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Title: Noteworthy Records of Bats From Nicaragua, with a Checklist of the Chiropteran Fauna of the Country
Author: Jones, J. Knox, 1929-1992, Smith, James Dale, Turner, Ronald W.
Language: English
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OCCASIONAL PAPERS

    of the
    MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
    --The University of Kansas
    Lawrence, Kansas

NUMBER 2            APRIL 29, 1971

NOTEWORTHY RECORDS OF BATS FROM
NICARAGUA, WITH A CHECKLIST OF
THE CHIROPTERAN FAUNA OF THE COUNTRY


By

J. KNOX JONES, JR.,[1] JAMES DALE SMITH,[2]
RONALD W. TURNER[3]


Nicaragua occupies a strategic position in Central America with respect
to mammalian distributional patterns, but relatively little has been
published concerning the fauna of the country and its zoogeographic
relationships. The present paper records information on distribution,
variation, and natural history of 40 species of bats from Nicaragua, 14
of which are here recorded for the first time from the country.
Appended is a checklist of the chiropteran fauna of Nicaragua in which
only primary literature with actual reference to specimens from the
republic is cited.

The specimens upon which this report is based are, with few exceptions,
in the collections of the Museum of Natural History of The University
of Kansas. Some of our material was obtained in 1956 by J. R. and A. A.
Alcorn, field representatives of the Museum and sponsored by the Kansas
University Endowment Association; most of the specimens, however, were
obtained by field parties of which we were members that worked in
Nicaragua in 1964, 1966, 1967, and 1968 under the aegis of a contract
(DA-49-193-MD-2215) between the U.S. Army Medical Research and
Development Command and The University of Kansas. Place-names
associated with localities mentioned in the text from which specimens
at Kansas were collected are plotted on Fig. 1.

      [1] Curator, Division of Mammals, Museum of Natural History,
      University of Kansas.

      [2] Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, California State
      College, Fullerton, California.

      [3] Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, St. Benedicts
      College, Atchison, Kansas.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Map of Nicaragua showing location of
  place-names associated with specimens reported in this paper.
  Localities, identified by number, are as follows: I, Potosí; 2,
  Cosigüina; 3, Hda. Bellavista, Volcán Casita; 4, Chinandega; 5, San
  Antonio; 6, Jalapa; 7, Condega; 8, Yalí; 9, Santa María de Ostuma;
  10, San Ramón; 11, Matagalpa; 12, Darío; 13, Esquipulas; 14, Santa
  Rosa; 15, Boaco; 16, Teustepe; 17, Tipitapa; 18, Sabana Grande; 19,
  Managua; 20, Cuapa; 21, Villa Somoza; 22, Hato Grande; 23, Diriamba;
  24, Guanacaste; 25, Mecatepe; 26, Nandaime; 27, Alta Gracia, Isla de
  Ometepe; 28, Mérida, Isla de Ometepe; 29, Rivas; 30, San Juan del
  Sur; 31, Sapoá; 32, Bonanza; 33, El Recreo; 34, Cara de Mono.]

In the accounts that follow, departments in Nicaragua are listed
alphabetically, but localities within each department are arranged from
north to south; elevations are given in meters or feet, depending on
which was used on specimen labels. All specimens are in the Museum of
Natural History of The University of Kansas unless noted otherwise. We
are indebted to Drs. Charles O. Handley, Jr., and Ronald Pine of the
U.S. National Museum (USNM) for lending us certain critical specimens.



ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES


Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774)

Two specimens from El Paraíso, 1 km N Cosigüina, 20 m, Chinandega, on
the Cosigüina Peninsula, provide the fourth locality of record for this
white-lined bat in Nicaragua. Jones (1964a:506) and Davis _et al._
(1964:375) earlier reported a total of eight specimens from the
departments of Managua and Zelaya. The species is known as far north in
Middle America as Chiapas (Carter _et al._, 1966:489).

Our two bats, both females, were shot on the evening of 1 March 1968 as
they foraged around a yard light. One carried an embryo that measured 8
mm (crown-rump), whereas the other was reproductively inactive.


Peropteryx macrotis macrotis (Wagner, 1843)

Four females (one young and three adult) captured 5 km N and 9 km E
Condega, 800 m, in Madriz, on 23 June 1964, provide the first record of
this small sac-winged species from Nicaragua. The bats were shot from
daytime roosts in small, well-lighted, cave-like spaces formed among
immense blocks of granite in a small patch of tropical deciduous forest
surrounded by extensive pine-oak woodland. None of the adult females
was reproductively active. _Glossophaga soricina_, _Diphylla ecaudata_,
and a large nursery colony of _Desmodus rotundus_ were found in
association with the _Peropteryx_. Measurements of our specimens agree
closely with those reported for material from El Salvador (Felten,
1955:284) and Costa Rica (Starrett and Casebeer, 1968:3-4).


Noctilio labialis labialis (Kerr, 1792)

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: 4 km W Teustepe, 140 m, 9. _Chontales_: Hato
    Grande, 13 km S, 8 km W Juigalpa, 60 m, 49. _Rivas_: 4 km S, 1.5 km
    E Alta Gracia, 40 m, Isla de Ometepe, 1; Finca Amayo, 13 km S, 14
    km E Rivas, 40 m, 4. _Zelaya_: S side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 1;
    Cara de Mono, 50 m, 2.

This species has been reported previously from Nicaragua by several
authors. All our specimens were netted over small streams or shot as
they foraged; parts of scarabids and lepidopterans were found in the
mouths of several individuals shot at Finca Amayo. Twenty-six of 31
autopsied females taken in April were pregnant, each containing a
single embryo--average crown-rump length 16.7 (5-26) mm. Testes of 15
males collected in April had an average length of 4.6 (2-7) mm, those
of four taken in June, 5.2 (4-6) mm.

We follow Cabrera (1958:55), Husson (1962:63), and Handley (1966b:758)
in use of the subspecific name _labialis,_ the type locality of which
is the "Mosquito shore" of Nicaragua, rather than Perú as suggested by
Hershkovitz (1949:433-434).


Noctilio leporinus mexicanus Goldman, 1915

    _Specimens._--_Chinandega_: Potosí, 5 m, 2. _Chontales_: Hato
    Grande, 13 km S, 8 km W Juigalpa, 60 m, 4. _Rivas_: 4 km S, 1.5 km
    E Alta Gracia, 40 m, Isla de Ometepe, 4; Mérida, 40 m, Isla de
    Ometepe, 2; Finca Amayo, 13 km S, 14 km E Rivas, 40 m, 1.

This fish-eating species, first reported from Nicaragua by Davis _et
al._ (1964:376), apparently occurs throughout Middle America, although
known from the region by comparatively few records. We have 13
additional Nicaraguan specimens as listed above.

The two individuals (both females, one pregnant with an embryo that
measured 20 mm) from Potosí were caught on 6 March in a mist net set
over a large pool in a shallow estuarine stream; the mouth of the
stream opened into the Gulf of Fonseca approximately 200 yards below
our netting site. Other individuals of this species were observed as
they foraged over large pools formed at high tide near the mouth of the
stream. Our other specimens were caught in mist nets set over fresh
water streams near Lake Nicaragua or along the shores of the lake. A
female from near Alta Gracia, caught on 27 March, carried a single
embryo that measured 41 mm, whereas one from Finca Amayo was lactating
on 25 June. Four males taken on Isla de Ometepe in late March and early
April had a mean testicular length of 9.5 (8-10) mm.


Pteronotus davyi fulvus (Thomas, 1892)

    _Specimens._--_Chontales_: Cuapa, 4. _Matagalpa_: 3 mi E San Ramón,
    126.

This small naked-backed bat has not been reported previously from
Nicaragua. Autopsy of seven females collected on 9 May near San Ramón
revealed that four were pregnant, each with a single embryo--average
crown-rump length 25.0 (21-29) mm.

The distribution of _P. davyi_ is poorly known in much of Central
America. The species was reported only recently from Costa Rica
(Starrett and Casebeer, 1968:8) and is unknown from Panamá. We assign
our specimens tentatively to the subspecies _fulvus_ on geographic
grounds.


Pteronotus parnellii fuscus (J. A. Allen, 1911)

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    1; Los Cocos, 14 km S Boaco, 220 m, 1. _Chinandega_: 6.5 km N, 1 km
    E Cosigüina, 10 m, 1. _Zelaya_: Bonanza, 850 ft, 1; 2 mi SW
    Bonanza, 600 ft, 1; S side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 1; Cara de
    Mono, 50 m, 4.

Although this species is widespread in Middle America, it has been
known previously from Nicaragua only by a specimen from "Chontales"
(Miller, 1902:402). All of our specimens were captured in mist nets.
Two adult females (one taken on 28 February and the other on 8 March)
each carried a single embryo (13 and 18 mm in crown-rump length,
respectively); a female taken in April was lactating and had a flaccid
uterus suggesting relatively recent parturition. Adult females captured
in the months of June, July, and August evidenced no sign of
reproductive activity. Two of these were in dark, fresh pelage, but one
captured on 24 June and another on 28 July were molting. In both
individuals, active molt evidently had slowed or subsided and remnants
of the old pelage (rich ochraceous orange) were confined to a narrow
strip at the lateral edges of the body.

We tentatively apply the subspecies name _fuscus_ to our Nicaraguan
bats on geographic grounds; one of us (Smith) currently is
investigating geographic variation in the genus _Pteronotus_.


Pteronotus suapurensis (J. A. Allen, 1904)

    _Specimens._--_Chontales_: Cuapa, 1. _Matagalpa_: 3 mi E San Ramón,
    24. _Zelaya_: Cara de Mono, 25 m, 4.

This relatively poorly known monotypic species occurs from southern
Veracruz to the Amazon Basin. It has been reported from several
localities in Central America including one in Nicaragua (Goodwin,
1942a:88). Three pregnant females from near San Ramón (9 May) carried
embryos that had crown-rump lengths of 27, 27, and 28 mm, and two
netted on 24 April at Cara de Mono each had an embryo that measured 22
mm. All of our specimens are in bright pelage that is fulvous red in
color.


Micronycteris megalotis mexicana Miller, 1898

    _Specimens._--_Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, 600 m, 5. _Granada_:
    Hda. Mecatepe [2 km N, 11.5 km E Nandaime], 5. _Managua:_ 5 mi NW
    Managua, 1. _Matagalpa_: Río Viejo, 7 mi WNW Darío, 4; 11 mi SE
    Darío, 1. _Zelaya_: S end Isla del Maíz Grande, 9.

The individuals from Isla de Maíz Grande were shot on 30 June as they
flew from small caves and crevices in rocky outcrops on the south end
of the island. Of the three adult females obtained at that time, two
were lactating; each was accompanied by a young, the forearms of which
measured 19.7 (male) and 21.3 mm (female). Two adult males from Isla
del Maíz Grande had testes 2 mm in length.

TABLE 1.--Selected measurements of adults of two subspecies of
_Micronycteris megalotis_ from Nicaragua. Superscript numbers indicate
fewer specimens averaged than indicated in left-hand column.

Table Legend:

Col. A: Number of specimens averaged or catalogue number, and sex
Col. B: Length of forearm
Col. C: Greatest length of skull
Col. D: Zygomatic breadth
Col. E: Breadth of braincase
Col. F: Length of maxillary toothrow

===================================================================
           A                   B       C         D      E        F
-------------------------------------------------------------------
_Micronycteris megalotis mexicana_, west-central Nicaragua[a]

Average 8                    35.4    19.5[6]    9.5    8.0[7]   7.5
  (3[Male], 5 [Female])
Minimum                      33.0    18.8       9.1    7.7      7.3
Maximum                      38.1    20.3       9.8    8.2      7.7

Isla del Maíz Grande, Nicaragua

Average 6                   35.6    19.4       9.2    7.8       7.4
  (3 [Male], 3 [Female])
Minimum                     34.5    19.1       9.0    7.7       7.3
Maximum                     37.0    19.8       9.3    7.9       7.5

_Micronycteris megalotis microtis_, Greytown, Nicaragua (holotype)

USNM 16366/23364, [Male]    31.5    18.2       8.8    7.6       6.9

Río Coco, Nicaragua (AMNH)

Average 6                   33.6   18.9[3]      --    7.5[3]    7.1[3]
  (3 [Male], 3 [Female])
Minimum                     32.7   18.8         --    7.4       7.0
Maximum                     34.2   19.0         --    7.6       7.2

Bonanza, Nicaragua

KU 96251, [Male]            32.3   18.4        8.8    7.6       7.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------

      [a] Specimens labeled with reference to Darío, Diriamba, and
      Managua.

Four of the five specimens taken northwest of Diriamba were shot from
a daytime retreat in a culvert; the fifth was caught by hand as it
attempted to fly out of a hollow, fallen tree. Two adult females
captured on 31 March were pregnant, each carrying a single embryo (13
and 14 mm in crown-rump length), whereas two obtained on 14 August
showed no sign of reproductive activity. An adult male, also taken
on 14 August, had testes 2 mm in length. Of three additional adult
females, one captured on 3 June was pregnant (embryo 21 mm in
crown-rump length), whereas two obtained on 14 April evinced no gross
reproductive activity.

The subspecies _mexicana_ has not been reported previously from
Nicaragua, although Gardner _et al._ (1970:715) recently extended its
known distribution southward from Honduras (Goodwin, 1942c:124) and El
Salvador (Felten, 1956:180) to west-central Costa Rica. In Nicaragua,
as apparently in Costa Rica, _mexicana_ occupies the Pacific versant,
the Caribbean lowlands being inhabited by the smaller race,
_Micronycteris megalotis microtis_ Miller, 1898 (type locality,
Greytown, Nicaragua--reported also from "Río Coco," Nicaragua, by J. A.
Allen, 1910:110). Nicaraguan examples of _M. m. mexicana_ are, on the
average, considerably larger in cranial dimensions and length of
forearm than are specimens of _M. m. microtis_ (see Table 1). The
series of _microtis_ from "Río Coco," probably from the headwaters of
that stream in the vicinity of San Juan de Río Coco and thus near the
divide between Caribbean and Pacific drainages, is intermediate in size
between the two subspecies and suggests intergradation between them. As
noted also by Gardner _et al._ (1970:715), we find no differences in
length of ear between _microtis_ and _mexicana_ (contrary to Miller's
claim, in the original description, that _microtis_ had noticeably
smaller ears), nor do we note any consistent differences in color
between the two races on the basis of the specimens at hand.

Our specimens from Isla del Maíz Grande inexplicably agree rather
closely in size (average but slightly smaller) with specimens of _M. m.
mexicana_ from western Nicaragua and elsewhere within the range of the
subspecies, and are tentatively, therefore, referred to _mexicana_.
Four specimens earlier reported (G. M. Allen, 1929:130) from the same
island also are relatively large (forearm 35 mm). Further commentary on
this insular population must await a time when additional material is
available from Central America.


Tonatia nicaraguae Goodwin, 1942

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    1. _Chontales_: Hato Grande, 13 km S, 8 km W Juigalpa, 60 m, 1.

Only four specimens of this seemingly rare species have been recorded
previously from Nicaragua--one (the holotype) from Kanawa Creek, near
Cukra, north of Bluefields, 100 ft, Zelaya (Goodwin, 1942b:205),
another from 12.5 mi. S and 13 mi. E Rivas, 125 ft, Rivas (Davis and
Carter, 1962:67-68), and two from 6 km N Tuma, 500 m, Matagalpa (Valdez
and LaVal, 1971:248). Our specimens were caught in mist nets placed
over small, quiet streams that were fringed with tall, gallery forest.
The surrounding areas were savanna-like with small stands of secondary
forest. An adult male taken on 21 April had testes that measured 5 mm
in length, whereas those of another (9 August) were 3 mm.

Handley (1966b:761) synonymized _T. nicaraguae_ with _Tonatia minuta_
Goodwin, 1942, a conclusion with which we agree. However, the name
_nicaraguae_ (Goodwin, 1942b:205) has page priority over _minuta_
Goodwin (op. cit.:206) and is the valid name for the species rather
than _minuta_ as used by Handley (see also LaVal, 1969:820; Gardner
_et al._, 1970:716; Valdez and LaVal, 1971:248).

Measurements of the two males (that from Hato Grande listed first) are
as follows: total length, 63, 60 mm; length of tail, 5, 6 mm; length of
hind foot, 10, 9 mm; length of ear, 23, 23 mm; length of forearm, 34.5,
35.6 mm; weight, 11.4, 8.8 gms; greatest length of skull, 20.2, 20.5
mm; zygomatic breadth, 9.5, 9.5 mm; breadth of braincase, 8.5, 8.2 mm;
postorbital breadth, 3.1, 2.9 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 7.0,
7.1 mm; breadth across upper molars, 6.3, 6.5 mm. We have not compared
our specimens directly with others from Middle America. On the basis of
available measurements, they resemble material reported from Honduras
(LaVal, 1969:820), averaging larger than other specimens for which
measurements have been published (see especially Goodwin, 1942b:206;
Davis and Carter, 1962:68; Davis _et al._, 1964:379; Gardner _et al._,
1970:716-717).


Phyllostomus hastatus panamensis J. A. Allen, 1904

    _Specimens._--_Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, 600 m, 1.
    _Madriz_: Darailí, 5 km N, 14 km E Condega, 940 m, 4. _Managua_: 3
    km SW Tipitapa, 40 m, 1; 3 km N Sabana Grande, 50 m, 2; 2 km N
    Sabana Grande, 40 m, 1; 5 mi S Managua, 2. _Matagalpa_: La Danta, 1
    km N, 5 km E Esquipulas, 760 m, 1. _Nueva Segovia_: 4.5 km N, 2 km
    E Jalapa, 630 m, 2; 1.5 km N, 1 km E Jalapa, 660 m, 1. _Zelaya_:
    Bonanza, 850 ft, 2; El Recreo, 25 m, 8.

This large spear-nosed species has been reported previously from
Nicaragua only from Matagalpa (Goodwin, 1942c:126). _Phyllostomus
hastatus_ evidently occurs throughout the country and is relatively
common in some places.

Two females taken 5 mi S Managua on 13 March each carried a single
embryo (crown-rump length 27 and 32 mm). Lactating females were
captured in June, July, and August.


Trachops cirrhosus coffini Goldman, 1925

A male fringe-lipped bat netted over a small stream at Cara de Mono, 50
m, Zelaya, in the Caribbean lowlands, on 24 April, 1968, constitutes
the second known occurrence of this species in Nicaragua. Carter _et
al._ (1966:491) earlier reported two males from Río Coco, 64 mi NNE
Jinotega, 1000 ft, Jinotega. The testes of our specimen were 4 mm long.

Davis and Carter (1962:69), Carter _et al._ (_loc. cit._), and Starrett
and Casebeer (1968:11) did not apply a trinomen to bats of this species
and noted overlap of measurements between _T. c. cirrhosus_ (Spix) and
_T. c. coffini_ Goldman. However, until detailed comparisons can be
made, we follow Jones (1966:452) in retaining the subspecific name
_coffini_.


Chrotopterus auritus auritus (Peters, 1856)

An adult male captured in a mist net set in a forest clearing at Santa
María de Ostuma, 1250 m, Matagalpa, represents the first record of this
bat from Nicaragua. The testes of our individual, taken on 1 July 1966,
were 6 mm in length. Externally and cranially our Nicaraguan example
closely resembles specimens of _C. auritus_ from Veracruz and the
Yucatán Peninsula. Handley (1966b:762) and Starrett and Casebeer
(1968:12) expressed doubt as to the validity of the currently used
subspecific names in this species. Comparisons of cranial and external
measurements of the material at hand with those given in various
published accounts--Burt and Stirton (1961), Starrett and Casebeer
(1968), and Thomas (1905), for example--reveal little variation. Until
additional information is available (especially as concerns the South
American races), however, we tentatively apply the subspecific name _C.
a. auritus_ to Middle American populations.


Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Peters, 1868)

Four specimens of this species, netted on 24 and 25 July 1967 in a
banana grove 1.5 km N and 1 km E Jalapa, 660 m, Nueva Segovia, provide
the first record of this glossophagine from Nicaragua. Two males each
had testes 6 mm in length; one female evidenced no reproduction
activity, whereas another carried an embryo 4 mm in crown-rump length.
In addition to our material, there is a specimen in the British Museum
(BM 8.6.22.4) from Cafetal "Concordia," 4000 ft, Jinotega.

It may be noteworthy that the two localities at which this bat is known
both are in the highlands of the northern part of Nicaragua, and that
we failed to take additional specimens in many hundreds of hours of
netting in other places in the country.


Choeroniscus godmani (Thomas, 1903)

Godman's bat was reported from Nicaragua by Handley (1966a:86), who
used the locality designation "El Realejo" for the three specimens
available to him. Actually, the three are from the nearby Hda. San
Isidro, 10 km S Chinandega. We have taken three additional specimens as
follows: Santa Rosa, 17 km N and 15 km E Boaco, 300 m, Boaco (an adult
female taken on 21 March, which was pregnant with an embryo measuring
16 mm in crown-rump length); 2 km E Yalí, 900 m, Jinotega (an adult
male netted on 3 August, testes 4 mm in length); and Santa María de
Ostuma, 1250 m, Matagalpa (a nonpregnant, adult female captured on 11
April). Bats of this species have been taken as far north as the
western Mexican state of Sinaloa (Jones, 1964b:510).


Lichonycteris obscura Thomas, 1895

Managua is the type locality of this rare long-nosed species and a
specimen was reported from 6 mi W Rama, 50 ft, Zelaya, by Davis _et
al._ (1964:380). Our collection contains three males, one from
Jalapa, 660 m, Nueva Segovia, captured on the night of 27 July 1967 as
it flew around a lighted room in a house, and two from the south side
of the Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, Zelaya, taken on 26 and 27 July 1966
(one was netted and the other caught by hand in the lighted room of a
building at night).

Selected measurements of the three males are, respectively: total
length, 55, 58, 57 mm; length of tail, 7, 10, 9 mm; length of hind
foot, 7, 9, 9 mm; length of ear, 10, 11, 11 mm; length of forearm,
30.9, 31.0, 30.8 mm; weight, 6.8, 6.8, 6.2 gms; length of testes, 1, 2,
2 mm; greatest length of skull, 18.5, 18.0, 17.9 mm; breadth of
braincase, 8.1, 8.4, 8.3 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 5.7, 5.5,
5.7 mm.


Carollia castanea H. Allen, 1890

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    7. _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 4. _Matagalpa_:
    1 km NE Esquipulas, 420 m, 1. _Nueva Segovia_: 7 km N, 4 km E
    Jalapa, 660 m, 4. _Zelaya_: S side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 6;
    Cara de Mono, 50 m, 15.

Bats of this species apparently are common in the Caribbean lowlands
of Nicaragua; the highest altitude at which we have taken specimens is
660 meters. The only previous report of _C. castanea_ from Nicaragua
evidently is that of Davis _et al._ (1964:379), who mentioned it in
passing (from Cacao, Zelaya) in an account of _Macrophyllum
macrophyllum_. Two adult females each carried an embryo having
crown-rump lengths of 20 (21 March) and 10 mm (27 July). Adult females
evincing no gross reproductive activity were taken in February (one),
March (one), April (four), June (three), July (two), and August (two).
Four adult males netted on 24 April had testes with an average length
of 7.0 (5-9) mm, whereas those of four other adult males taken in late
June had an average of 4.0 (2-6) mm.

In our collections from Nicaragua, we find at least three kinds of
_Carollia_ and we follow Handley (1966b:764-765) in tentatively
assigning these to _C. castanea_, _C. subrufa_, and _C. perspicillata_.
The systematics of this genus is currently under study by Ronald H.
Pine. In Nicaragua, _castanea_ differs from _subrufa_ (with which it
has been confused in the past) in being smaller, both externally and
cranially, and much darker in color as well as in the additional
characters mentioned by Handley (_loc. cit._).


Sturnira ludovici ludovici Anthony, 1924

An adult male (testes 6 mm) yellow-shouldered bat from Darailí, 5 km N
and 14 km E Condega, 940 m, in Madriz, provides the only specimen thus
far reported from Nicaragua. _Sturnira ludovici_ evidently is relatively
rare in Nicaragua and may be confined to the highlands in the north,
whereas the smaller _S. lilium_ is abundant throughout the country and
is the only other species of _Sturnira_ represented in our collections.

We provisionally refer our specimen to _S. l. ludovici_ pending Luis de
la Torre's forthcoming review of the genus. Selected measurements are:
total length, 77 mm; length of hind foot, 15 mm; length of ear, 19 mm;
length of forearm, 44.8 mm; weight, 26.8 gms; greatest length of skull,
24.2 mm; zygomatic breadth, 14.2 mm; postorbital breadth, 6.3 mm;
breadth of braincase, 10.5 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 6.8 mm.


Uroderma magnirostrum Davis, 1968

In the original description of _U. magnirostrum_, Davis (1968:680)
reported one specimen from Nicaragua--a female in our collection from 3
km N and 4 km W Sapoá, 40 m, Rivas. We have two additional specimens,
both from the relatively dry northwestern Departamento de Chinandega.
On 8 July 1966, a male (testes 2 mm) was netted under trees along a
small stream at San Antonio, 35 m, and a female (one embryo 28 mm in
crown-rump length) was netted on 4 March 1968 over a warm spring at a
place 4.5 km N Cosigüina, 15 m. Judging from published records, this
species is limited in Middle America to the Pacific versant.

Selected measurements of the three Nicaraguan specimens are,
respectively: total length, 65, 64, 67 mm; length of hind foot, 12, 11,
14 mm; length of ear, 16.5, 16, 18 mm; length of forearm, 42.2, 41.7,
45.2 mm; weight, 16.2, 13.8, 21.4 (pregnant) gms; greatest length of
skull, 22.7, 23.4, 23.8 mm; zygomatic breadth, 12.4, 12.9, 13.1 mm;
postorbital breadth, 5.8, 5.5, 5.9 mm; mastoid breadth, 10.9, 11.1,
11.1 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 7.9, 8.1, 8.6 mm.


Vampyrops helleri Peters, 1866

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    3. _Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, 600 m, 2. _Chinandega_:
    Potosí, 5 m, 1; 6.5 km N, 1 km E Cosigüina, 10 m, 1; 4.5 km N
    Cosigüina, 15 m, 3; Hda. Bellavista, 720 m, Volcán Casita, 13.
    _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 4. _Granada_:
    Finca Santa Cecilia, 6.5 km SE Guanacaste, 660 m, 4. _Matagalpa_:
    Finca Tepeyac, 10.5 km N, 9 km E Matagalpa, 960 m, 1. _Nueva
    Segovia_: 4.5 km N, 2 km E Jalapa, 680 m, 2; 1.5 km N, 1 km E
    Jalapa, 660 m, 2. _Rivas_: 2 km N, 3 km E Mérida, 200 m, Isla de
    Ometepe, 4; 4 km N, 4 km W Sapoá, 40 m, 1. _Zelaya_: S side Río
    Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 3.

Only two specimens of this small white-lined species have been reported
previously from Nicaragua--one from 1 km NW La Gatiada, 1300 ft,
Chontales (Davis _et al._, 1964:383), and the other from 3 mi NNW
Diriamba, Carazo (Jones, 1964a:507). This bat was relatively rare in
collections until the last decade or so. Handley (1966b:766) reported
_V. helleri_ as abundant in the lowland areas of Panamá, and we found
the same to be true in Nicaragua. We suspect that future investigations
in Middle America will reveal this species to be a common member of
lowland tropical communities. It is known as far north as southern
Veracruz (Carter _et al._, 1966:494).

Most of our specimens were captured in mist nets set over small streams
bordered by gallery forest, or in banana groves. The range of
ecological conditions in which this species was taken is represented by
the semiarid environment of the Cosigüina Peninsula in northwestern
Nicaragua and the humid tropical forest (secondary growth) in the
vicinity of El Recreo in the Caribbean lowlands. Pregnant females were
captured in March, April, June, July, and August, indicating that this
species probably breeds throughout much of the year.


Vampyrodes major G. M. Allen, 1908

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    8. _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 2. _Zelaya_:
    S side Río Mico, 25 m, 6.

This large white-lined stenodermine was known previously from Nicaragua
by a single specimen from an unknown locality (J. A. Allen, 1910:112).
All of our specimens were caught in mist nets, which were set over
streams at Santa Rosa and near Villa Somoza, and in a banana grove at
El Recreo. Two pregnant females, captured on 11 and 13 July at Santa
Rosa, each carried an embryo (4 and 27 mm in crown-rump length,
respectively); one of two other adult females captured there on 9
August also had an embryo (35 mm in length) but the other evidently was
reproductively quiescent. Testes of adult males varied in length from 3
to 10 mm on the following dates (testicular lengths in parentheses): 25
February (10 mm); 21 March (8, 8 mm); 17 June (3, 4 mm); 13 July (6
mm); 27-28 July (4, 4 mm); 3 August (4 mm); 5 August (3 mm); 9 August
(4 mm).

We follow Starrett and Casebeer (1968:12) in the use of the specific
name _major_, rather than _caraccioli_ as suggested by Cabrera (1958),
Goodwin and Greenhall (1961), and Handley (1966b).


Vampyressa nymphaea Thomas, 1909

A pregnant female (crown-rump length of embryo 5 mm) was captured in a
mist net set in a small banana grove on the south side of the Río Mico,
El Recreo, 25 m, in the Caribbean lowlands, on 27 February 1968. This
specimen provides the first record of the big yellow-eared bat from
Nicaragua. The species was recently reported for the first time from
Costa Rica (Gardner _et al._, 1970:721); it was characterized as
uncommon in Panamá by Handley (1966b:767). The one Costa Rican locality
of record also is in the Caribbean versant.

Selected external and cranial measurements of our female are: total
length, 58 mm; length of hind foot, 11 mm; length of ear, 16 mm; length
of forearm, 36.2 mm; weight, 12.3 gms; greatest length of skull, 21.1
mm; condylobasal length, 18.4 mm; zygomatic breadth, 12.3 mm; mastoid
breadth, 10.5 mm; breadth across canines, 4.6 mm; breadth of braincase,
9.4 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 7.2 mm; length of mandibular
c-m3, 7.8 mm.


Vampyressa pusilla thyone Thomas, 1909

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    5. _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 1. _Managua_:
    Hda. San José, 2. _Matagalpa_: 2 km N, 6 km E Esquipulas, 960 m, 2.

The only previous record of occurrence for the small yellow-eared bat
from Nicaragua is based on an adult female from Hda. La Cumplida, 670
m, Matagalpa (Starrett and de la Torre, 1964:60).

Two individuals taken near Esquipulas in mid-March, a pregnant female
(crown-rump length of embryo 16 mm) and a male (testes 4 mm), were
captured in nets set across trails cut through secondary forest. The
wind was quite strong in this area at the time of our visit and only a
few other species of bats--_Glossophaga soricina_, _Artibeus
jamaicensis_, _A. toltecus_, _A. phaeotis_, _Uroderma bilobatum_,
_Sturnira lilium_, _Centurio senex_, and _Diphylla ecaudata_--were
taken in the same nets. The specimens from Boaco and Chontales were
captured over small streams bordered by gallery forest. Four females
collected at Santa Rosa on 21 March were pregnant; each carried a
single embryo that measured 5, 18, 21, and 30 mm in crown-rump length;
a male taken on the same date had testes that measured 3 mm.

Selected external and cranial measurements of two males, followed by
the average (extremes in parentheses) of six females are: length of
forearm, 31.1, 30.8, 30.8 (30.0-31.4) mm; greatest length of skull,
18.9, 18.9, 18.5 (18.1-18.8) mm; zygomatic breadth, 11.0, 11.0, 10.6
(10.4-10.9) mm; mastoid breadth, 9.5, 9.2, 9.2 (9.0-9.3) mm; length of
maxillary toothrow, 6.1, 5.9, 5.9 (5.7-6.1) mm.


Chiroderma villosum jesupi J. A. Allen, 1900

    _Specimens._--_Chinandega_: 6.5 km N, 1 km E Cosigüina, 10 m, 2;
    4.5 km N Cosigüina, 15 m, 7; Hda. Bellavista, 720 m, Volcán Casita,
    5; San Antonio, 35 m, 2. _Rivas_: 2 km N, 3 km E Mérida, 200 m,
    Isla de Ometepe, 1.

This species has been reported in Middle America from as far north as
southern México. It evidently is uncommon in Costa Rica (see Gardner
_et al._, 1970:722) and Panamá (Handley, 1966b:767). Our material,
all collected from mist nets and consisting of 16 specimens from the
northwestern department of Chinandega and one from Isla de Ometepe in
Lago de Nicaragua, constitutes the first report of this bat from
Nicaragua.

Four of five females taken in early March were pregnant; embryos
averaged 26.0 (25-29) mm in crown-rump length. Four females taken in
July carried embryos 14, 20, 23, and 25 mm in length. Testes of five
adult males captured in March and April had an average length of 4.4
(3-7) mm, whereas those of two taken in July were 3 mm in length.


Artibeus toltecus hesperus Davis, 1969

When Davis (1969) named _A. t. hesperus_, he assigned specimens only
from as far south as El Salvador to the new subspecies, referring the
three Nicaraguan examples of the species at his disposal to the nominal
race. On the night of 6-7 April 1968, one of us (Smith) netted bats on
the south part of Isla de Ometepe at a place 2 km N and 3 km E Mérida,
200 meters in elevation. One net was set across, and another parallel
to, a small, boulder-strewn stream; the surrounding area was planted to
coffee and had a good canopy of tall deciduous trees. Among the bats
captured at this location were 10 _A. toltecus_ that are referable to
the subspecies _hesperus_, judging by their small size (Table 2).

Six of our specimens are females and each carried an embryo (range in
crown-rump length 20-28 mm). Three adult males had testes 5, 6, and 7
mm in length. External measurements (extremes in parentheses) of our
series are: total length, 55.9 (51-60) mm; length of hind foot, 10.7
(10-12) mm; length of ear, 14.8 (14-16) mm; weight of four males, 9.9
(8.8-11.5) gms; weight of six pregnant females, 14.9 (12.7-16.9) gms.

TABLE 2.--Selected measurements of two subspecies of _Artibeus
toltecus_ from Nicaragua.

Table Legend:

Col. A: Number of specimens averaged and sex
Col. B: Length of forearm
Col. C: Greatest length of skull
Col. D: Zygomatic breath
Col. E: Mastoid breadth
Col. F: Length of maxillary toothrow

============================================================
          A              B       C       D       E      F
------------------------------------------------------------
_Artibeus toltecus toltecus_, Departamento de Matagalpa

Average 6              40.3    20.3    12.1    10.7    6.6
  (3[Male], 3[Female])
Minimum                38.8    19.8    11.8    10.5    6.5
Maximum                41.5    20.5    12.5    10.9    6.8

_Artibeus toltecus hesperus_, Isla de Ometepe, Rivas

Average 10             38.0    19.4    11.5    10.2    6.3
  (4[Male], 6[Female])
Minimum                37.0    18.8    11.2     9.8    6.1
Maximum                39.7    19.8    11.8    10.5    6.5
------------------------------------------------------------


Artibeus toltecus toltecus (Saussure, 1860)

    _Specimens._--_Matagalpa_: Santa María de Ostuma, 1250 m, 5; 2
    km N, 6 km E Esquipulas, 960 m, 1.

This bat has been reported from Nicaragua previously by Andersen
(1908:300) and Davis (1969:28), based on a total of four specimens. We
netted this species at Santa María de Ostuma in patches of cloud forest
at a cafetal. The specimen from near Esquipulas was taken in a net
placed across a trail in second growth forest. Two females collected on
11 April and one taken on 30 June were pregnant (embryos 21, 26, and 12
mm, respectively, in crown-rump length). Testes of a male netted on 14
March were 7 mm in length, whereas those of two obtained on 11 April
measured 4 and 7 mm. Selected measurements of our six specimens are
given in Table 2.


Artibeus watsoni Thomas, 1901

    _Specimens._--_Chontales_: 1 km N, 1.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 3.
    _Nueva Segovia_: 7 km N, 4 km E Jalapa, 600 m, 1. _Zelaya_:
    Bonanza, 850 ft, 6; S side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 6; Cara de
    Mono, 50 m, 1.

Davis (1970a:393-394) recently reviewed the systematic status of this
small fruit-eating bat and recorded specimens from southeastern
Nicaragua; the species was first reported from the country by Andersen
(1908:290), based on a specimen from the Escondido River. Our
additional material reveals that _A. watsoni_ occurs throughout eastern
Nicaragua, the specimen from Nueva Segovia extending the known range as
mapped by Davis (_loc. cit._).

A female from Bonanza (23 February) carried an embryo 14 mm in
crown-rump length, whereas one from El Recreo (26 February) was not
reproductively active; one of two females netted near Villa Somoza in
early August was pregnant (embryo 21 mm in crown-rump length). Seven
adult males collected in late February and early March had an average
testicular length of 5.9 (5-7) mm; testes of two adults taken in late
June and one captured in early August all measured 5 mm. The testes of
young males (grayish pelage, partially unfused phalangeal epiphyses)
were 2 or 3 mm in length.


Centurio senex senex Gray, 1842

    _Specimens._--_Chinandega_: 4.5 km N Cosigüina, 15 m, 1;
    San Antonio, 35 m, 5. _Matagalpa_: 2 km N, 6 km E Esquipulas,
    960 m, 3. _Nueva Segovia_: 7 km N, 4 km E Jalapa, 660 m, 1.
    _Zelaya_: S side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 1.

Paradiso (1967) reviewed geographic variation in this unique bat,
the type locality of which was restricted to Realejo, Chinandega,
Nicaragua, by Goodwin (1946:327). Because additional material had not
been reported from Nicaragua, Paradiso (_op. cit._:598) felt it was
"premature to restrict the type locality to a specific area in that
country" (the holotype was obtained on the voyage of the H.M.S.
Sulphur, which called at Realejo), and preferred the more general
designation "west coast of Mexico or Central America." In view of the
fact that we now have specimens from but a few miles distant from
Realejo (at San Antonio), we see no reason to contest Goodwin's
restriction of the type locality to that place.

Specimens from San Antonio were collected along a small stream,
bordered by a bilevel gallery forest, in an area otherwise planted
mostly to cane. Many trees of the lower level were covered by an
extremely thick network of vines, which were interwoven with branches
and supported fallen leaves and debris from the upper level. This
situation led to formation of small "rooms" or "cubicles" under some
shorter trees; the bats were shot as they hung from small branches
under one such tree, which was in fruit. All of our other specimens
were captured in mist nets.

Pregnant females were taken on the following dates (crown-rump length
of embryo in parentheses): 25 February (12 mm), 2 March (17 mm), 15
March (14 mm); a nonpregnant female also was taken on 15 March. Five
males captured at San Antonio on 9 and 10 March had an average
testicular length of 5.6 (5-6) mm. A male taken in July had testes 4 mm
in length, whereas those of one obtained on 14 March were 5 mm long.

Selected measurements (average, with extremes in parentheses) of 11
adults (seven males and four females) are as follows: length of
forearm, 42.5 (41.5-43.7) mm; condylobasal length (10 specimens only),
14.8 (14.5-15.0) mm; zygomatic breadth, 14.8 (14.4-15.1) mm;
interorbital breadth, 5.0 (4.7-5.2) mm; breadth across upper molars,
10.6 (10.5-11.0) mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 5.0 (4.8-5.3) mm.
These measurements generally agree with those given by Paradiso
(1967:600) for 20 individuals from Panamá. Females in our series
average slightly larger than do males in external and cranial
measurements. Six males weighed an average of 22.9 (20.7-25.1) gms; one
nonpregnant female weighed 17.1 gms.


Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Los Cocos, 14 km S Boaco, 220 m, 5.
    _Madriz_: 5 km N, 9 km E Condega, 800 m, 1. _Matagalpa_: 2 km
    N, 6 km E Esquipulas, 960 m, 1.

Our specimens constitute the first report of this species from
Nicaragua. We follow Burt and Stirton (1961:37) in regarding _D.
ecaudata_ as monotypic.

Specimens from Los Cocos (three males and two females) were captured in
a mist net stretched across a large, quiet pool in a small stream. The
banks supported well-developed gallery forest, the understory of which
had been cleared for human habitation; grassland (grazed) and small
stands of secondary forest obtained beyond the riparian habitat.
Domestic ducks, a possible source of food, were observed sleeping along
the bank of this stream and on top of large boulders situated in the
stream. Males from this locality taken on 20 February, 4 April, and 18
July had testicular lengths of 5, 6, and 6.5 mm, respectively. Two
adult females collected there on 4 April were reproductively inactive.
An adult male (testes 6 mm) from near Condega was captured on 23 June
in a daytime roost in a small, cave-like crevice (see account of
_Peropteryx marcotis_), and one from northeast of Esquipulas (testes 5
mm) was netted on 14 March along a forest trail (see account of
_Vampyressa pusilla_).


Natalus stramineus saturatus Dalquest and Hall, 1949

    _Specimens._--_Granada_: 6 km S Nandaime, 5. _Zelaya_: S side Río
    Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 2.

This funnel-eared species occupies an extensive geographic range
(northern México to Brazil) but appears to be relatively rare in Middle
America to the south of Guatemala. Our specimens represent the first of
this species to be reported from Nicaragua.

Both specimens from El Recreo, adult males, were caught by hand at
night after they flew through an open door into a small room, possibly
seeking insects that were swarming around a light bulb. Those from near
Nandaime (three males, two females) were caught in a mist net set over
the mouth of a well in which they were roosting; the well was
approximately 2 m in diameter, and the water level was about 5 m below
the rim. The females were not reproductively active (6 August).

We have compared our Nicaraguan material with a number of Mexican
specimens, including the holotype of _N. s. saturatus_ and topotypes of
_N. s. mexicanus_. We concur with Goodwin (1959) that in México there
are two rather distinct subspecies, between which a broad zone of
intergradation obtains. Our Nicaraguan specimens agree most closely
with _N. s. saturatus_, and, until additional comparative material is
available from Middle America, we tentatively refer them to that race.
Handley (1966b:770) and Starrett and Casebeer (1968:15), however,
regarded _mexicanus_ as the appropriate name for specimens from Panamá
and Costa Rica.

Selected measurements of two males from El Recreo are: length of
forearm, 41.2, 39.0 mm; greatest length of skull, 17.1, 16.5 mm;
zygomatic breadth, 8.4, 8.5 mm; mastoid breadth, 7.7, 7.6 mm; breadth
of braincase, 8.2, 8.1 mm; interorbital constriction, 3.2, 3.2 mm;
length of maxillary toothrow, 7.3, 7.1 mm.


Myotis albescens (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1806)

This handsome _Myotis_ has been reported previously from Nicaragua only
from the Caribbean lowlands--from the Escondido and Prinzapolka rivers
(Miller and Allen, 1928:203). We netted two specimens, both males, at
Santa Rosa, 17 km N and 15 km E Boaco, 300 m, Boaco, in central
Nicaragua on 13 July and 9 August 1967, under the same conditions
described in the account of _Myotis elegans_. Testes of our specimens
were 7 and 6 mm, respectively, in length. External and cranial
measurements are as follows: total length, 84, 83 mm; length of tail,
31, 33 mm; length of hind foot, 9, 9 mm; length of ear, 15, 15 mm;
length of forearm, 32.9, 35.1 mm; weight, 6.4, 6.2 gms; greatest length
of skull, 13.9, 14.4 mm; zygomatic breadth, 8.9, 9.0 mm; postorbital
breadth, 3.8, 3.9 mm; breadth of braincase, 7.2, 7.3 mm; mastoid
breadth, 7.4, 7.6 mm; breadth across upper molars, 5.6, 5.5 mm; length
of maxillary toothrow, 5.3, 5.3 mm.


Myotis elegans Hall, 1962

The first specimen on record of this rare _Myotis_ from Central
America, a nonpregnant female, was taken on 11 July 1967 at Santa Rosa,
17 km N and 15 km E Boaco, 300 m, Boaco. It was captured in a mist
net as it foraged over a small stream that supported relatively
well-developed gallery forest along the bank. The surrounding area was
grassland (grazed), with small patches of tropical forest located on
the sides of hills. Twenty other species of bats were taken at this
same locality including _Myotis argentatus_ and _Myotis nigricans
nigricans_.

External and cranial measurements of our specimen, followed in
parentheses by those of the female holotype from Veracruz, are: total
length, 71 (79) mm; length of tail, 32 (34) mm; length of hind foot, 7
(7.5) mm; length of ear, 11 (12) mm; length of forearm, 32.9 (33.0) mm;
greatest length of skull, 12.5 (12.4) mm; condylobasal length, 11.6
(11.9) mm; zygomatic breadth, 8.2 mm; breadth of braincase, 5.8 (6.1)
mm; postorbital breadth, 3.2 (3.2) mm; length of maxillary toothrow,
4.7 (4.6) mm. Our female weighed 3.2 gms.


Myotis nigricans nigricans (Schinz, 1821)

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    2. _Chinandega_: 6.5 km N, 1 km E Cosigüina, 10 m, 1; San Antonio,
    35 m, 1. _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza, 330 m, 1.
    _Madriz_: Darailí, 5 km N, 14 km E Condega, 940 m, 1. _Nueva
    Segovia_: 4.5 km N, 2 km E Jalapa, 680 m, 1. _Rivas_: 1 km NW
    Sapoá, 40 m, 1.

This small Neotropical _Myotis_ has been reported from Nicaragua only
from the Caribbean lowlands of Zelaya (Davis _et al._, 1964:379). Our
records indicate that it is widely distributed in the republic but
evidently nowhere common. Females taken on 5 March and 6 August each
carried a single embryo (7 and 13 mm in crown-rump length,
respectively), whereas one obtained on 21 July evidenced no
reproductive activity. Richard K. LaVal currently is studying the
_Myotis nigricans_ complex; pending his revision our specimens are
tentatively assigned to _M. n. nigricans_.


Myotis simus riparius Handley, 1960

A male (USNM 52800) from the Escondido River above Bluefields,
originally reported by Miller and Allen (1928:203) as one of two _M.
albescens_ from that locality, provides the first record of the species
from Nicaragua and the northernmost from Middle America. The cranial
dimensions of this specimen, which compare well with those listed by
Handley (1960:467) for the Panamanian holotype and paratype, are:
greatest length of skull, 13.8 mm; zygomatic breadth, 8.9 mm;
postorbital constriction, 3.5 mm; breadth of braincase, 6.7 mm; mastoid
breadth, 7.4 mm; breadth across upper molars, 5.5 mm; length of
maxillary toothrow, 5.2 mm.

From Nicaraguan specimens of _albescens_, the skull of the specimen of
_simus_ examined (skin not seen) differs most conspicuously in having a
less inflated braincase, narrower postorbital region, and a distinct
sagittal crest.


Eptesicus furinalis gaumeri (J. A. Allen, 1897)

    _Specimens._--_Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, 600 m, 7.
    _Chinandega_: Potosí, 5 m, 1; 6.5 km N, 1 km E Cosigüina, 10 m, 1;
    San Antonio, 35 m, 1. _Chontales_: 1 km N, 2.5 km W Villa Somoza,
    330 m, 1; Hato Grande, 13 km S, 8 km W Juigalpa, 60 m, 3.

Davis (1965:234) reported two specimens of this species from Nicaragua,
one from Carazo (listed above) and the other from 1 mi SE Yalagüina,
2600 ft, Madriz. The only other specimen on record from Nicaragua is
from Greytown (Miller, 1897:100). Except for two individuals that were
shot as they foraged in early evening, our specimens were captured in
mist nets stretched over water or as described below.

Some of the bats captured northwest of Diriamba were taken in a net
placed across the center of a water-filled, concrete cistern that was
located in a large, open space used for drying coffee beans. Open at
the top, the cistern was approximately 12 m in diameter, and the water
level was approximately 3 m below the rim. Several _Artibeus
jamaicensis_, _A. lituratus_, and _Molossus pretiosus_ were caught in
the same net. Aside from bats removed from the net, a few _Eptesicus_
and _Molossus_ were retrieved from the water where they fell,
apparently stunned, after colliding with the wall of the cistern. The
fact that a number of decomposed bats of these two species were
observed floating in the water indicated that such entrapment was not
caused by the placement of our net.

A female pregnant with two embryos (crown-rump length 15 mm) was
captured on 22 April, whereas one taken on 5 July was lactating. Adult
males taken in March (two) and April (two) had testes 5, 7, 9, and 10
mm long, respectively.


Rhogeessa tumida tumida H. Allen, 1866

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    2. _Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, 600 m, 2. _Chinandega_: 6 km
    N, 1 km E Cosigüina, 10 m, 3; Hda. Bellavista, 720 m, Volcán
    Casita, 1. _Matagalpa_: 1 km NE Esquipulas, 420 m, 1.

This small vespertilionid occurs throughout much of Central America,
but the available material still is insufficient to permit an accurate
assessment of geographic variation in that region. All but one of our
specimens were trapped in mist nets. Those captured near Diriamba were
taken in a net stretched across a trail bordered by high cut-banks,
whereas those from other localities were netted over small streams. The
one bat from Bellavista was shot as it foraged in the evening along
trees bordering the hacienda yard.

Two females taken on 5 March each had swollen uteri and may have been
in an early stage of pregnancy. Others taken on 13 July, 9 August, and
15 August were reproductively inactive. Males had testes that measured
2.5 (March), 3 (July), and 2 (August) mm.

We have compared our material with representative specimens from México
of _R. parvula_ and _R. tumida_, as defined by Goodwin (1958); we are
not wholly convinced that these are valid species (rather than variable
geographic races of the same species). Certainly there is need for
additional investigation of the problem. Our Nicaraguan specimens most
closely resemble _R. t. tumida_ (see Goodwin, _op. cit._:3), to which
they are tentatively referred.

Selected measurements of two females from Boaco and a male from
Matagalpa, followed by the average (and extremes) of three males and
three females from western Nicaragua (Carazo and Chinandega), are,
respectively: length of forearm, 30.4, 28.5, 28.3, 28.2 (27.5-29.0) mm;
greatest length of skull, 12.8, 12.7, 12.8, 12.1 (11.8-12.5) mm;
zygomatic breadth, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6, 8.1 (7.8-8.6) mm; mastoid breadth,
7.1, 7.2, 7.2, 6.8 (6.6-7.1) mm; breadth of braincase, 6.0, 5.7, 6.0,
5.6 (5.3-6.1) mm; postorbital constriction, 3.3, 3.0, 3.3, 3.0
(2.9-3.2) mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 4.7, 4.7, 4.5, 4.3
(4.2-4.6) mm; weight, 4.4, 4.3, 3.8, 3.5 (3.1-3.9) gms.


Tadarida laticaudata yucatanica (Miller, 1902)

One adult male (testes 5 mm) of this free-tailed bat from Potosí, 5 m,
Chinandega, on the Cosigüina Peninsula, provides the only record of the
genus _Tadarida_ from Nicaragua. This specimen was netted after dark
over a small stream that flowed into the Bay of Fonseca approximately
200 yards below our nets (see account of _Noctilio leporinus_). Other
species taken in the same net included _Carollia subrufa_, _Sturnira
lilium_, _Eptesicus furinalis_, _Molossus ater_, and _Molossus
molossus_.

Selected measurements of the male are: total length, 92 mm; length of
tail, 31 mm; length of hind foot, 10 mm; length of ear, 15 mm; length
of forearm, 39.2 mm; weight, 10.3 gms; greatest length of skull, 17.2
mm; zygomatic breadth, 10.6 mm; postorbital constriction, 4.0 mm;
breadth of braincase, 8.6 mm; length of maxillary toothrow, 6.5 mm.


Eumops auripendulus (Shaw, 1800)

A broken skull (USNM 339917) of a female of this species from Hda.
Mecatepe [2 km N, 11.5 km E Nandaime, _ca._ 40 m], Granada, represents
the only known specimen of the genus _Eumops_ from Nicaragua. This bat
was obtained by M. K. Clark on 25 August 1964, but the conditions under
which it was captured are not known. Available cranial measurements
are: zygomatic breadth, 12.6 mm; breadth of braincase, 10.7 mm;
postorbital breadth, 4.3 mm; rostral breadth, 7.4 mm; length of
maxillary toothrow, 9.1 mm; length of mandibular c-m3, 10.0 mm.


Molossus ater nigricans Miller, 1902

    _Specimens._--_Chinandega_: Potosí, 5 m, 21; 4.5 km N Cosigüina, 15
    m, 2; El Paraíso, 1 km N Cosigüina, 20 m, 17; Hda. Bellavista, 720
    m, Volcán Casita, 4; Hda. San Isidro, 10 km S Chinandega, 20 m, 2;
    San Antonio, 35 m, 2. _Nueva Segovia_: Corozo, 15 km NNE Jalapa,
    660 m, 1; 3.5 km S, 2 km W Jalapa, 660 m, 4.

Only one specimen of this large molossid (from Volcán de Chinandega--J.
A. Allen, 1908:670) has been reported from Nicaragua. All of our
specimens are from the northern or northwestern part of the country.
Many were shot in early evening as they followed a straight, direct
flight pattern (presumably from day-roosts toward foraging or watering
areas); the series from Potosí was netted over a small stream as
described in the account of _Noctilio leporinus_. We confidently refer
our material to the species currently known as _ater_, although
assignment to the subspecies nigricans is tentative.

Of 21 females autopsied in the first week of March on the Cosigüina
Peninsula, seven were pregnant, each with a single embryo (7-22 mm in
crown-rump length, average 16.7). Ten males taken at the same time had
an average testicular length of 5.7 (2-7) mm, whereas the testes of a
male obtained on 9 March at San Antonio measured 8 mm. None of five
females obtained in late July in Nueva Segovia evidenced reproductive
activity, nor did two of three females taken in July and one taken in
August from Chinandega; the fourth Chinandegan female, taken on 17
July, carried an embryo that was 36 mm in length. Two males from
southern Chinandega (mid-July) had testes 7 and 4 mm long.

Representative measurements of 10 specimens of each sex from Nicaragua
are given in Table 4.


Molossus molossus aztecus Saussure, 1860

    _Specimens._--_Chinandega_: Potosí, 5 m, 1; Hda. San Isidro, 10 km
    S Chinandega, 20 m, 1 (USNM). _Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E
    Boaco, 300 m, 7. _Managua_: 3 mi SW Managua, 8. _Rivas_: Rivas, 60
    m, 4.

This small free-tailed species has been reported from Nicaragua by
Felten (1957:14), who listed two females from Corinto. Our records
indicate that it is widely distributed, but of localized occurrence.
Specimens from Potosí and Santa Rosa were captured in mist nets over
streams (as described in the accounts of _Noctilio leporinus_ and
_Myotis elegans_, respectively). The specimen from Hda. San Isidro was
shot in flight, whereas those from Rivas were captured in a daytime
retreat in a deep crevice in a concrete school building. We have no
precise knowledge of the conditions under which bats from 3 mi SW
Managua were obtained but suspect they were taken from a building.

Females in our series were reproductively active at all times for which
we have information--early March through mid-July--as follows: a female
from Potosí (6 March) carried an embryo that measured 5 mm (crown-rump
length) as did one from Santa Rosa (21 March, 17 mm in length); two of
three females taken 3 mi SW Managua on 28 March were pregnant (embryos
13 and 15 mm), whereas each of two collected there on 3 May were gravid
(embryos 27 and 30 mm); one female from Rivas (25 June) carried an
embryo (30 mm) and another was lactating and accompanied by a small
(forearm, 19.7 mm) hairless juvenile; and, finally, one of six females
netted at Santa Rosa on 13 July was pregnant (embryo 23 mm), but the
others evinced no reproductive activity. An adult male, taken at Rivas
with the females mentioned above, had testes that were 6 mm in length.

Bats of the genus _Molossus_ are in need of thorough systematic study.
We think most, if not all, mainland populations of small _Molossus_
with pale-based hairs pertain to the species _Molossus molossus_,
originally described from the Lesser Antilles. Although there is some
variation in size and overall color among our Nicaraguan samples, all
seem to represent that species. Because specimens from Nicaragua
closely resemble examples of _M. m. aztecus_ from Jalisco, México
(Table 3), in external and cranial proportions, we tentatively refer
them to _aztecus_.

In our field experience in both Middle and South America, colonies
of _M. molossus_ tend to be extremely localized, with individual
populations or demes frequently separated by many miles of territory
in which the species seemingly does not regularly occur.

TABLE 3.--Selected measurements of adult _Molossus molossus_.

Table Legend:

Col. A: Number of specimens averaged or catalogue number, and sex
Col. B: Length of forearm
Col. C: Greatest length of skull
Col. D: Condylobasal length
Col. E: Zygomatic breadth
Col. F: Mastoid breadth
Col. G: Breadth of braincase
Col. H: Postorbital constriction
Col. I: Length of maxillary toothrow
Col. J: Breadth across upper molars

======================================================================
            A           B     C     D     E     F     G   H    I    J
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Western Jalisco, México

KU 109075, [Male]     38.2  18.0  15.3  11.0  10.5  9.1  3.8  6.2  7.9
KU 109076, [Male]     37.3  17.8  15.3  11.0  10.5  9.2  3.6  6.3  8.1
KU 120540, [Male]     37.7  17.8  15.3  11.0  10.8  8.9  3.9  6.3  8.1
Average 15 ([Female]) 37.1  17.2  14.8  10.7  10.3  8.9  3.8  6.1  7.9
Minimum               36.0  16.5  14.2  10.4  10.1  8.5  3.7  6.0  7.7
Maximum               38.1  17.7  15.2  11.0  10.5  9.2  3.9  6.2  8.2

Departamento de Chinandega, Nicaragua

USNM 337552, [Male]   39.0± 18.2  15.5  11.0  10.7  9.0  3.7  6.0  8.0
KU 114140, [Female]   37.3  16.8  14.7  10.7   9.9  8.7  3.4  5.9  7.4

3 mi SW Managua, Nicaragua

KU 71009, [Male]      39.8  18.7  16.1  11.1  10.9  8.9  3.8  6.3  8.0
KU 71011, [Male]      39.4  18.5  16.5   --   11.0  9.2  3.7  6.7  8.0
Average 5 ([Female])  38.9  17.5  15.4  10.7  10.3  9.0  3.6  6.1  7.8
Minimum               38.1  17.2  15.1  10.5  10.1  8.9  3.5  5.9  7.6
Maximum               39.7  18.0  15.9  10.9  10.6  9.1  3.7  6.3  8.0

Santa Rosa, Boaco, Nicaragua

Average 6 ([Female])  36.0  17.5  14.7  10.8  10.6  9.1  3.7  6.0  8.0
Minimum               35.5  17.3  14.4  10.6  10.4  9.0  3.6  5.7  7.8
Maximum               36.7  17.8  15.1  11.0  10.8  9.2  3.8  6.2  8.2

Rivas, Nicaragua

KU 106291, [Male]     38.2  18.8  16.1  11.5  10.9  9.4  3.8  6.6  8.3
KU 106290, [Female]   39.6  17.4  15.0  11.0  10.5  9.1  3.6  6.0  7.7
KU 106293, [Female]   37.2  17.3  14.8  10.7  10.2  9.0  3.5  5.7  7.8
----------------------------------------------------------------------

The localized and presumably highly inbred populations may have
diverged morphologically, in some cases at least, to a degree that
mensural differences can be demonstrated even between samples from the
same general geographic area. Localized variation and relatively marked
secondary sexual variation (unrecognized by some earlier workers),
superimposed on geographic variation, have resulted in application of a
relatively large number of names to these small _Molossus_. Felten
(1957:13-14), for example, apparently used different specific names for
males and females from El Salvador, and Gardner (1966) employed three
different specific names for North American specimens. Only when
material is available for a detailed study of variation throughout the
Neotropics can the perplexing mosaic of characters in these small
_Molossus_ be assessed adequately.

We have seen no specimens from Nicaragua that are identifiable as
_Molossus bondae_, another relatively small species that has been
reported from Greytown (Miller, 1913a:89) and from elsewhere in Central
America by other authors (Goodwin, 1942c:145; Handley, 1966b:772;
Gardner _et al._, 1970:727). Our examination of the female holotype of
_M. bondae_ reveals that it is larger than _M. molossus_, corresponding
in size to females recently reported from Costa Rica by Gardner _et
al._ (_loc. cit._), and that _bondae_ has dark-based hairs. The two
males reported by Goodwin (_loc. cit._) from Honduras as _bondae_,
would seem to be too small for that species, based on the measurements
listed; also, these specimens allegedly have white-based hairs and
probably represent _M. molossus_ as here defined.


Molossus pretiosus pretiosus Miller, 1902

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Los Cocos, 14 km S Boaco, 220 m, 28; San
    Francisco, 19 km S, 2 km E Boaco, 200 m, 3. _Carazo_: 3 km N, 4 km
    W Diriamba, 600 m, 25. _Managua_: 6 mi WSW Managua, 3.

This relatively large mastiff bat has not been reported previously from
Nicaragua. Specimens from several localities in Boaco were captured in
mist nets over streams; most of those from northwest of Diriamba were
shot in the early evening as they foraged high around large trees in a
coffee finca, but several were netted over a water-filled concrete tank
or found in the water in the tank as detailed in the account of
_Eptesicus furinalis_. At Los Cocos, bats that we netted seemed to be
emerging from a hollow located high in a tree over the stream.

Selected measurements of _M. p. pretiosus_ from Nicaragua, which
compare favorably with those of topotypes from Venezuela, are listed in
Table 4 along with measurements of _M. ater_ and _M. sinaloae_. The
taxonomic relationships of _M. pretiosus_ and _M. ater_ are less than
clear, and some authors (Handley, 1966b:773, for instance) have
suggested that the two may be conspecific. Whatever their ultimate
relationships may prove to be, two distinctive taxa seem to be present
in Nicaragua; the larger is assignable to _ater_ and the smaller to
_pretiosus_, as currently understood. Furthermore, the presumed
presence of two large _Molossus_ with dark-based hairs elsewhere in
Central America (Dilford C. Carter, personal communication) and in
southeastern México (Goodwin, 1956:4; Goodwin and Greenhall, 1964:20)
argues for specific recognition of _pretiosus_.

The species _ater_ and _pretiosus_ differ mainly in size (Table 4),
some measurements clearly separating the two when sexual dimorphism is
considered. Also, the average weights of 18 nonpregnant females and
four males of _pretiosus_ (all adults) collected on 20 February 1968 at
Los Cocos, were 20.9 (14.6-23.8) and 27.0 (24.6-31.7) gms, respectively,
significantly smaller than corresponding figures for 11 nonpregnant
females and nine males of _M. a. nigricans_ taken two weeks later on
the Cosigüina Peninsula--29.1 (26.1-33.0) and 32.9 (29.3-35.1) gms. It
is of note that we have not collected these two large species at the
same localities in Nicaragua, and it is possible that one competitively
excludes the other in local situations.

TABLE 4.--Selected measurements of adults of three species of
_Molossus_ from Nicaragua.

Table Legend:

Col. A: Number of specimens averaged or catalogue number, and sex
Col. B: Length of forearm
Col. C: Greatest length of skull
Col. D: Condylobasal length
Col. E: Zygomatic breadth
Col. F: Breadth of braincase
Col. G: Length of maxillary toothrow
Col. H: Breadth across upper canines

====================================================================
            A             B     C      D       E      F     G     H
--------------------------------------------------------------------

_Molossus ater nigricans_, Departamento de Chinandega, Nicaragua

Average 10 ([Male])     49.5   23.2   20.2   14.3   11.0   8.2   6.1
Minimum                 48.2   22.8   19.9   14.1   10.5   8.0   6.0
Maximum                 50.7   23.5   20.5   14.9   11.2   8.3   6.3
Average 10 ([Female])   49.0   22.0   19.2   13.6   10.7   7.8   5.8
Minimum                 47.1   21.5   18.8   13.3   10.5   7.6   5.6
Maximum                 51.2   22.5   20.0   14.1   11.0   8.2   6.1

_Molossus pretiosus pretiosus_, Departamento de Boaco, Nicaragua

Average 8 ([Male])      45.1   21.7   18.8   13.4   10.6   7.6   5.9
Minimum                 44.1   21.0   18.3   13.1   10.2   7.4   5.6
Maximum                 46.1   22.2   19.1   13.7   10.9   7.9   6.1
Average 23 ([Female])   43.6   20.2   17.7   12.5   10.1   7.3   5.2
Minimum                 41.0   19.5   17.2   12.2    9.5   7.1   5.0
Maximum                 44.8   20.7   18.2   13.1   10.4   7.6   5.6

6 mi SW Managua, Nicaragua

KU 70135, [Male]        44.8   21.7   18.6   13.0   10.2   7.7   5.8
KU 70137, [Male]        45.1   21.6   19.0   13.2   10.7   7.7   5.8
KU 70136, [Female]      43.5   19.9   17.8   12.7   10.3   7.5   5.5

3 km N, 4 km W Diriamba, Nicaragua

Average 7 ([Male])      44.8   21.2   18.5   13.0   10.5   7.4   5.5
Minimum                 43.8   20.7   18.3   12.7   10.2   7.2   5.4
Maximum                 45.7   21.3   18.8   13.3   10.9   7.6   5.5
Average 9 ([Female])    44.0   20.7   18.0   12.6   10.2   7.3   5.3
Minimum                 42.0   20.0   17.4   12.0   10.0   7.0   5.0
Maximum                 45.5   21.2   18.6   13.0   10.6   7.5   5.5

_Molossus sinaloae sinaloae_, El Recreo, Nicaragua

Average 4 ([Male])      47.6   21.2   18.6   12.3    9.8   7.7   5.4
Minimum                 46.7   20.7   18.3   12.0    9.7   7.6   5.3
Maximum                 48.6   21.5   18.9   12.6   10.0   7.9   5.5
Average 10 ([Female])   47.5   20.2   17.8   11.8    9.7   7.3   5.1
Minimum                 46.2   20.0   17.6   11.5    9.5   7.1   5.0
Maximum                 48.3   20.4   18.0   12.0    9.8   7.5   5.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Among females from Departamento de Boaco, none of 18 collected on 20
February was pregnant, whereas three of four obtained on 4 April were
gravid (embryos 13, 15, and 17 mm in crown-rump length) as was one
(embryo 21 mm) taken on 18 July. Among those from northwest of
Diriamba, two of three were pregnant on 30-31 March (embryos 7 and 13
mm in length), whereas only three of eight carried embryos (29, 31, and
34 mm) in mid-August at a time when flying young also were collected.
Additionally, a female captured 6 mi WSW Managua on 27 March had an
embryo that measured 11 mm.

Four adult males collected on 20 February had an average testicular
length of 5.7 (4-7) mm, whereas those of seven obtained in late March
averaged 5.0 (4-6) mm; testes of two adults taken on 18 July were 6 and
6.5 mm, and those of three taken in the period 12-15 August were 5 mm
in length.


Molossus sinaloae sinaloae J. A. Allen, 1906

    _Specimens._--_Boaco_: Santa Rosa, 17 km N, 15 km E Boaco, 300 m,
    1. _Managua_: 1 km N Sabana Grande, 1; 3 mi SW Managua, 1; 8 km SW
    Managua, 400 m, 3. _Rivas_: San Juan del Sur, 20 m, 1. _Zelaya_: S
    side Río Mico, El Recreo, 25 m, 73.

This mastiff bat can be distinguished easily from the other two large
species of _Molossus_ in Nicaragua in that the hairs of the dorsum
are relatively long and are pale, frequently white, basally. The
species has been reported twice previously from Nicaragua--from
Greytown by Miller (1913a:89) and by Goodwin and Greenhall (1964:13),
who listed four individuals from Río Grande.

Most of our specimens were taken from buildings. A large series
obtained in a house at El Recreo in late June 1966 consisted only of
females and young, many of which were nearly full grown; some females
still were lactating and at least two were pregnant (on 23
June--crown-rump length of embryos 12 and 14 mm). A group taken from
another house at El Recreo (from cracks in the stone wall and from
between rafters and the corrugated metal roof) in late July 1966
consisted of adult males, lactating females, and young. Similarly, an
adult male, a pregnant female (embryo 14 mm in crown-rump length), and
a hairless juvenile were shot, on 16 February 1964, from a small colony
in an attic of a large house southwest of Managua; _Glossophaga
soricina_ also was taken in this attic. The testes of an adult male
captured in June were 6 mm in length; those of four taken in July were
5, 5, 6, and 7 mm, and one obtained in August had testes that measured
3 mm.

Selected measurements of _M. s. sinaloae_ from El Recreo are given
in Table 4.



CHECKLIST OF NICARAGUAN BATS


Following is a checklist of the 68 species of bats thus far reported
from Nicaragua. Citations are given only to publications that are
primary sources of information on Nicaraguan specimens. In some
instances, specimens were reported in the literature under a name
different than the one here employed; we have mentioned earlier-used
names where it seemed appropriate to do so. Taxa preceded by an
asterisk are included in the present paper.


Family EMBALLONURIDAE

_Rhynchonycteris naso_ (Wied-Neuwied, 1820).--J. A. Allen (1908:669,
1910:110), Sanborn (1937:327), Davis _et al._ (1964:375, 379).

_Saccopteryx bilineata_ (Temminck, 1838-1839).--J. A. Allen (1910:110),
Sanborn (1937:331), Jones (1964a:506).

*_Saccopteryx leptura_ (Schreber, 1774).--Davis _et al._ (1964:374),
Jones (1964a:506).

_Cormura brevirostris_ (Wagner, 1843).--J. A. Allen
(1910:110--specimens listed as _Peropteryx canina_ from Peña Blanca,
see Sanborn, 1937:348), Miller (1924:38), Sanborn (1937:349), Goodwin
(1942c:119).

_Peropteryx kappleri kappleri_ Peters, 1867.--J. A. Allen (1908:669,
1910:110--as _P. canina_), Sanborn (1937:344).

*_Peropteryx macrotis macrotis_ (Wagner, 1843).

_Balantiopteryx plicata plicata_ Peters, 1867.--Jones _et al._
(1962:152), Davis _et al._ (1964:375), Jones (1964a:506).

_Diclidurus virgo_ Thomas, 1903.--Alston (1879-82:30).


Family NOCTILIONIDAE

*_Noctilio labialis labialis_ (Kerr, 1792).--Goodwin (1942c:121,
1946:297), Davis _et al._ (1964:376), Kohls _et al._ (1965:344), Wenzel
_et al._ (1966:578).

*_Noctilio leporinus mexicanus_ Goldman, 1915.--Davis _et al._
(1964:376).


Family PHYLLOSTOMATIDAE

*_Pteronotus davyi fulvus_ (Thomas, 1892).

*_Pteronotus parnellii fuscus_ J. A. Allen, 1911.--Miller (1902:402),
Rehn (1904:203).

*_Pteronotus suapurensis_ (J. A. Allen, 1904).--Goodwin (1942a:88,
1946:299, 1953:246).

_Micronycteris brachyotis_ (Dobson, 1879).--Goodwin (1946:302--as _M.
sylvestris_), Sanborn (1949:224--as _M. platyceps_), Goodwin and
Greenhall (1961:231).

_Micronycteris hirsuta_ (Peters, 1869).--Valdez and LaVal (1971:247).

*_Micronycteris megalotis mexicana_ Miller, 1898.--G. M. Allen
(1929:130).

*_Micronycteris megalotis microtis_ Miller, 1898.--Miller (1898:328,
1900:154), Lyon and Osgood (1909:263), J. A. Allen (1910:110), Poole
and Schantz (1942:133).

_Micronycteris minuta_ (Gervais, 1856).--Valdez and LaVal (1971:248).

_Micronycteris schmidtorum_ Sanborn, 1935.--Davis _et al._ (1964:378).

_Macrophyllum macrophyllum_ (Schinz, 1821).--Davis _et al._ (1964:378),
Jones (1964a:506).

*_Tonatia nicaraguae_ Goodwin, 1942.--Goodwin (1942b:205, 1946:305,
1953:246), Davis and Carter (1962:67), Valdez and LaVal (1971:248).

_Phyllostomus discolor verrucosus_ Elliot, 1905.--Jones (1964a:507),
Wenzel _et al._ (1966:598).

*_Phyllostomus hastatus panamensis_ J. A. Allen, 1904.--Goodwin
(1942c:126), Wenzel _et al._ (1966:597).

*_Trachops cirrhosus coffini_ Goldman, 1925.--Carter _et al._
(1966:491).

*_Chrotopterus auritus auritus_ (Peters, 1856).

_Vampyrum spectrum nelsoni_ (Goldman, 1917).--Gray (1844:18), Dobson
(1878:471), Alston (1879-82:39), J. A. Allen (1910:111), Goldman
(1917:116), Goodwin (1946:310).

_Glossophaga commissarisi_ Gardner, 1962.--Davis _et al._ (1964:380),
Jones (1964a:507).

_Glossophaga soricina leachii_ (Gray, 1844).--Gray (1844:18), Dobson
(1878:501), Alston (1879-82:44), J. A. Allen (1910:111), Miller
(1913b:419), Alvarez (1963:400), Davis _et al._ (1964:380), Starrett
and de la Torre (1964:57).

*_Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga_ (Peters, 1868).

*_Choeroniscus godmani_ (Thomas, 1903).--Handley (1966a:86).

*_Lichonycteris obscura_ Thomas, 1895.--Thomas (1895:57), Davis _et
al._ (1964:380).

*_Carollia castanea_ H. Allen, 1890.---Davis _et al._ (1964:379).

_Carollia perspicillata azteca_ Saussure, 1860.--Hahn (1907:112), J. A.
Allen (1908:669, 1910:111), Davis _et al._ (1964:379), Starrett and de
la Torre (1964:58).

_Carollia subrufa_ (Hahn, 1905).--Davis and Carter (1962:71), Davis _et
al._ (1964:379).

_Sturnira lilium parvidens_ Goldman, 1917.--Davis _et al._ (1964:379),
Starrett and de la Torre (1964:59), Jones (1964a:507).

*_Sturnira ludovici ludovici_ Anthony, 1924.

_Uroderma bilobatum convexum_ Lyon, 1902.--Davis _et al._ (1964:382),
Jones (1964a:507), Davis (1968:695).

_Uroderma bilobatum molaris_ Davis, 1968.--Davis _et al._ (1964:382),
Davis (1968:697).

*_Uroderma magnirostrum_ Davis, 1968.--Davis (1968:680).

*_Vampyrops helleri_ Peters, 1866.--Davis _et al._ (1964:383), Jones
(1964a:507), Valdez and LaVal (1971:248).

*_Vampyrodes major_ G. M. Allen, 1908.--J. A. Allen (1910:112), Goodwin
(1946:320).

*_Vampyressa nymphaea_ Thomas, 1909.

*_Vampyressa pusilla thyone_ Thomas, 1909.--Starrett and de la Torre
(1964:60).

*_Chiroderma villosum jesupi_ J. A. Allen, 1900.

_Ectophylla alba_ H. Allen, 1892.--H. Allen (1892:441, 1898:267), Lyon
and Osgood (1909:266), Poole and Schantz (1942:129), Goodwin
(1942c:134, 1946:323), Goodwin and Greenhall (1962:4). Type locality
(Río Segovia) placed in Comarca de El Cabo, Nicaragua, by Miller and
Kellogg (1955:77).

_Artibeus inopinatus_ Davis and Carter, 1964.--Davis and Carter
(1964:120).

_Artibeus jamaicensis paulus_ Davis, 1970.--Andersen (1908:266), Davis
(1970b:121).

_Artibeus jamaicensis richardsoni_ J. A. Allen, 1908.--Andersen
(1908:267), J. A. Allen (1908:669), Elliot (1917:168), Goodwin
(1953:249), Davis and Carter (1964:120), Davis _et al._ (1964:379),
Starrett and de la Torre (1964:60), Davis (1970b:116).

_Artibeus lituratus palmarum_ J. A. Allen and Chapman, 1897.--Andersen
(1908:279), Davis and Carter (1964:120), Davis _et al._ (1964:379),
Starrett and de la Torre (1964:61).

_Artibeus phaeotis palatinus_ Davis, 1970.--Davis (1970a:401).

_Artibeus phaeotis phaeotis_ (Miller, 1902).--Davis _et al._
(1964:379), Davis (1970a: 399).

*_Artibeus toltecus hesperus_ Davis, 1969.

*_Artibeus toltecus toltecus_ (Saussure, 1860).--Andersen (1908:300),
Davis (1969:28).

*_Artibeus watsoni_ Thomas, 1901.--Andersen (1908:290), Davis and
Carter (1962:71), Davis (1970a:393).

*_Centurio senex senex_ Gray, 1842.--Goodwin (1946:327, restricted type
locality to El Realejo, Nicaragua).

_Desmodus rotundus murinus_ Wagner, 1840.--J. A. Allen (1908:670,
1910:113).

*_Diphylla ecaudata_ Spix, 1823.


Family NATALIDAE

*_Natalus stramineus saturatus_ Dalquest and Hall, 1949.


Family THYROPTERIDAE

_Thyroptera discifera discifera_ (Lichtenstein and Peters,
1854).--Miller (1896:111, 1931:411), Goodwin (1946:330).


Family VESPERTILIONIDAE

*_Myotis albescens_ (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1806).--Miller and G. M.
Allen (1928:203).

*_Myotis elegans_ Hall, 1962.

*_Myotis nigricans nigricans_ (Schinz, 1821).--Davis _et al._
(1964:379), McDaniel and Coffman (1970:223).

*_Myotis simus riparius_ Handley, 1960.

*_Eptesicus furinalis gaumeri_ (J. A. Allen, 1897).--Miller (1897:100),
Davis (1965:234).

_Lasiurus borealis frantzii_ (Peters, 1871).--Davis and Carter
(1962:73).

*_Rhogeessa tumida tumida_ H. Allen, 1866.--J. A. Allen (1910:113),
Goodwin (1958:3).


Family MOLOSSIDAE

*_Tadarida laticaudata yucatanica_ (Miller, 1902).

*_Eumops auripendulus_ (Shaw, 1800).

*_Molossus ater nigricans_ Miller, 1902.--J. A. Allen (1908:670).

_Molossus bondae_ J. A. Allen, 1904.--Miller (1913a:89).

*_Molossus molossus aztecus_ Saussure, 1860.--Felten (1957:14).

*_Molossus pretiosus pretiosus_ Miller, 1902.

*_Molossus sinaloae sinaloae_ J. A. Allen, 1906.--Miller (1913a:89),
Goodwin and Greenhall (1964:13).



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