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Title: Some Reptiles and Amphibians from Korea
Author: Jones, J. Knox, 1929-1992, Webb, Robert G., Byers, George W.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Some Reptiles and Amphibians from Korea" ***

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Transcriber's Notes

This Plain Text version has been prepared for Smooth Reading using the
ASCII and Latin-1 character sets.

  Italic typeface has been represented using _underscores_;
  Bold typeface has been represented using =equals symbols=;
  Small caps typeface has been represented using UPPER CASE.

Note that some unexpected spellings have not been changed from
the original:

Page 155 onwards: "parotoid" appears for "parotid".

Page 172 (two references by Mori): "Quelpaert" appears for "Quelpart".

The following changes to the text have been made:

Page 159: changed "planyci" to "plancyi" (The most trenchant characters
of _plancyi_ seem to be ...)

Page 169: changed "juvenal" to "juvenile" (... does not conform to the
juvenile pattern of either subspecies.)

       *       *       *       *       *


                  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
                      MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

                    Volume 15, No. 2, pp. 149-173

                           January 31, 1962

               Some Reptiles and Amphibians from Korea

                                  BY

                 ROBERT G. WEBB, J. KNOX JONES, JR.,
                         AND GEORGE W. BYERS

                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                               LAWRENCE
                                 1962


     UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

         Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
                        Theodore H. Eaton, Jr.

                    Volume 15, No. 2, pp. 149-173
                      Published January 31, 1962

                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                           Lawrence, Kansas

                              PRINTED BY
                   JEAN M. NEIBARGER, STATE PRINTER
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS
                                 1962

                               28-8517



               Some Reptiles and Amphibians from Korea

                                  BY

       ROBERT G. WEBB, J. KNOX JONES, JR., AND GEORGE W. BYERS

In 1954, two of us (Jones and Byers) collected reptiles and amphibians
in Korea incidental to field studies relating to hemorrhagic fever. The
382 specimens thus obtained were deposited either in the Museum of
Natural History of The University of Kansas (KU), or in the Museum of
Zoology of the University of Michigan (UMMZ), and are the basis for the
present report. Continuous American military operations of one sort or
another in Korea since 1945 have afforded opportunities for interested
persons to obtain there collections of amphibians and reptiles, the
study of which has resulted in several recent publications (Babb, 1955;
Dixon, 1956; Hahn, 1959 and 1960; Shannon, 1956 and 1957; Stewart, 1953
and 1954; Tanner, 1953; Walley, 1958_a_ and 1958_b_). This paper, which
contains comments on the natural history and taxonomy of 22 species, all
previously reported from Korea, supplements earlier studies, especially
Shannon's (1956) annotated list of the herpetofauna of the country.

Shannon (_loc. cit._) recorded 36 kinds of reptiles and amphibians from
Korea. Subsequently, _Bufo stejnegeri_ (previously omitted) was added by
Shannon (1957), _Takydromus takydromoides oldi_ was described by Walley
(1958_a_), and _Takydromus kwangakuensis_ was relegated to synonymy
under _T. amurensis_ by Walley (1958_b_). Presently, then, 37 kinds are
on record from the Korean Peninsula.

In the accounts beyond, Jones and Byers are mostly responsible for the
remarks on natural history, whereas Webb is mostly responsible for the
taxonomic comments. The synonymies include (1) the original description,
which is followed by (2) the first use of the name-combination here
employed if it differs from the name as originally proposed, and (3) any
synonyms having type localities in Korea. All measurements are in
millimeters and all dates refer to the year 1954 unless otherwise
indicated. A gazetteer of localities mentioned in the text and a list of
literature cited follow the accounts of species.

We are grateful to the officers, enlisted men and civilians associated
in 1954 with the Field Unit of the Commission on Hemorrhagic Fever,
Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, who aided our efforts in Korea; we
are especially mindful of the contributions of Dr. Albert A. Barber, Dr.
Marshall Hertig, Mr. Louis J. Lipovsky and Dr. Warren D. Thomas. We are
grateful also to Mr. Yoshinori Imaizumi, National Science Museum of
Japan, for his translations of several papers in Japanese, and to Dr.
Edward H. Taylor for making certain pertinent references available to
us.


=Hynobius leechii= Boulenger

    _Hynobius Leechii_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, 19:67,
      January, 1887 (type locality, Gensan [=Wonsan], Korea).

    _Hynobius leechii quelpaertensis_ Mori, Jour. Chosen Nat. Hist.
      Soc., 6:47 (Japanese) and 53 (English), March 25, 1928 (type
      locality, Quelpart Island [=Cheju Do], Korea).

    _Specimens examined_ (3).--1 mi. SW Inje, 1 (KU); 4 mi. NNE
    Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 2 (KU).

    _Description_ (KU 38774 from 1 mi. SW Inje).--Total length, 86 (head
    13, body 40, tail 33); costal grooves (including axillary and
    inguinal), 13; two costal grooves between adpressed toes; length of
    inner branch of series of vomerine teeth less than distance between
    outer border of naris and peak of opposite series (tooth-rows
    V-shaped, approximately as long as broad); dorsal surface yellowish
    brown or buff (yellowish in life), having numerous blackish marks;
    venter yellowish cream, having an indistinct grayish mottling.

_Remarks._--The salamander described above was found in a foxhole with
another desiccated individual (not saved) on a military compound on
April 24. The only other occurrence of _H. leechii_ on the mainland to
come to our attention was the report of several larvae that were seen in
a small pool on a hillside near Chip´o-ri in the summer of 1953.

Each of the two specimens from Cheju Do (KU 38775-76) differs from KU
38774 in having (1) the length of inner branch of the vomerine series
slightly greater than the distance between outer border of naris and
peak of opposite series (tooth-rows V-shaped, longer than broad), (2) a
dorsal and ventral keel on the tail, (3) one costal groove (rather than
two costal grooves) between adpressed toes, and (4) in being darker both
dorsally and ventrally. The area of buff on the dorsal surface of each
specimen is reduced by a fine, blackish mottling and stippling, and the
venter of each is grayish. Respective total lengths of KU 38775 and
38776 are 84 (head 12, body 36, tail 36) and 89 (12, 35, 42), and the
number of costal grooves 13 and 14. Although the two specimens are of
approximately the same size, the tail of KU 38776 is noticeably the
longer; the tail of KU 38775 is thicker and deeper than that of KU
38776.

The two specimens from 4 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri were taken on September 9 in
damp substrate under volcanic rocks along a little-used road; although
many rocks were overturned, only these two individuals were found. A
South Korean soldier informed us that salamanders were fairly common on
Cheju Do.

Mori (1928_a_:16) first mentioned in Japanese text the alleged
distinctiveness of the salamander occurring on Cheju Do. Later, Mori
(1928_b_:47 in Japanese, and 1928_c_:53 in English) provided valid
descriptions of the subspecies, _Hynobius leechii quelpaertensis_. Okada
(1934:17) questioned the validity of _H. l. quelpaertensis_ and Sato
(1943) regarded the salamanders of Cheju Do as inseparable from the
Korean _H. leechii_. The English description of _quelpaertensis_ is
briefer than the preceding one in Japanese and lacks comparisons with
related forms. KU 38775-76 seemingly differ appreciably from the
description of _quelpaertensis_ only in having the series of vomerine
teeth narrowly V-shaped and longer than broad. We tentatively follow
Sato in regarding _quelpaertensis_ as a synonym of _leechii_.


=Bombina orientalis= (Boulenger)

    _Bombinator orientalis_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6,
      5:143, pl. IX, fig. 2, February, 1890 (type locality restricted to
      Chefoo, China, by Pope, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61:435,
      August 29, 1931).

    _Bombina orientalis_, Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58:51, figs.
      30-43, pl. VII (reproduction from Boulenger, _supra_), July 22,
      1907.

    _Specimens examined_ (87).--2 mi. N Chip´o-ri, 8 (KU), 5 (UMMZ); 1
    mi. SW Inje, 1 (KU); 15 mi. NE Mosulp´o, Cheju Do, 6 (KU);
    Sangdaehwa, 2 (KU); Taehoesan-ni, 1 (KU); 1 mi. W Tangjonggok, 32
    (KU), 17 (UMMZ); Tangnim-ni, 2 (KU); 3 mi. SW Yanggu, 1 (KU); 2 mi.
    N Yongdae-ri, 8 (KU), 4 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--Most of our specimens were taken from breeding congresses
after heavy rains in rice fields and other shallow temporary waters.
Thirteen individuals from Chip´o-ri were collected from foxholes around
the edge of a military compound (two pairs in amplexus; no egg masses
seen), and represent a small sample of frogs that were everywhere
following a heavy rain on the night of May 13-14. On April 23, 32
_Bombina orientalis_ and three _Rana temporaria dybowskii_ were trapped
in the water-filled bottom of an unused grease pit near Tangjonggok.
Many tadpoles and two kinds of egg masses (small clusters and beadlike
strings) were present; the small clusters of _Bombina_ were commonest.
On June 13 at the same locality, thousands of these toads were observed
(hundreds in axillary amplexus) in foxholes, temporary rain pools, and
backwashes along the Puk-ch´on [river]. On June 12 near Yongdae-ri many
individuals were seen (several pairs in amplexus), along Route 24
paralleling the Puk-ch´on, in rain pools and in ditches and backwashes
from the river; almost all available water contained small
(approximately 10 × 10 mm.) egg masses. Numbers of eggs per mass,
selected at random, were 5, 2, 2, 5, 2, 8, 8, 2 and 5. Some that were
saved subsequently hatched on June 15-17.

The call is a quiet low trill or series of staccato whistles rising
slightly at the beginning; a short peeplike note also was heard. The
specimens from Cheju Do, which are generally smaller than those
collected on the mainland in spring, were taken on September 6 in a
small stream that had large volcanic rocks in many places and that was
flanked by thick brush and small trees. The earliest and latest dates on
which _B. orientalis_ was collected were April 21 and September 6,
respectively.

In the breeding season, males are distinguished from females by the
large blackish (probably brownish earlier in season) areas on the
anteroventral surface of the antebrachium, the metacarpal tubercle, and
the inner surface of the first finger (sometimes also the second and
third). Also, males have conspicuous black-tipped tubercles on the back
(usually absent in females) that extend onto the limbs (usually smooth
in females, at least laterally). Field observations by one of us (Byers)
suggested that the dorsal pattern of males had greater contrast than
that of females and that the venter was brighter reddish. Eight females
from Tangjonggok averaged 47.9 (43-51) in snout-vent length, whereas 24
males from there averaged 50.0 (46-55), indicating little, if any, size
difference between the sexes.

Okada (1931:29) recorded variation in color of live Korean individuals
(green or brown dorsally and pale yellow or red ventrally) and variation
in extent of black markings on the belly (_op. cit._:fig. 12). The
specimens from Cheju Do (28, 32, 32, 32, 37 and 46 in snout-vent length)
have less black ventrally than specimens from the mainland.


=Bufo bufo gargarizans= Cantor

    _Bufo gargarizans_ Cantor, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 9:483,
      August, 1842 (type locality, island of Chusan, China).

    _Bufo bufo gargarizans_, Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58:59,
      July 22, 1907.

    _Specimens examined_ (10).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 1 (KU); 5 mi. NW Choksong, near Imjin River, 1 (KU); 5
    mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 4 (KU), 2 (UMMZ); 1 mi. S
    Yami-ri, 1 (KU).

    _Description (nine females)._--Dorsal surface brownish, having
    indistinct pale areas, some of which tend to form longitudinal
    stripes that extend posteriorly from parotoid glands; blackish
    mark, usually on lateral part of parotoid, having short spurs
    directed posteriorly and ventrally; edge of upper jaw and warts on
    dorsal surface becoming blackish with increasing size; small,
    conspicuous group of warts near angle of jaw below parotoid;
    middorsal warts tending, at level of posterior edge of parotoids, to
    form a V that has its apex between the parotoids; ventral surface
    pale yellowish, sometimes having well-defined blackish marks;
    granular underparts of large specimens having small blackish
    tubercles.

    _Male (KU 40118 from 5 mi. E Seoul)._--Snout-vent length, 65; no
    vocal sacs or slits; dorsal and inner surfaces of first and second
    fingers, and inner surface of third finger black; canthus rostralis
    indistinct (a well-defined ridge on right side); nostrils closer to
    tip of snout than to eye, their distance from each other slightly
    less than interorbital width; interorbital width (6.2) greater than
    width of eyelid (4.7); tympanum distinct, circular, its diameter
    (3.0) less than length of eye (6.5), and approximately twice
    distance (1.6) of tympanum from eye; no cranial crests; parotoid
    gland elongate, approximately twice as long as broad (12.5 × 5.0),
    narrowly separated from posterior edge of eyelid; head elongate
    (width at posterior edge of tympanum, 23.6); length from posterior
    edge of tympanum to tip of upper jaw, 18.9; first finger slightly
    longer than second, fourth finger about two-thirds as long as third;
    most subarticular tubercles divided; outer palmar tubercle larger
    than inner; heels not touching when folded legs placed at right
    angles to longitudinal axis of body; tibiotarsal articulation just
    reaching eye when leg laid forward; tarsometatarsal articulation not
    reaching beyond snout; foot large (tibiotarsal articulation to tip
    of fourth toe approximately 46.0); fourth toe approximately half
    webbed, other toes more than half webbed; edges of webs somewhat
    crenulate; some subarticular tubercles divided; length of inner
    metatarsal tubercle (4.5) more than half length of first toe (7.0);
    inner metatarsal tubercle larger than outer, both darkened; tarsal
    fold extending from inner metatarsal tubercle for approximately
    two-thirds length of tarsus; tips of toes (not fingers) darkened;
    dorsal surface of back and proximal part of hind legs coarsely
    granular, of rounded, pavement-type tubercles lacking sharp tips;
    small group of warts near angle of jaw below parotoids; dorsal
    pattern contrasting and irregular (especially on limbs), of dark
    brown and pale gray; conspicuous black mark (interrupted) on lateral
    surface of parotoid having two, well-defined spurs that project
    posteroventrally; undersurface granular, lacking markings except for
    two indistinctly-margined dark spots on chest, and black spot on
    left leg.

_Remarks._--This nocturnal, introduced species (Okada, 1931:47) is
presumably widespread in Korea and seemingly prefers lowland habitats.
Individuals were taken in sparse vegetation on a sand flat near the Han
River, at the edge of a rice field in a light rain, along a road at
night, and in millet fields adjacent to the Han River, which was
flooding at that time (July 9).

As is obvious from the foregoing descriptions, the male (KU 40118),
which was obtained on March 19, differs considerably from the nine
females; neither does it agree with Stejneger's (1907:66) or Okada's
(_op. cit._:45-46, fig. 18) description of males of _Bufo bufo asiaticus
[=gargarizans]_ from Wonsan and Seoul. Upon cursory examination, KU
40118 is notable for having a contrasting dorsal pattern and elongate,
ranidlike proportions. Some of the characteristics resemble those of
_Bufo raddei_ Strauch as given by Stejneger (_op. cit._:70-72, figs.
53-57), Okada (1935:9, figs. 2 and 32-34, pls. II-III), and Liu
(1950:203-205, fig. 43).

Stejneger (_op. cit._:59-68) recognized _B. b. gargarizans_ as occurring
in southern China, and _Bufo bufo asiaticus_ as the subspecies occurring
in northern China. Subsequently, _asiaticus_ was relegated to synonymy
under the earlier-named _gargarizans_--see discussions by Pope and
Boring (1940:33) and Liu (_op. cit._:220).


=Kaloula borealis= (Barbour)

    _Cacopoides borealis_ Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 51(12):231,
      April, 1908 (type locality, Antung, Manchuria).

    _Kaloula borealis_, Noble, Amer. Mus. Novit., 165:6, April 16, 1925.

    _Specimens examined_ (8).--5 mi. ESE Seoul, 1 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 3
    (UMMZ); 7 mi. ESE Seoul, 4 (KU).

_Remarks._--On April 5, one male and three females were uncovered by a
bulldozer from between one and two feet below the surface of the ground
in an old Korean burial mound; one individual was completely surrounded
by compact soil. All quickly became active when placed in water. Two of
the females (43 and 44 in snout-vent length) contained masses of
immature eggs. A male obtained on June 4 was found during a rain; the
three UMMZ specimens were obtained on July 8 on banks above the Han
River. Breeding of this species seems to coincide with the rainy season
in late spring and early summer when males were noted calling around
flooded ditches and swales in deep grass. The local Korean name of the
species, which sounds something like "maeng-kongi," is said to come from
the call, which is best described as a monotonous, snoring sound that
rarely is heard in two parts as suggested by the name.


=Hyla arborea japonica= Günther

    [_Hyla arborea_] Var. _japonica_ Günther, Catalogue of the Batrachia
      Salientia in the ... British Museum, p. 109, 1858 (type locality,
      Japan).

    _Hyla arborea_ var. _savignyi_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser.
      5, 19:67, January, 1887 (type locality, Gensan [= Wonsan], Korea).

    _Hyla stepheni_ Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 579, pl. 51,
      fig. 1 (for 1887), April, 1888 (type locality, Port Hamilton, a
      small island between Korea and Japan).

    _Specimens examined_ (44).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 2 (KU); 3 mi. NW Chip´o-ri, 1 (KU); 1 mi. N Mosulp´o,
    Cheju Do, 1 (KU); 1 mi. NW Oho-ri, 13 (KU), 3 (UMMZ);
    Sangbonch´on-ni, 2 (UMMZ); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 8 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul,
    10 (KU), 3 (UMMZ); 7 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--Hylids from 5 mi. ESE Seoul were collected from a
cement-walled pit at the Seoul City Water Works; a specimen of _Elaphe
rufodorsata_ taken in the pit had eaten one hylid. Two individuals were
taken in the morning of May 29 on leaf litter in a wooded valley in the
Central National Forest where a number were calling in a light rain, but
the species was rarely found in woods. Two frogs were found along a
rocky stream at Sangbonch´on-ni. Most individuals were taken while
calling, on grasses and reeds or on the ground, along the edges of rice
fields. Sixteen hylids collected 1 mi. NW Oho-ri were calling in shallow
water of a rice field on a hillside, but none was heard in a large lake
nearby or in adjacent fields. On May 15, 4 mi. ESE Ch´orwon,
approximately one hundred tadpoles, thought to be of this species,
congregated near a drain (into a lower field) of an unused rice field;
the tadpoles were well-developed, some having hind legs. The earliest
and latest dates of collection represented in our material are May 8 and
October 29. The call is best described as a raspy "waak," "week," or
"wiick" in the middle register.

The listing of "Hylae arboreae var japonicae descript pars _Schleg. in
Fauna Japon._ p. 112 ..." by Günther (1858:81) in synonymy under the
account of _Polypedates schlegelii_, implies that Schlegel was the first
author to use the name-combination _Hyla arborea japonica_. Boulenger
(1882:86, 381) went so far as to credit Schlegel as the author of the
name _japonica_. The reason for this action is not known because
Schlegel (in von Siebold, 1838:112) referred to this hylid only under
the name "Hyla arborea."


=Rana rugosa= Schlegel

    _Rana rugosa_ Schlegel, Reptilia [Saurii et Batrachii], _in_ von
      Siebold, Fauna Japonica, p. 110, pl. 3, figs. 3-4, 1838 (type
      locality designated as Japan, probably near Nagasaki, by
      Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58:123, July 22, 1907).

    _Specimens examined_ (26).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 13 (KU), 1 (UMMZ); 2 mi. S Ch´orwon, 4 (KU); 2 mi. E
    Hoengsong, 3 (KU); 1 mi. NW Oho-ri, 1 (KU); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 1 (KU);
    6 mi. E Seoul, 3 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--_Rana rugosa_ was associated with _Rana nigromaculata_ and
_Rana amurensis coreana_ at all localities where the species was taken
save at 2 mi. E Hoengsong, where _R. a. coreana_ was not observed. Three
specimens of _R. rugosa_ were collected among grasses and reeds in
water along the edge of Ch´orwon Reservoir, 2 mi. S Ch´orwon, where they
were difficult to find in the thick vegetation even though their low,
soft calls were heard; the specimen from 1 mi. NW Oho-ri was found in a
rice field. Otherwise, habitats recorded indicate a preference for
small, fast-flowing streams, especially in wooded valleys. On one
occasion, individuals were found trapped in cement-walled pits about old
ruins on a wooded hillside in the Central National Forest. The earliest
and latest dates of capture among our specimens are May 15 and November
6. In addition to the localities listed above, the species was observed
4 mi. W Ch´ungju.

_R. rugosa_ may have an extensive breeding season as suggested by the
variation in size of frogs collected or observed in 1954. Of nine frogs
obtained on May 29, five ranged in snout-vent length from 26 to 28, and
four from 42 to 54. Three specimens collected on October 9 measured 39,
41, and 55, and two obtained on November 6 measured 25 and 37.


=Rana nigromaculata= Hallowell

    _Rana nigromaculata_ Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
      [12]:500 (for 1860), 1861 (type locality, Simoda, Japan).

    _Specimens examined_ (47).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 6 (KU); 2 mi. S Ch´orwon, 5 (KU); 4 mi. W Ch´ungju, 2
    (KU); 7 mi. W Ch´ungju, 1 (KU); 2 mi. E Hoengsong, 1 (KU); 8 mi. SW
    Kunsan, 1 (KU); 1 mi. NW Oho-ri, 5 (KU); 5 mi. ENE Pusan, 2 (KU); 5
    mi. ESE Seoul, 9 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 3 (KU), 10 (UMMZ); 6 mi. NNE
    Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 2 (KU).

    _Description._--Back brownish or grayish (greenish in life), having
    few, indistinct or well-defined, dark blotches, or extensive
    blackish areas (representing fusion of markings); pale, middorsal
    stripe (pale green, buff or yellowish in life) from snout to anus,
    sometimes as wide as interorbital width, but indistinct or lacking
    when pattern on back absent; blackish bar often present behind
    tympanum; posterior surface of thigh mottled; underparts pale yellow
    to whitish, sometimes having a few dusky marks on throat;
    longitudinal ridges between dorsolateral folds indistinct in some
    small frogs; largest female and male having respective snout-vent
    lengths of 100 and 70.

_Remarks._--_Rana nigromaculata_ is the most abundant ranid in central
Korea and, in a general way, the ecological equivalent of _Rana pipiens_
in temperate North America. The species is associated with most aquatic
habitats, from rocky streams to rice fields and large impoundments. In
the vicinity of Seoul the din of large breeding congresses was heard
more or less continuously from mid-April to mid-May. Large numbers of
juveniles (approximately one inch long) were noticed first on July 8 and
were present thereafter for about three weeks, being commonest in
standing water after heavy rains or during prolonged showers. These data
and the different sizes of individuals collected at the same time
suggest either variable growth or, more probably, an extensive breeding
season. Our earliest and latest dates of collection are April 16 and
October 7. The Korean name for "frog," most often applied to _R.
nigromaculata_, sounds something like "keg-oh-ree." The call is a
prolonged, raspy, staccato croak, sometimes with a rising inflection at
the end.

In addition to the localities listed above, the species was observed 5
mi. W Kwangju and 3 mi. S Osan.

Despite a high degree of individual variation, _Rana nigromaculata_
seemingly varies geographically as well; some subspecies probably should
be recognized, but the species as a whole has never been thoroughly
studied systematically. The division of _R. nigromaculata_ into three
subspecies by Schmidt (1927:563-567) was considered untenable by Fang
and Chang (1931:95-98), and it has been regarded by most recent authors
as a variable, monotypic species.

The named subspecies _R. n. chosenica_ (Okada, 1931:89, with type
locality at Seoul, and geographically restricted to Korea) was
considered a subspecies of _Rana plancyi_ by Shannon (1956:36). The most
trenchant characters of _plancyi_ seem to be the wide dorsolateral
folds, the uniform greenish dorsum, the presence of dermal pustules on
the back between the dorsolateral folds, and the lack of a mottled
pattern on the posterior surface of the thigh. Among our specimens of
_R. nigromaculata_, the width of the dorsolateral folds is variable, a
uniform greenish dorsum is found only in large males, dermal pustules
are mixed with ridges in only one male (KU 38733), and all have a
spotted or mottled pattern on the posterior surface of the thigh. All of
our specimens having an indistinct pattern on the back, or lacking a
pattern, are males and resemble the photographs of males published by
Moriya (1954: pl. I, fig. 5) and Liu (1936: pl. IV, figs. 1-2);
juveniles of both sexes and large females have contrasting patterns.

None of our frogs seems, therefore, clearly referable to the species
_plancyi_, although some characters are suggestive of _plancyi_. Moriya
(_op. cit.:19_), who studied variation of _R. nigromaculata_ in Japan,
noted that one of the most distinct populations there (_R. n.
brevipoda_) resembled _Rana plancyi_. Ting (1939) discovered that
_nigromaculata_ and _plancyi_ were cross-fertile and raised hybrid
larvae through metamorphosis. Pope and Boring (1940) suggested
hybridization between the two species in eastern China, and the above
mentioned facts suggest to us the possibility of hybridization in other
regions.


=Rana amurensis coreana= Okada

    _Rana temporaria coreana_ Okada, Annot. Zool. Japon., 11:140
      (footnote), July 25, 1927, _nomen nudum_.

    _Rana temporaria coreana_ Okada, Jour. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc, 6:19,
      pl. 1, fig. 7, 1928 (type locality, Keijo [= Seoul], Korea).

    _Rana amurensis coreana_, Shannon, Herpetologica, 12:38, March 6,
      1956.

    _Specimens examined_ (9).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 1 (KU); 2 mi. S Ch´orwon, 1 (KU); 4 mi. W Ch´ungju, 1
    (KU); 1 mi. N Oho-ri, 1 (KU); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 3 (KU); Yongp´yong, 2
    (KU).

_Remarks._--One individual of _R. a. coreana_ (KU 38698) and one of
_Rana temporaria dybowskii_ (KU 38715) were collected on May 29 along a
stream in the Central National Forest in association with _R. rugosa_
and _R. nigromaculata_. Specimens of _coreana_ from the vicinity of
Seoul were found in rice fields. The earliest date of collection was
April 13 at Yongp´yong. Our largest specimen of _coreana_ measured 47 in
snout-vent length.

Because _R. a. coreana_ and _Rana temporaria dybowskii_ are sympatric in
central Korea and closely resemble one another, the two species were not
distinguished in the field and the following observations may pertain to
either (or both) species. Wood frogs were observed 2 mi. E Songdong-ni
on July 12 in paddies (rice fields) along with individuals of _Hyla
arborea_, _Rana rugosa_, and _Rana nigromaculata_. At Chip´o-ri on April
6, individuals (probably _R. t. dybowskii_) were seen in a seepage pool
from an abandoned rice field; _R. nigromaculata_ also was seen there.
Six or seven egg masses (some having small tadpoles) were observed in
the shallow water, but it was not certain to which species the eggs
belonged. Completely metamorphosed young (probably _R. a. coreana_) were
first seen 1 mi. N Oho-ri on June 9. At Taehoesan-ni on November 12,
several sluggish frogs were seen in a small pool that was covered by a
thin layer of ice.

On September 26 in the Central National Forest, many wood frogs of
various sizes were observed. _R. amurensis_ and _R. temporaria_ probably
have extended breeding seasons that correspond to those of _R. rugosa_
and _R. nigromaculata_. Judging from our observations, _amurensis_
prefers the proximity of water, whereas _temporaria_ may occur some
distance from permanent water.

In our specimens, _R. amurensis coreana_ differs from _R. temporaria
dybowskii_ in having (1) smaller maximal size, (2) more slender body,
(3) shorter legs, (4) incompletely webbed toes, (5) no mottling or
barring on lips, (6) no contrasting barred pattern on hind legs, (7)
dark brown stripes (usually) between dorsolateral folds, (8) a dark
brown, linear mark below canthus, and (9) an immaculate ventral surface.
Two additional distinguishing characters, which we found difficult to
evaluate, are the nearly straight, dorsolateral folds, and lack of vocal
sacs or ostia in males of _R. a. coreana_ (Shannon, 1956:38). Some of
the differences between the two species were illustrated by Okada,
1931:107, fig. 48, _R. temporaria temporaria_ [=_R. t. dybowskii_] and
123, fig. 54, _R. temporaria coreana_ [=_R. amurensis coreana_].


=Rana temporaria dybowskii= Günther

    _Rana Dybowskii_ Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 17:387, May,
      1876 (type locality, Abrek Bay, near Vladivostok, Siberia).

    _Rana temporaria dybowski_, Shannon, Herpetologica, 12:38, March 6,
      1956.

    _Specimens examined_ (20).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 7 (KU); Chip´o-ri, 2 (KU); 1 mi. SW Inje, 6 (KU); 8 mi.
    SW Kangnung, 1 (KU); Taegwang-ni, 1 (KU); 1 mi. SW Tangjonggok, 3
    (KU).

_Remarks._--On October 9 in the Central National Forest, five
individuals were found in a concrete-walled pit in old ruins on a wooded
hillside; no specimens of _Rana amurensis coreana_ were taken there. _R.
t. dybowskii_ was most often taken on high, moist slopes, and seemed to
be especially common in forests. The specimen from 8 mi. SW Kangnung was
obtained in a wooded area along a mountain stream. The earliest date of
collection of a specimen of _dybowskii_ was March 7 at Taegwang-ni. See
also the remarks under the preceding account of _Rana amurensis
coreana_.

The largest male among our specimens measured 65 in snout-vent length
and the largest female, 79. Five gravid females had snout-vent lengths
of 64, 68, 69, 69 and 70.


=Trionyx sinensis= Wiegmann

    _Trionyx (Aspidonectes) sinensis_ Wiegmann, Nova Acta Acad.
      Leopold.-Carol., 17:189, 1835 (type locality, near Macao, China).

    _Specimen examined._--Han River, 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 1 (KU).

_Remarks._--Our only specimen was purchased from a man who had captured
it by hand in the Han River; it was the only turtle seen during our stay
in Korea. Koreans eat turtles, and the elaborate (and relatively
permanent) fish-traps that they construct across streams and small
rivers probably reduce the size of populations of _T. sinensis_ and
other species.


=Eremias argus= Peters

    _Eremias argus_ Peters, Monatsber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p.
      61, fig. 3 (for 1869), 1870 (type locality, Chefoo, China).

    _Specimens examined_ (23).--Chip´o-ri, 1 (KU); 5 mi. E Seoul, 3
    (KU), 3 (UMMZ); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 4 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 10 (UMMZ); 7
    mi. ESE Seoul, 2 (KU).

_Remarks._--Individuals of _E. argus_ were most often seen on dry
hillsides having a relatively sparse cover of vegetation. The first
lizard of this species was taken on April 2. In 1954 the last part of
March and early part of April were generally warm, with temperatures
above 70° F. on several occasions; probably some _E. argus_ were active
in late March. KU 38773 (snout-vent length, 51) laid three eggs between
June 4 and 14; KU 38768 (snout-vent length, 58) obtained on May 8 was
gravid, containing four eggs. Testes of lizards in the breeding season
measure approximately 4.0 x 2.5 (KU 38772, obtained on June 16).

The snout-vent length of our largest female is 61, that of the largest
male, 57. The snout-vent length of 11 specimens averaged 77 (67-96) per
cent of length of tail.


=Tachydromus amurensis= Peters

    _Tachydromus amurensis_ Peters, Sitzungsber. Gesell. naturf. Freunde
      Berlin, p. 71, 1881 (type locality, Kossakewitcha, Amurland).

    _Specimens examined_ (3).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 1 (KU), 1 (UMMZ); Majon-ni, 1 (KU).

_Remarks._--One of our specimens was found among grasses along a small
stream in the Central National Forest. The other two were obtained by
other persons and we lack knowledge of conditions of their capture.

A juvenile (KU 39416, snout-vent length, 25) that was obtained on
September 9 is tentatively referred to this species. There seem to be
three femoral pores on the left leg but the number is indistinct on the
right. The specimen is dark and lacks a pattern. Its condition precludes
counts of ventral scales (not keeled), but scalation is otherwise the
same as a male (KU 40120, snout-vent length approximately 47, length of
tail, 124). The third specimen, a male (UMMZ 113442, snout-vent length,
51, length of tail, 115), agrees with KU 40120, except in having 32
instead of 29 dorsal scales at midbody, 4-4 instead of 3-3 femoral
pores, and in lacking a pale stripe from eye through ear to shoulder.


=Tachydromus wolteri= Fischer

    _Tachydromus Wolteri_ Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamburg, 2:82 (for
      1884), 1885 (type locality, Chemulp´o, Korea).

    _Specimens examined_ (2).--Yongp´yong, 2 (KU).

_Remarks._--On April 14, two females (57 and 45 in snout-vent length,
the tail of the latter measuring 103) were easily captured by hand on a
burned-over rice field.


=Lygosoma reevesii= (Gray)

    _Tiliqua Reevesii_ Gray, Ann. [Mag.] Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 2:292,
      December, 1838 (type locality, China).

    [_Lygosoma (Liolepisma) laterale_] var. _reevesi_, Boettger, Katalog
      der Batrachier-Sammlung ..., p. 104, 1893.

    _Specimens examined_ (6).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 3 (KU); 4 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1 (KU); 7 mi. NNE
    Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1 (UMMZ); 16 mi. NE Mosulp´o, Cheju Do, 1
    (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--On October 23 an individual was captured while sunning on a
stump on a wooded hillside in the Central National Forest; two others at
this locality were collected on damp ground-cover on the same hillside.
A juvenile from Cheju Do was found among moss-covered rocks in a stream
bed; the other specimens from Cheju Do were found among moss-covered
rocks on the western slope of Halla San.

Each ovary of a female obtained on October 23 contained five enlarged
follicles, about 1 mm. in diameter. The left testis of a male obtained
on August 10 seemed enlarged, indicating possible sexual activity, and
measured approximately 6 x 2 mm. The snout-vent length of our largest
male is 41, that of our largest female, 48. The prefrontals are in
contact in all of our specimens save one (UMMZ 113446).

There is disagreement among herpetologists concerning the generic name
of the small lygosome skink in the United States and its ecological
equivalent in China and Korea. We tentatively use _Lygosoma_ (Conant,
1951:207-208), although Mittleman (1950) pointed out reasons for using
_Scincella_. Shannon (1956:41) discussed the debated issue whether or
not the lygosome skinks of the New and Old worlds are conspecific.


=Rhabdophis tigrina lateralis= (Berthold)

    _Tropidonotus lateralis_ Berthold, Nachrichten Gesell. Wiss.
      Göttingen, p. 180, 1859 (type locality, China).

    _Specimens examined_ (26).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 1 (KU); 2 mi. N Chip´o-ri, 2 (KU); 3 mi. NW Chip´o-ri,
    4 (KU); 4 mi. N Ch´onan, 1 (KU); 3 mi. S Kumhwa, 1 (KU); 1 mi. SW
    Naegong-ni, 1 (KU); 4 mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU); 5 mi. E Seoul, 2 (UMMZ);
    5 mi. ESE Seoul, 4 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU), 4 (UMMZ); 7 mi. ESE
    Seoul, 1 (KU); 6 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 2 (KU); 5 mi. NE
    Taejon, 1 (KU).

_Remarks._--This common, vagrant species was found on brushy hillsides,
near buildings on hills above rice fields, in tall grasses near streams,
in rice fields, and along drainage and irrigation ditches. The earliest
and latest dates of collection were April 5 and November 7. On the first
date mentioned an individual was found in hibernation with five _Elaphe
rufodorsata_ and one _Agkistrodon halys_ in an earthen Korean burial
mound. The specimen was uncovered by a bulldozer at a depth of about one
foot below the surface. We were told that 18 snakes of this species were
found in the same place (7 mi. ESE Seoul) the previous winter.

The stomach of each of four individuals contained one _Rana
nigromaculata_. The stomach of another individual contained a _R.
nigromaculata_ and remains of a carabid beetle, whereas another
contained three small, partially-digested frogs that appeared to be
_Hyla arborea_. P. M. Youngman reported to us that he found a snake of
this species that was attempting to swallow a toad, _Bufo bufo
gargarizans_. One of the small individuals from Cheju Do was being eaten
by a _Zamenis spinalis_ when found. One specimen was parasitized by
three nematodes, _Kalicephalus natricis_ (see Olsen, 1957:208).

Two females of this oviparous species (lengths of body, 680 and 700)
collected on May 14 contained nine eggs (18 mm. long), and 13 eggs (15
mm.) respectively; a third (length of body, 610) obtained on June 26
contained 10 eggs that were approximately 18 mm. long. A female (UMMZ
113458, length of body, 710), which was captured on July 10 and kept
alive in captivity, laid 11 eggs on August 12 between 9 and 10 in the
morning. The weight of nine of these eggs averaged 3.32 (3.0-3.6) grams;
the last two eggs deposited were small and weighed only 1.3 and 1.4
grams. The eggs were incubated unsuccessfully. One that was opened on
September 14 and another opened on September 26 contained young easily
recognized as of this species. In captivity the parent snake underwent
ecdysis on about July 20 and again on August 26.

Our largest female and largest male have respective total lengths of
1013 (840 + 173) and 740 (575 + 165). Our smallest specimens, captured
on September 9, measured 215 and 230 mm. in length of body, and probably
represent young of the year. The snake found in hibernation on April 5
measured 275 in length of body. The ventrals of 11 males averaged 161.3
(158-171) and those of 14 females, 165.1 (160-170); subcaudals of eight
males averaged 69.6 (66-74) and those of 14 females, 61.5 (52-73).

Males seem to have small scales in the anal region that are more
strongly keeled than scales elsewhere on the body (the scales catch on
finger tips when rubbed in a posteroanterior direction), but males lack
small tubercles on the upper and lateral parts of the head as mentioned
by Maslin (1950:433). The comments of the same author (_op. cit._:434)
concerning integumental poison glands in the nuchal region of this
species are of interest in view of several reports that we received of
swollen extremities resulting from handling snakes of this species.

In using the generic names _Rhabdophis_ and _Amphiesma_ for species
formerly placed in the genus _Natrix_, we follow Malnate (1960), who
divided _Natrix (auct.)_ into five distinct genera.


=Amphiesma vibakari ruthveni= (Van Denburgh)

    _Natrix vibakari ruthveni_ Van Denburgh, Proc. California Acad.
      Sci., ser. 4, 13(2):3, July 26, 1923 (type locality, Pusan,
      Korea).

    _Specimens examined_ (5).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 1 (KU); 4 mi. SW Ch´ongyang-ni, 1 (KU); 10 mi. NE
    Mosulp´o, Cheju Do, 1 (UMMZ); 6-7 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1
    (KU), 1 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--The specimen from the Central National Forest was captured
on August 18 near a stream on a damp ground-cover of leaves. The
specimens from Cheju Do were taken in early September, one in a grassy
area, and the other two on earthen banks of road-cuts on the slopes of
Halla San. The stomach of one individual from Cheju Do contained an
earthworm. Our largest specimen, a male having 154 ventrals and 68
subcaudals, measured 508 (380 + 128).

The subcaudal counts of 68 (KU 38861) and 69 (UMMZ 113461) on two males
from Cheju Do are higher than the maximal count known for the subspecies
_ruthveni_ in Korea, and resemble those of _Amphiesma vibakari vibakari_
of the Japanese islands. The subcaudals average 61 (55-65) in _ruthveni_
and 71 (63-83) in _vibakari_ according to Van Denburgh (1923:3-4). A
juvenile from the Central National Forest (KU 38862), lacking the tip of
the tail, has 64 subcaudals.


=Dinodon rufozonatum= (Cantor)

    _Lycodon rufo-zonatus_ Cantor, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, 9:483,
      August, 1842 (type locality, island of Chusan, China).

    _Dinodon rufozonatus_, Peters, Sitzungsber. Gesell. naturf. Freunde
      Berlin, p. 89, 1881.

    _Specimens examined_ (4).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 3 (KU); Yongsan (Seoul), 1 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--The three specimens from the Central National Forest were
taken in the period August 12-26. Two were caught in live-traps set for
small mammals in deep forest among granite outcrops. The specimen from
Yongsan was obtained on October 27 in a partly wooded area. Ventrals and
subcaudals of our four specimens (all males) numbered, respectively,
198, 200, 198, 205, and 74, 75, 75, __. Total length of the largest
specimen was 960 (790 + 170).

We follow Chang (1932:54) and most subsequent authors in regarding _D.
rufozonatum_ as a monotypic species.


=Zamenis spinalis= (Peters)

    _Masticophis spinalis_ Peters, Monatsber. preuss. Akad. Wiss.,
      Berlin, p. 91 (for 1866), 1867 (type locality, unknown--"Mexico"
      erroneously listed).

    _Zamenis spinalis_, Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 9:22,
      January, 1872.

    _Specimens examined_ (2).--5 mi. ESE Seoul, 1 (KU); 6 mi. NNE
    Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1 (KU).

_Remarks._--The specimen from Cheju Do was captured on September 9 in
tall grass near a small stream and was eating a small _Rhabdophis
tigrina_. The female from near Seoul was obtained from a Korean on June
10, and was gravid (six eggs, each approximately 35 mm. in length). The
length of body measured approximately 550 and the length of incomplete
tail 168 in one specimen (KU 38777, female from 5 mi. ESE Seoul), 540
and 183 in the other (KU 38778, female from Cheju Do). Respective
ventral and subcaudal counts of the two females are 204, 194, and 74+,
86.

There is some disagreement in the literature as to the proper generic
name of this snake. Differences in dentition between Old World species
(referable to _Zamenis_) and the American species (referable to
_Coluber_) are discussed by Bogert and Oliver (1945:365). The species
_spinalis_ has been referred to _Coluber_ by several authors (see Pope,
1935:226).


=Elaphe dione= (Pallas)

    _Coluber dione_ Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des
      Russischen Reichs, 2:717, 1773 (type locality, "Salt steppes
      toward the Caspian Sea" according to Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 58:315, July 22, 1907).

    _Elaphis dione_, Duméril and Bibron, Erpétologie générale ...,
      7:248, 1854.

    _Specimens examined_ (10).--Choksong, 1 (KU); 4 mi. N Ch´onan, 1
    (KU); Seoul, 1 (KU); 5 mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU), 2 (UMMZ); 5 mi. ESE
    Seoul, 1 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 1 (UMMZ); Taegwang-ni, 1 (KU); 2 mi.
    WSW Tongjonggok, 1 (KU).

_Remarks._--This species seemingly occurs in upland habitats. Specimens
were taken on rocky hillsides, on sparsely wooded hillsides, and in
cultivated fields. November 21 was the latest date of capture of an
active individual (UMMZ 113451), the head of which was seen many times
prior to capture protruding from a hole beneath the concrete floor of a
building. A female (KU 38855), measuring 915 (775 + 140) in total
length, and obtained on June 13, contained nine eggs (32 mm. long). One
juvenile had eaten a half-grown house mouse, _Mus musculus_; the stomach
of a male contained three mice, one a striped field mouse, _Apodemus
agrarius_, the other two probably also of that species but too far
digested for certain identification. Eggs probably hatch in late summer.
A young of the year (length of body, 340) was captured on September 30;
another juvenile (length of body, 285) was obtained in May.

Our largest male (KU 40123) measured 904 (719 + 185) in total length.
Ventrals and subcaudals of six females averaged 205.8 (198-211) and 62.2
(55-69), respectively, whereas corresponding counts of four males
averaged 196.8 (190-214), and 71.0 (69-74). Each of nine specimens had
dorsal scales in 23-25-19 rows except one (UMMZ 113451), which had
23-25-23 rows.


=Elaphe rufodorsata= (Cantor)

    _Tropidonotus rufodorsatus_ Cantor, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1,
      9:483, August, 1842 (type locality, island of Chusan, China).

    _Elaphe rufodorsata_, Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 58:310,
      figs. 269-271, July 22, 1907.

    _Specimens examined_ (27).--7 mi. NW Changhowan-ni, 1 (KU); 3 mi. NW
    Chip´o-ri, 3 (KU); 7 mi. W Ch´ungju, 2 (KU), 1 (UMMZ); 3 mi. S
    Kumhwa, 2 (KU); 1 mi. NW Oho-ri, 1 (KU); 4 mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU); 5
    mi. E Seoul, 2 (KU); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 2 (KU); 6 mi. E Seoul, 3 (KU),
    2 (UMMZ); 7 mi. ESE Seoul, 5 (KU); 4 mi. N Uijongbu, 1 (KU); 5 mi.
    NE Uijongbu, 1 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--_E. rufodorsata_ was commonly observed and collected on
barren hillsides, on country roads, in rice fields, and along drainage
ditches and small streams. One was found sunning outstretched on a road.
Two individuals were trapped in cement-walled pits at the Seoul City
Water Works. On April 5, five snakes of this species with one
_Rhabdophis tigrina_ and one _Agkistrodon halys_, all partly caked with
earth, were found sunning in a shallow depression on the side of a
Korean burial mound, which was presumably a hibernaculum. Aside from one
juvenile, four of the _E. rufodorsata_ were of approximately the same
size, having bodies ranging in length from 385 to 455.

Copulation was observed on April 25 (male, KU 38811, length of body,
400, and female, KU 38812, length of body, 565), and on May 4 (female,
KU 38816, length of body, 620). Eggs doubtless hatch at various times in
summer. One of five snakes obtained on April 5 (see above) measured 310
(250 + 60) in total length. Another juvenile (KU 38828), obtained on
October 18, was 478 (385 + 93) long, and our smallest specimen of this
species (KU 38821), captured on June 26, measured 275 (230 + 45).

The stomachs of two snakes each contained a _Rana nigromaculata_;
another individual had eaten a _Hyla arborea_, and a fourth specimen had
eaten a small fish. One specimen was parasitized by a cestode.

The largest female from our series (KU 38816) measured 740 (620 + 120),
and the largest male (KU 38813), 595 (475 + 120). Respective ventral and
subcaudal counts of 13 males averaged 170.5 (167-174) and 60.0 (56-63),
ventrals of 12 females averaged 178.3 (169-182), and subcaudals of 11
averaged 51.0 (46-56).


=Elaphe schrencki anomala= (Boulenger)

    _Coluber anomalus_ Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, 17:243,
      March, 1916 (type locality, Chihfeng, China).

    _Elaphe schrencki anomala_, Pope, The reptiles of China, p. 266,
      fig. 57, May 11, 1935.

    _Specimens examined_ (7).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 2 (KU), 1 (UMMZ); 4½ mi. W Chip´o-ri, 1 (KU); 5 mi.
    N P´yong-taek, 1 (KU); 5 mi. E Seoul, 1 (KU); 5 mi. ESE Seoul, 1
    (KU).

_Remarks._--Individuals were observed or taken on dry, scrubby hillsides
and in grassy upland areas. One of the three snakes from the Central
National Forest was captured on a steep, forested hillside among granite
outcroppings; another was obtained there along a stream bank and had
eaten three bats, _Murina aurata_ (see Jones, 1960:265), and one mouse,
_Apodemus_ sp. (tail only found). P. M. Youngman reported (personal
communication) finding a rat (_Rattus_ sp.) in the stomach of one
individual. A female (KU 38830, length of body, 1180) that was obtained
on June 2 contained 17 eggs, each approximately 32 mm. long. The
ventrals of two females numbered 223 and 229, and the subcaudals of the
latter 70. Ventrals and subcaudals of five males were, respectively,
211, 213, 214, 215, 216, and 71, 75, 75, 69, 75.

The coloration and pattern of our seven specimens are of interest in
view of the probable intergradation between _E. s. anomala_ and _E. s.
schrencki_ in northern Korea (see comments by Shannon, 1956:46). The
smallest specimen (KU 38831), having a total length of 335 (280 + 55),
was obtained 4 mi. N P´yong-taek on September 24. It is nearly uniform
pale brown (lacks a dorsal pattern) and additionally is characterized as
follows: incomplete pattern on the head; no black postocular band (pale
brown with black posterior border); ventrolateral extensions of the head
pattern that form longitudinal stripes of white on the third row of
scales; a pale whitish stripe on the sixth and seventh scale rows that
extends posteriorly to the level of the fortieth ventral and that has a
narrow black border (sometimes interrupted); small and indistinct
blackish markings and pale stripes on sides (no higher than sixth row of
scales); underside of the head whitish; and venter grayish, having
blackish margins on the ends of ventrals posteriorly. KU 38831 is
unusual and perhaps anomalous in having a pattern that does not conform
to the juvenile pattern of either subspecies.

A female (KU 38830), having a total length of 1390 (1180 + 210), from 5
mi. ESE Seoul conforms to descriptions of _anomala_ in being uniformly
pale brown above and in having indistinct dark smudges on the sides; the
ventral surface is whitish having indistinct dark smudges, brown spots
at the ends of each ventral, and the posterior edge of each ventral
brown. A male (KU 40125), measuring 1090 (890 + 200) in total length,
from 5 mi. E Seoul, is pale brown above and lacks markings on the
anterior part of the body. Indistinct dark markings occur at midbody,
whereas the posterior quarter of the body and tail have well-defined
black bands on a buff background. The black bands posteriorly are
arranged in pairs; each pair of bands is separated by two and a half to
three scales, whereas the bands of each pair are separated by only one
and a half scales. The ventral surface has an obscure marbled pattern.
Our largest specimen, a male (UMMZ 113454) having a total length of 1488
(1230 + 258), from the Central National Forest, resembles KU 40125,
except that pale brown blotches (29 on body, one blackish on neck) and
dark lateral spots occur anteriorly on the body.

Another female (KU 38860, body length, 970) from 4½ mi. W Chip´o-ri,
our northernmost locality of record, has a fairly distinct pattern
dorsally. The 30 dark brown, black-edged blotches that are separated by
a buff background are not arranged in pairs (as in KU 40125); the dorsal
blotches sometimes alternate with small lateral blotches. The ventral
surface is marbled throughout.

Two males from the Central National Forest, having total lengths of 1105
(920 + 185) and 830 (690 + 140), generally resemble one another in
having the head and neck dark brown or blackish and the anterior part of
body dark brown, but discernibly blotched. The posterior part of the
body and tail of each bears well-defined blotches (dark brown or black)
with buffy interspaces; the dorsal blotches are sometimes arranged in
pairs. The ventral surface of each is marbled throughout. These two
males are noteworthy in that the pattern anteriorly is obscure, but the
ground color is dark, not pale as in the two specimens from the vicinity
of Seoul.


=Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus= Stejneger

    _Agkistrodon blomhoffii brevicaudus_ Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat.
      Mus., 58:463, July 22, 1907 (type locality, Pusan, Korea).

    _Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus_, Okada, A catalogue of vertebrates
      of Japan, p. 103, 1938.

    _Specimens examined_ (12).--Central National Forest, near
    Pup´yong-ni, 4 (KU); 3 mi. NW Chip´o-ri, 2 (KU); 16 mi. NE Mosulp´o,
    Cheju Do, 1 (UMMZ); 5 mi. E Seoul, 1 (UMMZ); 6 mi. E Seoul, 2 (KU);
    7 mi. ESE Seoul, 1 (KU); 7 mi. NNE Sogwi-ri, Cheju Do, 1 (UMMZ).

_Remarks._--Individuals of _Agkistrodon_ were collected on brushy or
wooded hillsides, along rock walls or in piles of rocks, and in damp,
rocky, wooded ravines near streams. Many were docile when captured. One
specimen was infested with nematodes, another with cestodes. One
specimen had eaten a striped field mouse, _Apodemus agrarius_, and
another had eaten a gray hamster, _Cricetulus triton_. One female,
obtained on May 22, 6 mi. E Seoul, contained 14 embryos. Another female,
obtained on August 25 in the Central National Forest, contained three
well-developed embryos.

We have not included descriptive or taxonomic remarks concerning _A.
halys_ because Dr. Howard K. Gloyd, University of Arizona, who currently
is studying the systematics of the genus _Agkistrodon_, has our
specimens on loan.


Gazetteer

Listed below are all localities mentioned in the accounts of species;
the latitude (north) and longitude (east) are given for each. All
place-names can be found in "Gazetteer to maps of Korea," 3 vols., AMS
2, U. S. Army Map Service, September, 1950, and, except for the two
marked by an asterisk, can be located on AMS map series L552 (Korea,
1:250,000). The McCune-Reischauer system of romanization of Korean names
is used.

  Changhowan-ni. 37°07´, 127°38´

  Central National Forest. A small mixed forest 15-18 mi. NE Seoul and
    immediately west of the village of Pup´yong-ni; most of our
    collecting there was done approximately at 37°45´, 127°10´

  Cheju Do (Quelpart Island). A large island in the East China Sea off
    the southwestern tip of the Korean mainland (see Mosulp´o and
    Sogwi-ri)

  Chip´o-ri. 38°08´, 127°19´

  Choksong. 37°58´, 126°57´

  Ch´onan. 36°48´, 127°09´

  *Ch´ongyang-ni. 38°15´, 127°23´

  Ch´orwon. 38°15´, 127°13´

  Ch´ungju. 36°58´, 127°57´

  Halla San. A central, volcanic mountain on Cheju Do (see above)

  Hoengsong. 37°29´, 127°59´

  Inje. 38°04´, 128°11´

  Kangnung. 37°45´, 128°54´

  Kumhwa. 38°17´, 127°28´

  Kunsan. 35°59´, 126°43´

  Kwangju. 35°09´, 126°55´

  Majon-ni. 37°52´, 126°46´

  Mosulp´o. 33°13´, 126°15´

  Naegong-ni. 37°41´, 127°10´

  Oho-ri. 38°20´, 128°32´

  Osan. 37°09´, 127°04´

  Pup´yong-ni. 37°44´, 127°12´

  Pusan. 35°08´, 129°04´

  P´yong-taek [= P´yongt´aeng-ni]. 36°59´, 127°05´

  Sangbonch´on-ni. 37°27´, 127°16´

  Sangdaehwa. 37°30´, 128°26´

  Seoul. 37°32´, 127°00´

  Sogwi-ri. 33°15´, 126°34´

  Songdong-ni. 38°01´, 127°16´

  Taegwang-ni. 38°11´, 127°06´

  *Taehoesan-ni. 38°04´, 127°14´

  Taejon. 36°20´, 127°26´

  Tangjonggok. 38°11´, 128°19´

  Tangnim-ni. 37°50´, 127°37´

  Uijongbu. 37°44´, 127°03´

  Wonsan. 39°09´, 127°27´

  Yami-ri. 38°03´, 127°16´

  Yanggu. 38°06´, 128°00´

  Yongdae-ri. 38°13´, 128°23´

  Yongp´yong. 38°01´, 127°13´


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_Transmitted June 30, 1961_.

28-8517





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