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Title: The Dog
Author: Hutchinson, Thomas, Mayhew, A. L. (Anthony Lawson), 1842-, Dinks
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Dog" ***

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  [Transcriber's note:

  The original text was published in 1873. The contents of this text may be
  dated. If in doubt, consult a Canine care professional.]


[Illustration: SETTER AND WOODCOCK.]



THE DOG.

BY

DINKS, MAYHEW, AND HUTCHINSON.

COMPILED, ABRIDGED, EDITED, AND ILLUSTRATED

BY

FRANK FORESTER,

  AUTHOR OF "FIELD SPORTS," "FISH AND FISHING," "HORSES AND HORSEMANSHIP
  OF THE UNITED STATES AND BRITISH PROVINCES," "THE COMPLETE
  MANUAL FOR YOUNG SPORTSMEN," ETC., ETC.

Complete and Revised Edition.

  NEW YORK:
  GEO. E. WOODWARD,
  191 BROADWAY.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873,
  BY GEORGE E. WOODWARD,
  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.


In offering to the American public a new edition of DINKS and MAYHEW on
the Dog, which, I am happy to find, is largely called for, I have been
induced to make a further addition, which will, I think, render this the
most perfect and comprehensive work in existence for the dog fancier and
dog lover.

For myself I claim no merit, since, with the exception of one or two
trivial changes in unimportant recipes in DINKS, and some abridgment of
the last admirable work of Col. HUTCHINSON on Dog Breaking, which is now
included in this volume, I have found occasion to make no alterations
whatever, and, save a few notes, no additions.

I will add, in brief, that while I believe the little manual of Dinks to
be the best short and brief compendium on the Dog, particularly as regards
his breeding, conditioning, kennel and field management, and general
specialities, there can be no possible doubt that Mayhew's pages are the
_ne plus ultra_ of canine pathology. There is nothing comparable to his
treatment of all diseases for gentleness, simplicity, mercy to the animal,
and effect. I have no hesitation in saying, that any person with
sufficient intelligence to make a diagnosis according to his showing of
the symptoms, and patience to exhibit his remedies, precisely according
to his directions, cannot fail of success.

I have this year treated, myself, two very unusually severe cases of
distemper, one of acute dysentery, one of chronic diarrhoea, and one of
most aggravated mange, implicitly after his instructions, and that with
perfect, and, in three instances, most unexpected, success. The cases of
distemper were got rid of with less suffering to the animals, and with
less--in fact, no--prostration or emaciation than I have ever before
witnessed.

I shall never attempt any practice other than that of Mayhew, for
distemper; and, as he says, I am satisfied it is true, that no dog, taken
in time, and treated by his rules, _need_ die of this disease.

Colonel Hutchinson's volume, which is to dog-breaking, what Mayhew's is to
dog-medicining--science, experience, patience, temper, gentleness, and
judgment, against brute force and unreasoning ignorance--I have so far
abridged as to omit, while retaining all the rules and precepts, such
anecdotes of the habits, tricks, faults, and perfections of individual
animals, and the discursive matter relative to Indian field sports, and
general education of animals, as, however interesting in themselves, have
no particular utility to the dog-breaker or sportsman in America. Beyond
this I have done no more than to change the word September to the more
general term of Autumn, in the heading of the chapters, and to add a few
short notes, explanatory of the differences and comparative relations of
English and American game.

I will conclude by observing, that although this work is exclusively on
breaking for English shooting, there is not one word in it, which is not
applicable to this country.

The methods of woodcock and snipe shooting are exactly the same in both
countries, excepting only that in England there is no summer-cock
shooting. Otherwise, the practice, the rules, and the qualifications of
dogs are identical.

The partridge, in England, varies in few of its habits from our quail--I
might almost say in none--unless that it prefers turnip fields, potatoe
fields, long clover, standing beans, and the like, to bushy coverts and
underwood among tall timber, and that it never takes to the tree. Like our
quail, it must be hunted for and found in the open, and marked into, and
followed up in, its covert, whatever that may be.

In like manner, English and American grouse-shooting may be regarded as
identical, except that the former is practised on heathery mountains, the
latter on grassy plains; and that pointers are preferable on the latter,
owing to the drought and want of water, and to a particular kind of
prickly burr, which terribly afflicts the long-haired setter. The same
qualities and performances constitute the excellence of dogs for either
sport, and, as there the moors, so here the prairies, are, beyond all
doubt, the true field for carrying the art of dog-breaking to perfection.

To pheasant shooting we have nothing perfectly analogous. Indeed, the only
sport in North America which at all resembles it, is ruffed-grouse
shooting, where they abound sufficiently to make it worth the sportsman's
while to pursue them alone. Where they do so, there is no difference in
the mode of pursuing the two birds, however dissimilar they may be in
their other habits and peculiarities.

Bearing these facts in mind, the American sportsman will have no
difficulty in applying all the rules given in the admirable work in
question; and the American dog-breaker can by no other means produce so
perfect an animal for his pains, with so little distress to himself or his
pupil.

The greatest drawback to the pleasures of dog-keeping and sporting, are
the occasional sufferings of the animals, when diseased, which the owner
cannot relieve, and the occasional severity with which he believes himself
at times compelled to punish his friend and servant.

It may be said that, for the careful student of this volume, as it is now
given entire, in its three separate parts, who has time, temper, patience,
and firmness, to follow out its precepts to the letter, this drawback is
abolished.

The writers are--all the three--good friends to that best of the friends
of man, the faithful dog; and I feel some claim to a share in their
well-doing, and to the gratitude of the good animal, and of those who love
him, in bringing them thus together, in an easy compass, and a form
attainable to all who love the sports of the field, and yet love mercy
more.

FRANK FORESTER.

THE CEDARS, NEWARK, N.J.,



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


 Setter and Woodcock,                                       _Frontispiece_

 Beagles,                                                _To face page_ 50

 Group of Dogs,                                                         73

 The Pointer,                                                          241

 Cockers--Butler and Frisk,                                            463

 Setters--Bob and Dinks,                                               579

 The Wolf,                                                         Page 74

 The Jackal,                                                            75

 The Mastiff,                                                          104

 Cuts Illustrating the Administration of Medicine to Dogs,   111, 112, 113

 A Dog under the Influence of an Emetic,                               118

 Head of a Dog,                                                        121

 Brush for Cleaning the Teeth of a Dog,                                188

 A Scotch Terrier,                                                     197

 A Dog Suffering from Inflammation of the Lung,                        211

 A Dog with Asthma,                                                    219

 "  " Chronic Hepatitis,                                               221

 "  " Gastritis,                                                       233

 "  " Colic,                                                           252

 "  " Superpurgation,                                                  263

 "  " Acute Rheumatism,                                                274

 A Rabid Dog,                                                          300

 A Mad Dog on the March,                                               304

 Head of a full-sized Pug Bitch,                                       348

 The Blood Hound,                                                      349

 The Beagle,                                                           350

 The Gravid Uterus,                                                    372

 Parturition Instrument,                                               381

 The Crochet,                                                          384

 The Bull-Dog,                                                         404

 Dog with a Canker-cap on,                                             423

 A Dog Taped or Muzzled for Operation,                                 428

 Bandages for Fractured Legs,                                          445



THE

SPORTSMAN'S VADE MECUM.

BY "DINKS."

CONTAINING FULL INSTRUCTIONS IN ALL THAT RELATES TO

  THE BREEDING, REARING, BREAKING, KENNELLING, AND
  CONDITIONING OF DOGS.

TOGETHER WITH NUMEROUS VALUABLE RECIPES

FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE VARIOUS DISEASES

TO WHICH THE CANINE RACE IS SUBJECT.

AS ALSO

A FEW REMARKS ON GUNS, THEIR LOADING AND CARRIAGE,

DESIGNED EXPRESSLY FOR THE USE OF

YOUNG SPORTSMEN.



TO THE READER.


No one work that I am aware of contains the information that is proposed
for this little treatise, which does not aspire to any great originality
of idea; but the author having experienced in his early days very great
difficulty in finding to his hand a concise treatise, was induced to cull,
from various authors what he found most beneficial in practice, into
manuscript, and this collection he is induced to make public, in the hopes
that any one "who runs may read," and, without searching through many and
various voluminous authors, may find the cream, leaving the skim milk
behind.

Wherever any known quotation is made, credit has been given to the proper
persons, but it may be as well to state that most if not all of the
Receipts are copies, though from what book is in a great measure unknown
to the author, who extracted them in bygone days for his own use.

With this admission, he trusts that his readers will rest satisfied with
the little volume which he offers to their indulgent criticism.

"DINKS."

_Fort Malden Canada West_



CONTENTS OF DINKS' VADE MECUM.


  Page

  Breeding of Dogs in general,                                          15

  Setter,                                                               18

  Setter, Russian,                                                      19

  Spaniel,                                                              20

  Spaniel and Cocker,                                                   20

  Retriever,                                                            21

  Beagles,                                                              21

  Breeding,                                                             21

  Bitch in Use,                                                         24

  Bitches in Pup,                                                       26

  Feeding Pups and Weaning.--Lice.--Teats Rubbed,                       27

  Pointer and Setter,                                                   28

  Breaking,                                                             29

  Ranging, how taught,                                                  30

  Quartering,                                                           33

  Feeding,                                                              40

  Condition,                                                            42

  Kennel,                                                               44

  Credit given for Recipes,                                             49

  Recipes,                                                              50

  General Remarks about Dogs in Physic,                                 50

  Recipes for Diseases incident to Dogs,                                51

  Distemper,                                                            58

  Tabular Form of Game Book,                                            68



THE

SPORTSMAN'S VADE MECUM



BREEDING OF DOGS IN GENERAL.


Before commencing to treat of the most correct methods to be observed in
the breeding, it will be as well to mention the different varieties of
sporting dogs, and also the various sub-genera of each species, of which
every one who knows anything of the subject need not be informed; but as
this work affects to be a Vade Mecum for sportsmen, young far more than
old, it is as well to put before the young idea certain established rules,
not to be violated with impunity, and without following which no kennel
can be great or glorious. A run of luck may perhaps happen, to set at
naught all well defined rules, but "breeding will tell" sooner or later;
and, therefore, it behoves any person who prides himself on his kennel, to
study well the qualities of his dog or bitch, his or her failings and good
qualities, and so to cross with another kennel as to blend the two, and
form one perfect dog. This is the great art in breeding, requiring great
tact and judgment.



POINTERS.


The breed of Pointers, as now generally to be met with, is called "the
English," distinguished by the lightness of limb, fineness of coat, and
rattishness of tail. Fifteen or twenty years ago this style of dog was
seldom seen; but, in place of it, you had a much heavier animal--heavy
limbs, heavy head, deep flew-jaws, long falling ears. Which of these
breeds was the best 'tis hard to say, but for America I certainly should
prefer the old, heavy, English Pointer. Too much, I think, has been
sacrificed to lightness, rendering him too fine for long and continued
exertion, too susceptible to cold and wet, too tender skinned to bear
contact with briers and thorns, in fact, far too highly bred. Not that for
a moment I am going to admit that American Pointers are too highly bred;
far from it, for there is hardly one that, if his or her pedigree be
carefully traced up, will not be found to have some admixture of blood
very far from Pointer in its veins. Now this mongrel breeding will not end
well, no matter how an odd cross may succeed, and the plan to be adopted
is never to breed except from the most perfect and best bitches, always
having in view the making of strong, well formed, tractable dogs, bearing
in mind that the bitches take after the dog, and the dog pups after the
dam, that temper, ill condition, and most bad qualities are just as
inherent in some breeds as good qualities are in others. Here, then, to
begin with, you have a difficult problem to solve; for, in addition to the
defects of your own animal, you have to make yourself acquainted with
those of the one you purpose putting to it. Is your dog too
timid--copulate with one of high courage. But don't misunderstand me. In
this there is as much difference between a high couraged and a headstrong
dog as between a well bred dog and a cur. Is your dog faulty in ranging,
may be too high, or may be no ranger at all, mate with the reverse,
selecting your pups according to what has been stated above. If possible,
always avoid crossing colors. It is a bad plan, but cannot always be
avoided, for oftentimes you may see in an animal qualities so good, that
it would be wrong to let him go past you. But, then, in the offspring,
keep to your color.

From this general statement it will be easy to see, that in breeding dogs
there is more science and skill required, more attention to minutiæ
necessary, than at first sight appears to be the case. Long and deep study
alone enables a person to tell whether any or what cross may be judicious,
how to recover any fading excellence in his breed, or how best to acquire
that of some one else. We will endeavor to give the experience of some
fifteen years--devoted to this subject--to our readers, merely resting on
our oars, to describe the various breeds of sporting dogs most desirable
for him to possess, together with certain data on which to pin his faith
in making a selection from a dealer, though as the eye may deceive, it is
always as well to call in the ear as consulting physician, and by diligent
inquiry endeavor to ascertain particulars.

The characteristics of a well bred Pointer may be summed up as follows:
and any great deviation from them makes at once an ill bred, or, at all
events, a deformed dog. To commence, then, at the head:--the head should
be broad at top, long and tapering, the poll rising to a point; his nose
open and large; his ears tolerably long, slightly erect, and falling
between the neck and jaw bone, slightly pointed at the tip; eyes clear and
bright; neck and head set on straight; his chest should be broad and
deep--the contrary clearly shows want of speed and stamina; legs and arms
strong, muscular, and straight; elbows well in; feet small and hard; body
not over long, and well ribbed up--if not, he will be weak, and incapable
of doing a day's work; loins broad at top, but thin downwards; hind
quarters broad; hind legs strong and large; tail long, fine, and tapering;
hair short, sleek, and close. Here you have the pure English Pointer, and
as that is the best type of the dog, we shall not attempt to describe the
Spanish one, which is not by any means equal to the English, and is,
moreover, so quarrelsome, that he cannot be kennelled with other dogs.
Good dogs are of any colors, but the most favorite ones are liver and
white, white and fawn, pure black, and pure liver. The two first, however,
are better adapted for this country, being more easily seen in cover.



SETTER.


We next come to the Setter. His head, like the Pointer should be broad at
the top between the eyes; the muzzle though, must be longer and more
tapering, and not over thick. Towards the eyes he must have a deepish
indenture, and on the top of his skull a highish bony ridge. His ears
should be long, pendulous, and slightly rounded. The eyes rather dark and
full. His nose soft, moist, and large. Some breeds and breeders affect
black noses and palates; but I must say that there are full as many good
without the black as with it. I rather incline to the opinion that they
are the best notwithstanding. Body like the Pointer, only deeper and
broader, if anything; legs long to knee, short thence downwards; feet
small, close, and thickly clothed with hair between the toes, ball and toe
tufts they are termed; tail long, fine, and tapering, thickly feathered
with long, soft, wavy hair; stern and legs down to feet also feathered.
His body and feet also should be clothed with long, soft, silky hair,
wavy, but no curl in it. This last smells badly of water spaniel. Colors,
black and white, red and white, black and tan. These last I consider the
finest bred ones. Roan also is good. The Irish setter is red, red and
white, white and yellow spotted. The nose, lips, and palate always black.
He is also rather more bony and muscular than the English breed, and ten
times as headstrong and enduring. He requires constant and severe work,
under most rigid discipline, to keep in anything like decent subjection.



SETTER, RUSSIAN.


The Russian Setter is as distinct from either of the above varieties as
bulldog from greyhound. It is covered more profusely with long, thick,
curly, soft, and silky hair, well on to the top of the head and over the
eyes. He is also more bony and muscular, with a much shorter and broader
head. What he wants in dash and ranging propensities, he makes up for in
unwearied assiduity, extreme carefulness, and extraordinary scenting
powers. The cross between this and either of the other setters is much
valued by some breeders.



SPANIEL.


Of Spaniels there are several varieties, but of these the Suffolk Cocker
is the only one deserving a notice. All the others are too noisy, too
heedless, and too quick on their legs. It is almost impossible to keep any
one of them steady, and, therefore, in this country at least, they are
totally useless, since you would not see them from the beginning to the
end of the day. Yaff! yaff! half a mile off, all the time putting up the
birds, and you unable to stop them. The Suffolk Cocker, on the contrary,
is extremely docile, can be easily broken, and kept in order. They are
extremely valuable, thirty-five guineas being a low price for a brace of
pure bred and well broken ones in England. The right sort are scarce, even
there. Here, with two exceptions, I fancy they are not.



SPANIEL AND COCKER.


In appearance they are much like a raseed setter. The head and muzzle is
much the same length and size; ears rather more rounded, but not so long;
body deep, broad, and long; hair long and stiffish; legs and feet
remarkably short, amounting almost to a deformity, and extraordinarily
strong; tail short and bushy; it is usually curtailed a couple of joints.
The purest colors are liver and white, fawn and white, and yellow and
white. These dogs are slow and sure, remarkably close hunters, and
obedient; just the things for cock shooting here. Too much cannot be said
in their favor. They are easily taught to retrieve.



RETRIEVER.


A Retriever is a cross breed dog. There is no true type of them. Every
person has a peculiar fancy regarding them. The great object is to have
them tolerably small, compatible with endurance. The best I have seen were
of a cross between the Labrador and water spaniel, or the pure Labrador
dog.



BEAGLES.


In some parts of the States Beagles are used, and it may be as well to
point out the characteristics of them. First, then, a beagle ought not to
exceed fourteen inches in height; its head ought to be long and fine; its
ears long, fine also, beautifully round, thin, and pendulous, rather far
set back; body not too long; chest broad and deep; loins broad at top, but
narrow downwards; legs strong, but short; feet small and close; hair short
and close; tails curved upwards and tapering, but not too fine. There is
also another sort of beagles, wire-haired, flew-jawed, heavy hung,
deep-mouthed. They are very true hunters, seldom leaving the trail till
dead, or run to ground.



BREEDING.


It is needless to say that at certain indefinite periods of the year a
bitch comes into use, as the term is--generally twice a year, and still
more generally speaking, during the time you most require her services,
that is, April and September, spring snipe and grouse shooting, in
consequence of which you must either sacrifice your pups or your sport.
Now I am aware that in the States, for this reason, a bitch is seldom
kept. For my part, I do not object to them, for from experience I can so
regulate their failings as to prevent their family cares from interfering
with their hunting. The knowledge of this enables me to have my pups when
I want them, to get the cover of a dog I fancy, when a strange one comes
my way also. The best time, then, to put the bitch to the dog is early in
January. By this means you have your pups ready to wean by the middle of
April. They have all summer to grow in, get strong, and large, and are fit
to break in October on snipe first, and then quail, finishing off on snipe
the following spring. After this litter, the bitch probably comes into use
again in the end of July or in August. Young ones are not so fond of it as
old ones, and, consequently, for quail shooting, your bitch is all correct
and well behaved, so far as regards the dam. I look upon the breeding of
dogs from any except the best and most perfectly formed of their species,
as an act of great folly. There are times when it must be done to keep up
the breed, or to acquire one; for no one drafts his best bitches unless he
is an ass. For my part, I keep five or six constantly, and draft yearly
all my dog pups but two or three, say one pointer, setter, and cocker. By
this means I have the pick out of a large number of well bred ones for
myself, while the drafts pay the expenses of keep and breaking. This is
impossible for every one to do, and they must pick up their dogs the best
way they can. It is my intention for the future to draft my setters to New
York and my pointers westward. My cockers, I fear, will not go off yet, my
imported dog having taken it into his head to die, and, until he is
replaced from England--I have no stock for breed. I could only get a
chance of four while last there out of many valuable kennels. However, I
have promises of drafts from two or three parties, and ere summer cock
come in, doubtless a brace or so will dare the perils of the sea for me; I
have no hesitation in saying that, unless most amply remunerated, I would
as soon sell my nose as the best pup in the litter, if I wanted it, nor
would I advise any one else to do it. If done, you have to put up with
inferior dogs. No; I breed to put a brace or so of the best young dogs
yearly into my kennel, for my own use, and, while doing this, I also have,
probably, ten good, well formed dogs to pick from, any one of which were
one in want, would gladden the heart to get hold of. Sir William Stanley
used to breed some fifty pointers yearly. Out of this lot, two brace were
culled for his use. The rest were sold. They paid expenses. Many were
excellent dogs, but he got the tip-top ones, and so he ought. This is the
way a man who cannot afford to give great prices for good dogs must do, if
he is much addicted to shooting. It requires two brace of dogs to do a
day's shooting as it ought to be done. Each dog at full gallop the whole
time, except, of course, when on birds; and to do this he must be shut off
work about noon. Few dogs can go from morn till night without extreme
fatigue. I never yet saw the dog that I could not hunt off his legs in a
fortnight's hunt, taking him out every second day only, and feeding him
on the best and strongest food. However, for general purposes, three brace
of dogs are sufficient, and, when not often used, two are plenty; but no
one ought ever to have less than two brace. It may be managed by always
going out with a friend, he keeping one brace, you the other; he shooting
to your dogs, you to his. For my part, give me three brace of my own, and
let those be the best shaped, strongest, best bred, and best workers there
can be. That is my weakness, and to achieve this I yearly sink a
sufficient number of dollars to keep a poor man. But all this is
digressing most fearfully from the nursery of young pointers and setters.



BITCH IN USE.


By receipt on a subsequent page, you will see how your bitch is to be
brought into use. We will suppose her well formed and well bred. If
faultless, put her to a dog nearly equal, if you cannot get one equal.
Save the dog pups which will take after the dam. It is well understood
that by breeding from young bitches you have faster and higher rangers;
and this also reminds me to say that no bitch ought to be bred from till
she is full grown, that is to say, till she is two years old. Many people
breed at twelve months, but it is wrong. The bitch is not full grown, and,
consequently, the puppies are poor, weak, and miserable. If the bitch has
faults, find a dog of the same appearance as her, while he excels in those
points she is deficient in. The bitches are partakers of his qualities.
Are you short of bone, nose, size, form, temper, look for the excess of
these. The cross, or, at all events, the next remove from it, will be
just as you wish. Any peculiarity may be made inherent in a breed by
sedulously cultivating that peculiarity. Avoid above all things breeding
in and in brother and sister, mother and son, father and daughter--all
bad, but the first far worse than either of the others, since the blood of
each is the same. The other two are only half so. To perfect form should
be added high ranging qualities, high courage, great docility, keen nose,
and great endurance. That is the acme of breeding. A few judicious crosses
will enable you to acquire it for your kennel. To the inattention and
carelessness of sportsmen to these points are to be attributed the
innumerable curs we nowadays see in comparison to well bred dogs. Anything
that will find a bird will do. Far otherwise, to my mind. "Nothing is
worth doing at all if it is not to be well done," and I would as soon pot
a bevy of quail on the ground, as think of following an ill bred, ill
broken, obstinate cur. It may perhaps be as well to state, that when I
spoke of "crosses," I had not the slightest intention of recommending a
cross of pointer and setter or bull dog. Far otherwise. Let each breed be
distinct, but cultivate a "cross," be they pointer or spaniel, from
another kennel of another breed of the same class of dogs.

With regard to setters, a little separate talk is necessary, for we have
three sorts, English, Irish, and Russian. The cross of English and Irish
may and does often benefit both races. So also does the Russian, but I
would be extremely careful how I put him to one or the other. Extreme
cases may and do justify the admixture, but the old blood ought to be got
back as soon as possible. He is of quite a different species to the other,
though with the same types or characteristics, yet this cross is rather
approaching to mongrel. Having descanted somewhat largely on the
preliminary portion, we will pass on to the rearing of the progeny.



BITCHES IN PUP.


Bitches in pup ought to be well fed, and suffered to run at large, and I
am rather of opinion that by hunting them occasionally, or rather, by
letting them see game while in this state, does not "set the young back
any." Every one is aware of the sympathy between the mother and the unborn
foetus, and I for one rather do think it of use.

Few bitches can rear more than six pups, many only four, and do them
justice. Cull out, therefore, the ill colored, ugly marked bitches first,
and if you find too many left, after a few days you must exercise your
judgment on the dogs. I don't like, however, this murdering, and prefer,
by extra feeding while suckling, and afterwards, to make up for pulling
the mother down, which having to nurse six or seven pups does terribly. My
idea always is in the matter, that the pup I drown is to be, or rather
would be, the best in the litter. It is humbug, I know, but I cannot help
it. At that age all else but color and markings is a lottery. Oft have I
seen the poor, miserable little one turn out not only the best, but
biggest dog. Therefore, I recommend the keeping of as many as possible.

Let the bitch have a warm kennel, with plenty of straw and shavings, or
shavings alone. Let her be loose, free to go or come. Feed her well with
boiled oatmeal in preference to corn meal--more of this anon in the
feeding department, mixed in good rich broth, just lukewarm, twice a day;
About the ninth day the pups begin to see, and at a month old they will
lap milk. This they ought to be encouraged to do as soon as possible, as
it saves the mother vastly. At six weeks, or at most seven, they are fit
to wean.



FEEDING PUPS AND WEANING.--LICE.--TEATS RUBBED.


Feed them entirely on bread and milk, boiled together to pulp. Shut them
in a warm place, the spare stall of a stable, boarded up at the end.
Examine them to see whether they are lousy, as they almost always are. A
decoction of tobacco water (_vide_ receipt) kills them off. Rub the
bitch's teats with warm vinegar twice a day till they are dried up. If
this be not done, there is great danger of their becoming caked, besides
causing her to suffer severely. She must have a mild dose of salts, say
half an ounce, repeated after the third day. When the weather is fine, the
young pups should be turned out of doors to run about. Knock out the head
of a barrel, in which put a little straw, so that they may retire to sleep
when they feel disposed. Feed them three times a day, and encourage them
to run about as much as possible. Nothing produces crooked legs more than
confinement, nothing ill grown weeds more than starvation; so that air,
liberty, exercise, and plenty of food are all equally essential to the
successful rearing of fine, handsome dogs. Above all things, never
frighten, nor yet take undue notice of one over the rest. Accustom them to
yourself and strangers. This gives them courage and confidence. Remember,
if you ever should have to select a pup in this early stage, to get them
all together, fondle them a little; the one that does not skulk will be
the highest couraged dog, the rest much in the same proportion, as they
display fear or not. This I have invariably noticed is the case, and on
this I invariably act when I have to select a pup, provided always he is
not mis-formed. We have now brought our pups on till they can take care of
themselves, and while they grow and prosper and get over the distemper, we
will hark back a little, and say why we object to fall puppies,--simply
because they are generally stunted by the cold, unless they are
house-reared. They come in better, certainly, for breaking, but it is not
so good to have them after September at the latest, unless it be down
South, where, I fancy, the order of things would, or rather should, be
reversed.



POINTER AND SETTER.


Hitherto I have omitted to compare the respective merits of pointer and
setter. This I had intended to have done altogether, but fearful lest
fault should be found with me for doing so, I state it as my deliberate
opinion, that there is nothing to choose between them "year in and year
out." A setter may stand the cold better and may stand the briers better,
but the heat and want of water he cannot stand. A pointer, I admit, cannot
quite stand cold so well, but he will face thorns quite as well, if he be
the right sort, and pure bred, but he don't come out quite so well from it
as the setter does. The one does it because it don't hurt him, the other
does it because he is told so to do, and his pluck, his high moral courage
won't let him say no. For heat and drought he don't care a rush,
comparatively, and will kill a setter dead, were he to attempt to follow
him. Westward, in the neighborhood of Detroit, the pros and cons are
pretty equal. I hunt both indiscriminately, and see no difference either
in their powers of endurance, see exceptions above, or hunting
qualifications. For the prairies, however, I should say the pointer was
infinitely superior, for there the shooting--of prairie hen--is in the two
hottest months of the year, and the ground almost, if not quite, devoid of
water. Therefore, the pointer there is the dog, and if well and purely
bred, he is as gallant a ranger as the setter. Eastward, in New Jersey and
Maryland, I am led to believe that setters may be the best there. Except
"summer cock," all the shooting is in spring or late fall. Westward, we
commence quail shooting on September the first. There, I believe, not
until November the first. Here we have few or no briers or thorned things,
save and except an odd blackberry or raspberry bush. There they have these
and cat briers also, and that infernal young locust tree almost would skin
a pointer. Therefore, for those regions, a setter is more preferable.
Still more so the real springer.



BREAKING.


We will now pass on to the breaking of our young dogs. This may be begun
when they are four or five months old, to a certain extent They may be
taught to "charge" and obey a trifle, but it must be done so discreetly
that it were almost better left alone. Nevertheless, I generally teach
them some little, taking care never to cow them, one by one. This
down-charging must be taught them in a room or any convenient place. Put
them into the proper position, hind legs under the body, nose on the
ground between their fore-paws. Retaining them so with one hand on their
head, your feet one on each side their hind quarters, with the other hand
pat and encourage them. Do not persist at this early age more than a few
minutes at a time, and after it is over, play with and fondle them. At
this time also teach them to fetch and carry; to know their names.
Recollect that any name ending in o, as "Ponto," "Cato," &c., very common
ones by the way, is bad. The only word ending in o ought to be "Toho,"
often abbreviated into "ho." This objection will be evident to any person
who reflects for a moment, and a dog will answer to any other short two
syllable word equally as well. These two lessons, and answering to the
whistle, are about all that can or should be taught them.



RANGING, HOW TAUGHT.

Nine months, or better, twelve, is soon enough to enter into the serious
part of breaking. This is more to be effected by kind determination than
by brute force. Avoid the use of the whip. Indeed, it never in my opinion
ought to be seen, except in real shooting, instead of which we would use a
cord about five or ten yards long. Fasten one end round the dog's neck,
the other to a peg firmly staked in the ground; before doing this,
however, your young dogs should, along with a high ranging dog, be taken
out into a field where there is _no_ game, and suffered to run at large
without control until they are well practised in ranging. Too much stress
cannot be laid on this point, as on this first step in a great measure
depends the future ranging propensities of the dog. Where a youngster sees
the old one galloping about as hard as he can, he soon takes the hint and
follows. After a few days, the old one may be left behind, when the pups
will gallop about equally as well. These lessons should never be too long
as to time, else the effect is lost. Another good plan also is to accustom
them to follow you on horseback at a good rate. They will learn by this to
gallop, not to _trot_, than which nothing is more disgusting in a dog.
When you have your pup well "confirmed in ranging," take the cord, as
above directed, peg him down. Probably he will attempt to follow you as
you leave him, in which case the cord will check him with more or less
force, according to the pace he goes at. The more he resists the more he
punishes himself. At last he finds that by being still he is best off.
Generally he lies down. At all events, he stands still. This is just what
you desire. Without your intervention he punishes himself, and learns a
lesson of great value, without attributing it to you, and consequently
fearing you, to wit:--that he is not to have his own way always. After
repeating this lesson a few times, you may take him to the peg, and "down"
or "charge," as you like the term best, close to the peg in the proper
position. Move away, but if he stirs one single inch, check him by the
cord and drag him back, crying "down" or "charge." For the future I shall
use the word "down." _You_ can in practice which you please. Leave him
again, checking him when he moves, or letting him do it for himself when
he gets to the end of it, always bringing him, however, back to the peg,
jerking the cord with more or less severity. Do this for eight or ten
times, and he will not stir. You must now walk quite out of sight, round
him, run at him, in fact, do anything you can to make him move, when, if
he moves, he must be checked as before, until he is perfectly steady. It
is essential in this system of breaking that this first lesson should be
so effectually taught that nothing shall induce the dog to move, and one
quarter of an hour will generally effect this. In all probability, the dog
will be much cowed by this treatment. Go up to him, pat him, lift him up,
caress him, and take him home for that day. Half an hour per day for each
dog will soon get over a long list of them. There is no more severe, I may
as well remark here, or more gentle method of breaking than this; more or
less vim being put into the check, according to the nature of the beast. I
never saw it fail to daunt the most resolute, audacious devil, nor yet to
cow the most timid after the first or second attempt, for it is essential
in the first instance that THEY SHOULD OBEY. The next day, and for many
days, you commence as at first. Peg him down, &c., and after he does this
properly lift him up and walk him about, holding on to the cord still
pegged in the ground, suddenly cry "_Down!_" accompanying the word with a
check more or less severe, as requisite, till he does go down. Leave him
as before. If he don't move, go up to him, pat him--a young dog ought
never to move while breaking until he is touched--lift him up, if
necessary, lead him about, again cry "down," and check him until he falls
instantly at the word. This will do for lesson No. 2. The next day
commence at the beginning, following up with lesson 2, making him steady
at each. Before proceeding to the next step, release the one end of the
cord from the peg, take it in your hand, cry "down;" if he goes down,
well; if not, check him, pat him, loose the end of cord in the hand, let
him run about, occasionally crying "down," sometimes when he is close at
hand, at other times further off, visiting any disobedience with a check,
until he will drop at the word anywhere immediately. At these times his
lesson may last for an hour twice a day. He will get steady more quickly
and better.



QUARTERING.

His next step is to learn to quarter his ground thoroughly and properly.
It is the most difficult to teach, and requires more care and ability,
than any other part of his acquirements, on the part of the preceptor. For
this purpose select a moderately sized field, say one hundred or two
hundred yards wide, where you are certain there is no game. Cast him off
at the word "hold up" to the right or left, up wind. This is essential, to
prevent their turning inwards, and so going over the same ground twice. (I
forgot to say that a cord fifteen feet is long enough now; it does not
impede his ranging, and he is nearly as much at command with it as with
one twice as long.) If a dog is inclined to this fault of turning inwards,
you must get before him up wind, and whistle him just before he turns.
This will in the end break him of that habit. If he takes too much ground
up wind, call "down," and start him off, after you get to him, in the way
he should go. You ought also yourself to walk on a line with the direction
the dog is going. This will accustom him to take his beat right through to
the fence, and not in irregular zigzags, as he otherwise would do. He must
now be kept at these lessons in "down," charging, and quartering, till he
is quite perfect and confirmed, setting him off indiscriminately to the
right or left, so that when you hunt with another, both may not start one
way. Much time will be gained, and the dog rendered by far more perfect by
continuing this practice for some time. It is far better to render him au
fait at his work by slight punishments, frequently repeated, and by that
means more strongly impressed on his memory, than by a severe cowhiding.
This latter process is apt to make him cowed, than which there is nothing
worse. Many a fine dog is ruined by it. The punishment of the check is
severe, and, as I said before, whilst it never fails to daunt the most
resolute, so also it can be so administered as not in the end to cow the
most timid.

Here it is you are to use your discretion so to temper justice and mercy
that you cause yourself to be obeyed without spoiling your creature. For
full a month this ought daily to be done, if fine. It is a good plan to
feed your young dogs at this stage all together, with a cord round each of
their necks, making them "down" several times between the trough and their
kennel. Pat one dog, and let him feed awhile. The rest being "down," call
him back and make him "down" also, checking him if he does not instantly
obey. Pat another now, and let him feed awhile, and so on all through one
day, sending one first then another. They learn by this a daily lesson of
_obedience_, and also to let another dog pass them when at _point_. After
your dog is perfectly steady, take him out as before, and when he has run
off what is termed the wire edge, introduce him to where there are birds.
Set him off up wind, and most probably he will spring the first bird, and
chase. Follow him, crying "down." This, in the first ardor of the moment,
he is not expected to do, but sooner or later he will. You must now pull
him back to where he sprung the birds. By repeatedly doing this, he will
chase less and less, always pulling him back to where the bird rises,
crying "down." Gradually, by this, he will learn to drop at the rise of
the bird, and ultimately to make a point; though most well bred dogs do
this the first time. When they do so, cry "down," very slightly checking
them if they do not. Great caution is necessary here to prevent their
blinking. It is always advisable to teach all young dogs to "down" when
they point. When once down, they will lie there as long as you please, and
are less likely to blink, run in, chase. You ought, if possible, to get
before the dog when you cry "down." It is less likely also to make him
blink.

Every dog, old or young, ought to be broken to drop when a bird rises, not
at the report of the gun. It renders them far more steady. A young dog
ought to be hunted alone till he is perfectly confirmed in these points.
It is a very absurd idea to suppose that killing birds prevents their
chasing, quite "au contraire." Seeing the bird fall in its flight
encourages them to chase. It is far better to get a bird and peg it down
so as to flutter and run about before the dog when he is "down." This
persisted in soon brings them steady. The other plan takes a much longer
time to accomplish. A young dog may easily be taught to back. Make one dog
down, and then cry "down" to him, checking him if he does not, and pulling
him to where he ought to drop. In the field, after a time, you use the
word "toho," at which also he drops or points. A young dog ought never to
be hunted with an old one. The latter always has tricks; in fact, is
cunning; and at that age a bad fault is easily learnt, but not so easily
forgotten. This is Lloyd's art of breaking. A more sensible one I have
never seen, nor do I believe is. I have broken many dogs on it, and never
saw it fail. Patience, practice, and temper are all that is required, for
dogs can only be taught by lessons frequently repeated. When first you
shoot over a young dog, an assistant should hold the end of the long line
to check him, should he attempt to run in when the bird falls. Lloyd says
further, "I never use a whip on any occasion whatever." He trusts to the
cord. This is all right while breaking and finishing off a dog, but after
that one cannot be expected to lug fifteen feet of cord in one's pocket,
though, doubtless, it is very true that it is more efficacious than the
whip, and does not make them so apt to blink. Some will sneak away, and
are not easily caught, after committing a fault, and others are so shy,
that they would not bear a lash, and yet are readily broken with the cord.
By this means also dogs are broken to fetch a soft substance, for
instance, a glove stuffed with wool is put in their mouths, checking them
till they hold it, calling them to you, checking them if they drop it. By
degrees you get them not only to hold and bring, but also to fetch it.
Practice and patience only are required. Any one possessing them, and with
but a slight knowledge of sporting matters, by following the above plain
and precise rules, may break his own dogs. I have much pleasure in making
it known to the American public. Where the article is taken from I cannot
say. I got it a few years ago in manuscript, and Lloyd, Sir J. Sebright's
keeper, is the author, and very creditable it is to him. The springer is
broken by this equally well with the pointer or setter, omitting the
pointing part; teaching, however, the quartering and "down," in the open,
most perfectly and thoroughly before ever he goes into covert--till steady
on birds, dropping the moment a bird rises and a gun is fired--observing,
though, to teach him to take his quarters much closer and shorter. The
cocker ought never to be fifteen yards from the shooter, and when two are
shooting, should take his quarters from one to the other, turning at the
whistle, and only gaining a few yards each turn. For beagles, kennel
discipline is of more avail than out-door teaching. They must be taught to
come and go, when called. To such perfection is this kennel discipline
carried in England, that I have seen fifty couples of hounds waiting in a
yard to be fed; the door open, each one coming when called by name;
leaving his food when ordered "to bed" or "kennel." "Dogs come over," all
the dogs coming over "Bitches come over," when all the bitches come. To
do this requires time and patience. Out doors they are taught to follow
the huntsman to cover, receiving a hearty cut of the whip if they lag or
loiter by the way, whipped up if they neglect to come to the pipe of the
horn, if they run to heel, hang too long on the scent, follow false scent,
fox, rabbit, or anything else they be not hunted to. With them the whip is
used, and severely too, sometimes. And now I have done with the training
of dogs, all but the retriever. The cord will apply for him, though in
addition to this he must be taught to "seek lost" in any direction you
wave your hand. His lessons, however, will extend over a far greater
length of time than the others. Age only increases his abilities. The more
of a companion you make of him, the more tricks in seeking lost you teach
him, the more valuable he becomes. My brother has one that can be sent
miles to the house for any article almost, and he brings it. Last winter
he sent him for the roast before the fire, and after a tussle with the
cook it came sure enough. He is one of the most knowing dogs I ever saw. A
large black fellow, of what breed I know not, Newfoundland and setter
though, I fancy. Four pounds was his price. He is well worth five times
four. For wounded birds he is invaluable, and has only one fault; he does
not "charge," which all retrievers, as well as every other sporting dog,
should do; else while you are loading, and they rushing about like mad,
the birds get up, and you lose a chance, from either not being ready, or
your gun being empty. Before concluding, I will state all the words and
motions requisite to teach your pointers and setters. "Down," "Hold up,"
"Toho." Holding up your hand open means "down," or "Toho," where another
dog is pointing. A whistle solus to come in "to heel"--that word for them
to get behind you; a whistle and a wave of the hand to the right for them
to quarter that way; ditto whistle and wave to the left to quarter to the
left. Avoid shouting as much as possible. Nothing is more disgusting than
to be bawling all the time. If your dog don't heed your whistle, get him
to heel as fast and as quietly as possible, and administer a little strap,
whistling to them sharply to impress it on their mind. Never pass by a
single fault without either rating or flogging. Always make your dogs
point a dead bird before retrieving it; and nothing is more insane than to
loo on your dogs, after a wing-tipped bird. Hunt it quietly and
deliberately. I know it is difficult to restrain yourself sometimes. How
much more difficult, then, to restrain your dogs. Far better to lose a
bird, a thing I detest doing, than run the chance of spoiling a young dog.
Never take a liberty with him, however you may do so with an old one,
though even he can and will be made unsteady, by letting him chase or have
his own way. One thing leads to another. I thought I had got through, but
methinks it is as well to state the best plan to find a dead bird in
cover, or out also, for that matter. Walk as nearly as possible to where
you fancy the bird fell; there stand, nor move a step, making the dogs
circle round you till they find it. Practise them at this as much as any
other part of their education, calling them constantly back if they move
off. Should you find a dog going off, notice the direction, but call him
back. If he should still return there, you may presume it is a runner. Let
him try to puzzle it out, while you keep the other dog at work close to
you. By this plan it is extraordinary what few birds you will lose in a
season. Always hunt a brace of dogs. More are too many; one is just one
too few. It is too pot-hunterish, too slow. You lose half the beauties of
the sport seeing your dogs quartering their fields, crossing one another
in the centre, or thereby, without jealousy, backing one another's
points--both dropping "to shot" as if shot. You get over twice as much
ground in a day. This, in a thinly sprinkled game country, is something.
Where very plentiful, you find them all the quicker.



FEEDING.

With regard to the feeding of dogs, some few words are necessary, and we
will endeavor to point out the best way to manage them properly, and with
a due regard to economy. Where only one or two dogs are kept, it is
presumed that the refuse of the house is ample for them. It will keep them
in good order and condition; but where more are kept, it will be necessary
to look further for their supplies. We will therefore treat them as one
would a kennel, distinguishing town from country; for in the one what
would be extremely cheap, in the other would be dear. For ordinary
feeding, then, in town, purchase beef heads, sheep ditto, offal, i.e.
feet, bellies, &c., which clean. Chop them up and boil to rags in a
copper, filling up your copper as the water boils away. You may add to
this a little salt, cabbage, parsnips, potatoes, carrots, turnips, or any
other cheap vegetable. Put this soup aside, and then boil _old_ Indian
meal till it is quite stiff. Let it also get cold. Take of the boiled meal
as much as you think requisite, adding sufficient of the broth to liquefy
it. This is the cheapest town food. In the country during the summer,
skimmed milk, sour milk, buttermilk, or whey, may be used in place of the
soup. In the winter, it is as well to give soup occasionally for a change.
Never use new Indian flour. It scours the dogs dreadfully. Old does not.
The plan I adopt is, to buy Indian corn this year for use next, store it,
and send it to grind as I require it; and as the millers have no object in
boning the old meal, returning new for it, I insure by this means no
illness from feeding in my kennel. Although Indian corn has not either so
much albumen or saccharine matter in it as oats, it does tolerably well
with broth; but when the greatest amount of work is required in a certain
given time from a certain quantity of dogs, as in a week's, fortnight's,
or month's shooting excursion, I always use oatmeal, for two
reasons:--1st, it is far more nourishing in itself, a less bulk of it
going further than corn meal:--2nd, you cannot depend on getting old meal
in the country, nor yet meat always to make soup. The dogs fed on oatmeal
porridge and milk, which you always can get, do a vast deal of work, and
have good scenting powers. Using these different articles, I calculate
each dog to cost me one shilling York currency per week, and I pay fifty
cents per bushel for Indian corn, six dollars per barrel for oatmeal
(old), one York shilling for beef head, milk three cents per quart for
new, probably, one and a half for skim. In a house there are always bones,
potatoe peelings, and pot liquor. By cleaning the potatoes before
peeling, and popping all into the dog pot, a considerable saving is
effected in a year, and the dogs are benefited thereby. Mangel Wurtzel and
Ruta Bagas, I believe they call them this side the water, are easily
grown, and are good food, boiled up with soup.



CONDITION.

This brings me on to what is termed "condition," in other words, that form
of body best adapted to undergo long and continued exertion. It is equally
certain that a dog too fat, as well as one all skin and bone, is not in
this state. These are the two forms from which different people start to
bring their animals to the mark. Of the two, I certainly prefer the fat
one. During the summer time, dogs should have plenty of air, water, and
exercise. This is easily managed by taking them out whenever you go
walking or riding, or letting them be loose all day, kennelling at night,
and when this is done, by a mild dose of physic a fortnight before the
season, and additional exercise along a _hard_ road to harden their feet,
say two or three hours daily, you have your dogs in fair working order.
When you have a dog too fat, you must purge him, and put him through a
course of long but slow exercise at first, quickening by degrees, till you
work off the fat, and leave substance and muscle in its place. With a lean
dog you have a far harder job to manage, and one which takes a long time
to accomplish. A mild dose to put him in form first, then the best,
strongest, and most nutritious food you can get. Oatmeal and strong broth,
gentle and slow exercise, this is the plan to put beef on his bones
without fat. As he grows in substance, increase and quicken his work. Any
person living in the country does or ought to take his dogs out when he
rides or drives. The pace is fast and severe enough for them, and
generally lasts sufficiently long. My dogs are exercised this way every
time the horses go out, and are kept in fine order, if anything too fine,
perhaps; but, then, what there is, is all muscle and hard flesh. During
the shooting season, always feed your dogs with warm meals. Three o'clock
is the best time at that season of the year, and a separate mess kept warm
for your brace at work, when they return. Nothing conduces more to the
keeping your dogs in condition than regular feeding hours and regular
work. One meal a day is sufficient. Three o'clock is the best hour, as the
dogs have tolerably emptied themselves by the next morning. I omitted to
mention in the proper place to accustom your pups to the same food as when
kennelled they will get. For this purpose, as soon as they feed well, give
them regular kennel food, except that they must have three feeds a day for
some six months, and after that two, till they are full grown. Use as
little medicine as possible. Always feed your worked dogs immediately they
get home. If you wait awhile, and they are tired, they curl themselves up,
get stiff, and don't feed properly; and if they so refuse their food, and
are by any accident to be out next day, they will not be up to the work.
No dogs, however, can stand daily work properly for more than three days,
and even that is more than enough for them, but they will stand every
second day, if well attended to, for a considerable time. Always see your
dogs fed _yourself_. No servant will do it as it should be done. Ten
minutes or a quarter of an hour devoted to this as soon as you return from
the field, will be more than repaid when next you use them. If you ride,
or rather drive to your ground, as is best to do when more than a mile
away, ride your dogs also; ditto as you return. Every little helps, and
this short ride wonderfully saves your animals. I invariably do this. But
when I drive, say twenty miles or so, to a shooting station, I generally
run one brace or so the whole way, and the other brace perhaps ten miles,
taking out next day that brace which only ran the short distance. Always
on a trip of this kind take a bag of meal with you also. You are then
safe. The neglect of this precaution in one or two instances has obliged
me to use boiled beef alone, to the very great detriment of the olfactory
senses of my dogs. Their noses, on this kind of food, completely fail
them. Greasy substances also are objectionable for the same cause, unless
very well incorporated with meal. For this reason I object to "tallow
scrap" or chandlers' graves; but this I sometimes use in summer. Regular
work, correct feeding, and regular hours, that is the great secret of one
man's dogs standing harder work than others. A little attention to the
subject will enable any one to keep his animals pretty near the mark.
Amongst the receipts will be found one used in England for feeding
greyhounds when in training, if any one likes to go to the expense of it.



KENNEL.

This treatise would not be complete without making some remarks on that
very essential thing, the kennel. Where only a brace of dogs are kept, the
common movable box kennel is sufficient. This should be large enough to
hold the two comfortably, with a sharp pitch to the roof and projecting
front; but I should recommend one for each dog slightly raised from the
ground, sufficiently high for the dog to stand up in, and wide enough for
him to turn round in. The entrance had better be boarded up, except a hole
for him to enter and get out by. But where a large number of dogs are
kept, this plan of separate houses is expensive, and in their place I
would recommend a brick building sixteen feet long by five feet wide and
six feet high, or, if brick be not get-at-able, a boarded house will do;
but it ought to be lined and boarded outside, the space between the two
filled up with sawdust, and weather-boarded. Besides, this sixteen feet
must be divided into three compartments right up to the top, one eight
feet for the dogs, one five for the bitches, and one three feet for the
worked dogs. The doors should be large enough to admit a man to clean. The
beds ought to be raised on a bench from the floor, this bench movable on
hinges at the back, so that it can be hoisted up, and cleaning done below.
The dogs ought to be prevented getting under their beds, by a board
reaching from the outside edge of the bench to the floor. Six or eight
inches is sufficient raise. The floor of this kennel should slope
outwards, to carry off wet. The door should have a small hole in it, with
a swing door, so that by pushing against it, the dogs can get either in or
out. In front of these two, that is to say, the dog and bitch departments,
a court-yard, either paved or flagged, both preferable to brick, since
they dry quicker, and consequently there is less fear of kennel lameness,
caused by paddling on a damp floor. These courts ought to run out at least
ten or fifteen feet to the front, and of course the partition kept up
between the two. This outside court may be palisaded, but it should be at
least ten feet high, else the dogs are liable to break kennel; and the
front of the house also at the top should be fortified, to prevent their
eloping that way. If possible, a stream of running water should be
conducted through the yards; it aids its daily washing, as well as
enabling the dogs to get as much pure water as they choose. When this
cannot be had, a trough must be daily filled for their use. Clean wheat
straw, removed twice a week, or shavings of pine or cedar when to be had
are better, must be used for their beds. Always feed your dogs together in
a V shaped trough, raised slightly from the ground, taking care to
restrain the greedy and encourage the shy feeders. In a building of this
sort, they will be perfectly warm and comfortable. Every portion of it
must be daily cleaned out, and the rubbish carried away. Twice a year it
should be whitewashed inside and out, and fumigated with sulphur, tobacco,
&c. This considerably helps to destroy vermin. Nothing conduces more to
disease than a filthy kennel, nothing vitiates a dog's nose more than
foetid smells. In the rear of this kennel should be your boiling house, if
your establishment requires one. All that is required is a copper, set in
brick, with a chimney, to boil mush and meat in, a barrel to hold soup,
and a ledge or tray, three or four inches deep, to pour the mush in to
cool and set; a chopping block, knife, ladle, with long wooden handle, to
stir and empty the copper with, a few hooks to hang flesh on, when you use
horse-flesh, &c., in place of heads--equally good, by the way, when you
can get it--shovel, broom, and buckets. I believe all in this department
is now complete and requisite, when you keep six or more dogs. The spare
place is good for breeding bitches, when you do not require it for your
tired dogs, as also for sick ones. In fact, you cannot well do without it.

And now methinks I may safely add a few words on guns. This, of course,
especially to the rising generation. I need not tell you not to put the
shot all in one barrel and the powder in the other, though I have
frequently seen it done, aye, and done it myself, when in a mooning fit;
but I will say, never carry your gun at full cock or with the hammers
down, than which last there cannot be anything more dangerous. The
slightest pull upon the cock is sufficient to cause it to fall so smartly
on the cone or nipple as to explode the cap. Positively, I would not shoot
a day, no, nor an hour, with a man that so carried his gun. At half cock
there is no danger. By pulling ever so hard at the trigger, you cannot get
it off; and if you raise the cock ever so little, it falls back to half
cock, or, at the worst, catches at full cock. Never overcharge your gun.
Two to two and a half drachms of powder, and one ounce to one and a
quarter of shot, is about the load. For summer shooting, still less. Never
take out a dirty gun, not even if only once fired out of, even if you have
to clean it yourself. After cleaning with soap rubbed on the tow in warm,
or better, cold water, without the soap, if not over dirty, remove the
tow, put on clean, and pump out remaining dirt in clean warm water,
rinsing out the third time in other clean warm water. Invert the barrels,
muzzle downwards, while you refix your dry tow on the rod. Work them out
successively with several changes of tow, till they burn again. Drop a few
drops of animal oil--refined by putting shot into the bottle; neat's foot
oil is best for this--on to the tow, and rub out the inside of barrels
with it well. Wipe the outside with oil rag, cleaning around the nipples
with a hard brush and a stick; ditto hammers and the steel furniture. Use
boiled oil to rub off the stock, but it must be well rubbed in. Before
using next day, rub over every part with a clean dry rag. Nothing is more
disgusting than an oily gun, and yet nothing is more requisite than to
keep it so when out of use. In receipts you will find a composition to
prevent water penetrating to the locks, which ought to be as seldom
removed as possible. I shall not tell you how to do this, for if you do
know the how, where is the necessity, and if you don't, in all probability
you would break a scear or mainspring in the attempt, as I did, when first
I essayed, and after that had to get the gamekeeper to put it together. So
your best plan in this latter case is to watch the method for a time or
two, when you will know as much of the matter as I do.

The finest barrels are rusted the most easily, and suffer the more
detriment by rusting. Of course the fouler the gun the greater the evil
that arises from its being left foul. In hot weather, barrels suffer
infinitely more than in cold; and in wet, than in dry. When dampness and
heat are combined, the mischief is yet augmented; and, probably, the worst
conditions that can be supposed are when, to dampness and heat, a salt
atmosphere is superadded.

No man who owns a fine gun, which he values, ought ever to put it aside
after use without cleaning, even if he have fired but a single shot.
Again, every man who loves his gun, should make it a point to clean it
with his own hands. It may do in Europe, where one has a game-keeper at
his elbow who knows how to clean a gun better than he does himself, and
who takes as much pride in having it clean as he. Use strong and clean
shooting powders. Don't use too large, nor yet too small shot. Six, seven,
and eight are about your mark for ordinary work; for duck, from common
gun, number four. Never leave your dog whip at home: you always want it
most on those occasions. A gun thirty-one inch barrel, fourteen gauge, and
eight pounds weight, is as useful an article as you can have. Never poke
at a bird, that is, try to see him along the barrels. If you do, you never
can be a good or a quick shot. Fix your eye or eyes on the bird, lift up
your gun, and fire the moment it touches your shoulder. Practise this a
little, and believe me you will give the pokers the go by in a short time.
It is the only way to be a sharp shot. And now I will have done, trusting
I have not wasted your time in reading so far to no purpose.



CREDIT GIVEN FOR RECEIPTS.

In the following receipts you will find those of Blaine Youatt, Myres,
Herbert, and several other people, but as I really don't know to whom the
credit is due for each individual one, I trust to be forgiven. This much,
however, I can say, there are not more than one or two of my own. I have
tried most, if not all, and found them good. Some are not quite as in the
original, having been amended by a sporting medical man, a friend of mine,
to suit the new fashion of preparing medicines.



RECEIPTS.

We will commence these by directions to give a dog physic. If he is not
over large, you can manage by your self. Invert a bucket, and sit on it.
Set the dog down on his haunches between your legs, holding him up with
your knees. Tie a cloth round his neck; this falling over his fore-paws is
pressed against his ribs by your knees. His fore-legs by this dodge are
hors du combat. With the finger and thumb of one hand force open his jaws,
elevating his head at the same time with the same hand. If a bolus, with
the other hand pass it over the root of the tongue, and give it a sharp
poke downwards. Close the mouth, still holding up the head, till you see
it swallowed. If a draught, give a mouthful, close the mouth, hold up the
head, and stop the nostrils. Repeat this, if the draught is too large to
be taken at once. If the dog is very large, you must have an assistant,
else in his struggles he will upset physic and yourself into the bargain.



GENERAL REMARKS ABOUT DOGS IN PHYSIC.

Keep them dry and warm, especially when you use calomel or any mercurial
preparation. Always remove them from the kennel, and put them into an
hospital apart from the rest, to prevent infection, as well as to insure
the poor brutes quietness. Study the appearance of the eyes, feet, nose,
extremities, pulse, &c.

[Illustration: BEAGLES.]


_To make a bitch inclined to copulate._--Seven drops Tincture of
Cantharides twice a day till effect is produced--about six days, probably.

_Mange._--Caused by dirty kennels, neglect, want of nourishing, or
improper, food. Cure--1 oz. salts, if dog of moderate size. Rub every
third day well into the skin quantum suf. of the following mixture:--

Train oil--tanner's will do--one quart; spirits turpentine one large
wineglass full; sulphur sufficient to let it just run off a stick. Mix
well. Three applications are generally sufficient. Let it stay on the
animal for a fortnight, when wash well with soap and water. Remember, it
takes nearly two hours to well scrub the above into the skin. Smearing
over the hair is no use. It must get well into the skin; and if neatly and
properly done, the dog scarcely shows the application.

_Worms._--[Rx] Cowhage, half a drachm; tin filings, very fine, four
drachms. Make into four or six balls, according to size of dog. One daily,
and a few hours afterwards a purge of salts or aloes. Powdered glass, as
much as will lie on a shilling, i.e. a quarter dollar, new coin, in lard.
Repeat once or twice alternate days. Finish off with one to two drachms
Socotrine Aloes, rolled up in tissue paper. Mind, the glass must be ground
into the finest kind of powder, else it will injure the coats of the
stomach.

_To make a dog fine in his coat._--A tablespoonful of tar in oatmeal. Make
bolus.

_Distemper._--Distemper is caused by low keep, neglect, and changes of
atmosphere. Symptoms of the disease are as follows:--Loss of spirit,
activity, and appetite, drowsiness, dulness of the eyes, lying at length
with nose to the ground, coldness of extremities, legs, ears, and lips,
heat in head and body, running at the nose and eyes, accompanied by
sneezing, emaciation, and weakness, dragging of hinder quarters, flanks
drawn in, diarrhoea, sometimes vomiting. There are several receipts for
this, the worst and most fatal of all diseases. One is better than
another, according to the various stages. This first, if commenced at an
early stage, seldom fails. Half an ounce of salts in warm water, when the
dog is first taken ill; thirty-six hours afterwards, ten grains compound
Powder of Ipecacuanha in warm water. If in two days he is no better, take
sixteen grains Antimonial Powder, made into four boluses; one night and
morning for two days. If no improvement visible, continue these pills,
unless diarrhoea comes on, in which case you must use the ipecacuanha day
about with the pills. If the animal is much weakened by this, give him one
teaspoonful Huxam's Tincture of Bark three times a day. Keep warm, and
feed on rich broth. James's Powder is also almost a certain remedy Dose
four grains; or Antimonial Powder and Calomel, three parts of first to one
of latter, from eight to fifteen grains; or, after the salts, Ant. Powder,
two, three, or four grains, Nitrate Potash, five, ten, or fifteen grains;
Ipecacuanha, two, three, or four. Make into ball, and give twice or three
times a day, according to appearances. Repeat the purge or emetics every
fourth day, but avoid too great looseness of bowels. Diarrhoea sometimes
supervenes, in which case give Compound Powder of Chalk, with Opium, ten
grains. In case of fits coming on, destroy the animal. The same may be
said of paralysis. If this disease is taken in its early stage, and
attended to, and the dog kept warm, there is not much danger. Otherwise it
is very fatal.

_Wounds._--Poultice for a day or two; then apply Friar's Balsam, covering
up the place.

_For a Green Wound._--Hog's lard, turpentine, bees' wax, equal parts;
verdigris, one fourth part. Simmer over a slow fire till they are well
mixed.

_Purgative Medicines._--Salts, one ounce; Calomel, five grains; or
Socotrine Aloes, two drachms for moderate sized dog.

_Stripping Feet._--Wash in bran and warm water, with a little vinegar;
after apply Tincture of Myrrh. Apply sweet oil before he goes out. If his
feet are tender, wash them in brine, to harden them. When actually sore,
buttermilk, greasy pot liquor, or water gruel, are best. Brine inflames.
The dog should be kept at home till feet are healed. Then apply the brine
and vinegar.

_Canker in the Ear._--Wash well with soap and warm water; fill up the ear
with finely powdered charcoal or powdered borax. Clean out daily with
sponge on stick and warm water, and repeat the dusting till it heals. Or,
perhaps, the best receipt is,--clean out ear with sponge fastened on a
pliable stick, using warm soap and water. When quite clean, dip the
sponge in Sulphate of Copper-water, turning it gently round. Put seton in
the neck just under the ear.

Oak Bark, one pound, chopped fine, and well boiled in soft water. When
cold, take of the Decoction of Bark four ounces, Sugar of Lead, half a
drachm. Put a teaspoonful into the ear night and morning, rubbing the root
of ear well, to cause it to get well into the cavities. This is one of the
best receipts in this book.

_To make Sulphate of Copper Water._--Sulphate of Copper half a drachm,
water one ounce. Mix well and keep corked.

_External Canker of Ear._--Butter of Antimony, diluted in milk to the
thickness of cream, will cure it; or Red Precipitate of Mercury, half an
ounce, with two ounces of hog's lard, mixed well.

_To make a Seton._--Take a dozen or two strands of a horse's tail; plait
them; rub blistering ointment on them. Pass it through two or three inches
of the skin with a curved surgical needle. Tie the two ends together. Move
daily.

_Bleeding._--You may readily bleed a dog in the jugular vein by holding up
his head, stopping the circulation at the base of the neck. Part the hair,
and with the lancet make an incision, taking care not to stick him too
deeply. If the animal rejoices in a heavy coat, it may be necessary to
shave away the hair. From one to eight ounces are the quantities; but in
this, as in most prescriptions, the old proverb is the safest--"Keep
between the banks."

_For a Strain._--Use Bertine's Liniment; or one ounce Turpentine, half a
pint of old beer, half a pint of brine; bathe the part and repeat; or Sal
Ammonia, one ounce, vinegar one pint.

_Bruises or Strains of long standing._--Gall, Opodeldoc, excellent. Shaved
Camphor two ounces, Spirits of Wine three quarters of a pint. Shake well,
and cork close, placing it near the fire till the camphor dissolves. Then
add a bullock's gall. Shake well together. Apply, rubbing it well into the
part affected till it lathers.

_Dog Poisoned._--Give teacupful of castor oil. After he has vomited well,
continue to pour olive oil down his throat and rub his belly.

_Staggers and Fits._--This generally happens in warm weather. Throw water
on them, if convenient. If not, bleed in neck, if you have lancets. If
not, with your knife slit the ears, which you can cause to adhere together
again; or run your knife across two or three bars next the teeth. Bitches
coming off heat are more subject to this than dogs in good health.

_To reduce the time a bitch is in heat._--Give her a little Nitre in
water, and a dose of Calomel, four grains or thereabouts, followed by
salts or aloes.

_Bilious Fever._--Is caused by want of exercise and too high feeding.
Calomel, six or eight grains; or, in an obstinate case, Turpeth Mineral or
Yellow Mercury, six to twelve grains in a bolus.

_To destroy Lice._--Sometimes the receipt below for fleas will prove
efficacious, but not always; but a small quantity of Mercurial Ointment,
reduced by adding hog's lard to it, say an equal quantity, rubbed along
the top of the dog's back never fails. The greatest care must be taken to
keep the animal warm.

_Fleas._--Scotch snuff steeped in gin is infallible; but must be used with
great care, and not above a teaspoonful of snuff to a pint of gin,--as the
cure, if overdone, is a deadly poison.

_Torn Ears._--Laudanum and brandy, equal parts. Mix well. Apply
alternately with sweet oil.

_Feed for Greyhounds in training._--Wheat flour and oatmeal, old, equal
parts. Liquorice, aniseed, and white of eggs. Make into a paste. Make
loaves. Bake them. Break up into very rich broth.

_Swelled Teats._--Make pomade of Camphorated Spirit, or brandy, and goose
grease, two or three times a day.

_Inflammation of the Bowels._--Symptoms: Dulness of appearance and eyes;
loss of appetite; lying on the belly, with outstretched legs; pulse much
quickened; scratching up of the bed into a heap, and pressing the belly on
it; desire to swallow stones, coal, or any cold substance not voidable;
inclination to hide away. It is very dangerous; requires active treatment.
Bleed most freely, till the dog faints away. Clap a blister on the pit of
the stomach. Give Aloes, fifteen grains, and Opium, half a grain. Repeat
dose three times a day. Bleed after twelve hours, if pulse rises again,
and continue dosing and bleeding till either the dog or inflammation gives
in. No half measures do in this disease. After determining that it is
inflammation of bowels, set to work to get the upper hand. When that is
done, there is no trouble. Otherwise it is fatal. Feed low, and attend
carefully to prevent relapse.

_Films over the Eyes._--Blue stone or Lunar Caustic, eight grains, spring
water, one ounce. Wash the eyes with it, letting a little pass in. Repeat
this daily, and you will soon cure it.

_Films caused by Thorn Wounds_.--Rest the dog till perfectly healed over,
washing with rose water. If much inflammation, bleed, and foment with hot
water, with a few drops of laudanum in it--about forty drops of laudanum
to one ounce of water; or two grains of opium to one ounce of water--one
as good as the other. Then apply four or five times a day the following
wash:--Superacetate of Lead, half a drachm, Rose Water, six ounces.

_To extract Thorns._--Cobbler's wax bound on to the place, or black pitch
plaster or a poultice, are equally good.

_To preserve Gun Barrels from rust of salt water._--Black lead, three
ounces; hog's lard, eight ounces; camphor, quarter ounce; boiled together
over a slow fire; the barrels to be rubbed with this mixture, which after
three days must be wiped off clean. This need not be repeated above twice
in the winter.

_Bite of a Snake._--Olive oil, well rubbed in before a fire, and a copious
drench of it also.

_To render Boots or Shoes Water-proof._--Beef suet, quarter of a pound;
bees' wax, half a pound; rosin, quarter of a pound. Stir well together
over a slow fire. Melt the mixture, and rub well into the articles daily
with a hard brush before the fire.

_To Soften Boots._--Use hog's lard, half a pound; mutton suet, quarter of
a pound; and bees' wax, quarter of a pound. Melt well, and rub well in
before the fire; or currier's oil is as good, barring the smell.

_Water-proofing for Gun Locks._--Make a saturated solution of Naphtha and
India rubber. Add to this three times the quantity of Copal Varnish. Apply
with a fine, small brush along the edges of the lock and stock.



DISTEMPER.

How best to convey to my readers a clear, and at the same time succinct
account of this disease, has much troubled me. This is now the third
attempt made to set before my brother sportsmen, who have had little or no
experience, in the plainest terms, the symptoms and features of the
disease, as well as the best remedies to be applied to its various stages
and ever varying types. After considerable doubts on the subject, I fancy
that by setting before you a series of cases which have come under my own
treatment, the peculiar features of each case, the remedies prescribed,
and the termination, whether fatal or otherwise, I shall best serve the
interests of my readers. I beg expressly to state, that with one or two
exceptions--the cases of the older dogs--of which I write from
recollection, after a lapse of several years, and consequently cannot be
so positive about, the others have all recently passed through my hands,
and the course of treatment, &c., has been especially noted, and here
recorded with minute exactness. The range of cases are, I believe,
sufficiently numerous to meet any form and stage of the disease, from the
most simple to the most complicated and fatal. With the sole exception of
chorea or paralysis, a case of which I have never fairly seen through, one
or two cases are noted, in which this would have been the termination,
but for the remedies applied. The system pursued has been a combination of
a great many various receipts, adapted to each peculiar case; and through
the very severe cases that this year have depopulated my kennel, I have
been under great obligations to a very talented medical man, whose advice
I ever found of great service, and whose professional knowledge enabled
him so to vary the quantities and forms of the medicines as best to
overcome some particular form or other. Every keeper or sportsman has, or
professes to have, some never-failing nostrum or other. Believe me, this
is all stuff. There have been, are, and ever will be, cases incurable; but
I will venture to say, that ninety-nine out of a hundred who know anything
of the subject will admit that these remedies contain some one or more of
the following medicines, all of which are of value:--Epsom Salts, Calomel,
Jalap, Tartar Emetic, as purgatives or vomits; Antimony, Nitre, James'
Powder, Ipecacuanha, as sudorifics, diaphoretics, or febrifuges. From
these medicines, the most used, it is evident to see what tendency the
course of treatment is designed to have, and when it fails, extra means
must be employed till that is effected. Here it is that study, practice,
and an intimate knowledge of medicines and their combinations prove of
great advantage. At this stage more dogs are lost for want of knowledge
what next to do than in any other way; for they are either getting worse
or better, never standing still, and each day's illness tells much against
the recovery, from the great emaciation and weakness which commences from
the first, and keeps increasing daily. Never was there a more appropriate
quotation than "Opus est consulto, sed ubi consulueris mature facto." It
were idle to speculate on the origin of the disease. Suffice for us that
we have it, and that we consider it an affection of the mucous membrane,
solely, in the earlier stages, but ultimately combining itself with
general mucous affections. But it will not be foreign to our purpose to
state several influences which are supposed, if not actually to cause, at
all events, greatly to increase its virulence. They are these:--_Low
Diet_, _Dirt_, _Confinement in close, unhealthy, damp kennels_, _too great
a quantity of raw, or even boiled flesh_, _too little exercise_, _sudden
changes in the atmosphere_, and _contagion_. It cannot be called endemic,
since it exists everywhere. Neither is it exactly an epidemic, though some
years it does assume that form, while at other times it does not.

Bleeding we see recommended in the Field Sports. Some practitioners are
very fond of the lancet. We confess quite a contrary penchant, and hold
that bleeding is seldom or ever justifiable, except in cases of violent
inflammations.

In distemper, we would not draw blood, once in a hundred times; for the
usual course of the disease is so enervating, that in ordinary
circumstances nature is reduced far more than agreeable; and as purgatives
must be used under any circumstances, they will in general be sufficient
to reduce any fever. We will now mention the ordinary symptoms whence we
determine this complaint. Lowness of spirit, drowsiness, dimness of the
eyes, staring of the coat, loss of appetite, may be noticed, and
frequently disregarded. Here we will remark that a mild dose of Epsom
salts, according to age--vide prescriptions at the end, No. one,--will
suffice. In a day or two, however, if neglected, sometimes a running at
the nose will be seen; or the ears and feet will be cold, while the head
and body will be feverish; the nose will be hard, dry, and cracked. By
degrees, if neglected, the nose will discharge a thick purulent matter,
the belly become hotter and distended, the dog will lie full stretch,
belly to the ground, the hind legs begin to fail. He may also have
spasmodic and convulsive twitchings, giddiness, foaming at the mouth,
epileptic fits. Now he will ravenously eat anything cold, drink any
quantity of water.



FIRST CASE.

_Three Setter pups, two to three months old. Appearance, &c._--_Slight_
drowsiness, dimness of eyes, staring of coat, fæces hard. Gave two
teaspoonfuls No. one, and repeated next day. Intermitted a day. Repeated
dose to make sure. All well.



SECOND CASE.

_Three Setter puppies, same age at the same time._--Symptoms same, and
also heat in body and head; coldness of extremities; bodies inclined to
hardness; fæces dark and irregular. Gave four teaspoonfuls No. one. Next
morning, if anything worse, belly still hard and swelling, gave each half
a grain of Calomel, half a grain of Tartar Emetic. After an hour, no vomit
having been attained, repeated the dose. At night gave each a
pill--Antimony, two grains, Nitre, ten grains, Ipecacuanha, three grains.

_Third day._--Saw pups about eight A.M. One had had a fit, another had one
while we were present, and the third seemed likely to have one. Its eyes
looked wild; it was unnaturally brisk, and running about; the nose
discharged more freely, but not yet any foul matter. Gave all three
Calomel and Tartar Emetic as before, and repeated, it not having produced
any effect. Between the doses, the two had each a fit, and several, we may
as well mention, through the day, the earlier ones being the most severe.
About one hour after the vomit, gave each one tablespoonful Castor oil.
Fed them with bread and milk. At night gave pill to each--Antimony, three
grains, Nitre, ten grains, Ipecacuanha, two grains. Next morning two pups
were better. Gave them No. one, two teaspoonfuls, pill as before, night
and morning, for two days. No. one the third day. Sent them to kennel. The
third of this lot we found not to have had fits; but his bowels were hard,
and his secretions black and improper. Gave him Calomel and Tartar Emetic
as before, with No. one, usual dose, and pills as above. Gradually he got
weaker and weaker, and at last he died. The error here was undoubtedly in
not increasing the calomel, and leaving out emetic, so as to endeavor to
alter the secretions. A pill, for instance, in this form, would have
better met the case. Calomel, one grain, Antimony, two grains, Nitre, five
grains, followed up in three hours by one teaspoonful No. two.



THIRD CASE.

_Two Setter pups, same age as the last._--Case very bad. Fits had taken
place more than once. Bodies hard, tumid head and belly hot, evidently
much pain in body; ears and feet icy cold; nose hard and thick, pus in it;
fæces not noticed. Gave instantly, vomit as before; Calomel and Tartar
Emetic, half a grain. Repeated in one hour, not having operated. Half an
hour after this had taken place, gave two teaspoonfuls No. two to each.
This purged very quickly. One of the puppies appeared to be in much pain.
Gave it a saltspoonful of mustard in a little milk. Fits constantly
occurring, with intervals of one or two hours, repeated the mustard, and
gave Spirits of Hartshorn, six drops, Camphor water, sixty drops, Sweet
Spirits Nitre, twenty drops, Laudanum, six drops. Repeated this dose in
six hours' time. Kept them all night by the kitchen stove. Slightly better
next morning. Gave pill--Antimony, three grains, Calomel, one grain,
Nitre, ten grains. Three hours after, two teaspoonfuls No. two. Fits had
ceased before night. Gave pill--Antimony, two grains, Ipecacuanha, three
grains, Nitre, ten grains, each night and next morning. Next day
improvement visible. Wildness of the eye abated; fever in body and
coldness of extremities much diminished: secretions, however, still
irregular; nose dry and hard. At night gave pill--Ipecacuanha, three
grains, Nitre, ten grains, Ginger Essence, five drops. Next morning gave
two teaspoonfuls No. two. At night, half teaspoonful diluted Quinine
Mixture. Next day gave Quinine twice. Day after, two teaspoonfuls No. one.
Sent well to kennel. These were the worst cases of epileptic fits we ever
saw. The pair could not have had less than twenty fits each, which lasted
from a quarter to half an hour, during which they uttered most piercing
howlings.



FOURTH CASE.

_Pointer puppy ten months old._--Brought in from kennel: food chiefly raw
flesh. Condition high. Appearance--Eyes very dull; drowsy; nose hard, dry,
with thick mucous effusion; evacuations very offensive. Should consider
this the putrid type. Gave half an ounce of salts in warm water. Two days
after, gave ten grains Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha. No better: nose
running a thick, heavy matter; fæces very offensive. Two days after giving
last medicine, gave four grains Antimonial Powder, night and morning, for
two days. Dog died.

_Remarks._--This case happened years ago, when we were young. Our
treatment was bad from the commencement, but the case was a vile one also.
The following formulæ would have been more befitting:--Calomel, half a
grain, Tartar Emetic, half a grain, repeated with intermissions of an
hour, till a vomit was secured. Wineglassful of No. two in an hour
afterwards. At night, Antimony, four grains, Nitre, ten grains, repeated
next morning. If secretions then offensive, Calomel, two grains, followed
by wineglass No. two, in three hours. Then use Antimony, Nitre, and
Ipecacuanha, more or less, according as you wish to act on the skin, or on
the lungs or kidneys. If the cough is bad, increase the Ipecacuanha. If
fever prevails, add to the Antimony. Nitre acts on the bladder.



FIFTH CASE.

_A Terrier bitch in very low condition, pups having been lately weaned.
Age, two or three years._--Symptoms very mild. Gave half an ounce of
salts, and two days after, ten grains Ipecacuanha, followed up by four
grains Antimonial Powder, for two days. Results: bitch was cured of
distemper, but so dreadfully weak, could not feed itself. Gave one
teaspoonful of Huxam's Tincture of Bark, three times a day. Hand-fed her
frequently with rich beef soup, milk, and bread. After a very hard fight,
brought her round.

_Remarks._--Could not have done better much, except would have given a
combination of Antimony, Ipecacuanha, and Nitre at first, i.e. after
purging with salts. Got great credit at the time for the cure, more
deserved for nursing well.

From these cases you will be able to see, that for a simple purgative we
prefer salts, as being a very cooling dose, and suiting a dog's
constitution well. In the earlier stages, it sometimes effects a cure.
Where there is a discharge of the nose, you must, after purging, work on
the lungs. Where there is fever, you must double your purging, i.e. clean
them out front and rear as quickly as possible. Where to this is added a
visible disorganization of the secretions, you ought to call in Calomel in
large doses, one or two grains, repeated, and this you may continue with
Antimony, and so at the same time subdue the inflammation of the lungs. In
the earlier part of spring and in fall, there is little fear of diarrhoea
supervening. A slight attack of it will not be of much consequence
provided you take care to keep it well in hand. Opium must be used with
great caution; it rather tends to epileptic fits, which, by the way, we
consider to result from an almost stoppage of the bowels. Compound Powder
of Chalk, Quinine Mixture, Rhubarb, Catechu, will generally be sufficient.

In the Field Sports is the following receipt, and as we have invariably
found Blaine and Youatt's horse and dog receipts the most reliable, we
quote it. It is new to us, and so is a violent case of diarrhoea, for that
matter.

[Rx] Magnesia, one drachm; powdered Alum, two scruples; Powdered
Calumba,[1] one drachm; P. Gum Arabic, two drachms. Mix with six ounces
boiled starch, and give a dessert or table spoonful every four or six
hours, pro re natâ.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Catechu, one drachm, will be better than the Calumba. It is far more
efficacious.--_Dinks._



CASE.

We will now suppose a case, for our practice of late years has been
confined to young puppies. Ears and feet cold; body and head very hot;
body hard and distended; nose hard, dry, and almost stopped up with thick
matter; dry, husky cough; fæces, hard; pulse rapid, evidencing much fever.
Give instantly, Calomel and Tartar Emetic, half a grain each, repeating it
with intermissions of an hour, till you get a vomit. One hour after, give
wine glass No. two. Twelve hours after, if fever has not abated, give
three grains Calomel, followed in three hours by wine glass of No. two. If
the next day you find any fever still lingering, give Calomel, three
grains, as before, Antimonial Powder, eight grains. This will, with, in
three hours, the usual quantity of No. two, be pretty sure to be
successful. You must now address yourself to the cold and other symptoms;
and you may give large doses of Ipecacuanha and Nitre. Keep the bowels
open, but avoid active purging, except in cases of fever. If you find at
any time the body getting hard and distended, administer the emetic. Let
the dog out into the air whenever it is fine and warm, keep his nose well
cleaned out, and change his bed daily. Encourage him to drink fresh water,
if he will.

The receipts alluded to in the previous pages are as follows:--

_No. 1._--_For young pups up to six months old._--Of Epsom salts, take two
ounces; of water, one quart. Mix well, and keep close corked.

_No. 2._--Eight ounces of Saturated Solution of Epsom salts, in water;
thirty drops Sulphuric Acid. Mix well, and cork close.

Antimony is preferable, when there is fever. It is an antiphlogistic.
Ipecacuanha, when there is much debility. The last also affects the lungs,
and is more efficient in removing cold.

Half an ounce of salts is a fair dose for a dog from nine months to any
age. No. 2 is particularly recommended, whenever an early action is
required. It is essentially short, sharp and decisive.



FORM OF GAME BOOK.

  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  | Total |                        | Date.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Deer.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Turkey.                 |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Ruffed Grouse.          |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Pinnated Grouse.        |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Quail.                  |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Snipe.                  |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Woodcock.               |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Duck.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Teal.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Rail.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Plover.                 |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Guns.                   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Shots.                  |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | Place where shooting.   |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |       |                        | No. of Head to own Gun. |
  +-------+------------------------+-------------------------+
  |                                | REMARKS.                |
  |                                |                         |
  |                                |                         |
  |                                |                         |
  +--------------------------------+-------------------------+

This will be found as convenient a form as any for recording the season's
bag, and I would suggest as a means to accurately determine the number of
shots, to put a given number, say 50 or 80 caps, into your cap pocket
every day on going out, deducting any miss-fired and wasted ones from the
balance left on returning. This will give you an exact idea of your
average shootings, which will be found not to exceed three out of five
shots. In the column of remarks you can state your companion, quantity of
game seen, &c.; in fact, any point worthy of notice, and to which
afterwards you can refer. The writer's book dates back to 1845, and
records every head of game killed while he was out, by his own, as also
his friend's gun, remarks on the weather, curious ornithological
observations, &c.



DOGS,

AND THEIR MANAGEMENT;

  BEING A NEW PLAN FOR TREATING THE ANIMAL,
  BASED UPON A CONSIDERATION OF

HIS NATURAL TEMPERAMENT.


Illustrated by numerous Engravings,

  DEPICTING THE CHARACTER AND POSITION OF THE DOG
  WHEN SUFFERING DISEASE.


BY EDWARD MAYHEW, M.R.C.V.S.


SECOND AMERICAN EDITION.



PREFACE.


In the following pages is laid before the public the result of several
years' study. The Author hopes to be able, ultimately, to perfect a system
of treatment which shall change only with the progress of the science, of
which it can be no more than an offshoot. Saying this, the writer cannot
be accused of self-glorification, since there is in the field no living
author over whom he might appear to triumph.

The book was also written with the hope of inducing the gentlemen of the
Author's profession to study more carefully the Pathology of the Dog. This
is at present not properly taught, nor is it rightly understood by the
Veterinarians who profess to alleviate canine afflictions. Of all the
persons who accept such offices, there is but one who, to the Author's
knowledge, devotes the time, attention, or care which disease in every
shape demands; and the individual thus honorably distinguished, is MR.
GOWING of Camden Town.



CONTENTS OF MAYHEW'S MANAGEMENT.


                                                                      Page

  General Remarks,                                                      73

  Distemper,                                                           120

  Mouth, Teeth, Tongue, Gullet, &c.,                                   179

  Bronchocele,                                                         198

  Respiratory Organs,                                                  200

  Hepatitis,                                                           221

  Indigestion,                                                         227

  Gastritis,                                                           233

  St. Vitus's Dance,                                                   240

  Bowel Diseases,                                                      246

  Paralysis of the Hind Extremities,                                   270

  Rheumatism,                                                          274

  The Rectum,                                                          278

  Fits,                                                                295

  Rabies,                                                              299

  Generative Organs--Male,                                             313

       "        "    Female,                                           337

  Skin Diseases,                                                       410

  Canker within and without the Ear,                                   419

  The Eye,                                                             429

  Diseases of the Limbs,                                               437

  Fractures,                                                           444

  Operations,                                                          450


[Illustration]



DOGS: THEIR MANAGEMENT.



GENERAL REMARKS.


There is no animal so widely distributed as the dog. The like assertion
could not be made of any other domesticated creature. In countries
subjected to the extremes of heat or cold, in the centre of Africa, and at
the Northern Pole, the horse is absent; but wherever man is able to exist,
there, in some shape or other, the dog is represented. Various have been
the speculations as to its original. There is no animal in any way
approaching in outward appearance to the Canine Species (properly so
called), but has been assumed to be the original parent of the family.
Some have even fancied the fox was father to all the dogs that trot by the
side of man; but this idea seems too preposterous to be maintained.
Others, with more reason, have supposed the prototype of the dog was
discovered in the wolf. There are, however, many differences to reconcile
before this hypothesis can be received. The formation of the two animals
is distinct,--their anatomy presents positive differences,--their time of
breeding does not agree,--their habits are opposite, and their outward and
inward character is entirely dissimilar. The above engraving is the
portrait of the wolf. Is the reader in any danger of mistaking it for that
of a dog?

[Illustration: THE WOLF.]

Thus the apparent separation of the two species appears to be so wide,
that a child could point it out, and none but a philosopher could confound
it. Others, again, have gone to warmer climates for the founder of the
kind, which they have, to their own satisfaction, discovered in the
jackal: but there are very many obstacles to be surmounted, before this
supposition can be acknowledged. In the first place, although the dog is
to be found in warm climates, he thrives least in those to which the
jackal is entirely confined. Then all that has been urged against the
fancy which conceived the prototype of the dog was to be found in the
wolf, applies with even greater force to the jackal. However, to settle
the dispute, we here give the likeness of the beast, and leave to the
reader to point out the particular breed of dogs to which it belongs.

[Illustration: THE JACKAL.]

Beyond the circumstance of the habitats of the animals being distinct, is
the well-known fact that all domesticated animals have a disposition to
return to their original formation; but who ever heard of a dog, however
neglected, or however wild, becoming either a wolf or a jackal?

The dog is spread all over the world, and not only is the animal thus
widely distributed over the face of the earth, but there is no creature
that is permitted with such perfect safety to the human race to have such
continual and intimate intercourse with mankind. It is found in every
abode: the palace, the warehouse, the mansion, and the cottage, equally
afford it shelter. No condition of life is there with which the dog is not
connected. The playmate of the infant, the favorite of the woman, the
servant of the man, and the companion of the aged, it is seen in and
around every home.

Thus brought into intimate connexion with the human race, and continually
subject to observation, it is not a little strange that the dog should be
universally misunderstood. There is no quadruped which is more abused;
whether treated kindly or otherwise, the dog is equally made to suffer;
and probably the consequences of over indulgence are more cruel in their
result than is the opposite course of treatment. The health of the beast
is perhaps best preserved when neglect deprives it of man's attention;
then it may suffer from want, but it escapes many of the diseases which
caprice or ignorance entail upon the generality of the tribe. There exists
no creature more liable to disorder, and in which disease is prone to
assume a more virulent or a more complicated form. To minister to its
afflictions, therefore, demands no inconsiderable skill; and it becomes
the more difficult to alleviate them, since canine pathology is not fully
comprehended, nor the action of the various medicines upon the poor beast
clearly understood; yet there are few persons who in their own estimation
are not able to vanquish the many diseases to which the dog is liable.
About every stable are to be met crowds of uneducated loiterers,
possessors of recipes and owners of specifics, eager to advise and
confident of success. I seldom send a diseased dog into the park for
exercise, that my servant does not return to me with messages which
strangers have volunteered how to cure the animal. I hear of medicines
that never fail, and of processes that always afford relief. Persons often
of the upper rank honor me with secret communications which in their
opinion are of inestimable value; ladies frequently entreat me to try
particular nostrums, and sportsmen not seldom command me to do things
which I am obliged to decline. In fact, the man who shall attempt to treat
the diseases of the dog, will have no little annoyance to surmount. He
will soon discover that science unfortunately can afford him but partial
help, while prejudice on every side increases the difficulties with which
he will have to contend.

Happily, however, the majority of pretended cures are harmless. A roll of
sulphur in the animal's water may be permitted, since it amuses the
proprietor while it does not injure his dog. Some of these domestic
recipes, nevertheless, are far from harmless, and they are the more to be
deprecated, because those which most people would imagine to be safe are
the very ones which are attended with the greatest danger. Common salt is
a poison to the dog; tobacco is the source of many a death in the kennel;
castor oil often does the ill which months of care are needed to efface,
even if the life be not destroyed. In the majority of cases vomits are far
from beneficial; bleeding is very seldom required, and the warm bath has
sealed the doom of innumerable animals.

The foregoing observations will have informed the reader of the reasons
that prompt the publication of the present work, which is put forth only
as a step towards the point the author does not yet pretend to have fully
attained. The study of years will be required to perfect that which is now
commenced, and further experience will probably demand the retraction of
many of the opinions herein advanced. The reader will understand, the
author in the present work asserts only that which he now believes. It
must not be imagined, however positive may read the language in which his
sentiments are expressed, that the writer is pledged to uphold any of the
conclusions at which he may have arrived; knowledge is in its nature
progressive, and canine pathology is not yet clearly made out. The
advantages which accompany the study of anatomy, physiology, and
therapeutics have yet to be more largely applied to the diseases of the
dog, and until this has been accomplished, science, not reposing upon
truth, will be constantly subjected to change. The present work,
therefore, will be accepted only as a contribution to veterinary
literature, and its contents will be viewed as doing nothing more than
declaring the temporary convictions of one, who, desirous of truth, does
not conceal that his mind is oppressed by many doubts.

In the following pages advantage will be freely taken of the labours of
those authors who have written upon the subject; nor must it be supposed,
because the writer may feel himself obliged to dissent from, he therefore
undervalues the genius of Blaine or Youatt. Before Blaine collected and
arranged the knowledge which existed concerning the diseases of the dog,
canine pathology, as a separate or distinct branch of veterinary science,
hardly existed. The task he accomplished; but if after the lapse of years
some of his opinions are found to be unsound, and some of his statements
discovered to require correction, these circumstances may be regarded as
the natural consequences of progression, while they in no way deteriorate
from the honor due to his name. Youatt enlarged and softened the teaching
of his master, and by the liberality of his communications, and the
gentleness of his example, improved and adorned the science to which he
was attached. To others than these two great men I have no obligations to
acknowledge. For their memories I take the opportunity of expressing the
highest respect, and confess that to their instruction is fairly due any
novelty which the present pages may contain; since but for those
advantages their teaching afforded, it is more than doubtful if I had
perceived the facts herein made known.

Before any mention is made of the diseases of the dog, it will be proper
to take some notice of the temperament of the animal, as without regarding
this the best selected medicines, or the most assiduous attention, may be
of no avail. Any one who will observe the animal will soon be made aware
of its excessive irritability. The nervous system in this creature is
largely developed, and, exerting an influence over all its actions, gives
character to the beast. The brain of the dog is seldom in repose, for even
when asleep the twitching of the legs and the suppressed sounds which it
emits inform us that it is dreaming. No animal is more actuated by the
power of imagination. Who is there that has not seen the dog mistake
objects during the dusk of the evening? Delirium usually precedes its
death, and nervous excitability is the common accompaniment of most of its
disorders. To diseases of a cerebral or spinal character it is more liable
than is any other domesticated animal. Its very bark is symbolical of its
temperament, and its mode of attack energetically declares the
excitability of its nature. The most fearful of all the diseases to which
it is exposed (rabies), is essentially of a nervous character, and there
are few of its disorders which do not terminate with symptoms indicative
of cranial disturbance. This tendency to cerebral affections will, if
properly considered, suggest those casual and appropriate acts which the
dog in affliction may require, and which it would be impossible for any
author fully to describe. Gentleness should at all times be practised; but
to be truly gentle the reader must understand it is imperative to be firm.
Hesitation, to an irritable being, is, or soon becomes, positive torture.

He who would attend upon the dog must be able to command his feeling, and,
whatever fear he may be conscious of, he must have power to conceal his
emotion. The hand slowly and cautiously advanced, to be hastily retracted,
is nearly certain to be bitten. Whatever therefore is attempted should be
done with at least the appearance of confidence, and the determination of
the man will, in the generality of cases, check the disposition of the
beast. There should be no wrestling or fighting. The practitioner should
so prepare his acts as to prevent the dog in the first instance from
effectually resisting, and the animal mastered at the commencement is
usually afterwards submissive. If, however, from any cause, the primary
attempt should not be effective, the attendant, rather than provoke a
contest which can be productive of no beneficial result, should for a
brief period retire, and after a little time he may with better success
renew his purpose.

Strange dogs are not easily examined in their own homes, especially if
they be favorites and their indulgent owners are present. Like spoiled
children, the beasts seem to be aware of all the advantages which the
affections of their master give to their humors. They will assume so much,
and play such antics, as renders it impossible to arrive at any just
conclusion as to the actual state of their health. Dogs in fact are great
impostors, and he who has had much to do with them soon learns how
cunningly the pampered "toy" of the drawing-room can "sham." For
deception, consequently, it is necessary to be prepared, and practice
quickly teaches us to distinguish between what is real and that which is
assumed. The exertion, however, required to feign disturbs the system, and
the struggle which always accompanies the act renders it frequently
impossible to make the necessary observation with requisite nicety. Petted
dogs are, therefore, best examined away from their homes, and in the
absence of any one who has been in the habit of caressing them.
Frequently I have found it of no avail to attempt the examination of these
creatures at the residences of their owners; but the same animals brought
to my surgery have, without a struggle, allowed me to take what liberties
I pleased. I usually carry such dogs into a room by myself, and commence
by quickly but gently lifting them off their legs and throwing them upon
their backs. This appears to take the creatures by surprise, and a little
assurance soon allays any fear which the action may have excited. The dog
seldom after resists, but permits itself to be freely handled. Should,
however, any disposition to bite be exhibited, the hand ought immediately
to grasp the throat, nor should the hold be relinquished until the
creature is fully convinced of the inutility of its malice, and thoroughly
assured that no injury is intended towards it. A few kind words, and the
absence of anything approaching to severity, will generally accomplish the
latter object in a short period, and confidence being gained, the brute
seldom violates the contract.

Dogs are intelligent and honorable creatures, and no man will have reason
to regret who teaches himself to trust in their better qualities. I have
hitherto, in a great measure, escaped their teeth, and being slow and
infirm, my good fortune certainly cannot be attributed to my activity.
Kindness and consideration work upon animals; nor do I believe there are
many of the lower creatures that will not appreciate such appeals. It is
better, therefore, to work upon the sympathetic nature of the brute, than
to compete with it in strength, or endeavor to outvie it in agility.
Manual dexterity will often fail, and is seldom employed save when danger
is present. Mental supremacy appealing to the source of action ensures
safety, by subduing, not the resistance, but the desire to resist.

It is easy to ascertain when the dog has regained that tranquillity which
would allow of its being trusted with security. The eye need alone be
consulted, and a little observation will speedily instruct any one to read
its meaning correctly. When the creature is irritated, the pupil
invariably dilates, and by singly marking this circumstance, the temper of
the beast may be correctly ascertained. Nor should caution be discarded
until the contracted circle assures that the agitation has passed away.

With the smaller kind of spaniels and the generality of petted animals,
the indications of the eye may be depended upon; but with the more robust
and less familiarized species it is safest to take some precaution, even,
while the sign of sagacity is exhibited. Certain dogs, those of coarse
breeds and large size, are exceedingly treacherous, and sometimes are not
safe even to their masters. Creatures of this kind are, however, usually
as devoid of courage as they are deficient of magnanimity; and by the
display of resolution are to be readily subdued.

When, however, really sick, there are few dogs which may not be
approached. Under such circumstances, the utmost gentleness should be
employed. The stranger should advance quietly, and not bustle rudely up to
the animal. He should speak to it in accents of commiseration, which will
be better comprehended than the majority of reasonable beings may be
willing to admit.

The hand after a little while should be quietly offered to the dog to
smell, and that ceremony being ended, the pulse may be taken, or any other
necessary observation made, without dread of danger. Every consideration,
however, ought to be given to the condition of the beast. No violence on
any account should be indulged; it is better to be ignorant of symptoms
than to aggravate the disorder by attempting to ascertain their existence.
If the brain should be affected, or the nervous system sympathetically
involved, silence is absolutely imperative. No chirping or loud talking
ought under such circumstances to be allowed, and the animal should not be
carried into the light for the purpose of inspecting it. The real
condition of the patient, and the extent or nature of its disease, will be
best discovered by silently watching the animal for some time, and
attentively noting those actions which rarely fail to point out the true
seat of the disorder. Consequently manual interference is the less needed,
and in numerous instances I have, when the creature has appeared to be
particularly sensitive to being handled, trusted to visible indications,
and done so with perfect success. The hand certainly can confirm the eye,
but the mind, properly directed, can often read sufficient without the
aid of a single sense.

Having made the foregoing remarks, which the intelligence of the reader
will readily enlarge, it will next be necessary to describe in what way
the dog should be examined. Simple as this operation may appear, it is one
which few persons properly comprehend; and as upon it everything depends,
it will not be out of place to devote a few lines to its explanation.

The dog, in the first place, should be permitted to run about, released
from every restraint, or only so far confined as is necessary to prevent
his escape from the limits of observation. No attempt should be made to
attract the animal's attention, but the practitioner, seating himself in
one corner, ought to be perfectly still and silent. The way in which the
creature moves; whether it roams about, stands motionless, appears
restless or indifferent, avoids the light, seems desirous of
companionship, or huddles itself into some place as far as possible
removed from inspection; whether it crouches down, curls itself round,
sits upon its haunches, turns round and round trying to bite its tail,
drags itself along the floor, or lies stretched out either upon its side
or belly; in what manner the head is carried, and to what part it is
directed; if any particular place is licked, bitten, or scratched; if
thirst is great, or the dog by scenting about shows an inclination for
food; the nature of the breathing, the expression of the countenance, the
appearance of the coat, and the general condition of the body, should all
be noted down. When such points have been observed, the animal is
addressed by name, and attempts may be made to approach and to caress it;
the way in which it responds, submits to, or resents such advances being
carefully remarked.

The dog may then be handled. The eyes and their membrane are inspected, to
see if the one be dull or moistened by any discharge, and if the other be
reddened, pallid, yellow, or discolored.

The ears are next felt around, their edges lifted to discover if any
blackened wax or soreness be present in their convolutions, and slightly
squeezed to ascertain if any crackling sensation is communicated to the
fingers, or sign of pain evinced by the animal.

The nose is now to be remarked. If it be moist or dry; and if dry, whether
it is at all encrusted. The back of the hand or side of the cheek should
be applied to the part to ascertain its temperature.

The lips should next be raised, and the state of their lining membrane,
with the condition of the teeth, observed.

The jaws should then be separated, that the tongue may be seen
sufficiently to note its color, and the breath smelt.

The hand should subsequently be passed over the head and along the back,
to feel the hair, and discover whether there exist any sore places or
tumors concealed beneath it. The coat may now be generally examined, to
find whether in any part the covering is thin or deficient. Its firmness
should afterwards be tried, and the itchiness of the skin tested by the
nails, as well as its thickness and pliancy ascertained between the
fingers.

The hand should also be applied to the throat, and carried along the
course of the windpipe, feeling for any swelling of the salivary glands,
or enlargement of the thyroid. It is next passed to the abdomen, and the
inferior part of the cavity is gently pressed upwards, to ascertain if the
rectus abdominis muscle be contracted, or the animal shows symptoms of
tenderness. The abdomen may subsequently be kneaded between the fingers.
The amount of fat should not be unnoticed, nor should the firmness of the
muscles pass unobserved.

When all this is accomplished, the dog is laid upon its side or back, and
the tail being elevated, the anus is inspected and felt, to see whether it
be inflamed or protruded, and to feel if it be indurated or thickened.

The feet are now taken up, and the length and shape of the nails, with the
condition of the dew claws, inspected, to see whether they are growing
into the flesh, or by their shortness indicate the animal has been
accustomed to healthful exercise. The pad and web also receive a glance.

If the animal be a male, the prepuce is first pressed and then withdrawn,
to perceive if any discharge be present, or if the lining membrane be
inflamed or ulcerated.

Should it be a bitch, the vulva are inspected, to observe if they are
moistened by any exudation, or if they are swollen and excited by the
touch. They are separated to observe the color of the lining membrane.

The mammæ are then felt, to know if the animal has ever borne pups, or if
any of them are hardened. At the same time the parts are squeezed, to
discover whether or not they contain milk.

Such is a general description of the manner of proceeding, but there are
many possibilities which the above directions, lengthy and minute as they
may read, do not include. Such, for instance, as hernia, and disease of
the testicle or scrotum. All, however, it would not be necessary to
describe at length, and the foregoing instructions will lead the eye to
any extraordinary appearances should they exist. The experienced
practitioner probably will do less than is here set down, being educated
to a promptitude which enables him to leap as it were at once to those
parts which deserve his attention. For such the above is not intended; but
he who has not made the dog his special study, will certainly find his
advantage in going through the whole ceremony; nor will the most
experienced practitioner habitually neglect any portion of it, without
having cause to lament his inattention. To examine the dog properly, is
perhaps even more difficult than to perform the same office upon the
horse, and certainly it is a duty which there are few persons qualified to
discharge.

Having spoken of the proper manner of examining the animal, before I
proceed to describe its diseases, I shall touch upon some of those
matters which are essential to its health. It will, however, be understood
that I do not here pretend to treat of hounds, which for the most part are
well attended to, and fed, exercised, &c., according to the judgment of
the individual entrusted with the superintendence of the kennel. Little
probably could be written which would materially amend the condition of
these creatures; but petted and housed dogs are commonly treated after a
fashion with which judgment has nothing to do. Persons are indulgent to
their animals, and imagine that they are also kind, when too often they
oppose the dictates of their reason to gratify the weakness of their
momentary impulses. A little reflection will convince such people that
humanity does not consist in the yielding to every expression of desire.
The dog, in a state of nature, being carnivorous, and obliged to hunt for
its food, in all probability would not feed every day; certainly it would
seldom make more than one meal in twenty-four hours. When the prey was
caught, it would be torn to pieces, and with the flesh much earth would be
swallowed. The animal, however, is now to be regarded as subjected to man;
but while so viewing it, nothing will be lost by keeping in sight its
primitive habits.

The dog can fast for a great number of days. Abstinence for forty-eight
hours seldom injures it; but it is a practice which ought not to be too
frequently adopted, as by its repetition the digestion is weakened. One
meal, however, is sufficient, in every case, for the twenty-four hours.
Animals not worked, but kept as favourites, or allowed only to range at
pleasure, should not have any meat, nor be permitted to consume any large
quantity of fatty substances. Butter, fat, or grease, soon renders the
skin of the dog diseased and its body gross. Milk, fine bread, cakes, or
sugar, are better far for children, and can be on the human race bestowed
with advantage; while given to the brute they are apt to generate
disorders, which a long course of medicine will not in every case
eradicate. Beer, wine, or spirits, all of which the dog can be induced to
drink, show rather the master's ignorance than the creature's liking. Nice
food, or that which a human being would so consider, is in fact not fitted
to support the dog in health. It may appear offensive to ladies when they
behold their favourites gorge rankly, but Nature has wisely ordained that
her numerous children should, by their difference of appetite, consume the
produce of earth. The dog, therefore, can enjoy and thrive upon that which
man thinks of with disgust; but our reason sees in this circumstance no
facts worthy of our exclamation. The animal seeking the provender its
Creator formed its appetite to relish, is not necessarily filthy or
unclean; but could dogs write books, probably the opinions of these beasts
upon many of the made dishes and tit-bits of the fashionable circles,
would be opposed to the ideas which delicate epicures entertain concerning
such luxurious fare. The spaniel which, bloated with sweets, escapes from
the drawing-room to amuse itself with a blackened bone picked from a
dung-hill, follows but the inclination of its kind; and while tearing with
its teeth the dirt-begrimed morsels, it is, according to its nature,
daintily employed. Could we read its thoughts, probably the perverse
little pet, even while it is provoking its mistress's horror, is
reflecting upon the nasty trash which the human stomach can endure, and
upon the tempting relishes which mankind know not, like dogs, how to
appreciate. An occasional bone and a little dirt are beneficial to the
canine race, while food nicely minced and served on plates is calculated
to do harm. Such keep fattens to excess, destroys activity, renders the
bowels costive, and causes the teeth to be encrusted with tartar.

A bone is of great service to the animal, which cannot employ a
tooth-brush; and the larger it be and the less meat upon it, the better it
will prove for little high-fed favorites. A dog in strong health may
digest an occasional meal of bones; but the pet has generally a weak and
often a diseased stomach, which would be irritated by what would otherwise
do it no harm. The animal, nevertheless, true to its instinct, has always
an inclination to swallow such substances, provided its teeth can break
off a piece of a size fitted for deglutition. Game and chicken-bones,
which are readily crushed, should therefore be withheld, for not
infrequently is choking caused by pieces sticking in the oesophagus;
though more often is vomiting induced by irritation of the stomach, or
serious impactment of the posterior intestine ensues upon the feebleness
of the digestion.

The bone, therefore, should be large, and on it there should be nothing
which the knife can remove. It ought to be thrown upon the earth, and the
animal should be allowed to gnaw it at leisure. During the act, a
considerable quantity of earth and saliva will be swallowed, and little
actual food be added to an already loaded stomach. In all points of view
the animal is benefited. The soil is always slightly alkaline, and so is
the saliva; any undue acidity is by both in some measure counteracted; but
the earth is also of further service. Food too highly or purely nutritive
will not support life; but to render it healthy, a certain quantity of
indigestible or refuse matter is imperative. The latter portion acts
mechanically as a stimulant to the intestines, and hence, gentlemen by
choice consume bread in which a portion of the husk is mingled, finding it
prevents the costiveness that the baker's "best" induces. Dogs are here
very like men, but they require more of the mixture than the human being
could bear. The animals, therefore, should not be fed off plates.

The better practice is to take the day's allowance and throw it upon the
ground, letting the beast eat it with what addition it may please. Neither
should the nature of the food itself be disregarded. Oatmeal or
ship-biscuit ought always to be given, if alone the better, else rice upon
which gravy has been poured. Meat, when allowed, should be lean, and the
coarser the better. Paunch or tripe is excellent food for dogs, and for a
continuance I have found nothing agree so well. Horse-flesh or any such
filth is never to be allowed; this kind of food being very apt to generate
diseases of the skin. Dogs will thrive on liver, but it is too valuable an
article of diet for these creatures to be regularly given. When only
occasionally administered it has a well-marked laxative property, and on
this account will often be of service in rendering needless the use of
medicinal agents. In the raw state, if the animal will take it, its action
is more powerful; but after it has been boiled it generally is
sufficiently operative. The meat, whatever it may be, should, for animals
not in work, be boiled, raw flesh being more stimulative than their
comparatively idle pursuits demand. Such animals, in fact, may be said to
lead sedentary lives, and their diet must be lowered to suit their habits.
For the pointer, &c., during the season, raw flesh is actually to be
preferred, nor should the quantity be limited. The exertion is great, and
the utmost indulgence in this respect will seldom do harm; but my own
experience teaches me that the sporting dog is often crippled by being
under-fed. It cannot consume too much, neither can that much be too
nourishing, especially if the country to be shot over is of a hilly
nature. It is one of the prejudices of most men to believe that a feed of
oats to the horse, or a meal of flesh to the dog, just before starting,
gives strength for the labor which is to be endured. We cannot, however,
make strength as beds are made, at any moment, but the invigoration of a
living body must be the result of a slow and a long process. On the day of
work it is of less consequence what food is given than is the diet which
has been allowed the many previous weeks.

Regularity in the hour of feeding should equally be observed; and if this
matter be generally attended to, there will be no danger of its being
forgotten, since dogs' stomachs are excellent time-keepers, and the brutes
are not by any delicacy of feeling restrained from asking. The hour, after
a little while, will always for the sake of peace be kept, and the animals
will soon learn the rules to which they are subjected.

For home-kept dogs there is no possibility of stating the quantity of food
that ought to be allowed. No two animals in this respect are alike. One
eats much, and its fellow consumes but little; yet the small feeder in
most cases thrives the best even where neither is stinted. The quantity,
therefore, cannot be measured. The only rule to be observed is, that there
be enough placed before the animal at a stated hour. Let him eat of this
till the slackening of the jaws' movement and the raising of the head
indicate that hunger has been for the present appeased. So soon as this is
remarked the food ought to be withdrawn. On no account should the creature
be allowed to gorge to repletion, or eat after its healthy craving has
been satisfied. While the dog eats it should therefore be watched; and
this custom works well, as the failure of the appetite often gives to the
attendant the earliest indication of disease.

The dog that neglects its day's allowance should not be coaxed to feed,
but ought to be left alone for some minutes, or until its companions have
finished their meal. It should then be examined, and if nothing can be
detected, perhaps the abstinence of a day may restore it. Until the proper
hour arrives on the following day, nothing ought to be given to the
animal, nor should any inclination on its part for food be noticed.

Where eating is concerned, dogs have lively sympathies. The animal which
at its own kennel has feasted to satiety, will wake from its digestive
slumber to taste anything of which it sees its master partaking. These
creatures are so peculiarly sensitive in this respect, that they will do
violence to their feelings rather than be left out when eating is going
forward. Dogs moreover are most pertinacious beggars, and they soon learn
the cunning of the trade. On no account should they be permitted to
frequent the kitchen. If properly reared, they will be rigidly honest,
but, like the "audacious cats," they offer a ready excuse to dishonest
kitchen-maids, who will sometimes do injury by subjecting the animal to
undeserved chastisement.

Where the servants are trustworthy this danger will not arise; but good
servants mostly have tender hearts, and dogs have a peculiar tact in
appealing to female weaknesses. However strict may be the orders, and
however sincere may be the disposition to observe them, bits will
fall,--scraps will be thrown down,--dishes will be placed upon the ground,
and sometimes affection will venture to offer just "the little piece,"
which no one could call feeding. It is astonishing how much will in this
way be picked up, for the dog that lies most before the kitchen fire is
generally the fattest, laziest, and at feeding time the best behaved of
his company. Consequently no dog should be allowed to enter the kitchen,
for their arts in working upon mortal frailty can only be met by insisting
on their absence. The dog that is well fed and not crammed, should not
refuse bread when it is offered. If this be rejected, while sugar is
eagerly snapped up, it will be pretty certain that the animal is either
too much indulged, or that its health requires attention.

Some writers recommend pot-liquor for dogs. It is not advisable to use
this. The water in which salt meat has been boiled ought never to be
employed. Greens are not nutritious, but they often purge; and if the
animal will eat them, they can sometimes be given when liver cannot be
obtained. Potatoes will, with other substances, agree with animals not
required for work, but the rice I have recommended will be found for
general purposes the best, and not the most expensive food upon which the
animal can be sustained. Persons having lap-dogs will moreover find the
keep upon rice, properly seasoned, or soaked in gravy, less liable to
render these creatures strong or tainted than the provender which is
choicely selected from the joint provided for the family dinner. The warm
meat too often presented to these creatures is apt to enfeeble their
digestions; for their stomachs are soon deranged, and they never should be
allowed to taste any kind of food which is not perfectly cold.

The food for diseased dogs should be prepared with extreme care, and no
disregard of cleanliness; in fact, it should in every respect be such as a
human being could partake of, provided the ingredients were not repugnant
to his taste. Sickness cannot be relieved without trouble, and in many
cases an animal requires as much attention as a child. To gain success,
neither time, labor, nor expense must be begrudged; but the attendant must
be assiduous and the cook skilful. Nothing smoked or burnt, no refuse or
tainted flesh, must on any account be made use of. The meat may be coarse,
but it should be fresh and wholesome. Dirty saucepans or dishes ought not
to be employed; and so very important are these circumstances, that the
practitioner who engages in dog practice will often surprise his
acquaintances by being seen at market, or busied over the fire. Beef tea
is one of the articles which in extreme cases is of great service. Few
servants, however, make it properly, and when a dog is concerned there are
fewer still who will credit that any pains should be bestowed upon the
decoction. I generally either prepare it myself or superintend the person
who undertakes that office, and not unfrequently give serious offence by
my officiousness; or, spite of studious attention, fail in procuring that
which I desire. Still, as in the last extremity food is even of more
importance than medicine, my anxiety cannot be conquered by such
schooling, and I am therefore content to bear the sneers of those who
cannot understand my motives.

To make beef-tea properly, take a pound and a half of coarse, lean beef:
that cut from the neck or round is best. The leg does not answer so well,
however excellent it may be for soup. The rump steak is good for the
purpose, but no better than other and cheaper parts; though I often use it
when nothing else can be obtained so well suited for this beverage. Let
the flesh be carefully separated from every portion of skin or fat, and
chopped as fine as for sausage meat--the smaller the better--it cannot be
too minutely minced. Without washing it, put the flesh into a clean
saucepan, with a pint of water, and so place it upon the fire that it will
be half an hour at least before it boils. When it boils, allow it to
remain in that state for ten minutes, and then remove it, pouring off the
liquor, which should be set aside to cool. When cold, any fat upon the
surface should be removed, and, no salt or seasoning of any kind being
added, the beef-tea is fit for use.

To the meat, which has been drained of moisture, the skin and fat may now
be added and a pint and a half of water, which should be allowed to boil
till it is reduced to a pint. This being set aside and afterwards cleared
of fat, will be of some service if used instead of water when the next
potion is required; and there is no limitation in the quantity which may
be needed.

Besides beef-tea, wheaten flour, oatmeal, arrow-root, starch, biscuit
powdered, and _ground rice_ are also to be employed. These are to be mixed
with water, or more often with beef-tea, and boiled; but for sick animals
the compound should not be made too thick. The ordinary consistence of
gruel will be about the proper substance, and a little only should be
administered every hour or half-hour, as the case may require. From half a
pint to a quart, divided so as to allow of a portion being given at the
stated periods, will be sufficient for a large or small animal, the
quantity being proportioned to the size. When the creature is so far
exhausted that it is no longer willing or able to lap, the nourishment
should be administered by means of a tube passed down the throat or into
the oesophagus; for if given with a spoon, as the breathing is always
disturbed, the consequence may be fatal, from the fluid being drawn into
the lungs. The food should always be made fresh every morning; and none
left from the previous day ought on any account to be mixed with it, more
especially if the weather be at all warm.

These directions may to some appear needlessly particular; but so rapid
are the terminations of canine diseases, and so acute are they in their
development, that while the tax upon the patience is not likely to be of
long duration, the care demanded during their existence must be
unremitting.

_Exercise_ is next to food, and if of one dogs generally have too much, of
the other few have enough. In towns, if dogs are kept, a chain and collar
should always be at hand. The servants should be ordered to take the
creatures out whenever they go upon their errands, and an occasional free
journey with the master will be a treat which will be the more enjoyed
because of the habit thus enforced.

_Washing dogs_ is not a custom deserving of half the consideration which
is bestowed upon it. The operation is not so necessary as it is generally
imagined. Soap and water make the hair look white; but the coat usually
becomes soiled the quicker because of their employment.

The use of alkalies, soda, or potash, in the water, renders the immediate
effects more conspicuous; but unfortunately these substances also make the
after-consequences more vexatious. They take the sebaceous or unctuous
secretion from the coat. The skin is deprived of its natural protector in
this animal; the cuticle grows weak and dry. The hair is rendered rough;
is prepared to catch the dirt; and not unfrequently the skin itself, by
nature striving to counteract the effect of its deprivation, pours forth a
secretion that aids in causing it to appear foul. Above all, the warmth,
so repeatedly and often inhumanly applied to the entire surface of the
body, debilitates the system of the creature, and generates in the long
run certain disease, even if by the drying immediate disorder be not
engendered. The warm-bath to the dog is peculiarly debilitating, and the
heat which the hand of a cook would endure with a sense of comfort, will
sometimes cause the dog to faint. Panting is a sign of sensible weakness
in this animal, and few of these creatures are washed without exhibiting
it. If washing is insisted upon, the water should never be warm, and in
cold weather only should the _chill_ be taken off. The soap ought to be of
the mildest quality; but the yelk of an egg is much to be preferred, and
in its effects is every way more beneficial where the hair, either of man
or beast must be cleansed. A small dog will require the yelk of one egg;
and a Newfoundland the yelks of a dozen eggs. The yelks are to be
separated from the whites and smeared well into the hair. A little water
is then to be poured upon the back, and the hand is to be rubbed upon the
coat till a lather covers the body, after which the hair may be cleared by
copious ablutions. This process is much to be preferred, and the dog
dislikes it far less than when soaps are employed. His eyes are not made
to smart, or his skin to burn, and if he tastes the substance he does not
therefore sicken. Moreover, when the business is ended, even if some
portion of the egg should cling to his hair he will not on that account
neglect his personal appearance. The coat will be found to look bright,
and to remain clean for a longer period than after the adoption of the
customary thoughtless process.

Washing, however, is not constantly required, if a dog be kept combed and
brushed every morning, and does not reside in a very filthy locality. A
little dirt after a walk is easily removed, if it be allowed to dry
perfectly, and the hair is then rubbed and picked by the hand of its
attendant, when the comb will complete the proceeding. A bath every
morning does the generality of dogs good; but it should be cold, and the
animal ought not to be punished by having its head submerged. It should be
plunged up to the neck, the head being held above the surface. While in
the water the coat should be well rubbed with the hand, that every
portion of the hair may become thoroughly soaked. This over, no attempt
should be made to dry the dog, for that is not by any industry to be
perfectly accomplished. Neither ought the dog to be wrapped up, placed
before the fire, or suffered to lie about, which it is always by a sense
of discomfort induced to do, if not made to move. The animal ought
immediately to be started for a scamper, and never allowed to remain
quiescent until its activity has driven every trace of moisture from its
body. Not until this is thoroughly effected should the creature be brought
in-doors, or be suffered to rest for a moment. If healthy it will require
little exertion on its attendant's part to make it jump and run about; but
some of these little animals have to carry a burthen of fat which no sense
of uneasiness can provoke them to move under of their free wills. An
active lad with a chain may, in these last cases, be of much use; but he
should be told to exercise his charge in some spot open to the master's
eye, else the boy may play while the animal shivers.

Some dogs show a great dislike to, strenuously fighting with, the collar
and chain; others will exhibit the most piteous distress, by squatting
upon their hocks, and whining, while they pant vehemently, and look
imploringly up to the face of their leader. The first are probably not
aware of the intention of the bonds to which they are subjected, and
should not be harshly rebuked. The voice ought to assure them, and means
be resorted to calculated to allay their fears. Gentleness and firmness
will in two or three days render such animals perfectly submissive for
ever after. The last kind are rank impostors. No one not familiar with
these animals would credit the arts which they can with such excellent
effect and apparent genuineness practise to gain their ends. They have
been used to be carried, and they prefer riding in the arms of a human
being. Their insinuating tricks ought to be rewarded only by laughter,
accompanied with an admonition.

Dogs are very intelligent. They understand much more than men choose to
give them credit for. Their pride is enormous, and through this feeling
they are easily moved. Laughter, when directed against himself, no dog can
endure, and the slightest reprimand is always answered by an immediate
change of aspect. Rather than have their dignity offended, dogs will
quickly become honest, especially when deceit is experienced to be of no
avail. People who are physiognomists may detect this sentiment impressed
upon the countenance. Upon the next page is a portrait of a Mastiff. Mark
the absolute Asiatic dignity, only outwardly slurred over by a
heedlessness of behaviour. Does it not seem as though the creature,
through very pride reposing upon strength, was above forms? Who could
think of laughing at such gravity? Would it not be like ridiculing nature
to insult one who has such outward claims to our respect?

Sporting dogs will always take the exercise that is beneficial, and for
such the cold bath is much to be recommended. Only in skin diseases should
the tepid bath be resorted to. It is of much service when the skin is hot
and inflamed, but after it, exercise ought not to be neglected. For
healthy animals the hot or warm bath should never be employed; but the sea
is frequently as beneficial to dogs as to their owners; only always
bearing in mind that the head should be preserved dry.

[Illustration: THE MASTIFF.]

Vermin often are very troublesome to dogs, and I have known these animals
destroyed because their owners were ignorant of the process by which the
annoyance might have been readily conquered. There are many powerful drugs
recommended by different writers to effect this end; but though all of
them are sufficiently potent to annihilate the parasite, most of them are
also strong enough to kill the dog. When fleas are numerous, the dog must
be taken from the place where it has been accustomed to sleep. The bed
must be entirely removed, and the kennel sluiced--not merely washed--with
boiling water, after which it ought to be painted over with spirits of
turpentine. The dog itself ought to be washed with eggs and water, as
before directed; but with the yelk of every egg a teaspoonful of spirits
of turpentine should be blended. After this, the animal should have pine
shavings to sleep upon, and if these are frequently renewed, the annoyance
will seldom be again complained of. As, however, exceptional cases will
always start up, should the tribe not be entirely dispersed, the washing
must be repeated; or if from want of time or other cause it be
inconvenient to renew that operation, a little powdered camphor rubbed
into the coat will mostly abate and often eradicate the nuisance.

Lice often cover the body of the dog, and especially crowd upon its head
around the eyes and lips. There need be no dread of their presence, since
these vermin will not live upon the human being, though similar to the
kind which will. When they are perceived, the dog should be carried into
some place in which grease stains are not of much consequence. It ought
then to be covered with castor oil till the hair is completely saturated.
In this state it should be allowed to remain at least twelve hours, at the
expiration of which time the oil may be removed with yelk of eggs and
water: only an additional number of eggs will be required. As to the
quantity of castor oil which may be necessary, a moderate-sized dog with a
long coat will require about a pound, and a large Newfoundland four times
that amount. The process, as might be anticipated, operates upon the
bowels; but I have never found it to do so with any dangerous power; on
the contrary, the laxative effect is generally in these cases beneficial.

Medicine to the dog requires to be administered with caution. The nostrums
which are so particularly recommended by grooms and farriers ought never
to be made use of. The veterinary surgeon is less likely to commit error;
but there are, however, few of the profession who devote attention to the
dog with the zeal which the comprehension of its diseases and their
treatment demand. Huntsmen and gamekeepers are generally from practical
experience not altogether inapt dog doctors, where the larger and more
robust kind of animal is to be treated, but for the smaller and petted
species these persons ought not to be consulted. Many of their receipts
are harsh--not a few of them inoperative--and some even dangerous; while
all for the most part are pushed down at random, or in total ignorance of
any effect the agents employed may induce beyond the intended one of doing
good or working a certain cure. Nevertheless, with the kind of animals
generally entrusted to their charge, such persons are so far successful
that, in the absence of better advice, they deserve to be consulted for
the larger species of dogs. The human physician will also, on occasions,
be enabled to prescribe advantageously for the canine race; but not
knowing the treatment of the diseases, and the symptoms being too often
deceptive, the highest opinions are by no means to be absolutely relied
upon.

Dog-doctoring is, in fact, a separate branch of science so intricate as to
call for intense study strengthened by constant observation. No one not
attached to the animal should attempt to master it, for success in such a
case would be hopeless. The annoyances are so great that the patience is
continually being tried; and the facts on which reliance can be placed are
so few, that he who is content to depend upon the received assertions will
never be able to realize his expectation. Nothing is more erroneous than
to believe that there is any close analogy between man and the dog in the
operation of medicinal substances. Aloes, rhubarb, &c., are not purgatives
to the dog; but castor oil, which to the human being is a gentle laxative,
to the dog is an active purge; while Epsom salts are a violent hydragogue
to the canine patient, producing copious and watery stools. Common salt is
in large doses a poison, and in apparent small quantities is so strong an
emetic as to be dangerous. Salivation speedily ensues upon the use of
minute quantities of mercury, which therefore cannot be considered safe in
the hands of the general practitioner. Secale cornutum has little specific
action beyond that of inducing vomiting; and strychnia cannot be with
security administered, on account of its poisonous operation upon the
animal. Other instances, casting more than suspicion upon the inferences
which every writer upon Materia Medica draws from the action of drugs
given to dogs, could easily be quoted, but they would here be somewhat
out of place; and probably sufficient has been said to check a dangerous
reliance upon results that admit of no positive deduction.

It is painful to peruse the "_experiments_" made especially by the French
authors. We read that so much of some particular agent caused death to a
dog in such a period; but he must be wise indeed who learns anything from
statements of this kind. The word dog represents animals of various sizes
and very diverse constitutions; therefore no conclusion can be drawn from
an assertion that does not embrace every particular. Unfortunately,
however, the operators think it no disgrace to their scientific
attainments to put forth such loose and idle assertions; nor do they seem
to hold it derogatory to their intelligence that they assume to reach a
show of certainty by experimentalising upon a creature about which, as
their reports bear witness, they literally know nothing. Equally
unsatisfactory are the surgical and physiological experiments made upon
these creatures. No results deduced from such acts can be of the slightest
importance. The anatomy of the dog is not by them generally understood.
There is no book upon this subject that is deserving of commendation; and,
to instance the ignorance which prevails even in places where a
superficial knowledge ought to exist, I will mention but one circumstance.

At the Royal Veterinary College there is a professor of Particular
Anatomy, whose duty it is specially to instruct the pupils concerning the
dog. The lectures, however, embrace but little, and that little is
principally devoted to wandering remarks upon the osseous structure. Of
the value of such teaching some opinion may be formed when the skeleton at
the College actually exhibits the bones placed in wrong or unnatural
situations. After the proof thereby afforded, with what reliance can any
sane mind accept the awful declarations of those anatomists who, upon the
living bodies of these creatures, have, according to their own accounts,
exhibited a nicety and certainty of skill which the profoundest
acquaintance with the various structures and parts would still leave
incomprehensible? Such reports evidence only the presumptuous folly of
individuals--the publication of such records testifies no more than the
ignorance of the age.

_To give medicine to the Dog_ often creates more bustle than the magnitude
of the creature appears to justify. Moreover, if the parties concerned in
the undertaking are not quite up to their business, the animal, which,
between its gasping, howling, and struggling, will find time to bite,
increases the activity by provoking human exclamations. I have known this
species of confusion to have been continued for half an hour; during which
work was stopped in a forge, and three brawny smiths joined a veterinary
surgeon's efforts to give a pill to a little spaniel that could not have
weighed above eight pounds. The dog was beaten and hands were bitten, but
after all no pill was swallowed. The result was the natural consequence of
the manner of proceeding. No man should contend with an animal, and
especially with a dog, whose excitement soon renders it incapable of
obedience.

With brutes of every kind, if the mastery cannot, by a bold stratagem, be
gained at once, it should be only established through the confidence of
the animal, which a few acts of kindness will, in the majority of cases,
easily win. I have had dogs brought to me which seemed disposed rather to
part with life than permit their jaws to be handled. The poor beasts had
been harshly used by the persons who had previously undertaken to treat
them. These creatures have remained with me, and in a little time have
grown so submissive that my shop-boy could with ease give any kind of
physic which I ordered to be prepared. Firmness and kindness were the only
stratagems I employed. I took care never to give the dog a chance of
mastery, but while ensuring my victory, I was careful that the conquest
caused no sense of pain. A few pats, with a kind word, and an occasional
reward in the shape of a bit of meat, induced the creature more willingly
to submit when the next dose came round.

A small dog should be taken into the lap, the person who is to give the
physic being seated. If the animal has learned to fight with its claws, an
assistant must kneel at the side of the chair and tightly hold them when
the dog has been cast upon its back. The left hand is then made to grasp
the skull, the thumb and fore finger being pressed against the cheeks so
as to force them between the posterior molar teeth. A firm hold of the
head will thus be gained, and the jaws are prevented from being closed by
the pain which every effort to shut the mouth produces. No time should be
lost, but the pill ought to be dropped as far as possible into the mouth,
and with the finger of the right hand it ought to be pushed the entire
length down the throat. This will not inconvenience the dog. The
epiglottis is of such a size that the finger does not excite a desire to
vomit; and the pharynx and oesophagus are so lax that the passage presents
no obstruction.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

When the finger is withdrawn, the jaws ought to be clapped together, and
the attention of the creature diverted. The tongue being protruded to lick
the nose and lips will certify that the substance has been swallowed, and
after a caress or two the dog may be released. Large brutes, however, are
not thus easily mastered. Creatures of this description must be cheated,
and they fortunately are not so naturally suspicious as those of the
smaller kind. For months I have thus deceived a huge, ferocious, but noble
guardian of a yard, who appeared incapable of conceiving that deception
was being practised. The dog bolts its food, and, unless the piece be of
unusual size, it is rarely masticated. The more tempting the morsel, the
more eagerly is it gorged; and a bit of juicy or fat meat, cut so as to
contain and cover the pill, ensures its being swallowed. Medicine,
however, which in this manner is to be administered, ought to be perfectly
devoid of smell, or for a certainty the trick will be discovered. Indeed,
there are but few drugs possessed of odour which can be long used in dog
practice, and even those that are endowed with much taste cannot be
continuously employed. When the dog is very ill, the intelligent beast
becomes conscious of its danger, and almost any kind or any form of
medicine will be accepted. There is no difficulty generally then; but in
chronic diseases, that only vex the temper and scarcely lower the spirit,
the ingenuity will mostly need to be exerted. Some medicines, however, can
be dissolved in the water; others may be smeared upon the food; and
fortunately the majority of those drugs appropriate to slow and inveterate
disorders admit of being thus exhibited. Fluids are perhaps more readily
than solids given to dogs, by the generality of inexperienced persons. To
administer liquids, the jaws should not be forced open and the bottle
emptied into the mouth, as when this method is pursued the greater portion
will be lost. The animal's head being gently raised, the corner of the
mouth should be drawn aside, so as to pull the cheek from the teeth. A
kind of funnel will thus be formed, and into this a quantity of the
medicine equal to its capacity should be poured. After a little while the
fluid will, by its own gravity, trickle into the pharynx, and oblige the
dog, however unwilling it may be, to swallow. A second portion should then
be given in the like way, and thus, little by little, till the full dose
is consumed. Often dogs treated in this fashion swallow a draught very
expeditiously; but others will remain a considerable time before they
deglutate. Some, spite of every precaution, will manage to reject the
greater part, and others will not waste a drop. The dexterity of the
practitioner makes some difference; but no skill can ensure the drink
being taken. Patience, however, is here of most avail; but when the mouth
is full of fluid, by gently separating the jaws the animal may be caused
to deglutate.

[Illustration]

Two pieces of tape, one passed behind the canine teeth or tusks of the
upper, and the other in like manner upon the lower jaw, have been
recommended. The tapes are given to an assistant, who, pulling at them,
forces the mouth open, and holds it in that position. In certain cases
this may be adopted for pills; indeed every stratagem will be needed to
meet the multifarious circumstances that will arise. For ordinary
occurrences, however, the practice is not to be commended, and should
never be embraced when drinks have to be given: the animal cannot swallow
while the jaws are held asunder; but for solids this plan answers better.
There are several objections, however, to be urged against its constant
use. The operation is violent, and the restraint it necessitates not alone
prevents the poor animal deglutating fluids, but also terrifies the brute,
who, on the next occasion, naturally is the more resistful. Difficulties,
therefore, increase, and the dog generally is not long before it learns to
baffle the attempt to confine it. Moreover, unless the assistant be very
well up to his business, his steadiness cannot be depended upon, and the
hand often is wounded by the teeth of the patient.

I therefore do not, as a general custom, resort to the tapes, and I advise
others only to employ them upon necessity. There are some creatures so
artful and so resolute that any attempt to give them physic is certain to
be frustrated. These are mostly small dogs that have been tutored by
severity, and such animals are not subdued by any amount of suffering. The
poor beasts fear the doctor more than the disease; and, though gentle in
their dispositions, are resolute in their resistance. For such cases I
employ the stomach pump, and by its aid introduce a dose of sulphate of
magnesia; for in general it is only purgatives that require to be given in
bulk. Other drugs may be either disguised, or exhibited by injection.
Enemata are of great service to this animal, and I make much use of them.
In their exhibition, care should always be taken to introduce the pipe
without any force; having previously greased the tube to ensure its
passing the more readily. While the instrument is in the rectum the dog
should be firmly held, else, in its struggles, the intestine may be
injured. The fluid should be gently thrown up, even when a large quantity
is employed. For those injections, however, which it is desirable to have
retained, from an ounce to a quarter of a pound will be sufficient. Warm
water ought not to be used as an injection, since it washes away the
mucus, renders the intestinal surface harsh, and prevents the passage of
the foeces. Linseed tea or any mucilaginous fluid answers the purpose
better, and a solution of soap is excellent in many cases, when only a
laxative effect is desired. The form, however, as will in the course of
this work be explained, must be repeatedly varied, since this agent may be
rendered medicinal or nutritive.

Purgatives are most valuable, but are not free from danger. The digestive
canal of the dog is peculiarly irritable, and no less sensitive to the
action of medicine. There are few diseases in which the stomach and
intestines are not involved, and very many in which purgatives are
directly contra-indicated. No one should get into the habit of thrusting
physic of this nature down the throats of his animals; and sportsmen may
rest assured that, to the dog at all events, preparatory doses are not
necessary to condition. Those, however, who persist in using such stuffs
will do well not to employ the compounds in general use. The mixture of
poppies, buckthorn, and castor oil is a filthy mess; and I do not
understand the principles upon which the abomination is based. A better
and more cleanly mixture is thus made:--

  Ol: Ricini      4 parts.
  Ol: Olivæ       2   "
  Ol: Anisi       Q. s.    Mix.

A little pounded sugar added to this will often render it palatable,
which, being of a fluid consistency, is without difficulty exhibited. The
compound, however, flows the more readily if it be slightly warmed, and in
winter it even requires to be thus prepared. Sulphate of magnesia I rarely
employ; and, as a general purgative, it is not suited to the dog, though
in exceptional cases it will be seen I recommend it. Should pills be
preferred, the following will be found to answer every purpose:--

  Ext: Col:          Half a scruple.
  Pulv: Colch:       Six grains.
  Pil: Hydrarg:      Five grains.

This is for one pill, which is a dose for a small dog of seven or eight
pounds weight. Three times the quantity would be required for a
Newfoundland. It is not very powerful in its action; its effect upon the
system being quite as much alterative as laxative. The animal under its
operation is evidently nauseated, and refuses food for about twelve hours;
at the expiration of which time relief is afforded by a not very copious,
but bilious evacuation. It is, however, important that, after the
administration of a purgative, the dog should be permitted to remain
perfectly quiet; since, if put to exercise, or much excited, the medicine
will in all probability be ejected.

Emetics are shamefully abused, being so universally employed by the owners
of dogs, and so strenuously recommended by writers upon their treatment,
that one might think these agents were held to possess some charmed power
over the health of the animal. Lecturers are marvellously fluent upon the
subject of the dog's vomiting, which they dwell upon with such delight
that their auditors must suppose the act of revulsion in the canine
species is a pleasurable performance. Let any one, however, possessed of
sense and reason, observe the creature in the act of being sick. The
attitude is not characterised by ease; but the body is drawn up
preparatory for some unusual effort. The countenance does not bespeak
tranquillity; but the face is expressive of inward oppression. The
animal's frame is shaken by convulsive spasms, each throe being announced
by a deep pectoral sound, and only after this has repeatedly been heard
is the stomach able to cast off its contents.

[Illustration]

The description denotes nothing calculated to suggest that the organ whose
derangement is so marked should be rudely tampered with. It is true the
dog can readily be made to vomit. No creature is more easily moved in that
way; but in such a circumstance reason should perceive no license to
thrust emetics down the animal's throat. The organ which is so readily
excited, by the fact asserts its sensibility, and on that very account
ought to be the more respected. I have found oftener difficulty to check
this tendency than reason to provoke it. Repeatedly are tonics rejected,
and only by the reduction of the dose can the dog's stomach be made to
retain the medicine. The emetics in common use are, moreover, far too
violent. Antimonial wine, from half a teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful, is
much preferable to tartar emetic and calomel.

On no account should such doses as Blaine prescribes ever be exhibited.
Youatt in his recommendation is much better, but even the amount he orders
is too great. A quarter of a grain of tartar emetic in solution is
sufficient for a middling sized dog; and four grains of ipecacuanha is
equally effective. If in two hours (which rarely happens) no effect is
produced, it is better to repeat the dose, and continue even to do so,
than to commence with a larger quantity in the first instance. These
animals in their constitutions are so various, and the practitioner has so
little to guide his judgment, that the utmost caution will not in every
instance protect him from self-reproach; and in no case is he warranted in
closing his mind against the suggestions of prudence. It is true the
primary effects of an emetic are generally gratifying, but the after
consequences, if carefully traced, will not be found to be equally
satisfactory. Often the purge and the vomit, with which every dabbler
commences his treatment of a "dog-case," appear to give relief; but,
commonly, when the immediate excitation which their first operation
naturally calls forth passes away, debility ensues, and the termination is
not in harmony with the beginning. I once was very partial to emetics. I
now rarely make use of them, and have no reason to lament my change of
practice.

No notice will be bestowed upon those mysterious compounds known as
alteratives, sedatives, &c., which are given merely because habit has
sanctioned their administration. Names are in medicine dangerous things,
and give a currency to error which, to man and beast alike, has proved
fatal. Neither will any attempt be made to classify diseases; which
custom, though it has some advantages, is likely to mislead, by setting up
a system where no positive connexion can be demonstrated. The disorders
of the dog in this work will be treated of after no formal plan; but the
index must supply that want of arrangement, the absence of pretence to
which probably will give offence to regular students.



DISTEMPER.

Of all the diseases to which the dog is subject, this one is the most
dreaded. Writers have agreed it is the scourge of the canine race. Blaine
and Youatt speak of it as capricious and untractable; the French regard it
as incurable. The owners of dogs, despairing of benefit from regular
means, have for a long time been content to trust in charms and specifics.
Folly and cruelty have been embraced to accomplish that which kindness and
science appear unequal to perform; and one general feeling seems to be
entertained with regard to the distemper--most persons being agreed that
the disorder is not to be subdued by medicine, and that its fatality is
independent of the best efforts of man to check it.

My experience does not corroborate these various but harmonious accounts
and opinions. In my conviction, the disorder is feared only because it is
not understood, and is rendered worse by the injudicious attempts to
relieve it. I find it tractable, easily mastered, and when submitted to me
before the system is exhausted, I am very seldom disappointed by the
result of my treatment. It has for some time been my custom to tell those
who bring me an animal affected with this complaint, that if my
directions are strictly followed, the creature "_shall not die_." When
saying this, I pretend not to have life or death at my command, and the
mildest affections will sometimes terminate fatally; but I merely mean to
imply, that when proper measures are adopted, distemper is less likely to
destroy than the majority of those diseases to which the dog is liable.

[Illustration]

Distemper has been hitherto regarded as an inflammatory disorder, which
was to be conquered only by antiphlogistic remedies. Bleeding, purging,
vomiting, sedatives, blisters, and setons were employed; and the more
acute the attack, the more violent were the means resorted to for the
purpose of its conquest. Under such treatment I do not wonder at the evil
character which the malady has obtained; for in proportion as the efforts
made were great, so would be the probability of the disease proving
destructive. There can be no doubt that more dogs have been killed for the
distemper than would have died from it if nature had been suffered to
take her course; and yet there is no disease that more requires help, or
rewards the practitioner more largely for the assistance he affords.

The reader is entreated to dismiss from his mind all he may have read, or
heard, or thought of this affection. Let the many tales about
never-failing receipts, and the only proper modes of treatment, be for a
time at all events forgotten, that the author, who undertakes to oppose
prejudice and to contradict authority, may at least have a patient
hearing. There is no reason to doubt that many cases which have been
called distemper have, to all appearance, been saved by each of the
reputed methods of cure. A pillet of tobacco, a tea-spoonful of salt, a
dose of castor oil, an emetic, rubbing the nose with syrup of buckthorn,
&c., &c., or anything that is famed for the purpose, may have often seemed
to check the disease; but no one who has been accustomed to depend on
these charms can deny he has frequently witnessed their failure. That they
should sometimes have seemed to do good is easily explained. In the first
place, there are very few persons who know how to recognise the early
symptoms of the malady; but it is usual for every young dog that is a
little poorly to be pronounced sick with the distemper.

The unfounded belief that all of these animals must have the disease makes
every one anticipate its advent, and tempts them to call every ailment by
the name suggested by their expectations. Two-thirds, at least, of the
cases which are so quickly cured by nostrums and specifics would on
inquiry prove to have been mistaken; and as, in the instances where a
single dose is depended upon, nature is pretty much left to herself, the
chances are that a fair share of the rest would get well of themselves.
The recovery, however, could in no way be expedited by that which is
credited for its accomplishment; since the little done is mostly
calculated to aggravate and not to alleviate the symptoms, while there is
no possibility it should eradicate the disorder.

In its character, distemper approaches very near to "continued fever" in
the human subject; the chief difference being consequent upon the more
delicate constitution and more irritable temperament of the dog, which
prevents the two diseases from appearing exactly the same. It consists in
a general fever, which produces a morbid excitement of all the mucous
membranes. The digestive track is the principal seat of the disease, but
of course its presence is most easily recognised at those parts which are
most exposed to view. Thus the membrane of the eye, being a comparatively
large surface, and by its delicacy well calculated to denote every
variation of the system, is usually the first observed, and often the only
place inspected. If this be cloudy or watery, the nature of the malady is
at once concluded; the membrane of the nose also, though less palpable, is
under observation; and if its secretion be copious and opaque, the fact is
generally imagined to be established. The alterations, however, exhibited
by these membranes are no more than sympathetic derangements, they being
continuous with the more important organs; and when proofs are found in
the eyes or nose, the disorder is generally confirmed, or has taken hold
of the system. Some have supposed the disease originated in the nose, and
thence extended to other parts; now I shall not stop here to consider so
groundless an hypothesis. It essentially is fever affecting the entire of
the mucous surfaces, but especially those of the alimentary canal.

The causes cannot be well ascertained. Contagion has been by the majority
of writers supposed to be its principal source, but I cannot say my
experience has corroborated that opinion. My own little cur never had the
distemper, and yet she lived where the disease was scarcely ever absent.
Animals virulently affected were daily brought to me, and not a few were
left in my charge. From these she was not kept separate; they were her
acquaintances and companions; she played with them, and often by choice
shared their beds; and nevertheless she died without exhibiting the
disease. I do not generally put those dogs by themselves which are
affected with distemper; yet I cannot bring to mind the instance of an
animal while under my care having caught the disorder. I doubt whether
there is any justice in the general opinion. It would be hard to prove the
prevailing notion was a prejudice, yet there can be no doubt that it is
much more insisted upon than it deserves to be.

With regard to other causes, I know of none. I have not been able to
observe that any circumstance can induce the disease, though at particular
ages the animals are predisposed to its exhibition.

During the latter period of dentition--that is, when the second set of
incisors are well up, and the permanent tusks are about half-grown, the
temporary ones being still retained--is the time when pups are most
disposed to display this disorder. I cannot state the precise age, because
mouths are not regular in their appearances even as to mouths; but the
aspect of the teeth will sufficiently mark the period when an individual
may be expected to be attacked. The season certainly, in no little degree,
influences the disease. In winter it is not usually seen; in the spring it
is more common; in summer is rare, but less so than in winter. During the
autumn, however, especially if much rain should fall, it is very frequent,
and always more prevalent than at any other periods. Spring and autumn,
therefore, are the times when it is to be looked for, but in the latter it
is to be anticipated.

When treating of a subject like the present, there would seem to be a
disposition to string together a number of words which do duty for
information. Cold, wet, bad food, foul air, excessive exertion, fear, &c.,
are grouped together, and put forth for almost every "ill that flesh is
heir to;" but I have to learn that these accepted terms have any connexion
with the development of this disorder. Dogs that are starved, neglected,
and cruelly tortured--animals that are judiciously fed, properly housed,
and sensibly treated--as well as favorites that are crammed, nursed, and
humored--all equally are its victims; and those which are most cared for
fall most frequently, while those which are least prized more generally
survive. If, therefore, privation or exposure be of any importance, the
facts seem to infer their tendencies are either to check or mitigate the
attack.

Exercise and food, however, do influence the complaint. The dog that is
free suffers much less severely than the one that is confined. The animal
that never tastes flesh has a much lighter attack than the one which
subsists entirely upon meat. This last fact I have often proved. When the
distemper has made its appearance, the opportunity for changing the diet
has passed away. We have, then, only a choice of dangers. To remove the
flesh to which the animal is accustomed is to cause it to pine and to
weaken the strength, at a time when vigor is of every importance; whereas
to continue the meat is mostly certain death; in this position I generally
take away the flesh, for by so doing I give the patient a chance of
recovery; and however desperate that chance may be, nevertheless it is to
be much preferred to no chance at all.

The symptoms in the very early stage are not well marked or by any means
distinguished for their regularity. They may assume almost any form;
dulness and loss of appetite, purging, or vomiting, are very frequently
the first indications. The more than usual moisture of the eyes, and a
short cough, are often the earliest signs that attract attention. In the
bitch a desire for copulation, with a disinclination to accept the dog,
is to be regarded with suspicion; as is also a display of peevishness and
a wish to be undisturbed in full-grown animals. These things denote no
more than the derangement of the system; but if, conjoined with them, the
inner surface of the lower eyelid should appear to be more red than usual,
and the pulse should be increased in number without being materially
altered in character--ranging from one hundred and twenty to one hundred
and thirty in puppies, and in dogs from one hundred and ten to one hundred
and twenty-five--the probability of distemper making its appearance is the
greater, though even then by no means certain.

The period of the year, however, will also have to be taken into
consideration; and inquiry should always be made whether any animals in
the immediate neighborhood are known to have exhibited the disorder;
because the disease is then proved to be in the locality. At this stage
the practitioner is always more or less in the dark; and therefore he
contents himself with such measures as he concludes are adapted to the
symptoms, and waits for further instructions which nature will speedily
develope.

When the disease is established, the animal is sensitive to cold. It seeks
warmth, and is constantly shivering; when taken hold of, it is felt to
tremble violently, so much so that the pulse cannot be accurately counted.
The bowels are generally constipated. A thick purulent discharge flows
from the eyes; and the white around the eye, if the upper lid be
retracted, will be seen covered with numerous small and bright red
vessels, giving to the part the appearance of acute inflammation. The
vessels now spoken of are not to be confounded with the veins which are
natural to this organ. These last are large, and of a purple hue, while
their course is in the direction of the circumference of the cornea. The
small vessels, indicative of distemper, are fine, bright in color, and
their course is towards the centre, or in a line directly the opposite to
that indicated by the veins. They are never present during health, though
they are often to be witnessed in other diseases besides that which is
here treated of. A glairy mucus, or yellow fluid, moistens the nostrils,
and if the ear be applied to the head, the breathing will be discovered to
be accompanied with an unusual sound. The cough is often severe and
frequent; it is sometimes spasmodic--the fits being almost convulsive, and
terminating with the ejection of a small quantity of yellow frothy liquid,
which is thrown off by the stomach. The digestion is always impaired, and
sickness is not unusual; the matter vomited having an offensive smell, and
never being again consumed by the animal, as is generally the case when
the creature is in health. The nose is dry and harsh; the coat staring and
devoid of gloss: the skin hotter than is customary, and the paws warm. The
pulse is perhaps quicker by twenty beats than during the prior stage, but
less full--the artery feeling sharp, short, and thin under the finger.

When the symptoms described are apparent, the distemper is easily
recognised, but it is not likely to continue stationary for any long
period. In the course of a week it generally changes its character, and
sometimes appears to subside altogether; the cases in which the disease
steadily progresses, becoming day by day more severe, being comparatively
rare.

When no abatement is witnessed, the case is not to be despaired of, but it
requires to be anxiously watched; for often it will take a sudden turn,
sometimes favorable, but more frequently demanding immediate assistance to
prevent a fatal termination. The symptoms become aggravated. The eyes are
clogged by a thick matter which glues the lids together, especially in the
morning. The nostrils are plugged up by an accumulation of tenacious
discharge, which becomes encrusted over the lips and nose, and impedes the
breathing. The body rapidly wastes, though the appetite may return, and
even be voracious. The shivering is constant. The dog seeks repose and is
disinclined to move; though at times it may be playful, and in some
instances will never exhibit any diminution of spirit. The cough may
continue; but it more often ceases, or is only heard at irregular and
distant intervals. The animal makes repeated and desperate efforts to
expel the accumulated matter from the nose, and uses its paws evidently
with an intention to remove the annoyance. Day by day, if not attended to,
these signs grow more aggravated; the breath becomes very offensive;
ulcers appear on the lips; the eyes become white; the discharge from the
nostrils changes its color, and is mingled with blood and scabs, having
an offensive odor. The creature at last begins to "yap," or utter short
sharp cries. It becomes more weak, till at length it cannot walk, but lies
upon its side; the noise being continued for hours, and then ceasing only
to be again commenced. Constipation has usually been present, but at last
diarrhoea sets in; the fæces have that peculiar smell which in the dog is
characteristic of the latest stage of all; and gradually death, without a
seeming struggle, closes the scene of suffering.

More frequently--indeed, in the majority of cases--the distemper is hardly
well developed before it all at once seems to disappear. This peculiarity
in the disorder has no doubt given strength to the general faith in
specifics for this disease. The animal suddenly so far recovers, or
appears to recover, after having been seriously affected, that the
inexperienced naturally conclude the dog is either quite well, or
evidently so far cured that the efficacy of the remedy administered is not
to be disputed. For two or three weeks this deceptive appearance may
continue, and in some cases no return of the symptoms may be witnessed;
but in the majority of instances the disorder is only dormant, and again
starts up as if it had been strengthened by its treacherous repose. The
running from the nose comes back in excessive quantities, and either the
bowels are singly inflamed, or with them the brain is involved, and fits
or diarrhoea, or both united, speedily terminate in death, to arrest which
medicine has seldom the power. The loss is on these occasions rarely
attributed to distemper, which is thought to have been subdued; but death
is commonly set down to fits, or to poison, or to inflammation of the
bowels, or to anything else which the imagination of the proprietor may
conceive. Hence we get an insight into the value of a large number, and
perhaps into all, of the reputed nostrums; and hence it is the more
necessary the reader should be made aware of those indications which
denote the virus is not eradicated, but only latent as it were, lurking,
to spring with greater certainty upon its victim. No one must conclude the
distemper is mastered if the dog continues to lose flesh, or if the animal
does not rapidly repair the waste consequent upon the earlier stages of
the disorder. This tendency to stand still or decline should be carefully
observed, and it will seldom deceive. When it is remarked, or even
suspected, let the owner be upon his guard. When the distemper is actually
overcome, there is a marked disposition to fatten; indeed, so strong is it
at this time that, should it not be evident, there can be no doubt as to
the cause, especially if a short and slight attack of the disorder has
been known to have occurred a little time before. A warning, equally clear
to those who will look for and can read it, is to be obtained from the
eyes. These may be bright, and even peculiarly transparent; the face have
a more animated expression than it displayed during previous health; but
if the eyelids are retracted, the membranes will be found red, and the
vessels before observed upon will be seen running over the white of the
eye. When these things are present, although the coat may be beautifully
smooth, the discharge dried up, the shivering gone, the appetite strong,
and the spirits boisterous, still there is in the system the seeds of a
disease which at no distant period will reappear in its most dangerous
form.

Commonly, after the second stage, there is an abatement of the symptoms,
without any actual cessation in the discharges. The dog is concluded to be
better, and thought to be doing well, but it will not be long before
something to excite alarm is witnessed. The eyes or nerves, or lungs or
liver, or stomach or intestines may be attacked; or a pustular eruption,
or actual mange, or a disposition in the animal to eat its own flesh, or
choroea, or paralysis may appear, and all of these possible varieties
require to be separately dwelt upon.

The eyes lose their transparency, the surface is white and opaque, the
sight is impaired, and the lids are nearly constantly closed. One or both
of the organs of vision may be thus affected; usually the two are
simultaneously affected, but seldom with the like intensity. After a few
days, and sometimes at the commencement, a small circular depression is to
be seen upon the very centre of the eyeball. It is round, and varies in
size from that of a pin's head to that of a small pea, but rarely becomes
larger. The depression, if nothing be done to check it, deepens till a
little shallow pit is exhibited. At other times the hole grows larger and
deeper, till the outer covering of the eye is absorbed, or, in common
phrase, is eaten through, and the water escapes: this gives relief. If,
however, the animal survives, the eye is often perfectly restored, though
very frequently a white speck marks the spot which was ulcerated; or the
dog is left with weakened eyes, and has a tendency to cataract, which may
ultimately render it blind.

The affection of the lungs is denoted by the dog breathing more quickly,
and often making a small plaintive or whistling noise during respiration.
Though cough is quite as often absent as present; but if present it is
usually severe; the pulse is increased, but small and thready, and the
appetite may not be impaired. The animal is, however, disinclined to move,
if put down at liberty, it always gets into some place where it hopes to
be allowed to remain undisturbed. As the symptoms become more intense, the
animal constantly sits upon its haunches; but I have not seen it carry the
head erect, although authors state this to be one of the indications.
There is a desire for fresh air, and the dog will always leave the house,
or get to the window or door, if he have an opportunity of so doing. These
signs are hardly to be mistaken, but they are easily confirmed. If the ear
be applied to the side of a healthy dog's chest, no sound can be detected;
but when the lungs are diseased, a very plain noise is readily heard. The
presence, therefore, of any murmur, or of anything like air escaping over
a dry rough surface, is indicative of disease, and the certainty that the
lungs are involved is confirmed.

Dogs of late years have not commonly died of pneumonia during the
distemper; but authors speak of the pulmonary form of the disorder as
having formerly been a common cause of death. I know it only as a mild
variation of the ordinary symptoms. It has not in any case under my
observation proved fatal, but has readily yielded to gentle measures,
aided by attention to simple diet.

The liver is generally involved. After the termination of a fatal case,
this gland is found either soft or more brittle than it ought to be, else
it is discovered much enlarged. I never saw it of less than its natural
size. Generally it is discolored, mostly of a pale tint; which sometimes
exists all over the organ, though the pendulous edges of the lobes are
very generally seen of the bright red, suggestive of inflammation. The
gall-bladder is always distended with a thin dark-green fluid or impure
bile; and a large quantity of the same secretion, but of greater
consistency, is distributed over the lining membrane of the anterior
intestines. The liver obviously is the cause of the yellow distemper,
which is no more than jaundice added to the original and pre-existing
disease. Yellow distemper is by writers treated of as a distinct disorder,
but I have not yet met with it in that form. When it has come under my
notice, it has been no more than one of the many complications which the
symptoms are liable to assume. The dog has been ill before his skin became
discolored; but the eyes not exhibiting that ordinary discharge which
denotes the true character of the affection under which he labored, the
distemper was not detected.

Everything concerning distemper is by the generality of the public
misunderstood. Most people imagine a dog can have the distemper but once
in its life; whereas I had a patient that underwent three distinct attacks
in one autumn, that of 1849. The majority of persons who profess an
intimate knowledge of the dog will tell you distemper is a disorder
peculiar to the young; whereas I know of no age that is exempt from its
attack. I have known dogs, high-bred favorites, to be left with men
selected because of their supposed familiarity with dog diseases; and
these very men have brought to me the animals in the fits which are the
wind-up of distemper, yet notwithstanding have been ignorant that their
charges had any disease whatever. All the stages and symptoms of ordinary
distemper may appear and depart unnoticed; but it is widely different with
yellow distemper, for when the yellowness appears, it is so marked that no
description of a peculiar symptom need be inserted, since it cannot be
overlooked or mistaken. It is attended with excessive debility, and,
unless properly combated, is rapidly fatal.

The stomach and intestines are always involved; I have never known a case
in which either escaped. The affection of the first is generally shown by
sickness during the earliest stage; when also the derangement of the last
is denoted by either costiveness or relaxation, the bowels never being
perfectly regular; towards the latter stages, or about the third or fourth
week, the appetite sometimes becomes enormous; the craving for food is
then unnatural, and is so intense that no quantity can appease the hunger.
The animal will eat anything; dry bread is taken with avidity, and stones,
cinders, straw, and every species of filth are eaten with apparent relish.
Such, however, is not always the case, since it is not unusual for the
appetite entirely to fail. In either instance the dog rapidly wastes; the
flesh seems to melt as it were away, and the change produced by a few days
is startling; from having been fat, a thinness which exposes every bone is
witnessed in a shorter time than would be supposed possible. At this
period vomiting may come on; but when the animal is morbidly ravenous, the
stomach does not generally reject its contents. After death I have found
it loaded with the most irritating substances, and always acutely
inflamed; but no sickness in any instance of this kind has been observed.
Vomiting is most generally absent, but the protruded and reddened
appearance of the anus will give a clue to the actual condition of the
alimentary tube. The stomach is inflamed, not throughout, but in various
parts which are in different stages of disease. The pyloric orifice is
always more affected than the cardiac; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum,
are inflamed; the cæcum is enlarged, inflamed, and generally impacted. The
rectum, however, suffers most severely; it is much reddened and thickened,
often to an extraordinary degree. I have known blood to be exuded from the
surface of this bowel in such quantities as to destroy the life from
actual hemorrhage. In one case, however, a spaniel vomited more than
half-a-pint of blood previous to its death, which took place two hours
afterwards. A small quantity of blood is ordinarily passed with the fæces
toward the latter stage; but in several cases a large amount of pure
blood, partly coagulated and unmingled with any fæcal matter, has flowed
from the body in a continued stream, to which there will be cessation only
as death approaches. The possibility of this occurring will give the
reader some idea of the extent and degree in which the bowels are or may
be diseased; the symptoms, nevertheless, are not such as would suggest the
danger which may be shortly violently exemplified. Irregularity of the
intestines may be remarked; but it is not so characterised as to force
itself upon the attention. The belly during distemper mostly appears
tucked up and small; the intestines, even when costiveness exists, are
seldom loaded, but all except the rectum may feel empty. The animal is
always bound when the bowels are acutely attacked. The first indication we
get of this is often colic. The cries are high and yet full at first; but
they only occur at periods, between which the dog seems easy and inclined
to sleep; gradually the exclamations become more sharp and short, a
quantity of dark-coloured fæces are voided, and relief is for a time
experienced; the cries, however, return and become continuous; diarrhoea
sets in; the excretions become more and more liquid, by degrees mixed with
blood, and of a lighter color. Whenever they are discharged, pain is
expressed; but as the animal sinks the cries grow less frequent, till at
last the excrements pass involuntarily, and death soon takes place.

The cries, however, are not heard in every instance even of this kind, and
the abdomen is not generally sensitive to pressure. When the belly is
handled, the dog, by contracting the muscles covering the parts, may
denote some small degree of resistance; but I have never known it to
struggle during the operation. The curving of the spine, the occasional
looks towards the seat of agony, and the efforts made to press or draw the
belly upon the ground, will indicate the inflammatory character and the
locality of the disease. The pulse does not materially aid the judgment;
it becomes quicker and more sharp, but hardly to such an extent that
dependence can be placed on its indications. The discharges often cease
when the disease, in an acute form, becomes concentrated upon the contents
of the abdomen; but the nose is almost always hot and harsh, though in a
few cases I have known the part remain cold and moist even to the last. As
the close draws near, a very peculiar smell, not absolutely powerful, but
more sickly than offensive, is emitted. This odor is consequent upon the
fæces, and when it is detected the animal seldom or never survives.

The brain, both Blaine and Youatt speak of as subject to inflammation
during the latter stage of distemper. As diseases are peculiarly liable to
change, and the appearances assumed at different times are by no means
uniform, I may not say those estimable writers never beheld it in such a
state; but I am certain I have never seen it in a similar condition; I
have found it congested, but far oftener have I discovered it perfectly
healthy. One of its coverings (the dura mater) has exhibited a few spots
of congestion, but these have been small, each not larger than the head of
a moderate sized pin, and in number about ten or twelve; generally they
are situated towards the anterior of the cranium (on either side or falx),
and near to the crista galli.

The bones forming the roof of the skull have, however, been highly
vascular--loaded with dark blood--so that if dried they become of almost a
black hue; and without disputing the accuracy of either of the authorities
I have mentioned, these appearances to my mind account more satisfactorily
for symptoms which no one asserts ever border upon phrenitis. The brain
seems to me to be only sympathetically affected, not absolutely involved
in this disease. When this is threatened, there is generally some notice
given before the fits, succeeded by stupor, are displayed. The eye will
sometimes brighten, and the discharge from the nose will cease. This,
however, is by no means constant; as it is not rare for both to continue,
or even to become more copious; but if one only should remain, the nose is
certain to be the part whence the deflexion will issue. No positive
dependence, therefore, can be placed upon the discharges from the eye or
nose. The eye, nevertheless, is certain to denote that which is on the eve
of happening. The pupil may be small; and when it is so, its decrease of
size will be marked, and it will have little disposition to enlarge.
This, however, is rarely witnessed. Generally the pupil is much enlarged,
so much as to conceal the iris, and alter the character of the organ. The
eye is moreover retracted, and the dog has a very peculiar expression of
mingled pain and stupidity. If the hand be placed upon the head, it will
be sensibly hot. No matter how thick the coat may be, the heat will be
apparent, and the carotid arteries will sensibly throb. The coat feels dry
and is warm, although the animal may be trembling to such a degree as
prevents the pulse being counted. Yet the dog seems lively; it is active
now, though perhaps a little while ago it was dull; every trivial
circumstance now attracts its notice. The appetite is generally ravenous.
The dog which only the day before was disinclined to feed, is suddenly
disposed to eat more than it ever was known to consume; and it will gnaw
and swallow the hardest wood for want of better provender. The amended
appetite is mostly one of the symptoms, but it is not invariably
witnessed; for occasionally increased activity, and the strange appearance
of the eye, are all that indicate the approach of fits. It will not be
long, however, before something shall be added which is more definite in
its meaning. The dog which was running about suddenly stands still, and
begins to smack its lips and champ its jaw. It keeps stationary while
doing this, and continues so until a quantity of froth and thick saliva
falls from the mouth, drops upon the ground, and then the action ceases.
The animal looks around with a vacant stare, evidently not conscious
where it is, and starts away, hitting itself perhaps against anything
which may oppose its progress. If caught it struggles to get loose, and
may even bite the hand which, when conscious, it would perish to defend.
Almost immediately, however, it regains its faculties, and then seems
quite as well as it appeared to be before the attack came on. It may
continue subject to be thus seized for several days; or soon after the
first attack, fits or convulsions may start up. During the champing colic
may set in, which will only yield when the fits are established. The
duration of the champing is not regular; it may be only for a few moments,
or for several minutes. The attacks may be no more than one or two in the
day, or twenty may occur in a single hour. Generally they remain about
three days, but here also there is no rule. I have known them to be
present for a week, and also to exist only for a few hours. In these
latter cases the condition of the dog is generally not understood. It is
taken out for a long walk, or it is indulged with a hearty meal; and in
the middle of the one, or shortly after the other, it begins to champ,
utters a loud sharp cry, which is suddenly cut short as if the animal was
choked. The eyes glare, the mouth is open, and before perfect
insensibility ensues, the dog bites at every object near it, then falls
down convulsed, the limbs stiffen, the head is drawn back or twisted to
one side, the urine and dung are voided; and a slate of unconsciousness,
which may cease in a few minutes, or continue for hours, during which the
body is in contortions, and the saliva flows freely from the mouth,
stretches the poor brute upon the earth. When this is over, the dog
recovers as from a trance, being always disposed to ramble, and should its
strength permit, will start away at its utmost speed. There is neither to
the number nor duration of these fits any limit; they may be few or
frequent, and long or short. The second may end the life; or every five
minutes, nay oftener, they may occur, and the animal survive for days. Any
excitement will bring them on, and the passage of the fæces invariably is
accompanied by an attack. Diarrhoea always begins when they commence, and
the dog soon loses strength, and lies upon its side unconscious and
incapable of motion; the pulse is not to be felt, and gradually without a
struggle it expires. Let no man, however, be hasty in saying positively
when death has taken place. Often has the life seemed gone, for the heart
has been still; but minutes afterwards the animal has gasped, and then
began to breathe once more. Death, however, comes at last, for if the dog
sinks to such a state, I have never known it to revive.

A pustular eruption is often witnessed during the existence of distemper,
and I have not seen the same phenomenon distinct from the disease. The two
appear to be united, and yet we do not know the manner in which they are
connected. The other symptoms are not mitigated when the pustules are
matured, nor does their appearance denote any particular crisis or stage
of the disorder. I have, however, most frequently seen them towards the
latter or confirmed stages of distemper, and often they have immediately
preceded the fits. The first indication given is a little redness, which
is strictly local or confined to a particular spot. This place is not very
red, but, nevertheless, it is obviously inflamed and tender; there is not
much swelling, but a slight hardness can be detected. A day or two
afterwards the redness dies away, and a globular eminence, perfectly
round, and generally about the size of a split pea, is beheld. If it be
opened, a proportionate quantity of thick pus of a healthy character
escapes, and a comparatively large incrustation forms over the part; if
not opened, the pustule bursts and the scab follows, but larger than in
the previous case. Mostly the eruption appears on the belly and inside of
the thighs, but it is seldom strictly confined to those parts. Often it
affects the trunk and tail, but does not usually attack the head and
fore-limbs. There is no proof that any benefit attends its development, or
any known reason for attributing it to any cause; save only such as can be
drawn from the statement, that I have commonly observed it in pups of a
weakly constitution and emaciated condition.

The disposition to eat or gnaw some part of the body is often shown to an
alarming degree, but is seldom exhibited save in the latter stage of the
disease. The dog is observed to lick one of its paws, or mumble at its
tail, for some days. The part is always one of the extremities, and is
evidently tormented with a violent itching which cannot be allayed. The
animal at length, irritated by the torture, attacks the member with its
teeth. The skin is first removed, and then the flesh. The mouth may be
covered with blood, the teeth clogged with hair, and the very bones
attacked; but the pain which the sight of the mangled surface suggests to
the spectator seems not to be felt by the dog, which appears desirous only
of destroying its own body. I have known two of the toes of one fore-paw
to be thus consumed, so that amputation was afterward imperative, portions
of the metacarpal bones being laid bare. In several instances the root of
the tail has been eaten, until the sacrum and first tail bones, with the
nerves, were exposed. The rage cannot be overcome, and, unless the
disposition be prevented by mechanical means, the consequence will be
fatal. No author that I am acquainted with has noticed this peculiarity;
and in general it is attributed to other causes than distemper, which is
either not observed, or is supposed to have been got over.

Tumors on various parts of the body, and of different kinds, sometimes but
not usually accompany the disease; but as I have not been able to satisfy
myself they are peculiar to the disorder, or induced by any other cause
than the debility attendant on distemper, there is in this place no
occasion to more than point out the possibility of their appearance. They
are unfavorable as indications of general weakness, but they do not seem
to possess any further or direct influence over the course of the
affection.

The genital organs rarely escape altogether. A thick purulent discharge,
or one of a glairy nature, is often present in the male throughout the
attack, and nearly always during recovery. In both sexes the bladder in
the latter stages is apt to be paralysed, and the accumulation of the
urine then becomes a prominent symptom. The recovery often commences after
relief has been obtained, but if the necessity be overlooked, death
generally ensues.

Paralysis of the hind extremities is occasionally witnessed, and when seen
is generally sudden in its appearance. Sometimes, however, the loss of
power is gradual, and when such is the case the hopes of a cure are always
diminished. If the power of motion be lost suddenly, costiveness mostly
exists; and if, on the other hand, it should be gradual, there may be
diarrhoea, which will terminate in death.

Twitches, choræa, or Saint Vitus's dance, are not very usual, and may
continue for months after every other symptom has subsided. All four limbs
are sometimes violently agitated, and even during sleep are not quiescent.
The motion is incessant, and when this is the case the animal dies, worn
out by the want of bodily rest. In the majority of instances only one limb
is affected; and a species of independence of volition, or incapability of
controlling its movements, accompanies the affection. Though never still,
the leg is comparatively useless, and is carried in a manner which denotes
this fact. The muscles of the trunk are less commonly attacked, but they
do not always escape. When the legs have not been thus affected, I have
known the abdominal and thoracic muscles to be troubled by continuous
twitchings; which, however, have been for the most part slight, and have
subsided more quickly than have those of the extremities, when they have
been diseased. Cholera comes on gradually; its commencement is hardly to
be perceived, and it is seldom observed before the distemper is fully
developed--even sometimes only when the disorder appears to be subsiding.
It is not rare for it to start up while the animal is apparently
recovering; and when it does so, it is always most difficult to remove. No
pain is felt in the affected limb; the part rather seems to lose some
portion of its sensibility.

When the hind parts are paralysed, feeling may be entirely gone; so that a
pin thrust into the flesh of those parts does not even attract the notice
of the dog. This does not occur in choræa, but the consciousness is dulled
by that affection. The convulsed limb may be more roughly handled than the
healthy ones; but violence will excite those answers which truly indicate
that insensibility is not established in it. If nothing be done for the
twitchings, the limb will waste; at last the general system will be
sympathetically involved, and the body will grow thin. This, however, may
not happen until long after all signs of distemper have disappeared; for
choræa, though well known to be often fatal, is always slow in its
progress, and never attended with immediate danger.

Such is an outline of the leading symptoms; and it now remains only to
more particularly point out those which indicate death and denote
recovery. The third or fourth week is the time when the dog mostly dies,
if the disorder terminates fatally; and six weeks is the average
continuance of the attack. Rapid loss of flesh is always a bad sign, and
it is worse in proportion as the appetite is good, because then nature has
lost the power of appropriation. The presence of vermin is likewise a
circumstance which in some measure is deserving of notice. If a dog
becomes, during the existence of this disorder, unusually infested with
fleas, or more especially if lice all at once cover its coat,--as these
parasites ever abound where the body is debilitated and the system
unhealthy,--they are at such a period particularly ominous. The coat
cannot, while the disease prevails, be expected to look sleek; but when it
becomes more than usually harsh, and is decidedly foul, having a peculiar
smell, which is communicated to the hand when it is passed over the body,
the anticipations are not bright. The most marked indication is, however,
given by the tongue. When this is only a little whiter than it was in
health, we may hope for recovery; but if it becomes coated, discolored,
and red and dry at its tip and edges, the worst may be foretold. The
warning is the more decided if the breath be hot and tainted, and the
belly and feet cold to the touch. While the dog can stand and walk,
however feebly, there is no reason to despair; but when it falls down, and
lies upon its side, rarely is medicine of much avail. Even then, however,
it will sometimes recover; but if, while in this state, injections are
returned as soon as they are administered, the chance that it can survive
is indeed remote.

Recovery, in extreme cases, usually commences after diarrhoea which had
set in has subsided, rather than during its attack. This is the only
semblance to anything approaching a crisis which has come hither under my
observation. If simultaneously the eyes lose their red and glassy aspect,
and the cough returns, the danger may be supposed to have been passed. For
weeks, however, the animal will require attention; for the convalescence
is often more difficult to master than the disease itself is to cure; and
relapses, always more dangerous than the original attack, are by no means
unusual. The recovery may not be perfect before one or even two months
have expired; but usually it is rapid, and the health is better than it
was previous to the disease. A dog which would before never make flesh,
having had the distemper, will often become fat. I once tried all in my
power to relieve a Newfoundland dog of worms, but though I persisted for
months, I was at last reluctantly obliged to admit the case was beyond any
treatment I dared employ. A fortnight after I had given it up, the same
animal was brought to me, suffering under evident distemper. I was not
displeased to see it in that state, for I felt I could overcome the
disease; and I told the proprietor that with the distemper the worms would
depart. So it proved, and the dog has not since been subject to the
annoyance.

When the violence of the disorder has declined, the skin generally peels,
the cuticle is cut off, and the hair is scurfy. I have even known the
soles of the feet to cast their outer covering, and in one case three of
the nails were shed. The teeth, also, are coated with a thick fur, and the
breath is offensive; but as the strength returns at the same time, these
circumstances are not to be viewed in a serious light. In one or two
instances, where the system seemed to be so shaken that it retained no
strength to cast off the lingering remnant of the distemper, mange has
burst forth, and proceeded very rapidly; but it yielded with equal speed
to mild external remedies, and is therefore only to be feared inasmuch as
it disfigures the dog for a time, retarding the ultimate restoration to
health by further taxing the enfeebled body.

During the recovery from distemper, small and delicate animals--terriers
and spaniels--are very liable to faint; the dog is lively, perhaps
excited, when suddenly it falls upon its side, and all its limbs stiffen.
A series of these attacks may follow one another, though generally one
only occurs; when numerous and rapid, there is some danger, but, as a
general rule, little apprehension need be entertained. The fainting fits
are of some consequence, if they exist during a sickening for, or maturing
of, distemper. In pups that have not passed the climax of the disease,
they are not unseldom the cause of death; but, even in that case, I have
never been convinced that the measures adopted for the relief did not kill
quite as much or even more than the affection. When the symptom is
mistaken, and wrong remedies are resorted to, the fainting fit will often
continue for hours, or never be overcome. When let alone, the attack
mostly does not last longer than a quarter of an hour, and under judicious
treatment the consciousness almost immediately returns. When the fainting
fits occur during the progress or advance of the disease--that is, before
the symptoms have begun to amend--it is usually preceded by signs of
aggravation. For twelve or twenty-four hours previously the dog is
perceptibly worse; it may moan or cry, and yet no organ seems to be
decidedly affected more seriously than it was before. I attribute the
sounds made to headache; and, confirming this opinion, there is always
some heat at the scalp. The animal is dull, but immediately before the
collapse it attempts to wander, and has begun to move, probably panting at
the same time, when it falls without a cry, and stiffens. In this
state--the rigidity occasionally being less, but the unconsciousness
continuing unchanged--it will remain; the eyes are turned upward or into
the skull, the gums and tongue are pallid, the legs and belly cold: the
appearances are those of approaching death, which, unless relief is
afforded, may in a short time take place. When the fainting occurs after
convalescence is established, the attack is sudden, the symptoms are less
violent, and the coma of shorter duration. In this last case there is
generally little danger, but there is always sufficient reason for alarm,
and help ought never to be delayed. These attacks are commonly confounded
with true distemper fits, from which they are altogether distinct; and
from which they may be readily distinguished by the absence of the
champing of the jaw, the want of any disposition to bite, the immediate
insensibility which ensues, the shrieks not being heard, and the urine or
fæces not being voided. Nevertheless, the two are usually confounded, and
hence many persons are found asserting that distemper fits are easily
cured; and several dogs have been shown to me at different times, which
their owners were confident had been attacked by distemper fits, and
radically cured by the most simple, and often ridiculous specifics. I have
sometimes in despair--even against my reason--tried these boasted
remedies, but in no instance has the result rewarded me. Where there was
real occasion for a potent medicine, and little hope that any drug could
benefit, the nostrums have, without a single exception, belied the
confident recommendations with which they were offered, and either have
done harm or proved inoperative.

The symptoms of distemper, as the reader will, after wading through the
foregoing description, have perceived, are numerous and complicated; they
admit of no positive arrangement, being both eccentric in their order and
appearances. Redness of the eyes, with discharge from both eyes and nose,
accompanied with ordinary signs of illness, are the early indications; but
even these are not to be sought for, or to be expected in any single form.
The judgment must be exercised, and study strengthened by experience will
alone enable any man to pronounce the presence of distemper in many cases;
while, perhaps, without knowledge or practice any person may recognise it
in the generality of instances.

The treatment is rendered the more difficult because of the insidious
nature of the disorder, and the uncertain character of its symptoms; under
such circumstances, it is no easy task to make perfectly clear those
instructions I am about to give. I am in possession of no specific; I do
not pretend to teach how to conjure; I am going only to lay down certain
rules which, if judiciously applied, will tend to take from this disease
that fatal reputation which it has hitherto acquired. I shall be obliged,
however, to leave much to the discretion of the reader; for it would
employ too great a space, did I attempt to make provision for all possible
accidents and probable combinations.

The diet is of all importance; it must be strictly attended to. In the
first place, meat or flesh must be withheld. Boiled rice, with a little
broth from which the fat has been removed, may be the food of a weakly
animal, but for the majority bread and milk will be sufficient; whichever
is employed must be given perfectly cold. Sugar, butter, sweet biscuits,
meat, gravy, greens, tea or pot liquor--either luxuries or trash--must be
scrupulously denied in any quantity, however small. Skim-milk, if
perfectly sweet, is to be preferred, and coarse bread or ship biscuits are
better than the same articles of a finer quality. These will form the
diet, when the dog can be brought to accept them; and to rice, the
favorite--however great may be the pity he elicits, or however urgent may
be his solicitations for a more liberal fare--must be rigidly confined.
If, after a few trials, the dog stubbornly refuses such provender, meat
must of necessity be given, but it should be of the very best description,
and rather underdone. Of this kind, it ought to be minced, and mixed with
so much rice or ship biscuit as the animal can at first be made to eat
with it; the rice or biscuit may then be gradually increased; and in the
end the vegetable substance will constitute, at all events, the major part
of the support. Water, constantly changed--a circumstance too little
attended to where dogs are concerned--must be the only drink; the bed must
be warm and dry, but airy. Cleanliness cannot be carried to too nice an
extent; here the most fastidious attention is not out of place. Let the
kennel be daily cleared, and the bed regularly changed at least
thrice-a-week; straw or hay is better for the dog to sleep upon than
cushions or blankets, which, being more expensive, are not so frequently
replaced. Too much hay or straw cannot be allowed, but, on the other hand,
it is difficult to regulate the quantity of the finer articles. In the
last kind of bed the animal is often almost smothered, or else he scrapes
them into a lump, and lies shivering on the top; whereas, when he has
straw to lie upon, he can either creep beneath it, and shelter himself
when sensible of cold, or expose himself to the air when oppressed by the
fever. The sensations being the only guide, it is best to leave the dog,
as much as possible, capable of obeying its instinct; but always let the
bed be ample, as during the night the shivering generally prevails, and
the cold fit is entirely independent of the heat to be felt at the skin,
or the temperature of the season. Let the dog be kept away from the fire,
for, if permitted, it will creep to the hearth, and may be injured by the
falling cinders, when the burn will not perhaps readily heal. A cold or
rather cool place is to be selected--one protected from wet, free from
damp, and not exposed to wind or draughts. The kennel, if properly
constructed, is the better house, for dogs do best in the open air; the
only objection to which is, the chance it offers of the animal being
drenched with rain. If the kennel can be placed under an open outhouse, I
should always have it put there; and what else I would recommend is, of
course, told by the line of conduct which I pursue.

Medicinal measures are not to be so quickly settled. A constant change of
the agents employed will be imperative, and the practitioner must be
prepared to meet every symptom as it appears. The treatment is almost
wholly regulated by the symptoms, and as the last are various, of course
the mode of vanquishing them cannot be uniform. To guide us, however,
there is the well-known fact, the disease we have to subdue is of a
febrile kind, and has a decided tendency to assume a typhoid character;
therefore, whatever is done must be of a description not likely to
exhaust,--depletion is altogether out of the question. The object we have
to keep in view is the support of nature, and the husbanding of those
powers which the malady is certain to prey upon: in proportion as this is
done, so will be the issue. In the very early stage, purgatives or emetics
are admissible. If a dog is brought to me with reddened eyes, but no
discharge, and the owner does no more with regard to the animal than
complain of dulness, a want of appetite, and a desire to creep to the
warmth, then I give a mild emetic such as is directed, page 119; and this
I repeat for three successive mornings; on the fourth day administering a
gentle purge, as ordered, page 116. The tartar emetic solution and
purgative pills I employ for these purposes, in preference to castor oil
or ipecacuanha, and during the same time I prescribe the following
pills:--

  Ext. belladonna         Six to twenty-four grains.
  Nitre                   One to four scruples.
  Extract of gentian      One to four drachms.
  Powdered quassia        A sufficiency.

Make into twenty-four pills, and give three daily; choosing the lowest
amount specified, or the intermediate quantities, according to the size of
the animal.

Often under this treatment the disease will appear to be suddenly cut
short. With the action of the purgative, or even before it has acted, all
the symptoms will disappear, and nothing remains which seems to say any
further treatment is required. I never rest here, for experience has
taught me that these appearances are deceptive, and the disorder has a
disposition to return. Consequently strict injunctions are given as to
diet, and a course of tonics is adopted:--

  Disulphate of quinine      One to four scruples.
  Sulphate of iron           One to four scruples.
  Extract of gentian         Two to eight drachms.
  Powdered quassia           A sufficiency.

Make into twenty pills, and give three daily.

At the same time I give the liquor arsenicalis, which I prepare not
exactly as is directed to be made by the London pharmacopoeia, but after
the following method:--

Take any quantity of arsenious acid, and adding to it so much distilled
water as will constitute one ounce of the fluid to every four grains of
the substance, put the two into a glass vessel. To these put a quantity of
carbonate of potash equal to that of the acid, and let the whole boil
until the liquid is perfectly clear. The strength is the same as the
preparation used in human practice; the only difference is, the coloring
and flavoring ingredients are omitted, because they render the medicine
distasteful to the dog. The dose for the dog is from one drop to three
drops; it may be carried higher, but should not be used in greater
strength, when a tonic or febrifuge effect only is desired.

Of the liquor arsenicalis I take ten or twenty drops, and adding one ounce
of distilled water, mingled with a little simple syrup, I order a
teaspoonful to be given thrice daily with the pills, or in a little milk,
or in any fluid the creature is fond of. The taste being pleasant, the dog
does not object to this physic, and it is of all importance that it
should be annoyed at this time as little as may be possible.

Numerous are the cases which have thus been shortened by this method; and
the advantage gained by this mode of treatment is, that if the measures
employed be not absolutely necessary, they do no harm, and if required,
they are those which are calculated to mitigate the violence of the
disease; so for three or four weeks I pursue this course, and should all
then appear well, I dismiss the case.

Most generally, however, the dogs brought to us with the distemper have
the disease fairly established before we see them. Then I never purge or
vomit: the time when such agents could be remedial has passed, and if now
used, though they will seem to do some immediate good, the after
consequences are always to be regretted. The action of the purgative has
scarcely subsided before the distemper assumes a more virulent form, and
the probability of the termination is rendered more dark. During the
distemper I pay little attention to the bowels; and, however great may be
the costiveness, I never venture to resort even to a laxative, though,
should I discover the rectum to be impacted with hard fæces, an enema may
be employed. That which I use on these occasions is composed of gruel, to
which some sulphuric ether and laudanum has been added.

  Take of cold gruel           One quart.
          Sulphuric ether      Four drachms.
          Laudanum             One scruple.

The above quantity will be ample for the largest dog--one-eighth will be
enough for a small animal--and for a mere pup, an ounce of the fluid is
often sufficient. In these cases, however, I always continue the injection
until it is returned, the object not being to have it retained; but simply
to lubricate the part, and thereby facilitate the passage of the fæces,
while by distending the rectum, that intestine is stimulated to expel its
contents. The ether and laudanum are introduced to guard against the
possibility of irritation. If a more than usual disposition to costiveness
be observed, twice a week a meal of liver, chopped very fine, is allowed;
but even this should be given only after there is absolute proof of its
necessity.

Of the cough, however distressing it may be, I take no notice. I do
nothing for its relief, but persevere in the tonic treatment, and become
more strict in my directions concerning diet. The cough is only one of the
symptoms attendant on the disorder, and the measures likely to mitigate
its severity will aggravate the disease; while by attacking the disorder,
we destroy the cause, and with that the effect also disappears.

The eyes I treat, or rather refuse to treat, upon the same principle.
Whatever may be the appearance they present--even though the animal should
be actually blind, the eye of a dull thick white color on its entire
surface, and the centre of the cornea ulcerated--nevertheless I let them
alone, and turn a deaf ear to the entreaties which call on me to relieve
so terrible an affliction: I forbid even the discharge to be washed off.
Nothing must go near them; but the treatment must be pursued as though we
were ignorant that the parts were affected. Any excessive accumulation may
be gently picked off with the fingers once a-day; but even this must be
performed with the utmost caution, and in most instances had better be let
alone. It can only be necessary in dogs that have very long hair which
becomes matted and glued together upon the cheeks; for other animals it is
not imperative. If the lids should be stuck together, the fastening
substance may be removed; but it should not be too quickly done even then.
All water, either warm, tepid, or cold--every kind of lotion, or any sort
of salve or powder--will do harm, by either weakening or irritating the
organs. As to bleeding, blistering, and setoning, which have been advised,
they are contrary to the dictates of humanity, and as a necessary
consequence, are injurious. In medicine, at least with the dog, that which
is not kind is not good. With these animals the feelings are much safer
than the reason; and a lady, consulting the impulses of her heart, would
be more likely to save her favorite than a veterinary surgeon, who
proceeded upon the practice of that which he supposed was his science. Let
the eyes of the sufferer alone--we cannot alleviate the pain, or shorten
its duration. The disease regulates the torture, and to that we must give
attention. If the distemper is conquered, the sight will mostly be
restored; but if the eyes are tampered with, consequences may ensue which
are not natural to the disease, but are induced by the crude and cruel
prejudices of the doctor. The man who, during distemper, seeing an ulcer
upon the cornea, under the imagination that by so doing he will set up a
healthy action, presumes to touch it with lunar caustic, will in the
resistance of the poor patient be rebuked, and, by the humour of the eye
squirting into his face, probably be informed that he has accomplished the
very object he intended to prevent, while a fungoid mass will spring up to
commemorate his achievement.

When the lungs are attacked, all kinds of mistaken cruelties have been
perpetrated. No wonder the disease has been so fatal, when it has been so
little understood. I cannot conceive that any dog could survive the
measures I was by my college tutor taught to pursue, or the plan which
books told me to adopt. Needlessly severe, calculated to strengthen the
disease, and to decrease the power of the animal to survive, as the
general practice decidedly is, I entreat the reader to reject it. In
truth, the involvement of the lungs is in distemper a very slight affair;
no symptom yields more quickly or to milder means. Do not forget the diet,
but let it be both low and small. The system cannot endure depletion,
therefore we must gain whatever we can through abstinence. Do not starve,
but be cautious not to cram the animal; only keep it so short that it
remains always hungry. The meal must now never be full, or sufficient to
satisfy the appetite, which is usually large. A loaded stomach would do
much injury, therefore little and often is the rule. The amount for the
day must be cut off in the morning; and during the day, at as many times
as the owner pleases, it may little by little be offered, but no more must
be allowed. If the dog should not be inclined to eat, which is not often
the case at this particular period, the circumstance is hardly to be
regretted; he is not, save under the direction of one qualified to give
such an order, to be enticed or forced. As for medicine, let the following
pill be given thrice daily:--

  Extract of belladonna      One to four grains.
  Nitre                      Three to eight grains.
  James's powder             One to four grains.
  Conserve of roses          A sufficiency.

This will be the quantity for one pill; but a better effect is produced if
the medicine be administered in smaller doses, and at shorter intervals.
If the dog can be constantly attended to, and does not resist the
exhibition of pills, or will swallow them readily when concealed in a bit
of meat, the following may be given every hour:--

  Extract of belladonna      A quarter grain to one grain.
  Nitre                      One to four grains.
  James's powder             A quarter grain to one grain.
  Conserve of roses          A sufficiency.

With these a very little of the tincture of aconite may be also blended,
not more than one drop to four pills. The tonics ought during the time to
be discontinued, and the chest should be daily auscultated to learn when
the symptoms subside. So soon as a marked change is observed, the tonic
treatment must be resumed, nor need we wait until all signs of chest
affection have disappeared. When the more active stage is mastered by
strengthening the system, the cure is often hastened; but the animal
should be watched, as sometimes the affection will return. More
frequently, however, while the lungs engross attention, the eyes become
disordered. When such is the case, the tonics may be at once resorted to;
for then there is little fear but the disease is leaving the chest to
involve other structures.

Diarrhoea may next start up. If it appears, let ether and laudanum be
immediately administered, both by the mouth and by injection. To one pint
of gruel add two ounces of sulphuric ether, and four scruples of the
tincture of opium; shake them well together. From half an ounce to a
quarter of a pint of this may be employed as an enema, which should be
administered with great gentleness, as the desire is that it should be
retained. This should be repeated every third hour, or oftener if the
symptoms seem urgent, and there is much straining after the motions. From
a tablespoonful to four times that quantity of the ether and laudanum
mixture, in a small quantity of simple syrup, may be given every second
hour by the mouth; but if there is any indication of colic, the dose may
be repeated every hour or half hour; and I have occasionally given a
second dose when only ten minutes have elapsed. Should the purgation
continue, and the pain subside, from five to twenty drops of liquor
potassæ may be added to every dose of ether given by the mouth; which,
when there is no colic, should be once in three hours, and the pills
directed below may be exhibited at the same time:--

  Prepared chalk           Five grains to one scruple.
  Powdered ginger          Three to ten grains.
  Powdered carraways       Three to ten grains.
  Powdered capsicums       One to four grains.
  Confection of roses      A sufficiency.

To the foregoing, from two to eight grains of powdered catechu may be
added should it seem to be required, but it is not generally needed. Opium
more than has been recommended, in this stage, is not usually beneficial;
and, save in conjunction with ether, which appears to deprive it of its
injurious property, I am not in the habit of employing it.

I have been more full in my directions for diarrhoea than was perhaps
required by the majority of cases. Under the administration of the ether
only I am, therefore, never in a hurry to resort even to the liquor
potassæ, which, however, I use some time before I employ the astringent
pills, and during the whole period I persevere with the tonic. The diet I
restrict to strong beef tea, thickened with ground rice, and nothing of a
solid nature is allowed. Should these measures not arrest the purgation,
but the fæces become offensive, chloride of zinc is introduced into the
injection, and also into the ether given by the mouth. With the first,
from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful of the solution is combined, and
with the last half those quantities is blended. A wash, composed of two
ounces of the solution of the chloride to a pint of cold water, is also
made use of to cleanse the anus, about which, and the root of the tail,
the fæces have a tendency to accumulate. Warm turpentine I have sometimes
with advantage had repeatedly held to the abdomen, by means of flannels
heated and then dipt into the oil, which is afterwards wrung out. This,
however, is apt to be energetic in its action; but that circumstance
offers no objection to its employment. When it causes much pain, it may be
discontinued, and with the less regret, as the necessity is the less in
proportion as the sensibility is the greater. Should it even produce no
indication of uneasiness, it must nevertheless not be carried too far,
since on the dog it will cause serious irritation if injudiciously
employed; and we may then have the consequences of the application to
contend with added to the effects of the disease. When it produces violent
irritation, a wash made of a drachm of the carbonate of ammonia to half a
pint of water may be applied to the surface; and when the inflammation
subsides, the part may be dressed with spermaceti ointment. The fits are
more to be dreaded than any other symptom; when fairly established, they
are seldom mastered. I have no occasion to boast of the success of my
treatment of these fits. All I can advance in favor of my practice is,
that it does sometimes save the life, and certainly alleviates the
sufferings of the patient; while of that plan of treatment which is
generally recommended and pursued, I can confidently assert it always
destroys, adding torture to the pains of death. In my hands not more than
one in ten are relieved, but when I followed the custom of Blaine none
ever lived,--the fate was sealed, and its horrors were increased by the
folly and ignorance of him who was employed to watch over, and was
supposed to be able to control. Let the owners of dogs, when these animals
have true distemper fits, rather cut short their lives than allow the
creatures to be tampered with for no earthly prospect. I have no
hesitation when saying this; the doom of the dog with distemper fits may
be regarded as sealed; and medicine, which will seldom save, should be
studied chiefly as a means of lessening the last agonies. In this light
alone can I recommend the practice I am in the habit of adopting. When
under it any animal recovers, the result is rather to be attributed to the
powers of nature than to be ascribed to the virtues of medicine; which by
the frequency of its failure shows that its potency is subservient to many
circumstances. Blaine and Youatt, both by the terms in which they speak
of, and the directions they lay down for, the cure of distemper fits,
evidently did not understand the pathology of this form of the disease.
These authors seem to argue that the fits are a separate disease, and not
the symptoms only of an existing disorder. The treatment they order is
depletive, whereas, the attacks appearing only after the distemper has
exhausted the strength, a little reflection convinces us the fits are the
results of weakness. Their views are mistaken, and their remedies are
prejudicial. They speak of distemper being sometimes ushered in by a fit,
and their language implies that the convulsions, sometimes seen at the
first period, are identical with those witnessed only during the latest
stages. This is not the fact. A fit may be observed before the appearance
of the distemper; and anything which, like a fit, shows the system to be
deranged, may predispose the animal to be affected; but, between fits of
any kind, and the termination of the affection in relation to distemper,
there is no reason to imagine there is an absolute connexion. The true
distemper fit is never observed early--at least, I have never beheld
it--before the expiration of the third week; and I am happy in being able
to add, that when my directions have from the first been followed, I have
never known an instance in which the fits have started up. Therefore, if
seldom to be cured, I have cause to think they may be generally prevented.

When the symptoms denote the probable appearance of fits, although the
appetite should be craving, the food must be light and spare. At the
Veterinary College, the pupils are taught that the increase of the
appetite at this particular period is a benevolent provision to strengthen
the body for the approaching trial. Nature, foreseeing the struggle her
creature is doomed to undergo--the teacher used to say--gives a desire for
food, that the body may have vigor to endure it; and the young gentlemen
are advised, therefore, to gratify the cravings of the dog. This is sad
nonsense, which pretends to comprehend those motives that are far beyond
mortal recognition. We cannot read the intentions of every human mind, and
it displays presumption when we pretend to understand the designs of
Providence. There are subjects upon which prudence would enjoin silence.
The voracity is excessive, but it is a morbid prompting. When the fits are
threatened, the stomach is either acutely inflamed, or in places actually
sore, the cuticle being removed, and the surface raw. After a full meal at
such a period, a fit may follow, or continuous cries may evidence the pain
which it inflicts. Nothing solid should be allowed; the strongest animal
jelly, in which arrowroot or ground rice is mixed, must constitute the
diet; and this must be perfectly cold before the dog is permitted to touch
it: the quantity may be large, but the amount given at one time must be
small. A little pup should have the essence of at least a pound of beef in
the course of the day, and a Newfoundland or mastiff would require eight
times that weight of nutriment: this should be given little by little, a
portion every hour, and nothing more save water must be placed within the
animal's reach. The bed must not be hay or straw, nor must any wooden
utensil be at hand; for there is a disposition to eat such things. A
strong canvas bag, lightly filled with sweet hay, answers the purpose
best; but if the slightest inclination to gnaw is observed, a bare floor
is preferable. The muzzle does not answer; for it irritates the temper
which sickness has rendered sensitive. Therefore no restraint, or as
little as is consonant with the circumstances, must be enforced. Emetics
are not indicated. Could we know with certainty that the stomach was
loaded with foreign matters, necessity would oblige their use; but there
can be no knowledge of this fact--and of themselves these agents are at
this time most injurious. Purgatives are poisons now. There is always
apparent constipation; but it is confined only to the posterior intestine,
and is only mechanical. Diarrhoea is certain to commence when the rectum
is unloaded, and nothing likely to irritate the intestines is admissible.
The fluid food will have all the aperient effect that can be desired. As
to setons, they are useless during the active stage; and if continued
after it has passed, they annoy and weaken the poor patient: in fact,
nothing must be done which has not hitherto been proposed.

When signs indicative of approaching fits are remarked, small doses of
mercury and ipecacuanha should be administered.

  Grey powder      Five grains to one scruple.
  Ipecacuanha      One to four grains.

Give the above thrice daily; but if it produces sickness, let the quantity
at the next dose be one-half.

  Tincture of hyoscyamus      One part.
  Sulphuric ether             Three parts.

This should be mixed with cold soup, ten ounces of which should be mingled
with one ounce of the medicine. Give an ounce every hour to a small dog,
and four ounces to the largest animal. A full enema of the solution of
soap should be thrown up; and the rectum having been emptied, an ounce or
four ounces of the sulphuric ether and hyoscyamus mixture ought to be
injected every hour. Over the anterior part of the forehead, from one to
four leeches may be applied. To do this the hair must be cut close, and
the parts shaved; then, with a pair of scissors, the skin must be snipped
through, and the leech put to the wound: after tasting the blood it will
take hold. To the nape of the neck a small blister may be applied; and if
it rises, the hope will mount with it. A blister is altogether preferable
to a seton; the one acts as a derivative, by drawing the blood immediately
to the surface without producing absolute inflammation, which the other as
a foreign body violently excites. The effects of vesicants are speedy,
those of setons are remote; and I have seen fearful spectacles induced by
their employment. With dogs setons are never safe; for these animals, with
their teeth or claws, are nearly certain to tear them out. In cases of
fits, if the seton causes much discharge, it is debilitating and also
offensive to the dog, and the ends of the tape are to him an incessant
annoyance. It is not my practice to employ setons, being convinced that
those agents are not beneficial to the canine race; but to blisters, which
on these animals are seldom used, I have little objection. With the
ammonia and cantharides, turpentine and mustard, we have so much variety,
both as to strength and speed of action, that we can suit the remedy to
the circumstances, which, in the instance of a creature so sensitive and
irritable as the dog, is of all importance. The blister which I employ in
distemper fits is composed of equal parts of liquor ammoniæ and
camphorated spirits. I saturate a piece of sponge or piline with this
compound; and having removed the hair, I apply it to the nape of the neck,
where it is retained from five to fifteen minutes, according to the effect
it appears to produce. Great relief is often obtained by this practice;
and should it be necessary, I sometimes repeat the application a little
lower down towards the shoulders, but never on the same place; for even
though no apparent rubefaction may be discerned, the deeper seated
structures are apt to be affected, and should the animal survive, serious
sloughing may follow, if the blister be repeated too quickly on one part.

The directions given above apply to that stage when the eye and other
symptoms indicate the approach of fits, or when the champing has
commenced. The tonic pills and liquor arsenicalis may also then be
continued; but when the fits have positively occurred, other measures must
be adopted. If colic should attack the animal, laudanum must be
administered, and in small but repeated doses, until the pain is
dismissed. Opium is of itself objectionable; but the drug does less injury
than does the suffering, and, therefore, we choose between the two evils.
From five to twenty drops of the tincture, combined with half-a-drachm to
two drachms of sulphuric ether, may be given every half-hour during the
paroxysm; and either the dose diminished or the intervals increased as the
agony lessens, the animal being at the same time constantly watched. The
ethereal enemas should be simultaneously exhibited, and repeated every
half-hour. When a fit occurs, nothing should during its existence be given
by the mouth, except with the stomach-pump, or by means of a large-sized
catheter introduced into the pharynx. Unless this precaution be taken,
there is much danger of the fluid being carried into the lungs. Ether by
injection, however, is of every service, and where the proper instruments
are at hand, it ought also to be given by the mouth. The doses have been
described. To the liquor arsenicalis, from half a drop to two drops of the
tincture of aconite may with every dose be blended; and the solution of
the chloride of lime should be mingled with the injections, as ordered for
diarrhoea, which, if not present, is certain to be near at hand. The
following may also be exhibited, either as a soft mass or as a fluid
mixture:--

  Chlorate of potash      One to four grains.
  Aromatic powder         Half-a-drachm to two drachms.

Or,

  Carbonate of ammonia      Five grains to a scruple.
  Chalk                     One to four scruples.
  Aromatic confection       One to four scruples.

Either of the above may be tried every third hour, but on no account ought
the warm bath to be used. An embrocation, as directed for rheumatism, may
be employed to the feet and legs, and warm turpentine may, as described in
diarrhoea, be used to the abdomen. Cold or evaporating lotions to the head
are of service, but unless they can be continuously applied, they do harm.
Their action must be prolonged and kept up night and day, or they had
better not be employed, as the reaction they provoke is excessive. Cold
water dashed upon the head during the fit does no good, but rather seems
to produce evil. The shock often aggravates the convulsions; and the wet
which soon dries upon the skull is followed by a marked increase of
temperature; while, remaining upon other parts, and chilling these, it
drives the blood to the head.

From the foregoing, it will have been seen that my efforts are chiefly
directed to strengthening the system, and, so far as possible, avoiding
anything that might add to the irritability. On these principles I have
sometimes succeeded, and most often when the fits have been caused by some
foreign substance in the stomach or intestines. When such is the case, the
fits are mostly short and frequent. One dog that had one of these attacks,
which did not last above forty seconds every five minutes, and was very
noisy, lived in pain for two days, and then passed a peach-stone, from
which moment it began to recover, and is now alive. In another case, a
nail was vomited, and the animal from that time commenced improving. In
this instance an emetic would have been of benefit; but such occurrences
are rare, and the emetic does not, even when required, do the same good
as is produced by the natural ejection of the offending agent. Perhaps,
where nature possesses the strength to cast off the cause of the distress,
there is more power indicated; but after an emetic, I have known a dog
fall upon its side, and never rise again.

During fits the dog should be confined, to prevent its exhausting itself
by wandering about. A large basket is best suited for this purpose. It
should be so large as not to incommode the animal, and high enough to
allow the dog to stand up without hitting its head. A box is too close;
and, besides the objection it presents with regard to air, it does not
allow the liquids ejected to drain off.

For the pustular eruption peculiar to distemper, I apply no remedy. When
the pustules are matured I open them, but I am not certain any great
benefit results from this practice. If the disorder terminates favorably
the symptom disappears; and, beyond giving a little additional food,
perhaps allowing one meal of meat, from one ounce to six ounces, I
positively do nothing in these cases. I must confess I do not understand
this eruption; and in medicine, if you are not certain what you should do,
it is always safest to do nothing.

The disposition to eat or gnaw any part of the body must be counteracted
by mechanical measures. The limb or tail must be encased with leather or
gutta percha. No application containing aloes, or any drug the dog
distastes, will be of any avail. When the flesh is not sensitive, the
palate is not nice, and the dog will eat away in spite of any seasoning.
A mechanical obstruction is the only check that can be depended upon. A
muzzle must be employed, if nothing else can be used; but generally a
leather boot, or gutta percha case moulded to the part, has answered
admirably. To the immediate place I apply a piece of wet lint, over which
is put some oil silk, and the rag is kept constantly moist. The dose of
the liquor arsenicalis is increased by one-fourth or one-half, and in a
few days the morbid desire to injure itself ceases. After this the
dressings are continued; and only when the recovery is perfect do I
attempt to operate, no matter how serious may be the wound, or how
terrible, short of mortifying, it may appear.

Tumors must be treated upon general principles: and only regarded as
reasons for supporting the strength. They require no special directions at
this place, but the reader is referred to that portion of the work in
which they are dwelt upon.

To the genital organs of the male, when the discharge is abundant, a wash
consisting of a drachm of the solution of the chloride of zinc to an ounce
of water, gently applied once or twice daily, is all that will be
necessary. The paralysis of the bladder requires immediate attention. In
the last stage, when exhaustion sets in, it is nearly always paralysed.
Sometimes the retention of urine constitutes the leading and most serious
symptom; and after the water has been once drawn off, the bladder may
regain its tone--another operation rarely being needed. A professional
friend, formerly my pupil, brought to me a dog which exhibited symptoms
he could not interpret; it was in the advanced stage of distemper. It was
disinclined to move, and appeared almost as if its hind legs were
partially paralysed. I detected the bladder was distended, and though the
animal did not weigh more than eight pounds, nine ounces and a half of
urine were taken away by means of the catheter. From that time it
improved, and is now well. There can be no doubt that a few hours' delay
in that case would have sealed the fate of the dog. For the manner of
introducing the catheter, and the way to discover when the urine is
retained, the reader is referred to that part of the present work which
treats especially on this subject.

Paralysis and choræa will be here dismissed with a like remark. To those
diseases the reader must turn for their treatment; but I must here state,
that before any measures specially intended to relieve either are adopted,
the original disease should be first subdued, as, in many cases, with the
last the choræa will disappear; while in some the twitching will remain
through life. All that may be attempted during the existence of distemper,
will consist in the addition of from a quarter of a grain to a grain and a
half of powdered nux vomica to the tonic pills; and, in severe paralysis,
the use of a little friction, with a mild embrocation to the loins.

The treatment during convalescence is by no means to be despised, for here
we have to restore the strength, and, while we do so, to guard against a
relapse. One circumstance must not be lost sight of; namely, that nature
is, after the disease has spent its violence, always anxious to repair
the damage it may have inflicted. Bearing this in mind, much of our labor
will be lightened, and more than ever shall we be satisfied to play second
in the business. The less we do the better; but, nevertheless, there
remains something which will not let us continue perfectly idle.

Never, after danger has seemingly passed, permit the animal to return all
at once to flesh food. For some time, after all signs of the disease have
entirely disappeared, let vegetables form a part, and a good part of the
diet. Do not let the animal gorge itself. However lively it may seem to
be, and however eager may be its hunger, let the quantity be proportioned
to the requirements independent of the voracity. Above all, do not tempt
and coax the dog to eat, under the foolish idea that the body will
strengthen or fatten, because a great deal is taken into the stomach. We
are not nourished by what we swallow, but by that which we digest; and too
much, by distending the stomach and loading the intestines, retards the
natural powers of appropriation; just as a man may be prevented from
walking by a weight which, nevertheless, he may be able to support. Give
enough, but divide it into at least three meals--four or five will be
better--and let the animal have them at stated periods; taking care that
it never at one time has as much as it can eat: and by degrees return to
the ordinary mode of feeding.

The fainting fits create great alarm, but, if properly treated, they are
very trivial affairs. An ethereal enema, and a dose or two of the
medicine, will generally restore the animal. No other physic is needed,
but greater attention to the feeding is required. Excessive exercise will
cause them, and the want of exercise will also bring them on. The open air
is of every service, and will do more for the perfect recovery than almost
anything else. When the scarf-skin peels off, a cold bath with plenty of
friction, and a walk afterwards, is frequently highly beneficial; but
there are dogs with which it does not agree, and, consequently, the action
must be watched. Never persevere with anything that seems to be injurious.
If the mange breaks out, a simple dressing as directed for that disease
will remove it, no internal remedies being in such a case required.

I cannot close my account of distemper without cautioning the reader
against the too long use of quinine. It is a most valuable medicine, and,
as a general rule, no less safe than useful. I do not know that it can act
as a poison, or destroy the life; but it can produce evils hardly less,
and more difficult to cure, than those it was employed to eradicate. The
most certain and most potent febrifuge, and the most active tonic, it can
also induce blindness and deafness; and by the too long or too large
employment of quinine a fever is induced, which hangs upon the dog, and
keeps him thin for many a month. Therefore, when the more violent stages
of the disease have been conquered, it should no longer be employed. Other
tonics will then do quite as well, and a change of medicine often
performs that which no one, if persevered with, will accomplish.

All writers, when treating of distemper, speak of worms, and give
directions for their removal during the existence of the disease. I know
they are too often present, and I am afraid they too often aggravate the
symptoms; but it is no easy matter to judge precisely when they do or when
they do not exist. The remedies most to be depended upon for their
destruction, are not such as can be beneficial to the animal laboring
under this disorder; but, on the other hand, the tonic course of treatment
I propose is very likely to be destructive to the worms. Therefore, rather
than risk the possibility of doing harm, I rely upon the tonics, and have
no reason to repent the confidence evinced in this particular.

The treatment of distemper consists in avoiding all and everything which
can debilitate; it is, simply, strengthening by medicine aided by good
nursing. It is neither mysterious nor complex, but is both clear and
simple when once understood. It was ignorance alone which induced men to
resort to filth and cruelty for the relief of that which is not difficult
to cure. In animals, I am certain, kindness is ninety-nine parts of what
passes for wisdom; and, in man, I do not think the proportion is much
less; for how often does the mother's love preserve the life which science
abandons! To dogs we may be a little experimental; and with these
creatures, therefore, there is no objection to trying the effects of those
gentler feelings, which the very philosophical sneer at as the
indications of weakness. When I am called to see a dog, if there be a
lady for its nurse, I am always more certain as to the result; for the
medicines I send then seem to have twice the effect.



MOUTH, TEETH, TONGUE, GULLET, ETC.

The mouth of the dog is not subject to many diseases; but it sometimes
occasions misery to the animal. Much of such suffering is consequent upon
the folly and thoughtlessness of people, who, having power given them over
life, act as though the highest gift of God could be rendered secondary to
the momentary pleasure of man. No matter in what form vitality may
appear--for itself it is sacred; it has claims and rights, which it is
equally idle and ridiculous to deny or to dispute. The law of the land may
declare and make man to have a possession in a beast; but no act of
parliament ever yet enacted has placed health and life among human
property. The body may be the master's; but the spirit that supports and
animates it is reserved to another. Disease and death will resent torture,
and rescue the afflicted; he who undertakes the custody of an animal is
morally and religiously answerable for its happiness. To make happy
becomes then a duty; and to care for the welfare is an obligation. Too
little is thought of this; and the fact is not yet credited. The gentleman
will sport with the agony of animals; and to speak of consideration for
the brute, is regarded either as an eccentricity or an affectation. This
is the case generally at the present time; and it is strange it should be
so, since Providence, from the creation of the earth, has been striving to
woo and to teach us to entertain gentler sentiments. No one ever played
with cruelty but he lost by the game, and still the sport is fashionable.
No one ever spared or relieved the meanest creature but in his feelings he
was rewarded; and yet are there comparatively few who will seek such
pleasure. Neither through our sensibilities nor our interests are we quick
to learn that which Heaven itself is constantly striving to impress.

The dog is our companion, our servant, and our friend. With more than
matrimonial faith does the honorable beast wed itself to man. In sickness
and in health, literally does it obey, serve, love, and honor. Absolutely
does it cleave only unto one, forsaking all others--for even from its own
species does it separate itself, devoting its heart to man. In the very
spirit and to the letter of the contract does it yield itself, accepting
its life's load for better, for worse--for richer, for poorer--in sickness
and in health--to love, cherish, and to obey till death. The name of the
animal may be a reproach, but the affection of the dog realizes the ideal
of conjugal fidelity. Nevertheless, with all its estimable qualities, it
is despised, and we know not how to prize, or in what way to treat it. It
is the inmate of our homes, and the associate of our leisure: and yet its
requirements are not recognised, nor its necessities appreciated. Its
docility and intelligence are employed to undermine its health; and its
willingness to learn and to obey is converted into a reason for destroying
its constitution. What it can do we are content to assume it was intended
to perform; and that which it will eat we are satisfied to assert was
destined to be its food.

Bones, stones, and bricks, are not beneficial to dogs. The animals may be
tutored to carry the two last, and impelled by hunger they will eat the
first. Hard substances and heavy weights, however, when firmly grasped, of
course wear the teeth; and the organs of mastication are even more
valuable to the meanest cur than to the wealthiest dame. If the mouth of
the human being be toothless, the cook can be told to provide for the
occasion, or the dentist will in a great measure supply the loss. But the
toothless dog must eat its customary food; and it must do this, although
the last stump or remaining fang be excoriating the lips, and ulcerating
the gums. The ability to crush, and the power to digest bones, is thought
to be a proof that dogs were made to thrive upon such diet; and Blaine
speaks of a meal of bones as a wholesome canine dish. I beg the owners of
dogs not to be led away by so unfounded an opinion. A bone to a dog is a
treat, and one which should not be denied; but it should come in only as a
kind of dessert after a hearty meal. Then the creature will not strain to
break and strive to swallow it; but it will amuse itself picking off
little bits, and at the same time benefit itself by cleaning its teeth.
Much more ingenuity than force will be employed, and the mouth will not
be injured. In a state of nature this would be the regular course. The dog
when wild hunts its prey; and, having caught, proceeds to feast upon the
flesh, which it tears off; this, being soft, does not severely tax the
masticating members. When the stomach is filled, the skeleton may be
polished; but hungry dogs never take to bones when there is a choice of
meat. It is a mistaken charity which throws a bone to a starving hound.

Equally injurious to the teeth, are luxuries which disorder the digestion.
High breeding likewise will render the mouth toothless at a very early
age; but of all things the very worst is salivation, which, by the
ignorant people who undertake to cure the diseases of these sensitive and
delicate animals, is often induced though seldom recognised, and if
recognised, always left to take its course.

The mouth of the dog is therefore exposed to several evils; and there are
not many of these animals which retain their teeth even at the middle age.
High-bred spaniels are the soonest toothless; hard or luxurious feeding
rapidly makes bare the gums. Stones, bones, &c., wear down the teeth; but
the stumps become sources of irritation, and often cause disease.
Salivation may, according to its violence, either remove all the teeth, or
discolor any that may be retained. The hale dog's teeth, if properly cared
for, will generally last during the creature's life; and continue white
almost to the remotest period of its existence. I have seen very aged
animals with beautiful mouths; but such sights, for the reasons which have
been pointed out, are unfortunately rare. The teeth of the dog, however,
may be perfectly clean and entire even at the twelfth year; and it is no
more than folly to pretend that these organs are in any way indicative of
the age of this animal. They are of no further importance to a purchaser
than as signs which denote the state of the system, and show the uses to
which the animal has been subjected. The primary teeth are cut sometimes
as early as the third week; but, in the same litter, one pup may not show
more than the point of an incisor when it is six weeks old; while another
may display all those teeth well up. As a general rule, the permanent
incisors begin to come up about the fourth month; but I have known a dog
to be ten months old, and, nevertheless, to have all the temporary teeth
in its head. The deviations, consequently, are so great that no rule can
be laid down; and every person who pretends to judge of the dog's age by
the teeth is either deceived himself, or practising upon the ignorance of
others.

Strong pups require no attention during dentition; but high-bred and
weakly animals should be constantly watched during this period. When a
tooth is loose, it should be drawn at once, and never suffered to remain a
useless source of irritation. If suffered to continue in the mouth, it
will ultimately become tightened; and the food or portions of hair getting
and lodging between it and the permanent teeth, will inflame the gum, and
cause the beast considerable suffering. The extraction at first is so
slight an operation, that when undertaken by a person having the proper
instruments, and knowing how to use them, the pup does not even vent a
single cry. The temporary tusks of small dogs are very commonly retained
after the permanent ones are fully up, and if not removed, will remain
perhaps during the life; they become firm and fixed, the necks being
united to the bone. This is more common in the upper than in the lower
jaw, but I have seen it in both. Diminutive high-bred animals rarely shed
the primary tusks naturally; therefore, when the incisors have been cut,
and the permanent fang teeth begin to make their appearance through the
gums, the temporary ones ought, as frequently as possible, to be moved
backward and forward with the finger, in order to loosen them. When that
is accomplished, they should be extracted, which if not done at this time
will afterwards be difficult. As the tooth becomes again fixed, filth of
various kinds accumulates between it and the permanent tusk; the animal
feeds in pain, the gum swells and ulcerates, and sometimes the permanent
tusk falls out, but the cause of the injury never naturally comes away.

To extract a temporary tusk after it has reset is somewhat difficult, and
is not to be undertaken by every bungler. The gum must be deeply lanced;
and a small scalpel made for the purpose answers better than the ordinary
gum lancet. The instrument having been passed all round the neck of the
tooth, the gum is with the forceps to be driven or pushed away, and the
hold to be taken as high as possible; firm traction is then to be made,
the hand of the operator being steadied by the thumb placed against the
point of the permanent tusk. As the temporary teeth are almost as brittle
as glass, and as the animal invariably moves its head about, endeavoring
to escape, some care must be exercised to prevent the tooth being broken.
However, if it is thoroughly set, we must not expect to draw it with the
fang entire, for that has become absorbed, and the neck is united to the
jawbone. The object, therefore, in such cases, is to grasp the tooth as
high up as possible, and break it off so that the gum may close over any
small remainder of the fang which shall be left in the mouth. The
operator, therefore, makes his pull with this intention; and when the
tooth gives way, he feels, to discover if his object has been
accomplished. Should any projecting portion of tooth, or little point of
dislodged bone be felt, these must be removed; and in less than a day the
wound shows a disposition to heal; but it should afterwards be inspected
occasionally, in case of accidents.

When foulness of the mouth is the consequence of the system of breeding,
the constitution must be invigorated by the employment of such medicines
as the symptoms indicate: and the teeth no further interfered with than
may be required either for the health, ease, or cleanliness of the animal.

From age, improper food, and disease conjoined, the dog's mouth is
frequently a torture to the beast, and a nuisance to all about it. The
teeth grow black from an incrustation of tartar; the insides of the lips
ulcerate; the gums bleed at the slightest touch, and the breath stinks
most intolerably. The dog will not eat, and sometimes is afraid even to
drink; the throat is sore, and saliva dribbles from the mouth; the animal
loses flesh, and is a picture of misery.

When such is the case, the cure must be undertaken with all regard to the
dog's condition; harm only will follow brutality or haste. The animal must
be humored, and the business must be got through little by little. In some
very bad cases of this description I have had no less than three visits
before my patient was entirely cleansed. At the first sitting I examine
the mouth, and with a small probe seek for every remnant of a stump,
trying the firmness of every remaining tooth. All that are quite loose are
extracted first, and then the stumps are drawn, the gums being lanced
where it is necessary. This over, I employ a weak solution of the chloride
of zinc--a grain to an ounce of sweetened water--as a lotion, and send the
dog home, ordering the mouth, gums, teeth, and lips to be well washed with
it, at least three times in the course of a day. In four days the animal
is brought to me again, and then I scale the teeth with instruments
similar to those employed by the human dentist, only of a small size. The
dog resists this operation more stoutly than it generally does the
extraction, and patience is imperative. The operation will be the more
quickly got over by taking time, and exerting firmness without severity.
A loud word or a box on the ear may on some occasions be required; but on
no account should a blow he given, or anything done to provoke the anger
of the animal. The mistress or master should never be present; for the
cunning brute will take advantage of their fondness, and sham so artfully
that it will be useless to attempt to proceed.

I usually have no assistance, but carry the dog into a room by itself; and
having spoken to it, or taken such little liberties as denote my
authority, I commence the more serious part of the business. Amidst
remonstrance and expostulation, caresses and scolding, the work then is
got over; but seldom so thoroughly that a little further attention is not
needed, which is given on the following day.

The incrustation on the dog's teeth, more especially on the fangs, is
often very thick. It is best removed by getting the instrument between the
substance and the gum; then with a kind of wrenching action snapping it
away, when frequently it will shell off in large flakes; the remaining
portions should be scraped, and the tooth should afterwards look white, or
nearly so. The instrument may be used without any fear of injuring the
enamel, which is so hard that steel can make no impression on it; but
there is always danger of hurting the gums, and as the resistance of the
dog increases this, the practitioner must exert himself to guard against
it. Some precaution also will be necessary to thwart occasional attempts
to bite; but a little practice will give all the needful protection, and
those who are not accustomed to such operations will best save themselves
by not hitting the dog; for the teeth are almost certain to mark the hand
that strikes. Firmness will gain submission; cruelty will only get up a
quarrel, in which the dog will conquer, and the man, even if he prove
victorious, can win nothing. He who is cleaning canine teeth must not
expect to earn the love of his patient; the liberty taken is so great that
it is never afterwards pardoned. I scarcely ever yet have known the dog to
which I was not subsequently an object of dread and hatred. Grateful and
intelligent as these creatures are, I have not found one simple or
noble-minded enough to appreciate a dentist.

[Illustration]

The only direction I have to add to the above, concerns the means
necessary to guard against a relapse, and to afford general relief to the
constitution. To effect the first object, prepare a weak solution of
chloride of zinc--one grain to the ounce--and flavor the liquid with oil
of aniseed. This give to your employer, together with a small stencilling,
or poonah painting brush, which is a stiff brush used in certain
mechanical pursuits of art; desire him to saturate the brush in the
liquid, and with it to clean the dog's teeth every morning; which, if done
as directed, will prevent fresh tartar accumulating, and in time remove
any portion that may have escaped the eye of the operator, sweetening the
animal's breath. With regard to that medicine the constitution may
require, it is impossible to say what the different kinds of dogs
affected may necessitate--none can be named here; the symptoms must be
observed, and according to these should be the treatment; which must be
studied from the principles inculcated throughout this work. Most usually,
however, tonics, stimulants, and alteratives will be required, and their
operation will be gratifying. The dog, which before was offensive and
miserable, may speedily become comfortable and happy; and should the
errors which induced its misfortune be afterwards avoided, it may continue
to enjoy its brief life up to the latest moment; therefore the teeth
should never be neglected; but if any further reason be required to
enforce the necessity of attending to the mouth, surely it might be found
in the frightful disease to which it is occasionally subject.

When the teeth, either by decay or from excessive wear, have been reduced
to mere stumps, their vitality often is lost. They then act as foreign
bodies, and inflame the parts adjacent to them. Should that inflammation
not be attended to, it extends, first involving the bones of the lower
jaw, and afterwards the gums, and CANKER OF THE MOUTH is established.

Such is the course of the disease, the symptoms of which are redness and
swelling during the commencement. Suppuration from time to time appears;
but as the animal with its tongue removes the pus, this last effect may
not be observed. The enlargement increases, till at last a hard body seems
to be formed on the jaw, immediately beneath the skin. The surface of the
gums may be tender, and bleed on being touched, but the tumor itself is
not painful when it first appears, and throughout its course is not highly
sensitive. At length it discharges a thin fluid, which is sometimes
mingled with pus, and generally with more or less blood. The stench which
ultimately is given off becomes powerful; and a mass of proud flesh grows
upon the part, while sinuses form in various directions. Hemorrhage now is
frequent and profuse, and we have to deal with a cancerous affection,
which probably it may not be in our power to alleviate. The dog, which
does not appear to suffer, by its actions encourages the belief that it
endures no acute pain--and for a length of time maintains its condition;
but, in the end, the flesh wastes and the strength gives way; the sore
enlarges, and the animal may die of any disease to which its state
predisposes it to be attacked.

The treatment consists in searching for any stump or portion of tooth that
may be retained. All such must be extracted, and also all the molars on
the diseased side, without any regard to the few which may be left in the
jaw. This done, the constitution must be strengthened, and pills, as
directed, with the liquor arsenicalis, should be employed for that
purpose.

  Iodide of iron           One to four grains.
  Powdered nux vomica      A quarter of a grain to one grain.
  Salicine                 One to four grains.
  Extract of gentian       Three to twelve grains.
  Powdered quassia         As much as may be required.

The above forms one pill, three or four of which should be given daily,
with any other medicine which the case may require.

To the part itself a weak solution of the chloride of zinc may be used;
but nothing further should be done until the system has been invigorated,
and the health, as far as possible, restored. That being accomplished, if
the tumor is still perfect, it should be cut down upon and removed. If any
part of the bone is diseased, so much should be taken away as will leave a
healthy surface.

However, before the dog is brought to the veterinary surgeon for
treatment, very often the tumor has lost its integrity, and there is a
running sore to be healed. To this probably some ignorant persons have
been applying caustics and erodents, which have done much harm, and caused
it to increase. In such a case we strengthen the constitution by all
possible means, and to the part order fomentations of a decoction of
poppy-heads, containing chloride of zinc in minute quantities. Other
anodyne applications may also be employed; the object being to allay any
existing irritation, for the chloride is merely added to correct the
fetor, which at this period is never absent. After some days we strive to
ascertain what action the internal remedies have had upon the cancer; for
by this circumstance the surgeon will decide whether he is justified in
hazarding an operation. If the health has improved, but simultaneously the
affected part has become worse, then the inference is unfavorable; for the
disease is no longer to be regarded as local. The constitution is
involved, and an operation would produce no benefit, but hasten the death,
while it added to the suffering of the beast. The growth would be
reproduced, and its effects would be more violent; consequently nothing
further can be done beyond supporting the system, and alleviating any
torture the animal may endure. But if the body has improved, and the tumor
has remained stationary, or is suspected to be a little better, the knife
may be resorted to; although the chance of cure is rather against success.
The age of the animal, and the predisposition to throw out tumors of this
nature, are against the result; for too frequently, after the jaw has
healed, some distant part is attacked with a disease of a similar
character.

WORMING, as it is generally called, is often-practised upon dogs, and both
Blaine and Youatt give directions for its performance. I shall not follow
their examples. It is a needless, and therefore a cruel operation; and
though often requested to do so, I never will worm a dog. Several persons,
some high in rank, have been offended by my refusal; but my profession has
obligations which may not be infringed for the gratification of
individuals. People who talk of a worm in the tongue of a dog, only show
their ignorance, and by requesting it should be removed, expose their want
of feeling.

Pups, when about half-grown, are sometimes seized with an inclination to
destroy all kinds of property. Ladies are often vexed by discovering the
havoc which their little favorites have made with articles of millinery;
gloves, shawls, and bonnets, are pulled to pieces with a seeming zest for
mischief, and the culprit is found wagging its tail for joy among the
wreck it has occasioned. Great distress is created by this propensity, and
a means to check it is naturally sought for. Mangling the tongue will not
have the desired effect. For a few days pain may make the animal
disinclined to use its mouth; but when this ceases, the teeth will be
employed as ingeniously as before. Some good is accomplished by clipping
the temporary fangs: these are very brittle, and easily cut through. The
excision causes no pain, but the point being gone, the dog's pleasure is
destroyed; and, as these teeth will naturally be soon shed, no injury of
any consequence is inflicted. By such a simple measure, more benefit than
worming ever produced is secured; for in the last case, almost in every
instance, the obnoxious habit entirely ceases.

As to worming being of any, even the slightest, protection, in case rabies
should attack the dog, the idea is so preposterous, that I shall not here
stay to notice it.

The tongue of the high-bred spaniel is often subject to partial paralysis
of one side. When such is the case, the muscles of the healthy side draw
the tongue in that direction; and the member hangs out of the mouth,
rendering the appearance somewhat unsightly. The organ from exposure
becomes dry and hard; and not being properly used to cleanse the nose,
this last becomes harsh and encrusted upon such portion of its surface as
the disabled tongue cannot reach. The dog is disfigured, but it manages
to live, and seems to endure more inconvenience than positive pain. The
muscles on the paralysed side do not appear to be entirely deprived of
nervous power. I infer this to be the case because they do not waste, and
therefore attribute the affection to loss of tone rather than to actual
palsy.

The cause is not known. Some dogs are pupped in this condition; others are
only affected in this way when age has far advanced. In the latter case
the symptom is sudden, and nothing previous has been observed which would
denote the probability of the attack; but, arguing from the description of
animals which are subject to this affection, and the periods when it
mostly is exhibited, we may attribute it to weakness of the constitution.

For the disease nothing of a local nature can be done. I have been induced
to try various topical remedies, but not with any satisfactory result; and
I am not very hopeful as to future experiments in the same direction.
Constitutional remedies have more power; and by these, if we cannot cure,
we may limit the evil. For pups, good nursing--not petting or pampering,
but whatever can invigorate--wholesome diet, airy lodging, and sufficient
exercise, will do much. For older animals, the same measures, combined
with such medicines as correct the digestion and give tone to the system,
will be proper. An operation of dividing the muscles of that side on which
the tongue protruded was once successful; but on three subsequent
occasions it failed, and I have therefore relinquished it; for it is not
quite safe, and puts the animal to a great deal of suffering. Dog
fanciers sometimes cut off the exposed portion of the tongue, and thereby
conceal the defect; but this is a brutal custom, and should not be
adopted. The animal so mutilated drinks with difficulty, and the nose
ultimately becomes even more unsightly than was the appearance of the
hanging tongue.

The tongue is sometimes injured by the teeth, especially during fits. In
such cases the wounds generally heal quickly, and require no special
attention. Should the sores not mend, the fault is in the system. To that,
and not to the part, medicines should be directed, and the matter will be
quickly settled.

Salivation should never be produced upon the dog. The largest and
strongest of these animals can but ill sustain the constitutional effects
of mercury; while to those of a delicate kind it is nearly certain death.
It may be induced by inunction, or rubbing in of ointment, as surely as by
calomel internally administered. Chemists mix up various ointments that
are called black, blue, red, white, or yellow; and sell these as specifics
for skin diseases, which are in the dog all denominated mange. Such things
are applied to the entire surface of the body; and as they mostly contain
either Turpeth or Ethiop's mineral calomel, or one of the preparations of
mercury, no great time is required to produce their fullest effect. The
operation of the metal is too frequently mistaken for an aggravation of
the disorder; and when the chemist is next visited, he is told to make the
stuff stronger, because the other made the dog worse. No warning nature
can give will stop the proceeding. Night and day the dog is rubbed with
the poison, till its gums are sore, or its teeth fall out; the saliva
dribbles from the mouth; the glands enlarge, the dog refusing to eat, and
is so weak that it can hardly stand; then, fearing death, a doubt is for
the first time entertained, and a veterinary surgeon is requested to look
at the animal, and say what it wants.

Chemists are not qualified to administer the drugs they sell to human
beings; but they are fairly the murderers of a fourth part of the dogs
they physic. They know nothing about these animals, and dispense poison
under the name of medicine when they presume to treat them. I have had
creatures brought to me in the most terrible condition; and when they have
been under domestic treatment--that is, when the chemist has been
consulted--I always look to find symptoms of salivation. The signs are not
obscure; the gums are either soft, tender, and inflamed, or else very much
retracted; the teeth are of a yellow or brownish color, loose and mottled
on their surfaces, but not covered with tartar; the breath has a peculiar
fetor, and the saliva flows from the lips, while the glands at the jaw are
hard; the weakness is excessive, and the appearance dejected. Purgation
may be present, and in some instances the whole of the hair has fallen
off. One dog, a Scotch terrier, lost every portion of its coat, and was
nearly a year before it regained the covering.

Here is a portrait of a Scotch terrier, and the reader will perceive the
coat is by the artist truthfully depicted as remarkably long, full, and
hairy.

[Illustration]

The imagination can, from this likeness of the animal in health, conjure
up the resemblance such an object as the poor dog must have presented
without its coat. Nor was the loss of the hair the worst part of the
business; it never afterwards grew to its proper length. The other
symptoms which have been described were present. Fever also existed,
though the debility in a great measure concealed it; nor was the issue of
the case by any means certain for a week or even longer.

The health may be restored, but the teeth will never regain their
whiteness, nor the breath recover its natural odor. A mild acidulated
drink, made of sulphuric acid and sweetened water, will be the most proper
remedy. It should be made pleasant, and tasted before given to the dog,
which will prevent its being administered of too great a potency. Of this
as much as can be conveniently got down may be given, from a quarter of a
pint to a quart daily; and with it the sulphate of iron, the disulphate of
quinine, and vegetable bitters, made into pills, may be joined. If the
bowels are costive, injections of the sulphate of magnesia, or small doses
of the salt, may be employed, while the food should be nourishing.
Sulphuric acid and the sulphates, with generous diet, will constitute the
treatment; and if the case be not too far advanced, these will ultimately
restore the strength.



BRONCHOCELE.

This disease is usually seen in greatest severity in pups. It consists in
an enlargement of the thyroid body, which increases so much as to destroy
the life. In old dogs it is commonly stationary, or of a fixed size.
Spaniels and terriers, are much exposed to it; and of the last-mentioned
breed, probably bull-terriers are, of all animals, the most liable to be
attacked.

In pups, the thyroid body greatly and quickly enlarges, so as to cut short
the life by when the sixth week is attained. The disease of itself, in old
dogs, is rather annoying than fatal; but the manner in which it destroys
the animal when very young, is by impeding the circulation and
respiration. The enlarged thyroid body presses upon the trachea and
jugular veins. The blood which should return from the brain and head is
thereby prevented descending, and hindered from reaching the heart in a
full current. The vessels enlarge so as to become obvious to the most
indifferent observer. The veins not only look swelled, but they feel
turgid, and cannot be compressed; the little beast is dull; the breathing
is very laborious; the animal sleeps much, and at last dies without a
struggle, casting off life as it were but a troubled dream. It never has
perfectly enjoyed existence, and its departure is not to be regretted.

With the older animals, so far as my experience at present teaches me, the
thyroid body, when enlarged, has not suddenly increased; yet this fact by
no means proves that the diseased part is always quiescent, and cannot
increase in size. Because of this possibility, and the safety of the
process, the disease should be eradicated. This is to be done by
administering iodine by the mouth, and painting over the enlargement
(having the hair first closely shaved off the part) with some of the
tincture of the same drug, applied by means of a camel's hair brush. As
iodine soon separates and is thrown down to the bottom, all the
preparations of it should be used as freshly made as may be convenient.
The mixture of which iodine is the active ingredient, and which is a week
old, may be confidently said to have lost the major part of its virtue.
Every three or four days this medicine should be concocted; for even when
put into pills, iodine, being very volatile, will evaporate. The quantity
to be given to the dog varies, from a quarter of a grain four times a day
to the smallest pup, to two grains four times daily to the largest dog.
The tincture used for painting the throat is made with spirits of wine, an
ounce; iodide of potassium, a drachm.



RESPIRATORY ORGANS.

The Larynx of the dog is affected in various ways. It is called a "little
box," and the projecting part of this organ is, in the throat of man,
spoken of as "Adam's apple." It opens at the back part of the mouth, and
is placed at the beginning of the windpipe. All the air that inflates the
lungs must pass through it, but it will permit nothing else to enter with
impunity. A drop of saliva, or the smallest particle of salt, will be
sufficient to call forth the most painful irritability. In fact the lining
membrane of the larynx is the most tender or sensitive structure in the
body; and, as parts are exposed to suffering just in proportion as they
are endowed with sensation, of course, the organ so finely gifted is often
the seat of disease.

The dog's larynx has many peculiarities. It is very complicated, and
exquisitely constructed. Few persons have, perhaps, much attended to the
notes of the animal's voice; but those who will observe the sounds may
find these take a range far more wide than is generally imagined. The
dog's voice is remarkably expressive, and to my ear speaks very
intelligible music. The deep growl is not without variety; for by the
feeling of the animal that emits it the note is always modulated. The
rumble of expostulation the favorite gives utterance to when the master
pretends to take away its bone does not resemble the rattle of joy with
which the child's playmate accompanies a game of romps. Both, however,
are distinct from the suppressed warning with which the watchdog announces
the advancing stranger, or the sharp defiance by which he signifies his
determination to attack. The bark also is not by any means monotonous, but
is capable of infinite variety. The cries of the animal are remarkably
modulated; but the soft and gentle sounds it can emit when inclined to
coax its master, or answering to the excess of pleasure which his caresses
create, are full of natural music. The dog's voice is not to my ear less
beautiful than the song of a bird; but more delightful, because it is more
full of meaning. The nightingale has but one song, which it constantly
repeats. The cur has many tuneful notes, with which it responds to my
attentions. Music has been recognised in the tongues of the pack, but I
have heard harmony more delightful from the hound in my home. I like to
hear the dog's voice, especially when not too loud, and having studied it,
I have often wondered the animal did not speak. There can be little doubt
it would be able to frame words if it possessed the power to comprehend
their meaning; but the high intelligence of the creature unfits it for
parrot-like mimicry. The dog is, in all it does, guided by its reason, and
it performs no act without a reasonable motive. If any physical incapacity
exist, it is to be found rather in the formation of the mouth than in the
construction of the larynx, which presents no explanation of the dog's
inability to frame definite sounds like words.

The part is rarely the seat of acute disease. In rabies, especially of
the dumb kind, it is acutely affected; but of that form of disorder the
writer will have to speak in another place. Of acute laryngitis, as met
with commonly in the horse, I have not seen an example in the dog, and
therefore I shall not here say anything about it. Of chronic disease of
the larynx there is no lack of instances. These are brought to us
frequently, and generally are submitted to our notice as cases of
continued or confirmed cough. Cough, however, is but a symptom; and may be
no more than a sympathetic effect induced by the derangement of a distant
structure. When it is caused by the condition of the larynx, it has a deep
sound, which is never entirely changed in character, however much pain
induces the animal to suppress it. It is essentially the same in every
stage, though it may be more or less full or loud, according to the state
of the air passage.

This cough may start up from sympathy; but then it is always less
sonorous, harsh, and grating. It is also less spasmodic, and likewise less
the consequence of particular causes. When the larynx is the seat of the
affection, the cough, should it once begin, continues for a considerable
time; and cold air or excitement will invariably induce it. In bad cases
every act of inspiration is followed by a kind of noise intermediate
between a grunt and a cough. Sometimes the breathing is accompanied by a
species of roaring; and I have seen one case in which a blood-hound had
every symptom of laryngismus stridulus, or the crowing disease of the
human infant.

Laryngeal disorders are seldom brought under our notice until they are
confirmed, and they are difficult to cure in proportion to the length of
time they have existed. The food in every case must be rigidly regulated,
and no solid flesh should be allowed; but if the animal be very old or
weak, beef tea or gravy may be added to the rice or biscuit which
constitutes the chief portion of the diet. The condition of the stomach
must so far as possible be ascertained, and the medicines necessary to
correct its disease should be administered. The exercise must not be
stinted, neither should confinement within doors be insisted upon. All
must be done to assist the digestion and invigorate the health; such
precautions being adopted as prevent the aggravation of the disease.
Sudden changes of atmosphere, as from a warm room to a frosty air during
the depth of winter, should obviously be avoided; neither would it be
prudent to race the animal about, or induce it to perform any action
calculated to accelerate the breathing.

At the commencement a gentle emetic given every other morning until six or
seven have been administered, with a laxative occasionally if the bowels
are torpid, is often productive of speedy benefit. A mustard poultice to
the throat is also to be recommended, but he who applies it must be
attentive to remove it when it appears to seriously pain the animal. It
may be repeated on each successive night, or even oftener, but should
never be reapplied before the skin on which it was previously placed has
ceased to be tender. Leeches to the throat are often of service, as also
are small blisters to the chest. I found great improvement result from
wearing a very wide bandage, which was kept wet, and covered with oil
silk, round the neck. This is easily made, and strips of gutta percha, or
stout leather, will prevent it being doubled up by the motions of the
head; and it is scarcely a disfigurement, since it only looks like a large
collar. A seton in the throat may be tried, but though often beneficial,
it ought only to be inserted by a person acquainted with the anatomy of
the dog; for the jugular veins in this animal are connected by several
large branches, which run just where the seton would be introduced. These
could not be pierced with impunity, nor ought the seton to be left in so
long as might induce sloughing, when the vessels probably would be opened;
for as the dog badly sustains the loss of blood, the result would surely
be fatal.

Internal medicines are not to be neglected. All sedatives, balsams,
expectorants, and peppers, with some alkalies and stimulants, may be
tried, and even alterative doses of mercury with caution resorted to. Dogs
are more peculiar with respect to the medicines that act upon individuals
than any other animals I am acquainted with. That which touches one will
be inoperative upon another; and what violently affects one, will on a
second, apparently of the same bulk, strength, age, and character, be
actually powerless. This renders dog-practice so difficult, and makes the
explanation of any decided mode of treatment almost impossible. A great
deal must necessarily be left to the discretion of the practitioner, who,
despite his utmost care, will often have reason for regret, if he do not
in every new instance proceed with caution. The following pills are likely
to do good:--

  Barbadoes tar              Half a drachm to two drachms.
  Powdered squills           A drachm to four drachms.
  Extract of belladonna      Half a scruple to four scruples.
  Liquorice powder           A sufficiency.

Beat into a mass, and make into twenty pills; give four daily. Or,

  James's powder      One grain to four grains.
  Dover's powder      Six grains to a scruple.
  Balsam of Peru      A sufficiency.

Make into one pill and give as before. Or,

  Extract of hyoscyamus        One to four grains.
  Powdered ammoniacum,  }      Four to twelve grains.
    and cubebs, of each }
  Venice turpentine            A sufficiency.

Powdered capsicums and cantharides have also seemed to touch the disease;
but no one medicine has to me appeared to have any specific influence over
it. In these cases mere formulæ could be extended almost indefinitely; but
the reason must be exerted, and the prescription must be dictated by the
symptoms. Thus, when there is much nervous excitability accompanied with
gastric derangement, Prussic acid of Scheele's strength, in doses of half
a drop to two drops, may be exhibited; and if the mouth be dry, and the
disposition irritable, from five to twenty drops of the tincture of
Indian tobacco may be administered. If the throat is very sore, the mouth
may be held open, and ten grains of powdered alum mixed with four times
its weight of fine sugar may be blown into it, or in severe instances, the
fauces may be mopped out by means of a piece of soft sponge tied to the
end of a probe, and saturated with a solution containing six grains of
nitrate of silver dissolved in an ounce of water.

Ulceration of the interior of the larynx is to be dreaded if the symptoms
do not yield. This will be denoted by the cough becoming weaker, less
loud, more short, and also more frequent. Prior to it there are always
intervals during which the animal enjoys repose; but after ulceration of
the larynx is established every inhalation provokes the irritability of
the organ. With it the constitutional symptoms become more serious, and
little can then by medicine be accomplished; for the passage of the air
which is necessary to life causes the affection we desire to cure to
spread. Tracheotomy might be performed, though the dog is so very expert
with its claws, and any tape around the neck would be probably so
injurious, that hitherto I have not ventured to hazard the experiment.
Humanity has, in such cases, forced me to recommend the destruction of the
life which I entertained no hope of comforting.

Cough is much more frequently a symptom than a disease. It, in fat dogs,
usually proceeds from disordered digestion; and then to remove it the
cause must be attacked. It accompanies worms; and if these are expelled,
it will subside. It may, however, exist by itself, for the larynx of the
dog early becomes ossified or converted into bone; and being then less
yielding, the violent vibrations it is subjected to during the act of
barking have a natural tendency to injure the delicate lining membrane.
Its irritability is excited, and cough is the consequence. The disposition
of the creature to give tongue ought, therefore, to be as much as possible
checked, and a mustard poultice applied to the throat, while the pills
first recommended on page 205, are given; but if these fail, the others
may be employed. The general measures would be pretty much the same, only
the more severe need not be resorted to. Quiet, mild food, and a little
care, will often, without medicine, remove the annoyance; but it is never
well to trust too long to such dubious aids, when timely assistance will
procure speedy relief, and delay may lead to further evil.

SNORING is often a heavy accusation brought against the dog. It may
proceed from weakness; though, in ninety-nine cases out of every hundred,
it results from that debility which accompanies accumulated fat and sloth.
In the one case we apply the means advised to restore the strength,--in
the other, we stint the food, enforce a vegetable diet, and see that
sufficient exercise be taken.

SNORTING is another unpleasantness which the canine race display. The
animals stand with their heads erect, and, drawing the air through the
nostrils, produce a series of harsh loud sounds, which are sometimes
continued till the dog falls from actual exhaustion. This is the result
of irritability, in a low form, of the lining membrane of the nasal
chambers. The sensation is probably that of itching, and the dog
endeavors, by drawing the air quickly through the nostrils and
energetically expelling it, to relieve the annoyance.

The treatment is not to be laid down; attention to the food, and medicines
of an alterative nature calculated to affect or improve the secretions,
are most likely to be of service. Worms may possibly be the provocative,
and in that case of course they should be removed. The measures,
therefore, are not to be arbitrarily pointed out. The judgment must be
employed to discover in what particular the system is unsound, and the
agents used must be selected with a view to the general health. Local
applications have been tried without advantage, but there do not appear to
be any specifics for the complaint. The snorting is to be regarded merely
as an effect of some deep-seated derangement, and the remedies are to be
such as the appearance of the animal suggests. I have generally been
successful in these cases, but I remember no two of them which I have
treated exactly in the same manner. Patience and perseverance are mostly
required, but sometimes the affection will not yield to any remedy. When
it appears to be obstinate, the use of medicine should not be pushed too
far. The constitution of the dog is so easily injured, and with so much
difficulty restored, that where a mere unpleasantness is apparently all
that exists, it is better to permit that to continue than hazard the
health of the animal by over-strenuous attempts to get rid of it.

COLD or CORIZA is not frequent in the dog, but it will occasionally be
seen. It comes on gradually, and often passes off without any assistance
being given. In pups it is apt to pass first into bronchitis, and then
change into distemper, which in such instances, spite of our best
endeavors, will often terminate in fits.

It springs from various causes, but neglect and improper lodging are
generally those to which it may be traced. In adult animals it is not to
be greatly feared, but in the young it requires immediate attention. The
kennel must be looked to; the food and exercise be strictly watched.
Tonics, into which cayenne pepper, cubebs, or balsam of pepper enter, are
to be tried, and cod-liver oil also is worth an experiment. The iodide of
potassium is also not to be rejected; but the condition of the patient
must decide which is the most likely to be of service in the case. When
undertaken early, the symptoms yield in the majority of instances. The
discharge, which at the commencement is thin, becomes more copious, grows
thicker, and at last ceases. The sneezing stops and the spirits return;
but should the disorder not be checked, the larynx becomes involved, and
cough appears. If no relief be now sought, and the disease spreads, the
breathing grows quick at first, and then laborious.

The pup may even at this stage be eager to feed, and when its attention is
excited, be as playful as in health; but if watched it will be seen, when
alone, to be oppressed and languid. In such cases, belladonna, combined
with James's powder, an equal amount of each, should be administered. The
dose should be exhibited every hour, for here the wish is to obtain the
speedy effect of the drug without allowing its sedative property to
seriously affect the strength. To a young pup, a quarter of a grain will
be the proper quantity; and for a full-grown large-sized dog, two grains
of the extract may be employed. The action, however, must be observed, and
when a marked disinclination for food or drink, with a seeming wish for
both, and signs of inconvenience in the throat are seen, the belladonna
must be withheld. On the third day, if the cure be not complete, it may be
a second time employed; and, after a like period, even a further trial may
be made. At the same time, a little soap liniment may be rubbed into the
throat, along the course of the windpipe, and over the chest. The bowels
also should be regulated; but purgation is not to be desired. Should the
liver be sluggish, mild alterative doses of the grey powder may be
sprinkled upon the food, and will thus be taken without the necessity of
forcing the animal. When the measures recommended do not succeed, the
appearance of the patient must direct those which are next to be adopted.
Where weakness prevails, and shivering denotes the presence of fever,
quinine and the sulphate of iron are required. Small blisters, or mustard
poultices, to the chest, may with due caution be applied. An emetic may
even be administered; but, if repeated at all, it must be only after two
or three days have elapsed. Where the system is vigorous, expectorants
and sedatives, with leeches to the chest, may be used. Turpentine liniment
to the sides, throat, and under the jaws, may also be freely rubbed in,
and the diet in quantity restricted. Tartar emetic in very minute doses
may be exhibited three times daily.

[Illustration: INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS.]

The chest of the dog is not in any remarkable degree the seat of disease.
The ribs of the animal being constructed for easy motion, and the muscles
which move them being strong and large in proportion to the size of the
bones, the lungs, therefore, are in general properly expanded; and this
circumstance tends to preserve them in a healthy condition. They do not,
however, always escape, but are subject to the same inflammations as those
of the horse, though, from the causes stated, more rarely attacked.

INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS is denoted by a quickened pulse and breathing,
preceded by shivering fits. The appetite does not always fail; in one or
two instances I have seen it increased; but it is most often diminished.
The animal is averse to motion; but when the affection is established, the
dog sits upon its hocks, and wherever it is placed, speedily assumes that
position. As the disorder becomes worse, the difficulty of breathing is
more marked. The creature also shows a disposition to quit the house, and
if there be an open window it will thrust its head through the aperture.
The sense of suffocation is obviously present, and at length this becomes
more and more obvious. The dog in the very last stage refuses to sit, but
obstinately stands. One of the legs swells, and, on being felt, it is
ascertained to be enlarged by fluid. There is dropsy of the chest, and the
limb has sympathized in the disposition to effusion. The pulse denotes the
weakness of the body; but the excitement of disease in a great measure
disguises the other symptoms. The dog may even, to an unpractised eye,
seem to possess considerable strength; for it resists, with all its
remaining power, any attempt to move it, and its last energies are exerted
to support the attitude that affords the most relief to the respiration.
At length the poor brute stubbornly stands until forced to stir, when it
drops suddenly, and for several moments lies as if the life had departed.
Again it falls, but again revives; and always with the return of
consciousness gets upon its legs; but at last it sinks, and without a
struggle dies.

The lungs have been, in the first instance, inflamed, but the pleura or
membrane covering the lungs, and also lining the chest, has likewise
become by the progress of the disease involved. The cavity has become
full of water, or rather serum, and by the pressure of the fluid the
organs of respiration are compressed. It is seldom that both sides are
gorged to an equal degree; but one cavity may be quite full while the
other is only partially so. One lung, therefore, in part remains to
perform the function on which the continuance of life depends; and if, by
any movement, the weight of fluid is brought to bear upon the little left
to continue respiration, the animal is literally asphyxiated. It drops, in
fact, strangled, or more correctly, suffocated; and as the vital energy is
strong or weak, so may the dog more or less frequently recover for a time.
In the end, however, the tax upon the strength exhausts the power, and the
accumulation of the fluid diminishes the source by which the life was
sustained. After death, I have taken from the body of a full-sized
Newfoundland one lung, which lay with ease upon my extended hand; while
the two held together afforded a surface sufficient to support the other.
The condensation was so great that the part was literally consolidated,
and the fluid which exuded on cutting into the substance was small in
quantity. The blood-vessels were, with the air-cells, compressed, and
while the arterialization of the blood was imperfect, the circulation was
also impeded.

The causes usually assigned to account for inflammation of the lungs will
not, in the dog, explain its origin. I have usually met it where the
animal had not been exposed to wet or cold; where it had not undergone
excessive exertion, or been subjected to violence. Extraordinary care as
rather seemed to induce, than the neglect of the creature appeared to
provoke the attack. It is, however, easy to trace causes when we have a
wish to explain a particular effect; but where the lungs have been
inflamed I have never, to my entire satisfaction, been able to ascertain
that the animal had been exposed to hardship, or subjected to labor which
it had not previously sustained, and which, if the health had been good,
it might not have endured.

Disease of the lungs is, in the early stage, very readily subdued; but, if
allowed to establish itself, it is rarely that medicine can eradicate it.
The majority of persons who profess to know anything about the diseases of
dogs, look upon the nose as an indication of the health. While the
appetite is good, or the nose is cold and moist, such people are confident
no fear need be entertained. Of the uncertainty that attends the
disposition to feed mention has been already made; but with regard to the
condition of a part, the persons who assume to teach us are likely to be
in such cases entirely deceived. I have known dogs with violent
inflammation of the lungs; I have seen them die from dropsy of the chest;
and their noses have been wet and cold, even as though the animals had
iced the organs. From this mistaken notion, therefore, no doubt, are to be
traced the numerous instances of dogs brought for treatment when no
remedies can be of avail. They are submitted to our notice only that we
may be pained to look upon their deaths; and often have my endeavors been
thus limited to simple palliative measures, when an earlier application
would have enabled me to employ medicine with a reasonable prospect of
success.

In the commencement, when the breathing is simply increased and the pulse
slightly accelerated, then if you place the ear to the side, there is
merely a small increase of sound; and the animal exhibits no obstinate, or
more properly, unconquerable disposition to sit upon the hocks; small
quantities of belladonna, combined with James's powder, will generally put
an end to the disease. The belladonna, in doses of from one to four
grains, may be given three times a day; but where trouble is not objected
to, and regularity can be depended upon, I prefer administering it in
doses of a quarter of a grain to a grain every hour. By the last practice
I think I have obtained results more satisfactory; but it is not always
that a plan necessitating almost constant attention can be enforced, or
that the animal to be treated will allow of such repeated interference.
The following formula will serve the purpose, and the reader can divide it
if the method I recommend can be pursued.

  Extract of belladonna      One to four grains.
  James's powder             Two to eight grains.
  Nitrate of potash          Four to sixteen grains.
  Extract of gentian         A sufficiency for one pill.

If, on the second day, no marked improvement is perceptible, small doses
of antimonial wine may be tried; from fifteen minims to half-a-drachm may
be given every fourth hour, unless vomiting be speedily induced; when the
next dose must, at the stated period, be reduced five or ten minims, and
even further diminished if the lessened quantity should have an emetic
effect. The object in giving the antimonial wine is to create nausea, and
not to excite sickness; and we endeavor to keep up the action in order to
affect the system. This is frequently very decisive in the reduction of
the symptoms; but, even after the danger has been dispelled, the pills
before recommended must be persevered with, and every means adopted to
prevent a relapse.

Sometimes, however, the disorder commences with a violence that, from the
very beginning of the attack, calls for the most energetic measures. If
the breathing be very quick, short, and catching; the position constant;
the pulse full and strong; the jugular vein may be opened, and from one
ounce to eight ounces of blood extracted; or leeches may be applied to the
sides; or an ammoniacal blister may be employed. This is done by
saturating a piece of rag, folded three or four times, with a solution
composed of liquor ammoniaca fort., one part; distilled water, three
parts; and, having placed it upon the place from which the hair has been
previously cut off, holding over it a dry cloth to prevent evaporization
of the volatile vesicant. A quarter of an hour will serve to raise the
cuticle; but frequently that object is accomplished in less time;
therefore, during its operation, the agent must be watched, or else the
effect may be greater than we desire, and sloughing may ensue.

A dose of castor oil may also be administered, and the food should be
composed entirely of vegetables, if the animal can be induced to eat this
kind of diet. Exertion should be prevented, and quiet as much as possible
enjoined. The tincture of aconite, it is said, sometimes does wonders in
inflammation of the lungs; but in my hands its operation has been
uncertain, though the homoeopathists trust greatly to its action in this
disease. They give it singly, but I have not reaped from its use on the
dog those advantages which tempt me to depend solely on its influence.
When employed, it may be given in doses of from half a drop to two drops
of the tincture, in any pleasant vehicle, every hour.

After dropsy of the chest has been established, the chance of cure is
certainly remote; but tapping at all events renders the last moments of
life more easy. It is both simple and safe, and does not seem to occasion
any pain; but, on the contrary, to afford immediate relief. The skin
should be first punctured, and then drawn forward so as to bring the
incision over the spot where the instrument is to be inserted. The place
where the trocar should be introduced is between the seventh and eighth
ribs, nearer to the last than to the first, and rather close to the
breast-bone. The point being selected, the instrument is pushed gently
into the flesh; and when the operator feels no resistance is offered to
the progress of the tube, he knows the cavity has been pierced. The stilet
is then withdrawn, and the fluid will pour forth. Unless the dog shows
signs of faintness, as much of the water as possible ought to be taken
away; but if symptoms of syncope appear, the operation must be stopped,
and after a little time, when the strength has been regained, resumed.
When this has been done, tonics must be freely resorted to. The following
pill may be administered three or four times a day; and the diet should be
confined to flesh, for everything depends on the invigoration of the body,
and the inflammation is either gone, or it has become of secondary
importance.

  Iodide of iron          One to four grains.
  Sulphate of iron        Two to eight grains.
  Extract of gentian      Ten grains to half a drachm.
  Powdered capsicums      Two to eight grains.
  Powdered quassia        A sufficiency.

The above will make two pills; and it is better to make these the more
frequently, as they speedily harden, and we now desire their quickest
effect, which is sooner obtained if they are soft or recently compounded.

During recovery the food must be mild, and tonics must be administered.
Exercise should be allowed with the greatest caution, and all excitement
ought to be avoided. The dog must be watched and nursed, being provided
with a sheltered lodging and an ample bed in a situation perfectly
protected from winds or draughts, but at the same time cool and airy.

ASTHMA is a frequent disease in old and petted dogs. It comes on by fits,
and, through the severity of the attack, often seems to threaten
suffocation; but I have not known a single case in which it has proved
fatal. The cause is generally attributable to inordinate feeding, for the
animals thus afflicted are always gross and fat. The disorder comes on
gradually in most instances, though the fit is usually sudden. The
appetite is not affected, or rather it is increased often to an
extraordinary degree. The craving is great, and flesh is always preferred,
while sweet and seasoned articles are much relished. On examination, the
signs denoting the digestion to be deranged will be discovered. Piles are
nearly constantly met with; the coat is generally in a bad condition, and
the hair off in places. The nose may be dry; the membrane of the eyes
congested; the teeth covered with tartar, and the breath offensive. The
dog is slothful, and exertion is followed by distress. Cough may or may
not exist; but it usually appears towards the latter period of the attack.

[Illustration: ASTHMA.]

Asthma is spasm of the bronchial tubes, and when it is thoroughly
established it is seldom to be cured. All medicine can accomplish is the
relief of the more violent symptoms. The fits may be rendered
comparatively less frequent and less severe; but the agents that best
operate to that result are likely in the end to destroy the general
health. Between two evils, therefore, the proprietor has to make his
choice; but if he resolves to treat the disorder, he must do so knowing
the drugs he makes use of are not entirely harmless.

Food is of all importance. It must be proportioned to the size of the
patient, and be rather spare than full in quantity. Flesh should be
denied, and coarse vegetable diet alone allowed. The digestion must also
be attended to, and every means taken to invigorate the system. Exercise
must be enforced, even though the animal appear to suffer in consequence
of being made to walk. The skin should be daily brushed, and the bed
should not be too luxurious. Sedatives are of service; and as no one of
these agents will answer in every case, a constant change will be needed,
that, by watching their action, the one which produces the best effect may
be discovered. Opium, belladonna, hyoscyamus, assafoetida, and the rest,
may be thus tried in succession; and often small doses produce those
effects which the larger one seems to conceal. A pill containing any
sedative, with an alterative quantity of some expectorant, may be given
three times daily; but when the fit is on, I have gained the most
immediate benefit by the administration of ether and opium. From one to
four leeches to the chest, sometimes, are of service; but small ammoniacal
blisters applied to the sides, and frequently repeated, are more to be
depended upon. Trivial doses of antimonial wine or ipecacuanha wine, with
an occasional emetic, will sometimes give temporary ease; but the
last-named medicines are to be resorted to only after due consideration,
as they greatly lower the strength. Stomachics and mild tonics at the same
time are to be employed; but a cure is not to be expected. The treatment
cannot be absolutely laid down; but the judgment must be exercised, and
whenever the slightest improvement is remarked every effort must be made
to prevent a relapse.



HEPATITIS.

[Illustration: CHRONIC HEPATITIS.]

LIVER complaints were once fashionable. A few years ago the mind of Great
Britain was in distress about its bile, and blue pill with black draught
literally became a part of the national diet. At present nervous and
urinary diseases appear to be in vogue; but, with dogs, hepatic disorders
are as prevalent as ever. The canine liver is peculiarly susceptible to
disease. Very seldom have I dipped into the mysteries of their bodies but
I have found the biliary gland of these animals deranged; sometimes
inflamed--sometimes in an opposite condition--often enlarged--seldom
diminished--rarely of uniform color--occasionally tuberculated--and not
unfrequently as fat with disease as those are which have obtained for
Strasburg geese a morbid celebrity.

It is, however, somewhat strange that, notwithstanding the almost
universality of liver disease among petted dogs, the symptoms which denote
its existence are in these creatures so obscure and undefined as rarely to
be recognised. Very few dogs have healthy livers, and yet seldom is the
disordered condition of this important gland suspected. Various are the
causes which different authors, English and foreign, have asserted
produced this effect. I shall only allude to such as I can on my own
experience corroborate, and here I shall have but little to refer to.
Over-feeding and excessive indulgence are the sources to which I have
always traced it. In the half-starved or well-worked dog I have seen the
liver involved; but have never beheld it in such a state as led me to
conclude it was the principal or original seat of the affection which
ended in death. On the other hand, in fatted and petted animals, I have
seen the gland in a condition that warranted no doubt as to what part the
fatal attack had commenced in.

When death has been the consequence of hepatic disorder, the symptoms have
in every instance been chronic. I am not aware that I have been called
upon to treat a case of an acute description, excepting as a phase of
distemper. It would be too much to say such a form of disease does not
exist in a carnivorous animal; but I have hitherto not met with it.
Neither have I seen it as the effect of inveterate mange; though I have
beheld obstinate skin disease the common, but far from invariable, result
of chronic hepatitis. I have also known cerebral symptoms to be produced
by the derangement of this gland, which, in the dog, may be the cause of
almost any possible symptom, and still give so little indication of its
actual condition as almost to set our reason at defiance.

When the animal is fat, the visible mucous membranes may be pallid; the
tongue white; the pulse full and quick; the spirits slothful: the appetite
good; the foeces natural: the bowels irregular; the breath offensive; the
anus enlarged, and the rump denuded of hair, the naked skin being covered
with a scaly cuticle, thickened and partially insensible.

When the animal is thin, almost all of the foregoing signs may be wanting.
The dog may be only emaciated--a living skeleton, with an enlarged belly.
It is dull, and has a sleepy look when undisturbed; but when its attention
is attracted, the expression of its countenance is half vacant and half
wild. The pupil of the eye is dilated, and the visual organs stare as
though the power of recognition were enfeebled. The appetite is good and
the manner gentle. The tongue is white, and occasionally reddish towards
the circumference. The membranes of the eye are very pale, but not yellow.
The lining of the mouth is of a faint dull tint, and often it feels cold
to the touch. The coat looks not positively bad; but rather like a skin
which had been well dressed by a furrier, than one which was still upon a
living body.

The history in these cases invariably informs us that the animal has been
fat--very fat--about six or twelve months ago. It fell away all at once,
though no change was made in the diet; and yet we learn it has been
physicked. No restraint has been put upon buckthorn, castor oil, aloes,
sulphur, and antimony, but yet the belly will not go down--it keeps
getting bigger; and now we are told the animal has a dropsy which "wants
to be cured." It is natural the figure and condition should suggest the
idea of ascites; but the hair does not pull out--none of the legs are
swollen--the shape of the abdomen wants the appearance of gravitation, and
if the patient be placed upon its back the form of the rotundity is not
altered by the position of the body. Moreover, the breathing is tolerably
easy: and, though if one hand be placed against the side of the belly, and
the part opposite be struck with the other, there will be a marked sense
of fluctuation; still we cannot accept so dubious a test against the mass
of evidence that declares dropsy is not the name of the disease. To make
sure, we feel the abdomen near to the line of the false ribs. This gives
no pain, so we press a little hard, and in two or three places on either
side, on the right, or may be the left, high up or low down; for in
abnormal growths there can be no rule--in two or three places we can
detect hard, solid, but smooth lumps within the cavity. This last
discovery leaves no room for further doubt, so we pronounce the liver to
be the organ that is principally affected. In chronic cases, especially
after the dog has begun to waste, enlargement nearly always may be felt,
not invariably hard, yet often so, but never soft or so soft as the other
parts; and this proof should, therefore, in every instance of the kind be
sought for.

With regard to treatment, the food must not be suddenly reduced to the
starvation point. Whether the dog be fat or lean, let the quality be
nutritious, and the quantity sufficient; from a quarter of a pound to a
pound and a half of paunch, divided into four meals, will be enough for a
single day; but nothing more than this must be given. Tonics, to
strengthen the system generally, should be employed; and an occasional
dose of the cathartic pills administered, providing the condition is such
as justifies the use of purgatives. Frequent small blisters, applied over
the region of the liver, may do good; but they should not be larger than
two or four inches across, and they should be repeated one every three or
four days. Leeches put upon the places where hardness can be felt, also
are beneficial; but depletion must be regulated by the ability of the
animal to sustain it. A long course of iodide of potassium in solution,
combined with the liquor potassæ, will, however, constitute the principal
dependence.

  Iodide of potassium      Two drachms two scruples.
  Liquor potassæ           One ounce and a half.
  Simple syrup             Six ounces.
  Water                    Twelve ounces and a half.

Give from half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful three times a day.

The above must be persevered in for a couple of months before any effect
can be anticipated. Mercury I have not found of any service, though Blaine
speaks highly of it, and Youatt quotes his opinion. Perhaps I have not
employed it rightly, or ventured to push it far enough.

Under the treatment recommended, the dog may be preserved from speedy
death; but the structures have been so much changed that medicine cannot
be expected to restore them. The pet may be saved to its indulgent
mistress, and again perhaps exhibit all the charms for which it was ever
prized; but the sporting-dog will never be made capable of doing work, and
certainly it is not to be selected to breed from after it has sustained an
attack of hepatitis.

Sometimes, during the existence of hepatitis, the animal will be seized
with fits of pain, which appear to render it frantic. These I always
attribute to the passage of gall stones, which I have taken in comparative
large quantities from the gall-bladders of dogs. The cries and struggles
create alarm, but the attack is seldom fatal. A brisk purgative, a warm
bath, and free use of laudanum and ether, afford relief; for when the
animal dies of chronic hepatitis, it perishes gradually from utter
exhaustion.

The post-mortem examination generally presents that which much surprises
the proprietor; one lobe of the gland is very greatly enlarged; it
evidently contains fluid. It has under disease become a vast cyst, from
which, in a setter, I have actually extracted more than two gallons of
serum: from a small spaniel I have taken this organ so increased in size
that it positively weighed one half the amount of the body from which it
was removed. The wonder is that the apparently weak covering to the liver
could bear so great a pressure without bursting.



INDIGESTION.

Things must seem to have come to a pretty pass when a book is gravely
written upon dyspepsia in dogs. Nevertheless, I am in earnest when I treat
upon that subject; and could the animals concerned bear witness, they
would testify it was indeed no joke. The Lord Mayor of London does not
retire from office with a stomach more deranged than the majority of the
canine race, shielded by his worshipful authority, could exhibit. The
cause in both instances is the same. Dogs as they increase in years seem
to degenerate sadly; till at length they mumble dainties and relish
flavors with the gusto of an alderman. Pups even are not worthy of
unlimited confidence. The little animals will show much ingenuity in
procuring substances that make the belly ache; and, with infantine
perversity, will, of their own accord, gobble things which, if
administered, would excite shrieks of resistance. A litter of high-bred
pups is a source of no less constant annoyance, nor does it require less
incessant watching, than a nursery of children. There is so much
similarity between man and dog that, from fear of too strongly wounding
the self-love of my reader, I must drop the subject.

Indigestion in dogs assumes various forms, and is the source of numerous
diseases. Most skin affections may be attributed to it. The inflammation
of the gums, the foulness of the teeth, and the offensiveness of the
breath, are produced by it. Excessive fatness, with its attendant asthma
and hollow cough, are to be directly traced to a disordered digestion. In
the long run, half of the petted animals die from diseases originating in
this cause; and in nearly every instance the fault lies far more with the
weakness of the master than with the corruptness of the beast. He who is
invested with authority has more sins, than those he piously acknowledges
his own, to answer for.

The symptoms are not obscure. A dislike for wholesome food, and a craving
for hotly spiced or highly sweetened diet, is an indication. Thirst and
sickness are more marked. A love for eating string, wood, thread, and
paper, denotes the fact; and is wrongly put down to the prompting of a
mere mischievous instinct: any want of natural appetite, or any evidence
of morbid desire in the case of food, declares the stomach to be
disordered. The dog that, when offered a piece of bread, smells it with a
sleepy eye, and without taking it licks the fingers that present it, has
an impaired digestion. Such an animal will perhaps only take the morsel
when it is about to be withdrawn; and, having got it, does not swallow it,
but places it on the ground, and stands over it with an expression of
peevish disgust. A healthy dog is always decided. No animal can be more
so. It will often take that which it cannot eat, but, having done so, it
either throws the needless possession away or lies down, and with a
determined air watches "the property." There is no vexation in its looks,
no captiousness in its manner. It acts with decision, and there is purpose
in what it does. The reverse is the case with dogs suffering from
indigestion. They are peevish and irresolute. They take only because
another shall not have. They will perhaps eat greedily what they do not
want if the cat looks longfully at that which had lain before them for
many minutes, and which no coaxing could induce them to swallow. They are,
in their foibles, very like the higher animal.

The treatment is simple. The dog must be put upon, and strictly kept upon,
an allowance. Some persons, when these animals are sent to them, because
the creatures are fat and sickly, shut the dogs up for two or four days,
and allow them during the period to taste nothing but water. The trick
often succeeds, but it is dangerous in severe cases, and needless in mild
ones. This is a heartless practice, which ignorance only would resort to;
but such conduct is very general, and the people who follow it boast
laughingly of its effect. They do not care for its consequences. A weakly
stomach cannot be benefited by a prolonged abstinence. I have kept a dog
four-and-twenty hours without food, but never longer, and then only when
the animal has been brought to me with a tale about its not eating. The
report, then, is assurance that food has been offered, and the inference
is that the stomach is loaded. A little rest enables it to get rid of its
contents, and in some measure to recover its tone. The dog, as a general
rule, does well on one meal a day; afterward, the food is regularly
weighed, and nothing more than the quantity is permitted. This quantity
may be divided into three or four meals, and given at stated periods, so
that the last is eaten at night. When thus treated, animals, which I am
assured would touch nothing, have soon become possessors of vigorous
appetites. At the same time, exercise and the cold bath every morning is
ordered; and either tonic or gentle sedatives, with alkalies and vegetable
bitters, are administered. The following are the ordinary stomach-pills,
and do very well for the generality of cases:--

  Extract of hyoscyamus      Sixteen grains.
  Sodæ carb.                 Half an ounce.
  Extract of gentian         Half an ounce.
  Ferri carb.                Half an ounce.

Make into sixteen, thirty, or eight pills, and give two daily.

The reader, however, will not depend upon any one compound, for stomach
disease is remarkably capricious. Sometimes one thing and sometimes
another does a great deal of good; but the same thing is seldom equally
good in any two cases. Stimulants, as nitrate of silver, trisnitrate of
bismuth, or nux vomica, are occasionally of great service; and so also are
purgatives and emetics, but these last, when they do no benefit, always do
much injury. They should, therefore, be tried last, and then with caution,
the order being thus:--Tonics, sedatives, and alkalies, either singly or
in combination, and frequently changed. Stimulants and excitants in small
doses, gradually increased. Emetics and purgatives, mingled with any of
the foregoing. The food and exercise, after all, will do more for the
restoration than the medicine, which must be so long continued that the
mind doubts whether it is of any decided advantage. The affection is
always chronic, and time is therefore imperative for its cure.

Dogs are afflicted with a disease of the stomach, which is very like to
"water-brash," "pyrosis," or "cardialgia," in the human being. The animals
thus tormented are generally fully grown and weakly: a peculiarity in the
walk shows the strength is feeble. The chief symptom is, however, not to
be mistaken. The creature is dull just before the attack: it gets by
itself, and remains quiet. All at once it rises; and without an effort, no
premonitory sounds being heard, a quantity of fluid is ejected from the
mouth, and by the shaking of the head scattered about. This appears to
afford relief, but the same thing may occur frequently during the day.
This disease of itself is not dangerous; but it is troublesome, and will
make any other disorder the more likely to terminate fatally; it should,
therefore, be always attended to. The food must not be neglected, and
either a solution of the iodide of potassium with liquor potassæ, or pills
of trisnitrate of bismuth, must be given. The preparations of iron are
sometimes of use; and a leech or two, after a small blister to the side,
has also seemed to be beneficial. When some ground has been gained, the
treatment recommended for indigestion generally must be adopted, the
choice of remedies being guided by the symptoms. The practitioner,
however, must not forget that the mode of feeding has probably been the
cause; and, therefore, it must ever after be an object of especial care.
The cold bath and exercise, proportioned to the strength, are equally to
be esteemed.

Very old dogs often die from indigestion, and in such cases the stomach
will become inflated to an extent that would hardly be credited. These
animals I have not observed to be subject to flatulent colic; when,
therefore, the abdomen becomes suddenly tympanitic the gas is usually
contained in the stomach. Fits and diarrhoea may accompany or precede the
attack, which in the first instance yields to treatment; but in a month
more or less returns, and is far more stubborn. Ether and laudanum, by
mouth and enema, are at first to be employed; and, generally, they are
successful. The liquor potassæ, chloride of lime in solution, and
aromatics with chalk, may also be tried, the food being strengthening but
entirely fluid. The warm bath is here highly injurious; and bleeding or
purging out of the question. When the distension of the stomach is so
great as to threaten suffocation, the tube of the stomach-pump may be
introduced; but, unless danger be present, the practitioner ought to
depend upon the efforts of nature, to support which all his measures
should be directed. After recovery, meat scraped as for potting, without
any admixture of vegetables, must constitute the diet; and while a
sufficiency is given, a very little only must be allowed at a time. With
these precautions the life may be prolonged, but the restoration of health
is not to be expected.



GASTRITIS

[Illustration]

Dogs are abused for their depraved tastes, and reproached for the filth
they eat; but if one of them, being of a particular disposition in the
article of food, takes to killing his own mutton, he is knocked on the
head as too luxurious. It is a very vulgar mistake to imagine the canine
race have no preferences. They have their likes and dislikes quite as
strong and as capricious as other animals. Man himself does not more
frequently impair his digestion by over indulgence than does the dog. In
both cases the punishment is the same, but the brute having the more
delicate digestion suffers most severely. The dog's stomach is so subject
to be deranged that few of these creatures can afford to gormandize; to
which failing, however, they are much inclined. The consequence is soon
shown. A healthy dog can make a hearty meal and sleep soundly after it.
The petted favorite is often pained by a moderate quantity of food, and
frequent are the housemaid's regrets that his digestion is not more
retentive. He spoils other things besides victuals; and the more daintily
he lives the more generally is he troublesome. It is the variety that
diseases him. He grows to be omnivorous. He learns to relish that which
nature did not fit him to consume, and as a consequence he pays for his
bad habits. The dog in extreme cases can digest even bones; a banquet of
tainted flesh will not disorder him; but he cannot subsist in health on
his lady's diet. His stomach was formed to receive and assimilate certain
substances, and to deny these is not to be generous or kind.

Gastritis is very common with ladies' favorites. Its symptoms are well
marked. Frequent sickness is the first indication. This is taken little
notice of. The mess is cleared up, and the matter is forgotten. Thirst is
constant, and the lapping is long; but no further notice is taken of this
circumstance, than to remark the animal has grown very fond of water. At
last the thirst has increased, and no sooner is the draught swallowed than
it is ejected. The appetite which may have been ravenous a little time
before, now grows bad, and whatever is eaten is immediately returned. The
animal is evidently ill. The nose is dry, and the breathing quick. It
avoids warmth, and lies and pants, away from the hearthrug. It dislikes
motion and stretches itself out, either upon its chest or on its belly.
Sometimes it moans, and more rarely cries. The stomach is now inflamed;
and if the symptoms could have been earlier understood, frequently has the
animal been seen, prior to this stage of attack, licking the polished
steel fire-irons. It has been horrifying its mistress's propriety, by its
instinctive desire to touch something cold with its burning tongue; and
the poor little beast perhaps has been chastised for seeking a momentary
relief to its affliction.

Dogs that are properly treated rarely have gastritis. When they do, it is
generally induced by some unwholesome food. I have known it to be caused
by graves more often than by anything else they are accustomed to eat. I
never recommend this stuff to be given to dogs. Meal and skim milk is far
better, and that can always be procured where flesh is scarce. The
entrails of sheep, &c., if washed and boiled with a large quantity of any
kind of meal, are nutritious and wholesome; nay, even when a little
tainted, they will not be refused. If, however, they were hung up in a
strong draught, they would soon dry; and in that state might be preserved
for use any length of time; all they afterwards require would be boiling.
The paunch can be prepared in the same manner; and it would be worth some
little trouble to avoid a mixture which contains nothing strengthening,
and too often a great deal that is injurious.

The treatment of gastritis is simple. It is generally accompanied by more
or less diarrhoea; but the violence of the leading symptom renders that of
comparatively little consequence. The degree of sickness will always
indicate whether the stomach is the principal seat of disease.

As nothing is retained, it would be a needless trouble to give many solids
or fluids, by the mouth. From half a grain to a grain and a half of
calomel, thoroughly mixed with the same quantities of powdered opium, may
be sprinkled upon the tongue; and from one drachm to four drachms of
sulphuric ether may be given in as much water as will dissolve it twenty
minutes afterwards. The medicine will most probably be ejected; but, as it
is very volatile, it may be retained sufficient time to have some
influence in quieting the spasmodic irritability of the stomach. Ethereal
injections should be administered every hour, and no food of any kind
allowed. Besides this, from a quarter of a grain to a grain of opium may
be sprinkled on the tongue every hour; and the ether draught continued
until the sickness ceases, or the animal displays signs of being
narcotised. An ammoniacal blister, if the symptoms are urgent, may be
applied to the left side; but in mild cases, a strong embrocation will
answer every purpose. Except the constitution be vigorous, and the pulse
very strong, it will not be advisable to bleed, but from two to twelve
leeches may be applied to the lower part of the chest. Cold water may be
allowed in any quantity, but nothing warm should be given. The colder the
water, the better, and the more grateful it will be to the animal. Where
it can be obtained, a large lump of ice may be placed in the water, for
the dog often will lick this, and sometimes even gnaw it. Small lumps of
ice may be forced down as pills, and a cold bath may be given, the animal
being well wrapped up afterwards, that it may become warm, and the blood,
by the natural reaction, be determined to the skin.

When the sickness is conquered, the following should be administered:--

  Powdered nux vomica      A quarter of a grain to a grain.
  Sulphate of iron         One grain to four grains.
  Extract of gentian       Sufficient to make a pill.

The above may be repeated every four hours until the stomach is quiet; but
it is not always tranquillized; sickness may return, and the pills may
possibly seem to aggravate it. If such should appear to be the case, try
the next:--

  Acid hydrocyanic, L.P.       One drop to four drops.
  Carbonate of soda            Three grains to twelve grains.
  Water                        A sufficiency.

The ether and opium must also he persevered with, regulating the last of
course by the action which it induces.

Food should consist of cold broth, slightly thickened with ground rice,
arrowroot, starch, or flour, and for some days it must be composed of
nothing more; but by degrees the thickness may be increased, and a little
bread and milk introduced. After a time a small portion of minced
underdone meat, without skin or fat, may be allowed; but the quantity must
be small, and the quality unexceptionable.

The second day generally sees an abatement of the more urgent symptoms,
and then the draught may be composed of five minims of laudanum to every
drachm of ether, and ten drachms of water. This to be given both by mouth
and injection six times daily. The former pills were intended only to
allay the primary violence of the disease, and when that object is
attained, the following remedy may be employed:--

  Extract of hyoscyamus      One grain to four grains.
  Carbonate of soda          Three grains to twelve grains.
  Carbonate of ammonia       Half a grain to two grains.
  Extract of gentian         Five grains to a scruple.
  Powdered quassia           A sufficiency.

The above is for one pill, which should be repeated four times daily, and
continued for some days; when, if the dog seems quite recovered, a course
of the quinine tonic pills, as recommended for distemper, will be of use;
but should any suspicion be created of the disorder not being entirely
removed, the animal may be treated as advised for indigestion.

Sporting dogs are frequently sent to me suffering under what the
proprietors are pleased to term "Foul." The history of these cases is soon
known. They have been withdrawn from the field at the close of the season,
and have ever since been shut up in close confinement, while the working
diet has been persevered with. The poor beast is supposed capable of
vegetating until the return of the period for shooting requires his
services. He remains chained up till he acquires every outward disease to
which his kind are liable; and then, when he stinks the place out, his
owner is surprised at his condition, pronouncing his misused animal to be
"very foul." "Foul" is not one disease, but an accumulation of disorders
brought on by the absence of exercise with a stimulating diet. The
sporting dog, when really at work, may have all the flesh it can consume;
but at the termination of that period its food should consist wholly of
vegetable substances, while a _little_ exercise daily is necessary, not to
health, but absolutely for life. The dog with "foul" requires each seat of
disease to be treated separately; beginning of course with the dressing
for mange or for lice, one or the other of which the animal is certain to
display.



DISEASES DEPENDENT ON AN INTERNAL ORGAN.



STOMACH.--ST. VITUS'S DANCE.

This disease generally is assumed to be a nervous disorder, and so the
symptoms declare it to be; but on _post mortem_ examinations no lesion is
found either upon the brain, spinal marrow, or the nerves themselves. This
last circumstance, however, proves nothing; for the same thing may be said
of tetanus in the human being, and of stringhalt in the horse; both of
them being well-marked nervous affections. I append St. Vitus's Dance to
the stomach, not because of that which I have not beheld, but because of
that which I have positively seen.

It follows upon distemper. I do not know it as a distinct disorder, though
it is asserted to exist as such when the greater or leading disease is
unobserved. It then follows up the affection which primarily involves the
stomach and intestines, and to which indications all other symptoms are
secondary. On every _post mortem_ which I have made of this disorder, I
have discovered the stomach inflamed; and, therefore, not because the
nerves or their centres are blank, but because on one important viscus I
have found well marked signs to impress my reason, I propose to treat of
this disorder as connected with the stomach.


[Illustration: THE POINTER.]

The signs to which I allude, consists of patches of well-defined
inflammation; and hence, knowing how distemper has the power to involve
other organs, I conclude it has caused the spinal marrow to be
sympathetically affected.

The symptoms of the disease are well marked. The poor beast, whether he be
standing up or lying down, is constantly worried with a catching of the
limb or limbs--for only one may be affected, or all four may be attacked.
Sleeping or waking, the annoyance continues. The dog cannot obtain a
moment's rest from its tormentor. Day and night the movement remains; no
act, no position the poor brute is capable of, can bring to the animal an
instant's downright repose. Its sleep is troubled and broken; its waking
moments are rendered miserable by this terrible infliction. The worst of
the matter is, that the dog in every other respect appears to be well. Its
spirits are good, and it is alive for happiness. If it were released from
its constant affliction, it is eager to enjoy its brief lease of life as
in the time of perfect health. Plaintive and piteous are its looks as,
lying asleep before the fire, it is aroused by a sudden pain; wakes, turns
round, and mutely appeals to its master for an explanation or a removal of
the nuisance. When stricken down at last, as, unable to stand, it lies
upon its straw, most sad is it to see the poor head raised, and to hear
the tail in motion welcoming any one who may enter the place in which it
is a helpless but a necessary prisoner.

In this disorder the best thing is to pay every attention to the food. The
wretched animal generally has an enormous appetite, and, when it is unable
to stand, will continue feeding to the last. This morbid hunger must not
be indulged. One pound of good rice may be boiled or cooked in a
sufficiency of carefully made beef-tea, every particle of meat or bone
being removed. This will constitute the provender for one day necessary to
sustain the largest dog, and a quarter the amount will be sufficient for
one of the average size. Where good rice is not to be obtained, oatmeal or
bread, allowing for the moisture which the last contains, may be
substituted. No bones, nor substances likely, when swallowed, to irritate
the stomach, must on any account be allowed. The quantity given at one
time must ever be small; and every sort of provender offered should be
soft and soothing to the internal parts; though the poor dog will be eager
to eat that which will be injurious. Water should be placed within its
reach, and offered during the day, the head being held while the
incapacitated animal drinks.

When a dog is prostrated by this affliction, it must on no account be
suffered to remain on the floor, where its limbs would speedily become
excoriated, being forcibly moved upon the boards; anything placed beneath
the animal to save the limbs, would be saturated with the urine and fæces
the poor beast is necessitated to pass. The best bed in such cases is made
of a slanting piece of woodwork, of sufficient size to allow the animal to
lie with ease at full length. The planks composing the wooden stage must
be placed apart, be pierced with numerous holes, have the edges rounded,
and be elevated at one end so as to allow all moisture readily to run
off. The wood must be covered with a quantity of straw; which sort of
bedding is convenient, not only because it allows the water to speedily
percolate through it, but because it is warm, and being cheap, permits of
repeated change.

Physic is not of much avail in this disorder; kind nursing and mild food
will do more towards recovery. Still, medicine, as an accessory, may be of
considerable service, and in a secondary view deserves honorable mention.
Alkalies, sedatives, and vegetable bitters, may be combined in various
forms. The author's favorite sedative in stomach diseases is hyoscyamus,
and alkali potash. For a bitter, quassia is a very good one; better than
gentian, a small amount of the extract of which, however, may be used to
make up the pill. When speaking of the pill, the most important ingredient
must not be forgotten--I mean nux vomica. Some people employ strychnia,
but such persons more often kill than cure their patients. Strychnia in
any doses, however minute, is a violent poison to the dog. While at
college I beheld animals killed with it; and there does not live the
person who knows how to render this agent safe to the dog. Nux vomica,
even, must be used in very minute doses, to be entirely safe--from a
quarter of a grain to a small pup, to two grains to the largest animal.
That quantity must be continued for a week, four pills being given daily;
then add a quarter of a grain daily to the four larger pills, and a
quarter of a grain every four days to all the smaller ones; keep on
increasing the amount, till the physiological effects of the drug, as
they are called, become developed. These consist in the beast having that
which uninformed people term "a fit." He lies upon the ground, uttering
rather loud cries, whilst every muscle of his body is in motion. Thus he
continues scratching, as if it was his desire to be up and off at a
hundred miles an hour. No sooner is he rid of one attack than he has
another. He retains his consciousness, but is unable to give any sign of
recognition. It is useless to crowd round the animal in this state; the
drug must perform its office, and will do so, in spite of human effort.
The very best thing that can be done, is to let the animal alone until the
attack is over, when writers on Materia Medica tell us improvement is
perceptible. I wish it was so in dogs. I have beheld the physiological
effect of nux vomica repeatedly, but cannot recollect many instances in
which I could date amendment from its appearance.

The following is the formula for the pill recently alluded to:--

  Potash                     Two to seven grains.
  Extract of hyoscyamus      Half a grain to four grains.
  Quassia powder             Three to sixteen grains.
  Nux vomica                 A quarter of a grain to two grains.
  Extract of gentian         A sufficiency.

The above quantities are sufficient for one pill, four of which are to be
given daily for a week, at the expiration of which period the increase may
begin. If the above, after a fair test has been made of it, does not
succeed, trial may be instituted of the nitrate of silver, the
trisnitrate of bismuth, or any of the various drugs said to be beneficial
in the disease, or of service in stomach complaints. In this disorder the
same drug never appears to act twice alike, therefore a change is
warranted and desirable.

Hopes of restoration may be entertained if the animal can only be kept
alive to recover strength; then confident expectation can be expressed
that the dog will outgrow the disease. The first signs perceptible which
denote recovery are these:--The provender the beast consumes is evidently
not thrown away. Instead of eating much, and ungratefully becoming thinner
and thinner upon that which it consumes, the animal displays a disposition
to thrive upon its victuals. It does not get fat on what it eats, but it
evidently loses no flesh. It grows no thinner; and if the strength be not
recruited, it obviously is not diminished. The animal does not gorge much
wholesome diet daily, to exhibit more and more the signs of debility and
starvation. If only a suspicion can be felt that the poor dog does not
sink, then hope of ultimate success may warm the heart of a kind master;
but when the reverse is obvious, though killing a dog is next to killing a
child--and he who for pleasure can do the one, is not far off from doing
the other--yet it is mercy then to destroy that existence which must else
be miserably worn away. When there is no chance left for expectation to
cling to, it becomes real charity to do violence to our feelings, in order
that we may spare a suffering creature pain; but when there is a
prospect, however remote, of recovery, I hope there is no veterinary
surgeon who would touch the life. When the animal can stand, we may
anticipate good; and whatever is left of the complaint, we may assure our
employers will vanish as the age increases; for St. Vitus's Dance is
essentially the disease of young dogs. But as recovery progresses, we must
be cautious to do nothing to fling the animal back. No walks must be
enforced, under the pretence of administering exercise. The animal has
enough of that in its ever-jerking limbs; and however well it may grow to
be while the disease lasts, we may rest assured the dog suffering its
attack stands in need of repose.



BOWEL DISEASES.

Continuous with the stomach are the intestines, which are equally subject
to disease, and more exposed to it in an acute form than even the former
viscus. The dog will fill its belly with almost anything, but there is
little that positively agrees with it. Boiled rice or lean meat, &c., and
coarse biscuit, are the best general food; but without exercise, even
these will not support health. The dog requires constant care if it is
deprived of liberty: and those who keep these animals as pets, must submit
to trouble, for though art may do much, it cannot conquer Nature.

The intestines of the dog are peculiar. In the first place, it has no
colon, and all the guts are nearly of one size from the commencement to
the termination; the duodenum and the most posterior portion of the rectum
being the largest, though not so much so as materially to destroy the
appearance of uniformity. The cæcum is no more than a small appendage--a
little sac attached to the main tube; it has but one opening, and that is
very diminutive. I think all the food, as in other animals, passes into
and out of this intestine; which, because of its peculiar formation, is
therefore particularly liable to be disordered. In the dog which has died
of intestinal disease, the cæcum is almost invariably found enlarged and
inflamed. In it, I imagine, the majority of bowel affections have their
origin. The gut is first loaded, and the consequence of this is, it loses
its natural function. The contents become irritants from being retained,
and the whole process of digestion is deranged; other parts are involved,
and inflammation is induced.

Writers do not notice the tendency of the cæcum to be diseased, or remark
upon its disposition to exhibit signs of alteration; but the fact being so
obvious, I wonder it should have escaped observation.

COSTIVENESS is, in some measure, natural to the dog, and in that animal is
hardly to be viewed as a disease. In health, the fæces are not expelled
without considerable straining, and the matter voided ought to be of a
solid character. It nevertheless should not be absolutely hard, or
positively dry, for in that case the want of moisture shows the natural
secretion of the rectum is deficient; the hardness proving prolonged
detention, denoting the intestines have lost their activity.

Both Blaine and Youatt were educated in the old school of medicine, which
taught them to regard purgatives as the surgeon's best friends, and the
sheet-anchors of his practice. They prescribe them in almost every case,
and almost on every occasion; but I rarely give these agents. In the dog I
am convinced they are not safe, and their constant use is by no means
imperative. Should an animal be supposed not to have been relieved for a
week, this fact is no proof that a purgative is required. The animal may
have eluded observation, and it cannot inform us if such has been the
case. The intestines may be slow, or the digestion may be more than
usually active. It is foolish to lay down rules for Nature, and punish her
creatures if these laws are not obeyed. There are, however, means of
ascertaining when a purgative is needed; and these, if employed, will very
rarely deceive.

The muscles covering the abdomen of the dog are very thin, and through
them the contents of the cavity may be plainly felt. By squeezing these
together, the fingers will detect whether the rectum, which lies near to
the spine, and of course backward or towards the tail, contains any
substance. Should the presence of any solid body be ascertained, its
character ought to be noted. If round and comparatively soft, a little
exercise will cause it to be expelled; but if hard-pointed in places, and
uneven, assistance should be afforded. An enema, of the solution of
soap--or of Epsom salts, from half an ounce to a quarter of a pound, in a
quarter of a pint to a quart of water--may be administered. A more active
injection will be, from half a drachm to four drachms of turpentine,
beaten up with the yolks of so many eggs as there are drachms of the oil,
and mixed with the quantity of water just named.

Either of these will relieve the bowel; but the condition of one part
justifies an inference as to the state of another, and the enema probably
will not unload the cæcum, which there is reason to suppose is also
clogged. A gentle dose of castor-oil, or of the pills directed on page
116, will accomplish this intention; and, afterwards, measures must be
adopted to regulate the digestion, either by tonics or such medicines as
the symptoms suggest, but not by the constant repetition of laxatives.

Costiveness will sometimes produce such violent pain that alarm is
created, and dogs have been destroyed under the idea that they were rabid.
To guard against so fatal a mistake, I shall only here say, that rabies
does not come on suddenly, or, save in the latest stage, appear to
influence the consciousness, which it never entirely overpowers. The agony
caused by costiveness is greater than in any other affection to which the
dog is liable. Apparently well, and perhaps at play, a cry breaks forth,
which is the next instant a shriek, expressive of the acutest torture. The
animal takes to running, and is not aware of surrounding objects; it can
recognise nothing, but will bite its master if he attempts to catch it,
and hit itself against anything that may be in its way; it scampers from
room to room, or hurries from place to place; it is unable to be still or
silent; and perhaps getting into a corner, it makes continuous efforts as
though it wished to scramble up the wall, remaining there jumping with all
its strength, and at the same time yelling at the top of its voice. This
excitement may last for an hour or more, and then cease only to be
renewed: till at length the powers fail, and in half a day the animal may
be dead. Just prior to death, a mass of compact fæces is usually passed;
and blood, with dysentery, is generally witnessed for the short period the
animal survives. After death, general inflammation of the intestines is
discovered, and the dog is reported to have perished from an attack of
enteritis which no medicine could subdue.

In such cases, the first examination should be directed to the rectum; the
finger, moistened or oiled, ought to be inserted, and the intestine
explored as thoroughly as possible. This operation is, however, not of
further use than to confirm the opinion of the practitioner; and I,
knowing the cause, therefore dispense with it. A copious enema should be
immediately exhibited. One containing turpentine is the most effective;
but, on account of its activity, it is only safe in the beginning of the
attack. A warm bath is of service, but it takes up time which may be
better employed, and does not do sufficient good to recompense for the
delay. A full dose of sulphuric ether and laudanum should be given to
allay the pain, and it may with this intention be repeated every ten or
twenty minutes. If, from the enema, nothing follows, the finger should
then certainly be introduced, and perhaps a compact mass may be felt
firmly grasped by the intestine. Slowly, and with great caution, this must
be broken up, and brought away bit by bit. The handle of a spoon has been
recommended for this purpose, but I entreat my readers not to use it.
Where pain is present, and life or death hang on the issue, there is no
right to be any delicacy. An instrument of any kind introduced into such a
part, and employed while the body is writhing about in agony, cannot be
free from danger, and scarcely can be so used as to be effective. The
finger is the quickest, the most safe, and the most effectual instrument;
for we have it under our command, can guide it at our will, and with it
take cognisance of all the circumstances presented. Even that must be
employed gently, and this will be best done by the avoidance of haste. The
surgeon is bound to be skilful, but he ought never to be in a hurry. Let
all the time that can be occupied on such a matter be freely taken, and
during the process, let the cries of the animal be attended to; any change
of note will contain a warning which must not be disregarded. Without
attending to that, the intestine might be ruptured, and death would then
be certain.

When the obstruction has been overcome, let a few ethereal enemas be
administered to allay any local irritability; and a dose of the purgative
pills--followed, six hours afterwards, should they not have operated, by
one of castor-oil mixture, blended with half a scruple of
chloroform--being given to unload the cæcum. The medicine having acted
freely, the food must be amended, the treatment altered, and such other
measures taken as the digestion may require for its restoration.

[Illustration]

COLIC.--This is an affection to which dogs are very subject. The human
infant is not more liable to be griped than are the young of the canine
species. The idea of a cur with a belly-ache may, to some persons, seem to
be suggestive of fun; but to the creature that suffers, it is indeed a
serious business. A duchess with the spasms does not endure so much, and
is not in half the danger, that a dog is exposed to during a fit of
gripes. The animal must be relieved, or inflammation will speedily ensue,
and death will follow. In some cases, the appearance of colic is almost a
certain indication that the poor beast will die. When it comes on a week
or two prior to pupping, we may cure it; but during, or soon after
parturition, the bitch generally perishes. When it starts up in the later
or more virulent stage of distemper, especially at the time when the
champing of the jaw denotes the approach of fits, the chance of a
favorable termination to the disease is materially diminished. When in a
violent form it attacks a litter of puppies, either simultaneously or
consecutively, it is always attended with danger. At no season, and under
no circumstances, is it trivial, and never ought it to be neglected. The
cries and distress of the suffering animal will, when it is fully
established, enforce attention; but too often it has then proceeded so far
that much medicine will not check what in the first instance a single dose
might have entirely banished.

The symptoms of colic have been much confused by Blaine, who, when
describing them, evidently alludes to many forms of disease with which
abdominal spasm has no connexion. Youatt is far more clear; but he is too
concise, and omits so much that the reader does not properly appreciate
the importance of that affection which is thus slightly mentioned. Neither
of the two authors seems to have carefully studied the subject; for in
their writings is not to be found any account of those early symptoms
which most readily yield to treatment.

Prior to evincing any sign of colic, the dog appears well; healthy in its
body and easy in its mind. The appetite is good, or may be better than
usual. The food has been eaten and relished; then the animal instinctively
lies down to sleep and aid digestion. A moan is heard; the sound is half
suppressed, and the dog that utters it appears to sleep. Another cry, as
feeble, but of greater length, is noticed; and now the animal that made
it changes its position. The next time it may rise, look round, and seek
another place; which having found, it appears to settle itself and to go
to sleep. The rest once more is broken, the voice grows more full and
loud; the dog jumps up and runs about for a little while, then selects a
spot where it curls its body tightly up, as if resolved to have out its
nap. The interruption, however, constantly recurs; and at each return the
exclamation is more emphatic--the starting more energetic--the movement
more abrupt--and, contrasting these, the determination or desire to repose
becomes more strong. Thus endeavoring to sleep, and being constantly
disturbed by some sharp and shooting pain, the dog may continue for a day,
or two, or three, its cries, during the whole period, offending a
neighborhood.

During the continuance of colic, the general appearance of the animal may
be but little affected. The eye is not injected, but the pupil may be
slightly enlarged. The nose is cool and moist, but towards the end,
irritation may render the part hot or dry. The appetite is generally
slight--sometimes lost; and fluids are more readily accepted than solids.
The cry, however, should be remarked; because, with the pulse, it gives
the earliest notice when inflammation is commencing. While colic alone
exists, the pulse may, from pain, be accelerated, and rendered more full,
as well as strong, though not always to any marked extent. In
inflammation, the pulse is greatly quickened, the artery becomes smaller,
and its beat more jerking or wiry. During simple spasm the voice is
natural, rich, sonorous, and almost musical; but in inflammation it is
short, harsh, high, and broken, the exclamations not being continuous, but
consisting of a series of disconnected "_yaps_."

For the treatment, in the first instance, a turpentine enema will
frequently cut short the attack. Should it fail to so, injections of ether
and laudanum should succeed, and doses of the mixture should also be given
every half hour; the first three being exhibited at intervals only of a
quarter of an hour each. The cathartic pills should be administered; and
in three hours, if the bowels have not been acted upon, a dose of
castor-oil should be resorted to; but where the cathartic has been
responded to, the castor-oil should be delayed for eight or twelve hours.

When the pain ceases, the ether and laudanum should not be immediately
discontinued; but they may be employed at longer intervals, and gradually
reduced in quantity, until the bowels are thoroughly opened, when they may
be withheld. Under this treatment, the affection is rarely fatal, and
never so if taken in time. An injection of ether and laudanum should
always be given to any pup that exhibits even the slightest symptom of
uneasiness. I have never known it to do harm, but I am convinced it has
often prevented danger.

In those cases where purging and other indications denote the coats of the
bowels to be already involved, and spasm co-exists with enteritis, ether
and laudanum must enter into all the remedies employed. On the dog their
action is, in my opinion, always beneficial; and were they not directly
so, the influence they possess in deadening pain would be sufficient
reason to justify their adoption. The other measures consist of such as
will be found mentioned under the head of enteritis; but it is essential
to observe any fæces which may be ejected by the animal that has suffered
colic; for by these we may sometimes guess the cause of the attack, and
more often learn the means through which a return may be prevented.

As to the causes which induce colic, I can of my own knowledge offer no
information. It has to me seemed to be regulated by none of those
circumstances to which it is generally attributed; at all events, I think
I have witnessed it in animals which have not been exposed to any of the
causes that teachers and writers assert induce it. Dogs are, however,
brought to us only when the cause has ceased; for we are sought for only
to treat the effect. The declarations of authors may therefore be correct,
although I am unable to corroborate them; and these gentlemen say colic is
produced by cold, acrid food, chills, worms, hard water, &c. In cases of
this kind, therefore, it may be well to inquire if the dog has been
exposed, or badly fed, or is in any way unhealthy; and, so far as
possible, to rectify these matters; for, even though they may not have
provoked the spasm, nevertheless we shall do good by attending to the
health, diet, and comfort of the animal.

ENTERITIS.--The doom of the dog which is really afflicted with this
disease, is generally sealed. It is a painful and a fatal
disorder--equally rapid and stubborn. I fear it more than any other
affection to which the animal is subject, and more frequently than any
other has it set my best endeavors at defiance.

In the dog, however, enteritis is rarely seen in a pure form. The mucous
membrane of the intestines is mostly inflamed, but the serous covering, as
a general rule, is in no degree involved. The stomach, however, is almost
in every instance more or less implicated; its inner surface being
inflamed, and its muscular coat so contracted, that the lining membrane is
corrugated, and remains in that condition after death.

The incentives are, unwholesome food, which is the most frequent of the
causes; exposure, especially after a dog has been in winter fantastically
deprived of its long hair over the loins; and over-exertion, to which the
dog is often exposed, no attention being paid to its condition. Anything
which disorders the digestion, or violently shakes the constitution, will
induce it; for in the dog every species of revulsion has a tendency to
attack the bowels. Mange improperly treated has produced it; and this may
be said of almost any skin disease; so that it has been caused not by true
mange or itch alone but by a skin disease having been, under the pretence
of working an immediate cure, driven into the system. Neglected
impactments, or colic, are among its most frequent immediate causes; for
at least three parts of those cases of enteritis submitted to my notice,
have been clearly traced to have commenced with something of that kind.

Of the symptoms of enteritis, colic and constipation, with a hard thin
pulse, are the most prominent. Sickness is not present, or rather I have
not witnessed it, at the commencement of the disorder. The extremities are
cold--the eye has a stupid expression, the pupil being much dilated--the
breath is hot, and the nose dry. The tail is drawn firmly downward, and
pressed upon the anus; the urine is sometimes scanty, always high-colored;
the tongue is rough and clammy, the thirst strong, and the appetite lost.
The dog seeks darkness and privacy, and does not ramble during the early
stage; it will stretch itself out either upon its belly or on its side,
and I have not seen it sit upon its haunches. The abdomen is only of the
heat of the body, which is generally of an increased temperature. Pressure
appears to cause no pain, and the animal rather seems grateful for
friction than to resist it. As the disease proceeds, diarrhoea ensues, and
with it the signs of exhaustion and death generally are exhibited.
Throughout the attack there is a marked disinclination to take any remedy;
which is not always displayed by these creatures, and in no other disease
is so violently exhibited. Dogs often become attached to those who
minister to their complaints; many of them will appear to understand and
appreciate the motives of him who attempts their relief. The poor things
will frequently submit to operations, and lick the hand which has
performed them. Eloquent are the appeals which they sometimes make to the
feelings of one in whom they have placed their confidence; often
staggering to meet him when he enters; looking upward into his face, and
uttering low cries, which are more expressive than words could possibly be
rendered. He who has had much to do with dogs must, if he be not
insensible, grow to like them, and gradually learn to think these
creatures possess both knowledge and reason. They will sometimes, without
a struggle, swallow the most pungent and nauseous drinks; but such is not
the case during enteritis. The brain in that disease is always
sympathetically affected, the state of the eye, its peculiar expression
and dilated pupil, denote the fact; and the manner of the dog would,
without these indications, lead us to surmise the circumstance.

The treatment must be energetic. The sharp, short cries, characteristic of
enteritis, as pointed out in the preceding description of colic, will be
sufficient warning of the danger, and ample intimation that there is no
time to be lost. A turpentine enema should be injected. The treatment
ought always to begin with this, for to unload the rectum is of all
importance. Afterwards, from one to four grains of calomel, with from half
a grain to two grains of opium, should be shaken upon the tongue; and when
ten minutes have elapsed, a draught of ether and laudanum and water, with
an injection of the same composition, ought to be exhibited. While the
cries last, the ether may be continued, and when the strength appears to
fail, it may also be employed. Two hours subsequent to the calomel being
given, from half an ounce to three ounces of castor-oil, diluted with half
the quantity of olive-oil, should be used as a drench; and thrice during
the day the following may be administered either as a pill or draught, in
thick gruel, soup, or mucilage, at the option of the practitioner; who
will, of course, be guided by the disposition of the patient, which in
every particular must be considered:--

  Grey powder                Five grains to a scruple.
  Powdered ipecacuanha       Half a grain to four grains.
  Extract of hyoscyamus      One to eight grains.

Bleeding is of some service, but the dog so quickly sinks, that it must be
practised with caution. On this account, as well as for other reasons,
leeches are to be preferred. If the patient be a male, they may be applied
to the belly; but if a female, the side of the abdomen must be shaven, and
that part selected. From four to twenty-four leeches will be sufficient;
and half that number may be again used if no change for the better is
observed, and the strength does not fail. Stimulating applications are
likewise beneficial. A large mustard poultice has appeared to be more
operative than more violent agents. After it has been removed, warm
fomentations of water, with occasional ones of hot turpentine, may be
employed.

In the early stage, a warm bath of 90 degrees, for half an hour, has been
used with advantage; but the animal, when removed from it, must be
wrapped well up in several hot blankets, and kept in them until it is
perfectly dry.

On the second day from two to ten drops of the tincture of arnica, with
half a drachm of the solution of the chloride of zinc, may be added to the
ethereal drinks and injections, if the disorder has not been checked; and
beef-tea, thickened with rice, may also be frequently administered, using
it instead of water, both in the draughts and injections. No other food is
admissible, and the return to solids must, if the animal survives, be very
gradual.

DYSENTERY AND DIARRHOEA.--These diseases, which in works on human
pathology are advantageously separated, I cannot here treat of as distinct
disorders. In the dog they are so connected and blended that the line
which divides them cannot be discovered; and for every practical purpose,
they may be here considered as one and the same affection.

The young and the old are most liable to these complaints. Puppies are
very subject, as also are aged gross favorites; things so fat that it
becomes hard work to live are very generally attacked with diarrhoea. The
pup, however, usually exhibits it in the acute form, whereas in the other
description of animal it mostly appears in the chronic type.

When acute, colic may accompany or precede it. In proportion to the spasm
will be the violence and the danger of the disorder. Sickness is mostly
witnessed a little time prior to the attack, and the matter vomited has a
peculiarly disagreeable and acrid odor. The dog does not again consume
that which the stomach has thrown off, but sneaks away dejected, and
afterwards seems dull. Sickness will occasionally continue throughout the
complaint, but in general it departs as the disease appears. Thirst,
however, is always present; and there is also a disposition to seek cold
things and places. The pulse is quicker, but not stronger, and hardly at
first less thin than during health. There is no pain on pressure being
applied to the abdomen. The membranes of the eye are not injected; they
may be a little deeper in color than is strictly natural, but occasionally
they are the reverse. If, however, the anus be gently forced open, so as
to expose the terminating surface of the rectum, the membrane there will
be found more red, and perhaps less clear in tint, than it ought to be;
and the presence of purgation, attended with a violent resistance to the
administration of clysters, will leave no doubt as to the character of the
affection.

In the chronic form, the membrane of the eye is pallid; the nose often
moist; the breath offensive; the appetite ravenous; the pulse quick and
weak; the anus inflamed; mostly protruding, and usually disfigured by
piles; the fæces liquid, and of various hues; sometimes black,
occasionally lighter than usual, very generally mixed with much mucus and
a small quantity of blood, so that the leading symptoms are those of
weakness, accompanied with purgation.

[Illustration: SUPERPURGATION.]

Acute diarrhoea may terminate in twenty-four hours; the chronic may
continue as many days. The first sometimes closes with hemorrhage, blood
in large quantities being ejected, either from the mouth or from the anus;
but more generally death ensues from apparent exhaustion, which is
announced by coldness of the belly and mouth, attended with a peculiar
faint and sickly fetor and perfect insensibility. The chronic more rarely,
ends with excessive bleeding, but almost always gradually wears out the
animal, which for days previous may be paralysed in the hind extremities,
lying with its back arched and its feet approximated, though consciousness
is retained almost to the last moment. In either case, however, the
characteristic stench prevails, and the lower surface of the abdomen, as a
general rule, feels hard, presenting to the touch two distinct lines,
which run in the course of the spine. These lines, which Youatt mentions
as cords, are the recti muscles, which in the dog are composed of
continuous fibre, and consequently, when contracted under the stimulus of
pain or disease, become very apparent.

On examination after death, the stomach, especially towards the pyloric
orifice, is inflamed, as are the intestines, which, however, towards the
middle of the track, are less violently affected than at other parts. The
cæcum is enlarged, and may even, while all the other guts are empty,
contain hard solid fæces. The rectum is generally black with inflammation,
and seems most to suffer in these disorders. Occasionally its interior is
ulcerated, and such is nearly always its condition towards the anus. Signs
of colic are distributed along the entire length of the alimentary tubes.

In the acute disease, the case in the first instance should be treated as
directed for colic, with turpentine enema and ether, laudanum and water,
followed by mild doses of grey powder and ipecacuanha, or chalk, catechu
and aromatics, in the proportions directed below:--

  Powdered opium            Half a grain to two grains.
  Powdered prepared chalk   Five grains to a scruple.
  Catechu                   Two grains to half a scruple.
  Liquor potassæ            Half-a-drachm to two drachms.
  Powdered ginger           Three to twelve grains.
  Powdered caraways         Three to twelve grains.
  Powdered capsicums        One to four grains.

This may be given every second hour. The carbonate of ammonia, from two to
eight grains, is also deserving of a trial, as are the chlorides and
chlorates when the odor is perceived.

Applications, as before directed, to the abdomen are also beneficial; but
frequent use of the warm bath should be forbidden, for its action is far
too debilitating. The ether, laudanum, and water should be persisted with
throughout the treatment, and hope may be indulged so long as the
injections are retained; but when these are cast back, or flow out as soon
as the pipe is removed, the case may be pronounced a desperate one.

In the chronic form of diarrhoea there is always greater prospect of
success. Ether, laudanum, and water will often master it, without the
addition of any other medicine; but the liquor potassæ and the chalk
preparation are valuable adjuncts. To the anus an ointment will be useful;
and it should not only be smeared well over the part, but, by means of a
penholder or the little finger, a small quantity should thrice in the
course of the day be introduced up the rectum. For this purpose the
following will be found to answer much better than any of those which
Blaine orders to be employed on similar occasions:--

  Camphor powdered   }
  Mercurial ointment }  Of each equal parts.
  Elder ointment     }

Cleanliness is of the utmost importance. Thrice daily, or oftener if
necessary, the anus and root of the tail should be thoroughly cleansed,
with a wash consisting of an ounce of the solution of chloride of zinc to
a pint of distilled water. The food should be generous; but fluid beef
tea, thickened with rice, will constitute the most proper diet during the
existence of diarrhoea.

A little gravy and rice with scraped meat may be gradually introduced; but
the dog must be drenched with the liquid rather than indulged with solids
at too early a period. All the other measures necessary have been
indicated when treating of previous abdominal diseases, and such rules as
are therein laid down must, according to the circumstances, be applied.

PERITONITIS.--In the acute form this disease is rarely witnessed, save as
accompanying or following parturition. Its symptoms are, panting;
restlessness; occasional cries; a desire for cold; constant stretching
forth at full length upon the side; dry mouth and nose; thirst;
constipation; hard quick pulse; catching breathing, and--contrary as it
may be to all reasonable expectation--seldom any pain on pressure to the
abdomen, toward which, however, the animal constantly inclines the head.

The treatment consists in bleeding from the jugular, from three to twelve
ounces being taken; but a pup, not having all its permanent teeth,
supposing such an animal could be affected, should not lose more than from
half-an-ounce to two ounces. Stimulating applications to the abdomen
should be employed, an ammoniacal blister, from its speedy action, being
to be preferred. Ether, laudanum, and water ought to be given, to allay
the pain, with calomel in small but repeated doses, combined with
one-fourth its weight of opium, in order to subdue the inflammation. A
turpentine enema to unload the rectum, and a full dose of castor oil to
relieve the bowels, should be administered early in the disease. The warm
bath, if the animal is after it well wrapped up, may also be resorted to.
A second bleeding may be necessary, but it should always be by means of
leeches, and should only be practised upon conviction of its necessity,
for no animal is less tolerant of blood-letting than the dog.

During peritonitis, the chief aim of all the measures adopted is to reduce
the inflammation; but while this is kept in view, it must not be forgotten
that of equal, or perhaps of even more, importance, is it to subdue the
pain and lessen the constitutional irritation which adds to the energy of
the disorder, thus rendering nature the less capable of sustaining it.
With this object I have often carried ether, laudanum, and water, so far
as to narcotise the animal; and I have kept the dog under the action of
these medicines for twelve hours, and then have not entirely relinquished
them. The consequence has not always been success, but I have not seen any
reason to imagine that the life has not been lengthened by the practice;
and sometimes when the narcotism has ceased, the disease has exhibited so
marked an improvement, that I have dated the recovery from that period.

STRANGULATION.--This consists in the intestines being twisted or tied
together, and it is caused by sudden emotion or violent exertion. From it
the dog is almost exempt, though to it some other animals are much
exposed. The symptoms are sudden pain, resembling acute enteritis,
accompanied with sickness and constipation, and terminating in the
lethargic ease which characterises mortification.

No treatment can save the life, and all the measures justifiable are such
as would alleviate the sufferings of the animal; but as, in the majority
of these cases, the fact is only ascertained after death, the practitioner
must in a great measure be guided by the symptoms.

INTROSUSCEPTION.--This is when a portion of intestine slips into another
part of the alimentary tube, and there becomes fixed. Colic always
precedes this, for the accident could not occur unless the bowel was in
places spasmodically contracted. The symptoms are--colic, in the first
instance, speedily followed by enteritis, accompanied by a seeming
constipation, that resists all purgatives, and prevails up to the moment
of death. The measures would be the same as were alluded to when writing
of strangulation.

STOPPAGE.--To this the dog is much exposed. These animals are taught to
run after sticks or stones, and to bring them to their masters. When this
trick has been learnt, the creatures are very fond of displaying their
accomplishment. They engage in the game with more than pleasure; and as no
living being is half so enthusiastic as dogs, they throw their souls into
the simple sport. Delighted to please their lords, the animals are in a
fever of excitement; they back and run about--their eyes on fire, and
every muscle of their frames in motion. The stone is flung, and away goes
the dog at its topmost speed, so happy that it has lost its self-command.
If the missile should be small, the poor animal, in its eagerness to
seize, may unfortunately swallow it, and when that happens, the faithful
brute nearly always dies. The oesophagus or gullet of the dog is larger
than its intestines, and consequently the substance which can pass down
the throat may in the guts become impacted. Such too frequently follows
when stones are gulped; for hard things of this kind, though they should
be small enough to pass through the alimentary tube, nevertheless would
cause a stoppage; for a foreign body of any size, by irritating the
intestine, would provoke it to contract, or induce spasm; and the bowel
thus excited would close upon the substance, retaining it with a force
which could not be overcome. Persons, therefore, who like their dogs to
fetch and carry, should never use for this purpose any pebble so small as
to be dangerous, or rather, they should never use stones of any kind for
this purpose. The animal taught to indulge in this amusement seriously
injures its teeth, which during the excitement are employed with imprudent
violence, and the mouth sustains more injury than the game can recompense.

If a dog should swallow a stone, let the animal be immediately fed
largely; half-an-hour afterwards let thrice the ordinary dose of
antimonial wine be administered, and the animal directly afterwards be
exercised. Probably the pebble may be returned with the food when the
emetic acts. Should such not be the case, as the dog will not eat again,
all the thick gruel it can be made to swallow must be forced upon it, and
perhaps the stone may come away when this is vomited. Every effort must be
used to cause the substance to be ejected before it has reached the
bowels, since if it enters these, the doom is sealed. However, should such
be the case, the most violent and potent antispasmodics may be tried; and
under their influence I have known comparatively large bodies to pass. No
attempt must be made to quicken the passage by moulding or kneading the
belly; much less must any effort be used intended to push the substance
onward. The convolutions of the alimentary track are numerous, and the
bowels are not stationary; therefore we have no certainty, even if the
violence should do no injury, that our interference would be properly
directed. Hope must depend upon antispasmodics; while every measure is
taken to anticipate the irritation which is almost certain to follow.

Stoppage may be caused by other things besides stones. Corks, pins, nails,
skewers, sharp pieces of bone, particularly portions of game and poultry
bones, have produced death; and this fact will serve to enforce the
warning which was given in the earlier portion of this work.



PARALYSIS OF THE HIND EXTREMITIES.

It appears odd to speak of such an affliction as loss of all motor power
in the hind extremities, connected with deranged bowels. What can the
stomach have to do with the legs? Why, all and everything. That which is
put into the stomach, nourishes the legs, and that which enters the same
receptacle, may surely disease the like parts. That which nurtures health,
and that which generates sickness, are more closely allied than we are
willing to allow. Thus, a moderate meal nourishes and refreshes; but the
same food taken in too great abundance, as surely will bring disease; and
it is of too much food that I have to complain, when I speak of the bowels
as associated with paralysis. Dogs will become great gluttons. They like
to do what they see their master doing; but as a dog's repast comes round
but once a day, and a human being eats three or four times in the
twenty-four hours, so has the animal kept within doors so many additional
opportunities of over-gorging itself. Nor is this all. The canine appetite
is soon satisfied; the meal is soon devoured. But it is far otherwise with
the human repast. The dog may consume enough provender in a few minutes to
last till the following day comes round; whereas the man cannot get
through the food which is to support him for six hours, in less than half
a division of the time here enumerated. Supposing one or two persons to be
seated at table, it is very hard to withstand a pair of large, eloquent,
and imploring eyes, watching every mouthful the fork lifts from the plate.
For a minute or two it may be borne; but to hold out an entire hour is
more than human fortitude is capable of. A bit is thrown to the poor dog
that looks so very hungry; it is eaten quickly, and then the eyes are at
work again. Perhaps the other end of the board is tried, and the appeal
is enforced with the supplicatory whine that seldom fails. Piece after
piece is thereby extracted; and dogs fed in this fashion will eat much
more than if the whole were placed before them at one time. The animal
becomes enormously fat, and then one day is found by the mistress with its
legs dragging after it. The lady inquires which of the servants have been
squeezing the dog in the door. All deny that they have been so amusing
themselves, and every one protests that she had not heard poor Fanny cry.
The mistress' wrath is by no means allayed. Servants are so careless--such
abominable liars--and the poor dog was no favorite down stairs. Thereupon
Fanny is wrapped in a couple of shawls, and despatched to the nearest
veterinary surgeon.

If the gentleman who may be consulted knows his business, he returns for
answer, "The dog is too fat," and must for the future be fed more
sparingly--that it has been squeezed in no door--that none of the vertebræ
are injured, but the animal is suffering from an attack of paralysis. He
sends some physic to be given, and some embrocation to rub on the back.
The mistress is by no means satisfied. She protests the man's a
fool--declares she alone knows the truth--but, despite her knowledge, does
as the veterinary surgeon ordered. Under the treatment the dog recovers;
after which every one feeds it, and everybody accuses the other of doing
that which the doctor said was not to be done. At length the animal has a
second visitation, which is more slowly removed than was the first; but it
at last yields; till the third attack comes, with which the poor beast is
generally destroyed as incurable.

These dogs, when brought to us, usually appear easy and well to do in the
world. The coats are sleek; their eyes are placid; and the extremities
alone want motion, which rather seems to surprise the animal than to
occasion it any immediate suffering. They have no other obvious disease;
but the malignity of their ailments seems fixed or concentrated on the
affection which is present. The first attack is soon conquered. A few
cathartic pills, followed by castor-oil, prepared as recommended in this
work (page 116), will soon unload the bowels, and clear out the digestive
canal. They must be continued until, and after, the paralysis has
departed. At the same time, some stimulating embrocation must be employed
to the back, belly, and hind-legs, which must be well rubbed with it four
times daily, or the oftener the better. Soap liniment, as used by
Veterinarians, rendered more stimulating by an additional quantity of
liquor ammoniæ, will answer very well; more good being done by the
friction than by the agent employed. The chief benefit sought by the
rubbing, is to restore the circulation, and so bring back feeling with
motion, for both are lost; a pin run into the legs produces no effort to
retract the limb, nor any sign of pain.

The cure is certain,--and so is the second attack, if the feeding be
persisted in; unless nature seeks and finds relief in skin disease,
canker, piles, or one of the many consequences induced by over-feeding.
The second attack mostly yields to treatment. The third is less certain,
and so is each following visitation; the chances of restoration being
remote, just in proportion as the assault is removed from the original
affliction.



DISEASES ATTENDANT ON DISORDERED BOWELS.



RHEUMATISM.

[Illustration: ACUTE RHEUMATISM.]

It appears almost laughable to talk about a rheumatic dog; but, in fact,
the animal suffers quite as, or even more acutely than the human patient,
and both from the same cause--over-indulgence; still with this
difference--the man usually suffers from attachment to the bottle; the dog
endures its misery from devotion to roaming under the table. It is not an
uncommon sight to behold an animal so fat that it can hardly waddle,
without scruple enjoying its five meals a day; which it takes with a
bloated mistress, who, according to her own account, is kept alive with
the utmost difficulty by eating little and often. The dog, I say, looks
for its lady's tray with regularity, besides having its own personal meal,
and a bone or two to indulge any odd craving between whiles. These spoiled
animals are, for the most part, old and bad tempered. They would bite, but
they have no teeth, and yet they will wrathfully mumble the hand they are
unable to injure; while the doting mistress, in alarm for her favorite,
sits upon the sofa entreating the beast may not be hurt: begging for pity,
as though it were for her own life she were pleading. The animal during
this is being followed from under table to chair, growling and barking all
the time; and showing every disposition, if it had but ability, to do you
some grievous bodily harm. At length, after a chase that has nearly caused
the fond mistress to faint and you to exhaust all patience, the poor brute
is overtaken and caught; but no sooner does your hand touch the miserable
beast, than it sets up a howl fit to alarm the neighborhood. On this the
hand is moved from the neck to the belly, intending to raise the dog from
the ground; but the howl thereon is changed to a positive scream, when the
mistress starts up, declaring she can bear no more. On this you desist, to
ask a few questions: "The dog has often called out in that manner?" "O
yes." "And has done so, no one being near or touching it?" "O yes, when
quite alone." Thereupon you request the mistress to call the animal to
her; and it waddles across the carpet, every member stiff, its back
arched, and its neck set, but the eye fixed upon the person who has been
called in.

You get the mistress to take the favorite upon her lap, and request she
will oblige you by pinching the skin. "Oh, harder; pray, a little harder,
madam!" Nevertheless, all your entreaties cannot move the kind mistress to
do that which she fears will pain her pet; whereon you request permission
to be permitted to make a trial; and it being granted, you seize the coat,
and give the animal one of the hardest pinches of which your fore-finger
and thumb, compressed with all your might, are capable. The animal turns
its head round and licks your hand, to reward the polite attention, and
solicits a continuance of your favors. The skin is thick and insensible.
What teeth remain, are covered with tartar, and the breath smells like a
pestilence.

The dog is taken home, and an allowance of wholesome rice and gravy placed
before it, with one ounce of meat by weight. The flesh is greedily
devoured, but the other mess remains untouched. The next day the untouched
portion is removed, and fresh supplied; also the same meat as before,
which is consumed ere the hand which presented the morsel is retracted,
the head being raised to ask for more.

The second day, however, the gravy and rice are eaten, and the meat on the
morrow is deficient; gravy and rice for the future constituting the
animal's fare. Then, for physic, an embrocation containing one-third of
turpentine is used thrice daily, to rub the animal's back, neck, and belly
with. Some of the cathartic pills are given over night, with the
castor-oil mixture in the morning. Constant purgation is judiciously kept
up, and before the first fortnight expires, the dog ceases to howl. Then
the pills and mixture are given every other night, and the quantity of
turpentine in the embrocation increased to one-half, the other ingredients
being of the same amount. This rubbed in as before, evidently annoys the
animal, and on that account is used only twice a-day. When all signs of
pain are gone, the turpentine is then lowered to one-third, the
embrocation being applied only once a-day, because it now gives actual
pain. Some liniment, however, is continued, generally making the poor
beast howl whenever it is administered. At the expiration of a month, all
treatment is abandoned for a week, that the skin may get rid of its scurf,
and you may perceive the effect of the treatment you have pursued. If the
skin then appears thin, especially on the neck and near the tail, being
also sensitive, clean the teeth, and send the dog home with a bottle of
cleansing fluid, a tooth-brush, (as before explained,) and strict
injunctions with regard to diet.

  EMBROCATION (FIRST STRENGTH) FOR RHEUMATISM.

  Turpentine          }
  Laudanum            }      One part of each.
  Soap liniment       }
  Tincture of capsicums      A little.

The subsequent strength is made by increasing the quantity of turpentine.



THE RECTUM.

PILES.--The dog is very subject to these annoyances in all their various
forms; for the posterior intestine of the animal seems to be peculiarly
susceptible of disease. When enteritis exists the rectum never escapes,
but is very frequently the seat of the most virulent malice of the
disorder. There are reasons why such should be the case. The dog has but a
small apology for what should be a cæcum, and the colon I assume to be
entirely wanting. The guts, which in the horse are largest, in the canine
species are not characterised by any difference of bulk; and however
compact may be the food on which the dog subsists, nevertheless a
proportionate quantity of its substance must be voided. If the excrement
be less than in beasts of herbivorous natures, yet there being but one
small receptacle in which it can be retained, the effects upon that
receptacle are more concentrated, and the consequences therefore are very
much more violent. The dung of the horse and ox is naturally moist, and
only during disease is it ever in a contrary condition. Costiveness is
nearly always in some degree present in the dog. During health the
animal's bowels are never relaxed; but the violent straining it habitually
employs to expel its fæces would alone suggest the injury to which the
rectum is exposed, even if the inclination to swallow substances which in
their passage are likely to cause excoriation did not exist. The grit,
dirt, bone, and filth that dogs will, spite of every precaution, manage
to obtain, must be frequent sources of piles, which without such
instigation would frequently appear. Bones, which people carelessly
conclude the dog should consume, it can in some measure digest; but it can
do this only partially when in vigorous health. Should the body be
delicate, such substances pass through it hardly affected by the powers of
assimilation; they become sharp and hard projections when surrounded by,
and fixed in the firm mass, which is characteristic of the excrement of
the dog. A pointed piece of bone, projecting from an almost solid body, is
nearly certain to lacerate the tender and soft membrane over which it
would have to be propelled; and though, as I have said, strong and
vigorous dogs can eat almost with impunity, and extract considerable
nourishment from bones, nevertheless they do not constitute a proper food
for these animals at any time. When the system is debilitated, the
digestion is always feeble; and, under some conditions of disease, I have
taken from the stomachs of dogs after death, in an unaltered state, meat,
which had been swallowed two days prior to death. It had been eaten and
had been retained for at least forty-eight hours, but all the functions
had been paralyzed, and it continued unchanged. If such a thing be
possible under any circumstances, then in the fact there is sufficient
reason why people should be more cautious in the mode of feeding these
creatures; for I have extracted from the rectums of dogs large quantities
of trash, such as hardened masses of comminuted bones and of cocoanut,
which, because the animal would eat it, the owners thought it to be
incapable of doing harm. Nature has not fitted the dog to thrive upon many
substances; certain vegetables afford it wholesome nourishment, but a
large share of that which is either wantonly or ignorantly given as food,
is neither nutritive nor harmless. Whatever injures the digestion, from
the disposition of the rectum to sympathise in all disorders of the great
mucous track, is likely to induce piles; and the anus of the animal is
often as indicative of the general state of the body as is the tongue of
man.

In perfect health the anus should be small, firm, close, and entirely
retracted; especially should it be cleanly. Any soil upon the part, or any
excrement adhering to the hair about its margin, is indicative of
derangement. If the fundament protrudes, so that it can be grasped by the
finger and thumb, or if it presents a sensible projection to the touch,
the digestion is not sound. The indication is still worse when the orifice
is enlarged--the edges not being inflamed, which indeed they seldom are,
but swollen, loose, coarse, creased, and unsightly. This state will not
continue long before cracks and ulcers may be detected upon the borders of
the opening, which ultimately is constantly moistened by an unctuous and
peculiarly fetid discharge. If the lips of the orifice be gently pulled
aside, the more inward portion of the membrane will frequently be seen of
a bright scarlet color, and wet with a watery fluid, but the anus is
rarely of so deep a tint, the hue being, even in aggravated cases, only a
pale reddish brown.

To correct this state of disease, the first thing to be attended to is the
food. The diet must be strictly regulated; it should not be too much
reduced either in quantity or quality, for dogs in this state are
generally old, and always weakly. Enough of good food should be allowed,
but nothing more ought to be given. Meat, lean, and from a healthy animal,
as constituting the lightest and most nourishing diet, will here be best,
and from two ounces to two pounds may be divided into four meals, and
given in the course of the day. Plenty of exercise and a daily cold bath
will likewise be beneficial.

Medicine must be employed for two purposes; the first, to alleviate the
pain and act locally on the disease; and the second, to amend the general
health, checking the constitutional disposition to be affected. As a local
application, Mr. Blaine recommends an ointment; which I object to, because
I have found it aggravate the suffering without conferring any
compensating benefit. Astringents, such as the acetate of lead, are not
curative; but the following ointment has done so much good in these cases
that I can most confidently submit it to the public:--

  Camphor                        Two drachms.
  Strong mercurial ointment      One drachm.
  Elder ointment                 One ounce.

The only addition I make to the above is occasionally a drachm of powdered
opium. This is smeared over the exterior of, and also inserted up, the
rectum, thrice in the day. A piece of wood nicely rounded, or a penholder
if the animal be small, answers very well to introduce the salve into the
gut; and of course it should be done with every consideration, for the
pain it will at first produce. The resistance is often strong, and the
cries violent; for in some cases the rectum is so sensitive that the mere
lifting of the tail cannot be silently endured. The poor dog seems in
constant agony; for I have known the exclamations to be provoked by simply
looking at the part, and the animal evidently shrieked from the idea of it
being touched. All possible tenderness, therefore, is required; and the
dog should be very firmly held, to prevent its contortions from adding to
its anguish. When the ointment is regularly and properly employed, the
relief is generally speedy; and after the third day the dog, which had
been so energetically resistful, often submits to be dressed without a
murmur. The cessation of the howling will indicate the progress of the
cure, but the application should be used for some days after the animal
becomes silent. If much stench is present, the fundament may be at each
dressing moistened with very dilute solution of the chloride of zinc, and
a small quantity may be administered as an injection, after the grease has
been introduced.

The constitutional remedies must be regulated by the symptoms, and nothing
absolute can be said on this subject; but in the great majority of
instances tonics will be required. Purgatives are not often needed, but a
day's feed of liver once or twice a week will do no harm. Should it not
have the desired effect, a little olive oil may be given; but nothing
stronger ought to be risked, and above all, no preparation of
mercury--which, in the dog, specially acts upon the rectum--ought on any
account to be permitted.

Piles, if not attended to, become causes of further disease, which may in
some cases prove fatal, though in the larger number of instances they are
far more distressing than dangerous.

A sero-sanguineous abscess, that is, a tumor consisting of a single sac or
numerous small bladders, containing a thin and bloody fluid, is by no
means a rare accompaniment of long-continued piles. These mostly appear
rather to one side of, and more below than above, the opening, the verge
of which they always involve. They occasion little pain, and often grow to
a comparatively enormous size; when they may burst and leave a ragged
ulcer, which has little disposition to heal, and is not improved by the
dog's drawing it along the ground.

When these are observed, the knife should not be too quickly resorted to.
The abscess should be allowed to progress until it is fully matured, the
dog being in the meantime treated for simple piles. When the tumor
perceptibly fluctuates, it should be freely opened, the incision being
made along its entire length. This is best done with one of Liston's
knives, which should be thrust fairly through the swelling, entering at
the top and coming out at the lowest part, when with one movement of the
wrist the substance is divided. The operation thus performed is much
quicker, less painful, and more safe than it can possibly be rendered if
the tumor be punctured and slit up with repeated thrusts of an ordinary
lancet. I have frequently opened these sacs without the animal uttering
even a moan, and mercy is wisdom where surgery is employed. Dogs will not
bear torture, and soon become blindly infuriated if subjected to pain. The
animal is naturally so sensitive and excitable that the brutality or
suffering a horse can sustain, these animals would perish under. He,
therefore, who undertakes to treat the diseases of the canine race, if the
amiable qualities of the brute or his own feelings have no influence, will
in the success of his practice discover ample reason for the exercise of a
little humanity.

After the sac is opened a portion of lint should be used, to render the
part perfectly dry, which may then be lightly pencilled over with lunar
caustic, or moistened with some caustic solution. Fomentations of warm
water to keep the wound free from dirt, and with no other object, are all
that subsequently will be required.

Tumors of a solid nature also form about the anus, and are likewise
consequent upon neglected piles. These generally appear at the root of the
tail superior to the opening. They feel hard; are glistening; not very
tender; but highly vascular, and in some cases pulsate strongly. The dog
is generally loaded with fat, perhaps slightly mangy; nearly always old,
gross and weak. The quantity of blood that at various intervals is lost
from this tumor, which at length ulcerates and bleeds at the slightest
touch, or without any apparent cause, is often very great; but it does
not, save in the very latest stage, induce obvious emaciation. The health
is not good, of course, but to the casual observer the disease does not
appear to affect the system. The spirits under excitement are, to all
appearances, undiminished, and the appetite is in these cases ravenous.
If, however, the dog had to do work, the truth would be soon discovered.
After a short space the strength would fail, and no correction could keep
the poor animal to its duty.

The treatment must commence with constitutional remedies, if the state of
the part permits of the requisite delay. The digestion should be amended,
and the piles, which are certain to be present, attended to. After a
fortnight, more or less, has been devoted to such measures, a strong
ligature should be tied as tight up as possible around the base of the
growth, and a fresh one should be applied every second day. There must be
no forbearance in the application of the ligature, but the degree of
tension must be regulated only by the strength of the operator. This is
far more severe than the removal would be if the knife were employed, but
I have not seen a case which I dared venture to excise. I do not like the
ligature; it is long and torturing in its action; but here there will be
no chance, for the vessels are too numerous and large to admit of the
speedier process being resorted to. Where it is possible, it is well,
however, to cut through the skin before applying the cord; for the
operation is expedited considerably, and an important deduction made from
the animal's agony.

When the tumor drops off, the surface may be sprinkled thrice a day with
the following powder:--

  Camphor in powder,
  Opium in powder,
  Grey powder,
  Powdered galls, of each an equal quantity.

Or a little of the ointment recommended for piles may be smeared upon the
wound in lieu of the above. An unguent is perhaps to be preferred, as
giving better protection to the sore, over which the fæces must pass, and
also as being more grateful to the feelings of the patient. Powder and
ointment may be changed and varied according to the judgment of the
attendant: thus, to render the last more stimulating, I mix creosote with
it occasionally; or to give it an astringent property I add a portion of
galls, catechu, or kino; but these I never pass into the rectum.
Astringents introduced upon the sore and ulcerated surface of the
intestine of course render it harsh, dry, and corrugated; and as during
the exercise of its function the part is necessarily dilated, the animal
is, by the pain produced from the stretching of the constringed membrane,
indisposed for the performance of that act, on the regular discharge of
which its health in no little measure depends. Astringents, moreover,
heat and irritate the part; and the sensations induced make the dog draw
its anus along the ground, thereby adding greatly to the evil it is the
intention of the application to remove. Therefore prudence will approve
what humanity suggests; and those who in kindly feeling can discover no
motive, will in the colder reason find every inducement for the adoption
of the gentler measure.

Protrusion of the rectum is also sometimes a consequence of gross feeding,
starting up piles in the first instance, and then, from more intense
digestive derangement, causing purgation, accompanied with violent
straining. The tone of the intestine is destroyed. It becomes lax, and its
muscular power is lost. The gut is at first only a little exposed during
the act, and when that is over, it is retracted; but after some time, the
limit of which is uncertain, it remains constantly protruded. It is not so
violently inflamed as might be expected, but it soon gets dry and harsh;
cracks appear upon its surface; and the pressure of the muscle which
closes the anus preventing the free circulation of the blood, renders it
black from congestion.

If taken early, the treatment recommended for piles will generally effect
a cure; but if nothing be done in the first instance, the disease when
established is apt to prove intractable. The intestine should be sopped
with cold water until every particle of dirt is removed. It should then be
dried with a soft cloth, and afterwards returned. There is never much
difficulty in replacing the gut; but there is always considerable
difficulty to get it to be retained. So soon as it is restored to its
situation, a human stomach pump should be inserted up the rectum, and a
full stream of the coldest spring water should be thrown into the bowel
for ten minutes. The fluid will be returned so fast as it enters, and it
must be allowed to do so, the fingers of one hand being employed against
the anus to prevent the disordered rectum being ejected with the water.
Cold injection in less quantity must be administered several times during
the day, and with each a little of the tincture of galls, or of nux
vomica, in the proportion of a drachm to a pint, may be united. The
ointment recommended for piles may also be employed, but without opium,
for no application of a sedative nature must be used. The constitutional
measures will consist of tonics into which nux vomica enters. The food
must be light and nourishing, and purgatives on no account must be
administered. Cold will do good by invigorating the system, and should
always be recommended. Some persons, unable by sedatives and purgatives,
which are injurious, to obtain relief, have gone so far as to cut off the
projecting bowel, and they have thereby certainly ended the case; for the
dog dies whenever this is done. I remember at the Veterinary College,
Professor Simonds killed a fine animal by attempting this operation; for
he took a heated spatula to remove the part, and carried the incision so
high up that he opened the abdomen, and the bowels protruded from the
anus. Amputation of any portion of the rectum is not to be thought of;
but an operation of a less heroic description will sometimes accomplish
what the previous measures failed to effect. With a knife, having not too
sharp but a coarse edge, a circular portion of the exposed lining
membrane, of a width proportioned to the size of the animal, may be
scraped off, so as to induce a cicatrix; or, if the dog be very tractable,
and the operator skilful, a piece of it may partially be dissected off;
but the knife, when employed in the last method, is apt to cause alarming
hemorrhage. When this is done, as the wound heals the edges come together,
and the gut is so far shortened as to be thereby retracted. There is,
however, some danger of stricture being afterwards established; wherefore
this operation, however satisfactory it may seem to be in the first
instance, is not so certain in the benefit of its results that it should
be resorted to, save in extreme cases when every other means have failed,
and the choice at last hangs between relief and destruction.

Another affection of the part, to which Scotch terriers of great size are
particularly subject, begins with an enlargement below the anus, extending
either quite or almost to the testicles; for males are more frequently
attacked by this form of disease than females. The dog is generally old,
and a favorite with an indulgent mistress, having much to eat, and little
or no work to do. The swelling is soft and attended with no pain. On
pressure and on percussion it is ascertained to hold fluid, and in fact it
arises from dropsy of the perinæum. The health may appear to be good, but
on examination debility will be found to be present. The anus also
protrudes, and the orifice is thickened; while, possibly, a marked
tendency to piles may at the same time be displayed. Should no attention
be paid to the case, the swelling will continue without sensibly
enlarging; but after a period, hard substances may with the fingers be
detected beneath it. These hard bodies are fæces, which accumulate within
the rectum, and often in so great a quantity as to seriously inconvenience
the animal, rendering it dull and indisposed to feed.

Before attempting to direct the treatment for these cases, it is necessary
the nature of the affection should be fully explained. The enlargement, to
which attention is at first solely directed, is always of secondary
consideration. The dropsy is merely a symptom indicative of the loss of
tone of the adjacent parts, of which the rectum is by far the most
important. If this circumstance be not observed, but the swelling be
treated as if it was all the practitioner had to contend with, he will in
the end learn his mistake. The intestine loses its tonicity; it no longer
has power to contract upon or to expel its contents; it becomes paralysed,
and the dung consequently accumulates within it, distending it, and adding
to its weakness by constant tension. The rectum at length retains no
ability to perform its function; but the sphincter of the anus, or the
circular muscle that closes the opening, appears to gain the strength of
which the intestine is deprived. It contracts, and thus shuts up the
fæces which the rectum cannot make an effort to dislodge; and in this
circumstance the physiologist sees evidence of the sources whence the
different parts derive their contractility. The rectum, like the other
intestines, gains its vital power from the sympathetic nerve, or that
nerve of nutrition and secretion which presides over organic life. The
muscle of the anus, on the other hand, is influenced by nerves derived
from the spinal column; and thus, understanding the two parts obtain their
motor power from different sources, the reader will comprehend how one can
be incapable of motion while the other is unaffected, or rather excited;
for the presence of the retained dung acts as an irritant, and provokes
the anus to contract with more than usual vigor.

If nothing be done to restore the balance of power, the rectum speedily is
so much distended that its walls become attenuated, and then a cure is
hopeless; a sac is formed, and the gut is not only much stretched or
enlarged, but it is also, by the excessive bulk of its contents, forced
from its natural position, being carried either to one side or the other,
but always to where the dropsy is most conspicuous.

In such cases, when the dropsy is first observed, our care must be to
invigorate the system. Small doses of nux vomica, with iron, gentian and
capsicums, made into a pill, will generally do this, and the following
form may be employed:--

  Nux vomica, in powder      Five grains to a scruple.
  Capsicums, in powder       Ten grains to two scruples.
  Sulphate of iron           One to four scruples.
  Extract of gentian         Two drachms to one ounce.
  Cinchona powder            A sufficiency.

Make into twenty pills, and give four in the course of the day. The liver
is too often at this time unhealthy, and to correct it the subjoined may
be administered:--

  Iodide of potassium      One drachm.
  Liquor potassæ           Two ounces.
  Simple syrup             Five ounces.
  Water                    A pint.

Dose, from a tea-spoon to a table-spoonful three times a day. The food
should be chiefly vegetables, or at all events only so much meat should be
allowed as is required to induce the dog to eat the mess of boiled rice.
Exercise is also essential, and a daily cold bath with a brisk run
afterwards, will be of service. The dog will likewise be benefited if his
skin be well brushed every morning; and perhaps it is hardly necessary to
state that any symptoms denoting mange or skin disease, canker, &c.,
should be specially counteracted.

Hitherto, however, nothing has been said about any treatment of the part
which is the immediate seat of the disease. If the fluid poured into the
perinæum be excessive, the part must be laid freely open by two or three
incisions being made along the entire length of the swelling. After this
has been done, the liquid will not escape as from an abscess; for being
held within the cells of the membrane that lies immediately under the
skin, comparatively little of it is released from the knife. A fine pair
of scissors will be required to snip the separate bags or bladders; but
that operation must be performed with caution, else injury may possibly be
done. The business being concluded, let the parts be afterwards dressed
with the tincture of iodine, or a tincture of the iodide of potassium, of
the strength of a drachm to the ounce of proof spirit; this being
preferable to water for a solution in these cases. Into the rectum also
injections should be thrown at least three times a day, and all of these
ought to be of a tonic and stimulating kind, being used perfectly cold.
Either of the following may be administered:--

  1.

  Tincture of cantharides            One drachm.
  Camphor mixture                    One pint.

  2.

  Tincture of nux vomica             One drachm.
  Tincture of tolu                   One drachm.
  Water                              One pint.

  3.

  Tincture of cubebs                 One drachm.
  Liquor potassæ                     One drachm.
  Camphor mixture                    One pint.

  4.

  Solution of nitrate of silver      One drachm.
  Distilled water                    One pint.

Any of the above may be employed, from a tablespoonful to a common
wine-glass full being used for a dose. The pile ointment will likewise be
beneficial, by facilitating the passage of the fæces, allaying local
irritability, and correcting that tendency to piles which is generally
attendant upon, if not the original cause of the affection.

From what has been described, the reader will have seen that the diseases
of the dog's rectum are neither few nor insignificant. Fistula in ano is
said to be often beheld; but I have never seen a case in which it assumed
in the dog that serious form which characterises it in man. In the canine
race I have mostly let it alone, and hitherto I have had no reason to
repent my forbearance. Blaine and Youatt both speak of the affection, and
give directions for its treatment by operation. The most active remedy I
have found it necessary to resort to has been an astringent or mildly
caustic injection; the solution of the chloride of zinc I prefer to every
other, but the sulphates are also not to be despised. Injections, when not
designed to be immediately operative, or meant to distend the gut and to
act through being ejected, are best given by means of the India-rubber
bladder, which allows the fluid to be more gently and silently thrown up.
The less noise or force attending the operation the less likely is the
animal to be alarmed or excited, and the probability is the enema will be
retained. Small quantities are to be administered when the fluid is wished
to remain; and by attracting the attention of the dog at the time, and
amusing him after the business is finished, the object in view is
considerably favored. The administration of an injection is in the first
instance almost certain to alarm the animal, who can neither understand
nor passively sanction the strange liberty the operation implies. A little
soothing, however, will restore his confidence, and he who has gained the
trust of a dog, may subsequently do as he pleases with the body of the
generous and confiding beast.



NERVOUS DISEASES.--FITS IN THE DOG.

Youatt speaks of fits as particularly fatal to the dog, saying they "kill
more than all the other diseases put together." The experience of this
esteemed authority is in direct variance with my own--save from distemper.
When the fits occur in that disease they are mostly fatal, being the
wind-up of all the many evils which the malady in its most intense and
malignant form can accumulate on one doomed life--I have not otherwise
found them especially troublesome.

Fainting fits require little attention; if the dog be left quiet, it will
in due time often recover without medicine.

Puerperal, or rather pupping fits, are treated of in their fitting place,
and, if properly administered to, are by no means dangerous.

Fits _par excellence_ are witnessed when a dog is taking a long walk with
its master; the animal at first lingers behind, or gets a long distance
before the proprietor, who notices the fact, but contents himself with
whistling and walking forward. The dog does not obey the mandate; it is
standing still as if stupefied; suddenly it emits a strange, loud,
guttural sound, and then falls upon its side, continuing to cry, but more
feebly and more naturally; its fæces and urine may be discharged
involuntarily; it will bite any one who, during the existence of the
attack, incautiously attempts to lay hold of it; its limbs, at first
stretched rigidly out, are ultimately, with returning volition, put into
violent motion; the eye is protruded and foam covers the mouth. When the
convulsion has subsided, the dog raises its head and stares about; after
which it would, if left alone, start at its utmost pace, and run heaven
only knows where. Should idle men and foolish boys behold a dog wildly run
onward after having come out of a fit, and raise the cry of "mad dog," the
fate of the poor animal is then sealed, as fear is devoid of
discrimination or pity. Half the dogs killed as rabid are those in this
condition, scampering under the impulse of returning sensation.

The first thing any person is to do when out with a dog which has a fit is
to secure the animal, and to prevent its running away when the fit has
passed. The second thing is stubbornly to close his ears to the crowd who
are certain to surround him. No matter what advice may be given, he is to
do nothing but get the animal home as quickly as possible. He is neither
to lance the mouth, slit the ear, nor cut a piece of the tail off. He is
on no account to administer a full dose of salt and water, a lump of
tobacco, or to throw the animal into an adjacent pond; and of all things
he is to allow no man more acquainted with dogs than the other spectators
to bleed the creature. Any offer to rub the nose with syrup of buckthorn,
however confidently he who makes the proposal may recommend that energetic
mode of treatment, is to be unhesitatingly declined. The friendly desire
of any one who may express his willingness to ram a secret and choice
specific down the prostrate animal's throat, must be refused with
firmness. The attendant must however take advantage of the time the dog is
on the ground to pass a handkerchief round the neck or through the collar.
This done, he must wait patiently till the dog gets upon its legs, when he
must, amidst its struggles to be free, caress it and call it kindly by its
name. That part of the business over, he must take the creature in his
arms, and seeking the nearest cab-stand, carry the poor animal with all
expedition homeward.

I have known a dog to have a succession of fits which lasted more than an
hour; and yet this creature, by the treatment I shall presently describe,
was the next day upon its legs, and to all appearance as well as ever.

The dog being brought home, if the fit continues, give nothing by the
mouth; because the animal being insensible cannot swallow; and the
breathing being laborious, anything administered is more likely to be
drawn on to the lungs, and so to suffocate the creature, than to pass into
the stomach, and thus (if it have any curative properties) effect a
restoration. On this account the very best physic ever invented would be
dangerous, and should be withheld. Enemas are the only things in these
cases to be depended upon; and the best the author is at present
acquainted with, is made of 1, 2, or 3 drachms of sulphuric æther, and 2,
4, or 6 scruples of laudanum to 1½, 3, or 4½ ounces of the very coldest
spring water that can be obtained. The above injection having been
administered, the dog is left entirely by itself, and, as far as possible,
in absolute silence for an hour; at the expiration of which time, in
whatever state the animal may be in, another dose is given in the same
manner as before.

There is no limitation to the quantity which may be administered; the only
sign the attendant accepts that the creature has received sufficient is
the sight of it coiled up as though it were composing itself to sleep,
when he gives one more injection, and leaves the dog to recover at
leisure, but in perfect stillness.

So valuable is this medicine in cases of fits that I have known it to cut
them short as with a knife; literally to let the first part of the fit be
heard, but to check the attack before the last and worst portion could put
in an appearance.

Armed with this medicine I fearlessly face the disorder, which other
veterinary surgeons dread; and, whether it be my good luck or no, cannot
be decided, but I have not, under its operation, lost a single case.

Fits in my opinion are, in the great majority of cases, to be traced to
the quantity or quality of the food consumed. In proof of this, dogs have
had fits whenever flesh has been given; which ceased on this kind of diet
being withheld, and medicine calculated to restore the tone of the stomach
being ordered. In every case of fits, when the attack is over, I attend to
the stomach; at the same time, ordering that the dog is to go short
distances, and never to leave the house without a chain and collar.

The object of this last injunction is to prevent the animal running about,
and thus heating itself, or causing a flow of blood to the brain.

It is to be lamented that the crowd of people prevents an injection being
administered out of doors in London: but the same objection does not apply
to the country; and as the effects of the æther are more marked in
proportion as it is quickly exhibited, persons in the country, when,
during the hot months of summer, they take dogs for an airing, should be
provided with the materials necessary to render fits, if not harmless, at
all events less fatal.



NERVOUS SYSTEM.--RABIES.

The dog is naturally the most nervous of all the dumb tribe. His intense
affection, his ever-watchful jealousy, his method of attack, the blindness
of his rage, and his insensibility to consequences, all bespeak a creature
whose nervous system is developed in the highest possible degree. I myself
once had a little cur, who, as I sat reading, would enter the apartment,
jump upon my knee, uttering a low whimper all the time, creep along my
waistcoat, rub his little body against my head and face, lick the hand
lifted up to return his caresses, and then scamper off, and perhaps not
come near me again the whole of that afternoon. What was this but an
affectionate impulse seeking a nervous development? The way to manage an
animal of this description is, to respect his evident excitability. The
instant a dog appears to be getting excited, there should be a sign given,
commanding a stop to be put to all further proceedings. If the respect of
the animal be habitual, the person who mildly enforces it may enter a
room, where the same dog is in a rabid state, and come forth unscathed.

[Illustration: A RABID DOG.]

I have hitherto been much among dogs, and, nevertheless, have almost
escaped being bitten. The reason is, that I understand and respect the
innate nervousness of the animal. When I go into a room, if there be a dog
there and he growl, I speak kindly to him, and then seat myself, and
bestow on him none of my attention for some time. My request to his master
or mistress is, that he or she will not check or seek to stop the symptom
of his wrath; but allow him to vent his rage until he is ashamed of it,
and from a feeling of remorse is silent. When this takes place, and a
sufficient time has passed to confirm him in the new mood into which he
has recently entered, I approach him with my hand extended and open; this
I bring near to him by degrees, avoiding all sudden movements or anything
that might provoke his natural disposition. Generally he crouches, then I
speak to him in tones of encouragement. If he display a return of his
warlike propensity, I still bring the hand nearer and nearer to him,
telling him to bite it if he pleases, if he is not ashamed to injure that
which means to do him good. Then, perhaps, he will make a snap at my
extended hand, which is not upon this withdrawn, or the jaws would close
with nervous violence, but allowed to remain, and the teeth are felt to
touch the skin without wounding it. I allow him to hold the hand for any
length of time he pleases, telling him "he would lose his character if he
were to harm it. That he is a courageous dog, and means no hurt; he would
be ashamed to bite." And with this kind of speech, which the animal may
not literally understand, but the sense and purpose of which it
nevertheless appears to comprehend, I seldom fail of getting my hand safe
and sound from the creature's jaws. After that I may pat him, for an
intimacy has begun. He allows me to drag him forth, take him on my knees,
and permits me any liberty I please to take. I do not attribute my escape
to any charm that I possess; but account for it simply by my knowing and
respecting the natural temperament of the beast with which I have to
interfere.

This natural respect for the feelings of a most affectionate creature,
with such a power of observation as will enable the individual to
recognise the presence of lamentable sickness in an animal that has with
truth been called "the companion of the home," shall at all times enable
the uneducated in such matters to recognise a mad dog, and, unless luck be
dead against the individual, save him from being bitten.

It is no pleasure to a dog to go mad. Quite the reverse. Dreadful as
hydrophobia may be to the human being, rabies is worse to the dog. It
makes its approach more gradually. It lasts longer, and it is more intense
while it endures. The dog that is going mad, feels unwell for a long time
prior to the full development of the disease. He is very ill, but he does
not know what ails him. He feels nasty; dissatisfied with everything;
vexed without a reason; and, greatly against his better nature, very
snappish. Feeling thus, he longs to avoid all annoyance by being alone.
This makes him seem strange to those who are most accustomed to him.

The sensation induces him to seek solitude. But there is another reason
which decides his choice of a resting-place. The light inflicts upon him
intense agony. The sun is to him an instrument of torture, which he
therefore studies to avoid, for his brain aches and feels as it were a
trembling jelly. This induces the poor brute to find out the holes and
corners where he is least likely to be noticed, and into which the light
is unable to enter. In solitude and darkness he passes his day. If his
retreat be discovered and the master's voice bids him to come forth, the
affectionate creature's countenance brightens; his tail beats the ground,
and he leaves his hiding-place, anxious to obey the loved authority; but
before he has gone half the distance, a kind of sensation comes over him,
which produces an instantaneous change in his whole appearance. He seems
to say to himself, "Why cannot you let me alone? Go away. Do go away. You
trouble, you pain me." And thereon he suddenly turns tail and darts back
into his dark corner. If let alone, there he will remain; perhaps frothing
a little at the mouth, and drinking a great deal of water, but not issuing
from his hiding-place to seek after food. His appetites are altered, hair,
straw, dirt, filth, excrement, rags, tin shavings, stones, the most
noisome and unnatural substances are then the delicacies for which the
poor dog, changed by disease, longs, and swallows, in hope to ease a
burning stomach. So anxious is he for liquids, and so depraved are his
appetites, that no sooner has he passed a little urine than he turns round
to lick it up. He is now altogether changed. Still he does not desire to
bite mankind; he rather endeavors to avoid society; he takes long journeys
of thirty or forty miles in extent, and lengthened by all kinds of
accidents, to vent his restless desire for motion. When on these journeys
he does not walk. This would be too formal and measured a pace for an
animal whose whole frame quivers with excitement. He does not run. That
would be too great an exertion for an animal whose body is the abode of a
deadly sickness. He proceeds in a slouching manner, in a kind of trot; a
movement neither run nor walk, and his aspect is dejected. His eyes do not
glare and stare, but they are dull and retracted. His appearance is very
characteristic, and if once seen, can never afterwards be mistaken. In
this state he will travel the most dusty roads, his tongue hanging dry
from his open mouth, from which, however, there drops no foam. His course
is not straight. How could it be, since it is doubtful whether at this
period he sees at all? His desire is to journey unnoticed. If no one
notices him, he gladly passes by them. He is very ill. He cannot stay to
bite. If, nevertheless, anything oppose his progress, he will, as if by
impulse, snap--as a man in a similar state might strike, and tell the
person "to get out of the way." He may take his road across a field in
which there are a flock of sheep. Could these creatures only make room for
him, and stand motionless, the dog would pass on and leave them behind
uninjured. But they begin, to run, and at the sound, the dog pricks up.
His entire aspect changes. Rage takes possession of him. What made that
noise? He pursues it with all the energy of madness. He flies at one, then
at another. He does not mangle, nor is his bite, simply considered,
terrible. He cannot pause to tear the creature he has caught. He snaps and
then rushes onward, till, fairly exhausted and unable longer to follow, he
sinks down, and the sheep pass forward to be no more molested. He may have
bitten twenty or thirty in his mad onslaught; and would have worried more
had his strength lasted, for the furor of madness then had possession of
him.

[Illustration: A MAD DOG ON THE MARCH.]

He may be slain while on these excursions; but if he escapes he returns
home and seeks the darkness and quiet of his former abode. His thirst
increases; but with it comes the swelling of the throat. He will plunge
his head into water, so ravenous is his desire; but not a drop of the
liquid can he swallow, though its surface is covered with bubbles in
consequence of the efforts he makes to gulp the smallest quantity. The
throat is enlarged to that extent which will permit nothing to pass. He is
the victim of the most horrible inflammation of the stomach, and the most
intense inflammation of the bowels. His state of suffering is most
pitiable. He has lost all self-reliance; even feeling is gone. He flies at
and pulls to pieces anything that is within his reach. One animal in this
condition, being confined near a fire, flew at the burning mass, pulled
out the live coals, and in his fury scrunched them. He emits the most
hideous cries. The noise he makes is incessant and peculiar. It begins as
a bark, which sound, being too torturing to be continued, is quickly
changed to a howl, which is suddenly cut short in the middle; and so the
poor wretch at last falls, fairly worn out by a terrible disease.

But now comes the question, How do we know that rabies is a nervous
disease? Why, the whole course of the disorder declares it, or if that be
not thought sufficient, the dog at one stage very distinctly announces it.
He may be sitting down, an unwilling listener to his master's voice, when
the brute's eyes will wander; and at length fix themselves upon some
object at a distance, which it will keep watching, crouching down as the
horror seems, to the excited brain of the poor beast, to draw near; till,
having apparently come within bounds, the hateful presence is no longer to
be endured, and the vision-haunted animal dashes forward with a howl of
execration, as if to seize and tear the terrible spectre. This action
being performed, and the dog biting the air, he stands for a moment,
shivers, looks stupidly around him, and slinks back. What is this but a
power of seeing visions depending on a disordered brain, or positive
delirium exemplified by a dumb creature? And the same piece of pantomime
the dog may go through fifty times in an hour. No disappointment can teach
him; and experience is lost upon the animal that in his sane state was so
quick to learn.

Youatt mentions as a symptom, that the dog in all he does is instigated by
the spirit of mischief or of malice,--that he desires to do injury, and is
prompted by malice in all his acts. This, to an outward observer, will
appear a correct judgment; but it is essentially wrong. It is the
conclusion reached by one who judges mainly of exteriors; it can be true
only to those who are willing to look no deeper than the surface. There
can be no malice in a raging fever, which vents itself on every object
within its reach, animate or inanimate. Mischief is too playful a term to
apply to a consuming wrath that ultimately destroys the life. All pain is
lost; as a consequence all fear is gone. The poor beast is urged by some
power too mighty for its control, which lashes it on beyond all earthly
restraint to pull to pieces, to gnaw, and to attempt to eat every object
it can get at; but how far it is urged by malice or mischief, the
following anecdote will serve to show:--

A butcher had a large bull mastiff of which he was very fond; but,
observing something very strange in his pet's behavior, he came to consult
the author about the dog. The man was told to bring the animal for
inspection early the same evening. This order was given from no suspicion
of the truth, for the owner's description was too confused to be rightly
interpreted. The animal was accordingly brought punctual to time, led
through the streets by a silk handkerchief carelessly tied round the neck
of the beast. The author being at the exact moment of the dog's arrival,
fortunately, engaged, the butcher had to wait some few minutes, during
which time the writer's eyes were kept upon the huge creature. It was
remarked to look round in a strange manner. The eye was retracted and the
nose dry. It was at length seen to put its mouth against its master's
boot, continue in that position uttering a strange noise, and to move its
jaws as if biting at some substance. The butcher all this time stood
perfectly still, allowing his favorite to follow the bent of its
inclination without rebuke or opposition. When the mastiff's head was
removed, the boot it had apparently been biting was perfectly dry. The
author observed nothing more than this; but, afraid to confess his dread,
lest the cry of mad dog should be raised, and do more, much more, harm
than good, he called to the butcher, telling him he was going abroad
shortly, and would call upon him. In the mean time, he was to take the dog
home, place it where it could do no injury, and in a place whence there
was no possibility of escape. The man touched his hair and retired.

No time elapsed before the author paid his promised visit; and when he did
so, he was pleased to hear the dog was securely confined in that which
ought to have been the front kitchen of the house in which the butcher
resided. To this spot the man led the way, and was about fearlessly to
open the door, when he was entreated to stay his hand. The author listened
at the closed entrance, and from the interior there soon came forth sounds
that left no doubt of the poor creature's real condition. The butcher was
thereupon informed that his dog was mad. The man was at first wholly
incredulous; whereon the writer requested him to look through a chink, and
say how the animal was employed. "He is tearing a piece of wood to pieces,
and munching it as though he were very hungry. Poor thing, I must go to
him! He has taken no victuals or drink these three days." The author
interposed, to prevent the master from fulfilling his humane suggestion.
With much difficulty he was persuaded to wait the turn of events, and not
to unloose the door that night. The next morning the butcher was
thoroughly convinced. Neither he nor his family had been able to get any
rest on account of the dog's cries; and before that day expired, to
anticipate the poor animal's fate, the unfortunate beast was shot.

In this case the dog exhibited no malice, neither did he appear to be
prompted solely by mischief. When the muzzle was first lowered to the
master's boot, the poor animal doubtless was moved to that action by the
irresistible desire natural to the disease. The longing was to bite
something, no matter what; any object must be cooler than the heat that
burnt within the wretched creature's throat and stomach. The teeth were
impulsively prepared to bite, but between the desire and its consummation,
reflection came. The affection natural to the dog acted as a restraint. It
was unable entirely to destroy the prompting of disease, but it turned the
bite which it was prepared to give into a mumble, and the loved master
escaped unhurt.

There is also something which must not be quite overlooked in the habitual
wanderings that, as the disease grows in virulence beyond the dog's
control, causes the animal constantly to leave the home within which its
attachment resides. There is something likewise in the disposition, which
causes the poor beast to quit the society of all it loves; and to leave
the house in which those for whom its life would cheerfully be sacrificed
dwell, to inhabit a dark and noisome corner. It is not mischief which
makes the creature respond to its master's voice so long as memory has
power--even after rabies has set in. There is no malice in the end of the
disease; it is blind and indiscriminate fury, which would much rather vent
itself on things than upon beings--even finding an unholy pleasure in
injuring itself by gnawing, biting, and tearing its own flesh; and so
truly is the fury _blind_, that most frequently the eyes ulcerate, the
humors escape, and the rabid dog becomes actually sightless.

Of the causes or treatment of this disorder we know nothing; neither are
we likely to learn, when the nature of the disease is considered. The
danger of the study must excuse our ignorance; nor is this much to be
regretted, since it is highly improbable that medicine could cure what is
so deeply seated and universally present. The entire glandular structure
seems to be in the highest degree inflamed; and besides these, the brain,
the organs of mastication, deglutition, digestion, nutrition, generation,
and occasionally of respiration, are acutely involved. The entire animal
is inflamed. Some except from this category the muscular system; but such
persons forget that paralysis of the hind extremities is often present
during rabies. The body seems to be yielded up to the fury of the disease,
and it obviously would be folly trying to cure a malady which has so many
and such various organs for its prey. Neither are we better informed with
regard to the causes which generate the disease. Hot weather has been
imagined to influence its development; but this belief is denied, by the
fact that mad dogs are quite as, if not more, frequent in winter than in
summer. Abstinence from fluids has been thought to provoke it; but this
circumstance will hardly account for its absence in the arid East, and its
presence in a country so well watered as England, especially when the
unscrupulous nature of the dog's appetite is considered. The French have
been supposed to set this latter question at rest by a cruelty, miscalled
an experiment. They obtained forty dogs, and withheld all drink from the
unhappy beasts till they died. Not one of them, however, exhibited rabies,
and by this the French philosophers think that they have demonstrated that
the disorder is not caused by want of water. No such thing; they have
proved only their want of feeling, and show nothing more than that one out
of every forty dogs is not liable to be attacked with rabies. They have
demonstrated that the utmost malice of the human being can be vented upon
his poor dumb slave without exciting rabies. They have made plain that the
poor dog can endure the most hellish torments the mind of man can invent
without displaying rabies. They have held themselves up to the world, and
in their book have duly reported themselves as capable of perverting
science to the most hideous abuses, and under its name contemplating acts
and beholding sufferings at which the feelings of humanity recoil with
disgust.

It is rarely that more than one mad dog appears at a time in England; so,
to perfect their experiment, it would be requisite for the French
philosophers to procure all the specimens of the canine species in this
island, and doom them to torture; since, of the predisposing disposition
or circumstances necessary to the development of this disease, man knows
nothing. Ignorance is not to be concealed under the practices of
barbarity.

Irritation or teazing, by exciting the nervous irritability of the dog,
appears more likely than any physical want to excite rabies.

TETANUS.--I have witnessed no case of this description in the dog. Both
Blaine and Youatt speak of tetanus as extremely rare in that animal; but
both mention having encountered it, and that it was in every instance
fatal. Since such is its termination, I am in no hurry to meet with it,
and care not how long it remains a stranger to me. If any of my readers
were to have a dog subject to this disease, the best treatment would be
the application of ether internally as medicine, with slops or light
puddings as food. The effects of the ether ought to be kept up for a
considerable period at one time, and recommenced so soon as the slightest
trace of the disorder reappears.



GENERATIVE ORGANS.--MALE.

These parts in the dogs are liable to various diseases, among the most
common of which is a thick discharge, either of pus or of impure mucus.
Petted animals are very frequently thus affected, and are a source of
annoyance to those who lap them. In this condition they also offend the
ideas of propriety, by paying certain lingual attentions to themselves
without regard to privacy. The favourite is for these things repeatedly
chid and thrust from the knee; but it cannot be instructed to forego the
impulses of its nature, or of itself to restrain the symptoms of its
affliction. Indeed, the dog is not to blame; the fault lies with the
owner.

The generative organs, in the male of the canine species, are peculiarly
sympathetic with the digestive functions. This is so with man, but in the
dog it is much more strongly marked. If a dog become from bad food
affected with mange, canker, sore feet, &c., the part is never cleanly.
When, however, the animal is fat and gross, though neither mange, canker,
nor other disease be present, the organ may, nevertheless, be a source of
painful irritation, and beyond a little thin fluid about the opening of
the prepuce, there will be nothing to attract attention.

In such a case the discharge originally is thick and mattery. It
accumulates upon the few hairs that fringe the urinal orifice, and
sometimes almost impedes the passage of the water. The symptom being
neglected, the running becomes less consistent. The part is frequently
erect, and the animal persists in licking it. The organ is now painful,
and should be without delay attended to. If, however, no heed be taken of
the creature's necessity, to which its instinct directs the proprietor's
eye, swellings appear about the sheath, and blood is mingled with the
exudation. Sores then appear externally, and the member becomes a mass of
acute disease, often of a frightful character.

If, when the discharge first appears, the dog be taken on the knee, and
its back being slightly bent, so as to bring the hind-legs forward--if,
having the animal in this position, the sheath be retracted, so as to
expose the glans, it is generally found to be inflamed. When the case is
slight, the inflammation is confined to the base of the member, just
around that part where the lining membrane is reflected upon the inner
surface of the prepuce. As far back, therefore, as it can be exposed, a
little redness may be discovered; but this will be so distributed as to
convince us that the interior of the sheath is also involved. All the
inflammation that can be detected will not be sufficient to account for
the quantity of pus that is thrown out; and some persons have therefore
allowed the disease to progress, imagining there was nothing present
requiring to be treated. This is always a mistake. The lining membrane of
the prepuce in these animals cannot be readily laid bare, and that part
is always the most seriously attacked. The penis during health ought to
be moist and of a delicate flesh color; it should not be wet, neither
should it be in any degree red. The appearance ought to suggest the
secluded situation to which the part is by nature assigned, and the
sensitiveness with which it is endued. It should not denote uncleanliness
or anger; but convey an idea of delicacy, and even beauty, to those who
have good sense enough to appreciate nature's provisions.

When the want of early attention has allowed the structures to be
seriously implicated, ulcers appear, which enlarge, and ultimately by
uniting form a mass of sores. There is then often resistance exhibited
when the part is touched, and cries declare the pain which pulling back
the sheath occasions. The prepuce sometimes is not to be withdrawn, and
the struggles of the animal are excessive when its retraction is
attempted. There are then fungoid growths within, and the heat and
tenderness denote the condition of the surface, which cannot without much
violence be beheld.

All this suffering is to be traced to the misplaced kindness of the owner.
Over-feeding is the cause; and, so far as I know, the single cause which
gives rise to the serious aspect of this form of disease. Should it
accompany debility, it is mild in its character, and as the strength
returns it will disappear. Even in this last case, however, it would be
more certainly, and with more speed removed, by a few simple measures
which necessitate no vast trouble.

In its mildest shape, any astringent eye-lotion will generally answer; but
the strength may with safety and advantage be increased.

  1.

  Sulphate of copper or zinc      Five grains.
  Distilled water                 One ounce.

  2.

  Liquor plumbi                   One drachm.
  Distilled water                 One ounce.

  3.

  Alum                            Half a scruple.
  Rose water                      One ounce.

Either of the foregoing will be of service; but before any of them, I
prefer the subjoined:--

  Chloride of zinc                One grain.
  Distilled water                 One ounce.

Whichever of the lotions the practitioner may prefer, should be used at
least thrice daily, and if more frequently employed, no injury will be
done. The mode of applying the lotion is extremely simple. The seat of the
disease being exposed, with a piece of lint or soft rag the fluid is
passed over the surface. No friction is resorted to; but a simple bathing,
in the gentlest possible manner, is all that can be required. In a few
days the effect will be perceived, for by such means the affection can be
cured; but unless the food is improved, and the digestion relieved, there
can be no security against its speedy return.

Under its more virulent form it is not to be thus easily got rid of,
though even then it is to be subdued. If there be much pain, I inject the
lotion up the sheath, and by closing the orifice around the point of the
syringe, endeavor to pass the fluid over the whole of the interior.
Sometimes the pain or irritation is excessive: I then combine sedatives
with the lotions, and their strength I increase as the occasion warrants;
but the non-professional person had better use none more potent than one
drachm of tincture of opium to every ounce of lotion. When the pain,
decreasing, allows the penis to be protruded, if any sprouting fungus or
proud flesh is upon it, a pair of scissors should be used to snip it off.
Some bleeding will ensue, but a little burnt alum will generally stay it;
though, if allowed to continue, I have thought the local depletion was
beneficial, and it has never to my knowledge been attended with danger.
The burnt alum I use in powder, and I prefer it in these cases to the
lunar caustic; which gives more pain; acts less immediately as a styptic,
and is not so satisfactory in its subsequent effects, and, as the animal
can hardly be kept from licking the place, it may possibly be
objectionable on that account. Such treatment usually is beneficial; and
the only further direction to be added concerns such minor points as
reason probably would not need to have specially pointed out.

When the hairs at the orifice are matted together, it is best to snip
them away, which will not only remove a present inconvenience, but
effectually prevent its recurrence. The wounds which occasionally cover
the exterior of the sheath are of no vast importance, or, at all events,
they are of secondary consideration. With the healing of the inward sores
they mostly depart; but their disappearance will be hastened, and the
comfort of the animal improved, if, when the injection is used, they are
at the same time smeared with some mild ointment. That composed of
camphor, &c., and to be found described at page 265, does very well for
such a purpose; but any other of a gentle nature would probably answer as
well.

Soreness of the scrotum is very common, and I have seen it in every
description of dog. I attribute it to derangement of the digestion; never
having witnessed it in animals that were not thus affected, and not having
been able to discover it had any more immediate origin. It mostly appears
first as a redness, which soon becomes covered with small pimples, that
break and discharge a thin watery fluid. The fluid coagulates, and a thin
scab covers the surface. The scab is generally detached, being retained
only by the straggling hairs that grow upon the bag. The scab being
removed, shows a moist and unhealthy patch, the margin of which is of a
faint dirty red color.

This condition of the scrotum yields, in the first instance, to simple
applications; but, should nothing be done, it will continue bad for some
period, and may involve the whole of the bag. It will, in most instances,
so far as the outward and more acute symptom is concerned; that is, the
discharge will cease, the scab fall off, and nothing be left for the eye
to dwell upon. With the seeming cessation, however, other and more
deep-seated structures become involved. The disease leaves the surface
only, and its virulence fixes upon the internal parts. The skin at the
place thickens, becomes hard and gristly. There is no pain; but the
sensation is diminished, which, to the surgeon, is a far worse sign than
is a little anguish. The thickening is sometimes stationary; and the
animal dies without any further evil afflicting him. There is, however, no
security that it will remain thus passive; for occasionally it increases
in size, inflames, gets hurt or rubbed, and ulcerates: in fact, cancer of
the scrotum is established; and as this mostly comes on when the
constitution is weakened, little relief and no promise of cure can
generally be afforded.

These cancers do not appear to burst of themselves. They get sensation as
they inflame; but in every instance that has fallen under my notice,
before ulceration has taken place, they have been slightly wounded; either
by the dog's dragging himself upon the earth, or otherwise. The smallest
injury, however, is sufficient to provoke the action, which when once
excited is not afterwards to be subdued. The ulcer being established,
enlarges; and the humanity of the owner does not allow the lingering and
disgusting disease to take its course, but the poor dog is destroyed to
spare its suffering.

At the commencement the diet must be changed, for the manner of feeding is
at fault. The remedies proper to improve the general health must be
employed, and everything done to restore the system.

To the scrotum a mild ointment will be sufficient. Should that not
succeed, some of those recommended for mange may be tried; or the surface
may be lightly passed over once with a stick of lunar caustic, care being
taken to tie the head of the dog up afterwards to prevent it licking the
part.

The measures already spoken of apply only to mild and recent cases. When
the disease has probably existed for years, such remedies will be of
little service. The skin being unnaturally hard and thick, feeling like
cartilage, and giving the idea that a firm or resistant tumor is connected
with the integument; such being the condition of the part, the surgeon
pauses before he advises it should be interfered with. As it seems to be
possessed of small sensibility, and appears to have assumed a form in
which there is a probability of its remaining, the less done to the local
affection the better.

The relief should be directed wholly to keep the cancer, for such it is,
in a passive or quiescent state. There is no hope that nature will remove
it; and every effort must be made to prevent its malignant character being
by accident or otherwise provoked. With a little care the dog may die of
old age, and the disease may even at the time of death be dormant. A very
mild mercurial ointment may be daily applied to the surface. This will
remove scurf, allay irritability, and prevent the itching, which might
induce the animal to injure the part. The food must be good, proportioned
to the work the creature has to perform,--sufficiently nutritive, but easy
of digestion, and by no means heating. The stomach must be strengthened by
tonics and vegetable bitters, combined with alkalies. Sedatives are
sometimes required, and hyosciamus is in that case to be preferred. A
course of iodide of potassium is likewise frequently beneficial; but it
must be employed only in alterative doses, and persevered with for a
considerable period. The eighth of a grain or half-a-grain may be given
three times a day for six months; and on the first indication of
irritability appearing, the medicine must be resumed. Should the symptoms
of activity be such as to excite alarm, the iodide must be administered in
quantities likely to affect the system. This is to be done with safety, by
dissolving two drachms of the salt in two ounces of water, every drop of
which will then hold in solution the eighth of a grain of the medicine.
From two to ten drops may be given at the commencement, and every day
afterwards one drop may be added to the dose, which should be regularly
administered thrice in the twenty-four hours. The physic should thus be
gradually increased until the appetite fails; or the eyes become inflamed;
or the animal is in an obvious degree dull. When that result is obtained,
the dose ought to be withheld for a time, or to be diminished three or
twelve drops, and the lessened quantity only given until the symptoms have
subsided. The spirits, or appetite, having returned, and sufficient time
having been allowed to make certain of the fact, the dose may once more be
increased; and thus by degrees be augmented, until it is worked up to from
fifty to a hundred drops three times a day, beyond which it ought not to
be pushed. Even while this is being done, it is well to give tonic and
strengthening pills; but purgatives are to be used with extreme caution.

Too frequently our assistance is not sought until the disease has assumed
its worst aspect. There is then an open cancer, and we are asked to cure
it. There is in medicine no known means of performing so desirable an
object; physic can, in such a case, only be palliative--whatever hope then
remains must rest upon the employment of the knife. The surgeon, however,
must well examine the part before he consents to operate. Entreaties will
not unfrequently be urgent; and where the life of an animal only is
involved in the result, it is hard to say "no" to supplications which may
be accompanied with tears. The professional man, however, must consult his
judgment, and by its dictates resolutely abide; for those who are most
eager in their requests are always most sanguine in their hopes. The
issue, if unsuccessful, will not do otherwise than expose the surgeon to
reproaches, perhaps more bitter than the supplications to which he yielded
were imploring. Even should the proprietor be silent, the reputation of
the operator will be injured; for, when the knife is resorted to, mankind
will not tolerate failure. Therefore it is prudent, and also humane, to
consider how far surgery can eradicate the affection ere excision is
employed to add to the immediate suffering, and perhaps hasten the
consequence it was designed to prevent.

The tumor should be circumscribed, or, at all events, there should be
around it a fair proportion of healthy skin whenever its removal is
attempted. When such exists, the operation is justifiable; but without
such being present, it is to be condemned. The skin is wanted to close the
orifice, and it must be healthy, in order that it may properly unite. In
extreme cases, where the life of the animal depends upon activity, it may
be proper to remove both testicles; but this should, if possible, be
avoided.

Castration in the dog is not of itself dangerous; but it renders the
animal disposed to accumulate fat, and destroys many of those qualities
for which it is esteemed. The creature afterwards becomes lethargic, and
its spirits never are recovered. It is best performed by cutting through
the spermatic nerve, and scraping the artery, so as to separate it; taking
care to do this sufficiently high up to prevent the cord from being
exposed.

When the operator has decided to take away the spermatic glands, he does
so at the commencement of the operation. With one cut he lays the scrotum
open, and pulling forth the testicle, divides the nerve; then with the
edge of a blunt but coarse knife, scrapes it as the cords lie upon his
finger. Having done this on one or both sides, as the case may require, he
inspects the tumor, the substance of which is now exposed to view. By the
aspect of the growth he decides upon the course he will next adopt; or
rather shapes the manner he had proposed to proceed. Seldom will it
occasion him to change his plan; but he must be prepared to do so, if the
appearances should be contrary to his anticipations. The skin is here of
primary importance; wherever it is not involved, it is dissected back, and
every portion of hard or gristly matter scrupulously sought for and cut
away. All such substance being excised, care is then directed to bring the
edges together. A pair of scissors may be required to make them exactly
even, but the less snipping there may be the better. To retain the lips of
the wound in the places desired, collodium will be found far superior to
sutures or plasters. It is with a camel's hair pencil laid in bands along
the parts, which are held in their intended situations while it dries. A
few threads of linen are embedded in it while it is in a liquid state, so
as to increase its strength; and layer after layer is added until the mind
is assured the purpose is obtained. The application must on no account be
made in one continuous sheet; for before union can take place suppuration
must be established, and spaces are necessary to allow the matter to
escape. Therefore, in several fine strips stretching over the wound, and
holding its edges close, the collodium is to be employed; and this being
ended, subsequent attention is generally required only to regulate the
health, on which the healing process will greatly depend.

To stone in the bladder the dog is liable. The cause cannot be directly
traced, but the symptoms are not obscure; the animal is constantly voiding
its urine, which, though small in quantity, is not of a healthy character.
A few drops of blood occasionally are passed; and, in attempting to go
down stairs, sudden cries are often emitted. Fits of pain and seasons of
illness are frequent, and the point of the penis is protruded from the
sheath, never being withdrawn. The leg is not raised to void the urine;
but the creature strains when the act has either been accomplished, or
there is no power to perform it. If the dog be taken on the knee, and one
knowing the situation of the contents gently manipulates the abdomen, the
body may be felt within the bladder, which will mostly be contracted and
empty.

The nature of the disease having been ascertained, little can be done
beyond relieving the immediate distress. Some writers have given
directions for operating under such circumstances; but none of them tell
us they have successfully performed lithotomy upon the animal. In every
case of the kind upon which I have been consulted, the idea of such a
measure was not for an instant to be countenanced. Dogs thus afflicted,
are mostly small, and the calculus is generally of great proportional
size, prior to our attention being directed to it. In a creature so very
delicate as the dog, every operation requires to be well considered before
it is resorted to; and though the cutler might make knives sufficiently
diminutive for the occasion, it may be doubted if our hands are
sufficiently nice to employ them. The stones I have met with were of a
size I would not have liked to have drawn through the urethra; and
therefore, though I will not assert lithotomy cannot be performed upon the
dog, I must confess I have not performed it, and must say I should require
strong inducements to attempt it upon the animal.

All I aim at is to limit the increase of the deposit, and to alleviate the
painful symptoms it gives rise to. A strictly vegetable diet best
accomplishes the first object, and doses of ether and laudanum, repeatedly
administered by mouth and injection, most speedily secure the second.
Pills of henbane are likewise of service; and with them small quantities
of the balsams may be combined, though the last should not be continued if
they have any marked diuretic action. The peppers, especially cubebs, I
have thought serviceable, and very minute doses of cantharides have seemed
to be attended with benefit. Here, however, I speak with doubt; for the
agents have by me been employed only in homoeopathic quantities, and I
have not the means of saying they had very decided action. They appeared
to do good, since under their use the animals improved; and that is all I
can state in their behalf. Proprietors, however, when the pressing
annoyance is allayed, being told there is no prospect of a radical cure,
do not generally afford us much opportunity to watch the action of
medicines.

Hæmaturia or bloody urine is met with in the dog; and I (having been
unfortunate in those cases where I employed acetate of lead) adopted
small doses of cantharides, and with these to my surprise succeeded; for
which reason I have persevered in my homoeopathic treatment. The quantity
of tincture of cantharides I employ is three minims to two ounces of
water, and to my wonder, this appears to answer every purpose; the only
fault, indeed, that a general practitioner might find with it being that
it did its work too quickly.

Swelling of the glans penis is not uncommon. It comes on suddenly, and the
dog is by it rendered offensive to the owner's sight. The membrane is in a
state of erection, and being so, is of course protruded; and while thus
exposed, the end of it loses its mild red color, becoming of a paler hue,
and at the same time enlarging. Its size increases to such an extent, that
when the erection subsides, it cannot be retracted.

This generally happens to animals that are weakly; such being of what are
called high breeds, or having recovered from some dangerous disorder. It
is not a dangerous affection, and if taken early is very easily subdued.
With a silk handkerchief, the exposed part should be grasped by the left
hand; and while every means is employed to push the gland back, the
fingers of the right hand ought to be used, to draw the prepuce over it. A
little time and care will, in most instances, do what is desired; and
there is no need of haste, or justification for violence. Oil is not
required, as the parts are sufficiently lubricated by their own secretion;
and still less are those practices some persons have advocated,
admissible.

The scarification of the glans, or the slitting of the prepuce, should not
ever be allowed, save the absolute failure of all other measures has
demonstrated relief is not otherwise to be procured. Before these severe
resorts are sanctioned, the effects of cold and stimulants, locally
applied, ought to be fully and patiently tried. A lotion containing ether,
in such proportions as water will dissolve it, should be applied to the
part; and spirit of nitric ether, to which double its amount of proof
spirit has been added, may be with a camel's hair pencil painted over its
surface. Ice is even better, but both, according as they can be readily
obtained, are beneficial. Gentle manipulations will also be of benefit,
and if the patience of the practitioner be not too easily exhausted, he
will rarely need more to bring about that which is desired.

Retention of urine, though not very common in the dog, is, however,
encountered too frequently to be termed a rare affection. It mostly
accompanies debility, during the last stage of distemper, and is sometimes
present in paralysis of the hind extremities. I have not seen a case in
which it took the acute form, though obviously it may do so.

The symptoms generally are obscure; for in the majority of instances the
distension of the bladder will simply aggravate the general uneasiness.
The condition of the part, therefore, may not be suspected, but in such
cases it is to be ascertained by manipulation. By taking the animal, and
gently pressing its abdomen, if the bladder be empty, the intestines will
be felt; but if the viscus be full, there will be a soft and pulpy mass
under the fingers. The sensation imparted by it conveys the idea that it
is fluid, and the greatest care will in it detect nothing denoting
substance or form. The proof thus obtained is positive, and will not
deceive him who has accepted it. All pretending to administer to canine
disease should be able to read this indication, but sometimes others
direct attention to its presence.

The dog having the bladder gorged, and not so debilitated as to be
deprived of power to move, or by paralysis disabled, mostly lies, but even
then it is never at rest. The position is constantly shifted. Food and
drink are refused, great dulness is exhibited, and a low plaintive moan is
from time to time emitted. If made to walk, the animal straddles the
hind-legs, and its gait is peculiar. The spine is arched, but the
posterior limbs are not drawn or carried forward. If pressure is made upon
the belly, it provokes resistance; and any attempt to raise the dog from
the ground induces it to struggle.

Relief should without loss of time be afforded by the use of the catheter.
When I was a pupil at the college, the professor used to assert that the
introduction of such an instrument was in the dog a physical
impossibility. The bone found in the penis of this animal, the gentleman
instructed his pupils to believe, opposed an obstacle which could not be
overcome. My former teacher, however, was in error. He had either never
made the trial, or he had not judgment sufficient to conduct an operation
which, when properly undertaken, is remarkably easy and simple. I believe
I was the first practitioner in England who used the catheter for the dog,
though prior to my doing so, reports were published of the instrument
having been employed in France. On the Continent, however, I have heard of
no one who had thought of introducing a catheter into the bladder of the
bitch. That also I have done; and find the operation to be unattended with
danger or difficulty. The method of operating upon the female will be
explained in another place. Here I have to speak of the mode in which the
male is to be relieved.

Let the dog be placed upon its side, and by means of a handkerchief the
penis be drawn. A catheter of proportionate size must be selected.
Metallic tubes will not do; but the gum elastic are to be employed. Before
one of these is introduced, the wire must be taken out, and the outer
surface moistened with olive oil.

The human catheters answer admirably for small dogs; but these are not
made long enough to be of service to animals of the larger kinds. For a
dog of middle height, an instrument twice the length of those employed on
man ought to be at hand; and for a huge Newfoundland, one thrice as long
will be useful. The shorter catheters may be of the sizes sold as Nos. 1,
2, and 3; the middle length, 4 and 5; the longest, Nos. 6, 7, and 8.

The dog being placed upon its side, and retained there in a position such
as the operator may think most advantageous to his movements, the
catheter is introduced with one hand while the penis is held by the other.
The meatus being found--there is no great ingenuity required to discover
it--the instrument is inserted and pushed gently onward. At first its
passage is easy, but it has not gone far before a check is felt. The
stoppage arises from the spasmodic contraction of the canal, caused by the
point of the instrument having reached the bone of the penis. For a period
the passage is effectually closed; but no force must be employed to
overcome the obstacle. Gentle but steady pressure is kept up; and under
this it is rarely longer than a few minutes before the spasm yields. The
catheter then glides forward, and the operator, resigning the hold of the
penis to his assistant, passes his free hand to the perinæum. When he
feels the point of the tube below the anus, he uses his fingers to direct
its course,--for at this part the canal curves, taking a direction
forward,--and after a little further way has been made, another check is
experienced. This last springs from the contraction of the neck of the
bladder; and once more gentle, but steady pressure must he employed to
overcome the spasm. It rarely resists long; but the sudden absence of all
opposition, and the flow of urine, shows that the object of the operation
has been obtained.

The dog offers no resistance to the passage of the instrument. I have
never known one to cry, or seen one exhibit a struggle. I could not
account for this by attributing it to any fondness for the necessary
restraint, under which the creature is temporarily placed. During the
flowing of the urine, the dog invariably remains perfectly quiet; and the
relief afforded seems to dispose it almost to sleep; for after it is over,
the animal lies in a kind of happy lethargy. The fluid, however, does not
jet forth or empty quickly. The operator must not be impatient, for the
stream is perfectly passive; since, in consequence of the distension, the
bladder has lost its contractive power. To obtain the whole of the
contents, has sometimes required a quarter of an hour, and the quantity
procured has frequently been quite disproportioned to the size of the
patient. From a small petted spaniel, brought under my notice by my
friend, Mr. Henderson, I extracted very nearly half a pint of urine, and
the animal from that period began to get well. From a very small dog, the
property of a lady of fortune, I for several days, every night and
morning, withdrew about four ounces of the excretion with marked benefit
to the animal. The operation is tedious, but it repays us for the time it
occupies. Towards the conclusion the stream is frequently interrupted. It
stops, then recommences; ceases, and then begins again; and the last
portions are often ejected with a force which the first did not display. A
little straining may attend the closing of the operation. For this the
operator must be prepared, and immediately withdraw the catheter; lest the
bladder, energetically contracting upon it, should cause the point to
pierce the sides of the viscus. The instrument is no longer required when
straining is excited; for then the contractive function has been resumed,
and nature will subsequently perform her office without assistance.

The bladder that has been relieved, may require the care of the surgeon a
second time; but no officiousness should be indulged in that respect. Let
the necessity be present before the operation is resorted to; and the need
for its adoption can be so accurately ascertained, that there is no excuse
whatever for needless interference. The operation is attended with no
immediate danger or subsequent ill consequences, that I am aware of; but
it is particularly recommended by the fact, that in the dog it is not
accompanied with that pain, which in man usually provokes exclamation,
sometimes causes fainting, and not unfrequently induces irritability of
the membrane lining the canal.

The testicles are occasionally the sources of annoyance to the proprietor.
In one instance a high-bred dog was sold, the person who bought the animal
making the purchase with a view to breeding from it. Disappointment
followed, for no sexual desire could be excited; and as a stock-dog, the
beast was useless. An examination was then made, and the scrotum was
discovered to contain no glands.

A most infamous fraud was now accused against him who had sold the dog;
and as dog-dealers are not so respectable, and are almost as little
credited as horse-dealers, any charge imputing dishonesty required no
evidence to substantiate it. An infamous villain was convicted of having
castrated the dog before he parted with it, in order that a valuable
strain might not be rendered common. This same dog was brought to me. I
could detect no testicles, and I could perceive no cicatrix. The body was
fat and the disposition sluggish, but the frame well developed. It was
possible the scar, if the operation had been performed early, should have
disappeared: and there are means practised by which the testicles can be
in a great measure destroyed without making an incision. Here, however,
there was nothing to denote they had been present; or evidence to show
they had been removed. I could by manipulation discover no bodies in the
inguinal canals. Under the circumstances, I was unable to give a positive
opinion; but I leant to the idea that the appearances resulted from
defective conformation.

My indecision exposed me to some remarks at the time; for the veterinary
surgeon is never permitted to doubt. Ignorance is the only reason the
majority of his patrons can conceive to account for his deliberation. A
year subsequent, however, the dog died; and the body was then brought to
me, in order that the point might be decided. I found both glands, which
were not larger than they should have been at birth, within the abdomen,
whence they never had descended.

It is very common to find small dogs, especially spaniels and terriers,
with only one testicle in the scrotum; but in the larger number of such
cases the other can be detected, though it will be of small size, within
the canal. Animals in this condition are quite capable of being used as
stock-dogs, and are for such purposes as certain, as those more perfectly
formed. Of this I have had repeated proofs; and, consequently, the absence
of one gland is not to be viewed as a serious defect; though I do not know
that it can be regarded in the light of a recommendation. Speaking from
observation, and bringing the results of positive experience to bear upon
my opinion, I may assert, that in diminutive dogs--animals intended only
to be esteemed as "toys,"--the absence of one testicle is not of the
slightest import; though, in the larger breeds intended for actual work, I
should by no means be inclined so to regard it.

The testicles are also subject to enlarge and become hard, more than is
natural. In that state they most frequently are devoid of sensation;
though sometimes, but rarely, they are unnaturally tender. The size and
degree of feeling may be the only indications; but generally the scrotum
is at the same time thickened, and exhibits an alteration in structure.

Blaine speaks of castration under such circumstances. I have hitherto
abstained from direct interference. Notwithstanding the alteration, which
has been obvious, I have, beyond daily rubbing in the ointment, containing
camphor and mercury, resorted to no topical application. In one instance I
employed an unguent, containing iodine; but it was ultimately
discontinued, from a conviction that it was in its operation injurious,
seeming to produce effects the opposite of those desired. The food,
however, I alter; and by gentle aperients I endeavor to regulate the
bowels. A course of the iodide of potassium I have likewise adopted, and
can with confidence recommend. Alterative doses only should be
administered; and the drug ought to be continued for three months at
least. If prepared in the following form, it will not perhaps be readily
swallowed up, but the animal will very seldom violently resist its
administration:--

  Simple syrup             Two ounces.
  Water                    Six ounces.
  Iodide of potassium      Fifteen grains to one drachm.

Dose, one drachm, or a teaspoonful thrice daily

The quantity ordered contains from a quarter of a grain to a grain of the
iodide; and, if there be motive for desiring it should be exhibited in
substance, the like amounts may be made into pills with conserve of roses,
and a little powdered liquorice. The form is of little importance; but I
prefer the fluid, because I have found that the animal can, with no great
trouble or vast tax upon ingenuity, be brought to accept it readily; and
with dogs, as with children, we gain by convincing them we are practising
no deception. These creatures possess remarkable discernment: it is
astonishing how long the doubt, when once excited, will act upon the
canine mind. A pill, for this reason, is better pushed down the throat
than presented in meat; for the imposition, being once detected, will for
a long time subsequent to it be suspected. It is, therefore, best to
proceed openly and without fear. So strong is my impression that dogs
have a general comprehension of the meaning of sounds, that when I have
medicines to give, I always address them, saying, "Come and take your
physic." Some will do as they are ordered; but others are less obedient. I
have met with none (save clump-headed spaniels--which of all dogs are the
very worst behaved) that were not to be subjected. Frankness and
determination operate wonderfully on these occasions. The animal soon
learns it must submit, and quickly ascertains you have no desire to hurt
it. The natural and beautiful confidence the brute reposes in man is thus
appealed to, and it is surely wise not to tamper with so noble a feeling.
With dogs be resolute and straightforward; have no sense of fear, and have
no desire for deceit. Call upon the innate submissiveness of the creature,
and claim its obedience as a right. The amiable brute will respond to such
appeals; as the struggles which result from weakness operating upon
sensibility will originate confusion, and provoke those bites which are
not maliciously aimed, but intended for self-defence.



GENERATIVE ORGANS.--FEMALE.

The ignorant are always inclined to be officious where procreation is
concerned. The knowledge they pretend to, concerning such matters,
however, consists of mingled indecency and mystery; and, when exposed,
only commands contempt. The poor dog, nevertheless, suffers cruelly
through the practices which such persons subject it to; and great as may
be the ignorance of the parties who go about the country under various
assumed denominations, to torture the canine race, surely, they who pay
such fellows, or allow their animals to be abused by these pretenders,
display a want of sense even more deplorable? Still this is done every
day. The nobility continue to be the profitable dupes of a host of
confident impostors; and strangely seem to be infatuated with the belief
that the man who sells a dog can likewise administer to the diseases of
the creatures in which he trades.

The bitch is most unfortunate in the variety of severities she is
compelled to undergo. Some foolish persons have imagined they can at will
induce the periodical desire for offspring in the animal. To do this,
violent stimulants are employed; being often given by the mouth, but more
frequently injected up the passage. I have no proof that such means are
ever successful; and were they capable of doing all they are employed to
accomplish, I would certainly refuse to make use of them. Nature cannot be
coerced to man's profit; and any interference with her laws is always
dangerous. The consequences may not be so immediate that in every instance
the effect is traced to the cause; but the major portion of the affections
of which the female generative organs of the dog are too commonly the
seat, may be attributed to the carelessness, or cruelty of the owner, or
of those by whom he is surrounded.

Various morbid growths are apt to appear upon or within the parts when
old age advances. These have been generally produced by violence endured
at a period long prior to the development of the disease. Potent
injections may have been employed to bring on the condition called "heat;"
or undue force may have been exerted to drag away the pups when the bitch
was in labor; or brutality may have been resorted to, to tear apart the
animals during the performance of the act of impregnation. Other sources
of accident and injury may likewise operate in disposing the delicate
membrane of the vagina to exhibit disease; for boys, and others also, are
cruelly inquisitive, and the dumb creature cannot complain.

The growths that appear upon the parts are not peculiar to its locality.
They are only such as may be present on similar structures. They assume
one of three forms, viz. either that of tumor, fungus, or polypus.

The tumor may be of any shape or size; and it may be very hard or
comparatively soft. Its consistence and dimension will depend upon its
character; and this is seldom in two cases exactly alike. Mostly it is
confined to the more external parts of the passage; but so deep-rooted is
it that it cannot be conveniently dissected away. It may have a broad base
or widely spreading attachment; and those I have examined after death most
frequently were mixed up with the structures on which they seemed to
repose.

When such is the case, nothing can be done beyond attending to the
general health; as by supporting the constitution, the tendency to disease
is likely to be checked. To the part no local application should be used;
and every care is required to prevent the animal from injuring it.

When more externally situated, a careful examination must be made, to
decide whether there is a fair hope of the growth being successfully
excised. If it is hard and circumscribed, an operation is justifiable; but
the skin should be healthy. All the integument must be preserved, and the
entire bulk of the morbid body cleanly taken away. The parts are not so
sensitive as to render the operation exceedingly severe; however large the
wound may be, it generally heals rapidly. After the operation no dressing
will be required, unless some untoward circumstance should arise, when, of
course, the remedies needed to counteract it must be resorted to.

Fungus is invariably preceded by a purulent discharge, which, when the
growth is developed, is mingled with blood. The system is feverish, and
the parts are hot, irritable, and painful. The animal is continually
licking itself, and is disinclined for motion or food.

In the first instance the cure is speedy; but if allowed to proceed, the
affection is troublesome, and may be difficult to eradicate. When any
unnatural discharge exudes, a mild tepid lotion should be injected. It
should be of an astringent nature, and an infusion of green tea or any of
the eye-washes recommended will be of service. The strength should
likewise be supported, and the cold bath given daily, while exercise is
particularly attended to.

When blood mingles with the exudation, a careful examination, with a
speculum, if required, must be made; and the diseased surface should be
touched with lunar caustic, or sulphate of copper. After this, an
injection of the chloride of zinc, one grain to distilled water one ounce,
should be employed thrice daily.

Should, however, the growth be of any size, it should be snipped off with
a pair of probe-pointed scissors; and the lunar caustic ought then to be
applied and repeated when the bleeding has entirely ceased. If the
bleeding be excessive, cold water may be thrown up, or a pair of bellows,
to drive a current of air upon the place, supposing it to be situated
where it can be thus acted upon, may be made use of. Too frequently,
however, the affection is deeply located, and then injections are alone to
be resorted to, though, at the same time, constitutional measures may be
employed. The case is not to be despaired of, but the prospect of success
may not be satisfactory.

Polypus is a round pear-shaped body, generally hanging by a pedicle, or
neck, like to the stalk of the fruit. It is smooth, also moist, and highly
vascular, having a red and shining appearance. When present, its
attachment is commonly rather backward, or pretty deep within the passage.
A small glairy discharge is at first observed. The fluid emitted is simply
mucous, caused by the increased secretion of the membrane, which is
irritated by the presence of a foreign growth. The parts subsequently seem
to be swollen, and the animal does not appear otherwise affected. At
length something red and glistening is remarked to protrude. It is seen
occasionally, and then withdrawn; but most generally it appears subsequent
to the urine having been voided. Ultimately, however, it constantly hangs
out; and as, when exposed, it annoys the animal, it may be injured, and
bleed freely.

The practitioner must cautiously examine the part. Before he makes up his
mind concerning the nature of that which is presented, he must assure
himself that the womb has not become inverted. I was once requested by a
veterinary surgeon to see him remove a polypus from the vagina of a bitch,
as he had determined to excise it. Luckily I went, and saved him from
cutting away the animal's uterus, which would assuredly have destroyed
her. A contrary course was pursued, and that dog, in three days
afterwards, was returned to its master well. The following particulars
will enable him who may be in such a difficulty to discriminate the uterus
from a polypus.

The uterus is soft, but rough when exposed; no vessels are to be seen upon
its surface; it does not shine; it is not round or pear-shaped; it feels
like a thick empty sac, and never appears upon pressure to contain any
substance; it cannot be traced to any stalk-like attachment, and, if
returned, the situation it will occupy denotes the position it was
ordained to hold.

A polypus is smooth, glistening, and on its surface generally exhibits
vessels. Its covering is always tense, and contains a semi-solid
substance; it is often sensitive, and, if the space allows of the passage
of the finger, the neck or point of attachment can be felt; it cannot,
like the womb, or the bladder when inverted, be forced inward, or made to
take the situation which either of them would occupy.

Moreover, the appearance of a polypus is an affair which must have
attracted notice some months prior to its occurrence; whereas, the
inversion of the bladder or the womb, occupies but an instant, and is
commonly preceded by no symptoms.

Being assured there is a polypus, if a fine silk can be passed round the
neck or stalk and be tied tight, so as to cut off the circulation of blood
to the part, the growth will drop off in two days, supposing the operation
to have been effectively performed. When a ligature cannot be applied, the
body should be seized with a proper pair of forceps, and it should then be
turned round and round several times. The object in doing this is to twist
the stalk, so as to strangulate the vessels within it; and this sometimes
answers quite as well as the ligature itself, but the last is best, as
being more sure and less likely to be attended with accident. When neither
can be accomplished, the polypus may be forcibly dragged away, or
literally torn out; but the pain of this is very great, and the operation
has nothing to recommend it but its absolute necessity.

The polypus being removed, perfectly cold, mild, astringent injections, to
act as healing and cleansing lotions, should be used; or if any portion of
the stalk remain, to that caustic may be applied.

Authors speak of cancer of the vagina. I have seen nothing yet in the
animal that I may designate by such a term. I have, it is true, met with
serious wounds and grievous sores; but all of these have yielded to
treatment, and I am not aware that, if their nature had been malignant,
they could have been subdued by any medicinal measures.

Dropsy of the uterus I have encountered, though, as no teacher or work
speaks of such an affection in the dog, it was some time before I was able
to recognise the disease. The bitch thus afflicted is generally petted
into ill-health. She is fat, slothful, and weakly. All the various
symptoms show the digestion to be deranged; and in most cases she
eventually perishes of abdominal disease, which is in its termination
independent of the condition of the uterus. The only marked symptom
directing attention to the womb, is the cessation of every sign indicating
sexual desire. For years there may be no appearance of "_heat;_" but
otherwise the bitch shall be regarded only as delicate, and not be
esteemed to be decidedly unwell. If, however, the body of the animal be
examined after death, the body and horns of the uterus will be found
distended with a thin aqueous fluid; and the walls of the organ will be
seen to be very attenuated, and much wanting in vascularity. There is no
precise limit to the size the uterus may attain; but, in consequence of
its increased volume, it occupies another situation to that it naturally
holds in the abdomen of the bitch. Generally, when dropsical to any
extent, it will repose immediately upon the linea alba; and it is apt to
be injured if care be not taken when the _post mortem_ examination is
made.

For dropsy of the uterus, general measures must alone be employed, and
these must be of a tonic character; for, however much the dog may be
petted, or however fat its body may be, the disease is always consequent
upon debility. Among the tonics are several which have a stimulating
action upon the uterus, and where it is suspected to be affected the
following medicines may be administered:--

  Powdered cinnamon           One scruple to one and a half drachm.
  Powdered borate of soda     Ten grains to two scruples.
  Powdered secale cornutum    One to six grains.
  Extract of gentian          One drachm to half an ounce.
  Powdered quassia            A sufficiency.

Make in twenty-four pills, and give three daily.

  Iodide of iron            Ten grains to one scruple.
  Powdered cinchona bark    One drachm to half an ounce.
  Extract of gentian        One drachm to half an ounce.

Make as in the previous prescription.

  Iodide of potassium       Ten grains to one drachm.
  Tincture of cantharides   Five drops to one scruple.
  Simple syrup              One drachm.
  Water                     Two ounces.

Let a tea-spoonful be given three times a day.

In some cases the pills first recommended may be given with the drops last
proposed; but the action must be watched, and either the dose diminished
or the medicine withheld, if it appears to have any violent effect. The
intent is to work gently and gradually upon the system, and no immediate
result should be expected or desired.

PARTURITION, OR PUPPING.--This is a very serious branch of the present
subject; for, through the inability to bring forth their young, many a
valuable bitch is annually lost; and, by the injudicious measures intended
to relieve them, many more are yearly sacrificed. I know of no book that
gives proper directions for the guidance of the practitioner; indeed, the
rules laid down by both Blaine and Youatt are calculated to do mischief
whenever they shall be put into practice. The reader must, therefore, be
content to accept that which will be submitted to his consideration on
this topic, as the result of the experience of an individual whose
observations have been made only during a comparatively short period, and
whose opinions consequently are not to be regarded as confirmed. While
directing attention to what has been declared rejected, the author
solicits no confidence in his judgment, beyond that which results shall
sanction, and reason approve.

[Illustration]

Little gentlemen are said to incline towards what are termed fine women;
and many persons will remember the caricature, in which a strapping
Life-guards-man was depicted, stooping to salute a lady who scarcely
reached the top of his boots. The like admiration for bulk appears to be
entertained by the members of the canine race. Small curs are much
disposed to bestow their affections upon huge Newfoundlands; and
diminutive bitches, if followed by a host of suitors, will give the
preference to the largest of the group. All descriptions of dogs will
freely have intercourse with one another; and as these animals are of such
various proportions, the female is frequently unable to give birth to the
progeny of a gigantic sire. Care consequently should be taken to provide
suitable males when pups are desired; and in all cases the dog should be
smaller than the bitch. It is not, however, a sufficient precaution that
the dog be of less size; for it, or the bitch herself, may be the dwarf of
a large stock, and being so, may be capable of getting or gestating
offspring as huge as the race from which either of them sprung. It is
possible, therefore, for a small dog to be quite as dangerous as one of
great weight; and I knew an animal of this kind which had been the cause
of many deaths on that account. The animal alluded to was the property of
a gentleman (now deceased) who had long graced the bench. The dog was a
handsome Scotch terrier; and, being small, it was frequently solicited as
a stock-dog. It was, however, very deceptive; for a bitch twice its own
size could with difficulty survive the consequences of its embraces. It is
a diminutive example of a naturally large race; and in its offspring there
is a disposition to return to the original size. Therefore, not only must
the dog be small, but, if possible, it must have been derived from a small
stock. The giant's dwarf may beget a giant; and how frequently do parents
of short stature have children who can at maturity look literally over
their heads! Certainly more important, however, than the size of the dog,
is the magnitude of the stock whence the bitch is derived. A full-sized
pug bitch, whose portrait is given beneath, had connexion with a setter
dog. She was sent to me to be delivered; but with little assistance the
affair was accomplished. A small mongrel bitch, but a great favorite with
its master, broke loose during his absence, and had connexion with a dog
at least four times its size. The animal was brought to me to ascertain
what could be done, her death being expected when the nine weeks expired.
At the proper period, however, she brought forth four pups without any
assistance. On the opposite side numerous instances might be quoted: but,
on this topic, enough has been said to warn the reader that the dog,
however small, should not be permitted to approach the bitch whose mother
was large, or whose brothers and sisters stand much higher than herself.
Let the reader look at the two portraits that follow. They are evidently
of one and the same family. They both had a common progenitor. The beagle
is the blood-hound, only of smaller size; and often these beautiful
diminutive creatures suffer in parturition, or throw pups whose size takes
from them all value. However, for the chance of security, if for no more
tangible object; let the dog, in every instance, be smaller than the
bitch; and let it also have no disease, but be in perfect health, strong
and lively. A dog in any way deformed or affected with any disorder ought
to be avoided. Blindness, skin eruptions, piles, paralysis of the tongue,
and a host of other annoyances, I more than suspect to be hereditary. The
mental qualities are transmitted, as well as physical beauties and
defects. Sagacity, health, and beauty are to be sought for, and if all
cannot be obtained, those most desired must be selected. Where shape is
wanted, let the dog possess such form as the bitch is deficient in; thus
the female having a long-nose or legs, may be put to a male short in these
respects; and the rule may be applied in other instances.

[Illustration: THE BLOOD-HOUND.]

[Illustration: THE BEAGLE.]

Judgment is needed; and, of course, the choice is to be in some measure
regulated by the kind of stock the dog has been known to get. All dogs
kept as stock-dogs have reputations for the qualities of their offspring;
and these, sometimes, are better guides than the appearances of the
animals themselves; for it does occur that the pups procured by a
diminutive dog, do occasionally prove the very reverse of what might be
anticipated.

The bitch, for breeding, should be rather long in the back; and it is
scarcely possible for her to be made too wide in the hind-quarters. She
should be strong, and rather large than small of her breed; and where a
diminution of size is desired, it is better to obtain it through the
father than the mother. When the last method is adopted there is no danger
of the bitch bearing pups of gigantic proportions, and which she may not
be capable of bringing forth. The breed, also, should be as pure as
possible; for there is a disposition in these animals to throw back, as it
is termed; that is, supposing a bitch to be of spaniel breed, to that
degree which allows of no cross being detected; nevertheless if there
should be a stain of cur or terrier in her pedigree, one or more of every
litter she bears, may prominently exhibit it. It is often long before this
natural proof of a degraded family can be entirely eradicated; and it is
very common for persons to express surprise at the pups born resembling
neither of the parents they were derived from.

Another caution not to be neglected is, to keep the bitch from all
communication with dogs it is wished her progeny should in no way
resemble. A low-bred playmate may not appear to be of much consequence;
and the proprietor may imagine, if actual connexion is provided against,
no further precaution can be required. The females of the canine race,
however, are able to bestow their affections; and tender recollections are
as potent over them as they are known to be in other cases, where higher
animals are concerned. Bitches are not always prudent in their loves, but
are apt to fling themselves away on curs of low degree. If reared with a
companion of vulgar appearance, there often springs up between the pair a
devotion which no time can afterwards subdue. The passion, for such it
really is, becomes of a more than romantic endurance. The loved one's
image grows to be so impressed upon the mind--so much so, that all the
fruits of the body afterwards bear its likeness. There may have been no
intercourse between the pair, but to animals of her breed, the bitch may,
contrary to her longings, have been devoted: and yet, in the offspring she
brings forth the object of her affections will be represented. This,
however, is very likely to be the case, when the first male accepted is by
accident or neglect of impure origin. There have been several well-marked
cases illustrative of this fact, and probably many which have never been
properly observed. The peculiarity of a high-bred bitch bringing forth a
blemished litter, would be set down to her throwing back; but perhaps a
fair proportion of the cases thus accounted for, might with justice be
attributed to the mental influence which has been pointed out.

The first indication of a bitch approaching to desire, is a slight
enlargement of the teats. This may be observed for a week, more or less,
before the parts show any signs of change. These last, however, soon begin
to swell, and a thick glairy discharge of simple mucus drains from them in
small quantities. The secretion becomes more copious, and thinner,
gradually changing its character to that of blood; and as that alteration
in the fluid is remarked, the labia grow larger, redder, and more hot.

The animal has then "heat," or oestrum, upon her, and her system is
generally excited. She is more lively, and should any other dogs be with
her, she indulges in a variety of coquettish antics. Her attitudes when
thus excited are very picturesque, and the beauty of the animal is never
exhibited to greater advantage.

A lively grace animates her whole frame; and she is now the creature a
painter should study, or a poet describe. She will not immediately accept
the male, whose passion she evidently practises all her arts to excite.
For a few days, perhaps, a romping courtship may go forward before union
is actually permitted.

Dog fanciers almost universally attach importance to the appearance of the
discharge. Some say the dog should not be offered before the bleeding
begins to diminish. If these rules are not attended to, I have been most
confidently assured the evil consequences of the neglect are certain to be
present in the pups. The litter prematurely begotten, it is foretold, must
be bad in some way; though why this should be the case, or how the cause
produces such effects, none of the dog fanciers have been able to explain.

As by attempting to obey these injunctions I have known many
disappointments to be produced, there was every inducement, even had I not
been inquisitive from professional motives, to set me testing the truth of
these assertions; for I am not inclined to sneer at every opinion
announced by persons devoid of education. A power to observe is by no
means regulated by an ability to read or write; and as the dog fanciers
bred much more largely than I possibly could do, their experience entitled
their opinions to attention. Nevertheless, ignorance is so exposed to
misconception, that its declarations at all times should be examined, and
I resolved to test the truth of the rule which so many announced to be
established.

The result has not confirmed the belief generally entertained; but it has
induced me to conclude that the dog may be allowed whenever the bitch will
permit him. Nature, I have found, regulates the matter, so as not to
necessitate man's supervision. The bitch will, by her instinct, decide the
question; and she may, without any dread of mysterious consequences, be
left to its direction. In support of this conclusion, a large number of
animals can readily be adduced. The numerous bitches, especially in the
country, that are placed under no restraint, but are left free to gratify
their impulses, afford obvious demonstration of the fact. These creatures
have litters that are much stronger and healthier than those which are
more tenderly guarded.

The fatality that attends the offspring of very choice breeds, does not
infer that the customs they are subjected to conduce materially to their
benefit; and my experience, so far as it has been carried, supports the
conclusion which this circumstance would seem to countenance.

Let the bitch therefore follow her inclinations; but it is not unusual for
force to be employed on such occasions. This should never be allowed. The
female ought on no account to be compelled; but it is a common practice
to employ restraint when she is unwilling. Some assistance may
occasionally be needed, particularly with the smaller breeds, which are
apt to be physically disabled; but it should be limited to such offices as
favor the desires of the parties principally concerned. Whenever man's aid
goes beyond that, it is likely to be injurious; for if Nature orders an
animal to decline the gratification of its instinct, we may rest assured
there is good reason why such a phenomenon is exhibited, although we may
not possess the acumen to rightly interpret its indication.

Some people permit the dog and bitch to remain together for several hours;
but with favorite stock-dogs, it is customary to present the female twice.
I have found the second visit to be needless; and a single occasion has
never yet failed to procure me three or four pups, which is quite as many
as the majority of bitches are able to rear. The ordinary practice,
however, appears to do no harm, so far as I am aware of its consequences.
I do not, therefore, object to it; but I know it is not imperative, and it
is well to be convinced on such a point.

After the bitch has been lined, she should be most carefully watched. Her
desire rather increases than diminishes, and she will be most anxious to
escape in search of new admirers. Her appetite renders her ingenious; and
the owner is often vexed to find she conquers at this time those bounds
which at other periods confined her. Let her be securely housed, or kept
under the eye of her master, who must not forget her propensity to rove.

When the discharge ceases, and the local swelling subsides, the necessity
for vigilance is at an end. The animal has then returned to chastity, and
will be as obedient as before her passions were inflamed. During the nine
weeks of gestation, she demands no special care. She thrives best if left
to take her chance, and does better in proportion as she is not pampered.
Her food should be wholesome, and her exercise rather increased than
diminished. She should not be made fat, neither ought she to be suddenly
reduced.

The safest course is to take no notice of the particular condition of the
animal, but to let her ordinary treatment be continued without any change.
The bitch will return to her usual manners and appearance, nor will there
be for some time anything to denote her having conceived. In the middle of
the fourth week, however, the presence of the young within the abdomen
may, by skilful manipulation, be detected. I know of no one who has before
made the observation, but I am confident as to the correctness of the
statement; since I have frequently been enabled to inform parties that
their dogs were in pup, when the circumstance was not suspected. In many
instances, I have been able to ascertain before the expiration of the
first month the number of young that would be born; but of course these
matters are not always to be told with equal certainty. They can, however,
be generally ascertained with tolerable accuracy; but where there is only
one sense to guide the knowledge, and that one is not quite unobstructed,
the judgment is liable to be mistaken with regard to particulars, though
it may be assured concerning the main point.

To discover whether a bitch is in pup, let her be placed upon a table, and
her fears or excitability banished by caresses. Then lay her upon her
side, and with the fingers gently manipulate the intestines. If the womb
is impregnated, the person, directing his attention first to the situation
the uterus occupies, near to the rim of the pelvis, and inferior to the
rectum, will there detect round smooth bodies, like little eggs. These may
not be perceptible if the bladder be loaded; but if the catheter be
employed to draw off the urine, they will surely be felt. If the rectum be
full of foeces, it serves as an admirable guide to the position of the
uterus; though he who is acquainted with anatomy needs no such assistance.

Some globular substance being detected, the fingers are advanced, and if
more than one pup be conceived, another similar to it will speedily
impinge upon the touch; then another, and so on, until the whole of the
promised family have been thus announced. The last is the most difficult
to discover: for should there be more than two or three, it may, and will,
generally occupy the extremity of a horn; and, in that situation, may
escape observation. There are to the womb of this animal a pair of horns,
which are long, and extend to the region of the kidneys. Both cannot be
traced at the same time, and there is a chance of the two being
confounded. Therefore it is well not to be positive as to the precise
number of young the bitch will bring forth; and I never presume to speak
confidently upon the point; for though, in the majority of cases, my
opinion may have been corroborated, nevertheless, I have often known a pup
more than I supposed the uterus contained to have been delivered.

From the end of the fourth week, the litter, as it were, go away, or are
lost; but when the seventh week arrives, the contents of the abdomen may
be plainly detected; and if the bitch be taken upon the lap, and her belly
supported with the hand, they at this period will be felt to move, and the
motion even of their limbs is clearly recognised.

Milk appears in the teats about the middle of the ninth week, and the
presence of the fluid declares the event is near at hand. The following
day, or the one succeeding, is marked by a mucous discharge from the
vagina; and when that is witnessed, parturition is seldom delayed beyond a
day or two at most.

The exact period is announced by the animal being disinclined for food and
desirous of solitude. Some bitches do not wish for seclusion; but others
are very anxious to obtain it; and in either case the disposition should
be gratified. All that is necessary for the comfort of the creature should
be provided; but if the accommodation designed for her be rejected, she
should as far as possible be allowed to indulge her own liking for another
spot.

As the time of parturition draws near--that is, when the increase of mucus
is remarked--a daily meal of boiled liver should be given; but nothing
stronger, of a laxative nature, ought to be administered, unless the
absolute necessity of such relief as aperients afford is ascertained. Many
persons are in the habit of giving buckthorn or castor oil at this season;
but the dog is naturally very delicate; and nothing calculated to detract
from the strength which the coming effort must severely tax, should be
heedlessly resorted to.

When the bitch retires, let her wish for privacy be respected. For three
or four hours allow her to be undisturbed; but at the expiration of that
time, the person who most enjoys her confidence, may approach her. After
an exchange of recognitions, the animal may be examined. If nothing
extraordinary can be remarked, nothing should be done beyond offering food
and water; neither of which, however, need be pressed upon her. A day
possibly may thus pass, without any sign of decided progress being made;
nevertheless, the owner's patience must not be alarmed, for the greatest
danger springs from premature assistance.

The first pup is often long before it is delivered; so that the cries be
not sharp, loud, and frequent, the delay need not generate fear.
Four-and-twenty hours having elapsed, and the indication of suffering with
constant straining being present, the help which man can give should not
be pressed upon the animal. The throes must cease, or the bitch appear
exhausted by lying on its side, and emitting low moans before any aid is
offered. Then the little finger, well greased, may be passed gently up the
vagina, to learn if anything be within the passage; and if a pup be felt,
instruments, as hereafter described, may be employed; but, on no account,
need the finger be pushed beyond the os uteri. If the mouth of the womb be
well opened, free, and the passage clear, the attention must be bestowed
upon the bitch, and every means employed to revive the strength and bring
back the pains. Some unusual circumstance is needed to justify manual
interference--such as a pup with its side presented, or the os uteri well
expanded, and the head of a dead pup filling up the space.

To such an extent have I practically followed out the measures here
recommended, that under my care the labor-pains of a Scotch terrier ceased
without anything being born. The bitch returned to her customary habits,
but appeared dull, while a dark discharge was emitted. I told the
proprietor the bitch had a dead pup within her, and entreated him to give
the animal time. He consented to do this; and on the fourth day from that
of the unsuccessful labor, the animal was delivered of a dead pup, with
perfect ease.

The presence of straining alone should never be regarded as a symptom of
pupping being actually at hand. The bitch, like other animals, is subject
to spasms, called false labor-pains. These are in appearance highly
deceptive, for they are generally accompanied with plaintive cries. To
distinguish their true character, let the hands embrace the abdomen; and
at the time when spasm seizes her, let gentle pressure be made upon its
sides. If the pains be false, the convulsion will be felt to render turgid
the muscles of the abdomen, but nothing within it will at the same time
feel hard. Should, however, the labor have commenced, other signs than
these will then declare the fact. When the throes come on, the uterus will
contract; and beneath the hands it will be then felt a hard, harsh, and
solid body. Its character, when naturally excited, is not to be mistaken;
but is so well and strongly marked, that there is no excuse for not
detecting its indication.

For false pains nothing need be done for some time; but if they continue,
and seem to distress the animal, ether and opium may be freely given by
the mouth; this will have the effect of quieting the spasm without
injuring the pups.

The existence of true labor being ascertained, should there be sufficient
cause to suspect obstruction to be present, then let the finger be oiled
and introduced up the passage with caution as directed. Some persons when
called to a bitch in pup, always begin at once doing this, but it should
not be done unless there be some reason for the practice. I have known
fellows poke the poor animals about, as though to do so was an important
duty, which they were bound incessantly to perform. The introduction of
the finger cannot do otherwise than remove the mucus which Nature provides
to lubricate the passage and facilitate the egress of the pup. It is the
mildest and best moisture the membrane can receive, and its removal is not
to be slightly thought of. The finger, moreover, by the friction it
occasions, irritates the parts; and however gently it may be introduced,
it cannot otherwise than in some degree have this effect. The less it is
used, therefore, the better; and when it is inserted, the attention should
be alive to note every circumstance the touch can acquaint us with.

Other parties, when the labor is difficult or tedious, think it advisable
to place the bitch in a hot bath. All the authors I know of, recommend
this measure; but I must, without reservation, in the strongest possible
terms, condemn it. In obedience with the directions of those who wrote or
lectured on this subject, I originally followed the practice; but it was
not long before I was apprised of its evil effects; and my wonder now is,
how so injurious a custom ever came into general favor. I have known the
bitch, when the throes were energetic, to be placed in the warm bath; and
under its action to have indeed been quieted, for the pains never
subsequently returned. The efforts, upon the vigor of which the delivery
depended, have, to my knowledge, been more than once, twice, or thrice,
dispersed, by the warmth which at such a time is a poison; for I can
recollect but few cases where the bitch was taken from the water to
survive.

Still, as the assertions of an individual cannot be supposed of sufficient
force to overthrow an established habit, let me here, at the hazard of
wearying the reader, venture to reason upon the matter. The uterus is
principally composed of white muscular fibre, upon which structure heat
has a sedative and cold has a stimulative action. The members of our
profession well know this fact; and the reader, who can hardly be
unacquainted with the colic, may in that affection find a proof to
convince him of its truth. Cold water will bring on the belly-ache. This
is occasioned by a chill to the intestines, causing their muscular fibre,
which resembles that of the womb, to spasmodically contract. The vitality
of the muscles of the intestines is excited; and to allay the pain, that
excitability must be destroyed. Heat will effectually do this; and hot
clothes, bags of sand, or bottles, are placed against the belly for that
purpose. When the suffering depends on cold alone, the relief is speedy;
and when it is dependent on other causes, the sense of comfort imparted
testifies to the effect of the application. The heat allays the spasm,
which the cold provoked.

Warmth, therefore, is a sedative to organic muscular fibre; and now, let
it be asked, if during labor we should seek to dispel the contraction of
the womb? During gestation the muscular coat of the uterus is passive; but
when that function has been perfected, Nature endues it with energy to
expel the foetus. Upon the violence of its contractions the performance of
this important office is wholly and entirely dependent. Without it the
young cannot be borne; and however painful may be its force, nevertheless,
such pain is to be welcomed, and regarded thankfully. The throes may be
agonizing, but it is more cruel to check than to promote them; for the
temporary relief we obtain by causing them to cease, will certainly be
purchased with the life of the animal that enjoys so dearly-bought a
repose.

The shriek of the bitch during the time when a pup probably is being
forced into the world, may harrow the heart of an affectionate master, and
his sympathies may be wrought upon by beholding the convulsion which
stretches every fibre of her frame. The sounds may grate upon the ear, and
the spectacle may be terrible to look upon--for in dogs I have seen misery
so powerfully exemplified, that I do no wrong to any man, when I suppose
the picture would be piteous to his humanity--but it is not charity which
would put a termination to the pangs. Place the bitch, then, in a warm
bath, and the appearances almost instantaneously are changed. The animal
rejoices in the ease which a cessation of torture produces. No doubt she,
for the time, luxuriates, and her face expresses the sense of happiness
she then enjoys. But her fate is with the pleasure sealed; and she obtains
a momentary ease to meet with a lingering, or perhaps a frightful death,
for I have known inflammation of the womb to follow the use of the warm
bath. The use of the warm bath is, during labor, at best a mistake
generated by ignorance; and unfortunately it is one of those errors which
can rarely be afterwards redeemed; for the weakness it induces is so
great, that the tonicity required in parturition is destroyed; and this no
medicine can restore.

Another common failing in veterinary practitioners is, a belief that the
ergot of rye, or secale cornutum, acts upon the dog as a direct uterine
excitant, and thus promotes the parturitive function. In this belief,
however, they are not single. Many writers speak with confidence of its
operation upon the animal. The accounts are positive; and I would not
lightly place my unsupported testimony to the fact against a host of
authors who can be suspected of no motive to misstate. The gentlemen
alluded to are authorities of such weight that a strong conviction of the
truth is required to make me advance, against such and so many witnesses,
my single word. The reader must, however, take both for what they are
worth; and remember the truth is not the less true because there may be
but one humble individual ranged upon its side. It is not my intention to
say the authors who speak decidedly concerning the action of the ergot on
the bitch had no grounds for the statements they advance. I should not be
justified in making so gross an assertion; on the contrary, I believe
sincerely they saw all which they narrate; but, nevertheless, I am
prepared to maintain that secale cornutum is not an excitant to the uterus
of the dog in that sense which would warrant the veterinary practitioner
in regarding it as a lawful agent. To be so esteemed by such persons, it
should be both safe and certain in its operation. It should not only
possess a chance of doing good in one direction, but it ought to be
attended with no probability of doing harm in another way. It may, in the
hands of others, have caused the uterus to contract, and thus have
favored parturition, or have brought about abortion. I have seen it do
neither, but I cannot say it has never thus acted; I am in no position to
prove the negative. When I have given it to the animal, it has disordered
the stomach and induced vomition. The dogs I tried its action upon might
possibly have been bad subjects for experiment, but I am not aware that
they presented any peculiarity. In every case that has passed under my
observation, secale cornutum has been injurious; and I fear lest it may be
so, when employed by others; I, therefore, discountenance its use,
declaring the custom of exhibiting it with a view to quicken labor to be
dangerous. I have used it as an emetic, though, rarely; as, for ordinary
circumstances, there are preferable agents at command; but for some time I
have abandoned its employment as a parturient for the bitch.

To reconcile, in some measure, the opposite opinions, and explain the
probable source of difference, let the reader consider the possible
conditions of the animals I and others have subjected to observation. The
medical man, when experimentalising upon a dog, generally buys the animal;
and as he merely wants a life to practise upon, he does not give money to
procure beauty or high breed; cheapness is an object with him; and any
unfortunate straggling brute, that can with impunity be trapped, is
sufficient for his purpose. Such unhappy creatures are to be caught
roaming about the country; perhaps poorly fed, but strong and low-bred
curs.

The dogs I am called to are not of this kind. They have been tenderly
fostered, and generally their health has been deteriorated by the excess
of care bestowed upon them. They are high-bred animals, and their
sensibility is equal to their caste. My object, also, is not to play with
life, but to save it; and that at which the medical man would laugh, I
have reasons to regard with a serious countenance. Therefore, the accident
which to me would be most important, might to others be so trivial as to
deserve no notice, and even to excite no remark. However, supposing no
accident to occur, the vigorous and low-bred mongrel might well endure
that which a delicate and high-bred pet could not sustain. The stomach of
the one being strong, would retain that which should induce violent spasm
in the morbidly sensitive organ of the other. Dogs, it is true, are but
dogs; yet, as a group, they present such varieties that there can be many
things asserted of them which shall be true or untrue as applied to
individuals.

Consequently, when I, writing of medicines as applied to certain
descriptions of dogs, assert a particular agent is not in its action such
as various writers have described, it is just possible I may not
contradict the declarations previously made.

We may probably be both speaking of our knowledge only of really different
things. Nominally the creatures we each observed were dogs; but though
they were the same in race, in capabilities and bulk, they were perfectly
distinct. The dog of the pharmacologist is a kind of beast I know nothing
of; I am ignorant--entirely and totally ignorant--of the creature that
Magendie and other respectabilities report of. As to the tales told by the
French physiologists, I confess an inability to credit one-third of them;
and from the list of those narrated by English physicians, I am obliged to
make a very wide selection. My unfortunate capacity for incredulity in
this matter has been educated by a professional acquaintance with the
animal; and gentlemen must pardon me if I am disposed to think, they who
are not ashamed to publish their wanton disregard for life would not be
very tender with respect to a mere report about the creature whose
suffering they despised. Where sympathy is dead, the conscience cannot be
very acute.

I have yet another custom here to deprecate; and I am sorry to add, it is
one which books and teachers equally countenance. I allude to the
employment of instruments in parturition, without any rule being pointed
out as to the time when such aids are necessary. Hundreds of bitches are
murdered by the misdirected efforts of Veterinarians; and of the
brutalities resorted to by other persons, I designedly take no notice.
Such fellows--mere pretenders--are below the contempt of every honest
mind; and my indignation passes over them to face the persons by whom
their interference is permitted. It is horrible to think of the amount of
torture which man's favorite animal is hourly subjected to, through the
culpability or weakness of those who should, in gratitude for the poor
beast's affections, be cautious to protect it.

Poetical as the dog is at all times, I know of no circumstance that
develops more pathetically the disposition of the creature than that of
pupping. At such a time, the bitch in her agony seems to trust more
confidently in mankind. Animals that at other periods have allowed no one
to approach them, at such moments have seemed to welcome me, and have
appeared to comprehend the motive which brought me to their sides. To be
examined they submit; and the pain it will often occasion may cause the
animal to cry, but it draws forth no sign of resentment. The eyes are
fixed upon the operator, as if to tell him of the suffering, and entreat
for his sympathy. The expression of the face is mild and even plaintive;
but, if possible, still more appealing are the endeavors the creature
almost invariably makes to assist her attendant's designs. She seems, by
some process that I cannot otherwise than consider to be a mental one, to
comprehend human motives, and to more than appreciate our intentions. Her
gratitude now would appear to be intense, and her confidence to be
boundless. Where I have reluctantly been necessitated to resort to force,
the dragging of a dead pup through a swollen passage has produced the pain
which brought a sharp shriek from the animal; the agony has been such that
even the fortitude of the canine parent could not silently sustain; and
under its almost maddening influence, the head has been turned
instinctively to bite. The natural impulse, however, was never fully
gratified; the nose has touched my hand, but the jaws have closed before
they grasped it. I have then distinctly felt the snapping motion, and
plainly heard the teeth rattle as they quickly hit against each other, but
they have never injured me. The dog could not repress the natural
instinct; but though the hand was against its mouth, the noble beast has
bitten the air.

If men knew more of dogs, the animal would be more esteemed. The persons
who pretend to dislike them are always ignorant of the creatures. It is
impossible for human beings to see much of, and be acquainted with, these
despised brutes, without becoming their admirers. To like dogs denotes no
peculiarity of taste or strangeness of disposition; for he must be
incapable of appreciating natural goodness, who can observe these animals
and not grow fond of them. There is no mental sympathy between a shrub and
ourselves; yet a passion for flowers is pretended to by many who cultivate
a horror of the canine race. Both feelings are affections, and a person of
good sense would be ashamed to acknowledge either. Flowers are sweet and
pretty, but man cannot love such things; whereas, between us and dogs
there can be a positive bond of affection. In this world no one should be
proud of disliking anything it is possible for him to love, or indulge a
hatred towards any life that can adore him.

I have too many reasons to be grateful for the generosity of the brute,
not to feel warmly toward it. There is no day my hands are not spared,
for they are constantly exposed, and never protected; and I should long
ago have been torn to pieces if the canine race were legitimate objects of
dread. Therefore I merely discharge a debt, when I assert the magnanimity
of the creature; and it is a duty on my part to do all in my power to
benefit the despised brute. With that object I speak most unreservedly, in
condemnation of the way in which instruments are employed during
parturition. Many various inventions are sold in shops; and of these, the
great majority are very dangerous. Of themselves, very few indeed are
safe, with any skill; and most are seldom needed. In the mode of employing
them, they are almost sure to do injury; for in ninety-nine cases out of
every hundred, they are introduced much too early, and in the hundredth
they are used with unnecessary violence.

Before any instrument is employed, the pup should be within the pelvis.
The forceps sold in shops are made with the intention of dragging the
foetus from the womb; and one of the difficulties the practitioner is
supposed to encounter in parturition of the bitch, is taught to be the
impossibility of hauling the foetus from the horn of the uterus. One pup
generally occupies the body of the womb, and the rest of the litter are
located in the horns. That is their natural situation; and as in the
gravid state the length of the horns is greatly extended, of course some
occupy a place far within the abdomen. The length of the horns, however,
though supposed to constitute the only obstacle, is not the single cause
which prevents the pup being reached by instruments. The horns, in
consequence of their greater length, become bent, or folded upon
themselves; so that an instrument which should drag the pups to light,
where more than two or three are present, should be made to pass forward
in the first instance, and then be constructed to take a backward
direction. Those who invented these instruments to deliver bitches with,
would seem to have been ignorant of this necessity; and I here mention it
to prove how perfectly inadequate such things are for the purpose
intended.

[Illustration: THE GRAVID UTERUS.]

Before any instrument is employed, the pup should be within the vagina.
This is a rule that can hardly be with impunity violated by the generality
of practitioners. Simple and brief as may be the direction, it is one that
only on rare occasions may be safely disregarded; and of the exceptional
case, mention will be made hereafter. The pup must be within the passage;
and not only there, but so there, as to seem impacted, before assistance
by means of instruments is necessary. The largest foetus can, in almost
every case, proceed thus far; and where it is of too great a size to come
so low, any interference would be desperate; for then it must be of such a
magnitude as to destroy the probability of delivery being accomplished.

When the pup has not entered the pelvis, the practitioner may be assured
the obstacle is not created by the disproportioned size of the young. The
labor either has not proceeded far enough, and time is required for its
completion; or the uterus is feeble, and stimulants are wanted to
invigorate it. The largest foetus can be moved by the womb; so the size
must be an impediment only to its passage through the vagina. There is
therefore no mechanical hindrance before that part has been reached, and
no mechanical assistance at an earlier period is imperative.

When the veterinarian is called to a labor that has already commenced, and
perhaps been some time about, he directs his first attention to the
orifice. If the perineum looks unnaturally distended, so large as to be
remarkable, the presence of a pup in the vagina may be concluded; and here
he must know how to act with decision.

If the throes are on, and strong, though evidence of pain be heard, we
must not be too quick to interfere. If there be anything like a bladder
protruding from the vulva, nothing whatever must be done. In easy births
the pups invariably come into the world enveloped in their membranes, and
thereby their egress seems to be greatly accelerated. If these burst, or
are broken, the delivery is thereby rendered more difficult. The membranes
consequently, if protruding, should not be touched. Some persons, I know,
seize them under an idea, that by pulling at these, or at the cord, the
foetus can be brought away. The notion is fallacious. With the first or
second pup the membrane may be visible; and, nevertheless, the labor may
not then have proceeded far enough to detach all the placenta. The
entirety of the caul, or water-bag, denotes that the foetus is alive; and
it also shows that Nature is proceeding to accomplish, in due time, her
offices.

The position which the bitch assumes during labor also deserves to be
noted. While she remains within her bed, and continues lying upon her
side, however tedious may be the labor, there is little reason for
apprehension. A few cries vented when the throes are present, or a moan or
two emitted when they are coming on, may be expected, and deserve little
observation; but when the bitch gives forth sharp, short exclamations,
leaves her house or basket, and places herself in the attitude she takes
when voiding her fæces, there is cause to conclude something wrong, and
requiring immediate help, has taken place.

Most authorities make mention of what are called wrong presentations; and
such are very commonly met with in the cow, mare, and the larger animals;
but I have never known a case of false presentation in the bitch; and I am
led to conclude that the authors who narrated such cases, drew upon their
experience in other directions, describing imaginative possibilities as
circumstances that had actually occurred. I do not well comprehend how a
false presentation could take place in this animal, and I can grant the
possibility of its ever having been witnessed to the first pup alone. It
is remotely possible that this one should be presented sideways, though
highly improbable it could take such a position. After the womb has
expelled the first of the litter, the body of the generative organ
contracts; and all the others must pass through it in a line favorable to
the birth.

It is of little consequence, in the young of the dog, whether the head or
tail be first born. Examples in both directions are always witnessed in
every puppying. So likewise is it of small importance how the legs are
placed, though of course delivery is favored by their being properly
arranged. At the time of birth, however, the bones of the pup are but
partially consolidated; and that circumstance causes them not to offer
those serious obstructions which they are found to present in other
creatures. The gelatinous mass readily takes the form required for its
expulsion; and the practitioner has little reason to perplex himself
concerning those particulars which in the calf or foal he knows to be of
vital import.

The principal obstruction to birth in the bitch springs from the weakness
of the creature. To this its sufferings, and the too frequent tediousness
of its labor, are to be mostly attributed. When there are evident signs of
debility--shown by the throes having subsided, and further evidenced by no
symptom of their reappearance being witnessed after three or four hours'
watching--from a teaspoonful to a table-spoonful of brandy, mixed with
sugar and cold water, may be administered; and in half an hour repeated,
if it should have no effect. This I have seldom found to fail, and never
have I known it to do injury; wherefore I prefer it to the ergot of rye,
which in my hands has been uncertain and injurious. Patience, however, is
more often needed, than stimulants required; and before the latter are
resorted to, the symptoms of debility ought to be recognised; for without
these be perceived, the passive condition of the uterus deserves no
immediate attention.

When the throes are on, the efforts may be assisted. This is best done by
placing the hands under the abdomen, and with them making pressure
whenever the straining appears. The hands, however, must not be held so
long as will let them get hot; for, by communicating warmth, more harm is
done than the benefit afforded is likely to compensate. The object in
placing the hands under the belly is, to brace and give support to the
abdominal muscles; which, in the dog, are naturally weak, and in the bitch
during gestation always become attenuated.

Cold cloths to the abdomen will also in some cases--but not in
all--excite the uterus, and bring on vigorous throes. The coldest water I
could procure is that of the temperature employed by me; and it has
seldom, to my knowledge, been otherwise than beneficial.

When the birth is long delayed, the bladder and rectum should be examined
and emptied of their contents by means of the injection-pipe and catheter.
To draw off the urine of the bitch is not difficult or dangerous. A
knowledge of the situation of the meatus, or termination of the urethra,
is necessary to the operation; and this is best obtained by dissection. It
lies within the pelvis, a short way anterior to the brim, and above the
symphysis of the ischium. I know that while endeavoring to explain, I am
here making use of words which will to the majority of readers convey no
meaning; nevertheless, I cannot be more clear. I have, however, in a
communication to the _Veterinarian_, entered into this matter; and I here
extract from that journal part of a paper published in the number for
January, 1849:--

    "With regard to the bitch, I always let the animal stand
    upon her legs, simply having an assistant to hold the head
    and engage the attention of the creature. The meatus lies
    about half an inch or two inches within the pelvis, the
    distance varying with the size of the dog. The line of the
    urethra is rather forward than downward, though, of course,
    in both directions. After having once or twice passed the
    instrument, it is surprising how very readily this
    conjectured impossibility is performed. I think so little of
    the difficulties, that I have no inclination to dilate upon
    the few precautions which are required to remove them. I
    may, however, here state, that, when grasping the penis of
    the dog, a handkerchief or a portion of tow will be required
    to render the hold secure; and the wire should, before the
    catheter is introduced, be withdrawn, while it ought to be
    moistened with olive oil to facilitate its passage, as the
    canal is not unfrequently devoid of mucus."

When the pup is partly born, and its passage appears to be delayed, either
through the feebleness of the throes or some mechanical impediment,
assistance should be afforded. The restlessness of the bitch will,
perhaps, be the most proper indication; and it is the more necessary to be
cautious in our interference, as, on account of the size of the animal,
the aid we can afford is limited. When a paw is to be seen, this may be
laid hold of; but not without the fingers being covered; for, as the limb
is slippery, the force intended to secure it would hardly render the grasp
confirmed, and might crush the member. The osseous structure in the pup at
birth, as I have already stated, is not consolidated; and all other
components of the body are in a condition proportionally immatured. The
tiny being, when first brought into the world, is little better than a
living mass of pulp; and on that account, it must be gently handled. Far
less violence than might be supposed requisite to do so, will dismember
it; and no vast force is needed to pull even the head from the trunk.
Aware of this, the efforts intended for the delivery must be regulated by
the power of the substance to endure them. The practitioner must take a
thin, soft cloth, or what is better, his silk pocket-handkerchief, and
with this lay hold of any part that can be grasped. If but one leg can be
got hold of, that must be secured, and an attempt made to bring forward
the other. The two being obtained, gentle force or traction may be through
them applied while the throes are on. The dragging must not be strong, as,
if the pup be alive, it will be injured; or, alive or dead, it may be torn
to pieces.

A broken pup, as the foetus is called when any part of it has been pulled
off, is always more dangerous to the life of the bitch, and much more
difficult to get away, than one that is entire. The impediment bears
relation to the extent of the mutilation. Thus the separation of the head
is more serious than the deprivation of a limb; for, let not the reader
imagine that in the dog, as in the cow or mare, embryotomy by means of a
knife can be successfully resorted to. I have endeavored sometimes to
perform craniotomy, or to remove the brains of the foetus, hoping by so
reducing the bulk of the head to facilitate the delivery; but the result
has displeased me, and I no longer follow the practice. The pup, if to be
got away at all, will be most easily removed entire; and that it may not
have its integrity destroyed, the assistance given to the mother must be
temperate. Every little aid is a help to the labor; and knowing that, we
must be content if we are denied to accomplish all. The traction, assisted
by a secure grasp, should be steady; and the lips of the part should at
the same time be as much as possible pulled open with the fingers of the
free hand. Mild, soothing, and encouraging words will, during the
operation, be of every consequence; and it is of importance that, in every
particular, the animal should be humored to the extent of possibility.
Restraint should be enforced only where absolutely necessary; and when it
is so, the creature will strangely comprehend the reason that compels, and
patiently, or at least without resentment, submit to its endurance. A
harsh word, however, or a blow, or both together, too frequently gratify
the impatience of the practitioner, and, at this time, often dispel the
throes on which the birth depends. The dog is ever sensitive to
correction; no living being more acutely feels rebuke or praise; and its
excitable nature, lighted up by the pains of labor, cannot then endure
unkindness, and should receive our sympathy. Good language, no hurry, and
a rejection of all violence, will do more for a desperate case than all
the drugs in the pharmacy, or all the tact which ingenuity is possessed
of.

To secure the legs, when they can be felt, Blaine recommends a skein of
worsted. I have not found that article of any use whatever. If introduced
into the vagina, it soon becomes moist, adheres to the finger, and cannot
be detached from it. If, however, applied in a loop or slip-knot round a
paw, I have known it cut through the bone; and its only advantage lies in
the fact of its little tendency to come off when once fixed. Even in that
respect, however, it sometimes disappoints, and I consequently no longer
use it. To supply its place, I had the following very simple instrument
made; and it answers every intention, although it is but seldom
required:--

[Illustration: PARTURITION INSTRUMENT.]

A tube of polished metal is at one end curved to suit the line of the
pelvis, and at the other it is grooved, and also has a small cross-bar.
Into the tube a piece of zinc wire is introduced, so as to double and form
a loop at the bent extremity, the ends of the wire coming forth at the
other. One of the ends of the wire is twisted into the groove, so as to
render it fast; and that being done, the instrument is prepared for use.
When required, it is introduced with the loop of wire upon the point of
the finger, and the paw it is desired to fix being felt, the finger is
withdrawn, and the instrument moved forward. The free end of the wire is
then pulled to render the hold secure; when it is twisted round the
projecting bar and made secure. By employing a pliable wire, we gain those
advantages which arise from its not becoming flabby and adherent when the
part is moist; but it retains its form, and is therefore more readily
directed. The tube assists us in guiding the loop, which, being once
fixed, can be made secure, so that traction does not afterwards further
tighten it. The danger, however, is not entirely removed; for, if undue
force be used, the wire may do injury as well as the worsted; and for that
reason I seldom resort to it, unless assured the pup is dead, when the
pains are generally slight, and additional force is often necessitated.

When the pup dies before birth, the membranes in which it is enveloped
generally rupture; and by introducing the finger, the foetus is to be felt
without these interposing. The mere rupture of the membranes, and the
emission of the meconium--a dark, greenish, semi-fluid substance--will not
alone convince us of the fact; but, if the labor has been prolonged, if
the throes are almost lost, and if no motion can be detected in the pup,
we may conclude the life has departed.

Dead pups are more difficult to deliver, and stimulants are generally
needed to promote their expulsion; but manual help is to be given with
caution. Youatt speaks of working hard, till his nail was soft and his
finger sore, for two hours at a time; and that author tells us the passage
was, by his industry and frequent examinations, so much swollen, that only
with considerable difficulty could the finger be passed.

The humanity which shines in every wish that writer ever penned, and the
purpose of all his teaching, assures us he thought such a proceeding was
not only imperative but praiseworthy. He was, however, a good man
actuated by an imperfect knowledge. Let no one follow his example; but be
passive till the time for action is ascertained--and it is of no use to
grope for it. Frequent examinations are injurious; the more seldom they
are made the better; for, if undertaken only when the judgment sees a
chance of hope, no harm will be occasioned. Under every delay, therefore,
have patience; for often the pup which originally would resist every
attempt to bring it forth, will, after it has been dead a few hours, be
delivered with a facility we could not anticipate. If the parts are not
irritated and rendered dry, there is little to be apprehended; but if this
be done, inflammation of the uterus is apt to be induced, and should that
occur, it is of little consequence to the life of the bitch whether the
pup be delivered or not delivered.

From the pup, whether it be dead or alive, we are not to look for those
signs which denote there is a pressing necessity to accomplish the
delivery without delay. I have known a foetus, after being ascertained to
be dead, to be retained four days, and the bitch to survive. Instances of
the dead pup remaining in the womb a day or two are very common; and, if
we had no other proofs, these would be sufficient to convince us there
need be no immediate hurry. When, however, the bitch becomes restless,
gets in and out of her bed, pants, staggers, refuses food, drinks largely,
and is shortly afterwards sick; when the tongue becomes dry, and the pulse
grows quick and thin, or unnaturally hard and strong, there is danger, and
at every hazard delivery must be accomplished. There will, however, then
only be a distant chance of success; and where these indications have been
remarked, the life of the mother has generally been lost. If a portion of
the litter has been born, and, on the appearance of the symptoms just
described, the pups refuse to suck, and when placed to the teats turn from
them, the termination will be fatal. The milk seems to have lost its
inviting properties, and to be rendered disgusting by the approach of
death; and the sign is as conclusive as the departure of vermin from the
carcase of an animal.

Forcible delivery is to be accomplished by every means in our power; for
it is undertaken only when hope by ordinary process is despaired of.
Forceps of any kind, however, are to be employed with extreme care. These
instruments are always dangerous in the bitch; as we cannot see, and can
but imperfectly feel, so there is little guide to their proper use. The
crochet, a blunt hook--and for the dog it can hardly be too blunt--is to
be preferred. As I have before submitted to the public my opinion of this
instrument, I here extract from a paper which appeared in _The
Veterinarian_ for February, 1847:--

[Illustration: THE CROCHET.]

    "I was obliged to meet my pupils in the evening, and was not
    sorry to leave a case which had now, in my mind, become
    hopeless; but as I walked, I could not forbear thinking of
    that which had occupied most of my attention during the day.
    The different instruments employed to facilitate the labors
    of different animals passed in review before me; but some
    were not applicable to the dog, and others could not be
    manufactured with sufficient speed to benefit my present
    patient. The crochet, used with such power by the human
    practitioner, seemed the one most likely to avail; indeed,
    it had often before occurred to me, that an adaptation of
    this instrument would, in our hands, be of infinite service;
    and, after I had dismissed my class, I hurried to procure
    what I had conceived would be useful. Mr. Perry, to whom I
    applied, had a human crotchet in his shop, and this he
    consented to alter according to my directions. I stayed till
    the alterations were completed, and by eleven at night
    reached home, to put the adaptation of the crotchet to the
    test. It answered beyond my utmost expectation, and I was
    enabled to bring away the whole of the contents of the womb
    with comparative ease. Four pups were extracted; and while I
    compared them with the little animal from which they had
    been removed, it required the evidence of my senses to
    convince me that the disproportioned mass had been forced
    through the narrow passage of the Italian greyhound's
    vagina. The pups were all dead. Each bore the well-marked
    character of the Russian, and by their size indicated their
    sire: nor was that size decreased by their having been
    retained a week beyond their usual period.

    "So far my labor was accomplished; but the appearance of the
    bitch indicated that all had been done to little purpose.
    The pulse began to decrease in number, and, nevertheless,
    continued hard and jerking--the eyes became fixed--the jaw
    closed--the head pendulous--and all the symptoms of
    approaching death were exhibited. I tried to support the
    system; but the poor animal died in spite of every
    attention, and the examination after death showed the womb
    to be intensely inflamed.

    "It was with some anxiety that I looked for injuries and
    abrasions, scarcely deeming it possible the violence I had
    necessarily employed had not lacerated the delicate
    structure with which the instrument had been in contact. Not
    a mark which I could attribute to the crotchet was to be
    discovered. I have seen fearful wounds made by the forceps
    used to deliver the bitch; but here, in the most desperate
    case of the kind which I had ever undertaken, was not a
    scratch or a bruise to be detected.

    "I have since confirmed the indications of utility which
    were given by the crotchet on the first occasion of its
    employment; and had I not received such proofs in its favor
    as appeared to be conclusive, I should, perhaps, on the
    results of a few cases only, have hesitated to introduce it
    to general notice. Besides the instances before alluded to,
    I have employed the instrument on four occasions--three
    times in my own practice, and once at the request of a
    practitioner, whose name it is desired I should conceal. Two
    of the cases were successful, so far as the bitches were
    concerned; one, which was evidently sinking when brought to
    me, was delivered of a pup in a decomposed state, and died
    five hours afterwards, the post-mortem displaying acute
    peritonitis; the other, which I attended to yesterday, was
    alive when I last saw it; but I am of opinion its hours are
    numbered. The pulse is hard, but not quick--the animal
    restless--and the eye dull: worse symptoms can hardly be
    present. The poor beast had been left too long unassisted
    for help of any kind to be of much avail.

    "Of the pups brought forth by the aid of the crotchet, the
    majority were dead; indeed, though safe to the mother, the
    instrument is apt to be fatal to the offspring. The numbers
    stand thus:--Dead when extracted, 7; mutilated when brought
    forth, and immediately destroyed, 1; alive, 1. Thus the
    proportions are as 8 to 1 against the probability of saving
    the pups; but it must be remembered that the calculation is
    made from the cases of which the majority were, by previous
    delay, rendered hopeless, and under fairer circumstances the
    result might have been different.

    "I will now proceed to describe the crotchet, and explain
    the manner in which I have employed that instrument. It has
    been long known to the human accoucheur, but by him is not
    employed save under certain conditions. A piece of stout
    steel wire constitutes its substance. The wire, about twelve
    inches long, is flattened at one extremity, and both ends
    crooked and made perfectly smooth or blunt, the flattened
    hook being the larger of the two. For the dog, the
    instrument must, of course, be proportioned to the passage
    into which it is to be introduced; and as the pup, in
    consequence of the weakness of the abdominal parietes in the
    bitch, often is felt lying below the level of the symphysis,
    a dip or lateral bend is given to the hooks.

    "So simple is the crotchet, which ought to be highly
    polished, in order to secure its being perfectly smooth. It
    is first warmed and greased, then introduced with the index
    finger of one hand, while the other guides the instrument
    into the womb. The foetus is to be first felt, and this is
    the more readily done if an assistant supports and
    compresses the abdomen. When the finger has ascertained that
    the pup is favorably placed, the hook (and I generally use
    the flattened extremity of the instrument) is to be pushed
    forward and then retracted, until the operator is aware
    that a firm hold has been obtained. The purchase being
    secure, the finger is to be employed to keep the foetus from
    escaping, by pushing it against or towards the point of the
    crotchet, and holding it there. Traction is now made
    steadily and in the proper direction; and the assistant at
    the same time, by manipulating the belly, facilitates the
    delivery of the bitch, which should be in a standing
    position--not upon its back.

    "The directions are not very complex, but they must not on
    that account be disregarded. By introducing the finger, and
    taking care that its extremity corresponds with the point of
    the instrument, a great object is gained by securing the pup
    more firmly: yet there are other advantages also obtained by
    this mode of operating. The head of the foetus is generally
    too large for the vagina, and hence the difficulty of its
    expulsion; but by the employment of an instrument which is
    simultaneously to pass, we appear to be increasing the
    obstruction: however, by compressing the head with the end
    of the finger, it is in some degree forced to conform to the
    diameter of the passage, which the gelatinous development of
    the pup at the time of birth readily enables it to do.
    Moreover, the hazard of injury being done, if the instrument
    should lose its hold, is guarded against; for should the
    hook slip, the point would be received upon the end of the
    finger before it could catch the soft parts. However, the
    operator will feel the hold giving way long before it is
    entirely lost, and will be enabled to rectify the occurrence
    in the majority of cases before there is a chance of
    accident. The finger, therefore, becomes a sensible guide to
    the operator, and by its employment the traction is rendered
    more firm and steady. But above all, care should be taken to
    have the instrument perfectly blunt, and the beaks of the
    hooks not too long. A sharp point might, at the first
    glance, seem more likely to answer the purpose in view; but
    its employment would be attended with danger, and on being
    tested, it would be found more apt to tear away. In fact,
    the sharper the point, the less firm would be the hold,
    since the substance to be secured is somewhat of a pulpy
    nature; whereas, by using as broad and flat a point as
    possible, the force is exerted on a larger surface, and the
    grasp is proportionably the more likely to be retained; the
    object being not to rend the foetus, or tear it away, but to
    gently pull it through the vagina, using only so much
    violence as the judgment assures us is imperative for the
    accomplishment of the purpose."

On reflection, I am inclined to think the measures adopted in the case
narrated above were somewhat more precipitate than they ought to have
been. Now, I should have taken more time; and the success does not assure
me that the haste exhibited was fully warranted.

It is not always easy to ascertain when the whole of the pups have been
removed. The last in the womb, always occupying the extremity of one of
the horns of the uterus, may by an inexperienced practitioner be
overlooked. Most persons seek to learn whether the labor has been
perfected, by inserting the finger up the vagina; and they who base their
opinions upon an "_examination_" of that description will often be
deceived. External manipulation will best lead us to the knowledge we
desire to gain; and when the hand is properly directed, an approach to
certainty can be obtained. The pup to be felt through the walls of the
abdomen is an uneven body; the inequalities caused by the limbs being
detected. After parturition there is generally one thing that may be
mistaken, which is the contraction of the body of the uterus. The first
pup born occupied that situation, and on its expulsion the part of the
womb it filled narrows, becoming thick and somewhat hard. Under the
fingers, it conveys the idea of a solid substance, and it may be imagined
to be another foetus. It is too frequently seized when the forceps are
ignorantly and violently employed. The womb has been repeatedly forcibly
dragged forth, and its integrity destroyed. A mistake of this kind is
fatal. The rupture of the uterus is followed by sickness and a cessation
of the throes; while the hemorrhage from the laceration induces
inflammation that destroys the life; therefore, when forcible means are
determined upon, extreme care is required, and forceps, as a general rule,
had better be dispensed with. As regards other means--such as the tube and
wire, the crotchet, the supports to the abdomen, and the employment of
stimulants--these must be regulated by the circumstances of the case.

The appearance of the bitch will generally denote when the births are
completed. She, after the last of the litter has been born, seems to be
much rejoiced, and by her manner indicates she has no more business at
present to transact. She curls herself round, draws her puppies close to
her, makes the bed comfortable, sees that all her family are in order, and
then composes herself for a comfortable sleep. The meaning of her actions
is at this time so conspicuous, that I have repeatedly lingered to watch
them; and he who has never witnessed her conduct on such occasions, might
be entertained by observing it.

The animal subsequently requires little attention, beyond a change of bed
and a fair supply of nutritive food. She does best when least noticed; but
it is well to see that she takes a sufficiency of exercise. On the
following day she should be taken out; and on every day after that she
ought to be about pretty much as before. Some bitches, however, are such
devoted mothers as to sacrifice health, and occasionally life itself, to
enjoy the pleasure of being with their young ones. This excess of
affection must be controlled; for if not checked it will seriously injure
both parent and offspring. All animals, however, are not thus
distinguished. Some bitches cannot be induced to suckle the pups they have
given birth to; and others, though less frequent, will eat their progeny.
The disposition to desert or destroy their young seems to prevail among
the parentage of this world. In the female of the dog the maternal
instinct is most powerful; but under certain conditions of the animal's
body, the natural impulse seems to be perverted, and she takes the life
she would else have perished to preserve.

It is painful, knowing this, to reflect that on his own species man
inflicts the highest punishment, for an act that possibly may be, in the
human being as in brutes, the consequence of a mental excitement
accompanying the period of parturition. Women, when not in distress and
otherwise afflicted, rarely indeed are guilty of infanticide; and I have
observed annoyance or ill health proceed or accompany the like act in
animals. If the rabbit be looked at, her alarm seems to change her nature;
and the bitch that devours her pups will, upon inquiry, be generally found
to have suffered some species of persecution. That the brain is affected
there can be no doubt. The unnatural propensity is of itself a proof; but
the strange appearance, and the altered looks of the creature,
sufficiently denote her state. She is not then savage; her ferocity has
been gratified; and she seems rather to be afflicted with a remembrance of
the act she was unable to resist. She is the picture of shame; she slinks
away at our approach, and her eye no longer confidently seeks that of her
master; her aspect is dejected, but I think more with sorrow than with
crime.

I would not plead for sin; but what I have beheld in dogs inclines me to
think the majority of those who have been hung for infanticide were
legally murdered. There is danger in admitting such an opinion; but seeing
all animals at certain periods exhibit a particular propensity, it is very
doubtful whether the morbid feeling, as exemplified in the human race, is
really one that calls for mortal punishment.

When a bitch has devoured her young, let an emetic be administered; and
should the bowels be costive, an aperient be exhibited. A little fever
medicine may follow; but if its effects are not immediately witnessed,
tonics, without loss of time, should be resorted to. The food must be
mild; and everything should be done to guard against excitement. The
system requires to be soothed; for the act is always attended with general
disturbance; and attention must be paid to prevent the milk from
accumulating in the glands.

Some persons entertain a notion that the bitch which has once devoured her
litter, will ever after retain the disposition. This is a false idea. On
the next occasion, if properly treated--that is, if not persecuted,
chastised, alarmed, and annoyed, but properly dieted--she may prove, and
most likely will prove, an excellent mother; the very excitability which,
when over-stimulated, induced her unnatural impulse, making her, when
tranquil, the more alive to the instincts of her nature. I once saw this
in a very remarkable manner illustrated by a rabbit. The doe was sold to
me very cheap, and was in litter at the time of purchase. A week after she
came into my possession, she plucked her fur and made her bed. One morning
I distinctly saw a nest full of young; but looking again at noon, not a
single one of the progeny was to be beheld. Some little blood and a
mangled leg told their history; and the animal a fortnight afterwards was
again put to the buck.

I by chance discovered, while the doe was breeding, that she had an
inordinate thirst. At first it amused me to see the creature lap the water
I presented to her; but at last I placed within her hutch a cup, and had
it kept constantly filled. Her desire for liquid was not speedily
quenched; and it became to me a source of some pain when I reflected how
much agony the craving must have caused prior to my being conscious of its
existence. The next litter was not eaten by the mother. She brought them
up, and they likewise did well, drinking as much as they pleased. The
disposition of the doe appeared to undergo a change. From having been
savage, that is, from always endeavoring to bite and scratch the hand that
cleaned her residence, or even supplied her table, she became gentle and
familiar, allowing her person to be caressed, and letting her progeny be
looked at. She was at last as good as she was beautiful; and I parted with
her for a sum exactly four times that which she had cost me.

After a bitch has pupped, there always is from the vagina a discharge,
which rarely ceases before a week expires, and sometimes flows forth for a
longer period. Some gentlemen of the "fancy," as the dog breeders term
themselves, boast they know how to check it; and to what extent their
knowledge may reach I cannot pretend to say. I have been requested to
perform such an office, but hitherto I have not attempted to fulfil it;
and I should be very sorry to do so, even if I were certain there existed
the means to arrest the exudation. It is natural; if the animal be left
alone, she will be sure to perform the offices of cleanliness, and to do
everything her state requires.

For the first week the bitch is very attentive to her family; and as it
gives her pain when one is taken up, it is better not to handle the pups
more than is absolutely necessary. She should be well fed; not crammed,
but nourished; and she will require more food than formerly, for there are
many mouths to feed through hers. The quantity of support she needs may be
conjectured from the rapid growth of the pups.

A small bitch of my own had a litter of four. The mother weighed seven
pounds six ounces; and between the second and fourth weeks the young ones
daily added one ounce and a half each to their bulk. It would require some
amount of milk to supply such a quantity of flesh; and we have also to
remember that, during the rapid growth, the process of consolidation is
simultaneously going forward. Good nourishing food, sufficient in bulk, is
absolutely imperative; for if the pups be stinted, the dogs will assuredly
be weak.

A strong bitch may be able to bring up as many young as she can produce at
a litter; but the animals of the smaller or more choice breeds are seldom
possessed of such capabilities. The very diminutive will not generally
rear two pups without suffering; and four are a very heavy drag upon the
majority of the animals kept as pets, even though they be in no way
remarkable on account of size. Three, perhaps, is the average number the
larger favorites can nurture.

When, through a desire to get as many specimens of a particular breed as
possible, a delicate bitch is allowed to suckle all the members of a heavy
litter, fits are the too probable consequence. The animal becomes so much
weakened by the continual drain upon her, that the whole system is
debilitated, and the brain shares the general disorder. Previous to this
being perceptible, the animal may be observed to pant violently when her
young are sucking; and instead of cuddling to them in a manner expressive
of her delight, she stretches herself out, and frequently exhibits
uneasiness by shifting her position. At length she breaks away from her
offspring, which appear to be dissatisfied with her departure. She does
not continue quiet after her escape, but seeks ease in vain, has a vacant
expression of countenance. Affection, however, impels her to return; and
the same scene is exhibited, the pups seizing upon her, and having no
regard for her exhaustion. The little things are hungry, for the source of
their nourishment is failing; and thus the demand is the greater, just as
the supply becomes the less.

At length the poor bitch pants, staggers, falls, and writhes in
convulsions, which on an average continue about five minutes. The struggle
subsides, to leave the animal in a sad state of weakness. The pulse then
is quick and feeble; the pupil of the eye is dilated; and if the teats be
tried, the milk they ought to contain will be found absent.

For the fit itself little need be done. While they are violent, an
injection of ether and laudanum may be thrown up; and when the
consciousness is in some degree recovered, a dose of the same, with from a
quarter of an ounce to an ounce of sherry may be administered. Afterwards
a few tonics may be given; but the mother must never be permitted to visit
her young ones as before. Either a foster-parent must be found (and a cat
will rear a small pup very tenderly), or the litter must in part be
brought up by hand.

This last is more troublesome than difficult to do. The pups want to be
fed early and late; consequently, they must be taken into the bed-room;
and when the feeding time arrives, the soundest sleeper will be reminded
of his duty. A bottle, such as is used for infants of the human kind, must
have a sort of nipple made of wash-leather fitted to it. The leather is to
be pricked all over with a fine needle, and within it is to be placed a
small piece of sponge to give substance and form to it. There is need to
do that, because the pup when it sucks wraps the tongue round the teat;
and unless the body it thus grasps has bulk, it cannot extract the liquid.
This, therefore, being attended to, the little creatures very soon learn
their lesson, and all that is subsequently to be done will be to hold them
to the bottle, and the bottle to them. Each pup occupies from ten to
fifteen minutes at a meal; and they may be allowed to decide the quantity
that will do them good, unless one should obviously be morbidly
gluttonous, when the indulgence of its appetite should be restrained.

During the night the bitch must be kept away from her hungry tormentors;
but in the day-time she may be allowed to go to them every time after they
have been fed; and she may remain to enjoy their society for half-an-hour
on each occasion. The small gluttons, though full of cow's juice, will
nevertheless find appetite for such a luxury as mother's milk; but their
energies being blunted, they will have power to do no more than to prevent
an accumulation within the glands. The little, however, which they can
swallow seems to do them much good; for after this manner I have brought
up many pups, though, when I have attempted to rear them wholly upon cow's
milk, success has not always rewarded my care.

There is only one circumstance needed to be pointed out when pups are
brought up by hand. The sponge and leather of the false nipple is apt to
become sour; and therefore, after they have been used, they should be kept
in water rendered slightly alkaline with the carbonate of soda.

At three weeks old, puppies may be brought to lap a little; and they not
only learn quickly where their bellies are concerned, but they never, like
other children, forget what they once acquire. After a month a little
scraped meat or boiled rice may be added to their diet; and by five weeks
old they will feed themselves. Therefore, if the trouble be great it does
not last long; and to those who can make an amusement of the business, the
pleasure repays the labor. I do not know whether feeding pups is quite as
agreeable a pastime as killing birds; but I am sure it is far less
dangerous to him who follows it; though the difference of name given to
such recreations may, to weak eyes, invest them with very opposite
attractions.

At this place it is not intended to enter at length into the plan to be
pursued in rearing the pups; but the method in which they ought to be
weaned must be pointed out. Some persons remove the entire litter at a
stated period; various dates being fixed by different individuals when the
young ones can do for themselves. A pup can survive if taken from the
mother at the expiration of the third week; but it must be a strong
animal, or it will feel such an early separation from the source of its
natural nourishment.

The stronger the pup, the more attached is the bitch to it; and I have
known these animals to pine and neglect the rest, when the favorite has
been taken from her. If, however, the healthy are beloved, the weakly, in
almost a stronger degree, are the objects of dislike. In many breeds where
the value is regulated by the lightness of the weight, the one most prized
by the owner is the one that too frequently dies. The causes of this
disappointment are many. Pups have neither politeness nor generosity. They
scramble at their meals; and the one that is not able to contest for his
share is certain to get the least. Thus the debilitated hope of particular
litters comes but badly off. It is pushed aside by its brothers and
sisters, whose vigorous greediness appears to endear them to their mother.
For the boisterous gluttons she will accommodate her position, and fondly
lick them in return for their energetic appetites; but to the poor sickly
thing she has given life to, she lends no assistance, and bestows no
attention upon. She seems to be ashamed of, and disgusted with, its
degeneracy and while the others grow fat and sleek from positive
repletion, it becomes thin and dirty from actual starvation. Where,
therefore, it is desirable to rear the smallest of the litter, the
proprietor must take care to see it properly fed. The bitch may need to be
held, in order that the little one may suck her; and often have I placed
her under such restraint.

In order that the small one may be nurtured, some persons have taken away
from the mother the rest of the family; but this practice, though
successful with regard to the life, generally disappoints with respect to
the diminutiveness, which made the existence precious. Upon the abundance
which such single blessedness secures, the growth is generally rapid; and
it is not very long before Nature makes up for her previous stint. The
better method is, to let the companions continue; care being exercised
only to see that at meal-times all share alike.

The bitch, also, requires our attention to observe that all the glands are
properly emptied. Puppies, like children, are apt to be fanciful where
plenty prevails; and it is no very rare occurrence for a litter to combine
in refusing to draw the most forward of the teats. These are situated
under the sternum or breast-bone; and repeatedly have animals with young
ones recently born been brought to me, because their owners perceived
symptoms which could not be interpreted. The animal is restless; the nose
is dry; the tongue hot; the appetite is either lost, feeble, or
capricious; and the dog is disinclined to move, often crying out when
obliged to walk.

If the teats are examined, all those posteriorly situated will be found
fairly drawn. On these the pups can take a firm hold; and as they are the
most capacious, no doubt they present temptations against which the lesser
glands anteriorly placed cannot compete. The smaller are therefore
rejected; and will be found to be distended with their secretion. If this
is removed, and, as necessity arises, afterwards withdrawn, no more need
be done, but the symptoms will subside.

To milk the bitch requires only a little patience. The gland should be
taken between the finger and thumb, when any degree of pressure, not
designed to create pain, may be made, and the fluid squeezed out. The
animal submits with pleasure to have this operation performed, and seldom
moves before it is perfectly accomplished. Where any appearance of
hardness is detected, the place should be kneaded between the finger and
thumb; for pains should be taken to remove the coagulated milk, which is
generally the cause of the induration. Frequent and thorough milking will
do more good in these cases than any of the active remedies sold by
chemists and dog-fanciers, for the purpose of immediately curing them.

To dry up the milk of a bitch is a duty we are often called upon to
perform; but it is one I invariably decline to accept. The animal will
always soon cease to yield its secretion if it be let alone; for if dog's
milk were valuable, we should in vain use our utmost art to prolong its
continuance. When the pups are removed, Nature takes away that which is no
longer required; but if the litter be suddenly separated from the mother,
or all the young should be born dead, Nature may not immediately
accommodate herself to the circumstances. In such cases, the milk should
be withdrawn three times daily; a dose of opening medicine should be
administered, and the food should be spare. A few days' attention will be
required; but the matter, if neglected, causes much suffering, and very
frequently lays the foundation for future evil.

Falling of the vagina, or membrane lining the passage to the womb, is
sometimes witnessed in animals that are much confined, and consequently of
a debilitated habit. Creatures so savage as to be dangerous, and which,
therefore, cannot be properly exercised, are most subject to it; and I
have in the greater number of instances met with it in high-bred
bull-bitches of that disposition.

The reason of this is, the bull-dog ranks as an entirely artificial
creation. In proof of this stands the well-known fact, that unless the
breed be sedulously kept up, it is apt to degenerate, or to become
extinct. Old breeders even now say, the ancient kind of English bull-dog
is nowhere to be found. But take another proof. We want no anatomical
knowledge or prejudice: in him formation is to be judged. Let the reader
look at the head of the animal depicted on page 404. Is not the cranium a
malformation? Do not the habits of the animal prove it to be a pampered
creation? It is not generally known, that the disposition of the genuine
bull-dog is too fond. It will fondle upon any stranger; and yet, contrary
to the general custom of its race, it displays small preference for its
master. It will fondle a human being as though its heart would burst with
affection; but upon the slightest excitement--often upon a sudden
sound--it will fly at and mangle the hand that was caressing it. Then the
hold taken by this animal is more retentive than is strictly natural. It
will fix upon an object, and frequently suffer itself to be dismembered
before it will let go its hold, although its master's voice be
energetically raised to command it. Do not these traits bespeak the being
formed rather by man's malice, than created by Nature's goodness? Look at
the likeness of the beast, and say how far it resembles the mild,
graceful, and generous race to which it outwardly belongs.

It is the high, or rather perverted, state in which the breed is kept,
that subjects them to accidents; it is the pampered condition in which
these antipodes to beauty are reared that renders them so liable to
afflictions that do not affect the ordinary run of their kind--such as
falling of the vagina. It comes on generally when heat is present, and
mostly disappears when the excitement subsides. A red bag is seen to be
pendulous from the orifice of the part; and if no care be taken to prevent
it, this by exposure gets injured; becomes hard; bleeds freely, and is
difficult to return. It often presents a pitiable aspect; but however
painful it may be to look at, there seems to be but little suffering
attending it. The animal permits it to be freely handled, and does not
resist even when sharp dressings are applied.

[Illustration: THE BULL-DOG.]

In such cases cleanliness is to be strictly observed. If the protruded
membrane should be thickened and excoriated, it must be well washed with a
sponge and warm water. Afterwards it may be bathed with a lotion, (made of
nitric acid one drachm, to proof-spirit one ounce,) and then returned. A
cold injection, composed of alum one drachm, dissolved in spring water one
pint, may be used thrice daily; and from a quarter of a grain to a grain
of powdered gallic acid may be given three times a-day.

The inversion of the womb is more serious; but it is generally more
speedily restored. In the larger animals, that produce one or two young at
a time, the uterus is commonly inverted subsequent to parturition; but in
the dog I have known it only when the womb had for some period been
unimpregnated. Blows may cause it; so also may excessive weakness; and the
earlier it is attended to, the more readily will it be restored. The
treatment is described in the following narrative, which was published by
me in the _Veterinarian_.

    "I began by having a soft clean cloth spread upon a table,
    and, placing the dog on this, with a sponge the uterus was
    gently moistened. No friction was employed, but with tepid
    water the part was carefully sopped. This process was not
    quick. An hour and a half expired before all the extraneous
    matter was by it removed. This accomplished, with a pair of
    scissors the fibrinous tumors were snipped off. The
    hemorrhage was trivial; but there yet remained marks of
    bruises and signs of laceration which could not be cut away.
    To these a spirituous solution of nitric acid--a drachm to
    the ounce--was applied, and the entire of the exposed
    surface dressed with it.

    "Knowing the peculiar form of the passage, I was able to
    return the womb, and met with little obstruction. Up to this
    point I had succeeded better than at first I hoped; but here
    came the difficulty. The uterus was replaced, but how was it
    to be retained? The irritability of the system would have a
    natural tendency to reject the viscus, and the lotion I had
    used was not of a soothing quality. To render the case more
    desperate, there was the knowledge of the temperament and
    habits of the animal--its manner of sitting--its mode of
    curving the spine to void its fæces--the marked excitability
    of its generative organs--and its peculiar sensitiveness to
    suffering.

    "To own the truth, I had done so much more than, seeing the
    hardened and lacerated condition of the parts, I had in the
    first instance anticipated was possible, that I was not
    exactly prepared for my good fortune. I remained for some
    time thinking--and, really puzzled, requested those present
    not to speak. I wanted some combination of medicine which I
    could not satisfactorily procure. A sedative to the general
    system was required, but not one that should depress; as,
    after operations of this description, the vital powers are
    disposed to sink, and therefore generally require to be
    stimulated. I moreover wanted an excitant to the uterus.
    Many things were hastily thought of, and as quickly
    rejected; and, in my difficulty, I was at last obliged to
    ask advice of those about me. A bandage or harness to pass
    over the parts was suggested; but the almost impossibility
    of fixing it properly, and the mischievous ingenuity the dog
    exhibits with its teeth, rendered this plan obviously
    inappropriate. One person proposed to adopt the
    custom--sometimes, I am sorry to say, followed by
    cow-leeches--of passing stitches through the labia. The
    brutal and unjustifiable practice was of course rejected,
    and, I trust, by the members of the veterinary profession,
    it is never embraced.

    "Fairly at my wits' end, I suddenly determined to try how
    the injection of cold water into the uterus would act. I
    knew of no case in which this agent had been employed, and
    could not feel confidence concerning the consequences of the
    experiment; but, in despair, I resolved to hazard it. A
    quantity fresh from the pump was therefore obtained, and it
    was thrown up, being allowed to flow back. A stream of cold
    water was thus made to pass over the interior of the uterus,
    and about two quarts had been used before the animal
    appeared to be at all affected, excepting that the injection
    seemed to induce a sensation of discomfort. At last a
    feeble moan was uttered, which, when another pint or
    thereabouts had been injected, burst into something
    approaching to a cry. I then desisted. The tube was
    withdrawn, and, hoping that the symptom of pain resulted
    from the contraction of the organic fibre under the
    stimulating effects of the cold, the animal was ordered to
    be placed where nothing could disturb it.

    "Having passed an hour in the company of my friend, when
    about to leave I requested to see the dog once more. The
    animal had been put into a hayloft, and I was pleasantly
    surprised to hear it give tongue on our approach: it came to
    meet us, and the change was such as I could not have
    anticipated. The parts had regained almost their natural
    appearance; certainly they presented nothing to indicate the
    aspect they had exhibited only a few hours before.

    "A mild aperient was given. The animal had no other
    medicine, neither was any local application used. For three
    days a slight discharge of a blackish color ensued; but when
    this stopped, the animal was returned to its owner cured."

Hardened swellings, or indurated tumors in the teats, are very common in
the bitch. They are caused by the milk being allowed to accumulate in the
glands, and there to curdle or act as a foreign body on the parts
immediately around it. The bitch will secrete milk, although she has had
no pups; and a virgin bitch will do so quite as actively as one that has
been a mother. When heat has subsided, although no intercourse has been
permitted at the period, when the birth would have taken place the glands
will swell; and on squeezing them, a full stream of thick milk will flow
forth. Nine weeks, therefore, after oestrum, whether the desire has been
gratified or denied, the teats should be examined and relieved. If this
should not be done, small lumps will appear. These are round, not
sensitive; but generally roll under the fingers, and appear at first to be
perfectly detached, though more or less deep seated. No time should be
lost in removing them; for if allowed to remain they rapidly increase, and
often become of an enormous size. Others also appear until the whole of
the glands are involved; and the extent of the implication renders an
operation, which in the first instance would have been both simple and
safe, so complicated and hazardous as not to be risked. The tumors,
moreover, as they enlarge, by their weight and size, become exposed to
numerous accidents; either they are excoriated by the movements of the
legs, hurt by blows, or lacerated by being dragged along the ground.
Anything that interferes with their integrity seems to change their
character. From having been dormant they start into activity, and the
slightest wound degenerates into a wide-spreading ulcer. When this last
appearance is established, no treatment I know of can effect a cure. If
there be a hope, it lies solely in the skilful use of the knife; but
generally the constitution is so much exhausted, and the disease so firmly
established, that surgery is but a desperate resort.

When taken in time, the situation of the tumor being ascertained, the
skin is divided and the growth dissected out. This is easily done, and it
is seldom that a vessel requiring ligature is divided. The care required
is to spare the skin, no portion of which, unless it should be implicated,
ought to be excised. Neither plaster nor suture will afterwards be wanted.
The bitch would with her teeth remove either; and as the healing process
is established, the integument will contract and unite.

When there is more than a single tumor to take away, or one of large
dimensions to remove, though there may be no important vessels to
ligature, the oozing of blood is sometimes greater than may with safety be
disregarded. In such cases, the application of cold water, or of oil of
turpentine, or the tincture of ergot of rye, or blowing upon the part by
means of a pair of bellows, will be of service, and may each be tried; but
the actual cautery, though held in high esteem by veterinarians, is not
suited to these instances.

After the tumor or tumors are cleanly removed, a course of iodine should
be enforced; and it should be persevered with for several months, nor
given up simply because all present symptoms have disappeared. The
tendency has been exhibited, and the medicine is now employed to prevent
its development for the future; and, by the continued use of the agent, we
hope to accomplish that intention.



SKIN DISEASES.

Every affection of the skin in the dog is termed mange. This is very
wrong; and receipts for the cure of mange are all nonsense, unless we can
imagine that one physic is good for various disorders. The dog is very
subject to mange; that is, the animal's system can hardly suffer without
the derangement flying to and developing itself externally, or upon the
skin. True mange is chiefly caught, being mainly dependent upon contagion;
but all the other varieties have the seats internally, and are chiefly
owing to the keep or lodging. Too close a kennel will give rise to mange,
as will too spare or too full a diet; too much flesh or unwholesome food;
too hard or too luxurious a bed. In fact, there is hardly a circumstance
to which the animal is exposed which will not cause this malady to be
developed. Peculiar kinds of bedding, as barley straw, will give rise to
it; and particular kinds of diet, as subsisting entirely upon flesh food,
will produce it. In short, I know a few, and only a few, of those things
which will cause it; and my time has been so taken up that I have been
able to observe but five distinct varieties; though my reason informs me
there are many more than I here describe. However, as, in describing five
kinds of mange, I do more than either of my predecessors, the public must
be content with the moiety for the present; and wait till either I find
time to accurately note, if possible, the different forms which mange in
the dog will assume, or some more close observer comes forth to take the
task from before me.

True mange is dependent, as in the horse, upon an insect; and though not
commonly met with, is known by the same symptoms, as the similar affection
in the more valuable animal. The skin is partially denuded of hair, but
never perfectly so; for in the most bare place, hairs, either single or in
small and distinct patches, will be seen adhering to the surface of the
body: these remaining hairs are very firmly planted in the skin, have a
coarse or unnatural feel, and look all awry and unthrifty. The skin
appears very dry and scaly; it is corrugated, or thrown into ridges. The
parts chiefly affected have been the back, eyes, neck, &c.; though no part
of the body is exempt, for I have seen it virulent upon the feet, and the
rest of the body comparatively untouched.

The animal appears dejected, though at seasons he may assume his usual
liveliness; but when nothing attracts his attention, his time is nearly
consumed in scratching himself violently. His appetite generally remains
good, notwithstanding the torture he endures; but the heat of the body
denotes fever, and his thirst may be excessive.

The treatment consists in rubbing the body over with some of the various
dressings for mange; some of which, however, are compounded for the horse,
and do not very well suit the canine race. Care should be taken that the
dressing, of whatever nature it may be, reaches and is expended upon the
skin, as simply anointing the dog or smearing the salve upon the hair is
of no earthly use. The unguent which I have employed, and with such
success as emboldens me to recommend it, is composed of--

  Ung. resini        As much as you please to take.

  Sulph. sub       } A sufficiency to make the rosin ointment
                   }   very thick.

  Ol. junip.       } Enough to make the unguent of a proper
                   }   consistency, but not too thin.

This is to be applied one day; washed off the next; and then the dressing
repeated until the dog has been dressed three times, and washed thrice;
after which the ointment may be discontinued; but again had recourse to if
the animal exhibits the slightest signs of uneasiness; when the entire
process may be gone through once more. Mercurial ointments are the most
certain remedies for this disorder; but then they are not safe, and should
always be avoided where the dog is concerned.

The second kind of mange is where hair partially falls off; and this kind
of disorder is well marked by bare patches of small dimensions, showing
themselves on the point of the elbow and any part which is prominent, and
which the animal might be supposed to have rubbed as he lay in his kennel.
The patches are small and free from hair; but at the same time the skin
exposed is rough, scaly, thickened, and corrugated. The itching is
intense; but it does not particularly affect the exposed part; it rather
seems to reside in those portions of the body which are well covered with
hair.

For this form of disease the cure begins with tonic medicine; and after
this has been administered a week or a fortnight, as the strength may
appear to require restoration, it is suddenly left off; and liquor
arsenicalis in gradually increasing doses is administered. If it be a
little dog, let the first day's dose consist of half-a-drop each time; and
if for a large animal, of two drops each dose; three doses in either case
to be given in the course of the day. In the former case, the quantity of
arsenicalis is to be increased half-a-drop each day, and in the latter
instance one drop daily is to be the advance; the quantity in both cases
to be distributed over three doses, one to be given in the morning, one at
noon, and the last at night.

The medicine is to be kept on increasing each day, until the dog loathes
his food; has a running from the eyes; a scarlet conjunctiva; or exhibits
some symptom that denotes the physic has hold of his system; when the
arsenicalis is to be discontinued for three days, and then steadily
persevered with at the dose which preceded the derangement. Thus,
supposing it requires three and a half drops to throw the small dog off
his appetite, the quantity to resume with will in that case be three
drops.

There is no power I possess which can predicate the quantity of the liquor
arsenicalis which an animal will bear; its effects on different creatures
of the same species are so various, that what one can gorge with impunity
would kill his companion. On this account no fixed quantity of the
medicine can be recommended; but the practitioner must be satisfied to
watch the symptoms induced, and be content to be guided by these. So soon
as the physiological symptom is beheld, the good results of the medicine
may be anticipated; and no compound in the pharmacopoeia works with
greater certainty. The disease will begin to decline; and in a month, six
weeks, or two months at furthest, will be thoroughly eradicated. In the
course of that period, however, it may be as well to give Nature a jolt
every now and then, by occasionally increasing the dose, being always
prepared to diminish it on the symptoms giving the slightest hint that it
is prudent so to do. The arsenicalis should be used simply diluted with
water; and during the period occupied by the cure, no other medicine
whatever will be required.

The next form of mange attacks very fat and cruelly overfed animals. The
poor dog is very foul. He, as it were, smells aloud; and his hide is
enormously thickened, being everywhere devoid of sensation. Pinch it as
hard as you can--even until the moisture be forced through the pores by
the pressure--and the operation which should inflict pain, will only
communicate pleasure.

The animal, instead of crying out or endeavoring to snap, will stand
altogether quiet, the expression of the face announcing the perfect
delight it experiences; or the head turns round to lick the hand of the
pincher, thereby entreating him to continue the delicate recreation.

The hair is generally more or less removed from the back; and the
thickest portions of the skin are either above the neck, or just before
the tail. The animal is the whole day dull, never being alive except at
meal-times, when it is all activity; the rest of the day is passed in
sleeping, licking, scratching, biting, and gnawing its person--to the
infinite annoyance of an indulgent master, who looks on the mass of
disease before him, and with regret pictures the animated creature which
it once was.

Here the mode of feeding must be changed. Flesh must be strictly
prohibited. Boiled rice forms the most wholesome diet; but even rice milk
will not be touched. Neither will be eaten at first; but this does not
much signify, as a day or two of abstinence rather does good than injury.
If, however, the refusal to feed be exhibited beyond the third day, one,
two, or three ounces of meat, according to the size, may be allowed; which
quantity, though insufficient to satisfy the desires, is sufficient to
keep a dog alive and hungry for an almost indefinite period. Fresh
vegetable diet should be presented every day; and if declined, it should
immediately be withdrawn. On no account should it be allowed to remain
about, and the animal to blow upon it till it either becomes stale or
noisome in the creature's eyes. Fresh clean rice should be boiled, and
presented every morning; and this should be offered and withdrawn, as
though it were too choice a luxury to be twice refused. The animal, tired
out, and despairing of gaining anything better to eat through resistance,
will fall to the loathed dish at last; and afterward swallow it without
any coaxing, although the preference for flesh as food will be cherished
to the death.

The food being managed as directed, the dog may also have first a mild
emetic, to be followed by three doses, on three different days, of
castor-oil prepared as recommended, p. 116.

To these is to succeed a course of pretty strong tonics, to keep up the
general tone of the body, invigorate the appetite, and to support the
strength. Likewise a cold bath every morning may be added, and plenty of
exercise in the course of the day.

So soon as the appetite is subdued, stimulating dressings are applied down
the back, where the hair is wanting; and, for a beginning, the common
mange liniment answers very well. It is thus prepared:--

  Ol. tereb      }
  Ol. picis      } Of each equal parts. Mix.
  Ol. nucis      }

This may at first attract no notice; after it has been submitted to for a
week, add to every three pints an extra pint of turpentine, which will
soon banish all the philosophy the strongest-minded dog may have at his
command. Even subsequent to the period when the application of the
liniment is received with the acutest and most piteous cries, the torture
must be continued until the skin, being reduced to its natural thickness,
announces that its office is perfected; only, with the production of this
last effect, the agent that gives such pain should be used less lavishly.

During the application of the liniment, some diluted liquor arsenicalis
may also be administered, and even the pills containing iodide of sulphur
exhibited.

The fourth kind of mange is where the hair falls suddenly off in circular
patches. For this any simple ointment, as the ung. cest. or no application
at all is sufficient.

The fifth kind is the worst, especially where it attacks young pups.
Almost all the hair falls off; and the poor little creature is thin, and
nearly naked, while the surface of the body is covered with dark patches,
and comparatively large pustules. If the dark patches be punctured, a
quantity of venous and grumous blood exudes; but the wound soon heals. In
full-grown dogs, the same form of disease seldom involves more than the
top of the head, neck, and the entire length of the back; but it is
precisely of the self-same character as in the more juvenile animal.

In both cases the treatment is the same. The dark pustules are to be cut
into, which produces no pain; and the pustules are to be freely opened,
which operation is attended with no apparent effects. The bare skin is to
be then washed tenderly with warm water and a soft sponge, after which the
body may be lightly smeared over with the ointment of camphor and mercury;
see p. 265. This operation must be repeated daily. The liquor arsenicalis
may be administered as drops, and pills of the iodide of sulphur likewise
exhibited.

Where the dog is old, a cure invariably results; but it takes time to
bring it about. Perhaps months may be thus consumed; and the practitioner
will require a goodly stock of patience before he undertake the treatment
of such a case. The proprietor, therefore, must be endowed with some
esteem for the animal, before he can be induced to pay for all the physic
it will consume. I cannot account for so virulent a form of skin disease
affecting pups; but certain it is, that they have scarcely left the dam
before its signs are to be detected. Probably it may be owing to their
being weaned upon garbage or putrid flesh. Certain it is that the cure of
creatures at this tender age greatly depends upon their previous keep. If
it has for any known length of time been good and generous, the
practitioner may undertake the case without fear; but if, on the other
hand, the pup, though of a valuable breed, had lived in filth, never
enjoyed exercise, and been badly nurtured, no entreaties should tempt the
veterinarian to promise a restoration. It will certainly perish, not
perhaps of the skin disease, but of debility.

Here I may for the present conclude my imperfect account of mange; again
insisting that in every form of the disorder the food is to consist of
vegetables, and every kind of flesh is to be scrupulously withheld, unless
to pups in a very weakly condition. Blaine and Youatt speak of alteratives
as necessary towards the perfection of a cure; but as I am simply here
recording my experience, all I can say is, I have not found them to be
required. Cleanliness--the bed being repeatedly changed--free
exercise--wholesome, not stimulating food--and fresh water--are essential
towards recovery. In no case should the dog suffering under these
complaints be allowed to gorge or cram itself; but the victuals must be
withdrawn the instant it has swallowed sufficient to support nature.



CANKER WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE EAR.

Blaine treats of these two as different diseases. Youatt speaks of them as
the same disease situated on different parts. As they differ in their
origin and in their effects, however closely they may be united, I hold
Blaine's arrangement to be the soundest, and therefore to that I shall
adhere. Water-dogs are said to be the most liable to attacks of these
disorders; but I have not found such to be the case. At the mouth of the
river Ex, near Exeter, Devonshire, for instance, there are numerous dogs
kept for the purpose of recovering the wild fowl, by shooting of which
their masters exist during winter. Here is rather a wide field for
observation; but among the many water-dogs there to be found, the canker
both internal and external is unknown; whereas there is scarcely a dog
kept in town, especially of the larger size, that does not present a
well-marked case of canker. The London dog is, for the most part, over-fed
on stimulating diet (flesh), and kept chained up, generally in a filthy
state. The country dog gets plenty of exercise, being allowed to sleep in
the open air where he pleases outside of his master's cottage, and has but
little food, and very seldom any flesh. I scarcely ever have a sporting
dog sent to me, on the approach of autumn, suffering from what their
masters are pleased to term "foul," but canker within and without the ear
are found to be included in the so-called disorder. Often am I desired to
look at both long-haired and short-haired dogs, and find both kinds
victims to these diseases; but canker without the ear, or on the flap of
the ear, I never see without canker within the ear being also present.
Canker on the flap of the ear, it is true, becomes the worst in
short-haired dogs, because these animals have this part by nature more
exposed to injury. Long-haired dogs, on the other hand, have the disease
within the organ worst, because the warmth of their coats serves to keep
hot and to encourage the disorder.

Therefore, we find on inquiry that neither breed of dogs is more liable or
more subject to be attacked by a particular kind of canker; though in each
kind there exist circumstances calculated to give a direction to the
disease when once established. Authors speak of rounding the ear for
external canker; that is, of taking a portion of the border away, so as to
leave the flap of the ear the less for the operation; and fox-hounds are
said to have the ears rounded to escape the ravages of the disorder. There
are said to have been poor dogs subjected to a second and third rounding;
till at length the entire ear has been rounded away, and the wretched
beast has been at last destroyed; because man first fed it till it was
diseased, and then was too heartless properly to study the nature of the
affection which tormented the animal.

Let those who may feel disposed to question this view of external canker,
ask themselves what it is which induces the dog to shake his head
violently at first? For the brute must shake the head violently and
frequently, before canker in the flap can be established. The disease is,
in the first instance, thus mechanically induced. It has its origin in the
violent action of the beast; and that action is the very one which ensues
upon the animal being attacked by internal canker.

The dog shakes his head long before the eye can detect anything within the
ear. By that action, in nine cases out of ten, we are led to inspect the
part. The action is symptomatic of the disorder, and it is the earliest
sign displayed. In the dog whose coat does not favor internal canker, it
may, however, establish the external form of the disease; which being once
set up, may afterwards even act as a derivative to the original disorder.

External canker is nothing more in the first stage than a sore established
around the edge of the ear, in consequence of the dog violently shaking
the head, and thereby hitting the flap of the ear with force against the
collar, chain, neck, &c. Shaking, however, does not cure the annoyance. An
itching within the ear still remains; which the dog, doubtless imagining
it to be caused by some foreign body, endeavors to shake out. In
consequence of the continued action, the sore is beaten more and more,
till an ulcer is established; the ulcer extends, involves the cartilage
which gives substance to the flap of the ear, and thus is created a new
source of increased itching. The ulcer enlarges, becomes offensive; and he
who is consulted, instead of seeking for the cause, begins by attending to
the effect. Various remedies are employed to cure the flap of the ear; and
each and all of these failing, the poor animal is at length rounded, and
as books and teachers advise, rounded high enough up.

All the diseased parts are carefully cut away; but the disease appears
again, and the wretched beast is rounded a second time. On this occasion
the rounding is carried still deeper, the operator being resolved the
knife this time shall take effect. The dog has little ear left when the
disease appears again; and the master saying he wants his dog for the
field--to shoot over, and not to look at--the remaining portion of the ear
is removed, hoping for better luck this time. However, chances are now
against them; they have cut beyond mere skin and cartilage, into the seat
of flesh in goodly substance. Spite of the brutal use of the red-hot iron,
the hemorrhage is great, and ulcers appear before the cicatrix is
perfected. The miserable animal having nothing more that can be cut away,
is then killed, being said to be incurably affected.

This is a true history, and can be substantiated by reference to all the
authors who have hitherto written about the dog. It does not, therefore,
depend solely upon the testimony of the present writer; but sad is the
reflection, that all the pain and suffering thus occasioned was
unnecessary. Canker without the ear cannot be established unless canker
within the ear, in the first instance, exists. It may not be violent; it
may be present only in an incipient stage, and never get beyond it; but in
this state it is sufficient to annoy the animal, and make it shake its
head. Doing this, however, it does enough to mislead the practitioner, and
cause the death of the unfortunate animal.

[Illustration: DOG WITH A CANKER CAP ON.]

When a dog is brought with canker in the flap, the first thing I order is
a calico cap, to keep the animal from shaking the ear. I then give the
person accompanying the creature a box of the mercurial and camphor
ointment, ordering it to be well applied to the external ear thrice daily,
with the intention of cooling the part. I do nothing absolutely to heal
the ulcers beyond keeping the part from being shaken; for I have not yet
met with a case in which the cartilage has been positively involved,
however much authors may write about such a texture having suffered. I
direct my chief attention to the healing of the internal ear, from which I
trace all the evil to have sprung. For this purpose I give a bottle of the
canker-wash, described a little further on, ordering it to be applied
thrice daily, and rest contented as to the result.

With regard to internal canker, how virulent was the disorder, and to what
lengths it used to progress, may be imagined from reading Blaine and
Youatt; both of whom speak with terror of its effects, advising the use of
agents for the recommendation of which I cannot account, excepting by the
supposition that they were selected under the influence of fear. Most of
the solutions advised are painful; but how far they were effective we may
conjecture from the descriptions they have left us of the disease. They
tell us that, as the disorder proceeds, it eats into the brain; either
causing the dog to be destroyed, or driving it phrenetic. The poor animal,
we are informed, leans the head upon the fore-feet, the diseased ear being
pressed downwards, and continually utters a low moan, which at length
rises into one prolonged howl. Of all this I know nothing; but I remember
at college, when going the rounds with the Professor Simonds, on a Sunday
morning, hearing one of those huge howls which are uttered by large dogs
when enduring excessive torture. On my asking whence the sound proceeded,
I was coolly informed by my teacher that he supposed Sam (the head groom)
had been pouring some dressing into the ear of a dog that had got canker.
Of what the dressing that had occasioned such pain was composed, I never
inquired; but we may judge of its power to destroy the bone, from the
extent of the agony which it produced. No wonder, when such powerful
agents were employed, the bone, the brain, or any other part, was
affected.

Thank heaven! there is one good custom prevalent in this disease--dogs
affected with it are brought to us early. Often, when the animal is only
observed to be constantly shaking and scratching the ear, the proprietors
bring the dog for us, to remove something from the interior of the organ.
At other times, and with the most careless or unobservant masters, the dog
is brought under our notice with a blackened discharge within the
convolutions of the ear, and a slight smell, like decayed cheese,
proceeding from it. A crackling sensation is then imparted to the fingers
when the base of the ear below the flap is manipulated; the necessary
pressure sometimes drawing forth an expression of pain. A worse case than
this I have not encountered; though how common canker has been in my
practice may be conjectured from my keeping a two-gallon stock-bottle of
the wash in my surgery, and a label, for the bottles in which it is sent
out, within my drawers. The mode of administering this wash is admirably
described by Youatt, from whose pages I transcribe it:--

    "Some attention should be paid to the method of applying
    these lotions. Two persons will be required in order to
    accomplish the operation. The surgeon must hold the muzzle
    of the dog with one hand, and have the root of the ear in
    the hollow of the other, and between the first finger and
    the thumb. The assistant must then pour the liquid into the
    ear; half a tea-spoonful will usually be sufficient. The
    surgeon, without quitting the dog, will then close the ear,
    and mould it gently until the liquid has insinuated itself
    as deeply as possible into the passages of the ear."

The warming of the fluid I find to be unnecessary; and there is something
to be added to the above direction, when the wash I advise is employed.
After one ear is done, let it be covered closely with the flap, and the
other side of the head turned upward without releasing the dog. When both
are finished, take a firm hold of the dog, and fling him away to any
distance the strength you possess is capable of sending the animal; for
the instant the dog is loose, it will begin shaking its head, and, as the
canker-wash I employ contains lead, wherever a drop falls, a white mark or
spot, as the liquid dries, will be left behind.



CANKER WASH.

  Liquor plumbi      }
                     } Of both equal parts.
  Aqua distil        }

Youatt speaks of the liquor plumbi as a dangerous agent to the dog, and
advises for canker that a scruple be mixed with an ounce of water; but in
opposition to that esteemed author's recommendation, I have employed the
liquor plumbi pure, with the best effect, in extreme cases; though, in
ordinary disease, the above is sufficiently strong; and in medicine it is
a maxim that a sufficiency is enough.

I give to the animal, as a general rule, no medicine to take; but
invariably recommend the dog to be kept on vegetable diet; for, inasmuch
as meat is the sole cause of the disorder, however potent may be the drugs
employed for the cure, it is imperative for its eradication that the cause
be removed.

Sometimes, in consequence of the violent shaking of the head, serous
abscesses of considerable size form inside the flaps of the ears. This
mostly happens with large dogs, and the abscesses are hot and soft, being
excessively tender. The animal does not like them to be touched, or even
looked at, but is frequently shaking the head, and howling or whining
afterwards.

The remedy in these cases is equally simple and efficient. The person who
undertakes to remedy the evil, first, by way of precaution, tapes the
animal; that is, he forms a temporary muzzle, by binding a piece of tape
thrice firmly round the creature's mouth. He then places the dog between
his knees, and turning up the ear, with a small lancet makes quickly an
opening in what then is the superior part of the sac in the inverted ear.
This is necessary, because, if the opening were made inferiorly, all the
fluid would escape, and the side of the emptied sac would collapse. If the
point of the knife even could be introduced into an incision made upon the
lower part of the ear, it would not be so easy to cut speedily from below
upward, as to push the blade from above downwards. Well, the opening being
made with the lancet, a little fluid escapes; but no pressure being put on
the sac, the major portion is retained. The operator then takes a straight
probe-pointed bistoury, and having introduced it into the orifice, by
making only pressure, instantly divides the sac. Frequently considerable
fluid escapes; the beast operated upon makes up its mind for a good howl;
but, finding the affair over before its mouth was moulded to emit the
sound, the cry is cut short, and the dog returns to have the tape removed,
that it may lick the hand that pained it.

[Illustration: A DOG TAPED OR MUZZLED FOR OPERATION.]

After the enlargement is slit up, nothing more is required than to fill
the sac for a day or two with lint soaked in the healing fluid; and when
suppuration is established the lint may be withdrawn, and the wound, if
kept clean, left to nature.



THE EYE.

Most writers describe a regular series of disorders associated with the
eye of the dog. I must be permitted to recite only those which I have
witnessed; and surely, if the diseases which the writers alluded to above
have mentioned do exist, I must have encountered some solitary instance of
each of them; instead of which, I have been honored by the confidence of
all classes, and have after all to confess I have not witnessed a specimen
of genuine ophthalmia in this animal.

CATARACT.--This derangement of the visual organ is very common with the
dog. Every old animal that has lost his eyesight is nearly certain to be
blind from cataract. The optic nerve appears to have retained its health
long after the crystalline lens has parted with its transparency. The
latter becomes opaque, while circumstances allow us to infer the former is
yet in vigor; for certainly dogs do see through lenses, the milky or
chalky aspect of which would justify us in pronouncing the sight quite
gone. There is no precise time when cataract makes its appearance. It may
come on at any period or at any age. It may be rapid or slow in its
formation; but from its generally known habit, we should be inclined to
say it was rather slow than otherwise; though upon this point the author
can speak with no certainty. No breed appears to be specially liable to
it, but all seem to be exposed to it alike. The small-bred, house-kept,
high-fed dogs, however, are those most subject to be attacked by it; for,
in these kinds of animals, on account of the derangement of the digestive
organs, the eyes seem to be disposed to show cataract earlier than in the
more robust creatures of the same breed.

The cause of this affection is, in the horse, usually put down to blows;
but, in the dog, we dare not say the disorder is thus produced. The dog is
more exposed to the kicks and cuffs of domestics than is the horse; the
violence done upon the first-named animal being less thought about, and
therefore less likely to be observed. But that the disease takes its
origin in any such inhumanity the author has no proof, and no intention of
insinuating an accusation against a class, who being generally ignorant,
have therefore the less chance of a reply.

The disease seems to be the natural termination of the animal's eyesight;
and, though the author has seen the iris ragged-looking, as though acute
ophthalmia had loosed its ravages upon the delicate structures of the eye,
nevertheless he has in vain endeavored to detect the presence of that
disease.

Were ophthalmia common enough to have produced one-half of the cataracts
which are to be witnessed by him who administers to the affections of the
canine species, surely I must have met with it; as not being a very brief
disorder, but one which by its symptoms is sure to make itself known, I
must have encountered it in one of its numerous stages. However, not
having seen it, and still being anxious of tracing cataract to its
source, the author has been induced to attribute it to the influences of
old age, high breeding, or too stimulating a diet.

Medicine having appeared to do injury rather than to produce benefit, the
author has generally abandoned it in these cases; whereas those measures
which are within the reach of every proprietor, such as change of abode,
attention to necessary cleanliness without caudling in the bed, wholesome
food, and a total abstinence from flesh, added to the daily use of the
cold bath with a long run, and constant employment of a penetrative
hair-brush to the skin afterwards, have seemed to stay the ravages of the
disorder; and on these, therefore, the author is inclined to place his
entire dependence.

GUTTA SERENA.--The author has seen one or two cases of this affection. One
was present with disease of the brain, to the increase of which it was
clearly traceable. The other was attributable to no known cause; but as
blows on the head are beyond all doubt ascertained to produce this
affliction, the author in his own mind has no doubt of its origin. A
temporary affection of this nature is also constantly witnessed when the
dog falls down in a fit, or rather faints from weakness; as when a female
is rearing an undue number of pups, or when a dog has been too largely
bled, or retained too long in the warm bath.

In the last cases, the gutta serena departs as the animal recovers; but in
the first-named, sometimes it is constant, and no medicine appears to
affect it for good or for evil. The author, therefore, does nothing in
such cases beyond giving general directions, as in the instance of
cataract.

Gutta serena is known by the organ being perfectly clear, but the iris
remaining permanently fixed. The introduction of sudden light produces no
effect on it; neither, unless the current of air be agitated, does the
eyelid move. Towards the latter stage the eye changes color; but when it
first occurs, a person without experience would prefer the eye in this
state, because it looks so thoroughly bright and transparent. The aspect
of these eyes is known to those who are much among animals, and the
carriage of the body is recognised as altered when a creature becomes
blind; besides which, trust him alone, and his running against different
obstacles, as well as his manner of walking, will declare the truth.

SIMPLE OPHTHALMIA.--To this disorder of the eye the dog is very
susceptible. It may be caused by dust, dirt, thorns, or portions of leaves
getting into the eyes; the symptoms are, constant closing of the lid, and
perpetual flowing of the tears. Though the eye be closed, the lid is never
quiet; but is being, during the entire period, spasmodically, though
partially, raised to be shut again, or in perpetual movement. If the lids
are forced asunder, the conjunctiva or mucous membrane forming the inner
lining of the lid is seen to be inflamed; while the same membrane covering
the ball of the eye is perceived to be of a white color, and perfectly
opaque.

The cure in this instance is always, first, to remove the cause of the
injury, and then to apply some of the remedies in the manner mentioned
hereafter.

The conjunctiva in the dog is very sympathetic with the mucous membrane
lining the stomach. The interior of the stomach may be inflamed, and the
eye sometimes exhibits no sign of sympathy; but more often, as in
distemper or rabies, it will denote the existence of some serious
disorder. So if the animal's digestive powers are weakened by an undue
quantity of purgative medicine, the eyes will assume all the symptoms of
distemper, even to the circular ulcer in the centre of the organ. However,
in instances of this kind nothing need be done for cure; the major
disorder being subdued, the minor one subsides.

No matter how virulent the disease of the eye may appear to be--even
though it should become perfectly opaque--let it alone: any meddling does
injury. No bathing or medicaments can hasten the cure. Although it should
ulcerate in the centre, and the terrible appearance of the eye be seconded
by the entreaties of the proprietor, still I caution you to continue quite
passive. Touch the ulcer with nitrate of silver, as is the common
practice, and the eye will most likely burst. The aqueous humor will
escape, and a large bunch of fungus will start up in the place of the
ulcer occupied. This fungus, if let alone, may fade away as the stomach
returns to health; but a white spot is established in its place to remind
you of your officiousness.

Nevertheless, simple ophthalmia occasionally will appear when nothing can
be detected to affect the stomach; probably owing to large dogs chasing
through brush-wood, or those of the smaller breeds hunting through long
grass. Then a square of soft lint, formed by doubling a large piece
several times, is laid upon the painful organ, and kept wet with the
following lotion:--

  (1.) LOTION FOR THE EYE.

  Tinct. arnic. mont.             Three drops.
  Tinct. opii                     Six drops.
  Mist. camph.                    One ounce.

The first symptoms having subsided--that is, the dog being capable of
raising the lid, and the flow of tears having in some measure stopped--the
previous lotion may be changed for the following wash:--

  (2.) EYE WASH.

  Arg. nit.                       One grain.
  Mist. camph., or Aq. dist.      One ounce.

The proper manner of applying these preparations to the eye deserves
notice. Let the owner buy a large-sized, long-haired, camel's-hair
painting brush; pour a little of the liquid into a saucer; saturate the
brush in the fluid; pull the lids gently asunder, being careful not to
call forth resistance by frightening a timid animal with any exhibition of
haste or violence; then, having the eye exposed, draw the brush quickly
across it, and the business is over.

The author is frequently consulted by ladies, because their favorites'
eyes run water. Such is a consequence of high breeding in some of the
canine species; and being so, medicines of various kinds, by drying up the
secretion of the lachrymal gland, may at first appear to do good, but must
ultimately be fruitful of the most serious injury.

EJECTION OF THE EYE.--The eye of the dog is rather curiously situated,
which, as the writer knows of no author who has remarked on its position,
he may as well refer to in this place. The eye of man is situated within a
bony orbit, from which it cannot in the course of nature protrude. The eye
of the dog, also, has an orbit partly formed of bone; but as regards the
ridge, which in man supports and gives prominence to the eyebrow, in the
dog it is composed of ligament, as with animals of the cat, pig, and other
species. The reason of this arrangement--the cause for composing part of
the orbit of ligament--is to allow the eye to protrude or to take its
place without and before the orbit. This position of the eye is easily
perceived, when a live specimen which has confidence in man is examined
upon the knee, and at the same time the skull is inspected. The cause of
this peculiar situation of so important an organ, is to allow the eye to
possess telescopic properties; because the dog has the faculty of
withdrawing the eye within, or rather quite to the back of the orbit; as
any who have beheld the animal in some stages of brain disease, or the
last stage of distemper, must, with their attention directed to the fact,
be convinced. The dog in its wild state lives by the chase, and therefore
has Providence endowed his visual organ with peculiarities which best
enable it to discover its prey; at the same time, also, affording extra
scope of vision, or power of seeing around it, to the eye of the animal.

Owing to this peculiarity, the eye in consequence of a bite may be forced
out upon the cheek; or, as once happened in my own experience, the use of
tapes for the purpose of giving medicine may be the cause of the injury.
Whenever this happens, procure a glass of clean milk-warm water, and a
piece of soft lint; then wash the eye; when obtain a soft napkin; let the
eye be well greased with any mild and perfectly sweet ointment; wrap the
napkin about the right hand, and with the fingers thus encased, gently
take hold of the ejected ball of the eye, while the fingers of the left
hand are employed in raising the lid of the emptied orbit; then applying
gentle but adequate force, and at the same time giving to the wrist of the
right hand a rotatory motion, the eye will at once assume its proper
place. The use of the eye lotion and wash will perform all that the after
symptoms may require.

Dogs are often brought to us because the animal has been taking liberties
with the cat; which mistress puss has turned to resent, and her paw--the
claws in the moment of irritation being out--has unfortunately scratched
the dog's eye. When consulted on such a subject, the eye lotion No. 1 is
in most instances all that is required; for the coverings of the eye are
endowed with great powers of self-reparation. If, however, the application
recommended does not perform everything to the proprietor's satisfaction,
the eye wash No. 2 will perfect the cure. Accidents of this description
are apt to leave scars in the shape of white marks across the eye, which
time must be allowed to remove; and this in general is performed, while
all the appliances of art in the writer's hand have been useless for
hastening this object.



DISEASES OF THE LIMBS.

THE DEW-CLAWS.--The dew-claws, as they are termed, grow high upon the
inner side of the leg, nearer to the foot than to the elbow. They are
frequently removed while the dog is very young, being then merely cut off
with a pair of scissors. This, however, is a very primitive way of
operating; and it is best done with a knife, first reflecting back
sufficient skin to cover the wound which the removal will occasion. The
excision, moreover, is only justifiable when the dew-claw hangs from the
leg attached to it merely by integument; when it is regularly formed,
united to the leg by means of continuous bone, it may be allowed to
remain; for in that case there is little more danger of its being torn off
as the dog grows up and hunts game, than any other of the claws appended
to the extremity of the foot.

THE CLAWS.--These frequently, especially in petted dogs that pass their
days parading about on Turkey carpets, become of extraordinary length; in
some cases, turning round and forming a complete circle, so as to
penetrate the little pad at the base of the last joint of the toe. In this
case they cause swelling, inflammation, and suppuration, accompanied by
such intense pain, that in extreme cases it may be necessary to take away
the toe of the foot itself, although in general it is sufficient to clip
the offending claw. However, to do this nicely, with expedition, and
without giving great pain to the patient, is to be desired. Blaine
recommends a small saw, such as is employed to cut off cocks' spurs with;
but the dog must have excessive patience and extraordinary powers of
endurance, who could allow this to be moved quickly backwards and forwards
on a claw, one end of which rests on an inflamed and highly sensitive
surface. Besides, it is not one claw we are generally required to remove,
but sixteen; and long before the first had been fairly taken off by the
method advised by Blaine, the cries of the poor animal would say, "Hold,
enough!" Moreover, favorites of the class I have mentioned are generally
brought by their mistresses, who cannot endure their pets to suffer, and
rightly refuse to leave them to the mercy of a veterinary surgeon. This
last circumstance requires a speedier instrument than the one proposed by
Blaine, to be discovered. The rowelling bistoury, employed for the horses,
answers better than the saw; but even it occasions so much pain as to
cause serious annoyance and obstruction. I have found nothing answer so
well as a pair of wire nippers; which, provided they be in good condition,
will take off the whole of a dog's claws, although for the operation the
animal never quits its mistress's arms. They are quick and effective,
cutting through the strongest claw on the instant; giving no pain; often
removing the nail without the knowledge of the patient, who provokes
laughter rather than commiseration by frequently shamming the agony he
does not feel--venting heart-rending cries, but invariably in the wrong
place. For the performance of the operation there is but one caution
necessary, and that is, to leave the root of the claw long enough, or not
to attempt cutting it too short; because the unnatural life the animal
lives causes small arteries to extend even into the growth of horn, and a
little blood is a terrible loss in a lady's eyes. However, beyond causing
the mistress distress, the practitioner need be in no fear about dividing
one of these abnormal vessels, for the eccentric growth of which the most
experienced practitioner cannot at all times be prepared.

FALLING OFF OF THE CLAW.--There is another injury to which the claws of
the dog are exposed, and the cause of which in no instance have I been
able to trace. The toe becomes hot, swollen, and inflamed; the animal
walks lame, or upon three legs. Whenever the particular claw in fault is
touched, the cries of the dog sufficiently testify that the seat of the
disease has been found. A simple treatment, such as bathing the claw and
placing the foot frequently in warm water, will occasion the horny
covering to be cast off in a few days; after which all that is required
will be to wrap the part up in soft lint for a short period, and to
deprive the animal of its accustomed exercise for a day or two.

SINUSES UP THE CLAW.--These are of frequent existence, and are commonly
found where their presence was not suspected. The dog walks lame, and its
master's sagacity cannot discover the cause. The animal is accordingly
submitted to our inspection. To pinch the claw in this case is of no use;
it can only mislead the judgment. The better plan, after having
ascertained none of the claws are loose, is to make the dog stand upon the
lame foot on a piece of blotting paper. If the slightest moisture be left
thereon, throw the animal on his back, and minutely examine the lower
surface of each claw. On one will be seen a small hole, not larger than
the point of a pin, from which exudes a thin watery discharge.

Soak the foot in warm water; then with a sharp knife pare off the
superficial horn; then soak and pare again; and so on till the entire claw
is removed; when slit up, making a free wound of any sinuous opening that
may exist in the ball of the toe. Dress the interior of the sinus with a
small portion of sulphate of copper; afterwards with the healing lotion
previously recommended; and all will do well: but the claw once taken
away, either by nature or art, is very seldom perfectly restored.

FOOT-SORE.--Men of robust habit, who shoot over an immense tract of
country, and take a pleasure in lawfully finding the game they kill, often
have to complain that their dogs become foot-sore. These animals have an
elastic pad at the bottom of each foot, on which, conjointly with the
nails of the toes, the creatures walk. The bottom of the dog's foot is
covered with a thick cuticle, which is rapidly reproduced in ordinary
cases, as soon as or before it has been worn down: but the game dog is
often kept inactive during the summer, and then in autumn brought into
sudden work. The consequences of this foolish practice are, that nature
during the warm season supplies only a cuticle fitted to the wants of the
animal, which being suddenly forced to endure excessive exercise, soon
wears away, and the foot thus left devoid of covering, is raw, and
consequently tender. For this state of the part, Blaine, who is therein
followed by Youatt, recommends "pot liquor." I do not know what "pot
liquor" means. Cooks apply the name to various refuse waters, in which
different and opposite ingredients have been boiled. If so, the material
with which it is made being dissimilar, the product cannot be the same. It
appears to be a filth, generally cast into the hog-tub; and as such cannot
be a proper medicine wherewith to cure a lame dog's foot. I throw it into
the receptacle for which it is intended; and do so because I cannot
understand it is possessed of any curative properties. The mode I pursue
in these cases is simply this:--I get a basin of tepid water and a soft
sponge; and I then well wash the injured foot. When every particle of grit
or dirt is thoroughly removed, I apply to the dried sore surface a lotion
composed of two grains of chloride of zinc to one ounce of water, with
one or two drops of the essence of lemons. Having thoroughly washed the
foot with the lotion, I soak some rags in it, which I wrap around the
injured member, fixing over all a leather or gutta-percha boot; and when
thus treated, and the animal is subsequently brought into work with
caution, a few days I find generally settles the business.

DOG-CARTS.--This appears to be the place to meet, or rather answer, the
remarks which have appeared in Youatt's work on this subject. He argues,
because the dog is a beast of draught in northern climes, it can be
without violence, and indeed was intended by Providence to be used as such
in temperate countries. Thus, if this argument be of any value, that which
the dog can endure in a temperate climate, it can likewise without injury
undergo in a torrid zone. The argument, if of worth, admits of this
extension; for, if the subject of it is to be moved at all, it is not for
the reasoner to arrogate the power of saying at what point it shall stop.
However, granting him to possess this right, he will thereby gain nothing
by it. In the northern climes, where the dog is employed as a beast of
draught, it is so used only for the winter season; during which time the
face of the landscape is covered by one sheet of snow. Is the poor dog in
a cart, as seen in this country, only so employed? Is he not rather
obliged to drag his heavy load, to which the master's weight is often
appended, along dusty roads instead of snowy paths, and at the top of his
speed, rather than at a pace which the poor creature can maintain for
hours? Is it not worked in summer as well as winter? Does not mud cover
the roadways in this country during the colder season for a far longer
period than the snow? The summer's toil must be most oppressive to this
over-tasked animal; for, though the dog is naturalized close to the
northern pole, he becomes scarce for a long distance before the equator is
reached. It is the creature of a cold climate; and what it can do in one
country is by no means the measurement of that which it can perform in
another; as those who have been at the trouble and expense of exporting
hunting-dogs from England to India can testify.

The foot, moreover, may travel over a sheet of snow with impunity, which
may be unsuited for journeying over artificial roads, deep in mud or
water; or else hot, dry, and parched with a summer's sun. The sportsman's
dog is often sore-footed; and do the approvers of dog-carts pretend that
the wretched beast, forced by an inhuman master to undue labor, is of a
different species? If the animals are the same, how can it be argued that
the organ, which when moving over soft ploughed or grassy fields often
fails, is all-sufficient for the longest and heaviest journey performed
upon a hard artificially constructed road?

One grave senator in the House of Lords used as an argument against the
Bill introduced to put down that abominable nuisance, dog-carts, in this
country, the pleasure he had experienced, when a child, while being drawn
in a carriage pulled by a dog along the lawn attached to his father's
residence. There is no legislation required to meet such cases. No doubt
the pleasure felt by the delighted child was shared by the beast, who
wagged his tail, and scarcely felt the tax imposed upon its huge strength.
Had the cart been removed from the lawn to the road, and been knocked up
with rough wheels and without springs, like the carts used by vagrant poor
are, the load of a child would not even then have made the cases similar.
To make the instances the same, the cart must not only be of the rudest
construction, but it must be filled with weight limited solely by the
master's capacity to buy; while on the top of the burthen must be placed,
not a happy child, but an idle full grown rascal. And the vehicle thus
encumbered must be dragged, not along a soft lawn, at a pace necessary to
please the son and heir, but along a hard road, at a rate which alone can
satisfy an impatient and brutal master.

In whichever way we regard this question, reason proves against it, and
the dog subject to the most dreadful disease that is communicable to man
should on no account, in this densely populated country, be subjected to
usage best calculated to bring on the malady.



FRACTURES.

A fracture is technically called a solution of continuity; but, as the
general reader will imagine the definition can hardly be correct, with
regard to a bone which may be broader than it is long, I will here define
it to be the violent division of a bone into two or more parts.

[Illustration]

Fractures are divided into comminuted, simple, and compound. The
comminuted and compound, for the present purpose, may be regarded as one
and the same; since it is obviously impossible to restore the bone of a
dog which has been crushed into innumerable pieces; and such a state of
the hard structure is scarcely possible to exist without the soft parts,
as flesh or muscle, around the injury being involved, or the lesion
rendered compound as well as comminuted in its nature.

Then it is simple fractures only that have to be dealt with in this place;
and a simple fracture exists when a bone is snapped across into two equal
or unequal pieces. It does not matter at what point the injury may occur;
so that the bone be broken only into two pieces, and none of the flesh be
torn, or the joint involved, the fracture is a simple one. In the dog,
several simultaneous simple fractures may exist; as where the animal
breaks across the whole of the four metatarsal bones proceeding from the
hock to the foot; or snaps, which is of more rare occurrence, the entire
number of metacarpal bones, proceeding from the joint, which is called the
knee of the dog, towards the foot of the animal.

The bones, however, most commonly fractured are the ulna and radius in the
fore-limb, and the tibia and fibula in the posterior extremity. Next to
these in order are the femur or thigh-bone, in the hind-leg, and the
humerus or arm-bone of the anterior limb. Then come the four metacarpal or
metatarsal bones, being the same in number in both legs. These are all the
author undertakes to treat. The first and last he manages pretty
successfully. For the restoration of a fracture, all that is necessary is
to bring the ends which have been divided together, and to keep them in
the place into which your art has brought them. To accomplish this end,
the author is accustomed to cut from a sheet of stout gutta percha three
broad straight ribbons; then to soak these in warm water till they are
pliable, having first cut in them several holes resembling button-holes,
by the aid of a punch and narrow chisel. When they have lain in the warm
water a sufficient time to soften, and no more--for the water of too great
a heat shrivels up as well as softens the gutta percha--he draws forth one
ribbon, and this he moulds to the front of the sound leg.

That done, he takes another piece of the gutta percha, and this he models
to the hind part of the sound leg. The remaining slip is fixed to the
side of the limb. After the pliable gutta percha has been forced to assume
the shape desired, it is the practice of the writer to cover it with a
cloth saturated in cold spring water, to hasten the setting of the
material, and thereby shorten a process which always renders the dog
somewhat uneasy. All this accomplished, he next braces the splints
together, and fixes them upon the limb, by means of a long piece of tape;
putting under them, next to the skin of the animal, a quantity of lint to
prevent the gutta percha from irritating the flesh. The tapes he also runs
through the holes previously made, and winds about the limb, or over the
splints--rather, but not too tightly in the first instance--with the
intent of arousing the restorative amount of inflammation. This quantity
of inflammation, the reader may imagine, would be certain to ensue on so
violent an injury as the separation of the hard supports of the body; but
in this he is mistaken. I have known a favorite hound to break at once the
four metatarsal bones, and though the splints necessary to promote a union
were kept on above two months, nothing of the kind took place; at the end
of which time all bandages were removed, and his movements effected the
cure which my appliances were unable to bring about. Some persons even
advocate taking off all bandages from a broken leg, and sending the dog
for a walk, where union is tardy; but people who use such language talk
about that, concerning which they literally know nothing. It is not one
walk which will produce the desired effect; but repeated walks are
required to accomplish what appears to the ignorant so certain to occur.
Thus, to do nothing is far better in some cases than to perform much;
since the absence of remedies accomplishes that which all the
paraphernalia of the surgery is unable to produce.

There are cases, however, which cannot get well of themselves, unless
deformity be esteemed of no consequence. Thus, when the radius and ulna
are snapped right across, and the foot, deprived of all support, dangles
at the end of the limb; here the interposition of surgical agency is
absolutely required; for the fracture, if left to itself without the aid
of art, would never assume its proper situation. So when the humerus or
femur are fractured, the bones may unite of themselves; but in that case
shortening of the limb and incurable lameness is certain to ensue. The
practitioner aims not only to bring the separated ends of the bone
together; but he endeavors, by the invention of various means, to keep
them there, or to force the limb all the time of the cure to be and to
remain at its fullest length. To prevent the tendency to contract in the
limb, and consequently to shorten, is one of the chief difficulties which
we have to contend with in the treatment of fractures. When a bone is
broken, the muscles which hold the parts together sooner or later
contract, and sometimes with such force as to draw the ends of the bone,
which were once continuous, side by side; thus rendering the limb shorter
than it was previously. This force is generally exerted immediately on the
occurrence of the accident; but in some petted animals where the system
is slow, it does not take place till some indefinite period has elapsed.
Fortunate is the gentleman who is called on to treat a case before
anything of the kind has occurred, as his difficulties will thereby be at
first materially lessened; but when putting on the splints, he must be
careful that they are strong enough and his tapes tight enough to keep the
leg extended, or to resist the power which sooner or later he may rest
assured will start up.

The bandages and splints having been on some time--the precise period of
which cannot be estimated,--the leg will swell, especially the foot, and
the tapes become so tight as to cut into the flesh. The practitioner pays
little attention to the primary indication of swelling being about to take
place; but when it has fairly set in, and threatens to do injury to the
limb, he with caution loosens the tapes, thus permitting the blood freely
to circulate.

The after-treatment of a fracture is comparatively easy. It consists
merely in keeping the bowels open, attending to the general health, and in
renewing the splints and bandages as often as may be necessary.

It is well to bathe the fractured limb, splints and all, in the following
lotions:--

  LOTION FOR THE LEG BEFORE THE SWELLING HAS COMMENCED.

  Tinct. arnic. mont.      One drachm.
  Aqua font.               One ounce.
  Ess. limon               A sufficiency.

To be applied frequently.

  LOTION TO BE USED WHEN SWELLING IS PRESENT.


  Tinct. aconit.      Half-a-scruple.
  Aqua font.          One ounce.
  Ess. anis.          A sufficiency.

  LOTION TO BE APPLIED AFTER THE SWELLING HAS SUBSIDED.

  Zinchi chlor.       One grain.
  Aqua font.          One ounce.
  Ess. anis.          A sufficiency.

The other measures are dictated entirely by circumstances.



OPERATIONS.

There are very few of such offices to be performed on the dog. Among
those, however, which do occur, is the removal of the toe. When a claw has
grown completely round, and by being pressed into the flesh appears, in
the judgment of the practitioner, to have provoked such injury as
decidedly and imperatively requires the removal of the part affected, then
the amputation of one toe may be undertaken. When the dog, to allay the
itching of the extremities, gnaws or eats his own flesh from the toes,
leaving black and ragged bones protruding, amputation is necessary. The
member must in each case be amputated higher up than the injury. There is
no absolute necessity to muzzle the dog, provided the master is present,
and will undertake the charge of the head. When such has been the case,
and the master has engaged to keep the attention of the dog fixed upon
himself, I have removed a joint or two from the leg without the animal
uttering a single cry; although the master, unused to such sights, has
been seized with sickness so as to require spirits for his restoration.
The master being at the head, or an assistant on whom you can depend being
at that post; another placed to keep down the body; and a third to lay
hold of and extend the limb to be operated upon, which must be uppermost;
the animal should be thrown on one side. There it must be allowed to
remain until sufficient time has elapsed to calm its natural fears.

The operator then takes one of Liston's sharp-pointed knives, and thrusts
it quite through the flesh, a short distance above the injury; he then
with a sawing motion cuts downward and outward till the knife is released.
He next impales the member on the other side, keeping the back of the
knife, as on the former occasion, as close to the bone as possible, and
draws it forth in the same manner. He thus will have two flaps divided by
a small notch, which coincides with the breadth of the bone. Through this
notch, on the uppermost side, he must pass his knife, cutting upwards and
inwards; thus upon both sides, till the lines made by the knife meet in a
point. He will then, supposing the business to have been properly
performed, see a bright pink living piece of bone in the centre; and to
cut off so much, or even a little more than is visible, becomes his next
object. For this purpose a saw, however fine, is tedious; because the bone
to be cut through is not of sufficient body to allow the operator to put
forth his strength, and on that account also does not leave behind it a
smooth surface. The bone-nippers answer better. Without loss of time,
therefore, the veterinary surgeon seizes a pair suited to the object in
view, and with these he gently pushes back the flesh on all sides; he
then, suddenly closing the handles, cuts short the protruding bone. The
flaps that have been made are then brought together, when, if there is any
bleeding, the raw surfaces are again exposed, and a few puffs with a pair
of bellows, first having sprinkled the part with cold water, usually stop
it. If that should not succeed, a small quantity of the tincture of ergot
of rye suffices for the purpose; and all bleeding having ceased, the flaps
are finally placed together, bound up in soft lint, and a leather or gutta
percha boot placed over all, no dressing being applied or the boot removed
for three days. When the wound is inspected, if, as frequently happens,
the movements of the dog have disturbed the flaps, provided they are not
drawn too uneven, the practitioner had better not touch them. The
rectifying powers of nature in such cases are wonderful; and in those he
had better trust rather than interfere with the process of healing, which
he may remain certain has already commenced. In this fashion I have
excised a dog's claw; and three months after the operation a spectator
would have to compare one foot with another to discover that either was
deficient in the proper number of appendages.

CAPPED HOCK AND ELBOW.--The first of these is more rare than the last; but
as, on the point of the bone in each joint, is situated a bursa or small
sac, containing an unctuous fluid intended to facilitate the movement of
the bone under the skin, they both are subject to injury; when they swell
to an enormous size, and constitute a very unsightly deformity. If seen
early, so soon as the tenderness has subsided, an ounce of lard may be
mixed with a drachm of the iodide of lead, and the part well and
frequently rubbed with the ointment. If in spite of the use of this
ointment, which more often fails than succeeds, the tumor grows larger and
larger, recourse must be had to an operation; else the disfigurement may
ultimately become sufficiently great and hard to seriously impede the
animal's movements.

An operation being determined on, the animal is best left standing;
though, should it prove unruly, assistance sufficient to lift it on to a
table, and thereon to lay it on its side, must be at hand. Everything
being ready, and the dog in this case properly muzzled, the operator, with
such a knife as he can work quickest with, makes an incision the entire
length of the swelling, and even rather longer than shorter: he next
reflects back both portions of skin, that is, the skin on either side of
the swelling; and lastly, separates the enlargement from its base.

This removal will leave a huge, ugly, gaping wound, with a seeming
superabundance of skin hanging from its side. Let him on no account remove
a particle of that skin, however much more than is necessary properly to
cover the wound there may immediately after the operation seem to be.
Inflammation will, with the beginning of the healing process, set in, and
the action of this inflammation contracts the hanging skin; so that if a
portion be removed, there will remain an open wound to that extent; and as
skin is slowly reproduced, the cure may be retarded for months.

The first part of the business being well concluded, the dog must remain
muzzled, and be returned to its proprietor with a bottle of healing fluid,
the sore which has been made being left uncovered. The healing fluid is to
be used frequently; and if the case be a good one, the orifice quickly
becomes small, and heals. In some animals, however, there is a disposition
to gnaw or lick the part; thus undoing everything the veterinary surgeon
has been accomplishing. To check this habit, a cradle round the neck; wide
collars which prevent the head from being turned round; and various
splints which, by keeping the limb extended, thereby hinder the animal
from touching the wound, are employed. Any or all of these, in untoward
cases, may be necessary; and in very high-bred animals the healing powers
of nature are frequently slow, consequently in such the after-consequences
of an operation are likely to prove very annoying.

[Illustration]



DOG BREAKING:

THE MOST

EXPEDITIOUS, EASY, AND CERTAIN

METHOD,

  WHETHER GREAT EXCELLENCE OR ONLY MEDIOCRITY
  BE REQUIRED.

BY

COL. W.N. HUTCHINSON,

GRENADIER GUARDS.



CONTENTS.


   CHAPTER I.--463.

   PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. QUALIFICATIONS, IN BREAKER--IN DOG.

   1. Dog-Breaking an Art easily acquired.

   2. Most expeditious mode of imparting every Degree of
   Education. Time bestowed determines Grade of Education. In
   note, Col. Hawker's opinion.

   3. Sportsmen recommended to break in their own Dogs.

   4. Men of property too easily satisfied with badly-broken
   Dogs. Keepers have no excuse for Dogs being badly broken.

   5. Great Experience in Dog-breaking, or Excellence in
   Shooting, not necessary. Dispositions of Dogs vary.

   6. What is required in an instructor.

   7. Early in a Season, any Dog will answer, a good one
   necessary afterwards. Hallooing, rating Dogs, and loud
   whistling spoils Sport.

   8. What a well-broken Dog ought to do.

   9. Severity reprobated.

   10. Astley's Method of teaching his Horses.

   11. _Initiatory_ Lessons recommended--to be given when alone
   with Dog--given fasting.

   12. Success promised if rules be followed. Advantages of an
   expeditious Education. Autumn shooting not sacrificed.


   CHAPTER II.--470.

   INITIATORY LESSONS WITHIN DOORS. SHOOTING PONIES.

   13. One Instructor better than two.

   14. Age at which Education commences. In-door breaking for
   hours, better than Out-door breaking for weeks.

   15. To obey all necessary Words of Command, and all Signals,
   before shown Game.

   16. Unreasonableness of not always giving Initiatory
   Lessons--leads to Punishment--thence to Blinking.

   17. Dog to be _your_ constant Companion, not another's.

   18, 19, 20. Instruct when alone with him. Initiatory Lessons
   in his Whistle--in "Dead"--"Toho"--"On."

   21. All Commands and Whistling to be given in a low tone.

   22 to 25. Lessons in "Drop."--Head between fore-legs--Setters
   crouch more than Pointers.

   26. Slovenly to employ right Arm both for "Drop" and "Toho."

   27. Lessons in "Down-charge."--Taught at
   Pigeon-match--Rewards taken from Hand.

   27. Cavalry Horses fed at discharge of Pistol--Same plan
   pursued with Dogs.

   28. Dog unusually Timid to be coupled to another.

   29. Lessons at Feeding Time, with Checkcords.


   CHAPTER III.--480.

   INITIATORY LESSONS CONTINUED. SPANIELS.

   30, 31. Initiatory Lessons in "Dead" and "Seek," continued.

   32. In Signals to hunt to the "right"--"left"--"forward."

   33. In the "Beckon." Woodcock Shooting in America.

   34. In looking to you for instructions.

   35. In "Care."

   36. Always give a reward.

   37. In "Up"--saves using Puzzle-peg.

   38. Dog to carry Nose high.

   39. Initiatory Lesson in "Footing a scent".

   40. In "Heel."

   41. In "Gone" or "Away."

   42. In "Fence" or "Ware-fence."

   43. "No" a better word than "Ware."

   44. Accustomed to couples.

   45. Initiatory Lesson in-doors with a Companion--when one
   "drops," the other to "drop."

   46. Makes "Backing" quickly understood.

   47. Initiatory Lessons with a Companion in the Fields.

   48. Initiatory Lessons save time--make Dogs fond of Hunting.

   49. Checkcord described. Wildest Dogs possess most energy.

   50. Advantages of Checkcord explained. Spaniels broken in by
   it.

   51. Lad to act as Whipper-in.

   52. Retriever that acted as Whipper-in.

   53. Jealousy made him act the part. Might be taught to
   Retrieve.

   54. Instead of "down charge," coming to "heel."

   55. As Puppies kept close to you, not to "self-hunt"--"broke"
   from hare.

   56. Blacksmith straps Horse's Leg above Hock--Dog's similarly
   confined--Shot-belt round the necks of wildest.

   57. Hunted in Gorse.

   58. Age when shown Game. Example of good Spaniels
   advantageous.

   59. Perfected in "Drop"--taught to "seek dead"--to
   "fetch"--entered at Hedge-rows and lightest Covers. Bells to
   Collars.

   60. To hunt farther side of Hedge.

   61. How Sportsmen may aid Keeper.

   62. Experienced Spaniels slacken pace on Game.

   63. Difficult to work young ones in Silence.

   64. Spaniels that Pointed.

   65. Game first accustomed to, most liked.

   66. Principal requisites in Spaniels.

   67. The signal "to point with finger."

   68. Following Cockers a Young Man's work.

   69. Education differs in different Teams.

   70. One and a half couple of large Spaniels sufficient. One
   of the Team to retrieve.

   71. Clumbers procuring more shots in Turnips than Pointers.

   72. Lord P----n's highly-broken Team.

   73. Of small Cockers three couple a Team. What constitutes
   Perfection.

   74. Retriever with Team. Duke of Newcastle's Keepers.

   75. Some Teams allowed to hunt flick.

   76. Markers necessary with wild Spaniels.

   77. Old Sportsmen prefer mute Spaniels.

   78. Handy old Setters capital in light cover. Attention
   necessary when first entered.

   79. C----e's Pointers as good in cover as on the stubble.

   80. Pointer that ran to opposite side of Thicket to flush
   Game towards Gun.

   81. Water Spaniels, how broken.

   82. Shepherd's Forward Signal best for Water Retrievers.

   83. Wild Fowl reconnoitred with Telescope.

   84. Qualities required in Water Retriever. In Note, Poachers
   in Snow. Beast or Man of one uniform color easily detected.

   85. Steady Spaniels in Rice Lakes.


   CHAPTER IV.--510.

   LESSONS IN "FETCHING." RETRIEVERS.

   86. Lessons in "fetching" recommended. Dog, not taught to
   retrieve, bringing dead Bird he had found.

   87. Taught to deliver into your hand; never pick up a Bird
   yourself; Dog which often lost winged Birds she had lifted.

   88. Retrievers taught to carry something soft;
   injudiciousness of employing a stone.

   89. How encouraged to plunge into Water.

   90. Diving, how taught.

   91. "Fetching" taught with a Pincushion; with a Bunch of
   Keys.

   92. Made to deliver instantly.

   93. Practised to carry things of the size and weight of a
   Hare.

   94. "Fetching," how taught at commencement.

   95. Regular Retrievers taught to fetch Birds; to "foot"
   Rabbits and Winged Game.

   96. Retriever observes when a Bird is struck; a quality
   particularly useful in a Water Retriever.

   97. Pigeons and small Birds shot to Retrievers.

   98. Injudiciousness of aiding a young Dog when retrieving;
   makes him rely on Gun rather than his own Nose.

   99. Fatigue of carrying Hare tempts young Retriever to drop
   it; taught to deliver quickly by rewards of hard boiled
   liver.

   100. If he taste blood, put on Wire snaffle; how made.

   101. Retriever how taught to pursue faster; should commence
   to "road" slowly, but "follow up" rapidly.

   102. Why Land Retrievers should "down charge".

   103. Some Retrievers may "run on shot," but those for sale
   should "down charge."

   104. Retrievers not to be of a heavy build, yet strong and
   thick-coated.

   105. Cross between Newfoundland and Setter makes best
   Retriever; the real Newfoundland described.

   106. Cross from heavy Setter best Retriever.

   107. Most Dogs can be taught more or less to Retrieve.

   108. Young Retriever to lift Woodcock and Landrail.

   109. Retrievers never to kill Rats, lift vermin, or wounded
   Heron, &c.


   CHAPTER V.--527.

   INITIATORY LESSONS OUT OF DOORS. TRICKS.

   110. Lessons in Country Walks.

   111. "Instruction in quartering;" hunted where least likely
   to find Game; taught while young. In Note, Bitch shot over
   when seven months old.

   112. If unreasonably long before taking to hunting, the
   remedy.

   113. Utility of Initiatory Lessons; taught without punishing.

   114. Self-confidence of timid Dogs increased.

   115. The more Dogs learn, the more readily they learn.

   116. Two superior Dogs better than half-a-dozen of the
   ordinary sort; Action of Dogs; their Feet; Loins; dash of
   Foxhound gives endurance; cross with Bull hunts with nose too
   low; Reliefs desirable; best Dog reserved for evening.

   117. Memorandum, never to ride through gate with gun
   athwart-ship; instance of Dog's behaving admirably the first
   day shown Game.

   118. Proves the value of Initiatory Lessons.

   119. Summary of knowledge imparted by them.

   120. Why to signal with _right_ hand.

   121. _One_ word only of command; dogs attend to the general
   _Sound_, not to the several _Words_.

   122. Names of Dogs not to end in "O;" to be easily called; to
   be dissimilar.

   123. "Drop" better word of command than "Down;" use words of
   command least likely to be employed by others; when
   purchasing a Dog ascertain what words he is accustomed to.


   CHAPTER VI--537.

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN COMMENCED. RANGING.

   124. Regular Breakers make Dogs "point" paired Birds in
   Spring, tends to Blinking.

   125. Better not to see Game until shot over; taken out alone
   on a fine day in Autumn.

   126. Perpetually whistling to animate Dogs, injudicious.

   127. Beat largest fields, and where least likely to find
   Game.

   128. Commence from leeward; scent bad in a calm or gale.

   129 to 133. Instructions in "ranging."

   134. Kept from hedge; Range greater on moors than stubble.

   135. Distance between Parallels dependent on tenderness of
   nose.

   136. If the Dog is to hunt with another, the Parallels to be
   farther apart.

   137. No interruption when winding Birds, yet not allowed to
   puzzle; Nose to gain Experience.

   138. Birds lie well to Dog that "winds," not "foots" them.

   139. Inattentive to Whistle, made to "drop," &c.; when rating
   or punishing, the disregarded order or signal to be often
   repeated; Whip to crack loudly. The attainment of a
   scientific Range difficult, but of surpassing value; the best
   ranger must in the end find most Game.


   CHAPTER VII.--549.

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. CAUTION.

   140. Dog to be hunted alone.

   141. Many Breakers exactly reverse this.

   142. Turnips, Potatoes, &c., avoided; Range of dogs broken on
   moors most true.

   143. In Turnips, &c., young Dogs get too close to Birds.

   144. _Cautious_ Dogs may with advantage be as fast as wild
   ones; the two contrasted. In Note, injudiciousness of
   teaching a Puppy to "point" Chickens.

   145, 6. A Dog's nose cannot be improved, but his _caution_
   can, which is nearly tantamount; how effected.

   147. How to make fast Dogs cautious.

   148, 149. The cause why wild Dogs ultimately turn out best.

   150. The day's Beat commenced from the leeward.

   151. Wonderful Dogs, which find Game without hunting.

   152. Reason why Dogs should be instructed separately, and
   allowed Time to work out a scent; young Dogs generally too
   much hurried.


   CHAPTER VIII.--556.

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. CUNNING OF AGE--RANGE OF
   FROM TWO TO SIX DOGS.

   153. Your Dog not to "break fence;" how taught; Birds often
   sprung while you are scrambling over hedge.

   154. Turning one's back upon a Dog to bring him away;
   stooping down, &c., to make him hunt close.

   155. Dog, when fatigued, not to be hunted; leads to false
   points.

   156. Sent home, brushed, and allowed a warm berth; not to
   follow all day at "heel."

   157 to 159. Beat of two Dogs, how regulated.

   160. Whatever number hunted, all should look to the Gun for
   orders.

   161. Mr. Herbert's opinion in his "Field Sports in United
   States."

   162, 163. Beat of three Dogs.

   164. Of four Dogs.

   165 to 167. Of five or six Dogs.

   168. Great precision impracticable, but the necessity of a
   system maintained; System particularly essential where Game
   is scarce; Dogs to be brigaded, not to be employed as a pack.

   169. When each keeper hunts a brace.

   170. A brigade of fine rangers worth from fifty to sixty
   guineas a brace.

   171. Fastest walkers do not necessarily beat most country.

   172. Nor do always the fastest Dogs.

   173. How slow Dogs may hunt more ground than faster.


   CHAPTER IX.--565

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. "POINT" NOT RELINQUISHED
   FOR "DOWN CHARGE."

   174. Affection makes Dog anxious to please--when he rushes in
   to be dragged back.

   175. Rule pressed.

   176. Reasons for Rule--Experience anticipated.

   177. To "stand" far off.

   178. Patience enjoined--Not to part as enemies.

   179. The first good point--Remain yourself stationary.

   180. "Heading" Dog--Your circle to be wide. The first Bird
   killed.

   181. Finding dead Bird, it being to leeward.

   182. Pointing it--Blinking it. The cause.

   183. Bird killed, the Dog to go to "heel."

   184. Supposed objection.

   184. Answered.

   185. Temptation to run after fallen Bird greater than to run
   to "heel."

   186. Dog pointing one Bird, and after "down charge,"
   springing the others. The cause.

   187. The preventive. Dog never to discontinue his point in
   order to "down charge." How taught.

   188. Its advantages exemplified.

   189. Decide whether Dog goes direct to Bird, or first to you.

   190. Dog which performed well--Snipe shooting on banks of
   Richelieu.

   191. Coolness recommended--Inconsistency deprecated.


   CHAPTER X.--579.

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. ASSISTANT

   192. Some Dogs will not point readily. Breeding in and in,
   error of.

   193. Dogs more inclined to point at first than afterwards.

   194. Checkcord employed--spike attached to it.

   195. With wild Dog assistant useful--Signals to.

   196. How particularly useful with a badly-broken Dog.

   197. "Heading" Dog at his point--not practised too often--Dog
   to acquire a knowledge of his distance from Game.

   198. Constantly "Heading" Dog may make him too immovable.

   199. A fault often caused by over-punishment.

   200. False points caused by over-punishment--Self-confidence
   and experience only cures for over-caution.

   201. Dog's manner shows position of Birds.


   CHAPTER XI.--585.

   FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONCLUDED. BAR. LEG STRAP. SPIKE
   COLLAR.

   202. Bar cure for too high spirits. A leg strapped up. Why
   these remedies are better than starvation and excessive work.

   203. The regular Spike Collar described. French Spike Collar.

   204. One less objectionable.

   205 to 208. How, in extreme cases, the Spike Collar may be
   employed.

   209. Dog springing Birds without noticing them; how to be
   treated.

   210. The first Birds fired at to be killed outright; the
   search for winged Birds, Dog being to leeward.

   211. Had the Dog seized. Firing at running Bird.

   212. The search for winged Bird, Dog being to windward.

   213. "Lifting" a Dog, when recommended. "Footing" a scent. In
   Note, Speed of Red-legged Partridge.

   214. Evil of a young Sportsman always thinking his Birds
   killed outright; often calls away Dog improperly.

   215. Loss of dead Bird discouraging to Dog.

   216. Perseverance in seeking, how fostered.

   217. "Nosing" Bird allowed.

   218. Error of picking up winged Bird before loading. In Note,
   Ingenious argument in its favor; Bird picked up in the
   evening; rejoins covey.

   219. If a winged Bird be a fast runner, and out of shot.

   220. If Dog rushes forward, yet yields to menaces and stops.

   221. If he seizes the dead Bird; if he has torn it.--How to
   administer Punishment.

   222. Part good friends. Your own temper not to be ruffled.

   223. Your own temper not to be ruffled.

   224. He is no Breaker who cannot always get hold of Dog.

   225. Be certain of Dog's guilt before punishing.

   226. Dog's ears not to be pulled violently.

   227. To "drop" whenever Bird or Hare rises.

   228. Lesson in Turnips.

   229. Real Lesson in "Gone" or "Flown" given after Dog has had
   some experience; reason why.


   CHAPTER XII.--604.

   SHOOTING HARES. COURAGE IMPARTED. "BACKING" TAUGHT.

   230. Shooting Hares not recommended; shooting Rabbits
   strongly condemned. In Note, why superior Grouse-Dog better
   than superior Partridge-Dog. Dog brought from strange
   country always hunts to disadvantage.

   231. Put off killing Hares as long as possible.

   232. Dogs not to quit faint scent of Birds for strong scent
   of Hare.

   233. Dog after Hare; no racing after Dog; Puss gone down
   wind.

   234. Checkcord employed. Drive in spike on "toho-ing" Hare.

   235. Impropriety of firing at Dog.

   236. Hares scarce, visit Rabbit-warren.

   237. Morning, hunt where no Hares; evening, where plentiful.
   Mountain Hares.

   238. Killing Hare in its form.

   239. Shooting Bird on ground.

   240. Dog taught to pursue _wounded_ Hare.

   241. Whip carried, saves punishment. Detention of Dog at
   crouching posture, saves Whip.

   242. Few cuts, but severe ones.

   243. Instance of timidity cured. Range imparted by giving Dog
   feet of Partridge.

   244. Punishment, not defective Nose, causes Blinking.

   245. Courage imparted to timid Dogs.

   246. Dogs expect Punishment for faults; vexed when Birds are
   not fired at.

   247. What Dog select to teach yours to "Back."

   248. Example has great influence.

   249. "Backing" old Dog.

   250. "Finder" to "road" to a "rise;" his intrusive companion
   described.

   251. To "back" by Eye, not Nose.

   252. Encourage old Dog before rating the other.

   253. "Finder" not to advance, even if _passed_ by other Dog.

   254. The "Backer" should "down charge."

   255. Dog when pointing never to "down charge;" how taught.


   CHAPTER XIII.--619.

   HINTS TO PURCHASERS. SHEEP KILLING.

   256. The "back" being taught, young Dog again hunted alone.

   257. Breakers hunt too many together. Why injudicious.

   258. One hour's instruction alone, better than a day's in
   company.

   259. Case in point.

   260. Rushing in to "dead," how cured.

   261. Dogs shot over "single-handed." Jealousy decreases with
   intimacy. Independence and self-reliance, how imparted.

   262. Best Dogs; summary of rules for making, concisely given.
   The best will make mistakes.

   263. Dog that always ran riot when out of sight.

   264. Killing sheep; cure attempted.

   265. Another plan.

   266, 267. Third attempt at remedy.

   267. Muzzle Dog likely to worry Sheep.

   268. Killing Fowls; the cure.


   CHAPTER XIV.--628.

   DISTINGUISHING WHISTLES. "BACKING" THE GUN. RETREAT FROM AND
   RESUMPTION OF POINT. RANGE UNACCOMPANIED BY GUN. HEADING
   RUNNING BIRDS.

   271. A distinguishing whistle for each Dog; disadvantage of
   employing but one whistle for several Dogs; supposed case.

   272. Another case.

   273. Third case.

   274. Dissimilar whistles, or distinct notes on one whistle.

   275. General rule for whistling

   276. Dog to back the Gun; how taught; it creates caution.

   277. Advantage of Dog backing the Gun.

   278. American Wood-Duck.

   279. Dog to retreat from point and resume it.

   280. How taught.

   281. Shows Dog object for which he is hunted.

   282. Not taught too early.

   283. Dog's consciousness of its object.

   284. Dog to hunt from leeward to windward, unaccompanied by
   Gun; how taught.

   285. A _careful_ Dog running down wind would not spring
   Birds.

   286. The great advantages of the accomplishment.

   287. Dog to head running Birds; could be taught.

   288. How Dog taught to hunt "unaccompanied by Gun."

   289. The accomplishment taught by "lifting;" not commenced
   first season.

   290. Could be taught as easily as Shepherds' collies are
   instructed.

   291. Particularly useful where the red-legged Partridge is
   found.


   CHAPTER XV.--638.

   SETTER TO RETRIEVE. BLOODHOUNDS. RETRIEVERS TO "BEAT."
   WOUNDED WILD FOWL RETRIEVED FIRST.

   292. Setter to retrieve; obtain thereby in one Dog the
   services of two; necessity of having some Dog that retrieves.

   293. Predilection for Setters confessed; Reasons given.

   294. One Dog only to retrieve.

   295. Let "retrieving" be done by "Finder."

   296. Seeking Dead with two Dogs; Winged Bird searched for in
   direction of covey's flight.

   297. Scent differs of wounded and unwounded Birds.

   298. Three dead Snipe lifted in succession; Setter that stood
   fresh Birds while carrying a dead one; Pointer that pointed
   Partridge while carrying a Hare; Retriever refusing to
   relinquish chase of wounded Hare.

   299. Injudiciousness of _retrieving_ Setter pointing dead.

   300. Argument against employing retrieving Setters holds
   against using regular Retrievers.

   301. Regular Retrievers to beat; its advantages; one Dog does
   the duty of two.

   302. Water Retrievers, or Water Spaniels, to retrieve
   crippled before picking up dead Wild Fowl; how taught.

   303. None of these accomplishments so difficult to teach as a
   good range.

   304. Might be taught by your Gamekeeper, but not to be
   expected of regular Breaker.

[Illustration: COCKERS.--BUTLER AND BRISK.]



DOG-BREAKING.



CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. QUALIFICATIONS, IN BREAKER--IN DOG.


1. Dog-breaking, so far from there being any mystery in it, is an art
easily acquired when it is commenced and continued on rational principles.

2. I think you will be convinced of this if you will have the patience to
follow me, whilst I endeavor to explain what, I am satisfied, is the most
certain and rapid method of breaking in your dogs, whether you require
great proficiency in them, or are contented with an inferior education. No
quicker system has yet been devised, however humble the education may be.
The education in fact of the peasant, and that of the future double-first
collegian, begin and proceed on the same principle. You know your own
circumstances, and you must yourself determine what time you choose to
devote to them; and, as a consequence, the degree of excellence to which
you aspire. I can only assure you of my firm conviction, that no other
means will enable you to gain your object so quickly, and I speak with a
confidence derived from long experience in many parts of the world, on a
subject that was, for several years, my great hobby.[2]

3. Every writer is presumed to take some interest in his reader; I
therefore feel privileged to address you as a friend, and will commence my
lecture by strongly recommending, that, if your occupations will allow it,
you take earnestly and heartily to educating your dogs yourself. If you
possess temper and some judgment, and will implicitly attend to my advice,
I will go bail for your success, and, much as you may now love shooting,
you will then like it infinitely more. Try the plan I recommend, and I
will guarantee that the Pointer or Setter Pup which I will, for example
sake, suppose to be now in your kennel, shall be a better dog by the end
of next season--I mean a more killing dog--than probably any you ever yet
shot over.

4. Possibly you will urge, that you are unable to spare the time which I
consider necessary for giving him a high education--brief as that time is,
compared with the many, many months wasted in the tedious methods usually
employed--and that you must, perforce, content yourself with humbler
qualifications. Be it so, I can only condole with you, for in your case
this may be partly true; mind, I only say _partly_ true. But how a man of
property, who keeps a regular gamekeeper, can be satisfied with the
disorderly, disobedient troop to which he often shoots, I cannot
understand. Where the gamekeeper is permitted to accompany his master in
the field, and hunt the dogs himself, there can be no valid excuse for the
deficiency in their education. The deficiency must arise either from the
incapacity, or from the idleness of the keeper.

5. Unlike most other arts, dog-breaking does not require much experience;
but such a knowledge of dogs, as will enable you to discriminate between
their different tempers and dispositions, I had almost said
characters--and they vary greatly--is very advantageous. Some require
constant encouragement; some you must never beat; whilst, to gain the
required ascendancy over others, the whip must be occasionally employed.
Nor is it necessary that the instructor should be a very good shot; which
probably is a more fortunate circumstance for me than for you. It should
even be received as a principle that birds ought to be now and then missed
to young dogs, lest some day, if your nerves happen to be out of order, or
a cockney companion be harmlessly blazing away, your dog take it into his
head and heels to run home in disgust, as I have seen a bitch, called
Countess, do more than once, in Haddingtonshire.

6. The chief requisites in a breaker are:--Firstly, command of temper,
that he may never be betrayed into giving one unnecessary blow, for with
dogs, as with horses, no work is so well done as that which is done
cheerfully; secondly, consistency, that in the exhilaration of his
spirits, or in his eagerness to secure a bird, he may not permit a fault
to pass unreproved, I do not say _unpunished_, which at a less exciting
moment he would have noticed--and that, on the other hand, he may not
correct a dog the more harshly because the shot has been missed, or the
game lost; and lastly, the exercise of a little reflection, to enable him
to judge what meaning an unreasonable animal is likely to attach to every
word and sign, nay to every look.

7. With the coarsest tackle, and worst flies, trout can be taken in
unflogged waters, while it requires much science, and the finest gut, to
kill persecuted fish. It is the same in shooting. With almost any
sporting-dog game can be killed early in the season, when the birds lie
like stones, and the dog can get within a few yards of them; but you will
require one highly broken to obtain many shots when they are wild. Then
any incautious approach of the dog, or any noise, would flush the game,
and your own experience will tell you that nothing so soon puts birds on
the run, and makes them so ready to take flight, as the sound of the human
voice, especially now-a-days, when farmers generally prefer the scythe to
the sickle, and clean husbandry, large fields, and trim narrow
hedges--affording no shelter from wet--have forced the partridge--a
_short-winged_[3] bird--unwillingly to seek protection, when arrived at
maturity, in ready flight rather than in concealment. Even the report of a
gun does not so much alarm them as the command, "Toho," or "Down charge,"
usually too, as if to make matters worse, hallooed to the extent of the
breaker's lungs. There are anglers who recommend silence as conducive to
success, and there are no experienced sportsmen who do not acknowledge its
great value in shooting. Rate or beat a dog at one end of a field, and the
birds at the other will lift their heads, become uneasy, and be ready to
take wing the moment you get near them. "Penn," in his clever maxims on
Angling and Chess, observes to this effect, "if you wish to see the fish,
do not let him see you;" and with respect to shooting, we may as truly
say, "if you wish birds to hear your gun, do not let them hear your
voice." Even a loud whistle disturbs them. Mr. O----t of C----e says a
gamekeeper's motto ought to be,--"No whistling--no whipping--no noise,
when master goes out for sport."

8. These observations lead unavoidably to the inference, that no dog can
be considered perfectly broken, that does not make his point when first he
feels assured of the presence of game, and remain stationary _where he
makes it_, until urged on by you to draw nearer--that does not, as a
matter of course, lie down without any word of command the moment you have
fired, and afterwards perseveringly seek for the dead bird in the
direction you may point out--and all this without your once having
occasion to speak, more than to say in a low voice, "Find," when he gets
near the dead bird, as will be hereafter explained. Moreover, it must be
obvious that he risks leaving game behind him if he does not hunt every
part of a field, and, on the other hand, that he wastes your time and his
strength, if he travels twice over the same ground, nay, over any ground
which his powers of scent have already reached. Of course I am now
speaking of a dog hunted without a companion to share his labors.

9. You may say, "How is all this, which sounds so well in theory, to be
obtained in practice without great severity?" Believe me, with severity it
never can be attained. If flogging would make a dog perfect, few would be
found unbroken in England or Scotland, and scarcely one in Ireland.

10. Astley's method was to give each horse his preparatory lessons alone,
and when there was no noise or anything to divert his attention from his
instructor. If the horse was interrupted during the lesson, or his
attention in any way withdrawn, he was dismissed for that day. When
perfect in certain lessons by himself, he was associated with other horses
whose education was further advanced. And it was the practice of that
great master to reward his horses with slices of carrot or apple when they
performed well.

11. Astley may give us a useful hint in our far easier task of
dog-breaking. We see that he endeavored by kindness and patience to make
the horse thoroughly comprehend the meaning of certain words and signals
before he allowed him any companion. So ought you, by what may be termed
"initiatory lessons," to make your young dog perfectly understand the
meaning of certain words and signs before you hunt him in the company of
another dog--nay, before you hunt him at all; and, in pursuance of
Astley's plan, you ought to give these lessons when you are alone with the
dog, and his attention is not likely to be withdrawn to other matters.
Give them, also, when he is fasting, as his faculties will then be
clearer, and he will be more eager to obtain any rewards of biscuit or
other food.

12. Be assured that by a consistent adherence to the simple rules which I
will explain, you can obtain the perfection I have described, 8, with more
ease and expedition than you probably imagine to be practicable; and, if
you will zealously follow my advice, I promise, that, instead of having to
give up your shooting in September--for I am supposing you to be in
England--while you break in your pup, you shall then be able to take him
into the field, provided he is tolerably well bred and well disposed,
perfectly obedient; and, except that he will not have a well-confirmed,
judicious range, almost perfectly made; at least so far made, that he will
only commit such faults as naturally arise from want of experience. Let me
remind you also that the keep of dogs is expensive, and supplies an
argument for making them earn their bread by hunting to a _useful_ purpose
so soon as they are of an age to work without injury to their
constitution. Time, moreover, is valuable to us all, or most of us fancy
it is. Surely, then, that system of education is best which imparts the
most expeditiously the required degree of knowledge.

FOOTNOTES:

[2] It may be satisfactory to others to know the opinion of so undeniable
an authority as Colonel Hawker. The Colonel, in the Tenth Edition of his
invaluable Book on Shooting, writes--page 285--"Since the publication of
the last edition, Lieut.-Col. Hutchinson's valuable work on 'Dog-breaking'
has appeared. It is a perfect _vade mecum_ for both Sportsmen and Keeper,
and I have great pleasure in giving a cordial welcome to a work which so
ably supplies my own deficiencies."

[3] The American Quail so closely resembles the English partridge in all
its habits, except that it takes to covert in large woodlands, and
occasionally _trees_, that all the rules of hunting and beating for it,
shooting it, and breaking dogs for its pursuit, are entirely
identical.--H.W.H.



CHAPTER II.

INITIATORY LESSONS WITHIN DOORS. SHOOTING PONIES.


13. It is seldom of any advantage to a dog to have more than one
instructor. The methods of teaching may be the same; but there will be a
difference in the tone of voice and in the manner that will more or less
puzzle the learner, and retard rather than advance his education. If,
therefore, you resolve to break in your dog, do it entirely yourself; let
no one interfere with you.

14. As a general rule, let his education begin when he is about six or
seven months old[4]--although I allow that some dogs are more precocious
than others, and bitches always more forward than dogs--but it ought to be
nearly completed before he is shown a bird (111). A quarter of an hour's
daily in-door training--called by the Germans "house-breaking"--for three
or four weeks will effect more than a month's constant hunting without
preliminary tuition.

15. Never take your young dog out of doors for instruction, until he has
learnt to know and obey the several words of command which you intend to
give him in the field, and is well acquainted with all the signs which you
will have occasion to make to him with your arms. These are what may be
called the initiatory lessons.

16. Think a moment, and you will see the importance of this preliminary
instruction, though rarely imparted. Why should it be imagined that at the
precise moment when a young dog is enraptured with the first sniff of
game, he is, by some mysterious unaccountable instinct, to understand the
meaning of the word "Toho?" Why should he not conceive it to be a word of
encouragement to rush in upon the game, as he probably longs to do;
especially if it is a partridge fluttering before him, in the sagacious
endeavor to lure him from her brood, or a hare enticingly cantering off
from under his nose? There are breakers who would correct him for not
intuitively comprehending and obeying the "Toho," roared out with
stentorian lungs; though, it is obvious, the youngster, from having had no
previous instruction, could have no better reason for understanding its
import than the watch-dog chained up in the adjacent farm-yard. Again he
hears the word "Toho"--again followed by another licking, accompanied
perhaps by the long lecture, "Ware springing birds, will you?" The word
"Toho" then begins to assume a most awful character; he naturally connects
it with the finding of game, and not understanding a syllable of the
lecture, lest he should a third time hear it, and get a third drubbing, he
judges it most prudent, unless he is a dog of very high courage, when next
aware of the presence of birds, to come in to heel; and thus he commences
to be a blinker, thanks to the sagacity and intelligence of his tutor. I
do not speak of all professional dog-breakers,--far from it. Many are
fully sensible that comprehension of orders must necessarily precede all
but accidental obedience. I am only thinking of some whom it has been my
misfortune to see, and who have many a time made my blood boil at their
brutal usage of a fine high-couraged young dog. Men who had a strong arm
and hard heart to punish--but no temper and no head to instruct.

17. So long as you are a bachelor, you can make a companion of your dog,
without incurring the danger of his being spoilt by your wife and
children; the more, by-the-bye, he is your own companion and nobody else's
the better: and it is a fact, though you may smile at the assertion, that
all the initiatory lessons can be, and can best be inculcated in your own
breakfast-room.

18. Follow Astley's plan. Let no one be present to distract the dog's
attention. Call him to you by the whistle you propose always using in the
field. Tie a slight cord a few yards long to his collar. Throw him a small
piece of toast or meat, saying at the time, "Dead, dead." Do this several
times, chucking it into different parts of the room, and let him eat what
he finds. Then throw a piece, always as you do so saying, "Dead," and the
moment he gets close to it, check him by jerking the cord, at the same
time saying, "Toho," and lifting up your right arm almost perpendicularly.
By pressing on the cord with your foot, you can restrain him as long as
you please. Do not let him take what you have thrown until you give him
the encouraging word, "On," accompanied by a forward movement of the right
arm and hand, somewhat similar to the swing of an under-hand bowler at
cricket.

19. Let all your commands be given in a low voice. Consider that in the
field, where you are anxious not to alarm the birds unnecessarily, your
words must reach your dogs' ears more or less softened by distance, and,
if their influence depends on loudness, they will have the least effect
at the very moment when you wish them to have the most. For the same
reason, in the initiatory lessons, be careful not to whistle loudly.

20. After a few trials with the checkcord, you will find yourself enabled,
without touching it, and merely by using the word "Toho," to prevent his
seizing the toast or meat, until you say "On," or give him the forward
signal. When he gets yet more perfect in his lesson, raising your right
arm only, without employing your voice, will be sufficient, especially if
you have gradually accustomed him to hear you speak less and less loudly.
If he draw towards the bread before he has obtained leave, jerk the cord,
and _drag him back to the spot from which he stirred_. He is not to quit
it until you order him, occupy yourself as you may. Move about, and
occasionally go from him, as far as you can, before you give the command
"On." This will make him less unwilling hereafter to continue steady at
his point while you are taking a circuit to head him, and so get wild
birds between him and your gun,--179, 196. The signal for his advancing,
when you are facing him, is the "beckon"--see 33.

21. At odd times let him take the bread the moment you throw it, that his
eagerness to rush forward to seize it may be continued, only to be
instantly restrained at your command.

22. Your _left_ arm raised perpendicularly, in a similar manner, should
make the young dog lie down. Call out "Drop," when so holding up the left
hand, and press him down with the other until he assumes a crouching
position. If you study beauty of attitude, his fore-legs should be
extended and his head rest between them. Make him lie well down,
occasionally walking round and round him, gradually increasing the size of
the circle--your eyes on his. Do not let him raise himself to a sitting
posture. If you do, he will have the greater inclination hereafter to move
about: _especially when you want to catch him in order to chide or correct
him_. A stop is all you require for the "Toho," and you would prefer his
standing to his point, rather than his lying down,[5] as you then would
run less risk of losing sight of him in cover, heather, or high turnips,
&c. Setters, however, naturally crouch so much more than Pointers, that
you will often not be able to prevent their "falling" when they are close
to game. Indeed, I have heard some sportsmen argue in favor of a dog's
dropping, "that it rested him." An advantage, in my opinion, in no way
commensurate with the inconvenience that often attends the practice.

23. If you are satisfied with teaching him in a slovenly manner, you can
employ your right arm both for the "Toho" and "Drop;" but that is not
quite correct, for the former is a natural stop--being the pause to
determine exactly where the game is lying, preparatory to rushing in to
seize it--which you prolong by art,[6] whilst the other is wholly opposed
to nature. The one affords him great delight, especially when, from
experience, he has learnt well its object: the latter is always irksome.
Nevertheless, it must be firmly established. It is the triumph of your
art. It ensures future obedience. But it cannot be effectually taught
without creating more or less awe, and it should create awe. It is
obvious, therefore, that it must be advantageous to make a distinction
between the two signals--especially with a timid dog--for he will not then
be so likely to blink on seeing you raise your right hand when he is
drawing upon game. Nevertheless, there are breakers so unreasonable as not
only to make that one signal, but the one word "Drop," or rather "Down,"
answer both for the order to point, and the order to crouch! How can such
tuition serve to enlarge a dog's ideas?

24. To perfect him in the "Down," that difficult part of his
education,--difficult, because it is unnatural,--practise it in your
walks. At very uncertain, unexpected times catch his eye, having
previously stealthily taken hold of the checkcord--a long, light one, or a
whistle to call his attention, and then hold up your left arm. If he does
not _instantly_ drop, jerk the checkcord violently, and, as before, drag
him back to the exact spot where he should have crouched down. Admit of no
compromise. You must have _implicit_, _unhesitating_, _instant_ obedience.
When you quit him, he must not be allowed to crawl _an inch_ after you. If
he attempt it, drive a spike into the ground, and attach the end of the
checkcord to it, allowing the line to be slack; then leave him quickly,
and on his running after you he will be brought up with a sudden jerk. So
much the better; it will slightly alarm him. As before, take him back to
the precise place he quitted--do this invariably, though he may have
scarcely moved. There make him again "Drop"--always observing to jerk the
cord at the moment you give the command. After a few trials of this
tethering, say less than a dozen, he will be certain to lie down steadily,
until you give the proper order or a signal--20--let you run away, or do
what you may to excite him to move. One great advantage of frequently
repeating this lesson, and thus teaching it _thoroughly_, is that your dog
will hereafter always feel, more or less, in subjection whenever the cord
is fastened to his collar. He must be brought to instantly obey the
signal, even at the extreme limit of his beat.

25. Most probably he will not at first rise when he is desired. There is
no harm in that--a due sense of the inutility of non-compliance with the
order of "Drop," and a wholesome dread of the attendant penalty, will be
advantageous. Go up to him--pat him--and lead him for some paces, "making
much of him," as they say in the cavalry. Dogs which are over-headstrong
and resolute can only be brought under satisfactory command by this lesson
being indelibly implanted--and I think a master before he allows the
keeper to take a pup into the field to show him game, should insist upon
having ocular demonstration that he is perfect in the "Drop."

26. When he is well confirmed in this all-important lesson, obeying
implicitly, yet cheerfully, you may, whilst he is lying down--in order to
teach him the "down charge"--go through the motions of loading, on no
account permitting him to stir until you give him the forward signal, or
say, "On." After a few times you may fire off a copper cap, and then a
little powder, but be very careful not to alarm him. Until your dog is
quite reconciled to the report of a gun, never take him up to any one who
may be firing. I have, however, known of puppies being familiarized to the
sound, by being at first kept at a considerable distance from the party
firing, and then gradually and by slow degrees brought nearer. This can
easily be managed at a rifle or pigeon match, and the companionship of a
made-dog would much expedite matters. Whenever, in the lessons, your young
dog has behaved steadily and well, give him a reward. Do not throw it to
him: let him take it from your hands. It will assist in making him
tender-mouthed, and in attaching him to you.

27. In some cavalry regiments in India, the feeding-time is denoted by the
firing off of a pistol. This soon changes a young horse's first dread of
the report into eager, joyous expectation. You might, if you did not
dislike the trouble, in a similar manner, soon make your pup regard the
report of a gun as the gratifying summons to his dinner, but coupled with
the understanding that, as a preliminary step, he is to crouch the instant
he hears the sound. After a little perseverance you would so well succeed,
that you would not be obliged even to raise your hand. If habituated to
wait patiently at the "drop," however hungry he may be, before he is
permitted to taste his food, it is reasonable to think he will remain at
the "down charge," yet more patiently before he is allowed to "seek dead."

28. If your pupil is unusually timid, and you cannot banish his alarm on
hearing the gun, couple him to another dog which has no such foolish
fears, and will steadily "down charge." The confidence of the one will
impart confidence to the other. Fear and joy are feelings yet more
contagious in animals than in man. It is the visible, joyous animation of
the old horses, that so quickly reconciles the cavalry colt to the sound
of the "feeding-pistol."

29. A keeper who had several dogs to break, would find the advantage of
pursuing the cavalry plan just noticed. Indeed, he might extend it still
further, by having his principal in-door drill at feeding-time, and by
enforcing, but in minuter details, that kennel discipline which has
brought many a pack of hounds to marvellous obedience. He should place the
food in different parts of the yard. He should have a short checkcord on
all his pupils; and, after going slowly through the motions of loading
(the dogs having regularly "down-charged" on the report of the gun), he
should call each separately by name, and by signals of the hand send them
successively to different, but designated feeding-troughs.[7] He might
then call a dog to him which had commenced eating, and after a short
abstinence, make him go to another trough. He might bring two to his heels
and make them change troughs, and so vary the lesson, that, in a short
time, with the aid of the checkcords, he would have them under such
complete command that they would afterwards give him comparatively but
little trouble in the field. As they became more and more submissive he
would gradually retire further and further, so as, at length, to have his
orders obeyed when at a considerable distance from his pupils. The small
portion of time these lessons would occupy compared with their valuable
results should warn him most forcibly not to neglect them.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] But from his very infancy you ought not to have allowed him to be
disobedient. You should have made him know--which he will do nearly
intuitively--that a whip can punish him, though he ought never to have
_suffered_ from it. I have heard of pups only four months old being made
quite _au fait_ to the preliminary drill here recommended. This early
exercise of their intelligence and observation must have benefited them.
The questionable point is the unnecessary consumption of the instructor's
time.

[5] This is one reason for giving initiatory lessons in the "Toho" before
the "Drop." Another is that the dog may acquire the "Toho" before he has
run the chance of being cowed in learning the "Drop." If the latter were
taught first, he might confound the "Toho" with it.

[6] I know of a young man's reading the first edition of this book, and
taking it into his head to teach his Terrier to point according to the
method just recommended. He succeeded perfectly. Some Terriers have been
made very useful for cover shooting.

[7] There is often such a similarity in the names of hounds, that a person
cannot but be much struck, who for the first time sees them go to their
meals, one by one as they are called.



CHAPTER III.

INITIATORY LESSONS CONTINUED. SPANIELS.


30. When your young dog is tolerably well advanced in the lessons which
you have been advised to practise, hide a piece of bread or biscuit. Say
"Dead, dead." Call him to you. (40.) Let him remain by you for nearly a
minute or two. Then say "Find," or "Seek." Accompany him in his search. By
your actions and gestures make him fancy you are yourself looking about
for something, for dogs are observing, one might say, imitative,
creatures.[8] Stoop and move your right hand to and fro near the ground.
Contrive that he shall come upon the bread, and reward him by permitting
him to eat it.

31. After a little time--a few days I mean--he will show the greatest
eagerness on your saying, at any unexpected moment, "Dead." He will
connect the word with the idea that there is something very desirable
concealed near him, and he will be all impatience to be off and find it;
_but make him first come to you_--for reason, see 182.--Keep him half a
minute.--Then say "Find," and, without your accompanying him, he will
search for what you have previously hidden. Always let him be encouraged
to perseverance by discovering something acceptable.

32. Unseen by him, place the rewards--one at a time--in different parts of
the room,--under the rug or carpet, and more frequently on a chair, a
table, or a low shelf. He will be at a loss in what part of the room to
search. Assist him by a motion of your arm and hand. A wave of the right
arm and hand to the right, will soon show him that he is to hunt to the
right, as he will find there. The corresponding wave of the left hand and
arm to the left, will explain to him, that he is to make a cast to the
left. The underhand bowler's swing of the right hand and arm, will show
that he is to hunt in a forward direction.[9] Your occasionally throwing
the delicacy--in the direction you wish him to take,--whilst waving your
hand, will aid in making him comprehend the signal. You may have noticed
how well, by watching the action of a boy's arm, his little cur judges
towards what point to run for the expected stone.

33. When the hidden object is near you, but between you and the dog, make
him come towards you to seek for it, beckoning him with your right hand.
When he is at a distance at the "Drop," if you are accustomed to
recompense him for good behavior, you can employ this signal to make him
rise and run towards you for his reward--and according to my judgment he
should always join you after the "down charge,"--184. By these means you
will thus familiarize him with a very useful signal; for that signal will
cause him to approach you in the field, when you have made a circuit to
head him at his point--knowing that birds will then be lying somewhere
between you and him--and want him to draw nearer to the birds and you, to
show you exactly where they are. This some may call a superfluous
refinement, but I hope _you_ will consider it a very killing
accomplishment, and, being easily taught, it were a pity to neglect it.
When a Setter is employed in cock-shooting, the advantage of using this
signal is very apparent. While the dog is steadily pointing, it enables
the sportsman to look for a favorable opening, and, when he has posted
himself to his satisfaction, to sign to the Setter--or if out of sight to
tell him--to advance and flush the bird: when, should the sportsman have
selected his position with judgment, he will generally get a shot. I have
seen this method very successfully adopted in America, where the forests
are usually so dense that cocks are only found on the outskirts in the
underwood.

34. After a little time he will regularly look to you for directions.
Encourage him to do so; it will make him hereafter, when he is in the
field, desirous of hunting under your eye, and induce him to look to you,
in a similar manner, for instructions in what direction he is to search
for game. Observe how a child watches its mother's eye; so will a dog
watch yours, when he becomes interested in your movements, and finds that
you frequently notice him.

35. Occasionally, when he approaches any of the spots where the bread lies
hidden, say "Care," and slightly raise your right hand. He will quickly
consider this word, or signal, as an intimation that he is near the object
of his search.

36. Never deceive him in any of these words and signs, and never
disappoint him of the expected reward. Praise and caress him for good
conduct; rate him for bad. Make it a rule throughout the whole course of
his education, out of doors as fully as within, to act upon this system.
You will find that caresses and substantial rewards are far greater
incentives to exertion than any fears of punishment.

37. Your pup having become a tolerable proficient in these lessons, you
may beneficially extend them by employing the word "Up," as a command that
he is to sniff high in the air to find the hidden bread or meat, lying,
say on a shelf, or on the back of a sofa. He will, comparatively speaking,
be some time in acquiring a knowledge of the meaning of the word, and many
would probably term it an over-refinement in canine education; but I must
own I think you will act judiciously if you teach it perfectly in the
initiatory lessons; for the word "Up," if well understood, will frequently
save your putting on the puzzle-peg. For this you might be tempted to
employ, should your dog be acquiring the execrable habit of "raking," as
it is termed, instead of searching for the delicious effluvia with his
nose carried high in the air.

38. Whenever birds can be sought for in the wind, the dog should thus hunt
the field--and the higher he carries his nose the better--for,
independently of the far greater chance of finding them, they will allow
the dog to come much nearer than when he approaches them by the foot: but
of this more anon.

39. Setters and Pointers naturally hunt with their noses sufficiently
close to the ground--they want elevating rather than depressing.
Notwithstanding, you will do well to show your pupil a few times out of
doors how to work out a scent, by dragging a piece of bread unperceived by
him _down wind_ through grass, and then letting him "foot" it out. Try him
for a few yards at first; you can gradually increase the length of the
drag. You must not, however, practise this initiatory lesson too
frequently, lest you give him the wretched custom of pottering.

40. The word "Heel," and a backward low wave of the right hand and arm to
the rear--the reverse of the underhand cricket-bowler's swing--will, after
a few times, bring the dog close behind you. Keep him there a while and
pat him, but do not otherwise reward him. The object of the order was to
make him instantly give up hunting, and come to your heels. This signal
cannot be substituted for the "beckon." The one is an order always obeyed
with reluctance--being a command to leave off hunting--whereas the
"beckon" is merely an instruction in what direction to beat, and will be
attended to with delight. The signal "heel," however, when given
immediately after loading, is an exception; for the instructions about
"Dead" in xi. of 141, will show that without your speaking it may be made
to impart the gratifying intelligence of your having killed. See also 190.

41. To teach him to attach a meaning to the word "Gone," or "Away," or
"Flown,"[10]--select which you will, but do not ring the changes--you may
now rub a piece of meat--if you have no one but your servant to scold
you--in some place where the dog is accustomed frequently to find, and
when he is sniffing at the place say "Gone," or "Away." This he will,
after some trials, perceive to be an intimation that it is of no use to
continue hunting for it.

42. You will greatly facilitate his acquiring the meaning of the command
"Fence," or "Ware-fence," if, from time to time, as he is quitting the
room through the open door or garden window, you restrain him by calling
out that word.

43. Whenever, indeed, you wish him to desist from doing anything, call out
"Ware,"--pronounced "War"--as it will expedite his hereafter understanding
the terms "Ware sheep," "Ware chase," and "Ware lark." The last expression
to be used when he is wasting his time upon the scent of anything but
game--a fault best cured by plenty of birds being killed to him. However,
the simple word "No," omitting "Chase" or "Fence," might be substituted
advantageously for "Ware." All you want him to do is to desist from a
wrong action. That sharp sound--and when necessary it can be clearly
thundered out--cannot be misunderstood.

44. That your young dog may not hereafter resist the couples, yoke him
occasionally to a stronger dog, and for the sake of peace, and in the name
of all that is gallant, let it be to the one of the other sex who appears
to be the greatest favorite.

45. When he is thus far advanced in his education, and tolerably obedient,
which he will soon become if you are consistent, and _patient_, _yet
strict_, you can, in further pursuance of Astley's plan, associate him in
his lessons with a companion. Should you be breaking in another
youngster--though one at a time you will probably find quite enough,
especially if it be your laudable wish to give him hereafter a well
confirmed scientific range--they can now be brought together for
instruction. You must expect to witness the same jealousy which they would
exhibit on the stubble. Both will be anxious to hunt for the bread, and in
restraining them alternately from so doing, you exact the obedience which
you will require hereafter in the field, when in their natural eagerness
they will endeavor, unless you properly control them, to take the point of
birds from one another; or, in their rivalry, run over the taint of a
wounded bird, instead of collectedly and perseveringly working out the
scent. You can throw a bit of toast, and make them "Toho" it, and then let
the dog you name take it. In the same way you can let each alternately
search for a hidden piece, after both have come up to you, on your saying
"Dead." I would also advise you to accustom each dog to "drop," without
any command from you, the moment he sees that the other is down.

46. Those lessons will almost ensure their hereafter instantly obeying,
and nearly instantly comprehending the object of the signal to "back" any
dog which may be pointing game.

47. When you take out two youngsters for exercise, while they are romping
about, suddenly call one into "heel." After a time again send him off on
his gambols. Whistle to catch the eye of the other, and signal to him to
join you. By working them thus alternately, while they are fresh and full
of spirits, you will habituate them to implicit obedience. When the birds
are wild, and you are anxious to send a basket of game to a friend, it is
very satisfactory to be able merely by a sign, without uttering a word, to
bring the other dogs into "heel," leaving the ground to the careful
favorite. Teach the present lesson well, and you go far towards attaining
the desired result.

48. I trust you will not object to the minutiæ of these initiatory
lessons, and fancy you have not time to attend to them. By teaching them
well you will gain time,--much time,--and the time that is of most value
to you as a sportsman; for when your dog is regularly hunting to your gun
his every faculty ought to be solely devoted to finding birds, and his
undisturbed intellects exclusively given to aid you in bagging them,
instead of being bewildered by an endeavor to comprehend novel signals or
words of command. I put it to you as a sportsman, whether he will not have
the more delight and ardor in hunting, the more he feels that he
understands your instructions? and, further, I ask you, whether he will
not be the more sensitively alive to the faintest indication of a haunt,
and more readily follow it up to a sure find, if he be unembarrassed by
any anxiety to make out what you mean, and be in no way alarmed at the
consequences of not almost instinctively understanding your wishes?

49. In all these lessons, and those which follow in the field, the
checkcord will wonderfully assist you. Indeed it may be regarded as the
instructor's right hand. It can be employed so mildly as not to intimidate
the most gentle, and it can, without the aid of any whip, be used with
such severity, or I should rather say perseverance, as to conquer the most
wild and headstrong, and these are sure to be dogs of the greatest travel
and endurance. The cord may be from ten to twenty-five[11] yards long,
according to the animal's disposition, and may be gradually shortened as
he gets more and more under command. Even when it is first employed you
can put on a shorter cord if you perceive that he is becoming tired. In
thick stubble, especially if cut with a sickle, the drag will be greater,
far greater than when the cord glides over heather. The cord may be of the
thickness of what some call strong lay-cord, but made of twelve threads.
Sailors would know it by the name of log-line or cod-line. To save the end
from fraying it can be whipped with thread, which is better than tying a
knot, because it is thus less likely to become entangled.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] Imitative creatures! who can doubt it? If you make an old dog perform
a trick several times in the sight of a young one who is watching the
proceedings, you will be surprised to see how quickly the young one will
learn the trick, especially if he has seen that the old dog was always
rewarded for his obedience.

[9] Obedience to all such signals will hereafter be taught out of doors at
gradually increased distances; and to confirm him in the habit of sniffing
high in the air (37) for whatever you may then hide, put the bread or meat
on a stick or bush, but never in a hedge. With the view to his some day
retrieving, as instanced in 190, it will be your aim to get him not to
seek immediately, but to watch your signals, until by obeying them you
will have placed him close to where the object lies, at which precise
moment you will say energetically "Find," and cease making any further
signs.

[10] The least comprehensive and logical of the expressions, yet one often
used. A dog being no critical grammarian, understands it to apply to fur
as well as feather.

[11] With a resolute, reckless, dashing dog you may advantageously employ
a _thinner_ cord of double that length,--whereas, the shortest line will
sometimes prevent a timid animal from ranging freely. By-the-bye, the
thinner the cord the more readily does it become entangled--as a rule, a
checkcord cannot be too firmly twisted--a soft one quickly gets knotted
and troublesome. (See note to 177.)

50. Hunted with such a cord, the most indomitable dog, when he is
_perfectly obedient to the "drop,"_ is nearly as amenable to command as if
the end of the line were in the breaker's hand. By no other means can



SPANIELS

be _quickly_ broken in. The general object of the trainer is to restrain
them from ranging at a distance likely to spring game out of gun-shot, and
to make them perfect to the "down charge." If one of these high-spirited
animals will not range close when called to by whistle or name, the
breaker gets hold of the cord and jerks it; this makes the dog come in a
few paces; another jerk or two makes him approach closer, and then the
breaker, by himself retiring with his face towards the spaniel, calling
out his name--or whistling,--and occasionally jerking the cord, makes him
quite submissive, and more disposed to obey on future occasions.

51. In training a large team it is of much advantage to the keeper to have
a lad to rate, and, when necessary, give the skirters a taste of the
lash--in short, to act as whipper-in. The keeper need not then carry a
whip, or at least often use it, which will make his spaniels all the more
willing to hunt close to him.

52. Lord A----r's head gamekeeper was singularly aided--he possessed a
four-legged whipper-in. Three years since while Mr. D----s--M.P. for a
South Eastern County--was with a shooting party at his Lordship's, the
keeper brought into the field a brace of powerful retrievers, and a team
of spaniels, among which were two that had never been shot over. On the
first pheasant being killed all the old spaniels dropped to shot, but one
of the young ones rushed forward and mouthed the bird. The person who had
fired ran on to save the bird, but the keeper called aloud, and requested
him not to move. The man then made a signal to one of the retrievers to
go. He did so instantly, but, instead of meddling with the bird, he seized
the spaniel, lifted him up, and shook him well. The moment the pup could
escape he came howling to the "heels" of the keeper, and lay down among
his companions. The keeper then confessed that a couple of the spaniels
had never been shot to--but he confidently assured the sportsmen they
would see before the day was over that the pups behaved fully as steadily
as the old dogs, and explained to the party how the retriever did all the
disagreeable work, and indeed nearly relieved him of every trouble in
breaking in the youngsters. On the next few shots this novel schoolmaster
was again deputed to show his pupils that he would not allow his special
duties as a retriever to be interfered with. Both the young dogs, having
been thus well chastised, became more careful--made only partial rushes to
the front, when a recollection of their punishment and a dread of their
four-footed tutor brought them slinking back to their older companions. As
the keeper had averred, they soon learned their lesson completely--gave up
all thought of chasing after shot, and quietly crouched down with the
other dogs.

53. I can easily imagine that it was a feeling of jealousy which first
prompted the retriever to thrash some spaniel who was endeavoring to carry
off a bird, and that the clever keeper encouraged him in doing so,
instantly perceiving the value of such assistance. It is worth a
consideration whether it would not be advisable to train the retriever
employed with a team to give this assistance. A dog of a quarrelsome
disposition could be taught, by your urging him, to seize any spaniel who
might be mouthing a bird, in the same manner you would set on a young
terrier to fly at a rat.

54. Doubtless it is the _highest_ training to teach a team to
"down-charge," but most breakers make their spaniels come into "heel," or
rather gather close around them--by the word "round"--whenever a gun is
discharged. This plan, though so injudicious in the case of pointers or
setters, is but little objectionable in the case of spaniels, for spaniels
in their small sweep inwards are not likely to spring game while the guns
are unloaded. It certainly possesses this merit, that it is readily taught
to puppies--with the aid of a whipper-in--by the trainer's giving them
some delicacy on their rejoining him. It may be urged too that the method
much removes any necessity for noise in calling to a dog--whereas, with a
team trained to the "down-charge," however highly broken, it will
occasionally happen that the keeper--or assistant--has to rate some
excited skirter for not instantly "dropping." Moreover, in thick cover, an
infraction of the irksome rule to "down charge" may sometimes escape
detection, which might lead to future acts of insubordination. Prince
Albert's team of Clumbers "down-charge," but the greatest attention is
paid to them. They are admirably broken, and I may add, are shot over by a
first-rate hand.

55. When exercising young spaniels it is a good plan to habituate them,
even as puppies, never to stray further from you than about twenty yards.
With them, even more than with other kinds of dogs trained for the gun,
great pains should be taken to prevent their having the opportunity of
"self-hunting." If it is wished to break from hare, the method to be
followed is mentioned in 233, &c., for with spaniels as with setters--or
pointers--it is always advisable to drag them back to the spot from which
they started in pursuit.

56. Occasionally you may see a country blacksmith when preparing to shoe
the hind legs of a cart horse that appears disposed to make a disagreeable
use of his heels, twist the long hair at the end of his tail,--raise the
foot that is to be shod,--pass the twisted hair round the leg immediately
above the hock, and by these means press the tendon close to the bone. The
tail assists in retaining the leg in position, and thus, for the time, the
limb is rendered powerless. Acting much upon this coercive principle, but
discarding the aid of the tail, some breakers _slightly_ confine a
hind-leg of their most unruly spaniels with a soft bandage, shifting it
from one leg to the other about every hour. Possibly a loop of vulcanized
india-rubber, being elastic, would best answer the purpose. Restrained in
this manner a dog is less likely to tumble about, and become injured, than
if one of his fore legs had been passed through his collar. Other
breakers, when hunting many couple together, fasten a belt with a few
pounds of shot round the necks of the wildest. But the sooner such
adjuncts to discipline can be safely discarded the better; for "brushing"
a close cover is severe work. Gorse is the most trying[12]. Its prickles
are so numerous and fine that the ears and eyes of every spaniel hunted
in it ought to be separately examined on returning home, and well bathed
in warm water. Their eyes are peculiarly liable to be injured by dust and
gravel from their hunting so close to the ground.

57. To give young spaniels sufficient courage to face the most entangled
cover, a judicious trainer will occasionally introduce them to thick
brakes, or gorse, early in the morning, or in the evening, when the noise
of his approach will have made the pheasants feeding in the neighborhood
run far into it for shelter. The effluvia of the birds will then so excite
the young dogs, especially if cheered with good companionship--which
always creates emulation--that they will utterly disregard the pricks and
scratches of the strongest furze.

58. If the time of year will permit, they should be shown game when about
nine or ten months old. At a more advanced age they would be less amenable
to control. Happily the example of a riotous pup will not be as
detrimental to the discipline of the rest of the team as the example of an
ill-conducted companion would be to a pointer--or setter--for the
influence of thoroughly steady spaniels makes the pup curtail his range
sooner than might be expected. Finding that he is not followed by his
associates he soon rejoins them.

59. A judicious breaker will regard perfection in the "drop"--22 to
25--as the main-spring of his educational system. He will teach his young
spaniels to "seek dead"--30, 31, 39--where directed by signs of the hand.
He will instruct them in "fetching"--92, 94. &c.--with the view to some of
them hereafter retrieving. He will accustom them to hunt hedge-rows, and
light open copses--because always under his eye--before taking them into
closer cover. Nor until they are under some command, and well weaned from
noticing vermin and small birds, will he allow them to enter gorse or
strong thickets, and then he will never neglect--though probably he will
have used them before--to attach bells of _different sounds_ to the
collars of his several pupils--one to each--so that his ear may at all
times detect any truant straying beyond bounds, and thus enable him to
rate the delinquent by name. In this manner he establishes the useful
feeling elsewhere spoken of--262--that whether he be within or out of
sight he is equally aware of every impropriety that is committed.

60. Young spaniels, when they have been steadily broken in not to hunt too
far ahead on the instructor's side of the hedge, may be permitted to beat
on the other--and this when only one person is shooting is generally their
most useful position, for they are thus more likely to drive the game
towards the gun.

61. If a keeper is hunting the team, while you and a friend are beating
narrow belts or strips of wood, should you and he be placed, as is usual,
on the outside, a little ahead of the keeper--one to his right, the other
to his left--you would much aid him in preventing the young spaniels from
ranging wildly were you to turn your face towards him whenever you saw any
of them getting too far in advance, for they will watch the guns as much
as they will him.

62. Among spaniels the great advantage of age and experience is more
apparent than in partridge-dogs. A young spaniel cannot keep to a
pheasant's tail like an old one. He may push the bird for forty or fifty
yards if judiciously managed. After that he is almost sure from impatience
either to lose it, or rush in and flush out of shot, whereas an old
cocker, who has had much game shot over him, is frequently knowing enough
to slacken his pace, instead of increasing it, when he first touches on
birds, apparently quite sensible that he ought to give the gun time to
approach before he presses to a flush.

63. Even good spaniels, however well bred, if they have not had great
experience, generally road too fast. Undeniably they are difficult animals
to educate, and it requires much watchfulness, perseverance, and attention
at an early age, so to break in a team of young ones that they shall keep
within gun range without your being compelled to halloo or whistle to
them. But some few are yet more highly trained.

64. Mr. N----n, when in France, had a lively, intelligent, liver and white
cocker which would work busily all day long within gun-shot; and which
possessed the singular accomplishment of steadily pointing all game that
lay well, and of not rushing in until the sportsman had come close to him.
But this is a case of high breaking more curious than useful, for spaniels
are essentially _springers_, not _pointers_, and the little animal must
frequently have been lost sight of in cover. Our grandfathers used to
apply the term springers solely to large spaniels--never to the Duke of
Marlborough's small breed, which was greatly prized.

65. A dog is generally most attached to that description of sport, and
soonest recognises the scent of that game, to which he has principally
been accustomed in youth. He will through life hunt most diligently where
he first had the delight of often finding. The utility therefore is
obvious of introducing spaniels at an early age to close covers and
hedge-rows, and setters and pointers to heather and stubble.

66. In spaniels, feathered sterns and long ears are much admired, but
obviously the latter must suffer in thick underwood. The chief requisite
in all kinds of spaniels, is, that they be good finders, and have noses so
true that they will never overrun a scent. Should they do so when footing
an old cock[13] pheasant, the chances are that he will double back on the
exact line by which he came. They should be high-mettled,--as regardless
of the severest weather as of the most punishing cover, and ever ready to
spring into the closest thicket the moment a pointed finger gives the
command.

67. A comprehension of the signal made by the finger--which is far neater
than the raising of the hand described in 30, but not so quickly
understood--might with advantage be imparted to all dogs trained for the
gun, in order to make them hunt close _exactly_ where directed. It is
usually taught by pointing with the fore-finger of the right hand to
pieces of biscuit, previously concealed, near easily recognised tufts of
grass, weeds, &c. It is beautiful to see how correctly, promptly, yet
quietly, some spaniels will work in every direction thus indicated.

68. Breasting a strong cover with cockers, is more suited to young, than
to old men. The gun must follow rapidly, and stick close when a dog is on
the road of feather. A shot will then infallibly be obtained, if a good
dog be at work; for the more closely a bird is pressed, the hotter gets
the scent. If a pheasant found in thick cover on marshy ground near
water--a locality they much like in hot weather--is not closely pushed, he
will so twist, and turn, and double upon old tracks that none but the most
experienced dogs will be able to stick to him.

69. The preceding observations respecting spaniels apply to all
descriptions employed on land-service, whether of the strong kind, the
Sussex breed and the Clumber, or the smallest cockers, Blenheims and King
Charles'. But whether they are to be trained not to hunt flick[14]--the
most difficult part of their tuition, and in which there is generally most
failure,--and whether they shall be bred to give tongue, or run mute, will
depend much upon the nature of the country to be hunted, and yet more upon
the taste of the proprietor. No fixed rules can be given for a sport that
varies so much as cover-shooting.

70. Of the large kind, most sportsmen will think a couple and a half a
sufficient number to hunt at a time. Certainly one of them should
retrieve: and they ought to be well broken in not to notice flick. These
dogs are most esteemed when they run mute. If they do, they must be hunted
with bells in very thick cover; but the less bells are employed the
better, for the tinkling sound, in a greater or smaller degree, annoys all
game. Such dogs, when good, are very valuable.

71. I once shot over a team of Clumber spaniels belonging to Mr.
D----z.[15] The breed--the Duke of Newcastle's, taking their name from one
of his seats--are mostly white with a little lemon color, have large,
sensible heads, thick, short legs, silky coats, carry their sterns low,
and hunt perfectly mute. The team kept within twenty or twenty-five yards
of the keeper, were trained to acknowledge rabbits, as well as all kinds
of game; and in the country Mr. D----z was then shooting over afforded
capital sport. One of the spaniels was taught to retrieve. He would follow
to any distance, and seldom failed to bring. A regular retriever was,
however, generally taken out with them. Mr. D----z told me that they
required very judicious management, and encouragement rather than
severity, as undue whipping soon made them timid. They are of a delicate
constitution. He rather surprised me by saying that his spaniels from
working quietly and ranging close,--therefore, alarming the birds
less,--procured him far more shots in turnips than his pointers; and he
had three that looked of the right sort. He explained matters, however, by
telling me that it was his practice to make a circuit round the outskirts
of a turnip or a potato field before hunting the inner parts. This of
course greatly tended to prevent the birds breaking. A juvenile sportsman
would rejoice in the services of the spaniels, for many a rabbit would
they procure for him without the aid of powder and shot.

72. When Colonel M----, who died in Syria, was stationed with his troop of
Horse Artillery at Pontefract, he was asked to shoot partridges at Lord
P----n's seat in Yorkshire. On meeting the gamekeeper, according to
appointment, he found him surrounded by a team of Clumber spaniels.
Colonel M----, in some surprise at seeing no setters or pointers, remarked
that he had expected some _partridge_ shooting. "I know it," answered the
man, "and I hope to show you some sport." To the inquiry why one of the
spaniels was muzzled, the keeper said that his master had threatened to
shoot it should it again give tongue, and, as it possessed a particularly
fine nose, he--the keeper--was anxious not to lose it. They walked on, and
soon the man told M---- to be prepared, as the spaniels were feathering. A
covey rose. The Colonel, who was a good shot, killed right and left. All
the spaniels dropped instantly. When he was reloading the keeper begged
him to say which of the dogs should retrieve the game. M---- pointed to a
broad-headed dog lying in the middle, when the keeper directed by name the
spaniel so favored to be off. It quickly fetched one of the birds. The
keeper then asked M---- to choose some other dog to bring the remaining
bird--a runner. He did so, and the animal he selected to act as retriever
performed the duty very cleverly; the rest of the team remaining quite
still, until its return.

The Colonel had capital sport, killing nearly twenty brace, and the dogs
behaved beautifully throughout the day. When afterwards relating the
circumstances, he observed that, although an old sportsman, he had seldom
been so gratified, as it was a novel scene to him, who had not been
accustomed to shoot over spaniels.

73. Of small cockers, three couple appear ample to form a team. Some teams
of small springers greatly exceed this number, and many sportsmen shoot
over more than a couple and a half of the larger spaniels; but it is a
question whether, in the generality of cases, the gun would not benefit by
the number being diminished rather than increased. The smaller in number
the team, the greater is the necessity that none of them should stick too
close to "heel." The difficulty is to make them hunt far enough, and yet
not too far. At least one of the number should retrieve well. If they give
tongue, it ought to be in an intelligible manner; softly, when they first
come on the haunt of a cock, but making the cover ring again with their
joyous melody, when once the bird is flushed. A first rate cocker will
never deceive by opening upon an old haunt, nor yet find the gun
unprepared by delaying to give due warning before he flushes the bird.
When cocks are abundant, some teams are broken, not only to avoid flick,
but actually not to notice a pheasant, or anything besides woodcock.
Hardly any price would tempt a real lover of cock-shooting, in a cocking
country, to part with such a team. Hawker terms the sport, "the
fox-hunting of shooting." Some sportsmen kill water-hens to young spaniels
to practise them in forcing their way through entangled covers, and get
them well in hand and steady against the all-important cocking season.

74. When a regular retriever can be constantly employed with spaniels, of
course it will be unnecessary to make any of them fetch game--certainly
never to lift anything which falls out of bounds--though all the team
should be taught to "seek dead." This is the plan pursued by the Duke of
Newcastle's keepers, and obviously it is the soundest and easiest
practice, for it must always be more or less difficult to make a spaniel
keep within his usual hunting limits, who is occasionally encouraged to
pursue wounded game, at his best pace, to a considerable distance.

75. Other teams are broken no more than to keep within range, being
allowed to hunt all kinds of game, and also rabbits; they, however, are
restricted from pursuing wounded flick further than fifty or sixty yards.
Where rabbits are abundant, and outlying, a team thus broken affords
lively sport--nothing escapes them.

76. Wild spaniels, though they may show you most cock, will get you fewest
shots, unless you have well-placed markers. There are sportsmen who like
to take out one steady dog to range close to them, and a couple of wild
ones to hunt on the flanks, one on each side, expressly that the latter
may put up birds for the markers to take note of.

77. An old sportsman knows _mute_ spaniels to be most killing: a young one
may prefer those which give tongue--if true from the beginning owning
nothing but game,--because, though undeniably greater disturbers of a
cover, they are more cheerful and animating. The superiority of the former
is, however, apparent on a still calm day, when the least noise will make
the game steal away long before the gun gets within shot. But it is not so
in all countries.

78. In very thick covers it is obvious, the height of setters being
greatly against them, that spaniels are far preferable: but in light
covers, and when the leaves are off the trees, _handy_ old setters--if
white, all the better--that will readily confine themselves to a
restricted range, and will flush their game when ordered--IV. and VII. of
119 and 196--afford quite as much sport, if not more. Setters do not, to
the same degree, alarm birds; and there is, also, this advantage, that
they can be employed on _all_ occasions, excepting in low gorse or the
closest thickets, whereas spaniels, from their contracted "beat," are
nearly useless in the open when game is scarce. You will be prepared, when
first you hunt a setter in cover, to sacrifice much of your sport. There
must be noise; for it is essential to make him at once thoroughly
understand the very different "beat" required of him, and this can only be
effected by constantly checking and rating him, whenever he ranges beyond
the prescribed limits. He should hunt slowly and carefully to the right
and left, and never be much in advance of the guns. In a short time he
will comprehend matters, if you are so forbearing and judicious as
invariably to call him away from every point made the least out of bounds.
A less severe test of your consistency will not suffice. The few first
days will either make or mar him as a cover-dog. You must naturally expect
that hunting him much in cover will injure his range in the open, and
make him too fond of hedge-rows.

79. But there is a man in Yorkshire, who will not willingly admit
this.[16] C----e, Sir George A----e's gamekeeper--and a good one he is,
for he has a particularly difficult country to protect, one intersected
with "rights of way" in every direction--makes his pointers as freely hunt
the cover as the open. You never lose them, for they are sure to make
their appearance when they think they have given you ample time to go to
them if you choose. This cover work does not the least unsteady them, but
it is right to state that C---- is an unusually good breaker, and works
his dogs with singular temper and patience. They are very attached to him,
and appear to listen anxiously to what he says when he talks to
them--which, I own, he does more than I recommend.

80. Pointers, however, are manifestly out of place in strong cover, though
an unusually high-couraged one may occasionally be found, who will dash
forward in defiance of pricks and scratches; but it is not fair to expect
it. In a very light cover I have often shot over one belonging to a
relation of mine, which was so clever, that when I came close to her as
she was pointing, she would frequently run around to the other side of
the thicket, and then rush in to drive the game towards me. This killing
plan had in no way been taught her; she adopted it solely of her own
sagacity. Having been much hunted in cover when young, she was so fond of
it (65) as to be, comparatively speaking, quite unserviceable on the
stubbles.

FOOTNOTES:

[12] There is no gorse in America. It is a prickly shrub, severe enough,
but nothing to compare to catbriars, or even to the hollies of Southern
Jersey.--H.W.H.

[13] The only bird which we have in America, at all analogous in habit to
the pheasant, though totally different in species and appearance, is the
Ruffed Grouse, erroneously called Pheasant in the South, and Partridge in
the Eastern States. It is, however, for cock and quail shooting in covert,
that the Spaniel would be of such inestimable service to sportsmen in
North America.--H.W.H.

[14] For the benefit of those who have the good fortune, or the bad
fortune, as the case may be, of always living within the sound of Bow
bells, "Flick," be it observed, is a synonym for "Fur," thereby meaning
Hare or Rabbit.

[15] Contrary to my usual system, I preserve these anecdotes, as relating
to the Clumber Spaniels, which are so little known, and which I so much
desire to see introduced in America.--H.W.H.

[16] I leave these two anecdotes, contrary to my usual system, as we use
setters and pointers so generally in cover in America, that the idea of
their being utterly unfit for cover work seems strange. Yet such is the
opinion in England, and where they are chiefly used in the open it _does_
operate to spoil their range.--H.W.H.



WATER SPANIELS (OR WATER RETRIEVERS).

81. A young water spaniel might, with advantage, occasionally be indulged
with a duck hunt in warm weather. It would tend to make him quick in the
water, and observant. The finishing lessons might conclude with your
shooting the bird and obliging him to retrieve it. He should be made handy
to your signals--IV. to VII. and X. of 119--so as to hunt the fens and
marshes, and "seek dead" exactly where you may wish.

82. This obedience to the hand is particularly required; for when the
spaniel is swimming he is on a level with the bird, and therefore is not
so likely to see it--especially if there is a ripple on the water--as you,
who probably are standing many feet above him on the shore. As you may
frequently, while he is retrieving, have occasion to direct his movements
when at a considerable distance from him, you probably would find it more
advantageous to teach him the forward signal used by shepherds, than the
one described in IV. of 119.

83. A water spaniel should also be taught to fetch--86, 87, 91 to 94--be
accustomed to follow quietly close to your heels,--be broken in, not to
the "down charge"--26--but to the "drop"--22 to 25--the instant you signal
to him, while you are noiselessly stalking the wild-fowl previously
reconnoitred, with the aid of your Dollond, from some neighboring height;
nor should he stir a limb, however long he and you may have to await,
ensconced behind a favoring bush, the right moment for the destructive
raking discharge of your first barrel, to be followed by the less
murderous but still effective flying shot. On hearing the report, it is
his duty to dash instantly into the water, and secure the slain as rapidly
as possible.

84. A really good water retriever is a scarce and valuable animal. He
should be neither white nor black, because the colors are too conspicuous,
especially the former--a hint by-the-bye for your own costume;[17]--he
should be perfectly mute; of a patient disposition, though active in the
pursuit of birds; of so hardy a constitution as not to mind the severest
cold,--therefore no coddling while he is young near a fire,--and possess
what many are deficient in, viz. a good nose: consequently a cross that
will improve his nose, yet not decrease his steadiness, is the great
desideratum in breeding. He should swim rapidly, for wild fowl that are
only winged, will frequently escape from the quickest dog if they have
plenty of sea-room and deep water--see also 96, 302.

85. In the wild-_rice_ lakes, as they are commonly called, of America, a
brace of highly-trained spaniels will sometimes, on a windy day, afford
you magnificent sport. The cover is so good that, if it is not often
beaten, the birds will frequently get up singly, or only a couple at a
time. The dogs should keep swimming about within gun shot, while you are
slowly and silently paddling, or probably poling your canoe through the
most likely spots. Relays of spaniels are requisite, for it is fatiguing
work. If, by any rare chance, you are situated where you can get much of
this delightful shooting, and _you are an enthusiast in training_, it may
be worth your while to consider whether there would not be an advantage in
making the dogs perfect in the "down charge," as they would then cease
swimming the instant you fired. But this long digression about spaniels
has led us away from your pup, which we assumed--3--to be a pointer, or
setter.

FOOTNOTES:

[17] But when the moors are covered with snow, poachers, who emerge in
bands from the mines, often put a shirt over their clothes, and manage to
approach grouse at a time when a fair sportsman cannot get a shot; but
this is the only occasion on which one uniform color could be
advantageous. A mass of _any_ single color always catches, and arrests the
eye. Nature tells us this; animals that browse, elephants, buffaloes, and
large deer, as well as those which can escape from their enemies by speed,
are mostly of one color. On the contrary, the tiger kind, snakes, and all
that lie in wait for, and seize their prey by stealth, wear a garment of
many colors, so do the smaller animals and most birds, which are saved
from capture by the inability of their foes to distinguish them from the
surrounding foliage or herbage. The uniform of our rifle corps is too much
of one hue.



CHAPTER IV.

LESSONS IN "FETCHING."--RETRIEVERS.


86. Though you may not wish your young pointer (or setter) to perform the
duties of a regular retriever (292), still you would do well to teach him,
whilst he is a puppy, to fetch and deliver into your hand anything soft
you may occasionally throw for him, or leave behind you in some place
where he will have observed you deposit it, while he is following at your
heels. In a little time you can drop something _without_ letting him see
you, and afterwards send him back for it. A dog thus made, who is your
intimate companion, becomes so conversant with every article of your
apparel, and with whatever you usually carry about you, that, should you
accidentally drop anything, the observant animal will be almost certain to
recover it. On receiving your order to "be off and find" he will
accurately retrace your footsteps for miles and miles, diligently hunting
every yard of the ground. Of course the distances to which you at first
send your dog will be inconsiderable, and you should carefully avoid
persevering too long a time, lest he get sick of the lesson. Indeed, in
all his lessons--as well in-doors as out--but particularly in this, let it
be your aim to leave off at a moment when he has performed entirely to
your satisfaction; that you may part the best of friends, and that the
last impression made by the lesson may be pleasing as well as correct,
from a grateful recollection of the caresses which he has received. In
wild-duck shooting you may be in situations where you would be very glad
if the dog would bring your bird; and when it is an active runner in
cover, I fear you will be more anxious than I could wish--221--that the
dog should "fetch." It is probable that he will thus assist you if he be
practised as I have just advised; and such instruction may lead, years
hence, to his occasionally bringing you some dead bird which he may come
across, and which you otherwise might have imagined you had missed, for
its scent might be too cold, and consequently too changed, for the dog to
have thought of regularly pointing it.

87. Mark my having said "deliver into your hand," that your young dog may
not be satisfied with only dropping, within your sight, any bird he may
lift, and so, perhaps, leave it on the other side of a trout stream, as I
have seen dogs do more than once, in spite of every persuasion and
entreaty. With a young dog, who retrieves, never pick up a bird yourself,
however close it may fall to you. Invariably, make him either deliver it
into your hand or lay it at your feet. The former is by far the better
plan. If the dog has at one moment to drop the bird at your will, he is
likely to fancy himself privileged to drop it at another time for his own
convenience. In other respects, too, the former is the safest method. I
have a bitch now in my recollection, who frequently lost her master
slightly winged birds,--which she had admirably recovered--by dropping
them too soon on hearing the report of a gun, or coming on other game--for
off they ran, and fairly escaped, it being impracticable, by any
encouragement, to induce her to seek for a bird she had once lifted.

88. I observed it was something soft which you should teach your dog to
fetch. Probably you have seen a retriever taught to seek and bring a
stone, upon which, in a delicate manner, the tutor has spit. Does it not
stand to reason that the stone must have tended to give his pupil a hard
mouth? And what may, later in life, cause him much misery, in dashing at a
bounding stone, he may split a tooth. Dogs of an advanced age suffer more
in their mouths than most of us suspect.

89. Should your pup be unwilling to enter water, on no account push him
in, under the mistaken idea that it will reconcile him to the element--it
will but augment his fears. Rather, on a warm day, throw some biscuit for
him, when he is hungry, close to the edge of the bank, where it is so
shallow as merely to require his wading. Chuck the next piece a little
further off, and, by degrees, increase the distance until he gets beyond
his depth, and finds that nature has given him useful swimming powers. On
no occasion will the example of another dog more assist you. Your
youngster's diving can never be of service; therefore throw in only what
will float. Otherwise he might have a plunge for nothing, and so be
discouraged; and evidently it should be your constant aim to avoid doing
anything likely to shake his confidence in you.

90. If you ever have occasion to teach a dog to dive and retrieve, first
accustom him, on land, to fetch something heavy, of a conspicuous color.
When he brings it eagerly, commence your diving lesson by throwing it into
the shallowest parts of the stream. Only by slow degrees get to deep
water, and let your lessons be very short. Never chuck in a stone. The
chances are twenty to one that there are several at the bottom not very
dissimilar, and the young dog ought not to be subjected to the temptation
of picking up one of them in lieu of that he was sent for. Should he on
any occasion do so, neither scold nor caress him; quietly take what he
brings, lay it at your feet, to show him that you want it not, and
endeavor to make him renew his search for what you threw in; do this by
signs, and by encouragement with your voice, rather than by chucking
stones in the right direction, lest he should seek for them instead of
searching for what you originally sent him.

91. Some teachers make a young dog fetch a round pin cushion, or a cork
ball, in which needles are judiciously buried; nor is it a bad plan, and
there need be no cruelty in it, if well managed. At least it can only be
cruel once, for the dog's recollection of his sufferings will prevent his
picking up the offending object a second time. Others, after he is well
drilled into "fetching," and takes pleasure in it, will make him bring a
bunch of keys. There are few things a dog is less willing to lift. Most
probably they gave him some severe rebuffs when first heedlessly snatching
at them; and the caution thereby induced tends to give him a careful,
tender mouth. A fencing master, I knew in France, had a spaniel,
singularly enough for a Frenchman, called "Waterloo," that would take up
the smallest needle.

92. When your dog has picked up what you desired, endeavor to make him run
to you quickly. Many who teach a dog to fetch, praise and encourage him
while he is bringing what he was sent after. Clearly this is an error. It
induces the dog to loiter and play with it. He thinks he is lauded for
having it in his mouth and carrying it about. Reserve your encomiums and
caresses until he has delivered it. If you walk away, the fear of your
leaving him will induce him to hurry after you. Let a dog retrieve ever so
carelessly, still, while on the move, he will rarely drop a bird.

93. Dogs that retrieve should be gradually brought to lift heavy, flexible
things, and such as require a large grasp, that they may not be quite
unprepared for the weight and size of a hare; otherwise they may be
inclined to drag it along by a slight hold of the skin, instead of
balancing it across their mouths. Thus capacious jaws are obviously an
advantage in retrievers. The French gamekeepers, many of whom are capital
hands at making a retriever--excepting that they do not teach the "down
charge,"--stuff a hare or rabbit skin with straw, and when the dog has
learned to fetch it with eagerness, they progressively increase its weight
by burying larger and larger pieces of wood in the middle of the straw:
and to add to the difficulty of carrying it, they often throw it to the
other side of a hedge or thick copse. If the dog shows any tendency to a
hard mouth they mix thorns with the straw.

94. I ought to have mentioned sooner that you should commence teaching a
puppy to "fetch" by shaking your glove--or anything soft--at him, and
encouraging him to seize and drag it from you. Then throw it a yard or two
off, gradually increasing the distance, and the moment he delivers it to
you, give him something palatable. Should you, contrary to every
reasonable expectation, from his having no inclination to romp or play
with the glove, not be able to persuade him to pick it up, put it between
his teeth--force him to grasp it by tightly pressing his jaws together,
speaking all the while impressively to him--scold him if he is obstinate
and refuses to take hold of the glove. After a little time retire a few
paces, keeping one hand under his mouth--to prevent his dropping the
glove,--while you lead or drag him with the other. When you halt, be sure
not to take the glove immediately from him--oblige him to continue holding
it for at least a minute--lest he should learn to relinquish his grip too
soon,--before you make him yield at the command "give;" then bestow a
reward. Should he drop it before he is ordered to deliver it, replace it
in his mouth and again retreat some steps before ordering him to "give."
He will soon follow with it at your heels. If you have sufficient
perseverance you can thus make him earn all his daily food. Hunger will
soon perfect him in the lesson. Observe that there are four distinct
stages in this trick of carrying--the first, making the dog grasp and
retain--the second, inducing him to bring, following at your heels--the
third, teaching him not to quit his hold when you stop--the fourth,
getting him to deliver into your hands on your order. The great advantage
of a sporting dog's acquiring this trick is that it accustoms him to
deliver into your _hands_; and it often happens that you must thus teach a
dog to "carry" as a preparative to teaching him to "fetch." It certainly
will be judicious in you to do so, if the dog is a lively, riotous animal;
for the act of carrying the glove--or stick, &c.--quietly at your heels
will sober him, and make him less likely to run off with it instead of
delivering it when you are teaching him to fetch. As soon as he brings the
glove tolerably well, try him with a short stick. You will wish him not to
seize the end of it, lest he should learn to "drag" instead of "carry."
Therefore fix pegs or wires into holes drilled at right angles to each
other at the extremities of the stick. He will then only grasp it near
the middle.

95. This drill should be further extended if a



REGULAR LAND RETRIEVER


be your pupil. Throw dead birds of any kind for him to bring--of course
one at a time,--being on the alert to check him whenever he grips them too
severely. If he persists in disfiguring them, pass a few blunted knitting
needles through them at right angles to one another. When he fetches with
a tender mouth, you will be able to follow up this method of training
still further by letting him "road"--or "foot," as it is often termed--a
rabbit in high stubble, one--or both, if a strong buck--of whose hind legs
you will have previously bandaged in the manner described in 56. Be
careful not to let him see you turn it out, lest he watch your proceedings
and endeavor to "hunt by eye." Indeed it might be better to employ another
person to turn it out. Keep clear of woods for some time--the cross scents
would puzzle him. If by any chance you have a winged pheasant or
partridge, let him retrieve it. You will not, I presume, at the
commencement select a morning when there is a dry cold wind from the
north-east, but probably you will wish to conclude his initiatory lessons
on days which you judge to possess least scent. The more he has been
practised as described in 39, the better will he work; for he cannot keep
his nose too perseveringly close to the ground. With reference to the
instructions in that paragraph, I will here remark, that before you let
the dog stoop to hunt, you should have placed him by signal (31) near the
spot from which you had begun dragging the bread. In paragraph 190 an
instance is given of the manner in which a dog who retrieves should be put
upon a scent; and why that mode is adopted is explained in 184.

96. It is quite astonishing how well an old dog that retrieves knows when
a bird is struck. He instantly detects any hesitation or uncertainty of
movement, and for a length of time will watch its flight with the utmost
eagerness, and, steadily keeping his eye on it, will as surely as yourself
mark its fall. To induce a young dog to become thus observant, always let
him perceive that _you_ watch a wounded bird with great eagerness; his
imitative instinct will soon lead him to do the same. This faculty of
observation is particularly serviceable in a water retriever. It enables
him to swim direct to the crippled bird, and, besides the saving of time,
the less he is in the water in severe weather, the less likely is he to
suffer from rheumatism.

97. As an initiatory lesson in making him observant of the flight and fall
of birds, place a few pigeons, or other birds, during his absence, each in
a hole covered with a tile. Afterwards come upon these spots apparently
unexpectedly, and, kicking away the tiles--or, what is better, dragging
them off by a previously adjusted string,--shoot the birds for him to
bring; it being clearly understood that he has been previously tutored
into having no dread of the gun. As he will have been taught to search
where bidden--IV. to VIII. of 119,--nothing now remains but to take him
out on a regular campaign, when the fascinating scent of game will
infallibly make him search--I do not say deliver--with great eagerness.
When once he then touches upon a scent, leave him entirely to himself--not
a word, not a sign. Possibly his nose may not be able to follow the bird,
but it is certain that yours cannot. Occasionally you may be able to help
an old retriever (296), but rarely, if ever, a young one. Your
interference, nay, probably your mere presence, would so excite him as to
make him overrun the scent. Remain, therefore, quietly where you are until
he rejoins you.

98. When we see a winged pheasant racing off, most of us are too apt to
assist a young dog, forgetting that we thereby teach him, instead of
devoting his whole attention to work out the scent, to turn to us for aid
on occasions when it may be impossible to give it. When a dog is hunting
_for_ birds, he should frequently look to the gun for signals, but when he
is _on_ them he should trust to nothing but his own scenting faculties.

99. If, from a judicious education, a retriever pup has had a delight in
"fetching" rapidly, it is not likely he will loiter on the way to mouth
his birds; but the fatigue of carrying a hare a considerable distance may,
perhaps, induce a young dog to drop it in order to take a moment's rest.
There is a risk that when doing so he may be tempted to lick the blood,
and, finding it palatable, be led to maul the carcase. You see, therefore,
the judiciousness of employing every means in your power to ensure his
feeling anxious to deliver _quickly_, and I know not what plan will answer
better--though it sounds sadly unsentimental--than to have some pieces of
hard boiled liver[18] at hand to bestow upon him the moment he surrenders
his game, until he is thoroughly confirmed in an expeditious delivery.
Never give him a piece, however diligently he may have searched, unless he
succeeds in bringing. When you leave off these rewards do so gradually.
The invariable bestowal of such dainties during, at least, the retriever's
first season, will prevent his ever dropping a bird on hearing the report
of a gun--as many do--in order to search for the later killed game.

100. Should a young retriever evince any wish to assist the cook by
plucking out the feathers of a bird; or from natural vice or mismanagement
before he came into your possession,[19] show any predisposition to taste
blood, take about two feet (dependent upon the size of the dog's head) of
iron wire, say the one-eighth of an inch in diameter, sufficiently
flexible for _you_, but not for _him_ to bend. Shape this much into the
form of the letter U, supposing the extremities to be joined by a straight
line. Place the straight part in the dog's mouth, and passing the other
over his head and ears, retain it in position by a light throat lash
passed through a turn in the wire, as here roughly represented. The
flexibility of the wire will enable you to adjust it with ease to the
shape of his head. When in the kennel he ought to be occasionally thus
bitted, that he may not fret when he is first hunted with it. It will not
injure his teeth or much annoy him if it lie on his grinders a little
behind the tushes.

[Illustration]

101. Sometimes a retriever, notwithstanding every encouragement, will not
pursue a winged bird with sufficient rapidity. In this case associate him
for a few days with a quicker dog, whose example will to a certainty
animate him and increase his pace. It is true that when he is striving to
hit off a scent he cannot work too patiently and perseveringly; but, on
the other hand, the moment he is satisfied he is on it, he cannot follow
too rapidly. A winged bird, when closely pressed, seems, through
nervousness, to emit an increasing stream of scent; therefore, though it
may sound paradoxical, the retriever's accelerated pace then makes him
(his nose being close to the ground) the less likely to overrun it; and
the faster he pursues the less ground must he disturb, for the shorter
will be the chase.

102. Retrievers are generally taught to rush in the instant a bird falls.
This plan, like most other things, has its advocates and its opponents. I
confess to being one of the latter, for I cannot believe that in the long
run it is the best way to fill the bag. I think it certain that more game
is lost by birds being flushed while the guns are unloaded, than could be
lost from the scent cooling during the short period the dog remains at the
"down charge." Unquestionably some retrievers have so good a nose, that
the delay would not lead to their missing any wounded game however
slightly struck; and the delay has this great advantage, that it helps to
keep the retriever under proper subjection, and diminishes his anxiety to
rush to every part of the line where a gun may be fired, instead of
remaining quietly at his master's heels until signalled to take up the
scent. Moreover, a retriever by neglecting the "down charge," sets an
example to the pointers or setters who may be his companions, which it is
always more or less difficult to prevent the dogs, if young, from
following. But I once shot over a retriever which I could hardly wish not
to have "run on shot." On a bird being hit he started off with the
greatest impetuosity, kept his eye immovably fixed on its flight, and
possessed such speed that a winged bird scarcely touched the ground ere it
was pinned. He would, too, often seize a slightly injured hare before it
had acquired its best pace. The pursuit so soon terminated that possibly
less game escaped being fired at than if the retriever had not stirred
until the guns were reloaded. On a miss he was never allowed--indeed
appeared little inclined--to quit "heel." Of course a trainer's trouble
is decreased by not breaking to the "down charge," which may induce some
to recommend the plan; though it is to be observed, that this class of
dogs is more easily than any other perfected in it, because the breaker
nearly always possesses the power of treading upon or seizing the
checkcord the instant a bird is sprung.

103. The nature of your shooting will much influence you in deciding which
of the two methods to adopt; but should you select the one which the
generality of good sportsmen consider to be most according to rule, and to
possess the greatest beauty, viz., the "down charge," rather lose any
bird, however valuable, so long as your retriever remains young, than put
him on the "foot" a second before you have reloaded. Undoubtedly it ought
to be taught to every dog broken for sale, as the purchaser can always
dispense with it should he judge it unnecessary--it can soon be untaught.
It is clear that not "quitting heel" until ordered is tantamount to the
regular "down charge," but I think the last is the easiest to enforce
constantly. It is the more decided step.

104. Large retrievers are less apt to mouth their game than small ones:
but very heavy dogs are not desirable, for they soon tire. And yet a
certain medium is necessary, for they ought to have sufficient strength to
carry a hare with ease through a thicket, when balanced in their jaws, and
be able to jump a fence with her. They should run mute. And they should be
thick coated: unless they are so,--I do not say long coated,--they cannot
be expected to dash into close cover, or plunge into water after a duck or
snipe when the thermometer is near zero.

105. It is usually allowed that, as a general rule, the best land
retrievers are bred from a cross between the setter and the
Newfoundland--or the strong spaniel and Newfoundland. I do not mean the
heavy Labrador, whose weight and bulk is valued because it adds to his
power of draught, nor the Newfoundland, increased in size at Halifax and
St. John's to suit the taste of the English purchaser,--but the far
slighter dog reared by the settlers on the coast,--a dog that is quite as
fond of water as of land, and which in almost the severest part of a North
American winter will remain on the edge of a rock for hours together,
watching intently for anything the passing waves may carry near him. Such
a dog is highly prized. Without his aid the farmer would secure but few of
the many wild ducks he shoots at certain seasons of the year. The patience
with which he waits for a shot on the top of a high cliff--until the
numerous flock sail leisurely underneath--would be fruitless, did not his
noble dog fearlessly plunge in from the greatest height, and successfully
bring the slain to shore.

106. Probably a cross from the heavy, large headed setter, who, though so
wanting in pace, has an exquisite nose; and the true Newfoundland, makes
the best retriever. Nose is the first desideratum. A breaker may doubt
which of his pointers or setters possesses the greatest olfactory powers,
but a short trial tells him which of his retrievers has the finest nose.

107. Making a first-rate retriever is a work of time, but his being
_thoroughly_ grounded in the required initiatory lessons facilitates
matters surprisingly. Indeed after having been taught the "drop"--22, 24,
25,--to "fetch"--92 to 94--and "seek dead" in the precise direction he is
ordered--XI of 119,--almost any kind of dog can be made to retrieve. The
better his nose is, the better of course he will retrieve. Sagacity, good
temper, quickness of comprehension, a teachable disposition, and all
cultivated qualities are almost as visibly transmitted to offspring as
shape and action; therefore the stronger a dog's hereditary instincts lead
him to retrieve, the less will be the instructor's trouble; and the more
obedient he is made to the signals of the hand, the more readily will he
be put upon a scent. Dogs that are by nature quick rangers do not take
instinctively to retrieving. They have not naturally sufficient patience
to work out a feeble scent. They are apt to overrun it. A really good
retriever will pursue a wounded bird or hare as accurately as a bloodhound
will a deer or man; and if he is put on a false scent, I mean a scent of
uninjured flick or feather, he will not follow it beyond a few
steps--experience will have shown him the inutility of so doing. (297.)

108. Avail yourself of the first opportunity to make a young retriever
lift a woodcock, lest in after life, from novel scent, he decline touching
it, as many dogs have done to the great annoyance of their masters.
Ditto, with the delicate landrail.

109. The directions given about "fetching" led me to talk of retrievers;
and, having touched upon the subject, I thought it right not to quit it,
until I had offered the best advice in my power. I have but one more
recommendation to add before I return to your setter--or pointer--pup:
carefully guard a young retriever--indeed any dog bred for the gun--from
being ever allowed to join a rat-hunt. Rat-hunting would tend to destroy
his tenderness of mouth, nay, possibly make him mangle his game. But this
is not all. It has often gradually led good dogs to decline lifting hares
or rabbits, apparently regarding them more in the light of vermin than of
game. Some dogs, however, that are not bad retrievers, are capital
ratters, but they are exceptions to the general rule. Indeed, you should
never permit your dog to retrieve any kind of ground or winged vermin. If
the creature were only wounded it might turn upon him. He in self-defence
would give it a grip, and he might thus be led to follow the practice on
less pardonable occasions. Remember, that a winged bittern or heron might
peck out his eye.

FOOTNOTES:

[18] A drier and cleaner article than you may suppose, and which can be
carried not inconveniently in a Mackintosh, or oil-skin bag--a toilet
sponge bag.

[19] If a retriever has the opportunity, while prowling about, of gnawing
hare or rabbit-skins thrown aside by a slovenly cook, it will not be
unnatural in him, when he is hungry, to wish to appropriate to himself the
hide, if not the interior, of the animals he is lifting.



CHAPTER V.

INITIATORY LESSONS OUT OF DOORS.--TRICKS.


110. As I before observed, you can practise most of the initiatory lessons
in your country walks. Always put something alluring in your pocket to
reward your pupil for prompt obedience. Do not take him out unnecessarily
in bad weather. On no account let him amuse himself by scraping
acquaintance with every idle cur he meets on the way; nor permit him to
gambol about the lanes. Let him understand by your manner that there is
business at hand. Never let him enter a field before you. _Always keep him
at your heels, until you give him the order to be off._ You will find him
disposed to presume and encroach. According to the old adage, "Give him an
inch, and he will take an ell." He will be endeavoring to lead rather than
to follow, and, if he fancies himself unobserved, he will most
perseveringly steal inch upon inch in advance. Be ever on the watch, ready
to check the _beginning_ of every act of disobedience. Implicit obedience
in trifles will insure it in things of more importance.

111. For some time, but the period is uncertain--say from his being eight
months old until double that age[20]--he will merely gallop and frisk
about, and probably will take diligently to persecuting butterflies. Let
him choose what he likes. Don't think he will prize small beer, when he
can get champagne. He will leave off noticing inferior articles as he
becomes conversant with the taste of game. It is now your main object to
get him to hunt; no matter what, so that he is not perpetually running to
"heel." And the more timid he is the more you must let him chase, and
amuse himself as his fancy dictates. When you see that he is really
occupying himself with more serious hunting, _eagerly_ searching for small
birds, especially larks, you must begin instructing him how to quarter his
ground to the greatest advantage, _under your constant direction_. Should
any one join you, or anything occur likely to prevent your giving him your
strictest attention, on no account permit him to range--keep him to "heel"
until you are quite prepared to watch and control all his movements. Hunt
him where he is least likely to find game, for he will take to quartering
his ground far more regularly, under your guidance, where his attention is
least distracted by any scent. The taint of partridge would be almost sure
to make him deviate from the true line on which you are anxious he should
work. Labor now diligently, if possible daily, though not for many hours
a day; for be assured a good method of ranging can only be implanted when
he is young.

112. Should your pup be so long before taking to hunting that your
patience becomes exhausted, let an older dog accompany you a few times.
When _he_ finds birds, gradually bring the young one upon them from
leeward, and let him spring them. Encourage him to sniff the ground they
have quitted, and allow him to run riot on the haunt. After that
enjoyment, the example of the old dog will most likely soon make him
range, and employ his nose in seeking a repetition of what has afforded
him such unexpected delight. If it does not, and the old dog is steady and
good-humored enough to bear the annoyance cheerfully, couple the young one
to him. Before this he should have learned to work kindly in couples--44.
But I am getting on too fast, and swerving from the track I had marked for
myself. By-and-by I will tell you how I think you should instruct your
youngster to quarter his ground to the best advantage--127, &c.

113. Common sense shows that you ought not to correct your dog for
disobedience, unless you are certain that he knows his fault. Now you will
see that the initiatory lessons I recommend must give him that knowledge,
for they explain to him the meaning of almost all the signs and words of
command you will have to employ when shooting. That knowledge, too, is
imparted by a system of rewards, not punishments. Your object is not to
break his spirit, but his self-will. With his obedience you gain his
affection. The greatest hardship admissible, in this early stage of his
education, is a strong jerk of the checkcord, and a sound rating, given,
_when necessary_, in the loudest tone and sternest manner; and it is
singular how soon he will discriminate between the reproving term
"bad"--to which he will sensitively attach a feeling of shame--and the
encouraging word "good"--expressions that will hereafter have a powerful
influence over him, especially if he be of a gentle, timid disposition.

114. In educating such a dog--and there are many of the kind, likely to
turn out well, if they are judiciously managed, often possessing noses so
exquisite--perhaps I ought to say cautious--as nearly to make up for their
general want of constitution and powers of endurance--it is satisfactory
to think that all these lessons can be inculcated without in the slightest
degree depressing his spirit. On the contrary, increasing observation and
intelligence will gradually banish his shyness and distrust of his own
powers; for he will be sensible that he is becoming more and more capable
of comprehending your wishes, and therefore less likely to err and be
punished (245).

115. I fear you may imagine that I am attributing too much reasoning power
to him. You would not think so if you had broken in two or three dogs.
What makes dog-teaching, if not very attractive, at least not laborious,
is the fact that the more you impart to a dog, the more readily will he
gain further knowledge. After teaching a poodle or a terrier a few tricks,
you will be surprised to see with what increasing facility he will
acquire each successive accomplishment. It is this circumstance which, I
think, should induce you not to regard as chimerical the perfection of
which I purpose to speak by-and-by, under the head of "refinements in
breaking." Indeed I only adopt this distinction in deference to what I
cannot but consider popular prejudice; for I well know many will regard
such accomplishments as altogether superfluous. It is sad to think that an
art which might easily be made much more perfect, is allowed, almost by
universal suffrance, to stop short just at the point where excellence is
within grasp.

116. Far more dogs would be _well-broken_, if men would but keep half the
number they usually possess. _The owner of many dogs cannot shoot often
enough over them, to give them great experience._

117. I am, however, wandering from our immediate subject. Let us return to
the lecture, and consider how much knowledge your pupil will have acquired
by these preliminary instructions. We shall find that, with the exception
of a systematically confirmed range, really little remains to be learned,
save what his almost unaided instinct will tell him.

118. For it is wonderful how much you can effect by initiatory
instruction: indeed, afterwards, you will have little else to do than
teach and confirm your dog in a judicious range--his own sagacity and
increasing experience will be his principal guides--for consider how much
you will have taught him.

119. He will know--

    I. That he is to pay attention to his whistle--the whistle
    that you design always to use to him. I mean that, when he
    hears _one_ low blast on his whistle he is to look to you
    for orders, but not necessarily run towards you, unless he
    is out of sight, or you continue whistling (18).

    II. That "Toho," or the right arm raised nearly
    perpendicularly, means that he is to stand still (19 to 21).

    III. That "Drop," or the left arm raised nearly
    perpendicularly, or the report of a gun, means that he is to
    crouch down with his head close to the ground, between his
    feet, however far off he may be ranging. Greater relaxation
    in the position may be permitted after he has been a little
    time shot over (22 to 26).

    IV. That "On,"--the shortest word for "hie-on,"--or the
    forward underhand swing of the right hand, signifies that he
    is to advance in a forward direction--the direction in which
    you are waving. This signal is very useful. It implies that
    you want the dog to hunt ahead of you. Yon employ it also
    when you are alongside of him at his point, and are desirous
    of urging him to follow up the running bird or birds, and
    press to a rise. If he push on too eagerly, you restrain him
    by slightly raising the right hand--XII. of this paragraph
    (18 to 21).

    V. That a wave of the right arm and hand--the arm being
    fully extended and well to the right--from left to right,
    means that he is to hunt to the right. Some men wave the
    left hand across the body from left to right, as a direction
    to the dog to hunt to the right; but that signal is not so
    apparent at a distance as the one I have described (32).

    VI. That a wave of the left arm from right to left--the arm
    being fully extended and well to the left--means that he is
    to hunt to the left (33).

    VII. That the "Beckon," the wave of the right hand towards
    you, indicates that he is to hunt towards you (33. See also
    67).

    VIII. That the word "Heel," or a wave of the right hand to
    the rear--the reverse of the underhand, cricket-bowler's
    swing,--implies that he is to give up hunting, and go
    directly close to your heels (40).

    IX. That "Fence" means that he is not to leave the place
    where you are. After being so checked a few times when he is
    endeavoring to quit the field, he will understand the word
    to be an order not to "break fence" (42, 43).

    X. That "Find" or "Seek" means that he is to search for
    something which he will have great gratification in
    discovering. When he is in the field he will quickly
    understand this to be game (30, 31).

    XI. That "Dead"--which it would be well to accompany with
    the signal to "Heel," means that there is something not far
    off, which he would have great satisfaction in finding. On
    hearing it, he will come to you, and await your signals
    instructing him in what direction he is to hunt for it.
    When, by signals, you have put him as near as you can upon
    the spot where you think the bird has fallen, you will say
    "Find;" for, until you say that word, he ought to be more
    occupied in attending to your signals than in searching for
    the bird. When you have shot a good many birds to him, if he
    is within sight, in order to work more silently, omit saying
    "Dead," only signal to him to go to "Heel" (18, 30, 31, 40).

    XII. That "Care" means that he is near that for which he is
    hunting. This word, used with the right hand slightly
    raised--the signal for the "Toho," only not exhibited nearly
    so energetically--will soon make him comprehend that game is
    near him, and that he is therefore to hunt cautiously. You
    will use it when your young dog is racing too fast among
    turnips or potatoes (35).

    XIII. That "Up" means that he is to sniff with his nose high
    in the air for that of which he is in search (37).

    XIV. That "Away"--or "Gone," or "Flown"--is an indication
    that the thing for which he was hunting and of which he
    smells the taint, is no longer there. This word is not to be
    used in the field until your young dog has gained some
    experience (41).

    XV. That "Ware"--pronounced "War"--is a general order to
    desist from whatever he may be doing. "No" is perhaps a
    better word; it can be pronounced more distinctly and
    energetically. If the command is occasionally accompanied
    with the cracking of your whip, its meaning will soon be
    understood (43).

    XVI. He will also know the distinction between the chiding
    term "Bad" and the encouraging word "Good"; and, moreover,
    be sensible, from your look and manner, whether you are
    pleased or angry with him. Dogs, like children, are
    physiognomists (36, end of 104).

120. You will perceive that you are advised to use the right hand more
than the left. This is only because the left hand is so generally employed
in carrying the gun.

121. You will also observe, that when the voice is employed--and this
should be done only when the dog will not obey your signals--I have
recommended you to make use of but _one_ word. Why should you say "Come to
heel," "Ware breaking fence," "Have a care?" If you speak in sentences,
you may at times unconsciously vary the words of the sentence, or the
emphasis on any word; and as it is only by the sound that you should
expect a dog to be guided, the more defined and distinct in sound the
several commands are the better.

122. This consideration leads to the remark that, as, by nearly universal
consent, "Toho" is the word employed to tell a dog to point, the old rule
is clearly a judicious one, never to call him "Ponto," "Sancho," or by any
name ending in "o." Always, too, choose one that can be hallooed in a
sharp, loud, high key. You will find the advantage of this whenever you
lose your dog, and happen not to have a whistle. Observe, also, if you
have several dogs, to let their names be dissimilar in sound.

123. I have suggested your employing the word "Drop" instead of the usual
word "Down," because it is less likely to be uttered by any one on whom
the dog might jump or fawn; for, on principle, I strongly object to any
order being given which is not strictly enforced. It begets in a dog, as
much as in the nobler animal who walks on two legs, habits of inattention
to words of command, and ultimately makes greater severity necessary. If I
felt certain I should never wish to part with a dog I was instructing, I
should carry this principle so far as to frame a novel vocabulary, and
never use any word I thought he would be likely to hear from others. By
the bye, whenever you purchase a dog, it would be advisable to ascertain
what words of command and what signals he has been accustomed to.

FOOTNOTES:

[20] I once had a pointer pup whose dam was broken in (after a fashion)
and regularly shot to when seven months old. Without injury to her
constitution, she could not have been hunted for more than an hour or two
at a time. She ought not to have been taken to the field for _regular_ use
until fully a year old.



CHAPTER VI.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN COMMENCED. RANGING.


124. A keeper nearly always breaks in his young dogs to "set," if their
ages permit it, on favorable days in Spring, when the partridges have
paired.[21] He gets plenty of points, and the birds lie well. But I cannot
believe it is the best way to attain great excellence, though the plan has
many followers: it does not cultivate the intelligence of his pupils, nor
enlarge their ideas by making them sensible of the object for which such
pains are taken in hunting them. Moreover, their natural ardor--a feeling
that it should be his aim rather to increase than weaken--is more or less
damped by having often to stand at game before they can be rewarded for
their exertions by having it killed to them,--it prevents, rather than
imparts, the zeal and perseverance for which Irish dogs are so remarkable.
Particularly ought a breaker, whose pupil is of nervous temperament, or
of too gentle a disposition, to consider well that the want of all
recompense for finding paired birds must make a timid dog far more likely
to become a "blinker," when he is checked for not pointing them, than when
he is checked for not pointing birds which his own impetuosity alone
deprives him of every chance of rapturously "touseling." The very fact
that "the birds lie well" frequently leads to mischief; for, if the
instructor be not very watchful, there is a fear that his youngsters may
succeed in getting too close to their game before he forces them to come
to a staunch point. A keeper, however, has but little choice--and it is
not a bad time to teach the back--if his master insists upon shooting over
the animals the first day of the season, and expects to find them what
some call "perfectly broken in." But I trust some of my readers have
nobler ends in view; therefore,

125. I will suppose your youngster to have been well grounded in his
initiatory lessons, and that you take him out when the crops are nearly
off the ground--by which time there will be few squeakers--on a fine cool
day in September,--alas! that it cannot be an August day on the moors,--to
show him birds for the first time. As he is assumed to be highly bred, you
may start in the confident expectation of killing partridges over him,
especially if he is a pointer. Have his nose moist and healthy. Take him
out when the birds are on the feed, and of an afternoon in preference to
the morning,--unless from an unusually dry season there be but little
scent,--that he may not be attracted by the taint of hares or rabbits.
Take him out alone, if he evince any disposition to hunt, which, at the
age we will presume him to have attained next season, we must assume that
he will do, and with great zeal. Be much guided by his temper and
character. Should he possess great courage and dash, you cannot begin too
soon to make him point. You should always check a wild dog in racing after
pigeons and small birds on their rising; whereas you should encourage a
timid dog--one who clings to "heel"--in such a fruitless but exciting
chase. The measures to be pursued with such an animal are fully detailed
in 111, 112.

126. I may as well caution you against adopting the foolish practice of
attempting to cheer on your dog with a constant low whistle, under the
mistaken idea that it will animate him to increased zeal in hunting. From
perpetually hearing the monotonous sound, it would prove as little of an
incentive to exertion as a continued chirrup to a horse; and yet if
habituated to it, your dog would greatly miss it whenever hunted by a
stranger. Not unregarded, however, would it be by the birds, to whom on a
calm day it would act as a very useful warning.

127. Though you have not moors, fortunately we can suppose your fields to
be of a good size. Avoid all which have recently been manured. Select
those that are large, and in which you are the least likely to find
birds, until his spirits are somewhat sobered, and he begins partly to
comprehend your instructions respecting his range. There is no reason why
he should not have been taken out a few days before this, _not to show him
birds_, but to have commenced teaching him how to traverse his ground.
Indeed, if we had supposed him of a sufficient age--111--he might by this
time be somewhat advanced towards a systematic beat. It is seeing birds
early that is to be deprecated, not his being taught how to range.

128. _Be careful to enter every field at the leeward_[22] side--about the
middle,--that he may have the wind to work against. Choose a day when
there is a breeze, but not a boisterous one. In a calm the scent is
stationary, and can hardly be found unless accidentally. In a gale it is
scattered to the four quarters.[23] You want not an undirected ramble,
but a judicious traversing beat under your own guidance, which shall leave
no ground unexplored, and yet have none twice explored.

129. Suppose the form of the field, as is usually the case, to approach a
parallelogram or square, and that the wind blows in any direction but
diagonally across it. On entering at the leeward side send the dog from
you by a wave of your hand or the word "On." You wish him, while you are
advancing up the middle of it, to cross you at right angles, say from
right to left,--then to run up-wind for a little, parallel to your own
direction, and afterwards to recross in front of you from left to right,
and so on until the whole field is regularly hunted. To effect this,
notwithstanding your previous preparatory lessons, you will have to show
him the way, as it were--setting him an example in your own person,--by
running a few steps in the direction you wish him to go--say to the
right,--cheering him on to take the lead. As he gets near the extremity of
his beat, when he does not observe you, he can steal a small advance in
the true direction of your own beat, which is directly up the middle of
the field meeting the wind. If perceiving your advance he turn towards
you, face him--wave your right hand to him, and, while he sees you, run on
a few paces in his direction--that is, _parallel_ to his true direction.
As he approaches the hedge--the one on your right hand, but be careful
that he does not get close to it, lest, from often finding game there, he
ultimately become a potterer and regular hedge hunter--face towards him,
and on catching his eye, wave your left arm. If you cannot succeed in
catching his eye, you must give one low whistle--the less you habituate
yourself to use the whistle, the less you will alarm the birds--study to
do all, as far as is practicable, by signals. You wish your wave of the
left arm to make the dog turn to the left--his head to the wind,--and that
he should run parallel to the side of the hedge for some yards--say from
thirty to forty--before he makes his second turn to the left to cross the
field; but you must expect him to turn too directly towards you on your
first signal to turn. Should he by any rare chance have made the turn--the
first one--correctly, and thus be hunting up-wind, on no account interrupt
him by making any signals until he has run up the distance you wish--the
aforesaid thirty or forty yards,--then again catch his eye, and, as
before--not now, however, faced towards him and the hedge, but faced
towards your true direction,--by a wave of the left arm endeavor to make
him turn to the left--across the wind. If, contrary to what you have a
right to suppose, he will not turn towards you on your giving a whistle
and wave of your hand, stand still, and continue whistling--eventually he
will obey. But you must not indulge in the faintest hope that all I have
described will be done correctly; be satisfied at first with an approach
towards accuracy; you will daily find an improvement, if you persevere
steadily. When you see that there is but little chance of his turning the
way you want, at once use the signal more consonant to his views, for it
should be your constant endeavor to make him fancy that he is always
ranging according to the directions of your hands. Be particular in
attending to this hint.

130. His past tuition--34--most probably will have accustomed him to watch
your eye for directions, therefore it is not likely, even should he have
made a wrong turn near the hedge--a turn down-wind instead of up-wind,
which would wholly have prevented the required advance parallel to the
hedge,--that he will cross in rear of you. Should he, however, do so,
retreat a few steps,--or face about, if he is far in the rear,--in order
to impress him with the feeling that all his work must be performed under
your eye. Animate him with an encouraging word as he passes. When he gets
near the edge to the left, endeavor, by signals--agreeably to the method
just explained--129--to make him turn to the--his--right, his head to the
wind, and run up alongside of it for thirty to forty yards, if you can
manage it, before he begins to recross the field, by making a second turn
to the right. If you could get him to do this, he would cross well in
advance of you.

131. Though most likely his turn--the first--the turn up-wind--will be too
abrupt--too much of an acute angle instead of the required right
angle,--and that consequently, in order to get ahead of you, he will have
to traverse the field diagonally, yet after a few trials it is probable he
will do so rather than not get in front of you. This would be better than
the former attempt--not obliging you to face about--express your approval,
and the next turn near the hedge may be made with a bolder sweep. Remember
your aim is, that no part be unhunted, and that none once commanded by his
nose should be again hunted. He ought to cross, say thirty yards in front
of you, but _much_ will depend upon his nose.

132. Nearly on every occasion of catching his eye, except when he is
running up-wind parallel to the hedge, give him some kind of signal. This
will more and more confirm him in the habit of looking to you, from time
to time, for orders, and thus aid in insuring his constant obedience.
After a while, judging by the way in which your face is turned, he will
know in what direction you propose advancing, and will guide his own
movements accordingly. Should he, as most probably he will for some time,
turn too sharply towards you when getting near the hedge, I mean at too
acute an angle, incline or rather face towards him. This, coupled with the
natural wish to range unrestrained, will make him hunt longer parallel to
the hedge, before he makes his second turn towards you.

133. You may at first strive to correct your dog's turning too abruptly
inwards--the first turn--by pushing on in your own person further ahead on
your own beat; but when he has acquired if merely the slightest idea of a
correct range, be most careful not to get in advance of the ground he is
to hunt; your doing so might habituate him to cross the field
diagonally--thereby leaving much of the sides of the fields unhunted,--in
order to get ahead of you; and, moreover, _you_ might spring birds you are
anxious _he_ should find. Should he, on the other hand, be inclined to
work too far upward before making his turn to cross the field, hang back
in your own person.

134. Though you may be in an unenclosed country, let him range at first to
no more than from seventy to eighty yards on each side of you. You can
gradually extend these lateral beats as he becomes conversant with his
business--indeed at the commencement rather diminish than increase the
distances just named, both for the length of the parallels and the space
between them. Do not allow the alluring title "a fine wide ranger" to
tempt you to let him out of leading strings. If he be once permitted to
imagine that he has a discretionary power respecting the best places to
hunt, and the direction and length of his beats, you will find it
extremely difficult to get him again well in hand. On the moors his range
must be far greater than on the stubbles, but still the rudiments must be
taught on this contracted scale or you will never get him to look to you
for orders. Do _you_ keep entire control over his beats; let _him_ have
almost the sole management of his drawing upon birds, provided he does not
puzzle, or run riot too long over an old haunt. Give him time, and after a
little experience his nose will tell him more surely than your judgment
can, whether he is working on the "toe" or "heel" of birds, and whether he
diverges from or approaches the strongest and most recent haunt--do not
flurry or hurry him, and he will soon acquire that knowledge.

135. As the powers of scent vary greatly in different dogs, the depth of
their turns--or parallels--ought to vary also, and it will be hereafter
for you to judge what distance between the parallels it is most
advantageous for your youngster ultimately to adopt in his general
hunting. The deeper its turns are, of course, the more ground you will
beat within a specified time. What you have to guard against is the
possibility of their being so wide that birds may be passed by unnoticed.
I should not like to name the distance within which good _cautious_ dogs
that carry their heads high will wind game on a favorable day.

136. If you design your pupil, when broken in, to hunt with a companion,
and wish both the dogs, as is usual, to cross you, you will, of course,
habituate him to make his sweeps--the space between the parallels--wider
than if you had intended him to hunt without any one to share his labors.

137. I need hardly warn you to be careful not to interrupt him whenever he
appears to be winding birds. However good his nose may be by nature, it
will not gain experience and discrimination unless you give him a certain
time to determine for himself whether he has really touched upon a faint
scent of birds, and whether they are in his front or rear, or gone away
altogether. Like every other faculty, his sense of smell will improve the
more it is exercised. But on the other hand, as I observed before, do not
let him continue puzzling with his nose close to the ground,--urge him
on,--make him increase his pace,--force him to search elsewhere, and he
will gradually elevate his head, and, catching the scent of other
particles, will follow up these with a nose borne aloft, unless he is a
brute not worth a twentieth part of the pains which you think of bestowing
upon him; for,

138. Besides the greatly decreased chance of finding them, birds that to a
certainty would become uneasy, and make off if pursued by a dog tracking
them, will often lie well to one who finds them by the wind. They are then
not aware that they are discovered, and the dog, from the information his
nose gives him, can approach them either boldly or with great wariness,
according as he perceives them to be more or less shy.

139. If, being unable to catch the dog's eye, you are forced to use the
whistle frequently, and he continues inattentive to it, notwithstanding
his previous tuition, stand still--make him lie down--by the word "drop,"
if he will not obey your raised left arm--go up to him--take hold of his
collar, and rate him, saying, "Bad, bad," cracking your whip over him--let
the whip be one that will crack loudly, not for present purposes, but
that, when occasion requires, he may hear it at a distance--and whistling
softly. This will show him--should you beat him, you would confuse his
ideas--that he is chidden for not paying attention to the whistle. Indeed,
whenever you have occasion to scold or punish him, make it a constant
rule, while you rate him, to repeat many times the word of command, or the
signal which he has neglected to obey. There is no other way by which you
will make him understand you _quickly_. You must expect that your young
dog will for some time make sad mistakes in his range;--but be not
discouraged. Doubtless there is no one thing,--I was going to say, that
there are no dozen things,--in the whole art of dog-breaking, which are so
difficult to attain, or which exact so much labor, as a high,
well-confirmed, systematic range. Nature will not assist you--you must do
it all yourself; but in recompense there is nothing so advantageous when
it is at length acquired. It will abundantly repay months of persevering
exertion. It constitutes the grand criterion of true excellence. Its
attainment makes a dog of inferior nose and action far superior to one of
much greater natural qualifications, who may be tomfooling about,
galloping backwards and forwards, sometimes over identically the same
ground, quite uselessly exerting his travelling powers; now and then,
indeed, arrested by the suspicion of a haunt, which he is not experienced
enough, or sufficiently taught, to turn to good account,--and occasionally
brought to a stiff point on birds accidentally found right under his nose.
It is undeniable, _coeteris paribus_, that the dog who hunts his ground
most according to rule must in the end find most game.

FOOTNOTES:

[21] In ordinary seasons immediately after St. Valentine's Day--before the
birds have made their nests. The first of September is the commencement of
partridge shooting in England, as the 26th of Oct. and the 1st of Nov. are
generally in America for quail.

All the breaking for partridge in this work, is applicable and must be
referred to quail in America. Grouse shooting on the moors in England is
applicable to our prairie shooting, and pheasant shooting to our ruffed
grouse shooting, when that may be had. The reader must, therefore,
transfer the months and seasons accordingly.--H.W.H.

[22] "Leeward"--a nautical phrase--here meaning the side towards which the
wind blows _from_ the field. If you entered elsewhere, the dog while
ranging would be tempted, from the natural bearing of his nose towards the
wind, to come back upon you, making his first turn inwards instead of
outwards.

[23] But, independently of these obvious reasons, scent is affected by
causes into the nature of which none of us can penetrate. There is a
contrariety in it that ever has puzzled, and apparently ever will puzzle,
the most observant sportsman--whether a lover of the chase or gun,--and
therefore, in ignorance of the doubtless immutable, though to us
inexplicable, laws by which it is regulated, we are contented to call it
"capricious." Immediately before heavy rain there frequently is none. It
is undeniable that moisture will at one time destroy it--at another time
bring it. That on certain days--in slight frost, for instance,--setters
will recognise it better than pointers, and, on the other hand, that the
nose of the latter will prove far superior after a long continuance of dry
weather, and this even when the setter has been furnished with abundance
of water--which circumstance pleads in favor of hunting pointers and
setters together. The argument against it, is the usual inequality of
their pace, and, to the eye of some sportsmen, the want of harmony in
their appearance. Should not this uncertainty respecting the recognition
of scent teach us not to continue hunting a good dog who is frequently
making mistakes, but rather to keep him at "heel" for an hour or two? He
will consider it a kind of punishment, and be doubly careful when next
enlarged. Moreover, he may be slightly feverish from overwork, or he may
have come in contact with some impurity,--in either of which cases his
nose would be temporarily out of order.



CHAPTER VII.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. CAUTION.


140. If it is your fixed determination to confirm your dog in the
truly-killing range described in last Chapter, do not associate him for
months in the field with another dog, however highly broken. It would be
far better to devote but two hours per diem to your pupil exclusively,
than to hunt him the whole day with a companion.

141. Many breakers do exactly the reverse of this. They take out an old
steady ranger, with the intention that he shall lead the young dog, and
that the latter, from imitation and habit, shall learn how to quarter his
ground. But what he gains by imitation will so little improve his
intellects, that, when thrown upon his own resources, he will prove a
miserable finder. On a hot, dry day he will not be able to make out a
feather, nor on any day to "foot" a delicate scent. I grant that the plan
expedites matters, and attains the end which _most_ professional trainers
seek; but it will not give a dog self confidence and independence, it will
not impart to him an inquiring nose, and make him rely on its
sensitiveness to discover game, rather than to his quickness of eye to
detect when his friend touches upon a haunt; nor will it instruct him to
look from time to time towards the gun for directions. It may teach him a
range, but not to hunt where he is ordered; nor will it habituate him to
vary the breadth of the parallels on which he works, according as his
master may judge it to be a good or bad scenting day.

142. To establish the rare, noble beat I am recommending,--one not
hereafter to be deranged by the temptation, of a furrow in turnips or
potatoes,--you must have the philosophy not to hunt your dog in them until
he is accustomed in his range to be guided entirely by the wind and your
signals, and is in no way influenced by the nature of the ground. Even
then it would be better not to beat narrow strips across which it would be
impossible for him to make his regular casts. Avoid, too, for some time,
if you can, all small fields--which will only contract his range,--and all
fields with trenches or furrows, for he will but too naturally follow
them instead of paying attention to his true beat. Have you never, in low
lands, seen a young dog running down a potato or turnip trench, out of
which his master, after much labor, had no sooner extracted him than he
dropped into the adjacent one? It is the absence of artificial tracks
which makes the range of nearly all dogs _well_ broken on the moors, so
much truer than that of dogs hunted on cultivated lands.

143. Moreover, in turnips, potatoes, clover, and the like thick shelter,
birds will generally permit a dog to approach so closely, that if he is
much accustomed to hunt such places, he will be sure to acquire the evil
habit of pressing too near his game when finding on the stubbles--instead
of being startled as it were into an instantaneous stop the moment he
first winds game,--and thus raise many a bird out of gun-shot that a
cautious dog--one who slackens his pace the instant he judges that he is
beating a likely spot--would not have alarmed.

144. "A _cautious_ dog!" Can there well be a more flattering epithet?[24]
Such a dog can hardly travel too fast[25] in a tolerably open country,
where there is not a superabundance of game, _if_ he really hunt with an
inquiring nose;--but to his master what an all-important "if" is this! It
marks the difference between the sagacious, wary, patient, yet diligent
animal, whose every sense and every faculty is absorbed in his endeavor to
make out birds, not for himself but the gun, and the wild harum-scarum who
blunders up three-fourths of the birds he finds. No! not _finds_, but
frightens,--for he is not aware of their presence until they are on the
wing, and seldom points unless he gets some heedless bird right under his
nose, when an ignoramus, in admiration of the beauty of the dog's sudden
attitude, will often forget the mischief which he has done.

145. Though you cannot improve a dog's nose, you can do what is nearly
tantamount to it--you can increase his caution. By watching for the
slightest token of his feathering, and then calling out "Toho," or making
the signal, you will gradually teach him to look out for the faintest
indication of a scent, and _point the instant he winds it_, instead of
heedlessly hunting on until he meets a more exciting effluvia. See 174 to
176, and 228.

146. If from a want of animation in his manner you are not able to judge
of the moment when he first winds game, and you thus are not able to call
out "Toho" until he gets close to birds, quietly pull him back from his
point "dead to leeward" for some paces, and there make him resume his
point. Perseverance in this plan will ultimately effect your wishes,
unless his nose is radically wrong. A dog's pointing too near his game
more frequently arises from want of caution--in other words, from want of
good instruction--than from a defective nose.

147. Slow dogs readily acquire this caution; but fast dogs cannot be
taught it without great labor. You have to show them the necessity of
diminishing their pace, that their noses may have fair play. If you have
such a pupil to instruct, when you get near birds you have marked down,
signal to him to come to "heel" _Whisper_ to him "Care," and let him see
by your light, slow tread, your anxiety not to alarm the birds. If he has
never shown any symptoms of blinking, you may, a few times, thus spring
the birds yourself while you keep him close to you. On the next occasion
of marking down birds, or coming to a very likely spot, bring him into
"heel," and after an impressive injunction to take "care," give him two or
three very limited casts to the right or left, and let _him_ find the
birds while you instruct him as described in 228. As there will be no fear
of such a dog making false points, take him often to the fields where he
has most frequently met birds. The expectation of again coming on them,
and the recollection of the lectures he there received, will be likely to
make him cautious on entering it. I remember a particular spot in a
certain field that early in the season constantly held birds. A young dog
I then possessed never approached it afterwards without drawing upon it
most carefully, though he had not found there for months. At first I had
some difficulty in preventing the "draw" from becoming a "point."

148. I have elsewhere observed that fast dogs, which give most trouble in
breaking, usually turn out best: now if you think for a moment you will
see the reason plainly. A young dog does not ultimately become first-rate
because he is wild and headstrong, and regardless of orders, but because
his speed and disobedience arise from his great energies,--from his
fondness for the sport, from his longing to inhale the exhilarating scent
and pursue the flying game. It is the possession of these qualities that
makes him, in his anxious state of excitement, blind to your signals and
deaf to your calls. These obviously are qualities that, _under good
management_,[26] lead to great excellence and superiority,--that make one
dog do the work of two. But they are not qualities sought for by an idle
or incompetent breaker.

149. These valuable qualities in the fast dog, must, however, be
accompanied with a searching nose. It is not enough that a dog be always
apparently hunting, that is to say, always on the gallop--his nose should
always be hunting. When this is the case, and you may be pretty certain it
is if, as he crosses the breeze, his nose has intuitively a bearing to
windward, you need not fear that he will travel too fast, or not repay you
ultimately for the great extra trouble caused by his high spirits and
ardor for the sport.

150. You have been recommended invariably to enter every field by the
leeward side. This you can generally accomplish with ease, if you commence
your day's beat to leeward. Should circumstances oblige you to enter a
field on the windward side, make it a rule, as long as your dog continues
a youngster, to call him to "heel," and walk down the field with him until
you get to the opposite side--the leeward--then hunt him regularly up to
windward.

151. I have read wondrous accounts of dogs, who, without giving themselves
the trouble of quartering their ground, would walk straight up to the
birds if there were any in the field. It has never been my luck, I do not
say to have possessed such marvellous animals, but even to have been
favored with a sight of them. I therefore am inclined to think, let your
means be what they may, that you would find it better not to advertise for
creatures undoubtedly most rare, but to act upon the common belief that,
as the scent of birds, more or less, impregnates the air, no dog, let his
nose be ever so fine, can, except accidentally, wind game unless he seeks
for the taint in the air--and that the dog who regularly crosses the wind
must have a better chance of finding it than he who only works up
wind--and that down wind he can have little other chance than by
"roading."

152. It is heedlessness--the exact opposite of this extreme caution--that
makes young dogs so often disregard and overrun a slight scent; and since
they are more inclined to commit this error from the rivalry of
companionship, an additional argument is presented in favor of breaking
them separately, and giving them their own time, leisurely and
methodically, to work out a scent, _provided the nose be carried high_. I
am satisfied most of us hurry young dogs too much.

FOOTNOTES:

[24] Provided always he be not perpetually pointing, as occasionally will
happen--and is the more likely to happen if he has been injudiciously
taught as a puppy to set chickens, and has thereby acquired the evil habit
of "standing by eye;" which, however, may have made him a first-rate hand
at pointing crows.

[25] With the understanding that the pace does not make him "shut up"
before the day is over.

[26] The more resolute a dog is, the more pains should be taken, before he
is shown game, to perfect him in the instant "drop"--25--however far off
he may be ranging.



CHAPTER VIII.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. CUNNING OF AGE. RANGE OF FROM TWO TO SIX
DOGS.


153. Of course you will not let your pupil "break fence," or get out of
your sight. Be on the watch to whistle or call out "Fence," the instant
you perceive that he is thinking of quitting the field. Do not wait until
he is out of sight; check him by anticipating his intentions. Should he,
unperceived, or in defiance of your orders, get into a field before you,
call him back--by the same opening, if practicable, through which he
passed, the more clearly to show him his folly;--and do not proceed
further until he has obeyed you. A steady adherence to this rule will soon
convince him of the inutility of not exercising more patience, or at least
forbearance; then signal to him "away" in the direction _you_ choose, not
in the direction _he_ chooses. It is essential that you should be the
first over every fence. In the scramble, birds, at which you ought to have
a shot, are frequently sprung. If he is not obedient to your orders make
him "drop," and rate him as described in 139.

154. A dog from his own observation so much feels,--and in a greater or
less degree, according to his education,--the necessity of watching in
what direction you are walking, that if he is habituated to work under
your eye,--I mean, is never allowed to hunt behind you,--by turning your
back upon him when he is paying no attention to your signals, you will
often be able to bring him away from a spot where he is ranging--perhaps
down wind--against your wishes, at a time when you are afraid to whistle,
lest you should alarm the birds. Waving your hand backwards and forwards
near the ground, and stooping low while walking slowly about, as if in
search of something, will often attract the attention of an ill-taught,
self-willed dog; and his anxiety to participate in the find, and share the
sport which he imagines you expect, will frequently induce him to run up,
and hunt alongside of you for any close lying bird.

155. Never be induced to hunt your young dog,--nor indeed any dog,--when
he is tired. If you do, you will give him a slovenly carriage and habits,
and lessen his zeal for the sport. In order to come in for a sniff, at a
time when he is too fatigued to search for it himself, he will crawl after
his companion, watching for any indication of his finding. As they become
wearied you will have a difficulty in keeping even old well-broken dogs
separate--much more young ones, however independently they may have ranged
when fresh. You may also, to a certainty, expect false points; but what is
of far more consequence, by frequently overtasking your dog, you will as
effectually waste his constitution as you would your horse's by premature
work.

156. If he is very young when first entered, two or three hours' work at a
time will be sufficient. When he is tired, or rather before he is tired,
send him home with the man who brings you a relief. Do not fancy your dog
will be getting a rest if he is allowed to follow at your heels for the
remainder of the day, coupled to a companion. His fretting at not being
allowed to share in the sport he sees, will take nearly as much out of him
as if you permitted him to hunt. If you can persuade John always to rub
him down, and brush and dry him--nay even to let him enjoy an hour's
basking in front of the fire--before he shuts him up in the kennel, you
will add years to his existence; and remember that one old experienced
dog, whose constitution is uninjured, is worth two young ones.

157. When you hunt a brace of dogs, to speak theoretically, they should
traverse a field in opposite directions, but along parallel lines, and the
distance between the lines should be regulated by you according as it is a
good or a bad scenting day, and according to the excellence of the dogs'
noses. Mathematical accuracy is, of course, never to be attained, but the
closer you approach the better.

158. You should attempt it--on entering the field to _leeward_, as before
directed--by making one dog go straight ahead of you to the distance which
you wish the parallel lines to be apart from each other, before you cast
him off--say--to the right; then cast off his companion to the left. If
the dogs are nearly equal in pace, the one ahead, so long as he does not
fancy he winds game, should continue to work on a parallel more advanced
than the other.

159. Should you not like to relinquish, for the sake of this formal
precision, the chance of a find in the neglected right-hand corner of the
field, cast off one dog to the right and the other to the left, on
entering it, and make the one that soonest approaches his hedge take the
widest sweep--turn--and so be placed in the _advanced_, parallel.

160. With regard to hunting more than a brace--when your difficulties
wonderfully multiply--your own judgment must determine in what manner to
direct their travelling powers to the greatest advantage. Much will depend
upon the different speed of the dogs; the number you choose from whim, or
otherwise, to hunt; the kind of country you beat; and the quantity and
sort of game you expect to find. It is, however, certain you must wish
that each dog be observant of the direction in which your face is turned,
in order that he may guide his own movements by yours;--that he from time
to time look towards you to see if you have any commands; and that he be
ever anxious to obey them.

161. Herbert writes as follows, in his work on shooting in the United
States:[27] his words ought to have influence, for manifestly he is a good
sportsman; but I own I cannot quite agree with him as to the _facility_
with which a range can be taught: "It is wonderful how easily dogs which
are always shot over by the same man--he being one who knows his
business--will learn to cross and re-quarter their ground, turning to the
slightest whistle, and following the least gesture of the hand. I have
seen old dogs turn their heads to catch their master's eye, if they
thought the whistle too long deferred; and I lately lost an old Irish
setter, which had been stone deaf for his last two seasons, but which I
found no more difficulty in turning than any other dog, so accurately did
he know when to look for the signal."

162. To beat your ground _systematically_ with three dogs, you should
strive to make them cross and recross you each on a different parallel, as
just described for two dogs; but each dog must make a proportionally
bolder sweep--turn--or,

163. If you have plenty of space, you can make one dog take a distinct
beat to the right, another a separate beat to the left, and direct the
third--which ought to be the dog least confirmed in his range--to traverse
the central part,--and so be the only one that shall cross and recross
you. If one of your dogs is a slow potterer, and you prefer this method to
the one named in 162, give him the middle beat, and let his faster
companions take the flanks. In our small English fields you have not space
enough, but on our moors, and in many parts of the Continent, it cannot be
want of room that will prevent your accomplishing it. To do this well,
however, and not interfere with each other's ground, how magnificently
must your dogs be broken! In directing their movements, the assistance
that would be given you by each dog's acknowledging his own particular
whistle, and no other--275--is very apparent.

164. It is difficult enough to make three dogs traverse across you on
tolerably distinct parallels; and at a judicious distance between the
parallels you will find it hopeless to attempt it with more than three;
and one can hardly imagine a case in which it would be advantageous to
uncouple a greater number of good rangers. If, however, the scarcity of
game, and the extensiveness of your beat, or any peculiar fancy, induce
you habitually to use four dogs, hunt one brace to the right, the other to
the left; and, so far as you can, let those which _form a brace be of
equal speed_.[28] Your task will be facilitated by your always keeping the
same brace to one flank--I mean, by making one brace constantly hunt to
your right hand; the other brace to your left. The same reasoning holds
with regard to assigning to each dog a particular side when hunting
three, according to the mode described in last paragraph. It should,
however, be borne in mind, that constantly hunting a dog in this manner on
one and the same flank, tends to make him range very disagreeably whenever
employed single-handed.

165. If you hunt five dogs, four of them ought to work by braces to the
right and left, and the fifth--the dog whose rate of speed most varies
from the others--should have a narrow beat assigned him directly in
advance of you.

166. If three brace are to be used, let the third brace hunt the central
ground, as recommended for the fifth dog--or they could be worked in
leashes, one on the right of the gun, the other on the left.

167. These are the correct _theoretical_ rules, and the more closely you
observe them, the more truly and killingly will your ground be hunted.

168. Probably you will think that such niceties are utterly impracticable.
They must be impracticable if you look for mathematical precision; but if
you hope to shoot over more than mere rabble, you should work upon
_system_. If you do not, what can you expect but an unorganized mob?--an
undrilled set, perpetually running over each other's ground,--now grouped
in this part, now crowded in that,--a few likely spots being hunted by all
(especially if they are old dogs), the rest of the field by none of them;
and to control whose unprofitable wanderings, why not employ a regular
huntsman and a well-mounted whip? Doubtless it would be absurd to hope
for perfect accuracy in so difficult a matter as a systematic range in a
brigade of dogs; but that you may approach correctness, take a true
standard of excellence. If you do not keep perfection in view, you will
never attain to more than mediocrity. I earnestly hope, however, that it
cannot be your wish to take out a host of dogs--but should you have such a
singular hobby, pray let them be regularly brigaded, and not employed as a
pack. In my opinion, under no circumstances can more than relays of
leashes be desirable; but I should be sorry in such matters to dispute any
man's right to please himself; I only wish him, whatever he does, to
strive to do it correctly.

169. Some men who shoot on a grand scale make their keepers hunt each a
distinct brace of dogs,--the gun going up to whatever dog points. It is
the most killing plan to adopt; but that is not the matter we were
considering. The question was, what method a man ought to pursue who had a
fancy to himself hunt many dogs at a time.

170. If a professional breaker could show you a brigade of dogs well
trained to quarter their ground systematically, and should ask from fifty
to sixty guineas[29] a brace for them, you ought not to be surprised.
What an extent of country they could sweep over in an hour and not leave
a bird behind! And consider what time and labor must have been spent in
inculcating so noble a range. He would have been far better paid if he had
received less than half the money as soon as they "pointed steadily," both
at the living and the dead; "down charged;" "backed:" and were broken from
"chasing hare," or noticing rabbits.

171. Some men fancy that the faster they walk, the more country they hunt.
This is far from being always the case. Dogs travel at one rate, whether
you walk fast or slow, and the distance between the parallels on which
they work--being determined by the fineness of their noses, and the
goodness of the scent--ought not to be affected by your pace. Suppose,
therefore, that you shoot in an unenclosed country, whether you walk
quickly, or merely crawl along, the only difference in the beat of your
dogs _ought_ to be that, in the latter case, they range further to the
right and the left. You thus make up in your _breadth_ what you lose in
your _length_ of beat.

172. Nor do the fastest dogs, however well they may be broken, always
truly hunt the most ground. The slower dogs have frequently finer
olfactory nerves than their fleeter rivals,--therefore the parallels on
which the former work may correctly be much wider apart than the parallels
of the latter. The finer nose in this manner commands so much more ground
that it beats the quicker heels out and out.

173. You will see, then, how judicious it is to show forbearance and give
encouragement to the timid, but high-bred class[30] of dogs described in
114; for it is obvious that, though they may travel slower, yet they may
really hunt _properly_, within a specified time, many more acres of ground
than their hardier and faster competitors; and it is certain that they
will not so much alarm the birds. Dogs that are most active with their
heels are generally least busy with their noses.

FOOTNOTES:

[27] Entitled, "Field Sports in the United States and British Provinces,
by Frank Forester."

[28] A rule to be followed whenever you employ relays of braces.

[29] 250 to 300 dollars. This would be by no means an extraordinary price
here, however extraordinary it might be to see dogs so qualified.--H.W.H.

[30] It is admitted, however, that they are often difficult animals to
manage; for the _least_ hastiness on the part of the instructor may create
a distrust that he will find it very hard to remove.



CHAPTER IX.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. "POINT" NOT RELINQUISHED FOR "DOWN
CHARGE."


174. To proceed, however, with our imaginary September day's work. I will
suppose that your young dog has got upon birds, and that from his boldness
and keenness in hunting you need not let him run riot on a haunt, as you
were recommended (in 111) when you wished to give courage and animation to
a timid dog. You must expect that his eagerness and delight will make him
run in and flush them, even though you should have called out "Toho" when
first you perceived his stern begin feathering, and thence judged that
his olfactory nerves were rejoicing in the luxurious taint of game. Hollo
out "Drop" most energetically. If he does not immediately lie down, crack
your whip loudly to command greater attention. When you have succeeded in
making him lie down, approach him quietly: be not angry with him, but yet
be stern in manner. Grasping the skin of his neck, or, what is better,
putting your hand within his collar--for he ought to wear a light
one--quietly drag him to the precise spot where you think he was _first_
aware of the scent of the birds. There make him stand--if stand he will,
instead of timidly crouching--with his head directed towards the place
from which the birds took wing, and by frequently repeating the word
"Toho," endeavor to make him understand that he ought to have pointed at
that identical spot. Do not confuse him by even threatening to beat him.
The chances are twenty to one that he is anxious to please you, but does
not yet know what you wish. I assume also that he is attached to you, and
his affection, from constantly inducing him to exert himself to give
satisfaction, will greatly develope his observation and intelligence.

175. Consider it a golden rule never to be departed from--for I must again
impress upon you a matter of such importance--invariably to drag a dog who
has put up birds incautiously, or wilfully drawn too near them, and so
sprung them--or, what is quite as bad,--though young sportsmen will not
sufficiently think of it,--_endangered_ their rising out of shot--to the
exact spot at which you judge he ought to have pointed at first, and
awaited your instructions.

176. Think for one moment what could be the use of chiding--or beating, as
I have seen some ***** do--the poor animal at the spot where he flushed
the birds. You are not displeased with him (or ought not to be) because
the birds took wing,--for if they had remained stationary until he was
within a yard of them, his fault would have been the same: nor are you
angry with him because he did not catch them--which interpretation he
might, as naturally as any other, put upon your rating him at the spot
where he flushed them--you are displeased with him for _not having
pointed_ at them steadily the moment he became sensible of their presence.
This is what you wish him to understand, and this you can only teach him
by dragging him, as has been so often said, to the spot at which he ought
to have "toho-ed" them. Your object is to give the young dog, by
instruction, the caution that most old dogs have acquired by experience.
Doubtless experience would in time convince him of the necessity of this
caution; but you wish to save time,--to anticipate that experience; and by
a judicious education impart to him knowledge which it would take him
years to acquire otherwise. What a dog gains by experience is not what you
teach him, but what he teaches himself.

177. Many carelessly-taught dogs will, on first recognising a scent, make
a momentary point, and then slowly crawl on until they get within a few
yards of the game--if it be sufficiently complaisant to allow of such a
near approach--and there "set" as steady as a rock by the hour together.
Supposing, however, that the birds are in an unfriendly, distant mood, and
not willing to remain on these neighborly terms, "your game is up," both
literally and metaphorically,--you have no chance of getting a shot. This
is a common fault among dogs hastily broken in the spring.

178. But to resume our supposed lesson. You must not be in a hurry--keep
your dog for some time--for a long time, where he should have pointed. You
may even sit down alongside him. Be patient; you have not come out so much
to shoot, as to break in your dog. When at length you give him the wave of
the hand to hie him on to hunt, you must not part as enemies, though I do
not say he is to be caressed. He has committed a fault, and he is to be
made sensible of it by your altered manner.

Suppose that, after two or three such errors, all treated in the way
described, he makes a satisfactory point. Hold up your right hand, and the
moment you catch his eye, remain quite stationary, still keeping your arm
up. Dogs, as has been already observed, are very imitative; and your
standing stock still will, more than anything else, induce him to be
patient and immovable at his point. After a time--say five minutes, if,
from the hour of the day and the dog's manner, you are convinced that the
birds are not stirring--endeavor to get up to him so quietly as not to
excite him to move. Whenever you observe him inclined to advance,--of
which his lifting a foot or even raising a shoulder, or the agitation of
his stern will be an indication,--stop for some seconds, and when by your
raised hand you have awed him into steadiness, again creep on. Make your
approaches within his sight, so that he may be intimidated by your eye and
hand. If you succeed in getting near him without unsettling him, actually
stay by him, as firm as a statue, for a quarter of an hour by one of
Barwise's best chronometers. Let your manner, which he will observe, show
great earnestness. Never mind the loss of time. You are giving the dog a
famous lesson, and the birds are kindly aiding you by lying beautifully
and not shifting their ground.

179. Now attempt a grand _coup_, in which if you are successful, you may
almost consider your dog made staunch for ever. Keeping your eye on him,
and your hand up--of course the right one--make a circuit, so that the
birds shall be between him and you. Be certain that your circle is
sufficiently wide--if it is not, the birds may get up behind you, and so
perplex him that at his next find he will feel doubtful how to act. Fire
at no skirter, or chance shot. Reserve yourself for the bird or birds at
which he points; a caution more necessary on the moors than on the
stubbles, as grouse spread while feeding. When you have well headed him,
walk towards him and spring the birds. Use straight shooting-powder. Take
a cool aim well forward, and knock down one. Do not flurry the dog by
firing more than a single barrel, or confuse him by killing more than
_one_ bird. If you have been able to accomplish all this without his
stirring--though, to effect it, you may have been obliged to use your
voice--you have every right to hope, from his previous education, that he
will readily "down-charge" on hearing the report of your gun. Do not hurry
your loading:--indeed, be unnecessarily long, with the view of making him
at all such times patient and steady. If, in spite of all your calls and
signals, he ever gives chase to the sprung birds, make him
"drop,"--instantly if possible--and proceed much as described in 174,
dragging him back to the place where he should have "down-charged."

180. When you have loaded, say "Dead,"[31] in a low voice, and signalling
to "heel" make him come up to you, yourself keeping still. By signs--XI.
of 119--place him as near as you can, _but to leeward_ of the dead bird.
Then, and not till then, say, "Find;" give him no other assistance. Let
him have plenty of time to make out the bird. It is not to be find and
_grip_, but find and _point_,[32] therefore the moment you perceive he is
aware that it is before him, make him--by word of command--"toho:"--go up
to him, stay for a while alongside him, then make a small circuit to head
him, and have the bird between you and him; approach him. If he attempt to
dash in, thunder out "No," and greet him with at least the sound of the
whip: slowly pick up the dead bird; call the dog to you; show him the
bird; but on no account throw it to him, lest he snatch at it; lay it on
the ground, encourage him to sniff it; let him--for reason why see
216--turn it over with his nose--teeth closed--say to him, "Dead, dead;"
caress him; sit down; smoothe the feathers of the bird; let him perceive
that you attach much value to it; and after a while loop it on the game
bag, allowing him all the time to see what you are doing. After that, make
much of him for full five minutes: indeed with some dogs it would be
advisable to give a palatable reward, but be not invariably very prodigal
of these allurements; you may have a pupil whose attention they might
engross more than they ought. Then walk about a little time with him at
your heels. All this delay and caressing will serve to show him that the
first tragedy is concluded, and has been satisfactorily performed. You may
now hie him on to hunt for more birds.

181. Pray mind what is said about making your youngster point the dead
bird staunchly, the moment you perceive that he first scents it. Should he
be allowed to approach so near as to be able to touch it--instead of
being made to point the instant he finds,--the chances are, that if
hard-mouthed he will give it a crunch, if tender-mouthed a fumbling of the
feathers; and either proceeding satisfying him, that he will quit it, and
not further aid you in a search. As "pointing" is only a natural
pause--prolonged by art--to determine exactly where the game is lying,
preparatory to rushing forward to seize, it would be unreasonable to
expect him willingly to make a second point at game he has not only found
but mouthed--the evil, however, does not rest here. There is such a
disagreeable thing as blinking a dead bird, no less than blinking a sound
one. For mouthing the bird you may possibly beat the dog, or for nosing it
and not pointing you may rate him harshly, either of which, if he be not
of a bold disposition, may lead, on the next occasion, to his slinking off
after merely obtaining a sniff. You ought, in fact, to watch as carefully
for your pupil's first "feathering" upon the dead bird, as you
did--174--upon his first coming upon the covey. You see, then, that your
teaching him to "point dead" is absolutely indispensable; unless, indeed,
you constantly shoot with a retriever. Pointing at a live bird or at a
dead one should only differ in this, that in the latter case the dog makes
a nearer point. _Begin_ correctly, and you will not have any difficulty;
but you may expect the greatest if you let your dog go up to one or two
birds and mouthe them, before you commence making him point them. The
following season, should you then permit him to lift his game, it will be
time enough to dispense with his "pointing dead." I dwell upon this
subject because many excellent dogs, from not having been properly taught
to "point dead," often fail in securing the produce of a successful shot,
while, on the contrary, with judiciously educated dogs it rarely happens
that any of the slain or wounded are left on the field. Moreover, the
protracted search and failure--as an instance see 217--occasions a
lamentable loss of time. Were a sportsman who shoots over dogs not well
broken to "point dead"--or retrieve--to calculate accurately, watch in
hand, he would, I think, be surprised to find how many of his best
shooting hours are wasted in unprofitable searching for birds of the
certainty of whose untimely fate his dogs had probably long before fully
convinced themselves.

182. As to the word "Dead," whether you choose to continue using it
immediately after loading, or, as I have recommended--XI. of 119--_after a
time_ omit it, and merely let the signal to "heel" intimate that you have
killed, always make your dog go to you before you allow him to seek for
the fallen bird.

183. Some may say, "As a dog generally sees a bird fall, what is the use
of calling him to you before you let him seek?--and even if he does not
see the bird, why should any time be lost? Why should not you and he go as
direct to it as you can?"

184. Provided you have no wish that the "finder"--see 295--rather than any
of his companions, should be allowed the privilege of "seeking dead," I
must admit that in the cultivated lands of England, when a dog "sees a
bird fall," he might in nine cases out of ten go direct to it without
inconvenience. Even here, however, there are occasions when intervening
obstacles may prevent you observing what the dog is about; and in cover,
so far from being able to give him any assistance by signalling, you may
be ignorant whether or not he has seen the bird knocked over, or is even
aware of the general direction in which he ought to seek. But in the
oft-occurring cases in which "he does not see the bird fall," it is
obvious--particularly when he happens to be at the extremity of his
beat,--that you will far more quickly place him where you wish, if you
make him, at first, run up to you, and then advance from you, straight to
the bird, by your forward signal--190. These good results at least will
follow, if you remain stationary, and make him join you. You do not lose
sight of the spot where you marked that the bird or birds fell. The foil
is not interfered with by your walking over the ground--a matter of much
importance, especially on bad-scenting days. The dog, if habituated to
"seek" without your companionship, will readily hunt morasses and ravines,
where you might find it difficult to accompany him. He will feel the less
free to follow his own vagaries; and this consciousness of subjection will
dispose him to pay more watchful attention to your signals. He will the
more patiently wait at the "down charge;" and when you are reloaded will
not be so tempted to dash recklessly after the bird, regardless whether
or not he raises others on the way. If he is dragging a cord, you can the
more easily take hold of its end, in order to check him, and make him
point when he first winds the dead bird--and, should you be shooting over
several dogs, by none of them being permitted to run direct to the fallen
bird they will the less unwillingly allow you to select the one who is to
approach close to you before "seeking dead."

185. The opponents of this method argue, that the practice may give the
dog the bad habit of running immediately after the "down charge" to the
gun, instead of recommencing to hunt; particularly if he is shot over by a
first-rate performer. Granted; but is not the temptation to bolt off in
search of a dead bird still stronger? To check the former evil, endeavor
to make the coming to "heel" an act of obedience rather than a voluntary
act, by never failing, as soon as you are re-loaded, to give the customary
signal--VIII. of 119--when you have killed, or the signal to "hie on"
should you have missed.

186. Moreover, you will sometimes meet with a dog who, when a bird has
been fired at, though it be the first and only one sprung of a large
covey, commences "seeking dead" immediately after the "down charge,"
apparently considering that his first duty. This sad, sad fault--for it
frequently leads to his raising the other birds out of shot--is generally
attributable to the dog's having been allowed to rush at the fallen bird,
instead of being accustomed to the restraint of having first to run up to
the gun.

187. To prevent your pupil ever behaving so badly, often adopt the plan of
not "seeking dead" immediately after loading, especially if the birds are
lying well. Mark accurately the spot where your victim lies, and closely
hunt for others, endeavoring to instil great caution into the dog, much in
the manner--being guided by his disposition and character--described in
144, 145, and 228. As long as any of the covey remain unsprung, you ought
not to pick up one dead bird, though you should have a dozen on the
ground. Your dog ought not even to "down charge" after you have fired, if
he is fully aware that more birds are before him. To impart to him the
knowledge that, _however important is the "down charge," his continuing at
his point is still more so_, you may, when the birds are lying well and he
is at a fixed point, make your attendant discharge a gun at a little
distance while you remain near the dog, encouraging him to maintain his
"toho." If you have no attendant, and the birds lie like stones, fire off
a barrel yourself while the dog is steadily pointing. He will fancy you
see birds which he has not noticed, and, unless properly tutored and
praised by you, will be desirous to quit those he has found, to search for
the bird he conceives you have shot.

188. It is a fine display of intelligence in the dog, and of judicious
training in the breaker--may it be your desert and reward ere long to
witness it in your pupil,--when a pointer--or setter--in goodly turnips
or strong potatoes draws upon birds which obligingly rise one after the
other, while by continuing his eloquent attitude he assures you that some
still remain unsprung, to which he is prepared to lead you if you will but
attend to them and him, and, instead of pot-hunting after those you have
killed, wait until his discriminating nose informs him that, having no
more strangers to introduce, he is at liberty to assist you in your
search.

189. To revert, however, to the point particularly under discussion, viz.,
whether you prefer that your dog go direct to the fallen bird, or--as I
strongly recommend--that he first join you, pray be consistent, exact
which you will, but always exact the same, if you are anxious to obtain
cheerful unhesitating obedience.

190. I have seen the advantage of the latter method very strikingly
exemplified in America, in parts of which there is capital
snipe-shooting.[33] In the high grass and rushes on the banks of the
Richelieu, many a bird have I seen flushed and shot at, of which the liver
and white pointer, ranging at a little distance, has known nothing. As he
was well broken in, on hearing the report of the gun, he, of course,
dropped instantly. His master, when he had reloaded, if the bird had
fallen, used invariably to say "Dead,"[34] in a low tone of voice, on
which the dog would _go up to him_; and then his master, without stirring
from the spot where he had fired, directed him by signals to the place
where the bird had tumbled, and in proceeding thither, the dog often had
to swim the stream. His master then said "Find." At that word, and not
before it, his intelligent four-footed companion commenced the search for
the bird, nor did he ever fail to find and bring; and so delicate was his
mouth that I have often seen him deliver up a bird perfectly alive,
without having deranged a feather, though, very probably, he had swam with
it across one of the many creeks which intersect that part of the country.
If the shot was a miss, his master's silence after reloading, and a wave
of his arm to continue hunting--or the command to "Hie on," if the dog was
hidden by the rushes--perhaps a low whistle would have been better,--fully
informed his companion of the disappointment. He was quite as good on the
large quail, and small wood-cock found in Canada, which latter makes a
ringing noise on rising, not unlike the sound of a distant soft bell; but
reminiscences of that capital old dog are leading me away from your young
one.

191. For some days you cannot shoot to your pupil too steadily and
quietly--I had well nigh said too slowly. By being cool, calm, and
collected yourself, you will make him so. I am most unwilling to think
that you will be too severe, but I confess I have my misgivings lest you
should occasionally overlook some slight faults in the elation of a
successful right and left. Filling the game-bag must be quite secondary to
education. Never hesitate to give up any bird if its acquisition interfere
with a lesson. Let all that you secure be done according to rule, and in a
sportsmanlike manner.


[Illustration: SETTERS.--BOB.]

FOOTNOTES:

[31] As he acquires experience he will wish to rise the moment he observes
that your loading is completed. Do not allow him to move, however
correctly he may have judged the time. Let his rising be always in
obedience to signal or word. You may make a mistake in charging, or your
friend may not load as expeditiously as yourself.

[32] Never being allowed to grip conduces so much to making him
tender-mouthed, that, should he hereafter be permitted to lift his game,
it is probable he will deliver it up perfectly uninjured.

[33] I reserve this anecdote on account of its interest and applicability
to American readers.--H.W.H.

[34] In order to work in silence, I advised--XI. of 119--that the signal
to "heel" whenever the dog could observe it, should supersede the word
"dead." It might be necessary to sing out with a boat-swain's voice should
the dog be far off.



CHAPTER X.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONTINUED. ASSISTANT.


192. It is proper you should be warned that you must not always expect a
dog will "toho" the first day as readily as I have described, though most
will, and some--especially pointers--even more quickly, if they have been
previously well-drilled, and have been bred for several generations from
parents of pure blood.

I do not say bred in and in. Breeding in and in, to a certainty, would
enfeeble their intellects as surely as their constitutions. In this way
has many a kennel been deprived of the energy and endurance so essential
in a sportsman's dog.

193. As in the present instance, it often occurs that a dog is less
inclined to dash in at first than when he is more acquainted with birds.
He is suddenly arrested by the novelty of the scent, and it is not until
he is fully assured from what it proceeds that he longs to rush forward
and give chase. In autumnal breaking the dog gets his bird--it is killed
for him--he is satisfied--and therefore he has not the same temptation to
rush in as when he is shown birds in the spring.

194. If you find your dog, from excess of delight and exuberance of
spirits, less under general command than from his initiatory education you
had expected, and that he will not "toho" steadily at the exact spot at
which you order him, at once attach a checkcord to his collar. It will
diminish his pace, and make him more cautious and obedient. The moment you
next see him begin to feather, get up quickly, _but without running_, to
the end of the cord, and check him with a sudden jerk, if you are
satisfied that game is before him and that he ought to be pointing. If
from his attitude and manner you are _positive_ that there is game, drive
a spike--or peg--into the ground, and tie the cord to it. I only hope the
birds will remain stationary. If they do, you can give him a capital
lesson by remaining patiently alongside of him and then heading him and
the birds in the manner before described--178, 179.

195. As a general rule, an attendant or any companion cannot be
recommended, because he would be likely to distract a young dog's
attention; but an intelligent fellow who would readily obey your signals,
and not presume to speak, would doubtless, with a very wild dog, be an
advantageous substitute for the spike. You could then employ a longer and
slighter cord than usual, and, on the man's getting hold of the end of it,
be at once free to head and awe the dog. Whenever you had occasion to
stand still, the man would, of course, be as immovable as yourself.

Your signals to him might be:--

  The gun held up,--"Get near the dog."
  Your fist clenched,--"Seize the rope."
  Your fist shaken,--"Jerk the cord."
  Your hand spread open,--"Let go the cord."

Or any signs you pleased, so that you understood each other without the
necessity of speaking.

196. Should it ever be your misfortune to have to correct in a dog evil
habits caused by past mismanagement, such an attendant, if an active,
observant fellow, could give you valuable assistance, for he sometimes
would be able to seize the cord immediately the dog began "feathering,"
and generally would have hold of it before you could have occasion to
fire. But the fault most difficult to cure in an old dog is a bad habit of
ranging. If, as a youngster, he has been permitted to beat as his fancy
dictated, and _has not been instructed in looking to the gun for orders_,
you will have great, very great difficulty in reclaiming him. Probably he
will have adopted a habit of running for a considerable distance up wind,
his experience having shown him that it is one way of finding birds, but
not having taught him that to seek for them by crossing the wind would be
a better method.

The great advantage of teaching a dog to point the instant he is sensible
of the presence of birds--175--and of not creeping a foot further until he
is directed by you, is particularly apparent when birds are wild. While he
remains steady, the direction of his nose will lead you to give a
tolerable guess as to their "whereabouts," and you and your companion can
keep quite wide of the dog--one on each side,--and so approach the birds
from both flanks. They, meanwhile, finding themselves thus intercepted in
three directions, will probably lie so close as to afford a fair shot to
at least one gun, for they will not fail to see the dog and be awed by his
presence. Raise your feet well off the ground to avoid making a noise.
Walk quickly, but with no unnecessary flourish, of arms or gun.

197. You must not, however, too often try to work round and head your
pupil when he is pointing. Judgment is required to know when to do it with
advantage. If the birds were running, you would completely throw him out,
and greatly puzzle and discourage him, for they probably would then rise
out of shot, behind you if they were feeding up wind,--behind him if they
were feeding down wind. Far more frequently make him work out the scent by
his own sagacity and nose, and lead you up to the birds, every moment
bristling more and more, at a pace entirely controlled and regulated by
your signals. These being given with your right hand will be more
apparent to him if you place yourself on his left side. It is in this
manner that you give him a lesson which will _hereafter_ greatly aid him
in recovering slightly winged birds,--in pressing to a rise the
slow-winged, but nimble-heeled rail,--or in minutely following the devious
mazes through which an old cock pheasant, or yet more, an old cock grouse,
may endeavor to mislead him. And yet this lesson should not be given
before he is tolerably confirmed at his point, lest he should push too
fast on the scent; and make a rush more like the dash of a cocker than the
sober, convenient "road" of a setter. As his experience increases he will
thus acquire the valuable knowledge of the position of his game--he will
lead you to the centre of a covey, or what is of greater consequence--as
grouse spread--to the centre of a pack,--instead of allowing himself to be
attracted to a flank by some truant from the main body,--and thus get you
a good double shot, and enable you effectually to separate the birds--he
will, moreover, become watchful, and sensible of his distance from game--a
knowledge all important, and which, be it remarked, he never could gain in
turnips, or potatoes, or any thick cover.

198. There is another and yet stronger reason why you should not consider
it a rule always to head your young dog at his point. You may--although at
first it seems an odd caution to give--make him too stanch. This, to be
sure, signifies less with partridges than with most birds; but if you have
ever seen your dog come to a fixed point, and there, in spite of all your
efforts, remain provokingly immovable--plainly telling you of the vicinity
of birds, but that you must find them out for yourself--your admiration of
his steadiness has, I think, by no means reconciled you to the
embarrassing position in which it has placed you. I have often witnessed
this vexatious display of stanchness, although the owner cheered on the
dog in a tone loud enough to alarm birds two fields off.

199. A keeper will sometimes praise his dog for such stanchness; but it is
a great fault, induced probably by over-severity for former rashness,--and
the more difficult to be cured, if the animal is a setter, from the
crouching position he often naturally assumes when pointing.

200. I here desire to warn you against the too common error of fancying
that a young dog is making false points if birds do not get up directly.
They may have taken leg-bail, and thus have puzzled him in his
inexperience. Dogs not cowed by punishment will, after a little hunting,
seldom make false points, while they are unfatigued. To a certainty they
will not draw upon a false point for any distance: therefore, never punish
what is solely occasioned by over-caution. Your doing so would but
increase the evil. Self-confidence and experience are the only cures for a
fault that would be a virtue if not carried to excess. Even a good dog
will occasionally make a point at larks from over-caution when birds are
wild; but see the first note to 144.

201. After you have shot over a dog a short time, his manner and attitude
will enable you to guess pretty accurately whether birds are really before
him; whether they are far off or near; and whether or not they are on the
move. Generally speaking, the higher he carries his head, and the less he
stiffens his stern, the further off are the birds. If he begins to look
nervous, and become fidgety, you will seldom be wrong in fancying they are
on the run. But various, and at times most curious, are the methods that
dogs will adopt, _apparently_ with the wish to show you where the birds
are, and _certainly_ with the desire to get you a shot.



CHAPTER XI.

FIRST LESSON IN AUTUMN CONCLUDED. BAR. LEG STRAP. SPIKE COLLAR.


202. After a few trials you will, I hope, be able to dispense with the peg
recommended in 194, and soon after with the checkcord also. But if your
dog possesses unusually high spirits, or if he travels over the ground at
a pace which obviously precludes his making a proper use of his nose, it
may be advisable to fasten to his collar a bar, something like a
diminutive splinter-bar, that it may, by occasional knocking against his
shins, feelingly admonish him to lessen his stride. If he gets it between
his legs and thus finds it no annoyance, attach it to both sides of his
collar from points near the extremities. One of his forelegs might
occasionally be passed through the collar; but this plan is not so good as
the other; nor as the strap on the hind leg--56. These means--to be
discarded, however, as soon as obedience is established--are far better
than the _temporary_ ascendancy which some breakers establish by low diet
and excessive work, which would only weaken his spirits and his bodily
powers, without eradicating his self will, or improving his intellect. You
want to force him, when he is in the highest health and vigor, to learn by
experience the advantage of letting his nose dwell longer on a feeble
scent.

203. I have made no mention of the spiked collar, because it is a brutal
instrument, which none but the most ignorant or unthinking would employ.
It is a leather collar, into which nails, much longer than the thickness
of the collar, have been driven, with their points projecting inwards. The
French spike-collar is nearly as severe. It is formed of a series of
wooden balls,--larger than marbles,--linked--about two and a half inches
apart--into a chain by stiff wires bent into the form of hooks. These
sharp pointed hooks punish cruelly when the checkcord is jerked.

204. We have, however, a more modern description of collar, which is far
less inhuman than either of those I have mentioned, but still I cannot
recommend its adoption, unless in extreme cases; for though not so
severely, it, likewise, punishes the unfortunate dog, more or less, by the
strain of the checkcord he drags along the ground: and it ought to be the
great object of a good breaker as little as is possible to fret or worry
his pupil, that all his ideas may be engaged in an anxious wish to wind
birds. On a leather strap, which has a ring at one end, four wooden
balls--of about two inches in diameter--are threaded like beads, at
intervals from each other and the ring, say, of two inches--the exact
distance being dependent on the size of the dog's throat. Into each of the
balls sundry short pieces of thickish wire are driven, leaving about
one-sixth of an inch beyond the surface. The other end of the strap--to
which the checkcord is attached--is passed through the ring. This ring
being of somewhat less diameter than the balls, it is clear, however
severely the breaker may pull, he cannot compress the dog's throat beyond
a certain point. The effect of the short spikes is rather to crumple than
penetrate the skin.

205. I have long been sensible of the aid a spiked collar would afford in
reclaiming headstrong, badly educated dogs, if it could be used at the
moment--and only at the precise moment when punishment was required,--but
not until lately did it strike me how the collar could be carried so that
the attached cord should not constantly bear upon it, and thereby worry,
if not pain the dog. And had I again to deal with an old offender, who
incorrigibly crept in after pointing, or obstinately "rushed into dead,"
I should feel much disposed to employ a slightly spiked collar in the
following manner.

206. That the mere carrying the collar might not annoy the dog, I would
extract or flatten the nails fixed on the top of the collar, on the part,
I mean, that would lie on the animal's neck. This collar I would place on
his neck, in front of his common light collar. I would then firmly fasten
the checkcord, in the usual way, to the spiked collar; but, to prevent any
annoyance from dragging the checkcord, at about five or six inches from
the fastening just made I would attach it to the common collar, with very
slight twine--twine so slight that, although it would not give way to the
usual drag of the checkcord, however long, yet it would readily break on
my having to pull strongly against the wilful rush of an obstinate dog,
when, of course, the spikes would punish him, as the strain would then be
borne by the spiked collar alone.

207. Guided by circumstances, I would afterwards either remove the spiked
collar, or, if I conceived another bout necessary, refasten the checkcord
to the common collar with some of the thin twine, leaving, as before, five
or six inches of the checkcord loose between the two collars.

208. If you should ever consider yourself forced to employ a spiked
collar, do not thoughtlessly imagine that the same collar will suit all
dogs. The spikes for a thin coated pointer ought to be shorter than for a
coarse haired setter! You can easily construct one to punish with any
degree of severity you please. Take a common leather collar; lay its inner
surface flat on a soft deal board: through the leather drive with a hammer
any number of tacks or flat-headed nails: then get a cobbler to sew on
another strap of leather at the back of the nails, so as to retain them
firmly in position.

209. I have supposed that your dog has _scented_ the birds before they
rose, but if he springs them without having previously noticed them--as in
some rare cases happens even to well-bred dogs--you _must_ bring him back
to the spot at which you feel assured that he ought to have been sensible
of their presence, and _there_ make him "Toho." Afterwards endeavor to
make him aware of the haunt by encouraging him to sniff at the ground that
the birds have just left. The next time watch very carefully for the
_slightest_ indication of his feathering, and then instantly call out
"Toho." After a few times he will, to a certainty, understand you.

210. You should kill outright the few first birds at which you fire. I
would infinitely prefer that you should miss altogether than that one of
the two or three first birds should be a runner. Afterwards you have full
leave to merely wing a bird; but still I should wish it not to be too
nimble. This is a good trial of _your_ judgment as well as the dog's. I
hope he is to leeward of the bird, and that it will not catch his eye. See
he touches on the haunt. Do not let him work with his nose to the ground.
"Up, up," must be your encouraging words,--or "On, on," according to
circumstances,--whilst with your right hand--IV. of 119--you are
alternately urging and restraining him, so as to make him advance at a
suitable pace. From his previous education, not being flurried by any
undue dread of the whip, he will be enabled to give his undisturbed
attention, and devote all his faculties to follow unerringly the
retreating bird. But from inexperience he may wander from the haunt. On
perceiving this, bring him, by signals, back to the spot where he was
apparently last aware of the scent. He will again hit it off. If you view
the bird ever so far ahead, on no account run. I hope you will at length
observe it lie down. Head it, if possible, and strike it with your whip,
if you think you will be unable to seize it with your hand. Endeavor to
prevent its fluttering away;--it is too soon to subject the youngster to
such a severe trial of his nerves and steadiness. Then,--having put the
poor creature out of its misery, by piercing its skull, or rapping its
head against your gun, as before--180--show your dog the gratifying prize
which your combined exertions have gained.

211. Should he unluckily have caught sight of the running bird, and, in
spite of all your calls, have rushed forward and seized it, you ought to
have proceeded as described in 221. Clearly, however, you would not have
dragged the dog back to the place where he "down charged," but merely to
the spot from which he had made his unlawful rush. If the bird had been
very active, it would have been far better to have fired at it a second
time--while it was running--than to have incurred the risk of making your
dog unsteady by a wild pursuit. Suppose that it was not winged, but rose
again on your approaching it, and fluttered off,--a hard trial for the
young dog,--you must, however, have made him bear it, and obey your loud
command to "drop,"--you would--or should--have taken another shot, and
have proceeded in exactly the same manner as if this had been your first
find--179, 180.

212. As the wounded bird was to windward of the dog, the course to follow
was obvious,--it was plain sailing; but the case would have varied greatly
if the dog had been to windward. Had you pursued the usual plan, he must
have roaded the bird by the "foot;" and the danger is, that in allowing
him to do so, you may create in him the evil habit of hunting with his
nose close to the ground, which is, above all things, to be deprecated.
You have another mode--you can "lift" the dog--I suppose you know the
meaning of that hunting term,--and make him take a large circuit, and so
head the bird, and then proceed as if it had fallen to windward.

213. The latter plan would avoid all risk of your making him a potterer,
and it is, I think, to be recommended, if you find him naturally inclined
to hunt low. But the former method, as a lesson in "footing," must be
often resorted to, that he may learn unhesitatingly to distinguish the
"heel" from the "toe," and how to push an old cock-grouse, or to flush a
pheasant running through cover, or the red-legged, I was nearly saying,
the everlasting-legged partridge;[35] and, indeed, generally, how to draw
upon his birds, and with confidence lead you to a shot, when they are upon
the move and running down wind.--See end of 98; and for further
directions, and for "seeking dead" with two dogs, look at 296. The heavy
Spanish pointer, from his plodding perseverance and great olfactory
powers, was an excellent hand at retrieving a slightly injured bird on a
broiling, bad scenting day.

214. When I advised you--180--to let the dog "have plenty of time to make
out the bird," I spoke from personal experience, and from a vivid
recollection of errors committed in my novitiate. A young hand is too apt
to imagine that every bird which falls to his gun is killed outright, and
lying dead on the spot where it fell. He will, therefore, often
impatiently, and most injudiciously, call away the dog who, at a little
distance, may have hit-off the trail of the winged bird, and be "footing"
it beautifully.

215. If in these lessons you should lose one or two wounded birds, though
it might not be a matter of any moment to yourself personally, it would be
extremely vexatious on the dog's account, because, in this early stage of
his education, it would tend to discourage him. The feeling which you must
anxiously foster in him is this, that after the word "find"[36] the
search must never be relinquished, even though he be constrained to hunt
from morning till night. And it is clear that to make an abiding, valuable
impression, this lesson must be inculcated on the several first occasions
with unremitting, untiring diligence.

216. Persevere, therefore, for an hour, rather than give up a wounded
bird. Join in the search yourself. Even if you see where it lies, do not
pick it up hastily. On the contrary, leave it, but mark well the spot.
Keep on the move. Hold your gun as if in expectation of a rise. Pretend to
seek for the bird in every direction, even for a good half hour, if you
can encourage your dog to hunt so long. If, indeed, you see him flag, and
get wearied and dispirited, gradually bring him close, but to leeward of
the spot where the bird lies, in order to make him "point dead" and be
rewarded for all his diligence by finding it himself. Let him, also, have
a good sniff at it and nose it--but let there be no biting or
mouthing--before you put it into the bag. Otherwise, what return has he
for the pains he has taken?

217. It is no conclusive argument against the practice of allowing him to
"nose," that many first-rate dogs have never been so indulged. It is
certain that they would not have been worse if they had; and many a dog,
that would otherwise have been extremely slack, has been incited to hunt
with eagerness from having been so rewarded. There are dogs who, from
having been constantly denied all "touseling," will not even give
themselves the trouble of searching for any bird which they have seen
knocked over, much less think of pointing it. They seem satisfied with
this ocular evidence of its death; for, odd to say, these very dogs will
often zealously obey the order to hunt for any bird whose fall they have
not noticed; but on winding it they will indulge in no more than a passing
sniff,--which sniff, unless you are watchful, you may not observe, and so
lose your bird. Never fail, therefore, to let your pupil ruffle the
feathers a little, while you bestow on him a caress or kind word of
approbation. You then incite to perseverance, by, even with dogs, a very
abiding motive,--"self-interest;" but mind the important rule, that his
"nosing" be only _when_ the bird is in your possession, not _before_ it is
in your possession. If you wish to establish for ever a confirmed
perseverance in "seeking dead," you must sacrifice _hours_--I say it
seriously--rather than give up any of the first wounded birds. Be
persuaded that every half hour spent in an unremitting search for _one_
bird, if ultimately successful, will more benefit the young dog than your
killing a _dozen_ to him, should you bag them the moment you are reloaded.
Of course you would not, when you are giving such a lesson in
perseverance, fire at another bird, even if it sprang at your feet,--for
your doing so, whether you missed or killed, would unsettle the young dog,
and make him relinquish his search. Be stimulated to present exertion by
the conviction, that if he be not _now_ well instructed, you must expect
him to lose, season after season, nearly every bird only slightly disabled
by a merely tipped wing.

218. I hope you will not say, as would most of our neighbors[37] on the
other side of the Channel: "But if, instead of waiting to load, I had gone
after the winged bird just as it fell, when first I saw it start off
running, the evil you have now spoken of--215--could not have occurred,
for there would have been but little risk of losing it." Probably not, but
you would almost have ruined your dog; and to secure this one bird, in all
likelihood you would subsequently lose a hundred.[38] How could you with
justice blame him if, when next you killed, he rushed headlong after the
bird--instead of dropping patiently to the "down charge"--and so sprung a
dozen birds while you were unloaded?

219. Perhaps you will say, "You tell me to fire at a running bird, but
when a winged cock-pheasant or red-legged partridge is racing off _out of
shot_, how am I to get it if I proceed in the slow, methodical manner you
advise? May it not lead me an unsuccessful dance for an hour, if I do not
allow the dog to shoot ahead and seize?" It may--but I hope months will
pass before you witness such agility--and this shows that those who do not
employ a retriever, and yet are sticklers for a setter's--or
pointer's--never being permitted to touch a feather, must on such
occasions get into a dilemma; and, unless they are willing to lose the
bird, must plead guilty to the inconsistency of being pleased--however
loudly they may roar out "Toho," "ware dead,"--when they see their dog, in
defiance of all such calls, disable it by a sudden grip. This plan, though
frequently followed, cannot be correct. They blame the dog for doing what
they really wish! and if he be too tender-mouthed to injure the bird, he
keeps them at top speed, while he is alternately picking up the
unfortunate creature--acting on his natural impulses--and letting it fall,
on being rated. I therefore repeat, that even if you do not wish your dog
constantly to retrieve--292--you would still act judiciously in teaching
him as a puppy to fetch--86--for then he will give chase to the winged
bird, and bring it to you _on getting the order_, instead of permitting
it to escape for a fresh _burst_, or carrying it off, as I have seen done.
You thus maintain discipline. The dog will do what you wish, in obedience
to orders,--not in opposition to orders. The sticklers for dogs never
being allowed to nose a feather ought, unless they are quite willing to
give up slightly-winged birds, not to shrink from the difficult task of
teaching their pupils to stop and retain with their paws.

220. We have only spoken of instances 180, 210, 212, in which all has gone
on smoothly, the dog most obediently dropping to shot and permitting _you_
to take up the bird notwithstanding the poor creature's death-struggles.
Suppose, however, and this may probably happen, that he does not restrain
himself at the "down charge," but, in spite of all your calls and signals,
rushes forward, yet yields to your menaces and halts in mid-career. It is
well--your course is clear; you have to lug him back and threaten and
lecture him. But should he not check himself until he sniffs the game, his
stop then becomes a "point;" and if he is of a timid disposition, or has
ever evinced any disposition to blink, you dare not force him to retrace
his steps lest he should mistake your motives, and fancy himself
encouraged to abandon his point. If you merely make him "down charge," you
violate the axiom named in 255. In short you are in a difficulty. It is a
nice case, in which your own judgment of the dog's character can alone
decide you.

221. But, if from inadequate initiatory instruction--for I will maintain
that such marked rebellion can arise from no other cause--in the
excitement of the moment he actually rushes in and seizes the bird, he
must be punished, I am sorry to say it; but however much we may deplore
it, _he must_; for he has been guilty of great disobedience, and he well
knows that he has been disobedient. But the temptation was strong, perhaps
too strong, for canine nature--that is to say, for canine nature not early
taught obedience. The wounded bird was fluttering within sight and
hearing--it was, too, the first he had ever seen,--and this is almost his
first glaring act of disobedience; be therefore merciful, though firm.
Make him "drop." Get up to him at once. Probably he will relinquish his
grip of the bird; if not, make him give it up to you, but do not pull it
from him: that would only increase the temptation to tear it. Lay it on
the ground. Then drag him back to the spot from which he rushed; there
make him lie down. Rate him. Call out "Toho."[39] Crack the whip over
him--and, I am pained to add, make use of it--but moderately, not
severely. Three or four cuts will be enough, provided he has not torn the
bird; if he has, his chastisement must be greater. Let him now have one
nibble without punishment, and soon a whole carcase will not suffice for
his morning's meal. Do not strike him across the body, but lengthwise.

222. An ill-tempered dog might attempt to bite you. Prevent the
possibility of his succeeding, by grasping and twisting his collar with
your left hand, still keeping him at the "down." Consider coolly whether
you are flagellating a thick-coated dog, or one with a skin not much
coarser than your own. Pause between each cut; and, that he may comprehend
why he is punished, call out several times, but not loudly,
"Toho--bad--toho," and crack your whip. Let your last strokes be milder
and milder, until they fall in the gentlest manner--a manner more
calculated to awaken reflection than give pain. When the chastisement is
over stand close in front of him, the better to awe him, and prevent his
thinking of bolting. Put the whip quietly in your pocket, but still remain
where you are, occasionally rating and scolding him while you are loading;
gradually, however, becoming milder in manner that he may be sensible that
though your dissatisfaction at his conduct continues, his punishment is
over--241 to 242. Indeed, if you have any fear of his becoming too timid,
you may at length fondle him a little, provided that while you so
re-encourage him, you continue to say "Toho--toho," most
impressively--then, giving him the wind, go up together to the bird and
make him "point dead" close to it. Take it up, and let him fumble the
feathers before you loop it on the bag.

223. Never let a dog whom you have been forced to chastise bolt or creep
away until you order him. If he is ever allowed to move off at _his_ wish,
he will improve upon the idea, and on the next occasion will far too soon
anticipate _yours_. And do not send him off until he has given some
evidence of having forgiven you, and of his desire to be reconciled, by
crawling towards you, for instance, or wagging his tail. On no
occasion--under circumstances of ever such great provocation--be so weak
or irritable--but I hope you do not need the warning--as to give him a
kick or a blow when he is going off. He ought to have stood with reassured
confidence alongside of you, for perhaps a minute or so, before you
sanctioned his departure; and the severer his punishment the longer should
have been the detention. You are always to part tolerable friends, while
he feels perfectly convinced that his chastisement is over. If you do not,
you may find it rather difficult to catch him when he commits another
fault. It will be owing to your own injudiciousness if he ever becomes
afraid of approaching you after making a blunder. Should he be so, sit
down. He will gradually draw near you; then quietly put your hand on his
collar.

224. If a man cannot readily get hold of any dog under his tuition whom he
desires to rate or punish, you may be certain that he fails either in
temper or judgment; perhaps in both. He may be an excellent man; but he
cannot be a good dog-breaker. There are men who get quite enraged at a
dog's not coming instantly to "heel," on being called. When at length the
poor brute does come within reach, he gets a blow, perhaps a licking--a
blow or licking, he has the sense to see he should have longer avoided had
he stayed longer away. Thus the punishment increases instead of remedying
the evil.

225. Never correct or even rate a dog, in the mere _belief_ that he is in
error; be first _convinced_ of his guilt. If you have good reason to
suspect that unseen by you he has wilfully sprung birds, still rather give
him an earnest caution than any severer rebuke. It is not easy to repair
the mischief occasioned by unjust punishment. When from his sheepish look,
or any other cause, you imagine that he has raised game, either through
heedlessness or from their being unusually wild, be sure to give him a
short lecture, and accompany him to the haunt. A lingering bird may
occasionally reward you. If his manner has led you to form an incorrect
opinion, your warning can have no other effect than to increase his
caution--rarely an undesirable result;--and if you are right the
admonition is obviously most judicious.

226. Let me caution you against the too common error of punishing a dog by
pulling his ears. It has often occasioned bad canker. Some men are of
opinion that it is frequently the cause of premature deafness. When you
rate him you may lay hold of an ear and shake it, but not with violence.

227. I would strongly recommend you always to make your young dog "drop"
for half-a-minute or so, when he, sees a hare; or when he hears a bird
rise.[40] To effect this, stand still yourself. After a few seconds you
can either hie him on, or, which is yet better, get close to him if you
expect other birds to spring. You will thus, especially in potatoes or
turnips, often obtain shots at birds which would have made off, had he
continued to hunt, and early in the season be frequently enabled to bag
the tail-bird of a covey. This plan will also tend to make him cautious,
and prevent his getting a habit of blundering-up birds, and cunningly
pretending not to have noticed their escape. It will also make him less
inclined to chase hares and rabbits, or rush at a fallen bird.

228. On approaching a piece of turnips, you may have heard, "Let us couple
up all the dogs excepting Old Don:" the veteran's experience having shown
him, that the only effect of his thundering through them would be to scare
every bird and make it rise out of shot. _You_, on the contrary, when your
pupil is well confirmed in his range, and has some knowledge of his
distance from game, ought to wish the other dogs kept to
"Heel"--especially when the seed has been broadcast,--that by the word
"Care" and the right hand slightly raised you may instil into him the
necessary caution and so, by judicious tuition, give him the benefit of
your own experience. Most probably you would be obliged to employ the
checkcord,[41] which I presume to be always at hand ready for occasional
use. Or you might strap your shot-belt round his throat, for it is
essential that he traverse such ground slowly, and greatly contract his
range--see 145. The several cross scents he will encounter should afford
him a valuable lesson in detecting the most recent, and in discriminating
between the "heel and toe" of a run. Be patient,--give him time to work,
and consider what he is about. It is probable that he will frequently
overrun the birds on their doubling back, and imagine that they are gone.
Should he do so, bring him again on the spot where he appeared to lose the
scent. He now rushes up the adjacent drill. "Slower, slower," signals your
right arm; "go no faster than I can walk comfortably." On the other hand,
the birds may lie like stones. Not until you have remained nearly a minute
alongside of him let him urge them to rise; and make him effect this, not
by a sudden dash, but by steadily pressing on the scent. Bear in mind, as
before warned--143--that the confidence with which he can here creep on to
a near find may lead, if he is now mismanaged, to his springing on future
occasions, from want of care, many a bird at which he ought to get you a
shot.

229. If you can contrive it, let your pupil have some little experience in
the field before you give him a real lesson in "Gone"--or "Flown." Instead
of being perplexed, he will then comprehend you. Should you, therefore,
during the first few days of hunting him, see birds make off in lieu of
taking him to the haunt--as many breakers erroneously do,--carefully keep
him from the spot. You cannot let him run riot over the reeking scent
without expecting him to do the same when next he finds; and if, in
compliance with your orders, he points, you are making a fool of
him--there is nothing before him; and if he does not fancy you as
bewildered as himself, he will imagine that the exhilarating effluvia he
rejoices in is the sum total you both seek. This advice, at first sight,
may appear to contradict that given in 111 and 209; but look again, and
you will find that those paragraphs referred to peculiar cases. Should
your young dog be loitering and sniffing at a haunt which he has _seen_
birds quit, he cannot well mistake the meaning of your calling out, "Gone,
gone."

FOOTNOTES:

[35] The speed with which one of these extremely beautiful, but in every
other respect far, far inferior partridges will run, when only slightly
wounded, is quite marvellous.

[36] The force of the word "Dead"--preceding the command "Find"--that
joyous, exciting note of triumph--ought never to be lessened by being
employed, as I have heard it, to stimulate a dog to hunt when no bird is
down; or, like the shepherd-boy's cry of "Wolf! wolf!" it will have little
influence at the moment when it should most animate to unremitting
exertions.

[37] In favor of such unsportsman-like haste they ingeniously argue that a
continued noise after firing makes birds lie, from attracting their
attention. They say that a sudden change to quiet--and a great change it
must be, for a _chasseur_ is always talking--alarms the birds. As an
evidence of this, they adduce the well-known fact of its frequently
happening that a partridge gets up the moment the guns have left the spot,
though no previous noise had induced it to stir.

[38] Had you lost the bird from there being but little scent, it is
probable you might have found it by renewing your search on your return
homewards in the evening. If a runner, it would most likely have rejoined
the covey.

[39] "Toho," rather than "Drop,"--your object now being to make him stand
at, and prevent his mouthing game; for you are satisfied that he would
have "down charged" had the bird been missed.

[40] Of course, with the proviso that he is not pointing at another
bird--187.

[41] Lest the cord should cut the turnip-tops, it might be better to
employ the elastic band spoken of in 56.



CHAPTER XII.

SHOOTING HARES. COURAGE IMPARTED.--"BACKING" TAUGHT.


230. Probably you may be in a part of the country where you may wish to
kill hares to your dog's point. I will, therefore, speak about them,
though I confess I cannot do it with much enthusiasm. Ah! my English
friend, what far happier autumns we should spend could we but pass them in
the Highlands! Then we should think little about those villanous hares. We
should direct the whole _undivided_ faculties of our dogs, to work out
the haunt of the noble grouse.[42] As for rabbits, I beg we may have no
further acquaintance, if you ever even in imagination, shoot them to your
young dog. Should you be betrayed into so vile a practice, you must resign
all hope of establishing in him a confirmed systematic range. He will
degenerate into a low potterer,--a regular hedge-hunter. In turnips he
will always be thinking more of rabbits than birds. It will be soon enough
to shoot the little wretches to him when he is a venerable grandfather.
The youngster's noticing them--which he would be sure to do if you had
ever killed one to him--might frequently lead to your mis-instructing him,
by earnestly enforcing "Care" at a moment when you ought to rate him
loudly with the command "Ware"--or "No." But to our immediate subject.

231. Defer as long as possible the evil day of shooting a hare over him,
that he may not get too fond--65--of such vermin--I beg pardon, I mean
game--and when you do kill one, so manage that he may not see it put into
the bag. On no account let him mouthe it. You want him to love the pursuit
of feather more than of fur, that he may never be taken off the faintest
scent of birds by coming across the taint of a hare. I therefore entreat
you, during his first season, if you will shoot hares, to fire only at
those which you are likely to kill outright; for the taint of a wounded
hare is so strong that it would probably diminish his zeal, and the
sensitiveness of his nose, in searching for a winged bird.

232. The temptation is always great to quit for a strong scent of
hare--which any coarse-nosed dog can follow--a feeble one of birds;
therefore it is a very satisfactory test of good breaking to see a dog,
when he is drawing upon birds, in no way interrupted by a hare having just
crossed before him. If you aim at such excellence, and it is frequently
attained in the Highlands, it is certain you must not shoot hares over
your youngster.

233. I hope that he will not see a hare before you have shot a few birds
over him. The first that springs up near him will test the perfection to
which he has attained in his initiatory lessons. Lose not a moment. It is
most essential to restrain instantaneously the naturally strong impulse of
the dog to run after four-footed game. Halloo out "Drop" to the extent of
your voice,--raise your hand,--crack your whip,--do all you can to prevent
his pursuing. Of course you will not move an inch. Should he commence
running, thunder out "No," "no." If, in spite of everything, he bolts
after the hare, you have nothing for it but patience. It's no use to give
yourself a fit of asthma by following him. You have only half as many legs
as he has--a deficiency you would do well to keep secret from him as long
as possible. Wait quietly where you are--for an hour if necessary. You
have one consolation,--puss, according to her usual custom, has run down
wind,--your dog has lost sight of her, and is, I see, with his nose to the
ground, giving himself an admirable lesson in reading out a haunt. After a
time he will come back looking rather ashamed of himself, conscious that
he did wrong in disobeying, and vexed with himself from having more than a
suspicion forced upon him, that he cannot run so fast as the hare. When he
has nearly reached you, make him "drop." Scold him severely, saying, "Ware
chase"--a command that applies to the chase of birds as well as of
hares.--Pull him to the place where he was when first he got a view of the
hare,--make him lie down--rate him well,--call out "No," or "Hare," or
"Ware chase," or any word you choose, provided you uniformly employ the
same. Smack the whip and punish him with it, but not so severely as you
did when we assumed that he tore the bird--end of 221. You then flogged
him for two offences: first, because he rushed in and seized the bird;
secondly, because he tore it and _tasted_ blood. If you had not then
punished him severely, you could never have expected him to be
tender-mouthed. On the next occasion he might have swallowed the bird,
feathers and all.

234. Should he persist in running after hares, you must employ the
checkcord. If you see the hare, at which he is pointing, in its form,
drive a peg firmly into the ground, and attach the cord to it, giving him
a few slack yards, so that after starting off he may be arrested with a
tremendous jerk. Fasten the line to the part of the spike close to the
ground, or he may pull it out.

235. I have known a dog to be arrested in a headlong chase by a shot fired
at him--an act which you will think yet more reprehensible than the
previous mismanagement for which his owner apparently knew no other remedy
than this hazardous severity.

236. When you are teaching your dog to refrain from chasing hares, take
him, if you can, where they are plentiful. If they are scarce, and you are
in the neighborhood of a rabbit-warren, visit it occasionally of an
evening. He will there get so accustomed to see the little animals running
about unpursued by either of you, that his natural anxiety to chase fur,
whether it grow on the back of hare or rabbit, will be gradually
diminished.

237. In Scotland there are tracts of heather where one may hunt for weeks
together and not find a hare; indeed, it is commonly observed, that hares
are always scarce on those hills where grouse most abound. In other parts
they are extremely numerous. Some sports men in the Highlands avail
themselves of this contrasted ground in order to break a young dog from
"chasing." They hunt him, as long as he continues fresh, where there are
no hares; and when he becomes tired, they take him to the Lowlands, where
they are plentiful. By then killing a good many over him, and severely
punishing him whenever he attempts to follow, a cure is often effected in
two or three days. In the yet higher ranges, the mountain-hares, from
possessing a peculiarly strong scent, and not running to a distance, are a
severe trial to the steadiest dog.

238. Killing a sitting hare to your dog's point will wonderfully steady
him from chasing; but do not fire until he has remained stanch for a
considerable time. This will show him that puss is far more likely to be
bagged by _your_ firing than by _his_ pursuing.

239. For the same object,--I mean to make your young dog stanch,--I would
recommend your killing a few birds on the ground to his point were it not
that you rarely have the opportunity.

240. When you have made your dog perfectly steady from chasing you
may--supposing you have no retriever at hand,--naturally enough, inquire
how you are to teach him to follow any hare you may be so unlucky as
merely to wound. I acknowledge that the task is difficult. I would say, at
once resolve to give up every wounded hare during his first season.[43]
The following year, provided you find that he remains quite steady, on
your wounding an unfortunate wretch, encourage your dog to pursue it by
running yourself after it. When he gets hold of it, check him if he mauls
it, and take it from him as quickly as possible. As I cannot suppose that
you are anxious to slaughter every hare you see, let the next two or three
go off without a shot. This forbearance will re-steady him, and after a
while his own sagacity and nose--297--will show him that the established
usage was departed from solely because puss was severely struck.

241. As you wish to flog your dog as little as possible, never go out
without your whip, paradoxical as this may appear. The dog's salutary awe
of the implement which he sees in your possession, like a horse's
consciousness of your heel being armed with a spur, will tend to keep him
in order. If your dog is a keen ranger, you may much spare the whip by
making him crouch at your feet for several minutes after he has committed
a fault. The detention will be felt by him, when he is all anxiety to be
off hunting, as a severe punishment. If he is a mettlesome, high-couraged
animal, he will regard as a yet severer punishment his being compelled to
follow at your heels for half-an-hour, while the other dogs are allowed
the enjoyment of hunting.

242. Excess of punishment has made many a dog of good promise a confirmed
blinker; and of far more has it quenched that keen ardor for the sport,
without which no dog can be first-rate. For this reason, if not from more
humane motives, make it a rule to give but few cuts; let them, however, be
tolerably severe. Your pupil's recollection of them, when he hears the
crack of the whip, will prevent the necessity of their frequent
repetition.

243. I knew of a young fellow's purchasing a pointer of an excellent breed
from a gamekeeper for a _few shillings_ merely, as the animal had become
so timid from over-chastisement, that she not only blinked her game, but
seldom quitted the man's heels. The lad had the good sense to treat the
bitch, at all times, with the greatest kindness: and in order to induce
her to hunt, he used to break off the feet of every bird he killed, and
give them to her to eat along with the sinews. The plan succeeded so well
that she eventually became an unusually keen and fast ranger. This would
be a hazardous step to take with a dog wanted to retrieve. There are few,
if any dogs who may not be tempted by hunger to eat game. A gentleman told
me, that, to his great astonishment, he one day saw an old tender-mouthed
retriever, that he had possessed for years, deliberately swallow a
partridge. Before he could get up to the dog even the tail-feathers had
disappeared. On inquiry it turned out that, through some neglect, the
animal had not been fed.

244. Some argue that blinking arises from a defective nose, not from
punishment; but surely it is the injudicious chastisement following the
blunders caused by a bad nose that makes a dog, through fear, go to "heel"
when he winds birds. A bad nose may lead to a dog's running up birds from
not noticing them, but it cannot _naturally_ induce him to run away from
them. Possibly he may be worthless from a deficiency in his olfactory
powers; but it is hard to conceive how these powers can be improved by a
dread of doing mischief when he finds himself near game. Some dogs that
have been unduly chastised do not even betray themselves by running to
"heel," but cunningly slink away from their birds without giving you the
slightest intimation of their vicinity. I have seen such instances. When a
young dog, who has betrayed symptoms of blinking, draws upon birds, _head_
him, if you can, before you give him the order to "toho:" he will then
have such a large circuit to make, that he will feel the less tempted to
run to your heels.

245. Obedience and intelligence are, as I have already remarked, best
secured by judicious ratings and encouragements--scoldings for bad
conduct,--praise, caresses, and rewards for good. Never forget, therefore,
to have some delicacy in your pocket to give the youngster whenever he may
deserve it. All dogs, however, even the most fearful, ought to be made
able to bear a little punishment. If, _unfortunately_, your dog is
constitutionally timid--I cannot help saying _unfortunately_, though so
many of the sort have fine noses--the whip must be employed with the
greatest gentleness, the lash being rather laid on the back than used,
until such forbearance, and many caresses before his dismissal, have
gradually banished the animal's alarm, and ultimately enabled you to give
him a very slight beating, on his misconducting himself, without any
danger of making him blink. By such means, odd as it may sound, you
_create_ courage, and with it give him self-confidence and range.

246. A judiciously-educated dog will know as well as you do whether or not
he has earned a chastisement, and many a one is of so noble a nature that
he will not wish to avoid it if he is conscious that he deserves it. He
will become as anxious for good sport as you are, and feel that he ought
to be punished, if from his own misconduct he mars it. Indeed, he will not
have much opinion of your sagacity if you do not then give him a sound
rating, or let him have a taste of the lash, though it matters not how
slight. Clearly this feeling, which it will be right to foster, must have
arisen from his belief that you are always conscious of his
actions--262--therefore never check him for coming towards you on his
committing any unseen error. Moreover, when he has been but a little shot
to, you will find that if you abstain from firing at a bird which through
his fault he has improperly flushed, although in its flight it affords you
an excellent shot, you will greatly vex him; and this will tend to make
him-more careful for the future.

247. When, after a few weeks, you perceive that the youngster has
confidence in himself, and is likely to hunt independently, not
deferentially following the footsteps of an older companion, take out a
well-broken dog with him, that you may have the opportunity of teaching
him to "back." Be careful to choose one not given to make false points;
for if he commits such mistakes, your pupil will soon utterly disregard
his pointing. Select also one who draws upon his birds in a fine,
determined attitude; not one to whose manner even _you_ must be habituated
to feel certain he is on game. Be watchful to prevent your dog ever
hunting in the wake of the other, which, in the humility of canine youth,
he probably will, unless you are on the alert to wave him in a different
direction, the moment you observe him inclined to seek the company of his
more experienced associate. By selecting a slow old dog you will probably
diminish the wish of the young one to follow him; for it is likely that
the youngster's eagerness will make him push on faster, and so take the
lead.

248. The example for a _few_ days--but only for a few days--of a good
stanch dog who is not a hedge-hunter,--has no bad habits, and does not
require being called to--will be advantageous to your inexperienced
animal.

249. On the old dog's pointing, catch the eye of the young one. If you
cannot readily do so, and are not afraid of too much alarming the birds,
call to the old fellow by name, and desire him to "toho." The order will
make the young one look round, and awaken him to a suspicion of what is
going forward. Hold up your right arm--stand still for a minute--and then,
carrying your gun as if you were prepared momentarily to fire, retreat, or
move sideways in crab-like fashion towards the old dog, continuing your
signal to the other to remain steady, and turning your face to him, so
that he may be restrained by the feeling that your eye is constantly fixed
upon him. He will soon remark the attitude of the old dog, and almost
intuitively guess its meaning. Should the old one draw upon his game,
still the other dog must remain stationary. If he advance but an inch,
rate him. Should he rush up--which is hardly to be expected--at him at
once;--having made him drop, catch hold of him, and drag him to the place
at which he should have backed--there--if you judge such strong measures
necessary--peg him down until after you have had your shot and are
reloaded. If by heading the birds you can drive them towards the young
dog, do so; and aim at the one most likely to fall near him. Endeavor to
make him comprehend that any sign or word to urge on or retard the leading
dog in no way applies to him. This he will soon understand, if he has been
properly instructed with an associate in the initiatory lesson described
in 45. After you have picked up the bird let him sniff at it.

250. It is most important that the dog which first winds birds should be
allowed to "road" them to a spring without being flurried, or in any way
interfered with by another dog. Few things are more trying to your temper
as a sportsman, than to see a self-sufficient cub, especially when birds
are wild, creep up to the old dog whom he observes pointing at a distance,
or cautiously drawing upon a covey. The young whipper-snapper pays no
attention to your most energetic signals: you are afraid to speak lest
you should alarm the birds, and before you can catch hold of the
presumptuous jackanapes, he not only steals close to the good old dog, but
actually ventures to head him; nay, possibly dares to crawl on yet nearer
to the birds in the hope of enjoying a more intoxicating sniff.

251. All dogs but the "finder" should stand wholly by sight,--just the
reverse of pointing. Your dog's nose ought to have nothing to do with
backing. If you permit it, he will get the abominable habit of creeping up
to his companions in the manner just described--250--when he observes them
to be winding birds; and though he may not presume to take the lead, nay,
even keep at so respectful a distance as in no way to annoy the "finder,"
yet a longing to inhale the "grateful steam"--as that good poet and
capital sportsman, Somerville, terms it--will make him constantly watch
the other dogs, instead of bestowing his undivided attention and faculties
upon finding game for himself. It is quite enough if he backs whenever you
order him, or he accidentally catches sight of another dog either
"pointing" or "roading;" and the less he is looking after his companions,
the more zealously will he attend to his own duties.

252. If you have any fears that the old dog when he is on birds will not
act steadily, should you have occasion to chide the young one, be careful
to give the old dog a word expressive of your approval, before you
commence to rate the other.

253. When your youngster is hereafter hunted in company, should he make a
point, and any intrusive companion, instead of properly backing him, be
impertinently pressing on, the youngster should not be induced--however
great may be the trial upon his patience and forbearance--to draw one foot
nearer to the game than his own knowledge of distance tells him is
correct; not even if his friend, or rather, jealous rival, boldly assumes
the front rank. Your pupil will have a right to look to you for
protection, and to expect that the rash intruder, however young, be _at
the least_ well rated.

254. It is a matter of little moment whether the "backer" attends to the
"down charge," or continues to back as long as the other dog remains at
his point. It appears, however, best that he should "drop," unless he is
so near that he winds the game, when he would be rather pointing than
backing--and should, consequently, behave as explained in 187;--for the
fewer exceptions there are to general rules the more readily are the rules
observed.

255. Should both dogs make separate points at the same moment, it is clear
that neither can back the other. They must act independently--each for
himself. Moreover, your firing over one should not induce the other to
"down charge," or in any way divert his attention from his own birds. He
ought to remain as immovable as a statue. Some dogs, whose high courage
has not been damped by over-correction, will do this from their own
sagacity; but to enable you to _teach_ them to behave thus steadily, game
should be plentiful. When you are lucky enough to observe both dogs
pointing at the same time, let your fellow-sportsman--or your
attendant--flush and fire at the birds found by the older dog, while you
remain stationary near the young one, quietly but earnestly cautioning him
to continue firm. When your companion has reloaded and picked up his
game--and made the other dog "back,"--let him join you and knock over the
bird at which your pupil is pointing. It will not be long before he--your
young dog--understands what is required of him, if he has been
practised--as recommended in 187--not to "down charge" when pointing
unsprung birds. In short, it may be received as an axiom, that _nothing
ought to make a dog voluntarily relinquish a point so long as he winds
birds; and nothing but the wish to continue his point should make him
neglect the "down charge" the instant he hears the near report of a gun_.

FOOTNOTES:

[42] A superior dog on grouse more easily becomes good on partridge than
a superior partridge-dog becomes good on grouse. Grouse run so much,
both when they are pairing, and after the first flight of the young
pack, that a dog broken on them has necessarily great practice in
"roading,"--"roading," too, with the nose carried high to avoid strong
heather--a valuable instructor,--whereas the dog broken on partridge
often becomes impatient, and breaks away when he first finds grouse. The
former dog, moreover, will learn not to "break fence," and the necessity
of moderating his pace when hunting stubbles and turnips, sooner than
the latter will acquire the extensive fast beat so desirable on heather,
where he can work for hours uninterrupted by hedge, ditch, or furrow;
making casts to the right and left a quarter of a mile in length. First
impressions are as strong in puppyhood as in childhood; therefore the
advantage of having such ground to commence on must be obvious. There
are, however, favored spots in Perthshire, &c., where game so abounds
that close rangers are as necessary as when hunting in England. Alas!
even the grouse-dog will take far too quickly to hedge hunting; and
pottering when on the stubbles. It is, of course, presumed that he is
broken from "chasing hare"--a task his trainer must have found
difficult--though none are ever shot to him--from the few that,
_comparatively_ speaking, his pupil could have seen. Independently,
however, of want of pace and practice in roading, it never would be fair
to take a dog direct from the Lowlands to contend on the Highlands with
one habituated to the latter,--and _vice versâ_, for the stranger would
always be placed to great disadvantage. A _faint_ scent of game which
the other would instantly recognise, he would not acknowledge from being
wholly unaccustomed to it. Sometimes, however, a grouse dog of a
ticklish temper will not bear being constantly called to on "breaking
fence." A fine, free-ranging pointer, belonging to one of the brothers
Hy, when brought to an enclosed country, became quite subdued and
dispirited. He could not stand the rating he received for bounding over
the hedges, and he evidently derived no enjoyment from the sport, though
there were plenty of birds. On returning to the Highlands, he quite
recovered his animation and perseverance. He added another to the many
evidences that dogs are most attached to, and _at home_ on, the kind of
country they first hunted.

This note is applicable to the pointer, used to the pinnated grouse on the
Prairies, when brought into close shooting on quail, &c. H.W.H.

[43] This appears extremely cruel; remember, however, that I entreated you
to abstain entirely from shooting hares; but if you would not make this
sacrifice, at least "only to fire at those which you were likely to kill
outright"--231.



CHAPTER XIII.

HINTS TO PURCHASERS. SHEEP KILLING.


256. When your dog has been properly taught the "back," fail not to
recommence hunting him alone, if it is your object to establish a perfect
range.

257. Professional dog-breakers, I have remarked, almost invariably hunt
too many dogs together. This arises, I suppose, from the number which they
have to train; but the consequence is, that the younger dogs are
spectators rather than actors, and, instead of ranging independently in
search of game, are watching the manoeuvres of their older associates.

258. A glimmering of knowledge may be picked up in this way; but no one
will argue that it is likely to create great excellence. Doubtless the
young ones will be good backers; and to the inexperienced a troop of
perhaps a dozen dogs, all in chiselled form, stanchly backing an old
leader, is a most imposing sight--but if the observer were to accompany
the whole party for a few hours, he would remark, I will bet any money,
that the same veterans would over and over again find the birds, and that
the _"perfectly"_ broken young ones in the rear would do nothing but
"back" and "down charge." What can they know of judicious quartering? Of
obeying the signals of the hand? Of gradually drawing upon the faintest
token of a scent--only perceptible to a nose carried high in the
air--until they arrive at a confident point? Of perseveringly working out
the foil of a slightly-winged bird, on a hot still day, to a sure "find?"
Nothing, or next to nothing,--nearly all is to be taught; and yet the
breaker will show off those raw recruits as perfectly drilled soldiers.
Would they not have had a much better chance of really being so, if he had
given a small portion of his time each day to each? He well knows they
would; but the theatrical display would not be half so magnificent. If he
had truly wished to give his pupils a good systematic range, without a
doubt he would have devoted one hour in the field exclusively to each dog,
rather than many hours to several at once--and not have associated any
together in the field until he had gained full command over each
separately. And this he would have done--_because it would have tended to
his interest_,--had he supposed that his dog's qualifications would be
investigated by judges--by those who would insist on seeing a dog hunted
singly--in order to observe his method of ranging,--or with but one
companion, before they thought of definitively purchasing.

259. At the beginning of a partridge season, I unexpectedly wanted to
purchase a dog. An old gamekeeper--one on whose judgment I could rely, and
who, I knew, would not willingly deceive me,--saw a setter in the field
that he thought would please, and accordingly sent it to my kennel. I
greatly liked the looks of the animal. He quartered his ground well--was
obedient to the hand--carried a high and apparently tender nose--pointed,
backed, and down-charged steadily. Unquestionably he had been well broken.
I thought myself in great luck, and should not have hesitated to complete
the purchase, but that fortunately I had an opportunity of shooting a bird
over him, when to my horror he rushed at it with the speed of a greyhound.
As, in spite of all my remonstrances, shouted in the most determined
manner, he repeated this manoeuvre whenever a bird fell, I returned him. I
afterwards heard he had just been shot over by a party on the moors, who,
no doubt, had spoilt him by their ignoble, pot-hunting propensities.

260. Had I chosen to sacrifice my shooting in order to reclaim him--which
I must have done, had I too hastily concluded the purchase,--I ought to
have sent home the other dogs, and proceeded, but with greater severity,
much in the manner described in 220 and 222. I ought not, however, to have
gone after him when first he bolted; I ought merely to have endeavored to
check him with my voice, for it would have been most important to set him
a good example by remaining immovable myself, and he might have
misconstrued any hasty advance on my part into rivalship for possession of
the bird; in short, into a repetition of one of the many scrambles to
which he had recently been accustomed, and in which I feel sure he must
invariably have come off victorious. I ought, when loaded, to have walked
calmly up to him, and, without taking the slightest notice of the
disfigured bird, have dragged him back, while loudly rating him, to the
spot where he should have "down charged." After a good flagellation--a
protracted lecture--and a long delay,--the longer the better,--I ought to
have made him cautiously approach the bird; and by a little scolding, and
by showing him the wounds he had inflicted, have striven to make him
sensible and ashamed of his enormities. Probably, too, had the birds lain
well, the moment he pointed I should have employed the checkcord[44] with
a spike, giving him a liberal allowance of slack line--234. Had I thus
treated him throughout the day, I have little doubt but that he would have
become a reformed character; though an occasional outbreak might not
unreasonably have been expected. See 205 to 208.

261. To create a feeling of self-dependence, obviously there is no better
plan than for a considerable time to take out the dog by himself, and thus
force him to trust for sport to his own unaided powers; and when he is at
length hunted in company, never to omit paying him the compliment of
attending to every indication he evinces of being upon birds, even
occasionally to the unfair neglect of confirmed points made by the other
dogs.

262. I conceive those dogs must be considered the _best_ which procure a
persevering sportsman most shots in a season and lose him fewest winged
birds.[45] If you are anxious for your pupil to attain this superlative
excellence,--I will repeat it, at the risk of being accused of
tautology,--you must be at all times consistently strict but never severe.
Make him as much as you can, your constant companion; you will thereby
much develope his intelligence, and so render him a more efficient
assistant in the field, for he will understand your manner better and
better, and greatly increase in affection as well as observation. Many men
would like so faithful an attendant. _Teach_ obedience at home--to
_obtain_ it in the field. Consider the instantaneous "drop," the moment he
gets the signal, as all-important,--as the very key-stone of the arch that
conducts to the glorious triumphs of due subordination. Notice every
fault, and check it by rating, but never punish with the whip unless you
judge it absolutely necessary. On the other hand, following Astley's
plan--10--reward, or at least praise, every instance of good behavior, and
you will be surprised how quickly your young dog will comprehend your
wishes, and how anxious he will be to comply with them. Remember that evil
practices, unchecked until they become confirmed habits, or any errors in
training committed at the commencement of his education, cannot be
repaired afterwards without tenfold--nay, twentyfold--trouble. Never let
him hunt from under your eye. Unceasingly endeavor to keep alive in him as
long as possible his belief that you are intuitively aware as fully when
he is out of sight as within sight of every fault he commits, whether it
arise from wilfulness or mere heedlessness. This is a very important
admonition. Remember, however, that the best dogs will occasionally make
mistakes when they are running down wind--especially if it blows
hard,--and that there are days when there is scarcely any scent.--Note to
128.

263. Attend most carefully to the injunction not to let your dog hunt out
of sight. It is essential that you do so.

264. Notwithstanding Beckford's capital story of the hounds making a
dinner of the old ram which his lordship had left in their kennel to
intimidate them, if your dog be unhappily too fond of mutton or lamb of
his own killing, perhaps no better cure can be _attempted_, provided you
superintend the operation, than that of muzzling him, and letting a strong
ram give him a butting at the time that you are administering the lash,
and hallooing out "Ware" or "Sheep." But, unfortunately, this too often
fails.

265. If you do not succeed, you must hang or drown him,--the latter is
probably the less painful death, but a charge of shot well lodged behind
the ear in the direction of the brain would be yet better. Therefore you
will not mind giving him another chance for his life, though confessedly
the measure proposed is most barbarous. Procure an ash-pole about five
feet long. Tie one extremity of the pole to a strong ram, by the part of
the horns near the forehead. To the opposite extremity of the pole attach
a strong spiked collar, and strap it round the dog's throat, to the
audible tune of "Ware" or "Sheep." To prevent the possibility of the cord
slipping, through each end of the pole burn a hole. The continued efforts
of the ram for some hours either to free himself from his strange
companion, or to attack him, will possibly so worry and punish the dog as
to give him a distaste ever afterwards for anything of a woolly nature.
The pole will so effectually separate these unwilling--but still too
intimate--associates, that you need not muzzle the dog.

266. There is yet another remedy, which I will name, as it sounds
reasonable, though I cannot speak of its merits from personal observation,
never having seen it tried.

267. Wrap a narrow strip of sheep-skin, that has much wool on it, round
the dog's lower jaw, the wool outwards, and fasten it so that he cannot
get rid of it. Put this on him for a few hours daily and there is a chance
that he will become as thoroughly disgusted as even you could wish, with
every animal of the race whose coat furnished such odious mouthfuls; but
prevention being better than cure, pay great attention to your dog's
morals during the lambing season. Dogs not led away by evil companionship
rarely commence their depredations upon sober full-grown sheep. In
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred,[46] they have previously yielded to
the great temptation of running down some frisking lamb, whose animated
gambols seemed to court pursuit.

268. If ever you have fears that you may be unable to prevent a dog's
breaking away to worry sheep, hunt him in a muzzle of a size that will not
interfere with his breathing, and yet effectually prevent the wide
extension of his jaws.

269. The killing of fowls is more easily prevented. The temptation, though
equally frequent, is not so great--he will only have tasted blood, not
revelled in it. Take a dead fowl--one of his recent victims, if you can
procure it--and endeavor, by pointing to it, while you are scolding him,
to make him aware of the cause of your displeasure. Then secure him to a
post, and thrash him about the head with the bird, occasionally favoring
his hide with sundry applications of a whip, and his ears with frequent
repetitions of the scaring admonition, "Ware fowl," "Fowl--fowl--fowl."
Whenever you afterwards catch him watching poultry, be sure to rate him.

FOOTNOTES:

[44] I am glad to say I have never had occasion to adopt so severe a
remedy as the following; but I have heard of an otherwise incorrigible
taste for blood being cured by a partridge pierced transversely with two
knitting-pins being _adroitly_ substituted for the fallen bird which the
dog had been restrained by a checkcord from bolting. The pins were cut to
a length somewhat less than the diameter of its body, and were fixed at
right angles to one another. Several slight wires would, I think, have
answered better.

[45] And if hares are shot to him, fewest wounded hares.

[46] In the remaining odd case--one out of a hundred--the propensity may
be traced to the animal's belonging to a vicious stock--in short, to
hereditary instinct.



CHAPTER XIV.

DISTINGUISHING WHISTLES. "BACKING" THE GUN. RETREAT FROM AND RESUMPTION OF
POINT. RANGE UNACCOMPANIED BY GUN. HEADING RUNNING BIRDS.

A DISTINGUISHING WHISTLE FOR EACH DOG.


271. Though you may have only begun to shoot last season, have you not
often wished to attract the attention of one of your two dogs, and make
him hunt in a particular part of the field, but for fear of alarming the
birds, have been unwilling to call out his name, and have felt loath to
whistle to him, lest you should bring away at the same time the other dog,
who was zealously hunting exactly where you considered him most likely to
find birds?

272. Again: have the dogs never been hunting close together instead of
pursuing distinct beats; and has it not constantly happened, on your
whistling with the view to separate them, that _both_ have turned their
heads in obedience to the whistle, and _both_ on your signal changed the
direction of their beat, but still the _two together_? And have you not,
in despair of ever parting them by merely whistling and signalling, given
the lucky birds--apparently in the most handsome manner, as if scorning to
take any ungenerous advantage--fair notice of the approach of the guns by
shouting out the name of one of the dogs.

273. Or, if one dog was attentive to the whistle, did he not gradually
learn to disregard it from observing that his companion was never chidden
for neglecting to obey it?--and did not such laxity more and more confirm
both in habits of disobedience?

274. I believe several of my readers will be constrained to answer these
questions in the affirmative; and, further, I think their own experience
will remind them of many occasions, both on moor and stubble when birds
were wild, on which they have wished to attract the notice of a particular
dog--perhaps running along a hedge, or pottering over a recent haunt; or
hunting down wind towards marked game--by _whistling_ instead of calling
out his name, but have been unwilling to do so, lest the other dogs should
likewise obey the shrill sound to which all were equally accustomed.

275. Now, in breaking young dogs, you could, by using whistles of
dissimilar calls, easily avoid the liability of these evils; and by
invariably employing a particular whistle for each dog to summon him
separately to his food--29--each would distinguish his own whistle as
surely as every dog knows his own master's whistle, and as hounds learn
their names. Dogs not only know their own names, but instantly know by the
pronunciation when it is uttered by a stranger. To prevent mistakes, each
dog's name might be marked on his own whistle. You might have two
whistles, of very different sound, on one short stock. Indeed, _one_
whistle would be sufficient for two dogs, if you invariably sounded the
same two or three sharp short notes for one dog, and as invariably gave a
sustained note for the other. Nay, the calls could thus be so diversified,
that one whistle might be used for even more than two dogs.

But whatever whistle you choose to employ, be sure, both in and out of the
field, to sound it softly whenever the dog is near you. Indeed, you would
act judiciously to make it a constant rule, wherever he may be, _never to
whistle louder than is really requisite_, otherwise--as I think I before
remarked--he will, comparatively speaking, pay little attention to its
summons, when, being at a distance, he hears it but faintly.



TO BACK THE GUN.


276. In shooting, especially late in the season, you will often mark down
a bird, and feel assured that you stand a better chance of getting a shot
at it if the dogs cease hunting whilst you approach it. You can teach your
dog to do this by holding up your right hand _behind_ you when you mark
down a bird, saying at the same time, "Toho," in an earnest, quiet voice,
and carrying your gun as if you were prepared to shoot. He will soon
begin, I really must say it to _back you_,--for he actually will be
backing you, ludicrous as the expression may sound. After a few times he
will do so on the signal, without your speaking at all; and he will be as
pleased, as excited, and as stanch, as if he were backing an old dog.
Making him "drop" will not effect your object, for, besides that it in no
way increases his intelligence, you may wish him to follow at a respectful
distance, while you are stealing along the banks of some stream, &c. Ere
long he will become as sensible as yourself that any noise would alarm the
birds, and you will soon see him picking his steps to avoid the crisp
leaves, lest their rustling should betray him. I have even heard of a dog
whose admirable caution occasionally led him, when satisfied that his
point was observed, to crawl behind a bush, or some other shelter, to
screen himself from the notice of the birds.

277. The acquisition of this accomplishment--and it is easily taught to a
young dog previously made steady in backing another--it should not be
attempted before--will often secure you a duck, or other wary bird, which
the dog would otherwise, almost to a certainty, spring out of gun-shot. If
you should "toho" a hare, and wish to kill one, you will have an excellent
opportunity of practising this lesson.

278. In America there is a singular duck, called, from its often alighting
on trees, the Wood-duck. I have killed some of these beautiful,
fast-flying birds, while they were seated on logs overhanging the water,
which I could not have approached within gun-shot had the dog not
properly backed the gun when signalled to, and cautiously crept after me,
still remaining far in the rear.



TO RETREAT FROM A POINT AND RESUME IT.


279. Amidst coppices, osiers, or broom--indeed, some times on a rough
moor--you will occasionally lose sight of a dog, and yet be unwilling to
call him, feeling assured that he is somewhere steadily pointing; and
being vexatiously certain that, when he hears your whistle, he will either
leave his point, not subsequently to resume it, or--which is far more
probable--amuse himself by raising the game before he joins you. There are
moments when you would give guineas if he would retreat from his point,
come to you on your whistling, lead you towards the bird, and there resume
his point.

280. This accomplishment--and in many places abroad its value is almost
inappreciable--can be taught him, if he is under great command, by your
occasionally bringing him in to your heel from a point when he is within
sight and near you, and again putting him on his point. You will begin
your instruction in this accomplishment when the dog is pointing quite
close to you. On subsequent occasions, you can gradually increase the
distance, until you arrive at such perfection that you can let him be out
of sight when you call him. When he is first allowed to be out of your
sight, he ought not to be far from you.

281. You may, for a moment, think that what is here recommended
contradicts the axiom laid down in 255; but it is there said, that nothing
ought to make a dog "_voluntarily_" leave his point. Indeed, the
possession of this accomplishment, so far from being productive of any
harm, greatly awakens a dog's intelligence, and makes him perceive, more
clearly than ever, that the sole object for which he is taken to the field
is to obtain shots for the gun that accompanies him. When he is pointing
on your side of a thick hedge, it will make him understand why you call
him off;--take him down wind, and direct him to jump the fence: he will at
once go to the bird, and, on your encouraging him, force it to rise on
your side.

282. You will practise this lesson, however, with great caution, and not
before his education is nearly completed, lest he imagine that you do not
wish him always to remain stanch to his point. Indeed, if you are
precipitate, or injudicious, you may make him blink his game.

283. After a little experience, he will very likely some day
satisfactorily prove his consciousness of your object, by voluntarily
coming out of thick cover to show you where he is, and again going in and
resuming his point.



TO HUNT REGULARLY FROM LEEWARD TO WINDWARD WITHOUT THE GUN.


284. In paragraph 147 I observed, that when you are obliged, as
occasionally must be the case, to enter a field to windward with your
pupil, you ought to go down to the leeward side of it, keeping him close
to your heels, before you commence to hunt. After undeviatingly pursuing
this plan for some time, you can, before you come quite to the bottom of
the field, send him ahead--by the underhand bowler's swing of the
right-hand, IV. of 119,--and, when he has reached the bottom, signal to
him to hunt to the right--or left. He will be so habituated to work under
your eye--130--that you will find it necessary to walk backwards--up the
middle of the field,--while instructing him. As he becomes, by degrees,
confirmed in this lesson, you can sooner and sooner send him ahead--from
your heel--but increase the distances very gradually,--until at length he
will be so far perfected, that you may venture to send him down wind to
the extremity of the field--before he commences beating,--while you remain
quietly at the top awaiting his return, until he shall have hunted the
whole ground, as systematically and carefully as if you had accompanied
him from the bottom. By this method you will teach him, on his gaining
more experience, invariably to run to leeward, and hunt up to
windward--crossing and recrossing the wind--whatever part of a field you
and he may enter. What a glorious consummation! and it can be attained,
but only by great patience and perseverance. The least reflection,
however, will show you that you should not attempt it until the dog is
perfected in his range.

285. A careful dog, thus practised, will seldom spring birds, however
directly he may be running down wind. He will pull up at the faintest
indication of a scent, being at all times anxiously on the look-out for
the coveted aroma.

286. Not only to the idle or tired sportsman would it be a great benefit
to have a field thus beaten, but the keenest and most indefatigable shot
would experience its advantages in the cold and windy weather customary in
November, when the tameness of partridge-shooting cannot be much
complained of; for the birds being then ever ready to take wing, surely
the best chance, by fair means, of getting near them would be to intercept
them between the dog and yourself.

287. Here the consideration naturally arises, whether dogs could not be
_taught_--when hunting in the ordinary manner with the gun in the rear--



TO HEAD RUNNING BIRDS.


Certainly it could be done. There have been many instances of old dogs
_spontaneously_ galloping off, and placing themselves on the other side of
the covey--which they had pointed--as soon as they perceived that it was
on the run,--and by good instruction you could develope or rather excite,
that exercise of sagacity.

288. If dogs are taught to "hunt from leeward to windward without the
gun," they become habituated to seeing game intercepted between themselves
and their masters,--and then their spontaneously heading running
birds--though undeniably evincing great intelligence--would not be very
remarkable. They would but reverse matters by placing themselves to
windward of the birds while the gun was to leeward. This shows that the
acquisition of that accomplishment would be a great step towards securing
a knowledge of the one we are now considering. Indeed there seems to be a
mutual relation between these two refinements in education, for the
possession of either would greatly conduce to the attainment of the other.

289. This accomplishment--and hardly any can be considered more useful--is
not so difficult to teach an intelligent dog as one might at first
imagine; it is but to lift him, and make him act on a larger scale, much
in the manner described in 212 and 296. Like, however, everything else in
canine education--indeed, in all education--it must be effected gradually;
nor should it be commenced before the dog has had a season's steadying,
then practise him in heading every wounded bird, and endeavor to make him
do so at increased distances. Whenever, also, he comes upon the "heel" of
a covey which is to leeward of him--instead of letting him "foot"
it--oblige him to quit the scent and take a circuit--sinking the wind--so
as to place himself to leeward of birds. He will thereby _head the covey_,
and you will have every reason to hope that after a time his own
observation and intellect will show him the advantage of thus intercepting
birds and stopping them when they are on the run, whether the manoeuvre
places him to leeward or to windward of them.

290. If you could succeed in teaching but one of your dogs thus to take a
wide sweep when he is ordered, and head a running covey before it gets to
the extremity of the field--while the other dogs remain near you--you
would be amply rewarded for months of extra trouble in training, by
obtaining shots on days when good sportsmen, with fair average dogs, would
hardly pull a trigger. And why should you not? Success would be next to
certain if you could as readily place your dog exactly where you wish, as
shepherds do their collies. And whose fault will it be if you cannot?
Clearly not your dog's, for he is as capable of receiving instruction as
the shepherd's.

291. Manifestly it would be worth while to take great pains to teach this
accomplishment, for in all countries it would prove a most killing one
when birds become wild; and it would be found particularly useful wherever
the red-legged partridge abounds,--which birds you will find do not lie
badly when the coveys are, by any means, well headed and completely
broken. But there are other accomplishments nearly as useful as those
already detailed; the description of them, however, we will reserve for a
separate Chapter.



CHAPTER XV.

SETTER TO RETRIEVE. BLOODHOUNDS. RETRIEVERS TO "BEAT." WOUNDED WILD FOWL
RETRIEVED FIRST.

SETTER TO RETRIEVE.


292. Undeniably there is some value in the extra number of shots obtained
by means of highly-broken dogs; and nearly as undeniable is it that no
man, who is not over-rich, will term that teaching superfluous which
enables him to secure in one dog the services of two. Now, I take it for
granted--as I cannot suppose you are willing to lose many head of killed
game--that you would be glad to be always accompanied in the field by a
dog that retrieves. Unless you have such a companion, there will be but
little chance of your often securing a slightly winged bird in turnips.
Indeed, in all rough shooting, the services of a dog so trained are
desirable to prevent many an unfortunate hare and rabbit from getting away
to die a painful, lingering death; and yet, if the possession of a large
kennel is ever likely to prove half as inconvenient to you as it would to
me, you would do well, according to my idea of the matter, to dispense
with a regular retriever, provided you have a highly-broken setter who
retrieves well.

293. I say setter rather than pointer, not on account of his more
affectionate, and perhaps more docile disposition--for certainly he is
less liable to sulk under punishment,--but because, thanks to his long
coat, he will be able to work in any cover, and that from nature he
"roads" quicker.

I must, however, plead _guilty_--for many good sportsmen will think I
evince bad taste--to a predilection for setters--meaning always _cautious_
setters--a partiality, perhaps, attributable to having shot more over
wild, uncertain ground than in well-stocked preserves. Doubtless, in a
very inclosed country, where game is abundant, pointers are preferable,
far preferable,--more especially should there be a scarcity of water; but
for severe and fast work, and as a servant of all work, there is nothing,
I humbly conceive, like the setter. He may be, and generally is, the more
difficult to break; but, when success has crowned your efforts, what a
noble, enduring, sociable, attached animal you possess. I greatly, too,
admire his long, stealthy, blood-like action,--for I am not speaking of
the large heavy sort before which in old days whole coveys used to be
netted,--and the animated waving of his stern, so strongly indicative of
high breeding; though strange to say, in gracefulness of carriage, the
fox, when hunting, and actually on game, far excels him. But we are again
getting astray beyond our proper limits; let us keep to the subject of
dog-breaking.

294. As it will be your endeavor, during your pupil's first season, to
make him thoroughly stanch and steady, I cannot advise you, as a general
rule--liable, of course, to many exceptions--one of which is named in
219--to let him retrieve--by retrieve I always mean fetch--until the
following year. There is another advantage in the delay. His sagacity will
have shown him that the design of every shot is to bag the game--when,
therefore, he has once been permitted to pick up a bird, he will be
desirous of carrying it immediately to you, and will resist the temptation
to loiter with it, mouthing and spoiling it; and however keenly he may
have heretofore "sought dead," he will henceforth search with redoubled
zeal, from the delight he will experience in being permitted to carry his
game. Moreover, the season's shooting, without lifting, will have so
thoroughly confirmed him in the "down charge," that the increased[47]
inclination to bolt off in search of a falling bird will be successfully
resisted. If he has been taught while young to "fetch"--92, 94, &c.,--he
will be so anxious to take the birds to you, that instead of there being
any difficulty in teaching him this accomplishment, you will often, during
his first season, have to restrain him from lifting when he is "pointing
dead." The least encouragement will make him gladly pick up the birds, and
give them, as he ought, to no one but yourself.

295. You need hardly be cautioned not to let more than one dog retrieve
the same bird. With more dogs than one the bird would, almost to a
certainty, be torn; and if a dog once becomes sensible of the enjoyment he
would derive in pulling out the feathers of a bird, you will find it
difficult to make him deliver it up before he has in some way disfigured
it. If you shoot with several dogs that retrieve, be careful always to let
the dog who finds the game be the one to bring it. It is but fair that he
should be so rewarded, and thus all will be stimulated to hunt with
increased diligence.

296. If the dog that found the covey be not able to wind the bird you have
shot, make one of the other dogs take a large circuit. The latter may
thus, without interfering with the first dog, come upon the bird, should
it have run far. Send him in the direction the covey has taken--the
chances are great that the bird is travelling towards the same point. By
pursuing this plan, obviously there will be much less chance of your
losing a bird than if you allow the dogs to keep close together while
searching.--See also 98.

297. Do not think that by making your setter lift--after his first
season--instead of "pointing dead," there will be any increased risk of
his raising unsprung birds. The difference between the scent of dead or
wounded game, and that of game perfectly uninjured, is so vast, that no
steady, experienced dog will fail to point any fresh bird he may come
across whilst seeking for that which is lost.

As a proof of this I may mention that,

298. In North America I once saw, lying on the ground, three snipe, which
a pointer, that retrieved, had regularly set one after the other, having
found a couple on his way to retrieve the first, and which he afterwards
brought in succession to his master, who had all the time governed the dog
entirely by signs, never having been obliged to use his voice beyond
saying, in a low tone, "Dead," or "Find." I remember, also, hearing of a
retrieving setter that on one occasion pointed a fresh bird, still
retaining in her mouth the winged partridge which she was carrying,--and
of a pointer who did the same when he was bringing a hare; there must,
too, be few sportsmen who will not admit that they have found it more
difficult to make a dog give up the pursuit of a wounded hare than of one
perfectly uninjured. I know of a sportsman's saying he felt certain that
the hare his retriever was _coursing_ over the moors must have been
struck, although the only person who had fired stoutly maintained that the
shot was a regular miss.[48] The owner of the dog, however, averred that
this was impossible, as he never could get the discerning animal to
follow any kind of unwounded game; and, on the other hand, that no rating
would make him quit the pursuit of _injured_ running feather or fur. The
retriever's speedy return with puss, conveniently balanced between his
jaws, bore satisfactory testimony to the accuracy of both his own and his
master's judgment.

299. Some good sportsmen maintain that a retrieving setter--or pointer--on
finding a dead bird ought to point it until desired to lift it. This
training they hold to be advisable, on the ground that it conduces to the
dog's steadiness by diminishing his wish to run forward on seeing a bird
fall; but the plan has necessarily this evil consequence, that should the
setter, when searching for the dead bird, come across and point, _as he
ought_, any fresh game, on your telling him to fetch it--as you naturally
will--he must spring it if he attempt to obey you. Surely this would tend
more to unsteady him than the habit of lifting his dead birds as soon as
found? Your dog and you ought always to work in the greatest harmony--in
the mutual confidence of your, at all times, thoroughly understanding each
other--and you should carefully avoid the possibility of ever perplexing
him by giving him any order it is out of his power to obey, however much
he may exert himself. Moreover, if you teach your retrieving setter to
"point dead," you at once relinquish--surely unnecessarily?--all hope of
ever witnessing such a fine display of sagacity and steadiness as has just
been related in the first part of 298.

300. If you object to a setter's being taught to lift on the ground that
it will make the other dogs jealous, pray remember that the argument has
equal force against the employment of a regular retriever in their
presence.

FOOTNOTES:

[47] "Increased:" the gratification of carrying being far greater than
that of merely "pointing dead."

[48] I retain this anecdote because every one of the occurrences related
has happened to myself. The first many times in the United States; the
second once in the United States when my dog Chavee pointed a fresh
woodcock with a dead bird in his mouth, and a winged bird under his fore
paw; the last, many times in England over an old Russian setter,
Charm.--H.W.H.



REGULAR RETRIEVER TO BEAT.


301. We all have our prejudices--every Englishman has a right to many. One
of mine is to think a _regular_ retriever positively not worth his keep
for general shooting _if one of your setting dogs will retrieve well_.
However, if you shoot much in cover, I admit that a regular retriever
which can be worked in perfect silence, never refusing to come in when he
is merely signalled to, or, if out of sight, softly whistled to, is
better[49]--particularly when you employ beaters[50]--but even then he
need not be the idle rascal that one generally sees--he might be broken in
to hunt close to you, and give you the same service as a mute spaniel. I
grant this is somewhat difficult to accomplish, for it much tends to
unsteady him, but it can be effected--I have seen it--and, being
practicable, it is at least worth trying; for if you succeed, you, as
before--292--make one dog perform the work of two; and, besides its
evident advantage in thick cover, if he accompany you in your every-day
shooting, you will thus obtain, in the course of a season, many a shot
which your other dogs, especially in hot weather, would pass over. If,
too, the retriever hunts quite close to you, he can in no way annoy his
companions, or interfere with them, for I take it for granted he will be
so obedient as to come to "heel" the instant he gets your signal.

FOOTNOTES:

[49] Of course, a regular retriever is absolutely necessary when a team of
spaniels is hunted, none of which are accustomed to retrieve.

[50] Regular retrievers are never used in America except on the Chesapeake
bay for fowl-shooting.--H.W.H.



WATER RETRIEVERS--OR WATER SPANIELS--TO RETRIEVE WOUNDED BEFORE PICKING UP
DEAD WILD FOWL.


302. This a knowing old dog will often do of his own accord; but you must
not attempt to teach a young one this useful habit until you are satisfied
that there is no risk of making him blink his birds. You can then call him
off when he is swimming towards dead birds, and signal to him to follow
those that are fluttering away. If the water is not too deep, rush in
yourself, and set him a good example by actively pursuing the runaways;
and until all the cripples that can be recovered are safely bagged, do not
let him lift one of those killed outright. If very intelligent, he will
before long perceive the advantage of the system, or at least find it the
more exciting method, and adhere to it without obliging you to continue
your aquatic excursions. For advice about water retrievers, see 81 to 85.
I have placed this paragraph among the "refinements" in breaking; but I
ought, perhaps, to have entered it sooner; for if you are fond of
duck-shooting, and live in a neighborhood where you have good
opportunities of following it, you should regard this accomplishment as a
necessary part of your spaniel's education.

303. In your part of the country none of these extra, or, as some will
say, always superfluous accomplishments may be required; but if you
consider that a pupil of yours attaining any one of them would be
serviceable, be not deterred from teaching it by the idea that you would
be undertaking a difficult task. Any one of them, I was nearly saying all
of them, could be taught a dog with far greater ease, and in a shorter
time, than a well-established, judicious range.

304. It would be quite unreasonable to expect a regular breaker--"mark" I
do not say your game-keeper--to teach your dog any of these
accomplishments. He may be fully aware of the judiciousness of the system,
and be sensible of its great advantages, but the many imperious calls upon
his time would preclude his pursuing it in all its details. At the usual
present prices, it would not pay him to break in dogs so highly.

305. In following Beckford's advice respecting your making, as far as is
practicable, your dog your "constant companion," do not, however, forget
that you require him to evince great diligence and perseverance in the
field; and, therefore, that his highest enjoyment must consist in being
allowed to hunt.

306. Now, it seems to be a principle of nature,--of canine as well as
human nature,--to feel, through life, most attachment to that pursuit,
whatever it may be, which is most followed in youth. If a dog is
permitted as a youngster to have the run of the kitchen, he will be too
fond of it when grown up. If he is allowed to amuse himself in every way
his fancy dictates, he will think little of the privilege of hunting.
Therefore, the hours he cannot pass with you--after you have commenced his
education,--I am sorry to say it, but I must do so, he ought to be in his
_kennel_--loose in his kennel,[51] not tied up; for straining at his
collar would throw out his elbows, and so make him grow up bandy-legged.
If, however, he must be fastened, let it be by a chain. He would soon
learn to gnaw through a cord, especially if a young puppy, who, from
nature, is constantly using his teeth, and thus acquire a trick that some
day might prove very inconvenient were no chain at hand. You would greatly
consult his comfort by having the chain attached, with a loose ring and
swivel, to a spike fixed a few paces in front of his kennel, so that he
could take some exercise by trotting round and round.

307. When your dog has attained some age, and hunting has become with him
a regular passion, I believe you may give him as much liberty as you
please without diminishing his zeal--but most carefully prevent his ever
hunting alone, technically called "self-hunting." At that advanced time of
life, too, a few occasional irregularities in the field may be
innocuously permitted. The steadiest dogs will, at times, deviate from the
usual routine of their business, sagaciously thinking that such departure
from rule must be acceptable if it tends to obtain the game; and it will
be advisable to leave an experienced dog to himself whenever he evinces
great perseverance in spontaneously following some unusual plan. You may
have seen an old fellow, instead of cautiously "roading" and "pointing
dead," rush forward and seize an unfortunate winged bird, while it was
making the best use of its legs after the flight of the rest of the
covey--some peculiarity in the scent emitted having probably betrayed to
the dog's _practised_ nose that the bird was injured. When your pup
arrives at such years of discrimination, you need not so vigorously insist
upon a patient "down charge" should you see a winged cock-pheasant running
into cover. Your dog's habits of discipline would be, I should hope, too
well confirmed by his previous course of long drill for such a temporary
departure from rule to effect any permanent mischief; but oh! beware of
any such laxity with a _young_ pupil, however strongly you may be tempted.
In five minutes you may wholly undo the labor of a month. On days,
therefore, when you are anxious, _coûte qui coûte_, to fill the game-bag,
pray leave him at home. Let him acquire any bad habit when you are thus
pressed for birds, and you will have more difficulty in eradicating it
than you would have in teaching him almost any accomplishment. This reason
made me all along keep steadily in view the supposition, that you had
commenced with a dog unvitiated by evil associates, either biped or
quadruped; for assuredly you would find it far easier to give a thoroughly
good education to such a pupil, than to complete the tuition (particularly
in his range) of one usually considered broken, and who must, in the
natural order of things, have acquired some habits more or less opposed to
your own system. If, as a puppy, he had been allowed to self-hunt and
chase, your labor would be herculean. And inevitably this would have been
your task had you ever allowed him to associate with any dog who
"self-hunted." The oldest friend in your kennel might be led astray by
forming an intimacy with the veriest cur, if a "self-hunter." There is a
fascination in the vice--above all, in killing young hares and
rabbits--that the steadiest dog cannot resist when he has been persuaded
to join in the sport by some vagabond of a poacher possessing a tolerable
nose, rendered keenly discerning by experience.

308. I hope that by this time we too well understand each other for you
now to wonder why I think that you should not commence hunting your young
dog where game is abundant. Professional breakers prefer such ground,
because, from getting plenty of points, it enables them to train their
dogs more quickly, and _sufficiently well_ to ensure an early sale. This
is _their_ object, and they succeed. _My_ object is that you shall
establish _ultimately_ great perseverance and a fine range in your young
dog, let birds be ever so scarce. If you show him too many at first, he
will subsequently become easily dispirited whenever he fails in getting a
point.

309. The good condition of a dog's nose is far from being an immaterial
part of his conditioning, for on the preservation of its sensitiveness
chiefly depends your hope of sport. If it be dry from being feverish, or
if it be habituated to the villanous smells of an impure kennel, how are
you to expect it to acknowledge the faintest taint of game--yet one that,
if followed up by olfactory nerves in high order, would lead to a sure
find? Sweetness of breath is a strong indication of health. Cleanliness is
as essential as a judicious diet; and you may be assured, that if you look
for excellence, you must always have your youngster's kennel clean, dry,
airy, and yet sufficiently warm. The more you attend to this, the greater
will be his bodily strength and the finer his nose.

In India the kennels are, of course, too hot; but in the best constructed
which fell under my observation, the heat was much mitigated by the roofs
being thickly thatched with grass. In England, however, nearly all
kennels--I am not speaking of those for hounds--are far too cold in
winter.

310. There must be _sufficient_ warmth. Observe how a petted dog,
especially after severe exercise, lays himself down close to the fire, and
enjoys it. Do you not see that instinct teaches him to do this? and must
it not be of great service to him? Why, therefore, deny him in cold
weather, after a hard day's work, a place on the hearth-rug? It is the
want of sufficient heat in the kennels, and good drying and brushing after
hard work, that makes sporting dogs, particularly if they are long-coated
ones, suffer from rheumatism, blear eyes, and many ills that generally,
but not necessarily, attend them in old age.

FOOTNOTES:

[51] Twice a day he should be allowed to run out, that he may not be
compelled to adopt habits wholly opposed to his natural propensities. If
he has acquired the disagreeable trick of howling when shut up, put a
muzzle on him.



CONCLUSION.


311. Gentle Reader, according to the courteous phraseology of old novels,
though most probably I ought to say Brother Sportsman;--If you have had
the patience to attend me, through the preceding pages, while I have been
describing the educational course of a dog from almost his infancy, up to
maturity, I will hope that I may construe that patience into an evidence
that they have afforded you some amusement, and perhaps, some useful
instruction.

312. Though I may have failed in persuading you to undertake the
instruction of your dogs yourself, yet I trust I have shown you how they
ought to be broken in: and if you are a novice in the field, I hope I have
clearly explained to you in what manner they ought to be shot over--a
knowledge which no one can possess by intuition, and which you will find
nearly as essential to the preservation of the good qualities of
well-tutored dogs as to the education of uninformed ones.

313. I believe that all I have said is perfectly true, and, as the system
which I have described advocates kind treatment of man's most faithful
companion, and his instruction with mildness rather than severity, I
trust that you will be induced to give it a fair trial, and if you find it
successful, recommend its adoption.

314. I dare not ask for the same favor at the hands of the generality of
regular trainers--I have no right to expect such liberality. They,
naturally enough, will not readily forgive my intruding upon what they
consider exclusively their own domain,--and, above all, they will not
easily pardon my urging every sportsman to break in his own dogs. They
will, I know, endeavor to persuade their employers that the finished
education which I have described is useless, or quite unattainable,
without a great sacrifice of time; and that, therefore, the system which I
advocate is a bad one. They will wish it to be forgotten--that I advise a
gradual advance, step by step, from the A, B, C;--that accomplishments
have only been recommended _after_ the acquisition of essentials--never at
the expense of essentials; that at any moment it is in the instructor's
power to say, "I am now satisfied with the extent of my pupil's
acquirements, and have neither leisure nor inclination to teach him
more;"--and that they cannot suggest quicker means of imparting any grade
of education, however incomplete; at least they do not--I wish they would;
few would thank them more than myself.

315. Greatly vexed at the erroneous way in which I saw some dogs
instructed in the north by one who from his profession should have known
better, I promised, on the impulse of the moment, to write. If I could
have purchased any work which treated the subject in what I considered a
judicious and perspicuous manner, and, above all, which taught by what
means a _finished_ education could be imparted, I would gladly have
recommended the study of it,--have spared myself the trouble of detailing
the results of my own observations and experience,--and not have sought to
impose on any one the task of reading them. When I began the book, and
even when I had finished it, I intended to put it forth without any token
by which the writer might be discovered. Mr. Murray, however, forcibly
represented that unless the public had some guarantee for the fidelity of
the details there would be no chance of the little work being circulated,
or proving useful; therefore, having written solely from a desire to
assist my brother sportsmen and to show the injudiciousness of severity,
with a wish that my readers might feel as keen a zest for shooting as I
once possessed, and with a charitable hope that they might not be
compelled to seek it in as varied climates as was my lot, I at once
annexed my address and initials to the manuscript.

  W.N.H.

_United Service Club, Pall Mall._



EDITOR'S NOTE.


In section 299, page 643, Col. Hutchinson argues _against_ a retrieving
Pointer or Setter, pointing a dead bird when ordered "_find_," and not
lifting it until ordered to "fetch." This is the single rule of breaking
in which I wholly differ from the Colonel; but _here_ I differ so widely,
that I would not own a dog which did _not_ point until ordered to "fetch;"
and I consider that one which "fetches" without pointing, when simply
ordered to "find," is worthless.

Col. Hutchinson argues that there is a difference in the scent of a
wounded and an unwounded bird, which enables a dog certainly to
discriminate between the two, so that he may be trusted to point all the
live birds he may meet in the way to find his dead bird, and yet to rush
upon the latter and pick him up without making any pause. On the other
hand, he argues as if there were _no_ difference in the scent of the two,
when he says that if the dog be taught to point until ordered to "fetch,"
and chance to point a live bird before finding the dead, he will _flush_
the live bird on being ordered to "fetch" the dead. I admit that there
_is_ a difference of scent at all times to the best nosed dogs, but very
faint, even to the best, in bad scenting weather; but that difference will
more easily make the dog refuse to flush a live bird, if he do point
before fetching, than make him pause to point a live one, if allowed to
rush in upon dead ones. The only rule that will keep a dog always up to
his business is, that he shall always "_point_" every game bird or animal
he comes upon, dead or living, and always "_drop_," when it runs or rises,
whether a shot be fired or not. I have always shot over dogs broken to
point before fetching. I have often been deceived in supposing a fresh
bird newly pointed to be the killed one, but have always found my dogs to
hesitate so distinctly, before obeying the order to "_fetch_," as to make
it evident that I was in error, and allow me to correct it.

For the better comprehension of the above admirable treatise on breaking,
I wish to add, for the benefit of the American sportsmen, that, wherever
Col. Hutchinson speaks of the partridge, it is the English bird which he
intends, which, in its habits, is closely analogous to our quail; and that
all his precepts as to breaking on partridge hold good precisely for the
quail with us. In the same way all his precepts for grouse-shooting apply,
letter for letter, to our prairie-fowl-shooting; and his precepts for
pheasant-shooting to the hunting and shooting of our ruffed grouse, called
in the northern states the partridge, and in the southern and western the
pheasant. When he speaks of the rabbit as distinct from the hare, he
alludes to a European animal which does not exist in America, the original
stock of the tame rabbit, which has the habit of burrowing in the ground
and dwelling in great communities, known as warrens. We have two kinds of
hare, the small one commonly known as the rabbit, and the large Canadian
hare, which turns white in winter; but no genuine rabbit. Hutchinson's
rules as to breaking, in regard to the English hares and rabbits, hold
good of both our varieties.

I will only say farther, that when he speaks of shooting in turnips or
potatoes, we may apply his rules to any tall-growing vegetable covert,
such as clover, rag weed, wild meadow-grass, or the like, those crops not
being so extensively cultivated with us as to be haunted in general by
game. Similarly, when he mentions breaking spaniels to gorse, we may
substitute hollies, black-brush, cat-briers, and any other thorny covert
common in any section of the country; but, in fact, no especial breaking
is needed with us, as we have no brake which exactly compares with furze.
H.W.H.



INDEX.


  A.

  Abscess, about the tail, 283, 284.
    treatment of, 284
    in the flap of the ear, 427.
    treatment of, ib.

  Accomplishments or Refinements--
    distinguishing dog whistles, 629.
    dog to back the gun, 630.
    to head running birds, 635.
    to hunt without gun, 633.
    to retreat and resume point, 632.
    regular retrievers to beat, 644.
    setter to retrieve, 638.
    water retriever to fetch cripples, 645.

  Action of physic on dogs, 107.

  Acute purgation, 263.
      treatment of, 264.
    rheumatism, 274.
      treatment of, 276.

  Administration of medicine, 106.

  Advice to practitioners, 80.

  Affection an incentive, 565.

  After-discharge, 394.

  Age for education, 470, 495, 527.

  Aids to promote labor, 376.

  Assistance, when to be afforded during pupping, 360.

  Asthma, 218.
    treatment of, 220.

  Attention, necessary, for the sucking bitch, 400.
    necessary, to the teeth of the dog, 183.

  Author's cause of writing, 653.

  Avoid having a battle with a dog, 82.

  Axioms, 576, 618.


  B.

  Back, turned brings dog away, 557.

  Backing, how taught, 614, 615.
    initiatory lesson in, 488.
    the gun, 630.

  Battle, avoid having one with a dog, 82.

  Beagles, 21.

  Beat, a range, taught, 527,  529, 538, 541, 544.
    bad, hard to cure, 581.

  Beat, good, difficult but invaluable, 548
    Herbert's opinion, 560.
    without gun, 633.
    of five or six dogs, 562.
    of four dogs, 561.
    of three dogs, 560.
    of two dogs, 558.
    taught following dog, 549.

  Beef-tea, how to make, 97.

  Beckon, why useful signal, 482.
    and "Heel" differ, 485.

  Bitch, in use, 24.
    in pup, 26.

  Bells put on dogs, 496.

  Best dogs err, concise hints, 623.

  Bird, dead, loss of discourages dog, 592
    dead, seized and torn by dog, 597.
    shot on ground steadies dog, 610.
    shot, search for, 570, 589, 591, 593, 597, 641.
    shot, signal heel, 573.
    winged, shoot on ground, 591.

  Birds, lie well, dog winding them, 547.
    wild, intercepted, 635, 636.
    wounded, scent differs, 641.
    wounded, first retrieved, 645.
    wounded, make for covey, 641.
    wounded, found evening, 595.
    wounded, the search for, 570.
    wounded, observed by dog, 518.

  Black too conspicuous a color, 508.

  Blacksmith shoeing kicker, 494.

  Blinking dead bird, 571.
    from punishment, 611.
    initiatory lessons prevent, 471.

  Bones of the dog not rightly placed in the skeleton at the London
                                           Veterinary College, 109.
    stones and bricks not good for dogs, 185.
    when large, do not injure dogs, 91.

  Boots, to render waterproof, 57.

  Bowel diseases, 56, 246.

  Brace of dogs sufficient, if good, 137.

  Breaking of young dogs, 29.

  Break in dogs yourself, 464.

  Breaker, qualifications required, 466.
    one better than two, 470.

  Breaker, hunt too many, 475, 620.
    idle, dislike bold dogs, 554.

  Breaking fence prevented, 556.

  Breeding in-and-in bad, 579.

  Breeding, 15, 21, 25.

  Bronchocele, 148.
    treatment of, 199.

  Bruises, remedy for, 55.

  Bull-dogs, remarks upon, 402.


  C.

  Cancer of the scrotum, 319.
    of the teats, 408.
    of the vagina, 344.

  Canker, within and without the ear, 53, 54, 419.
    causes, ib.
    external, 421.
      treatment of, 423.
    internal, 424.
      former accounts of, ib.
      treatment of, 423.
    of the mouth, 189.
      treatment of, 190.

  Capped hock or elbow, 452.
    treatment for, 453.

  Care, necessary for the pups, 378.
    required after pupping, 391.
    signal for, 484.

  Carrots for horses, 469.

  Carrying, how taught, 510.

  Carts, dog, 442.

  Cases, details of various, 61

  Castor oil, 116.

  Castration, 323.

  Cataract, 429.
    causes of, 430.

  Catheter, passing of the, 329, 377.

  Caution, taught to fast dogs, 516, 552.
    in excess, 583.
    cure for, 584.

  Cautious and wild dog contrasted, 551.
    dog rarely too fast, 551.

  Chain better than cord, 647.

  Check cord, 489, 490, 581, 588.
    spike to, 476, 580, 609.

  Chemists to be avoided as doctors for dogs, 196.

  Choice of a male, 347.

  Chronic diarrhoea, 265.
    treatment of, 266.

  Chronic hepatitis, 221.
    symptoms of, 222.
    treatment of, 225.

  Circle wide when heading dog, 569.

  Claws, 437.
    to cut, 438.
    dew, 437.
    falling off of the, 439.
    sinuses up the, 440.

  Clean, to, the dog's teeth, 186.

  Clumber spaniels, 502.

  Cock shooting, 482.

  Cocker, the, 20.

  Cold or coriza, 209.

  Colic, 252.
    symptoms of, 258.
    treatment of, 255.

  Collar and chain, 102.
    a light one on dog, 565.

  Colors for concealment, 508.

  Commands, given in a low tone, 473.
    understood before seeing game, 471.

  Comb and brush, 101.

  Companion, dog to be yours, 473.
    initiatory lessons with, 487, 488.

  Condition, 42.

  Confidence of the dog, how to gain, 82.

  Consistency necessary, 466, 578.

  Coolness recommended, 578.

  Costiveness, 247.
    treatment of, 250.

  Cough, 202.
    treatment of, 203.

  Couple to older dog, 479.

  Couples, accustomed to, 487.

  Courage, created, 530, 614.

  Covert, pointers in, 506.

  Cripples, first retrieved, 645.

  Crochet, 384.


  D.

  Danger of domestic remedies, 77.

  Dead bird, blinking of, 571.
    lifted by you, error of, 511.
    loss of, discourages dog, 592.
    rushing into, 597, 622.
    search for, 626, 647, 649.
    search for, with two dogs, 641.
    the first killed, 569.
    to be pointed, 571.
    but not by retrieving pointer, &c., 643.
    torn by dog, 597.

  Dead, initiatory lesson in, 473, 480.

  Death of unborn pups, sign of, 383.

  Dew-claws, 437.

  Diarrhoea, 261.

  Digestive discharge, 313.
    symptoms of, 314.
    treatment of, 316.

  Diseases dependent on internal organs, 240.
    of the limbs, 437.

  Distance, between parallels, 546.
    dog's knowledge of, 582.

  Distemper, 46, 58, 120.
    brain not subject to disease in, 138.
    chorea in, 145.
    disposition of dogs to gnaw their bodies in, 143.
    dogs may have the disease many times, 135.
    the dogs that most escape its attacks, 126.

  Distemper, earliest symptoms of, 126.
    eruption in, 142.
    exercise and food influence the disorder, 126.
    eyes in, 132.
    fainting fits in, 149.
    fearful cries in, 137.
    fits in, 140.
    its causes undiscovered, 124.
    importance of diet in, 152.
    liver involved in, 134.
    lungs diseased in, 133.
    morbid appetite during the fits in, 167.
    ordinary treatment for, 121.
    paralysis of the hind legs in, 145.
    periods when it attacks animals, 125.
    popular remedies for, 122.
    resembles continued fever, 123.
    skin peels after an attack of, 149.
    stomach and intestinal diseases in, 135.
    symptoms when it abates, 132.
    treatment for, 154.
    tumours in, 144.
    very treacherous, 130.
    when the disease is established, 127.

  Distribution of the dog, 73.

  Diving, how taught, 513.

  Dog-carts, 442.

  Dog's tooth-brush, 188.

  Dogs, are generally misunderstood, 76.
    are very intelligent, 103.
    shape of, 639.
    slow beating, more than faster, 503.
    wildest, most energetic, 489, 531.

  Down, _see_ "Drop."
    charge, dog pointing not to, 618.
      initiatory lesson in, 478.
      why retrievers should, 521.

  "Drop," a better word than "down," 536.
    dog, to another dropping, 488.
    dog, to game rising, 601.
    Initiatory lessons in, 474, 476, 478.
    unnatural, "Toho," natural, 476.

  Dropsy of the chest, 217.
      treatment of, 217.
    of the uterus, 345.
    of the perinæum, 289.
      treatment of, 291.

  Duck, wood duck of America, 631.
    shooting, in wild rice, 509.

  Ducks, wounded, first retrieved, 645.

  Dysentery, 261.


  E.

  Ear, canker within and without, 53, 54, 419.
      causes, 420.
    torn, 56.
    rounding of the dog's, 422.

  Ears, not pulled violently, 601.

  Eating, dogs have lively sympathies for, 95.
    of the young by the mother, 393.

  Education, age when commenced, 471.
    best conducted by one, 470.
    commenced from A B C, 652.
    expeditious, economical,489.

  Ejection of the eye, 435.
    treatment for, 436.

  Emetics, 117.

  Energy, wildest dogs have most, 489, 531.

  Enlargement of the testicle, 335.
    treatment of, ib.

  Enteritis, 257.
    symptoms of, 258.
    treatment of, 259.

  Ergot of rye not a good uterine excitant to the bitch, 365.

  Examination of a dog, how to conduct, 81.

  Example, advantageous, 615.
    especially to spaniels, 495.
    yours, has influence, 569, 622.

  Exercise, 42, 90.
    on the road, 493.

  Experiments, 108.

  External canker, 421.
    treatment of, 423.

  Eye, the, 429.
    films over, 56.
    ejection of, 435.
    treatment for, 436.


  F.

  Falling off of the claw, 439.
    of the vagina, 402.

  Fastest dogs not beating most, 502.
    walkers not beating most, 564.

  Fasting, initiatory lessons in, 469.

  Fatigued, dog not hunted when, 557.

  Faults, punishment expected for, 614.

  Feeding time, lessons at, 479.
    pistol fired at, 478.

  Feet, 53.
    ailments of, 437-443.
    of partridges given to dogs, 642.

  Fence, not to be broken, 556.
    "ware fence," initiatory lesson in, 486.

  Fetching, evil of not, 638.
    lessons in, 510, 512.

  Fevers, bilious, 55.

  Fields, largest beat, 539.

  Films over the eyes, 56.

  "Find," initiatory lessons, 480, 481.

  "Finder" not to advance, 617.

  "Finder" retrieves, 641.

  Fire, dog to bask before, 558.

  First good point, 568.
    bird killed, 569.

  Fits in the dog, 55, 295.
    sucking, 396.
    what to do when they occur, 296.
    treatment of, 297.

  Flap of the ear, abscess in, 427.
    treatment of, ib.

  Flapper shooting, 647.

  Fleas, remedy for, 56.

  Flogging, how administered, 598.
    reprobated, 468, 611.

  "Flown," initiatory lesson, 486.
    real, 603.

  Fluids, to give, 118.

  Food for a diseased dog, 96.
    proper for dogs, 40, 90.

  Foot-sore, 53, 440.

  Footing a scent, 487, 511, 581.

  Forceps ought not to be used during parturition, 371.

  Form desirable in a bitch for breeding, 349.

  Forward initiatory lesson, 481.

  "Foul," 239.

  Fowls, killing of, the cure, 627.

  Fractures, 444.
    treatment for, 446.

  Fungoid tumours, 340.


  G.

  Gain, to, the confidence of a dog, 82.

  Game book, form of, 68.
    lies too close in turnips, 551.
    not shown too soon to dog, 471, 588.
    spring toward gun, 496, 508.

  Gastritis, 233.
    what dogs most liable to, 234.
    treatment of, 236.

  Generative organs, female, 337.
    male, 313.

  Give, to, solids, 111.
    fluids 113.

  Glans, swelling of, 327.

  Gone, initiatory lesson, 486.
    real, 603.

  Gorse, spaniels to be habituated to, 495.

  Greyhounds, food for, in training, 56.

  Growths, morbid, in the bitch, 338.

  Gun, dog to back the, 630.
    first over fence, not dog, 556.
    game flushed toward the, 496, 508, 603.

  Guns, a few words on, 41.
    to preserve the barrels from rust of salt water, 57.
    water-proofing for the locks, 58.

  Gutta Serena, 431.
    causes, ib.


  H.

  Hæmaturia, 326.

  Hand, bird delivered into, 511.

  Hand, rewards taken from, 478.

  Hare, chase of, checked, 607, 608.
    heavy, tempts dog to drop, 519.
    killed in form, steadies dog, 610.
    scent of strong, 607.
    shooting of condemned, 604.
    wounded, dog may pursue, 610.

  Haste, when imperative, during pupping, 383.

  Heading birds, 635.
    dog, making too stanch, 583.
      circle wide, 509.

  Heat, 55, 353.

  Hedge, farthest side hunted, 496.
    rows not to be hunted, 542.

  Heel, signal to, on killing, 573, 577.
    signal to, 482, 485.

  Hepatitis, 221.
    chronic, ib.
    symptoms of, 223.
    treatment of, 225.

  Herbert's Field Sports in the United States, 560.

  Hereditary instincts, 525, 597.

  Horses how taught at Astley's, 468.
    fed on firing, 478.

  Hot bath kills during parturition, 364.


  I.

  Imitative, dogs are, 568.

  In-and-in breeding injudicious, 579.

  Independence imparted, 623.

  Indigestion, 237, 282.
    symptoms of, 228.
    treatment of, 229.

  Inflammation of the bowels, 56.
    of the lungs, 211.
    treatment of, 215.

  Initiatory lessons important, 469, 471, 480, 529, 532.

  Injuries to the tongue, 195.
    treatment of, ib.

  Instrument, parturition, recommended, 381.

  Instruments, certain, when lawful to employ them in pupping, 372.
    as a rule deadly in parturition, 368.

  Internal canker, 424.
    former accounts of, ib.
    treatment for, 425.

  Intestines, peculiarity of, 246.

  Introsusception, 268.

  Inversion of the womb, 404.


  K.

  Kennel, the, 44.
    dog ought to be in his, 646.

  Killing fowls, the remedy, 627.
    sheep, cure attempted, 625.

  Kind of dogs alluded to in this book, 89.


  L.

  Labor pains, false, 361.

  Large bone may be given to dogs, 91.

  Larynx, 201.

  Leeward, beat from, 555.

  Left hand signals "down charge," 476.
      less than right, 535.
    side of dog, keep on, 583.
    signal for dog to go on the, 481.

  Lessons, initiatory, reasonable, 469, 471, 488, 529.
    walking in the fields, 527.

  Lice, 27, 55, 105.

  Lifting a dog, 591, 636, 642.

  Limbs, diseases of the, 437.

  Liver, a mild laxative to dogs, 93.
    hard-boiled, 519.

  Lungs, inflammation of, 211.
    treatment of, 215.

  Luxuries hurt the teeth of dogs, 182.


  M.

  Make beef-tea, how to, 97.

  Mange, a general term only, 410.
    a second description of, 412.
    treatment for, 413.
    true, ib.
    treatment for, ib.
    another form, 414.
    treatment for, 51, 415.
    a fourth sort, 417.
    treatment for, ib.
    a fifth kind, ib.
    treatment for, ib.

  Markers used with spaniels, 505.

  Medicine, how to administer, 50, 106.
    generally alluded to, 119.

  Milk, how to draw from a bitch, 401.

  Morbid growths in the bitch, 338.

  Mouth, how to hold open, 111.
    teeth, tongue, gullet, &c., 179.
    canker of the, 189.
    treatment of, 190.

  Mute spaniels, old sportsmen prefer, 506.

  Muzzle, to, the dog with tape for operations, 428.


  N.

  Names ending in "O" dissimilar, 536.

  Nervous diseases, 295.
    system, 299.

  Nipping the teeth off, 193.

  "No," Better word than "ware," 487.

  Noise spoils sport, 466, 473, 539.

  Nose carried high, 485, 547.

  Nosing allowed, 593.

  Number of pups a bitch can rear, 26, 395.

  Numerous pretenders to cure the dog's diseases, 76.


  O.

  OEstrum, 353.

  Old dog allowed liberties, 648.
    range taught with, 549.

  "On," initiatory lesson in, 473, 474.

  Opening pills, 116.

  Operations, 450.
    mode of performing, 451.

  Ophthalmia, simple, 432.
    symptoms of, ib.
    treatment for, 433.

  Original of the dog inquired after, 73.


  P.

  Parallels, distance between, 546, 547.

  Paralysis, 270.
    treatment of, 273.
    of the tongue, 193.

  Parturition, 346.
    what is necessary at, 359.

  Passing the catheter, 330.

  Patience enjoined, 568.
    required at a pupping, 376.

  Peculiarity of the intestines, 246.

  Peg or spike on a check-cord, 580, 609.

  Perseverance and range attained, 649.
    in seeking taught, 593.

  Perinæum, dropsy of, 345.

  Physic, how to administer, 50, 106.
    action of, on dogs, 107.

  Piles, 278.
    treatment of, 281.

  Pills, opening, 116.

  Pincushion, retrievers fetch, 513.

  Pistol, horse fed at discharge of, 478.

  Point, dead, 570.
    left and resumed, 633.
    not quitted for down charge, 576, 618.
    the first good one, 568.

  Pointers, 16, 28.
    out of place in strong cover, 506.
    points, 638.

  Pointing, dog not soon, 528, 580, 589.
    dog when not to down, 618.
    origin of, 476.

  Poisoning, what to do in case of, 55.

  Polypus, 341.
    how to recognise, 342.

  Pot-hunting sportsmen ruin dogs, 621.

  Preparatory lessons, important, 469, 471, 529, 522, 563.

  Presentations, false, rare in the bitch, 375.

  Pretenders are numerous in the cure of canine diseases, 76.

  Protrusion of the rectum, 287.
    treatment of, ib.

  Punishment avoided by lessons, 471.
    causes blinking, 611.
    decreases, whip carried, 611.
    not shunned by dogs, 614.
    how administered, 598.
    making dogs too stanch, 583.
    not inflicted on suspicion, 601.

  Punishment, reprobated, 468, 611.

  Pupping, 346.

  Pups, when they may be felt in the mother, 356.
    when broken difficult to bring away, 379.
    feeding and weaning, 27, 397.

  Purchasers of dogs, hints to, 536.

  Purgation, acute, 263.
    treatment of, 264.

  Purgatives, 53, 115.

  Puzzle-peg saved by the word "up," 484.

  "Puzzling" with nose to ground, 547.


  Q.

  Quail, large in Canada, 578.

  Qualities expected in good dog, 468.

  Quarter ground, _see_ Beat.

  Quartering, how taught, 33.


  R.

  Rabbit-shooting reprobated, 604.

  Rabies, 299.

  "Range," _see_ Beat.

  Ranging, how taught, 30.

  Receipts, various, 50.
    _See_ the names of diseases for which remedies are sought.

  Rectum, 278.
    protrusion of, 287.
    treatment of, ib.

  Refinements, _see_ Accomplishments.

  Regularity essential in the feeding of dogs, 94.

  Relays desirable, not a pack, 563.

  Remedies, domestic, the danger of, 77.

  Requisites in a dog, 467.
    in a breaker, 466.

  Respiratory organs, 200.

  Retention of urine, 328.

  Retriever, the, 21.
    bit for one that mouths, 521.
    evil of assisting, 519.
    footing scent, lesson in, 517.
    for water, qualities in, 508.
    made whipper in, 492.
    observes struck bird, 518.
    to "down charge," or not, 521.

  Retrievers, shape, &c. of, 523.
    to beat, 644.
    to fetch, taught, 514.
    to pursue faster, 521.
    water, to fetch cripples first, 645.
    how fed, 524.

  Retrieving, not taught first season, 640.
    pointers or setters not to point dead, 643, 654.
    setters not pointers, 639.

  Rewards always given, 478, 481.

  Rheumatism, 274.
    acute, ib.
    treatment of, 276.

  Rice, wild lakes, duck-shooting in 509.

  Right, the signal to go toward, 482.
    hand for "toho" and "drop," 476.
      signals more than left, 536.

  Rounding dogs' ears, 422.

  Rope to dog, 647.

  Running bird, firing at, 590.

  Rushing in to "dead" cured, 622.


  S.

  Saint Vitus's dance, 240.
    symptoms of, 241.
    treatment of, 242.

  Scent bad in calm or gale, 540.
    differently recognized by pointers or setters, 541.
    of birds not left for hare, 607.
    "footing," an initiatory lesson in, 485.
    of wounded and unwounded birds differs, 641.

  Scrotum, cancer of the, 319.

  Search, "dead," 570.
    with two dogs, 641.
    for wounded bird to leeward, 589.
    to windward, 591.

  Seeking dead, how taught, 593.

  Self-hunting, prevent, 647.

  Servant useful in the field, 580.

  Seton, to make a, 54.

  Setter, the, 18, 25, 28.
    the Russian, 10.
    to retrieve, 638.

  Setters crouch more than pointers, 475.
    for covert shooting, 506.
    points in, 639.

  Shoes, to render waterproof, 57.

  Shooting excellence in breaker, not necessary, 465.

  Shot-belt on spaniels and setters, 496, 602.

  Shy birds to be intercepted, 582, 635, 636.

  Sight, dog not to be out of, 625.

  Sign when parturition is concluded, 390.

  Silence enjoined, 467, 539.

  Simple ophthalmia, 432.
    symptoms of, ib.
    treatment for, 433.

  Single-handed, shot to, 623.

  Sinuses up the claws, 440.

  Skin diseases, 410.

  Slow dog associate for young one, 615.
    hunting more than fast one, 564.

  Snake, bite of a, 57.

  Snipes, three lifted in succession, 642.

  Snoring, 207.

  Snorting, ib.

  Spaniel, 20.

  Spaniels, age when shown game, 495.
    hunted in gorse, ib.
    mute preferred, 504.
    numbers for a team, 500, 508.

  Spaniels, requisites in, 498.
    shot-belt on wildest, 494.
    that pointed, 498.
    water, how broken in, 508.

  Spike-collar, 586.
    fastened to check-cord, 580, 609.

  Sportsmen to break dogs, 464.

  Spring, dogs broken in, 537.

  Springing the other birds after pointing one, 575.

  Staggers, 55.

  Stanch, made too by heading, 583.

  Stone, error of retrieving with, 512.
    in the bladder, 325.

  Stoppage, 268.

  Strain, remedy for, 54.

  Strangulation, 267.

  Substances fit for sick dogs, 96.

  Summary imparted by lessons, 532.

  Swelling of the glans, 327.


  T.

  Tape, to make a muzzle of, for operations, 428.

  Tapes, their use objected to when giving medicine, 114.

  Teats, swelling, 56.
    cancer of the, 408.

  Teeth of the dog are hurt by luxuries, 182.
    to clean the dog's, 188.
    nipping off the, 193.

  Temperament of the dog, 79.

  Temper, hereditary, 525.
    in breaker necessary, 466.

  Temporary teeth, how to extract them, 184.

  Testicle, the absence of, 333.
    enlargement of, 335.
    treatment of, ib.

  Thorns, to extract, 51.

  Time proper for putting to the dog, 355.
    given determines education, 463.
    saved by initiatory lessons, 488.

  Timidity cured, 530, 612, 613.

  "Toho," first good one in the field, 568.
    initiatory lessons in, 473, 474, 476.

  Tongue, paralysis, 193.
    injuries to, 195.
    treatment of, ib.

  Tooth-brush, 188

  To tell when the bitch is in pup, 357.

  Tranquillity, how to ascertain when the dog has recovered it, 83.

  Tumours, fungoid, 340.

  Turning back brings dog away, 577.

  Two dogs, beat of, 558, 559.


  U.

  "Up," signal for, initiatory lesson, 484.

  Uterus, dropsy of, 345.
    form of the, 372.


  V.

  Vagina, cancer of the, 344.
    falling of the, 402.

  Vermin, 104.


  W.

  Walkers, fastest, not beating most, 564.

  Ware not so good a word as "No," 487.

  Warmth necessary for dog, 318.

  Water-brash, 231.
    spaniels, 507.
    retrievers, how broken, 508.
      observe struck bird, 518.
      qualities in, 508.
    dog taught to plunge in, 512.

  Whip carried saves punishment, 611.
    to crack loudly, 548.

  Whistle, low, 473, 630.
    dissimilar notes on one, 629.
    distinguishing for each dog, 628.
    inattentive to, how to punish, 548.
    initiatory lesson in, 473.

  Whistling, to animate, injudicious, 466, 539.

  White too conspicuous a color, 508.

  Wild birds intercepted, 582, 635, 636.

  Wild dog compared with cautious, 551.
    dogs turning out best, 553.

  Wild fowl, wounded, retrieved first, 645
    reconnoitred with glass, 508.

  Winged birds, _see_ Bird winged.

  Womb, shape of, 372
    inversion of, 404.
    treatment for, 405

  Worming, 192.

  Worms, 51.

  Wounds, 53.

  Wounded birds, _see_ Bird wounded.


  Y.

  Youth, game followed in, liked, 498.
    occupation followed in, liked 647.


Transcriber's notes

The following typographical errors have been corrected as noted below.

  Page  57 headed     corrected to healed
  Page  66 Rhubard    corrected to Rhubarb
  Page  87 membrance  corrected to membrane
  Page  90 greese     corrected to grease
  Page 243 vonica     corrected to vomica
  Page 394 pleaseed   corrected to pleased
  Page 457 SHOOITNG   corrected to SHOOTING
  Page 658 Crotchet   corrected to Crochet
  Page 660 Hane       corrected to Hand

  Errors in Table of contents and List of Illustration descriptions
  have not been corrected.





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About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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