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Title: Presentation Pieces in the Museum of History and Technology - Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper No. 47 [Smithsonian Institution]
Author: Klapthor, Margaret Brown, 1922-1994
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Presentation Pieces in the Museum of History and Technology - Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper No. 47 [Smithsonian Institution]" ***

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OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY***


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Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology:
Paper 47--

PRESENTATION PIECES IN THE MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY

by

MARGARET BROWN KLAPTHOR



18TH-CENTURY PIECES 84
19TH-CENTURY PIECES 85
20TH-CENTURY PIECES 99



ILLUSTRATIONS
                                                                  PAGE

 Miniature ship presented to Adm. Robert E. Peary                   81

 Snuffbox inlaid with mother-of-pearl and horn made around 1769     83

 Mark of Samuel Minott and monogram of Elias Hasket Derby on
 silver tankard                                                     83

 Punch set presented to Col. George Armistead                       85

 Tureen presented to Com. John Rodgers                              87

 Gold snuffbox presented to Maj. Gen. Jacob Brown                   88

 Peace pipe presented to the Delaware Indians by Gen. William
 Henry Harrison                                                     89

 Silver service given to Maj. Gen. John Hatch                       90

 Silver service presented to Gen. Judson Kilpatrick                 92

 Silver service presented to Mrs. Abraham Lincoln                   93

 Teakettle and stand given to Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs              93

 Gold box presented to Cyrus W. Field                               95

 Silver-mounted tankard presented to Cyrus W. Field                 95

 Tray and saltcellar in shape of chair presented to Gustavus
 Vasa Fox                                                           97

 Centerpiece given to Adm. Winfield Scott Schley                   101

 Cup presented to the Honorable Brand Whitlock                     103

 Paperweight identical to those presented by William Jennings
 Bryan                                                             103

 Cup given to Susan B. Anthony                                     105

 Belt given to H. W. Higham                                        107

 The Vanderbilt Cup                                                107

 Trowel used by President Ulysses S. Grant                         108



[Illustration: Figure 1.--MINIATURE SHIP presented to Adm. Robert E.
Peary by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Loan of Robert E.
Peary. In Division of Naval History. (Acc. 52878, cat. 12185; Smithsonian
photo 45992.)]



Margaret Brown Klapthor

Presentation Pieces
In the Museum of History and Technology

_As a social document, the collection of presentation pieces, mostly
silver, in the United States National Museum provides evidence of the
taste and craftsmanship in America at various periods from the mid-18th
century to the 1920's._

_Although the representative items selected for illustration confirm the
view that such pieces often lack artistic merit, the collection
nevertheless reveals the deeds--in war, politics, technology, diplomacy,
sports--that our forebears deemed worthy of special recognition. And it
helps to bring alive some figures now submerged in our ever-expanding
history._

THE AUTHOR: _Margaret Brown Klapthor is associate curator of political
history in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of History and
Technology._


The custom of giving a piece of silver to an individual in recognition
of service or in appreciation of accomplishment probably began as soon
as man developed the fashioning of that metal into objects. Such a
presentation piece was a tangible and durable form of recognition which
could be appreciated, used, displayed, and enjoyed by the recipient.
Many of these silver pieces became for succeeding generations the
cherished evidence of recognition accorded to an ancestor, and they were
preserved long after the more customary family silver had worn out or
been lost.

The Smithsonian Institution's Museum of History and Technology has
what may well be the most varied and extensive collection of such
presentation pieces ever to be preserved and exhibited in one place. The
collection contains the work of some of the more prominent American
silversmiths, but most of the pieces are by lesser known makers and
are in the collection because of historic interest rather than artistic
merit. The chief usefulness of the collection lies in its value as a
social document and in the mute evidence it gives of the taste and
craftsmanship of the periods covered. The collection is also helpful
in dating type specimens that do not have specific associations with
persons and dates. Perhaps even more interesting than the gamut of
styles that the collection presents is the panorama of deeds, events,
and persons that our forebears considered worthy of recognition.
Silver presentation pieces were awarded to persons in almost every
walk of life--to military men, to peace-loving Indians, and to men
who achieved success in politics and agriculture. They were given for
sea rescues, for heroic deeds by firemen and school-patrol boys, and
for outstanding community and civic work. Within our time they have
been given as trophies for excellence in athletics, automobile
racing, and many other events.



[Illustration: Figure 2.--SNUFFBOX inlaid with mother-of-pearl and horn
made around 1769 by William Cario, who worked in Portsmouth, New
Hampshire. The box measures 2-7/8 × 2-1/8 × 1/2 inches. Bequest of Arthur
Michaels. In Division of Cultural History. (Acc. 162866, cat. 383486;
Smithsonian photo 36941.)]

18th-Century Pieces


Silversmiths have been making presentation pieces from the earliest days
of our country, but the Smithsonian Institution has only a few
18th-century pieces in its collection.

The earliest of these is an inlaid silver snuffbox (fig. 2) made by
William Cario, who worked in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, about 1763. The
oval box--evidently a gift to the silversmith's second wife, Lydia
Croxford, whom he married in 1768--has inscribed on its base "The
property of Lydia Cario" and "1769." The cover has an undersurface of
horn, and the silver on the outer surface is inlaid with mother-of-pearl
and tortoise shell in a filigree pattern.

Many of the earliest pieces of presentation silver were made for use in
churches, and they were given by groups as well as by individuals.
Representative of this type is a silver alms plate[1] with the following
inscription on the rim:

  The Gift of the Hon^ble THOMAS HANCOCK ESQ^R to the CHURCH in
  Brattle Street Boston 1764.

The plate is shallow with a slightly domed center. Engraved on the flat
rim, in addition to the inscription, is a crest at the top and the
cherub's head at the bottom. The piece is marked by John Coburn, who
lived in Boston from 1725 to 1803. Five trays matching this one are in
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.[2]

[Illustration: Figure 3.--MARK OF SAMUEL MINOTT and monogram of Elias
Hasket Derby on silver tankard. Bequest of Arthur Michaels. In Division
of Cultural History. (Acc. 162866, cat. 383545; Smithsonian photos
44828-D, 44828-F.)]

A silver tankard made by Samuel Minott, who worked in Boston from about
1765 to 1803, can be accurately placed by the account of ownership
thoughtfully inscribed on its base by one of its later owners. The
legend reads:

  Richard Derby to E. S. Hasket Derby 1763
  John Derby
  George Derby 1831
  Roger Derby 1874

The tankard has a tapered, ringed body, an S-shaped handle with a plain
boss at the end, a scroll thumb-piece, a flat molded drop ornament on
the handle, and a domed cover with an acorn finial. On the body beneath
the Derby coat of arms, is monogrammed "E H D" for Elias Hasket Derby
(fig. 3). Elias Hasket Derby achieved wealth and fame as a Salem
merchant prince engaged in the China trade.

Similar in design to these 18th-century pieces is a standing cup[3] or
chalice with the inscription:

  Presented by the Sisters of the New South Church for its communion
  service--January 1, 1815.

This cup, with a concave body and a baluster stem with a square foot, is
marked "Moulton" and is in the style of Ebenezer Moulton who worked in
Boston between 1768 and 1824.



19th-Century Pieces


The collections of the United States National Museum that cover the
political, cultural, military, and technological history of America in
the 19th century are probably without rival, and the collection of
presentation silver is no exception. The recognition of military prowess
by the presentation of silver objects was especially popular during this
century.


FOR SERVICE IN WAR OF 1812

Some handsome pieces of silver of the federal style were given for
service in the War of 1812. Historically the most important of these is
a mammoth punch set (fig. 4) presented to Colonel George Armistead by
the citizens of Baltimore in recognition of his services in the defense
of Fort McHenry against the British attack in 1814. The service includes
an oval silver tray with a handle on each end, the whole of which is
supported on six winged-claw feet. The tray is 29 inches long and 22
inches wide.

The ball-shaped punch bowl, 12-1/2 inches in diameter, is supported by
four eagles mounted on a round base. There is a loop handle of silver
rope on each side. The bowl is an exact copy in size and design of the
mortar bombs the British hurled at the fort. On one side of the bowl is
the following inscription:

  Presented by a number of the citizens of Baltimore to Lieutenant
  Colonel George Armistead for his gallant and successful defense of
  Fort McHenry during the bombardment by a large British Force, on
  the 12th and 13th September 1814 when upwards of 1500 shells were
  thrown; 400 of which fell within the area of the Fort and some of
  them of the diameter of this vase.

(Note the discrepancy in the dates of the inscription. The Battle of
Fort McHenry was fought on the 13th and 14th of September 1814.)

[Illustration: Figure 4.--PUNCH SET presented to Col. George Armistead by
the citizens of Baltimore in recognition of his services in the defense
of Fort McHenry against the British in 1814. Gift of Alexander Gordon,
Jr., great-grandson of the recipient. In Division of Political History.
(Acc. 6642, cats. 30914-17; Smithsonian photo P-64357.)]

On the other side is engraved a view of Fort McHenry and Baltimore
Harbor. The bowl is marked by Thomas Fletcher and Sidney Gardiner,
silversmiths who worked in Philadelphia from 1814 to 1838. In regard to
the excellence of the work of these silversmiths, there is an
interesting comment in a diary of Philip Hone that is owned by the
New-York Historical Society. On February 14, 1838, Hone wrote:

  Fletcher and Co. are the artist who made the Clinton vases. Nobody
  in this "world" of ours hereabouts can compete with them in their
  kind of work.[4]

In the set are ten silver cups, each 3-1/4 inches high and 3 inches in
diameter. The cups have the same rounded shape as the bowl, without the
loop handles, and are marked on the bottom by Andrew E. Warner, a
silversmith who was working in Baltimore from 1805 until his death in
1870.

The ladle, in the same shape as the cups, is also marked by Warner.

During the defense of Fort McHenry Colonel Armistead had under him about
1,000 men, including soldiers, sailors, and volunteers. It is said he
was the only man aware of the alarming fact that the powder magazine was
not bombproof. During the night of September 13 the fort was under
constant bombardment by the enemy, but the attack failed. Discouraged
by the loss of the British general in land action, and finding that the
shallow water and sunken ships prevented a close approach to the city by
water, the British fleet withdrew. Fort McHenry was but little damaged
and loss of life was small.

[Illustration: Figure 5.--TUREEN presented to Com. John Rodgers by the
citizens of Baltimore for his part in the defense of the city against the
British in 1814. Bequest of Gen. M. C. Meigs. In Division of Political
History. (Acc. 25386, cat. 5863; Smithsonian photo P-64357-A.)]

Closely related to this punch set is a covered tureen (fig. 5) that the
citizens of Baltimore gave to Commodore John Rodgers, U.S.N., for his
part in the defense of Baltimore in September 1814. During the battle of
North Point and the attack on Fort McHenry, the naval forces under
Commodore Rodgers defended the water battery, the auxiliary forts
Covington and Babcock, and the barges of the naval flotilla.

The oval-shaped tureen is mounted on a square base that stands on four
winged feet. The piece is 15 inches high. The handles at each end are
supported by eagles' heads. An applied design of flying horses and
winged cherub heads makes an attractive border around the edge of the
tureen. The knob on the cover of the tureen is a stylized bunch of
grapes. On the inside of the bottom of the base is inscribed:

  Presented by the citizens of Baltimore to Commodore John Rodgers
  in testimony of their sense of the important aid afforded by him
  in the defense of Baltimore on the 12th and 13th of Sept'^r,
  1814.

This piece too bears the mark of Philadelphia silversmiths Fletcher and
Gardiner.

[Illustration: Figure 6.--GOLD SNUFFBOX presented to Maj. Gen. Jacob
Brown by the City of New York in recognition of his services in the War
of 1812. Gift of Mrs. Susan Brown Chase. In Division of Political
History. (Acc. 116682, cat. 37664; Smithsonian photo 57009.)]

The gold snuffbox presented to Major General Jacob Brown by the City of
New York in recognition of his services in the War of 1812 does not fall
strictly within the province of this article, but it is included because
it is similar to the silver pieces just described. The exterior of the
box (fig. 6) is beautifully chased in a line design. The inside of the
lid is inscribed as follows:

  The Corporation of the City of New York to Major General Jacob
  Brown in testimony of the high sense they entertain of his valor
  and skill in defeating the British forces superior in number, at
  the battles of Chippewa and Bridgewater on the 5th and 25th of
  July, 1814.


FOR PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP

Unusual in the Museum's collection of presentation silver is the treaty
pipe (fig. 7) formally presented to the Delaware Indians in 1814 by
General William Henry Harrison at the conclusion of the second Treaty of
Greenville.

The treaty was intended to commit the Indians to active resistance in
the American cause during the War of 1812. General Harrison and Lewis
Cass had been appointed commissioners by the U.S. Government to
conclude the treaty. On July 8, 1814, General Harrison read to the
Indians a message from the President of the United States, and afterward
he presented to the Wyandotte, Delaware, and Shawnee Indian tribes large
silver pipes elegantly ornamented and engraved with emblems signifying
the protection and friendship of the United States.[5]

[Illustration: Figure 7.--PEACE PIPE presented to the Delaware Indians by
Gen. William Henry Harrison in 1814. Bequest of Victor J. Evans. In
Bureau of American Ethnology. (Acc. 113604, cat. 362061; Smithsonian
photos 44571, 44571-A.)]

The pipe presented to the Delaware Indians has an urn-shaped bowl with a
bead-edged cover bearing acanthus-leaf decorations. The S-shaped stem is
21 inches long and only one-fourth inch in diameter. The great length of
the stem was necessary to cool the smoke; the S-shape added rigidity to
the silver. The piece undoubtedly is the work of a competent craftsman
but it bears no identifying mark.[6]

Although not exactly a pipe of peace, another pipe in the collections of
the Museum represents a gesture of friendship between nations. It is a
meerschaum pipe[7] with a silver lid on the bowl and with a silver
mouthpiece. The lid bears this inscription:

  This pipe was presented to Sir Frederick Hankey by the Grand
  Vizier of Turkey at Constantinople in the year 1830 and to Thomas
  Hankey Esq^re by the Daughter of Sir Frederick and by him to
  Charles Alexander Esq^re 9th March, 1873.

The only information that has been obtained about Hankey is that he held
an official position as Chief Secretary of Malta for the British
Government.


FOR POLITICS

In 1838 the Whig Young Men of New York City presented to Robert Charles
Wetmore a pair of large, ornate, silver pitchers[8] inscribed:

  To Robert Charles Wetmore their late Chairman from the General
  Committee of Whig Young Men of the City of New York a Memorial of
  political fellowship, a token of personal esteem and a tribute of
  patriotic service 1838.

The bases of the pitchers are engraved:

  Presented to Chas Fredk Wetmore by his father, January 1st, 1840.

These pitchers were made by Geradus Boyce, a New York silversmith who
worked in the first half of the 19th century.


FOR SERVICE IN THE MEXICAN, CIVIL, AND INDIAN WARS

Most of these pieces, like the pitchers mentioned above, are not as
pleasing aesthetically as the earlier ones, and they are much more
closely allied with the exuberance of the Victorian era than they are
with the classical lines of the Federal period.

A large, elaborate vase[9] with two handles and a cover was presented to
Major General Silas Casey, U.S.A., in recognition of his services during
the Mexican War. The vase is inscribed:

  To Capt. Silas Casey, 2 inf. U.S.A. For his bravery and skill at
  Contreras, Churubusco and other battles of Mexico; for his gallant
  leading of the storming party of Regulars at Chapultepec where he
  was severely wounded. The gift of citizens of his native town and
  others, E. Greenwich, Rhode Island, August 1848.

The vase is marked on the bottom with box-enclosed letters "G & H" and
"1848." The letters probably refer to Gale and Hughes, New York
silversmiths, or perhaps to Gale and Hayden, who were in business about
the same time.

Casey, a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, received votes of thanks
from the Rhode Island legislature for his services in both the Mexican
and Civil Wars.

Lieutenant Colonel John Bankhead Magruder was given a silver pitcher by
his friends in Baltimore for his Mexican War service. The pitcher[10] is
urn-shaped, has a long, narrow neck, and stands on a tall base. The
entire pitcher is elaborate repoussé in a design of roses, sunflowers,
and grapes. An arched and turreted castle is depicted on each side, and
on the center front is the inscription:

  Presented to Lt. Col. J. Bankhead Magruder by his Baltimore
  friends as a token of their appreciation of his Meritorious
  Services in the Mexican War, October 16, 1849.

On the inside of the base are the marks "S. Kirk & Son" and "11 oz."

Magruder graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1830, and his
military career encompassed service under three flags within a period of
35 years. In the Mexican War he was brevetted major for gallantry at
Cerro Gordo and lieutenant colonel for Chapultepec, where he was
severely wounded. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Colonel Magruder, a
native of Virginia, entered the Confederate Army and was soon placed in
command of the Department of Texas, where he served until the close of
the war. He then entered the army of Maximilian in Mexico as major
general and was in active service until Maximilian's capture and
execution. When he returned to the United States he settled in Houston
and died there in 1871.

A silver service (fig. 8) consisting of four goblets, pitcher, and tray,
presented to Brevet Major General John Porter Hatch, U.S. Volunteers, is
interesting because it was given in recognition of services during the
Mexican War, the Indian expeditions of 1857-1859, and the Civil War. The
gift is from Hatch's fellow citizens of Oswego, New York.

[Illustration: Figure 8.--SILVER SERVICE given to Maj. Gen. John Hatch by
the citizens of Oswego, New York. Gift of Mark Burckle Hatch. In Division
of Political History. (Acc. 59476, cats. 16024-16026; Smithsonian photo
38259.)]

The silver tray measures 15 by 20 inches and is decorated with four
small waterscapes and a flower design. It is raised on four short scroll
feet. The inscription reads:

  Genl. John Porter Hatch Presented by Citizens of Oswego, Jany
  1863

The pitcher (14 inches high and 7 inches in diameter) has a design of
grapevines and birds. The spout is in the form of a face, and the handle
represents entwined vines. It is inscribed:

  Presented by citizens of Oswego, N.Y. to their esteemed fellow
  citizen Genl. John Porter Hatch as a testimonial of their
  appreciation of the gallantry and heroism displayed by him in the
  service of his country especially on the battle fields of Mexico
  and in the Army of the Potomac Jany 1863.

The mark is "Tiffany & Co., 7899, G. & W., English Sterling 925-1000,
550 Broadway N.Y."

The four silver goblets are also decorated with grape vines and birds,
and they have gilt interiors. They are 8 inches high and 3-1/4 inches in
diameter. Each goblet has the inscription:

  Testimonial of the Citizens of Oswego, N.Y. to Genl. John P.
  Hatch, Jan. 1863.

Below this inscription each goblet is marked with one of the following:

            Mexico 1846-7
         New Mexico 1857-8-9
   Shenandoah Valley, May 25, 1862
    South Mountain, Sep. 14, 1862

Each goblet is marked "Tiffany & Co."

Hatch graduated from the Academy in 1845 and immediately saw active
service in the Mexican War. He fought not only in General Taylor's
campaign in northern Mexico but also in General Scott's campaign to
capture Mexico City. In the years intervening before the Civil War he
saw active service in Indian campaigns and took part in a number of
scouting expeditions. With the outbreak of the Civil War he was
assigned with the Volunteers in the Army of the Potomac until he was
severely wounded at South Mountain, for which action he received the
Congressional Medal of Honor. He spent the rest of the Civil War on
duty behind the lines where he was in command of various districts in
the Department of the South following Sherman's campaign.

The largest and most elaborate set of presentation silver in the Museum
is a complete table service (fig. 9) that was given to General Judson
Kilpatrick by the Veterans Association of Connecticut on the occasion of
his marriage to a Chilean in 1868 while he was serving as U.S. Minister
to Chile. The set is engraved with emblems of the United States, Chile,
the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy. The monograms on the individual pieces
are in gold of four colors. More than any other silver service in the
Museum this one may be said to epitomize the elaborate realism so
popular during the height of the Victorian era.

[Illustration: Figure 9.--SILVER SERVICE presented to Gen. Judson
Kilpatrick by the Veterans Association of Connecticut. Loan of the estate
of Mrs. Luisa V. Kilpatrick. In Division of Political History. (Acc.
57292, cats. 15145-15167; Smithsonian photo 28067.)]

The pieces are marked "Meriden B * Company *" in a circle around a
shield surmounted by balanced scales. This mark was used in the second
half of the 19th century by the Meriden Britannia Company for its
high-grade, silver-plated hollow-ware made on a base of silver
nickel.[11]

There are two trays in the set. The smaller tray is shown in figure 9.
The larger one measures 22-1/2 inches by 38 inches and is inscribed:

  The Veteran Soldiers of Connecticut to Kilpatrick

It is engraved in gold and silver with flags of the United States and
Chile crossed with bayonets and spears. On one side there is a center
medallion in gold with the monogram "L V K" (for Luisa V. Kilpatrick)
in a circle surmounted on a shield of stars and stripes. Above the
monogram there is a banner with three stars and a triangle. On the other
side of the standing piece two eagles in fighting position are shown in
front of a sunburst design. The United States flag can be seen directly
behind the victorious eagle. The motto "Tuebor" is at the top of the
sunburst. The entire design is encircled by a ring of stars, and there
is a shield of stars and stripes at the top. This same design is
repeated on all 40 pieces.

The service contains napkin rings, vegetable dishes, syrup jar, spoon
holder, large centerpiece, porcelain-lined pitcher, and other
miscellaneous pieces of silver used for table service. The pieces of the
tea and coffee service are mounted on four feet that are fastened to the
bowl with cattle heads with branched horns. Each foot stands on a cloven
hoof. The knob of each of the pots is a tiny horse jumping over a
four-bar hurdle.

One of the most interesting military presentation pieces in the
collection is a silver and copper shield presented to Lieutenant General
Nelson A. Miles, U.S. Army, by the officers of the 5th Infantry
Regiment. General Miles served for many years as colonel of the regiment
and led it in a number of notable Indian engagements. Beginning in 1869
his regiment defeated the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Sioux, Nez Percé,
and Bannock Indians, and, in 1886, after a long and difficult campaign,
Miles compelled the surrender of the Apaches under Geronimo and
Natchez.

The heart-shaped shield[12] is surrounded by a rolled edge made of
copper which originally had a gold wash. Inscribed on the inside of the
rolled edge are the names "New Mexico," "Kansas," "Wyoming," "Montana,"
"Dakota," "Colorado," "Indian Territory," and "Texas." A profile
portrait of General Miles, in relief, is suspended from an eagle's beak
in the center, and below are the crossed weapons of the U.S. Army and
the Indians surmounted by a peace pipe.

The background of the shield is silver with etched scenes depicting
incidents of the career of General Miles in the states named. The scenes
depicted are of a buffalo hunt, a covered wagon on the trail, wild
horses with Indian tepees in the background, an Army council of war,
General Miles receiving the surrender of Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé
Indians, and a peaceful agricultural scene.

The plaque is inscribed as follows:

  Presented to General Nelson A. Miles, U.S. Army, by the officers
  of the fifth U.S. Infantry. As a token of personal esteem and
  their estimate of his distinguished services in which unequaled
  successes over savages in war were paralleled by humanity and
  justice towards the thousands of Indians whom he took captive and
  instructed in the Arts of Civilization.

The plaque, measuring 18-1/2 by 23 inches overall, is marked "Tiffany &
Co., 6565. Makers 2, Sterling Silver, 926-1000 and Other Metals, M."

General Miles was colonel of the 5th Infantry Regiment for so many years
that a modification of his family crest was selected as the crest on the
coat of arms of the regiment. The Miles family crest is an arm in armor
grasping an anchor. Arrows for each Indian campaign in which the
regiment took part are substituted for the anchor in the regimental
crest.[13]


[Illustration: Figure 10.--SILVER SERVICE presented to Mrs. Abraham
Lincoln when she was First Lady. Gift of Mr. Lincoln Isham. In Division
of Political History. (Acc. 216335.6-.13; Smithsonian photo 44851-B.)]

TO MARY TODD LINCOLN

The Museum recently received a silver service (fig. 10) that belonged to
Mary Todd Lincoln. The service consists of a large oval tray, a
hot-water urn on a stand with a burner, coffeepot, teapot, hot-water
pot, cream pitcher, sugar urn, and waste bowl. All the pieces have an
overall repoussé floral and strapwork pattern with the monogram "MTL" on
one side and an engraved crest on the other. The crest seems to be an
adaptation of the Todd family crest. The pieces are marked with a lion,
an anchor, and an old English "G," which are the early marks of the
Gorham Silver Company. It is assumed that this silver service was a
presentation gift to Mrs. Lincoln during the time she was First Lady of
the White House, as a letter dated July 19, 1876, from her to her son
Robert Todd Lincoln calls his attention to a silver service in his
possession that was a gift to her from "the Citizens of New York."


[Illustration: Figure 11.--TEAKETTLE AND STAND given to Gen. Montgomery
C. Meigs in 1853 by the citizens of Washington for his work on the
Washington Aqueduct. Gift of Gen. M. C. Meigs. In Division of Political
History. (Acc. 25386, cat. 5864; Smithsonian photo 57008.)]

FOR ENGINEERING

By far the most fanciful of all the mid-19th-century pieces is the
silver teakettle and stand (fig. 11) given to General Montgomery C.
Meigs by the citizens of Washington for his work on the Washington
Aqueduct. The kettle, 18 inches high, is mounted on a base that is 8-1/2
inches square and 3-1/4 inches high. The base is made in the shape of
the stone arches of the aqueduct, and the head of George Washington, in
profile, is depicted on the center front. There is a depression in the
top of the base for holding a small alcohol lamp. Four rocks, one on
each corner of the base, provide support for the kettle. The kettle's
feet, in the form of fish, rest on the rocks and are fastened to them
with hinges held by a chain and silver pin. The pins can be released so
that the kettle can be tilted for pouring without moving it from the
base. By withdrawing all four pins, the kettle can be completely
detached from the base. The body of the kettle is decorated with
nautical designs--waves, fish, shells, etc.--and cattails and lily pads.
Under the spout is an anchor entwined with a fish over the initial "M."
A belt ornamented with stars encloses the castellated towers of the Army
Engineers symbol with the letters "U," "S," and "E" on one side of the
kettle. On the other side is the inscription:

  Presented to Captain Montgomery C. Meigs U.S. Engineers by the
  Corporation of Washington with a Resolution of Thanks approved
  12th March 1853 for his Report on the Washington Aqueduct.

The handle of the kettle is in the form of a serpent's tail, and the
spout is the serpent's open mouth. The lid is a nautilus shell on which
stands an eagle with raised wings. On one side of the base is
inscribed:

  Presented 9th June 1854 by John W. Maury--Mayor, Joseph
  Borrows of B^d Ald., A. W. Miller of B^d Com. C. Committee of the
  Corporation.

The piece is marked "M. W. Galt & Bro.," a firm established in
Washington in 1802 that has been in continuous business since that
time.

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in
1836 and was soon assigned to the Engineer Corps. Thereafter, for a
quarter of a century his outstanding talents were devoted to many
important engineering projects. His favorite was the construction of the
Washington Aqueduct, which carried a large part of Washington's water
supply from the Great Falls of the Potomac to the city. This work, under
his direction between 1852 and 1860, involved devising ingenious methods
of controlling the flow and distribution of the water and also the
design of a monumental bridge across the Cabin John Branch--a bridge
that for 50 years was the longest masonry arch in the world. At the same
time Meigs was supervising the building of wings and a new dome on the
Capitol and an extension on the General Post Office Building.

During the Civil War, Meigs served as quartermaster general, and in 1864
he was brevetted major general. As quartermaster general he supervised
plans for the War Department Building, 1866-1867; the National Museum
Building, 1876; and an extension of the Washington Aqueduct, 1876.

After his retirement, in 1882, General Meigs became architect of the
Pension Office Building. He served as a regent of the Smithsonian
Institution, was a member of the American Philosophical Society, and one
of the earliest members of the National Academy of Sciences.

General Meigs himself gave the Museum this interesting piece of
presentation silver. He also gave the previously described tureen (fig.
5) that had belonged to Commodore John Rodgers, who was General Meigs'
father-in-law.

Cyrus W. Field became interested in the idea of a cable across the
Atlantic between Newfoundland and Ireland in 1854. It was not a new
idea, and other shorter submarine cables had been successful, but this
was the first time a transatlantic cable had been promoted by a man of
Field's business ability and financial standing. Through his efforts, a
governmental charter was secured and a company of prominent New Yorkers
was formed to underwrite the venture. An unsuccessful attempt to lay the
cable was made by the company in 1857. Field tried again in 1858; on the
fourth attempt he was successful and immediately acclaimed as the
"genius of the age."

[Illustration: Figure 12.--GOLD BOX presented to Cyrus W. Field by the
City of New York. Loan of Metropolitan Museum of Art. In Division of
Political History. (Acc. 64761, cat. 26209; Smithsonian photo 57010.)]

New York greeted Field with wild rejoicing, and the city authorities set
September 1, 1858, as a day of celebration to give him an official
public ovation. The celebration surpassed anything the city had ever
before witnessed. Mr. Field and the officers of the cable fleet landed
at Castle Garden and received a national salute. From there the
procession progressed through crowded and gaily decorated streets to the
crowd-filled Crystal Palace, where an address was given on the history
of the cable. Then the mayor of New York gave an address honoring Mr.
Field and presented him with a gold box stating:

  The municipal government of this city instructs me to present to
  you a gold box with the arms of the city engraved thereon, in
  testimony of the fact that to you mainly, under Divine Providence,
  the world is indebted for the successful execution of the grandest
  enterprise of our day and generation; and in behalf of the Mayor,
  Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York I now request your
  acceptance of this token of their approbation.

The gold box (fig. 12) presented to Field by the City of New York is
in the collections of the United States National Museum.[14] It
measures 4-1/2 inches by 3 inches. On the lid and around an engraved
representation of the cable fleet is inscribed:

  The City of New York to Cyrus W. Field

The sides of the box are engraved with vignettes depicting the landing
of the cable, the planning group at work, science and industry united,
and Europe and America united. The bottom is engraved with the American
eagle and the British shield. The inside lid of the box is inscribed:

  The City of New York to Cyrus W. Field commemorating his skill,
  fortitude and perseverance in originating and completing the first
  enterprise for an ocean telegraph successfully accomplished Aug.
  5, 1858 uniting Europe and America.

[Illustration: Figure 13.--SILVER-MOUNTED TANKARD presented to Cyrus W.
Field by the workmen of Central Park, New York City. Loan of Metropolitan
Museum of Art. In Division of Political History. (Acc. 64761, cat. 26209;
Smithsonian photo 45992-H.)]

Significant of the enthusiasm with which Field was greeted in 1858 is a
silver-mounted tankard, made from the wood of the Charter Oak, that was
given to him in December by the workmen of Central Park. On August 18,
seemingly without advance publicity or elaborate preparations, there was
a parade on Broadway of the workmen of Central Park. The procession was
headed by a squad of policemen in full uniform, a band, and a standard
bearer with a muslin banner inscribed "The Central Park People." The men
marched in squads of four, and wore their everyday work clothes with
evergreens stuck in their hats. Each squad carried a banner giving the
name of its boss-workman. The procession included four-horse teams
drawing wagons in which rode the workmen of the Engineers' Department.
The parade was composed of 1,100 laborers and 800 carts from Central
Park and 700 laborers and carts from the new Croton Reservoir, making a
procession three miles long. Since it was altogether unexpected, it
created no little excitement and inquiry.[15]

The tankard (fig. 13) has a silver spout inscribed:

  The Oak of this Tankard is a part of the tree in which was
  preserved the Charter of the Liberties of the People of
  Connecticut during a temporary success of tyranny A.D. 1687.

There is a silver shield on the left side with the monogram "C. W. F."
and a silver shield on the right inscribed:

  The men, working in the Central Park Aug^st 17^th 1858 Present
  this tankard to Cyrus W. Field, as an expression of their respect,
  for the untiring labor which on that Day resulted in proving the
  practicability of Trans-Atlantic Communication, by the Electric
  Telegraph.

The knob on the lid is made of silver and is decorated with an anchor
and a rope in silver. No maker's mark is discernible.

While the public adulation was at its peak the cable suddenly stopped
working. Immediately public opinion changed and Field was accused of
being a fake. He suffered severe business reverses and in 1860 went into
bankruptcy. The outbreak of the Civil War prevented any further activity
on the cable until 1865. Field engaged the world's largest steamer, the
_Great Eastern_, to make the next attempt. The cable of 1865 parted in
midocean during the laying operations, but in 1866 experience and
technical improvements won the fight. The cable was laid and this time
it continued to operate.

Again Field was the darling of the American people and he was greeted
with enthusiasm. Immediately on his return to New York in 1866 he sold
enough of his cable stock to enable him early in November to write to
those who had been hurt by his bankruptcy in 1860 and send to each the
full amount of his indebtedness with 7 percent interest. The full amount
paid out reached about $200,000. For this action George Peabody of New
York City gave Field a silver service.

The silver cake basket[16] from this service is in the United States
National Museum. The shallow basket is on a pedestal with handles on
each side. The inside of the basket is gilded. Inscribed on a plaque on
one side is:

  George Peabody to Cyrus W. Field in testimony and commemoration of
  an act of very high Commercial integrity and honor, New York, 24
  Nov. 1866.

The inside of the foot of the basket is marked with the lion, anchor,
and "G" of the Gorham Silver Company.

Field continued to be active in many business enterprises but the last
years of his life were again beset with severe financial difficulties.
He and his wife celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in 1890, and
in honor of this occasion their children presented them with a silver
gilt vase.[17] The vase contains a portion of the first Atlantic cable
mounted in the base, a part of the steamship _Great Eastern_, by which
the cable was laid, and the inscribed names of all the Field's children
and grandchildren. It is marked "Tiffany & Co. Sterling Silver, M."


FOR DIPLOMACY AND LEGISLATION

In January 1861, Dr. Samuel Lilly, physician, politician, and judge, was
sent to British India as consul general from the United States. Dr.
Lilly had been elected a representative to the 33d Congress as a Whig,
and he served from 1853 to 1855. He also served as a judge of various
lower courts in New Jersey. On his appointment as consul general he was
given a silver goblet[18] 8 inches tall and 4-1/4 inches in diameter,
having an embossed design of fruits, nuts, and flowers. On the goblet is
inscribed:

  A Testimonial of Respect and Esteem Presented to Hon. Samuel Lilly
  by a few of his Fellow Citizens without distinction of Party; on
  the eve of his departure for Calcutta as Consul-General to British
  India January 29, 1861.

The inside of the stem is marked with the lion, anchor, and "G" of the
Gorham Silver Company, the word "coin," and the figure "8."

When Dr. Lilly left India in 1862 he was given a silver pitcher and a
silver tray.[19] The pitcher (13 inches high and 7-1/2 inches in
diameter) has a tall, slender neck with a decided downturn to the
pouring lip and a hinged lid with a thistle flower as a knob. The neck
is engraved on each side with a design of grape leaves and grapes. The
bowl of the pitcher has eight panels embossed with scrolls of vines and
flowers. Both the tray and the pitcher are marked "Allen and Hayes." One
side is engraved:

  To the Hon. Samuel Lilly, M.D.

The other side is engraved:

  By the American Merchants in Calcutta July 1862.

The silver tray (18 inches in diameter) has a scroll-leaf and flower
design in relief around the edge. The scroll-leaf design is repeated on
the surface. The tray is inscribed as follows:

  Presented to the Hon. Samuel Lilly M.D. by the American Merchants
  Resident in Calcutta as a token of regard and acknowledgment of
  the creditable manner with which he has upheld the dignity of the
  office and executed the duties appertaining to the post of
  Consul-General of the United States of America in British India,
  Calcutta, July 4th, 1862.

American interest in European affairs, considerably increased by the
middle of the century, is also reflected in the collection. In 1866 the
life of the Czar of Russia was saved from a Nihilist's bullet by the
brave action of one of the serfs who had recently been emancipated by
royal decree. Czar Alexander II was well liked by his own people and was
regarded as an enlightened ruler by the other nations of the West. He
was especially respected in the United States because of the open
support he gave to the Union side during the Civil War. His escape from
death was a cause for official rejoicing in this country, and the
Congress of the United States passed a resolution of congratulations on
the deliverance of the life of the Czar and commissioned Gustavus Vasa
Fox, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, to deliver it to the Czar. Fox set
out for Europe in one of the newly designed Monitor ships that had
proved so effective in naval fighting during the Civil War. His Monitor
was escorted by other ships of the fleet with a large delegation of
naval officers. The party was greeted by the Russians with great
acclaim, and it was showered with gifts and honors. Many of the
interesting items given to Fox personally were bequeathed to the United
States National Museum by his widow, Mrs. V. L. W. Fox (accession 50021,
Division of Political History). Among these objects are a silver tray
(fig. 14), a silver saltcellar in the shape of a chair (fig. 14), and a
gold snuffbox.

[Illustration: Figure 14.--TRAY AND SALTCELLAR in shape of chair that
were among items presented to Gustavus Vasa Fox on his visit to Russia in
1866. The tray measures 24 × 15 × 1-1/2 inches, and the saltcellar is
3-5/8 inches high, 4-9/10 inches long, and 2-3/4 inches wide. They were
made by Sazkoff, St. Petersburg, 1863. Bequest of Mrs. V. L. W. Fox. In
Division of Political History. (Acc. 50021, cats. 11267, 11263;
Smithsonian photos 45602-A, 45602-H.)]

The tray and saltcellar were presented to Fox on the estate of Prince
Galitzine, one of the wealthiest members of the Russian nobility. These
two items bear the marks of a Russian maker and are engraved "July 5,
1864," which date marked the coming-of-age of the Prince. On August 26,
shortly after the American delegation arrived in Russia, Fox and his
party drove to the beautiful Galitzine estate, about 12 miles from
Moscow. The members of the party were met by the Prince and went with
him to a part of the park where a deputation of peasants awaited them.
Leader of the peasant group was the mayor of the neighboring village, an
emancipated serf, who presented Fox with bread and salt--traditional
symbols of Russian hospitality--on a silver salver and said:

  We wish to tell the envoy that we are come to congratulate him on
  his arrival, and to present him with bread and salt and also to
  say that we love him, and that we shall remember the love of his
  people for our country and our sovereign.[20]

Two days later, on August 28, Fox met Prince Gortchakoff by appointment
at the foreign office. After various complimentary allusions to the
manner in which Mr. Fox had performed the delicate duties entrusted to
him by his government, the Prince, in the name of the Emperor, presented
a gold snuffbox set with diamonds.[21] The box, exquisitely chased, had
the Emperor's miniature on the top surrounded by 26 diamonds. Six larger
diamonds were set three on each side at equal distances from the inner
circle. The Emperor was pictured in full military uniform with various
orders on his breast.[22] The snuffbox minus its decorations is part of
the Gustavus Vasa Fox collection in the Museum. The precious stones on
the lid and the miniature in the center were bequeathed by Mrs. Fox to
various members of the family when the box (cat. 11268) was willed to
the Museum.

A large and elaborate silver vase was presented by the members of the
U.S. Life-Saving Service to Mrs. Samuel S. Cox in honor of the
outstanding work of her husband, who as a congressman supported various
bills for the improvement of the Service. Mr. Cox served as Congressman
for 20 years, first from Ohio and later from New York State. He died in
New York City in 1889. Two years later General Superintendent S. I.
Kimball, in behalf of a committee representing the Service, presented
the vase to Mrs. Cox. The ceremony took place at Mrs. Cox's home in
Washington on December 12, 1891, in the presence of a gathering of
relatives and friends.

The vase[23] is 2 feet tall and 2 feet 1 inch in diameter; it weighs
almost 8 pounds. Its design was selected by a subcommittee appointed by
the Life-Saving Service, and the job was awarded to the Gorham Silver
Company. The chasing is entirely the work of one man. The base of the
vase has a design of clusters of acorns and oak leaves, and above these
are dolphins sporting in billowing waves. The body of the vase begins
with wide flutings between the tops of which are shells and seaweed.
These are surrounded by a ring of marine cable. On the front, a scene
represents the lifesavers at work. In perspective some distance out,
where the sea rises in mountainous waves, there is a wrecked vessel, and
in the foreground lifesavers are carrying the rescued to the beach. The
ornamentation that covers the top of the body of the vase consists of a
cable net in which are starfish, seaweed, and other marine flora and
fauna. A ledge formed by a ship's chain surmounts the net, and above
this is a profile of Mr. Cox circled with laurel. A lifebuoy crossed
with a boat hook and oar ornaments the other side. Handles at the sides
are two mermaids who with bowed heads and curved bodies hold in their
upraised hands sea plants growing from the side of the top of the vase.
The mermaids are the only portion of the ornamentation that was cast.

The vase is inscribed as follows:

  This Memorial Vase is presented to _Mrs. Samuel S. Cox_ by the
  members of _The Life-Saving Service of the United States_ in
  Grateful Remembrance of the tireless and successful efforts of her
  Distinguished husband _The Honorable Samuel Sullivan Cox_ to
  promote the interests and advance the efficiency and glory of the
  Life-Saving Service.

  He was its early and constant friend; Its earnest and eloquent
  advocate; Its fearless and faithful Champion.

  I have spent the best part of my life in the public service; most
  of it has been like writing in water. The reminiscences of party
  wrangling and political strife seem to me like nebulae of the
  past, without form and almost void. But what little I have
  accomplished in connection with this Life-Saving Service is
  compensation "sweeter than the honey in the honeycomb." It is its
  own exceeding great reward.[24]

Tangible evidence of the increased role that the United States was
beginning to play in international affairs is a silver pitcher and
salver[25] presented to Judge George S. Batcheller in appreciation
of his services as president of the International Postal Congress,
which was held in Washington, D.C., in 1897. Judge Batcheller's
international career began when President Ulysses Grant appointed him
as the U.S. judge in the newly created International Tribunal for legal
administration of Egypt. The Tribunal had jurisdiction in cases between
foreigners of different nationalities and also in cases of foreigners
versus Egyptians. Batcheller later served as minister to Portugal and
then as manager of European interests for various American companies.

The International Postal Congress presented Judge Batcheller, its
presiding officer, with a handsome urn-shaped pitcher with the following
inscription engraved on the center front:

  Le Congrès postal de Washington à son Président le Général George
  S. Batcheller Juin 1897.

The pitcher, 14-1/4 inches high, is marked inside the base "Galt &
Bros., Sterling, 925--0--1879, 277, 7-1/2 pts." The "925" is circled,
and the date is boxed. Accompanying the pitcher is a silver tray
with the monogram "G S B" in script in the center. The tray is marked
on the back with an eagle in a circle to the left, an "A" in a shield in
the center, and a hammer and sickle in a circle to the right (an
unidentified mark).



20th-Century Pieces

FOR SERVICE IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR


One of the most controversial figures of the Spanish-American War is
represented in the Museum's collection of some of the silver that was
presented to Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley.[26] Schley became a
national hero primarily because of his genial personality, and he was
acclaimed and supported by the masses of the American public even while
his claims to fame were being challenged by his colleagues.

Admiral Schley had already had a long and illustrious naval career
before the outbreak of the war with Spain. After his graduation from the
Naval Academy in 1860, he served on board the frigate _Niagara_ when it
was detailed to bring to the United States the first representatives
from Japan to this country. As a junior naval officer he took part in
the Civil War engagements leading up to the capture of Port Hudson. Then
followed a period with sea duty and alternate posts ashore at the Naval
Academy and elsewhere. During this period he took part in the capture of
some Korean forts in 1871, and later he commanded the relief expedition
that rescued the Arctic explorer Lieutenant Adolphus W. Greeley and six
of his companions near Cape Sabine, when they were near death, and
brought them safely home after a perilous voyage through 1,400 miles of
ice.

The controversial period of Schley's career began with his appointment
to command the Flying Squadron, stationed at Hampton Roads at the
opening of the Spanish-American War, with the arrangement that should
his squadron operate with the Atlantic Squadron in the West Indies, he
would be under its senior officer, William T. Sampson. Since Sampson was
junior to Schley in rank, this led to the famous Sampson-Schley
controversy of the war. Despite his orders to blockade Santiago
immediately, Schley took his time getting there with his squadron, and
then he failed to establish a close blockade. During the month-long
blockade in which the two squadrons were joined, matters were strained
between the commands. Sampson was in conference about seven miles east
of Santiago when the Spanish fleet finally emerged from the harbor.
Schley immediately seized full command of the battle despite Sampson's
proximity and his prompt return to action.

The press, probably influenced by his likable personality, made a hero
of Schley, but his fellow naval officers felt differently. A court of
inquiry held in 1901 found Schley to be at fault, but despite this
decision he retained his public popularity, a tribute to his affability
and bluff, hearty manner.

The many pieces in the Museum's collection of presentation silver given
to Schley not only attest the recipient's popularity but seem to express
the poor taste, debased design, and stereotyped workmanship that was
characteristic at the beginning of the 20th century.

Not just one presentation piece but an entire silver service was made
from Spanish coins recovered from the _Cristóbal Colón_ that was sunk at
Santiago. The original service consisted of 69 pieces, of which the
Museum has the table centerpiece, soup tureen and ladle, fish platter,
and a vegetable dish (cat. 39554).

The centerpiece, measuring 14 by 30 by 8 inches, is designed with a
circular base holding four classical female figures. On each side of the
base is a shallow silver dish shaped like a seashell and supported by
dolphins. A shield on one side of the base bears the following
inscription:

  This service made of Spanish coins recovered from the _Cristobal
  Colon_ sunk in the battle off Santiago de Cuba July 3, 1898 is
  presented to Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley by his friends in
  loving appreciation of his heroic services to his country.

An eagle ornaments the opposite side of the base.

The covered oval soup tureen (7 inches by 13-1/4 inches; cat. 39555)
bears the same inscription as the centerpiece and is marked "S. Kirk &
Son Co." The cover, monogrammed "W S S," has a rather effective design
of overlapped laurel leaves with clusters of berries. The ladle (14
inches long; cat. 39556) is monogrammed "W S S" on the bowl (4 inches in
diameter), and it has the same design as the tureen.

The fish platter (25 inches by 13 inches; cat. 39557) is similar to the
tureen in design. The oval vegetable dish (11 inches by 15-1/4 inches;
cat. 39558) is also similar and is inscribed the same way, including the
mark of "S. Kirk & Son Co."

An elaborate silver centerpiece given to Admiral Schley in Memphis,
Tennessee, in 1902 consists of a bowl, vase, and candelabra made to be
fitted into one unit (fig. 15). The large bowl (20 inches by 6 inches)
is chased in marine designs and bears the following inscriptions:

  Presented to Winfield Scott Schley, Admiral U.S.N. in recognition
  of his services in destroying the Spanish Fleet off Santiago de
  Cuba, July 3, 1898.

  Twenty-thousand American citizens join in honoring valor, fidelity
  to duty and a lofty generosity that exemplified the sublimest
  manhood. Memphis, Tennessee, April 28, 1902.

  There is glory enough for All.

The silver vase (32 inches high) is made to fit into the bowl, and it
has a portrait of Admiral Schley on one side and a picture of his
flagship, the _Brooklyn_, on the other. Each end of the bowl is fitted
with a socket to hold a three-branch silver candelabra, and there are
two solid blocks of silver for insertion in the sockets when the
candelabra are not being used. These pieces are marked "Sterling" but no
maker's mark is visible.

A silver card (cat. 39518), measuring 3-1/4 inches by 5-1/2 inches, that
was presented to Schley at a dinner given in his honor is engraved as
follows:

  Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley, U.S.N. The Commercial club of
  Kansas City, Mo., November 19, 1902.

The turn of the century marks the beginning of the popularity of loving
cups as presentation pieces. There are four loving cups in the Admiral
Schley collection.

The earliest of these cups bears the following inscription:

  Presented to Rear Admiral W. S. Schley by the citizens of Atlanta
  Georgia, November 4, 1899.

This cup (cat. 39571), 9 inches in diameter and 14-1/2 inches in depth,
is shaped like a vase and is decorated with a scroll design. Each of its
three handles is attached to the cup with two applied silver oak leaves.
The piece is marked "Maier & Berkley, Atlanta, Georgia, Sterling,
385,16."

[Illustration: Figure 15.--CENTERPIECE GIVEN TO Adm. Winfield Scott
Schley in Memphis, Tennessee, for his services in Cuba during the
Spanish-American War. Part of the Schley collection, gift of Mrs. R. S.
Wortley. In Division of Naval History. (Acc. 136891, cat. 39548;
Smithsonian photo 45992-G.)]

Another silver cup with three handles was presented to Schley on
February 5, 1902, by the Chamber of Commerce and the citizens of
Knoxville, Tennessee, in recognition of his services during the
Spanish-American War. This cup (cat. 39573) has the mark of the Gorham
Silver Company and the words "Sterling, A 2219, 6 pints."

The silver loving cup given to Admiral Schley by the City of Dallas
reflects the exuberance of the Texas donors as well as the taste of the
turn of the century. It bears the following inscription:

  Presented to Winfield Scott Schley, Rear Admiral, U.S.N. A token
  of the Affectionate Regard and Grateful Appreciation of the City
  of Dallas, Texas, For His Illustrious Achievements in the Service
  of our Country, October 20, 1902.

This cup (cat. 39572) measures 8 inches in diameter and 21 inches in
depth. The three handles terminate in eagles' heads. The design pictures
a battleship in gold identified as the "U.S.S. Oregon," a head and
laurel wreath with the words "U.S.S. Brooklyn," and an eagle and a star
in a wreath for the "U.S.S. Texas." The base of the cup is decorated
with three Texas longhorns with an anchor and shield. It bears the marks
of the Gorham Silver Company.

The fourth loving cup (cat. 39538) is made of vanadium steel rather than
of silver. This too is a three-handled cup. It measures 7 inches in
diameter and 12-1/2 inches in depth and is decorated with the emblem of
the Masonic Order of the Mystic Shrine and the following inscriptions:

  Presented to Noble Winfield Scott Schley by Syria Temple,
  A.A.O.N.M.S. November 20, 1909.

           Syria

  Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

The war with Spain is further commemorated by a silver loving cup[27]
presented to Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee, U.S.N. Sigsbee,
commissioned captain in 1897, was in command of the battleship _Maine_
when she blew up in Havana harbor in 1898. A naval court of inquiry
exonerated Sigsbee, his officers, and crew from all blame for the
disaster; and the temperate judicious dispatches from Sigsbee at the
time did much to temper the popular demand for immediate reprisal.

The cup bears the following inscription:

  The Commercial Club of St. Paul Minn. Sends Greetings to Capt.
  Charles Dwight Sigsbee who as Commander of the Auxiliary Cruiser
  St. Paul had a brilliant share in the Naval Exploits of the
  Spanish War of 1898.

  May you live long and prosper.

Marks on the cup are those of the Gorham Silver Company and the words
"Sterling," "Patented," and "5 pts."

Admiral Sigsbee achieved greater distinction for his services as a
scientist than as a naval hero. An outstanding hydrographer, he made a
deep-sea survey of the Gulf of Mexico, and from 1893 to 1897 he was
chief of the Navy's hydrographic office.


FOR ARCTIC EXPLORATION

In the midst of the myriad of soldiers, sailors, and politicians who
have been presented with silver through the past two centuries, we find
an arctic explorer being given similar recognition at the beginning of
this century. Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary was the first man to reach
the North Pole, and the United States National Museum has a collection
of silver presented to him in recognition of this achievement.

Peary became interested in arctic exploration as early as 1886 and
discovered he had an aptitude for its grueling demands on several minor
expeditions to Greenland and the arctic ice cap. In 1893 he became
determined to reach the North Pole, and he spent the next 15 years in
unsuccessful attempts to achieve his ambition. In 1908 Peary left on
another polar expedition; after a hazardous trip, he reached his goal on
April 6, 1909. His victory seemed a hollow one because of the claim of a
rival explorer that was finally proven spurious. In October a committee
of experts appointed by the National Geographic Society supported
Peary's claims, and in 1911 he was tendered the thanks of Congress.
Admiral Peary's work as an explorer had immense scientific value, as he
developed a highly efficient method of exploration which has continued
to be used advantageously.

Three loving cups and a replica of a ship in silver[28] that were
presented to Peary are in the collections of the United States National
Museum. Two of the cups were gifts to Peary from cities in his home
state of Maine. One loving cup (cat. 12186), 10 inches high, is marked
with the old English "T" of Tiffany & Company, "7072," and "5 pts." It
is inscribed:

  To Commodore Robert Edwin Peary, U.S.N. in recognition of his
  remarkable achievement in placing the flag of the United States at
  the North Pole, April 6, 1909. Presented September 23, 1909 by the
  City of Bangor, Me.

The other loving cup from Maine (cat. 12187) is 12 inches deep and bears
the Tiffany "T," "7056," "Sterling," and "5-1/2 pts." The inscription
reads:

  Presented by the citizens of Portland, and South Portland, Maine,
  To Commodore Robert Edwin Peary, U.S.N. September 23, 1909 in
  recognition of his achievement in nailing the stars and stripes to
  the North Pole.

The third loving cup (cat. 12188) is 18 inches high and is marked with
the lion, anchor, and "G" of the Gorham Silver Company and with
"Sterling," "332A," "7 pints," and "D. Kappa Epsilon." The inscription
reads:

  Presented to Commodore Robert Edwin Peary, U.S.N. by the Delta
  Kappa Epsilon Association of New York City, December 18, 1909.

In 1910 the Royal Scottish Geographic Society presented Admiral Peary
with a silver replica of a ship (fig. 1) of the type used by Henry
Hudson, John Davis, and William Baffin in their explorations for the
Northwest Passage. The replica, representing a ship under full sail, is
24 inches high and 20 inches long. The foresail bears a long inscription
in Latin likening Peary to other early arctic explorers. The marks
indicate the piece was made in Great Britain.

Also in the Museum's collection is a silver plaque[29] presented to
Peary by the Circumnavigator's Club in New York. It bears the mark of
Tiffany & Company and is inscribed:

  Circumnavigator's Club Presented to the Immortal Navigator Peary
  on the Occasion of his presence as guest of honor at our Annual
  dinner held at Delmonico's New York City, the Eleventh of
  December, 1913. Officers: President W. Tyre Stevens, 1st V. P.
  Wilson D. Lyon, 2nd V. P. W. D. Oelbermann, Treasurer, F. C.
  Schulze, Sec. F. W. Hilgar, Gov. E. H. Paterson, J. H. Burch Jr.,
  George L. Carlisle, W. G. Paschoff, C. A. Haslett, William H.
  Zinn.

The bottom edge of the plaque is engraved "Tiffany & Co. Makers" and
"18417 Sterling Silver."


[Illustration: Figure 16.--CUP PRESENTED TO the Honorable Brand Whitlock
by the British Government. Gift of Mrs. Brand Whitlock. In Division of
Political History. (Acc. 137815, cat. 40028; Smithsonian photo 45992-E.)]

FOR SERVICE DURING WORLD WAR I

Of all the silver pieces in the collections of the National Museum that
commemorate military prowess, the sole piece relating to World War I was
presented to a man who achieved fame for his humanitarian service as a
diplomat--the Honorable Brand Whitlock, who was appointed American
Minister to Belgium in 1913. Whitlock came to the position with a
distinguished record as four-time mayor of Toledo, Ohio, where his
administration was noted for its reforms. He had insisted on a fair deal
for the working man; he liberalized the administration of justice; he
kept the city government free of graft; and he won a battle against the
power of vested interests in the city.

After the invasion of Belgium in World War I, Whitlock remained at his
post where he performed many services for the oppressed citizens. His
presence in Brussels facilitated for both friend and foe the enormous
task of organizing the distribution of food among the civilian
population of Belgium and the occupied zone of France. In 1916 he chose
to follow the Belgian Government into exile. His activities won him the
lifelong affection and admiration of the people of Belgium, and after
the war they showered him with evidences of their esteem. Among the many
presentation medals, documents, and miscellaneous gifts that he
received is a silver loving cup (fig. 16) from the British Government.
On one side the cup bears the British coat of arms, and on the other
side is inscribed:

  Presented to Brand Whitlock by his Britannic Majesty's Government,
  11 November 1918.

The base is marked "C & Co.," "130 Regent St., Carrington and Co.,
London W," and "Copy of Antique Irish 1717, 66 × 13, P 6610, xy P d."

[Illustration: Figure 17.--PAPERWEIGHT identical to those presented by
William Jennings Bryan to 30 diplomats who signed with him treaties for
the investigation of all international disputes. Gift of William Jennings
Bryan. In Division of Political History. (Acc. 57778, cat. 15307;
Smithsonian photo 45992-C.)]

A presentation piece made of polished steel is really outside the scope
of this paper, but as it has an interesting bit of diplomatic history
connected with it, it has been included in the catalogue. The object is
a paperweight (fig. 17) designed by William Jennings Bryan when he was
Secretary of State. The weight, in the form of a plowshare, was made
from swords condemned by the War Department. Thirty of these weights
were given by Secretary Bryan to the diplomats who in 1914 signed with
him treaties providing for the investigation of all international
disputes. The shaft of the plow bears the inscription:

  "Nothing is final between friends"
  "Diplomacy is the art of keeping cool"

The blade is inscribed

  "They shall beat their swords into plowshares"
                                      Isaiah 2:4

On the base is engraved:

  "From William Jennings Bryan to the Smithsonian Institution,
  August 13, 1914"


TO MR. AND MRS. ROBERT TODD LINCOLN

Among the pieces of presentation silver acquired in 1960 by the
Smithsonian Institution is a covered urn that was given to Mr. and Mrs.
Robert Todd Lincoln by their children on the occasion of their 50th
wedding anniversary.[30] Robert Todd Lincoln, son of the President,
became a prominent lawyer in Chicago and later served as president of
the Pullman Company, as Secretary of War in the cabinets of President
Garfield and President Arthur, and as Minister to Great Britain under
President Benjamin Harrison. The silver gilt urn has two handles,
measures 13 inches from the base to the finial on the cover, and 7
inches at its widest point. Bands of ornamentation feature both the
grape design and the acorn and oak-leaf design. It is inscribed:

  Robert Todd Lincoln--Mary Harlan 1868-1918

The gilt wash, although almost completely polished off the outside
surface, still covers the inside of the urn and its lid.


TO CONGRESSMEN

A silver tureen and tray[31] were given to the Honorable James R. Mann,
Republican leader of the House of Representatives, by the members of the
House in 1919. Mann was elected a Representative from Illinois in 1897,
and he remained a member of Congress until his death in 1922. In 1912 he
became minority leader. In addition to the Mann Act, his name is
associated with other important legislation of the period such as the
Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Woman Suffrage Amendment.

The tray, which holds the tureen, is inscribed:

  James R. Mann Republican Leader from House Members of the 65th
  Congress, March 3rd, 1919.

It is marked on the back with "W. Sterling, 4086--16 in." The initial
represents the Wallace Silver Company.

The oval tureen is on a pedestal base. There is a scroll design around
the edge of the base, the edge of the bowl, and the opening of the
bowl. The piece measures 14 inches from handle to handle, is 10 inches
high, and has the initials "J R M" in old English letters engraved on
the side.

In the Museum's collection is a loving cup of Chinese design that was
presented by the Chamber of Commerce, Peking, China, to a party of
American Congressmen on a tour of China and Japan in 1920.[32] The
height of the cup is 17-5/8 inches, and its width, including the two
large handles, is 15-5/16 inches. The piece is mounted on a papier-mâche
base that is covered with silk. The engraved Chinese characters
translate as follows:

  Commemorating the welcome of Congressmen from Great America
  traveling in China

  Respectfully presented by members of the Chinese Diet

  May the spring of your well-being be as vast as the ocean.


TO SUFFRAGETTES

Among the significant social changes that occurred in the 19th century
was the movement for woman suffrage that began about the middle of the
century as a concerted action by a nucleus of determined women. The
crusade gained strength and numbers during the second half of the
century, and finally achieved success with the ratification of the
Suffrage Amendment in 1920. Many women worked in this cause, and the
pieces of presentation silver in the National Museum's Woman Suffrage
Collection constitute a record of the most important leaders.

Chief spokesman of the movement and its leader for many years was
Elizabeth Cady Stanton of New York State. She was instrumental in
calling the first Woman's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York,
in 1848, and she served as president of the National Woman Suffrage
Association from its beginning in 1869 and as president of the National
American Woman Suffrage Association from 1890 to 1891. She continued to
be an active worker in the movement until her death in 1902, writing and
editing many works on suffrage in addition to her administrative work.

On the occasion of her 80th birthday in 1895, Mrs. Stanton was presented
with a silver tray[33] (8 inches wide and 1-1/2 inches deep) that is
inscribed:

  From the Ladies of Seneca Falls, 1848-1895.

This tray, presented at a meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House in New
York City, bears on the back a "W" in a circle, a two-headed lion in a
rectangle (probably an early mark of the Wallace Silver Company), the
word "Sterling," and the number "2048."

[Illustration: Figure 18.--CUP GIVEN TO SUSAN B. ANTHONY by the Colorado
Equal Suffrage Association. Gift of National American Woman Suffrage
Association. In Division of Political History. (Acc. 64601, cat. 26163;
Smithsonian photo 45992-J.)]

On the same occasion Mrs. Stanton was presented a silver loving cup[34]
that is inscribed:

  1815-1895 Presented to Elizabeth Cady Stanton by the New York City
  Woman Suffrage League, November 12, 1895. Defeated day by day but
  unto victory born.

The cup, 4-1/2 inches in diameter and 7-3/8 inches deep, is marked on
the bottom with the Wallace "W," similar to the mark on the tray, and
"Sterling, 3798, 4-1/2 pints, 925/100 fine, Pat 1892."

The life story of Susan B. Anthony is a record of 60 years of devotion
and work for the enfranchisement of women. An organizer and director of
countless suffrage activities, she was tireless in conducting campaigns
for woman suffrage. She is the one individual who has become so
identified with the fight for woman suffrage that, more than any other,
her name has become synonymous with that term. During her lifetime she
worked in almost every capacity in the organized movement. She became
president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1892
and served until her 80th birthday in 1900. On that occasion the
Colorado Equal Suffrage Association presented her with a miniature,
three-handled loving cup that stands only 3-3/4 inches high (fig. 18).
In one section of the cup there is engraved the word "Colorado" and the
state's coat of arms; in an adjoining section is an engraving of the
state flower; and in the third section is the following inscription:

  Colorado Equal Suffrage Association to Susan B. Anthony on her
  80th Birthday 1900.

The cup is marked on the bottom "Sterling, 590, A. J. Stark & Co.,
Denver."

She was also given a silver-plated teakettle[35] by the Political
Equality Club of Rochester, New York. The stand is 3-1/2 inches high,
and the teapot is 5-1/4 inches high. Engraved around the top of the
teapot is:

  Susan B. Anthony 1820-1893.

The stand is marked "Mfd. & Plated Reed & Barton" and "65."

The chosen leader of the Woman Suffrage Movement after 1900 was Mrs.
Carrie Chapman Catt, a vigorous organizer and campaigner who led the
drive for the constitutional amendment that was finally ratified in
1920. Mrs. Catt founded the International Woman Suffrage Alliance in
1902 and served as its president until 1923. Her late years were devoted
to the cause of international peace and disarmament.

Mrs. Catt was the prime mover in calling the first international
conference on suffrage, which, in 1902, welcomed representatives from
nine foreign nations--Great Britain, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark,
Turkey, Russia, Australia, and Chile. The delegates were honored guests
at the National Suffrage Convention then in session in Washington where
they also attended two congressional hearings on suffrage and were
received by President Theodore Roosevelt at the White House.[36] Mrs.
Catt was given a silver tray[37] inscribed:

  To Carrie Chapman Catt from the foreign delegates to the First
  International Suffrage Conference, Washington, D.C., Feb. 12-18,
  1902.

The back of the tray is marked "Galt & Bro. Sterling, 386." The Galt
silver firm is in Washington, D.C.

The campaign for the first referendum in the state of New York on woman
suffrage was considered to be the most decisive of all the state fights.
New York was divided into 12 campaign districts working under Mrs. Catt.
The campaign was most vigorously waged, but the referendum was
defeated.[38] After the New York campaign Mrs. Catt received a silver
gilt tray[39] inscribed:

  Honorable Carrie Chapman Catt from Katherine Howard Notman

  Eleventh Assembly District Campaign Chairman, 1915

  The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not
  be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on
  account of sex.

The tray is marked on the reverse "Tiffany and Co., 18154, Makers 811,
Sterling Silver, 925/1000/M."

Mrs. Catt had started the suffrage movement in the Philippine Islands
when she visited there in 1912 and organized the first suffrage club in
Manila. In 1937 the Philippine legislature submitted the question of
votes for women to the women of the Islands themselves. The campaign
committee working out of Manila sent native women campaigners throughout
the Islands to be sure all races and religions were represented in the
vote. Mrs. Catt raised money in this country and sent it to the campaign
committee to help with the fight.[40] Over half a million Philippine
women voted favorably on the question, and several months later Mrs.
Catt was presented with a silver plaque, mounted on native woods, that
is now in the Museum's collection.[41] It is inscribed:

  In grateful acknowledgement of the moral and financial aid given
  by the women of America through Carrie Chapman Catt to the women
  of the Philippines through the International Federation of Women's
  Clubs in their struggles for their political rights culminating in
  ultimate victory in April, 1937.


[Illustration: Figure 19.--BELT GIVEN TO H. W. HIGHAM as the winner of a
6-day bicycle race at Glasgow, Scotland. Gift of Mr. H. W. Higham. In
Division of Transportation. (Acc. 168449, cat. 313867; Smithsonian photo
45992-F.)]

FOR SPORTS EVENTS

The earliest of the sports trophies in the collection is an ornate belt
(fig. 19) made of blue velvet upon which are mounted five engraved
silver plates connected by silver straps. On the center plate is the
inscription:

  6 Days Bicycle Champion Belt of Scotland Won by H. W. Higham
  Nottingham 19th June 1880 Contested at Glasgow

One of the two adjoining smaller plates has an engraving of a man riding
a high-wheeled bicycle, and the other has an engraving of a man standing
beside a similar bicycle. The two outer plates are engraved with
Scottish coats of arms. The belt is 34-1/2 inches long and 3 inches
wide.

[Illustration: Figure 20.--THE VANDERBILT CUP, an annual award for
automobile races in the early 20th century. Gift of William K.
Vanderbilt, Jr. In Division of Transportation. (Acc. 131820, cat. 310894;
Smithsonian photo 45992-B.)]

Trophies were awarded for competition among the various makes of cars
almost as early as the advent of the automobile itself. The earliest
such trophy in the Museum's collection is a three-handled, cut-glass
cup[42] with a wide silver rim on which is engraved:

  Automobile Club of New Jersey. Eagle Rock Hill Climbing Contest.
  First Prize Nov. 5, 1901.

The prize was won by Charles E. Duryea who drove an automobile of his
own manufacture.

Most important of the automobile trophies was the Vanderbilt Cup (fig.
20) for racing, which was established by William K. Vanderbilt, Jr., in
1904 to bring the best cars of foreign make to the United States so that
domestic manufacturers could observe them. It is believed that the
trophy contributed in this way to the rapid development of the
automobile in the United States. The Vanderbilt Cup races were held
annually in the United States under the auspices of the American
Automobile Association.

The silver cup, measuring 23 inches high and 20 inches in diameter and
weighing about 40 pounds, is engraved with statistics of the various
races--such as dates, winners, types of cars, distances, and times.[43]
There is a wreath around the brim, and the front is decorated with a
period racing car in repoussé. The inscription reads:

  Challenge Cup Presented by W. K. Vanderbilt Jr. American
  Automobile Assn. under deed of gift to be raced for yearly by cars
  under 1000 kilos.

On the inside of the stem is marked "Tiffany and Co." and "35 pints."

Athletic trophies in the collection include eight silver and silver-plated
loving cups awarded for athletic events to the crew members of various
ships of the U.S. Navy.[44] The sporting events represented include
baseball and football games, canoe and cutter races, and track meets
held among the fleet between 1903 and 1915.


TROWELS FOR CORNERSTONE LAYING

The National Museum also has a small collection of silver trowels used
for laying cornerstones of public buildings. There is an ivory-handled
trowel (fig. 21) with the inscription:

[Illustration: Figure 21.--TROWEL used by President Ulysses S. Grant in
laying the cornerstone of the Museum of Natural History, New York City.
Gift of Julia Dent Grant and William H. Vanderbilt. In Division of
Political History. (Acc. 18528, cat. 3004; Smithsonian photo 45992-A.)]

  This Trowel was used by His Excellency Ulysses S. Grant. President
  of the United States in laying the Corner Stone of the Building
  erected by the Department of Public Parks for the American Museum
  of Natural History and presented to him by the Trustees of the
  Museum New York June 2^nd 1874.

There are also some silver trowels in the Bishop Matthew Simpson
Collection.[45] The earliest of these is inscribed:

  Presented to Bishop Simpson D.D.L.L.D. at a laying of a stone of
  the New Wesleyan Church, Willesden, in commemoration of the 1st
  Methodist OEcumenical Conference held in London, Sept. 10, 1881.

This trowel (cat. 38199) bears the English standard marks with the
initials "H. H."

On the same trip to London Bishop Simpson received an ivory-handled
silver trowel (cat. 38198) inscribed:

  Presented to Bishop Simpson upon his laying the foundation stone
  of Clouditte Methodist Church, Dublin, 12th October, 1881.

Another silver trowel in the same collection is inscribed:

  Used by Bishop Simpson at the laying of the cornerstone of the
  Wenonah Methodist Episcopal Church, Wenonah, New Jersey, Aug. 15,
  1883, and presented to him in loving remembrance of his presence.

This trowel (cat. 38197) is marked "Coin" on the back.

The fourth trowel, given to Mrs. Simpson, is inscribed as follows:

  Presented to Mrs. Bishop Matthew Simpson by the Lady Managers in
  loving remembrance of her laying the cornerstone of the Methodist
  Episcopal Orphanage, Philadelphia, Oct. 13, 1887.

The back of this trowel (cat. 38208) is marked "Sterling."


FIRE TRUMPETS

Three fire trumpets in a collection[46] on loan from the Insurance
Company of North America are inscribed as presentation pieces. One of
these is 22 inches high and has eagle-head handles and an overall
repoussé design. This trumpet is engraved:

  May 1871 Retired from active service by the establishment of the
  Volunteer Fire Department In grateful remembrance we restore to
  Samuel G. Simpson his handsome gift presented by him to the
  Southwark Fire Co. Nov. 7, 1865.

Another trumpet is engraved with crossed ladders, pikes, and fire
helmets against an overall floral design. It is 19-1/2 inches high. The
inscription reads:

  Presented to Vigilant Engine Co. #6 of Paterson New Jersey at the
  Annual Fair of the Willis Street Baptist Church April 1879.

The inscription on the third trumpet reads simply:

  Presented to Captain George W. Erb by the Ladies of St. Rose's
  Fair.

It has an elaborate engine-engraved design and is 21-1/2 inches high.

                   *       *       *       *       *


  U.S. Government Printing Office: 1965

  For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
      Office
  Washington, D.C. 20402 Price 30 cents

                   *       *       *       *       *


_Paper 47, pages 81-108, from UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN
241_:

  CONTRIBUTIONS FROM
  THE MUSEUM OF HISTORY
  AND TECHNOLOGY

  SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
  WASHINGTON, D.C.
  1965

                   *       *       *       *       *



FOOTNOTES:

   [1] Bequest of Arthur Michaels (acc. 162866, cat. 383497),
       Division of Cultural History, USNM.

   [2] E. ALFRED JONES, _The Old Silver of American Churches_
       (National Society of Colonial Dames of America, 1913), pp. 68-69
       and pl. 27.

   [3] Bequest of Arthur Michaels (acc. 162866, cat. 383549),
       Division of Cultural History, USNM.

   [4] H. MAXSON HOLLOWAY, "American Presentation Silver,"
       _New-York Historical Society Quarterly_ (October 1946), vol. 30,
       p. 228.

   [5] "The Journal of the Proceedings of the Commissioners
       Plenipotentiary, Appointed on Behalf of the United States to
       Treat with the Northwestern Tribes of Indians," _American State
       Papers ... Indian Affairs_, vol. 1, pp. 826-836.

   [6] G. Carroll Lindsay, "The Treaty Pipe of the Delawares,"
       _Antiques_ (1958), vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 44-45.

   [7] Gift of Thomsen H. Alexander (acc. 63880, cat. 22995),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

   [8] Bequest of Amy Wetmore May (acc. 190331, cat. 387945),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

   [9] Gift of Estate of Sophie P. Casey (acc. 171620, cat.
       44364), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [10] Bequest of Henry R. Magruder (acc. 47577, cat. 10793),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [11] EARL CHAPIN MAY, _Century of Silver 1847-1947: Connecticut
       Yankees and a Noble Metal_ (New York: McBride and Co., 1947), pl.
       36.

  [12] Loan of Mrs. Samuel Reber (acc. 87949, cat. 35145),
       Division of Armed Forces History, USNM.

  [13] _Infantry_ (vol. 2 of _The Army Lineage Book_),
       Washington, 1953.

  [14] Loan of Metropolitan Museum of Art (acc. 64761, cat.
       26209), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [15] ISABELLA FIELD JUDSON, ed., _Cyrus W. Field, His Life and
       Work_ (New York, 1896), p. 110.

  [16] Gift of Isabella Field Judson (acc. 116488, cat. 37662),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [17] Gift of Isabella Field Judson (acc. 32290, cat. 7214),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [18] Gift of William Lilly (acc. 103012, cat. 35780), Division
       of Political History, USNM.

  [19] Gift of William Lilly (acc. 103012, cats. 35781-82),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [20] JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr., ed., _Narrative of the Mission to
       Russia in 1866 of the Hon. Gustavus Vasa Fox from the Journal and
       Notes of J. F. Loubat_ (New York, 1873), p. 264.

  [21] Snuffboxes were given by sovereigns to those who were not
       allowed to receive decorations. Such boxes were of three grades:
       plain gold boxes, boxes set with diamonds, and boxes having both
       diamonds and the sovereign's miniature. The latter were given
       only to persons of the highest distinction.

  [22] CHAMPLIN, p. 359.

  [23] Gift of Elizabeth Hardenburg (acc. 53695, cat. 12782),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [24] From a speech by Cox delivered in the House of Representatives,
       April 24, 1888.

  [25] Gift of Katherine Batcheller (acc. 112477, cat. 36871),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [26] Collection gift of Mrs. R. S. Wortley (acc. 136891),
       Division of Naval History, USNM.

  [27] Gift of Nellie G. Gunther (acc. 84594, cat. 35647),
       Division of Naval History, USNM.

  [28] Loan of Robert E. Peary (acc. 52878), Division of Naval
       History, USNM.

  [29] Loan of Mrs. Robert E. Peary (acc. 177710, cat. 46014),
       Division of Naval History, USNM.

  [30] Gift of Lincoln Isham (acc. 227132.1), Division of
       Political History, USNM.

  [31] Gift of Mrs. James R. Mann (acc. 70676, cats. 34113-14),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [32] The cup (acc. 66168, cat. 30852) was deposited in the
       United States National Museum (Division of Political History) by
       the Honorable John. H. Small, who was chairman of the group of
       traveling Congressmen.

  [33] Gift of Harriot Stanton Blatch (acc. 127776, cat. 38762),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [34] Gift of Harriot Stanton Blatch (acc. 127776, cat. 38763),
       Division of Political History, USNM.

  [35] Gift of National American Woman Suffrage Association (acc.
       64601, cat. 26162), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [36] MARY GRAY PECK, _Carrie Chapman Catt_ (New York: H. W.
       Wilson Co., 1944), pp. 121-122.

  [37] Gift of National American Woman Suffrage Association (acc.
       147840, cat. 42083), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [38] PECK, op. cit., pp. 220-232.

  [39] Gift of National American Woman Suffrage Association (acc.
       147840, cat. 42084), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [40] PECK, op. cit., pp. 457-458.

  [41] Gift of National American Woman Suffrage Association (acc.
       147840, cat. 42085), Division of Political History, USNM.

  [42] Gift of Mrs. Charles Duryea (acc. 144429, cat. 311338),
       Division of Transportation, USNM.

  [43] Statistics on the cup for the races held from 1904 to 1916
       are an interesting record of the development of the automobile.
       For instance, the winning speed increased from 52.2 miles per
       hour in 1904 to 86.99 miles per hour in 1916.

  [44] These trophies were received as a transfer from the
       Department of Defense (acc. 83961).

  [45] Gift of the Misses Simpson (acc. 104604), Division of
       Political History, USNM.

  [46] (Acc. 138182, cat. 311087), Division of Transportation,
       USNM.



                   *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

   All footnotes were moved to the end of the text.

   Some illustrations have been moved.

   A List of Illustrations was added.

   Archaic and variable spelling is preserved.

   The author's punctuation style is preserved.

   The following changes were made to the original text:

     Page 92: =silverplated= standardized to =silver-plated=
              (by the Meriden Britannia Company for its high-grade,
              =silver-plated= hollow-ware made on a base of silver
              nickel.)

     Page 92: =old-English= standardized to =old English= (and has
              the initials "J R M" in =old English= letters
              engraved on the side.)

     Footnote 25: Added period after =cat= (Gift of Katherine
                  Batcheller (acc. 112477, =cat.= 36871), Division
                  of Political History, USNM.)

     Footnote 26: =UNSM= changed to =USNM= (Collection gift of
                  Mrs. R. S. Wortley (acc. 136891), Division of
                  Naval History, =USNM=.)





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public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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