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Title: A New Subspecies of the Fruit-eating Bat, Sturnira ludovici, From Western Mexico
Author: Jones, J. Knox, 1929-1992, Phillips, Gary L.
Language: English
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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 14, No. 16, pp. 475-481, 1 fig.

March 2, 1964



A New Subspecies of the Fruit-eating Bat,
Sturnira ludovici, from Western Mexico

BY

J. KNOX JONES, JR., AND GARY L. PHILLIPS



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
LAWRENCE
1964

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr.

Volume 14, No. 16, pp. 475-481, 1 fig.
Published March 2, 1964

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Lawrence, Kansas

PRINTED BY
HARRY (BUD) TIMBERLAKE, STATE PRINTER
TOPEKA, KANSAS
1964



A New Subspecies of the Fruit-eating Bat,
Sturnira ludovici, from Western Mexico

BY

J. KNOX JONES, JR., AND GARY L. PHILLIPS


The fruit-eating bats of the genus _Sturnira_ are represented on the
North American mainland by two species, _S. lilium_ and _S. ludovici_.
The former, in most areas the smaller of the two, is widely distributed
in México and Central America and is common in many places. On the
other hand, _S. ludovici_, described by Anthony (1924:8) from near
Gualea, Ecuador, generally has been regarded as rare; insofar as we
can determine only 20 specimens of the species have been recorded
previously from North America (Costa Rica, Honduras, and México).

In 1961 (M. Raymond Lee) and 1962 (Percy L. Clifton), field
representatives of the Museum of Natural History collected mammals in
western México. Among the bats obtained by them were 23 specimens of
_S. ludovici_, which represent an heretofore undetected subspecies that
is named and described below.


Sturnira ludovici occidentalis, new subspecies

_Holotype._--Adult female, skin and skull, no. 92798 Museum of Natural
History, The University of Kansas, from Plumosas, 2500 feet elevation,
Sinaloa; obtained on August 31, 1962, by Percy L. Clifton (original no.
2939).

_Distribution._--Western México; known certainly from south-western
Durango south to southern Jalisco (see Fig. 1).

_Diagnosis._--Size small both externally and cranially (forearm in
adults 40.4-44.1 mm., greatest length of skull 21.7-22.9); rostrum
short and abruptly elevated; skull relatively broad; dorsal pelage drab
brownish over-all, usually lacking epaulets (pale yellowish brown when
present); ventral pelage brownish gray.

_Comparisons._--From _Sturnira ludovici ludovici_, the only other
subspecies of the species, _S. l. occidentalis_ differs in averaging
smaller in most external and cranial dimensions (in some measurements
the upper size limits of _occidentalis_ barely overlap the lower limits
in specimens of _ludovici_ examined), in having a relatively broader
skull with a shorter, more abruptly elevated rostrum, and in being
paler both dorsally and ventrally.

From _Sturnira lilium parvidens_, with which it is sympatric, _S. l.
occidentalis_ usually (but not always) differs in being brownish
(rather than yellowish to yellowish orange) dorsally and in lacking
epaulets, and differs in the following cranial features: first upper
incisors simple (rather than weakly bifid in unworn condition), larger,
and more nearly straight when viewed from the front; second upper
incisors reduced; lower incisors bilobate rather than trilobate;
lingual cusps on m1 and m2 greatly reduced; M2 usually turned inward
from M1 at distinct angle. The two species have approximately the same
external and cranial dimensions in western México.

_Measurements_ (in millimeters).--External measurements of the holotype
are as follows: total length, 58; length of hind foot, 15; length of
ear, 18; forearm (average of both), 42.5. Corresponding average and
extreme measurements of 11 adults from 4 km. N Durazno, Jalisco,
followed by those of eight adults from 17 km. SE Talpa, Jalisco, are:
61.9 (59-65), 60.9 (57-68); 14.1 (12-15), 13.0 (13); 16.1 (15-18), 16.0
(15-17); 42.2 (40.4-43.8), 42.9 (41.6-44.1); weight in grams, 16.8
(15-19, six specimens only), 19.2 (16.3-22.5).

Cranial measurements of the holotype additional to those given in Table
1 are: condyloincisive length, 19.7; breadth across upper canines, 5.5;
length of mandibular tooth-row (c-m3), 6.7.

_Remarks._--The pattern of geographic variation in size in _Sturnira
ludovici_ resembles that in many other species of tropical bats in
North America in that individuals from the northern parts of the range
are smaller than those from the south. Mexican specimens herein
assigned to _S. l. ludovici_ average somewhat smaller than specimens
from Central America and the northern part of South America (but are
within the currently understood size limits of that subspecies) and
average paler as well. Additional material is needed from central and
eastern México before the limits of distribution of the two subspecies
of _ludovici_ can be determined accurately.

All specimens examined of the new subspecies were trapped in mist nets.
The holotype was captured in a net stretched across an old road among
large fruit trees situated along a small river (a tributary of the Río
del Baluarte). Tropical deciduous vegetation grew in the narrow valley
of the river but the adjacent hills supported oak. A specimen of
_Artibeus jamaicensis jamaicensis_ was netted along with the holotype
and on the previous night, August 30, one individual each of
_Glossophaga soricina leachii_ and _Sturnira lilium parvidens_ were
taken in the same net. Baker and Greer (1962:69) also reported the two
species of _Sturnira_ as netted together 6 mi. S Pueblo Nuevo in
adjacent Durango.

TABLE 1.--SOME MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS OF TWO SUBSPECIES OF STURNIRA
LUDOVICI.

Table Legend:

Col. A: Number of specimens averaged, or catalogue number, and sex
Col. B: Length of forearm
Col. C: Greatest length of skull
Col. D: Zygomatic breadth
Col. E: Mastoid breadth
Col. F: Interorbital constriction
Col. G: Length of maxillary tooth-row
Col. H: Breadth across upper molars

==========================+======+======+======+======+=====+=====+=====
               A          |  B   |  C   |  D   |  E   |  F  |  G  |  H
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

            _Sturnira ludovici occidentalis_, holotype
92798 KU, (Female)        | 42.5 | 22.0 | 12.5 | 11.4 | 5.3 | 6.1 | 7.5
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                  1/2 mi. W Revolcaderos, Durango
5698 MSU, (Female)        | 43.7 | 22.6 | 13.1 | 11.9 | 6.0 | 6.3 | 7.8
5699 MSU, (Female)        | 42.3 | 22.2 | 12.7 | 11.3 | 5.6 | 5.9 | 7.5
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                         17 km. SE Talpa, Jalisco
Average 8 (4 Male,
  4 Female)               | 42.9 | 22.5 | 12.9 | 11.5 | 5.9 | 6.2 | 7.7
Minimum                   | 41.6 | 21.7 | 12.6 | 10.9 | 5.7 | 6.0 | 7.5
Maximum                   | 44.1 | 22.9 | 13.5 | 11.8 | 6.3 | 6.4 | 7.9
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                  20 km. WNW Purificación, Jalisco
92811 KU, (Male)          | 42.0 | 22.6 | 13.2 | 12.0 | 6.0 | 6.2 | 7.7
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                      4 km. N Durazno, Jalisco
Average 11 (1  Male,
  10 Female)              | 42.4 | 22.5 | 13.0 | 11.4 | 5.8 | 6.2 | 7.7
Minimum                   | 40.4 | 21.8 | 12.6 | 10.8 | 5.3 | 5.8 | 7.5
Maximum                   | 43.8 | 22.9 | 13.4 | 11.8 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 8.0
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

   _Sturnira ludovici ludovici_, 10 mi. SW Villa Juárez, Puebla
67399 KU, (Female)        | 44.2 | 24.0 | 13.3 | 11.8 | 5.9 | 6.4 | 8.1
67400 KU, (Female)        | 42.9 | 23.2 | 13.7 | 11.9 | 6.0 | 6.3 | 8.1
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                       11 km. W Quiroga, Michoacán
95703 UMMZ, (Male)        |      | 23.5 | 13.5 | 11.6 | 5.9 | 6.2 | 7.6
95704 UMMZ, (Female)      |      | 23.0 | 12.8 | 11.0 | 5.7 | 6.3 | 8.0
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                        Vista Hermosa, Oaxaca
91635 KU, (Female)        | 45.1 | 23.9 | 13.4 | 11.8 | 6.0 | 6.5 | 8.0
91636 KU, (Female)        | 46.0 | 23.6 | 13.1 | 11.9 | 5.7 | 6.7 | 8.0
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                 La Cruz Grande, La Paz, Honduras
126791 AMNH, (Female)     | 44.0 | 23.6 | 13.5 | 11.8 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 8.1
126811 AMNH, (Female)[1]  | 45.5 | 24.6 | 13.2 | 12.0 | 6.3 | 7.2 | 8.2
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

   Sierra Negra, Sierra de Perijá, Colombia (after Hershkovitz, 1949)
Minimum (2 Male,
   2 Female)              | 44.2 | 22.9 | 13.2 |      | 6.2 | 6.5 |
Maximum                   | 46.0 | 24.2 | 13.8 |      | 6.7 | 7.0 |
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

                       near Gualea, Ecuador
67328 AMNH, (Male)[2]     |      | 25.0 | 14.0 | 12.4 | 6.3 |     | 8.4
67329 AMNH, (Male)        | 45.3 | 24.9 | 13.9 | 12.2 | 6.1 | 7.0 | 8.4
--------------------------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----

      [1] Holotype of _Sturnira hondurensis_ (measurements after
      Goodwin, 1940:2).

      [2] Holotype of _Sturnira ludovici ludovici_ (measurements
      after Anthony, 1924:9).

Other specimens of _S. l. occidentalis_ were taken under the following
circumstances: 17 km. SE Talpa, Jalisco (night of November 3-4,
1962)--nine individuals netted over the Río Mascota in "pine-oak zone"
along with representatives of _S. l. parvidens_, _Artibeus toltecus_,
_Chiroderma salvini_, _Eptesicus fuscus miradorensis_, _Lasiurus
borealis teliotis_, and _Rhogeëssa gracilis_; 20 km. WNW Purificación,
Jalisco (night of November 20-21, 1962)--two specimens captured in a
mist net stretched beneath branches of a fig tree at the edge of the
Río Jicote in which _Glossophaga commissarisi_, _S. l. parvidens_,
_Artibeus turpis nanus_, and _Artibeus lituratus palmarum_ also were
taken; 4 km. N Durazno, Jalisco (nights of November 21-22 and 22-23,
1961)--11 specimens, of which 10 were females, netted in company with
_G. s. leachii_, _S. l. parvidens_, _A. j. jamaicensis_, _A. toltecus_,
_Centurio senex_, and _L. b. teliotis_ over a stream in a small canyon
that supported "fairly dense stands of very tall deciduous trees." Five
of the 10 females from 4 km. N Durazno were pregnant; each contained a
single embryo. Crown-rump length of the embryos averaged 26.8 (24-30)
mm. No gross reproductive activity was evident in other females of _S.
l. occidentalis_ collected.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Distribution of _Sturnira ludovici_ in North
America. 1. _S. l. ludovici._

2. _S. l. occidentalis._]

_Specimens examined._--A total of 26, arranged from north to south, as
follows: DURANGO: 1/2 mi. W Revolcaderos, 6600 ft., 2 (MSU); 6 mi. S
Pueblo Nuevo, 3000 ft., 1 (MSU). SINALOA: Plumosas, 2500 ft., 1 (the
holotype). JALISCO: 17 km. SE Talpa, 5200 ft., 9; 20 km. WNW
Purificación, 1400 ft., 2; 4 km. N. Durazno, 11.

Specimens of _S. l. ludovici_ used in comparisons included a paratype
(AMNH) from near Gualea, Ecuador, a specimen from Mindo, Ecuador, two
specimens from La Cruz Grande, La Paz, Honduras (AMNH--paratypes of
"_Sturnira hondurensis_"), and the following from México: 10 mi. SW
Villa Juárez, 4850 ft., Puebla, 2; 11 km. W Quiroga, about 7000 ft.,
Michoacán, 2 (UMMZ); and Vista Hermosa, 1500 meters, Oaxaca, 5.

_Acknowledgements._--For the loan of comparative materials we are
grateful to R. H. Baker of The Museum, Michigan State University (MSU),
W. H. Burt of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (UMMZ), and
R. G. Van Gelder of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH).
Specimens listed above that bear no designation as to collection are
in the Museum of Natural History of The University of Kansas.



Literature Cited


ANTHONY, H. E.

1924. Preliminary report on Ecuadorean mammals. No. 6. Amer. Mus.
Novit., 139:1-9, October 20.

BAKER, R. H., and J. K. GREER

1962. Mammals of the Mexican state of Durango. Publ. Mus., Michigan
State Univ., Biol. Ser., 2:25-154, 4 pls., 6 figs., August 27.

GOODWIN, G. G.

1940. Three new bats from Honduras and the first record of
_Enchisthenes harti_ (Thomas) for North America. Amer. Mus. Novit.,
1075:1-3, June 27.

HERSHKOVITZ, P.

1949. Mammals of northern Colombia. Preliminary report no. 5: Bats
(Chiroptera). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 99:429-454, fig. 38, May 10.


_Transmitted June 24, 1963._





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