send this gentleman Mr. Colvil, to
represent unto your majesty, the candor and ingenuity as well of our
actions and proceedings, as of our inventions, which we desire to be
ingraven and written in the whole world, with a beam of the sun, as well
as to your majesty. We therefore beseech you, Sire, to give faith and
credit to him, and to all that he shall say on our part, touching us and
our affairs. Being much assured, Sire, of an assistance equal to your
wonted clemency heretofore, and so often shewed to the nation, which
will not yield the glory of any other whatsoever, to be eternally, Sire,
your majesty's most humble, most obedient and most affectionate

This letter, says a historian[114], was advised to and composed by
Montrose, when the king was coming against Scotland with a potent army,
transcribed by lord Loudon, and subscribed by them two and the lords
Rothes, Marr, Montgomery and Forrester, and general Leslie; but the
translation being found faulty by lord Maitland, &c. it was dropped
altogether, which copy wanted both the date, which the worst of its
enemies never pretended it had, and a direction, which the Scots
confidently affirmed it never had; but falling into the king's hand (by
means of Traquair), he intended to make a handle of it, to make lord
Loudon the first sacrifice. This noble lord being examined before the
council, did very honestly acknowledge the hand-writing and subscription
to be his; but said, It was before the late pacification, when his
majesty was marching in hostility against his native country; that in
these circumstances it seemed necessary to have an intercessor to
mitigate his wrath, and they could think of none so well qualified as
the French king, being the nearest relation by affinity to their
sovereign of any other crowned head in the world; but that being but
shortly thought on before the arrival of the English on the border, was
judged too late, and therefore was never either addressed by them, or
sent to the French king.

Notwithstanding this evil was intended against this noble peer, and
being remanded back to prison, was very near being dispatched, and that
not only without the benefit of his peers, but without any legal trial
or conviction. Burnet fairly acknowledges[115], that the king was
advised to proceed capitally against him. But the English
historians[116] go still farther, and plainly say, That the king about
three o'clock in the afternoon, sent his own letter to William Balfour
lieutenant of the tower, commanding him to see the lord Loudon's head
struck off, within the tower, before nine the next morning, (a striking
demonstration of the just and forgiving spirit for which by some king
Charles is so much extolled). Upon this command, the lieutenant of the
tower, that his lordship might prepare for death, gave him notice of it;
which awful intimation, he (knowing the justice of his cause) received
with astonishing composure and serenity of mind. The lieutenant went
himself to the marquis of Hamilton, who he thought was bound in honour
to interpose in this matter. The marquis and the lieutenant made their
way to the king, who was then in bed. The warrant was scarce named, when
the king, understanding their errand, stopped them, saying, By G--d it
shall be executed. But the marquis laying before him the odiousness of
the fact, by the violation of the safe conduct he had granted to that
nobleman, and the putting him to death without conviction, or so much as
a legal trial, with the dismal consequences that were like to attend an
action of that nature, not only in respect of Scotland, which would
certainly be lost, but likewise of his own personal safety from the
nobility. Whereupon the king called for the warrant, tore it, and
dismissed the marquis and the lieutenant somewhat abruptly.--After this,
about the 28th of June, this noble lord (upon promise of concealing from
his brethren in Scotland the hard treatment he had met with from the
king, and of contributing his endeavours to dispose them to peace) was
liberated from his confinement, and allowed to return home.

But things being now ripened for a new war, the king put himself at the
head of another army, in order to suppress the Scots: On the other hand
the Scots resolved not to be behind in their preparations, and entered
England with a numerous army, mostly of veteran troops, many of whom had
served in Germany under Gustavus Adolphus[117]. A party of the king's
forces disputed the passage of the Tyne, but were defeated by them at
Newburn; whereupon the Scots took Newcastle and Berwick, pushing their
way as far as Durham. Here the noble earl of Loudon acted no mean part,
for he not only gained upon the citizens of Edinburgh and other places,
to contribute money and other necessaries, for the use and supply of the
Scots army, but also commanded a brigade of horse, with whom, in the
foresaid skirmish at Newburn, he had no small share of the victory. The
king retired to York, and finding himself environed on all hands,
appointed commissioners to treat with the Scots a second time. On the
other side, the Scots nominated the earls of Dunfermline, Rothes, and
Loudon, with some gentlemen, and Messrs. Henderson and Johnson,
advocates for the church, as their commissioners for the treaty. Both
commissioners upon Oct. 1, 1640, met at Rippon, where, after agreeing
upon some articles for a cessation of arms for three months, the treaty
was transferred to London. Unto which the Scots commissioners (upon a
patent granted from the king for their safe conduct) consented and went
thither. And because great hopes were entertained by friends in England,
from their presence and influence at London, the committee at Newcastle
appointed Mr. Robert Blair, for his dexterity in dealing with the
Independents; Mr. Robert Bailey, for his eminence in managing the
Arminian controversy; and Mr. George Gillespie for his nervous and pithy
confutation of the English ceremonies, to accompany the three noblemen,
as their chaplains: And Messrs. Smith and Borthwick followed soon after.

After this treaty, things went pretty smooth for some time in Scotland,
but the king, not relishing the proceedings of the English parliament,
made a tour next year to Scotland, where he attended the Scots
parliament. When this parliament sat down (before the king's arrival),
Traquair, Montrose, and several other incendiaries, having been cited
before them for stirring up strife between the king and his subjects,
for undoing the covenanters, of whom some appeared, and some appeared
not. In the mean while, the noble earl of Loudon said so much in favours
of some of them, discharging himself so effectually of all the orders
laid on him last year by the king, that some, forgetting the obligation
he came under to steer with an even hand, began to suspect him of
changing sides, so that he was well nigh left out of the commission to
England with the parliament's agreement to the treaty; which so much
offended his lordship, that he supplicated the parliament to be examined
by them of his past conduct and negotiations, if they found him faithful
(so far was he emboldened, having the testimony of a good conscience),
which grieved the members of the house very much. The house declared,
indeed, that he had behaved himself faithfully and wisely in all his
public employments, and that he not only deserved to have an act of
approbation, but likewise to be rewarded by the estates, that their
favours and his merit might be known to posterity, &c. They further
considered, that the loss of such an eminent instrument could not be
easily supplied. The English dealt not so freely with any of our
commissioners, as with lord Loudon, nor did ever any of our
commissioners use so much ingenuous freedom with his majesty as he did;
and he behoved once more to return to London, with the treaty
new-revised by the parliament, subscribed by the lord president and

After the return of the commissioners, the king being arrived in
parliament, they began to dignify several of the Scots nobility with
offices of state, and because a lord-treasurer was a-wanting it was
moved that none did deserve that office so well as the earl of Loudon,
who had done so much for his country. But the king, judging more wisely
in this, thought it was more difficult to find a fit person for the
chancery than for the treaty, was obliged to make the earl of Loudon
chancellor, contrary, both to his own inclination (for he never was
ambitious of preferment) and to the solicitation of his friends. But to
make amends for the smallness of his fees, an annual pension of 100
pounds was added to this office.

Accordingly upon the 2d of Oct. 1642, this noble lord did solemnly, in
the face of the parliament, on his bended knees, before the throne,
first swear the oath of allegiance, then that of private counsellor, and
lastly, when the great seal, (which for two years had been kept by the
marquis of Hamilton) was with the mace delivered to him out of his
majesty's hand, he did swear the oath _de fideli administratione
officii_, and was by the lion king at arms, placed in the seat under his
majesty's feet, on the right hand of the lord president of parliament;
from thence he immediately arose, and prostrating himself before the
king, said, "Preferment comes neither from the east nor from the west,
but from God alone. I acknowledge, I have this from your majesty as from
God's vicegerent upon earth, and the fountain of all earthly honour
here, and I will endeavour to answer that expectation your majesty has
of me, and to deserve the goodwill of this honourable house, in
faithfully discharging what you both (without desert of mine) have put
on me." And kissing his majesty's hand, he retired to his seat.

This was a notable turn of affairs from the womb of providence; for
behold him, who last year, (for the cause of Christ and love of his
country) in all submission receiving the message or sentence of death,
is now, for his great wisdom and prudence, advanced by the same person
and authority unto the helm of the highest affairs of the kingdom; which
verifies what the wise man saith, _The fear of the Lord is the beginning
of wisdom, and before honour is humility_, Prov. xv. 33.

As soon as this excellent nobleman was advanced unto this dignity and
office, he not only began to exert his power for the utility and welfare
of his own native country, but also, the next year, went up to London to
importune his majesty to call his English parliament, as the most
expedient way to bring about a firm, permanent or lasting peace betwixt
the two kingdoms. And although he was not one of those commissioners
nominated and sent up from the parliament and assembly of the church of
Scotland, _anno_ 1643, yet it is evident from a letter sent from them
while at London, bearing the date of Jan. 6th, 1645, that he was amongst
them there, using his utmost endeavours for bringing about that happy
uniformity of religion, in doctrine, discipline, and church-government
which took place, and was established in these nations at that time.

And next year, before the king surrendered himself to the Scots army to
Newcastle, lord Loudon, being sent up as commissioner to the king,
(after the lord Leven at the head of 100 officers in the army had
presented a petition upon their knees, beseeching his majesty to give
them satisfaction in point of religion, and to take the covenant, &c.)
did, in plain terms, accost the king in this manner: "The difference
between your majesty and your parliament is grown to such an height,
that after many bloody battles, they have your majesty with all your
garrisons and strong holds in their hands, &c. They are in a capacity
now to do what they will in church and state; and some are so afraid,
and others so unwilling to proceed to extremities, till they know your
majesty's last resolution. Now, Sire, if your majesty shall refuse your
assent to the propositions, you will lose all your friends in the house
and in the city, and all England will join against you, as one man; they
will depose you and set up another government; they will charge us to
deliver your majesty to them, and remove our arms out of England, and
upon your refusal, we will be obliged to settle religion and peace
without you, which will ruin your majesty and your posterity. We own,
the propositions are higher in some things than we approve of, but the
only way to establish your majesty is to consent to them at present.
Your majesty may recover, in a time of peace, all that you have lost in
a time of tempest and trouble." Whether or not the king found him a true
prophet in all this, must be left to the history of these times.

He was again employed in the like errand to the king, _anno_ 1648, but
with no better success, as appears from two excellent speeches to the
Scots parliament at his return, concerning these proceedings[118]. And
in the same year, in the month of June, he was with a handful of
covenanters at a communion at Mauchline muir, where they were set upon
by Calender and Middleton's forces, after they had given their promise
to his lordship of the contrary.

Although this noble earl (through the influence of the earl of Lanerk)
had given his consent at first to the king, who was setting on foot an
army for his own rescue, yet he came to be among those who protested
against the duke of Hamilton's unlawful engagement. To account some way
for this,--He had before received a promise of a gift of the teinds, and
a gift sometimes blindeth the eyes, and much more of a nobleman whose
estate was at that time somewhat burdened; but by converting with some
of the protesting side, and some ministers, who discovered to him his
mistake (when his foot was well nigh slipt), he was so convinced that
this was contrary to his trust, that he subscribed an admonition to more
stedfastness for the commission of the church, in the high church of

But at last Charles I, being executed, and his son Charles II. called
home by the Scots, a new scene begins to appear _anno_ 1650, for
malignants being then again brought into places of power and trust, it
behoved the lord chancellor (who never was a friend to malignants) to
demit. He had now for near the space of ten years presided in
parliament, and had been highly instrumental in the hand of the Lord, to
establish in this nation, both in church and state, the purest
reformation that ever was established in any particular nation, under
the new Testament dispensation; but now he was turned out, and lord
Burleigh substituted in his place.

In what manner he was mostly employed during the time of Cromwel's
usurpation, there is no certain account, only it is probable, that
notwithstanding the many struggles he had in asserting the king's
interest, he mostly lived a private life, as most of the noblemen and
gentlemen of the nation did at that time.

But no sooner was the king restored again unto his dominions, than these
lands did again return back unto the old vomit of popery, prelacy and
slavery; and it is inconceivable to express the grief of heart this
godly nobleman sustained, when he beheld not only the carved work of the
sanctuary cut down, by defacing that glorious structure of reformation,
which he had such an eminent hand in erecting and building up, but also
to find himself at the king's mercy, for his accession to the same. He
knew, that next to the marquis of Argyle, he was the butt of the enemies
malice, and he had frequently applied for his majesty's grace, but was
as often refused; so that the violent courses now carrying on, and the
plain invasions upon the liberties and religion of the nation made him
weary of his life; and being then at Edinburgh, he often exhorted his
excellent lady to pray fast, that he might never see the next session of
parliament, else he might follow his dear friend the marquis of Argyle;
and the Lord was pleased to grant his request: For he died in a most
Christian manner at Edinburgh March 15th, 1662, and his corpse was
carried home and interred beside his ancestors.

The most exaggerated praises that can be at present bestowed on this
renowned patriot, the worthy earl of Loudon, must be far below his
merit, who was possessed of such singular prudence, eloquence and
learning, joined with remarkable courage. Which excellent endowments he
invariably applied for the support of our ancient and admirable
constitution, which he maintained upon all hazards and occasions;
whereby he might be truly accounted the chief advocate both for the
civil and religious liberties of the people. To sum up all in a few
words: he was a most exquisite orator in the senate, a refined
politician without what some would say it is impossible to be so, and an
honour to his name, an ornament to this nation, and in every virtue in
politic, social and domestic life, a pattern worthy of imitation. And
although HIS OFFSPRING[119] have hitherto all along retained a sense of
their civil liberties, yet it is to be lamented, that few or none of our
noblemen at this day, will follow his example.

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT BAILEY._

Mr. Robert Bailey was born at Glasgow _anno_ 1539. His father was a
citizen there, being lineally descended from Bailey of Jerviston, a
brother of the house of Carphin, and a branch of the ancient house of
Lamington, all in the county of Lanerk; and by his mother's side, he was
of the same stock with the Gibsons of Durie, who have made such a figure
in the law. He received his education at Glasgow, and, at that
university, plied his studies so hard, that, by his industry and
uncommon genius, he attained to the knowledge of twelve or thirteen of
the languages, and could write a Latin style that, in the opinion of the
learned, might well become the Augustan age.

After his study of divinity, he took orders from arch-bishop Law, about
the year 1622, and was soon after presented by the earl of Eglinton to
the church of Kilwinning. When the reformation began _anno_ 1637, he
wanted not his own difficulties, from his education and tenderness of
the king's authority, to see through some of the measures then taken.
Yet after reasoning, reading and prayer, (as he himself exprest it) he
came heartily into the covenanters interest about that time.

Being a man of distinct and solid judgment, he was often employed in the
public business of the church. In 1638, he was chosen by his own
presbytery, to be a member of that memorable assembly held at Glasgow,
where he behaved himself with great wisdom and moderation.

He was also one of those who attended as chaplains to the army in 1639,
and 1640, and was present during the whole treaty begun at Rippon and
concluded at London.----What comfort he had in these things he describes
in these words, "As for myself, I never found my mind in a better temper
than it was all that time, from my outset until my head was again
homeward. I was one who had taken leave of the world, and resolved to
die in that service. I found the favour of God shining on me, and a
sweet, meek and humble, yet strong and vehement spirit leading me
along." The same year 1640, he was by the covenanting lords sent to
London to draw up an accusation against arch-bishop Laud, for the
innovations he had obtruded upon the church of Scotland.

He was translated from Kilwinning to be professor of divinity at
Glasgow, when Mr. David Dickson was translated from thence to the
divinity chair at Edinburgh. And he was one of those commissioners sent
from the church of Scotland to the Westminster assembly _anno_ 1645,
where he remained almost the whole time of that assembly. And after they
rose, as an acknowledgment of his good services, the parliament of
England made him a handsome present of silver plate, with an
inscription, signifying it to be a token of their great respect to him,
which not long since was to be seen in the house of Carnbrue, being
carefully preserved, and perhaps it remains there to this day.

By his first wife Lillias Fleming he had one son and four daughters, by
his second wife, principal Strang's daughter he had one daughter who
was married to Walkinshaw of Barrowfield.

About this time he was a great confident of the marquis of Argyle, the
earls of Cassils, Eglinton, Lauderdale, and Loudon, lord Balmerino, and
Sir Archibald Johnston lord Warriston, with others of the chief managers
among the covenanters, whereby he obtained the most exact knowledge of
the transactions of that time, which he has carefully collected in his
letters; as he expresses himself, there was not any one from whom his
correspondent could get a more full narrative under Cromwell's
usurpation. He joined with that party called resolutioners, and composed
several of the papers belonging to that side _anno_ 1661. He was by
Lauderdale's interest, made principal of the college of Glasgow, upon
the removal of Mr. Patrick Gillespie, about which time it is commonly
said, he had a bishopric offered him, but that he refused it, because,
says the writer of the memorial[120], he did not choose to enter into a
dispute with those, with whom he had formerly lived in friendship. But
this was only a sly way of wounding an amiable character, for Mr. Bailey
continued firmly attached to presbyterian government, and in opposition
to prelacy to his very last; several instances could be brought to this
purpose, but a few excerpts from some of his own letters, particularly
one to Lauderdale a little before his death[121], may effectually wipe
away that reproach. "Having the occasion of this bearer, I tell you my
heart is broken with grief, and I find the burthen of the public
weighty, and hastening me to my grave. What need you do that disservice
to the king, which all of you cannot recompense, to grieve the hearts of
all your godly friends in Scotland, with pulling down all our laws at
once, which concerned our church since 1633? Was this good advice, or
will it thrive? Is it wisdom to bring back upon us the Canterburian
times, the same designs, the same practices? Will they not bring on the
same effects, whatever fools dream?" And again, in the same letter
downward, he says, "My lord, you are the nobleman in all the world I
love best, and esteem most----I think I may say I write to you what I
please. If you have gone with your heart to forsake your covenant; to
countenance the re-introduction of bishops and books, and strengthen
the king by your advice in those things, I think you a prime
transgressor, and liable among the first to answer for that great sin,
&c." And when the arch-bishop came to visit him, when on his
death-bed, he would not so much as give him the appellation of lord: yea
it appears, that the introduction of prelacy was a means of bringing on
his death, as appears evident from his last public letter to his cousin
Mr. Spang, dated May 12, 1662, some weeks before his death. After some
account of the west country ministers, being called in to Edinburgh, he
says, "The guise is now, the bishops will trouble no man, but the states
will punish seditious ministers. This poor church is in the most hard
taking that ever we have seen. This is my daily grief; this hath brought
all my bodily trouble on me, and is like to do me more harm." And very
quickly after that, in the month of July, he got to his rest and
glorious reward, being aged 63 years.

Mr. Robert Bailey may very justly, for his profound and universal
learning, exact and solid judgment, be accounted amongst the great men
of his time. He was an honour to his country, and his works do praise
him in the gates; among which are, his scripture-chronology, wrote in
latin; his Canterburian self-conviction; his parallel or comparison of
the liturgy with the mass-book; his dissuasive against the errors of the
times; and a large manuscript collection of historical papers and
letters, consisting of four volumes _folio_, beginning at the year 1637,
and ending at the restoration, never hitherto published. To him is, by
some, ascribed that book, intitled, _Historia motuum in regno Scotiæ,
annis 1634,----1640._; and if he was the author of that, then also of
another anonymous paper called, a short relation of the state of the
kirk of Scotland, from the reformation of religion to the month of
October 1638. For, from the preface of the last mentioned book, it
appears, that both were wrote by the same hand. He also wrote
Laudensium, an anecdote against Arminianism; a reply to the modest
enquirer, with other tracts and some sermons on public occasion.

_N. B._ In the life and now published letters of principal Bailie, we
have a recent proof of human frailty.--Nay, more, that even great and
good men will be biassed in judgment, and prejudiced in mind at others
more faithful than themselves: for instance, these very noblemen and
ministers to whom he gives the highest elogiums of praise, for being the
prime instruments in God's hand for carrying on the work of reformation
betwixt 1638, and 1649,--As soon as they took the remonstrators side, he
not only represents some of them to be of such a character as I shall
forbear to mention; but even gives us a very diminutive view of their
most faithful contendings about that time; wherein the gallant
Argyle,--courageous Loudon,--the able statesman Warriston,--faithful
Guthrie,--godly Rutherford,--peaceable Livingston,--honest M'Ward, &c.
cannot evite their share of reflections; which no doubt add nothing to
the credit of the last ten years of his history; and all from a mistaken
view of the controversy betwixt those protestors and his own party the
resolutioners; taking all the divisions and calamities that befel
church, state and army at that time to proceed from the protestors not
concurring with them; whereas it is just the reverse; the taking in
Charles II. that atheistical wretch, and his malignant faction into the
bosom of the church, proved the Achan in the camp, that brought all
these evils upon the church, state, and army, at and since that
time.--These protestors could not submit their consciences to the
arbitrary dictates of the public resolutioners: they could not agree to
violate their almost newly sworn covenant, by approving of the admission
of these wicked malignants into public places of power and trust;--in
defence of which many of them faced the awful gibbet, banishment,
imprisonment, and other excruciating hardships;--whereas several
hundreds of the resolutioners, on the very first blast of temptation,
involved themselves in fearful apostacy and perjury; some of them became
violent persecutors of these their faithful brethren, and not a few of
them absolute monsters of iniquity.--The dreadful effects of which have
almost ruined both church and state in these lands; and perhaps this
same malignant faction will utterly do it at last, if the Lord in mercy
prevent not. For the above, see Bailie's letters, Vol. II. page

_The Life of Mr. DAVID DICKSON._

Mr. Dickson was born about the year 1583. He the only son of Mr. John
Dick or Dickson merchant in Glasgow, whose father was an old fenar and
possessor of some lands in the barony of Fintry, and parish of St.
Ninian's, called the kirk of the muir. His parents were religious, of a
considerable substance, and were many years married before they had Mr.
David, who was their only child; and as he was a Samuel asked of the
Lord, so he was early devoted to him and the ministry; yet afterwards
the vow was forgot, till providence by a rod, and sore sickness on their
son, brought their sins to remembrance, and then he was sent to resume
his studies at the university of Glasgow.

Soon after he had received the degree of master of arts, he was admitted
professor of philosophy in that college, where he was very useful in
training up the youth in solid learning; and with the learned principal
Boyd of Trochridge, the worthy Mr. Blair, and other pious members of
that society, his pains were singularly blessed in reviving decayed
serious piety among the youth, in that declining and corrupted time, a
little after the imposition of prelacy upon the church. Here by a
recommendation of the general assembly not long after our reformation
from popery, the regents were only to continue eight years in their
profession; after which, such as were found qualified were licensed, and
upon a call after trial were admitted to the holy ministry; by which
constitution the church came to be filled with ministers well seen in
all the branches of useful learning. Accordingly Mr. Dickson was in
1618, ordained minister to the town of Irvine, where he laboured for
about twenty-three years.

That same year the corrupt assembly at Perth agreed to the five articles
imposed upon the church by the king and the prelates. Mr. Dickson at
first had no great scruple against episcopacy, as he had not studied
those questions much, till the articles were imposed by this meeting,
and then he closely examined them; and the more he looked into them, the
more aversion he found to them; and when some time after, by a sore
sickness, he was brought within views of death and eternity, he gave
open testimony of the sinfulness of them.

But when this came to take air, Mr. James Law, arch-bishop of Glasgow,
summoned him to appear before the high-commission court Jan. 29, 1622.
Mr. Dickson, at his entrance to the ministry at Irvine, preached upon 2
Cor. v. 11. The first part, _knowing the terrors of the Lord, we
persuade men_; and when he perceived, at this juncture, a separation (at
least for a time); the Sabbath before his compearance, he chose the next
words of that text, _but we are made manifest unto God_: extraordinary
power and singular movings of the affections accompanied that parting

Mr. Dickson appeared before the commission, where after the summons
being read, and some other reasoning among the bishops, he gave in his
declinature, upon which some of the bishops whispering in his ear (as if
they had favoured him upon the good report they had heard of him and his
ministry), said to him, Take it up, take it up.----He answered calmly, I
laid it not down for that end, to take it up again. Spotswood, arch
bishop of St. Andrews, asked if he would subscribe it. He professed
himself ready. The clerk, at the bishop's desire, began to read it, but
had scarce read three lines, till the bishop burst forth in railing
speeches, full of gall and bitterness, and turning to Mr. David, he
said, "These men will speak of humility and meekness, and talk of the
Spirit of God, &c. but ye are led by the spirit of the devil; there is
more pride in you, I dare say, than in all the bishops of Scotland. I
hanged a jesuit in Glasgow for the like fault." Mr. David answered, "I
am not a rebel; I stand here as the king's subject, &c. grant me the
benefit of the law, and of a subject, and I crave no more." But the
bishop seemed to take no notice of these words. Aberdeen asked him,
Whether he would obey the king or not? He answered, "I will obey the
king in all things in the Lord." I told you that, said Glasgow, I knew
he would seek to his limitation. Aberdeen asked again, May not the king
give his authority that we have, to as many sutors and taylors in
Edinburgh, to sit and see whether ye be doing your duty or not? Mr.
David said, My declinature answers to that. Then St. Andrews fell again
to railing, The devil, said he, will devise, he has scripture enough;
and then called him knave, swinger, a young lad, and said, He might have
been teaching bairns in the school, thou knowest what Aristotle saith,
said he, but thou hast no theology, because he perceived that Mr.
Dickson gave him no titles, but once called him Sir, he gnashed his
teeth, and said Sir, you might have called me lord; when I was in
Glasgow long since, you called me so, but I cannot tell how, ye are
become a puritan now. All this time he stood silent, and once lifted up
his eyes to heaven, which St. Andrews called a proud look. So after some
more reasoning betwixt him and the bishops, St. Andrews pronounced the
sentence in these words, "We deprive you of your ministry at Irvine, and
ordain you to enter in Turref in the north in twenty days." "The will of
the Lord be done, said Mr. David, though ye cast me off, the Lord will
take me up. Send me whither ye will, I hope my Master will go with me,
and as he has been with me heretofore, he will be with me still, as with
his own weak servant."

Mr. Dickson continued preaching till the twenty days were expired, and
then began his journey. But the earl of Eglinton prevailed with the
bishop of Glasgow, that he might come to Eglinton, and preach there. But
the people, from all quarters, resorting to his sermons in Eglinton's
hall and court-yard, he enjoyed that liberty but two months; for the
bishop sent him another charge, and he went to the place of his

While in Turref, he was daily employed to preach, by Mr. Thomas Mitchel
minister there. But he found far greater difficulty both in studying and
preaching there, than formerly. Some time after, his friends prevailed
with the bishop of Glasgow to repone him, upon condition he would take
back his declinature, and for that purpose, wrote to Mr. Dickson to come
to Glasgow. He came as desired, and though many wise and gracious
persons urged him to yield, yet he could not be persuaded; yea, at last
it was granted to him, That if he, or any friend he pleased, would go to
the bishop's castle, and either lift the paper, or suffer his friend to
take it off the hall-table, without seeing the bishop at all, he might
return to Irvine----But he found that to be but a juggling in such a
weighty matter, in point of public testimony, and resolved to meddle no
farther in this matter, but to return to his confinement. Accordingly he
began his journey, and was scarce a mile out of town, till his soul was
filled with such joy and approbation from God, that he seldom had the

But some time after, by the continual intercession of the earl of
Eglinton and the town of Irvine with the bishop, the earl got a licence
to send for him, and a promise, that he should stay till the king
challenged him. Thus he returned, without any condition on his part, to
his flock, about the end of July 1623.

While at Irvine, Mr. Dickson's ministry was singularly countenanced of
God, and multitudes were convinced and converted, and few who lived in
his day, were more instrumental in this work than he, so that people,
under exercise and soul-concern, came from every quarter about Irvine,
and attended his sermons; and the most eminent christians, from all
corners of the church, came and joined with him at the communion, which
were then times of refreshing, from the presence of the Lord. Yea, not
a few came from distant places, and settled at Irvine, that they might
be under the drop of his ministry, yet he himself observed, that the
vintage of Irvine was not equal to the gleanings of Ayr in Mr. Welch's
time; where indeed the gospel had wonderful success in conviction,
conversion and confirmation. Here he commonly had his week-days sermon
upon Monday, which was the market-day then at Irvine. Upon the Sabbath
evenings, many persons under soul-distress used to resort to his house
after sermon, when usually he spent an hour or two in answering their
cases, and directing and comforting those who were cast down.--In all
which he had an extraordinary talent; indeed he had the tongue of the
learned, and knew how to speak a word in season to the weary soul. In a
large hall, which was in his own house, there would sometimes have been
scores of serious Christians waiting for him after he came from church.
These, with the people round the town, who came into the market, made
the church as throng (if not thronger) on the Mondays, as on the Lord's
day. By these week-day sermons, the famous Stuarton sickness (as it was
called) was begun about the year 1630, and spread from house to house
for many miles in the valley, where Stuarton water runs. Satan indeed
endeavoured to bring a reproach upon such serious persons, as were at
this time under the convincing work of the Spirit, by running some,
seemingly under serious concern, to excess, both in time of sermon, and
in families. But the Lord enabled Mr. Dickson, and other ministers who
dealt with them, to act so prudent a part, that Satan's design was much
disappointed, and solid serious practical religion flourished mightily
in the west of Scotland about this time, under the hardships of prelacy.

About the years 1630 and 1631, some of our Scots ministers, Messrs.
Livingston, Blair and others, were settled among the Scots in the north
of Ireland, where they were remarkably owned of the Lord in their
ministry and communions about the six-mile water, for reviving religion
and the power and practice of it. But the Irish bishops, at the
instigation of the Scots bishops, got them removed, for a season. After
they were silenced, and had come over to Scotland, about the year 1637,
Mr. Dickson employed Messrs. Blair, Livingston and Cunningham at his
communion, for which he was called before the high commission; but, the
prelates' power being on the decline, he soon got rid of that trouble.

Several other instances might be given concerning Mr. Dickson, both as
to his usefulness in answering perplexing cases of conscience, and to
students who had their eye to the ministry. While he was at Irvine, his
prudent directions, cautions and encouragements given them were
extremely useful and beneficial, as also some examples might be given of
his usefulness to his very enemies; but there is little room here to
insist on these things.

It was Mr. Dickson who brought over the presbytery of Irvine to
supplicate the council in 1637, for a suspension of the service-book. At
this time four supplications, from different quarters, met at the
council-house-door, to their mutual surprize and encouragement; which
were the small beginnings of that happy turn of affairs, that next year
ensued: In which great revolution Mr. Dickson had no small share. He was
sent to Aberdeen, with Messrs Henderson and Cant, by the covenanters, to
persuade that town and country to join in renewing the covenant; this
brought him to bear a great part in the debates with the learned doctors
Forbes, Barrow, Sibbald, &c. at Aberdeen; which, being in print, needs
no further notice at present.

And when the king was prevailed with to allow a free general assembly at
Glasgow, Nov. 1638, Mr. Dickson and Mr. Bailey, from the presbytery,
made no small figure there in all the important matters before that
grave assembly. Here Mr. Dickson signalized himself in a most seasonable
and prudent speech he had, when his majesty's commissioner threatened to
leave the assembly; as also in the 11th session Dec. 5th, he had another
most learned discourse against Arminianism[122].

By this time the Lord's eminent countenancing of Mr. Dickson's ministry
at Irvine, not only spread abroad, but his eminent prudence, learning,
and holy zeal came to be universally known, especially to ministers,
from the part he bore in the assembly of Glasgow, so that he was almost
unanimously chosen moderator to the next general assembly at Edinburgh
in Aug. 1639, in the 10th session whereof the city of Glasgow presented
a call to him; but partly because of his own aversion, and the vigorous
appearance of the earl of Eglinton, and his loving people, and mostly
for the remarkable usefulness of his ministry in that corner, the
general assembly continued him still at Irvine.

Not long after this about 1641, he was transported to be professor in
the university of Glasgow, where he did great service to the church, by
training up young men for the holy ministry; and yet notwithstanding of
his laborious work, he preached on the forenoon of every sabbath, in the
high church there; where for some time he had the learned Mr. Patrick
Gillespie for his colleague.

_Anno_ 1643, the church laid a very great work upon him, together with
Mr. Calderwood and Mr. Henderson to form a draught of a directory for a
public worship, as appears by an act of the general assembly. When the
pestilence was raging at Glasgow in 1647, the masters and students, upon
Mr. Dickson's motion, removed to Irvine. There it was that the learned
Mr. Durham passed his trials, and was earnestly recommended by the
professor to the presbytery and magistrates of Glasgow. A very strict
friendship subsisted between those two great lights of the church, and,
among other effects of their religious conversation, we have the sum of
saving knowledge, which hath been so often printed with our confession
of faith and catechisms. This, after several conversations upon the
subject, and manner of handling it, so that it might be useful to vulgar
capacities, was, by Messrs. Dickson and Durham, dictated to a reverend
minister about the year 1650, and though never judicially approven by
this church, yet it deserves to be much more read and practised than
what it at present is.

About this time he was transported from the profession of divinity at
Glasgow, to the same work at Edinburgh. At which time he published his
_prelectiones in confessionem fidei_ (now published in English), which
he dictated in latin to his scholars. There he continued his laborious
care of students in divinity, the growing hopes of a church; and either
at Glasgow or at Edinburgh, the most part of the presbyterian ministers,
at least in the west, south and east parts of Scotland, from 1640, were
under his inspection; and from the forementioned book, we may perceive
his care to educate them in the form of sound words, and to ground them
in the excellent standards of doctrine agreed to by the once famous
church of Scotland; and happy had their successors been, had they
preserved and handed down to posterity the scriptural doctrines pure and
entire, as they were delivered by our first reformers, to Mr. Dickson
and his contemporaries, and from him and them handed down without
corruption to their successors.

All this time, _viz._ in 1650 and 1651, Mr. Dickson had a great share in
the printed pamphlets upon the unhappy debates betwixt the
resolutioners and the protestors, he was in his opinions for the public
resolutioners: and most of the papers on that side were wrote by him,
Mr. Bailey and Mr. Douglas; as those on the other side were wrote by Mr.
James Guthrie, Mr. Patrick Gillespie, and a few others.

Mr. Dickson continued at Edinburgh, discharging his trust with great
diligence and faithfulness, until the melancholy turn by the restoration
of prelacy upon the return of Charles II.; when, for refusing the oath
of supremacy, he was with many other worthies, turned out; so that his
heart was broken with this heavy change on the beautiful face of that
once famed reformed church.

He had married Margaret Robertson daughter to Archibald Robertson of
Stone-hall, a younger brother of the house of Ernock, in the shire of
Lanerk; by her he had three sons, John, clerk to the exchequer in
Scotland; Alexander, professor of Hebrew in the college of Edinburgh;
and Archibald, who lived with his family afterward in the parish of

On December 1662, he fell extremely sick, at which time worthy Mr.
Livingston, now suffering for the same cause, though he had then but
forty-eight hours liberty to stay in Edinburgh, came to see him on his
death-bed. They had been intimately acquainted near forty years, and now
rejoiced as fellow-confessors together. When Mr. Livingston asked the
professor, What were his thoughts of the present affairs, and how it was
with himself? His answer was, "That he was sure Jesus Christ would not
put up with the indignities done against his work and people:" and as
for himself, said he, "I have taken all my good deeds and all my bad
deeds, and have cast them together in a heap before the Lord, and have
fled from both to Jesus Christ, and in him I have sweet peace[123]."

Having been very low and weak for some days, he called all his family
together, and spoke in particular to each of them, and having gone
through them all, he pronounced the words of the apostolical blessing, 1
Cor. xiii. 13, 14, with much gravity and solemnity, and then put up his
hand, and closed his own eyes; and, without any struggle or apparent
pain, immediately expired in his son's arms, and with Jacob of old, was
gathered to his people in a good old age, being now upwards of
seventy-two years.

He was a man singularly endowed with an edifying gift of preaching; and
his painful labours had been, in an eminent manner, blessed with
success. His sermons were always full of solid and substantial matter,
very scriptural, and in a very familiar style; not low, but extremely
strong and affecting, being somewhat a-kin to the style of godly Mr.
Rutherford; and it is said, That scarce any minister of that time came
so near Mr. Dickson's style or method of preaching, as the reverend Mr.
William Guthrie, minister at Finwick, who equalled, if not exceeded him.

His works are, a commentary on the epistle to the Hebrews in 8vo; on
Matthew's gospel in 4to; on the psalms of David in 8vo; on the epistles,
Latin and English, in 4to; and his _prelectiones in confessionem fidei_,
or truth's victory over error, &c. in folio; his _therapeutica sacra_,
or cases of conscience resolved, in Latin 4to, in English 8vo; a
treatise of the promises 12mo printed at Dublin in 1630. And beside
these he wrote a great part of the answers to the demands, and duplies
to the replies of the doctors of Aberdeen in 4to; and some of the
pamphlets in defence of the public resolutioners, as has been already
observed; and some short poems on pious and serious subjects, such as,
the Christian sacrifice, true Christian love, to be sung with the common
tunes of the Psalms. There are also several other pieces of his, mostly
in manuscript, such as his _tyronis concionaturi_, supposed to be
dictated to his scholars at Glasgow; _summarium libri Jesaiæ_: his
letters on the resolutioners; his first paper on the public resolutions;
his replies to Mr. Gillespie and Mr. James Guthrie; his _non_-separation
from the well-affected in the army; as also some sermons at Irvine upon
1 Tim. i. 5. and his precepts for a daily direction of a Christian,
&c. by way of catechism, for his congregation at Irvine; with a
compend of his sermons upon Jeremiah and the Lamentations, and the first
nine chapters to the Romans.


The first of his public appearances in the favours of that glorious work
of reformation (commonly called the second reformation period) seems to
have been about the beginning of 1638. When it came first to be known
that Traquair was going up to the king, the deputies (afterward called
the covenanters) were desirous that he would carry up an information,
which the lord Balmerino and Mr. Johnston (the only advocates as yet
trusted by the petitioners) had drawn up, and that he would present the
same, with their supplication, to his majesty. But both these were
rejected, and orders given by him to Traquair, to publish a proclamation
at Edinburgh and Stirling, against the requisitions of the covenanters.
Sixteen of the nobles, with many barons, gentlemen, burgesses, and
ministers, did, after hearing said proclamation, cause Mr. Johnston read
a protest against the same. And the same year, when the marquis of
Hamilton caused publish another declaration, in name of the king, the
covenanters, upon hearing it, gave in another protestation in the same
place by Mr. Johnston; whereupon the earl of Cassils, in name of the
nobility, Gibson of Durie, in name of the barons, Fletcher provost of
Dundee, in name of the burgesses, Mr. Kerr minister at Preston, in name
of the church, and Mr. Archibald Johnston, in name of all others, who
adhered to the covenant, took instruments in the hands of three
notaries, and, in all humility, offered a copy of the same to the herald
at the cross of Edinburgh[124].

Upon the 9th of September, a declaration of the same nature being
published, the noblemen, gentlemen, burgesses, &c. gave another
protest, and Mr. Johnston header and advocate for the church, in name of
all who adhered to the confession of faith, and covenant lately renewed
within the kingdom, took instruments in the hands of three notaries
there present, and offered a copy thereof to the herald at the cross of

In the same year, when the famous general assembly sat down at Glasgow,
in the month of November, Mr. Henderson, being chosen moderator, it was
moved, That Mr. Johnston, who had hitherto served the tables at
Edinburgh without reward, and yet with great diligence, skill and
integrity, deserved the office of clerk above all others. After much
reasoning, concerning him and some others (put on a leet for election),
the rolls being called, on a vote for a clerk, it carried unanimously
for Mr. Johnston, who then gave his oath for fidelity, diligence, and a
conscientious use of the registers; and was admitted to all the rights,
profits and privileges, which any in that office had formerly enjoyed;
and instruments taken both of his admittance and acceptance.

Mr Johnston being thus installed, the moderator desired, that all who
had any acts or books of former assemblies, would put them into his
hands; whereupon Mr. Sandihills, (formerly clerk) exhibited two books,
containing some acts from 1592, to that of Aberdeen in 1618, &c. and
being interrogate concerning the rest, he solemnly averred, that he had
received no more from the arch-bishop, and to his knowledge, he had no
other belonging to the church.--Then a farther motion was made by the
assembly for recovering the rest, wanting, that if any had them, they
should give them up, whereupon Mr. Johnston gave an evidence how
deserving he was of the trust reposed in him, by producing on the table
five books (being now seven in all), which were sufficient to make up a
register of the church, from the beginning of the reformation; which was
very acceptable to the whole assembly.

In the 24th session of this assembly, a commission was given to Mr.
Johnston to be their procurator, and Mr. Dalgliesh to be their agent;
and in their last session of December 20, an act passed, allowing him
the instruction of all treaties and papers that concerned the church,
prohibiting all printers from publishing any thing of that kind, not
licensed by him.

But the king and the Canterburian faction, being highly displeased with
the proceedings of this assembly, advanced with an army toward the
borders, which made the covenanters, seeing the danger they were exposed
unto, raise another army, with which, under the command of general
Leslie, they marched towards the king's army, now encamped on the south
side of Tweed, about three miles above Berwick. Upon their approach, the
English began to faint, whereupon the king and the English nobility
desired a treaty, which was easily granted by the Scots, who appointed
the earls of Rothes, Dunfermline and Loudon, the sheriff of Teviotdale,
Mr. Henderson and Mr. Archibald Johnston advocate for the church, as
their commissioners to treat with the English commissioners, to whom his
majesty granted a safe conduct upon the 9th of June, 1639. The Scots,
having made known their demands, condescended upon several particulars,
which were answered by the other side. On the 17th and the day
following, the articles of specification were subscribed to by both
parties, in sight of both armies at Birks near Berwick. But this treaty
was but short lived, and as ill kept; for the very next year, the king
took arms again against the Scots, who immediately armed themselves a
second time, and went for England, where they defeated a party of the
English at Newburn, and pushed their way as far as Durham. The king,
finding himself in this strait, the English supplicating him behind, and
the Scots with a potent army before him, resolved on a second treaty,
which was set on foot at Rippon, and concluded at London; and thither
Mr. Henderson and Mr. Johnston were sent again, as the commissioners for
the church; in which affairs they behaved with great prudence and
candor. When the Scots parliament sat down this year, they, by an act,
appointed a fee of 100 merks to Mr. Johnston, as advocate for the
church, and 500 merks as clerk to the general assembly; so sensible were
they of his many services done to this church and nation.

Next year, 1641, the king, having fallen out with his English
parliament, came to Scotland, where he attended the Scots parliament. In
this parliament several offices of state were filled up with persons fit
for such employments. The earl of Argyle being put at the head of the
treasury, and the earl of Loudon made chancellor; among others, Mr.
Archibald Johnston stood fair for the register office; and the
generality of the well-affected thought it the just reward of his
labours; but the king, Lennox and Argyle, &c. being for Gibson of
Durie, he carried the prize. Yet Mr. Johnston's disappointment was
supplied by the king's conferring the order of knight-hood upon him, and
granting him a commission to be one of the lords of session, with an
annual pension of 200 pounds; and Orbiston was made justice clerk[125].

During this and the next year Mr. (now Sir) Archibald Johnston had
several great employments committed to his trust. He was one of those
nominated to conserve the articles of peace betwixt the two kingdoms
until the meeting of parliament, &c. And then he was appointed one of
these commissioners, who were sent up to London to negotiate with the
English parliament, for sending over some relief from Scotland to
Ireland (it being then on the back of the Irish rebellion). While at
London, they waited on his majesty at Windsor, and offered their
mediation betwixt him and his two houses of parliament; but for this he
gave them little thanks, although he found his mistake afterwards.

When the general assembly sat down at Edinburgh, _anno_ 1643, they, upon
a motion from Sir Archibald Johnston their clerk, emitted a declaration
for joining with the English parliament for a variety of reasons, of
which these were the sum and substance. "(1.) They apprehend the war is
for religion. (2.) The protestant faith is in danger. (3.) Gratitude for
the assistance in the time of the former reformation required a suitable
return. (4.) Because the churches of Scotland and England being embarked
in one bottom, if the one be ruined, the other cannot subsist. (5.) The
prospect of an uniformity between the two kingdoms in discipline and
worship, will strengthen the protestant interest at home and abroad.
(6.) The present parliament had been friendly to the Scots, and might be
so again. (7.) Though the king had so lately established religion
amongst them, according to their desire, yet they could not confide in
his royal declaration, having so often found his actions and promises
contradictory the one to the other, &c." These the estates took in
good part, and suggested other reasons of their own, as they saw proper.

Toward the latter end of this assembly, upon the arrival of the
commissioners from the parliament and assembly at Westminster, the Scots
assembly, by an act of session 14, commissioned Messrs. Henderson,
Douglas, Rutherford, Bailey and Gillespie ministers, John earl of
Cassils, John lord Maitland, and Sir Archibald Johnston of Warriston,
ruling elders, or any three of them, whereof two should be ministers,
"to repair to the kingdom of England, and there to deliver the
declaration sent to the parliament of England, and the letter sent to
the assembly of divines, now sitting in that kingdom, and to propound,
consult, treat and conclude with that assembly, or any commissioner
deputed, or any committee or commissioner deputed by the house of
parliament, in all matters which may further the union of this island,
in one form of church-government, one confession of faith, one
catechism, one directory for the worship of God, according to the
instructions they have received from the assembly, or shall receive from
time to time hereafter, from the commissioners of the assembly deputed
for that effect."--This commission was again renewed by several acts of
the subsequent assemblies, till the year 1648.--And it appears, that
lord Warriston did not only use all diligence as a member of the
Westminster assembly, for bringing about the uniformity of religion in
worship, discipline and government, but also, for some time, he sat as a
member of the English parliament, for concerting such methods as might
bring about a firm and lasting peace betwixt the two kingdoms afterward;
which is, and was reckoned a most noble piece of service both to church
and state in those days; yet we shall find it accounted high treason in
this worthy man afterward.

Lord Warriston had, for his upright and faithful dealing, in the many
important matters committed to his charge, received many marks of favour
and dignity, both from church and state; and to crown all the rest, the
Scots parliament in 1646, made an act, appointing his commission to be
lord advocate, with the conduct of the committee of London and
Newcastle, and the general officers of the army: all which evidence,
what a noble hand he had in carrying on that blessed work of

He had now been clerk to the general assembly since the year 1638, and
when that unhappy difference fell out _anno_ 1650, when the act of
classes was repeated, whereby malignants were again taken into places of
power and trust; which occasioned the rise of those called protestors
and resolutioners _anno_ 1650, lord Warriston was one of those who had a
principal hand in managing affairs among those faithful
anti-resolutioners; for he wrote a most solid letter to that meeting at
St. Andrews, July 18, 1651, concerning which, the protestors, in their
reasons, proving the said meeting to be no lawful, full or free general
assembly, say, "Sir Archibald Johnston, clerk to the assembly a man
undeniably faithful, singularly acquainted with the acts and proceedings
of this kirk, and with the matters presently in controversy, and who
hath been useful above many in all the tracts of the work of
reformation, from the beginning, in all the steps thereof, both at home
and abroad; having written his mind to the meeting (not being able to
come himself) about the things that are to be agitated in the assembly,
and held out much clear light from the scriptures, and from the acts of
former assemblies, in these particulars. Albeit the letter was delivered
publicly to the moderator, in the face of the assembly, and urged to be
read by him who presented it, that then the moderator did break it up,
and caused it to be read; and that many members did thereafter, upon
several occasions, and at several diets, press the reading of it, but it
could never be obtained, &c.[126]"

And further, those papers bearing the name of representations,
propositions, protestations, &c. were by the said lord Warriston,
Messrs. Cant, Rutherford, Livingston, &c. presented to the reverend
ministers and elders met at Edinburgh, July 24, 1652, when the marquis
of Argyle at London procured an equal hearing to the protestors; and Mr.
Simpson, one of these three ministers deposed by the assembly 1651,
being sent up by the protestors for that purpose; in the beginning of
1657, Messrs. James Guthrie and Patrick Gillespie, the other three who
had been deposed by that assembly, together with lord Warriston, were
sent up to assist Mr. Simpson[127].

Lord Warriston had now, for the space of five years or more, wrestled
and acted with all his power, for the king's interest, and, being a man
of great resolution, he both spoke and wrote as openly against Scotsmen
submitting to take offices under the usurper; but being sent up to
London in the foresaid year 1657, with some of the Scots nobility, upon
some important affairs, and Cromwel being fully sensible how much it
would be for his interest to gain such a man as Warriston was, over to
his side, he prevailed upon him to re-enter to the office of
clerk-register; which was much lamented by this worthy man afterwards,
as well as his sitting and presiding in some meeting at London after
Oliver's death.

A late historian has observed, That, at that meeting at Edinburgh, which
sent him up to London upon business, he reasoned against it, and to the
utmost of his power opposed his being sent up, acquainting them with
what was his weak side, that, through the easiness of his temper, he
might not be able to resist his importunity, craving that he might not
be sent among snares; and yet after all he was peremptorily named[128].

To account some way for his conduct in this:----His family was numerous;
and very considerable sums were owing him, which he had advanced for the
public service, and a good many bygone years salaries; he was, through
importunity, thus prevailed upon to side with the usurper, there being
no other door open then for his relief. And yet after this his
compliance, it was observed, he was generally more sad and melancholy
than what he had formerly been, and it is said that his outward affairs
did not prosper so well afterward.

The king being restored again to his dominions _anno_ 1660, and the
noble marquis of Argyle imprisoned July 14, orders came down to seize
Sir James Stuart provost of Edinburgh, Sir Archibald Johnston of
Warriston, and Sir John Chiesly of Carswel. The first and last were
tried, but lord Warriston escaped for a time, and therefore was
summoned, by sound of trumpet, to surrender himself, and a proclamation
issued out for seizing him, promising an hundred pounds Scots to any who
should do it, and discharging all from concealing or harbouring him
under pain of treason. A most arbitrary step indeed! For here is not
only a reward offered for apprehending this worthy gentleman, but
declaring it treason for any to harbour him, and that without any cause

Upon the 10th of October following, he was, by order of the council,
declared fugitive; and next year Feb. 1st, the indictment against lord
Warriston, William Dundas, and John Hume, was read in the house, none of
them being present. Warriston was forfeited, and his forfeiture publicly
proclaimed, by the heralds, at the cross of Edinburgh. The principal
articles of his indictment were, his pleading against Newton Gordon,
when he had the king's express orders to plead for him; His assisting to
the act of the west kirk, &c.; His drawing out, contriving or
consenting to the paper called the western remonstrance, and the book
called the causes of the Lord's wrath; his sitting in parliament as a
peer in England, contrary to his oath, &c.; His accepting the office
of clerk-register from the usurper;----and being president of the
committee of safety, when Richard was laid aside, &c. But neither of
all these were the proper causes of this good man's sufferings, but a
personal prejudice or pique was at the bottom of all these bitter
proceedings; for the godly freedom he took in reproving vice, was what
could never be forgotten nor forgiven. The last-cited historian hints,
that the earl of Bristol was interceeding for him, and says, "I have an
account of this holy freedom in lord Warriston, used from a reverend
minister, who was his chaplain at that time, and took freedom to advise
my lord not to adventure on it; yet this excellent person, having the
glory of God and the honour of religion more in his eyes than his own
safety, went on in his designed reproof, and would not for a compliment,
quit the peace he expected in his own conscience, be the event what it
would, by disburthening himself; he got a great many fair words, and all
was pretended to be taken well from my lord register; but, as he was
told by his well-wishers, it was never forgot[129]." For, in compliance
with Cromwel, he was not alone in the matter; the greater part of the
nation being involved therein as well as he: And several of those who
had been named trustees to the usurper, were all discharged from court,
except Warriston, who was before come to Scotland, and ordered to appear
before the parliament at the sitting down thereof.

This good man, after the sentence of forfeiture and death passed against
him by the first parliament, being obliged to go abroad, to escape the
fury of his enemies, even there did their crafty malice reach him; for
while at Hamburg, being visited with sore sickness, it is certain that
Dr. Bates, one of king Charles's physicians, intending to kill him
(contrary to his faith and office), prescribed poison to him instead of
physic, and then caused draw from him sixty ounces of blood, whereby
(though the Lord wonderfully preserved his life) he was brought near the
gates of death, and so far lost his memory, that he could not remember
what he had said or done a quarter of an hour before, and continued so
until the day of his martyrdom.

And yet all this did not satisfy his cruel and blood-thirsty enemies,
while he was yet in life they sought him carefully; and at last, he
having gone unadvisedly to France, one Alexander Murray, being
dispatched in quest of him, apprehended him at Roan, while he was
engaged in secret prayer, a duty wherein he much delighted. In Jan.
1663, he was brought over prisoner, and committed to the tower of
London, where he continued till the beginning of June, when he was sent
down to Edinburgh to be executed.

His carriage during his passage was truly christian. He landed at Leith
on the 8th, and was committed to the tolbooth of Edinburgh; and from
thence he was brought before the parliament on the 8th of July. His
nephew, Bp. Burnet, says, He was so disordered both in body and mind,
that it was a reproach to any government to proceed against him[130].

When at the bar of the house, he discovered such weakness of memory and
judgment, that almost every person lamented him, except Sharp and the
other bishops, who scandalously and basely triumphed over, and publicly
derided him; although it is well known, says a very noted author, that
lord Warriston was once in case, not only to "have been a member, but a
president of any judicatory in Europe, and to have spoke for the cause
and interest of Christ before kings, to the stopping of the mouths of

Here it seemed, that many of the members of parliament inclined to spare
his life; but when the question was put, Whether the time of his
execution should be just now fixed, or delayed, Lauderdale interposed,
upon calling the rolls, and delivered a most dreadful speech for his
present execution. And sentence was pronounced, That he be hanged at the
cross of Edinburgh, on the 22d of July, and his head placed on the
Nether-bow, beside that of Mr Guthrie. He received his sentence with
such meekness as filled all with admiration; for then he desired, That
the best blessings might be on church and state, and on his majesty
(whatever might befal himself), and that God would give him true and
faithful counsellors[132].

During the whole time of his imprisonment, he was in a most spiritual
and tender frame, to the conviction of his very enemies; and the nearer
that his death approached, the composure of his mind became the more
conspicuous. He rested agreeably the night before his execution, and in
the morning was full of consolation, sweetly expressing his assurance of
being clothed with a long white robe, and of getting a new song of the
Lamb's praise in his mouth. Before noon he dined with cheerfulness,
"hoping to sup in heaven, and to drink the next cup fresh and new in his
Father's kingdom."

After he had spent some time in secret prayer, about two o'clock he was
taken from prison, attended by several of his friends in mourning,
though he himself was full of holy cheerfulness and courage, and in a
perfect serenity of mind. When come to the scaffold, he said frequently
to the people, "Your prayers, your prayers." When he was on the scaffold
he said, "I intreat you, quiet yourselves a little, till this dying man
deliver his last speech among you;" and desired they would not be
offended at his making use of the paper to help his memory, so much
impaired by long sickness and the malice of physicians. Then he read
his speech first on the one side of the scaffold, and then on the other.
In which speech, after a a short preamble, shewing that that which he
intended to have spoken at his death, was not now in his power, being
taken from him, yet hoped the Lord would preserve it to be his
testimony; being now for some time in a most melancholy concumitance,
through long and sore sickness, drawing of blood, &c. He, in the first
place, confesseth his sins, pleads for forgiveness, bewails his
compliance with the usurper, although, said he, he was not alone in that
offence, but had the body of the nation going before him, and the
example of all ranks to insnare him, &c. Then declares his adherence
to the covenanted work of reformation, earnestly desiring the prayers of
all the Lord's praying people, &c. and vindicates himself from having
any accession to the late king's death, and to the making of the change
of government; taking the great God of heaven to witness between him and
his accusers. And at last concluded with these words, "I do here now
submit, and commit my soul and body, wife and children, and children's
children, from generation to generation for ever, with all others his
friends and followers, all his doing and suffering witnesses,
sympathizing ones in present and subsequent generations, unto the Lord's
choice mercies, graces, favours, services, employment, enjoyments and
inheritments on earth and in heaven, in time and all eternity; all which
suits, with all others which he hath at any time, by his Spirit, moved
and assisted me to put up, according to his will, I leave before and
upon the Father's merciful bowels, the Son's mediating merits, and the
Holy Spirit's compassionate groans, both now and for ever more

After the reading of his speech, he prayed with great fervency and
liberty, and, being in a rapture, he began thus, "Abba, Father! Accept
this thy poor sinful servant, coming unto thee, through the merits of
Jesus Christ, &c." Then taking leave of his friends, he prayed again
with great fervency, being now near the end of that sweet work, he had
so much, through the course of his time, been employed in. No ministers
were allowed to be with him, but it was, by those present, observed that
God sufficiently made up that want. He was helped up the ladder by some
of his friends in deep mourning; and, as he ascended, he said, "Your
prayers, your prayers.--Your prayers I desire in the name of the
Lord."--Such was the esteem he had for that duty.

When got to the top of the ladder, he cried out with a loud voice, "I
beseech you all who are the people of God, not to scare at suffering for
the interest of Christ, or stumble at any thing of this kind, falling
out in these days; but be encouraged to suffer for him, for I assure you
in the name of the Lord, he will bear your charges." While the rope was
putting about his neck, he repeated these words again, adding, The Lord
hath graciously comforted me. When the executioner desired his
forgiveness he said, The Lord forgive thee, poor man,--and withal gave
him some money, bidding him do his office if he was ready; and crying
out, O pray, pray! Praise, praise, praise,--he was turned over, and died
almost without any struggle, with his hands lifted up unto heaven,
whither his soul ascended, to enjoy the beatific presence of his Lord
and Saviour Jesus Christ.

He was soon cut down, and his head struck off, and set up beside that of
his dear friend Mr. Guthrie; and his body carried to Gray-friars
church-yard. But his head soon after, by the interest and intercession
of lieutenant-general Drummond (who was married to one of his
daughters), was taken down and interred with his body.

Thus stood and thus fell the eminently pious and truly learned lord
Warriston, whose talents as a speaker in the senate, as well as on the
bench, are too well known to be here insisted upon; and for prayer, he
was one among a thousand, and oftimes met with very remarkable returns;
and though he was for some time borne down with weakness and distress,
yet he never came in the least, to doubt of his eternal happiness, and
used to say, "I dare never question my salvation, I have so often seen
God's face in the house of prayer." And, as the last cited historian
observes, "Although his memory and talents were for some time impaired,
yet like the sun at his setting, after he had been a while under a
cloud, shone most brightly and surprizingly, and so in some measure the
more sweetly; for that morning he was under a wonderful effusion of the
Spirit, as great perhaps as many have had since the primitive times."

He wrote a large diary, which yet remains in the hands of his relations,
and in which is a valuable treasure both of christian experience, and
matters of fact little known at present, which might be of great use and
light to the history of that period, and wherein he records his sure
hopes (after much wrestling in which he was mightily helped) that the
church of Scotland would he manifestedly visited and freed from the
evils she fell under after the restoration. And his numerous family,
whom he so often left upon the Lord's providence, were, for the most
part, as well provided for as could have been expected, though he had
continued with them in his own outward prosperity. _He that overcometh,
shall be clothed in white raiment, and I will not blot out his name out
of the book of life: but I will confess his name before my Father and
his angels._

_The Life of Mr. JAMES WOOD._

He was, some time after the year 1651, made provost or principal of the
old college of St. Andrews, and one of the ministers there, and being
one who in judgment fell in with the resolution party, it occasioned
some difference betwixt him and Mr. Rutherford at that time professor of
divinity in the new college there, and yet he had ever a great and high
esteem for Mr. Wood, as appears from a message he sent him when on his
death-bed, wherein he said, "Tell Mr. James Wood from me, I heartily
forgive him all the wrongs he hath done, and desire him from me to
declare himself the man he is still for the government of the church of
Scotland." And truly he was not deceived in him; for Mr. Wood was true
and faithful to the presbyterian government; nothing could prevail upon
him to comply in the least degree with abjured prelacy. So far was he
from that, that the apostacy and treachery of others (_viz._ Mr. Sharp),
whom he had too much trusted, broke his upright spirit, particularly the
aggravated defection and perfidy of him whom he termed Judas, Demas and
Gehazi all in one, after he had found what part he had acted to the
church of Scotland under trust[134].

Mr. Wood continued in the exercise of the foresaid offices, until 1663,
when, by the instigation of bishop Sharp, he got a charge to appear
before the council on the twenty-third of July, to answer to several
things laid to his charge; and though Mr. Sharp was indebted to Mr. Wood
for any reputation he had, and was under as great obligations to him as
one man could be to another, for they had been more than ordinarily
familiar, yet now the primate could not bear his continuing any longer
there, and he caused cite him before the council.

When he compeared he was interrogate,--How he came to be provost of the
college of St. Andrews?--When he began to answer, he was interrupted, in
a very huffing manner, and commanded to give in his answer in a word,
for the arch-bishop and others present could not endure his telling some
truths he was entering upon. He told them, He was called by the faculty
of that college, at the recommendation of the usurpers, as some here,
added he (meaning bishop Sharp), very well know. Whereupon he was
removed, and a little after called in again, and his sentence intimate
unto him; which was, "That the lords of council, for the present, do
declare the said place to be vacant, and ordain and command him to
confine himself within the city of Edinburgh, and not to depart from
thence until farther orders."--When his sentence was intimate to him, he
told them, He was sorry they had condemned a person without hearing him,
whom they could not charge with the breach of any law. In September
following, bishop Sharp got the charge and privileges of that office;
which shews that he had some reason for pushing Mr. Wood from that

Upon the 30th of the same month, Mr. Wood presented a petition to the
council, shewing----That his father was extremely sick, that he had
several necessary affairs at St. Andrews, and desired liberty to go
there for that effect. Which petition being read, with a certificate of
his father's infirmity, the council granted licence to the petitioner to
go to St. Andrews, to visit his father, and perform his other necessary
affairs; always returning when he should be called by the council.

Thus he continued, till toward the beginning of the year 1664, when he
took sickness, whereof he died; and tho' he suffered not in his body, as
several of his brethren did, yet the arch-bishop, it appears, was
resolved to ruin his name and reputation after his death, if not sooner,
in order to which the primate saw good, once or twice, to give him a
visit, when on his death-bed in St. Andrews. He was now extremely low in
his body, and spoke very little to Mr. Sharp, and nothing at all about
the changes made in the state of public affairs; however the consequence
of these visits was,----The primate spread a rumour, That Mr. Wood,
being now under the views of death and eternity, professed himself very
indifferent as to church-government, and declared himself as much for
episcopacy as for presbytery: and in all companies Sharp talked, that
Mr. Wood had declared to himself, Presbyterian government to be
indifferent and alterable at the pleasure of the magistrate, and other
falsehoods; yea, he had the impudence (says the historian[135]) to write
up an account of this to court, even before Mr. Wood's death.--Which
reports coming to the ears of this good man, they added grief unto his
former sorrow, and he could have no rest till he vindicated himself from
such a false calumny, by a solemn testimony, which he dictated himself,
and subscribed upon the 2d of March before two witnesses and a public
notary; which testimony, being burnt by order of the high commission in
April following, deserves a place here.

"I James Wood, being very shortly, by appearance, to render up my spirit
to the Lord, find myself obliged to leave a word behind me, for my
vindication before the world.----It hath been said of me, That I have,
in word at least, departed from my wonted zeal for the presbyterian
government, expressing myself concerning it, as if it were a matter not
to be accounted of, and that no man should trouble himself therefore in
matter of practice--Surely any Christian that knows me in this kirk,
will judge that this is a wrong done to me.--It is true, that I being
under sickness, have said sometimes, in conference about my soul's
state, that I was taken up about greater business, than any thing of
that kind; and what wonder I said so, being under such wrestling anent
my interest in Jesus Christ, which is a matter of far greater
concernment than any external ordinance. But for my estimation of
presbyterian government, the Lord knoweth, that since the day he
convinced my heart, which was by a strong hand, that it is the ordinance
of God, appointed by Jesus Christ, for governing and ordering his
visible church, I never had the least change of thought concerning the
necessity of it, nor of the necessity of the use of it.--And I declare
before God and the world, that I still account so of it, and that,
however there may be some more precious ordinances, that is so precious,
that a true Christian is obliged to lay down his life for the profession
thereof, if the Lord shall see meet to put him to the trial; and for
myself, if I were to live, I would account it my glory to seal this word
of my testimony with my blood. Of this declaration I take God, angels
and men to be my witness, and have subscribed these presents at St.
Andrews on the 2d of March 1664, about seven hours in the afternoon,
before these witnesses, &c."

Mr. William Tullidaff,
Mr. John Carstairs,
John Pitcairn, _writer_.


After this he uttered many heavenly expressions, to several persons who
came to see him, all setting forth the sweet experience of his soul,
until, upon the 5th of March, he made a happy and glorious exit,
exchanging this present life for a crown of righteousness.

Mr. Wood was among the brightest lights of that period. He had been
colleague to Mr. Sharp, and, after the restoration, he lamented much,
that he had been deceived by that unhappy man. He refuted the
independents and asserted presbyterial government, as is evident from
that work of his, wrote in opposition to Nicolas Lockier's little stone
hewed out of the mountain, and his other books that are in print. It is
also said, that before his death, he lamented his taking his part with
the public resolutioners very much.

'I have been informed (says Wodrow) that he left some very valuable
manuscripts behind him, particularly a complete refutation of the
Arminian scheme of doctrine, ready for the press, which doubtless if
published would be of no small use in this age, when Arminianism hath so
far got the ascendant.'

_The Life of Mr. WILLIAM GUTHRIE._

Mr. William Guthrie was born at Pitfrothy _anno_ 1620. He was eldest son
of the laird of Pitfrothy in the shire of Angus; and by the mother's
side, descended from the ancient house of easter Ogle, of which she was
a daughter. God blessed his parents with a numerous offspring, for he
had three sisters german and four brothers, who all, except one,
dedicated themselves to the service of the gospel of God and his son;
namely, Mr. Robert, who was licensed to preach, but was never ordained
to the charge of any parish, his tender constitution and numerous
infirmities rendered him unfit, and soon brought him to the end of his
days; Mr. Alexander was a minister in the presbytery of Brichen, about
the year 1645, where he continued a pious and useful labourer in the
work of the gospel, till the introduction of prelacy, which unhappy
change affected him in the tenderest manner, and was thought to have
shortened his days; for he died _anno_ 1661. And Mr. John, the youngest,
was minister at Tarbolton in the shire of Ayr, in which place he
continued till the restoration _anno_ 1662, when the council met at
Glasgow, (commonly called the drunken meeting) on the first of October.
By this infamous act of Glasgow, above a third part of the ministers in
Scotland were thrust from their charges, amounting to near 400. Mr. John
Guthrie had his share of the hardships that many faithful ministers of
Jesus Christ at that time were brought under. The next year, being 1663,
the council, at the instigation of the bishop of Glasgow, summoned him
and other nine to appear before them on the 23d of July, under the pain
of rebellion; but he and other six did not appear. _Anno_ 1666, he
joined with that party, who, on the 26th of November, renewed the
covenants at Lanerk; after a sermon preached by him, he tendered the
covenants, which were read; to every article of which, with their hands
lifted up to heaven, they engaged[136] with great solemnity and
devotion. After their defeat at Pentland, he, no doubt, had his share of
the violence and cruelty that then reigned, till _anno_ 1668, he was
removed to a better world.

Mr. William soon gave proofs of his capacity and genius, by very
considerable progress made in the Latin and Greek languages. Then he was
sent to the university of St. Andrews, where he studied philosophy under
the memorable Mr. James Guthrie his cousin, who was afterwards minister
at Stirling, "and who (says Mr. Trail) I saw die in, and for the Lord,
at Edinburgh, June 1, 1661."

As the master and scholar were near relations, Mr. Guthrie was his
peculiar care, and lodged, when at the college, in the same chamber with
him, and therefore had the principles of learning infused into him with
more accuracy than his class-fellows.

Having taken the degree of master of arts, he applied himself, for some
years, to the study of divinity, under the direction of Mr. Samuel
Rutherford. Mr. Trail says, "Then and there it pleased the Lord, who
separated him from his mother's womb, to call him, by his grace, by the
ministry of excellent Mr. Samuel Rutherford, and this young gentleman
became one of the first fruits of his ministry at St. Andrews. His
conversion was begun with great terror of God in his soul, and completed
with that joy and peace in believing that accompanied him through his
life. After this blessed change wrought upon him, he resolved to obey
the call of God to serve him in the ministry of his gospel, which was
given him by the Lord's calling him effectually to grace and glory. He
did for this end so dispose of his outward estate, (to which he was born
heir) as not to be intangled with the affairs of this life." He gave his
estate to the only brother of the five who was not engaged in the sacred
office, that thereby he might be perfectly disintangled from the affairs
of this life, and entirely employed in these of the eternal world.

Soon after he was licensed to preach, he left St. Andrews, with high
esteem and approbation from the professors of that university, which
they gave proof of, by their ample recommendations. After this he became
tutor to lord Mauchlin, eldest son to the earl of Loudon; in which
situation he continued for some time, till he entered upon a parochial

The parish of Kilmarnock, in the shire of Ayr, being large, and many of
the people, belonging to the said parish, being no less than six or
seven miles distant from their own kirk; for which and other reasons the
heritors and others procured a disjunction, and called the new parish
Fen wick or new Kilmarnock.

Mr. Guthrie was employed to preach at Galston, on a preparation-day
before the celebration of the Lord's supper; and several members of the
new-erected parish, were present at that occasion, who, being greatly
edified by his sermons, conceived such a value for him, that they
immediately resolved to make choice of him for their minister; and in
consequence thereof gave him a very harmonious call, which he complied
with. It is said, that he, along with the people, made choice of the
place of ground for building the church upon, and preached within the
walls of the house before it was completed; which bears the date of
being built _anno_ 1643; and he was ordained unto the sacred office Nov.
7, 1644.

He had many difficulties at first to struggle with; and many
circumstances of his ministry were extremely discouraging: and yet,
through the divine blessing, the gospel preached by him had surprising
success; and became, in an eminent manner, the wisdom and power of God
to the salvation of many perishing souls.

After Mr. Guthrie came to Fenwick, many of the people were so rude and
barbarous, that they never attended upon divine worship; and knew not so
much as the face of their pastor: To such, every thing that respected
religion was disagreeable. Many refused to be visited, or catechised by
him; they would not even admit him into their houses: To such he
sometimes went in the evening, disguised in the character of a
traveller, and sought lodging; which he could not even obtain without
much intreaty; but having obtained it, he would engage in some general
amusing conversation at first, and then ask them, How they liked their
minister? When they told him, They did not go to church, he engaged them
to go and take a trial; others he hired with money to go.--When the time
of family worship came, he desired to know if they made any, and if not,
what reasons they had for so doing.

There was one person, in particular, whom he would have to perform
family worship, who told him That he could not pray; and he asked, What
was the reason? He told him, That he never used to pray any, and so
could not:--He would not take that for answer, but would have the man to
make a trial in that duty before him; to which the man replied, "O Lord!
thou knowest that this man would have me to pray; but, thou knowest,
that I cannot pray."--After which Mr. Guthrie bid him stop, and said, He
had done enough; and prayed himself, to their great surprise. When
prayer was ended, the wife said to her husband, That surely this was a
minister (for they did not know him): After this, he engaged them to
come to the kirk on sabbath, and see what they thought of their
minister. When they came there, they discovered, to their consternation,
that it had been their minister himself who had allured them
thither.--And this condescending manner of gaining them, procured a
constant attendance on public ordinances; as was at length accompanied
by the fruits of righteousness, which are through Jesus Christ unto the
praise of God.

There was also another person in his parish, who had a custom of going
a-fowling on the Sabbath-day, and neglecting the church; in which
practice he had continued for a considerable time. Mr. Guthrie asked
him, What reason he had for so doing? He told him, That the sabbath-day
was the most fortunate day in all the week for that exercise,--Mr.
Guthrie asked, What he could make by that day's exercise? He replied,
That he would make half a-crown of money that day.--Mr. Guthrie told
him, If he would go to church on sabbath he would give him as much; and,
by that means, got his promise. After sermon was over, Mr. Guthrie
asked, If he would come back the next sabbath-day, and he would give him
the same?--which he did; and from that time afterwards, never failed to
keep the church, and also freed Mr. Guthrie of his promise.--He
afterwards became a member of his session.

He would frequently use innocent recreations, such as fishing, fowling,
and playing on the ice, which contributed much to preserve a vigorous
state of health.--And, while in frequent conversation with the
neighbouring gentry, as these occasions gave him opportunity, he would
bear in upon them reproofs and instructions with an inoffensive
familiarity; as Mr. Dunlop has observed of him, "But as he was animated
by a flaming zeal for the glory of his blessed Master, and a tender
compassion to the souls of men, and as it was the principal thing that
made him desire life and health, that he might employ them in
propagating the kingdom of God, and in turning transgressors from their
ways; so the very hours of recreation were dedicated to this purpose;
which was so indeared to him, that he knew how to make his diversions
subservient to the nobler ends of his ministry. He made them the
occasion of familiarizing his people to him, and introducing himself to
their affections, and in the disguise of a sportsman he gained some to a
religious life, whom he could have little influence upon in a ministers
gown, of which there happened several memorable examples."

His person was stately and well-set; his features comely and handsome;
he had a strong clear voice, joined to a good ear, which gave him a
great pleasure in music, and he failed not to employ that talent for the
noblest use, the praising of his Maker and Saviour, in which part of
divine worship his soul and body acted with united and unwearied vigour.

He was happily married to one Agness Campbel, daughter to David Campbel
of Sheldon in the shire of Ayr, a remote branch of the family of Loudon.
August 1645, his family affairs were both easy and comfortable. His wife
was a gentlewoman endued with all the qualities that could render her a
blessing to her husband, joined to handsome and comely features, good
sense and good breeding sweetened by a modest cheerfulness of temper,
and, what was most comfortable to Mr. Guthrie, she was sincerely pious,
so that they lived a little more than twenty years in the most complete
friendship, and with a constant mutual satisfaction founded on the
noblest principles; one faith, one hope, one baptism, and a sovereign
love to Jesus Christ, which zealously inspired them both. By her he had
six children; two of whom only out-lived himself; both of them
daughters, who endeavoured to follow the example of their excellent
parents; one of them was married to Miller of Glenlee, a gentleman in
the shire of Ayr, and the other to Mr. Peter Warner _anno_ 1681.; after
the revolution, Mr. Warner was settled at Irvine. He had two children,
William of Ardrie in Ayr-shire, and Margaret Warner, married to Mr.
Wodrow minister at Eastwood, who wrote the history of the sufferings of
the church of Scotland betwixt the years 1660 and 1688, inclusive.--But
to return.

When Mr. Guthrie was but young and new married, he was appointed by the
general assembly to attend the army. When he was preparing for his
departure, a violent fit of the gravel (unto which he was often subject)
reduced him to the greatest extremity of pain and danger; which made his
religious spouse understand and improve the divine chastisement; she
then saw how easily God could put an end to his life, which she was too
apprehensive about, and brought herself to a resolution never to oppose
her inclination to his entering upon any employment, whereby he might
honour his Maker, though never so much hazard should attend it.

While he was with the army, upon the defeat of a party he was then with,
he was preserved in a very extraordinary manner; which made him ever
after retain a greater sense of the divine goodness; and after his
return to his parish, was animated to a more vigorous diligence in the
work of the ministry, and propagating the kingdom of the Son of God,
both among his people and all round about him; his public preaching,
especially at the administration of the Lord's Supper, and his private
conversation conspiring together for these noble purposes.

After this, Mr. Guthrie had occasion again to be with the army, when the
English sectaries prevailed under Oliver Cromwel. After the defeat at
Dunbar Sept. 3d, 1650, when the army was at Stirling, that godly man Mr.
Rutherford writes a letter to him; wherein, by way of caution, near the
end, he says, "But let me obtest all the serious seekers of his face,
his secret sealed ones, by the strongest consolations of the Spirit, by
the gentleness of Jesus Christ, that Plant of renown, by your last
accounts, and by your appearing before God, when the white throne shall
be up, be not deceived with these fair words: though my spirit be
astonished at the cunning distinctions, which are found out in the
matters of the covenant, that help may be had against this man; yet my
heart trembleth to entertain the least thought of joining with these
deceivers[137]." Accordingly he joined the remonstrators, and was chosen
moderator at that synod at Edinburgh after the public resolutioners went
out and left them.

The author of his memoirs saith, "His pleasant and facetious
conversation procured him an universal respect from the English
officers, and made them fond of his company; while at the same time his
courage and constancy did not fail him in the cause of his great Master,
and was often useful to curb the extravagancies of the sectaries, and
maintain order and regularity." One instance of which happened, at the
sacrament of the Lord's Supper, at Glasgow, celebrated by Mr. Andrew
Gray.----Several of the English officers had formed a design to put in
execution the disorderly principle of a promiscuous admission to the
Lord's table, by coming to it themselves without acquainting the
minister, or being in a due manner found worthy of that privilege.----It
being Mr. Guthrie's turn to serve at that table, he spoke to them, when
they were leaving their pews in order to make the attempt, with such
gravity, resolution and zeal, that they were quite confounded, and sat
down without making any further disturbance.

About this time that set of heretics, called quakers, endeavoured to sow
their tares in Fenwick parish, when Mr. Guthrie was some weeks absent,
about his own private affairs in Angus.--But he returned before this
infection had sunk deep; recovered some who were in hazard of being
tainted by its fatal influence; and confounded the rest, that they
despaired of any further attack upon his flock.--This wild set had made
many proselytes to their demented delusions in Kilbryde, Glasgow, and
other neighbouring parishes; yea, they prospered so well in Glasford
parish, that there is yet a church-yard in that place, where they buried
their own dead, with their heads to the east, contrary to the practice
of all other christians.

After this, he had several calls for transportation to other parishes,
of more importance than ever Fenwick was; which places were, Renfrew,
Linlithgow, Stirling, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. But the air and recreation
of a country life were useful to him, in maintaining a healthful
constitution; and, above all, the love his flock had to him caused him
put on an invincible obstinacy, against all designs of separation from
them; a relation, when it is animated with this principle of the
spiritual life, and founded on so noble a bottom, enters deepest into
the soul; and a minister can scarce miss to have peculiar tenderness and
warmth of divine affections to those whose father he is after the
Spirit; and hath been honoured of God, in bringing them to the kingdom
of his Son, and begetting them through the gospel; whose heavenly birth
is now the highest pleasure and brightest triumph of his life, and will
be one day his crown of glory and rejoicing. And doubtless, when Mr.
Guthrie preferred Fenwick, a poor obscure parish, to the most
considerable charges in the nation, it was a proof of his mortification
to the world, and that he was moved by views superior to temporal

About the year 1656, or 1657, some unknown person somehow got a copy of
a few imperfect notes of some sermons that Mr. Guthrie had preached from
the 55th chapter of the prophecy of the prophet Isaiah, with relation to
personal covenanting; and, without the least intimation of the design
made to him, printed them in a little pamphlet of 61 pages _12mo_, under
this title, A clear, attractive, warming beam of light, from Christ, the
Sun of light, leading unto himself, &c.----printed at Aberdeen,

This book was indeed anonymous; but Mr. Guthrie was reputed the author
by the whole country, and was therefore obliged to take notice of it. He
was equally displeased at the vanity of the title, and the defect of the
work itself, which consisted of some broken notes of his sermons,
confusedly huddled together, by an injudicious hand.----He saw that the
only method to remedy this, was to review his own sermons; from which he
soon composed that admirable treatise, The Christian's great interest;
the only genuine work of Mr. Guthrie, which hath been blessed by God
with wonderful success, in our own country; being published very
seasonably a little before the introduction of prelacy in Scotland at
the restoration.

The author of his memoirs saith, "He had a story from a reverend
minister of the church, who had the sentiments of Dr. Owen from his own
mouth, who said,----You have truly men of great spirits in Scotland;
there is, for a gentleman, Mr. Bailey of Jerviswood, a person of the
greatest abilities I almost ever met with; and, for a divine, (said he,
taking out of his pocket a little gilt copy of Mr. Guthrie's treatise)
that author I take to have been one of the greatest divines that ever
wrote. It is my _vade mecum_, and I carry it and the Sedan new testament
still about with me. I have wrote several folios, but there is more
divinity in it than in them all.----It was translated into low dutch by
the reverend and pious Mr. Kealman, and was highly esteemed in Holland,
so that Mrs. Guthrie and one of her daughters met with uncommon civility
and kindness, when their relation to its author was known. It was also
translated into french, and high dutch; and we are informed, that it was
also translated into one of the eastern languages, at the charge of that
noble pattern of religion, learning and charity, the honourable Robert

At the synod of Glasgow held April 1661, after long reasoning about
proper measures for the security of religion, the matter was referred to
a committee; Mr. Guthrie prescribed the draught of an address to the
parliament, wherein a faithful testimony was given to the purity of our
reformation, in worship, doctrine, discipline and government, in terms
equally remarkable for their prudence and courage. Every body approved
of it; and it was transmitted to the synod. But some, on the resolution
side, judged it not convenient, and gave an opportunity to those, who
designed to comply with prelacy, to procure a delay; and, at that time,
got it crushed: Yet it affords a proof of the zealous honesty and
firmness of Mr. Guthrie.

About this time, being the last time that he was with his cousin Mr.
James Guthrie, he happened to be very melancholy, which made Mr. James
say, "A penny for your thought, cousin."----Mr. William answered, "There
is a poor man at the door, give him the penny;" which being done, he
proceeded and said, "I'll tell you, cousin, what I am, not only thinking
upon, but I am sure of, if I be not under a delusion.----The malignants
will be your death, and this gravel will be mine; but you will have the
advantage of me, for you will die honourably before many witnesses, with
a rope about your neck; and I will die whining upon a pickle straw, and
will endure more pain before I rise from your table, than all the pain
you will have in your death."

He took a resolution to wait on his worthy friend Mr. James, at his
death (his execution being on Saturday June 1.) notwithstanding the
apparent hazard, at that time, in so doing; but his session prevailed on
him (although with much difficulty) by their earnest intreaties, to lay
aside his design at that time.

Through the interposition of the earl of Eglinton, and the chancellor
Glencairn, whom he had obliged before the restoration, when he was
imprisoned for his loyalty, now contributed what he could for his
preservation; by which means (of the chancellor) he, above many, had
near four years further respite with his people at Fenwick. In which
time, his church, although a large country one, was overlaid and crowded
every Sabbath-day, and very many, without doors, from distant parishes,
such as Glasgow, Paisley, Hamilton, Lanerk, Kilbryde, Glasford,
Strathaven, Newmills, Egelsham, and many other places, who hungred for
the pure gospel preached, and got a meal by the word of his ministry. It
was their usual practice to come to Fenwick on Saturday, and to spend
the greatest part of the night in prayer to God, and conversation about
the great concerns of their souls, to attend the public worship on the
Sabbath, to dedicate the remainder of that holy day in religious
exercises, and then to go home on Monday the length of ten, twelve or
twenty miles without grudging in the least at the long way, want of
sleep or other refreshments; neither did they find themselves the less
prepared for any other business through the week[138].----These years
were the most particular under the divine influences of the Holy Spirit,
accompanying the ministry and ordinances dispensed by Mr. Guthrie in all
his life, and will still be had in remembrance; a remarkable blessing
accompanied ordinances to people who came with such a disposition of
soul, great numbers were converted unto the truth, and many built up in
their most holy faith.----In a word, He was honoured to be a man in the
Lord's hand of turning many to a religious life; and who, after his
being taken from them, could never, without exultation of soul and
emotion of revived affection, think upon their spiritual father, and the
power of that victorious grace, which, in those days, triumphed so
gloriously; and for many years afterwards, were considered, above many
other parishes in the kingdom, as a civilized and religious people; he
having with a becoming boldness, fortified them in a zealous adherence
to the purity of our reformation; warned them of the defection that was
then made by the introduction of prelacy; and instructed them in the
duty of such a difficult time, so that they never made any compliance
with the prelatical schemes afterwards.

The extraordinary reputation and usefulness of his ministry were admired
and followed by all the country around him, which provoked the jealous
and angry prelates against him, and was one of the causes of his being
at last attacked by them. Then the earl of Glencairn made a visit to the
arch-bishop of Glasgow at his own house, and at parting asked as a
favour in particular from him, That Mr. Guthrie might be overlooked, as
knowing him to be an excellent man.----The bishop not only refused him,
but did, with a disdainful haughty air, tell him, That shall not be
done; it cannot be, he is a ringleader and keeper up of schism in my
diocese,----and then left the chancellor very abruptly. Row, Allan, and
some other presbyterian gentlemen, who were waiting on him, observing
the chancellor discomposed when the bishop left him, presumed to ask him
what the matter was; to which the earl answered, "we have set up these
men, and they will tread us under their feet." In consequence of this
resolution of bishop Burnet, Mr. Guthrie was, by a commission from him,
suspended; and the bishop dealt with several of his creatures, the
curates, to intimate the sentence against him, and many refused, for
(saith Wodrow), "There was an awe upon their spirits, which feared them
from meddling with this great man." Be as it will, at last he prevailed
with the curate of Calder, and promised him five pounds sterling of
reward. Mr. Guthrie, being warned of this design of the bishop against
him, advised with his friends to make no resistance at his deposition
from the church and manse, since his enemy wanted only this as a handle
to persecute him criminally for his former zeal and faithfulness.

Accordingly, on Wednesday July 20, he, with his congregation, kept the
day with fasting and prayer. He preached to them from Hos. xiii. 9. _O
Israel! thou hast destroyed thyself_, &c. From that scripture, with
great plainness and affection, he laid before them their own sins, and
the sins of the land and age they lived in; and indeed the place was a
_Bochim_----At the close of this day's work, he gave them intimation of
sermon on the next Lord's day, very early; and accordingly his people,
and many others, met him at the church of Fenwick, betwixt four and five
in the morning, when he preached to them from the close of his last
text, _But in me is thine help._----And as he used on ordinary Sabbaths,
he also now had two sermons, and a short interval betwixt them, and
dismissed the people before nine in the morning. Upon this melancholy
occasion he directed them unto the great Fountain of help, when the
gospel and ministers were taken from them; and took his leave of them,
commending them to God, who was able to build them up, and help them in
time of need.

Upon the day appointed, the curate came to Fenwick, with a party of
twelve soldiers, on the sabbath-day; and, by commission from the
arch-bishop, discharged Mr. Guthrie to preach any more in Fenwick,
declared the church vacant and suspended him from the exercise of his

The curate left the party without, and came into the manse; and
declared, That the bishop and committee, after much lenity shewed to him
for a long time, were constrained to pass the sentence of suspension
against him, for not keeping of presbyteries and synods with the rest of
his brethren, and his unpeaceableness in the church; of which sentence
he was appointed to make public intimation unto him, for which purpose
he read his commission under the hand of the arch-bishop of Glasgow.

Mr. Guthrie answered, "I judge it not convenient to say much in answer
to what you have spoken; only, whereas you alledge there hath been much
lenity used toward me--be it known to you, that I take the Lord for
party in that, and thank him first----yea, I look upon it as a door
which God opened to me, for the preaching of this gospel, which you nor
any man else was able to shut, till it was given you of God; and as to
that sentence, passed against me, I declare before these gentlemen
(meaning the officers of the party) that I lay no weight upon it, as it
comes from you, or those that sent you--though that I do respect the
civil authority, who, by their law, laid the ground for this sentence
passed against me.----I declare I would not surcease from the exercise
of my ministry for all that sentence.----And as to the crimes I am
charged with,--I did keep presbyteries and synods with the rest of my
brethren; but I do not judge those who do now sit in these to be my
brethren, who have made defection from the truth and cause of God; nor
do I judge those to be free and lawful courts of Christ, that are now
sitting; and as to my peaceableness--I know I am bidden follow peace
with all men, but I know also I am bidden follow it with holiness; and
since I could not obtain peace without prejudice to holiness, I thought
myself obliged to let it go.----And as for your commission, Sir, to
intimate this sentence,--I here declare, I think myself called by the
Lord to the work of the ministry, and did forsake the nearest relation
in the world, and gave up myself to the service of the gospel in this
place, having received an unanimous call from this parish, and was
licenced and ordained by the presbytery; and I bless the Lord, he hath
given me some success and seals of my ministry, upon the souls and
consciences of not a few, who are gone to heaven, and of some who are
yet in the way to it.----And now, Sir, if you will take it upon you to
interrupt my work among this people, I shall wish the Lord may forgive
you the guilt of it; I cannot but leave all the bad consequences that
may fall out upon it betwixt God and your own consciences, and here I do
further declare, before these gentlemen, that I am suspended from my
ministry for adhering to the covenants and word of God, from which you
and others have apostatized."

Here the curate interrupting him, said, The Lord had a work before that
covenant had a being, and that he judged them apostates that adhered to
that covenant, and he wished that the Lord would not only forgive him
(meaning Mr. Guthrie) but if it were lawful to pray for the dead (at
which expression the soldiers laughed) that the Lord might forgive the
sin of this church these hundred years by-past. It is true, answered Mr.
Guthrie, the Lord had a work before that covenant had a being, but it is
as true, that it hath been more glorious since that covenant; and it is
a small thing for us to be judged of you, in adhering to this covenant,
who have so deeply corrupted your ways; and seem to reflect on the whole
work of reformation from popery these hundred years bygone, by
intimating that the church had need of pardon for the same.----As for
you, gentlemen (added he, to the soldiers), I wish the Lord may pardon
your countenancing this man in his business. One of them scoffingly
replied, I wish we never do a greater fault. Well, said Mr. Guthrie, a
little sin may damn a man's soul.

After all this and more had passed, Mr. Guthrie called for a glass of
ale, and, craving a blessing himself, drank to the commander of the
soldiers. After they were by him civilly entertained, they left the
house. At parting with the curate, Mr. Guthrie signified so much to him,
that he apprehended some evident mark of the Lord's displeasure was
abiding him, for what he was a-doing; and seriously warned him to
prepare for some stroke coming upon him, and that very soon.

When the curate left the manse, he went to the church with the soldiers
his guard (now his hearers) and preached to them not a quarter of an
hour, and intimated to them from the pulpit the bishop's sentence
against Mr. Guthrie. Nobody came to hear him but his party, and a few
children, who created him some disturbance, till they were chased away
by the soldiers[139]. Indeed his people were ready to have sacrificed
their all, and resisted even unto blood, in his defence and the gospel,
had they been permitted by him.

As for the curate, (says Mr. Wodrow) I am well assured he never preached
any more after he left Fenwick; he reached Glasgow, but it is not
certain if he reached Calder (though but four miles from Glasgow):
However, in a few days he died, in great torment of an iliac passion,
and his wife and children died all in a year or thereby, and none
belonging to him were left.----His reward of five pounds was dear
bought; it was the price of blood, the blood of souls. Neither he, nor
his had any satisfaction in it. Such a dangerous thing it is to meddle
with Christ's servants.

After this Mr. Guthrie continued in Fenwick until the year 1665. The
brother, to whom his paternal estate was made over, dying in summer, Mr.
Guthrie's presence at home was the more necessary, for ordering of his
private affairs; which made him and his wife make a journey to Angus
about the same time. He had not been long in that country until he was
seized with a complication of distempers; the gravel, with which he had
been formerly troubled; the gout; a violent heart-burning; and an ulcer
in his kidneys: All which attacked him with great fury. And being thus
tormented with violent pain, his friends were sometimes obliged to hold
down his head and up his feet; and yet he would say, The Lord hath been
kind to him, for all the ills he had done; and at the same time said,
"Though I should die mad, yet I know I shall die in the Lord.--Blessed
are the dead that die in the Lord at all times, but more especially when
a flood of errors, snares and judgments are beginning, or coming on a
nation, church or people."

In the midst of all his heavy affliction he still adored the measures of
divine providence, though at the same time he longed for his
dissolution, and expressed the satisfaction and joy with which he would
make the grave his dwelling-place, when God should think fit to give him
rest there.----His compassionate Master did at last indulge the pious
breathing of his soul; for, after eight or ten days illness, he was
gathered to his fathers, in the house of his brother in-law, Mr. Lewis
Skinnier of Brechin, upon Wednesday forenoon, October 10th, 1665, (in
the 45th year of his age), and was buried in the church of Brechin,
under Pitfrothy's desk.

During his sickness he was visited by the bishop of Brechin, and several
episcopal ministers and relations, who all had a high value for him,
notwithstanding he exprest his sorrow (with great freedom) for their
compliance with the corrupted establishment in ecclesiastical affairs.
He died in the full assurance of faith as to his own interest in God's
covenant, and under the pleasing hopes that God would return in glory to
the church of Scotland.

Mr. John Livingston, in his memorable characteristics, says, "Mr.
William Guthrie, minister at Fenwick, was a man of a most ready wit,
fruitful invention, and apposite comparisons, qualified both to awaken
and pacify conscience, straight and zealous for the cause of Christ,
and a great light in the west of Scotland."--And elsewhere says, "Mr.
Guthrie, in his doctrine, was as full and free as any man in Scotland
had ever been; which, together with the excellency of his preaching
gift, did so recommend him to the affection of his people, that they
turned the corn-field of his glebe into a little town, every one
building a house for his family on it that they might live under the
drop of his ministry."

Mr. Crawford, in a MSS. never published, says, "Mr. Guthrie was a
burning and a shining light, kept in after many others, by the favour of
the old earl of Eglinton, the chancellor's father-in-law.--He converted
and confirmed many thousands of souls, and was esteemed the greatest
preacher in Scotland."

And indeed, he was accounted as singular a person for confirming those
that were under soul-exercise, as almost any in his age, or any age we
have heard of.----Many have made reflections on him, because he left off
his ministry, on account of the bishop's suspension; his reasons may be
taken from what hath been already related. It is true indeed, the
authority of the Stuarts was too much the idol of jealousy to many of
our worthy Scots reformers; for we may well think (as a late author
says, tho' no great enemy unto these civil powers) that it was a wonder
the nation did not rise up as one man, to cut off those who had razed
the whole of the presbyterian constitution; but the Lord, for holy and
wise ends, saw meet to do otherwise, and cut off those in power by
another arm, after they had all been brought to the furnace together;
altho' they might well have all the while seen as Mr. Guthrie has
observed, "That the civil power laid the foundation for the other."

So far as can be learned, Mr. Guthrie never preached in Fenwick again,
after the intimation of the bishop's sentence to him; and it is well
known, that he, with many of his people in Fenwick, upon a time, went to
Stuarton, to hear a young presbyterian minister preach, and when coming
home, they said to him, that they were not pleased with that man's
preaching (he being of a slow delivery);--he said, They were all
mistaken in the man, he had a great sermon; and, if they pleased, at a
convenient place, he should let them hear a good part thereof.----And
sitting all down on the ground in a good summer night, about
sun-setting; when, he having rehearsed the sermon, they thought it a
wonderful great one, because of his good delivery, and their amazing
love to him: After which they arose, and set forward.

All allow that Mr. Guthrie was a man of strong natural parts
(notwithstanding his being a hard student at first); his voice was,
among the best sort, loud, and yet managed with a charming cadence and
elevation; his oratory was singular, and by it he was wholly master of
the passions of his hearers. He was an eminent chirurgion at the
jointing of a broken soul, and at the stating of a doubtful conscience;
so that afflicted persons in spirit came far and near, and received much
satisfaction and comfort by him. Those who were very rude, when he came
first to the parish, at his departure were very sorrowful, and, at the
curate's intimation of the bishop's commission, would have made
resistance, if he would have permitted them, not fearing the hazards or
hardships they might have endured on that account afterwards.

Besides his valuable treatise already mentioned, there are also a few
very faithful sermons, bearing his name, said to be preached at Fenwick
from Matth. xiv. 44, &c. Hos. xiii. 9, &c. But because they are
somewhat rude in expression, differing from the stile of his treatise,
some have thought them spurious, or, at least, not as they were at first
delivered by him. And as for that treatise on ruling elders, which is
now affixed to the last edition of his treatise (called his works), it
was wrote by his cousin, Mr. James Guthrie of Stirling. There are also
some other discourses of his yet in manuscript, out of which I had the
occasion to transcribe seventeen sermons published in the year 1779.
There are yet a great variety of sermons and notes of sermons bearing
his name yet in manuscript, some of which seems to be wrote with his own

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT BLAIR._

Mr. Blair was born at Irvine _anno_ 1593. His father was John Blair of
Windyedge, a younger brother of the ancient and honourable family of
Blair of that ilk; his mother was Beatrix Muir of the ancient family of
Rewallan. His father died when he was young, leaving his mother with six
children (of whom Robert was the youngest). She continued near fifty
years a widow, and lived till she was an hundred years old.

Mr. Robert entered into the college of Glasgow, about the year 1608,
where he studied hard and made great progress; but lest he should have
been puffed up with his proficiency (as he himself observes) the Lord
was pleased to visit him with a tertian fever, for full four months, to
the great detriment of his studies.

Nothing remarkable occurred till the 20th year of his age, when he gave
himself sometimes to the exercise of archery and the like recreations;
but lest his studies should have been hindered, he resolved to be busy
at them every other night, and for that purpose could find no place so
proper as a room whereinto none were permitted to go, by reason of an
apparition that was said to frequent it, yea, wherein it is also said,
that he himself had seen the devil, in the likeness of one of his
fellow-students[140], whom he took to be really his companion, but when
he, with a candle in his hand, chased him to the corner of the room,
offering to pull him out, he found nothing; after which he was never
more troubled, studying the one night without fear, and the other he
slept very sweetly, believing in him, who was still his great Preserver
and Protector for ever.

Having now finished his course of philosophy under the discipline of his
own brother, Mr. William Blair (who was afterwards minister at
Dumbarton). He engaged for some time to be an assistant to an aged
schoolmaster at Glasgow, who had above 300 scholars under his
instruction, the half of whom were committed to the charge of Mr. Blair.
At this time he was called, by the ministry of the famous Mr. Boyd of
Trochrigg (then principal of the college of Glasgow), in whose hand, the
Lord, as he himself observes[141], did put the key of his heart, so that
whenever he heard him in public or private he profited much, being as it
were sent to him from God to speak the words of eternal life.

Two years after he was admitted in the room of his brother Mr. William,
to be regent in the college of Glasgow, though not without the
opposition of arch-bishop Law, who had promised that place to
another.----But neither the principal nor regents giving place to his
motion, Mr. Blair was admitted. After his admission, his elder
colleagues, perceiving what great skill and insight he had in humanity,
urged him to read the classical authors; whereupon he began and read
Plautus, but the Lord, being displeased with that design, diverted him
from this, by meeting with Augustine's confession, wherein he inveighs
sharply against the education of youth in heathen writings.----Whereupon
he betook himself to the reading of the holy scriptures and the ancient
fathers, especially Augustine, who had another relish; and though he
perceived that our reformed divines were more sound than several of the
ancient, yet in his spare hours he resolved to peruse the ancient
monuments, wherein he made a considerable progress.

In summer 1616, he entered on trials for the ministry, and it was laid
upon him to preach in the college-kirk the first Sabbath after his
licence; and some years after, being told by some of the hearers (who
were better acquainted with religion, than he was then) that in his
sermon the Lord did speak to their hearts, which not only surprized him,
but also stirred him to follow after the Lord.

Upon an evening, the same year, having been engaged with some
irreligious company, when he returned to his chamber to his wonted
devotion, he was threatened to be deserted of God, had a restless night,
and to-morrow resolved on a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer, and
towards the end of that day he found access to God with sweet peace,
through Jesus Christ, and turned to beware of such company; but running
into another extreme of rudeness and incivility to profane persons, he
found it was very hard for short-sighted sinners to hold the right and
the straight way.

While he was regent in the college, upon a report that some sinful oath
was to be imposed upon the masters, he enquired at Mr. Gavin Forsyth,
one of his fellow-regents, What he would do in this? He answered, By my
faith I must live.----Mr. Blair said, "Sir, I will not swear by my
faith, as you do, but, truly, I intend to live by my faith. You may
choose your own way, but I will adventure on the Lord."----And so this
man did continue (to whom the matter of an oath was a small thing) after
he was gone, but it is to be noticed, that Mr. Forsyth was many years in
such poverty as forced him to supplicate the general assembly for some
relief, when Mr. Blair (who was chosen moderator) upon his appearing in
such a desperate case, could not shun observing that former passage of
his, and upon his address to him in private, with great tenderness, put
him in mind, that he had been truly carried through by his faith, at
which he formerly had scoffed.

Some time after he was a regent in the college, he was under deep
exercises of soul, wherein he attained unto much comfort.--Amongst other
things, that great oracle, _the just shall live by faith_, sounded
loudly in his ears, which put him on a new search of the scriptures, in
which he went on till Mr. Culverwal's treatise of faith came out; which
being the same with what is since published by the Westminster assembly,
he was thereby much satisfied and comforted.

"By this study of the nature of faith, and especially of the text before
mentioned; (says he) I learned, _1st_, That nominal Christians or common
professors were much deluded in their way of believing; and that not
only do Papists err who place faith in an implicit assent to the truth
which they know not, and that it is better defined by ignorance than
knowledge, (a way of believing very suitable to Antichrist's slaves, who
are led by the nose they know not whither); but also secure Protestants,
who, abusing the description of old given of faith, say that it implies
an assured knowledge in the person who believes of the love of God in
Christ to him in particular: this assurance is no doubt attainable, and
many believers do comfortably enjoy the same, as our divines prove
unanswerably against the Popish doctors who maintain the necessity of
perpetual doubting, and miscall comfortable assurance the Protestant's
presumption. But notwithstanding that comfortable assurance doth
ordinarily accompany a high degree of faith, yet that assurance is not
to be found in all the degrees of saving faith: so that by not adverting
to that distinction many gracious souls and sound believers, who have
received Jesus Christ and rested upon him, as he is offered to them in
the word, have been much puzzled, as if they were not believers at all:
on the other hand, many secure and impenitent sinners, who have not yet
believed the Lord's holiness, nor abhorrence of sin, nor their own
ruined state and condition, do from self-love imagine, without any
warrant of the word, that they are beloved of God, and that the foresaid
description of faith agrees well to them.

"_2dly_, I perceived, that many that make a right use of faith, in order
to attain to the knowledge of their justification, make no direct use of
it in order to sanctification, and that the living of _the just by
faith_, reacheth further than I formerly conceived, and that the heart
is purified by faith. If any say, Why did I not know, that precious
faith, being a grace, is not only a part of our holiness, but does
promote other parts of holiness, I answer, that I did indeed know this,
and made use of faith as a motive to stir me up to holiness, according
to the apostle's exhortation, _Having therefore these promises, let us
cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit,
perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord._ But I had not before
learned to make use of faith as a mean and instrument to draw holiness
out of Christ, though, it may be, I had both heard and spoken that by
way of a transient notion; but then I learned to purpose that they who
receive forgiveness of sin, are sanctified through faith in Christ, as
our glorious Saviour taught the apostle, Acts xxiv. 18.--Then I saw,
that it was no wonder that my not making use of faith for
sanctification, as has been said, occasioned an obstruction in the
progress of holiness, and I perceived that making use of Christ for
sanctification without direct employing of faith to extract the same out
of him, was like one seeking water out of a deep well without a long
cord to let down the bucket, and draw it up again.--Then was I like one
that came to the storehouse, but got my provision reached unto me, as it
were, through a window: I had come to the house of mercy, but had not
found the right door; but by this discovery, I found a patent door, at
which to go in, to receive provision and furniture from Christ Jesus.
Thus the blessed Lord trained me up, step by step, suffering many
difficulties to arise, that more light from himself might flow in.

"I hoped then to make better progress with less stumbling; but shortly
after I met with another difficulty; and wondering what discovery would
next clear the way, I found that the spirit of holiness whose immediate
and proper work was to sanctify, had been slighted, and thereby grieved:
for though the Holy Spirit had been teaching, and I had been speaking of
him and to him frequently, and had been seeking the outpouring thereof,
and urging others to seek the same; yet that discovery appeared unto me
a new practical lesson: and so I laboured more to cherish and not quench
the Holy Spirit, praying to be led unto all truth, according to the
scripture, by that blessed guide; and that by that heavenly Comforter, I
might be encouraged in all troubles, and sealed up thereby in strong
assurance of my interest in God.

"About that time, the Lord set me to work to stir up the students under
my discipline, earnestly to study piety, and to be diligent in secret
seeking of the Lord: and my endeavours this way were graciously blessed
to severals of them."

Dr. John Cameron, being brought from France, and settled principal of
the college in Mr. Boyd's place, and being wholly set on to promote the
cause of episcopacy, urged Mr. Blair to conform to Perth articles, but
he utterly refused.----And, it being a thing usual in these days, for
the regents to meet to dispute some thesis, for their better
improvement, Mr. Blair had the advantage of his opponent (who was a
French student), who maintained that election did proceed upon foreseen
faith; but the doctor stated himself in the opposition to Mr. Blair, in
a way which tended to Arminianism; and Mr. Blair being urged to a second
dispute by the doctor himself, did so drive him to the mire of
Arminianism, as did redound much to the doctor's ignominy afterward, and
although he and Mr. Blair were afterward reconciled, yet he, being so
nettled in that dispute, improved all occasions against him; and, for
that purpose, when Mr. Blair was on a visit to some of his godly friends
and acquaintances, he caused one Garner search his prelections on
Aristotle's ethics and politics, and finding some things capable of
wresting, he brought them to the doctor, who presented them to the
arch-bishop of Glasgow; which coming to Mr. Blair's ears, he was so far
from betraying his innocence, being assured the Lord would clear his
integrity, that he prepared a written apology, and desired a public
hearing before the ministers and magistrates of the city; which being
granted, he managed the points so properly, that all present professed
their entire satisfaction with him; yea, one of the ministers of the
city (who had been influenced against him formerly) said in the face of
that meeting, Would to God, king James had been present, and heard what
answers that man hath given. Such a powerful antagonist rendered his
life so uneasy, that he resolved to leave the college and go abroad;
which resolution no sooner took air than the doctor and the arch-bishop
(knowing his abilities) wrote letters to cause him stay; but he, finding
that little trust was to be put in their fair promises, and being weary
of teaching philosophy, demitted his charge, took his leave of the
doctor, wishing him well (although he was the cause of his going away)
and left the college, to the great grief of his fellow-regents and
students, and the people of Glasgow.

Though he had several charges in Scotland presented him, and an
invitation to go to France, yet, the next day after his leaving Glasgow,
he had an invitation to go and be minister of Bangor in the county of
Down in Ireland, which call he, for some time, rejected, until he was
several times rebuked of the Lord, which made him bound in spirit to set
his face towards a voyage to that country; and although he met with a
contrary wind, and turned sea-sick, yet he had such recourse to God,
that upon the very first sight of that land, he was made to exult for
joy; and whilst he came near Bangor, he had a strong impression borne in
upon him, that the dean thereof was sick; which impression he found to
be true when he came thither, for Mr. Gibson, the incumbent, being sick,
invited him to preach there (which he did for three sabbaths, to the
good liking of the people of that parish); and, though he was formerly
but a very naughty man, yet he told Mr. Blair, he was to succeed him in
that place, and exhorted him, in the name of Christ, not to leave that
good way wherein he had begun to walk, professing a great deal of sorrow
that he had been a dean; he condemned episcopacy more strongly than ever
Mr. Blair durst, and drawing his head toward his bosom, with both his
arms he blessed him; which conduct being so unlike himself, and speaking
in a strain so different from his usual, made a gentlewoman standing by
say, An angel is speaking out of the dean's bed to Mr. Blair; thinking
it could not be such a man. Within a few days he died, and Mr. Blair was
settled minister there, whose ordination was on this manner--He went to
bishop Knox, and told him his opinions, and withal said, That his sole
ordination did contradict his principles.--But the bishop, being
informed before-hand of his great parts and piety, answered him both
wittily and submissively, saying, "Whatever you account of episcopacy,
yet, I know, you account presbytery to have a divine warrant--Will ye
not receive ordination from Mr. Cunningham and the adjacent brethren,
and let me come in among them in no other relation than a presbyter;"
for on no lower terms could he be answerable to law. This Mr. Blair
could not refuse; he was accordingly ordained about the year 1623.

Being thus settled, his charge was very great, having above 1200 persons
come to age, besides children, who stood greatly in need of instruction;
and in this case, he preached twice a week, besides the Lord's day; on
all which occasions, he found little difficulty either as to matter or

He became the chief instrument of that great work which appeared shortly
thereafter at Six-mile water, and other parts in the counties of Down
and Antrim, and that not only by his own ministry, wherein he was both
diligent and faithful, but also in the great pains he took to stir up
others unto the like duty.

While he was at Bangor, there was one Constable, in that parish, who
went to Scotland with horses to sell, and at a fair sold them all to
one, who pretended he had not that money at present, but gave him a bond
till Martinmass.--The poor man, suspecting nothing, returned home; and
one night, about that time, going homeward near Bangor, his merchant
(who was supposed to be the devil) meets him; "Now, says he, you know my
bargain, how I bought you at such a place, and now am come, as I
promised, to pay the price." Bought me! said the poor man trembling, you
bought but my horses. Nay, said the devil, I will let you know I bought
yourself and farther said, He must either kill somebody, and the more
excellent the person, the better it would be for him; and particularly
charged him to kill Mr. Blair, else he would not free him. The man was
so overcome with terror, thro' the violence of the temptation, that he
determined the thing and went to Mr. Blair's house, with a dagger in his
right hand, under his cloke, and though much confounded, was moving to
get it out, but, on Mr. Blair's speaking to him, he fell a-trembling,
and on inquiry declared the whole fact, and withal said, He had laboured
to draw out the dagger but it would not come from the scabbard, though
he knew not what hindered it; for when he essayed to draw it forth,
again, it came out with ease. Mr. Blair blessed the Lord, and exhorted
him to choose him for his refuge; after which, he departed[142].

But two weeks afterwards (being confined to his bed) he sent for Mr.
Blair, and told him, That the night before as he was returning home, the
devil appeared to him, and challenged him for opening to Mr. Blair what
had passed betwixt them, claiming him as his, and putting the cap off
his head and the band from his neck, said, That on hallow-evening he
should have him soul and body, in spite of the minister and all others,
and begged Mr. Blair, for Christ's sake, to be with him against that
time. Mr. Blair instructed him, prayed with him, and promised to be with
him against the appointed time; but, before that time, he had much
hesitation in his own mind, whether to keep that appointment or not:
Yet, at last, he took one of his elders with him, and went according to
promise, and spent the whole night in prayer, explaining the doctrine of
Christ's temptation, and praising with short intermissions, &c.--And
in the morning they took courage, defying Satan and all his devices: the
man seemed very penitent, and died in a little after.

It was during the first year of his ministry, that he resolved not to go
through a whole book or chapter, but to make choice of some passages
which held forth important heads of religion, and to close the course
with one sermon of heaven's glory, and another of hell's torments; but
when he came to meditate on these subjects, he was held a whole day in
great perplexity, and could fix upon neither method nor matter till
night, when, after sorrowing for his disorder, the Lord, in great pity,
brought both matter and method unto his mind, which remained with him
until he got the same delivered.

About this time he met with a most notable deliverance, for, staying in
a high house at the end of the town until the manse was built, being
late at his studies, the candle was done, and calling for another, as
the landlady brought it from a room under which he lay, to her
astonishment, a joist under his bed had taken fire, which, had he been
in bed as usual, the consequence, in all probability, had been dreadful
to the whole town, as well as to him, the wind being strong from that
quarter; but, by the timeous alarm given, the danger was prevented;
which made him give thanks to God for this great deliverance.

When he first celebrated the Lord's supper, his heart was much lifted up
in speaking of the new covenant, which made him, under the view of a
second administration of that ordinance, resolve to go back unto that
inexhaustible fountain of consolation; and coming over to Scotland about
that time[143], he received no small assistance from Mr. Dickson, who
was then restored unto his flock at Irvine, and was studying and
preaching on the same subject.

But it was not many years that he could have liberty in the exercise of
his office, for in harvest 1631, he and Mr. Livingston, were, by Ecklim
bishop of Down, suspended from their office, but, upon recourse to Dr.
Usher, who sent a letter to the bishop, their sentence was relaxed, and
they went on in their ministry, until May 1632, that they were by the
said bishop, deposed from the office of the holy ministry.

After this, no redress could be had; whereupon Mr. Blair resolved on a
journey to court to represent their petitions and grievances to the
king; but, after his arrival at London, he could have no access for some
time to his majesty, and so laboured under many difficulties with little
hopes of redress, until one day, having gone to Greenwich park, where,
being wearied with waiting on the court, and while at prayer, the Lord
assured him that he would hunt the violent man to destroy him. And while
thus in earnest with the Lord for a favourite return, he adventured to
propose a sign, that if the Lord would make the reeds, growing hard by,
which were so moved with the wind, as he was tossed in mind, to cease
from shaking, he would take it as an assurance of the dispatch of his
business; unto which the Lord condescended; for in a little time it
became so calm, that not one of them moved; and in a short time he got a
dispatch to his mind, wherein the king did not only sign his petition,
but with his own hand wrote on the margin (directed to the depute)
Indulge these men, for they are Scotchmen.

It was while in England, that he had from Ezekiel xxiv. 16. a strange
discovery of his wife's death, and the very bed whereon she was lying,
and particular acquaintances attending her; and although she was in good
health at his return home, yet, in a little, all this exactly came to

And yet, after his return, the king's letter being slighted by the
depute, who was newly returned from England, he was forced to have
recourse to arch-bishop Usher; which drew tears from his eyes, that he
could not help them, and yet, by the interposition of lord Castle-Stuart
with the king, they got six months liberty; but upon the luck of this in
Nov. 1634, he was again conveened before the bishop, and the sentence of
excommunication pronounced against him, by Ecklin bishop of Down.--After
the sentence was pronounced, Mr. Blair rose up and publicly cited the
bishop to appear before the tribunal of Jesus Christ, to answer for that
wicked deed; whereupon he did appeal from the justice of God to his
mercy; but Mr. Blair replied, Your appeal is like to be rejected,
because you act against the light of your own conscience. In a few
months after he fell sick, and the physician inquiring of his sickness,
after some time's silence, he, with great difficulty, said, It is my
conscience, man--To which the doctor replied, I have no cure for
that;--and in a little after he died.

After his ejection, he preached often in his own house, and in others
houses, until the beginning of the year 1635, that he began to think of
marriage again with Catherine Montgomery, daughter to Hugh Montgomery,
formerly of Busbie in Ayr-shire (then in Ireland) for which he came over
to Scotland with his own and his wife's friends.--And upon his return to
Ireland, they were married in the month of May following.

But matters still continuing the same, he engaged with the rest of the
ejected ministers in their resolution in building a ship, called the
Eagle-wings, of about 115 tons, on purpose to go to New-England. But
about three or four hundred leagues from Ireland, meeting with a
terrible hurricane, they were forced back unto the same harbour from
whence they loosed, the Lord having work for them elsewhere, it was fit
their purposes should be defeated. And having continued some four months
after this in Ireland, until, upon information that he and Mr.
Livingston were to be apprehended, they immediately went out of the way,
and immediately took shipping, and landed in Scotland _anno_ 1631.

All that summer after his arrival, he was as much employed in public and
private exercises as ever before, mostly at Irvine and the country
around, and partly at Edinburgh. But things being then in a confusion,
because the service-book was then urged upon the ministers, his old
inclination to go to France revived, and upon an invitation to be
chaplain of col. Hepburn's regiment in the French service (newly
inlisted in Scotland), with them he imbarked at Leith; but some of these
recruits, who were mostly highlanders, being desperately wicked, upon
his reproofs, threatening to stab him, he resolved to quit that voyage,
and calling to the ship-master to set him on shore, without imparting
his design, a boat was immediately ordered for his service; at which
time he met with another deliverance, for his foot sliding, he was in
danger of going to the bottom, but the Lord ordered, that he got hold of
a rope, by which he hung till he was relieved.

Mr. Blair's return gave great satisfaction to his friends at Edinburgh,
and, the reformation being then in the ascendant, in the spring of 1638,
he got a call to be colleague to Mr. Annan at Ayr; and upon May 2, a
meeting of presbytery, having preached from 2 Cor. iv. 5. he was, at
the special desire of all the people there, admitted a minister.

He stayed not long here, for, having, before the general assembly held
at Glasgow 1638, fully vindicated himself, both anent his affair with
Dr. Cameron, while regent in the university, and his settlement in
Ireland, he was, for his great parts and known abilities, by them
ordered to be transported to St. Andrews; but the assembly's motives to
this did prove his determent for some time, and the burgh of Ayr, where
the Lord had begun to bless his labours, had the favour for another
year. But the assembly held at Edinburgh 1630, being offended for his
disobeying, ordered him peremptorily to transport himself thither.

_Anno_ 1640, when the king had, by the advice of the clergy, caused burn
the articles of the former treaty with the Scots, and again prepared to
chastise them with a royal army, the Scots, resolving not always to play
after-game, raised an army, invaded England, routed about 4000 English
at Newburn, had Newcastle surrendered to them, and within two days, were
masters of Durham; which produced a new treaty, more favourable to them
than the former; and with this army was Mr. Blair, who went with lord
Lindsay's regiment; and, when that treaty was on foot, the committee of
estates and the army sent him up to assist the commissioners with his
best advice.

Again after the rebellion in Ireland 1641, those who survived the storm,
supplicated the general assembly 1642, for a supply of ministers, when
severals went over, and among the first Mr. Blair. During his stay
there, he generally preached once every day, and twice on Sabbath, and
frequently in the field, the auditors being so large, and in some of
these he administered the Lord's supper.

After his return, the condition of the church and state was various
during the years 1643, and 1644; and particularly in Aug. 1643, the
committee of the general assembly, whereof Mr. Blair was one, with John
earl of Rutland, and other Scots commissioners from the parliament of
England, and Messrs. Stephen Marshal and Philip Nye, ministers, agreed
to a solemn league and covenant betwixt the two kingdoms of Scotland and
England; and in the end of the same year, when the Scots assisted the
English parliament, Mr. Blair was, by the commission of the general
assembly, appointed minister to the earl of Crawford's regiment; with
whom he stayed until the king was routed at Marston-muir July 1644,
when he returned to his charge at St. Andrews.

The parliament and commission of the kirk sat at Perth in July 1645. The
parliament was opened with a sermon by Mr. Blair; and, after he had,
upon the forenoon of the 27th, a day of solemn humiliation preached
again to the parliament, he rode out to the army, then encamped at
Torgondermy, and preached to Crawford's and Maitland's regiments, to the
first of whom he had been chaplain:--He told the brigade, That he was
informed that many of them were turned dissolute and profane, and
assured them, that though the Lord had covered their heads in the day of
battle (few of them being killed at Marston-muir), they should not be
able to stand before a less formidable foe, unless they repented. Though
this freedom was taken in good part from one who wished them well, yet
was too little laid to heart; and the most part of Crawford's regiment
were cut off at Kilsyth in three weeks afterwards.

After the defeat at Kilsyth, severals were for treating with Montrose,
but Mr. Blair opposed it, so that nothing was concluded until the Lord
began to look upon the affliction of his people; for the committee of
estates recalled general Leslie, with 4000 foot and 1000 dragoons, from
England, to oppose whom Montrose marched southward; but was shamefully
defeated at Philiphaugh Sept. 13, many of his forces being killed and
taken prisoners, and he hardly escaped. On the 26, the parliament and
commission of the general assembly sat down at St. Andrews (the plague
being then in Edinburgh); here Mr. Blair preached before the parliament,
and also prayed before the several sessions thereof; and when several
prisoners, taken at Philiphaugh, were tried, three of them, _viz._ Sir
Robert Spotiswood, Nathaniel Gordon, and Mr. Andrew Guthrie, were to be
executed on the 17th of January thereafter, Mr. Blair visited them
often, and was at much pains with them: He prevailed so far with Gordon,
that he desired to be relaxed from the sentence of excommunication which
he was under; and accordingly Mr. Blair did the same: The other two, who
were bishops sons, died impenitent.--_Mali corvi malum ovum._

_Anno_ 1646, the general assembly, sitting at Edinburgh ordered Mr.
Blair (who was then moderator), with Mr. Cant and Mr. Robert Douglas, to
repair to the king at Newcastle, to concur with worthy Mr. Alexander
Henderson and others, who were labouring to convince him great
bloodshed in these kingdoms, and reconcile him to presbyterian
church-government and the covenants. When these three ministers got a
hearing, the room was immediately filled with several sorts of people to
see their reception; Mr. Andrew Cant, bring eldest, began briskly to
insinuate, with his wonted zeal and plainness, that the king favoured
popery; Mr. Blair interrupted him, and modestly hinted, That it was not
a fit time nor place for that.--The king, looking on him earnestly,
said, "That honest man speaks wisely and discreetly; therefore I appoint
you three to attend me to-morrow at ten o'clock in my bed-chamber." They
attended, according to appointment, but got little satisfaction; only
Mr. Blair asked his majesty, If there were not abominations in popery,
&c. The king, lifting his hat, said, "I take God to witness that there
are abominations in popery, which I so much abhor, that ere I consent to
them, I would rather lose my life and crown." Yet after all this, Mr.
Blair and Mr. Henderson (for these two he favoured most) having most
earnestly desired him to satisfy the just desires of his subjects, he
obstinately refused, though they besought it on their knees with tears.
Renewed commissions for this end, were sent from Scotland, but to no
good purpose, and Mr. Blair returned home to St. Andrews.

Mr. Henderson died at Edinburgh, Aug. 19, which the king no sooner
heard, than he sent for Mr. Blair to supply his place, as chaplain in
Scotland; which Mr. Blair, thro' fear of being insnared, was at first
averse unto, but having consulted with Mr. David Dickson, and reflecting
that Mr. Henderson had held his integrity fast unto the end, he applied
himself to that employment with great diligence, every day praying
before dinner and supper in the presence chamber; on the Lord's day
lecturing once and preaching twice; besides preaching some week days in
St. Nicholas's church; as also conversing much with the king, desiring
him to condescend to the just desires of his parliament, and at other
times debating concerning prelacy, liturgies and ceremonies.

One day after prayer, the king asked him, If it was warrantable in
prayer to determine a controversy?--Mr. Blair, taking the hint, said, He
thought he had determined no controversy in that prayer. Yes, said the
king, you have determined the pope to be antichrist, which is a
controversy among orthodox divines. To this Mr. Blair replied, To me
this is no controversy, and I am sorry it should be accounted so by your
majesty, sure it was none to your father. This silenced the king, for
he was a great defender of his father's opinions; and his testimony, Mr.
Blair knew well, was of more authority with him than the testimony of
any divine. After a few months stay, Mr. Blair was permitted to visit
his flock and family.

After the sitting of the Scots parliament, Mr. Blair made another visit
to the king at Newcastle, where he urged him with all the arguments he
was master of, to subscribe the covenants, and abolish Episcopacy in
England, and he was confident all his honest Scotsmen would espouse his
quarrel against his enemies in England, &c. To which the king
answered, That he was bound by his great oath to defend Episcopacy,
&c. in that church, and ere he wronged his conscience by violating his
coronation-oath, he would lose his crown. Mr. Blair asked the form of
that oath; he said, It was to maintain it to the utmost of his
power.--Then, said Mr. Blair, you have not only defended it to the
utmost of your power, but so long and so far, that now you have no
power, &c. But by nothing could he prevail upon the king, and left him
with a sorrowful heart, and returned to St. Andrews.

Again in the year 1648, when Cromwel came to Edinburgh, the commission
of the kirk sent Mr. Blair and Messrs. David Dickson and James Guthrie
to deal with him, for an uniformity in England. When they came, he
entertained them with smooth speeches and solemn appeals to God as to
the sincerity of his intentions. Mr. Blair being best acquaint with him,
spoke for all the rest; and among other things, begged an answer to
these three questions: (1.) What was his opinion of monarchical
government? He answered, He was for monarchical government, &c. (2.)
What was his opinion anent toleration? He answered confidently, That he
was altogether against toleration. (3.) What was his opinion concerning
the government of the church? O now, said Cromwel, Mr. Blair, you
article me too severely; you must pardon me, that I give you not a
present answer to this, &c. This he shifted, because he had before, in
conversation with Mr. Blair, confessed he was for independency. When
they came out, Mr. Dickson said, I am glad to hear this man speak no
worse; whereunto Mr. Blair replied, If you knew him as well as I, you
would not believe one word he says, for he is an egregious dissembler
and a great liar.

When the differences fell out betwixt the protestors and resolutioners,
Mr. Blair was at London, and afterward for the most part remained neuter
in that affair; for which he was subjected to some hardships; yet he
never omitted any proper place or occasion for the uniting and cementing
these differences, none now in Scotland being more earnest in this than
he and the learned and pious Mr. James Durham minister at Glasgow. These
two, meeting at St. Andrews, had the influence to draw a meeting of the
two sides to Edinburgh, where harmony was like to prevail; but the
Lord's anger, being still drawn out for the prevailing sins of that
time, all promising beginnings were blasted, and all hopes of agreement
did vanish.

Thus affairs continued until the year 1660, that the kingdom, being
quite sick of distractions, restored again Charles II.; the woeful
consequences are otherwise too well known; And, on this last occasion,
Mr. Blair again began to bestir himself to procure union betwixt the two
foresaid parties, and for that end obtained a meeting; but his
endeavours were frustrated, and no reconciliation could be made, till
both sides were cast into the furnace of a sore and long persecution.

For in Sept. 1661, Mr. Sharp came to St. Andrews, and the presbytery,
having had assurance of his deceitful carriage at court, and of the
probability of his being made arch-bishop of St. Andrews, sent Mr.
Blair, and another, to him, to discharge their duty, which they did so
faithfully, that Sharp was never at ease till Mr. Blair was rooted out.

Mr. Blair taking occasion, in a sermon from 1 Pet. iii. 13 &c. to
enlarge on suffering for righteousness sake, giving his testimony to the
covenants and work of reformation, against the sinful and corrupt
courses of the times, he was called over before the council Nov. 5. when
the advocate and some noblemen were appointed to converse with Mr.
Blair, where they posed him on the following points: (1.) Whether
he had asserted presbyterial government to be _jure divino_? (2.)
Whether he had asserted, that suffering for it was suffering for
righteousness-sake? And, (3.) Whether in his prayers against Popery, he
had joined Prelacy with it? Having answered all in the affirmative,
professing his sorrow that they doubted his opinions in these points, he
was first confined to his chamber in Edinburgh; and afterward, upon
supplication, and the attestation of physicians on account of his
health, he was permitted to retire to Inveresk about the 12th of
January, 1662.

Mr. Blair continued here till Oct. following, enjoying much of God's
presence amidst his outward trouble; but, being again commanded before
the council, by the way, he took a sore fit of the gravel, and was for
that time excused; and afterward, through the chancellor's favour, got
liberty to go where he pleased, except St. Andrews, Edinburgh and the
west country;--he went to Kirkaldy.

While at Kirkaldy, he lectured and prayed often to some Christian
friends in his own family; and for his recreation taught his younger son
the Greek language and logic. But the arch-bishop, envying the repose
Mr. Blair and some others had in these circumstances, procured an act,
that no outed minister should reside within 20 miles of an arch-bishop's
see; and Mr. Blair removed from Kirkaldy to meikle Couston, in the
parish of Aberdour, an obscure place, in Feb. 1666, where he continued
till his death, which was shortly after.

For, upon the 10th of Aug. Mr. Blair, being now worn out with old age,
and his spirits sunk with sorrow and grief for the desolations of the
Lord's sanctuary in Scotland, took his last sickness, and entertained
most serious thoughts of his near approaching end, ever extolling his
glorious and good Master whom he had served. His sickness increasing, he
was visited by many Christian friends and acquaintances, whom he
strengthened by his many gracious and edifying words.

At one time, when they told him of some severe acts of council newly
made upon arch-bishop Sharp's instigation, he prayed that the Lord would
open his eyes, and give him repentance, &c. And to Mrs. Rutherford, at
another time, he said, I would not exchange conditions with that man
(though he was now on his bed of languishing, and the other possest of
great riches and revenues) though all betwixt them were red gold, and
given him to the bargain. When some ministers asked him, If he had any
hopes of deliverance to the people of God, he said, He would not take
upon him to determine the times and seasons the Lord keeps in his own
hand, but that it was to him a token for good, that the Lord was casting
the prelates out of the affections of all ranks and degrees of people,
and even some who were most active in setting them up, were now
beginning to lothe them for their pride, falsehood and covetousness.

To his wife and children he spake gravely and Christianly, and after he
had solemnly blessed them, he severally admonished them as he judged
expedient. His son David said, The best and worst of men have their
thoughts and after thoughts; now, Sir, God having given you time for
after-thoughts on your way, we would hear what they are now.--He
answered, I have again and again thought upon my former ways, and
communed with mine heart; and as for my public actings and carriage, in
reference to the Lord's work, if I were to begin again, I would just do
as I have done. He often repeated the 16th and 23d psalm, and once the
71st psalm, which he used to call his own psalm. About two days before
his death, his speech began to fail, and he could not be well heard or
understood; however some things were not lost; for, speaking of some
eminent saints then alive, he prayed earnestly that the Lord would bless
them; and, as an evidence of his love to them, he desired Mr. George
Hutcheson (then present) to carry his Christian remembrance to them.
When Mr Hutcheson went from his bed-side, he said to his wife and others
who waited on him, That he rejoiced in suffering as a persecuted
minister. Is it not persecution, added he, to thrust me from the work of
the ministry, which was my delight, and hinder me from doing good to my
people and flock, which was my joy and crown of rejoicing, and to chase
me from place to place, till I am wasted with heaviness and sorrow for
the injuries done to the Lord's prerogative, interest and cause. What he
afterwards said was either forgot or not understood, till at length,
about four o'clock in the morning, he was gathered to his fathers, by a
blessed and happy death (the certain result of a holy life).

His body lies near the kirk-wall, in the burial place at Aberdour, and
upon the church-wall above his grave, was erected a little monument,
with this inscription,

    _Hic reconditæ iacent mortuæ
    Exuviæ D. Roberti Blair, S. S.
    Evangelii apud Andreapolin
    Prædicatoris fidelissimi. Obiit
    Augusti 27, 1666. Ætatis suæ 72._

Mr. Blair was a man of a fine constitution, both of body and mind, of a
majestic but amiable countenance and carriage, thoroughly learned, and
of a most public spirit for God. He was of unremitting diligence and
labour, in all the private as well as public duties of his station. He
did highly endear himself to the affection of his own people, and to the
whole country wherein he lived, and their attachment to him was not a
little strengthened by his conduct in the judicatories of the church,
which indeed constituted the distinguishing part of his character.

When the general assembly resolved upon a new explication of the holy
bible, and among others of the godly and learned in the ministry, Mr.
Blair had the book of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes assigned to him for his
part, but he neglected that task, till he was rendered useless for other
purposes, and then set about and finished his commentary on the Proverbs
in 1666. He composed also some small poetical pieces, as a poem in
commendation of Jesus Christ, for the confutation of Popish errors; with
some short epigrams on different subjects.

_The Life of Mr. HUGH M'KAIL._

Mr. M'Kail was born about the year 1640, and was educated at the
university of Edinburgh, under the inspection of his uncle Mr. Hugh
M'Kail (in whose family he resided). In the winter 1661, he offered
himself to trials for the ministry, before the presbytery of Edinburgh,
(being then about 20 years old) and being by them licensed he preached
several times with great applause. He preached his last public sermon
from Cant. i. 7. in the great church of Edinburgh, upon the Sabbath
immediately preceding the 8th of Sept. 1662, the day fixed, by the then
parliament, for the removal of the ministers of Edinburgh.

In this sermon, taking occasion to speak of the great and many
persecutions to which the church of God has been and is obnoxious,
amplifying the point from the persons and powers that have been
instrumental therein, he said, That the church and people of God had
been persecuted both by a Pharaoh on the throne, a Haman in the state,
and a Judas in the church, &c.; which case, to the conviction of his
adversaries, seemed so similar to the state and condition of the then
rulers of church and state, that though he made no particular
application, yet was he reputed guilty; whereupon, a few days after, a
party of horse was sent to the place of his residence near Edinburgh, to
apprehend him; but, upon little more than a moment's advertisement, he
escaped out of bed into another chamber, where he was preserved from the
search. After this, he was obliged to return home to his father's house,
and, having lurked there a-while, he spent other four years before his
death in several other places.

While he lived at his father's house, troubles arose in the west; and
the news thereof having alarmed him, with the rest of that country, upon
the 18th of November, for such motives and considerations as he himself
afterwards more fully declares, he joined himself to those who rose in
these parts, for the assisting of that poor afflicted party.--Being of a
tender constitution, by the toil, fatigue, and continual marching in
tempestuous weather, he was so disabled and weakened, that he could no
longer endure; and upon the 27th of the said month, he was obliged to
leave them near Cramond water; and, in his way to Libberton parish,
passing through Braid's craigs, he was taken without any resistance,
(having only a small ordinary sword) by some of the countrymen who were
sent out to view the fields[144].--And here it is observable, that his
former escape was no more miraculous than his present taking was fatal;
for the least caution might have prevented him this inconveniency; but
God who gave him the full experience of his turning all things to the
good of them that love him, did thus, by his simplicity, prepare the way
for his own glory, and his servant's joy and victory.

He was brought to Edinburgh, first to the town-council house, and there
searched for letters; but none being found, he was committed prisoner to
the tolbooth. Upon wednesday the 28, he was, by order of the secret
council, brought before the earl of Dumfries, lord Sinclair, Sir Robert
Murray of Priest-field, and others, in order to his examination; where,
being interrogate, concerning his joining the west-land forces, he,
conceiving himself not obliged by any law or reason, to be his own
accuser, did decline the question. After some reasoning, he was desired
to subscribe his name, but refused; which, when reported to the council,
gave great offence, and brought him under some suspicion of a
dissembler. On the 29, he was again called before them, where, for
allaying the council's prejudice, he gave in a declaration under his own
hand, testifying that he had been with the west land forces, &c.
Though it was certainly known, that he had both formed and subscribed
this acknowledgment the night before, yet they still persisted in their
jealousy, suspecting him to have been privy to all the designs of that
party, and dealt with him, with the greater importunity, to declare an
account of the whole business, and upon Dec. 3, the boots (a most
terrible instrument of torture) were laid on the council-house table
before him, and he was certified, that if he would not confess, he
should be tortured to-morrow; accordingly he was called before them, and
being urged to confess, he solemnly declared, that he knew no more than
what he had already confessed; whereupon they ordered the executioner to
put his leg to the boot, and to proceed to the torture, to the number of
ten or eleven strokes, with considerable intervals; yet all did not move
him to express any impatience or bitterness.

This torture was the cause of his not being indicted with the first ten,
who were arraigned and sentenced on Wednesday Dec. 5. to be hanged on
the Friday following. Many thought, that his small accession to the
rising, and what he had suffered by torture, should have procured him
some favour, but it was otherwise determined; nor was his former sermon
forgot, and the words _Achab on the throne_. On Monday the 10, he and
other seven received their indictment of treason, and were summoned to
appear before the justices on Wednesday Dec. 12; but his torture and
close imprisonment (for so it was ordered) had cast him into a fever,
whereby he was utterly unable to make his appearance; therefore, upon
Tuesday the 11, he gave in to the lords of the council a supplication,
declaring his weak and sickly condition, craving that they may surcease
any legal procedure against him, in such a weak and extreme condition,
and that they would discharge him of the foresaid appearance. Hereupon
the council ordered two physicians and two chirurgeons to visit him, and
to return their attestations, upon soul and conscience, betwixt and
to-morrow at ten o'clock, to the justices.

Upon Dec. 8, his brother went from Edinburgh to Glasgow, with a letter
from the lady-marquis of Douglas, and another from the duchess of
Hamilton to the lord commissioner in his favour, but both proved
ineffectual; his cousin Mr. Matthew M'Kail carried another letter from
the lady-marquis of Douglas, to the arch-bishop of St. Andrews, for the
same purpose, but with no better success.

On Dec. 18, he, being indifferently recovered, was with other three
brought before the justices, where the general indictment was read,
founded both on old and late acts of parliament, made against rising in
arms, entering into leagues and covenants, and renewing the solemn
league and covenant without and against the king's authority, &c. Mr.
Hugh was particularly charged with joining the rebels at Ayr, Ochiltry,
Lanerk and other places, on horseback, &c.; whereupon, being permitted
to answer, he spoke in his own defence, both concerning the charge laid
against him, and likewise of the ties and obligations that were upon
this land to God; commending the institution, dignity, and blessing of
presbyterial government; he said, The last words of the national
covenant had always a great weight upon his spirit. Here he was
interrupted by the king's advocate, who bade him forbear that discourse,
and answer the question for the crime of rebellion.--Unto which he
answered, The thing that moved him to declare as he had done, was that
weighty and important saying of our Lord Jesus, _Whosoever shall confess
me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels
of God_, &c. After this confession, and the depositions of those
examined anent him were read, with his replies to the same, the assize
was inclosed; after which they gave their verdict _una voce_, and by the
mouth of Sir William Murray their chancellor, reported him guilty, &c.
The verdict being reported, doom was pronounced, declaring and adjudging
him, and the rest, to be taken, on Saturday Dec. 20. to the market cross
of Edinburgh, there to be hanged on a gibbet till dead, and his goods
and lands to be escheated and forfeited for his Highness use. At the
hearing of this sentence, he cheerfully said, _The Lord giveth, and the
Lord taketh away: blessed be the name of the Lord_. He was then carried
back to the tolbooth through the guards, the people making lamentation
for him by the way. After he came to his chamber, he immediately
addressed himself to God in prayer, with great enlargement of heart, in
behalf of himself, and those who were condemned with him. Afterwards, to
a friend he said, "O how good news! to be within four days journey to
enjoy the sight of Jesus Christ;" and protested "he was not so cumbered
how to die, as he had sometimes been to preach a sermon." To some women
lamenting for him, he said, "That his condition, though he was but
young, and in the budding of his hopes and labours in the ministry, was
not to be mourned; for one drop of my blood, through the grace of God,
may make more hearts contrite, than many years sermons might have done."

This afternoon he supplicated the council for liberty to his father to
come to him; which being granted, his father came next night, to whom he
discoursed a little concerning obedience to parents from the fifth
commandment, and then, after prayer, his father said to him, "Hugh, I
called thee a goodly olive tree, of fair fruit, and now a storm hath
destroyed the tree and his fruit."----He answered, That his too good
thought of him afflicted him. His father said, "He was persuaded God was
visiting not his own sins, but his parents sins, so that he might say,
Our fathers have sinned, and we have borne their iniquity."--He further
said, "I have sinned, thou poor sheep, what hast thou done." Mr. Hugh
answered, with many groans, "That, through coming short of the fifth
commandment, he had come short of the promise, That his days should be
prolonged in the land of the living, and that God's controversy with him
was for over-valuing his children, especially himself."

Upon the 20 of December, through the importunity of friends, more than
his own inclination, he gave in a petition to the council, craving their
clemency after having declared his own innocence; but it proved
altogether ineffectual. During his abode in prison, the Lord was very
graciously present with him, both to sustain him against the fears of
death, and by expelling the overcloudings of terror, that some times the
best of men, through the frailty of flesh and blood, are subject unto.
He was also wonderfully assisted in prayer and praise, to the admiration
of all the hearers, especially on Thursday's night, when, being set at
supper with his fellow-prisoners, his father and one or two more, he
requested his fellow-prisoners, saying merrily, eat to the full, and
cherish your bodies, that we may be a fat Christmass-pye to the
prelates. After supper in thanksgiving, he broke forth into several
expressions, both concerning himself and the church of God, and at last
used that exclamation in the last of Daniel, _What, Lord, shall be the
end of these wonders!_

The last night of his life he propounded and answered several questions
for the strengthening of his fellow prisoners: How should he go from the
tolbooth thro' a multitude of gazing people, and guards of soldiers to a
scaffold and gibbet, and overcome the impressions of all this? He
answered, By conceiving a deeper impression of a multitude of angels,
who are on-lookers; according to that, _We are a gazing-flock to the
world, angels and men_, for the angels, rejoicing at our good
confession, are present to convoy and carry our souls, as the soul of
Lazarus, to Abraham's bosom, not to receive them, for that is Jesus
Christ's work alone, who will welcome them to heaven himself, with the
songs of angels and blessed spirits; but the angels are ministring
spirits, always ready to serve and strengthen all dying believers, &c.
What is the way for us to conceive of heaven, who are hastening to it,
seeing the word faith, _Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard_, &c.? To this
he answered, That the scripture helps us two ways to conceive of heaven;
(1.) By way of similitude, as in Rev. xxi, where heaven is held forth by
the representation of a glorious city, there discoursed, &c. (2.) By
holding forth the love of the saints to Jesus Christ, and teaching us to
love him in sincerity, which is the very joy and exultation of heaven,
Rev. v. 12. and no other thing than the soul breathing forth love to
Jesus Christ, can rightly apprehend the joys of heaven.

The last words he spoke at supper were in the commendation of love above
knowledge, "O but notions of knowledge without love are of small worth,
evanishing in nothing, and very dangerous." After supper, his father
having given thanks, he read the 16th psalm, and then said, "If there
were any thing in the world sadly and unwillingly to be left, it were
the reading of the scriptures. I said, I shall not see the Lord in the
land of the living; but this needs not make us sad, for where we go, the
Lamb is the book of scripture and the light of that city, and there is
life, even the river of the water of life, and living springs, &c."
Supper being ended, he called for a pen, saying, It was to write his
testament; wherein he ordered some few books he had, to be re-delivered
to several persons. He went to bed about eleven o'clock, and slept till
five in the morning; then he arose, and called for his comrade John
Wodrow, saying pleasantly, "Up, John, for you are too long in bed; you
and I look not like men going to be hanged this day, seeing we lie so
long." Then he spake to him in the words of Isaiah xlii. 24. and after
some short discourse, John said to him, You and I will be chambered
shortly beside Mr. Robertson.--He answered, "John, I fear you bar me
out, because you was more free before the council than I was; but I
shall be as free as any of you upon the scaffold. He said, He had got a
clear ray of the majesty of the Lord after his awakening, but it was a
little over-clouded thereafter." He prayed with great fervency, pleading
his covenant-relation with him, and that they might be enabled that day
to witness a good confession before many witnesses. Then his father
coming to him, bade him farewel. His last word to him, after prayer,
was, That his sufferings would do more hurt to the prelates, and be more
edifying to God's people, than if he were to continue in the ministry
twenty years. Then he desired his father to leave him, and go to his
chamber, and pray earnestly to the Lord to be with him on the scaffold;
for how to carry there is my care, even that I may be strengthened to
endure to the end.

About two o'clock afternoon he was brought to the scaffold (with other
five who suffered with him), where, to the conviction of all that
formerly knew him, he had a fairer and more stayed countenance than ever
they had before observed. Being come to the foot of the ladder, he
directed his speech to the multitude northward, saying, "That as his
years in the world had been but few, his words then should not be many;"
and then spoke to the people the speech and testimony which he had
before written and subscribed[145].

Having done speaking, he sung a part of the 31st psalm, and then prayed
with such power and fervency, as caused many to weep bitterly. Then he
gave his hat and cloke from him, and when he took hold of the ladder to
go up, he said, with an audible voice, "I care no more to go up this
ladder and over it, than if I were going home to my father's house."
Hearing a noise among the people, he called down to his
fellow-sufferers, saying, Friends and fellow-sufferers, be not afraid;
every step of this ladder is a degree nearer heaven: and then, having
seated himself thereon, he said, "I do partly believe that the noble
counsellors and rulers of this land would have used some mitigation of
this punishment, had they not been instigated by the prelates, so that
our blood lies principally at the prelates door; but this is my comfort
now, that I know that my Redeemer liveth, &c. And now I do willingly
lay down my life for the truth and cause of God, the covenants and work
of reformation, which were once counted the glory of this nation; and it
is for endeavouring to defend this, and to extirpate that bitter root of
prelacy, that I embrace this rope," (the executioner then putting the
rope about his neck). Then hearing the people weep, he said, "Your work
is not to weep, but to pray, that we may be honourably borne through,
and blessed be the Lord that supports me now; as I have been beholden to
the prayers, and kindness of many since my imprisonment and sentence, so
I hope, ye will not be wanting to me now in the last step of my journey,
that I may witness a good confession, and that ye may know what the
ground of my encouragement in this work is, I shall read to you in the
last chapter of the bible;" which having read, he said, "Here you see
the glory that is to be revealed on me, a pure river of water of life,
&c. and here you see my access to my glory and reward, _Let him that
is athirst come_, &c. And here you see my welcome, _the Spirit and the
bride say, Come_. Then he said, I have one word more to say to my
friends (looking down to the scaffold), Where are ye? Ye need neither
lament nor be ashamed of me in this condition, for I may make use of
that expression of Christ, _I go to our Father and my Father, to your
God and my God_, to your King and my King, to the blessed apostles and
martyrs, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to
an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly of the
first-born, to God the judge of all, to the spirits of just men made
perfect, and to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant; and I bid you
all farewel, for God will be more comfortable to you than I could be,
and he will be now more refreshing to me than you can be:--Farewel,
farewel in the Lord." Then, the napkin being put on his face, he prayed
a little, and put it up with his hand, and said, he had a word more to
say concerning what comfort he had in his death, "I hope you perceive no
alteration or discouragement in my countenance and carriage, and as it
may be your wonder, so I profess it is a wonder to myself; and I will
tell you the reason of it; beside the justice of my cause, this is my
comfort, what was said of Lazarus when he died, _That the angels did
carry his soul to Abraham's bosom_, so that as there is a great
solemnity here, of a confluence of people, a scaffold, a gallows, a
people looking out at windows; so there is a greater and more solemn
preparation of angels to carry my soul to Christ's bosom; again this is
my comfort, that it is to come to Christ's hand, and he will present it
blameless and faultless to the Father, and then shall I be ever with the
Lord. And now I leave off to speak any more to creatures, and begin my
intercourse with God, which shall never be broken off:--Farewel father
and mother, friends and relations; farewel the world and all delights;
farewel meat and drink; farewel sun, moon and stars; welcome God and
Father; welcome sweet Jesus Christ, the Mediator of the new covenant;
welcome blessed Spirit of grace, and God of all consolation; welcome
glory; welcome eternal life; and welcome death."

Then he desired the executioner not to turn him over until he himself
should put over his shoulders, which, after praying a little in private
he did, saying, "O Lord, into thy hands I commit my spirit, for thou
hast redeemed my soul, O Lord God of truth." And thus in the 26th year
of his age he died, as he lived, in the Lord.

His death was so much lamented by the on-lookers and spectators, that
there was scarce a dry cheek seen in all the streets and windows about
the cross of Edinburgh, at the time of his execution. A late historian
gives him this character, that "he was a youth of 26 years of age,
universally beloved, singularly pious, of very considerable learning; he
had seen the world, and travelled[146] some years abroad, and was a very
comely and graceful person. I am told, saith he, that he used to fast
one day every week, and had frequently, before this, signified to his
friends his impression of such a death as he now underwent. His share in
the rising was known to be but small; and when he spoke of his comfort
and joy in his death, heavy were the groans of those present."

_The Life of Mr. JOHN NEVAY._

Mr. John Nevay was licensed and ordained a minister (in the time of
Scotland's purest reformation) and settled at Newmills in the parish of
Loudon; and was, besides his soundness in the faith, shining piety in
conversation, and great diligence in attending all the parts of his
ministerial function, particularly church-judicatories, one who was also
very zealous in contending against several steps of defection, which
were contrary to the work of reformation carried on in that period.

When the earl of Callender and major-general Middleton were cruelly
harassing the covenanters, and well affected people in the west of
Scotland, because they would not join in the duke of Hamilton's unlawful
engagement in war against England, (which was a manifest breach of the
solemn league and covenant), Mr. Nevay was one of those ministers and
other well-affected people, who were assembled at the celebration of our
Lord's supper at Machlin-muir, in the month of June 1648, where
opposition (in their own defence) was made to the said Calender and
Middleton's forces, who attacked them there upon the last day of that

Again, when that pretended assembly held at Edinburgh and St. Andrews
_anno_ 1651, did approve and ratify the public resolutions, in bringing
in the justly excluded malignants into places of public power and trust,
in judicatories and armies, he was one of those called remonstrators,
who faithfully witnessed and protested against that sad course of
covenant-breaking and land-defiling sin.

And, as a conclusion to all, when that head of malignants, Charles II.
was again restored as king over these lands, in consequence of which the
whole of our covenanted work of reformation (which for some time had
flourished) now began to be defaced and overturned; and therefore it
behoved the chief promoters thereof to be, in the first place, attacked;
and Mr. Nevay, being the earl of Loudon's chaplain and very much valued
by him, must be included among the rest; and was, upon the 18th of
November 1662, by order of the council, cited, with some others, to
repair to Edinburgh, and appear before the council on the 9th of Dec.
next. He did not compear until the 23d, when he was examined, and upon
refusal of the oath of allegiance, he was banished, and enacted himself
in a bond as follows:

"I JOHN NEVAY, minister of the gospel at Newmills, bind and oblige
myself to remove forth of the king's dominions, and not to return under
pain of death; and that I shall remove before the first of February; and
that I shall not remain within the diocese of Glasgow and Edinburgh in
the mean time. Subscribed at Edinburgh, Dec. 23.


And taking leave of his old parishioners (no doubt with a sorrowful
heart), he prepared for his journey, and went over to Holland, among the
rest of our banished ministers, where, for some years, he preached to
such as would come and hear him; and yet all the while he retained the
affection of a most dear and loving pastor to his old parishioners of
Loudon, both by sending them many sermons and several affectionate
letters, wherein he not only exhorted them to stedfastness in the midst
of manifold temptations, but also shewed a longing desire to return to
his own native land and parishioners again; as is evident from that
excellent letter, wrote some time before his death, dated at Rotterdam
Oct. 22. 1669, in which letter, among many other things, he has these
expressions: "I can do no more but pray for you; and if I could do that
well, I had done almost all that is required. I am not worthy of the
esteem you have of me; I have not whereof to glory, but much whereof I
am ashamed, and which may make me go mourning to my grave; but if you
stand fast, I live; you are all my crown and joy in this earth (next to
the joy of Jerusalem and her king), and I hope to have some of you my
joy and crown in our Father's kingdom, besides those that are gone
before us, and entered into the joy of the Lord. I have not been
altogether ignorant of the changes and wars which have been amongst you,
deep calling unto deep, nor how the Lord did sit on all your floods as
king, and did give you many times some more ease than others, and you
wanted not your share in the most honourable testimony that ever was
given to the truth and kingdom of Christ in that land, since the days of
Mr. Patrick Hamilton, Mr. George Wishart, and Mr. Walter Mill martyrs,

That Mr. John Nevay was no mean divine in his day, either in parts or
learning, is fully evident, both from an act of the general assembly
_anno_ 1647, wherein he was one of these four ministers who were
appointed to revise and correct Rouse's paraphrase of David's psalms in
metre, lately sent from England (of which he had the last thirty for his
share); and also that elegant and handsome paraphrase of his upon the
song of Solomon in Latin verse, both of which shew him to have been of a
profound judgment and rare abilities.

There are 52 sermons (or rather notes of sermons) of his published, upon
the nature, properties, blessings, &c. of the covenant of grace, in
8vo; 39 sermons on Christ's temptations in manuscript, (being all sent
from Holland for the benefit of his old parishioners of Newmills), and
might also have been published, if those upon the covenant had met with
that reception they deserved.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN LIVINGSTON._

Mr. Livingston was born _anno_ 1603. He was son to Mr. William
Livingston, minister first at Monybroch or Kilsyth, and afterwards
transported to Lanerk, he was nearly related to the house of Calender.
Having first taught his son to read and write, he put him to the Latin
school at Stirling, under Mr. Wallace a godly and learned man. He stayed
here till summer 1617, when he returned home. In October following he
was sent to the college of Glasgow, where he stayed four years, until he
passed master of arts in 1621.

After this he stayed with his father until he began to preach, during
which time he began to observe the Lord's great goodness that he was
born of such parents, who taught him the principles of religion so soon
as he was capable to understand any thing.--He says, in his own
historical account of his life, That he does not remember the time or
means particularly whereby the Lord at first wrought upon his heart,
only when he was but very young, he would sometimes pray with some
feeling, and read the word with some delight; but thereafter did often
intermit such exercise, and then would have some challenges, and begin
and intermit again, &c. He says, He had no inclination to the
ministry, till a year or more after he had passed his course in the
college, upon which he bent his desires to the knowledge and practice of
medicine, and to go to France for that end: but when proposed to his
Father, he refused to comply. About this time his father, having
purchased some land in the parish of Monybroch, took the rights in his
son's name, proposing that he should marry and live there; but this he
refused, thinking it would divert him from his studies, and, in the
midst of these straits, he resolved to set apart a day by himself before
God, for more special direction; which he did near Cleghorn wood, where,
after much confusion anent the state of his soul, at last he thought it
was made out to him, that he behoved to preach Jesus Christ, which if he
did not, he should have no assurance of salvation: upon which, laying
aside all thoughts of other things, he betook himself to the study of
divinity. He continued a year and a half in his father's house, where he
studied and sometimes preached; during which time he wrote all his
sermons before he preached them, until one day, being to preach after
the communion of Quodgen, and having in readiness a sermon which he had
preached at another place one day before, but perceiving severals there
who had heard him preach that sermon formerly, he resolved to choose a
new text, and wrote only some notes of the heads he was to deliver; yet,
he says, he found, at that time, more assistance in enlarging upon these
points, and more motion in his own heart than ever he had found before,
which made him afterwards never write any more sermons, excepting only
some notes for the help of his memory.

About April 1626, he was sent for by lord Kenmuir to Galloway, in
reference to a call to the parish of Anwoth, but some hindrance coming
in the way, this design was laid aside. In the harvest following, he
hearkened to another call to Torphichen, but this proved also

After this he went to the earl of Wigton's, where he stayed some time;
the most part of this summer he travelled from place to place, according
as he got invitations to preach, and especially at communions in Lanerk,
Irvine, Newmills, Kinniel, &c. He was also sometimes invited to preach
at the Shots; in that place, he says, he used to find more liberty in
preaching than elsewhere; yea, the only day in all his life wherein he
found most of the presence of God in preaching, he observes, was on a
monday after a communion at the kirk of Shots, June 21, 1630. The night
before he had been with some Christians, who spent the night in prayer
and conference; on the morning there came such a misgiving of spirit
upon him, in considering his own unworthiness and weakness, and the
expectation of the people, that he was consulting to have stolen away
somewhere, and declined that day's work; but thinking he could not so
distrust God, he went to sermon, where he got remarkable assistance in
speaking about one hour and a half from Ezekiel xxxvi. 25, 26. _Then
will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean, from all
your filthiness_, &c. Here he was led out in such a melting strain,
that, by the down-pouring of the Spirit from on high, a most discernible
change was wrought upon about 500 of the hearers, who could either date
their conversion or some remarkable confirmation from that day
forward[148]. Some little of that stamp, he says, remained on him the
Thursday after, when he preached at Kilmarnock; but on the Monday
following, preaching at Irvine, he was so deserted, that what he had
meditated upon, wrote, and kept fully in memory, he could not get
pronounced; which so discouraged him, that he was resolved not to preach
for some time, at least in Irvine, but Mr. Dickson would not suffer him
to go from thence, till he preached next sabbath, which he did with some

This summer, being in Irvine, he got letters from viscount Clanniboy to
come to Ireland, in reference to a call to Killinchie; and, seeing no
appearance of entering into the ministry in Scotland, he went thither,
and got an unanimous call from that parish. Here he laboured with the
utmost assiduity among that people, who were both rude and profane
before that, and they became the most experienced Christians in that
country. But he was not above a year here until the bishop of Down
suspended him and Mr. Blair for non-conformity. They remained deposed
until May 1632. when, by the intercession of lord Castle-Stuart, a
warrant was granted them from the king to be restored.

After this he was married to the eldest daughter of Bartholomew Fleming
merchant in Edinburgh, who was then in Ireland. In Nov. 1635, he was
again deposed by the bishop of Down, and a little after, by his orders,
excommunicated by one Mr. Melvil minister of Down. This winter, finding
no appearance of liberty either to ministers or professors from the
bondage of the prelates, he, with others of the deposed ministers, took
a resolution to go to New-England; upon which they built a ship for that
purpose, and when all things were ready, they, about the 9th of Sept.
loosed from Lochfergus; but a violent storm arising, they were driven
near the bank of Newfoundland, and were all in danger of being drowned,
and, after prayer and consultation, they were obliged to return back to
Lochfergus. After this he stayed in Ireland, until he heard that he and
Mr. Blair were to be apprehended; and then they went out of the way, and
came over to Scotland. When he came to Irvine, Mr. Dickson caused him
preach, for which he was called in question afterwards. Leaving Irvine,
he passed by Loudon and Lanerk to Edinburgh, where he continued some

About the beginning of March 1638, when the body of the land was about
to renew the national covenant, he was sent post to London with several
copies of the covenant, and letters to friends at court of both
nations; when he came there, Mr. Borthwick delivered the letters for
him; but he had been there but few days until he had word sent him from
the marquis of Hamilton, that he had overheard the king say, He was
come, but he should put a pair of fetters about his feet: whereupon,
fearing he should be taken in the post-way, he bought a horse, and came
home by St. Albans and the western way, and was present at Lanerk and
other places, when the covenant was read and sworn unto; and, excepting
at the kirk of Shots already noticed, he, as himself says, never saw
such motions from the Spirit of God, all the people so generally and
willingly concurring; yea, thousands of persons all at once lifting up
their hands, and the tears falling from their eyes; so that, through the
whole land, the people (a few papists and others who adhered to the
prelates excepted) universally entered into the covenant of God, for the
reformation of religion against prelates and their ceremonies.

After this _anno_ 1638, he got a call both from Stranrawer in Galloway,
and Straiton in Carrick, but he referred the matter to Messrs. Blair,
Dickson, Cant, Henderson, Rutherford and his father, who, having heard
both parties, advised him to Stranrawer; and he was received there by
the presbytery upon the 5th of July 1638. Here he remained, in the
faithful discharge of the ministry, until harvest 1648, that he was, by
the sentence of the general assembly, transported to Ancrum in
Teviotdale. When he came to Ancrum, he found the people very tractable,
but very ignorant, and some of them very loose in their carriage; and it
was a long time before any competent number of them were brought to such
a condition, that he could adventure to celebrate the Lord's supper; but
by his diligence, through the grace of God, some of them began to lay
religion to heart.

_Anno_ 1649, the parliament and church of Scotland had sent some
commissioners to treat with the king at the Hague, in order to his
admission; but they returned without satisfaction. Yet the parliament in
summer 1650, sent other commissioners to prosecute the foresaid treaty
at Breda; and the commission of the kirk chose Mr. Livingston and Mr.
Wood, and after that added Mr. Hutcheson to them, with the lords Cassils
and Brody as ruling elders, that in name of the church they should
present and prosecute their desires. Mr. Livingston was very unwilling
to go, and that for several reasons, the chief of which was, he still
suspected the king to be not right at heart in respect of the true
presbyterian religion, and notwithstanding, he saw that many in the
kingdom were ready to receive the king home upon any terms; but he was
prevailed on by Messrs. Dickson, James Guthrie, and Patrick Gillespie,
to go. After much conference and reasoning with the king at Breda, they
were not like to come to any conclusion; here he observed, that the king
still continued the use of the service-book and his chaplains, and was
many a night balling and dancing till near day. This, with many other
things, made him conclude there would be no blessing on that treaty; the
treaty, to his unspeakable grief, was at last concluded, and some time
after the king set sail for Scotland; but Mr. Livingston refused to go
aboard with them; so that when Brody and Mr. Hutcheson saw that they
could not prevail with him to come aboard, they desired him before
parting to come into the ship, to speak of some matters in hand, which
he did, and in the mean while, the boat that should have waited his
return, made straight for shore without him. After this the king agreed
with the commissioners to swear and subscribe the covenant, and it was
laid upon him to preach the next sabbath, and tender the covenants
national and solemn league, and take his oath thereon; but he, judging
that such a rash and precipitate swearing of the covenants would not be
for the honour of the cause they were embarked in, did all he could to
deter the king and commissioners from doing it until he came to
Scotland; but when nothing would dissuade the king from his resolution,
it was done; for the king performed every thing that could have been
required of him; upon which Mr. Livingston observed, that it seems to
have been the guilt not only of commissioners, but of the whole kingdom,
yea of the church also, who knew the terms whereupon he was to be
admitted to his government; and yet without any evidence of a real
change upon his heart, and without forsaking former principles, counsels
and company.

After they landed in Scotland, before he took his leave of the king at
Dundee, he used some freedom with him. After speaking somewhat to him
anent his carriage, he advised him, that as he saw the English army
approaching in a most victorious manner, he would divert the stroke by a
declaration, or some such way, wherein he needed not weaken his right to
the crown of England, and not prosecute his title at present by fire and
sword, until the storm blew over, and then perhaps they would be in a
better case to be governed, &c. But he did not relish this motion
well, saying he would not wish to sell his father's blood; which made
Mr. Livingston conclude, that either he was not called to meddle in
state matters, or else he should have little success. Another instance
of this he gives us, _anno_ 1654, when he and Mr. Patrick Gillespie and
Mr. Minzies were called up by the protector to London, where he proposed
to him, that he would take off the heavy fines, that were laid on
severals in Scotland, which they were unable to pay; he seemed to like
the motion, but when he proposed the overture to the council, they went
not into the purpose.

While at London, preaching before the protector, he mentioned the king
in prayer, whereat some were greatly incensed; but Cromwel knowing Mr.
Livingston's influence in Scotland, said, "Let him alone; he is a good
man; and what are we poor men in comparison of the kings of England?"

The general assembly appointed some ministers, and him among the rest,
to wait upon the army and the committee of estates that resided with
them; but the fear and apprehension of what ensued, kept him back from
going, and he went home until he got the sad news of the defeat at
Dumbar. After which Cromwel wrote to him from Edinburgh to come and
speak to him; but he excused himself. That winter the unhappy difference
fell out anent the public resolutions; his light carried him to join the
protestors against the resolutioners; and the assembly that followed
thereafter, he was present at their first meeting in the west at
Kilmarnock, and several other meetings of the protesting brethren
afterwards; but not being satisfied with keeping these meetings so
often, and continuing them so long, which he imagined made the breach
wider, he declined them for some time.

After this, he spent the rest of his time in the exercise of the
ministry, both at Ancrum and other places, until summer 1660, that news
was brought him that the king was called home, and then he clearly
foresaw that the overturning of the whole work of reformation would
ensue, and a trial to all who would adhere to the same. But _anno_ 1662,
when the parliament and council had, by proclamation, ordered all
ministers, who had come in since 1649, and had not kept the holy day of
the 29th of May, either to acknowledge the prelates or remove, he then
more clearly foresaw a storm approaching. At the last communion which he
had at Ancrum, in the month of October, he says, That after sermon on
Monday, it pleased the Lord to open his mouth, in a reasonably large
discourse anent the grounds and encouragements to suffer for the present
controversy of the kingdom of Christ, in the appointing the government
of his house; then he took his leave of that place, although he knew
nothing of what was shortly to follow after.

After he had, with Elijah, eaten before a great journey, having
communicated before he entered upon suffering, he heard in a little
time, of the council's procedure against him and about twelve or sixteen
others who were to be brought before them; he went presently to
Edinburgh (before the summons could reach him) and lurked there some
time, until he got certain information of the council's design, whether
they were for their life, like as was done with Mr. Guthrie, or only for
banishment, as was done with Mr. Mac Ward and Mr. Simpson; but, finding
that they intended only the last, he accordingly resolved to appear with
his brethren. He appeared Dec. 11, and was examined[149] before the
council; the sum of which came to this, That they required him to
subscribe or take the oath of allegiance, which he, upon several solid
grounds and reasons, refused; and sentence was pronounced, that in
forty-eight hours he should depart Edinburgh, and go to the north side
of Tay, and within two months depart out of all the king's dominions.
Accordingly he went from Edinburgh to Leith, and thereafter, upon a
petition in regard of his infirmity, he obtained liberty to stay there
until he should remove. He petitioned also for a few days to go home to
see his wife and children, but was refused; as also for an extract of
his sentence, but could not obtain it. _Anno_ 1663, he went aboard,
accompanied by several friends to the ship; they set sail, and in eight
days came to Rotterdam, where he found the rest of the banished
ministers there before him. Here he got frequent occasion of preaching
to the Scots congregation at Rotterdam; and in Dec. following, his wife,
with two of his children, came over to him, and the other five were left
in Scotland.

Here, upon a retrograde view of his life, he (in the foresaid historical
account) observes, that the Lord had given him a body not very strong,
and yet not weak; for he could hardly remember himself wearied in
reading and studying, although he had continued some seven or eight
hours without rising, and also that there was but two recreations that
he was in danger to be taken with; the first was hunting on horseback,
but this he had very little occasion of, yet he found it very inticing;
the other was, singing in concerts of music, wherein he had some skill,
and in which he took great delight. He says further, That he was always
short-sighted, and could not discern any person or thing afar off, but
hitherto he had found no occasion for spectacles, and could read small
print as long and with as little light almost as any other. And, as to
his inclination, he was generally soft and amorous, averse to debates,
rather given to laziness than rashness, and too easy to be wrought upon.
And, although he could not say what Luther affirmed of himself
concerning covetousness, yet he could say, that he had been less
troubled with covetousness and cares than many other evils, and rather
inclined to solitariness than company, and was much troubled with
wandering of mind and idle thoughts; and for outward things, he was
never rich (and although when in Killinchie he had not above four pounds
sterling of stipends a-year) yet he was never in want.

He further observes, that he could not remember any particular time of
conversion, or that he was much cast down or lifted up; only one night,
in the dean of Kilmarnock, having been, most of the day before, in
company with some people of Stuarton, who were under rare and sad
exercise of mind; he lay down under some heaviness, that he never had
such experience of; but, in the midst of his sleep, there came such a
terror of the wrath of God upon him, that if it had but increased a
little higher, or continued but a few minutes longer, he had been in a
most dreadful condition, but it was instantly removed, and he thought it
was said within his heart, See what a fool thou art to desire the thing
thou couldst not endure.--In his preaching he was sometimes much
deserted and cast down, and again at other times tolerably assisted. He
himself declares, That he never preached a sermon, excepting two, that
he would be earnest to see again in print; the first was at the kirk of
Shots (as was already noticed), and the other at a communion Monday at
Holywood in Ireland[150]; and both these times he had spent the night
before in conference and prayer with some Christians, without any more
than ordinary preparation.----For otherwise, says he, his gift was
rather suited to common people than to learned judicious auditors. He
had a tolerable insight in the Hebrew, Chaldee, and somewhat of the
Syriac languages; Arabic he did essay, but he soon dropped it.

He had as much of the French, Italian, Dutch and Spanish as enabled him
to make use of their books and bibles. It was thrice laid upon him by
the general assembly to write the history of the church of Scotland
since the reformation 1638: but this, for certain reasons, he had
altogether omitted.

The greater part of his time in Holland he spent in reducing the
original text unto a Latin translation of the bible; and for that
purpose compared Pagnin's with the original text, and with the later
translations, such as Munster, the Tigurine, Junius, Diodati, the
English, but especially the Dutch, which he thought was the most
accurate translation.

Whether by constant sitting at these studies, or for some other reasons,
the infirmities of old age creeping on, he could not determine, but
since the year 1664, there was such a continual pain contracted in his
bladder, that he could not walk abroad, and a shaking of his hands, that
he could scarcely write any; otherwise, he blessed the Lord that
hitherto he had found no great defection either of body or mind.

Thus he continued at Rotterdam until Aug. 9th, 1672, when he died. Some
of his last words were, "Carry my commendation to Jesus Christ, till I
come there myself;" after a pause he added, "I die in the faith, that
the truths of God, which he hath helped the church of Scotland to own,
shall be owned by him as truths so long as sun and moon endure, and that
independency, tho' there be good men and well-meaning professors of that
way, will be found more to the prejudice of the work of God than many
are aware of, for they evanish into vain opinions. I have had my own
faults as well as other men, but he made me always abhor shews. I have,
I know, given offence to many, through my slackness and negligence, but
I forgive and desire to be forgiven." After a pause, for he was not able
to speak much at a time, he said, "I would not have people to forecast
the worst, but there is a dark cloud above the reformed churches which
prognosticates a storm coming." His wife, fearing what shortly followed,
desired him to take leave of his friends; "I dare not (replied he, with
an affectionate tenderness), but it is like our parting will only be for
a short-time." And then he slept in the Lord.

Although it is usual with the most of men when writing their own account
(through modesty) to conceal their own parts, qualifications and other
abilities, yet here these things cannot be hid; for it is pretty
evident, that since our reformation commenced in Scotland, there has
been none whose labours in the gospel have been more remarkably blessed
with the down-pouring of the spirit in conversion-work, than great Mr.
Livingston's were; yea, it is a question, if any one, since the
primitive times, can produce so many convincing and confirming seals of
their ministry; as witness the kirk of Shots, and Holywood in Ireland,
at which two places, it is said that about 1500 souls were either
confirmed or converted and brought to Christ.

His works, besides his letter from Leith 1663, to his parishioners at
Ancrum, are, his memorable characteristics of divine providence, &c.
and a manuscript of his own life, of which this is an abbreviate. He
also (while in his Patmos of Holland) wrote a new Latin translation of
the old Testament, which was revised and approven of by Vossius,
Essenius, Nethneus, Leusden and other eminent lights of that time;
before his death, it was put into the hands of the last to be printed.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN SEMPLE._

Mr. John Semple was, for his exemplary walk and singular piety, had in
such esteem and veneration, that all ranks of people stood in awe of
him, and particularly the clergy, he being a great check upon the lazy
and corrupt part of them, who oftentimes were much afraid of him.----One
time, coming from Carsphairn to Sanquhar, being twelve miles of a rough
way, on a Monday morning, after the sacrament, the ministers, being
still in bed, got up in all haste, to prevent his reproof; but he,
perceiving them putting on their cloaths, said, "What will become of the
sheep, when the shepherds sleep so long; in my way hither, I saw some
shepherds on the hills looking after their flocks."--Which, considering
his age, and early journey so many miles, after he had preached the day
before at home, had much influence on them, and made them somewhat

He was one who very carefully attended church-judicatories, from which
he was seldom absent, and that from a principle of conscience; so that
almost no impediment could hinder him in his purposes; for one time
going to the presbytery of Kirkudbright, twenty miles distant from
Carsphairn, when about to ford the water of Dee, he was told by some
that it was impassable, yet he persisted, saying, "I must go through, if
the Lord will; I am going about his work."----He entered in, and the
strength of the current carried him and his horse beneath the ford; he
fell from the horse, and stood upright in the water, and taking off his
hat, prayed a word; after which he and the horse got safely out, to the
admiration of all the spectators there present.

He was also a man much given to secret prayer, and ordinarily prayed in
the kirk before sacramental occasions, and oftentimes set apart Friday
in wrestling with the Lord for his gracious presence on communion
sabbaths; and was often favoured with merciful returns, to the great
comfort of both ministers and people; and would appoint a week day
thereafter for thanksgiving to God.

As he was one faithful and laborious in his Master's service, so he was
also most courageous and bold, having no respect of persons, but did
sharply reprove all sorts of wickedness in the highest as well as in the
lowest, and yet he was so convincingly a man of God, that the most
wicked (to whom he was a terror) had a kindness for him, and sometimes
spoke very favourably of him, as one who wished their souls well;
insomuch as one time, some persons of quality calling him a varlet,
another person of quality (whom he had often reproved for his
wickedness) being present, said, he was sure if he was a varlet he was
one of God's varlets, &c. At another time, when a certain gentleman,
from whose house he was going home, sent one of the rudest of his
servants, well furnished, with a horse, broad sword and loaded pistols,
to attack him in a desert place in the night time; and the servant was
ordered to do all that he could to fright him.--Accordingly he surprized
him with holding a pistol to his breast, bidding him render up his purse
under pain of being shot; but, Mr. Semple, with much presence of mind
(although he knew nothing of the pre-conceit), answered, It seems you
are a wicked man, who will either take my life or my purse, if God gives
you leave; as for my purse, it will not do you much service, though you
had it; and for my life, I am willing to lay it down when and where God
pleaseth; however if you will lay bye your weapons I will wrestle a
fall with you for my life, which if you be a man, you cannot refuse,
seeing I have no weapons to fight with you.----In short, after many
threats (though all in vain), the servant discovered the whole plot, and
asked him, If he was not at the first afraid?--Not in the least,
answered he, for although you had killed me, as I knew not but you
might, I was sure to get the sooner to heaven; and then they parted.

Mr. Semple was a man who knew much of his Master's mind, as evidently
appears by his discovering of several future events:--for on a time when
news came, that Cromwel and those with him were upon the trial of
Charles I. some persons asked him, What he thought would become of the
king? He went to his closet a little, and coming back he said to them,
The king is gone, he will neither do us good nor ill any more; which of
a truth came to pass. At another time, passing by the house of Kenmuir,
as the masons were making some additions thereunto, he said, Lads, ye
are busy, enlarging and repairing the house, but it will be burnt like a
crow's nest in a misty morning, which accordingly came to pass, for it
was burnt in a dark misty morning by the English.

Upon a certain time, when a neighbouring minister was distributing
tokens before the sacrament, and when reaching a token to a certain
woman, Mr. Semple (standing by) said, Hold your hand, she hath gotten
too many tokens already; she is a witch;----which, though none suspected
her then, she herself confessed to be true, and was deservedly put to
death for the same. At another time, a minister in the shire of
Galloway, sending one of his elders to Mr. Semple, with a letter,
earnestly desiring his help at the sacrament, which was to be in three
weeks after; he read the letter, and went to his closet, and coming
back, he said to the elder, I am sorry you have come so far on a
needless errand; go home and tell your minister, he hath had all the
communions that ever he will have; for he is guilty of fornication, and
God will bring it to light ere that time.--This likewise came to pass.
He often said to a person of quality (my lord Kenmuir) that he was a
rough wicked man, for which God would shake him over hell before he
died; and yet God would give him his soul for a prey: which had its
accomplishment at last, to the no small comfort and satisfaction of all
his near and dear relations.

When some Scots regiments, in the year 1648, in their march through
Carsphairn for Preston in England to the duke's engagement (as it was
commonly called) and hearing that the sacrament was to be dispensed
there next Lord's day, some of the soldiers put up their horses in the
kirk, and went to the manse, and destroyed the communion elements in a
most profane manner, Mr. Semple being then from home. The next day he
complained to the commanding officer, in such a pathetical manner
representing the horrible vileness of such an action, that the officer
not only regretted the action, but also gave money for furnishing them
again:--he moreover told them, He was sorry for the errand they were
going upon, for it would not prosper, and the profanity of that army
would ruin them. About or after this, he went up to a hill and prayed;
and being interrogated by some acquaintances, What answer he got? He
replied, That he had fought with neither small nor great, but with the
duke himself, whom he never left until he was beheaded:--which was too
sadly verified[151].

His painful endeavours were blest with no small success, especially at
sacramental occasions, and this the devil envied very much; and
particularly one time, among many, which he designed to administer the
Lord's supper, before which he assured the people of a great communion,
by a gracious and remarkable down-pouring of the Spirit, but that the
devil would be envious about this good work, and that he was afraid he
would be permitted to raise a storm or speat of rain, designing to drown
some of them: but, said he, it shall not be in his power to drown any of
you, no, not so much as a dog. Accordingly it came to pass on Monday,
when he was dismissing the people, they saw a man all in black entering
the water a little above them, at which they were amazed, as the water
was very large. He lost his feet (as they apprehended) and came down on
his back, waving his hand; the people ran and got ropes, and threw them
in to him; and there were ten or twelve men upon the ropes, yet they
were in danger of being all drawn into the water and drowned--Mr. Semple
looking on, cried, Quit the rope, and let him go; I see who it is; it is
the devil, he will burn but not drown, and by drowning of you would have
God dishonoured, because he hath got some glory to his free grace in
being King to many of your souls at this time, and the wicked world to
reproach the work of God, &c. All search was made in that country to
find if any man was lost, but none was heard of, which made them
conclude it to be the devil.

Mr. Semple, being one of the faithful protestors, in the year 1657, was
apprehended with the famous Mr. James Guthrie at Edinburgh in Aug. 1660,
and after ten months imprisonment in the castle, was brought before the
bloody council, who threatened him severely with death and banishment;
but he answered with boldness, My God will not let you either kill or
banish me, but I will go home and die in peace, and my dust will lie
among the bodies of my people; accordingly he was dismissed, and went
home, and entered his pulpit, saying, I parted with thee too easy but I
shall hing by the wicks of thee now. It was some time after the
restoration, that, while under his hidings, being one night in bed with
another minister, the backside of the bed falling down to the ground,
the enemy came and carried away the other minister, but got not
him:--which was a most remarkable deliverance.

Lastly, He was so concerned for the salvation of his people, that when
on his death-bed, he sent for them, and preached to them with such
fervency, shewing them their miserable state by nature, and their need
of a Saviour, expressing his sorrow to leave many of them as graceless
as he got them, with so much vehemency as made many of them weep

He died at Carsphairn (about the year 1677, being upwards of seventy
years of age) in much assurance of heaven, often longing to be there,
rejoicing in the God of his salvation; and that under great impressions
of dreadful judgments to come on these covenanted sinning lands; and
when scarce able to speak, he cried three times over, A popish sword for
thee, O Scotland, England, and Ireland! &c.

_The Life of Mr. JAMES MITCHEL._

Mr. James Mitchel[152] was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and
was, with some other of his fellow-students, made master of arts _anno_
1656. Mr. Robert Leighton (afterwards bishop Leighton), being then
principal of that college, before the degree was conferred upon them,
tendered to them the national and solemn league and covenant; which
covenants, upon mature deliberation, he took, finding nothing in them
but a short compend of the moral law, binding to our duty towards God
and towards man in their several stations, and taking the king's
interest to be therein included, when others were taking the tender to
Oliver Cromwel, he subscribed the oath of allegiance to the king; but
how he was repaid for this, after the restoration, the following account
will more fully discover.

Mr. Mitchel, having received a licence to preach the gospel, very soon
after the restoration, was, with the rest of his faithful brethren,
reduced to many hardships and difficulties. I find (says a historian)
Mr. Trail minister at Edinburgh _anno_ 1661, recommending him to some
ministers in Galloway as a good youth, that had not much to subsist
upon, and as fit for a school, or teaching gentlemen's children[153].
There being no door of access then to the ministry for him, or any such,
when prelacy was on such an advance in Scotland.

But whether he employed himself in this manner, or if he preached on
some occasions, where he could have the best opportunity, we have no
certain account; only we find he joined with that faithful handful who
rose in 1666, but was not at the engagement at Pentland[154], being sent
in by captain Arnot to Edinburgh the day before, upon some necessary
business, on such an emergent occasion.--However, he was excepted from
the indemnity in the several lists for that purpose.

After Pentland affair, in the space of six weeks, Mr. Mitchel went
abroad, in the trading way, to Flanders, and was for some time upon the
borders of Germany, after which he, in the space of three quarters of a
year, returned home (with some Dutchmen of Amsterdam), having a cargo of
different sorts of goods, which took some time up before he got them all
sold off.

Mr. Mitchel, being now excluded from all mercy or favour from the
government, and having not yet laid down arms, and taking the
arch-bishop of St. Andrews to be the main instigator of all the
oppression and bloodshed of his faithful brethren, took up a resolution
_anno_ 1668, to dispatch him, and for that purpose, upon the 11th of
July, he waited the bishop's coming down in the afternoon to his coach,
at the head of black friar's wynd in Edinburgh, and with him was
Honeyman bishop of Orkney.----When the arch-bishop had entered, and
taken his seat in the coach, Mr. Mitchel stepped straight to the north
side of the coach, and discharged a pistol (loaded with three balls) in
at the door thereof; that moment Honeyman set his foot in the boot of
the coach, and reaching up his hand to step in, received the shot
designed for Sharp in the wrist of his hand, and the primate escaped.
Upon this, Mr. Mitchel crossed the street with much composure, till he
came to Niddry's wynd-head, where a man offered to stop him, to whom he
presented a pistol, upon which he let him go; he stepped down the wynd,
and up Steven Law's closs, went into a house, changed his cloaths, and
came straight to the street, as being the place where, indeed, he would
be least suspected. The cry arose, that a man was killed; upon which
some replied, It was only a bishop, and all was very soon calmed. Upon
Monday the 13, the council issued out a proclamation offering a reward
of five thousand merks to any that would discover the actor, and pardon
to accessories; but nothing more at that time ensued.

The managers, and those of the prelatical persuasion, made a mighty
noise and handle of this against the presbyterians, whereas this deed
was his only, without the knowledge or pre-concert of any, as he himself
in a letter declares; yea, with a design to bespatter the Presbyterian
church of Scotland, a most scurrilous pamphlet was published at London,
not only reflecting on our excellent reformers from popery, publishing
arrant lies anent Mr. Alexander Henderson, abusing Mr. David Dickson,
and breaking jests upon the remonstrators and presbyterians (as they
called them), but also, in a most malicious and groundless kind of
rhapsody, slandering Mr. Mitchel.

After this Mr. Mitchel shifted the best way he could, until the
beginning of the year 1674.; he was discovered by Sir William Sharp, the
bishop's brother, and ere ever Mr. Mitchel was aware, he caused a
certain number of his servants (armed for that purpose) lay hold on him,
and apprehend and commit him to prison; and on the 10th of February was
examined by the lord chancellor, lord register and lord Halton; he
denied the assassination of the arch-bishop, but being taken apart by
the chancellor, he confessed (that it was he who shot the bishop of
Orkney while aiming at the arch-bishop), upon assurance of his life,
given by the chancellor in these words, "Upon my great oath and
reputation, if I be chancellor, I shall save your life." On the 12th he
was examined before the council, and said nothing but what he had said
before the committee. He was remitted to the justice-court to receive
his indictment and sentence, which was, To have his right hand struck
off at the cross of Edinburgh, and his goods forfeited; which last part
was not to be executed, till his majesty had got notice; because, says
lord Halton, in a letter to earl Kincardine, assurance of life was given
him upon his confession.

However, he was, on the second of March, brought before the lords
judiciary, and indicted for being concerned at Pentland, and for the
attempt on the arch-bishop of St Andrews; but he pleaded not guilty, and
insisted that the things alledged against him should be proved: The
lords postponed the affair till the 25th; meanwhile, the council made an
act March 12, specifying that Mr. James Mitchel confessed his firing the
pistol at the arch-bishop of St. Andrews, upon assurance given him of
life by one of the committee, who had a warrant from the lord
commissioner and secret council to give the same, and therefore did
freely confess, &c. In the said act it was declared, That, on account
of his refusing to adhere to his confession, the promises made to him
were void, and that the lords of justiciary and jury ought to proceed
against him, without any regard to these. About the 25, he was brought
before the justiciary; but as there was no proof against him, they with
consent of the advocate protracted the affair, and he was again remanded
to prison.

Thus he continued until Jan. 6th, 1676, that he was ordered to be
examined before the council by torture, concerning his being in the
rebellion (as they formed it) in the year 1666. Accordingly he was
brought before them upon the 18th, about six o'clock at
night;--Linlithgow, being preses, told him, He was brought before them
to see whether he would adhere to his former confession.--He answered,
"My lord, it is not unknown to your lordship, and others here present,
that, by the council's order, I was remitted to the lords of justiciary,
before whom I received an indictment at my lord advocate's instance,
&c. to which indictment I answered at three several diets, and at the
last diet, being deserted by my lord advocate, I humbly conceive, that,
both by the law of the nation, and the practice of this court, I ought
to have been set at liberty; yet notwithstanding, I was, contrary to
law, equity and justice, returned to prison; And upon what account I am
this night before you, I am ignorant." The preses told him, He was only
called to see if he would own his former confession.--He replied, "He
knew no crime he was guilty of, and therefore made no such confession as
he alledged." Upon this, the treasurer depute said, The pannel was one
of the most arrogant liars and rogues he had known.--Mr. Mitchel
replied, "My lord, if there were fewer of these persons, you have been
speaking of, in the nation, I should not be standing this night at the
bar; but my lord advocate knoweth, that what is alledged against me is
not my confession." The preses said, Sir, we will cause a sharper thing
make you confess.--He answered, "My lord, I hope you are Christians and
not pagans." Then he was returned to prison.

On the 22d, he was again called before them, to see if he would own his
former confession, and a paper produced, alledged to be subscribed by
him; but he would not acknowledge the same. The preses said, You see
what is upon the table (meaning the boots), I will see if that will make
you do it. Mr. Mitchel answered, "My lord, I confess, that, by torture,
you may cause me to blaspheme God, as Saul did compel the saints; you
may compel me to speak amiss of your lordships; to call myself a thief,
a murderer, &c. and then pannel me on it: But if you shall here put me
to it, I protest before God and your lordships, that nothing extorted
from me by torture, shall be made use of against me in judgment, nor
have any force in law against me, or any other person. But to be plain
with you, my lords, I am so much of a Christian, that whatever your
lordships shall legally prove against me, if it be truth, I shall not
deny it;--but, on the contrary, I am so much of a man, and a Scotsman,
that I never held myself obliged, by the law of God, nature and nations,
to be my own accuser." The treasurer-depute said, He had the devil's
logic, and sophisticated like him: ask him whether that be his
subscription. Mr. Mitchel replied, I acknowledge no such thing; and he
was sent back to prison.

Upon the 24th, they assembled in their robes in the inner parliament
house, and the boots and executioner were presented. Mr. Mitchel was
again interrogated, as above, but still persisting, he was ordered to
the torture. And he, knowing that, after the manner of the Spanish
inquisition, the more he confessed, either concerning himself or others,
the more severe the torture would be, to make him confess the more,
delivered himself in this manner:--"My lord, I have been now these two
full years in prison, and more than one of them in bolts and fetters,
which hath been more intolerable to me than many deaths, if I had been
capable thereof; and it is well known, that some in a shorter time have
been tempted to make away with themselves; but respect and obedience to
the express law and command of God hath made me to undergo all these
hardships, and I hope this torture with patience also, _viz._ that for
the preservation of my own life and the life of others, as far as lies
in my power; and to keep innocent blood off your lordships persons and
families, which, by shedding of mine, you would doubtless bring upon
yourselves and posterity, and wrath from the Lord to the consuming
thereof, till there should be no escaping; and now again I protest,
&c. as above: When you please, call for the man appointed for the
work." The executioner being called, he was tied in a two armed chair,
and the boot brought; the executioner asked which of the legs he should
take; the lords bade him take any of them; the executioner laying the
left in the boot, Mr. Mitchel, lifting it out again, said, "Since the
judges have not determined, take the best of the two, for I freely
bestow it in the cause;" and so laid his right leg into the engine.
After which the advocate asked leave to speak but one word, but
notwithstanding, insisted at a great length; to which Mr. Mitchel
answered, "The advocate's word or two hath multiplied to so many, that
my memory cannot serve, in the condition wherein I am (the torture
being begun) to resume them in particular; but I shall essay to answer
the scope of his discourse; whereas he hath been speaking of the
sovereignty of the magistrate, I shall go somewhat further than he hath
done, and own that the magistrate whom God hath appointed, is God's
depute; both the throne and the judgment are the Lord's, when he judgeth
for God and according to his law; and a part of his office is to deliver
the poor oppressed out of the hand of the oppressor, and shed no
innocent blood, Jerem. xxii. 3, &c. And whereas the advocate hath been
hinting at the sinfulness of lying on any account; it is answered, that
not only lying is sinful, but also a pernicious speaking of the truth,
is a horrid sin before the Lord, when it tendeth to the shedding of
innocent blood; witness the case of Doeg, Psalm lii. compared with 2
Sam. xxii. 9. But what my lord advocate hath forged against me is false,
so that I am standing upon my former ground, _viz._ the preservation of
my own life, and the life of others, as far as lies in my power, the
which I am expressly commanded by the Lord of hosts."

Then the clerk's servant, being called, interrogated him in the torture,
in upwards of thirty questions, which were all in write, of which the
following are of the most importance.

Are you that Mr. James Mitchel who was excepted out of the king's grace
and favour?

_A._ I never committed any crime deserving to be excluded.

_Q._ Were you at Pentland?

_A._ No.

_Q._ Were you at Ayr, and did you join with the rebels there?

_A._ I never joined with any such.

_Q._ Where was you at the time of Pentland?

_A._ In Edinburgh.

_Q._ When did you know of their rising in arms?

_A._ When the rest of the city knew of it.

_Q._ Where did you meet with James Wallace?

_A._ I knew him not at that time.

_Q._ Did you go out of town with captain Arnot?

_A._ No.

The other questions were anent his going abroad, &c. He perceived that
they intended to catch him in a contradiction, or to find any who would
witness against him.--At the beginning of the torture he said, "My
lords, not knowing that I shall escape this torture with my life,
therefore, I beseech you to remember what Solomon saith, _He who sheweth
no mercy, shall have judgment without mercy_, &c.--And now, my lords, I
do freely, from my heart, forgive you, who are sitting judges upon the
bench, and the men who are appointed to be about this horrible piece of
work, and also those who are vitiating their eyes in beholding the same;
and I intreat that God may never lay it to the charge of any of you, as
I beg God may be pleased for Christ's sake to blot out my sins and
iniquities, and never to lay them to my charge here nor hereafter."

All this being over, the executioner took down his leg from a chest
whereon it was lying all the time in the boot, and set both on the
ground; and thrusting in the shelves to drive the wedges, began his
strokes; at every one of which, enquiring if he had any more to say, or
would say any more; Mr. Mitchel answered no; and they continued to nine
strokes upon the head of the wedges; at length he fainted, through the
extremity of pain at which the executioner cried, Alas! my lords, he is
gone! then they stopped the torture and went off; and in a little time,
when recovered, he was carried, in the same chair, to the tolbooth.

It is indeed true that Mr. Mitchel made a confession, upon the promise
of his life; but the managers, having revoked their promise, because he
would not adhere to his confession before the justiciary, (being advised
by some friends not to trust too much to that promise) and be his own
accuser. "The reader must determine (says a very impartial
historian[155]) how far he was to blame now, in not owning his
confession judicially, as they had judicially revoked the condition upon
which the confession was made, and to put a man to torture for finding
out things, for which they had not the least proof, seems to be
unprecedented and cruel, and to bring him to a farther trial appears to
be unjust." For as another author has well observed, "That when a
confession or promise is made upon a condition, and that condition is
judicially rescinded, the obligation of the promise or confession is
taken away, and both parties are _statu quo_, Josh. ii. 14, &c. That,
in many cases it is lawful to conceal and obscure a necessary duty, and
divert enemies from a pursuit of it for a time. 1 Sam. xvi. 1, 2. xx. 5,
6. Jer. xxxviii. 24, &c. That when an open enemy perverts and
overturns the very nature and matter of a discourse or confession, by
leaving out the most material truths, and putting in untruths and
circumstances in their room, it no longer is the former discourse or
confession, &c. That when a person is brought before a limited
judicatory, &c. before whom nothing was ever confessed or proven, the
person may justly stand to his defence, and put his enemies to bring in
proof against him, &c."

After this Mr. Mitchel continued in prison till the beginning of next
year, when he and Mr. Frazer of Brae were with a party of twelve horse
and thirty foot, sent to the Bass, where he remained till about the 6th
of Dec. when he was again brought to Edinburgh, in order for his trial
and execution; which came on upon the 7th of Jan. 1678. On the third of
the month Sir George Lockhart and Mr. John Ellis were appointed to plead
for the pannel; but Sharp would have his life, and Lauderdale gave way
to it. Sir Archibald Primrose, lately turned out of the register's
place, took a copy of the council's act anent Mr. Mitchel, and sent it
to this council; and a day or two before the trial, went to Lauderdale,
who, together with lord Rothes, lord Halton and Sharp, was summoned: The
prisoner's witness, Primrose, told Lauderdale, That he thought a promise
of life had been given----The latter denied it----The former wished that
that act of the council might be looked into----Lauderdale said, He
would not give himself the trouble to look over the book of council.

When his trial came on, the great proof was, his confession, Feb. 16.
1674.; many and long were the reasons upon the points of the indictment.
Sir George Lockhart[156] argued in behalf of the prisoner with great
learning, to the admiration of the audience, That no extra-judicial
confession could be allowed in court, and that his confession was
extorted from him by hopes and promises of life. The debates were so
tedious that the court adjourned to the 9th of January; the replies and
duplies are too tedious to be inserted here: The reader will find them
at large elsewhere.[157]

The witnesses being examined, lord Rothes (being shewn Mr. Mitchel's
confession) swore that he was present, and saw him subscribe that paper,
and heard him make that confession, but that he did not at all give any
assurance to the prisoner for his life; nor did he remember that there
was any warrant given by the council to his lordship for that effect,
&c. Halton and Lauderdale swore much to the same purpose; but the
arch-bishop swore, that he knew him, at the very first sight at the bar,
to be the person who shot at him, &c. But that he either gave him
assurance or a warrant to any to give it, was a false and malicious
calumny. That his grace gave no promise to Nichol Somerville, other than
that it was his interest to make a free confession. This Nichol
Somerville, Mr. Mitchel's brother-in-law, offered, in court, to depone,
That the arch-bishop promised to him to secure his life, if he would
prevail with him to confess. The arch-bishop denied this, and called it
a villainous lie. Several other depositions were taken; such as Sir
William Paterson, Mr. John Vanse, and the bishop of Galloway, who all
swore in Sharp's favour, it being dangerous for them, at this juncture,
to do otherwise.

After the witnesses were examined, the advocate declared he had closed
the probation; whereupon Mr Mitchel produced a copy of an act of council
March 12th, 1674, praying that the register might be produced, or the
clerk obliged to give extracts; but this they refused to
do.----"Lockhart (says Burnet[158]) pleaded for this, but Lauderdale,
who was only a witness, and had no right to speak, refused, and so it
was neglected."

The assize was inclosed, and ordered to return their verdict to-morrow
afternoon, which being done, the sentence was pronounced, "That the said
Mr. James Mitchel should be taken to the grass-market of Edinburgh, upon
Friday the 18th of Jan. instant, betwixt two and four o'clock, in the
afternoon, and there to be hanged on a gibbet till he be dead, and all
his moveables, goods and gear escheat, and in-brought to his majesty's
use, &c." No sooner did the court break up, than the lords, being
upstairs found the act recorded, and signed by lord Rothes the president
of the council. 'This action' says the last-cited historian, 'and all
concerned in it, were looked on by all the people with horror, and it
was such a complication of treachery, perjury and cruelty, as the like
had not perhaps been known.'

Two days after the sentence, orders came from court, for placing Mr.
Mitchel's head and hands on some public place of the city; but the
sentence being passed, no alteration could be made; and if Sharp had any
hand in this, he missed his end and design. About the same time, his
wife petitioned the council, that her husband might be reprieved for
some time, that she might be in case to see and take her last farewel of
him, especially as it was not above twelve days since she was delivered
of a child, and presently affected with a fever; but no regard was paid
to this: The sentence must be executed[159].

While he was in prison, he emitted a most faithful and large
testimony[160]. In the first place, testifying against all profanity.
Then he gives the cause of his suffering, in the words of Elijah, 1
Kings xix. 14. _I have been very zealous for the Lord of hosts_, &c. He
adheres to the covenanted work of reformation and the covenant; approves
of _lex rex_, the causes of God's wrath, apologetical relation,
Naphtali, _jus populi_, &c. Afterwards he speaks of magistracy in these
words, "I believe magistracy to be an ordinance and appointment of God,
as well under the new Testament as it was under the old; and that
whosoever resisteth the lawful magistrate in the exercise of his lawful
power, resisteth the ordinance and appointment of God, Rom. xiii. 1.
&c. 1 Pet. ii. 13. Deut. xvii. 15, &c. The lawful magistrate must he
a man qualified according to God's appointment, and not according to the
people's lust and pleasure, lest in the end he should prove to them a
prince of Sodom and governor of Gomorrah, whom God, in his
righteousness, should appoint for their judgment, and establish for
their correction, &c." Then he comes to be most explicit in testifying
against the givers and receivers of the indulgence, as an incroachment
on Christ's crown and prerogative royal, &c.; protests before God,
angels and men, against all acts made anywise derogative to the work of
God and reformation; likewise protests against all banishments,
imprisoning, finings and confinements that the people of God had been
put to these years by-past; describing the woful state and condition of
malignants, and all the enemies of Jesus Christ. And in the last place
speaks very fervently anent his own sufferings, state and condition,
which he begins to express in these words, "Now if the Lord, in his wise
and over-ruling providence, bring me to the close of my pilgrimage, to
the full enjoyment of my long-looked for and desired happiness, let him
take his own way and time in bringing me to it. And in the mean time, O
thou my soul I sing thou this song, Spring thou up, O well of thy
happiness and salvation, of thy eternal hope and consolation; and whilst
thou art burdened with this clogg of clay and tabernacle, dig thou deep
in it by faith, hope and charity, and with all the instruments that God
hath given thee; dig in it by precepts and promises; dig carefully, and
dig continually; ay and until thou come to the source and head of the
Fountain himself, from whence the water of life floweth: Dig until thou
come to the assembly of the first-born, where this song is most suitably
sung, to the praise and glory of the rich grace and mercy of the
Fountain of life, &c." And a little farther, when speaking of his
mortification to the world, and other sweet experiences, he says, "And
although, O Lord, thou shouldst send me in the back track and tenor of
my life, to seek my soul's comfort and encouragement from them, yet I
have no cause to complain of hard dealing from thy hand, seeing it is
thy ordinary way with some of thy people, Psalm xlii. 6. _O God, my soul
is cast down in me, from the land of Jordan and the hill Hermon_, &c.
Yea, though last, he brought me to the banquetting house, and made love
his banner over me, among the cold highland hills beside Kippen Nov.
1673. He remembered his former loving kindness towards me; but withal he
spoke in mine ear, that there was a tempestuous storm to meet me in the
face, which I behoved to go through, in the strength of that provision,
1 Kings xix. 7." Then, after the reciting of several scriptures, as
comforting to him in his sufferings, he comes at last to conclude with
these words, "And seeing I have not preferred nor sought after mine own
things, but thy honour and glory, the good liberty and safety of thy
church and people; although it be now misconstructed by many, yet I hope
that thou, Lord, wilt make thy light to break forth as the morning, and
my righteousness as the noon-day and that shame and darkness shall cover
all who are enemies to my righteous cause: For thou, O Lord, art the
shield of my head, and sword of my excellency; and mine enemies shall be
found liars, and shall be subdued. Amen, yea and Amen.

_Sic subscribitur_, JAMES MITCHEL."

Accordingly, upon the 18th of Jan. he was taken to the grass-market of
Edinburgh, and the sentence put in execution. In the morning he
delivered some copies of what he had to say, if permitted, at his death;
but not having liberty to deliver this part of his vindicatory speech to
the people, he threw it over the scaffold, the substance of which was as

"_Christian people_,

"It being rumoured abroad, immediately after I received my sentence,
that I would not have liberty to speak in this place, I have not
troubled myself to prepare any formal discourse, on account of the
pretended crime for which I am accused and sentenced; neither did I
think it very necessary, the same of the process having gone so much
abroad, what by a former indictment given me near four years ago, the
diet of which was suffered to desert, in respect the late advocate could
not find a just way to reach me with the extra-judicial confession they
opponed to me; all knew he was zealous in it, yet my charity to him is
such, that he would not suffer that unwarrantable zeal so far to blind
him, as to overstretch the laws of the land beyond their due limits, in
prejudice of the life of a native subject; next by an extreme inquiry of
torture, and then by exiling me to the bass; and then, after all by
giving me a new indictment at the instance of the new advocate, who,
before, was one of mine, when I received the first indictment; to which
new indictment and debate in the process, I refer you; and particularly
to these two defences of an extra-judicial confession, and the promise
of life given to me by the chancellor, upon his own and the public faith
of the kingdom; upon the verity thereof I am content to die, and ready
to lay down my life, and hope your charity to me a dying man will be
such as not to mistrust me therein; especially since it is notoriously
adminiculate by an act of secret council, and yet denied upon oath by
the principal officers of state present in council at the making of said
act, and whom the act bears to have been present: the duke of
Lauderdale, being then his majesty's commissioner, was likewise
present;----and which act of council was, by the lords of justiciary,
most unjustly repelled, &c. Thus much for a short account of the
affair for which I am unjustly brought to this place; but I acknowledge
my private and particular sins have been such as have deserved a worse
death to me; but I hope in the merits of Jesus Christ to be freed from
the eternal punishment due to me for sin. I am confident that God doth
not plead with me in this place, for my private and particular sins, but
I am brought here that the work of God may be made manifest, and for the
trial of faith, John ix. 3, 1 Pet. i. 7. That I might be a witness for
his despised truths and interest in this land, where I am called to seal
the same with my blood; and I wish heartily that this my poor life may
put an end to the persecution of the true members of Christ in this
place, so much actuated by these perfidious prelates, in opposition to
whom, and testimony to the cause of Christ, I at this time lay down my
life, and bless God that he hath thought me so much worthy as to do the
same, for his glory and interest. Finally, Concerning a christian duty,
in a singular and extraordinary case, and anent my particular judgment,
concerning both church and state, it is evidently declared and
manifested elsewhere. Farewell all earthly enjoyments, and welcome
Father, Son and Holy Ghost, into whose hands I commit my spirit.


Here we have heard the end of the zealous and faithful Mr. James
Mitchel, who, beyond all doubt, was a most pious man, notwithstanding
all the foul aspersions that have been, or will be cast upon him (not
only by malignant prelates, but even by the high fliers, or more
corrupted part of the presbyterian persuasion) namely, on account of his
firing at bishop Sharp; which, they think, is enough to explode, affront
or bespatter all the faithful contendings of the true reformed and
covenanted church of Scotland. But in this Mr. Mitchel stands in need of
little or no vindication; for by this time the reader may perceive, that
he looked upon himself as in a state of war, and that, as Sharp was
doubtless one of the chief instigators of the tyranny, bloodshed and
oppression in that dismal period, he therefore, no doubt, thought he had
a right to take every opportunity of cutting him off, especially as all
the ways of common justice were blocked up; yet all this opens no door
for every private person, at their own hand, to execute justice on an
open offender, where there is access to a lawful magistrate appointed
for that end. Yea what he himself saith anent this affair, in a letter
dated Feb. 1674. may be sufficient to stop the mouths of all that have
or may oppose the same, a few words of which may be subjoined to this
narrative; where, after he has resumed what passed betwixt him and the
chancellor, he says, that as to his design against Sharp, "He looked up
him to be the main instigator of all the oppression and bloodshed of his
brethren, that followed thereupon, and of the continual pursuing of his
life; and he being a soldier, not having laid down arms, but being still
upon his own defence, and having no other end or quarrel at any man but
what (according to his apprehension of him) may be understood by the
many thousands of the faithful, besides the prosecution of the ends of
the same covenant, which was and is in that point, the overthrow of
prelates and prelacy, and he being a declared enemy to him on that
account, and he to him in like manner; and as he was always to take his
advantage, as it appeared, so he took of him any opportunity that
offered----For," says he, "I, by his instigation, being excluded from
all grace and favour, thought it my duty to pursue him at all occasions,
&c." And a little farther he instances in Deut. xiii. 19. where the
seducer or inticer to a false worship is to be put to death, and that by
the hand of the witness, whereof he was one; takes notice of Phinehas,
Elijah, &c.; and then observes, that the bishops would say, what they
did was by law and authority, but what he did was contrary to both; but
he answers, The king himself and all the estates of the land, &c. both
were and are obliged by the oath of God upon them, to extirpate the
perjured prelates and prelacy, and, in doing thereof, to have defended
one another with their lives and fortunes, &c.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN WELWOOD._

Mr. John Welwood, born about the year 1649, was son to Mr. James
Welwood, sometime minister at Tindergirth (and brother to Mr. Andrew
Welwood and James Welwood doctor of medicine at London). After he had
gone through the ordinary courses of learning he entered on the
ministry, and afterwards preached in many places, but we do not hear
that he was ever settled minister in any parish, it being then a time
when all who intended any honesty or faithfulness in testifying against
the sins and defections of the times, were thrust out of the church and
prosecuted with the greatest extremity. It is said, that he preached
some five or six sermons in the parish where his father was minister,
which were blessed with more discernible effects of good amongst that
people than all the diligent painfulness his father had exercised in the
time he was minister of that parish.

And besides his singular piety and faithfulness in preaching, he was a
most fervent presser to all the duties of the christian life,
particularly to the setting up and keeping of fellowship and society
meetings, for prayer and christian conference, which he often frequented
himself. One time, among several others, at the new house in Livingston
parish, after the night was far spent, he said, Let one pray, and be
short that we may win to our apartments before it be light; it was the
turn of one who exceeded many in gifts.----But before he ended it was
day-light within the house. After prayer he said, James, James, your
gifts have the start of your graces: And to the rest he said, Be
advised, all of you, not to follow him in all times and in all things,
otherwise there will be many ins and many outs in your tract and walk.

_Anno_ 1677, there was an Erastian meeting of the actually indulged and
non-indulged, procured by the indulged and their favourites, in order to
get unity made and kept up (but rather in reality a conspiracy without
any truth, unity or veracity among these backsliders and false
prophets).--Mr. Welwood, worthy Mr. Cameron, and another minister were
called before this meeting, in order to have them deposed, and their
licence taken from them, for their faithfulness in preaching up
separation from the actually indulged. But they declined their
authority, as being no lawful judicatory of Jesus Christ, whilst thus
made up of those who were actually indulged. Some of them went to Mr.
Hog, who was then in town, though not at this meeting, for his advice
anent them. To whom he said, His name is Welwood, but if ye take that
unhappy course to depose them, he will perhaps turn out their Torwood at

Mr. Welwood was a man of a lean and tender body. He always slept, ate
and drank but little, as being one still under a deep exercise, the
state and case of his soul laying a great concern upon his spirit, about
the defections and tyranny of that day, especially concerning the
indulged, and so many pleading in their favour. But, being of a sickly
constitution before, he turned more melancholy and tender. Much[161]
about this time, he was informed against to the managers at Edinburgh,
that having intruded upon the kirk of Tarboltoun, in the shire of Ayr;
the council appointed Glencairn and lord Ross to see that he be turned
out and apprehended; but there is nothing further can be learned anent
this order.

One Sabbath when he was going to preach, and the tent set up for him,
the laird on whose ground it was, caused lift it, and set it on another
laird's ground. But when Mr. Welwood saw it, he said, in a short time
that laird shall not have one furr of land. Some quarrelled him for
saying so (this laird being then a great professor). He said, Let alone
a little and he will turn out in his own colours. Shortly after this, he
fell out in adultery, and became most miserable and contemptible, being,
as was said, one of York's four pound papists.

In the beginning of the year 1679, he said to William Nicolson a
Fife-shire man, Ye shall have a brave summer of the gospel this year,
and for your further encouragement an old man or woman for very age may
yet live to see the bishops down, and yet the church not delivered, but
ere all be done we will get a few faithful ministers in Scotland to
hear; but keep still amongst the faithful poor mourning remnant that is
for God, for there is a cloud coming on the church of Scotland, the like
of which was never heard; for the most part will turn to
defection.----But I see, on the other side of it, the church's delivery,
with ministers and christians, that you would be ashamed to open a mouth
before them.

Among his last public days of preaching, he preached at Boulterhall in
Fife, upon that text, _Not many noble_, &c. Here he wished that all the
Lord's people, whom he had placed in stations of distinction, there and
everywhere would express their thankfulness that the words _not many_
were not _not any_, and that the whole of them were not excluded. In the
end of that sermon he said, (pointing to St. Andrews) "If that unhappy
prelate Sharp die the death of all men, God never spoke by me." The
bishop had a servant, who, upon liberty from his master on Saturday's
night, went to visit his brother, who was a servant to a gentleman near
Boulterhall (the bishop ordering him to be home on Sabbath night). He
went with the laird, and his brother that day. Mr. Welwood noticed him
with the bishop's livery on, and when sermon was ended, he desired him
to stand up, for he had somewhat to say to him. "I desire you, said he,
before all these witnesses when thou goest home, to tell thy master,
that his treachery, tyranny and wicked life are near an end, and his
death shall be both sudden, surprising, and bloody; and as he hath
thirsted after and shed the blood of the saints, he shall not go to his
grave in peace, &c." The youth went home, and at supper the bishop
asked him, If he had been at a conventicle? He said, He was. He asked,
What his text was, and what he said? The man told him several things,
and particularly the above message from Mr. Welwood. The bishop made
sport of it. But his wife said, I advise you to take more notice of
that, for I hear that these men's words are not vain words.

Shortly after this he went to Perth, and there lodged in the house of
one John Barclay. His bodily weakness increasing, he was laid aside from
serving his Master in public; and lingered under a consumptive distemper
until the beginning of April 1679, when he died. During the time of his
sickness, while he was able to speak, he laid himself out to do good to
souls. None but such as were looked upon to be friends to the persecuted
cause knew that he was in town; and his practice was, to call them in,
one family after another, at different times; and discourse to them
about their spiritual state. His conversation was both convincing,
edifying and confirming. Many came to visit him, and among the rest one
Aiton, younger of Inchdarny in Fife, (a pious youth about eighteen years
of age) and giving Mr. Welwood an account of the great tyranny and
wickedness of prelate Sharp, Mr. Welwood said, "You will shortly be quit
of him, and he will get a sudden and sharp off-going, and ye will be the
first that will take the good news of his death to heaven." Which
literally came to pass the May following.

About the same time he said to another who came to visit him, "that many
of the Lord's people should be in arms that summer for the defence of
the gospel; but he was fully persuaded that they would work no
deliverance; and that, after the fall of that party, the public standard
of the gospel should fall for some time, so that there would not be a
true faithful minister in Scotland, excepting two, unto whom they could
resort, to hear or converse with, anent the state of the church; and
they would also seal the testimony with their blood; and that after this
there should be a dreadful defection and apostacy; but God would pour
out his wrath upon the enemies of his church and people, wherein many of
the Lord's people, who had made defection from his way should fall among
the rest in this common calamity; but this stroke, he thought, would
not be long, and upon the back thereof there would be the most glorious
deliverance and reformation that ever was in Britain, wherein the church
should never be troubled any more with prelacy."

When drawing near his end, in conversation with some friends, he used
frequently to communicate his own exercise and experience, with the
assurance he had obtained of his interest in Christ, he said, "I have no
more doubt of my interest in Christ, than if I were in heaven already."
And at another time he said, "Although I have been for some weeks
without sensible comforting presence, yet I have not the least doubt of
my interest in Christ. I have oftentimes endeavoured to pick a hole in
my interest, but cannot get it done." That morning ere he died, when he
observed the light of the day, he said, "Now eternal light, and no more
night and darkness to me."--And that night he exchanged a weakly body, a
wicked world, and a weary life, for an immortal crown of glory, in that
heavenly inheritance which is prepared and reserved for such as him.

The night after his exit his corpse was removed from John Barclay's
house into a private room, belonging to one Janet Hutton (till his
friends might consult about his funeral) that so he might not be put to
trouble for concealing him. It was quickly spread abroad that an
intercommuned preacher was dead in town, upon which the magistrates
ordered a messenger to go and arrest the corpse. They lay there that
night, and the next day a considerable number of his friends in Fife, in
good order, came to town in order to his burial, but the magistrates
would not suffer him to be interred at Perth, but ordered the town
militia to be raised, and imprisoned John Bryce, box-master or treasurer
to the guildry, for returning to give out the militia's arms. However
the magistrates gave his friends leave to carry his corpse out of town,
and bury them without their precincts, where they pleased. But any of
the town's people, who were observed to accompany the funeral were
imprisoned. After they were gone out of town, his friends sent two men
before them to Drone, four miles from Perth, to prepare a grave in that
church-yard. The men went to Mr. Pitcairn, the minister there (one of
the old resolutioners), and desired the keys of the church-yard that
they might dig a grave for the corpse of Mr. Welwood, but he refused to
give them. They went over the church-yard-dyke and digged a grave, and
there the corpse was interred.

There appears to be only one of his sermons in print (said to be
preached in Bogles-hole in Clydesdale), upon 1 Peter iv. 18. _And if the
righteous scarcely be saved_, &c.--

There are also some of his religious letters, written to his godly
friends and acquaintances, yet extant in manuscript. But we are not to
expect to meet with any thing considerable of the writings of Mr. John
Welwood[162], or the succeeding worthies; and no wonder, seeing that in
such a broken state of the church, they were still upon their watch,
haunted and hurried from place to place, without the least time or
conveniency for writing; yea, and oftentimes what little fragments they
had collected, fell into the hand of false friends and enemies, and were
by them either destroyed or lost.

_The Life of WILLIAM GORDON of Earlstoun._

William Gordon of Earlstoun was born about the year----. He was son to
that famous reformer Alexander Gordon of Earlstoun, and was lineally
descended of that famous Alexander Gordon who entertained the followers
of John Wickliffe, and who had a new testament of the vulgar tongue
which they used to read in their meetings at the wood near Airds beside
Earlstoun. William Gordon, having thus the advantage of a very religious
education, began very early to follow Christ. As early as the year 1637,
Mr. Rutherford in a letter admonishes him thus: "Sir, lay the foundation
thus and ye shall not soon shrink nor be shaken: make tight work at the
bottom, and your ship shall ride against all storms; if withal your
anchor be fastened on good ground, I mean, within the vail, &c.[163]"
And indeed by the blessing of God, he began very early to distinguish
himself for piety and religion with a firm attachment to the
presbyterian interest and a covenanted work of reformation; in which he
continued stedfast and unmoveable until he lost his life in the
honourable cause.

What hand he had in the public affairs during Cromwel's usurpation, I
cannot so well say: we must suppose him upon the remonstrators' side.
But the first public testimony he gave after the restoration of Charles
II. recorded in history, was, about the year 1663, when some
commissioners were appointed by the council to go south and inquire
anent some opposition that was then made by the people to the settlement
of curates at Kirkendbright and Irongray: and the said commissioners,
knowing this worthy gentleman's firmness to the presbyterian principles,
and being designed either to make him comply in settling an episcopal
incumbent in the parish of Dalry in Galloway (where, by the once
established laws, he had some right in presenting) or, if he refused to
concur with the bishop, which they had all reason imaginable to suspect
he would, to bring him to further trouble. Accordingly they wrote him a
letter in the following tenor:--"Finding the church of Dalry to be one
of those that the bishop hath presented, an actual minister Mr. George
Henry fit and qualified for the charge, and that the gentleman is to
come to your parish this Sabbath next to preach to that people, and that
you are a person of special interest there,--we do require you to cause
his edict to be served, and the congregation to conveen and countenance
him so as to be encouraged to prosecute his ministry in that
place."--Your loving friends and servants,


To this letter Earlstoun give them a very respectful return, shewing,
upon solid reasons, why he could not comply with this their unjust
demand, as the following excerpt from that letter evidences:--"I ever
judged it safest to obey God, and stand at a distance from whatsoever
doth not tend to God's glory and the edification of the souls of his
scattered people, of which that congregation is a part. And besides, my
Lords, it is known to many, that I pretend to lay claim to the light of
patronage of that parish, and have already determined therein with the
consent of the people to a truly worthy and qualified person, that he
may be admitted to exercise his gifts amongst that people; and for me to
countenance the bearer of your Lordship's letter, were to procure me
most impiously and dishonourably to wrong the majesty of God and
violently to take away the Christian liberty of his afflicted people and
enervate my own right, &c."[164]

This was, without question, what the managers wanted, and so his trouble
began: for, on the 30th of July following, "the lords of council order
letters to be directed, to charge William Gordon of Earlstoun to compear
before them--to answer for his seditious and factious carriage:" that
was, his refusing to comply with prelacy, and hear the curates, and for
his favouring and hearing the outed ministers. And further, Nov. 24th,
same year, "The council being informed, that the laird of Earlstoun kept
conventicles and private meetings in his house,--do order letters to be
directed against him to compear before this council to answer for his
contempt, under the pain of rebellion." But all this no-ways dashed the
courage of this confessor of Christ in adhering to his persecuted and
despised gospel; which made these malignant enemies yet pass a more
severe and rigorous act against him; in which it was exhibited that he
had been at several conventicles (as they were pleased to call the
preachings of the gospel) where Mr. Gabriel Semple, a deposed minister,
did preach in the Corsack wood and wood of Airds; and heard texts of
scripture explained both in his mother's and in his own house by outed
ministers; "--and being required to enact himself to abstain from all
such meetings in time coming, and to live peaceably and orderly, conform
to law," he refused to do the same: They did, therefore, order the said
William Gordon of Earlstoun to be banished, and to depart forth of the
kingdom within a month, and not to return under pain of death, and that
he live peaceably during that time, under, the penalty of 10,000 l. or
otherwise, to enter his person in prison.

Here it would appear, that he did not obey this sentence. And although
we have little or no particular account of his sufferings, yet we are
assured he endured a series of hardships.--In the year 1667, he was
turned out of his house and all; and the said house made a garrison for
Bannantine that wicked wretch and his party; after which, almost every
year produced him new troubles, until the 22d or 23rd of January, 1679,
that he emerged out of all his troubles, and arrived at the haven of
rest, and obtained his glorious reward in the following manner--

Having some affairs to settle (perhaps on a view never to return) he
could not join that suffering handful who were then in arms near
Bothwel: he sent his son who was in the action. He himself hastening
forward as soon as possible to their assistance, and not knowing of
their disaster, was met near the place by a party of English dragoons
who were in quest of the sufferers, and, like another valiant champion
of Christ, he refused to surrender or comply with their demand, and so
they killed him straight out upon the spot[165]; his son being out of
the way, and his friends not obtaining that his body should be urned
amongst the bones of his ancestors; he was interred in the church-yard
of Glassford: and though a pillar or monument was erected over his
grave, yet no inscription was got inscribed because of the severity of
these times.

Thus fell a renowned Gordon, one whose character at present I am in no
capacity to describe: only, I may venture to say, that he was a
gentleman of good parts and endowments; a man devoted unto religion and
godliness; and a prime supporter of the Presbyterian interest in that
part of the country wherein he lived.--The Gordons have all along made
no small figure in our Scottish history;--but here was a patriot, a good
Christian, a confessor and (I may add) a martyr of Jesus Christ.

_The Lives of Messrs. JOHN KID and JOHN KING._

Messrs. John Kid and John King suffered many hardships during the
persecuting period, namely, from the year 1670, to the time of their
martyrdom 1679. Mr. King was sometime chaplain to lord Cardross; and it
appears, he was apprehended and imprisoned in the year 1674. but got out
on a bond and surety for 5000 merks, to appear when called. Next year he
was again, by a party of the persecutors, apprehended in the said lord
Cardross's, but was immediately rescued from their hands by some country
people, who had profited much by his ministry. After this, he was taken
a third time by bloody Claverhouse near Hamilton, with about 17 others,
and brought to Evandale, where they were all rescued by their suffering
brethren at Drumclog. After which he and Mr. Kid were of great service,
and preached often among the honest party of our sufferers, till their
defeat at Bothwel, where Mr. Kid, among other prisoners, was taken and
brought to Edinburgh. It would appear that Mr. King was apprehended also
at the same time in or west from Glasgow[166]. For a party of English
dragoons being there, and one of them on horseback called for some ale,
and drank to the confusion of the covenants. Another of his comrades
asking him at the stable-green port, where he was going, he answered, To
carry King to hell. But this poor wretch had not gone far whistling and
singing, till his carbine accidentally went off, and killed him on the
spot. _God shall shoot at them with an arrow, suddenly shall they be
wounded_, Psal. lxiv. 7.

Mr. King was taken to Edinburgh, where both he and Mr. Kid were before
the council, July 9th. Mr. King confessed, when examined, That he was
with those who rose at that time, &c. Mr. Kid confessed, he had
preached in the fields, but never where there were men in arms, except
in two places. They signed their confession, which was afterwards
produced in evidence against them before the justiciary. On the 12th Mr.
Kid was again examined before the council, and put to the torture. It
seems he was more than once in the boots, where he behaved with much
meekness and patience. Mr. King was examined on the 16th before the
justiciary, and Mr. Kid on the day following. On the 22d, they received
their indictments. Their trial came on upon the 28th. They were again
before the justiciary, where, upon their former petition on the 24th,
advocates were allowed to plead for them[167], but no exculpation was
allowed them. When their indictments were read, the advocate produced
their confessions before the council, as proof against them; and
accordingly they were brought in guilty and condemned to be hanged at
the market cross of Edinburgh on Thursday the 14th of Aug. and their
heads and right arms to be cut off, and disposed of at the council's

Accordingly, the same day the king's act of indemnity was published in
the forenoon, and, to grace the solemnity, the two noble martyrs (who
were denied a share therein) were in the afternoon brought forth to
their execution. It was related by one there present, that, as they
approached the place, walking together hand in hand, Mr. Kid, looking
about to Mr. King with a cheerful countenance, said, "I have often heard
and read of a kid sacrificed, but I seldom or never heard of a king made
a sacrifice." Upon the scaffold they appeared with a great deal of
courage and serenity of mind, (as was usual with the martyrs in these
times), and died in much peace and joy; even a joy that none of their
persecutors could intermeddle with. Their heads were cut off on another
scaffold prepared for the purpose.

Thus ended these two worthy ministers and martyrs of Jesus Christ, after
they had owned their allegiance to Zion's king and Lord, and given a
faithful testimony against popery, prelacy, Erastianism, &c. and for
the covenanted work of reformation in its different parts and periods.
The reader will find their dying testimonies in Naphtali and the western
martyrology, page 146. &c. A few of their sermons I had occasion
lately to publish.

_The Life of Mr. JOHN BROWN._

Mr. Brown was ordained minister at Wamphray in Annandale. There is no
certain account how long he was minister there, only it was some time
before the restoration of Charles II. as appears from his great
faithfulness in opposing prelacy, which was then about to be intruded
upon the church; insomuch that, for his fortitude and freedom with some
of his neighbouring ministers for their compliance with the prelates,
contrary to the promise they had given him, he was turned out of that

Upon the 6th of Nov. 1662, he was brought before the council. Whether by
letters to converse with the managers, or by a citation, it is not
certain. But the same day, the council's act against him runs thus:

"Mr. John Brown of Wamphray, being conveened before the council, for
abusing and reproaching some ministers for keeping the diocesan synod
with the arch-bishop of Glasgow, calling them perjured knaves and
villains, did acknowledge that he called them false knaves for so doing,
because they had promised the contrary to him. The council ordain him to
be secured close prisoner in the tolbooth till further orders."

He remained in prison till Dec. 11, when, after Mr. Livingston and
others had received their sentence, the council came to this conclusion
anent him, "Upon a petition presented by Mr. John Brown minister of
Wamphray now prisoner in Edinburgh, shewing, that he had been kept close
prisoner these five weeks by-past, and seeing that, by want of free air
and other necessaries for maintaining his crazy body, he is in hazard to
lose his life, therefore, humbly desiring warrant to be put at liberty,
upon caution to enter his person when he should be commanded, as the
petition bears; which being at length he heard and considered, the lords
of council ordain the king's supplicant to be put at liberty, forth of
the tolbooth, his first obliging himself to remove and depart off the
king's dominions, and not to return, without licence from his majesty
and council, under pain of death."

Great were the hardships he underwent in prison, for (says a historian)
he was denied even the necessaries of life; and though, because of the
ill treatment he met with, he was brought almost to the gates of death,
yet he could not have the benefit of the free air until he signed a bond
obliging himself to a voluntary banishment, and that without any just

But, upon the 23d of the same month, on presenting a petition to the
council to prorogue the time of his removal from the kingdom, in regard
he was not able to provide himself with necessaries, and the weather so
unseasonable that he could not have the opportunity of a ship, &c. as
the petition bears; which being read and considered, "They grant him two
months longer after the 11th of Dec. by-past; in the mean time he being
peaceable, acting nothing in prejudice of the present government,
&c."--And next year he went over to Holland (then the asylum of the
banished) where he lived many years, but never, that we heard of, saw
his own native country any more.

How he employed himself mostly in Holland we are at a loss to say; his
many elaborate pieces, both practical, argumentative and historical,
witness that he was not idle; which were either mostly wrote there, or
published from thence; and particularly those concerning the
indulgences-paying, &c. sent for the support and strengthening of his
persecuted brethren in the church of Scotland, unto whom he and Mr.
M'Ward contributed all in their power, that they might be kept straight
(while labouring in the furnace of affliction) under a scene of sore
oppression and bloody tyranny. But hither did the malice of their
enemies yet pursue them. For the king, by the infliction of prelate
Sharp, _anno_ 1676, wrote to the states-general to remove them from
their province. And although the states neither did nor could reasonably
grant this demand, seeing they had got the full stress of laws in
Scotland many years before, yet it appears that they were obliged to
wander further from the land of their nativity.

Some time before his death, he was admitted minister of the Scots
congregation at Rotterdam; where he, with great prudence and diligence,
exercised that function; it being always his study and care to gain many
souls to Christ. For as he was faithful in declaring the whole counsel
of God to his people, in warning them against the evils of the time, so
he was likewise a great textuary, close in handling any truth he
discoursed upon, and in the application most home, warm and searching,
shewing himself a most skilful casuist. His sermons were not so plain,
but the learned might admire them; nor so learned, but the plain
understood them. His fellow-soldier and companion[169] in tribulation
gives him this testimony, "That the whole of his sermons, without the
intermixture of any other matter, had a specialty of pure gospel
tincture, breathing nothing but faith in Christ, and communion with him,

The ordination of faithful Mr. Richard Cameron seems to have been the
last of his public employments; and his last but excellent discourse
(before his exile from this world, which appears to have been about the
end of the year 1679) was from Jer. ii. 35. _Behold I will plead with
thee, because thou sayest, I have not sinned_, &c. And having finished
his course with joy, he died in the Lord. _Blessed are the dead which
die in the Lord, that they may rest from their labours, and their works
do follow them_.

No doubt Mr. Brown was a man famous in his day, both for learning,
faithfulness, warm zeal and true piety. He was a notable writer, a
choice and pathetical preacher; in controversy he was acute, masculine
and strong, in history plain and comprehensive, in divinity substantial
and divine; the first he discovers in his work printed in Latin against
the Sodinians, and his treatise _de causa Dei contra anti-sabbatanios_,
which the learned world know better than can be here described. There is
also a large manuscript history intitled, _Apologia pro ecclesia_, &c.
_anno Domini_ 1660, consisting of 1600 pages in 4to, which he gave in to
Charles Gordon, sometime minister at Dalmony, to be by him presented to
the first free general assembly of the church of Scotland, and was by
him exhibited to the general assembly _anno_ 1692; of this history the
apologetical relation seems to be an abridgment. His letters and other
papers, particularly the history of the indulgence, written and sent
home to his native country, manifest his great and fervent zeal for the
cause of Christ. And his other practical pieces, such as that on
justification, on the Romans, Quakerism the way to Paganism; the hope of
glory; and Christ the way, the truth and the life; the first and second
part of his life of faith, and Enoch's testament opened up, &c.; all
which evidence his solid piety, and real acquaintance with God and

_The Life of HENRY HALL of Haugh-head._

Mr. Hall of Haugh-head (in the parish of Eckford in Teviotdale), having
had a religious education, began very early to mind a life of holiness,
in all manner of godly conversation. In his younger years he was a most
zealous opposer of the public resolutions (that took place _anno_ 1651)
insomuch, that when the minister of that parish complied with that
course, he refused to hear him, and often went to Ancrum to hear Mr.
John Livingston. After the restoration of that wicked tyrant Charles II.
being oppressed with the malicious persecutions of the curates and other
malignants, for his non-conformity, he was obliged to depart his native
country, and go over to the border of England _anno_ 1665, where he was
very much renowned for his singular zeal in propagating the gospel, by
instructing the ignorant, and procuring ministers to preach now and then
among that people, who before his coming were very rude and barbarous,
but now many of them became famous for piety. _Anno_ 1666, he was taken
prisoner on his way coming to Pentland, to the assistance of his
covenanted brethren, and imprisoned with some others in Cesford castle.
But, by divine providence, he soon escaped thence, through the favour of
his friend the earl of Roxburgh, (who was a blood-relation of his), unto
whom the castle then pertained. He retired again to Northumberland,
where, from this time until the year 1679, he lived, being very much
beloved, of all that knew him, for his care and concern in propagating
the gospel of Christ in that country, insomuch that his blameless and
shining conversation drew love, reverence and esteem even from his very
enemies. About the year 1678, the heat of the persecution in Scotland
obliged many to wander about in Northumberland, as one colonel Struthers
was violently pursuing all Scotsmen in those places. Haugh-head was in
that scuffle near Crookham, a village upon the English border, where one
of his nearest intimates, that gallant and religious gentleman Thomas
Ker of Hayhop, fell. Upon which he was obliged to return again to
Scotland, where he wandered up and down in the hottest time of the
persecution, mostly with Mr. Donald Cargil and Mr. Richard Cameron.
During which time, beside his many other Christian virtues, he
signalized himself by a real zeal, in defence of the persecuted gospel
in the fields. He was one of these four elders of the church of
Scotland, who at the council of war at Shawhead-muir June 18. 1769, were
chosen, with Messrs Cargil, Douglas, King and Barclay, to draw up the
causes of the Lord's wrath against the land, which were to be the causes
of a fast on the day following. He had, indeed, an active hand in the
most part of the transactions among the covenanters at that time; as
being one of the commanding officers in that army, from the skirmish at
Drumclog, to their defeat at Bothwel-bridge.

After this, being forfeited, and diligently searched for and pursued
after, to eschew the violent hands of these his indefatigable
persecutors, he was forced to go over to Holland (the only refuge then
of our Scots sufferers). But he had not stayed there long, until his
zeal for the persecuted interest of Christ, and his tender sympathy for
the afflicted remnant of his covenanted brethren, who were then
wandering in Scotland, through the desolate caves and dens of the earth,
drew him home again; choosing rather to undergo the utmost efforts of
persecuting fury, than to live at ease in the time of Joseph's
affliction, making Moses's generous choice, rather to suffer affliction
with the people of God, than to enjoy what momentary pleasures the ease
of the world could afford. Nor was he very much concerned with the
riches of this world; for he stood not to give his ground[170] to hold
field preachings on, when few or none else would do it; for he was
still a true lover of the free and faithful preached gospel, and was
always against the indulgence.

About a quarter of a year after his return from Holland, he was mostly
with Mr. Cargil, lurking as privily as they could about Borrowstoness
and other places on this and the other side the frith of Forth. At last
they were taken notice of by these two bloody hounds, the curates of
Borrowstoness and Carridden, who soon smelled out Mr. Cargil and his
companion, and presently sent information to Middleton, governor of
Blackness castle (who was a papist). After consultation, he immediately
took the scent after them, ordering his soldiers to follow him at a
distance, by twos and threes together, at convenient intervals, to avoid
suspicion, while he and his man rode up after them at some distance,
till they came to Queensferry; where perceiving the house where they
alighted, he sent his servant off in haste for his men, putting up his
horse in another house, and coming to the house to them as a stranger,
pretended a great deal of kindness and civility to Mr. Cargil and him,
desiring that they might have a glass of wine together.--When each had
taken a glass, and were in some friendly conference, the governor,
wearying that his men came not up, threw off the mask, and laid hands on
them, saying, they were his prisoners, and commanded the people of the
house, in the king's name to assist. But they all refused, except one
Thomas George a waiter; by whose assistance he got the gate shut. In the
mean while Haugh-head, being a bold and brisk man, struggled hard with
the governor, until Cargil got off; and after the scuffle, as he was
going off himself, having got clear of the governor, Thomas George
struck him on the head, with a carbine, and wounded him mortally.
However he got out; and, by this time the women of the town, who were
assembled at the gate to the rescue of the prisoners, convoyed him out
of town. He walked some time on foot, but unable to speak much, save
only some little reflection upon a woman who interposed, hindering him
to kill the governor, that so he might have made his escape more
timeously. At last he fainted, and was carried to a country house near
Echlin; and although chirurgeons were speedily brought, yet he never
recovered the use of his speech any more. Dalziel, living near-by, was
soon advertised, and came quickly with a party of the guards, and
seized him; and although every one saw the gentleman just a-dying, yet
such was his inhumanity, that he must carry him to Edinburgh. But he
died, on their hands, on the way thither; and made an end of this his
earthly pilgrimage to receive his heavenly crown. His corpse was carried
to the Cannongate tolbooth, where they lay three days without burial;
and then his friends conveened for that end, to do their last office to
him; yet that could not be granted. At last they caused bury him
clandestinely in the night; for such was the fury of these limbs of
antichrist, that after they had slain the witnesses, they would not
suffer them to be decently interred in the earth; which is another
lasting evidence of the cruelty of those times.

Thus the worthy gentleman, after he had in an eminent manner, served his
day and generation, fell a victim to prelatic fury. Upon him was found,
when he was taken, a rude draught of an unsubscribed paper, afterwards
called the Queensferry paper; which the reader will find, inserted at
large, in Wodrow's history, vol. II. Appendix, No. 46; the substance of
which is contained in Crookshank's history, and in the appendix to the
cloud of witnesses.

_The Life of Mr. RICHARD CAMERON._

Mr. Richard Cameron was born in Falkland, in shire of Fyfe (his father
being a merchant there). He was of the episcopal persuasion at first;
for, after he had passed his course of learning, he was some time
schoolmaster and precentor to the curate of Falkland. He sometimes
attended the sermons of the indulged, as he had opportunity; but at last
it pleased the Lord to incline him to go out to hear the persecuted
gospel in the fields; which when the curates understood, they set upon
him, partly by flattery and partly by threats, and at last by more
direct persecution to make him forbear attending these meetings. But
such was the wonderful working of the Lord by his powerful Spirit upon
him, that having got a lively discovery of the sin and hazard of
prelacy, he deserted the curates altogether, and no sooner was he
enlightened anent the evil of prelacy, but he began more narrowly to
search into the state of things, that he might know what was his proper
and necessary duty. The Lord was pleased to discover to him the
sinfulness of the indulgence, as flowing from the ecclesiastical
supremacy usurped by the king; and, being zealously affected for the
honour of Christ, wronged by that Erastian acknowledgment of the
magistrate's usurped power over the church, he longed for an opportunity
to give a testimony against it. This made him leave Falkland, and go to
Sir Walter Scot of Harden, who attended the indulged meetings. Here he
took the opportunity (notwithstanding of many strong temptations to the
contrary) to witness in his station, against the indulgence.
Particularly on Sabbath when called to attend the lady to church, he
returned from the entry, refusing to go that day; and spent it in his
chamber, where he met with much of the Lord's presence (as he himself
afterwards testified) and got very evident discoveries of the nature of
these temptations and suggestions of Satan, which were like to prevail
with him before; and upon Monday, giving a reason unto the said Sir
William and his lady why he went not to church with them, he took
occasion to be plain and express in testifying against the indulgence,
in the original rise, spring, and complex nature thereof. After which,
finding his service would be no longer acceptable to them, he went to
the south, where he met with the reverend Mr. John Welch. He stayed some
time in his company, who, finding him a man every way qualified for the
ministry, pressed him to accept a licence to preach; which he for
sometime refused, chiefly upon the account that having such clear
discoveries of the sinfulness of the indulgence, he could not but
testify against it explicitly, so soon as he should have opportunity to
preach the gospel in public, &c.----But the force of his objections
being answered by Mr. Welch's serious solicitations, he was prevailed on
to accept of a licence from the outed ministers, who were then preaching
in the fields, and had not then complied with the indulgence.
Accordingly he was licenced by Mr. Welch and Mr. Semple at Haugh-head in
Teviotdale, at the house of Henry Hall. Here he told them, He would be a
bone of contention among them; for if he preached against a national sin
among them it should be against the indulgences, and for separation from
the indulged.

After he was licenced, they sent him at first to preach in Annandale. He
said, How could he go there.----He knew not what sort of people they
were. But Mr. Welch said, Go your way, Richie, and set the fire of hell
to their tail. He went, and, the first day, he preached upon that text,
_How shall I put thee among the children_, &c. In the application he
said, Put you amongst the children! the offspring of robbers and
thieves. Many have heard of Annandale thieves. Some of them got a
merciful cast that day, and told it afterwards, That it was the first
field-meeting that ever they attended; and that they went out of
curiosity, to see how a minister could preach in a tent, and people sit
on the ground. After this, he preached several times with Mr. Welch, Mr.
Semple and others, until 1679, that he and Mr. Welwood were called
before that Erastian meeting at Edinburgh, in order to be deposed for
their freedom and faithfulness in preaching against the sinful
compliance of that time.

After this he preached at Maybole, where many thousands of people were
assembled together, it being the first time that the[171]sacrament of
the Lord's supper was then dispensed in the open fields. At this time he
used yet more freedom in testifying against the sinfulness of the
indulgences, for which he was also called before another meeting of the
indulged at Dinugh in Galloway; and a little after that, he was again
called before a presbytery of them, at Sundewal in Dunscore in
Nithsdale: And this was the third time they had designed to take his
licence from him. Here it was where Robert Gray a Northumberland man
(who suffered afterwards in the Grass-market in 1682.), Robert Neilson
and others protested against them for such a conduct. At this meeting
they prevailed with him to give his promise, That for some short time he
should forbear such an explicit way of preaching against the indulgence,
and separation from them who were indulged:----Which promise lay heavy
on him afterwards, as will appear in its own proper place.

After the giving of this promise, finding himself by virtue thereof
bound up from declaring the whole counsel of God, he turned a little
melancholy; and, to get the definite time of that unhappy promise
exhausted, in the end of the year 1678, he went over to Holland (not
knowing what work the Lord had for him there,); where he conversed with
Mr. M'Ward and others of our banished worthies. In his private
conversation and exercise in families, but especially in his public
sermon in the Scots kirk of Rotterdam, he was most refreshing unto many
souls, where he was most close upon conversion work from that text,
_Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden_, &c.; and most
satisfying and agreeable to Mr. M'Ward, Mr. Brown and others, who were
sadly misinformed by the indulged, and those of their persuasion, that
he could preach nothing but babble against the indulgence, cess-paying,
&c. But here he touched upon none of these things, except in prayer,
when lamenting over the deplorable case of Scotland by defection and

About this time Mr. M'Ward said to him, "Richard, the public standard is
now fallen in Scotland, and, if, I know any thing of the mind of the
Lord, you are called to undergo your trials before us; and go home, and
lift the fallen standard, and display it publicly before the world; but
before ye put your hand to it, ye shall go to as many of the
field-ministers (for so they were yet called) as ye can find, and give
them your hearty invitation to go with you; and if they will not go, go
alone, and the Lord will go with you."

Accordingly he was ordained by Mr. M'Ward, Mr. Brown and Roleman, a
famous Dutch divine. When their hands were lift up from his head, Mr.
M'Ward continued his on his head, and cried out, "Behold, all ye
beholders, here is the head of a faithful minister and servant of Jesus
Christ, who shall lose the same for his Master's interest, and shall be
set up before sun and moon, in the view of the world."

In the beginning of the year 1680, he returned home to Scotland, where
he spent some time in going from minister to minister, of those who
formerly kept up the public standard of the gospel in the fields; but
all in vain, for the persecution being then so hot after Bothwel,
against all such who had not accepted the indulgence and indemnity, none
of them would adventure upon that hazard, except Mr. Donald Cargil and
Mr. Thomas Douglas who came together, and kept a public fast-day in
Darmeid-muir, betwixt Clydesdale and Lothian; one of the chief causes of
which was the reception of the duke of York (that sworn vassal of
antichrist) unto Scotland, after he had been excluded from England and
several other places. After several meetings among themselves, for
forming a declaration and testimony, which they were about to publish to
the world, at last they agreed upon one, which they published at the
market-cross of Sanquhar, June 22d, 1680. from which place it is
commonly called the Sanquhar declaration. After this they were obliged,
for some time, to separate one from another, and go to different corners
of the land: And that not only upon the account of the urgent call and
necessity of the people, who were then in a most starving condition,
with respect to the free and faithful preached gospel, but also on
account of the indefatigable scrutiny of the enemy, who, for their
better encouragement, had, by proclamation, 5000 merks offered for
apprehending Mr. Cameron, 3000 for Mr. Cargil and Mr. Douglas, and 100
for each of the rest, who were concerned in the publication of the
foresaid declaration.

After parting, Mr. Cameron went to Swine-know in New-Monkland, where he
had a most confirming and comforting day upon that soul-refreshing text,
Isa. xxxi. 2. _And a man shall be a hiding-place from the wind, and a
covert from the tempest_, &c. In his preface that day, he said, He was
fully assured that the Lord, in mercy unto this church and nation, would
sweep the throne of Britain of that unhappy race of the name of Stuart,
for their treachery, tyranny and lechery, but especially their usurping
the royal prerogatives of Christ, and this he was as sure of as his
hands were upon that cloth, yea and more sure, for he had that by sense,
but the other by faith.

Mr. H. E.[172] who suffered much by imprisonment and otherways in this
period, and though otherways a worthy good man, yet was so misled that
having one time premeditated a sermon, wherein he intended to speak
somewhat against Mr. Cameron and Mr. Cargil, (so far was he from taking
part with them): But on the Saturday's night he heard an audible voice
which said twice unto him, _audi_, he answered, _audio_, I hear: the
voice spoke again, and said, "Beware of calling Cameron's words, vain."
This stopt him from his intended purpose. This he told himself
afterwards unto an old reverend minister, who afterwards related the
matter as above said.

When he came to preach in and about Cumnock, he was much opposed by the
lairds of Logan and Horseclugh, who represented him as a Jesuit, and a
vile naughty person. But yet some of the Lord's people, who had retained
their former faithfulness, gave him a call to preach in that parish.
When he began, he exhorted the people to mind that they were in the
sight and presence of a holy God, and that all of them were hastening to
an endless estate of either well or woe. One Andrew Dalziel, a
debauchee (a cocker or fowler), who was in the house, it being a stormy
day, cried out, "Sir, we neither know you nor your God." Mr. Cameron,
musing a little, said, "You, and all who do not know my God in mercy,
shall know him in his judgments, which shall be sudden and surprizing in
a few days upon you; and I, as a sent servant of Jesus Christ, whose
commission I bear, and whose badge I wear upon my breast, give you
warning, and leave you to the justice of God." Accordingly, in a few
days after, the said Andrew, being in perfect health, took his breakfast
plentifully, and before he rose fell a-vomiting, and vomited his heart's
blood in the very vessel out of which he had taken his breakfast; and
died in a most frightful manner. This admonishing passage, together with
the power and presence of the Lord going along with the gospel dispensed
by him, during the little time he was there, made the foresaid two
lairds desire a conference with him, which he readily assented to. After
which they were obliged to acknowledge, that they had been in the wrong
to him, and desired his forgiveness. He said, From his heart he forgave
them what wrongs they had done to him, but for what wrongs they had done
to the interest of Christ, it was not his part, but he was persuaded
that they would be remarkably punished for it. And to the laird of Logan
he said, That he should be written childless; and Horseclugh, That he
should suffer by burning. Both of which came afterwards to pass.

Upon the fourth of July following (being 18 days before his death), he
preached at the Grass-water-side near Cumnock. In his preface that day,
he said, "There are three or four things I have to tell you this day,
which I must not omit, because I will be but a breakfast or four-hours
to the enemy, some day or other shortly; and then my work and my time
will be finished both. And the first is this, As for king Charles II.
who is now upon the throne of Britain, after him there shall not be a
crowned king of the name of Stuart in Scotland[173]. _2dly_, There shall
not be an old covenanter's head above ground that swore these covenants
with uplifted hands, ere ye get a right reformation set up in Scotland.
_3dly_, A man shall ride a day's journey in the shires of Galloway, Ayr,
and Clydesdale, and not see a reeking house nor hear a cock crow, ere ye
get a right reformation, and several other shires shall be little
better. And _4thly_, The rod that the Lord will make instrumental in
this, will be the French and other foreigners, together with a party in
this land joining them: but ye that stand to the testimony in that day,
be not discouraged at the fewness of your number, for when Christ comes
to raise up his own work in Scotland, he will not want men enough to
work for him, &c."

In the week following, he preached in the parish of Carluke, upon these
words Isa. xl. 24. _Shall the prey be taken from the mighty?_ &c. And
the Sabbath following, at Hind-Bottom near Crawford-John, he preached on
these words, _You will not come to me that you may have life._ In the
time of which sermon he fell a-weeping, and the greater part of the
multitude also, so that few dry cheeks were to be seen among them. After
this, unto the death of his death, he mostly kept his chamber door shut
until night; for the mistress of the house where he stayed, having been
several times at the door, got no access. At last she forced it up, and
found him very melancholy. She earnestly desired to know how it was with
him. He said, That weary promise I gave to these ministers has lain
heavy upon me, and for which my carcase shall dung the wilderness, and
that ere it be long. Being now near his end, he had such a large earnest
of the Spirit, which made him have such a longing desire for full
possession of the heavenly inheritance, that he seldom prayed in a
family, asked a blessing or gave thanks, but he requested patience to
wait until the Lord's appointed time came.

His last-sabbath[174] he preached (with Mr. Cargil in Clydesdale) on
Psal. xlvi. 10. _Be still and know that I am God_, &c. That day he said,
He was sure that the Lord would lift up a standard against Antichrist,
that would go to the gates of Rome and burn it with fire, and that blood
should be their sign, and _no quarter_ their word; and earnestly wished
that it might begin in Scotland. At their parting, they concluded to
meet the second Sabbath after this at Craigmead.--But he was killed on
the Thursday thereafter. And the Sabbath following, Mr. Cargil preached
in the parish of the Shots upon that text, _Know ye not that there is a
great man and prince fallen this day in Israel?_

The last night of his life, he was in the house of William Mitchel in
Meadow-head, at the water of Ayr, where about 23 horse and 40 foot had
continued with him that week. That morning a woman gave him water to
wash his face and hands; and having washed and dried them with a towel,
he looked to his hands, and laid them on his face, saying, This is their
last washing, I have need to make them clean, for there are many to see
them. At this the woman's mother wept. He said, Weep not for me, but for
yourself and yours, and for the sins of a sinful land, for ye have many
melancholy, sorrowful and weary days before you.

The people who remained with him were in some hesitation, whether they
should abide together for their own defence, or disperse and shift for
themselves. But that day, being the 22d of July, they were surprised by
Bruce of Earls-hall; who, having got command of Airely's troop and
Strahan's dragoons (upon notice given him by Sir John Cochran of
Ochiltree[175]) came furiously upon them about four o'clock in the
afternoon, when lying on the east end of Airs-moss. When they saw the
enemy approaching, and no possibility of escaping, they all gathered
round about him, while he prayed a short word; wherein he repeated this
expression thrice over, Lord, spare the green and take the ripe. When
ended, he said to his brother with great intrepidity, Come, let us fight
it out to the last; for this is the day that I have longed for, and the
day that I have prayed for, to die fighting against our Lord's avowed
enemies: this is the day that we will get the crown.--And to the rest he
said, Be encouraged all of you to fight it out valiantly, for all of you
that shall fall this day, I see heaven's gates open to receive you.

But the enemy approaching, they immediately drew up eight horse with him
on the right, the rest, with valiant Hackston, on the left, and the foot
in the middle; where they all behaved with much bravery until
overpowered by a superior number. At last Hackston was taken prisoner
(as will afterwards be more fully narrated) and Mr. Cameron was killed
on the spot, and his head and hands cut off by one Murray, and taken to
Edinburgh. His father being in prison for the same cause, they carried
them to him (to add grief unto his former sorrow), and inquired at him,
if he knew them. He took his son's hands and head, which were very fair,
being a man of a fair complexion with his own hair, and kissed them, and
said, "I know, I know them; they are my son's, my own dear son's; it is
the Lord, good is the will of the Lord, who cannot wrong me nor mine,
but has made goodness and mercy to follow us all our days." After which,
by order of the council, his head was fixed upon the Nether-bow port,
and his hands beside it, with the fingers upward.

Thus this valiant soldier and minister of Jesus Christ came to his end,
after he had been not only highly instrumental in turning many souls
unto God, but also in lifting up a faithful standard for his royal Lord
and Master, against all his enemies, and the defections and sinful
compliances of that time. One of his and Christ's declared enemies, when
he took out his head at Edinburgh, gave him this testimony, saying,
"There the head and hands of a man who lived praying and preaching, and
died praying and fighting." And wherever the faithful contendings of the
once famous covenanted church of Scotland are honourably made mention
of, this, to his honour, shall be recorded of him.

When he was slain, there was found upon him a short paper, or bond of
mutual defence, which the reader will find inserted in Wodrow's history,
and in the appendix to the cloud of witnesses. There are also some few
of his letters now published with Mr. Renwick's collection of letters,
but the only sermon of his that appeared in print formerly, is that
preached at Carluke, intitled, Good news to Scotland, published _anno_
1733. He wrote also in defence of the Sanquhar declaration, but we can
give no account of it ever being published. Some more of his sermons
were lately published.

_An ACROSTIC on his Name._

    Most noble Cameron of renown,
    A fame of thee shall ne'er go down;
    Since truth with zeal thou didst pursue,
    To Zion's king loyal and true.
    Ev'n when the dragon spil'd his flood,
    Resist thou didst unto the blood:

    Ran swiftly in thy Christian race,
    In faith and patience to that place
    Christ did prepare to such as thee,
    He knew would not his standard flee.
    A pattern of valour and zeal,
    Rather to suffer than to fail;
    Didst shew thyself with might and main,

    Counting that dross others thought gain;
    A faithful witness 'gainst all those,
    Men of all sorts did truth oppose;
    Even thou with Moses didst esteem
    Reproaches for the God of heaven:
    On him alone thou didst rely,
    Not sparing for his cause to die.

_The Life of DAVID HACKSTON of Rathillet._

David Hackston of Rathillet, in the shire of Fife, is said in his
younger years to have been without the least sense of any thing
religious, until it pleased the Lord, in his infinite goodness, to
incline him to go out and attend the gospel then preached in the fields,
where he was caught in the gospel net, and became such a true convert,
that after a most mature deliberation upon the controverted points of
the principles of religion in that period, he at last embarked himself
in that noble cause (for which he afterward suffered), with a full
resolution to stand and fall with the despised persecuted people, cause
and interest of Jesus Christ.

There is no account of any public appearance that this worthy gentleman
made, amongst that party, until the 3d of May 1679, that we find him,
with other eight gentlemen, who were in quest of one Carmichael, who, by
means of the arch-bishop, had got commission to harrass and persecute
all he could find (in the shire of Fife) for non-conformity; but not
finding him, when they were ready to drop the search, they
providentially met with their arch-enemy himself. Whenever they descried
his coach, one of them said, It seems that the Lord hath delivered him
into our hand; and proposed that they should choose one for their
leader, whose orders the rest were to obey. Upon which they chose David
Hackston for their commander; but he absolutely refused, upon account of
a difference subsisting betwixt Sharp and him in a civil process,
wherein he judged himself to have been wronged by the primate; which
deed he thought would give the world ground to think, it was rather out
of personal pique and revenge, which he professed he was free of. They
then chose another, and came up with the coach; and having got the
bishop out, and given him some wounds, he fell on the ground. They
ordered him to pray, but, instead of that, seeing Rathillet at some
distance, (having never alighted from his horse), he crept towards him
on his hands and his feet, and said, Sir, I know you are a gentleman,
you will protect me.--To which he answered, I shall never lay a hand on
you. At last he was killed; after which every one judged of the action
as their inclinations moved them. However, the deed was wholly charged
upon him (and his brother-in-law, Balfour of Kinloch) although he had no
active hand in this action.

About the latter end of the same month of May, that he might not be
found wanting to the Lord's cause, interest and people, upon any
emergent or occasion, he, with some friends from Fife, joined that
suffering handful of the covenanters at Evandale, where, after he and
Mr. Hamilton, &c. had drawn up that declaration (afterward called the
Rutherglen declaration), he and Mr. Douglas went to the market cross of
Rutherglen, and upon the anniversary day the 29 of May, where they
extinguished the bonefire, and published the said testimony. They
returned back to Evandale, where they were attacked by Claverhouse, upon
the first of June near Drumclog. Here Mr. Hackston was appointed one of
the commanding officers (under Mr. Hamilton who commanded in chief),
where he behaved with much valour and gallantry during that
skirmish.--After which he was a very useful instrument among that
faithful remnant (as witness his repeated protests against the corrupt
and Erastian party), and had an active hand in the most part of the
public transactions among them, until that fatal day the 22d of June,
where he and his troop of horse were the last upon the field of battle
at Bothwel-bridge[176].

But, this worthy and religious gentleman, being now declared a rebel to
the king (though no rebel to Zion's king), and a proclamation issued
out, wherein was a reward offered of 10,000 merks to any who could
inform of or apprehend him, or any of those concerned in the death of
the arch-bishop of St. Andrews. Upon this and the proclamation after
Bothwel, he was obliged to retire out of the way for about a year's
space. In which time he did not neglect to attend the gospel in the
fields, where-ever he could have it faithfully dispensed. But this
pious gentleman, having run fast and done much in a little time, it
could not be expected he should continue long, and upon the 22d of July
1680, having been with that little party a few days, who attended Mr.
Richard Cameron at Airs-moss, they were surprized by Bruce of
Earls-hall, Airly's troop and Strahan's dragoons.

Here, being commander in chief of that little band, and seeing the enemy
approaching fast, he rode off to seek some strength of ground for their
better advantage, and the rest followed; but seeing they could go no
further, they turned back, and drew up quickly. Eight horse on the
right, and fifteen on the left; and the foot who were but ill armed in
the middle. He then asked, If they were all willing to fight? They all
answered, They were. Both armies advanced, and a strong party of the
enemies horse coming hard upon them, their horse fired, killed and
wounded severals of them, both horse and foot; after which they advanced
to the enemies very faces, when, after giving and receiving fire,
valiant Hackston being in the front, finding the horse behind him broke,
rode in among them, and out at a side, without any damage; but being
assaulted by severals with whom he fought a long time, they following
him and he them by turns, until he stuck in a bog, and the foremost of
them, one Ramsay, one of his acquaintance, who followed him in, and they
being on foot, fought with small swords, without much advantage on
either side. But at length closing, he was struck down by three on
horseback behind him; and falling after he had received three sore
wounds on the head, they saved his life, which he submitted to. He was,
with the rest of the prisoners, carried to the rear, where they gave
them all a testimony[177] of brave resolute men. After this he was
brought to Douglas, and from thence to Lanerk, where Dalziel threatened
to roast him for not satisfying him with answers. After which he and
other three prisoners were taken to Edinburgh, where, by order of the
council, they were received by the magistrates at the water-gate, and
he set on a horse's bare back, with his face backward, and the other
three laid on a goad of iron, and carried up the street (and Mr.
Cameron's head on a halbert before them) to the parliament closs, where
he was taken down, and the rest loosed by the hand of the hangman.

He was immediately brought before the council, where his indictment was
read by the chancellor, and he examined, which examination and answers
thereunto being elsewhere[178] inserted at large, it may suffice here to
observe, that being asked, if he thought the bishop's death murder? he
told them, That he was not obliged to answer such questions; yet he
would not call it so, but rather say, it was not murder. Being further
asked, If he owned the king's authority, he replied, "That though he was
not obliged to answer, yet as he was permitted to speak, he would say
something to that; and _1st_, That there could be no lawful authority
but what was of God, and that no authority stated in a direct opposition
to God could be of God, and that he knew of no authority nor justiciary
this day in these nations, but what were in a direct opposition to God,
and so could neither be of God nor lawful, and that their fruits were
kything it, in that they were letting murderers, sorcerers, and such
others at liberty from justice, and employing them in their service, and
made it their whole work to oppress, kill and destroy the Lord's
people." Bishop Paterson asked, "If ever Pilate and that judicature, who
were direct enemies to Christ, were disowned by him as judges?" He said,
"He would answer no perjured prelate in the nation." Paterson replied,
"He could not be called perjured, since he never took that sacrilegious
covenant." Mr. Hackston said, "That God would own that covenant, when
none of them were to oppose it, &c." Notwithstanding these bold, free,
and open answers, they threatened him with torture, but this he no-wise

Upon the 26th, he was again brought before the council, where he
answered much to the same purpose as before. The chancellor said, He was
a vicious man. He answered, That while he was so, he had been acceptable
to him, but now when otherwise it was not so. He asked him, If he would
yet own that cause with his blood, if at liberty?--He answered, That
both their fathers had owned it with the hazard of their blood before
him. Then he was called by all a murderer.--He answered, God should
decide it betwixt them, to whom he referred it, who were most murderers
in his sight, him or them. Bishop Paterson's brother, in conference,
told him, That the whole council found that he was a man of great parts,
and also of good birth. He said, That for his birth, he was related to
the best of the kingdom, which he thought little of, and as for his
parts, they were very small; yet he trusted so much to the goodness of
that cause for which he was a prisoner, that if they would give God that
justice, as to let his cause be disputed, he doubted not to plead it
against all that speak against it.

Upon the 27, he was taken before the justiciary, where he declined the
king's authority as an usurper of the prerogative of the Son of God,
whereby he had involved the land in idolatry, perjury and other
wickedness; and declined them as exercising under him the supreme power
over the church, usurped from Jesus Christ, &c. and therefore durst
not, with his own consent, sustain them as competent judges; but
declined them as open and stated enemies to the living God, and
competitors for his throne and power, belonging to him only.

On the 29, he was brought to his trial, where the council, in a most
unprecedented manner, appointed the manner of his execution; for they
well knew his judges would find him guilty. And upon Friday the 30th,
being brought again before them, they asked, If he had any more to
say.----He answered, What I have said I will seal. Then they told him,
They had something to say to him; and commanded him to sit down and
receive his sentence, which he did, but told them, They were all
murderers; for all the power they had was derived from tyranny; and that
these years bygone they had not only tyrannized over the church of God,
but also grinded the faces of the poor, so that oppression, perjury and
bloodshed were to be found in their skirts.

Upon this, he was carried from the bar on a hurdle drawn backwards, unto
the place of execution at the cross of Edinburgh. None were suffered to
be with him but two bailies, the executioner and his servants. He was
permitted to pray to God Almighty but not to speak to the people. Being
come upon the scaffold, his right hand was struck off, and a little
after his left; which he endured with great firmness and constancy. The
hangman being long in cutting off the right hand, he desired him to
strike in the joint of the left, which being done, he was drawn up to
the top of the gallows with a pully, and suffered to fall down a
considerable way upon the lower scaffold three times with his whole
weight, and then fixed at the top of the gallows. Then the executioner,
with a large knife, cut open his breast, and pulled out his heart,
before he was dead, for it moved when it fell on the scaffold. He then
stuck his knife in it, and shewed it on all sides to the people, crying,
Here is the heart of a traitor. At last, he threw it into a fire
prepared for that purpose, and having quartered his body, his head was
fixed on the Nether-bow; one of his quarters, with his hands at St.
Andrews; another at Glasgow; a third at Leith; and the fourth at
Bruntisland.----Thus fell this champion for the cause of Christ, a
sacrifice unto prelatic fury, to gratify the lust and ambition of wicked
and bloody men. Whether his courage, constancy or faithfulness had the
pre-eminency it is hard to determine.--But his memory is still alive,
and it is better to say no more of him, than either too much or too

_The Life of ROBERT KER of Kersland, Esq._

Robert Ker of Kersland being born and educated in a very religious
family, began early to discover more than an ordinary zeal for religion.
But the first public appearance that we find he made for the cause, and
interest of religion, was in the year 1666, about Nov. 26, when he,
Caldwell and some others of the Renfrew gentlemen, gathered themselves
together, and marched eastward to join Col. Wallace and that little
handful who renewed the covenant at Lanerk. But, having heard that
General Dalziel was, by that time got betwixt them and their friends,
they were obliged to dismiss. But this could not escape the knowledge of
the managers: for the laird of Blackstoun one of their own number, upon
a promise of pardon, informed against the rest, and so redeemed his own
neck by accusing his neighbour.--But of this he had nothing to boast of

Kersland was after this, obliged to retire out of the way; and the next
year he was forfeited in his life and fortune, and his estate given to
Lieut. General Drummond of Cromlie, and his lands in Beith to William
Blair of that ilk, which estate they unjustly held until the

After this, to elude the storm, he thought fit to retire and go over to
Holland; and there chose to live with his family at Utrecht;--where he
had the advantage of hearing the gospel and other excellent
conversation. In that place he continued near three years. But his
friends thinking it necessary, that he should come home to settle some
of his affairs, if possible, his lady returned home in the end of 1669,
and himself soon followed: but to his unspeakable grief, he found, when
he came to Edinburgh, that she was in a fever: She lodged in a woman's
house who was a favourer of the sufferers. And though he lodged in a
more private place, and only used to come in the evenings to visit his
sick lady; yet one Cannon of Mardrogate, who had not yet altogether cast
off the mask, at least his treachery and apostacy was not then
discovered, got notice of it--He soon gave information to the
Chancellor, and orders were procured from Lauderdale then in town, to
search that house on pretence that Mr. John Welch was keeping
conventicles in the Lady Kersland's chamber. But the design was for
Kersland himself, as the sequel will declare. Accordingly, a party came,
and finding no conventicle, were just going to retire. But one
Murray[181] having particular notice from Mardrogate, that when any
company came to the room, Kersland in the evening used to retire behind
a bed; and having a torch in his hand, provided for that end, said, he
behoved to search the room: and so went straight behind the bed and
brought him out, charging him to render his arms. Kersland told him he
had none but the Bible, which he had then in his hand; and that was
enough to condemn him in these times.--At parting with his lady, she
shewed much calmness and composure, exhorting him to do nothing that
might wound his conscience out of regard to her or her children, and
repeated that text of scripture, _No man having put his hand to the
plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God._

He was forthwith taken to the guard, and then to the Abbey; where a
committee of the council, that same night, was gathered for his
examination. When he was brought before them, they asked him concerning
the lawfulness of the appearance at Pentland; which he, in plain terms,
owned to be lawful, and what he thought duty.--Upon which he was
immediately imprisoned. When going away, the Chancellor upbraided him
with what passed betwixt him and his lady, which he suffered with much

He was near three months prisoner in Edinburgh; and from thence sent to
Dumbarton castle, where he continued near a year and a half. Then he was
ordered for Aberdeen, where he was kept close prisoner without fire for
three months space in the cold winter season.--From Aberdeen he was
brought south to Stirling castle, where he continued some years; and
then was, a second time, returned to Dumbarton, where he continued till
October 1677. Then the council confined him to Irvine, and allowed him
some time to transport himself and his family, then at Glasgow, into
that place.

Coming to his family at Glasgow, he was visited by many friends and
acquaintance: and the same night, convoying the Lady Caldwall and her
daughter, he was taken by some of the guards, and kept in the guard
house till next day; when the commanding officer would have dismissed
him, but first he behoved to know the arch-bishop's pleasure, who
immediately ordered him a close prisoner in the tolbooth. The
arch-bishop took horse immediately for Edinburgh: Lady Kersland followed
after, if possible, to prevent misinformation.--In the mean time, a fire
breaking out in Glasgow, the tolbooth being in hazard, and the
magistrates refusing to let out the prisoners, the well affected people
of the town got long ladders and set the prisoners free, and Kersland
amongst the rest, after he had been eight years prisoner. After the
hurry was over, he inclined to have surrendered himself again prisoner;
but hearing from his lady of the arch-bishop's design against him, he
retired and absconded all that winter.[182] In the spring and summer
following, he kept company with the persecuted ministers, and heard the
gospel preached in the fields, and was at communions, particularly that
at Maybole. About the beginning of harvest, 1678, he returned again to
his old retiring place Utrecht, where he continued until the day of his

When near his departure, his dear acquaintance Sir Robert Hamilton being
with him, and signifying to him that he might be spared as another Caleb
to see the good land when the storm was over; to whom, amongst his last
words, he said, "What is man before the Lord? yea, what is a nation? as
the drop of a bucket, or the small dust in the balance: yea, less than
nothing and vanity. But this much I can say in humility, that, through
free grace, I have endeavoured to keep the post that God hath set me at.
These fourteen years I have not desired to lift the one foot till the
Lord shewed me where to set down the other." And so, in a few minutes,
he finished his course with joy and fell asleep in Jesus, Nov. 14. 1680,
leaving his wife and five children in a strange land.

It were superfluous to insist here upon the character of the thrice
renowned Ker. It is evident to all, he was a man of a great mind, far
above a servile and mercenary disposition.--He was, for a number of
years, hurried from place to place, and guarded from prison to prison.
He endured all this with undaunted courage.--He lost a good estate then
for the cause of Christ: and, though he got not the martyrs crown, yet
he beyond all doubt obtained the sufferers reward.

_The Life of Mr. DONALD CARGIL._

Mr. Cargil seems to have been born sometime about the year 1610. He was
eldest son to a most respected family in the parish of Rattray. After he
had been sometime in the schools of Aberdeen, he went to St. Andrews,
where having perfected his course of philosophy, his Father prest upon
him much to study divinity, in order for the ministry; but he, through
tenderness of spirit, constantly refused, telling his father, That the
work of the ministry was too great a burden for his weak shoulders;--and
requested to command to any other employment he pleased. But his father
still continuing to urge him, he resolved to set apart a day of private
fasting to seek the Lord's mind therein. And after much wrestling with
the Lord by prayer, the third chapter of Ezekiel, and chiefly these
words in the first verse (_Son of man, eat this roll, and go speak unto
the house of Israel_), made a strong impression upon his mind, to that
he durst no longer refuse his father's desire, but dedicated himself
wholly unto that office.

After this, he got a call to the Barony church of Glasgow. It was so
ordered by divine providence that the very first text the presbytery
ordered him to preach upon, was these words in the third of Ezekiel
(already mentioned) by which he was more confirmed that he had God's
call to that parish. This parish had been long vacant, by reason that
two ministers of the resolution party, _viz._ Messrs Young and Blair,
had still opposed the settlement of such godly men as had been called by
the people. But in reference to Mr. Cargil's call, they were, in God's
providence, much bound up from their wonted opposition. Here Mr. Cargil
perceiving the lightness and unconcerned behaviour of the people under
the word, was much discouraged thereat, so that he resolved to return
home and not accept the call; which when he was urged by some godly
ministers not to do, and his reasons asked, he answered, They are a
rebellious people. The ministers solicited him to stay, but in vain. But
when the horse was drawn, and he just going to begin his journey, being
in the house of Mr. Durham, when he had saluted several of his christian
friends that came to see him take horse, as he was taking farewel of a
certain godly woman, she said to him, "Sir, you have promised to preach
on Thursday, and have you appointed a meal to a poor starving people,
and will ye go away and not give it? if you do, the curse of God will go
with you." This so moved him, that he durst not go away as he intended;
but sitting down desired her and others to pray for him. So he remained
and was settled in that parish, where he continued to exercise his
ministry with great success, to the unspeakable satisfaction both of his
own parish, and all the godly that heard and knew him, until that by the
unhappy restoration of Charles II. prelacy was again restored.

Upon the 26th of May following, the day consecrated in commemoration of
the said restoration, he had occasion to preach in his own church (it
being his ordinary week-day's preaching) when he saw an unusual throng
of people come to hear him, thinking he had preached in compliance with
that solemnity. Upon entering the pulpit, he said, "We are not come here
to keep this day upon the account for which others keep it. We thought
once to have blessed the day, wherein the king came home again, but now
we think we shall have reason to curse it, and if any of you be come
here in order to the solemnizing of this day we desire you to remove."
And enlarging upon these words in the 9th of Hosea, _Rejoice not, O
Israel_, &c. he said, This is the first step of our going a-whoring from
God; and whoever of the Lord's people this day are rejoicing, their joy
will be like the crackling of thorns under a pot, it will soon be turned
to mourning; he (meaning the king) will be the wofullest sight that ever
the poor church of Scotland saw; wo, wo, wo unto him, his name shall
stink while the world stands, for treachery, tyranny and lechery.

This did extremely enrage the malignant party against him, so that being
hotly pursued, he was obliged to abscond, remaining sometime in private
houses, and sometime lying all night without, among broom near the city,
yet never omitting any proper occasion of private preaching, catechizing
and visiting of families and other ministerial duties. But at length
when the churches were all vacated of presbyterians by an act of council
_anno_ 1662. Middleton sent a band of soldiers to apprehend him, who,
coming to the church, found him not, he having providentially just
stepped out of the one door, a minute before they came in at the other;
whereupon they took the keys of the church-door with them and departed.
In the mean while the council passed an act of confinement, banishing
him unto the north side of the Tay, under penalty of being imprisoned
and prosecuted as a seditious person: But this sentence he no way

During this time, partly by grief for the ruin of God's work in the
land, and partly by the toils and inconveniences of his labours and
accommodation, his voice became so broken, that he could not be heard by
many together, which was a sore exercise to him, and discouragement to
preach in the fields; but one day, Mr. Blackater coming to preach near
Glasgow, he essayed to preach with him, and standing on a chair (as his
custom was) he lectured on Isa. xliv. 3. _I will pour water on him that
is thirsty_, &c. The people were much discouraged (knowing his voice to
be sore broken) lest they should not have heard by reason of the great
confluence. But it pleased the Lord to loose his tongue, and restore his
voice to such a distinct clearness, that none could easily exceed him;
and not only his voice, but his spirit was so enlarged, and such a door
of utterance given him, that Mr. Blackater, succeeding him, said to the
people, "Ye, that have such preaching, have no need to invite strangers
to preach to you; make good use of your mercy." After this he continued
to preach without the city, a great multitude attending and profiting by
his ministry, being wonderfully preserved in the midst of danger, the
enemy several times sending out to watch him, and catch something from
his mouth whereof they might accuse him, &c.

In the month of October 1665, they made a public search for him in the
city. But he, being informed, took horse, and rode out of town, and at a
narrow pass of the way he met a good number of musketteers. As he passed
them, turning to another way on the right hand, one of them asked him,
Sir, What-o-clock is it? he answered, It is six. Another of them,
knowing his voice, said, There is the man we are seeking. Upon hearing
this, he put spurs to his horse, and so escaped.

For about three years he usually resided in the house of one Margaret
Craig, a very godly woman, where he lectured morning and evening to such
as came to hear him. And though they searched strictly for him here, yet
providence so ordered it, that he was either casually or purposely
absent; for the Lord was often so gracious to him, that he left him not
without some notice of approaching hazard. Thus, one sabbath, as he was
going to Woodside to preach, as he was about to mount the horse, having
one foot in the stirrup, he turned about to his man, and said, I must
not go yonder to-day.--And in a little, a party of the enemy came there
in quest of him, but missing the mark they aimed at, they fell upon the
people, by apprehending and imprisoning severals of them.

Another of his remarkable escapes was at a search made for him in the
city, where they came to his chamber and found him not, being
providentially in another house that night. But what is most remarkable,
being one day preaching privately in the house of one Mr. Calender, they
came and beset the house; the people put him and another into a window,
closing the window up with books. The search was so strict, that they
searched the very cieling of the house, until one of them fell through
the lower loft. Had they removed but one of the books, they would
certainly have found him. But the Lord so ordered that they did it not;
for as one of the soldiers was about to take up one of them, the maid
cried to the commander, That he was going to take her master's books,
and he was ordered to let them be. Thus narrowly he escaped this danger.

Thus he continued until the 23d of November 1668. that the council, upon
information of a breach of his confinement, cited him to appear before
them on the 11th of January thereafter. But when he was apprehended and
compeared before the council, and strictly examined (wherein he was most
singularly strengthened to bear a faithful testimony to his Master's
honour and his persecuted cause and truths), yet by the interposition of
some persons of quality, his own friends, and his wife's relations, he
was dismissed and presently returned to Glasgow, and there performed all
the ministerial duties, as when in his own church, notwithstanding the
diligence of persecutors in searching for him again.

Some time before Bothwel, notwithstanding all the searches that were
made for him by the enemy, which were both strict and frequent, he
preached publicly for eighteen Sabbath-days to multitudes, consisting of
several thousands, within a little more than a quarter of a mile of the
city of Glasgow; yea, so near it, that the psalms when singing were
heard through several parts of it; and yet all this time uninterrupted.

At Bothwel being taken by the enemy, and struck down to the ground with
a sword, seeing nothing but present death for him, having received
several dangerous wounds in the head, one of the soldiers asked his
name; he told him it was Donald Cargil, another asked him, if he was a
minister? He answered, he was: whereupon they let him go. When his
wounds were examined, he feared to ask if they were mortal, desiring, in
submission to God, to live, judging that the Lord had yet further work
for him to accomplish.

Some time after the fight at Bothwel, he was pursued from his own
chamber out of town, and forced to go through several thorn hedges. But
he was no sooner out, than he saw a troop of dragoons just opposite to
him, back he could not go, soldiers being posted every where to catch
him; upon which he went forward, near by the troop, who looked to him,
and he to them, until he got past. But coming to the place of the water,
at which he intended to go over, he saw another troop standing on the
other side, who called to him, but he made them no answer. And going
about a mile up the water he escaped, and preached at Langside next
Sabbath without interruption. At another time, being in a house beset
with soldiers, he went through the midst of them, they thinking it was
the goodman of the house, and escaped.

After Bothwel,[183] he fell into a deep exercise anent his call to the
ministry, but, by the grace and goodness of God, he soon emerged out of
that, and also got much light anent the duty of the day, being a
faithful contender against the enemy's usurped power, and against the
sinful compliance of ministers, in accepting the indulgence, with
indemnities, oaths, bonds, and all other corruptions.

There was a certain woman in Rutherglen, about two miles from Glasgow,
who, by the instigation of some, both ministers and professors, was
persuaded to advise her husband to go but once to hear the curate, to
prevent the family being reduced; which she prevailed with him to do.
But she going the next day after to milk her cows, two or three of them
dropt down dead at her feet, and Satan, as she conceived, appeared unto
her; which cast her under sad and sore exercises and desertion: so that
she was brought to question her interest in Christ, and all that had
formerly passed betwixt God and her soul, and was often tempted to
destroy herself, and sundry times attempted it. Being before known to be
an eminent Christian, she was visited by many Christians; but without
success: still crying out, she was undone; she had denied Christ, and he
had denied her. After a long time's continuance of this exercise, she
cried for Mr. Cargil; who came to her, but found her distemper so
strong, that for several visits he was obliged to leave her as he found
her, to his no small grief. However, after setting some days apart on
her behalf, he at last came again to her; but finding her no better,
still rejecting all comfort, still crying out, That she had no interest
in the mercy of God, or merits of Christ, but had sinned the
unpardonable sin; he, looking in her face for a considerable time, took
out his Bible, and naming her, said, "I have this day a commission from
my Lord and Master, to renew the marriage contract betwixt you and him;
and if ye will not consent, I am to require your subscription on this
Bible, that you are willing to quit all right, interest in, or pretence
unto him:" and then he offered her pen and ink for that purpose. She was
silent for some time; but at last cried out, "O! _salvation is come unto
this house._ I take him; I take him on his own terms, as he is offered
unto me by his faithful ambassador." From that time her bonds were

One time, Mr. Cargil, Mr. Walter Smith, and some other Christian friends
being met in a friend's house in Edinburgh, one of the company, having
got notice, told him of the general bonding of the west country
gentlemen for suppressing the field meetings, and for putting all out of
their grounds who frequented them. After sitting silent for some time,
he answered, with several heavy sighs and groans, The enemy have been
long filling up their cup; and ministers and professors must have time
to fill up theirs also; and it shall not be full till enemies and they
be clasped in one another's arms; and then, as the Lord lives, he will
bring the wheel of his wrath and justice over them altogether.

Some time after the beginning of the year 1680, he retired toward the
frith of Forth, where he continued until that scuffle at Queensferry,
where worthy Haugh-head was killed, and he sorely wounded. But escaping,
a certain woman found him in a private place, on the south side of town,
and tying up his wounds with her head-clothes, conducted him to the
house of one Robert Puntens, in Carlowrie, where a surgeon dressed his
wounds, and Mrs. Puntens gave him some warm milk, and he lay in their
barn all night. From thence he went to the south, and next Sabbath
preached at Cairn-hill, somewhere adjacent to Loudon, in his blood and
wounds (for no danger could stop him from going about doing good). His
text was in Heb. xi. 32. _And shall I more say, for time would fail me
to tell of Gideon_, &c. At night some persons said to him, We think,
Sir, preaching and praying go best with you when your danger and
distress are greatest. He said, It had been so, and he hoped it would be
so, that the more that enemies and others did thrust at him that he
might fall, the more sensibly the Lord had helped him; and then (as it
had been to himself) he repeated these words, _The Lord is my strength
and song, and has become my salvation_, in the 118th psalm, which was
the psalm he sung upon the scaffold.

After this, he and Mr. Richard Cameron met and preached together in
Darmeid-muir, and other places, until that Mr. Cameron was slain at
Airs-moss, and then he went north, where, in the month of September
following, he had a most numerous meeting at the Torwood near Stirling,
where he pronounced the sentence of excommunication against some of the
most violent persecutors of that day, as formally as the present state
of things could then permit. Some time before this, it is said, he was
very remote and spoke very little in company; only to some he said, He
had a tout to give with the trumpet that the Lord had put in his hand,
that would sound in the ears of many in Britain, and other places in
Europe also. It is said[184], that nobody knew what he was to do that
morning, except Mr. Walt Smith, to whom he imparted the thoughts of his
heart. When he began, some friends feared he would be shot. His
landlord, in whose house he had been that night, cast his coat and ran
for it. In the forenoon he lectured on Ezek. xxi. 25, &c. and preached
on 1 Cor. v. 13. and then discoursed some time on the nature of
excommunication, and then proceeded to the sentence; after which, in the
afternoon, he preached from Lam. iii. 31, 32. _For the Lord will not
cast off for ever._

The next Lord's day he preached at Fallow-hill in the parish of
Livingston. In the preface he said, "I know I am and will be condemned
by many, for excommunicating those wicked men; but condemn me who will,
I know I am approven of by God, and am persuaded that what I have done
on earth is ratified in heaven; for, if ever I knew the mind of God, and
was clear in my call to any piece of my generation-work, it was that.
And I shall give you two signs, that ye may know I am in no delusion:
(1) If some of these men do not find that sentence binding upon them,
ere they go off the stage, and be obliged to confess it, &c. (2.) If
these men die the ordinary death of men, then God hath not spoken by

About the 22d of October following, a long and severe proclamation was
issued out against him and his followers, wherein a reward of 5000 merks
was offered for apprehending him, &c.--Next month governor Middleton,
having been frustrated in his design upon Mr. Cargil at Queensferry,
laid another plot for him, by consulting one James Henderson in Ferry,
who, by forging and signing letters, in name of bailie Adam in Culross,
and some other serious Christians in Fife, for Mr. Cargil to come over,
and preach to them at the hill of Baith. Accordingly Henderson went to
Edinburgh with the letters, and, after a most diligent search, found him
in the west bow. Mr. Cargil being willing to answer the call, Henderson
proposed to go before, and have a boat ready at the Ferry against they
came; and, that he might know them, he desired to see Mr. Cargil's
cloath, (Mr. Skeen and Mr. Boig being in the same room). In the mean
time he had Middleton's soldiers lying at the Mutton-hole, about three
miles from Edinburgh, &c. Mr. Skeen, Archibald Stuart, Mrs. Muir and
Marion Hervey took the way before on foot, Mr. Cargil and Mr. Boig being
to follow on horseback. Whenever they came to the place, the soldiers
spied them; but Mrs. Muir escaped, and went and stopped Mr. Cargil and
Mr. Boig, who fled back to Edinburgh.

After this remarkable escape, Mr. Cargil, seeing nothing but the violent
flames of treachery and tyranny against him above all others, retired
for about three months to England, where the Lord blessed his labours,
to the conviction and edification of many. In the time of his absence
that delusion of the Gibbites arose, from one John Gib sailor in
Borrowstoness, who, with other three men and twenty-six women, vented
and maintained the most strange delusions. Some time after, Mr. Cargil
returned from England, and was at no small pains to reclaim them, but
with little success. After his last conference with them[186] (at
Darngavel in Cambusnethen parish) he come next sabbath, and preached at
the Underbank wood, below Lanerk, and from thence to Loudon-hill, where
he preached upon a fast day, being the 5th of May. Here he intended only
to have preached once, and to have baptized some children. His text was,
_No man that hath followed me in the regeneration_, &c. When sermon was
over, and the children baptized, more children came up; whereupon
friends pressed him to preach in the afternoon; which he did from these
words, _Weep not for me_, &c. In the mean while, the enemy at Glasgow,
getting notice of this meeting, seized all the horses in and about the
town, that they could come by, and mounted in quest of him; yea, such
was their haste and fury, that one of the soldiers, who happened to be
behind the rest, riding furiously down the street, called the Stockwell,
at mid-day, rode over a child, and killed her on the spot. Just as Mr.
Cargil was praying at the close, a lad alarmed them of the enemy's
approach. They (having no centinels that day, which was not their
ordinary) were surprized, that some of them, who had been at Pentland,
Bothwel, Airs-moss, and other dangers, were never so seized with fear,
some of the women throwing their children from them. In this confusion
Mr. Cargil was running straight on the enemy, but Gavin Wotherspoon and
others baled him to the moss, unto which the people fled. The dragoons
fired hard upon them, but there were none either killed or taken that

About this time, some spoke to Mr. Cargil of his preaching and praying
short. They said, "O Sir, it is long betwixt meals, and we are in a
starving condition; all is good, sweet and wholesome that you deliver;
but why do you so straiten us?" He said, "Ever since I bowed a knee in
good earnest to pray, I never durst preach and pray with my gifts; and
when my heart is not affected, and comes not up with my mouth, I always
thought it time to quit it. What comes not from the heart, I have little
hope it will go to the hearts of others." Then he repeated these words
in the 51st psalm, _Then will I teach transgressors thy way_, &c.

From Loudon hill he took a tour through Ayr-shire to Carrick and
Galloway, preaching, baptizing, and marrying some people; but stayed not
long until he returned to Clydesdale. He designed, after his return, to
have preached one day at Tinto-hill, but the lady of St. John's kirk
gave it out to be at Home-common. He, being in the house of John Liddel
near Tinto, went out to spend the Sabbath morning by himself, and seeing
the people all passing by, he inquired the reason, which being told, he
rose and followed them five miles. The morning being warm (about the
first of June) and the heights steep, he was very much fatigued before
he got to the place, where a man gave him a drink of water out of his
bonnet, and another between sermons; this being the best entertainment
he got that day, for he had tasted nothing in the morning. Here he
lectured on the 6th of Isaiah, and preached on these words, _Be not
high-minded, but fear_, &c. From thence he went to Fife, and baptized
many children, and preached one day at Daven-common, and then returned
to the Benry-ridge in Cambusnethen, where he received a call from the
hands of two men, to come back to Galloway, but got it not

Mr. Cargil, in that short time, had ran very fast towards his end[188],
which now hastens apace. Having left the Benry-ridge, he preached one
day at Auchingilloch[189], and then came to preach his last sermon on
Dunsyre-common, (betwixt Clydesdale and Lothian) upon that text, Isa.
xxvi. 20. _Come, my people, and enter into your chambers_, &c.

Some time that night, through the persuasion of Mr. Smith and Mr. Boig,
he went with the lady of St. John's kirk, as far as Covington mill, to
the house of one Andrew Fisher. In the mean time, James Irvin of
Bonshaw, having got a general commission, marched with a party of
dragoons from Kilbride, and next morning, by sun-rising, came to St.
John's kirk, and having searched it, he searched also the house of one
Thomson, and then came to Covington mill, and there apprehended him, Mr.
Smith and Mr. Boig. Bonshaw, when he found them, cried out, O blessed
Bonshaw! and blessed day that ever I was born! that has found such a
prize! a prize of 5000 marks for apprehending of him this morning! They
marched hard to Lanerk, and put them in jail, until they got some
refreshment, and then brought them out in haste, got horses and set the
prisoners on their bare backs. Bonshaw tied Mr. Cargil's feet below the
horse's belly (with his own hand) very hard, at which this good man
looked down to him, and said, "Why do you tie me so hard? your
wickedness is great. You will not long escape the just judgment of God,
and, if I be not mistaken, it will seize you in this place." Which
accordingly next year came to pass; for having got this price of blood,
one of his comrades, in a rage, ran him through with a sword at Lanerk;
and his last words were, "G--d d----n my soul eternally, for I am gone."
_Mischief shall hunt the violent man._

They came to Glasgow in haste, fearing a rescue of the prisoners, and
while waiting at the tolbooth till the magistrates came to receive them,
one John Nisbet, the arch-bishop's rector, said to Mr. Cargil in
ridicule, three times over, Will you give us one word more, (alluding to
an expression he used sometime when preaching) to whom Mr. Cargil said
with regret, "_Mock not, lest your hands be made strong._ The day is
coming, when you will not have one word to say though you would." This
also came quickly to pass, for, not many days after, he fell suddenly
ill, and for three days his tongue swelled, and though he was most
earnest to speak, yet he could not command one word, and died in great
torment and seeming terror.

From Glasgow they were taken to Edinburgh; and July 15th, were brought
before the council. Chancellor Rothes (being one of those whom he
excommunicated at Torwood) raged against him, threatening him with
torture and a violent death. To whom he said. "My lord Rothes forbear to
threaten me, for die what death I will, your eyes shall not see
it."--Which accordingly came to pass, for he died the morning of that
day, in the afternoon of which Mr. Cargil was executed.

When before the council, he was asked, If he owned the king's authority,
&c.? He answered, As the magistrates authority is now established by
the act of parliament and explanatory act, that he denied the same.
Being also examined anent the excommunication at Torwood, he declined to
answer, as being an ecclesiastical matter, and they a civil judicatory.
He owned the lawfulness of defensive arms in cases of necessity, and
denied that those who rose at Bothwel, &c. were rebels; and being
interrogate anent the Sanquhar declaration, he declined to give his
judgment until he had more time to peruse the contents thereof. He
further declared, he could not give his sense of the killing of the
bishop; but that the scriptures say, Upon the Lord's giving a call to a
private man to kill, he might do it lawfully; and gave the instances of
Jael and Phinehas. These were the most material points on which he was

While he was in prison a gentlewoman (who came to visit him) told him
weeping, "That these heaven-daring enemies were contriving a most
violent death for him; some, a barrel with many pikes to roll him in;
others, an iron chair red-hot to roast him in, &c." But he said, "Let
you, nor none of the Lord's people be troubled for these things, for all
that they will get liberty to do to me will be to knit me up, cut me
down, and chop off my old head, and then fare them well; they have done
with me and I with them for ever."

He was again before the council on the 19th, but refused to answer their
questions, except anent the excommunication, wherein he exprest himself
much as above. It appears that there was some motion made to spare him,
as he was an old man, and send him prisoner to the Bass during life;
which motion, being put to a vote, was, by the casting vote of the earl
of Argyle, rejected, who doomed him to the gallows, there to die like a

Upon the 26th, he was brought before the justiciary, and indicted in
common form. His confession being produced in evidence against him, he
was brought in guilty of high treason, and condemned, with the rest, to
be hanged at the cross of Edinburgh, and his head placed on the
Nether-bow. When they came to these words, in his indictment, viz.
_having cast off all fear of God_, &c. he caused the clerk to stop, and
(pointing to the advocate Sir George MacKenzie) said, "The man that hath
caused that paper to be drawn up, hath done it contrary to the light of
his own conscience, for he knoweth that I have been a fearer of God from
mine infancy; but that man, I say, who took the holy Bible in his hand,
and said, It would never be well with the land, until that book was
destroyed, &c. I say, he is the man that hath cast off all fear of
God." The advocate stormed at this, but could not deny the truth

When they got their sentence announced by sound of trumpet, he said,
"That is a weary sound, but the sound of the last trumpet will be a
joyful sound to me, and all that will be found having on Christ's

Being come to the scaffold, he stood with his back to the ladder, and
desired the attention of the numerous spectators, and after singing from
the 16th verse of the 118th psalm, he began to speak to three sorts of
people, but being interrupted by the drums, he said, with a smiling
countenance, Ye see we have not liberty to speak, or speak what we
would, but God knoweth our hearts. As he proceeded, he was again
interrupted. Then after a little pause or silence he begin to exhort the
people; and to shew his own comfort in laying down his life, in the
assurance of a blessed eternity, expressing himself in these words,
"Now, I am as sure of my interest in Christ and peace with God, as all
within this Bible and the Spirit of God can make me; and I am fully
persuaded that this is the very way for which I suffer, and that he will
return gloriously to Scotland; but it will be terrifying to many.
Therefore I intreat you, be not discouraged at the way of Christ, and
the cause for which I am to lay down my life, and step to eternity,
where my soul shall be as full of him as it can desire to be; and now
this is the sweetest and most glorious day that ever mine eyes did see.
Enemies are now enraged against the way and people of God, but ere long
they shall be enraged one against another, to their own confusion;" here
the drums did beat a third time. Then setting his foot on the ladder, he
said, "The Lord knows I go on this ladder with less fear and
perturbation of mind, than ever I entered the pulpit to preach."--When
up, he sat down and said, "Now I am near the getting of the crown, which
shall be sure, for which I bless the Lord, and desire all of you to
bless him, that he hath brought me here, and made me triumph over
devils, men and sin; They shall wound me no more. I forgive all men the
wrongs they have done me; and I pray the sufferers may be kept from sin,
and helped to know their duty." Then having prayed a little within
himself, he lifted up the napkin and said, "Farewel all relations and
friends in Christ; farewel acquaintances and earthly enjoyments; farewel
reading and preaching, praying and believing, wanderings, reproach and
sufferings. Welcome Father, Son and Holy Ghost; into thy hands I commit
my spirit." Then he prayed a little, and the executioner turned him over
as he was praying; and so he finished his course, and the ministry that
he had received of the Lord.

Take his character from Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston, who was his
contemporary.--He was affectionate, affable and tender-hearted to all
such as he thought had any thing of the image of God in them; sober and
temperate in his diet, saying commonly, It was well won that was won off
the flesh; generous, liberal and most charitable to the poor; a great
hater of covetousness; a frequent visiter of the sick; much alone;
loving to be retired; but when about his Master's public work, laying
hold of every opportunity to edify; in conversation still dropping what
might minister grace to the hearers; his countenance was edifying to
beholders; often sighing with deep groans; preaching in season, and out
of season, upon all hazards; ever the same in judgment and practice.
From his youth he was much given to the duty of secret prayer, for whole
nights together; wherein it was observed that, both in secret and in
families, he always sat straight up upon his knees with his hands lifted
up, and in this posture (as some took notice) he died with the rope
about his neck.

Beside his last speech and testimony, and several other religious
letters, with the lecture, sermon and sentence of excommunication at
Torwood, which were all published, there are also several other sermons
and notes of sermons interspersed, among some people's hands in print
and manuscript, some of which were lately published. Yet if we may
believe one[191] who heard severals of them preached, they are nothing
to what they were when delivered; and however pathetical, yet doubtless
far inferior to what they would have been, had they been corrected and
published by the worthy author himself.

_Follows an ACROSTICK on his Name._

    Most sweet and savoury is thy fame,
    And more renowned is thy name,
    Surely than any can record,
    Thou highly favoured of the Lord.
    Exalted thou on earth didst live;
    Rich grace to thee the Lord did give.

    During the time thou dwelt below,
    On in a course to heaven didst go.
    Not casten down with doubts and fears,
    Assured of heaven near thirty years.
    Labour thou didst in Christ's vineyard;
    Diligent wast, no time thou spar'd.

    Christ's standard thou didst bear alone,
    After others from it were gone.
    Right zeal for truth was found in thee,
    Great sinners censur'dst faithfully.
    In holding truth didst constant prove,
    Laidst down thy life out of true love.

_June 21st, 1741._                   W. W.

_The Life of Mr. WALTER SMITH._

Walter Smith was son to Walter Smith in the parish of St. Ninian's, near
Airth in Stirling-shire. He was an eminent Christian and good scholar.
He went over to Holland, where he studied sometime under the famous
Leusden, who had a great esteem and value for him, as being one both of
high attainments and great experience in the serious exercise and solid
practice of christianity.

In the year 1679, we find that he made no mean figure among that little
handful of the Lord's suffering remnant, who rose in their own defence
at Bothwel-bridge.--For he was both chosen clerk to the council of war,
and also a commanding-officer among the honest party; and had the honour
not only to witness and protest against the sinful compliance of that
corrupt Erastian party, that then foisted themselves in amongst them,
but was also one of those three who were then appointed to draw up the
causes of the Lord's wrath against the land, and the Hamilton
declaration was to be one of the last causes thereof, with a new
declaration which they intended to have published at that time; and
although both of these were undertaken, yet the Lord did not honour them
to publish the same, as some of them with great regret, unto their dying
day, did acknowledge.[192]

After the overthrow and dissipation of the covenanters at Bothwel
(wherein the Erastian party among them had no little hand), it appears
that Mr. Smith went over, for some time to Holland, but did not stay
long; for we meet with him again with Mr. Cargil at Torwood, in Sept.
1680, after which he was very helpful to him in his conversation and
advice in difficult cases, and praying in families (when he was fatigued
with sore travel, being an old man, and going then often on foot), and
many times in public preaching days precenting for him.

He had a longing desire to preach Christ, and him crucified unto the
world, and the word of salvation thro' his name. Mr. Cargil had the same
desire, and for that end, it is said, had written to two ministers to
meet him at Cummerhead in Lismehago in Clydesdale, but ere that day
came, that door was closed (for they were in the enemies hands). However
Mr. Smith followed the example of our blessed Lord and Saviour, in going
about doing good, in many places and to many persons, in spiritual,
edifying conversation, and was a singular example of true piety and
zeal, which had more influence upon many than most part of the ministers
of that day.

A little before his death he drew up twenty-two rules for fellowship or
society meetings, which at that time greatly increased, from the river
Tay to Newcastle, in which he was very instrumental, which afterwards
settled unto a general and quarterly correspondence four times yearly,
that so they might speak one with another, when they wanted the public
preaching of the gospel; and to appoint general fasting days through the
whole community, wherein their own sins, and the prevailing sins and
defections of the times, were the principal causes thereof; and that
each society was to meet and spend some time of the Lord's day together,
when deprived of the public ordinances[193]. Mr. Cargil said, That
these society-meetings would increase more and more for a time; but when
the judgment came upon these sinful lands, there would be few standing
society-meetings, when there would be most need, few mourners, prayers,
pleaders, &c. what through carnality, security, darkness, deadness and

But he was now well nigh the evening of his life, and his labours both.
For having been with Mr. Cargil, when he preached his last sermon on
Dunsyre common, betwixt Clydesdale and Lothian, he was next morning, by
wicked Bonshaw (who had formerly traded in fine horses betwixt the two
kingdoms), apprehended at Covington-mill. He was, with the rest of the
prisoners, carried from Lanerk to Glasgow, and from thence taken to
Edinburgh, where, upon the 15th of July, he was brought before the
council, and there examined if he owned the king and his authority as
lawful? He answered, "He cannot acknowledge the present authority the
king is now invested with, and the exercise thereof, being now clothed
with a supremacy over the church." Being interrogate, If the king's
falling from the covenant looses him from his obedience, and if the king
thereby loses his authority? He answered, "He thinks he is obliged to
perform all the duties of the covenant, conform to the word of God, and
the king is only to be obeyed in terms of the covenant." Being further
interrogate anent the Torwood excommunication, he declared, He thought
their reasons were just.

On the 19th he was again brought before them and interrogate, If he
owned the Sanquhar declaration? It was then read to him, and he owned
the same in all its articles, except that he looked not upon these
persons as the formal representatives of the presbyterian church, as
they called themselves. And as to that expression, The king should have
been denuded many years ago, he did not like the word _denuded_, but
said, What the king has done justifies the peoples revolting against
him. As to these words, where the king is called an usurper and a
tyrant, he said, Certainly the king is an usurper, and wished he was not
a tyrant.

Upon the 20. he was with the rest, brought before the justiciary, where,
being indicted in common form, their confessions were produced as
evidences against them, and they all brought in guilty of high treason,
and condemned to be hanged at the cross of Edinburgh upon the 27. and
their heads to be severed from their bodies, and those of Messrs.
Cargil, Smith and Boig to be placed on the Nether-bow, and the heads of
the others on the West-port, all which was done accordingly.

After Mr. Cargil was executed, Mr. Smith was brought upon the scaffold,
where he adhered to the very same cause with Mr. Cargil, and declared
the same usurpation of Christ's crown and dignity, and died with great
assurance of his interest in Christ, declaring his abhorrence of popery,
prelacy, erastianism and all other steps of defection. He went up the
ladder with all signs of cheerfulness, and when the executioner was to
untie his cravat, he would not suffer him, but untied it himself, and
calling to his brother, he threw it down, saying, This is the last token
you shall get from me. After the napkin was drawn over his face, he
uncovered it again, and said, I have one word more to say, and that is,
to all who have any love to God and his righteous cause, that they would
set time apart, and sing a song of praise to the Lord, for what he has
done for my soul, and my soul saith, To him be praise. Then the napkin
being let down, he was turned over praying, and died in the Lord, with
his face bending upon Mr. Cargil's breast. These two cleaved to one
another, in love and unity, in their life; and between them in their
death, there was no disparity. _Saul and Jonathan were lovely and
pleasant in their lives, and in their death they were not divided_, &c.

The now glorified Mr. Walter Smith was a man no less learned than pious,
faithful and religious. His old master, the professor of divinity at
Utrecht in Holland (when he heard of his public violent bloody death of
martyrdom), gave him this testimony, weeping, saying, in broken English,
"O Smith! the great, brave Smith! who exceeded all that I ever taught.
He was capable to teach many, but few to instruct him." Besides some
letters, and the forementioned twenty-two rules for fellowship meetings,
he wrote also twenty-two steps of national defection; all which are now
published; and if these, with his last testimony, be rightly considered,
it will appear that his writings were inferior to few of the contendings
of that time.

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT GARNOCK._[194]

Robert Garnock was born in Stirling, _anno_ ----, and baptized by
faithful Mr. James Guthrie. In his younger years, his parents took much
pains to train him up in the way of duty: but soon after the
restoration, the faithful presbyterian ministers being turned out,
curates were put in their place, and with them came ignorance, profanity
and persecution.--Some time after this, Mr. Law preached at his own
house in Monteith, and one Mr. Hutchison sometimes at Kippen. Being one
Saturday's evening gone out to his grandmother's house in the country,
and having an uncle who frequented these meetings, he went along with
him unto a place called Shield-brae.--And next Sabbath he went with him
through much difficulty (being then but young) through frost and snow,
and heard Mr. Law at Montieth; which sermon through a divine blessing,
wrought much upon his mind.--Thus he continued for some considerable
time to go out in the end of the week for an opportunity of hearing the
gospel, and to return in the beginning of next week to Stirling, but did
not let his parents know anything of the matter.

But one time, hearing a proclamation read at the cross exhibiting, that
all who did not hear or receive privileges from the curates were to be
severely punished; which much troubled his mind, making him hesitate
whether to go to a field preaching that he heard was to be next Sabbath,
or not. But at last he came to this resolution. Says he, "the Lord
inclined my heart to go and put that word to me, go for once, go for
all, if they take thee, for that which is to come. So I went there, and
the Lord did me good: for I got at that sermon that which, although they
had rent me into a thousand pieces, I would not have said what I had
said before. So the Lord made me follow the gospel for a long time; and
tho' I knew little then what I meant, yet he put it in my heart still to
keep by the honest side, and not to comply or join with enemies of one
kind or another, yea not to watch, ward or strengthen their hands any
manner of way. When I was asked, why I would not keep watch (or stand
centry) on the town; it was a commanded duty; I told them, I would not
lift arms against the work of God. If ever I carried arms, it should be
for the defence of the gospel."

Now, he became a persecuted man, and was obliged to leave the town. His
father being a black-smith, he had learned the same trade, and so he
went some time to Glasgow, and followed his occupation. From Glasgow he
returned home; and from thence went again to Borrowstouness, where he
had great debate, as himself expresses it,--"about that woeful
indulgence: I did not know the dreadful hazard of hearing them, until I
saw they preached at the hazard of men's lives.--This made me examine
the matter, until I found out that they were directly wrong and contrary
to scripture, had changed their head, had quitted Jesus Christ as their
head, and had taken their commission from men, owning that perjured
adulterous wretch as head of the church, receiving then commission to
preach in such and such places from him and those bloody thieves under

From Borrowstouness he returned back to Falkirk; and thence home to
Stirling, where he remained for some time under a series of
difficulties: for, after he got off when taken with others at the
Shield-brae,--while he was making bold to visit Mr. Skeen, he was taken
in the castle, and kept all night, and used very barbarously by the
soldiers, and at eight o'clock next morning taken before the provost,
who not being then at leisure, he was imprisoned till afternoon. But by
the intercession of one Colin M'Kinzie (to whom his father was smith) he
was got out, and without so much as paying the jailor's fee. "I had much
of the Lord's kindness at that time, (says he) although I did not know
then what it meant, and so I was thrust forth unto my wandering again."

About this time, he intended to go to Ireland; but being disappointed,
he returned back to Stirling, where he was tost to and fro for some
time, and yet he remarks, he had some sweet times in this condition;
particularly one night, when he was down in the Carfe with one Barton
Hendry;[195] after which heavy trials ensued unto him from professors;
because he testified against every kind of their compliance with the
current of the times. Upon this account, the society meeting he was in
and he could not agree. This made him leave them, and go to one in the
country; which, he says, "were more sound in judgment, and of an
undaunted courage and zeal for God and his cause; for the life of
religion was in that society."

At this time, he fell into such a degree of temptation by the devices of
the enemy of man's salvation, that he was made to supplicate the Lord
several times that he might not be permitted to a affright him in some
visible shape, which he then apprehended he was attempting to do. But
from these dreadful oppressions he was at last, through the goodness of
God, happily delivered.[196] Although, as yet, he knew but little of
experimental religion. And, says he, "The world thought I had religion:
but to know the hidden things of godliness was yet a mystery to me. I
did not know any thing as yet of the new birth, or what it was
spiritually to take the kingdom of heaven by violence, &c." Which
serves to shew, that one may do and suffer many things for Christ and
religion, and yet at the same time be a stranger to the life and power

But anon he falls into another difficulty; for a proclamation being
issued, that all betwixt thirteen and sixty was to pay Poll-money; word
was sent his father, that if he would pay it, he should have his
liberty; which was no small temptation. But this he absolutely refused,
and also told his father plainly (when urged by him to do it) that, if
one plack (or four pennies) would do it, he would not give it. His
father said, He would give it for him; to whom he answered, If he did,
he needed never expect it or any consideration for it from him. And for
the result of the matter, hear his own words: "And O! but the Lord was
kind to me then; and his love was better than life. I was tossed in my
wanderings and banishment with many ups and downs, till I came to
Edinburgh, where I heard of a communion to be on the borders of England;
and then I went to it. O! let me bless the Lord that ever trysted me
with such a lot as that was: for the 20, 21 and 22 of April [1677] were
the three most wonderful days with the Lord's presence that ever I saw
on earth. O! but his power was wonderfully seen, and great to all the
assembly, especially to me. Of the three wonderful days of the Lord's
presence at East-Nisbet in the Merse. That was the greatest communion, I
suppose, these twenty years. I got there what I will never forget while
I live. Glory to his sweet name that ever there was such a day in
Scotland. His work was wonderful to me both in spirituals and temporals.
O! that I could get him praised and magnified for it. He was seen that
day sitting at the head of his table, and his spikenard _sending forth a
pleasant smell_. Both good and bad were made to cry out, and some to
say, with the disciples, _It is good for us to be here_. They would have
been content to have staid there. And I thought it was a begun heaven to
be in that place."

After this, he returned home to Stirling, and got liberty to follow his
employment for some time.--But, lo! another difficulty occurred; for
while the Highland host was commanded west, [in the beginning of 1678]
all Stirling being commanded to be in arms, which all excepting a very
few, obeyed; he refused, and went out of town with these few, and kept a
meeting. When he returned, his father told him, he was past for the
first time, but it behoved him to mount guard to-morrow.--He refused:
his father was angry, and urged him with the practices of others. He
told his father, he would hang his faith upon no man's belt, &c. On
the morrow, when the drums beat to mount the guard, being the day of his
social meeting, he went out of the town under a heavy load of reproach,
and even from professors, who made no bones to say, that it was not
principle of conscience he hesitated upon, but that he might have
liberty to strole through the country: because he attended these
meetings; which was no easy matter to bear. Orders were given to
apprehend him; but at that time he escaped their hand, and wandered from
one place to another, until the beginning of August 1678, that he came
to Carrick communion at Maybole: and what his exercise was there,
himself thus expresses: "I was wonderfully trysted there; but not so as
at the other. I went to the first table, and then went and heard worthy
Messrs. Kid and Cameron preach at a little distance from the meeting,
who never left the fields till they sealed and crowned it with their
blood. I cannot say but the Lord was kind to me, on the day after there,
and on the fast day in the middle of the week after that, near the
borders of Kilmarnock parish, where a division arose about the
indulgence, which to this day is never yet done away. After my return
home, I was made to enter into covenant with him upon his own terms
against the indulgence and all other compliances: and, because through
the Lord's strength I resolved to keep my bargain, and not to join with
them, it was said, I had got new light; and I was much reproached, yet I
got much of the Lord's kindness when attending the preached gospel in
the field, to which I would sometimes go twenty miles."

And having thus wandered to and fro for some time, he went to Edinburgh
to see the prisoners, and then returned home to Stirling in the end of
the week. Late on Saturday night, he heard of a field preaching, and
seeing the soldiers and troopers marching out of the town to attack the
people at that meeting, he made himself ready, and, with a few others,
went toward the meeting: and, being armed, they arrived near the place;
but the soldiers coming forward, the people still, as they approached,
seeing the enemy, turned off. So he and a few armed men and the
minister, seeing this, took a hill above Fintry beside the craigs of
Ball-glass. So the enemy came forward. This little handful drew up in
the best posture the time and circumstances would allow; and sung a
psalm, at which the soldiers were so affrighted, that they told
afterward, that the very matches had almost fallen out of their hands.
At last a trooper coming up, commanded them to dismiss: but they
refused. This was repeated several times, till the captain of the foot
came forward, and gave them the same charge; which they also refused.
Upon this, he commanded a party of his men to advance and fire upon
them: which they did once or twice: which was by this little company
returned with much courage and agility, until the whole party and the
commanding officer (consisting of 48 men and 16 horsemen) fired upon
this little handful, which he thinks amounted to not above 18 that had
arms, with a few women. After several fires were returned on both sides,
one of the sufferers stepped forward, and shot one side of the captain's
periwig off, at which the foot fled; but the horsemen, taking the
advantage of the rising ground, surrounded this small party. They then
fired on a young man, but missed him. However, they took him and some
others prisoners. The rest fled off. Robert Garnock was hindermost,
being the last on the place of action, and says, he intended not to have
been taken, but rather killed. At last one of the enemy came after him,
on which he resolved either to kill or be killed before he
surrendered,--catching a pistol from one for that purpose. But another
coming in for assistance, the trooper fled off, and so they escaped unto
the other side of a precipice, where they staid until the enemy were
gone, who marched directly with their prisoners to Stirling[197].

After the fray was over, Robert staid till evening, and spoke with some
friends and the minister, who dissuaded him all they could from going
into Stirling. But being now approaching toward the eve of his
pilgrimage state, with Paul, in another case, when going up to
Jerusalem, he could not be prevailed upon; and so went to town: and
entering the town about One in the morning, he got into a house at the
foot of the castle-hill, and there got his arms left with much
difficulty: but, as he was near the head of the castle-hill, he was by
two soldiers (who were lying in wait for those who had been at that
meeting) apprehended and brought to the guard; and then brought before
lord Linlithgow's son: who asked him, if he was at that preaching? he
told him, he was at no preaching. Linlithgow's son said, he was a liar.
Robert said, he was no liar; and seeing ye will not believe me, I will
tell no more: prove the rest. Linlithgow said, he would make him do
it.--But he answered, he should not. Then he asked his name, trade, and
his father's name, and where they dwelt? all which he answered. Then he
bade keep him fast. At night he was much abused by the soldiers; some of
them who had been wounded in the skirmish, threatening him with torture,
gagging in the mouth, &c. all which he bore with much patience. In the
morning a serjeant came to examine him; but he refused him as a judge to
answer to. At last the commanding officer came and examined him, if he
was at that skirmish. He answered, That for being there he was taken;
and whether I was there or not, I am not bound to give you an account.
So he went out, and in a little returned with the provost, who thought
to surplant him by asking, who of Stirling folk was there? he answered,
That they were both his neighbours and his; and though he had been
there, he might account him very impudent to tell: for though he thought
it his duty to ask, yet it was not his to tell or answer: and he thought
he should rather commend him for so doing. After several other things
anent that affair, he was commanded to close prison; and none, not so
much as his father, allowed to speak to him; but he did not want company
at that time; for, says he, "O but I had a sweet time of it: the Lord's
countenance was better unto me than all the company in the world."

The forementioned skirmish had fallen out May 8th, 1679, and upon the
19th of the same month, he was put into the common prison amongst
malefactors; where he got some more liberty, having some others of the
sufferers with him. However, they were very much disturbed by a
notorious murderer, who, being drunk one time, thought to have killed
him with a large plank or form. But happily the stroke did not hurt him,
though he struck with all his force twice, whereby another was almost
killed. This made him and other five to lie sometimes upon the stairs;
for they could have no other place; though they desired the thieves
hole, they could not obtain it. And thus they passed the time with much
pain and trouble, until June 16th, that the Fife men were broke at
Bewly[198], and numbers taken which were brought in prisoners on the
11th; whereby they were very much thronged. Here he continued till the
break at Bothwel on the 22d, after which there was no small confusion by
tendering and pressing of a bond of conformity against offensive arms,
wherein he got his share during that time.

Upon the 13th of July, he was brought forth and in company with about
100 more prisoners under a strong guard of red coats taken from Stirling
to Edinburgh, and put into Gray-friar's church-yard, amongst the Bothwel
prisoners: there he was more vexed both by the enemy and his
fellow-sufferers than ever. A specimen of which I shall give in his own
words: "Some of my neighbours desired the bond, so they put it to me;
but I refused. However, the most part of them took it. Nay, there were
some of them supplicated for any bond. This made some of us conclude it
was our duty to testify against it; which piece of employment was put
upon me, against which some of the prisoners obtested.--So I was
rendered odious; but many a-day the Lord was kind to me in that yard,
and kept me from many a fear and snare; his love was sweet unto me. The
men complained of us to the commanders, who sent for me and examined me
on the bond and other things: they said, I should be gagged, and every
day I was vexed with them; until almost the whole prisoners petitioned
for it--And there was as good as seventy ministers sent unto the ward to
take it, and they said, it was not a head to suffer upon: when they had
done, they sent in two gentlewomen with the commission; and they set
upon me: I told them, if every one of them had as much of it as I had,
they would not be so busy to press it: for before this, the bloody crew
came to the yard, and called on me, and asked, If I would take the bond.
I said, No. They said, I would get no other sentence.--So I was sore put
to it: I would often have been at the doing of something; but the Lord
would not suffer me. So, in his strength, I fought on against my own
heart and them all, and overcame. But O! the cross was sweet unto me and
easy. There needs none fear to venture on suffering in his way and
strength. O happy day, that ever I was trysted with such a thing. My
bargaining with lovely Jesus was sweet unto me. It is true, affliction,
for the present, seems not joyous but grievous; but afterwards _it
yieldeth the peaceable fruits of righteousness to those who are
exercised thereby_. I never knew the treachery of ministers, and their
dreadful hypocrisy and double dealing in the matters of God before that
time, and I could never love them after that; for they made many a one
to rack their conscience in taking that bond. I was brought out of the
yard, Oct. 25th, with a guard of soldiers; when coming out, one Mr.
White asked, if I would take the bond? I, smiling, said, No. He, in way
of jeer, said, I had a face to glorify God in the Salt market. So I bade
farewel to all my neighbours who were sorry; and White bade me take
goodnight with them, for I should never see them more. But I said, Lads,
take good heart; for we may yet meet again for all this.--So I was
brought before their council-court. They asked, if I would take the
bond? I said, No.--Some of them said, May be he does not know it; but
Halton said, he knows it well enough. So one of them read it. I asked,
if they would have me subscribe a lie to take away my life; for I never
was in rebellion, nor intended to be so. They said, they would make
another bond for me. I answered they needed not trouble themselves; for
I was not designed to subscribe any bond at this time.

"_Quest._ Will ye rise in rebellion against the king?

"_Answ._ I was not rising in rebellion against the king.

"_Q._ Will ye take the bond never to rise against the king and his

"_A._ What is the thing ye call authority? They said, If they, the
soldiers or any other subject, should kill me, I was bound not to
resist. I answered, That I will never do.

"_Q._ Is the bishop's death murder?

"_A._ I am a prisoner; and so no judge.

"_Q._ Is Bothwel-bridge rebellion?

"_A._ I am not bound to give my judgment in that.

"Then one of them said, I told you what the rebel rascal would say: you
will be hanged, Sir. I answered, you must first convict me of a crime.
They said, you did excommunicate prisoners for taking the bond. I said,
that was not in my power; and moreover, I was now before them, and prove
it if they were able. They said, they would hang me for rebellion. I
said, you cannot: for if you walk according to your own laws, I should
have my liberty. They said, Should we give a rebellious knave, like you,
your liberty? you should be hanged immediately. I answered, That lies
not yet in your power: so they caused quickly to take me away, and put
me in the iron-house tolbooth. Much more passed that I must not spend
time to notice.

"So they brought me to the iron-house to fifteen of my dear companions
in tribulation; and there we were a sweet company, being all of one
judgment. There serving the Lord, day and night, in singleness of heart,
his blessing was seen amongst us; for his love was better than life. We
were all with one accord trysted sweetly together: and O it was sweet to
be in this company, and pleasant to those who came in to see us, until
the indictments came in amongst us. There were ten got their
indictments. Six came off, and four got their sentence to die at Magus
muir. There were fifteen brought out of the yard, and some of them got
their liberty offered, if they would witness against me. But they
refused, so they got all their indictments, but complied all, save one,
who was sentenced to die with the other four at Magus muir."

In this situation he continued till Nov. 13, that he was, by the
intercession of some friends, brought to the west galleries on the other
side of the tolbooth, where he continued sometime, till called again
before some of the council; after which he was again committed to close
prison for a time, till one night being called forth by one of the
keepers, one Mr. John Blair, being present, accosted him thus, Wherefore
do ye refuse the bond? He answered, I have no time now for that matter.
But out of that place, said Blair, you shall not go, for the covenants
and the xiii. of the Romans bind you to it. I answered, No; they just
bound me to the contrary. What if popery should come to the land,
should we bind ourselves never to defend the true religion? He said, we
were loosed then. I said, No; Presbyterians were taken by their word,
and they should abide by it: and ere all were done, it should be a dear
bond unto them:--as for my part, I would rather go to the Grass-market,
and seal it with my blood, &c. After he came down, the goodman of the
tolbooth abused him in a very indiscreet manner, saying, that, if there
were no more men, he should be hanged; and that he was an ignorant fool;
ministers nor men could not convince him; and bade take him off again to
close prison, where he was again as much vexed with a company of bonders
as ever: for they were not only become lax in principle but in duty
also, for he roundly told them, "You are far from what you were in the
iron-house before you took the bond: then you would have been up at duty
by two or three in the morning; now you lie in bed till eight or nine in
the day.--They said, it was true enough; but said no more."

After these got their liberty, he was accompanied with some other
prisoners, some of whom were kept in for debt. And then, he says, he
would have been up by four in the morning, and made exercise amongst
them three times a-day, and the Lord was kind to him during that time;
and he resolved never to make any compliance, and in this he was made to
_eat meat out of the eater, and sweet out of the strong_. But some
gentlemen, prisoners for religion where he was before, prevailed with
the goodman of the tolbooth to have him back to them about the beginning
of 1680. But here the old temptation to compliance and tampering with
the enemy was afresh renewed; for the ministers coming in to visit
these, when they could do no more, they brought ministers to the rooms
to preach, and would make him hear them; which he positively refused. At
last, they brought a minister, one of his acquaintance; him that should
have preached that day he was taken[199]. But hearing he had made some
compliance with the enemy, he would not go to the next room to hear him
make exercise, till he knew the certainty of the matter. After which, he
came to another room, where they had some conference. A short hint of it
I shall here subjoin as follows: "He asked after my welfare; and if I
was going out of the prison? I told him, I blessed the Lord for it, I
was well, and was not going out yet." After some conversation anent
field-preachings, particularly, one by worthy Mr. Cameron at Monkland,
which he condemned; "He asked, why I did not hear ministers? I answered,
I desired to hear none but what are faithful; for I am a prisoner, and
would gladly be in the right way, not to wrong myself.--He said, wherein
are they unfaithful? I said, in changing their head, quiting the Lord's
way, and taking on with covenant breakers, murderers of his people,
&c. He said, how would I prove that? I said, their own practice proves
it. He said, these were but failings, and these would not perjure a man;
And it is not for you to cast at ministers: you know not what you are
doing.--Answer, I do not cast them off: they cast off themselves by
quiting the holding of their ministry of Christ. _Quest._ How prove you
that? _Answ._ The 10th of John proves it; for they come not in by the
door.--You may put me wrong; but I think that in Gal. i. 6. _I marvel
that ye are so soon removed from him that called you_, &c. you may read
that at your leisure, how Paul had not his gospel from men, nor by the
will of men. He said, lay by these: but what is the reason you will not
hear others? I said, I desire to hear none of these gaping for the
indulgence, and not faithful in preaching against it."

After some conference anent Messrs. Cameron and Cargil, in which he said
Mr. Cameron was no minister; and Mr. Cargil was once one, and had
quitted it; that they received their doctrines from men, their hearers,
who said, you must preach such and such doctrines, and we will hear you.
To all which the martyr gave pertinent answers. He said, "Robert, do not
think I am angry that you come not to hear me; for I desire not you, nor
any of your faction to come and hear me; for I cannot preach to all your
humours. I said, it was all the worse for that. He said, none of these
faults would cast off a minister. They were but failings, not
principles. I said I could not debate, but I should let any Christian
judge, if it was no principle for a minister to hold Christ head of the
church. I told him, there was once a day I would have ventured my life
at his back for the defence of Christ's gospel; but not now; and I was
more willing to lay down my life now for his sweet and dear truths than
ever I was. He said, the Lord pity and help me. I said, I had much need
of it. And so he went away, and rendered me odious. This, amongst other
things, made me go to God and to engage in covenant with his Son never
to hear any of those who betrayed his cause, till I saw evidences of
their repentance. And I would have been willing to have quitted all for
that chiefest among ten thousands."

Thus he continued, till, he says, he got bad counsel from some of his
friends to supplicate for his liberty; and they prevailed so far as to
draw up a supplication and brought him to subscribe. But when they had
got him to take the pen in his hand. "The Lord bade me hold, (says he)
and one came and bade me take heed. So I did it not, for which I bless
his holy name. But this lets me see, there is no standing in me. Had it
not been his free love, I had gone the blackest way ever one did, &c."

The night before gallant Hackston was executed, being down stairs, and
hearing of the way and manner he was to be executed, he went up stairs,
(though it was treason to speak to him) and told him of it; which he
could scarcely believe: But the keepers hearing came up to persuade him
to the contrary, and to put Robert in the irons. However they got eight
gray coats who watched Mr. Hackston all night, persuading him to the
contrary. So that he did not know till at the place of execution.

It would appear, he was not put in the irons then until some time after,
that a young woman, who was taken at the Ferry when Hall-head was
killed, who having liberty to come into the lady Gilkerclugh then in
prison, was conveyed out in a gentleman's habit, of which he and another
got the blame, though entirely innocent; for which they were laid in
irons: the other got his liberty, but Robert continued his alone
sometime, till they intended to send him off with some soldiers to
Tanguirs. But the Lord having other ways determined, they could not get
as many of the council conveened, as to get an order made out: and so he
was continued in prison, during which time he endured sore conflict with
those his fellow prisoners, who still complied and got off, and others
came in their place who set upon him afresh: So that he and any one who
was of his own judgment, could scarcely get liberty to worship God in
the room without disturbance, calling him a devil, &c. And those who
were faithful and a comfort to him, were still taken from him and
executed, while he was retained (his time not being yet come) in prison
where he was sometime with one John Scarlet, who, he says, was one of
the basest of creatures.

To relate all the trials and difficulties he underwent, during the time
of his imprisonment near the space of two years and a half, with his
various exercises, with the remarkable goodness of God towards him all
that time, will be more than can conveniently be accomplished at
present. I shall only notice one or two very strange occurrences of
divine providence towards him; which he observes, with a few of his own
expressions concerning himself and exercise, and his condition toward
the end of his narrative and life also, which follows in his own words.

"I have no reason (says he) but to go through with cheerfulness,
whatever he puts me to for owning of his cause: for if it had not been
his sweet love to me, I might have been a sufferer for the worst of
crimes: for there is in me what is in the worst of creatures: a
remarkable instance of which I was tristed with long since;--which,
while I live, I will not forget. Being at home working with my father,
and having mended a chest-lock to an honest woman, I went home with it
to put it on: the woman not being at leisure, there was a gun standing
besides me: and I oftimes having guns amongst my hands to dress, took it
up, and (not adverting that it was loaded) thinking her not good, tried
to fire her; whereupon she went off, and the ball went up through a loft
above, and had almost killed a woman and a child; and had not providence
directed that shot, I had suffered as a murderer: And am I not obliged
to follow and suffer for the _chiefest among ten thousands_, that has so
honoured me a poor wretch? for many other things have escaped me; but I
may not stay to mention what the Lord has done for me both at field
preachings and other places.

"I have had a continued warfare, and my predominants grew mightily on my
hand, which made my life sometimes heavy; but, amongst the many sweet
nights and days I have had, was that 23d in the evening and 24th in the
morning of August, 1681. The Lord was kind to me; that was the beginning
of mornings indeed, whereon I got some of the Lord's love, and whereon I
got an open door, and got a little within the court, and there was
allowed to give in what I had to say either as to my own souls case or
the case of the church which is low at this day. I have indeed had some
sweet days since, but I have misguided them, and could not keep in with
him; for my corruptions are so mighty, that sometimes I have been made
to cry out, Woes me that ever I was born a man of strife and contention
to many. _O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from me from
the body of this death?_ But the Lord maketh up all again with his
love; so that I have many ups and downs in my case.--I have forgotten
some things particularly worthy remark: Such as, one night I was set
upon by a French captain when out of town; but the Lord remarkably
delivered me and brought me back again. So the Lord has let me see, I
might have been staged for worse actions. So that I have no ground but
to be for God while I live, and bless his name that ever honoured me
with this dignity of suffering for his name and honourable cause.

"What will become of me is yet uncertain; but upon some considerations,
what the land was doing in bringing in of popery--the love I bear to the
Lord and his righteous cause, made me give in my protestation against
the parliament, which this present year 1681 has made laws for the
strengthening of popery: and I could do no less; for the glory of God
was dearer to me than my life.

"And now for any thing I know, I will be tortured, and my life taken,
and so will get no more written. As to any that read it, I beg of them
to shun all that is evil in my life, as they wish to shun hell; and if
there be any thing in it that is for use, I request the Lord that he may
bring it home upon them, when I am gone, and make it thus useful for
them that read it.--So I bid you all farewel, desiring none of you may
slight your time or duty as I have done; but shun the appearances of
evil, cleave to that which is good, and spend much of your time with
God: be not idle night nor day, and give not ever much sleep unto
yourselves.--O sirs, if you would be prevailed with to spend time for
God, it would be the sweetest and most desireable service ever you took
in hand. O be persuaded to fall in love with him, who is, without
compare, _the chiefest among ten thousand, yea, altogether
lovely_.--Take him for your all, and bind yourselves hand and foot to
his obedience. Let your ears be nailed to the posts of his doors, and be
his servants for ever."

"And now seeing I get no more time allowed me here on earth, I close
with my hearty farewel to all friends, and pray the Lord may guide them
in all truth, and keep them from dreadful snares that are coming through
this covenanted land of Scotland. So I bid you all farewel, and be
faithful to the death. I know not certainly what may become of me after
this; but I look and expect that my time in this world is now near an
end, and so desire to welcome all that the Lord sends. Thinking
presently to be called in before God's enemies, I subscribe it,

_Sept. 28th, 1681_

And having now with pleasure heard somewhat of the life and exercises of
Robert Garnock, we come now to notice somewhat anent his trial, death or
martyrdom which now hastens apace. So, according to his own expectation,
above narrated, he was brought before the council, October 1st, where he
disowned the king's authority, refused them as his judges, and on the
7th was brought before the Justiciary, and indicted, "That he did before
the council, on the 1st of October, decline the authority of the king
and council, and called the king and council tyrant, murderers, perjured
and mansworn, declaring it was lawful to rise in arms against them;--And
gave in a most treasonable paper, termed, _A protestation and testimony
against parliamenters_, wherein he terms the members of parliament,
idolaters, usurpers of the Lord's inheritance; and protests against
their procedure in their hell-hatched acts: which paper is signed by his
hand, whereby he is guilty of the crime of treason; and further gave in
a declaration to the council, wherein the said Robert Garnock disowns
the king's authority and government, and protests against the council as
tyrants: Therefore, &c." By such an explicit confession, his own
papers being turned to an indictment without any matters of fact against
him, there was no difficulty of probation, his own protest and
declinature being produced before the justiciary and assize, to whom he
was remitted. But before the assize were inclosed, Robert Garnock and
other five who were indicted with him, delivered a paper to the inquest,
containing a protestation and warning, wherein "They advise them to
consider what they are doing, and upon what grounds they pass a sentence
upon them. They declare they are no rebels: they disown no authority
that is according to the word of God and the covenants the land is bound
by.--They charge them to consider how deep a guilt covenant breaking is,
and put them in mind they are to be answerable to the great Judge of all
for what they do in this matter; and say they do this, since they are in
hazard of their lives, and against them. It is a dangerous thing to pass
a sentence on men merely because of their conscience and judgment; only
because they cannot in conscience yield to the iniquous laws of
men;--that they are free subjects never taken in any action contrary to
the present laws; adding that these whom they once thought should or
would rule for God have turned their authority for tyranny and
inhumanity, and employ it both in destroying the laws of God, and
murdering his people against and without law;--as we ourselves can prove
and witness, when brought in before them. After two years imprisonment;
one of them most cruelly and tyrant-like rose from the place of
judgment, and drew a sword, and would have killed one of us[200], but
Providence ordered it otherways: However the wound is yet to be shown.
The like action was never heard or read of. After reminding them of
David Finlay murdered at Newmills, Mr. Mitchel's case, and James
Learmond's, who was murdered after he was three times freed by the
assize. They add, that, after such murders as deserve death, they cannot
see how they can own them as judges, charging them to notice what they
do; assuring them their blood will be heavy upon them:--Concluding with
Jer. xxvi. 15. And charging them not to take innocent blood on their
heads." And subscribe at Edinburgh October 7th 1681.


Notwithstanding all this, they were brought in guilty and sentenced to
be executed at the Gallowlee betwixt Leith and Edinburgh, upon the 10th
instant; Forman's hand to be cut off before, and the heads and hands of
the rest after death, and to be set up upon the Pleasance port.

What his deportment and exercises were at the place of execution we are
at a loss to describe: but from what is already related, we may safely
conclude that, through divine grace, his demeanour was truly noble and
Christian. But that the reader may guess somewhat of his exercises,
temper and disposition about that time, I shall extract a few sentences
of his own words from his last speech and dying testimony.

"I bless the Lord, that ever he honoured the like of me with a bloody
gibbet and bloody windy sheet for his noble, honourable and sweet cause.
O will ye love him, sirs? O he is well worth the loving and quitting all
for. O for many lives to seal the sweet cause with: if I had as many
lives as there are hairs on my head, I would think them all little to be
martyrs for truth. I bless the Lord, I do not suffer unwillingly nor by
constraint, but heartily and cheerfully.--I have been a long time
prisoner, and have been altered of my prison. I was amongst and in the
company of the most part who suffered since Bothwell, and was in
company with many ensnaring persons; though I do not question their
being godly folk; and yet the Lord kept me from harkening to their
counsel. Glory, glory to his holy and sweet name.--It is many times my
wonder how I have done such and such things; but it is he that has done
it: he hath done all things in me and for me: holy is his name.--I bless
the Lord I am this day to step out of time into eternity, and I am no
more troubled than if I were to take a match by marriage on earth, and
not so much. I bless the Lord I have much peace of conscience in what I
have done. O but I think it a very weighty piece of business to be
within twelve hours of eternity, and not troubled. Indeed the Lord is
kind, and has trained me up for this day, and now I can want him no
longer. I shall be filled with his love this night; for I will be with
him in paradise, and get a new song put in my mouth, the song of Moses
and the Lamb; I will be in amongst the general assembly of the first
born, and enjoy the sweet presence of God and his Son Jesus Christ, and
the spirits of just men made perfect: I am sure of it.

"Now my Lord is bringing me to conformity with himself, and honouring me
with my worthy pastor Mr. James Guthrie: although I knew nothing when he
was alive, yet the Lord hath honoured me to protest against popery, and
to seal it with my blood: and he hath honoured me to protest against
prelacy and to seal it with blood. The Lord has kept me in prison to
this day for that end. His head is on one port of Edinburgh, and mine
must go on another. Glory, glory to the Lord's sweet name for what he
hath done for me.

"Now I bless the Lord, I am not as many suspect me, thinking to won
heaven by my suffering. No, there is no attaining of it but through the
precious blood of the Son of God.--Now, ye that are the true seeker of
God, and the butt of the world's malice, O be diligent, and run fast.
Time is precious: O make use of it, and act for God: contend for truth:
stand for God against all his enemies: fear not the wrath of man: love
one another; wrestle with God: mutually in societies _confess your
faults one to another; pray one with another: reprove, exhort and rebuke
one another in love._ Slight no commanded duty: Be faithful in your
stations as you will be answerable at the great day: seek not counsel
from men: follow none further than they hold by truth.

"Now, farewell, sweet reproaches for my lovely Lord Jesus, though once
they were not joyous but grievous, yet now they are sweet. And I bless
the Lord for it, I heartily forgive all men for any thing they have said
of me; and I pray it may not be laid unto their charge in the day of
accounts: and for what they have done to God and his cause, I leave that
to God and their own conscience. Farewell, all Christian acquaintance,
father, mother, &c. Farewell, sweet prison for my royal Lord Jesus
Christ, now at an end. Farewell, all crosses of one sort or another: and
so farewell, every thing in time, reading, praying and believing.
Welcome eternal life, and the spirits of just men made perfect: Welcome,
Father, Son and Holy Ghost: into thy hands I commit my Spirit."--_Sic


Accordingly the foregoing sentence in all its parts was executed[201]
upon them all except Lapslay who got off.--And so they had their passage
from the valley of misery into the celestial country above, to inhabit
that land _where the inhabitants say not, I am sick, and the people
that dwell therein are forgiven their iniquities._

Thus ended Robert Garnock in the flower of his youth; a young man, but
old in experimental religion.--His faithfulness was as remarkable as his
piety, and his courage and constancy as both.--He was inured unto
tribulations almost from his youth, wherein he was so far from being
discouraged at the cross of Christ, that he, in imitation of the
primitive martyrs, seemed rather ambitious of suffering.--He always
aimed at honesty; and, notwithstanding all opposition from pretended
friends and professed foes, he was by the Lord's strength, enabled to
remain unshaken to the last: for, though he was nigh tripped, yet with
the faithful man he was seldom foiled, never vanquished.--May the Lord
enable many in this apostate, insidious, and lukewarm generation to
emulate the martyr in imitation of him who now inherits the promise, _Be
thou faithful unto the death, and I will give thee a crown of life._

_The Life of Mr. ROBERT M'WARD._

Mr. Robert M'Ward was born in Glenluce. After he had gone through his
courses of learning at the university, he was ordained minister of the
gospel at Glasgow, where he continued for some time in the faithful
discharge of his duty until the year 1661, that this good man and
affectionate preacher began to observe the design of the then managers
to overturn the whole covenanted work of reformation. In the month of
February that year, he gave a most faithful and seasonable testimony
against the glaring defections of that time, in an excellent sermon in
the Trone-church of Glasgow, upon a week-day; which sermon was afterward
the ground of a most severe prosecution. His text was in Amos iii. 2.
_You have I known of all the families of the earth_, &c. He had preached
upon it for some time upon the week-days, and after he had run through
personal abounding sins, and those of the city, he came to the general
and national sins that were then abounding. And having enlarged upon
these things in scriptural eloquence, in a most moving way, he gives a
good many pertinent directions to mourn, consider, repent and return, to
wrestle and pour out their souls before the Lord, and encourageth them
to these duties from this, "That God will look upon these duties as
their dissent from what is done, prejudicial to his work and interest,
and mark them among the mourners of Zion." But what was most noticed,
was that with which he closeth this sermon, "As for my part (saith he)
as a poor member of this church of Scotland, and an unworthy minister in
it, I do this day call you who are the people of God to witness, that I
humbly offer my dissent to all acts which are or shall be passed against
the covenants and the work of reformation in Scotland. And _2dly_, I
protest that I am desirous to be free of the guilt thereof, and pray
that God may put it upon record in heaven."

The noise of this sermon quickly flew abroad, and Mr. M'Ward was brought
to Edinburgh under a guard, and imprisoned. Very soon after, he had an
indictment given him by the king's advocate, for treasonable preaching
and sedition. What the nature of his indictment was, we may easily guess
from the scope of his excellent sermon. He was allowed lawyers, whereby
his process became pretty long and tedious. Upon the 6th of June, he was
brought before the parliament, where he had a very public opportunity to
give a proof of his eminent parts and solid judgment. His charming
eloquence was owned here by his very adversaries, and he defended, by
scripture and reason, his expressions in his sermon before the bar of
the house.

And although his excellent speech had not the influence that might have
been expected, yet doubtless it had some, for the house delayed coming
to an issue at this time. He indeed expected a sentence of death, which
no way damped him; but his Master had more, and very considerable work
too, for him elsewhere. Whether it was from orders from court to shed no
more blood, or for other certain reasons, it is not known; but his
affair was delayed for some time, and upon some encouragement given him
of success, he, upon the Monday following, gave in a supplication to the
parliament, wherein he exchanges the words protest and dissent, which he
had used in his sermon, with those of testifying, solemnly declaring and
bearing witness, and yet at the same time declares he is not brought to
this alteration, so much for fear of his person, &c. as from an
earnest desire to remove out of the way any, or the least occasion of
stumbling, that there may be the more ready and easy access, without
prejudice of words, to ponder and give judgment of the matter, &c.,
and withal humbly prostrates himself at their honours feet to be
disposed of as they shall think meet.

This supplication, with what went before, might have softened the
persecutors (as the forecited historians observe) and yet it had no
effect; for Mr. Sharp and his friends resolved now to be rid, as much as
they could, of the most eminent of the presbyterian minsters; and
therefore he behoved to be banished, which was the highest thing they
could go to, unless they had taken his life. Upon the 5th or 6th of
July, the parliament gave him for answer, "That they pass sentence of
banishment upon the supplicant, allowing him six months to tarry in the
nation; one of which only in Glasgow, with power to him to receive the
following year's stipend at departure."

His Master having work for him elsewhere, he submitted to the sentence,
and transported himself and his family to Rotterdam, where for a while,
upon the death of the reverend Mr. Alexander Petrie (author of the
compendious church history), he was employed as minister of the Scots
congregation there, to the no small edification of many; and that not
only to such as were fled hither from the rage and fury of the bloody
persecutors, but also to those who resorted to him and Mr. Brown, for
their advice in difficult cases, in carrying on and bearing up a
faithful testimony against both right and left-hand extremes, with every
other prevailing corruption, and defection in that day, it being a day
_of treading down in the valley of vision_.

Thither the rage of his persecutors followed him, even in a strange
land; for about the end of the year 1676, the king by the influence of
primate Sharp, wrote to the state-general to cause remove James Wallace,
Robert M'Ward, and John Brown, out of their provinces. But the states,
considering that Messrs. M'Ward and Brown had already submitted unto the
Scots law, and received the sentence of banishment, during life, out of
the king's dominion, and having come under their protection, could not
be imposed on to remove them out of these provinces, or be any further
disquieted; and for this end sent a letter to their ambassador at the
court of England, to signify the same to his majesty.

After this, this famous man was concerned in ordaining worthy and
faithful Mr. Richard Cameron, when in Holland in the year 1679, and
afterwards sent him home with positive instructions to lift and bear up
a free and faithful standard against every defection and encroachment
made upon the church of Christ in these lands, and particularly the
indulgences, against which Mr. M'Ward never failed to give a free and
faithful testimony, as is evident from several of his writings,
particularly that in answer to Mr. Fleming.

He remained at Rotterdam until some time about the 1681 or 1682, that he
died. It is said, that when, in his last sickness, he desired Mr.
Shields and some other friends to carry him out to see a comet or
blazing-star (that then appeared), and when he saw it, he blest the Lord
that now was about to close his eyes, and was not to see the woful days
that were coming on Britain and Ireland, but especially upon sinful
Scotland. After which he died, and entered into his Master's joy, after
he had been for twenty years absent from his native country.

It were altogether superfluous here to insist upon the character of this
faithful minister and witness of Jesus Christ, seeing that his own
writings do fully evidence him to have been a man of admirable eloquence
(not to speak of his learning) and singular zeal and faithfulness. While
remaining in Holland, he wrote several pieces[202] which are said to be
these;--The poor man's cup of cold water ministred to the saints and
sufferers for Christ in Scotland, published about 1679; earnest
contendings, &_c._ published in 1723; banders disbanded; with several
prefatory epistles to some of Mr. Brown's works. He wrote also many
other papers and letters, but especially a history of the defections of
the church of Scotland, which has never hitherto been published.

_The Life of Captain JOHN PATON._

John Paton was born at Meadow-head, in the parish of Fenwick and shire
of Ayr. He was brought up in the art and occupation of husbandry till
near the state of manhood.--But of the way and manner in which he went
at first to a military life, there are various accounts.--Some say, that
he inlisted at first a volunteer, and went abroad to the wars in
Germany, where, for some heroic atchievement, at the taking of a certain
city (probably by Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden), he was advanced to
a captain's post; and that when he returned home, he was so far changed
that his parents scarcely knew him. Other accounts bear, that he was
with the Scots army (or militia) who went to England in January 1643-4,
and was at the battle of Marston-muir, at which place, it is said that
by some bad drink, an asthmatical disorder was contracted in his breast,
which continued ever after.

But whatever of the ways, or if both ways were certain, he behoved to
return very suddenly home; for it is said, That _anno_ 1645, when the
several ministers in the western shires were called out upon the head of
their own parish militia, to oppose Montrose's insurrection, he was
called out by Mr. William Guthrie (or, as some say, taken by him from
the plough), and, under the character of a captain, behaved with much
gallantry about that time among the covenanters, particularly upon their
defeat by Montrose at Kilsyth, which fell out in the following manner:

Montrose, having upon July 2d obtained a victory over the covenanters,
advanced over the Forth, and upon the 14th encamped at Kilsyth near
Stirling, and upon the 15th encountered the covenanters army, commanded
by lieutenant-general Bailey. At the first on-set, some of Montrose's
highlanders, going too far up the hill, were invironed by the
covenanters, and like to have been worsted; but the old lord Airly being
sent from Montrose with fresh supplies of men, the covenanters were
obliged to give way, and were, by the enemy, turned over unto a standing
marsh or bog, where there was no probability either of fighting or
escaping. In this hurry, one of the captain's acquaintance, when
sinking, cried out to him, for God's sake to help; but when he got time
to look that w