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Title: Selections from Viri Romae
Author: L'Homond, Charles François, 1727-1794
Language: English
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    [Illustration {map of Italian peninsula}]



  SELECTIONS

  from

  VIRI ROMAE


  Edited By

  ROBERT ARROWSMITH, Ph.D.

  Late Professor Of Greek And Latin, Teachers College

  and

  CHARLES KNAPP, Ph.D.

  Instructor In Latin, Barnard College


    [Decoration]


  New York ·:· Cincinnati ·:· Chicago

  AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY



  Copyright, 1896, by
  AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

  VIRI ROMAE.

  W. P. 18



PREFACE

[Decoration]


Upon the reviving perception of the true scope of Latin teaching has
followed a return to some of the methods of former times, which, with
all their faults, were yet imbued with the true spirit of the Classics.
Since for many years the study of Latin lay in bondage to the spirit
which regarded the language merely as a _corpus vile_ for grammatical
dissection, and ignored the rich literature lying beyond the classical
trinity of authors, it is not surprising that it fell into disfavor as
unsuited to the requirements of the times. The revival upon which the
study has now entered is due largely to a recognition of the fact that
mental culture rather than mere mental training is its true aim, and
that, with this aim kept steadily in view, the study of Latin is not a
barren waste of time and energy, but a most potent agency in securing
that broad and sympathetic culture which must ever remain the mark of
the educated man. The results of classical study most valuable to the
character are surely not to be found in the ability, usually lost
after a few years, to recite paradigms faultlessly, to give the
principal parts of verbs, and to enumerate the various kinds of
_cum_-constructions and the subdivisions of the ablative. Of far greater
worth are the mental breadth and sympathy, the weakening of prejudice
and Philistinism, and the increased power of entering into higher forms
of enjoyment which must inevitably flow from the study of the life of a
great people as revealed in its literature and art.

This conception of the sphere of Latin study has brought with it some
modifications of the initial steps and a return to some of the texts in
use fifty years since. In the traditional sequence of authors, and
particularly in the selection of a purely military work as the means by
which to introduce the student to the language, the entrance into the
fields of Latin literature has frequently been made so distasteful as to
destroy the desire for further exploration. More attractive paths,
however, are opening to the beginner; and of these the _Viri Romae_
offers in a notable degree material of real interest to the young, and,
from the very outset, gives a foretaste of the contents of the
literature.

The history of this work is of interest, as showing an early recognition
of the correctness of the standpoint to which we are now returning. It
was compiled by a Professor of the University of Paris, Charles François
Lhomond, who lived from 1727 to 1794, and enjoyed an enviable reputation
as a successful teacher, especially of younger pupils. His experience
taught him the need of an introductory text combining interest of story
with simplicity of style. The best proof of the excellence of his work
is the fact that it has ever since remained a favorite with teachers of
Latin. The material is taken from the works of various authors, chiefly
Livy and Eutropius, but was simplified by Lhomond in vocabulary and
construction wherever necessary to fit it to the requirements of
beginners. As its title indicates, it deals with the early stories of
Rome, so fascinating in any dress to the young, and it is therefore
eminently fitted to arouse a desire for further reading.

The present edition has been prepared with reference to the difficulties
most likely to embarrass the young pupil at the outset of the new study.
One of the most perplexing of these difficulties is the inability to
discover in an alphabetical vocabulary the inflected forms encountered
in the text. This is met, in part at least, by giving in italics in the
footnotes the vocabulary form of verbs not easily recognizable. For a
similar reason grammatical constructions are, on their first occurrence,
explained in simple language, or their nature briefly indicated, in
order that the student may more intelligently consult the grammatical
references which follow. For purposes of comparison, and as a means of
helping the pupil to form proper habits of study and observation,
subsequent occurrences are referred to previous instances, or to the
tables of constructions on pages xvi-xxvi.

Although the compiler of the _Viri Romae_ greatly simplified the
language of his authorities, there yet remain in the early part of the
book many constructions which the beginner is not fitted to discuss. It
is strongly recommended, therefore, that the treatment of the more
difficult and complex of these constructions be postponed to a later
period. At the outset the attention of the pupil should be centered upon
matters of primary importance and upon the simplest and most common
usages, such as the form of the sentence, the relation of its parts to
one another, the significance of terminations, and the modes of
expressing the constantly recurring relations of time, place, cause,
means, purpose, and result. Even these should be treated as simply as
possible and with constant regard to English usage. It is the experience
of many teachers that reference to a Latin grammar to explain a
construction possessed by English as well as by Latin frequently creates
a difficulty where the student, if left to his own devices, would have
experienced none.

The notes on matters of Roman custom have been made intentionally full
with the aim of adding reality to the stories, and of inducing the
pupil, under the teacher’s guidance, to discover for himself further
details. The use of other accounts, whether in ancient or modern
authors, of photographs, plates, and other graphic aids can not be too
strongly encouraged, in accordance with the dictum of Horace:--

  Segnius irritant animos demissa per aures
  Quam quae sunt oculis subiecta fidelibus.

All vowels known to be long have been carefully marked. The text of this
edition is, in the main, that of C. Holzer (tenth edition, Stuttgart,
1889). In orthography, however, Brambach has been followed. In the
vocabulary compound verbs are given under the simple verbs as an aid to
the fuller appreciation of the methods by which they are formed and
their meanings derived. The exercises in prose composition have been
made simple in order that they may occupy their legitimate place as
subordinate and auxiliary to the development of the more important
reading power.

The thanks of the editors are due to Mr. E. G. Warner, of the Brooklyn
Polytechnic Institute, for his hearty coöperation in the work, and
particularly for the labor which he has expended upon the exercises.

  ROBERT ARROWSMITH.
  CHARLES KNAPP.

August, 1895.



CONTENTS

[Decoration]

  PAGE

  Suggestions to the Student                              ix
  Plan of Rome                                        xxviii
       I. Rōmānī Imperiī Exōrdium                          1
      II. Rōmulus                                          4
     III. Numa Pompilius                                   8
      IV. Tullus Hostīlius                                10
       V. Ancus Mārcius                                   15
      VI. Lūcius Tarquinius Prīscus                       17
     VII. Servius Tullius                                 19
    VIII. Tarquinius Superbus                             22
      IX. Iūnius Brūtus                                   25
       X. Mūcius Scaevola                                 26
      XI. Fabiī Trecentī Sex                              27
     XII. Lūcius Virgīnius                                29
    XIII. Titus Mānlius Torquātus                         30
     XIV. Pūblius Decius                                  35
      XV. Mānius Curius                                   36
     XVI. Gāius Duīlius                                   38
    XVII. Mārcus Atīlius Rēgulus                          39
   XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher                         42
     XIX. Quīntus Fabius Māximus                          43
      XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varrō              48
     XXI. Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpio Āfricānus              52
    XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus             63
   XXIII. Gāius Marius                                    68
    XXIV. Lūcius Cornēlius Sulla                          74
     XXV. Lūcius Lūcullus                                 77
    XXVI. Gnaeus Pompēius Māgnus                          80
   XXVII. Gāius Iūlius Caesar                             86
  XXVIII. Mārcus Tullius Cicerō                           96
    XXIX. Mārcus Brūtus                                  102
     XXX. Octāviānus Caesar Augustus                     103
  Exercises for Translation                              112
  Vocabulary                                             131



SUGGESTIONS TO THE STUDENT

[Decoration]

To read Latin quickly and intelligently, and to enjoy the reading
properly, we must possess (1) a vocabulary, _i.e._ a collection of Latin
words with whose meanings, whether used singly or in combination, we are
thoroughly familiar; (2) a knowledge of the inflectional system of the
language, _i.e._ its declensions and conjugations; (3) a knowledge of
its syntax; and (4) a knowledge of the plan upon which the Latin
sentence is constructed, or, in other words, we must be able to overcome
the difficulties arising out of the peculiar order of the words and
clauses that form a Latin sentence.

#Vocabulary.#--Words are the material out of which sentences are
constructed. Hence it is of prime importance to know their meanings. The
best way, in fact the only way, to acquire a vocabulary, is by constant
reading, and by noting carefully the force of individual words as they
occur. It soon becomes evident that certain words are very frequently
used, especially verbs which denote actions that have to do with
everyday life, such as _dīcō_, _eō_, _faciō_, _habeō_, _veniō_, _sum_,
and their compounds. These at least must be mastered at the very outset.
It is worth while to notice what prefixes are used in forming compound
verbs, and the modifications of meaning which they produce. If the force
of the simple verb is mastered, a little practice will enable the
student to detect at sight the meaning of any of its compounds without
reference to any dictionary.

It is useful also to group together in memory words derived from the
same stem, _e.g._ _canō_, _cantus_; _certō_, _certāmen_; _dūcō_, _dux_;
_regō_, _rēx_, _rēgius_; _caedō_, _caedēs_. A specially interesting
study consists in noting the English words which go back to Latin
originals. From various causes a large part of our English vocabulary is
borrowed from Latin. Cf. _donate_ with _dōnō_ and _dōnum_, _lucid_ with
_lūx_, _regent_ with _rēx_ and _regō_.

Finally, it will be found very helpful constantly to read Latin aloud,
for thus the _ear_ will help the _eye_ and words will have meaning when
_heard_ as well as when _seen_. Indeed, we ought to use our ears far
more than our eyes in acquiring a Latin vocabulary, in order that Latin
words, when heard, shall suggest at once to our minds the same pictures
which they suggested to the minds of Roman boys.

#Inflections and Syntax.#--It is not enough, however, to be familiar
with the meanings of individual words, however many we may succeed in
mastering. We must possess a knowledge also of _inflections_, _i.e._ of
the declensions and conjugations, which tell us how individual words may
be altered in form in order to express different relations to other
words, and of _syntax_, which tells us how words are combined together
into sentences. A knowledge of inflections and an understanding of
syntax are the tools by which we arrive at the meaning of sentences as a
whole. As the wise workman uses the best and most efficient tools, so
one who undertakes to read Latin with speed and pleasure must make his
mastery of inflections and syntax as complete as possible. It is assumed
that students of this book have already had some drill in the commoner
inflections. The principles of syntax can best be studied as they occur
in actual reading. The commonest, and therefore most important, are
discussed in the notes and illustrated by appropriate references to the
grammars in common use and by the tables of constructions on pages xvi
to xxvi. A very practical way of fixing the principles of syntax firmly
in mind is by frequent translation from English into Latin. It should be
remembered, however, that we study syntax simply because such study
enables us to read and enjoy the great works of Latin literature.

#The Order of Words.#--The greatest difficulty that confronts the
student of Latin literature is the fact that the order of the words in a
Latin sentence is widely different from that which he ordinarily finds
in an English sentence. This difference is due mainly to two causes.
(1) Every Latin sentence is a kind of word picture, in which the meaning
is developed stroke by stroke, _the separate parts being introduced in
the order of their importance_. (2) It is a principle of Latin to keep
the meaning in suspense until the very end, so that the last word
completes not only the form, but also the meaning of the sentence. Both
these principles may be seen at work in lines 1 to 5 of selection I,
page 1. _Proca_ naturally stands first, partly because the whole work is
a story of the deeds of men, partly because at this point he is
especially important, as being the reigning king, with power to choose
his own successor. The phrase _rēx Albānōrum_ very properly follows, as
defining the scene of the action. _Numitor_ and _Amūlius_ are next
mentioned because the Latin loves to emphasize contrasts of persons. The
sense of the whole is not complete till we reach the very last word,
_habuit_. In the next sentence _Numitōrī_ is first, because now Numitor
is more important, as being Proca’s successor. The relative clause _quī
. . . erat_ not only states a fact, but also gives the reason why Proca
bequeathed his kingdom (_rēgnum relīquit_) to Numitor. So in the words
_ut . . . fēcit_, the _ut_-clause tells why Amulius performed the act
indicated by the words _Rhēam Silviam . . . fēcit_, so that by the time
we know _what_ the act was we know also exactly _why_ it was performed.
The Latin thus pictures the parts of the scene in their true order, for
the motive in every case precedes the act. We see therefore that,
however strange at times the Latin order may seem to be, there is always
good reason for it. It is our task at the outset, as it soon will be our
pleasure, to determine just what this reason is.

Now this freer order of words in the Latin sentence is rendered possible
by the fact that Latin possesses an elaborate inflectional system,
whereas English does not. Note, however, that one familiar with Latin
declensions would know at once that in the first sentence discussed
above Proca was actor (_i.e._ subject), and Numitor and Amulius acted
upon (_i.e._ object). So in the sentence _ut . . . fēcit_ it is clear
that Amulius is the actor and that Rhea Silvia is acted upon. Thus the
inflectional system serves to relieve, in part at least, the very
difficulty which it creates.

#How to Read.#--By far the best way for the beginner to make himself
familiar with the Latin order and its meaning is to _make a practice
from the very outset of reading the sentence aloud from beginning to end
before attempting to translate at all_. If the meaning is not clear at
once, a repetition of such reading will often serve to make it clear,
provided the student knows the force of the individual words and
constructions. If he does not, he must seek the aid of the vocabulary or
the notes. Then let him read the sentence once more aloud, slowly and
carefully. He should not, however, look into either vocabulary or notes
until he has read the Latin through at least once. Progress at first
will necessarily be slow, but it will be sure. By every page read in the
manner indicated above the pupil is preparing himself to read with more
and more intelligence and pleasure the pages that remain. Besides, in
this way he reads his Latin precisely as he reads English, word after
word, in the order in which it is written, and precisely as a Roman boy
1800 years ago read his Latin story or poem. He will gain further the
advantage of training his ear as well as his eye and of making it do its
fair share of the work. In translating, too, it will be wise to follow
as closely as possible the Latin order. Often it will be found that the
resulting English order, even if not very common, is none the less
intelligible. So the sentence _ut . . . fēcit_ discussed above may be
translated almost exactly in the Latin order.


LATIN COMPOSITION

#Its Value.#--An exercise which is very practical and helpful, and which
may also become extremely delightful, is the rendering into Latin of
English sentences based upon that portion of the Latin text which has
already been carefully studied. This exercise is helpful, because it
calls upon us to put into practice the knowledge which we have acquired
in reading; it may become delightful because it shows us accurately the
measure of our advance and thus affords us the pleasure which comes from
the feeling that one is making sure progress in a given line of study.

#Essentials.#--To write Latin well one needs precisely the things which
we found necessary in reading (page ix). The words and constructions
required in the sentences for translation given on pages 112 to 129 are
illustrated by the corresponding pages of the Latin text. The pupil
should always endeavor to recall the word, inflectional form, phrase, or
construction for himself before referring to his text or to his grammar.
In other words, he should make the exercise one of thought rather than
of mere mechanical copying from a printed model.

#The Object.#--We read the Latin text in order to understand the
thoughts of the writer. So in turning English sentences into Latin our
chief object is to clothe the _thoughts_ which such sentences convey in
proper Latin dress, not merely to substitute Latin _words_ for English
_words_. Every language has its own peculiar expressions, which are
called _idioms_. Such expressions can never be literally translated from
one language into another. Hence in attempting to turn an English
sentence into Latin, we must begin by noting carefully the thought which
it expresses, and then consider how the Romans gave expression to that
thought.

#Choice of Expression.#--In Latin, just as in English, it often happens
that the same thought may be expressed in several ways, which differ
greatly in the words used as well as in the form and expression. In
English it is often impossible to give a reason for the choice of one
form of expression in preference to others. Sometimes the choice is made
consciously for the sake of variety, or because there is a very slight
shade of difference in meaning,--so slight that we can perhaps feel it,
but cannot put it into words; sometimes unconsciously, because every one
falls into the habit of using certain phrases and manners of speech with
no deeper reason than the habit. The same is true of Latin writers.
Their various forms of expression have been noted and collected, and we
find them laid down in the grammars as _rules_. Some of these
expressions are found to be used by the best writers more frequently
than others, and these are considered the best models. But the student
must avoid the error of confining himself absolutely to one iron-bound
form because most stress is laid upon it by the grammars, if he finds
other modes of expression in the writings of good authors. By searching
out the greatest variety of forms in which an idea may be expressed, by
trying to discover the differences in meaning between them, and by
placing yourself as far as possible in the writer’s place, you will gain
a far greater grasp and appreciation of the language than by learning a
single rigid rule and forcing it to fit every case.

One of the central ideas of the following exercises, then, should be to
render the thought in as many ways as possible, drawing your authority
from the text on which the exercise is based, as well as from your
grammar.

Examine the tables on pages xvi to xxvi, where you will find several of
the most important constructions treated. Compare the examples given and
try to trace out the reasons for the different forms. In many cases you
will not be able to do so, and are free to choose one of several modes
of expression. In others the meaning of the sentences and the aid of the
grammar will give the reason for your choice.

#Caution.#--The pupil should note that all the words and constructions
necessary to enable him to write in Latin the sentences given below,
pages 112 to 129, are to be found on the pages of the Latin text upon
which the exercises are based. _An English-Latin vocabulary or
dictionary is, therefore, wholly unnecessary._ Additional sentences
based on the text may be made up by student or teacher as required.


TABLES OF CONSTRUCTIONS

The following tables have been prepared for the purpose of affording the
pupil material for study and comparison, by grouping together under
appropriate heads examples of certain constructions as they actually
occur in this book. It is expected that they will be helpful to the
student in two ways: (1) by supplementing and illustrating the notes,
and (2) by affording him guides which he may follow in his writing of
Latin. No attempt whatever has been made to include under any given head
all the examples that are to be found in the text. The pupil will find
it both interesting and instructive to add to the lists himself as he
finds new instances in his own reading.


_A._ EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE

1. PLACE AT OR NEAR WHICH:

  #Rōmae#, VII, 26, and often; #Tarentī#, XV, 30; salūbriōra
  #mīlitiae# quam #domī# esse iuvenum corpora, IV, 70 (locative:
  chiefly used with names of towns);--#in siccō#, I, 10; #in iīs
  locīs#, I, 11; #in# (on) #sinistrīs manibus#, II, 21; #in colle
  Quirīnālī#, II, 54; #in ārā#, III, 4; #in mediā urbe#, V, 23; ponte
  . . #in# (over) #Tiberī# factō, #in# (at) #ōre# Tiberis, V,
  27;--#multīs locīs#, XXV, 17; #terrā marīque#, XXI, 125;--#apud
  Tīcīnum# amnem . . #apud Trebiam#, XIX, 16;--#ad# Caprae #palūdem#,
  II, 44; #ad# tertium #lapidem#, XIII, 12; #ad flūmen# Bagradam,
  XVII, 18.


_B._ EXPRESSIONS OF MOTION

1. PLACE FROM WHICH:

  #Curibus# . . accītus est, III, 2; #Tarquiniīs# . . profectus, VI, 1
  (simple abl., especially with names of towns);--#ā portā# . .
  pergit, XIII, 5; #ab urbe# profectus, XIII, 13; #ā lūdīs# pūblicīs
  revertēns, XVIII, 17;--dēlābitur #ē caelō scissō# scūtum, III, 15;
  #ex eō locō# . . aufūgerat, IV, 20; dōnec novae cōpiae #ex Āfricā#
  advenīrent, XVII, 3; #ex angustiīs# ēvāsit, XIX, 38.

2. PLACE TOWARDS WHICH:

  #Albam# properāvit, I, 25; Quī cum #Rōmam# vēnisset, III, 3; #Rōmam#
  also in IV, 64, V, 20, and often; Pergunt inde #Collātiam#, VIII,
  21; Profectus #Delphōs#, IX, 4; #Carthāginem# rediit, XVII, 54;
  #domum# dēdūcunt, IV, 31; #domum# refugiēns, VII, 45; cum . .
  #domum# redīret, VII, 48 (simple accusative, chiefly with names of
  towns);--Cum lupa saepius #ad parvulōs# . . reverterētur, I, 16;
  Remum . . #ad Amūlium# rēgem perdūxērunt, I, 27; #ad Gabīnōs# sē
  contulit, VIII, 4;--#in Āfricam# . . trāiēcit, XVII, 15; #in
  Ītaliam# vēnit, XIX, 15; abiēcit #in Tiberim#, I, 7; Sabīnōs #in
  urbem# recēpit, II, 38; aciem #in# (to) #collem# subdūxit, IV, 58;
  cum #in# (upon) #tribūnal# ēscendisset, XII, 20; #In# (against)
  #eum# . . rediit, IV, 22; ausae sunt sē #inter tēla# . . īnferre,
  II, 36.

3. WAY BY WHICH:

  #portā# (abl. of means) #quā# profectī erant, XI, 19; #Per# (over)
  #loca alta# āgmen dūcēbat, XIX, 23; Quī cum . . #per montēs, per
  silvās# hūc illūc discurrerent, XIX, 35.


_C._ EXPRESSIONS OF TIME[I.1]

1. TIME AT WHICH:

  #Posterō diē#, IV, 61, VIII, 24; #Prīmō impetū#, II, 29; #Kalendīs
  Mārtiīs#, III, 20; #eā tempestāte#, VI, 17; #nocte mediā#, XIX, 68.

2. TIME WITHIN WHICH OR IN THE COURSE OF WHICH:

  #Annō trecentēsimō# ab urbe conditā, XII, 1; #eōdem annō#, XIII, 11;
  #bellō Latīnō#, XIV, 11; #hōc bellō#, XIV, 12; #in proeliō#, VI, 26;
  #In proeliō quōdam, in quō#, VII, 8; #In quō bellō#, XV, 2.[I.2]

3. AGE:

  fīlium #tredecim annōrum#, VI, 25; Hannibal . . #novem annōs nātus#,
  XIX, 1.

    [Footnote I.1: See also below, Ablative Absolute, _K_ 3.]

    [Footnote I.2: The form with #in# is the more exact.]


_D._ DURATION OF TIME AND EXTENT OF SPACE

1. DURATION OF TIME:

  Rōmulus #septem# et #trīgintā# rēgnāvit #annōs#, III, 38; rēgnāvit
  #annōs duōs# et #trīgintā#, IV, 75; rēgnāvit #annōs quattuor# et
  #quadrāgintā#, VII, 52; #per tōtum bīduum#, XIII, 87; #omnī deinde
  vītā#, XIII, 60. (This last form should not be imitated.)

2. EXTENT OF SPACE:

  Iam #aliquantum# spatiī . . aufūgerat, IV, 20; centum et vīgintī
  #pedēs# longum, XVII, 27; quīnque diērum #iter# . . abest, XXI, 163.


_E._ EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE

1. Pure purpose: #ut# or #nē# with the subjunctive:

  #ut# eum subole #prīvāret#, I, 3; #ut# populum ferum religiōne
  #mītigāret#, III, 3; #ut esset# index pācis et bellī, III, 25;--#nē#
  fūrtō auferrī #posset#, III, 16; #nē# duo violenta ingenia
  mātrimōniō #iungerentur#, VII, 38.

2. Relative clause:

  mīsit #quī# societātem . . #peterent#, II, 5; Centum . . ēlēgit,
  #quōrum# cōnsiliō omnia #ageret#, II, 40; sacerdōtēs lēgit, #quī#
  ancīlia . . #cūstōdīrent# et . . #ferrent#, III, 19; Rōmam missus,
  #ubi# (= ut ibi) . . #interesset#, XXVIII, 8.

3. #Quō#[I.3] (whereby) with subjunctive:

  #quō frequentius habitārētur#, IV, 66 (see note); #quō minor# turba
  Rōmae #foret#, XVIII, 21; #quō diūtius# in magistrātū #esset#,
  XIX, 46.

4. Gerundive:

  coniugī dedit #ēducandōs#, I, 19; īgnem . . perpetuō #alendum#
  virginibus dedit, III, 4; agellum #colendum# locāvit, XVII, 36; #ad
  exercitum lūstrandum#, II, 44; mīlitēs #ad vindicandum# facinus
  accendit, XII, 26.

5. Future participle:

  quasi dē pāce #āctūrus#, rē vērā ut tempus extraheret, XVII, 2 (see
  note).

6. Supine:

  aquam . . #petītum# ierat, II, 17; ē suīs ūnum . . mittit
  #scīscitātum#, VIII, 8; Cum . . lēgātī Rōmam vēnissent #conquestum#,
  XIII, 81; pecora . . quae #pāstum# prōpulsa essent, XIX, 63.

7. Substantive clauses:

  adfīrmāns . . Rōmulum . . praecipere #ut# sēditiōnibus #abstinērent#
  et rem mīlitārem #colerent#, II, 51-53; Latīnōrum populīs suāsit
  #ut# . . fānum Diānae . . in Aventīnō monte #aedificārent#, VII, 25;
  optāvit #ut# frāter . . #revīvīsceret# atque iterum classem
  #āmitteret#, XVIII, 19; ēdīxit #nē# quis . . in hostēs #pūgnāret#,
  XIII, 42; Veritus autem #nē# . . poenās #daret#, XVI, 21; petiit ā
  patribus cōnscrīptīs #nē# quid dē eā rē #statuerent#, XIII, 83.

    [Footnote I.3: This is merely a special form of (2), but its
    importance entitles it to separate treatment.]


_F._ EXPRESSIONS OF RESULT

1. Pure result: #ut# or #ut nōn# with the subjunctive:

  ita omnium animōs eā pietāte imbuit #ut# fidēs . . cīvēs
  #continēret#, III, 33; adeō frāctī . . sunt spīritūs . . #ut# nūllī
  reī posthāc nisi sacrīs operam #daret#, IV, 72; ita eōs adliciēns
  #ut# apud omnēs plūrimum #posset#, VIII, 6.

Note that in the main clause there is usually some word like #ita#,
#adeō#, #tam#, #tālis#, #is#, which paves the way for the result clause.

2. Relative (characteristic):

  invenīrī potuit nēmō, #quī . . peteret#, XXIII, 119; Ūnus adulēscēns
  fuit, #quī audēret# querī, XXIV, 50. Here too belongs #quīn# with
  the subjunctive: haud procul erat #quīn . . āgnōsceret#, I, 33; nōn
  esse dubium #quīn . . oportēret#, XVI, 27; Nēminī dubium est #quīn
  . . restituerit#, XIX, 105.

3. Substantive:

  (Rōmulus dīxit) #futūrum ut# omnium gentium dominī #exsisterent#,
  II, 53; #oportet# dīsciplīnam, quam solvistī, . . #restituās#, XIII,
  54; #concessum est ut# . . praecinente tībīcine ā cēnā #redīret#,
  XVI, 16.


_G._ TEMPORAL CLAUSES[I.4]

1. #Ubi#, #ut#, or #postquam# with the indicative mood, especially the
perfect tense:

  #Ubi# spectāculī tempus #vēnit#, II, 11; #Ut . . increpuēre# arma
  micantēsque #fulsēre# gladiī, IV, 13; Is #postquam adolēvit#, VII,
  7; Quī #postquam# frequentēs #convēnēre#, XIII, 52.

2. #Dum# (while) with the indicative (the tense employed is generally
the present):

  Ea rēs #dum# Numitōris animum anxium #tenet#, I, 36; #dum# Albānus
  exercitus #inclāmat# Cūriātiīs, IV, 23; Latīnus #dum# ad Tiberim
  #dēscendit#, sacerdōs bovem immolāvit, VII, 34.

3. #Dum#, #dōnec# (until) with the subjunctive:

  #dum convalēsceret# (indirect discourse also), VII, 17; ut tempus
  extrāheret, #dōnec# novae cōpiae ex Āfricā #advenīrent#, XVII,
  3 (partly purpose).

4. #Antequam# and #priusquam# with the subjunctive:

  Alterum . . #priusquam# tertius #posset# cōnsequī, interfēcit, IV,
  24; #priusquam# eīs bellum #indīceret#, lēgātum mīsit quī rēs
  repeteret, V, 7; petiit . . nē quid . . statuerent #antequam# ipse
  #īnspexisset# Macedonum . . causam, XIII, 83 (indirect discourse).

5. #Cum# with the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive:

  #cum# iīs #īnsidiātī essent# latrōnēs, I, 22; #cum# Numitor . .
  #comparāret#, I, 30; #cum# (as) Rōmae #appropinquārent#, II, 15; cum
  (while) . . cōntiōnem . . #habēret#, II, 44; Quī #cum# Rōmam
  #vēnisset#, III, 2. This form of temporal clause is extremely
  common.

    [Footnote I.4: Cf. also Ablative Absolute, _K_ 3.]


_H._ CAUSAL CLAUSES[I.5]

1. Relative clause with the subjunctive:

  quīppe #quī cerneret# ferrum ante oculōs micāns, accūsātiōnem
  dīmīsit, XIII, 8; cum in eam cīvitātem animadvertere dēcrēvisset
  #quae# (= cum ea) sibi #adversāta fuisset#, XXVII, 37.

2. #Cum# with the subjunctive:

  #Cum# vērō uxōrēs . . nōn #habērent#, lēgātōs circā vīcīnās gentēs
  mīsit, II, 3; #cum# sē invidiōsum . . #vidēret#, Vēientēs . .
  adversus Rōmānōs concitāvit, IV, 55; #Cum# . . facinora clandestīna
  #fierent#, Ancus carcerem . . aedificāvit, V, 21-25.

3. #Quod#,[I.6] #quia#, #quoniam#, or #quandō#, with the indicative:

  #quia# tribus impār #erat#, . . fugam capessīvit, IV, 18;
  #quandōquidem . . pūgnāvistī#, XIII, 53; #quia# nōn #pāruistī#,
  XIII, 77.

4. #Quod# with the subjunctive:

  cum sē invidiōsum apud cīvēs vidēret, #quod# bellum ūnō paucōrum
  certāmine #fīnīsset#, IV, 55-56 (see note); Tarquinius fīlium . .
  #quod# in proeliō hostem #percussisset#, praetextā . . dōnāvit, VI,
  25-27.

5. #Quasi# with the subjunctive (assumed reason):

  eum accūsantēs, #quasi# Numitōris agrōs īnfēstāre #solitus esset#,
  I, 28; Is cum īrātus ad mortem dūcī iussisset mīlitem, #quasi#
  (because, as was supposed,) #interfēcisset# commīlitōnem, XIII, 65.

NOTE.--These clauses resemble those in 4, as giving the reason ascribed
to some one other than the writer. They show also that the reason is
fictitious, and invented by the person who advances it.

    [Footnote I.5: Cf. also Ablative Absolute, _K_ 4.]

    [Footnote I.6: These conjunctions are regularly used with the
    indicative. They are employed with the subjunctive only when the
    writer is indirectly quoting the reason given by some one else.]


_I._ CONCESSIVE OR ADVERSATIVE CLAUSES

1. #Cum# (although) with the subjunctive:

  #cum retinērētur# ā propinquīs et amīcīs, tamen Carthāginem rediit,
  XVII, 53.

2. #Quamquam# with the indicative:

  #quamquam . . pellēbātur#, XXI, 242.

3. #Quamvīs# with the subjunctive:

  #quamvīs sīs# molestus, XXVI, 158.


_J._ CUM CLAUSES

The temporal, causal, and concessive uses of #cum# have already been
given separately. #Cum# was originally a temporal conjunction. From the
temporal idea were developed its other meanings. So the English _when_
frequently contains the ideas of time and cause, or time and concession
combined, and _while_ also is frequently at once temporal and
concessive. So #cum# also may represent these ideas in combination as
well as separately. In many cases, indeed, it is difficult, if not
impossible, to decide which meaning is more prominent: cf.

  #Cum# (_when_ and _since_) lupa saepius ad parvulōs . .
  #reverterētur#, I, 16; Hīs artibus #cum# (_when_ and _although_)
  Hannibalem Fabius . . #clausisset#, ille . . sē expedīvit, XIX, 31.


_K._ THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE

1. FORM.--The ablative absolute consists usually of a noun and a
participle. The participle is generally passive, but often active: #Eō
rēgnante#, IV, 3; #relābente flūmine#, I, 9.

2. Often, however, the ablative absolute consists of a noun and
adjective, or of two nouns, or a noun and pronoun. In such cases there
is an ellipsis of the lost present participle of #sum#:

  #māgnā glōriā# bellī, IV, 75; #parī# ferē #ōrnātū#, X, 6; #Appiō
  iūdice#, XII, 15; #Valeriō# et #Cossō cōnsulibus#, XIV, 1.

3. MEANING.--The ablative absolute may denote

  TIME; compare Temporal Clauses, _G_ 1, 2, and 5.

  #pulsō frātre#, rēgnāvit, I, 3; #Eā rē cōgnitā#, parvulōs . .
  abiēcit in Tiberim, I, 5; #armātīs pāstōribus#, Albam properāvit,
  I, 25.

NOTE.--This is the original and most frequent use of the ablative
absolute.

4. CAUSE: compare Causal Clauses, _H_ 2 and 3.

  #ortā# inter eōs #contentiōne#, I, 40; dūrissimā squāmārum #lōrīcā#
  omnia tēla facile #repellente#, XVII, 22; in cōnfertā multitūdine
  aegrē #prōcēdente carpentō#, XVIII, 17.

5. CONCESSION:

  agrum ēius, #omnibus# circā #vāstātīs#, intāctum relīquit, XIX, 39.

6. Often time and cause together: compare note on Cum Clauses, _J_.
Examples are:

  #mīlitibus# sēgnius #dīmicantibus#, raptum sīgnum in hostem mīsit,
  VII, 9; #occīsō Tatiō#, ad Rōmulum potentātus omnis recidit, II, 40.

7. CONDITION:

  #rē# male #gestā# (if he fails), XVI, 31; nē, #dēsertō# agrō, nōn
  esset (lest, if he neglected his farm, he might not have), XVII, 34.

8. MEANS:

  #advectīs ballistīs# et #catapultīs# (by bringing up, etc.) . .
  dēiciendus hostis fuit, XVII, 23.

9. ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCE:

  #crīnibus passīs#, II, 36; #māgnā glōriā# bellī rēgnāvit, IV, 75;
  scrībā cum rēge #parī ferē ōrnātū# sedēbat, X, 6.

10. The ablative absolute is often best translated by the English
perfect active participle with an object: #armātīs pāstōribus#, I, 25,
_having armed_ the shepherds. A combination of an abl. abs. and a finite
verb is often best rendered by two verbs in the same mood and tense:
#interēmptō Amūliō#, Numitōrem in rēgnum #restituit#, I, 37, _he killed_
Amulius _and restored_ Numitor to the throne.


_L._ PARTICIPLES

In Latin the participles, especially the perfect passive participle, are
used far more frequently than in English, and with a much larger variety
of meanings. The use of the participle tends to produce brevity of
expression. Thus the Latin participle may be equivalent to

1. A RELATIVE CLAUSE:

  #raptae# mulierēs, II, 35; Rōmānus . . male #sustinentem# (= quī
  male sustinēbat) arma Cūriātium cōnficit, IV, 29; ab laniō cultrō
  #adreptō# (with a knife _which he caught up_ from a butcher’s
  stall), XII, 24; #volentibus# (= eīs quī volēbant) cōnsulere sē dē
  iūre praebuit, XIII, 97.

2. A CAUSAL CLAUSE:

  necessitāte #compulsus# indicāvit, I, 24; nōmina mūtāre nōn potuit
  #dēterritus# . . Nāviī auctōritāte, VI, 16; Hōc terrōre cēterī
  #adāctī# nōmina prōmptius dedērunt, XV, 25.

3. A CONCESSIVE CLAUSE:

  #victus# (though beaten) crucis supplicium effūgit, XVI, 30.

4. Latin often uses a perfect passive participle in agreement with a
noun, where, judging from English usage, we should expect a noun with a
limiting genitive:

  ob #virginēs# raptās (on account of the _seizure of_ the maidens),
  II, 14; Annō trecentēsimō ab #urbe conditā# (from the _founding of_
  the city), XII, 1.

5. English is fond of coördinated verbs, that is, verbs in exactly the
same mood, tense, and construction, _e.g._ ‘They took the ass and
saddled him.’ Latin, however, objects to such constructions, and prefers
to replace the former of the two verbs by some other form of expression,
_e.g._ a passive or deponent participle. We have to notice here two
classes of sentences:

(_a_) Such sentences as fulmine #īctum cōnflagrāsse#, IV, 74, which =
fulmine #īctum esse et cōnflagrāsse#, _i.e._ ‘he _was struck_ by
lightning _and burned_,’ etc.

(_b_) such sentences as the following: parvulōs alveō #impositōs
abiēcit#, I, 6 = parvulōs alveō #imposuit et abiēcit#; #ēlatam# secūrim
in ēius caput #dēiēcit#, VI, 37 = #extulit# secūrim #et# in ēius caput
#dēiēcit#; cōniugem ē Cūriā #ēvocātum# . . rēgem #salūtāvit#, VII, 47 =
cōniugem ē Cūriā #ēvocāvit et# eum rēgem #salūtāvit#.


_M._ INDIRECT DISCOURSE

1. INDIRECT DISCOURSE DEFINED.--The terms _Direct Discourse_ and
_Indirect Discourse_ denote the two distinct ways in which a writer may
quote the statement or represent the thought of another person. If the
writer gives the exact words in which the statement was made, or in
which the thought was formulated (if put into words at all), he is said
to use the _direct_ discourse. If, on the other hand, he gives merely
the substance or the gist of his own or another’s statements or
thoughts, he is said to use the _indirect_ discourse. In Latin, as in
English, the indirect discourse is more common than the direct.

2. In passing from the direct discourse to the indirect, numerous
changes become necessary. These may, however, be readily grouped under
two heads: (_a_) those which occur in principal clauses, and (_b_) those
which occur in subordinate clauses.

3. CHANGES IN PRINCIPAL CLAUSES.--Principal clauses may be declarative,
interrogative, or imperative; that is, they may make a statement, ask a
question, or give expression to a command. We thus have to consider
three forms of principal clauses: (_a_) Statements, (_b_) Questions,
(_c_) Commands.

4. STATEMENTS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

All Statements of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect,
fall into the infinitive mood, because they become objects of verbs of
saying:

  adfīrmāns #vīsum# (sc. #esse#) ā sē Rōmulum . . eundemque
  #praecipere#, II, 51 (direct form, #vīsus est# ā mē Rōmulus . .
  īdemque #praecipit#); prōclāmābat fīliam suam iūre #caesam esse#,
  IV, 43 (direct form, fīlia mea iūre #caesa est#); minātur sē vī
  #abstrāctūrum#, XII, 12 (direct form (ego) vī tē #abstraham#).

5. QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

All Questions of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect,
fall into the subjunctive mood, because they are in reality dependent on
a verb of asking. No example of a question in formal indirect discourse
occurs in the selections contained in this book. Indirect questions
(cf. p. 3, n. 2), however, fall under this general head as giving some
one’s thoughts without quoting his exact words.

6. COMMANDS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

All Commands of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect, fall
into the subjunctive, because they are in reality dependent on some verb
like _imperāvit_, to be supplied in thought:

  proinde #nē gravārētur# sē spectandum praebēre, XXI, 289 (direct
  form, #Nōlī gravārī# tē spectandum praebēre); satis cōnstat Sullam
  . . prōclāmāsse, #vincerent#, dummodo scīrent, XXVII, 12-15 (direct
  form, #Vincite#, dummodo sciātis).

7. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

All Subordinate Clauses of the Indirect Discourse have their verbs in
the subjunctive mood:

  Tatius . . Tarpēiae optiōnem mūneris dedit, #sī . . perdūxisset#,
  II, 19-21 (direct form, dō or dabō optiōnem mūneris, #sī . .
  perdūxeris#: see note); Illa petiit quod #gererent#, II, 21 (direct
  form, Petō quod . . #geritis#).



The grammatical references in the footnotes are to the Latin Grammars in
most common use; H = Harkness’ Complete Latin Grammar, references to
Harkness’ Standard Grammar being inclosed in parentheses; M = Lane &
Morgan; A = Allen & Greenough; G = Gildersleeve; B = Bennett.



    [Illustration: THE HILLS OF ROME]

The original Latin city comprised only the Palatine and a small portion
of the surrounding territory. The Etruscans inhabited the Caelian Hill,
and extended toward the Esquiline. The Sabine town occupied the
Quirinal, which was originally connected with the Capitoline, on which
was the Sabine citadel, by a ridge sloping toward the Forum and the
Campus Martius. Ancus Marcius added to the city the Aventine, and built
a fortress on the Janiculum. Servius Tullius added the Viminal and
Esquiline, and inclosed the seven hills with a line of fortifications,
of which one portion is still traceable. The ridge connecting the
Capitoline and Quirinal was a barrier which cut the town in two. The
only means of communication between the two halves of the city, when its
population had reached nearly two million inhabitants, were the narrow
strip of land between the Capitoline and the river and a lane ten feet
wide crossing the ridge. To relieve the pressure, this ridge was cut
away by the Emperor Trajan, in whose Forum on the site of the
excavations stands the well-known ‘Trajan’s Column,’ 140 feet high,
‘erected to show to posterity how high was the mountain leveled by the
Emperor.’ The business portion of the modern city occupies the Campus
Martius, its main artery, the famous ‘Corso,’ following the line of the
ancient street shown on the plan. See Lanciani, _Ancient Rome_, p. 86.



URBIS RŌMAE VIRĪ INLŪSTRĒS


#I. Romani imperii exordium# [[stripped text]]

Proca, rex Albanorum, Numitorem et Amulium filios habuit. Numitori, qui
natu maior erat, regnum reliquit; sed Amulius, pulso fratre, regnavit
et, ut eum subole privaret, Rheam Silviam, eius filiam, Vestae
sacerdotem fecit, quae tamen Romulum et Remum geminos edidit. Ea re
cognita Amulius ipsam in vincula coniecit, parvulos alveo impositos
abiecit in Tiberim, qui tunc forte super ripas erat effusus; sed,
relabente flumine, eos aqua in sicco reliquit. Vastae tum in iis locis
solitudines erant. Lupa, ut fama traditum est, ad vagitum accurrit,
infantes lingua lambit, ubera eorum ori matremque se gessit.

Cum lupa saepius ad parvulos veluti ad catulos reverteretur, Faustulus,
pastor regius, re animadversa eos tulit in casam et Accae Larentiae
coniugi dedit educandos. Adulti deinde hi inter pastores primo ludicris
certaminibus vires auxere, deinde venando saltus peragrare et latrones a
rapina pecorum arcere coeperunt. Quare cum iis insidiati essent
latrones, Remus captus est, Romulus vi se defendit. Tum Faustulus,
necessitate compulsus, indicavit Romulo quis esset eorum avus, quae
mater. Romulus statim armatis pastoribus Albam properavit.

Interea Remum latrones ad Amulium regem perduxerunt, eum accusantes,
quasi Numitoris agros infestare solitus esset; itaque Remus a rege
Numitori ad supplicium traditus est; at cum Numitor, adulescentis vultum
considerans, aetatem minimeque servilem indolem compararet, haud procul
erat quin nepotem agnosceret. Nam Remus oris lineamentis erat matri
simillimus aetasque expositionis temporibus congruebat. Ea res dum
Numitoris animum anxium tenet, repente Romulus supervenit, fratrem
liberat, interempto Amulio avum Numitorem in regnum restituit.

Deinde Romulus et Remus urbem in iisdem locis, ubi expositi ubique
educati erant, condiderunt; sed orta inter eos contentione, uter nomen
novae urbi daret eamque imperio regeret, auspicia decreverunt adhibere.
Remus prior sex vultures, Romulus postea duodecim vidit. Sic Romulus,
victor augurio, urbem Romam vocavit. Ad novae urbis tutelam sufficere
vallum videbatur. Cuius angustias inridens cum Remus saltu id
traiecisset, eum iratus Romulus interfecit, his increpans verbis: “Sic
deinde, quicumque alius transiliet moenia mea!” Ita solus potitus est
imperio Romulus.


    [[1]]

  #I. Rōmānī imperiī exōrdium# [[as printed]]

  Proca,[1] rēx Albānōrum, Numitōrem et Amūlium fīliōs habuit.
  Numitōrī, quī nātū[2] māior erat, rēgnum relīquit;[3] sed Amūlius,
  pulsō[4] frātre, rēgnāvit et, ut[5] eum subole[6] prīvāret,[5] Rhēam
    [[2]]
  Silviam, ēius fīliam, Vestae[1] sacerdōtem fēcit, quae[2] tamen    {4}
  Rōmulum et Remum geminōs ēdidit.[3] Eā[4] rē cōgnitā Amūlius ipsam[5]
  in vincula coniēcit,[6] parvulōs
  alveō[7] impositōs[8] abiēcit in
  Tiberim, quī tunc forte super
  rīpās erat effūsus[9]; sed, relābente
  flūmine, eōs aqua in siccō                                        {10}
  relīquit. Vāstae tum in iīs
  locīs sōlitūdinēs erant. Lupa,
  ut fāmā[10] trāditum est, ad vāgītum[11] accurrit,
  īnfantēs linguā[10] lambit, ūbera eōrum ōrī[7]
  mātremque[12] sē gessit.                                          {15}

    [Illustration: TEMPLE OF VESTA / _From a coin_]

    [Illustration: A VESTAL]

  Cum[13] lupa saepius[14] ad parvulōs velutī ad
  catulōs reverterētur,[13] Faustulus, pāstor
  rēgius,[15] rē[16] animadversā eōs tulit in casam et              {18}
  Accae Lārentiae coniugī dedit[17] ēducandōs.[18] Adultī[19] deinde
  hī inter pāstōrēs prīmō lūdicrīs[20] certāminibus vīrēs auxēre,[21]
  deinde vēnandō[22] saltūs peragrāre et latrōnēs ā rapīnā[23] pecorum
  arcēre coepērunt. Quārē cum[13] iīs īnsidiātī essent[13] latrōnēs,
  Remus captus est, Rōmulus[24] vī sē dēfendit. Tum Faustulus,      {23}
    [[3]]
  necessitāte compulsus,[1] indicāvit Rōmulō quis esset[2] eōrum
  avus, quae māter. Rōmulus statim armātīs[3] pāstōribus Albam[4]   {25}
  properāvit.

  Intereā Remum latrōnēs ad Amūlium rēgem perdūxērunt,[5]
  eum accūsantēs, quasi[6] Numitōris agrōs īnfēstāre solitus[7] esset;
  itaque Remus ā rēge Numitōrī ad[8] supplicium
  trāditus est; at cum Numitor,                                     {30}
  adulēscentis vultum cōnsīderāns, aetātem[9]
  minimēque servīlem indolem comparāret,
  haud[10] procul erat quīn nepōtem āgnōsceret.
  Nam Remus ōris līneāmentīs[11] erat mātrī[12]
  simillimus[13] aetāsque expositiōnis temporibus                   {35}
  congruēbat. Ea rēs dum Numitōris animum anxium tenet,[14]
  repente Rōmulus supervenit,[15] frātrem līberat,[15] interēmptō Amūliō
  avum Numitōrem in rēgnum restituit.[15]

    [Illustration: CASA]

    [Illustration: TIBER STATUE / _Paris_]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 754.]

  Deinde Rōmulus et Remus urbem in iīsdem locīs, ubi expositī[16]
  ubique ēducātī erant, condidērunt[17]; sed ortā[18] inter eōs     {40}
  contentiōne, uter nōmen novae urbī daret[19] eamque imperiō
  regeret, auspicia[20] dēcrēvērunt[21] adhibēre. Remus prior[22] sex
    [[4]]
  vulturēs, Rōmulus posteā duodecim vīdit. Sīc Rōmulus, victor
  auguriō,[1] urbem Rōmam vocāvit. Ad[2] novae urbis tūtēlam sufficere
  vāllum vidēbātur. Cūius[3] angustiās inrīdēns cum Remus           {45}
  saltū id trāiēcisset, eum īrātus[4] Rōmulus interfēcit, hīs increpāns
  verbīs: “Sīc[5] deinde, quīcumque alius trānsiliet moenia mea!”
  Ita sōlus potītus est imperiō[6] Rōmulus.

    Among the few Trojans who escaped after the fall of Troy was
    Aeneas, the son of Venus and the hero Anchises. After many
    wanderings Aeneas reached Italy, married there Lavinia, the
    daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, and founded a town called
    Lavinium, from the name of his wife. He was succeeded by his son
    Ascanius, who founded a second city, called Alba Longa, and
    transferred thither the seat of government. The date traditionally
    assigned to the capture of Troy was 1184 B.C. Hence it is clear
    that Alba Longa was settled more than 400 years before the
    foundation of Rome in 754 B.C. To fill this gap a list of fourteen
    Alban kings, all descendants of Aeneas, was given by the Roman
    writers. How Rome itself was founded from Alba Longa is described
    in the text. It should be kept constantly in mind that little
    faith is to be put in these traditional accounts of Rome’s early
    history, at least as far as details are concerned. Latin writers
    tell us that the oldest records of the city perished in the sack
    of Rome by the Gauls in 388 B.C. The first historical work written
    by a Roman was published about 215 B.C., more than 500 years after
    the foundation of the city. Many of the stories were obviously
    invented to account for institutions which existed in the later
    times, and the traditional narrative is full of inconsistencies
    and contradictions.

    [Footnotes: I (pages 1-4)

    1.1: #Proca# was the twelfth king of Alba Longa.
    1.2: #nātū māior#: ‘greater by birth’ = ‘elder.’
    1.3: from _relinquō_.
    1.4: #pulsō# (_pellō_) #frātre#: abl. abs.; ‘his brother having
    been driven out’ (pass.) = ‘having driven out,’ _or_ ‘when he had
    driven out his brother’ (act.): H 489 (431): M 638: A 255: G 409:
    B 227.
    1.5: #ut prīvāret#: purpose: H 568 (497, II): M 893: A 317, 1:
    G 545: B 282.
    1.6: abl. of separation: H 462 (414, I): M 601: A 243, _a_: G 405:
    B 214, 1, c.
    2.1: See Voc., _Vesta_.
    2.2: #quae# = _sed ea_.
    2.3: _ēdō_.
    2.4: #eā rē cōgnitā# (_cōgnōscō_): cf. p. 1, n. 4.
    2.5: i.e. Rhea Silvia.
    2.6: _coniciō_.
    2.7: dat. with compound verb: H 429 (386): M 534: A 228: G 347:
    B 187, III.
    2.8: #impositōs# (_impōnō_) #abiēcit# (_abiciō_) = _imposuit et
    abiēcit_. English is fond of coördination of clauses; Latin
    prefers to subordinate clause to clause. Hence, in general, Latin
    avoids two coördinated verbs. See p. xxiv, L 5, and H 639
    (549, 5): A 292, R.: G 664, R. 1, 2: B 337, 2.
    2.9: _effundō_.
    2.10: abl. of means: H 476 (420): M 645: A 248, c, 1: G 401:
    B 218.
    2.11: #ad vāgītum#: ‘to (their) squalling,’ i.e. to them as they
    were crying.
    2.12: #mātrem sē gessit# (_gerō_): ‘conducted herself, acted like
    a mother.’
    2.13: not only ‘_when_,’ but also ‘_because_ the wolf kept coming
    back.’ See p. xxii, J.
    2.14: ‘very often.’ The comparative often has this intensive
    force.
    2.15: adj. = the genitive of _rēx_.
    2.16: #rē . . . tulit# (_ferō_) = _rem animadvertit et eōs tulit_;
    cf. p. xxiii, K 10.
    2.17: _dō_.
    2.18: = _ut ēducārentur_. The gerundive expresses purpose here, as
    often. See p. xviii, E 4, H 622 (544, N. 2): M 994: A 294, _d_:
    G 430: B 337, 7, 2.
    2.19: #adultī# (_adolēscō_): ‘having grown’ = ‘when grown.’
    2.20: #lūdicrīs certāminibus#: ‘with playful contests,’--such as
    running, wrestling, and boxing. For the case, cf. n. 10.
    2.21: = _auxērunt_ (_augeō_).
    2.22: The abl. of the gerund here denotes manner.
    2.23: ‘from the seizure of’ = ‘from stealing.’
    2.24: = ‘_but_ Romulus.’
    3.1: _compellō_.
    3.2: indir. quest.: H 649, II (529, I): M 810: A 334: G 467:
    B 300.
    3.3: See p. 1, n. 4.
    3.4: acc. of limit without preposition: H 418 (380, II): M 515:
    A 258, _b_: G 337: B 182, 1, _a_; cf. English ‘to go _home_.’
    3.5: _perdūcō_.
    3.6: ‘because, as they said’; _quasi_ often denotes a statement or
    thought of some person other than the writer himself. See p. xxi,
    H 5.
    3.7: _soleō_.
    3.8: #ad supplicium#: ‘to be punished’; _ad_ with its noun often
    denotes purpose.
    3.9: #aetātem . . . comparāret#: ‘compared his age with his
    nature, (which was) by no means that of a slave’; i.e. his
    appearance and demeanor indicated that he belonged to a higher
    station than the shepherds.
    3.10: #haud . . . āgnōsceret#: ‘he came very near to recognizing
    him’; how literally? In this construction _quīn_ = _ut nōn_, and
    the subjunctive is one of result: H 595 (504): M 913: A 319, _d_:
    G 555: B 284, 3.
    3.11: abl. of specification: H 480 (424): M 650: A 253: G 397:
    B 226, 1.
    3.12: _similis_ is construed with both gen. and dat.
    3.13: ‘very like’; cf. a similar use of the comparative in l. 16.
    3.14: _dum_, ‘while,’ regularly takes the pres. indic. where
    English uses the imperfect: H 533, 4 (467, 4): M 917: A 276, _e_:
    G 570, R.: B 293.
    3.15: historical presents: H 532, 3 (467, III): M 734: A 276, _d_:
    G 229: B 259, 3.
    3.16: _expōnō_.
    3.17: _condō_.
    3.18: #ortā# (_orior_) . . . #contentiōne# = ‘_because_ a strife
    arose’; see p. xxiii, K 4.
    3.19: indir. quest. depending on _contentiōne_; cf. n. 2. The
    strife centered in the question, “Which of us shall rule?”
    3.20: Romulus stood on the Palatine Hill, and Remus on the
    Aventine.
    3.21: _dēcernō_.
    3.22: ‘first.’
    4.1: ‘by virtue of the augury’; abl. of cause: H 475 (416): M 612:
    A 245: G 408: B 219.
    4.2: #Ad . . . tūtēlam#: ‘to guard the new city.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 8.
    4.3: Render ‘its.’ Latin is fond of closely connecting successive
    clauses, and for this purpose often employs a relative pronoun,
    where English uses a simple demonstrative, or a demonstrative or
    personal pronoun with a conjunction,--generally _and_, often _but_
    or _for_: cf. p. 2, n. 2.
    4.4: ‘in anger.’ An adjective may often be best rendered by an
    adverb or adverbial phrase.
    4.5: Sc. _pereat_ (subjunctive of wish).
    4.6: H 477, I (421, I): M 646: A 249: G 407: B 218, 1.]


#II. Romulus, Romanorum rex primus# [[stripped text]]

753-715 B.C.

Romulus imaginem urbis magis quam urbem fecerat; incolae deerant. Erat
in proximo lucus; hunc asylum fecit. Et statim eo mira vis latronum
pastorumque confugit. Cum vero uxores ipse populusque non haberent,
legatos circa vicinas gentes misit, qui societatem conubiumque novo
populo peterent. Nusquam benigne audita legatio est; ludibrium etiam
additum: “Cur non feminis quoque asylum aperuistis? Id enim compar foret
conubium.” Romulus, aegritudinem animi dissimulans, ludos parat; indici
deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet. Multi convenere studio etiam
videndae novae urbis, maxime Sabini cum liberis et coniugibus. Ubi
spectaculi tempus venit eoque conversae mentes cum oculis erant, tum
signo dato iuvenes Romani discurrunt, virgines rapiunt.

Haec fuit statim causa belli. Sabini enim ob virgines raptas bellum
adversus Romanos sumpserunt, et cum Romae appropinquarent, Tarpeiam
virginem nacti sunt, quae aquam forte extra moenia petitum ierat. Huius
pater Romanae praeerat arci. Titus Tatius, Sabinorum dux, Tarpeiae
optionem muneris dedit, si exercitum suum in Capitolium perduxisset.
Illa petiit quod Sabini in sinistris manibus gererent, videlicet aureos
anulos et armillas. Quibus dolose promissis, Tarpeia Sabinos in arcem
perduxit, ubi Tatius scutis eam obrui iussit; nam et ea in laevis
habuerant. Sic impia proditio celeri poena vindicata est.

Deinde Romulus ad certamen processit, et in eo loco, ubi nunc Romanum
Forum est, pugnam conseruit. Primo impetu vir inter Romanos insignis,
nomine Hostilius, fortissime dimicans cecidit; cuius interitu
consternati Romani fugere coeperunt. Iam Sabini clamitabant: “Vicimus
perfidos hospites, imbelles hostes. Nunc sciunt longe aliud esse
virgines rapere, aliud pugnare cum viris.” Tunc Romulus, arma ad caelum
tollens, Iovi aedem vovit, et exercitus seu forte seu divinitus
restitit. Itaque proelium redintegratur; sed raptae mulieres crinibus
passis ausae sunt se inter tela volantia inferre et hinc patres, hinc
viros orantes, pacem conciliarunt.

Romulus, foedere cum Tatio icto, et Sabinos in urbem recepit et regnum
cum Tatio sociavit. Verum haud ita multo post, occiso Tatio, ad Romulum
potentatus omnis recidit. Centum deinde ex senioribus elegit, quorum
consilio omnia ageret, quos senatores nominavit propter senectutem. Tres
equitum centurias constituit, populum in triginta curias distribuit. His
ita ordinatis, cum ad exercitum lustrandum contionem in campo ad Caprae
paludem haberet, subito coorta est tempestas cum magno fragore
tonitribusque et Romulus e conspectu ablatus est. Ad deos transisse
vulgo creditus est; cui rei fidem fecit Iulius Proculus, vir nobilis.
Orta enim inter patres et plebem seditione, in contionem processit,
iureiurando adfirmans visum a se Romulum augustiore forma, eundemque
praecipere ut seditionibus abstinerent et rem militarem colerent;
futurum ut omnium gentium domini exsisterent. Aedes in colle Quirinali
Romulo constituta, ipse pro deo cultus et Quirinus est appellatus.


  #II. Rōmulus, Rōmānōrum rēx prīmus# [[as printed]]

  753-715 B.C.

  Rōmulus[7] imāginem urbis magis quam urbem fēcerat; incolae
  deerant.[8] Erat in[9] proximō lūcus[10]; hunc asȳlum fēcit. Et
  statim eō mīra vīs[11] latrōnum pāstōrumque cōnfūgit. Cum[12] vērō
    [[5]]
  uxōrēs ipse[1] populusque nōn habērent, lēgātōs circā vīcīnās
  gentēs mīsit,[2] quī[3] societātem cōnūbiumque[4] novō populō      {5}
  peterent.[3] Nūsquam benīgnē audīta lēgātiō est; lūdibrium etiam
  additum[5]: “Cūr nōn fēminīs quoque asȳlum aperuistis? Id
  enim compār foret[6] cōnūbium.” Rōmulus, aegritūdinem animī
  dissimulāns, lūdōs parat; indīcī[7] deinde fīnitimīs spectāculum
  iubet. Multī convēnēre[8] studiō etiam[9] videndae novae urbis,   {10}
  māximē Sabīnī cum līberīs et coniugibus. Ubi spectāculī tempus
  vēnit eōque[10] conversae[11] mentēs[12] cum oculīs erant, tum sīgnō
  datō iuvenēs Rōmānī discurrunt, virginēs rapiunt.[13]

    [Illustration: ARMILLA]

  Haec[14] fuit statim causa bellī. Sabīnī enim ob[15] virginēs raptās
  bellum adversus Rōmānōs sūmpsērunt,[16] et cum                    {15}
  Rōmae[17] appropinquārent, Tarpēiam virginem nactī
  sunt,[18] quae aquam forte[19] extrā moenia petītum[20]
  ierat. Hūius pater Rōmānae praeerat arcī. Titus
  Tatius, Sabīnōrum dux, Tarpēiae optiōnem mūneris
  dedit, sī exercitum suum in Capitōlium                            {20}
    [[6]]
  perdūxisset.[1] Illa petiit quod[2] Sabīnī in sinistrīs manibus[3]
      gererent,[4]                                                  {21}
  vidēlicet aureōs ānulōs et armillās. Quibus dolōsē prōmissīs,
  Tarpēia Sabīnōs in arcem perdūxit, ubi Tatius
  scūtīs[5] eam obruī iussit; nam et[6] ea in laevīs[7]
  habuerant.[8] Sīc impia prōditiō celerī poenā[5] vindicāta        {25}
  est.

    [Illustration: DEATH OF TARPĒIA]

  Deinde Rōmulus ad certāmen prōcessit, et in
  eō locō, ubi nunc Rōmānum Forum[9] est, pūgnam
  cōnseruit. Prīmō[10] impetū vir inter[11] Rōmānōs īnsīgnis, nōmine[12]
  Hostīlius, fortissimē dīmicāns cecidit; cūius interitū[13] cōnsternātī
  Rōmānī fugere coepērunt. Iam Sabīnī clāmitābant: “Vīcimus         {31}
  perfidōs hospites,[14] imbellēs hostēs. Nunc sciunt longē[15] aliud
  esse virginēs rapere,[16] aliud pūgnāre[16] cum virīs.” Tunc Rōmulus,
  arma ad caelum tollēns, Iovī aedem[17] vōvit, et exercitus seu forte
  seu dīvīnitus restitit.[18] Itaque proelium redintegrātur; sed raptae
  mulierēs crīnibus[19] passīs ausae sunt sē inter tēla volantia īnferre
  et hinc patrēs, hinc virōs ōrantēs,[20] pācem conciliārunt.       {37}

    [Illustration: RŌMULUS AS QUIRĪNUS / _From a coin_]

  Rōmulus, foedere[21] cum Tatiō īctō, et Sabīnōs in urbem recēpit
    [[7]]
  et rēgnum[1] cum Tatiō sociāvit. Vērum haud ita multō post,
  occīsō[2] Tatiō, ad Rōmulum potentātus omnis recidit.[3] Centum   {40}
  deinde ex seniōribus ēlēgit, quōrum cōnsiliō[4] omnia ageret,[5] quōs
  senātōrēs nōmināvit propter senectūtem. Trēs equitum[6] centuriās
  cōnstituit, populum in trīgintā cūriās distribuit. Hīs ita
  ōrdinātīs, cum[7] ad[8] exercitum lūstrandum cōntiōnem in campō[9] ad
  Caprae[10] palūdem habēret, subitō coorta est                     {45}
  tempestās cum māgnō fragōre tonitribusque et
  Rōmulus ē cōnspectū ablātus[11] est. Ad deōs
  trānsīsse vulgō crēditus[12] est; cuī[13] reī fidem
  fēcit Iūlius Proculus, vir nōbilis. Ortā[14] enim
  inter patrēs et plēbem sēditiōne, in cōntiōnem                    {50}
  prōcessit,[15] iūreiūrandō adfīrmāns vīsum[16] ā sē
  Rōmulum augustiōre[17] fōrmā, eundemque[18] praecipere[19] ut
      sēditiōnibus
  abstinērent[20] et rem mīlitārem colerent[20]; futūrum[21] ut
    [[8]]
  omnium gentium dominī exsisterent. Aedēs in colle Quirīnālī
  Rōmulō[1] cōnstitūta,[2] ipse[3] prō deō cultus[2] et Quirīnus est
  appellātus.                                                       {56}

    [Footnotes: II (pages 4-8)

    4.7: It has been suggested that the name _Rōmulus_ is derived from
    _Rōma_, and that this in turn was made from an ancient word
    _Rumon_, ‘river.’ _Rōma_ would then be ‘the town by the river,’
    ‘Rivertown’ (cf. English ‘Watertown,’ etc.), and _Rōmulus_ would
    be ‘the man from Rivertown.’
    4.8: _dēsum_.
    4.9: #in proximō#: ‘near by.’ Phrases consisting of a preposition
    and a neuter adjective are common, and have the force of
    adjectives or adverbs.
    4.10: This grove lay between the two summits of the Capitoline
    Hill.
    4.11: #vīs# often means ‘number,’ as here, or ‘quantity’; ‘power’
    is used in the same sense in some parts of Great Britain.
    4.12: #cum#: ‘since’: H 598 (517): M 863: A 326: G 586: B 286, 2.
    5.1: = _Rōmulus_. Cf. _ipsam_, I, 5.
    5.2: _mittō_.
    5.3: #quī . . . peterent#: rel. clause of purpose; see p. xviii,
    E 2, and H 590 (497, I): M 835: A 317, 2: G 630: B 282, 2.
    5.4: In early times the right of intermarriage did not exist
    between neighboring tribes, except by special treaty.
    5.5: Sc. _est_, which, like _esse_, is often omitted with the
    passive, especially in rapid narrative.
    5.6: = _esset_: H 205, 2 (204, 2): M 327: A 119, N.: G 116, N. 1,
    _c_: B 100, N. 2.
    5.7: #indīcī . . . iubet#: ‘he bids a show to be announced.’ Such
    an announcement would carry with it an invitation to be present.
    5.8: Cf. p. 2, n. 21.
    5.9: i.e. they were not only interested in the games, but they
    were also curious to see the new city.
    5.10: = _in spectāculum_.
    5.11: _convertō_.
    5.12: #mentēs cum oculīs#: ‘minds and eyes alike.’ The emphasis is
    on _mentēs_; they were thinking only of the show.
    5.13: In rapid historical narrative, clauses are often set side by
    side without a connective. See also n. 5 above.
    5.14: #Haec#, referring to the matters related in the preceding
    paragraph, should theoretically be neuter, but is feminine because
    the predicate noun #causa# is feminine. Such attraction is the
    rule in Latin. H 396, 2 (445, 4): A 195, _d_: G 211, 5: B 246, 5.
    5.15: #ob virginēs raptās#: ‘on account of the stolen maidens’ =
    ‘on account of the seizure of the maidens.’ A participle agreeing
    with a noun is preferred in Latin to an abstract noun with a
    dependent genitive.
    5.16: _sūmō_.
    5.17: dat.; why?
    5.18: ‘they happened upon’ (_nancīscor_).
    5.19: #forte . . . ierat#: ‘had gone by chance’ = ‘happened to
    have gone.’ _Forte_ is often best rendered by a clause: ‘as it
    happened,’ or ‘it so happened.’
    5.20: supine denoting purpose; see p. xviii, E 6, and H 633 (546):
    M 1005: A 302: G 435: B 340, 1.
    6.1: The subjunctive here, as in #gererent#, is due to implied
    indirect discourse; #sī perdūxisset# represents the fut. perf.
    indic. of direct discourse _sī perdūxeris_, ‘if you shall have
    led’ = ‘if you (shall) lead’; H 646 (527, I): M 1034, 1038: A 337:
    G 656-7: B 319, B.
    6.2: ‘that which.’
    6.3: _manus_ often = ‘arm,’ just as _pēs_ = ‘leg.’
    6.4: #gererent#: either ‘wore’ or ‘bore.’ Tarpeia meant it in the
    former sense; Tatius chose to understand it in the latter.
    6.5: Why abl.?
    6.6: #et ea# = _ea quoque_: ‘these too,’ as well as the _armillae_
    and _ānulī_.
    6.7: Sc. _manibus_.
    6.8: Note the tense; they _had had_ these, too, on their arms when
    the bargain was struck.
    6.9: See Vocab., _Forum_.
    6.10: #Prīmō impetū#: ‘in the very first charge.’ The ablative
    fixes the time of #cecidit#.
    6.11: #inter . . . īnsīgnis#: ‘the most conspicuous of the
    Romans.’ How literally?
    6.12: abl. of specification.
    6.13: = _morte_. The abl. includes the ideas of means and cause.
    6.14: ‘hosts.’ The relation of host and guest was regarded by the
    Romans, as by other ancient peoples, as peculiarly sacred.
    6.15: #longē aliud . . . aliud#: ‘one thing . . . quite another.’
    Note here the difference between the English and the Latin idiom.
    6.16: Infinitives, because the clauses in which they stand are
    subjects of #esse#; H 615 (538): M 972: A 270: G 422: B 377.
    6.17: This temple was called the Temple of _Iuppiter Stator_, i.e.
    the ‘Stayer,’ the god who had _stayed_ the army’s flight.
    6.18: _resistō_: ‘maintained its ground,’ ‘held its own,’ as
    contrasted with its previous flight (_fugere coepērunt_).
    6.19: #crīnibus passīs# (_pandō_): ‘with streaming hair.’
    6.20: ‘_by_ beseeching’; the abl. of the gerund (_ōrandō_) might
    have been used.
    6.21: #foedere . . . īctō# (_īcō_): ‘having struck a treaty.’ How
    literally? The abl. abs. is one of the regular substitutes in
    Latin for the missing perfect active participle. In the phrase
    _foedus īcere_, the verb suggests the striking of the victims in
    the sacrifice which accompanied the making of the treaty.
    7.1: #rēgnum . . . sociāvit#: i.e. henceforth there were two
    kings.
    7.2: By the inhabitants of Laurentum, whose ambassadors he had
    insulted.
    7.3: Note the force of the prefix: the sovereignty ‘came _back_,’
    or ‘devolved _again_’ upon Romulus, precisely as before he shared
    it with Tatius.
    7.4: abl. of means.
    7.5: Cf. p. 5, n. 3.
    7.6: See Vocab., _eques_.
    7.7: ‘When’: H 600, II (521, II): M 858: A 325: G 585: B 288.
    7.8: #ad . . . lūstrandum# = _ut . . . lūstrāret_. What does the
    gerundive construction express?
    7.9: Sc. _Mārtiō_. See Vocab., _campus_, and map, p. xxviii.
    7.10: #Caprae palūdem#: ‘Goat Swamp.’
    7.11: _auferō_.
    7.12: #crēditus est#: we would say: ‘it was believed that he,’
    etc.; Latin prefers the personal construction, and says: ‘he was
    believed to have,’ etc.
    7.13: #cuī . . . fēcit#: literally ‘for which thing he made (i.e.
    secured) belief (i.e. general acceptance).’
    7.14: What does the abl. abs. here express? See p. xxiii, K 6.
    7.15: _prōcēdō_.
    7.16: Sc. _esse_. #vīsum esse# and #praecipere# depend on
    #adfīrmāns#: see H 642 (523, I): M 1023: A 336, 2: G 650: B 314:
    and p. xxv, M 4.
    7.17: #augustiōre fōrmā#: ‘of more imposing presence’ (than he was
    while on earth); abl. of characteristic, H 473, 2 (419, II):
    M 643: A 251: G 400: B 224.
    7.18: i.e. _Rōmulum_.
    7.19: Note the change of tense from that in _vīsum_ (_esse_)
    above. Proculus actually said: (_Rōmulus_) _praecipit_, i.e. he
    used the historical present. Above _vīsum_ (_esse_) represents
    _vīsus est_ of the direct discourse.
    7.20: substantive clause of purpose; H 565 (498, I): M 892: A 331:
    G 546: B 295, 4.
    7.21: #futūrum ut . . . exsisterent# gives the statement, not of
    Proculus, but of Romulus himself. The inf. #futūrum# (_esse_)
    depends on a verb of saying implied in #praecipere#. Romulus said
    _exsistētis_. Since, however, _exsistō_ has no supine and so no
    future participle, no direct future infinitive can be formed from
    it. Hence the phrase _futūrum ut_ with subjunctive becomes
    necessary: ‘it would happen that they would become,’ etc.
    8.1: ‘in honor of Romulus’; dat. of advantage.
    8.2: With #cōnstitūta# and #cultus# (_colō_) sc. _est_.
    8.3: For the omission of the conjunction before #ipse#, cf. p. 5,
    n. 13.]


#III. Numa Pompilius, Romanorum rex secundus# [[stripped text]]

716-673 B.C.

Successit Romulo Numa Pompilius, vir inclita iustitia et religione. Is
Curibus, ex oppido Sabinorum, accitus est. Qui cum Romam venisset, ut
populum ferum religione mitigaret, sacra plurima instituit. Aram Vestae
consecravit, et ignem in ara perpetuo alendum virginibus dedit. Flaminem
Iovis sacerdotem creavit eumque insigni veste et curuli sella adornavit.
Dicitur quondam ipsum Iovem e caelo elicuisse. Hic, ingentibus
fulminibus in urbem demissis, descendit in nemus Aventinum, ubi Numam
docuit quibus sacris fulmina essent procuranda, et praeterea imperii
certa pignora populo Romano daturum se esse promisit. Numa laetus rem
populo nuntiavit. Postridie omnes ad aedes regias convenerunt
silentesque exspectabant quid futurum esset. Atque sole orto delabitur e
caelo scisso scutum, quod ancile appellavit Numa. Id ne furto auferri
posset, Mamurium fabrum undecim scuta eadem forma fabricare iussit.
Duodecim autem Salios Martis sacerdotes legit, qui ancilia, secreta illa
imperii pignora, custodirent et Kalendis Martiis per urbem canentes et
rite saltantes ferrent. Annum in duodecim menses ad cursum lunae
descripsit; nefastos fastosque dies fecit; portas Iano gemino
aedificavit ut esset index pacis et belli; nam apertus, in armis esse
civitatem, clausus, pacatos circa omnes populos, significabat.

Leges quoque plurimas et utiles tulit Numa. Ut vero maiorem institutis
suis auctoritatem conciliaret, simulavit sibi cum dea Egeria esse
conloquia nocturna eiusque monitu se omnia, quae ageret, facere. Lucus
erat, quem medium fons perenni rigabat aqua; eo saepe Numa sine arbitris
se inferebat, velut ad congressum deae; ita omnium animos ea pietate
imbuit, ut fides ac iusiurandum non minus quam legum et poenarum metus
cives contineret. Bellum quidem nullum gessit, sed non minus civitati
profuit quam Romulus. Morbo exstinctus in Ianiculo monte sepultus est.
Ita duo deinceps reges, ille bello, hic pace, civitatem auxerunt.
Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadraginta.


  #III. Numa Pompilius, Rōmānōrum rēx secundus# [[as printed]]

  716-673 B.C.

    [Illustration: SELLA CURŪLIS / _From a coin_]

  Successit Rōmulō Numa Pompilius, vir inclitā iūstitiā[4] et
  religiōne.[4] Is Curibus,[5] ex oppidō Sabīnōrum, accītus est. Quī
  cum Rōmam vēnisset, ut[6] populum ferum religiōne mītigāret, sacra
  plūrima īnstituit. Āram Vestae cōnsecrāvit, et īgnem[7] in ārā
  perpetuō alendum virginibus dedit. Flāminem[8]                     {5}
  Iovis sacerdōtem creāvit eumque īnsīgnī veste[9]
  et curūlī[10] sellā adōrnāvit. Dīcitur[11] quondam
  ipsum Iovem ē caelō ēlicuisse.[12] Hīc, ingentibus
  fulminibus in urbem dēmissīs, dēscendit in nemus
  Aventīnum, ubi Numam docuit quibus sacrīs                         {10}
  fulmina[13] essent prōcūranda,[13] et praetereā imperiī
    [[9]]
  certa[1] pīgnora populō Rōmānō datūrum sē esse prōmīsit. Numa
  laetus rem populō nūntiāvit. Postrīdiē omnēs ad aedēs[2] rēgiās
  convēnērunt silentēsque exspectābant[3] quid futūrum esset.[4] Atque
  sōle ortō dēlābitur ē caelō scissō[5] scūtum, quod                {15}
  ancīle appellāvit Numa. Id nē[6] fūrtō auferrī
  posset,[6] Māmurium fabrum ūndecim scūta eādem
  fōrmā fabricāre iussit. Duodecim autem Saliōs[7]
  Mārtis sacerdōtēs lēgit, quī ancīlia, sēcrēta
  illa imperiī pīgnora, cūstōdīrent[8] et Kalendīs                  {20}
  Mārtiīs per urbem canentēs et rīte saltantēs
  ferrent.[8] Annum in duodecim[9] mēnsēs ad
  cursum lūnae dēscrīpsit; nefāstōs[10] fāstōsque
  diēs fēcit; portās Iānō[11] geminō[12] aedificāvit
  ut esset index pācis et bellī; nam apertus,[13] in                {25}
  armīs esse cīvitātem, clausus,[13] pācātōs circā
  omnēs populōs, sīgnificābat.

    [Illustration: ANCĪLIA / _From a coin_]

    [Illustration: IĀNUS]

  Lēgēs[14] quoque plūrimās et ūtilēs tulit                         {28}
  Numa. Ut vērō māiōrem īnstitūtīs[15] suīs auctōritātem conciliāret,
    [[10]]
  simulāvit[1] sibi[2] cum deā Ēgeriā esse conloquia nocturna ēiusque[3]
  monitū sē omnia, quae ageret, facere. Lūcus erat, quem[4] medium
  fōns perennī rigābat aquā; eō saepe Numa sine arbitrīs[5] sē      {32}
  īnferēbat, velut[6] ad congressum deae; ita[7] omnium animōs eā[7]
  pietāte imbuit, ut fidēs[8] ac iūsiūrandum nōn minus quam lēgum
  et poenārum metus cīvēs continēret.[9] Bellum quidem[10] nūllum   {35}
  gessit, sed[10] nōn minus cīvitātī prōfuit quam Rōmulus.[11] Morbō[12]
  exstīnctus in Iāniculō monte sepultus[13] est. Ita duo[14] deinceps
  rēgēs, ille bellō, hīc pāce, cīvitātem auxērunt. Rōmulus septem
  et trīgintā rēgnāvit annōs,[15] Numa trēs et quadrāgintā.         {39}

    [Footnotes: III (pages 8-10)

    8.4: See p. 7, n. 17.
    8.5: #Curibus . . . Sabīnōrum#: ‘from Cures, a town of the
    Sabines.’ H 462 (412, II): M 605: A 258, _a_: G 391: B 229, 1.
    ‘_At_ Cures, a town of the Sabines,’ would be _Curibus, in oppidō
    Sabīnōrum_. The two phrases well illustrate the difference between
    the treatment of names of towns, and that of common nouns, in
    expressions intended to denote rest in a place, or motion from a
    given point.
    8.6: #ut . . . mītigāret#: purpose clause, to be joined with what
    follows. Phrases and clauses often thus precede the words which
    they modify.
    8.7: #īgnem . . . alendum#: for the form of expression, see p. 2,
    n. 18.
    8.8: #Flāminem . . . creāvit#: ‘he appointed a priest to be
    Jupiter’s Flamen.’ See Vocab., _flāmen_.
    8.9: The distinctive parts of the dress worn by the _Flāminēs_
    were (1) a close-fitting woolen cap, from which projected a stick
    of olive wood, called _apex_; (2) the _toga praetexta_ (see
    Vocab., _toga_); and (3) a laurel crown.
    8.10: See Vocab., _sella_.
    8.11: Cf. p. 7, n. 12.
    8.12: _ēliciō_.
    8.13: The Romans derived many omens from thunder. _Prōcūrāre_ is
    the technical word for ‘caring for’ an omen, i.e. warding off all
    harmful effects by sacrifices.
    9.1: ‘trustworthy.’ This word never = ‘certain,’ as in the phrase
    ‘a certain man.’ In that sense _quīdam_ is used.
    9.2: #aedēs rēgiās#: ‘the palace.’ What two meanings does _aedēs_
    bear?
    9.3: ‘waited (to see) what,’ etc.
    9.4: Why subjunctive? See p. 3, n. 2.
    9.5: _scindō_. #dēlābitur . . . scūtum#: ‘the heavens were opened
    and a shield descended.’
    9.6: Negative clause of purpose: H 568 (497, II): M 893: A 317, 1:
    G 545, 3: B 282. On the possession of this _ancīle_ Rome’s power
    was believed to depend; hence Numa’s care in guarding it.
    9.7: #Saliōs . . . fēcit#: ‘he chose twelve Salii as priests of
    Mars.’
    9.8: Why subjunctive? Cf. p. 5, n. 3.
    9.9: Roman writers say that before Numa’s time the year contained
    only ten months, a statement hardly credible.
    9.10: #nefāstōs . . . fēcit#: ‘he made a distinction between _diēs
    nefāstī_ and _diēs fāstī_.’ See Vocab., _fāstus_ and _nefāstus_.
    9.11: Cf. p. 8, n. 1.
    9.12: ‘two-headed.’ The reference is to a temple of Janus in the
    Forum, with two doors opposite each other, so that the whole
    structure resembled an arch.
    9.13: Both adjectives = temporal clauses, signifying respectively
    ‘when open,’ ‘when shut.’ They agree with _Iānus_ understood,
    which means the temple, not the god. After Numa’s time the temple
    remained open till 235 B.C. It was opened again in the same year,
    and not closed till 29 B.C.
    9.14: #Lēgēs quoque#: ‘_Laws_ too,’ i.e. laws as well as religious
    ceremonies and priestly orders.
    9.15: #īnstitūtīs#: dative with #conciliāret#.
    10.1: How different in meaning from _dissimulāns_, II, 9?
    10.2: #sibi . . . esse conloquia#: ‘that he had conversations.’
    #sibi# is dat. of the possessor; H 430 (387): M 542: A 231: G 349:
    B 190.
    10.3: #ēius monitū#: ‘at her suggestion.’ Cf. _quōrum cōnsiliō_,
    II, 41.
    10.4: #quem medium#: ‘the middle of which.’
    10.5: Here in its original sense of ‘witness.’
    10.6: #velut . . . deae#: ‘giving it out that he was going to meet
    the goddess’; #velut# is used here as _quasi_ is in I, 28. See
    note there [[note 3.6]]. For #ad congressum# see p. 3, n. 8.
    #deae# is dat. after the prefix in #congressum#; cf. H 429 (386):
    M 532: A 228: G 347: B 187, III.
    10.7: #ita# and #eā# reinforce each other. ‘To such a degree
    (#ita#), and with such (#eā#) piety,’ etc.
    10.8: Here = ‘respect for their oaths (and obligations).’ #fidēs
    ac iūsiūrandum# together = ‘their own moral sense,’ as opposed to
    the restraints of the law.
    10.9: subjunctive of result: H 570 (500, II): M 905: A 319, 1:
    G 552, 2: B 284.
    10.10: #quidem# is concessive, and so = ‘to be sure, it is true.’
    Hence #quidem . . . sed# = _quamquam . . . sed tamen_.
    10.11: Sc. _prōfuerat_.
    10.12: #Morbō exstīnctus# (_exstinguō_) means that he died a
    natural death. We are to feel a contrast here to the miraculous
    disappearance of Romulus, as described on page 7.
    10.13: _sepeliō_.
    10.14: #duo deinceps rēgēs#: ‘two _successive_ kings.’ When an
    adverb like _deinceps_ stands between an adjective and a noun, it
    has the value of an adjective.
    10.15: acc. of extent of time: H 417 (379): M 513: A 256, 2:
    G 336: B 181. See also p. xvii, D 1.]


#IV. Tullus Hostīlius, Romanorum rex tertius# [[stripped text]]

673-641 B.C.

Mortuo Numa Tullus Hostilius rex creatus est. Hic non solum proximo regi
dissimilis, sed ferocior etiam Romulo fuit. Eo regnante bellum inter
Albanos et Romanos exortum est. Ducibus Hostilio et Fufetio placuit rem
paucorum certamine finiri. Erant apud Romanos trigemini fratres Horatii,
tres apud Albanos Curiatii. Cum eis agunt reges ut pro sua quisque
patria dimicent ferro. Foedus ictum est ea lege, ut, unde victoria, ibi
imperium esset.

Icto foedere trigemini arma capiunt et in medium inter duas acies
procedunt. Consederant utrimque duo exercitus. Datur signum, infestique
armis terni iuvenes, magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, concurrunt. Ut
primo concursu increpuere arma micantesque fulsere gladii, horror ingens
spectantes perstringit. Consertis deinde manibus, statim duo Romani
alius super alium exspirantes ceciderunt; tres Albani vulnerati. Ad
casum Romanorum conclamavit gaudio exercitus Albanus. Romanos iam spes
tota deserebat. Unum Horatium tres Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is
integer fuit; sed quia tribus impar erat, ut distraheret hostes, fugam
capessivit, singulos per intervalla secuturos esse ratus. Iam aliquantum
spatii ex eo loco, ubi pugnatum est, aufugerat, cum respiciens videt
unum e Curiatiis haud procul ab sese abesse. In eum magno impetu redit,
et dum Albanus exercitus inclamat Curiatiis ut opem ferant fratri, iam
Horatius eum occiderat. Alterum deinde, priusquam tertius posset
consequi, interfecit.

Iam singuli supererant, sed nec spe nec viribus pares. Alter erat
intactus ferro et geminata victoria ferox; alter fessum vulnere, fessum
cursu trahebat corpus. Nec illud proelium fuit. Romanus exsultans male
sustinentem arma Curiatium conficit, iacentem spoliat. Romani ovantes ac
gratulantes Horatium accipiunt et domum deducunt. Princeps ibat
Horatius, trium fratrum spolia prae se gerens. Cui obvia fuit soror,
quae desponsa fuerat uni ex Curiatiis, visoque super umeros fratris
paludamento sponsi, quod ipsa confecerat, flere et crines solvere
coepit. Movet ferocis iuvenis animum comploratio sororis in tanto gaudio
publico; itaque stricto gladio transfigit puellam, simul eam verbis
increpans: “Abi hinc cum immaturo amore ad sponsum, oblita fratrum,
oblita patriae. Sic eat, quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem.”

Atrox id visum est facinus patribus plebique; quare raptus est in ius
Horatius et apud iudices condemnatus. Iam accesserat lictor iniciebatque
laqueum. Tum Horatius ad populum provocavit. Interea pater Horatii senex
proclamabat filiam suam iure caesam esse; et iuvenem amplexus spoliaque
Curiatiorum ostentans, orabat populum ne se, quem paulo ante cum egregia
stirpe conspexissent, orbum liberis faceret. Non tulit populus patris
lacrimas iuvenemque absolvit admiratione magis virtutis quam iure
causae. Ut tamen caedes manifesta expiaretur, pater quibusdam
sacrificiis peractis transmisit per viam tigillum et filium capite
adoperto velut sub iugum misit; quod tigillum _Sororium_ appellatum est.

Non diu pax Albana mansit; nam Mettius Fufetius, dux Albanorum, cum se
invidiosum apud cives videret, quod bellum uno paucorum certamine
finisset, ut rem corrigeret, Veientes Fidenatesque adversus Romanos
concitavit. Ipse, a Tullo in auxilium arcessitus, aciem in collem
subduxit, ut fortunam belli exspectaret et sequeretur. Qua re Tullus
intellecta magna voce ait suo illud iussu Mettium facere, ut hostes a
tergo circumvenirentur. Quo audito hostes territi et victi sunt. Postero
die Mettius cum ad gratulandum Tullo venisset, iussu illius quadrigis
religatus et in diversa distractus est. Deinde Tullus Albam propter
ducis perfidiam diruit et Albanos Romam transire iussit.

Roma interim crevit Albae ruinis; duplicatus est civium numerus; mons
Caelius urbi additus et, quo frequentius habitaretur, eam sedem Tullus
regiae cepit ibique deinde habitavit. Auctarum virium fiducia elatus
bellum Sabinis indixit. Pestilentia insecuta est; nulla tamen ab armis
quies dabatur. Credebat enim rex bellicosus salubriora militiae quam
domi esse iuvenum corpora, sed ipse quoque diuturno morbo est
implicitus. Tunc vero adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi
feroces, ut nulli rei posthac nisi sacris operam daret. Memorant Tullum
fulmine ictum cum domo conflagrasse. Tullus magna gloria belli regnavit
annos duos et triginta.


  #IV. Tullus Hostīlius, Rōmānōrum rēx tertius# [[as printed]]

  673-641 B.C.

  Mortuō[16] Numā Tullus Hostīlius rēx creātus est. Hīc nōn
  sōlum proximō[17] rēgī dissimilis, sed ferōcior etiam Rōmulō[18] fuit.
    [[11]]
  Eō rēgnante[1] bellum inter Albānōs et Rōmānōs exortum[2] est.
  Ducibus[3] Hostīliō et Fūfetiō placuit rem[4] paucōrum certāmine[5]
  fīnīrī. Erant apud Rōmānōs trigeminī frātrēs Horātiī, trēs apud    {5}
  Albānōs Cūriātiī. Cum[6] eīs agunt rēgēs ut prō suā quisque
  patriā dīmicent[7] ferrō. Foedus[8] īctum est eā[9] lēge, ut, unde[10]
  victōria, ibi imperium esset.

  Īctō foedere trigeminī arma capiunt et in medium inter duās
  aciēs prōcēdunt. Cōnsēderant utrimque duo exercitūs. Datur        {10}
  sīgnum, īnfēstīque[11] armīs ternī[12] iuvenēs, māgnōrum[13]
      exercituum
  animōs gerentēs, concurrunt. Ut prīmō concursū increpuēre[14]
  arma micantēsque fulsēre[15] gladiī, horror ingēns spectantēs[16]
  perstringit. Cōnsertīs[17] deinde manibus, statim duo Rōmānī alius
  super alium exspīrantēs cecidērunt[18]; trēs Albānī vulnerātī. Ad[19]
  cāsum Rōmānōrum conclāmāvit gaudiō exercitus Albānus. Rōmānōs     {16}
  iam spēs tōta dēserēbat. Ūnum Horātium trēs Cūriātiī
  circumsteterant.[20] Forte[21] is integer fuit; sed quia tribus impār
  erat, ut distraheret hostēs, fugam capessīvit,[22] singulōs[23] per
      intervālla
    [[12]]
  secūtūrōs esse ratus. Iam aliquantum[1] spatiī ex eō locō,        {20}
  ubi pūgnātum est, aufūgerat, cum respiciēns videt ūnum ē Cūriātiīs
  haud procul ab sēsē abesse. In[2] eum māgnō impetū redit,
  et dum Albānus exercitus inclāmat[3] Cūriātiīs ut opem ferant
  frātrī, iam Horātius eum occīderat. Alterum[4] deinde, priusquam[5]
  tertius posset[5] cōnsequī, interfēcit.                           {25}

  Iam singulī[6] supererant,[7] sed nec spē nec vīribus parēs.[8]
      Alter[9]
  erat intāctus ferrō et geminātā victōriā ferōx[10]; alter fessum[11]
      vulnere,
  fessum cursū trahēbat[12] corpus. Nec illud proelium fuit.
  Rōmānus exsultāns male sustinentem arma Cūriātium cōnficit,[13]
  iacentem[14] spoliat. Rōmānī ovantēs[15] ac grātulantēs Horātium  {30}
  accipiunt et domum[16] dēdūcunt. Prīnceps ībat Horātius, trium frātrum
  spolia prae sē gerēns. Cuī[17] obvia fuit soror, quae dēspōnsa
  fuerat ūnī ex Cūriātiīs, vīsōque[18] super umerōs frātris palūdāmentō
  spōnsī, quod ipsa cōnfēcerat, flēre et crīnēs[19] solvere coepit.
      Movet                                                         {34}
  ferōcis iuvenis animum complōrātiō sorōris in tantō gaudiō pūblicō;
  itaque strictō[20] gladiō trānsfīgit puellam, simul eam verbīs[21]
      increpāns:                                                    {36}
  “Abī[22] hinc cum immātūrō amōre ad spōnsum, oblīta[23]
    [[13]]
  frātrum, oblīta patriae. Sīc eat,[1] quaecumque Rōmāna lūgēbit
  hostem.”

  Atrōx id vīsum est facinus[2] patribus[3] plēbīque; quārē raptus  {40}
  est in iūs[4] Horātius et apud iūdicēs condemnātus. Iam accesserat
  līctor[5] iniciēbatque[6] laqueum. Tum Horātius ad populum prōvocāvit.
  Intereā pater Horātiī senex prōclāmābat fīliam suam iūre
  caesam[7] esse; et iuvenem amplexus[8] spoliaque Cūriātiōrum
  ostentāns, ōrābat populum nē[9] sē, quem paulō                    {45}
  ante cum ēgregiā stirpe cōnspexissent,[10] orbum
  līberīs[11] faceret.[9] Nōn tulit populus patris lacrimās
  iuvenemque[12] absolvit admīrātiōne[13] magis
  virtūtis quam iūre[13] causae. Ut tamen caedēs
  manifēsta expiārētur, pater quibusdam[14] sacrificiīs             {50}
  perāctīs trānsmīsit per viam[15] tigillum et fīlium
  capite adopertō velut sub iugum[16] mīsit; quod
  tigillum _Sorōrium_[17] appellātum est.

    [Illustration: FASCĒS]

  Nōn diū pāx[18] Albāna mānsit[19]; nam Mettius                    {54}
  Fūfetius, dux Albānōrum, cum[20] sē invidiōsum apud cīvēs vidēret,[20]
    [[14]]
  quod[1] bellum ūnō[2] paucōrum certāmine fīnīsset, ut[3] rem
      corrigeret,
  Vēientēs Fīdēnatēsque adversus Rōmānōs concitāvit. Ipse,
  ā Tullō in[4] auxilium arcessītus, aciem in collem subdūxit, ut
      fortūnam
  bellī exspectāret et sequerētur. Quā[5] rē Tullus intellēctā      {59}
  māgnā vōce ait[6] suō illud iussū Mettium facere, ut hostēs ā tergō
  circumvenīrentur. Quō audītō hostēs territī et victī sunt. Posterō
  diē Mettius cum ad grātulandum Tullō vēnisset, iussū illīus
  quadrīgīs[7] religātus et in[8] dīversa distrāctus[9] est. Deinde
      Tullus Albam
  propter ducis perfidiam dīruit et Albānōs Rōmam trānsīre iussit.[10]

  Rōma interim crēvit[11] Albae ruīnīs[12]; duplicātus est cīvium   {65}
  numerus; mōns Caelius urbī additus et, quō[13] frequentius
  habitārētur,[13] eam[14] sēdem Tullus rēgiae cēpit ibique deinde
      habitāvit.
  Auctārum[15] vīrium fīdūciā ēlātus[16] bellum Sabīnīs indīxit.
      Pēstilentia
    [[15]]
  īnsecūta[1] est; nūlla tamen ab armīs quiēs dabātur. Crēdēbat
  enim rēx bellicōsus[2] salūbriōra mīlitiae[3] quam domī esse      {70}
  iuvenum[4] corpora, sed ipse quoque[5] diuturnō morbō est implicitus.
  Tunc vērō adeō[6] frāctī[7] simul cum corpore sunt spīritūs[8]
  illī ferōcēs, ut nūllī reī posthāc nisi sacrīs operam daret. Memorant
  Tullum fulmine[9] īctum cum domō cōnflagrāsse. Tullus
  māgnā glōriā bellī rēgnāvit annōs duōs et trīgintā.               {75}

    [Footnotes: IV (pages 10-15)

    10.16: #Mortuō Numā#: abl. abs. = _post Numae mortem_.
    10.17: #proximō rēgī#: ‘his predecessor.’ Join with #dissimilis#,
    which has the same constructions as _similis_ (p. 3, n. 12).
    _Proximus_ may mean ‘nearest (in the past)’ = ‘last,’ or ‘nearest
    (in the future)’ = ‘next.’ The context must determine the sense.
    10.18: abl. of comparison. H 471 (417): M 615: A 247: G 398:
    B 217.
    11.1: #Eō rēgnante#: ‘during his reign.’ How does this abl. abs.
    differ from those in I, lines 3, 5, 18, 37, and 40? Cf. p. xxii,
    K 1.
    11.2: _exorior_.
    11.3: #Ducibus . . . placuit#: ‘the leaders agreed that,’ etc. The
    subject of #placuit# is the clause #rem . . . fīnīrī#.
    11.4: The meanings of _rēs_ are extremely varied. Here #rem# may
    be translated ‘dispute,’ and so practically = _bellum_ above. For
    the mood of _fīnīrī_, see p. 6, n. 16.
    11.5: The abl. here denotes both the means by which and the manner
    in which the quarrel was to be ended.
    11.6: #Cum . . . rēgēs#: ‘the kings urge them.’ How literally?
    11.7: Cf. p. 1, n. 5.
    11.8: Cf. p. 6, n. 21.
    11.9: #eā lēge ut#: ‘with the understanding that,’ ‘with the
    proviso (#lēge#) that.’ The clause #ut . . . esset# expresses the
    purpose which the leaders had in mind in striking the treaty.
    11.10: Sc. _fuisset_. #unde# = _quā ex parte_. We would rather
    say, ‘_on_ which side.’ Latin often thus prefers to view an idea
    as one of _motion from_ a place where the English views it rather
    as that of _rest at_ a point. Why?
    11.11: #īnfēstī armīs#: ‘hostile in (respect of) arms,’ i.e. ‘with
    hostile arms.’
    11.12: ‘three on each side.’ Why do we give this meaning to the
    adjective?
    11.13: #māgnōrum . . . gerentēs#: ‘breathing the spirit of mighty
    armies.’ So we speak of a person as ‘a host in himself.’
    11.14: #increpuēre# describes the sound made by the spears as they
    struck the shields.
    11.15: _fulgeō_.
    11.16: = _spectātōrēs_.
    11.17: _cōnserō_.
    11.18: _cadō_.
    11.19: #Ad cāsum#: we say ‘_at_ the fall,’ but the Latin thinks of
    the shout as rising _against_ (i.e. to greet) the fall.
    11.20: _circumstō_.
    11.21: Cf. p. 5, n. 19.
    11.22: #fugam capessīvit#: ‘took (to) flight’; cf. ‘to take to
    one’s heels.’
    11.23: #singulōs per intervālla#: ‘one by one, at intervals.’
    12.1: #aliquantum spatiī#: ‘some distance.’ #spatiī# is a
    partitive genitive; #aliquantum# is an acc. of extent of space:
    H 417 (379): M 513: A 257: G 335: B 181.
    12.2: #In . . . redit# (_redeō_): ‘he turned and made a furious
    attack upon him.’ How literally?
    12.3: #inclāmat . . . ferant#: ‘was shouting . . . (bidding them)
    to bear aid.’ For #inclāmat#, see p. 3, n. 14.
    12.4: = _secundum_, as often.
    12.5: H 605, II (520, 2): M 880: A 327: G 577: B 292.
    12.6: ‘one on each side.’ Cf. _ternī_, l. 11, and note there.
    12.7: _supersum_.
    12.8: ‘equally matched.’
    12.9: #alter . . . alter#: ‘the one . . . the other (of the two).’
    With #intāctus# cf. _integer_, l. 18.
    12.10: ‘inspirited, emboldened.’
    12.11: The repetition of #fessum# gives emphasis by dwelling upon
    the fact.
    12.12: ‘was dragging,’ i.e. instead of moving with life and vigor.
    We would rather say, ‘could barely drag his body along.’ So we
    would render #male sustinentem arma#, l. 29, as ‘barely able to
    endure (the weight of) his armor.’
    12.13: = _occidit_.
    12.14: ‘as he lay prostrate.’
    12.15: #ovantēs ac grātulantēs#: ‘with rejoicing and
    congratulations.’ Participles, like adjectives, may have adverbial
    force.
    12.16: accus. of limit of motion; cf. p. 3, n. 4.
    12.17: Cf. p. 4, n. 3.
    12.18: #vīsō . . . spōnsī#: ‘when she saw her lover’s cloak,’ etc.
    Cf. p. 1, n. 4.
    12.19: #crīnēs solvere#: a common token of grief among the Romans.
    Cf. _crinibus passīs_, II, 36.
    12.20: _stringō_.
    12.21: #verbīs increpāns#: cf. _hīs increpāns verbīs_, I, 46.
    12.22: _abeō_.
    12.23: #oblīta# (_oblivīscor_) #frātrum#: ‘you who have
    forgotten,’ or ‘since you have forgotten.’ For the genitives
    #frātrum# and #patriae#, see H 454 (406, II): M 588: A 219: G 376:
    B 206, 1. Cf. the English ‘forgetful of.’ For the repetition of
    #oblīta# see n. 11.
    13.1: ‘fare, perish.’ The subject is _fēmina_, or _illa fēmina_,
    as suggested by #quaecumque#. How? With the whole sentence cf.
    _Sīc . . . mea_, I, 47, and see note there.
    13.2: #facinus#, by its derivation from _faciō_, properly =
    ‘a deed,’ whether good or bad, but generally ‘a crime.’
    13.3: = _senātōribus_, who were officially styled _Patrēs
    Cōnscrīptī_. #patribus plēbīque# virtually = _omnibus_.
    13.4: ‘court.’
    13.5: See Vocab., _līctor_.
    13.6: The tense has dramatic force and = ‘was (actually)
    putting on.’
    13.7: _caedō_.
    13.8: _amplector_.
    13.9: clause of negative purpose: see p. 9, n. 6.
    13.10: _cōnspiciō_. The subjunctive may be explained (1) as caused
    by attraction to #faceret#, H 652, 1 (529, II): M 793: A 342:
    G 663: B 324, or (2) as in informal indir. disc.
    13.11: abl. of separation (cf. p. 1, n. 6), to be joined with
    #orbum faceret#, which = _orbāret_.
    13.12: After a negative clause the Romans often use _que_ or _et_,
    where the English idiom requires _but_.
    13.13: why abl.? see p. 4, n. 1.
    13.14: Cf. p. 6, n. 21.
    13.15: ‘a (certain) street.’ The street referred to ran up the
    slope of the Esquiline Hill.
    13.16: See Vocab., _iugum_. The father of Horatius, by making him
    pass, as it were, beneath the yoke, symbolically executed the
    sentence of death passed by the judges.
    13.17: Sc. _Tigillum_. Livy says that this beam was renewed from
    time to time at public expense, even down to his own day. Another
    memorial of this fight was the _Pīla_ (‘Column’) _Horātia_,
    adjoining the Forum, on which Horatius is said to have hung the
    spoils taken from the Curiatii.
    13.18: #pāx Albāna# = _pāx cum Albā īcta_.
    13.19: _maneō_.
    13.20: #cum . . . vidēret#: subjunctive of cause. See p. 2, n. 13;
    p. 4, n. 12; and p. xx, H 2.
    14.1: #quod . . . fīnīsset#: ‘because (as they said),’ etc. The
    subjunctive is due to the implied indirect discourse, and
    expresses the thought, not of the writer, but of Mettius’
    subjects. See p. xxi, H 4.
    14.2: #ūnō . . . certāmine#: ‘by one contest (only), and that a
    contest in which but few fought.’ Cf. l. 4.
    14.3: #ut . . . corrigeret#: ‘to set the matter straight,’ i.e. to
    regain the good will of his people. Join this clause with what
    follows.
    14.4: #in auxilium#: ‘to give aid,’ an expression of purpose.
    Cf. _ad supplicium_, I, 29, and note. Tullus summoned Mettius
    in accordance with the treaty made before the fight between the
    Horatii and the Curiatii (l. 7).
    14.5: #Quā rē . . . intellēctā# (_intellegō_): ‘when he noticed
    this state of things.’ For #quā#, see p. 4, n. 3.
    14.6: #ait . . . circumvenīrentur#: Tullus’ purpose in making this
    statement was partly to frighten the enemy, partly to reassure his
    own men. Livy relates that Tullus had stationed his own forces
    against the Veientes, the Albans against the Fidenates. The
    withdrawal of Mettius exposed the flank of the Romans to attack
    from the Fidenates, and so was regarded at once by the Romans as
    proof of treachery.
    14.7: abl. of separation (cf. p. 1, n. 6). _ligāre_ and its
    compounds are construed with either (1) the simple ablative, or
    (2) the ablative with _ab_, _dē_, or _ex_.
    14.8: #in . . . est#: ‘was torn limb from limb.’
    14.9: _distrahō_.
    14.10: _iubeō_.
    14.11: _crēscō_.
    14.12: abl. of means.
    14.13: #quō . . . habitārētur#: ‘that it might be more densely
    inhabited,’ i.e. that a larger number of people might be induced
    to live there. In purpose clauses containing a comparative, _quō_
    is used instead of _ut_: H 568, 7 (497, 2): M 909: A 317, _b_:
    G 545, 2; B 282, _a_. This _quō_ is the abl. sing. neut. of the
    relative pronoun, and = _ut eō_, ‘that thereby.’
    14.14: #eam . . . cēpit# (_capiō_): ‘Tullus chose it (the
    mountain) as the site of his palace,’ Why is #eam# feminine,
    although referring to _mōns Caelius_, which is masculine? Cf.
    p. 5, n. 14.
    14.15: #Auctārum . . . fīdūciā#: ‘because of the confidence
    (begotten) of his increased strength,’ or ‘by his confidence in
    his increased strength.’ In the former case the gen. is
    subjective; in the latter it is objective; H 440, 1 and 2 (396, II
    and III): M 553, 571: A 213, 1, 2: G 363, 1 and 2: B 199, 200.
    14.16: _efferō_.
    15.1: _īnsequor_.
    15.2: #bellicōsus# = a causal clause _quod ipse bellicōsus erat_.
    15.3: #mīlitiae quam domī#: ‘in war than in peace.’ See H 484, 2
    (426, 2): M 622: A 258, _d_: G. 411, R. 2: B 232, 2; xvi, A 1.
    15.4: = ‘the fighting men,’ because _iuvenēs_ (men under 45) were
    eligible for military duty.
    15.5: #sed ipse quoque#: ‘but (i.e. in spite of this statement) he
    too.’
    15.6: ‘so completely.’
    15.7: _frangō_.
    15.8: #spīritūs illī ferōcēs#: ‘that high spirit of his’; #illī# =
    ‘that for which he was so famous.’ Cf. l. 2.
    15.9: #fulmine īctum . . . cōnflagrāsse# = _fulmine īctum esse et
    cōnflagrāsse_. Instead of using two coördinated verbs with a
    common subject, Latin regularly represents the first verb by a
    perf. pass. part., or by the past part. of a deponent verb, in
    agreement with that common subject. Cf. p. 2, n. 8, and p. xxiv,
    L 5.]


#V. Ancus Marcius, Romanorum rex quartus# [[stripped text]]

641-616 B.C.

Tullo mortuo Ancum Marcium regem populus creavit. Numae Pompilii nepos
Ancus Marcius erat, aequitate et religione avo similis. Tunc Latini, cum
quibus Tullo regnante ictum foedus erat, sustulerant animos, et
incursionem in agrum Romanum fecerunt. Ancus, priusquam eis bellum
indiceret, legatum misit, qui res repeteret, eumque morem posteri
acceperunt. Id autem hoc modo fiebat. Legatus, ubi ad fines eorum venit
a quibus res repetuntur, capite velato “Audi, Iuppiter,” inquit “audite,
fines huius populi. Ego sum publicus nuntius populi Romani; verbis meis
fides sit.” Deinde peragit postulata. Si non deduntur res quas exposcit,
hastam in fines hostium emittit bellumque ita indicit. Legatus, qui ea
de re mittitur, _Fetialis_ ritusque belli indicendi _Ius Fetiale_
appellatur.

Legato Romano res repetenti superbe responsum est a Latinis; quare
bellum hoc modo eis indictum est. Ancus, exercitu conscripto, profectus
Latinos fudit et compluribus oppidis deletis cives Romam traduxit. Cum
autem in tanta hominum multitudine facinora clandestina fierent, Ancus
carcerem in media urbe ad terrorem increscentis audaciae aedificavit.
Idem nova moenia urbi circumdedit, Ianiculum montem ponte sublicio in
Tiberi facto urbi coniunxit, in ore Tiberis Ostiam urbem condidit.
Pluribus aliis rebus intra paucos annos confectis; immatura morte
praereptus obiit.


  #V. Ancus Mārcius, Rōmānōrum rēx quārtus# [[as printed]]

  641-616 B.C.

    [Illustration: NUMA AND ANCUS MĀRCIUS]

  Tullō mortuō[10] Ancum Mārcium rēgem[11]
  populus creāvit. Numae Pompiliī nepōs
  Ancus Mārcius erat, aequitāte[12] et
  religiōne[12] avō similis. Tunc Latīnī, cum quibus
  Tullō rēgnante īctum foedus erat,                                  {5}
  sustulerant[13] animōs, et incursiōnem in agrum
  Rōmānum fēcērunt. Ancus, priusquam[14] eīs
  bellum indīceret,[14] lēgātum mīsit, quī[15] rēs
    [[16]]
  repeteret, eumque[1] mōrem posterī accēpērunt. Id autem hōc
  modō fīēbat. Lēgātus, ubi ad fīnēs eōrum venit ā quibus rēs       {10}
  repetuntur, capite[2] vēlātō “Audī, Iuppiter,” inquit[3] “audīte,
  fīnēs hūius[4] populī. Ego sum pūblicus[5] nūntius populī Rōmānī;
  verbīs[6] meīs fidēs sit.” Deinde peragit pōstulāta. Sī nōn dēduntur
  rēs quās expōscit, hastam in fīnēs hostium ēmittit bellumque
  ita indīcit. Lēgātus, quī eā dē rē mittitur, _Fētiālis_[7] rītusque
      bellī                                                         {15}
  indīcendī _Iūs Fētiāle_ appellātur.

    [Illustration: CARCER MAMERTĪNUS]

  Lēgātō Rōmānō rēs repetentī superbē respōnsum[8] est ā Latīnīs;
  quārē bellum hōc[9] modō eīs indictum est. Ancus, exercitū
  cōnscrīptō, profectus[10] Latīnōs fūdit et
  complūribus oppidīs dēlētīs cīvēs Rōmam                           {20}
  trādūxit[11]. Cum[12] autem in tantā hominum
  multitūdine facinora clandestīna
  fierent, Ancus carcerem[13] in mediā urbe
  ad[14] terrōrem incrēscentis audāciae aedificāvit.
  Īdem nova moenia urbī circumdedit,                                {25}
  Iāniculum montem ponte[15] subliciō
    [[17]]
  in Tiberī factō urbī cōniūnxit, in ōre[1] Tiberis Ōstiam urbem
  condidit. Plūribus aliīs rēbus intrā paucōs annōs cōnfectīs;
  immātūrā morte praereptus obiit.                                  {29}

    [Footnotes: V (pages 15-17)

    15.10: What is the force of this abl. abs.?
    15.11: #rēgem populus creāvit#: This phrase, as it stands, is
    somewhat misleading. As a matter of fact, the kingship was neither
    hereditary nor elective. On the death of a king an _interrēx_, or
    regent, was chosen, who took the auspices, and the augurs inferred
    from the signs that the gods favored a certain candidate. He was
    then elected by the Assembly, and the choice was confirmed by the
    Senate.
    15.12: abl. of specification.
    15.13: #sustulerant# (_tollō_) #animōs#: ‘had plucked up courage.’
    15.14: Cf. _priusquam . . . posset_, IV, 25, and note.
    15.15: #quī . . . repeteret#: relative clause of purpose. _Rēs
    repetere_ = ‘to demand the (stolen) things,’ is a technical phrase
    of war, and = ‘to demand restitution or satisfaction.’ The
    opposite is _rēs reddere_, or _rēs dēdere_, as in l. 13.
    16.1: #eum mōrem . . . accēpērunt#: ‘that custom posterity (the
    Romans of later times) adopted.’ Traces of the custom appear as
    late as the reign of Augustus.
    16.2: While praying, the Romans covered their faces with a fold of
    the toga, that no untoward sight might interrupt their devotions.
    The _lēgātus_ here covers his face, because he is praying to
    Jupiter and to the #fīnēs#, which are personified.
    16.3: This word, rather than _dīxit_, is used with direct
    discourse, and regularly stands, as here, _within_ the quotation.
    16.4: The _lēgātus_, of course, said _fīnēs Albānōrum_, or
    _Vēientium_, as the case might be.
    16.5: ‘official,’ i.e. duly accredited.
    16.6: #verbīs . . . sit# = _verbīs meīs crēdite_. Cf. II, 48, _cuī
    reī fidem fēcit_. #sit# is a hortatory subjunctive; H 559, 1
    (484, II): M 713: A 266: G 263: B 274.
    16.7: See Vocab., _fētiālis_.
    16.8: #respōnsum . . . Latīnīs# = _Latīnī respondērunt_. The
    impersonal passive is common.
    16.9: #hōc#: ‘described _above_,’ in lines 9-16. In l. 9 _hōc_ =
    ‘described _below_.’ _Hīc_ more often bears the latter sense, i.e.
    it refers to what follows.
    16.10: #profectus . . . fūdit# (_fundō_): cf. p. 15, n. 9.
    16.11: ‘transferred, removed.’
    16.12: #Cum . . . fierent#: a causal clause; cf. p. 13, n. 20.
    16.13: See Vocab., _carcer_.
    16.14: #ad . . . audāciae# = _ut incrēscentem audāciam terrēret_.
    Cf. p. 3, n. 8, and _ad congressum deae_, III, 33. #audāciae# is
    objective genitive: cf. p. 14, n. 15.
    16.15: #ponte subliciō#: abl. abs., with #factō#, expressing
    means. This bridge, the earliest and most famous of the bridges
    over the Tiber, derived its name from the circumstance that it was
    always made of wood and supported on piles (_sublicae_). It is
    this bridge that figures so largely in Macaulay’s _Lays of Ancient
    Rome_, Horatius, stanzas xxix. ff.
    17.1: #in ōre#: ‘at the mouth.’ The town Ostia got its name from
    its position _in ōre Tiberis_. It was the port of Rome, and thus
    attained great importance. Great harbors were built there in the
    days of the Empire, the remains of which, as well as of the
    warehouses built for the storage of merchandise from abroad, are
    still visible.]


#VI. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Romanorum rex quintus# [[stripped text]]

616-578 B.C.

Anco regnante Lucius Tarquinius, Tarquiniis, ex Etruriae urbe,
profectus, cum coniuge et fortunis omnibus Romam commigravit. Additur
haec fabula: advenienti aquila pilleum sustulit et super carpentum, cui
Tarquinius insidebat, cum magno clangore volitans rursus capiti apte
reposuit; inde sublimis abiit. Tanaquil coniux, caelestium prodigiorum
perita, regnum ei portendi intellexit; itaque, virum complexa, excelsa
et alta sperare eum iussit. Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes
urbem ingressi sunt, domicilioque ibi comparato Tarquinius pecunia et
industria dignitatem atque etiam Anci regis familiaritatem consecutus
est; a quo tutor liberis relictus regnum intercepit et ita
administravit, quasi iure adeptus esset.

Tarquinius Priscus Latinos bello domuit; Circum Maximum aedificavit; de
Sabinis triumphavit; murum lapideum urbi circumdedit. Equitum centurias
duplicavit, nomina mutare non potuit, deterritus, ut ferunt, Atti Navii
auctoritate. Attus enim, ea tempestate augur inclitus, id fieri posse
negabat, nisi aves addixissent; iratus rex in experimentum artis eum
interrogavit, fierine posset quod ipse mente concepisset; Attus augurio
acto fieri posse respondit. “Atqui hoc” inquit rex “agitabam, num cotem
illam secare novacula possem.” “Potes ergo” inquit augur, et rex
secuisse dicitur. Tarquinius filium tredecim annorum, quod in proelio
hostem percussisset, praetexta bullaque donavit; unde haec ingenuorum
puerorum insignia esse coeperunt.

Supererant duo Anci filii, qui, aegre ferentes se paterno regno
fraudatos esse, regi insidias paraverunt. Ex pastoribus duos
ferocissimos deligunt ad patrandum facinus. Ei simulata rixa in
vestibulo regiae tumultuantur. Quorum clamor cum penitus in regiam
pervenisset, vocati ad regem pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari coepit et
certatim alter alteri obstrepere. Cum vero iussi essent in vicem dicere,
unus ex composito rem orditur; dumque intentus in eum se rex totus
avertit, alter elatam securim in eius caput deiecit, et relicto in
vulnere telo ambo foras se proripiunt.


  #VI. Lūcius Tarquinius Prīscus, Rōmānōrum rēx quīntus# [[as printed]]

  616-578 B.C.

  Ancō rēgnante Lūcius Tarquinius, Tarquiniīs,[2] ex Etrūriae urbe,
  profectus,[3] cum coniuge et fortūnīs omnibus Rōmam commigrāvit.
  Additur haec fābula: advenientī[4] aquila pilleum sustulit[5] et super
  carpentum,[6] cuī[7] Tarquinius īnsidēbat, cum māgnō clangōre volitāns
  rūrsus[8] capitī[9] aptē reposuit; inde sublīmis[10] abiit. Tanaquil
  coniux, caelestium[11] prōdigiōrum perīta, rēgnum[12] eī portendī  {6}
  intellēxit; itaque, virum complexa, excelsa[13] et alta[13] spērāre
    [[18]]
  eum iussit. Hās spēs cōgitātiōnēsque sēcum portantēs urbem
  ingressī[1] sunt, domiciliōque ibi comparātō Tarquinius pecūniā et
  indūstriā dīgnitātem atque etiam Ancī rēgis familiāritātem        {10}
  cōnsecūtus[2] est; ā quō tūtor līberīs relīctus[3] rēgnum intercēpit
      et ita
  administrāvit, quasi[4] iūre adeptus[5] esset.

    [Illustration: AUGUR]

  Tarquinius Prīscus Latīnōs bellō domuit; Circum[6] Māximum
  aedificāvit; dē[7] Sabīnīs triumphāvit; mūrum[8] lapideum urbī
  circumdedit. Equitum centuriās[9] duplicāvit,                     {15}
  nōmina mūtāre nōn potuit, dēterritus, ut ferunt,
  Attī Nāviī auctōritate. Attus enim, eā
  tempestāte[10] augur inclitus, id fierī posse negābat,
  nisi[11] avēs addīxissent[11]; īrātus rēx in[12]
  experīmentum artis eum interrogāvit, fierīne posset[13]           {20}
  quod ipse mente concēpisset[14]; Attus auguriō
  āctō fierī posse respondit. “Atquī hōc”[15] inquit
  rēx “agitābam, num cōtem illam secāre
  novāculā possem.”[13] “Potes[16] ergō” inquit
  augur, et rēx secuisse dīcitur. Tarquinius fīlium tredecim        {25}
  annōrum,[17] quod in proeliō hostem percussisset,[18] praetextā[19]
    [[19]]
  bullāque[1] dōnāvit; unde[2] haec[3] ingenuōrum puerōrum īnsīgnia esse
  coepērunt.

  Supererant[4] duo Ancī fīliī, quī, aegrē ferentēs sē paternō[5]
  rēgnō fraudātōs esse,[6] rēgī īnsidiās parāvērunt. Ex pāstōribus  {30}
  duōs ferōcissimōs dēligunt ad patrandum facinus. Eī simulātā
  rixā in vēstibulō rēgiae tumultuantur. Quōrum[7] clāmor cum[8]
  penitus in rēgiam pervēnisset, vocātī ad rēgem pergunt. Prīmō
  uterque vōciferārī coepit et certātim[9] alter alterī obstrepere.
  Cum vērō iussī essent in vicem dīcere, ūnus ex[10] compositō rem  {35}
  ōrdītur; dumque intentus in eum sē rēx tōtus āvertit, alter
  ēlātam[11] secūrim in ēius caput dēiēcit, et relīctō[12] in vulnere
  tēlō ambō forās sē prōripiunt.

    [Footnotes: VI (pages 17-19)

    17.2: #Tarquiniīs . . . urbe#: ‘from Tarquinii, a city of
    Etruria.’ Cf. p. 8, n. 5.
    17.3: _proficīscor_.
    17.4: Sc. _Rōmam_: ‘while on his way to Rome.’ The participle
    agrees with _eī_ understood, which is a dat. of separation, or
    disadvantage, with #sustulit#: H 427 (385, 2): M 539: A 229:
    G 345, R. 1: B 188, 2, _d_.
    17.5: _tollō_.
    17.6: A two-wheeled carriage, with curtains and an awning.
    17.7: #cuī#: ‘in which.’ Why dat.?
    17.8: #rūrsus . . . reposuit#: since _repōnō_ = ‘to put _back_,’
    or ‘to place _again_,’ #rūrsus# is unnecessary.
    17.9: More often _repōnō_ is followed by _in_ with the abl., or
    the acc.
    17.10: #sublīmis abiit#: ‘flew high up in the air and departed.’
    17.11: #caelestium . . . perīta#: ‘skilled in (interpreting)
    portents from heaven.’ The Romans regarded the Etruscans as
    exceptionally skillful in such matters. For the gen., see H 451, 1
    (399, I, 2). M 573: A 218, _a_: G 374: B 204, 1.
    17.12: #rēgnum eī portendī intellēxit#: ‘perceived that the sign
    indicated that he was to be king.’ How literally? According to
    Livy, the significance of the omen lay in these facts: It came
    from a favorable quarter of the sky (which, to the Romans, was the
    east); it concerned his _head_, the _supreme_ part of his being;
    hence the removal of his cap by the eagle, the bird of Jupiter,
    ‘king of gods and men,’ and its restoration, implied that his
    _cap_ was to be removed and replaced by a _crown_.
    17.13: neuter plural adjectives, used as nouns: ‘an exalted
    destiny.’
    18.1: _ingredior_.
    18.2: _cōnsequor_.
    18.3: _relinquō_.
    18.4: H 584 (513, II): M 944, 945: A 312, and N. 1: G 602 and R.:
    B 307.
    18.5: _adipīscor_.
    18.6: #Circum Māximum#: see map, p. xxviii. In its final form it
    could accommodate nearly 300,000 spectators. The Romans of the
    Empire were passionately devoted to the chariot races of the
    circus. For a good description of a Roman circus, see Lew
    Wallace’s _Ben Hur_, Book V, Chap. XII.
    18.7: #dē Sabīnīs triumphāvit#: ‘he triumphed over’; lit., ‘he got
    a triumph out of.’ See Vocab., _triumphus_.
    18.8: #mūrum . . . circumdedit#: ‘he built a stone wall round the
    city.’ According to Livy, the wall was merely begun by Tarquin and
    finished by his successor, Servius Tullius.
    18.9: Cf. II, 42. Livy says that when Romulus formed the three
    centuries of horsemen he called one _Ramnēs_, after his own name,
    another _Titiēnsēs_, after King Tatius. Tarquin desired to name
    the new centuries after himself.
    18.10: = _tempore_.
    18.11: #nisi . . . addīxissent#: ‘unless the birds gave consent,’
    i.e. without taking the _auspicia_ and finding them favorable. Cf.
    I, 42. The subjunctive is due to the indirect discourse. For the
    tense, see p. 6, n. 1.
    18.12: #in experīmentum artis#: ‘to test his art.’ Cf. p. 14,
    n. 4.
    18.13: Cf. Cf.] p. 3, n. 2.
    18.14: Cf. p. 6, n. 1. The king said ‘_Potestne fierī quod in
    mente concēpī?_’
    18.15: #hōc# is emphatic, ‘Ah, but what I had in mind was _this_.’
    18.16: #Potes ergō#: ‘well, you can.’
    18.17: descriptive gen.: H 440, 3 (396, V): M 558: A 215: G 365:
    B 203.
    18.18: Cf. p. 14, n. 1.
    18.19: Sc. _togā_.
    19.1: See Vocab., _bulla_.
    19.2: = _ex quō_: ‘in consequence of this circumstance.’
    19.3: Cf. p. 5, n. 14, and p. 16, n. 9.
    19.4: ‘were still alive.’
    19.5: = _patris_. Cf. the use of _rēgius_, I, 17.
    19.6: The infinitive depends on #aegrē ferentēs#. Phrases
    expressive of emotion, whether of joy or of sorrow, are often
    followed by the infinitive with subject accus.
    19.7: Cf. p. 4, n. 3.
    19.8: The conjunction of the subordinate clause is often preceded
    by one or two words, sometimes by a larger number.
    19.9: #certātim . . . obstrepere#: ‘to (try to) drown each other’s
    voices’; lit., ‘in eager rivalry to make noise one against (_ob_)
    the other.’ Why is _alterī_ dative?
    19.10: #ex compositō#: ‘according to previous agreement.’
    19.11: #ēlātam secūrim . . . dēiēcit# = _extulit_ (‘raised’) _et
    dēiēcit_. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.
    19.12: #relīctō . . . tēlō#: we say, ‘leaving the weapon--they
    flee,’ i.e. we treat the two actions as simultaneous. The Romans
    say more exactly: ‘having left--they flee,’ i.e. the act of
    leaving is viewed as prior to that of flight.]


#VII. Servius Tullius, Romanorum rex sextus# [[stripped text]]

578-534 B.C.

Post hunc Servius Tullius suscepit imperium, genitus ex nobili femina,
captiva tamen et famula. Qui cum in domo Tarquinii Prisci educaretur,
ferunt prodigium visu eventuque mirabile accidisse. Flammae species
pueri dormientis caput amplexa est. Hoc visu Tanaquil summam ei
dignitatem portendi intellexit coniugique suasit ut eum haud secus ac
suos liberos educaret. Is postquam adolevit, et fortitudine et consilio
insignis fuit. In proelio quodam, in quo rex Tarquinius adversus Sabinos
conflixit, militibus segnius dimicantibus, raptum signum in hostem
misit. Cuius recipiendi gratia Romani tam acriter pugnaverunt, ut et
signum et victoriam referrent. Quare a Tarquinio gener adsumptus est; et
cum Tarquinius occisus esset, Tanaquil, Tarquinii uxor, mortem eius
celavit, populumque ex superiore parte aedium adlocuta ait regem grave
quidem, sed non letale vulnus accepisse, eumque petere, ut interim dum
convalesceret, Servio Tullio dicto audientes essent. Sic Servius Tullius
regnare coepit, sed recte imperium administravit. Sabinos subegit;
montes tres, Quirinalem, Viminalem, Esquilinum urbi adiunxit; fossas
circa murum duxit. Idem censum ordinavit, et populum in classes et
centurias distribuit.

Servius Tullius aliquod urbi decus addere volebat. Iam tum inclitum erat
Dianae Ephesiae fanum. Id communiter a civitatibus Asiae factum fama
ferebat. Itaque Latinorum populis suasit ut et ipsi fanum Dianae cum
populo Romano Romae in Aventino monte aedificarent. Quo facto, bos mirae
magnitudinis cuidam Latino nata dicitur, et responsum somnio datum eum
populum summam imperii habiturum, cuius civis bovem illam Dianae
immolasset. Latinus bovem ad fanum Dianae egit et causam sacerdoti
Romano exposuit. Ille callidus dixit prius eum vivo flumine manus
abluere debere. Latinus dum ad Tiberim descendit, sacerdos bovem
immolavit. Ita imperium civibus sibique gloriam adquisivit.

Servius Tullius filiam alteram ferocem, mitem alteram habens, cum
Tarquinii filios pari esse animo videret, ferocem miti, mitem feroci in
matrimonium dedit, ne duo violenta ingenia matrimonio iungerentur. Sed
mites seu forte seu fraude perierunt; feroces morum similitudo
coniunxit. Statim Tarquinius a Tullia incitatus advocato senatu regnum
paternum repetere coepit. Qua re audita Servius dum ad Curiam contendit,
iussu Tarquinii per gradus deiectus et domum refugiens interfectus est.
Tullia carpento vecta in Forum properavit et coniugem e Curia evocatum
prima regem salutavit; cuius iussu cum e turba ac tumultu decessisset
domumque rediret, viso patris corpore, cunctantem et frena mulionem
inhibentem super ipsum corpus carpentum agere iussit, unde vicus ille
Sceleratus dictus est. Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et
quadraginta.


  #VII. Servius Tullius, Rōmānōrum rēx sextus# [[as printed]]

  578-534 B.C.

  Post hunc Servius Tullius suscēpit imperium, genitus ex nōbilī
  fēminā,[13] captīvā tamen et famulā. Quī cum in domō Tarquiniī
  Prīscī ēducārētur, ferunt[14] prōdigium[15] vīsū ēventūque mīrābile
    [[20]]
  accidisse. Flammae[1] speciēs puerī dormientis caput amplexa est.
  Hōc vīsū Tanaquil summam[2] eī dīgnitātem portendī intellēxit      {5}
  coniugīque suāsit ut[3] eum haud secus ac suōs līberōs[4]
  ēducāret.[3] Is postquam adolēvit, et fortitūdine et cōnsiliō
  īnsīgnis fuit. In proeliō quōdam,[5] in quō rēx Tarquinius
  adversus Sabīnōs cōnflīxit, mīlitibus[6] sēgnius
  dīmicantibus, raptum[7] sīgnum in hostem mīsit. Cūius[8]          {10}
  recipiendī grātiā Rōmānī tam ācriter pūgnāvērunt, ut et
  sīgnum et victōriam referrent. Quārē ā Tarquiniō gener
  adsūmptus est; et cum Tarquinius occīsus esset, Tanaquil,
  Tarquiniī uxor, mortem ēius cēlāvit, populumque
  ex superiōre[9] parte aedium adlocūta[10] ait rēgem grave         {15}
  quidem, sed nōn lētāle vulnus accēpisse, eumque petere, ut
  interim dum convalēsceret,[11] Serviō Tulliō[12] dictō audientēs
      essent.
  Sīc[13] Servius Tullius rēgnāre coepit, sed rēctē imperium
      administrāvit.
  Sabīnōs subēgit[14]; montēs trēs, Quirīnālem, Vīminālem, Ēsquilīnum
  urbī adiūnxit; fossās[15] circā mūrum dūxit. Īdem cēnsum[16]      {20}
  ōrdināvit, et populum in classēs[17] et centuriās[18] distribuit.

    [Illustration: SIGNUM]

    [[21]]
  Servius Tullius aliquod urbī decus addere volēbat. Iam[1] tum
  inclitum erat Diānae Ephesiae fānum.[2] Id commūniter[3] ā cīvitātibus
  Asiae factum fāma ferēbat. Itaque Latīnōrum
  populīs suāsit ut et[4] ipsī fānum Diānae                         {25}
  cum[5] populō Rōmānō Rōmae in Aventīnō monte
  aedificārent. Quō[6] factō, bōs mīrae māgnitūdinis[7]
  cuīdam Latīnō nāta[8] dīcitur, et respōnsum somniō
  datum[8] eum populum summam imperiī habitūrum,[8]
  cūius cīvis bovem illam Diānae immolāsset.[9]                     {30}
  Latīnus[10] bovem ad fānum Diānae ēgit et causam
  sacerdōtī Rōmānō exposuit. Ille callidus[11] dīxit
  prius eum vīvō flūmine manūs abluere dēbēre.
  Latīnus dum ad Tiberim[12] dēscendit, sacerdōs bovem immolāvit.
  Ita imperium cīvibus sibique glōriam adquīsīvit.                  {35}

    [Illustration: DIANA OF EPHESUS]

    [Illustration: SACRIFICE]

  Servius Tullius fīliam alteram ferōcem, mītem alteram habēns,[13]
  cum Tarquiniī fīliōs parī esse animō[14] vidēret, ferōcem[15] mītī,
  mītem ferōcī in mātrimōnium dedit, nē duo violenta ingenia
    [[22]]
  mātrimōniō iungerentur. Sed mītēs seu forte seu fraude periērunt;
  ferōcēs mōrum similitūdō coniūnxit. Statim Tarquinius             {40}
  ā Tulliā[1] incitātus advocātō[2] senātū rēgnum
  paternum repetere coepit. Quā[3] rē
  audītā Servius dum ad Cūriam contendit,
  iussū Tarquiniī per gradūs[4] dēiectus et
  domum refugiēns interfectus est. Tullia                           {45}
  carpentō vecta in Forum properāvit et
  cōniugem ē Cūriā ēvocātum prīma rēgem
  salūtāvit; cūius iussū cum ē turbā ac
  tumultū dēcessisset[5] domumque redīret,
  vīsō patris corpore, cunctantem et frēna mūliōnem inhibentem      {50}
  super ipsum[6] corpus carpentum agere iussit, unde[7] vīcus ille
  Scelerātus dictus est. Servius Tullius rēgnāvit annōs quattuor et
  quadrāgintā.

    [Footnotes: VII (pages 19-22)

    19.13: Livy relates that at the capture of the Latin town
    Corniculum, Servius’ father was killed and his mother taken
    prisoner. Out of respect to her high rank, Tanaquil set her free
    and welcomed her to the palace. There Servius was born, and he was
    brought up in Tarquin’s household.
    19.14: #ferunt . . . accidisse#: in English, the verb
    corresponding to #ferunt# would be parenthetical, thus:
    ‘a prodigy, _they say_, happened.’
    19.15: #prōdigium . . . mīrābile#: ‘a prodigy, strange to look
    upon, and marvelously fulfilled.’ #vīsū# and #ēventū# are
    ablatives of specification to #mīrābile#: H 480 (424): M 650:
    A 253: G 397: B 226, 1.
    20.1: #Flammae speciēs#: ‘the semblance of fire.’ We may render
    the whole sentence, ‘Fire seemed to envelop,’ etc.
    20.2: #summam . . . intellēxit#: cf. p. 17, n. 12.
    20.3: Cf. p. 1, n. 5.
    20.4: governed by _ēducābat_ understood.
    20.5: _quīdam_ and _ūnus_ often have no more force than the
    English indefinite article.
    20.6: #mīlitibus . . . dīmicantibus#: causal.
    20.7: #raptum . . . mīsit#: cf. p. 2, n. 8. To lose the standard
    was as much of a disgrace then as it is now to lose the flag.
    20.8: #Cūius . . . grātiā#: an expression of purpose = _quod ut
    reciperet_.
    20.9: Roman houses in general had no windows on the ground floor.
    20.10: Cf. p. 19, n. 12.
    20.11: H 603, 2 (519, 2): M 921: A 328: G 572: B 293, III, 2, and
    p. xx, G 3.
    20.12: dat. with #dictō audientēs essent#, which together =
    _pārērent_: H 426 (385, I): M 530: A 227 and N. 2: G 346 and N. 5:
    B 187, II. #dictō# is dat. with #audientēs#, which here itself =
    ‘obeying.’
    20.13: i.e. instead of being formally chosen king by the senate
    and people (p. 15, n. 11).
    20.14: _subigō_.
    20.15: #fossās . . . dūxit#: this statement harmonizes with VI,
    14: see note there. Remains of the wall and ditch are extant,
    especially along the east side of the Esquiline, Viminal, and
    Quirinal hills.
    20.16: The census was not, as with us, a mere enumeration of the
    inhabitants, but an enrollment and classification of them
    according to property for purposes of taxation and military
    service. Hence the clause #in . . . distribuit# is in part an
    explanation of #cēnsum ōrdināvit#.
    20.17: These classes were six in number.
    20.18: According to Livy, there were 193 centuries. At elections
    each century cast a single vote, the opinion of the majority of
    its members being regarded as the voice of the whole century. The
    first, or richest class, contained 98 centuries, and so controlled
    98 votes, more than a majority.
    21.1: #Iam tum#: ‘even in those early days.’
    21.2: This temple was one of the seven wonders of the ancient
    world. See Acts xix, 24 f.
    21.3: #commūniter . . . factum# (_esse_): ‘that the states of Asia
    had united in building it.’ How literally?
    21.4: #et ipsī# = _etiam ipsī_, or _ipsī quoque_: ‘they too,’ i.e.
    as well as the _cīvitātēs Asiae_.
    21.5: ‘in conjunction with.’ The whole might have been expressed
    thus: _ut illī_ (i.e. the _Latīnī_) _et populus Rōmānus . . .
    aedificārent_. Cf. lines 23, 24.
    21.6: #Quō factō# = _postquam hōc_ (i.e. the building of the
    temple) _factum est_.
    21.7: Cf. p. 18, n. 17.
    21.8: Sc. _esse_. For the personal construction #dīcitur#, see
    H 611, 1 (534, I and N. 1): M 962: A 330, _b_, 1: G 528, 1: B 332.
    21.9: Subjunctive, because in a subordinate clause of indir. disc.
    For the tense, cf. p. 6, n. 1.
    21.10: ‘_The_ (aforesaid) Latin,’ mentioned in l. 28. This is one
    of the cases where Latin suffers from the lack of the definite
    article.
    21.11: ‘cunningly.’ Cf. p. 4, n. 4.
    21.12: The Tiber ran close to the foot of the Aventine hill on
    which (l. 26) the temple of Diana stood.
    21.13: = _cum habēret_, ‘since he had.’ #cum . . . vidēret# is
    also causal.
    21.14: abl. of quality: H 473, 2 (419, II): M 643: A 251: G 400:
    B 224.
    21.15: #ferōcem . . . ferōcī#: note that the order in the second
    of these two pairs of words is the reverse of that in the first.
    Cf. l. 36, _alteram ferōcem, mītem alteram_. This arrangement is
    called _Chiasmus_: H 666, 2 (562): M 1150: A 344, _f_, and N.:
    G 682, and R.: B 350, II, _c_).
    22.1: The daughter of Tullius.
    22.2: #advocātō . . . coepit# = _senātum advocāvit et . . .
    coepit_. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.
    22.3: #quā rē . . . contendit#: ‘while Servius, after he had heard
    of this action, was hastening,’ etc. For the tense of #contendit#,
    see p. 3, n. 14.
    22.4: Sc. _Cūriae_.
    22.5: #dēcessisset . . . redīret#: ‘had departed . . . and _was_
    returning.’
    22.6: #super ipsum corpus#: ‘over the _very_ body’; #ipsum#
    emphasizes the wickedness of Tullia. Roman feeling usually
    required that the utmost respect be shown to the bodies of the
    dead.
    22.7: Used here as in VI, 27.]


#VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, Romanorum rex septimus et ultimus#
[[stripped text]]

534-510 B.C.

Tarquinius Superbus regnum sceleste occupavit. Tamen bello strenuus
Latinos Sabinosque domuit. Urbem Gabios in potestatem redegit fraude
Sexti filii. Is cum indigne ferret eam urbem a patre expugnari non
posse, ad Gabinos se contulit, patris saevitiam in se conquerens.
Benigne a Gabinis exceptus paulatim eorum benevolentiam consequitur,
fictis blanditiis ita eos adliciens, ut apud omnes plurimum posset, et
ad postremum dux belli eligeretur. Tum e suis unum ad patrem mittit
sciscitatum quidnam se facere vellet. Pater nuntio filii nihil
respondit, sed velut deliberabundus in hortum transiit ibique inambulans
sequente nuntio altissima papaverum capita baculo decussit. Nuntius,
fessus exspectando, rediit Gabios. Sextus, cognito silentio patris et
facto, intellexit quid vellet pater. Primores civitatis interemit
patrique urbem sine ulla dimicatione tradidit.

Postea rex Ardeam urbem obsidebat. Ibi cum in castris essent, Tarquinius
Collatinus, sorore regis natus, forte cenabat apud Sextum Tarquinium cum
iuvenibus regiis. Incidit de uxoribus mentio; cum suam unusquisque
laudaret, placuit experiri. Itaque citatis equis Romam avolant; regias
nurus in convivio et luxu deprehendunt. Pergunt inde Collatiam;
Lucretiam, Collatini uxorem, inter ancillas lanae deditam inveniunt. Ea
ergo ceteris praestare iudicatur. Paucis interiectis diebus Sextus
Collatiam rediit et Lucretiae vim attulit. Illa postero die,
advocatispatre et coniuge, rem exposuit et se cultro, quem sub veste
abditum habebat, occidit. Conclamat vir paterque et in exitium regum
coniurant. Tarquinio Romam redeunti clausae sunt urbis portae et
exsilium indictum.

In antiquis annalibus memoriae haec sunt prodita. Anus hospita atque
incognita ad Tarquinium quondam Superbum regem adiit, novem libros
ferens, quos esse dicebat divina oracula: eos se velle venumdare.
Tarquinius pretium percontatus est: mulier nimium atque immensum
poposcit. Rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum
cum igni apponit et tres libros ex novem deurit; et, ecquid reliquos sex
eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed Tarquinius id multo
risit magis, dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier ibidem
statim tres alios libros exussit; atque id ipsum denuo placide rogat, ut
tres reliquos eodem illo pretio emat. Tarquinius ore iam serio atque
attentiore animo fit; eam constantiam confidentiamque non neglegendam
intellegit: libros tres reliquos mercatur nihilo minore pretio quam quod
erat petitum pro omnibus. Sed eam mulierem tunc a Tarquinio digressam
postea nusquam loci visam constitit. Libri tres in sacrario conditi
Sibyllinique appellati. Ad eos, quasi ad oraculum, Quindecemviri adeunt,
cum dii immortales publice consulendi sunt.


  #VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, Rōmānōrum rēx septimus et ūltimus#
  [[as printed]]

  534-510 B.C.

  Tarquinius Superbus rēgnum scelestē[8] occupāvit.[9] Tamen bellō
  strēnuus Latīnōs Sabīnōsque domuit. Urbem Gabiōs in potestātem
  redēgit fraude Sextī fīliī. Is cum indīgnē ferret eam urbem
  ā patre expūgnārī nōn posse,[10] ad Gabīnōs sē contulit, patris
      saevitiam
  in sē conquerēns. Benīgnē ā Gabīnīs exceptus paulātim              {5}
  eōrum benevolentiam cōnsequitur, fīctīs blanditiīs ita eōs adliciēns,
    [[23]]
  ut apud omnēs plūrimum posset,[1] et ad postrēmum dux bellī
  ēligerētur. Tum ē suīs ūnum ad patrem mittit scīscitātum[2]
  quidnam sē[3] facere vellet. Pater nūntiō fīliī nihil respondit, sed
  velut dēlīberābundus[4] in hortum trānsiit ibique inambulāns      {10}
  sequente nūntiō altissima[5] papāverum capita baculō dēcussit.
  Nūntius, fessus exspectandō, rediit Gabiōs. Sextus, cōgnitō
  silentiō patris et factō,[6] intellēxit[7] quid vellet pater.
  Prīmōrēs cīvitātis interēmit patrīque urbem sine ūllā dīmicātiōne
  trādidit.                                                         {15}

  Posteā rēx Ardeam urbem obsidēbat. Ibi cum in castrīs essent,
  Tarquinius Collātīnus, sorōre[8] rēgis nātus, forte cēnābat apud
  Sextum Tarquinium cum iuvenibus[9] rēgiīs. Incidit[10] dē uxōribus
  mentiō; cum suam ūnusquisque laudāret, placuit experīrī.
  Itaque citātīs[11] equīs Rōmam āvolant; rēgiās[12] nurūs in
      convīviō[13]                                                  {20}
  et lūxū dēprehendunt. Pergunt inde Collātiam[14]; Lucrētiam,
  Collātīnī uxōrem, inter ancillās lānae[15] dēditam inveniunt. Ea
  ergō cēterīs praestāre iūdicātur. Paucīs interiectīs diēbus Sextus
  Collātiam rediit et Lucrētiae vim[16] attulit. Illa posterō diē,
      advocātīs
  patre et coniuge, rem exposuit et sē cultrō, quem sub veste       {25}
    [[24]]
  abditum habēbat, occīdit. Conclāmat vir paterque et in[1] exitium
  rēgum coniūrant. Tarquiniō[2] Rōmam redeuntī clausae sunt
  urbis portae et exsilium indictum.[3]

  In antīquīs annālibus memoriae haec sunt prōdita.[4] Anus
  hospita atque incōgnita ad Tarquinium quondam Superbum rēgem      {30}
  adiit,[5] novem librōs ferēns, quōs esse dīcēbat dīvīna ōrācula: eōs
  sē velle[6] vēnumdare. Tarquinius pretium percontātus est: mulier
  nimium atque immēnsum popōscit. Rēx, quasi[7] anus aetāte dēsiperet,
  dērīsit.[8] Tum illa foculum cum īgnī appōnit et trēs librōs
  ex novem deūrit; et, ecquid reliquōs sex eōdem pretiō[9] emere    {35}
  vellet, rēgem interrogāvit. Sed Tarquinius id multō rīsit magis,
  dīxitque anum iam procul dubiō dēlīrāre. Mulier ibīdem statim
  trēs aliōs librōs exūssit[10]; atque id[11] ipsum dēnuō placidē rogat,
  ut[12] trēs reliquōs eōdem illō pretiō emat. Tarquinius ōre[13] iam
  sēriō atque attentiōre animō[13] fit; eam[14] cōnstantiam
      cōnfīdentiamque                                               {40}
  nōn neglegendam[15] intellegit: librōs trēs reliquōs mercātur
  nihilō minōre pretiō[9] quam quod erat petītum prō omnibus. Sed
  eam mulierem tunc ā Tarquiniō dīgressam[16] posteā nūsquam locī
  vīsam[15] cōnstitit. Librī[17] trēs in sacrāriō conditī Sibyllīnīque
  appellātī. Ad eōs, quasi ad ōrāculum, Quīndecemvirī adeunt, cum   {45}
  diī immortālēs pūblicē cōnsulendī sunt.

    [Footnotes: VIII (pages 22-24)

    22.8: Cf. the whole description VII, 40-53.
    22.9: not ‘occupied.’
    22.10: The infinitive depends on #indīgnē ferret#, an expression
    of emotion. Cf. p. 19, n. 6.
    23.1: #plūrimum posset#: ‘he possessed great influence.’
    #plūrimum# is an accusative of extent.
    23.2: Cf. p. 5, n. 20.
    23.3: #sē# refers to Sextus. Sextus asked his father through the
    messenger: _Quidnam mē facere vīs?_
    23.4: Adjectives ending in -_bundus_ generally have the force of
    the English present participle active.
    23.5: #altissima . . . capita# = ‘the heads of the tallest
    poppies.’ How literally?
    23.6: #factō# is here a noun.
    23.7: It has been shown that the whole of this story was derived
    from Greek sources, and that the incident described in the text
    is, so far as Gabii is concerned, without foundation.
    23.8: H 469, 2 (415, II): M 609: A 244: G 395: B 215.
    23.9: #iuvenibus rēgiīs#: ‘the princes.’
    23.10: #Incidit . . . mentiō#: ‘the conversation happened to turn
    on (the merits of) their (respective) wives.’ How literally?
    23.11: #citātīs equīs#: ‘at top speed.’ How literally?
    23.12: #rēgiās nurūs#: ‘the king’s daughters-in-law,’ i.e. the
    princes’ wives.
    23.13: #convīviō et lūxū#: ‘a banquet and luxury’ = ‘a luxurious
    banquet.’
    23.14: The home of Collatinus.
    23.15: #lānae dēditam#: ‘wholly intent on spinning.’ In the
    oldest times the Roman housewife made all the garments of the
    household. Hence a frequent laudatory inscription on the
    tombstones of Roman ladies is _lānam fēcit_. Macaulay had this
    feature of Roman life in mind when (_Horatius_, stanza LXX) he
    wrote:
        “When the goodwife’s shuttle merrily
          Goes flashing through the loom.”
    23.16: #vim attulit# (_adferō_): ‘outraged.’
    24.1: #in exitium rēgum#: ‘to kill the royal family (#rēgum#).’
    For #in exitium# cf. p. 14, n. 4.
    24.2: dat. of disadvantage. Translate: ‘against T., on his return
    to Rome.’
    24.3: Sc. _est_.
    24.4: _prōdō_.
    24.5: _adeō_.
    24.6: infin. because dependent on _dīxit_ understood, to be
    supplied from #dīcēbat#.
    24.7: #quasi . . . dēsiperet#: ‘thinking that the old woman’s mind
    was failing through age.’ See p. 3, n. 6.
    24.8: _dērīdeō_.
    24.9: abl. of price: H 478 (422): M 652: A 252: G 404: B 225.
    24.10: _exūrō_.
    24.11: explained by the clause #ut . . . emat#.
    24.12: #ut . . . emat#: a substantive clause of purpose depending
    on #rogat#: H 565 (498, I): M 894: A 331: G 546: B 295, 4.
    24.13: abl. of quality with #fit#.
    24.14: = _tālem_, as often.
    24.15: sc. _esse_.
    24.16: #dīgressam# (_dīgredior_) = _postquam dīgressa est_.
    24.17: #Librī . . . appellātī#: the _Sibyllae_ were inspired
    maidens devoted to the worship of Apollo. The most famous, from
    whom Tarquin was believed to have received the Sibylline books,
    lived at Cumae, on the coast of Campania, in Italy. The books were
    placed in a vault beneath the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. When
    this temple was burned in 83 B.C., the senate sent envoys to
    Greece to make a new collection of oracular sayings. These also
    were deposited for a time in the temple of Jupiter after its
    restoration.]


#IX. Iunius Brutus, Romanorum consul primus# [[stripped text]]

Iunius Brutus, sorore Tarquinii Superbi natus, cum eandem fortunam
timeret, in quam frater inciderat, qui ob divitias et prudentiam ab
avunculo erat occisus, stultitiam finxit, unde Brutus dictus est.
Profectus Delphos cum Tarquinii filiis, quos pater ad Apollinem
muneribus honorandum miserat, baculo sambuceo aurum inclusum dono tulit
deo. Peractis deinde mandatis patris, iuvenes Apollinem consulunt
quisnam ex ipsis Romae regnaturus esset. Responsum est eum Romae summam
potestatem habiturum, qui primus matrem osculatus esset. Tunc Brutus,
velut si casu prolapsus cecidisset, terram osculatus est, scilicet quod
ea communis mater omnium mortalium esset.

Expulsis regibus duo consules creati sunt, Iunius Brutus et Tarquinius
Collatinus Lucretiae maritus. At libertas modo parta per dolum et
proditionem paene amissa est. Erant in iuventute Romana adulescentes
aliquot, sodales adulescentium Tarquiniorum. Hi cum legatis, quos rex ad
bona sua repetenda Romam miserat, de restituendis regibus conloquuntur,
ipsos Bruti consulis filios in societatem consilii adsumunt. Sermonem
eorum ex servis unus excepit; rem ad consules detulit. Datae ad
Tarquinium litterae manifestum facinus fecerunt. Proditores in vincula
coniecti sunt, deinde damnati. Stabant ad palum deligati iuvenes
nobilissimi; sed a ceteris liberi consulis omnium in se oculos
avertebant. Consules in sedem processere suam, missique lictores nudatos
virgis caedunt securique feriunt. Supplicii non spectator modo, sed et
exactor erat Brutus, qui tunc patrem exuit, ut consulem ageret.

Tarquinius deinde bello aperto regnum reciperare conatus est. Equitibus
praeerat Aruns, Tarquinii filius: rex ipse cum legionibus sequebatur.
Obviam hosti consules eunt; Brutus ad explorandum cum equitatu
antecessit. Aruns, ubi procul Brutum agnovit, inflammatus ira “Ille est
vir” inquit “qui nos patria expulit; ipse en ille nostris decoratus
insignibus magnifice incedit.” Tum concitat calcaribus equum atque in
ipsum consulem dirigit; Brutus avide se certamini offert. Adeo infestis
animis concurrerunt, ut ambo hasta transfixi caderent; fugatus tamen
proelio est Tarquinius. Alter consul Romam triumphans rediit. Bruti
conlegae funus, quanto potuit apparatu, fecit. Brutum matronae, ut
parentem, annum luxerunt.


    [[25]]

  #IX. Iūnius Brūtus, Rōmānōrum cōnsul prīmus# [[as printed]]

  Iūnius Brūtus, sorōre[1] Tarquiniī Superbī nātus, cum[2] eandem
  fortūnam timēret, in quam frāter inciderat, quī ob dīvitiās et
  prūdentiam ab avunculō erat occīsus, stultitiam finxit, unde
  Brūtus dictus est. Profectus[3] Delphōs[4] cum Tarquiniī fīliīs,
  quōs pater ad Apollinem mūneribus honōrandum mīserat, baculō[5]    {5}
  sambūceō aurum inclūsum dōnō[6] tulit deō. Perāctīs deinde
  mandātīs patris, iuvenēs Apollinem cōnsulunt quisnam ex ipsīs
  Rōmae[7] rēgnātūrus esset.[8] Respōnsum est eum Rōmae[7] summam
  potestātem habitūrum, quī prīmus mātrem ōsculātus esset.[9] Tunc
  Brūtus, velut sī cāsū prōlāpsus[10] cecidisset, terram ōsculātus est,
  scīlicet quod ea commūnis māter omnium mortālium esset.           {11}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 509.]

  Expulsīs rēgibus duo cōnsulēs[11] creātī sunt, Iūnius Brūtus et
  Tarquinius Collātīnus[12] Lucrētiae marītus. At lībertās
  modo parta[13] per dolum et prōditiōnem paene āmissa est.
  Erant in iuventūte Rōmānā adulēscentēs aliquot, sodālēs           {15}
  adulēscentium Tarquiniōrum.[14] Hī cum lēgātīs, quōs rēx ad bona sua
  repetenda Rōmam mīserat, dē restituendīs rēgibus conloquuntur,
  ipsōs Brūtī cōnsulis fīliōs in societātem cōnsiliī adsūmunt. Sermōnem
  eōrum ex servīs ūnus excēpit; rem ad cōnsulēs dētulit.
  Datae[15] ad Tarquinium lītterae manifēstum facinus fēcērunt.     {20}
  Prōditōrēs in vincula coniectī sunt, deinde damnātī. Stābant ad
  pālum dēligātī iuvenēs nōbilissimī; sed ā cēterīs līberī cōnsulis
  omnium in sē oculōs āvertēbant. Cōnsulēs in sēdem prōcessēre[16]
    [[26]]
  suam, missīque līctōrēs nūdātōs[1] virgīs caedunt secūrīque feriunt.
  Suppliciī nōn spectātor modo, sed et[2] exāctor erat Brūtus,      {25}
  quī tunc patrem exuit, ut cōnsulem ageret.[3]

    [Illustration {BRVTVS}]

  Tarquinius deinde bellō apertō rēgnum reciperāre cōnātus[4] est.
  Equitibus praeerat Ārūns, Tarquiniī fīlius: rēx ipse cum legiōnibus
  sequēbātur. Obviam hostī[5] cōnsulēs
  eunt; Brūtus ad explōrandum cum equitātū                          {30}
  antecessit. Ārūns, ubi procul Brūtum
  āgnōvit,[6] īnflammātus īrā “Ille est vir” inquit
  “quī nōs patriā expulit; ipse[7] ēn ille nostrīs
  decorātus īnsīgnibus māgnificē incēdit.” Tum
  concitat calcāribus equum atque in ipsum cōnsulem                 {35}
  dīrigit; Brūtus avidē sē certāminī offert. Adeō[8] īnfēstīs
  animīs concurrērunt, ut ambō hastā trānsfīxī caderent; fugātus
  tamen proeliō est Tarquinius. Alter[9] cōnsul Rōmam triumphāns
  rediit. Brūtī conlēgae fūnus, quantō[10] potuit apparātū, fēcit.
  Brūtum mātrōnae, ut parentem, annum lūxērunt.[11]                 {40}

    [Footnotes: IX (pages 25-26)

    25.1: Cf. p. 23, n. 8.
    25.2: #cum#: causal; cf. p. 4, n. 12; also p. xx, H 2.
    25.3: _proficīscor_.
    25.4: Cf. p. 3, n. 4.
    25.5: Join with #inclūsum#, and cf. p. 2, n. 7.
    25.6: dat. of purpose or service: H 433 (390): M 548: A 233, _a_:
    G 356: B 191, 2. This dat. is specially common in connection with
    another dat., as #deō# here (dat. of advantage).
    25.7: locative: H 483 (425, II): M 620: A 258, _c_, 2: G 411:
    B 228, 1.
    25.8: Cf. p. 3, n. 2. The whole clause is the object of
    #cōnsulunt#, ‘consult (by asking).’
    25.9: Cf. p. 6, n. 1. The oracle said: _Is . . . habēbit, quī
    . . . erit_.
    25.10: #prōlāpsus# (_prōlābor_) #cecidisset# (_cadō_) = _prōlāpsus
    esset et cecidisset_.
    25.11: See Vocab., _cōnsul_.
    25.12: Cf. VIII, 17.
    25.13: _pariō_.
    25.14: The sons of Tarquin, mentioned above, l. 4.
    25.15: = _quae datae erant_. _datae_ = _missae_, and so is
    construed with _ad_ and the accusative.
    25.16: = _prōcessērunt._
    26.1: #nūdātōs virgīs caedunt# = _nūdant (eōs) et virgīs caedunt_.
    26.2: = _etiam._
    26.3: What does the subjunctive express?
    26.4: _cōnor_.
    26.5: dat. after _ob_ in #obviam#. The rule regarding compound
    verbs (p. 2, n. 7) holds true often of nouns, adjectives, and
    adverbs.
    26.6: _āgnōscō_.
    26.7: #ipse . . . incēdit#: the _spirit_ of this dramatic sentence
    may be reproduced thus: ‘Look at him (#ēn ille#)! He is actually
    adorned with _our_ insignia! See in what a lordly way he
    advances!’
    26.8: #Adeō#, ‘such,’ in part qualifies #īnfēstīs#, in part paves
    the way for the result clause #ut . . . caderent#.
    26.9: #Alter#: ‘the remaining.’ Why may it be so translated?
    26.10: #quantō . . . apparātū#: ‘with the greatest possible
    splendor.’
    26.11: _lūgeō._]


#X. Mucius Scaevola# [[stripped text]]

Cum Porsena Romam obsideret, Mucius, vir Romanae constantiae, senatum
adiit et veniam transfugiendi petiit, necem regis repromittens. Accepta
potestate cum in castra Porsenae venisset, ibi in confertissima turba
prope tribunal constitit. Stipendium tunc forte militibus dabatur et
scriba cum rege pari fere ornatu sedebat. Mucius, ignorans uter rex
esset, illum pro rege occidit. Apprehensus et ad regem pertractus
dextram accenso ad sacrificium foculo iniecit, velut manum puniens, quod
in caede peccasset. Attonitus miraculo rex iuvenem amoveri ab altaribus
iussit. Tum Mucius, quasi beneficium remunerans, ait trecentos adversus
eum sui similes coniurasse. Qua re ille territus bellum acceptis
obsidibus deposuit. Mucio prata trans Tiberim data, ab eo Mucia
appellata. Statua quoque ei honoris gratia constituta est.


  #X. Mūcius Scaevola# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 507]

  Cum Porsena[12] Rōmam obsidēret, Mūcius, vir Rōmānae[13]
  cōnstantiae, senātum adiit et veniam[14] trānsfugiendī petiit, necem
    [[27]]
  rēgis reprōmittēns. Acceptā[1] potestāte cum in castra Porsenae
  vēnisset, ibi in cōnfertissimā turbā prope tribūnal cōnstitit.
  Stīpendium tunc forte[2] mīlitibus dabātur et scrība cum           {5}
  rēge parī[3] ferē ōrnātū sedēbat. Mūcius, īgnōrāns uter rēx esset,
  illum prō rēge occīdit. Apprehēnsus et ad rēgem pertrāctus[4]
  dextram accēnsō[5] ad sacrificium foculō iniēcit, velut manum
  pūniēns, quod[6] in caede peccāsset. Attonitus mīrāculō rēx        {9}
  iuvenem āmovērī ab altāribus iussit. Tum Mūcius, quasi beneficium
  remūnerāns, ait trecentōs adversus eum[7] suī similēs coniūrāsse.
  Quā rē ille territus[8] bellum acceptīs obsidibus dēposuit.[9]
  Mūciō prāta trāns Tiberim data,[10] ab eō Mūcia appellāta. Statua
  quoque eī[11] honōris grātiā cōnstitūta est.                      {14}

    [Footnotes: X (pages 26-27)

    26.12: Tarquinius Superbus had applied to Porsena, king of the
    Etruscan city of Clusium, for aid in the recovery of his throne.
    Porsena gathered a large army and marched against Rome. For this
    story, see Macaulay’s _Lays of Ancient Rome, Horatius_. Modern
    authorities on Roman history maintain that Porsena was so
    successful in his operations that he compelled the Romans to
    submit to a very humiliating treaty.
    26.13: We would say, ‘truly Roman.’
    26.14: #veniam trānsfugiendī#: ‘permission to go over (to the
    enemy).’
    27.1: #Acceptā# (_accipiō_) #. . . vēnisset# = _Cum potestātem
    accēpisset et . . . vēnisset_.
    27.2: Cf. p. 5, n. 19.
    27.3: #parī . . . ōrnātū#: abl. abs. to denote an attendant
    circumstance: H 489, 1 (431, 1): M 640: A 255, _d_, 5: G 409, N.:
    B 227.
    27.4: _pertrahō_.
    27.5: _accendō_.
    27.6: #quod . . . peccāsset# expresses Scaevola’s thought: see
    H 588, II (516, II): M 851: A 321: G 541: B 286, 1, and cf. p. 14,
    n. 1, and p. xxi, H 4.
    27.7: #eum# refers to the king, #suī# to Scaevola. Scaevola’s
    speech was: _Trecentī adversus tē meī similēs coniūrāvērunt._
    27.8: _terreō_.
    27.9: _dēpōnō_.
    27.10: Sc. _sunt_.
    27.11: dat. of advantage with #cōnstitūta est#.]


#XI. Fabii trecenti sex# [[stripped text]]

479-477 B.C.

Cum adsiduis Veientium incursionibus vexarentur Romani, Fabia gens
senatum adit; consul Fabius pro gente loquitur: “Vos alia bella curate;
Fabios hostes Veientibus date: id bellum privato sumptu gerere nobis in
animo est.” Gratiae ei ingentes actae sunt. Consul e Curia egressus,
comitante Fabiorum agmine, domum rediit. Manat tota urbe rumor; Fabium
ad caelum laudibus ferunt. Fabii postero die arma capiunt. Numquam
exercitus neque minor numero neque clarior fama et admiratione hominum
per urbem incessit. Ibant sex et trecenti milites, omnes patricii, omnes
unius gentis. Ad Cremeram flumen perveniunt. Is opportunus visus est
locus communiendo praesidio. Hostes non semel fusi pacem supplices
petunt.

Veientes pacis impetratae cum brevi paenituisset, redintegrato bello
inierunt consilium insidiis ferocem hostem captandi. Multo successu
Fabiis audacia crescebat. Cum igitur palati passim agros popularentur,
pecora a Veientibus obviam acta sunt; ad quae progressi Fabii in
insidias delapsi omnes ad unum perierunt. Dies, quo id factum est, inter
nefastos relatus est; porta, qua profecti erant, Scelerata est
appellata. Unus omnino superfuit ex ea gente, qui propter aetatem
impuberem domi relictus erat. Is genus propagavit ad Quintum Fabium
Maximum, qui Hannibalem mora fregit.


  #XI. Fabiī trecentī sex# [[as printed]]

  479-477 B.C.

  Cum[12] adsiduīs Vēientium[13] incursiōnibus vexārentur[12] Rōmānī,
  Fabia gēns senātum adit; cōnsul Fabius prō gente loquitur:
  “Vōs alia bella cūrāte; Fabiōs[14] hostēs Vēientibus date: id
  bellum prīvātō sūmptū[15] gerere nōbīs[16] in animō est.” Grātiae eī
    [[28]]
  ingentēs āctae sunt. Cōnsul ē Cūriā ēgressus, comitante[1]         {5}
  Fabiōrum āgmine, domum rediit. Mānat tōtā urbe rūmor; Fabium
  ad[2] caelum laudibus ferunt. Fabiī posterō diē arma capiunt.
  Numquam[3] exercitus neque minor numerō neque clārior fāmā et
  admīrātiōne hominum per urbem incessit. Ībant sex et trecentī
  mīlitēs, omnēs patriciī, omnēs ūnīus gentis. Ad Cremeram flūmen   {10}
  perveniunt. Is opportūnus vīsus est locus commūniendō praesidiō.[4]
  Hostēs nōn[5] semel fūsī pācem supplicēs[6] petunt.

  Vēientēs[7] pācis impetrātae cum brevī paenituisset,[8] redintegrātō
  bellō iniērunt cōnsilium īnsidiīs ferōcem hostem captandī.
  Multō successū Fabiīs[9] audācia crēscēbat. Cum igitur pālātī     {15}
  passim agrōs populārentur, pecora ā Vēientibus obviam[10] ācta
  sunt; ad quae prōgressī Fabiī in īnsidiās dēlāpsī[11] omnēs ad
  ūnum periērunt. Diēs, quō id factum est, inter nefāstōs relātus[12]
  est; porta, quā profectī erant, Scelerāta est appellāta. Ūnus
  omnīnō superfuit ex eā gente, quī propter aetātem impūberem       {20}
  domī[13] relīctus[14] erat. Is[15] genus propāgāvit ad Quīntum[16]
      Fabium
  Māximum, quī Hannibalem morā[17] frēgit.[18]

    [Footnotes: XI (pages 27-28)

    27.12: The subjunctive expresses both time and cause: cf. p. 2,
    n. 13, and p. xxii, J.
    27.13: The Veientes fought almost constantly against Rome from a
    very early time (cf. IV, 57; Livy says that they were defeated by
    Romulus) till their city was completely destroyed in 396 B.C.
    27.14: #Fabiōs . . . date#: ‘give the Veientes the Fabii as their
    enemies,’ i.e. let the war against the Veientes be the special
    business of the Fabii.
    27.15: Cf. p. 24, n. 9.
    27.16: #nōbīs . . . est#: since #nōbīs# is a dat. of possession
    (H 430 (387): M 542: A 231: G 349: B 190) with #est#, the phrase
    exactly = ‘we have it in mind.’ The subject of #est# is the clause
    #id . . . gerere#. #Fabiōs# is strongly opposed to #vōs#.
    28.1: #comitante . . . āgmine#: ‘the Fabii accompanying him in a
    body.’ How literally?
    28.2: #ad . . . ferunt#: so we ‘laud a person to the skies.’
    28.3: #Numquam . . . neque . . . neque#: in Latin, as in English,
    two negatives neutralize each other and make an affirmative. To
    this law there are two regular exceptions in Latin: When a general
    negative like _nōn_, _numquam_, or _nēmō_ is followed (1) by
    _neque . . . neque_ or (2) by the emphatic _nē . . . quidem_. In
    the former case the negation is distributed by the _neque . . .
    neque_ into two (or more) clauses or phrases; in the latter, the
    full weight of the negation is concentrated upon a single word or
    phrase. In English a single negative is always to be employed.
    28.4: dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6. This construction is
    especially frequent with phrases consisting of a gerundive and a
    noun.
    28.5: #nōn semel#: ‘not once (only),’ i.e. repeatedly.
    28.6: Cf. p. 4, n. 4.
    28.7: #Vēientēs . . . paenituisset#: lit., ‘when it had repented
    the V. of the peace which they had secured.’ What is our idiom?
    #paenituisset# is wholly impersonal; #Vēientēs# is acc., though
    logically its subject, and #pācis# is gen., though logically its
    object. H 457 (409, III): M 585: A 221, _b_: G 377: B 209.
    28.8: See p. 2, n. 13.
    28.9: dat. of reference: H 425, 4, N. (384, 4, N. 2): M 537:
    A 235, _a_: G 346: B 187, II.
    28.10: Sc. _eīs_: ‘to meet them.’
    28.11: _dēlābor_.
    28.12: _refero_.
    28.13: locative: H 484, 2 (426, 2): M 622: A 258, _d_: G 411, R.
    2: B 232, 2.
    28.14: _relinquō_.
    28.15: #Is . . . Māximum#: freely ‘he saved the family from
    extinction and became the ancestor of Maximus.’
    28.16: See Selection XIX.
    28.17: Fabius, by his ‘policy of masterly inactivity,’ gained the
    title of _Cunctātor_, ‘the Delayer.’
    28.18: _frangō_.]


#XII. Lucius Virginius# [[stripped text]]

Anno trecentesimo ab urbe condita pro duobus consulibus decemviri creati
sunt, qui adlatas e Graecia leges populo proponerent. Duodecim tabulis
eae sunt perscriptae. Ceterum decemviri sua ipsorum insolentia in
exitium acti sunt. Nam unus ex iis Appius Claudius virginem plebeiam
adamavit. Quam cum Appius non posset pretio ac spe perlicere, unum e
clientibus subornavit, qui eam in servitutem deposceret, facile victurum
se sperans, cum ipse esset et accusator et iudex. Lucius Virginius,
puellae pater, tunc aberat militiae causa. Cliens igitur virgini
venienti in Forum (namque ibi in tabernis litterarum ludi erant) iniecit
manum, adfirmans suam esse servam. Eam sequi se iubet; ni faciat,
minatur se vi abstracturum. Pavida puella stupente, ad clamorem nutricis
fit concursus. Itaque cum ille puellam vi non posset abducere, eam vocat
in ius, ipso Appio iudice.

Interea missi nuntii ad Virginium properant. Is commeatu sumpto a
castris profectus prima luce Romam advenit, cum iam civitas in Foro
exspectatione erecta stabat. Virginius statim in Forum lacrimabundus et
civium opem implorans filiam suam deducit. Neque eo setius Appius, cum
in tribunal escendisset, Virginiam clienti suo addixit. Tum pater, ubi
nihil usquam auxilii vidit, “Quaeso,” inquit “Appi, ignosce patrio
dolori; sine me filiam ultimum adloqui.” Data venia pater cum filiam
seduxisset, ab lanio cultro adrepto pectus puellae transfigit. Tum vero
sibi viam facit et respersus cruore ad exercitum profugit et milites ad
vindicandum facinus accendit. Concitatus exercitus montem Aventinum
insedit; decem tribunos militum creavit; decemviros magistratu se
abdicare coegit eosque omnes aut morte aut exilio multavit; ipse Appius
Claudius in carcerem coniectus mortem sibi conscivit.


    [[29]]

  #XII. Lūcius Virgīnius# [[as printed]]

  Annō trecentēsimō[1] ab urbe[2] conditā prō duōbus cōnsulibus
  decemvirī creātī sunt, quī[3] adlātās ē Graeciā lēgēs populō
  prōpōnerent.[4] Duodecim[5] tabulīs[6] eae sunt perscrīptae. Cēterum
  decemvirī[7] suā[8] ipsōrum īnsolentiā in exitium āctī sunt. Nam
  ūnus ex iīs Appius Claudius virginem plēbēiam adamāvit. Quam[9]    {5}
  cum Appius nōn posset pretiō ac spē perlicere, ūnum ē
  clientibus[10] subōrnāvit, quī eam in[11] servitūtem dēpōsceret,[12]
      facile
  victūrum[13] sē spērāns, cum ipse esset et accūsātor et iūdex. Lūcius
  Virgīnius, puellae pater, tunc aberat mīlitiae causā. Cliēns igitur
  virginī[14] venientī in Forum (namque ibi in tabernīs litterārum[15]
  lūdī erant) iniēcit manum, adfīrmāns suam esse servam. Eam        {11}
  sequī sē iubet; nī faciat,[16] minātur sē vī abstrāctūrum. Pavidā
  puellā[17] stupente,[17] ad clāmōrem nūtrīcis fit concursus. Itaque
      cum
  ille puellam vī nōn posset abdūcere, eam vocat in iūs, ipsō
  Appiō[17] iūdice.[17]                                             {15}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 449.]

  Intereā missī nūntiī ad Virgīnium properant. Is commeātū
  sūmptō ā castrīs profectus prīmā lūce Rōmam advēnit, cum iam
  cīvitās in Forō exspectātiōne ērēcta stābat. Virgīnius statim in
  Forum lacrimābundus et cīvium opem implōrāns fīliam suam
    [[30]]
  dēdūcit. Neque[1] eō sētius Appius, cum in tribūnal ēscendisset,  {20}
  Virgīniam clientī suō addīxit. Tum pater, ubi nihil ūsquam
  auxiliī[2] vīdit, “Quaesō,” inquit “Appī, īgnōsce patriō dolōrī[3];
  sine mē fīliam ultimum adloquī.” Datā veniā pater cum fīliam
  sēdūxisset, ab laniō cultrō[4] adreptō pectus puellae trānsfīgit.
  Tum vērō sibi viam facit et respersus cruōre ad exercitum profugit
  et mīlitēs ad vindicandum facinus accendit. Concitātus            {26}
  exercitus montem Aventīnum īnsēdit; decem tribūnōs[5] mīlitum
  creāvit; decemvirōs magistrātū sē abdicāre coēgit[6] eōsque omnēs
  aut morte aut exiliō multāvit; ipse Appius Claudius in carcerem
  coniectus mortem sibi cōnscīvit.[7]                               {30}

    [Footnotes: XII (pages 29-30)

    29.1: The dating is not exact, as the Decemvirs were elected in
    451 B.C.
    29.2: Cf. p. 5, n. 15.
    29.3: #quī . . . prōpōnerent#: i.e. after studying the laws of
    Greece, they were to draw up a code and submit it to the people.
    29.4: Cf. p. 5, n. 3.
    29.5: From this circumstance the code was known as the _Lēgēs XII
    Tabulārum_.
    29.6: abl. of means; we say ‘_on_ tablets.’ The tablets were of
    bronze. For many centuries Roman schoolboys had to commit these
    laws to memory.
    29.7: The Decemvirs had been elected for one year, at the end of
    which time they reported their work still unfinished, and a second
    board was chosen. The story that follows concerns the second
    board. All accounts agree that the rule of the first board was in
    all respects just.
    29.8: #suā ipsōrum#: a strong expression for ‘their own.’
    29.9: Cf. p. 4, n. 3.
    29.10: See Vocab., _cliēns_.
    29.11: #in servitūtem# expresses purpose (cf. p. 14, n. 4), and so
    = _ut serva esset_.
    29.12: Cf. p. 5, n. 3.
    29.13: _vincō_.
    29.14: Join with #iniēcit manum#, and cf. p. 2, n. 7.
    29.15: #litterārum lūdī#: schools where children were taught their
    A B C’s, i.e. what we should call ‘primary schools.’
    29.16: subjunctive as the subordinate clause of the indirect
    quotation, which depends on #minātur#. The threat was: _Nī (id)
    fēceris, vī (tē) abstraham_.
    29.17: abl. abs.
    30.1: #Neque eō sētius#: ‘nevertheless.’ How literally? #eō# =
    ‘for that reason.’
    30.2: partitive gen. with #nihil#: H 441 (397, 1): M 564: A 216,
    _a_, 3: G 369: B 201, 2.
    30.3: dat. with #īgnōsce#: H 426, 2 (385, II): M 531: A 227:
    G 346: B 187, II, _a_.
    30.4: #cultrō . . . trānsfīgit#: cf. p. 2, n. 8.
    30.5: #tribūnōs#: two armies were in the field against the Sabines
    and Aequians. The eight Decemvirs who commanded them were deposed,
    and ten tribunes, or ‘captains,’ were chosen in their place.
    30.6: _cōgō_.
    30.7: _cōnscīscō_. With this whole story cf. Macaulay’s _Lays_,
    _Virginia_.]


#XIII. Titus Manlius Torquatus# [[stripped text]]

Titus Manlius ob ingenii et linguae tarditatem a patre rūs relegatus
erat. Qui cum audivisset patri diem dictam esse a Pomponio, tribuno
plebis, cepit consilium rudis quidem et agrestis animi, sed pietate
laudabile. Cultro succinctus mane in urbem atque a porta confestim ad
Pomponium pergit: introductus cultrum stringit et super lectum Pomponii
stans se eum transfixurum minatur, nisi ab incepta accusatione desistat.
Pavidus tribunus, quippe qui cerneret ferrum ante oculos micans,
accusationem dimisit. Ea res adulescenti eo maiori fuit honori quod
animum eius acerbitas paterna a pietate non avertisset, ideoque eodem
anno tribunus militum factus est.

Cum postea Galli ad tertium lapidem trans Anienem fluvium castra
posuissent, exercitus Romanus ab urbe profectus in citeriore ripa fluvii
constitit. Pons in medio erat: tunc Gallus eximia corporis magnitudine
in vacuum pontem processit et quam maxima voce potuit “Quem nunc” inquit
“Roma fortissimum habet, is procedat agedum ad pugnam, ut eventus
certaminis nostri ostendat utra gens bello sit melior.” Diu inter
primores iuvenum Romanorum silentium fuit. Tum Titus Manlius ex statione
ad imperatorem pergit: “Iniussu tuo,” inquit, “imperator, extra ordinem
numquam pugnaverim, non si certam victoriam videam; si tu permittis,
volo ego illi beluae ostendere me ex ea familia ortum esse, quae
Gallorum agmen ex rupe Tarpeia deiecit.” Cui imperator “Macte virtute,”
inquit “Tite Manli, esto: perge et nomen Romanum invictum praesta.”

Armant deinde iuvenem aequales: scutum capit, Hispano cingitur gladio,
ad propiorem pugnam habili. Exspectabat eum Gallus stolide laetus et
linguam ab inrisu exserens. Ubi constitere inter duas acies, Gallus
ensem cum ingenti sonitu in arma Manlii deiecit. Manlius vero inter
corpus et arma Galli sese insinuans uno alteroque ictu ventrem
transfodit et in spatium ingens ruentem porrexit hostem; iacenti torquem
detraxit, quem cruore respersum collo circumdedit suo. Defixerat pavor
cum admiratione Gallos; Romani alacres obviam militi suo progrediuntur
et gratulantes laudantesque ad imperatorem perducunt. Manlius inde
Torquati cognomen accepit.

Idem Manlius, postea consul factus bello Latino, ut disciplinam
militarem restitueret, edixit ne quis extra ordinem in hostes pugnaret.
T. Manlius, consulis filius, cum propius forte ad stationem hostium
accessisset, is, qui Latino equitatui praeerat, ubi consulis filium
agnovit, “Visne” inquit “congredi mecum, ut singularis certaminis eventu
cernatur, quantum eques Latinus Romano praestet?” Movit ferocem animum
iuvenis seu ira seu detrectandi certaminis pudor. Itaque oblitus imperii
paterni in certamen ruit et Latinum ex equo excussum transfixit
spoliisque lectis in castra ad patrem venit. Extemplo filium aversatus
consul milites classico advocat. Qui postquam frequentes convenere,
“Quandoquidem” inquit “tu, fili, contra imperium consulis pugnasti,
oportet disciplinam, quam solvisti, poena tua restituas. Triste
exemplum, sed in posterum salubre iuventuti eris. I, lictor, deliga ad
palum.” Metu omnes obstupuere; sed postquam cervice caesa fusus est
cruor, in questus et lamenta erupere. Manlio Romam redeunti seniores
tantum obviam exierunt: iuventus et tunc eum et omni deinde vita
exsecrata est.

Operae pretium erit aliud severitatis disciplinae Romanae exemplum
proferre, simul ut appareat quam facile severitas in crudelitatem et
furorem abeat. Cn. Piso fuit vir a multis vitiis integer, sed pravus et
cui placebat pro constantia rigor. Is cum iratus ad mortem duci
iussisset militem, quasi interfecisset commilitonem, cum quo egressus
erat e castris et sine quo redierat, roganti tempus aliquod ad
conquirendum non dedit. Damnatus miles extra castrorum vallum ductus est
et iam cervicem porrigebat, cum subito apparuit ille commilito, qui
occisus dicebatur. Tunc centurio supplicio praepositus condere gladium
carnificem iubet. Ambo commilitones alter alterum complexi ingenti
concursu et magno gaudio exercitus deducuntur ad Pisonem. Ille
conscendit tribunal furens et utrumque ad mortem duci iubet, adicit et
centurionem, qui damnatum militem reduxerat, haec praefatus: “Te morte
plecti iubeo, quia iam damnatus es; te, quia causa damnationis
commilitoni fuisti; te, quia iussus occidere militem imperatori non
paruisti.”

Ceterum Manlianae gentis propriam fere fuisse illam in filios
acerbitatem alius Manlius, illius de quo supra diximus nepos, ostendit.
Cum Macedonum legati Romam venissent conquestum de Silano, Manlii
Torquati filio, quod praetor provinciam expilasset, pater, avitae
severitatis heres, petiit a patribus conscriptis ne quid de ea re
statuerent, antequam ipse inspexisset Macedonum et filii sui causam. Id
a senatu libenter concessum est viro summae dignitatis, consulari
iurisque civilis peritissimo. Itaque, instituta domi cognitione causae,
solus per totum biduum utramque partem audiebat ac tertio die
pronuntiavit filium suum videri non talem fuisse in provincia, quales
eius maiores fuissent, et in conspectum suum deinceps venire vetuit. Tam
tristi patris iudicio perculsus lucem ulterius intueri non sustinuit et
proxima nocte vitam suspendio finivit. Peregerat Torquatus severi et
religiosi iudicis partes, satisfactum erat rei publicae, habebat
ultionem Macedonia, at nondum erat inflexus patris rigor. Igitur ne
exsequiis quidem filii interfuit, ut patribus mos erat apud Romanos, et
eo ipso die, quo funus eius ducebatur, aures, ut solebat, volentibus
consulere se de iure praebuit.


  #XIII. Titus Mānlius Torquātus# [[as printed]]

  Titus Mānlius ob ingeniī et linguae tarditātem ā patre rūs[8]
  relēgātus erat. Quī cum audīvisset patrī[9] diem dictam esse ā
  Pompōniō, tribūnō plēbis, cēpit cōnsilium rudis quidem et agrestis
  animī,[10] sed pietāte laudābile. Cultrō succinctus māne in
  urbem atque ā portā cōnfēstim ad[11] Pompōnium pergit:             {5}
  intrōductus[12] cultrum stringit et super lectum Pompōniī stāns sē eum
  trānsfīxūrum minātur, nisi ab inceptā accūsātiōne dēsistat.[13]
      Pavidus
    [[31]]
  tribūnus, quīppe[1] quī cerneret ferrum ante oculōs micāns,
      accūsātiōnem
  dīmīsit. Ea rēs adulēscentī[2] eō[3] māiōrī[4] fuit honōrī
  quod animum ēius acerbitās paterna ā pietāte nōn āvertisset,      {10}
  ideōque eōdem annō tribūnus mīlitum factus est.

    [Illustration: MĪLIĀRIUM]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 361.]

  Cum posteā Gallī[5] ad tertium[6] lapidem trāns Aniēnem fluvium
  castra posuissent, exercitus Rōmānus ab urbe profectus in citeriōre
  rīpā fluviī cōnstitit. Pōns in mediō[7] erat: tunc Gallus
  eximiā corporis māgnitūdine in vacuum pontem                      {15}
  prōcessit et quam[8] māximā vōce potuit “Quem
  nunc” inquit “Rōma fortissimum habet, is prōcēdat[9]
  agedum ad pūgnam, ut ēventus certāminis nostrī
  ostendat utra gēns bellō sit melior.” Diū inter
  prīmōrēs iuvenum Rōmānōrum silentium fuit. Tum                    {20}
  Titus Mānlius ex statiōne ad imperātōrem pergit:
  “Iniussū[10] tuō,” inquit, “imperātor, extrā ōrdinem
  numquam pūgnāverim,[11] nōn sī certam victōriam                   {23}
  videam[11]; sī tū permittis, volō ego illī bēluae ostendere mē ex eā
  familiā ortum esse, quae Gallōrum āgmen ex rūpe Tarpēiā dēiēcit.”[12]
    [[32]]
  Cuī imperātor “Macte[1] virtūte,” inquit “Tite Mānlī, estō: perge
  et nōmen Rōmānum invictum praestā.”                               {27}

  Armant deinde iuvenem aequālēs: scūtum capit, Hispānō[2]
  cingitur[3] gladiō, ad propiōrem[4] pūgnam habilī. Exspectābat eum
  Gallus stolidē laetus et linguam ab inrīsū exserēns.              {30}
  Ubi cōnstitēre[5] inter duās aciēs, Gallus ēnsem cum
  ingentī sonitū in arma Mānliī dēiēcit. Mānlius vērō
  inter corpus et arma Gallī sēsē īnsinuāns ūnō[6] alterōque
  īctū ventrem trānsfōdit et in spatium ingēns
  ruentem porrēxit hostem; iacentī[7] torquem dētrāxit,             {35}
  quem cruōre respersum[8] collō[9] circumdedit[10] suō.
  Dēfīxerat pavor[11] cum admīrātiōne Gallōs; Rōmānī
  alacrēs obviam mīlitī suō prōgrediuntur et grātulantēs
  laudantēsque ad imperātōrem perdūcunt. Mānlius
  inde Torquātī cōgnōmen accēpit.                                   {40}

    [Illustration: GLADIUS]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 340.]

  Īdem Mānlius, posteā cōnsul factus bellō Latīnō,
  ut dīsciplīnam mīlitārem restitueret, ēdīxit nē[12] quis
  extrā ōrdinem in hostēs pūgnāret. T. Mānlius,[13]
  cōnsulis fīlius, cum propius forte ad statiōnem hostium           {44}
  accessisset, is, quī Latīnō equitātuī praeerat, ubi cōnsulis fīlium
  āgnōvit,[14] “Vīsne” inquit “congredī mēcum, ut singulāris certāminis
  ēventū cernātur, quantum eques Latīnus Rōmānō praestet?”
  Mōvit ferōcem animum iuvenis seu īra seu dētrēctandī[15]
    [[33]]
  certāminis pudor. Itaque oblītus[1] imperiī[2] paternī in certāmen
  ruit et Latīnum[3] ex equō excussum trānsfīxit spoliīsque lēctīs  {50}
  in castra ad patrem vēnit. Extemplō fīlium āversātus
  cōnsul mīlitēs classicō advocat. Quī postquam
  frequentēs convēnēre, “Quandōquidem” inquit “tū,
  fīlī, contrā imperium cōnsulis pūgnāstī, oportet[4]
  dīsciplīnam, quam solvistī, poenā[5] tuā restituās.               {55}
  Trīste exemplum, sed in[6] posterum salūbre iuventūtī
  eris. Ī,[7] līctor, dēligā[8] ad pālum.” Metū omnēs
  obstupuēre; sed postquam cervīce caesā fūsus est cruor, in questūs
  et lāmenta ērūpēre.[9] Mānliō Rōmam redeuntī seniōrēs tantum
  obviam exiērunt: iuventūs et tunc eum et omnī[10] deinde vītā     {60}
  exsecrāta est.

    [Illustration: LĪCTOR]

  Operae pretium erit aliud sevēritātis dīsciplīnae Rōmānae
  exemplum prōferre, simul ut appāreat quam facile sevēritās in[11]
  crūdēlitātem et furōrem abeat. Cn. Pīsō fuit[12] vir ā multīs vitiīs
  integer, sed prāvus et cuī[13] placēbat prō cōnstantiā rigor. Is  {65}
  cum īrātus ad mortem dūcī iussisset mīlitem, quasi[14] interfēcisset
  commīlitōnem, cum quō ēgressus erat ē castrīs et sine quō redierat,
  rogantī[15] tempus aliquod ad conquīrendum[16] nōn dedit.
  Damnātus mīles extrā castrōrum vāllum ductus est et iam cervīcem
  porrigēbat, cum subitō appāruit ille commīlitō, quī occīsus[17]   {70}
    [[34]]
  dīcēbātur. Tunc centuriō suppliciō praepositus condere gladium
  carnificem iubet. Ambō commīlitōnēs alter alterum complexī
  ingentī concursū et māgnō gaudiō exercitūs dēdūcuntur ad Pīsōnem.
  Ille cōnscendit tribūnal furēns et utrumque ad mortem             {74}
  dūcī iubet, adicit et centuriōnem, quī damnātum mīlitem redūxerat,
  haec praefātus[1]: “Tē morte plectī iubeō, quia iam damnātus
  es; tē, quia causa damnātiōnis commīlitōnī fuistī; tē, quia
  iussus occīdere mīlitem imperātōrī[2] nōn pāruistī.”

  Cēterum Mānliānae gentis[3] propriam ferē fuisse[4] illam in
  fīliōs acerbitātem alius Mānlius, illīus dē quō suprā dīximus     {80}
  nepōs, ostendit. Cum Macedonum lēgātī Rōmam vēnissent
  conquestum[5] dē Sīlānō, Mānliī Torquātī fīliō, quod praetor[6]
      prōvinciam
  expīlāsset,[7] pater, avītae sevēritātis hērēs, petiit ā patribus[8]
  cōnscrīptīs nē quid dē eā rē statuerent, antequam ipse īnspexisset
  Macedonum et fīliī suī causam. Id ā senātū libenter concessum     {85}
  est virō summae[9] dīgnitātis, cōnsulārī iūrisque cīvīlis perītissimō.
  Itaque, īnstitūtā domī cōgnitiōne causae, sōlus per tōtum bīduum
  utramque partem audiēbat ac tertiō diē prōnūntiāvit fīlium suum
  vidērī nōn tālem fuisse in prōvinciā, quālēs ēius māiōrēs fuissent,
  et in cōnspectum suum deinceps venīre vetuit. Tam trīstī patris   {90}
  iūdiciō perculsus[10] lūcem[11] ulterius intuērī nōn sustinuit et
  proximā[12] nocte vītam suspendiō fīnīvit. Perēgerat[13] Torquātus
      sevērī
  et religiōsī iūdicis partēs,[14] satisfactum erat reī pūblicae,
      habēbat
  ultiōnem Macedonia, at nōndum erat īnflexus patris rigor. Igitur  {94}
  nē[15] exsequiīs quidem fīliī interfuit, ut patribus mōs erat apud
    [[35]]
  Rōmānōs, et eō ipsō diē, quō fūnus ēius dūcēbātur, aurēs, ut
  solēbat, volentibus cōnsulere sē dē iūre praebuit.

    [Footnotes: XIII (pages 30-34)

    30.8: Cf. p. 3, n. 4.
    30.9: #patrī . . . esse#: ‘that a day had been set against his
    father (for trial),’ i.e. ‘that his father had been summoned to
    appear for trial.’ Among the charges against the elder Manlius was
    that of cruelty to his son. #patrī# is a dat. of disadvantage.
    30.10: #cēpit . . . laudābile#: ‘he formed a plan (which, though
    it gave token) of a rough and uncouth temper (was) nevertheless
    commendable by reason of the filial devotion (which it showed).’
    For #quidem . . . sed#, cf. p. 10, n. 10. #animī# is a genitive of
    quality or description with #cōnsilium#.
    30.11: #ad Pompōnium# = ‘to (the house of) Pomponius.’
    30.12: = a temporal clause: ‘when he had been ushered in.’
    30.13: For the mood, cf. p. 29, n. 16.
    31.1: #quīppe quī#: ‘since indeed he,’ etc. #quī# = _cum is_
    (cf. p. 4, n. 3), and the relative clause has its verb in the
    subjunctive because it expresses a reason: H 592, 1 (517, 3, 1)):
    M 840: A 320, _e_, N. 1: G 633: B 283, 3, _a_.
    31.2: dat. of advantage.
    31.3: #eō# = ‘for this reason,’ explained by #quod . . .
    āvertisset#.
    31.4: #māiōrī fuit honōrī#: ‘was all the more credit’; cf. p. 25,
    n. 6.
    31.5: In the fifth century B.C. the Gauls left their homes in
    northwestern Europe, and, crossing the Alps, gained control of the
    fertile valley of the Po. Hence that part of the Italian peninsula
    was called Gallia Cisalpina. Thence they made raids into the lands
    to the south.
    31.6: With #tertium# sc. _ab urbe Rōmā_. On all the roads leading
    from Rome milestones were set up to mark the distance from the
    gate in the Servian Wall (see map, p. xxviii), by which the road
    issued from the capital.
    31.7: Sc. _duōrum exercituum_, i.e. ‘between the two armies.’
    31.8: #quam . . . potuit#: cf. p. 26, n. 10.
    31.9: subjunctive of exhortation or command: H 559, 1 (484, II):
    M 713: A 266: G 263, 3: B 274.
    31.10: #Iniussū tuō#: ‘without your consent.’
    31.11: subjunctive in an ideal condition: H 576 (509): M 936:
    A 307, _b_: G 596: B 303.
    31.12: In 388 B.C. the Gauls had captured and destroyed all of
    Rome save the Capitol, which was commanded by M. Manlius, the
    father of Titus. He was aroused one night by the cackling of the
    sacred geese, to find that the Gauls had climbed by a secret path,
    and had almost effected an entrance. He awoke the garrison, hurled
    the foremost Gauls back upon their companions, and thus saved the
    Capitol.
    32.1: #macte virtūte . . . estō#: lit., ‘be glorified in
    (respect of) your valor.’ The phrase is in part an expression of
    commendation, like our ‘bravo!’ in part a prayer, like ‘success
    attend thee!’
    32.2: A straight, two-edged sword, not more than two feet long,
    used for thrusting rather than for striking. The Gallic sword was
    long and without point.
    32.3: = _cingit sē_, i.e. ‘girds himself,’ not ‘is girded.’
    32.4: ‘nearer,’ i.e. hand to hand.
    32.5: _cōnsistō_. What tense?
    32.6: #ūnō alterōque īctū#: ‘with one stroke after the other’;
    i.e. he killed him with two quick blows.
    32.7: Sc. _eī_, and render ‘from him as he lay (dead).’ See p. 17,
    n. 4.
    32.8: _respergō_.
    32.9: What case?
    32.10: In its compounds, _dare_ more often = ‘to put’ than ‘to
    give.’
    32.11: #pavor cum admīrātiōne# = _pavor et admīrātiō_; cf. _mentēs
    cum oculīs_, II, 12.
    32.12: #nē quis . . . pūgnāret#: ‘that no one should fight.’ For
    the subjunctive, see p. 9, n. 6.
    32.13: Subject of #accessisset#. For its position, see p. 19,
    n. 7.
    32.14: _āgnōscō_.
    32.15: #dētrēctandī . . . pudor#: ‘his unwillingness to decline
    the fight.’ A literal translation would be impossible. _Pudor_
    implies that he was ashamed to decline lest his refusal should be
    attributed to cowardice.
    33.1: _oblivīscor_.
    33.2: dependent on #oblītus#: H 454 (406, II): M 588: A 219, 1:
    G 376: B 206, 1.
    33.3: #excussum trānsfīxit#: cf. p. 2, n. 8.
    33.4: #oportet restituās#: ‘it is fitting that you restore.’
    _Oportet_ is construed either with the infinitive or with the
    subjunctive of result with _ut_ omitted.
    33.5: Why abl.?
    33.6: #in posterum# (cf. p. 4, n. 9) = ‘for the future.’
    33.7: Imperative of _eō_.
    33.8: Cf. _Stābant ad pālum dēligāti_, IX, 21.
    33.9: _ērumpō_.
    33.10: #omnī . . . vītā#: ‘throughout his whole subsequent life.’
    In this sense the simple acc., or the acc. with _per_ is far more
    common. #deinde#, standing between an adj. and a noun, may be
    rendered by an adj.: cf. p. 10, n. 14.
    33.11: #in . . . abeat#: ‘passes over into,’ ‘degenerates into.’
    33.12: #fuit . . . sed#: we would say, ‘was, to be sure, . . .
    but, after all,’ i.e. ‘although he was . . . yet.’ In this sense
    _quidem . . . sed_ is commonly used: cf. p. 10, n. 10.
    33.13: H 426 (385, I): M 531: A 227: G 346: B 187, II.
    33.14: Cf. p. 3, n. 6.
    33.15: Sc. _mīlitī_, and join with _dedit_.
    33.16: Sc. _commīlitōnem_.
    33.17: Sc. _esse_.
    34.1: _praefor_.
    34.2: H 426 (385): M 531: A 227: G 346: B 187, II.
    34.3: Join with _propriam_. _Proprius_, like _similis_, is
    construed with both the gen. and the dat.
    34.4: dependent on #ostendit#, l. 81.
    34.5: supine of _conqueror_, expressing purpose. Cf. p. 5, n. 20.
    34.6: ‘when praetor,’ or ‘during his praetorship.’
    34.7: Many, indeed most, governors of provinces enriched
    themselves by extortion.
    34.8: See Vocab., _cōnscrīptus_.
    34.9: #summae . . . perītissimō#: these words contain the reasons
    why #Id . . . concessum est#.
    34.10: _percellō_.
    34.11: #lūcem . . . sustinuit#: ‘he refused to live longer.’ How
    literally?
    34.12: The context must determine whether #proximā nocte# = ‘the
    next night’ or ‘last night.’
    34.13: _pergō_.
    34.14: ‘role.’ This meaning of _partēs_ is borrowed from the
    theater.
    34.15: #nē . . . quidem# is a very strong negative, and generally
    emphasizes some word or phrase placed between the _nē_ and the
    _quidem_.]


#XIV. Publius Decius# [[stripped text]]

P. Decius, Valerio Maximo et Cornelio Cosso consulibus, tribunus militum
fuit. Exercitu Romano in angustiis Gauri montis clauso Decius editum
collem conspexit imminentem hostium castris. Accepto praesidio verticem
occupavit, hostes terruit, consuli spatium dedit ad subducendum agmen in
aequiorem locum. Ipse, colle, quem insederat, undique armatis
circumdato, intempesta nocte per medias hostium custodias somno
oppressas incolumis evasit. Qua re ab exercitu donatus est corona
civica, quae dabatur ei, qui cives in bello servasset. Consul fuit bello
Latino cum Manlio Torquato. Hoc bello cum utrique consuli somnio
obvenisset eos victores futuros, quorum dux in proelio cecidisset,
convenit inter eos uti, utrius cornu in acie laboraret, is diis se
Manibus devoveret. Inclinante sua parte Decius se et hostes diis Manibus
devovit. Armatus in equum insiluit ac se in medios hostes immisit:
corruit obrutus telis et victoriam suis reliquit.


  #XIV. Pūblius Decius# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 343.]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 340.]

    [Illustration: CORŌNA CĪVICA]

  P. Decius,[1] Valeriō[2] Māximō et Cornēliō Cossō cōnsulibus,
  tribūnus mīlitum fuit. Exercitū Rōmānō in angustiīs Gaurī
  montis clausō[3] Decius ēditum collem cōnspexit imminentem
  hostium castrīs. Acceptō praesidiō verticem[4] occupāvit, hostēs
  terruit, cōnsulī spatium dedit ad subdūcendum āgmen in aequiōrem   {5}
  locum. Ipse, colle, quem īnsēderat,[5] undique
  armātīs circumdatō, intempestā nocte
  per[6] mediās hostium cūstōdiās somnō oppressās[7]
  incolumis ēvāsit. Quā rē ab exercitū
  dōnātus est corōnā cīvicā, quae dabātur eī,                       {10}
  quī cīvēs in bellō servāsset. Cōnsul fuit bellō
  Latīnō cum Mānliō[8] Torquātō. Hōc
  bellō cum[9] utrīque cōnsulī somniō obvēnisset
  eōs victōrēs futūrōs, quōrum dux in proeliō cecidisset,
  convēnit inter eōs utī, utrīus cornū in aciē labōrāret, is diīs[10]
  sē Mānibus dēvovēret. Inclīnante suā parte Decius sē et hostēs    {16}
  diīs Mānibus dēvōvit.[11] Armātus in equum īnsiluit ac sē in mediōs
  hostēs immīsit: corruit obrutus tēlīs et victōriam suīs relīquit.

    [Footnotes: XIV (page 35)

    35.1: His full name was P. Decius Mus.
    35.2: #Valeriō . . . cōnsulibus#: ‘in the consulship of,’ etc. For
    the abl. abs. consisting of two nouns, see H 489 (431, 4): M 639:
    A 255, _a_: G 409: B 227, 1. For another method of dating events,
    cf. XII, 1.
    35.3: _claudō_.
    35.4: Sc. _collis_.
    35.5: _īnsideō_.
    35.6: #per . . . cūstōdiās#: ‘through the _midst of_ the enemy’s
    pickets.’ Cf. l. 17, #in mediōs hostēs#, ‘against the enemy’s
    center.’ Note the difference between the Latin and the English
    idioms. H 497, 4 (440, N. 1-2): M 565: A 193: G 291, R. 2:
    B 241, 1.
    35.7: _opprimō_.
    35.8: Cf. XIII, 41.
    35.9: #cum . . . obvēnisset#: ‘when the two consuls had dreamed.’
    How literally? The subject of #obvēnisset# is #eōs . . .
    cecidisset#. So the subject of #convēnit# is #utī . . .
    dēvovēret#.
    35.10: See Vocab., _Mānēs_.
    35.11: Decius’ act was called #dēvōtiō#, and proceeded from the
    idea that for the victim which the Manes seemed to be claiming
    another might be substituted. According to Livy, Decius used this
    formula: “As a substitute for the commonwealth, the army, the
    legions, and the allies of the Roman people I devote to the Manes
    myself and the legions and allies of the enemy.”]


#XV. Manius Curius# [[stripped text]]

Manius Curius contra Samnites profectus eos ingentibus proeliis vicit.
In quo bello cum permultum agri hominumque maximam vim cepisset, ipse
inde ditari adeo noluit, ut, cum interversae pecuniae argueretur,
catillo ligneo, quo uti ad sacrificia consueverat, in medium prolato
iuraret se nihil amplius de praeda hostili in domum suam convertisse.
Curio ad focum sedenti in agresti scamno et ex ligneo catillo cenanti
cum magnum auri pondus Samnites attulissent, repudiati ab eo sunt
dixitque non aurum habere sibi praeclarum videri, sed iis qui haberent
aurum imperare. Quo responso Curius Samnitibus ostendit se neque acie
vinci neque pecunia corrumpi posse. Agri capti septena iugera populo
viritim divisit; cumque ipsi senatus iugera quinquaginta adsignaret,
plus accipere noluit quam singulis civibus erat datum, dixitque
perniciosum esse civem, qui eo, quod reliquis tribueretur, contentus non
esset.

Postea consul creatus adversus Pyrrhum missus est: cumque in Capitolio
delectum haberet et iuniores taedio belli nomina non darent, coniectis
in urnam omnium tribuum nominibus primum nomen urna extractum citari
iussit et cum adulescens non responderet, bona eius hastae subiecit,
deinde cum is questus de iniuria consulis tribunos plebis appellasset,
ipsum quoque vendidit, nihil opus esse rei publicae eo cive, qui
nesciret parere, dicens. Neque tribuni plebis adulescenti auxilio
fuerunt; posteaque res in consuetudinem abiit, ut delectu rite acto, qui
militiam detrectaret, in servitutem venderetur. Hoc terrore ceteri
adacti nomina promptius dederunt.

His copiis Curius Pyrrhi exercitum cecidit deque eo rege triumphavit.
Insignem triumphum fecerunt quattuor elephanti cum turribus suis, tum
primum Romae visi. Victus rex relicto Tarenti praesidio in Epirum
revertit. Cum autem bellum renovaturus putaretur, Manium Curium iterum
consulem fieri placuit. Sed inopinata mors regis Romanos metu liberavit.
Pyrrhus enim, dum Argos oppugnat, urbem iam ingressus a iuvene quodam
Argivo lancea leviter vulneratus est. Mater adulescentis, anus
paupercula, cum aliis mulieribus e tecto domus proelium spectabat; quae
cum vidisset Pyrrhum in auctorem vulneris sui magno impetu ferri,
periculo filii sui commota protinus tegulam corripuit et utraque manu
libratam in caput regis deiecit.


    [[36]]

  #XV. Mānius Curius# [[as printed]]

  Mānius Curius contrā Samnītēs profectus[1] eōs ingentibus proeliīs
  vīcit.[2] In quō bellō cum permultum agrī[3] hominumque[3]
  māximam vim[4] cēpisset,[5] ipse inde[6] dītārī adeō[7] nōluit, ut,
      cum                                                            {3}
  interversae[8] pecūniae arguerētur, catīllō[9] līgneō, quō[10] ūtī ad
  sacrificia cōnsuēverat,[11] in medium prōlātō iūrāret sē nihil amplius
  dē praedā hostīlī in domum suam convertisse. Curiō[12] ad focum    {6}
  sedentī in agrestī scamnō et ex līgneō catīllō cēnantī cum māgnum
  aurī pondus Samnītēs attulissent,[13] repudiātī ab eō sunt dīxitque
  nōn[14] aurum habēre[15] sibi praeclārum vidērī, sed iīs quī habērent
  aurum imperāre.[15] Quō respōnsō Curius Samnītibus ostendit sē    {10}
  neque aciē vincī neque pecūniā corrumpī posse. Agrī captī septēna
  iūgera populō virītim dīvīsit[16]; cumque ipsī senātus iūgera
  quīnquāgintā adsīgnāret, plūs accipere nōluit quam singulīs cīvibus
  erat datum, dīxitque perniciōsum esse cīvem,[17] quī eō,[18] quod
  reliquīs tribuerētur, contentus nōn esset.[19]                    {15}

  Posteā cōnsul creātus adversus Pyrrhum missus est: cumque
  in Capitōliō dēlēctum habēret et iūniōrēs taediō[20] bellī nōmina[21]
  nōn darent, coniectīs in ūrnam omnium tribuum nōminibus
  prīmum[22] nōmen ūrnā extrāctum citārī iussit et cum adulēscēns nōn
  respondēret, bona[23] ēius hastae subiēcit, deinde cum is         {20}
    [[37]]
  questus[1] dē iniūriā cōnsulis tribūnōs[2] plēbis appellāsset, ipsum
      quoque
  vēndidit, nihil[3] opus esse reī pūblicae eō cīve,[4] quī nescīret
  pārēre, dīcēns. Neque tribūnī plēbis adulēscentī[5] auxiliō[5]
      fuērunt;
  posteāque rēs[6] in cōnsuētūdinem abiit, ut dēlēctū rīte āctō,    {24}
  quī[7] mīlitiam dētrēctāret, in servitūtem vēnderētur. Hōc[8] terrōre
  cēterī adāctī[9] nōmina prōmptius dedērunt.

    [Illustration: ELEPHANT]

  Hīs cōpiīs Curius Pyrrhī exercitum cecīdit[10] dēque eō rēge
  triumphāvit. Īnsīgnem[11] triumphum fēcērunt quattuor elephantī
  cum turribus suīs, tum prīmum Rōmae[12]
  vīsī. Victus rēx relīctō Tarentī[12] praesidiō                    {30}
  in Ēpīrum revertit. Cum[13] autem
  bellum renovātūrus putārētur, Mānium
  Curium iterum cōnsulem fierī placuit.[14]
  Sed inopīnāta mors rēgis Rōmānōs metū
  līberāvit. Pyrrhus enim, dum Argōs                                {35}
  oppūgnat,[15] urbem iam ingressus ā iuvene
  quōdam Argīvō lanceā leviter vulnerātus
  est. Māter adulēscentis, anus paupercula,
  cum aliīs mulieribus ē tēctō domūs proelium
  spectābat; quae cum vīdisset Pyrrhum in auctōrem vulneris         {40}
  suī māgnō impetū ferrī,[16] perīculō fīliī suī commōta prōtinus
      tēgulam
  corripuit et utrāque manū lībrātam[17] in caput rēgis dēiēcit.

    [Footnotes: XV (pages 36-37)

    36.1: _proficīscor_.
    36.2: _vincō_.
    36.3: partitive gen.: cf. p. 30, n. 2.
    36.4: Cf. p. 4, n. 11.
    36.5: _capiō_.
    36.6: i.e. from the _ager_, or the money derived from the sale of
    the _hominēs_.
    36.7: Cf. p. 26, n. 8.
    36.8: See p. 5, n. 15; cf. also H 456 (409, II): M 582: A 220:
    G 378: B 208, 1.
    36.9: #catīllō . . . prōlātō# (_prōferō_) #iūrāret# = _catīllum
    prōferret et iūrāret_. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.
    36.10: H 477, I (421, I): M 253: A 249: G 407: B 218, 1.
    36.11: _cōnsuēscō_.
    36.12: Join with #attulissent#.
    36.13: _adferō_.
    36.14: #nōn . . . imperāre#: ‘it was not the having gold that
    seemed to him glorious, but the ruling over those who had it.’
    Give Curius’ exact words.
    36.15: subjects of #vidērī#: cf. p. 6, n. 16.
    36.16: = _distribuit_.
    36.17: We would say, ‘_that_ citizen.’
    36.18: H 476, 1 (421, III): M 629: A 254, _b_, 2: G 401, N. 6:
    B 219.
    36.19: Why subjunctive?
    36.20: abl. of cause.
    36.21: _nōmina dare_ = to hand in one’s name to a recruiting
    officer, i.e. ‘to volunteer.’
    36.22: #prīmum nōmen#: i.e. the man whose name was first drawn.
    36.23: #bona . . . subiēcit#: i.e. he sold his goods at auction.
    At Roman auctions, especially of booty taken in war, a spear was
    set in the ground, just as nowadays a flag is exposed.
    37.1: _queror_.
    37.2: The _tribūnī plēbis_ had been created for the express
    purpose of protecting the people from unjust treatment by the
    patrician magistrates, especially the consuls. They could veto the
    acts of any magistrate.
    37.3: #nihil# (adv. acc.) #. . . cīve#: ‘the state had no need of
    that citizen.’
    37.4: abl. with #opus#: H 477, III (414, IV): M 646: A 243, _e_:
    G 406: B 218, 2.
    37.5: For the two datives see p. 25, n. 6.
    37.6: #rēs . . . ābiit#: i.e. it became a regular custom. Cf.
    _sevēritās . . . abeat_, XIII, 63.
    37.7: ‘whoever.’
    37.8: #Hōc terrōre#: i.e. ‘by the terror occasioned by this
    (act).’
    37.9: _adigō_.
    37.10: At Beneventum, 275 B.C.
    37.11: #Īnsīgnem . . . elephantī#: ‘this triumph was made notable
    by the presence of four elephants.’ How literally?
    37.12: Cf. p. 25, n. 7.
    37.13: #Cum . . . putārētur#: with #renovātūrus# sc. _esse_. For
    the personal construction, see p. 7, n. 12.
    37.14: Sc. _populō Rōmānō_. Its subject is the clause #Mānium
    . . . fierī#; hence the infin. #fierī#.
    37.15: ‘_was_ besieging.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 14.
    37.16: ‘rushing.’ How literally?
    37.17: #lībrātam . . . dēiēcit# = _lībrāvit et dēiēcit_.]


#XVI. Gaius Duilius# [[stripped text]]

Gaius Duilius Poenos navali pugna primus devicit. Qui cum videret naves
Romanas a Punicis velocitate superari, manus ferreas sive corvos,
machinam ad comprehendendas hostium naves tenendasque utilem,
excogitavit. Quae manus ubi hostilem apprehenderant navem, superiecto
ponte transgrediebatur Romanus et in ipsorum ratibus comminus
dimicabant, unde Romanis, qui robore praestabant, facilis victoria fuit.
Celeriter sunt expugnatae naves Punicae triginta, in quibus etiam
praetoria septiremis capta est, mersae tredecim.

Duilius victor Romam reversus primus navalem triumphum egit. Nulla
victoria Romanis gratior fuit, quod invicti terra iam etiam mari
plurimum possent. Itaque Duilio concessum est, ut per omnem vitam
praelucente funali et praecinente tibicine a cena rediret.

Hannibal, dux classis Punicae, e navi quae iam capiebatur, in scapham
saltu se demittens Romanorum manus effugit. Veritus autem, ne in patria
classis amissae poenas daret, civium odium astutia avertit, nam ex illa
infelici pugna priusquam cladis nuntius domum perveniret quendam ex
amicis Carthaginem misit. Qui postquam curiam intravit, “Consulit”
inquit “vos Hannibal, cum dux Romanorum magnis copiis maritimis
instructis advenerit, num cum eo confligere debeat?” Acclamavit
universus senatus non esse dubium quin confligi oporteret. Tum ille
“Conflixit” inquit “et superatus est.” Ita non potuerunt factum damnare,
quod ipsi fieri debuisse iudicaverant. Sic Hannibal victus crucis
supplicium effugit: nam eo poenae genere dux re male gesta apud Poenos
adficiebatur.


    [[38]]

  #XVI. Gāius Duīlius# [[as printed]]

  Gāius Duīlius Poenōs nāvālī pūgnā prīmus[1] dēvīcit.
  Quī cum vidēret nāvēs Rōmānās ā Pūnicīs
  vēlōcitāte superārī, manūs ferreās sīve corvōs,
  māchinam ad comprehendendās hostium nāvēs
  tenendāsque ūtilem, excōgitāvit. Quae[2] manūs ubi                 {5}
  hostīlem apprehenderant nāvem, superiectō ponte
  trānsgrediēbātur Rōmānus[3] et in ipsōrum[4] ratibus
  comminus dīmicābant, unde[5] Rōmānīs, quī rōbore
  praestābant, facilis victōria fuit. Celeriter sunt
  expūgnātae nāvēs Pūnicae trīgintā, in quibus etiam                {10}
  praetōria[6] septirēmis[7] capta est, mersae[8] tredecim.

    [Illustration: COLUMNA RŌSTRĀTA OF DUĪLIUS]

  Duīlius victor Rōmam reversus prīmus
  nāvālem triumphum ēgit. Nūlla victōria
  Rōmānīs grātior fuit, quod[9] invictī terrā
  iam etiam marī plūrimum[10] possent.[9] Itaque                    {15}
  Duīliō concessum est, ut per omnem vītam
  praelūcente fūnāli et praecinente tībīcine ā
  cēnā redīret.[11]

    [Illustration: TĪBĪCEN]

  Hannibal, dux classis Pūnicae, ē nāvī
  quae iam capiēbātur, in scapham saltū sē dēmittēns Rōmānōrum      {20}
  manūs effūgit. Veritus autem, nē[12] in patriā classis[13] āmissae
    [[39]]
  poenās daret, cīvium odium āstūtiā āvertit, nam ex illā īnfēlīcī
  pūgnā priusquam[1] clādis nūntius domum[2] pervenīret[1] quendam
  ex amīcīs Carthāginem[2] mīsit. Quī postquam cūriam intrāvit,
  “Cōnsulit” inquit “vōs Hannibal, cum[3] dux Rōmānōrum māgnīs      {25}
  cōpiīs maritimīs īnstrūctīs advēnerit,[3] num cum eō cōnflīgere
  dēbeat?” Acclāmāvit ūniversus senātus nōn esse dubium quīn[4]
  cōnflīgī oportēret. Tum ille “Cōnflīxit” inquit “et superātus
  est.” Ita nōn potuērunt factum damnāre, quod ipsī fierī dēbuisse
  iūdicāverant. Sīc Hannibal victus crucis supplicium effūgit:      {30}
  nam eō[5] poenae genere dux rē[6] male gestā apud Poenōs
  adficiēbātur.

    [Footnotes: XVI (pages 38-39)

    38.1: #prīmus dēvīcit#: ‘was the first (Roman) to conquer.’ Cf.
    _prīmus ēgit_, l. 12. H 497, and 1 (443 and 1): A 191: G 325, R.
    6: B 239. Such a phrase as _prīmus fuit dēvincere_ is never used
    by good writers.
    38.2: ‘These’; cf. p. 4, n. 3.
    38.3: a collective noun: ‘the Romans.’
    38.4: Sc. _hostium_.
    38.5: = ‘and as a consequence.’
    38.6: Cf. _rēgius_, I, 17. The Romans applied the term _praetor_
    to the commander of any foreign force.
    38.7: Sc. _nāvis_. At this time Carthaginian ships generally had
    five banks of oars. In building the fleet commanded by Duilius,
    the Romans, it is said, took as their model a Carthaginian vessel
    which had been wrecked on the coast of Italy.
    38.8: _mergō_; sc. _sunt_.
    38.9: Cf. p. 14, n. 1.
    38.10: ‘were supreme’; cf. p. 23, n. 1.
    38.11: In commemoration also of the victory the Columna Rōstrāta
    was erected in the Forum.
    38.12: #nē . . . daret#: a clause of purpose, dependent on
    #veritus#: H 567 (498, III) M 897: A 331, _f_: G 550: B 296, 2.
    38.13: #classis āmissae#: ‘for losing the fleet’; see p. 5, n. 15.
    39.1: Cf. p. 12, n. 5.
    39.2: Why accusative?
    39.3: causal subjunctive.
    39.4: _quīn_ with a subjunctive of result is regularly used after
    negative expressions of doubt: H 595, 1 (504, 3, 2): M 913: A 332,
    _g_, R.: G 555, 2: B 298.
    39.5: #eō . . . adficiēbātur#: ‘in that way . . . was punished.’
    How literally?
    39.6: #rē male gestā#: ‘if unsuccessful.’ How literally?]


#XVII. Marcus Atilius Regulus# [[stripped text]]

Marcus Regulus cum Poenos magna clade adfecisset, Hanno Carthaginiensis
ad eum venit, quasi de pace acturus, re vera ut tempus extraheret, donec
novae copiae ex Africa advenirent. Is ubi ad consulem accessit, exortus
est militum clamor auditaque vox, idem huic faciendum esse, quod paucis
ante annis Cornelio consuli a Poenis factum esset. Cornelius enim, velut
in conloquium per fraudem evocatus, a Poenis comprehensus erat et in
vincula coniectus. Iam Hanno timere incipiebat, sed periculum astuto
responso avertit: “Hoc vero” inquit “si feceritis, nihilo eritis Afris
meliores.” Consul tacere iussit eos, qui par pari referri volebant, et
conveniens gravitati Romanae responsum dedit: “Isto te metu, Hanno,
fides Romana liberat.” De pace, quia neque Poenus serio agebat et consul
victoriam quam pacem malebat, non convenit.

Regulus deinde in Africam primus Romanorum ducum traiecit. Clypeam urbem
et trecenta castella expugnavit, neque cum hominibus tantum, sed etiam
cum monstris dimicavit. Nam cum ad flumen Bagradam castra haberet,
anguis mira magnitudine exercitum Romanorum vexabat; multos milites
ingenti ore corripuit; plures caudae verbere elisit; nonnullos ipso
pestilentis halitus adflatu exanimavit. Neque is telorum ictu perforari
poterat, durissima squamarum lorica omnia tela facile repellente.
Confugiendum fuit ad machinas advectisque ballistis et catapultis, velut
arx quaedam munita, deiciendus hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere
oppressus iacuit, sed cruore suo flumen corporisque pestifero adflatu
vicina loca infecit Romanosque castra inde submovere coegit. Corium
beluae, centum et viginti pedes longum, Romam misit Regulus.

Huic ob res bene gestas imperium in annum proximum prorogatum est. Quod
ubi cognovit Regulus, scripsit senatui vilicum suum in agello, quem
septem iugerum habebat, mortuum esse et servum, occasionem nactum,
aufugisse ablato instrumento rustico ideoque petere se ut sibi successor
in Africam mitteretur, ne, deserto agro, non esset unde uxor et liberi
alerentur. Senatus, acceptis litteris, res quas Regulus amiserat publica
pecunia redimi iussit, agellum colendum locavit, alimenta coniugi ac
liberis praebuit. Regulus deinde multis proeliis Carthaginiensium opes
contudit eosque pacem petere coegit. Quam cum Regulus nollet nisi
durissimis condicionibus dare, a Lacedaemoniis illi auxilium petierunt.

Lacedaemonii Xanthippum, virum belli peritissimum, Carthaginiensibus
miserunt, a quo Regulus victus est ultima pernicie: nam duo tantum milia
hominum ex omni Romano exercitu refugerunt et Regulus ipse captus et in
carcerem coniectus est. Inde Romam de permutandis captivis missus est
dato iureiurando. ut, si non impetrasset, rediret ipse Carthaginem. Qui
cum Romam venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposuit; sententiam ne
diceret recusavit; quamdiu iureiurando hostium teneretur, se non esse
senatorem. Iussus tamen sententiam dicere, negavit esse utile captivos
Poenos reddi, illos enim adulescentes esse et bonos duces, se iam
confectum senectute. Cuius cum valuisset auctoritas, captivi retenti
sunt, ipse, cum retineretur a propinquis et amicis, tamen Carthaginem
rediit: neque vero tunc ignorabat se ad crudelissimum hostem et ad
exquisita supplicia proficisci, sed iusiurandum conservandum putavit.
Reversum Carthaginienses omni cruciatu necaverunt: palpebris enim
resectis aliquamdiu in loco tenebricoso tenuerunt: deinde cum sol esset
ardentissimus, repente eductum intueri caelum coegerunt; postremo in
arcam ligneam, undique clavis praeacutis horrentem et tam angustam, ut
erectus perpetuo manere cogeretur, incluserunt. Ita dum fessum corpus,
quocumque inclinabat, stimulis ferreis confoditur, vigiliis et dolore
continuo interemptus est. Hic fuit Atilii Reguli exitus, ipsa vita
clarior et inlustrior.


  #XVII. Mārcus Atīlius Rēgulus# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 256.]

  Mārcus Rēgulus cum Poenōs māgnā clāde[7] adfēcisset, Hannō
  Carthāginiēnsis ad eum vēnit, quasi dē pāce āctūrus,[8] rē
  vērā ut[8] tempus extraheret,[8] dōnec[9] novae cōpiae ex Āfricā
  advenīrent.[9] Is ubi ad cōnsulem accessit, exortus[10] est mīlitum
  clāmor audītaque vōx, idem[11] huīc faciendum esse, quod paucīs    {5}
  ante annīs[12] Cornēliō cōnsulī ā Poenīs factum esset. Cornēlius
  enim, velut in conloquium per fraudem ēvocātus, ā Poenīs
  comprehēnsus erat et in vincula coniectus. Iam Hannō timēre
  incipiēbat, sed perīculum āstūtō respōnsō āvertit: “Hōc vērō” inquit
    [[40]]
  “sī fēceritis,[1] nihilō[2] eritis Āfrīs[3] meliōrēs.” Cōnsul tacēre
  iussit eōs, quī pār[4] parī referrī volēbant, et conveniēns[5]
      gravitātī                                                     {11}
  Rōmānae respōnsum dedit: “Istō tē metū, Hannō, fidēs Rōmāna
  līberat.” Dē pāce, quia neque Poenus sēriō agēbat et cōnsul
  victōriam quam pācem mālēbat, nōn convēnit.

  Rēgulus deinde in Āfricam prīmus[6] Rōmānōrum ducum trāiēcit.     {15}
  Clypeam urbem et trecenta[7] castella expūgnāvit, neque[8]
  cum hominibus tantum, sed etiam cum mōnstrīs dīmicāvit. Nam
  cum ad flūmen Bagradam castra habēret, anguis mīrā māgnitūdine
  exercitum Rōmānōrum vexābat; multōs mīlitēs ingentī ōre corripuit;
  plūrēs caudae verbere ēlīsit[9]; nōnnūllōs ipsō pēstilentis       {20}
  hālitūs adflātū exanimāvit. Neque is tēlōrum īctū perforārī
  poterat, dūrissimā[10] squāmārum lōrīcā omnia tēla facile repellente.
  Cōnfugiendum[11] fuit ad māchinās advectīsque ballistīs[12]       {23}
  et catapultīs, velut[13] arx quaedam mūnīta, dēiciendus hostis fuit.
  Tandem saxōrum pondere oppressus[14] iacuit, sed cruōre suō flūmen
  corporisque pēstiferō adflātū vīcīna loca īnfēcit Rōmānōsque castra
  inde submovēre coēgit.[15] Corium bēluae, centum et vīgintī pedēs[16]
  longum, Rōmam mīsit Rēgulus.

  Huīc ob rēs[17] bene gestās imperium in annum proximum prōrogātum
    [[41]]
  est. Quod ubi cōgnōvit Rēgulus, scrīpsit senātuī vīlicum          {30}
  suum in agellō, quem septem iūgerum[1] habēbat, mortuum esse et
  servum, occāsiōnem nactum,[2] aufūgisse ablātō īnstrūmentō[3]
  rūsticō ideōque petere sē ut sibi[4] successor in Āfricam mitterētur,
  nē, dēsertō agrō, nōn esset unde[5] uxor et līberī alerentur.[6]  {34}
  Senātus, acceptīs litterīs, rēs quās Rēgulus āmīserat pūblicā pecūniā
  redimī iussit, agellum colendum[7] locāvit, alimenta[8] coniugī ac
  līberīs praebuit. Rēgulus deinde multīs proeliīs Carthāginiēnsium
  opēs contudit[9] eōsque pācem petere coēgit. Quam cum
  Rēgulus nōllet nisi dūrissimīs condiciōnibus[10] dare, ā
  Lacedaemoniīs illī auxilium petiērunt.                            {40}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 255]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 251]

  Lacedaemoniī Xanthippum, virum bellī perītissimum, Carthāginiēnsibus
  mīsērunt, ā quō Rēgulus victus est ūltimā perniciē[10]:
  nam duo tantum mīlia hominum ex omnī Rōmānō
  exercitū refūgērunt et Rēgulus ipse captus et in carcerem
  coniectus est. Inde Rōmam dē permūtandīs captīvīs missus          {45}
  est datō iūreiūrandō. ut,[11] sī nōn impetrāsset,[12] redīret ipse
  Carthāginem. Quī cum Rōmam vēnisset, inductus in senātum
  mandāta exposuit; sententiam[13] nē dīceret recūsāvit; quamdiū[14]
  iūreiūrandō hostium tenērētur, sē nōn esse senātōrem. Iūssus
  tamen sententiam dīcere, negāvit[15] esse ūtile captīvōs Poenōs   {50}
    [[42]]
  reddī, illōs enim adulēscentēs esse et bonōs ducēs, sē iam
  cōnfectum[1] senectūte. Cūius cum[2] valuisset auctōritās, captīvī
  retentī sunt, ipse, cum retinērētur ā propinquīs et amīcīs, tamen
  Carthāginem rediit: neque vērō tunc īgnōrābat sē ad crūdēlissimum
  hostem et ad exquīsīta supplicia proficīscī, sed iūsiūrandum      {55}
  cōnservandum[3] putāvit. Reversum[4] Carthāginiēnsēs omnī
  cruciātū necāvērunt: palpebrīs enim resectīs aliquamdiū in locō
  tenebricōsō tenuērunt: deinde cum sōl esset ārdentissimus, repente
  ēductum intuērī caelum coēgērunt; postrēmō in arcam līgneam,
  undique clāvīs praeacūtīs horrentem et tam angustam, ut ērēctus   {60}
  perpetuō manēre cōgerētur, inclūsērunt. Ita dum fessum corpus,
  quōcumque inclīnābat, stimulīs ferreīs cōnfoditur, vigiliīs et dolōre
  continuō interēmptus est. Hīc fuit Atīliī Rēgulī exitus, ipsā vītā
  clārior et inlūstrior.

    [Footnotes: XVII (pages 39-42)

    39.7: #clāde adfēcisset# = ‘had inflicted defeat upon.’ Cf. _eō
    genere . . . adficiēbātur_, XVI, 31. The reference is to the naval
    victory off Ecnomus, in Sicily.
    39.8: Note carefully the two ways of expressing purpose, the
    future participle being exactly equivalent to _ut_ with the
    subjunctive. See p. xviii, E 5; #quasi# = ‘as if,’ and is
    contrasted with #rē vērā#, ‘in reality.’
    39.9: The subjunctive in reality expresses purpose. See also p.
    xx, G 3.
    39.10: _exorior_.
    39.11: #idem . . . esse#: ‘the same thing _ought to be done_ to
    him.’ The gerundive with _esse_ denotes either physical necessity
    (‘must’), or moral obligation (‘ought’).
    39.12: abl. of the measure of difference: H 479 (423): M 655:
    A 250: G 403: B 223. #paucīs annīs# is a sort of temporal adverb
    with _ante_.
    40.1: Latin is extremely exact in the use of the tenses. Of two
    _past_ actions the prior is expressed by the _pluperfect_ tense;
    of two _future_ actions the prior is expressed by the _future
    perfect_ tense. Apply this principle here. We say simply, ‘if
    you do.’
    40.2: Join with #meliōrēs#, and cf. p. 39, n. 12.
    40.3: i.e. the Carthaginians. To the Roman mind _Pūnica fidēs_ was
    a synonym for the vilest treachery. So Livy says of the great
    Hannibal that his character was marred by ‘worse than Punic
    treachery.’ For #Āfrīs#, see p. 10, n. 18.
    40.4: #pār . . . referrī# = ‘retaliation.’ How literally?
    40.5: ‘consistent with.’
    40.6: #prīmus . . . trāiēcit#: cf. p. 38, n. 1.
    40.7: indefinite, like our ‘hundreds of.’ _Sēscentī_ and _mīlle_
    are often used in the same way.
    40.8: = _et nōn_ (cf. l. 13).
    40.9: _ēlīdō_.
    40.10: #dūrissimā . . . repellente#: what does the abl. abs.
    express?
    40.11: #Cōnfugiendum . . . ad#: impersonal passive: ‘they had to
    resort to.’ Cf. p. 39, n. 11.
    40.12: The _ballistae_ and _catapultae_ were the artillery of
    antiquity. It is said that from the _ballistae_ stones weighing
    one hundred pounds could be sent half a mile.
    40.13: #velut . . . mūnīta#: to be taken with what follows.
    40.14: _opprimō_.
    40.15: _cōgō_.
    40.16: acc. of extent (cf. p. 12, n. 1) with #longum#.
    40.17: #rēs bene gestās#: ‘successes,’ ‘exploits.’ Contrast _rē
    male gestā_, XVI, 31, and note.
    41.1: Cf. p. 18, n. 17.
    41.2: #occāsiōnem nactum# (_nancīscor_): ‘seizing the
    opportunity.’
    41.3: #īnstrūmentō rūsticō#: ‘his farming implements.’
    41.4: Join with #successor#, and cf. p. 26, n. 5.
    41.5: #unde . . . alerentur#: ‘the wherewithal to support,’ etc.
    41.6: subjunctive partly of purpose, partly by attraction, for
    which see p. 13, n. 10.
    41.7: #colendum#: ‘to be tilled’ (cf. p. 2, n. 18), for Regulus’
    benefit. In such cases the produce of the farm was divided equally
    between owner and tenant.
    41.8: #alimenta . . . praebuit#: i.e. they were supported at
    public expense till the harvest of that year was gathered. No
    salary was given to Roman officials.
    41.9: _contundō_.
    41.10: abl. of manner: H 473, 3 (419, III): M 635: A 248: G 399:
    B 220, 1.
    41.11: #ut . . . redīret# gives the purpose of the Carthaginians
    in exacting the oath.
    41.12: subjunctive in indirect discourse. Regulus said: _Sī nōn
    impetrāverō, . . . redībō._
    41.13: #sententiam . . . recūsāvit#: ‘he refused to express his
    opinion.’ _recūsāre_ is construed (1) with the simple infinitive;
    (2) with _nē_ and a subjunctive of purpose; (3) with _quīn_ or
    _quōminus_ and a subjunctive of result.
    41.14: #quamdiū . . . senātōrem#: indirect discourse = ‘(saying
    that) as long as,’ etc.
    41.15: #negāvit esse ūtile#: ‘he _said_ that it was _not_
    expedient.’ In such sentences _negāre_ rather than _nōn dīcere_ is
    used. The subject of #esse# is the clause #captīvōs . . . reddī#.
    42.1: ‘exhausted.’
    42.2: Here temporal, but in the next line adversative, as is shown
    by #tamen#: see p. xxii, J.
    42.3: Sc. _esse_, and cf. p. 39, n. 11.
    42.4: Sc. _eum_: ‘on his return.’ The story is given by no writer
    earlier than Cicero, and modern historians are inclined to view
    the whole narrative as fictitious.]


#XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher# [[stripped text]]

Appius Claudius, vir stultae temeritatis, consul adversus Poenos
profectus priorum ducum consilia palam reprehendebat seque, quo die
hostem vidisset, bellum confecturum esse iactitabat. Qui cum, antequam
navale proelium committeret, auspicia haberet pullariusque ei
nuntiasset, pullos non exire e cavea neque vesci, inridens iussit eos in
aquam mergi, ut saltem biberent, quoniam esse nollent. Ea res cum, quasi
iratis diis, milites ad omnia segniores timidioresque fecisset, commisso
proelio magna clades a Romanis accepta est: octo eorum milia caesa sunt,
viginti milia capta. Qua re Claudius postea a populo condemnatus est
damnationisque ignominiam voluntaria morte praevenit. Ea res calamitati
fuit etiam Claudiae, consulis sorori: quae a ludis publicis revertens,
in conferta multitudine aegre procedente carpento, palam optavit ut
frater suus Pulcher revivisceret atque iterum classem amitteret, quo
minor turba Romae foret. Ob vocem illam impiam Claudia quoque damnata
gravisque ei dicta est multa.


  #XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: SACRED CHICKENS / _From the tomb of a Pullārius_]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 249.]

  Appius Claudius, vir stultae temeritātis, cōnsul adversus Poenōs
  profectus priōrum ducum cōnsilia palam reprehendēbat
  sēque, quō[5] diē hostem vīdisset, bellum cōnfectūrum esse
  iactitābat. Quī cum, antequam nāvāle proelium committeret,         {4}
  auspicia[6] habēret pullāriusque[7] eī nūntiāsset, pullōs nōn exīre ē
    [[43]]
  caveā neque vescī, inrīdēns iussit eōs in aquam mergī, ut saltem
  biberent, quoniam ēsse[1] nōllent. Ea rēs cum, quasi[2] īrātīs diīs,
  mīlitēs ad omnia sēgniōrēs timidiōrēsque
  fēcisset, commissō proeliō[3]
  māgna clādēs ā Rōmānīs accepta est:                               {10}
  octō eōrum mīlia caesa sunt, vīgintī
  mīlia capta. Quā re Claudius posteā ā
  populō condemnātus est damnātiōnisque[4]
  īgnōminiam voluntāriā morte
  praevēnit. Ea rēs calamitātī[5] fuit                              {15}
  etiam Claudiae,[5] cōnsulis sorōrī: quae
  ā lūdīs pūblicīs revertēns, in[6] cōnfertā
  multitūdine aegrē prōcēdente carpentō,
  palam optāvit ut frāter suus Pulcher
  revīvīsceret atque iterum classem āmitteret,                      {20}
  quō[7] minor turba Rōmae foret.[7] Ob vōcem illam impiam
  Claudia quoque damnāta gravisque[8] eī[9] dicta est multa.

    [Footnotes: XVIII (pages 42-43)

    42.5: #quō diē#: we should expect _diē quō_, or _eōdem diē quō_,
    but the antecedent, as often, is incorporated into the relative
    clause and made to agree with the pronoun: H 399, 3 (445, 9):
    A 200, _b_: G 616: B 251, 4.
    42.6: #auspicia habēret#: cf. _auspicia adhibēre_, I, 42.
    42.7: #pullārius . . . vescī#: on setting out for the seat of war,
    the commanding general often took with him a cage of sacred
    chickens, in charge of a special keeper (#pullārius#). If, when
    food was thrown before them, the chickens ate so greedily that
    portions of the food fell from their mouths to the ground, it was
    considered a very favorable omen. The circumstance described in
    the text would be regarded by the superstitious soldiery as of
    very dire significance.
    43.1: infinitive of _edō_.
    43.2: #quasi . . . diīs#: ‘because (as they supposed), the gods
    were angry.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 6. #īrātīs diīs# is an abl. abs.
    43.3: The battle was fought off Drepanum, in Sicily. Appius lost
    93 out of 123 ships.
    43.4: #que# here = ‘but,’ a meaning which it bears more frequently
    after negative sentences (p. 13, n. 12).
    43.5: Cf. p. 25, n. 6.
    43.6: #in . . . carpentō#: an abl. abs., giving the cause of
    #optāvit#.
    43.7: Cf. p. 14, n. 13.
    43.8: #gravis . . . multa#: ‘a heavy fine was imposed upon her.’
    43.9: dat. of disadvantage.]


#XIX. Quintus Fabius Maximus# [[stripped text]]

Hannibal, Hamilcaris filius, novem annos natus, a patre aris admotus
odium in Romanos perenne iuravit. Quae res maxime videtur concitasse
secundum Punicum bellum. Nam, mortuo Hamilcare, Hannibal causam belli
quaerens Saguntum, civitatem Hispaniae Romanis foederatam evertit.
Quapropter Roma missi sunt Carthaginem legati, qui Hannibalem, mali
auctorem, exposcerent. Tergiversantibus Poenis Quintus Fabius,
legationis princeps, sinu ex toga facto “Hic” inquit “vobis bellum et
pacem portamus; utrum placet, sumite.” Poenis daret utrum vellet
succlamantibus, Fabius, excussa toga, bellum se dare dicit. Poeni
accipere se responderunt et, quibus acciperent animis, iisdem se
gesturos.

Hannibal superatis Pyrenaei et Alpium iugis in Italiam venit. Publium
Scipionem apud Ticinum amnem, Sempronium apud Trebiam, Flaminium apud
Trasumenum profligavit.

Adversus hostem totiens victorem missus Quintus Fabius dictator
Hannibalis impetum mora fregit; namque, priorum ducum cladibus edoctus
belli rationem mutare et adversus Hannibalem, successibus proeliorum
insolentem, recedere ab ancipiti discrimine et tueri tantummodo Italiam
constituit Cunctatorisque nomen et laudem summi ducis meruit. Per loca
alta agmen ducebat modico ab hoste intervallo, ut neque omitteret eum
neque cum eo congrederetur; castris, nisi quantum necessitas cogeret,
miles tenebatur. Dux neque occasioni rei bene gerendae deerat, si qua ab
hoste daretur, neque ullam ipse hosti dabat. Itaque cum ex levibus
proeliis superior discederet, militem minus iam coepit aut virtutis suae
aut fortunae paenitere.

His artibus cum Hannibalem Fabius in agro Falerno locorum angustiis
clausisset, ille sine ullo exercitus detrimento se expedivit. Namque
arida sarmenta in boum cornibus deligata principio noctis incendi
bovesque ad montes, quos Romani insederant, agi iussit. Qui cum accensis
cornibus per montes, per silvas huc illuc discurrerent, Romani miraculo
attoniti constiterunt; ipse Fabius, insidias esse ratus, militem extra
vallum egredi vetuit. Interea Hannibal ex angustiis evasit.

Dein Hannibal, ut Fabio apud suos conflaret invidiam, agrum eius,
omnibus circa vastatis, intactum reliquit. At Fabius, misso Romam Quinto
filio, inviolatum ab hoste agrum vendidit eiusque pretio captivos
Romanos redemit.

Haud grata tamen Romanis erat Fabii cunctatio: eumque pro cauto timidum,
pro cunctatore segnem vocitabant. Augebat invidiam Minucius, magister
equitum, dictatorem criminando: illum in ducendo bello sedulo tempus
terere, quo diutius in magistratu esset solusque et Romae et in exercitu
imperium haberet. His sermonibus accensa plebs dictatori magistrum
equitum imperio aequavit. Hanc iniuriam aequo animo tulit Fabius
exercitumque suum cum Minucio divisit. Cum autem Minucius temere
proelium commisisset, ei periclitanti auxilio venit Fabius. Cuius subito
adventu repressus Hannibal receptui cecinit, palam confessus ab se
Minucium, se a Fabio victum esse. Redeuntem ex acie dixisse eum ferunt
tandem eam nubem, quae sedere in iugis montium solita esset, cum
procella imbrem dedisse. Minucius autem periculo liberatus castra cum
Fabio iunxit et patrem eum appellavit idemque facere milites iussit.

Postea Hannibal Tarento per proditionem potitus est. Hanc urbem ut
Poenis traderent, tredecim fere nobiles iuvenes Tarentini coniuraverant.
Hi, nocte per speciem venandi urbe egressi, ad Hannibalem, qui haud
procul castra habebat, venerunt. Cui cum quid pararent exposuissent,
conlaudavit eos Hannibal monuitque ut redeuntes pecora Carthaginiensium,
quae pastum propulsa essent, ad urbem agerent et veluti praedam ex hoste
factam aut praefecto aut custodibus portarum donarent. Id iterum ac
saepius ab iis factum eoque consuetudinis adducta res est, ut, quocumque
noctis tempore sibilo dedissent signum, porta urbis aperiretur. Tunc
Hannibal eos nocte media cum decem milibus hominum delectorum secutus
est. Ubi portae appropinquarunt, nota iuvenum vox et familiare signum
vigilem excitavit. Duo primi inferebant aprum vasti corporis. Vigil
incautus, dum beluae magnitudinem miratur, venabulo occisus est.
Ingressi proditores ceteros vigiles sopitos obtruncant. Tum Hannibal cum
suo agmine ingreditur: Romani passim trucidantur. Livius Salinator,
Romanorum praefectus, cum iis, qui caedi superfuerunt, in arcem
confugit.

Profectus igitur Fabius ad recipiendum Tarentum urbem obsidione cinxit.
Leve dictu momentum ad rem ingentem perficiendam eum adiuvit. Praefectus
praesidii Tarentini deperibat amore mulierculae, cuius frater in
exercitu Fabii erat. Miles iussus a Fabio pro perfuga Tarentum transiit
ac per sororem praefectum ad tradendam urbem perpulit. Fabius vigilia
prima accessit ad eam partem muri, quam praefectus custodiebat.
Adiuvantibus recipientibusque eius militibus, Romani in urbem
transcenderunt. Inde, proxima porta refracta, Fabius cum exercitu
intravit. Hannibal nuntiata Tarenti oppugnatione, cum ad opem ferendam
festinans captam urbem esse audivisset, “Et Romani” inquit “suum
Hannibalem habent: eadem, qua ceperamus, arte Tarentum amisimus.”

Cum postea Livius Salinator coram Fabio gloriaretur, quod arcem
Tarentinam retinuisset, dixissetque eum sua opera Tarentum recepisse,
“Certe” inquit Fabius ridens, “nam nisi tu amisisses, ego numquam
recepissem.”

Quintus Fabius iam senex filio suo consuli legatus fuit; cumque in eius
castra veniret, filius obviam patri progressus est, duodecim lictoribus
pro more antecedentibus. Equo vehebatur senex neque appropinquante
consule descendit. Iam ex lictoribus undecim verecundia paternae
maiestatis taciti praeterierant. Quod cum consul animadvertisset,
proximum lictorem iussit inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet.
Pater tum desiliens “Non ego, fili,” inquit “tuum imperium contempsi,
sed experiri volui num scires consulem te esse.” Ad summam senectutem
vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautior quam promptior
habitus est, sed insita eius ingenio prudentia ei bello, quod tum
gerebatur, proprie apta erat. Nemini dubium est quin rem Romanam
cunctando restituerit. Ut Scipio pugnando, ita hic non dimicando maxime
civitati Romanae succurrisse visus est. Alter enim celeritate sua
Carthaginem oppressit, alter cunctatione id egit, ne Roma opprimi
posset.


  #XIX. Quīntus Fabius Māximus# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 236.]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 219.]

  Hannibal, Hamilcaris[10] fīlius, novem[11] annōs[12] nātus, ā
  patre ārīs admōtus odium in Rōmānōs perenne iūrāvit.
  Quae rēs māximē vidētur concitāsse secundum[13] Pūnicum bellum.
    [[44]]
  Nam, mortuō[1] Hamilcare, Hannibal causam bellī quaerēns Saguntum,
  cīvitātem Hispāniae Rōmānīs[2] foederātam ēvertit.                 {5}
  Quāpropter Rōmā missī sunt Carthāginem
  lēgātī, quī Hannibalem, malī auctōrem, expōscerent.
  Tergiversantibus Poenīs Quīntus Fabius,
  lēgātiōnis prīnceps, sinū ex togā factō “Hīc”
  inquit “vōbīs bellum et pācem portāmus; utrum[3]                  {10}
  placet, sūmite.” Poenīs daret[4] utrum vellet
  succlāmantibus, Fabius, excussā[5] togā, bellum
  sē dare dīcit. Poenī accipere sē respondērunt et,
  quibus[6] acciperent animīs, iīsdem sē gestūrōs.[7]

    [Illustration: HANNIBAL]

  Hannibal superātīs Pȳrēnaeī et Alpium iugīs in Ītaliam vēnit.     {15}
  Pūblium[8] Scīpiōnem apud Tīcīnum[9] amnem, Semprōnium apud
  Trebiam, Flāminium apud Trasumēnum prōflīgāvit.

  Adversus hostem totiēns victōrem missus Quīntus Fabius            {18}
  dictātor[10] Hannibalis impetum morā[11] frēgit; namque, priōrum ducum
  clādibus ēdoctus bellī ratiōnem mūtāre et adversus[12] Hannibalem,
  succēssibus proeliōrum īnsolentem, recēdere[13] ab ancipitī discrīmine
  et tuērī tantummodo Ītaliam cōnstituit Cunctātōrisque             {22}
  nōmen et laudem summī ducis meruit. Per loca alta āgmen
  dūcēbat modicō ab hoste intervāllō,[14] ut neque omitteret[15] eum
    [[45]]
  neque cum eō congrederētur; castrīs,[1] nisi[2] quantum necessitās
  cōgeret,[2] mīles tenēbātur. Dux neque occāsiōnī[3] reī[4] bene   {26}
  gerendae deerat, sī qua ab hoste darētur, neque ūllam ipse hostī
  dabat. Itaque cum ex levibus proeliīs superior discēderet,
  mīlitem[5] minus iam coepit aut virtūtis suae aut fortūnae
  paenitēre.                                                        {30}

  Hīs artibus cum Hannibalem Fabius in agrō Falernō locōrum
  angustiīs clausisset, ille sine ūllō exercitūs dētrīmentō sē
      expedīvit.
  Namque ārida sarmenta in boum cornibus dēligāta[6] prīncipiō[7]
  noctis incendī bovēsque ad montēs, quōs Rōmānī īnsēderant, agī
  iussit. Quī cum accēnsīs cornibus per montēs, per silvās hūc      {35}
  illūc discurrerent, Rōmānī mīrāculō attonitī cōnstitērunt; ipse
  Fabius, īnsidiās esse ratus,[8] mīlitem extrā vāllum ēgredī vetuit.
  Intereā Hannibal ex angustiīs ēvāsit.

  Dein Hannibal, ut Fabiō apud suōs cōnflāret invidiam, agrum       {39}
  ēius, omnibus circā vāstātīs, intāctum relīquit. At Fabius, missō
  Rōmam Quīntō fīliō, inviolātum ab hoste agrum vēndidit ēiusque
  pretiō captīvōs Rōmānōs redēmit.

  Haud grāta tamen Rōmānīs erat Fabiī cunctātiō: eumque prō
  cautō timidum, prō cunctātōre sēgnem[9] vocitābant. Augēbat
  invidiam Minucius, magister[10] equitum, dictātōrem crīminandō:   {45}
  illum in dūcendō bellō sēdulō tempus terere,[11] quō diūtius in
  magistrātū esset sōlusque et Rōmae et in exercitū imperium
  habēret. Hīs sermōnibus accēnsa plēbs dictātōrī[12] magistrum
    [[46]]
  equitum imperiō[1] aequāvit. Hanc iniūriam aequō[2] animō tulit
  Fabius exercitumque suum cum Minuciō dīvīsit. Cum autem           {50}
  Minucius temerē proelium commīsisset, eī[3] perīclitantī auxiliō
  vēnit Fabius. Cūius subitō adventū repressus Hannibal receptuī[4]
  cecinit, palam cōnfessus[5] ab sē Minucium, sē ā Fabiō victum esse.
  Redeuntem ex aciē dīxisse eum[6] ferunt tandem[7] eam nūbem, quae
  sedēre in iugīs montium solita esset, cum procellā imbrem dedisse.
  Minucius autem perīculō līberātus castra cum Fabiō iūnxit et      {56}
  patrem eum appellāvit idemque facere mīlitēs iussit.

  Posteā Hannibal Tarentō[8] per prōditiōnem potītus est. Hanc
  urbem ut Poenīs trāderent, tredecim ferē nōbilēs iuvenēs Tarentīnī
  coniūrāverant. Hī, nocte per[9] speciem vēnandī urbe ēgressī,     {60}
  ad Hannibalem, quī haud procul castra habēbat, vēnērunt. Cuī
  cum quid parārent exposuissent, conlaudāvit eōs Hannibal monuitque
  ut[10] redeuntēs pecora Carthāginiēnsium, quae pāstum[11] prōpulsa
  essent, ad urbem agerent[10] et velutī[12] praedam ex hoste
  factam aut praefectō aut cūstōdibus portārum dōnārent.[10] Id     {65}
  iterum ac saepius ab iīs factum eōque[13] cōnsuētūdinis adducta rēs
  est, ut, quōcumque noctis tempore sībilō dedissent[14] sīgnum, porta
  urbis aperīrētur. Tunc Hannibal eōs nocte mediā cum decem
  mīlibus hominum dēlēctōrum secūtus est. Ubi portae appropinquārunt,
    [[47]]
  nōta iuvenum vōx et familiāre sīgnum vigilem excitāvit.           {70}
  Duo prīmī īnferēbant aprum vāstī corporis. Vigil incautus, dum
  bēluae māgnitūdinem mīrātur, vēnābulō occīsus est. Ingressī
  prōditōrēs cēterōs vigilēs sōpītōs[1] obtruncant. Tum Hannibal
  cum suō āgmine ingreditur: Rōmānī passim trucīdantur. Līvius
  Salīnātor, Rōmānōrum praefectus, cum iīs, quī caedī superfuērunt,
  in arcem cōnfūgit.                                                {76}

  Profectus igitur Fabius ad recipiendum Tarentum urbem obsidiōne
  cinxit. Leve[2] dictū mōmentum ad rem ingentem perficiendam
  eum adiūvit. Praefectus praesidiī Tarentīnī dēperībat[3]
  amōre mulierculae,[4] cūius frāter in exercitū Fabiī erat. Mīles  {80}
  iussus ā Fabiō prō perfugā Tarentum trānsiit ac per sorōrem
  praefectum ad[5] trādendam urbem perpulit. Fabius vigiliā[6] prīmā
  accessit ad eam partem mūrī, quam praefectus cūstōdiēbat. Adiuvantibus
  recipientibusque ēius mīlitibus, Rōmānī in urbem trānscendērunt.
  Inde, proximā portā refrāctā,[7] Fabius cum exercitū              {85}
  intrāvit. Hannibal[8] nūntiātā Tarentī oppūgnātiōne, cum ad opem
  ferendam fēstīnāns captam urbem esse audīvisset, “Et Rōmānī”
  inquit “suum[9] Hannibalem habent: eādem, quā cēperāmus, arte
  Tarentum āmīsimus.”

  Cum posteā Līvius Salīnātor cōram Fabiō glōriārētur, quod[10]     {90}
  arcem Tarentīnam retinuisset,[10] dīxissetque eum[11] suā operā
  Tarentum recēpisse, “Certē” inquit Fabius rīdēns, “nam nisi tū
  āmīsissēs,[12] ego numquam recēpissem.”[12]

  Quīntus Fabius iam senex fīliō suō cōnsulī lēgātus fuit; cumque
    [[48]]
  in ēius castra venīret, fīlius obviam patrī prōgressus est,       {95}
  duodecim līctōribus prō mōre antecēdentibus. Equō[1] vehēbātur
  senex neque appropinquante cōnsule dēscendit. Iam ex līctōribus
  ūndecim verēcundiā[2] paternae māiestātis tacitī praeterierant.
  Quod cum cōnsul animadvertisset, proximum līctōrem iussit
  inclāmāre[3] Fabiō patrī ut ex equō dēscenderet. Pater tum       {100}
  dēsiliēns “Nōn ego, fīlī,” inquit “tuum imperium contempsī, sed
  experīrī voluī num scīrēs cōnsulem tē esse.” Ad summam senectūtem
  vīxit Fabius Māximus, dīgnus tantō cōgnōmine.[4] Cautior[5]
  quam prōmptior habitus est, sed īnsita[6] ēius ingeniō prūdentia eī
  bellō, quod tum gerēbātur, propriē apta erat. Nēminī[7] dubium   {105}
  est quīn[8] rem[9] Rōmānam cunctandō[10] restituerit. Ut Scīpiō
  pūgnandō,[10] ita hīc nōn dīmicandō[10] māximē cīvitātī Rōmānae
  succurrisse vīsus est. Alter enim celeritāte suā Carthāginem
  oppressit, alter cunctātiōne id[11] ēgit, nē Rōma opprimī posset.

    [Footnotes: XIX (pages 43-48)

    43.10: In the latter part of the First Punic War Hamilcar had
    successfully maintained himself for several years in Sicily
    against the Romans. Subsequently he built up a great Carthaginian
    empire in Spain, partly to offset the losses which Carthage had
    sustained in its struggle with Rome, and partly to supply it with
    the means for a renewal of the conflict.
    43.11: #novem . . . nātus#: ‘when only nine years old.’
    43.12: Cf. p. 10, n. 15.
    43.13: This war lasted from 218 to 202 B.C.
    44.1: When Hamilcar was killed in battle in Spain in 227, his
    son-in-law Hasdrubal took command of the Carthaginian forces
    there. He in turn was succeeded by Hannibal in 219.
    44.2: dat. with #foederātam#. Cf. H 428, 3 (385, 4, 3): A 248,
    _a_, R.: G 359: B 192, 1. Compare the dat. used with _iungō_ and
    _mīsceō_.
    44.3: #utrum# is here a relative pronoun; hence the indicative
    #placet#, with which we must supply _vōbīs_. In #utrum vellet#,
    however, #utrum# is interrogative: hence the subjunctive.
    44.4: = a subjunctive in ind. disc. representing an original
    imperative. See p. xxvi, M 6.
    44.5: _excutiō_.
    44.6: #quibus . . . animīs, iīsdem#: abl. of manner. See p. 42,
    n. 5.
    44.7: Sc. _bellum_.
    44.8: P. Cornelius Scipio, father of the famous P. Cornelius
    Scipio Africanus Maior, and consul in 218.
    44.9: The first two battles were fought in 218, the third in 217.
    44.10: See Vocab., _dictātor_.
    44.11: Cf. p. 28, n. 17.
    44.12: #adversus Hannibalem# = a causal clause: ‘since he was
    facing H.’ Here again the Latin feels the lack of a participle to
    _sum_.
    44.13: #recēdere . . . discrīmine#: ‘to avoid (any) hazardous
    risk.’ #recēdere# depends on #cōnstituit#, l. 22.
    44.14: #modicō . . . intervāllō#: we say, ‘at a moderate
    distance.’ For the abl., see p. 39, n. 12.
    44.15: ‘let slip,’ ‘lose sight of.’
    45.1: apparently = _in castrīs_, but really an abl. of means.
    45.2: #nisi . . . cōgeret#: ‘except as far as necessity forced
    (Fabius to lead them forth).’ #cōgeret# is an example of the
    iterative subjunctive, used to denote the frequent repetition of
    an act. It generally occurs in clauses containing a past tense,
    and is common in Livy, on whom this story is based.
    45.3: #neque . . . deerat#: ‘missed no chance of scoring a
    success.’
    45.4: #reī bene gerendae#: cf. p. 40, n. 17.
    45.5: #mīlitem . . . paenitēre#: ‘the soldiers began to be less
    discontented with (i.e. to be more confident of),’ etc. For the
    construction, see p. 28, n. 7.
    45.6: #dēligāta . . . incendī# = _dēligārī et incendī_.
    45.7: Why abl.?
    45.8: _reor_.
    45.9: Render by a noun: ‘sluggard.’
    45.10: See Vocab., _magister_.
    45.11: indirect discourse, dependent on the verb of saying
    suggested by #crīminandō#.
    45.12: Indirect object with #aequāvit#, which = _aequum fēcit_.
    46.1: #abl.# of specification.
    46.2: #aequō animō# is an abl. of manner (p. 41, n. 10), and =
    ‘patiently.’
    46.3: #eī . . . auxiliō#: ‘to help him in his peril.’ Cf. p. 25,
    n. 6.
    46.4: #receptuī cecinit#: ‘gave the signal for a retreat.’
    #receptuī# is a dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6. _canere_ is used
    of instrumental music (here of playing on the trumpet) as well as
    of vocal.
    46.5: _cōnfiteor_.
    46.6: i.e. Hannibal.
    46.7: #tandem . . . dedisse#: ‘the cloud . . . had at last brought
    wind and rain,’ i.e. Fabius, after so long threatening the
    Carthaginians, had at last proceeded to active measures.
    46.8: Cf. p. 4, n. 6.
    46.9: #per . . . vēnandī#: ‘under pretense of hunting.’
    46.10: a substantive clause of purpose, object of #monuit#.
    46.11: supine of _pāscō_, denoting the purpose of #prōpulsa
    essent#: cf. p. 5, n. 20.
    46.12: _veluti . . . factam_: ‘as if they (i.e. the cattle) were
    plunder captured from the foe.’ #praedam# is accus. by attraction
    to _ea pecora_, to be supplied as the object of dōnārent.
    46.13: #eō . . . est#: lit., ‘to such a degree of custom was the
    matter brought,’ = ‘so customary did this proceeding become.’
    #cōnsuētūdinis# is a partitive gen. with #eō#, which strictly =
    ‘thither, to that point.’
    46.14: subjunctive by attraction (p. 13, n. 10) to #aperīrētur#,
    which itself denotes result.
    47.1: ‘who were buried in slumber.’ The perf. pass. part. here, as
    often, = a relative clause.
    47.2: #Leve . . . mōmentum#: ‘a circumstance (almost too) trifling
    to mention.’ For #dictū#, see p. 19, n. 15.
    47.3: #dēperībat amōre#: ‘was dying for (lit. because of) love,’
    i.e. was desperately in love with.
    47.4: objective gen. with #amōre#: cf. p. 14, n. 15.
    47.5: #ad . . . perpulit# (_perpellō_): ‘drove him to,’ i.e.
    induced him to, etc.
    47.6: ‘#watch.#’
    47.7: _refringō_.
    47.8: emphatic by reason of its position before the conjunction
    #cum#: cf. p. 19, n. 8.
    47.9: #suum Hannibalem#: ‘a Hannibal of their own.’
    47.10: Cf. p. 14, n. 1.
    47.11: i.e. Fabius. Livius said: _meā operā tū Tarentum
    recēpistī_.
    47.12: A conditional sentence, containing a supposition contrary
    to the facts: H 579 and N. (510 and N. 1): M 938: A 308: G 597:
    B 304.
    48.1: #equō vehēbātur#: ‘was riding.’ #equō# is an abl. of means.
    48.2: #verēcundiā . . . māiestātis#: ‘out of respect for his
    dignity as a father.’ Explain the case of #verēcundiā#, also of
    #māiestātis#. Roman fathers were as absolutely masters of their
    children as they were of their slaves. Yet the rights of a son in
    official position took precedence of the honors due a father.
    48.3: Cf. p. 12, n. 3.
    48.4: abl. with #dīgnus#: H 481 (421, III): M 654: A 245, _a_:
    G 397, N. 2: B 226, 2.
    48.5: #Cautior . . . est#: = ‘he was accounted cautious rather
    than alert.’ See H 499 (444, 2): M 429: A 192: G 299: B 240, 4.
    48.6: #īnsita . . . prūdentia#: ‘his innate caution’; lit., the
    caution implanted in his nature. For _ingeniō_, see p. 2, n. 7.
    48.7: possessive dative: ‘no one has a doubt.’
    48.8: Cf. p. 39, n. 4.
    48.9: = _rem pūblicam_.
    48.10: abl. of means. With #cunctandō# cf. _morā_, l. 19, and
    _cunctātiōne_, l. 109.
    48.11: #id . . . posset#: ‘accomplished this, that it should be
    impossible to overthrow Rome.’ #nē . . . posset# is a clause of
    purpose, in apposition with #id#.]


#XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varro# [[stripped text]]

Hannibal in Apuliam pervenerat. Adversus eum Roma profecti sunt duo
consules, Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varro. Paulo Fabii cunctatio
magis placebat; Varro autem, ferox et temerarius, acriora sequebatur
consilia. Ambo consules ad vicum, qui Cannae appellabatur, castra
communiverunt. Ibi deinde Varro, invito conlega, aciem instruxit et
signum pugnae dedit. Hannibal autem ita constituerat aciem, ut Romanis
et solis radii et ventus ab oriente pulverem adflans adversi essent.
Victus caesusque est Romanus exercitus; nusquam graviore vulnere
adflicta est res publica. Aemilius Paulus telis obrutus cecidit: quem
cum media in pugna sedentem in saxo oppletum cruore conspexisset quidam
tribunus militum, “Cape” inquit “hunc equum et fuge, Aemili. Etiam sine
tua morte lacrimarum satis luctusque est.” Ad ea consul: “Tu quidem
macte virtute esto! Sed cave exiguum tempus e manibus hostium evadendi
perdas! Abi, nuntia patribus ut urbem muniant ac prius quam hostis
victor adveniat, praesidiis firment. Me in hac strage meorum militum
patere exspirare.” Alter consul cum paucis equitibus Venusiam perfugit.
Consulares aut praetorii occiderunt viginti, senatores capti aut occisi
triginta, nobiles viri trecenti, militum quadraginta milia, equitum tria
milia et quingenti. Hannibal in testimonium victoriae suae tres modios
aureorum anulorum Carthaginem misit, quos de manibus equitum Romanorum
et senatorum detraxerat.

Hannibali victori cum ceteri gratularentur suaderentque ut quietem iam
ipse sumeret et fessis militibus daret, unus ex eius praefectis,
Maharbal, minime cessandum ratus, Hannibalem hortabatur ut statim Romam
pergeret, die quinto victor in Capitolio epulaturus. Cumque Hannibal
illud non probasset, Maharbal “Non omnia nimirum” inquit “eidem dii
dedere. Vincere scis, Hannibal; victoria uti nescis.” Mora huius diei
satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi et imperio. Hannibal cum victoria
posset uti, frui maluit, relictaque Roma in Campaniam divertit, cuius
deliciis mox exercitus ardor elanguit, adeo ut vere dictum sit Capuam
Hannibali Cannas fuisse.

Numquam tantum pavoris Romae fuit, quantum ubi acceptae cladis nuntius
advenit. Neque tamen ulla pacis mentio facta est; quin etiam animo
civitas adeo magno fuit, ut Varroni ex tanta clade redeunti obviam irent
et gratias agerent, quod de re publica non desperasset: qui, si Poenorum
dux fuisset, temeritatis poenas omni supplicio dedisset. Non autem vitae
cupiditate, sed rei publicae amore se superfuisse reliquo aetatis suae
tempore approbavit. Nam et barbam capillumque submisit, et postea
numquam recubans cibum cepit; honoribus quoque, cum ei deferrentur a
populo, renuntiavit, dicens felicioribus magistratibus rei publicae opus
esse. Dum igitur Hannibal segniter et otiose agebat. Romani interim
respirare coeperunt. Arma non erant: detracta sunt templis vetera
hostium spolia. Deerat iuventus: servi manumissi et armati sunt. Egebat
aerarium: opes suas libens senatus in medium protulit, nec praeter quod
in bullis singulisque anulis erat quidquam sibi auri reliquerunt. Patrum
exemplum secuti sunt equites imitataeque equites omnes tribus. Denique
vix suffecere tabulae, vix scribarum manus, cum omnes privatae opes in
publicum deferrentur.

Cum Hannibal redimendi sui copiam captivis Romanis fecisset, decem ex
ipsis Romam ea de re missi sunt; nec pignus aliud fidei ab iis
postulatum est, quam ut iurarent se, si non impetrassent, in castra esse
redituros. Eos senatus non redimendos censuit responditque eos cives non
esse necessarios, qui, cum armati essent, capi potuissent. Ūnus ex iis
legatis e castris Poenorum egressus, veluti aliquid oblitus, paulo post
in castra erat regressus, deinde comites ante noctem adsecutus erat. Is
ergo, re non impetrata, domum abiit; reditu enim in castra se liberatum
esse iureiurando interpretabatur. Quod ubi innotuit, iussit senatus
illum comprehendi et vinctum duci ad Hannibalem. Ea res Hannibalis
audaciam maxime fregit, quod senatus populusque Romanus rebus adflictis
tam excelso esset animo.


  #XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varrō# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 216.]

  Hannibal[12] in Āpūliam pervēnerat. Adversus eum Rōmā
  profectī sunt duo cōnsulēs, Aemilius Paulus et Terentius
    [[49]]
  Varrō. Paulō Fabiī cunctātiō magis placēbat; Varrō[1] autem, ferōx
  et temerārius, ācriōra sequēbātur cōnsilia. Ambō cōnsulēs ad
  vīcum, quī Cannae appellābātur, castra commūnīvērunt. Ibi          {5}
  deinde Varrō, invītō[2] conlēgā, aciem īnstrūxit et sīgnum pūgnae
  dedit. Hannibal autem ita cōnstituerat aciem, ut Rōmānīs[3] et
  sōlis radiī et ventus ab oriente pulverem adflāns adversī
  essent. Victus caesusque est Rōmānus exercitus; nūsquam graviōre
  vulnere adflīcta est rēs pūblica. Aemilius Paulus tēlīs obrutus   {10}
  cecidit: quem cum mediā in pūgnā sedentem in saxō opplētum cruōre
  cōnspexisset quīdam tribūnus mīlitum, “Cape” inquit “hunc
  equum et fuge, Aemilī.[4] Etiam sine tuā morte lacrimārum satis
  lūctūsque est.” Ad ea cōnsul[5]: “Tū[6] quidem macte virtūte
  estō! Sed cavē[7] exiguum tempus ē manibus hostium ēvādendī       {15}
  perdās! Abī, nūntiā patribus ut urbem mūniant ac prius quam
  hostis victor adveniat, praesidiīs fīrment. Mē in hāc strāge meōrum
  mīlitum patere[8] exspīrāre.” Alter cōnsul cum paucīs equitibus
  Venusiam perfūgit. Cōnsulārēs aut praetōriī occidērunt
  vīgintī, senātōrēs captī aut occīsī trīgintā, nōbilēs             {20}
  virī trecentī, mīlitum quadrāgintā mīlia, equitum
  tria mīlia et quīngentī. Hannibal in[9] tēstimōnium
  victōriae suae trēs modiōs aureōrum ānulōrum[10]
  Carthāginem mīsit, quōs dē manibus
  equitum Rōmānōrum et senātōrum dētrāxerat.                        {25}

    [Illustration: ĀNULUS]

    [[50]]
  Hannibalī victōrī cum cēterī grātulārentur suādērentque ut
  quiētem iam ipse sūmeret et fessīs mīlitibus daret, ūnus ex ēius
  praefectīs, Maharbal, minimē[1] cessandum ratus, Hannibalem
  hortābātur ut statim Rōmam pergeret, diē quīntō victor in
  Capitōliō epulātūrus.[2] Cumque Hannibal illud nōn probāsset,     {30}
  Maharbal “Nōn omnia nīmīrum” inquit “eīdem[3] diī dedēre.
  Vincere scīs, Hannibal; victōriā ūtī nescīs.” Mora hūius diēī satis
  crēditur salūtī[4] fuisse urbī[4] et imperiō.[4] Hannibal cum victōriā
  posset ūtī, fruī māluit, relīctāque Rōmā in Campāniam dīvertit,
  cūius[5] dēliciīs mox exercitūs ārdor ēlanguit, adeō ut vērē dictum
  sit Capuam[6] Hannibalī Cannās fuisse.                            {36}

  Numquam tantum pavōris Rōmae fuit, quantum[7] ubi acceptae
  clādis nūntius advēnit. Neque tamen ūlla pācis mentiō facta est;
  quīn[8] etiam animō cīvitās adeō māgnō fuit, ut Varrōnī ex tantā  {39}
  clāde redeuntī obviam īrent et grātiās agerent, quod dē rē pūblicā
  nōn dēspērāsset: quī, sī Poenōrum dux fuisset,[9] temeritātis poenās
  omnī suppliciō dedisset.[9] Nōn autem vītae cupiditāte, sed reī
  pūblicae amōre sē superfuisse[10] reliquō aetātis suae tempore
  approbāvit. Nam et barbam capillumque submīsit,[11] et posteā numquam
  recubāns[12] cibum cēpit; honōribus quoque, cum eī dēferrentur ā  {45}
    [[51]]
  populō, renūntiāvit, dīcēns fēlīciōribus magistrātibus[1] reī pūblicae
  opus esse. Dum igitur Hannibal sēgniter et ōtiōsē agēbat.
  Rōmānī interim respīrāre[2]
  coepērunt. Arma nōn
  erant: dētrācta sunt                                              {50}
  templīs[3] vetera hostium
  spolia. Deerat iuventūs:
  servī manūmissī et armātī
  sunt. Egēbat aerārium:
  opēs suās libēns senātus in medium prōtulit, nec praeter quod in  {55}
  bullīs singulīsque[4] ānulīs erat quidquam sibi aurī relīquērunt.
  Patrum exemplum secūtī sunt equitēs imitātaeque equitēs omnēs
  tribūs. Dēnique vix[5] suffēcēre tabulae, vix scrībārum manūs, cum
  omnēs prīvātae opēs in pūblicum dēferrentur.

    [Illustration: CONVĪVIUM]

  Cum Hannibal redimendī[6] suī cōpiam captīvīs Rōmānīs fēcisset,   {60}
  decem ex ipsīs Rōmam eā dē rē missī sunt; nec pīgnus aliud
  fideī ab iīs pōstulātum est, quam ut iūrārent sē, sī nōn impetrāssent,
  in castra esse reditūrōs. Eōs senātus nōn redimendōs cēnsuit
  responditque eōs cīvēs nōn esse necessāriōs, quī, cum armātī
  essent, capī potuissent. Ūnus ex iīs lēgātīs ē castrīs Poenōrum   {65}
  ēgressus, velutī[7] aliquid[8] oblītus, paulō post in castra erat
  regressus, deinde comitēs ante noctem adsecūtus erat. Is ergō, rē
  nōn impetrātā, domum abiit; reditū enim in castra sē līberātum
  esse iūreiūrandō interpretābātur.[9] Quod ubi innōtuit, iussit senātus
    [[52]]
  illum comprehendī et vinctum dūcī ad Hannibalem. Ea rēs           {70}
  Hannibalis audāciam māximē frēgit, quod senātus populusque
  Rōmānus rēbus[1] adflīctīs tam excelsō esset animō.

    [Footnotes: XX (pages 48-52)

    48.12: Since the battle at Lake Trasumenus (XIX, 17), there had
    been no general engagement between the Romans and Hannibal. The
    latter, closely watched and followed by Fabius, had marched into
    southern Italy, hoping to induce the peoples there to desert Rome
    and join him. When Fabius resigned the dictatorship at the end of
    the legal period, C. Terentius Varro and L. Aemilius Paulus were
    elected consuls. Their army numbered 80,000 men, and their
    instructions were to fight as speedily as possible.
    49.1: A further cause of trouble between the consuls was the fact
    that Paulus was a patrician, Varro a plebeian.
    49.2: #invītō conlēgā#: abl. abs.: ‘though opposed by his
    colleague.’ How literally? The consuls held supreme command on
    alternate days.
    49.3: Construe with #adversī#.
    49.4: H 83, 5 (51, 5): M 152: A 40, _c_: G 33, 2: B 25, 1.
    49.5: sc. _inquit_.
    49.6: #Tū . . . estō#: ‘God bless you!’ Cf. p. 32, n. 1.
    49.7: #cavē . . . perdās# = _cavē nē . . . perdās_: ‘Take care
    lest,’ etc. For this form see H 561, 2 (489, 2): M 715: A 269,
    _a_, 3: G 271, 2: B 276, _c_. We really have two commands here
    side by side, thus: ‘Take care’; ‘Don’t waste,’ etc.
    49.8: imperative of _patior_.
    49.9: #in . . . suae#: ‘to prove his victory.’
    49.10: The custom of wearing rings was universal among the Romans,
    having arisen out of their use as signets. Originally they were of
    iron. When gold rings were first used they served to distinguish
    the higher classes.
    50.1: #minimē . . . ratus#: ‘thinking that there ought to be no
    delay.’ With #cessandum# sc. _esse_, and see p. 16, n. 8.
    50.2: #victor . . . epulātūrus#: ‘for he would surely dine as
    victor on the Capitol.’ The fut. part. is often thus used to
    denote the certain occurrence of a future event. Further, the
    clause expresses the reason why Maharbal urged H. to proceed to
    Rome. What were Maharbal’s exact words?
    50.3: dat. sing.
    50.4: Cf. p. 25, n. 6. Contrast the words of a modern historian:
    “Hannibal knew Rome better than the simpletons who, in ancient and
    modern times, have fancied that he might have terminated the
    struggle by a march on the enemy’s capital.”
    50.5: #cūius . . . fuisse#: a gross exaggeration. Hannibal
    successfully maintained himself in Italy till recalled in 203.
    50.6: Capua, at this time the most powerful city in Italy next to
    Rome, had formed an alliance with Hannibal after the battle of
    Cannae.
    50.7: Sc. _fuit._
    50.8: #quīn etiam#: ‘on the contrary.’
    50.9: For the construction, see p. 47, n. 12. For the fact, cf.
    XVI, 19 ff.
    50.10: #superfuisse . . . approbāvit#: ‘he showed that he had
    effected his escape (lit., had survived).’
    50.11: ‘let grow.’ This manner of showing grief is often
    mentioned.
    50.12: The Romans reclined on the left side at meals. Varro’s act
    was a kind of penance, since it indicated that he denied himself
    the pleasures of the table.
    51.1: #magistrātibus . . . esse#: cf. p. 37, notes 3 and 4.
    51.2: ‘to repair their losses’; lit., ‘to get their breath again.’
    51.3: dat.; cf. p. 2, n. 7. After a victory, captured arms, as
    well as a portion of the captured treasure, were hung up in some
    temple as a thank-offering to the gods.
    51.4: #singulīs . . . ānulīs#: ‘a ring apiece.’
    51.5: #vix . . . manūs#: i.e. they hardly had clerks and tablets
    sufficient to keep the record of contributions.
    51.6: #redimendī suī#: ‘of ransoming themselves.’ H 626, 3 (542,
    #I#, N. 1): M 1000: A 298, _a_: G 428, R. 1: B 339, 5.
    51.7: #velutī . . . oblītus#: ‘pretending to have forgotten
    something.’ How literally?
    51.8: A neuter pronoun or adjective is often used with verbs of
    remembering or forgetting. Contrast _oblīta frātrum_, IV, 37, and
    note.
    51.9: ‘maintained, held.’
    52.1: abl. abs.: ‘though their affairs were at the lowest ebb.’]


#XXI. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus# [[stripped text]]

Publius Cornelius Scipio nondum annos pueritiae egressus patrem
singulari virtute servavit; qui cum pugna apud Ticinum contra Hannibalem
commissa graviter vulneratus in hostium manus iam iam venturus esset,
filius interiecto corpore Poenis inruentibus se opposuit et patrem
periculo liberavit. Quae pietas Scipioni postea aedilitatem petenti
favorem populi conciliavit. Cum obsisterent tribuni plebis, negantes
rationem eius esse habendam, quod nondum ad petendum legitima aetas
esset, “Si me” inquit Scipio “omnes Quirites aedilem facere volunt,
satis annorum habeo.” Tanto inde favore ad suffragia itum est, ut
tribuni incepto desisterent.

Post cladem Cannensem Romani exercitus reliquiae Canusium perfugerant;
cumque ibi tribuni militum quattuor essent, tamen omnium consensu ad
Publium Scipionem, admodum adulescentem, summa imperii delata est.
Quibus consultantibus nuntiat Publius Furius Philus, consularis viri
filius, nobiles quosdam iuvenes propter desperationem consilium de
Italia deserenda inire. Statim in hospitium Metelli, qui conspirationis
erat princeps, se contulit Scipio, et cum concilium ibi iuvenum, de
quibus adlatum erat, invenisset, stricto super capita consultantium
gladio, “Iurate” inquit “vos neque ipsos rem publicam populi Romani
deserturos, neque alium civem Romanum deserere passuros: qui non
iuraverit, in se hunc gladium strictum esse sciat.” Haud secus pavidi,
quam si victorem Hannibalem cernerent, iurant omnes custodiendosque
semet ipsos Scipioni tradunt.

Cum Romani duas clades in Hispania accepissent duoque ibi summi
imperatores intra dies triginta cecidissent, placuit exercitum augeri
eoque proconsulem mitti; nec tamen quem mitterent satis constabat. Ea de
re indicta sunt comitia. Primo populus exspectabat ut, qui se tanto
dignos imperio crederent, nomina profiterentur; sed nemo audebat illud
imperium suscipere. Maesta igitur civitas ac prope inops consilii
comitiorum die in campum descendit. Subito P. Cornelius Scipio, quattuor
et viginti ferme annos natus, professus se petere, in superiore, unde
conspici posset, loco constitit. In quem postquam omnium ora conversa
sunt, ad unum omnes Scipionem in Hispania proconsulem esse iusserunt. At
postquam animorum impetus resedit, populum Romanum coepit facti
paenitere: aetati Scipionis maxime diffidebant. Quod ubi animadvertit
Scipio, advocata contione ita magno elatoque animo de bello, quod
gerendum esset, disseruit, ut homines cura liberaret speque certissima
impleret.

Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem Novam, quo die venit,
expugnavit. Eo congestae erant omnes paene Africae et Hispaniae opes,
ibi arma, ibi pecunia, ibi totius Hispaniae obsides erant: quibus
omnibus potitus est Scipio. Inter captivos ad eum adducta est eximiae
formae adulta virgo. Quam ubi comperit inlustri loco inter Celtiberos
natam principique eius gentis adulescenti desponsam esse, arcessitis
parentibus et sponso eam reddidit. Parentes virginis, qui ad eam
redimendam satis magnum auri pondus attulerant, Scipionem orabant ut id
a se donum acciperet. Scipio aurum ante pedes poni iussit vocatoque ad
se virginis sponso, “Super dotem” inquit “quam accepturus a socero es,
haec tibi a me dotalia dona accedent” aurumque tollere ac sibi habere
iussit. Ille domum reversus ad referendam Scipioni gratiam Celtiberos
Romanis conciliavit.

Deinde Scipio Hasdrubalem victum ex Hispania expulit. Castris hostium
potitus omnem praedam militibus concessit, captivos Hispanos sine pretio
domum dimisit; Afros vero vendi iussit. Erat inter eos puer adultus
regii generis, forma insigni: quem cum percontaretur Scipio quis et
cuias esset, et cur id aetatis in castris fuisset, “Numida sum” inquit
puer, “Massivam populares vocant: orbus a patre relictus, apud avum
maternum, Numidiae regem, educatus sum. Cum avunculo Masinissa, qui
nuper subsidio Carthaginiensibus venit, in Hispaniam traieci; prohibitus
propter aetatem a Masinissa numquam ante proelium inii. Eo die, quo
pugnatum est cum Romanis, inscio avunculo, clam armis equoque sumpto, in
aciem exii: ibi, prolapso equo, captus sum a Romanis.” Scipio eum
interrogat velletne ad avunculum reverti. Cum, effusis gaudio lacrimis,
id vero se cupere puer diceret, tum Scipio puero anulum aureum equumque
ornatum donat datisque qui tuto deducerent equitibus dimisit.

Cum Publius Cornelius Scipio se erga Hispanos clementer gessisset,
circumfusa multitudo eum regem ingenti consensu appellavit; at Scipio,
silentio per praeconem facto, “Nomen imperatoris” inquit, “quo me mei
milites appellarunt, mihi maximum est: regium nomen, alibi magnum, Romae
intolerabile est. Si id amplissimum iudicatis, quod regale est, vobis
licet existimare regalem in me esse animum; sed oro vos ut a regis
appellatione abstineatis.” Sensere etiam barbari magnitudinem animi, qua
Scipio id aspernabatur, quod ceteri mortales admirantur et concupiscunt.

Scipio recepta Hispania cum iam bellum in ipsam Africam transferre
meditaretur, conciliandos prius regum et gentium animos existimavit.
Syphacem, Maurorum regem, opulentissimum totius Africae regem, quem
magno usui sibi fore speraret, primum tentare statuit. Itaque legatum
cum donis ad eum misit C. Laelium, quocum intima familiaritate vivebat.
Syphax amicitiam Romanorum se accipere adnuit, sed fidem nec dare nec
accipere, nisi cum ipso coram duce Romano, voluit. Scipio igitur in
Africam traiecit. Forte ita incidit, ut eo ipso tempore Hasdrubal pulsus
Hispania ad eundem portum appelleret, Syphacis amicitiam pariter
petiturus. Uterque a rege in hospitium invitatus. Cenatum simul apud
regem est; eodem etiam lecto Scipio atque Hasdrubal accubuerunt. Tanta
autem inerat comitas in Scipione, ut non Syphacem modo, sed etiam hostem
infestissimum Hasdrubalem sibi conciliaret. Scipio, foedere icto cum
Syphace, in Hispaniam ad exercitum rediit.

Masinissa quoque amicitiam cum Scipione iungere iam dudum cupiebat.
Quare ad eum tres Numidarum principes misit ad tempus locumque conloquio
statuendum. Duos pro obsidibus retineri a Scipione iubet; remisso
tertio, qui Masinissam ad locum constitutum adduceret, Scipio et
Masinissa cum paucis in conloquium venerunt. Ceperat iam ante Numidam ex
fama rerum gestarum admiratio viri, sed maior praesentis veneratio
cepit: erat enim in vultu maiestas summa; accedebat promissa caesaries
habitusque corporis, non cultus munditiis, sed virilis vere ac
militaris, et florens iuventa. Prope attonitus ipso congressu Numida
gratias de filio fratris remisso agit: adfirmat se ex eo tempore eam
quaesivisse occasionem, quam tandem oblatam non omiserit; cupere se illi
et populo Romano operam navare. Laetus eum Scipio audivit atque in
societatem recepit.

Scipio deinde Romam rediit et ante annos consul factus est. Sicilia ei
provincia decreta est permissumque ut in Africam inde traiceret. Qui cum
vellet ex fortissimis peditibus Romanis trecentorum equitum numerum
complere, nec posset illos subito armis et equis instruere, id prudenti
consilio perfecit. Namque ex omni Sicilia trecentos iuvenes nobilissimos
et ditissimos, qui equis militarent et secum in Africam traicerent,
legit diemque iis edixit, qua equis armisque instructi atque ornati
adessent. Gravis ea militia, procul domo, terra marique multos labores,
magna pericula adlatura videbatur; neque ipsos modo, sed parentes
cognatosque eorum ea cura angebat. Ubi dies quae dicta erat advenit,
arma equosque ostenderunt, sed omnes fere longinquum et grave bellum
horrere apparebat. Tunc Scipio militiam iis se remissurum ait, si arma
et equos militibus Romanis voluissent tradere. Laeti condicionem
acceperunt iuvenes Siculi. Ita Scipio sine publica impensa suos
instruxit ornavitque equites.

Tunc Scipio ex Sicilia in Africam vento secundo profectus est tanto
militum ardore, ut non ad bellum duci viderentur, sed ad certa victoriae
praemia. Celeriter naves e conspectu Siciliae ablatae sunt conspectaque
brevi Africae litora. Scipio cum egrediens ad terram navi prolapsus
esset et ob hoc attonitos milites cerneret, id, quod trepidationem
adferebat, in hortationem convertens, “Africam oppressi” inquit,
“milites!” Expositis copiis in proximis tumulis castra metatus est. Ibi
speculatores hostium in castris deprehensos et ad se perductos nec
supplicio adfecit nec de consiliis ac viribus Poenorum percontatus est,
sed circa omnes Romani exercitus manipulos curavit deducendos; dein
interrogatos num ea satis considerassent, quae speculari erant iussi,
prandio dato incolumes dimisit.

Scipioni in Africam advenienti Masinissa se coniunxit cum parva equitum
turma. Syphax vero a Romanis ad Poenos defecerat. Hasdrubal, Poenorum
dux, Syphaxque Scipioni se opposuerunt, qui utriusque castra una nocte
perrupit et incendit. Syphax ipse captus et vivus ad Scipionem
pertractus est. Syphacem in castra adduci cum esset nuntiatum, omnis
velut ad spectaculum triumphi multitudo effusa est; praecedebat ipse
vinctus, sequebatur grex nobilium Maurorum. Movebat omnes fortuna viri,
cuius amicitiam olim Scipio petierat. Regem aliosque captivos Romam
misit Scipio; Masinissam, qui egregie rem Romanam adiuverat, aurea
corona donavit.

Haec et aliae, quae sequebantur, clades Carthaginiensibus tantum
terroris intulerunt, ut Hannibalem ex Italia ad tuendam patriam
revocarent. Frendens gemensque ac vix lacrimis temperans is dicitur
legatorum verba audisse mandatisque paruisse. Respexit saepe Italiae
litora, semet accusans, quod non victorem exercitum statim ab Cannensi
pugna Romam duxisset. Zamam venerat Hannibal, quae urbs quinque dierum
iter a Carthagine abest, et nuntium ad Scipionem misit ut conloquendi
secum potestatem faceret. Scipio cum conloquium haud abnuisset, dies
locusque constituitur. Itaque congressi sunt duo clarissimi suae aetatis
duces. Steterunt aliquamdiu taciti mutuaque admiratione defixi. Cum vero
de condicionibus pacis inter eos non convenisset, ad suos se receperunt,
renuntiantes armis decernendum esse. Commisso deinde proelio Hannibal
victus cum quattuor equitibus fugit. Ceterum constat utrumque de altero
confessum esse nec melius instrui aciem nec acrius potuisse pugnari.

Carthaginienses metu perculsi ad petendam pacem oratores mittunt
triginta civitatis principes. Qui ubi in castra Romana venerunt, veniam
civitati petebant non culpam purgantes, sed initium culpae in Hannibalem
transferentes. Victis leges imposuit Scipio. Legati, cum nullas
condiciones recusarent, Romam profecti sunt, ut, quae a Scipione pacta
essent, ea patrum ac populi auctoritate confirmarentur. Ita pace terra
marique parta, Scipio exercitu in naves imposito Romam revertit. Ad quem
advenientem concursus ingens factus est; effusa non ex urbibus modo, sed
etiam ex agris multitudo viam obsidebat. Scipio inter gratulantium
plausus triumpho omnium clarissimo urbem est invectus primusque nomine
victae a se gentis est nobilitatus Africanusque appellatus.

Ex his rebus gestis virum eum esse virtutis divinae vulgo creditum est.
Id etiam dicere haud piget, quod scriptores de eo litteris mandaverunt,
Scipionem consuevisse, priusquam dilucesceret, in Capitolium ventitare
ac iubere aperiri cellam Iovis ibi solum diu demorari, quasi
consultantem de re publica cum Iove: aedituosque eius templi saepe esse
miratos, quod eum id temporis in Capitolium ingredientem canes, semper
in alios saevientes, non latrarent. Has vulgi de Scipione opiniones
confirmare atque approbare videbantur dicta factaque eius pleraque
admiranda, ex quibus est unum huiuscemodi. Adsidebat oppugnabatque
oppidum in Hispania, situ moenibusque ac defensoribus validum et
munitum, re etiam cibaria copiosum, neque ulla eius potiundi spes erat.
Quodam die ius in castris sedens dicebat Scipio atque ex eo loco id
oppidum procul videbatur. Tum e militibus, qui in iure apud eum stabant,
interrogavit quispiam ex more in quem diem locumque vades sisti iuberet.
Et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, arcem protendens,
“Perendie” inquit “sese sistant illo in loco,” atque ita factum. Die
tertia, in quam vades sisti iusserat, oppidum captum est. Eodem die in
arce eius oppidi ius dixit.

Hannibal, a Scipione victus suisque invisus, ad Antiochum, Syriae regem,
confugit eumque hostem Romanis fecit. Missi sunt Roma legati ad
Antiochum, in quibus erat Scipio Africanus, qui cum Hannibale Ephesi
conlocutus ab eo quaesivit, quem fuisse maximum imperatorem crederet.
Respondit Hannibal Alexandrum, Macedonum regem, maximum sibi videri,
quod parva manu innumerabiles exercitus fudisset. Quaerenti deinde, quem
secundum poneret, “Pyrrhum” inquit, “quod primus castra metari docuit
nemoque illo elegantius loca cepit et praesidia deposuit.” Sciscitanti
denique quem tertium duceret, semet ipsum dixit. Tum ridens Scipio
“Quidnam tu diceres” inquit “si me vicisses?” “Tum me vero” respondit
Hannibal “et ante Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnes alios
imperatores posuissem.” Ita improviso adsentationis genere Scipionem e
grege imperatorum velut inaestimabilem secernebat.

Scipio ipse fertur quondam dixisse, cum eum quidam parum pugnacem
dicerent, “Imperatorem me mater, non bellatorem peperit.” Idem dicere
solitus est non solum dandam esse viam fugientibus, sed etiam muniendam.

Decreto adversus Antiochum bello cum Syria provincia obvenisset Lucio
Scipioni, quia parum in eo putabatur esse animi, parum roboris, senatus
gerendi huius belli curam mandari volebat conlegae eius C. Laelio.
Surgens tunc Scipio Africanus, frater maior Lucii Scipionis, illam
familiae ignominiam deprecatus est: dixit in fratre suo summam esse
virtutem, summum consilium seque ei legatum fore promisit. Quod cum ab
eo esset dictum, nihil est de Lucii Scipionis provincia commutatum:
itaque frater natu maior minori legatus in Asiam profectus est et tam
diu eum consilio operaque adiuvit, donec triumphum ille et cognomen
Asiatici peperisset.

Eodem bello filius Scipionis Africani captus est et ad Antiochum
deductus. Benigne et liberaliter adulescentem rex habuit, quamquam ab
eius patre tum maxime finibus imperii pellebatur. Cum deinde pacem
Antiochus a Romanis peteret, legatus eius Publium Scipionem adiit eique
filium sine pretio redditurum regem dixit, si per eum pacem impetrasset.
Cui Scipio respondit “Abi, nuntia regi, me pro tanto munere gratias
agere; sed nunc aliam gratiam non possum referre, quam ut ei suadeam ut
bello absistat et pacis condicionem nullam recuset.” Pax non convenit;
tamen Antiochus Scipioni filium remisit tantique viri maiestatem
venerari quam dolorem suum ulcisci maluit.

Victo Antiocho cum praedae ratio a L. Scipione reposceretur, Africanus
prolatum ab eo librum, quo acceptae et expensae summae continebantur et
refelli inimicorum accusatio poterat, discerpsit, indignatus de ea re
dubitari, quae sub ipso legato administrata esset. Quin etiam hunc in
modum verba fecit: “Non est quod quaeratis, patres conscripti, num
parvam pecuniam in aerarium rettulerim, qui antea illud Punico auro
repleverim, neque mea innocentia potest in dubium vocari. Cum Africam
totam potestati vestrae subiecerim, nihil ex ea praeter cognomen
rettuli. Non igitur me Punicae, non fratrem meum Asiaticae gazae avarum
reddiderunt; sed uterque nostrum invidia quam pecunia est locupletior.”
Tam constantem defensionem Scipionis universus senatus comprobavit.

Deinde Scipioni Africano duo tribuni plebis diem dixerunt, quod praeda
ex Antiocho capta aerarium fraudasset. Ubi causae dicendae dies venit,
Scipio magna hominum frequentia in Forum est deductus. Iussus causam
dicere rostra conscendit et, corona triumphali capiti suo imposita, “Hoc
ego die” inquit “Hannibalem Poenum, imperio nostro inimicissimum, magno
proelio vici in terra Africa pacemque nobis et victoriam peperi
insperabilem. Ne igitur simus adversus deos ingrati, sed censeo
relinquamus nebulones hos eamusque nunc protinus in Capitolium Iovi
optimo maximo supplicatum.” A rostris in Capitolium ascendit; simul se
universa contio ab accusatoribus avertit et secuta Scipionem est, nec
quisquam praeter praeconem, qui reum citabat, cum tribunis remansit.
Celebratior is dies favore hominum fuit, quam quo triumphans de Syphace
rege et Carthaginiensibus urbem est ingressus. Inde, ne amplius
tribuniciis iniuriis vexaretur, in Literninum concessit, ubi reliquam
egit aetatem sine urbis desiderio.

Cum in Liternina villa se contineret, complures praedonum duces ad eum
videndum forte confluxerunt. Quos cum ad vim faciendam venire
existimasset, praesidium servorum in tecto conlocavit aliaque parabat,
quae ad eos repellendos opus erant. Quod ubi praedones animadverterunt,
abiectis armis ianuae appropinquant et clara voce nuntiant Scipioni se
non vitae eius hostes, sed virtutis admiratores venisse, conspectum
tanti viri, quasi caeleste aliquod beneficium, expetentes; proinde ne
gravaretur se spectandum praebere. Haec postquam audivit Scipio, fores
reserari eosque introduci iussit. Illi postes ianuae tamquam
religiosissimam aram venerati, cupide Scipionis dextram apprehenderunt
ac diu deosculati sunt; deinde positis ante vestibulum donis laeti, quod
sibi Scipionem ut viderent contigisset, domum reverterunt. Paulo post
mortuus est Scipio moriensque ab uxore petiit ne corpus suum Romam
referretur.


  #XXI. Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: SCĪPIŌ]

  Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō[2] nōndum annōs
  pueritiae ēgressus patrem singulārī virtūte
  servāvit; quī[3] cum pūgnā[4] apud Tīcīnum[5]
  contrā Hannibalem commissā graviter vulnerātus
  in hostium manūs iam iam[6] ventūrus                               {5}
  esset, fīlius interiectō[7] corpore Poenīs inruentibus
  sē opposuit et patrem perīculō līberāvit.
  Quae[8] pietās Scīpiōnī posteā aedīlitātem
  petentī favōrem populī conciliāvit. Cum obsisterent
  tribūnī plēbis, negantēs[9] ratiōnem ēius esse habendam,          {10}
  quod nōndum ad petendum lēgitima[10] aetās esset, “Sī mē” inquit
  Scīpiō “omnēs Quirītēs aedīlem facere volunt, satis annōrum
  habeō.” Tantō inde favōre ad suffrāgia itum[11] est, ut tribūnī
  inceptō dēsisterent.

  Post clādem Cannēnsem Rōmānī exercitūs reliquiae Canusium         {15}
  perfūgerant; cumque ibi tribūnī mīlitum quattuor essent, tamen
  omnium cōnsēnsū ad Pūblium Scīpiōnem, admodum[12] adulēscentem,
  summa imperiī dēlāta est. Quibus cōnsultantibus nūntiat
    [[53]]
  Pūblius Fūrius Philus, cōnsulāris virī fīlius, nōbilēs quōsdam
  iuvenēs propter dēspērātiōnem cōnsilium dē Italiā dēserendā       {20}
  inīre. Statim in hospitium Metellī, quī cōnspīrātiōnis erat prīnceps,
  sē contulit Scīpiō, et cum concilium ibi iuvenum, dē quibus
  adlātum[1] erat, invēnisset, strictō super cāpita cōnsultantium
  gladiō, “Iūrāte” inquit “vōs neque ipsōs rem pūblicam populī
  Rōmānī dēsertūrōs, neque alium cīvem Rōmānum dēserere             {25}
  passūrōs[2]: quī[3] nōn iūrāverit, in sē hunc gladium strictum esse
  sciat.”[4] Haud[5] secus pavidī, quam sī victōrem Hannibalem
  cernerent,[6] iūrant omnēs cūstōdiendōsque sēmet ipsōs Scīpiōnī
  trādunt.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 212.]

  Cum Rōmānī duās clādēs in Hispāniā accēpissent duoque ibi         {30}
  summī imperātōrēs[7] intrā diēs trīgintā cecidissent, placuit[8]
  exercitum augērī eōque prōcōnsulem mittī; nec tamen
  quem mitterent[9] satis cōnstābat. Eā dē rē indicta sunt comitia.
  Prīmō populus exspectābat ut, quī sē tantō dīgnōs imperiō         {34}
  crēderent,[10] nōmina profitērentur; sed nēmō audēbat illud imperium
  suscipere. Maesta igitur cīvitās ac prope inops[11] cōnsiliī[12]
  comitiōrum diē in campum dēscendit. Subitō P. Cornēlius Scīpiō,
  quattuor et vīgintī fermē annōs nātus, professus sē petere,[13] in
  superiōre, unde[14] cōnspicī posset, locō cōnstitit. In quem
  postquam omnium ōra conversa sunt, ad ūnum omnēs Scīpiōnem in     {40}
  Hispāniā prōcōnsulem esse iussērunt. At postquam animōrum[15]
  impetus resēdit, populum[16] Rōmānum coepit factī paenitēre:
    [[54]]
  aetātī Scīpiōnis māximē diffīdēbant. Quod ubi animadvertit
  Scīpiō, advocātā cōntiōne ita māgnō ēlātōque animō dē bellō,
  quod gerendum esset, disseruit, ut hominēs cūrā līberāret spēque  {45}
  certissimā implēret.

  Profectus igitur in Hispāniam Scīpiō Carthāginem Novam,
  quō[1] diē vēnit, expūgnāvit. Eō[2] congestae[3] erant omnēs paene
  Āfricae et Hispāniae opēs, ibi arma, ibi pecūnia, ibi tōtīus Hispāniae
  obsidēs erant: quibus omnibus potītus est Scīpiō. Inter           {50}
  captīvōs ad eum adducta est eximiae fōrmae adulta virgō. Quam
  ubi comperit inlūstrī locō inter Celtibērōs nātam prīncipīque ēius
  gentis adulēscentī dēspōnsam esse, arcessītīs parentibus et spōnsō
  eam reddidit. Parentēs virginis, quī ad eam redimendam satis[4]
  māgnum aurī pondus attulerant, Scīpiōnem ōrābant ut id ā sē       {55}
  dōnum acciperet. Scīpiō aurum ante pedēs pōnī iūssit vocātōque
  ad sē virginis spōnsō, “Super dōtem” inquit “quam acceptūrus
  ā socerō es, haec tibi ā mē dōtālia dōna accēdent” aurumque
  tollere āc sibi habēre iūssit. Ille domum reversus ad referendam
  Scīpiōnī grātiam Celtibērōs Rōmānīs conciliāvit.                  {60}

  Deinde Scīpiō Hasdrubalem[5] victum[6] ex Hispāniā expulit.
  Castrīs hostium potītus omnem praedam mīlitibus concessit,
  captīvōs[7] Hispānōs sine pretiō domum dīmīsit; Āfrōs vērō vēndī
  iussit. Erat inter eōs puer adultus rēgiī generis,[8] fōrmā       {64}
  īnsīgnī[8]: quem cum percontārētur Scīpiō quis et cūiās esset, et
  cūr id[9] aetātis in castrīs fuisset, “Numida sum” inquit puer,
  “Massīvam populārēs vocant: orbus ā patre relīctus, apud avum
  māternum, Numidiae rēgem, ēducātus sum. Cum avunculō Masinissā,
  quī nūper subsidiō Carthāginiēnsibus vēnit, in Hispāniam
    [[55]]
  trāiēcī; prohibitus propter aetātem ā Masinissā numquam ante      {70}
  proelium iniī. Eō diē, quō pūgnātum est cum Rōmānīs, īnsciō
  avunculō, clam armīs equōque sūmptō, in aciem exiī: ibi, prōlāpsō
  equō, captus sum ā Rōmānīs.” Scīpiō eum interrogat velletne[1]
  ad avunculum revertī. Cum, effūsīs[2] gaudiō lacrimīs, id
  vērō sē cupere puer dīceret, tum Scīpiō puerō ānulum aureum       {75}
  equumque ōrnātum dōnat datīsque quī[3] tūtō dēdūcerent equitibus
  dīmīsit.

  Cum Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō sē ergā Hispānōs clēmenter gessisset,
  circumfūsa multitūdō eum rēgem ingentī cōnsēnsū appellāvit;
  at Scīpiō, silentiō per praecōnem factō, “Nōmen imperātōris”      {80}
  inquit, “quō[4] mē meī mīlitēs appellārunt, mihi[5] māximum est:
  rēgium[6] nōmen, alibī māgnum, Rōmae intolerābile est. Sī id
  amplissimum iūdicātis, quod rēgāle est, vōbīs licet exīstimāre rēgālem
  in mē esse animum; sed ōrō vōs ut ā rēgis appellātiōne abstineātis.”
  Sēnsēre etiam barbarī māgnitūdinem animī, quā Scīpiō id           {85}
  āspernābātur, quod cēterī mortālēs admīrantur et concupīscunt.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 206.]

  Scīpiō receptā Hispāniā cum iam bellum in ipsam Āfricam
  trānsferre meditārētur, conciliandōs[7] prius rēgum et gentium
  animōs exīstimāvit. Syphācem, Maurōrum rēgem, opulentissimum
  tōtīus Āfricae rēgem, quem[8] māgnō ūsuī[9] sibi[9] fore[10] spērāret,
  prīmum tentāre statuit. Itaque lēgātum cum dōnīs ad eum mīsit     {91}
  C. Laelium, quōcum intimā familiāritāte vīvēbat. Syphāx amīcitiam
  Rōmānōrum sē accipere adnuit, sed fidem nec dare
  nec accipere, nisi cum ipsō cōram duce Rōmānō, voluit.
  Scīpiō igitur in Āfricam trāiēcit. Forte ita incidit, ut eō ipsō  {95}
    [[56]]
  tempore Hasdrubal[1] pulsus Hispāniā ad eundem portum appelleret,[2]
  Syphācis amīcitiam pariter petītūrus.[3] Uterque ā rēge in
  hospitium invītātus. Cēnātum[4] simul apud rēgem est; eōdem
  etiam lectō[5] Scīpiō atque Hasdrubal accubuērunt. Tanta autem
  inerat cōmitās in Scīpiōne, ut nōn Syphācem modo, sed etiam      {100}
  hostem īnfēstissimum Hasdrubalem sibi conciliāret. Scīpiō, foedere
  īctō cum Syphāce, in Hispāniam ad exercitum rediit.

  Masinissa quoque amīcitiam cum Scīpiōne iungere iam dūdum[6]
  cupiēbat. Quārē ad eum trēs Numidārum prīncipēs mīsit ad         {104}
  tempus locumque conloquiō statuendum. Duōs prō obsidibus retinērī
  ā Scīpiōne iubet; remissō tertiō, quī Masinissam ad locum
  cōnstitūtum addūceret, Scīpiō et Masinissa cum paucīs in
  conloquium vēnērunt. Cēperat iam ante Numidam ex fāmā rērum
  gestārum admīrātiō virī, sed māior praesentis[7] venerātiō cēpit:
  erat enim in vultū māiestās summa; accēdēbat prōmissa caesariēs  {110}
  habitusque corporis, nōn cultus[8] munditiīs, sed virīlis vērē ac
  mīlitāris, et flōrēns iuventa. Prope attonitus ipsō congressū
  Numida grātiās dē[9] fīliō frātris remissō agit: adfīrmat sē ex eō
  tempore eam quaesīvisse[10] occāsiōnem, quam tandem oblātam[11]
  nōn omīserit; cupere sē illī et populō Rōmānō operam nāvāre.  {115|
  Laetus eum Scīpiō audīvit atque in societātem recēpit.

  Scīpiō deinde Rōmam rediit et ante annōs[12] cōnsul factus est.
  Sicilia eī prōvincia dēcrēta est permissumque ut in Āfricam inde
    [[57]]
  trāiceret. Quī cum vellet ex fortissimīs peditibus Rōmānīs
  trecentōrum equitum numerum complēre, nec posset illōs subitō    {120}
  armīs et equīs īnstruere, id prūdentī cōnsiliō perfēcit. Namque
  ex omnī Siciliā trecentōs iuvenēs nōbilissimōs et dītissimōs, quī
  equīs mīlitārent[1] et sēcum in Āfricam trāicerent,[1] lēgit diemque
  iīs ēdīxit, quā[2] equīs armīsque īnstrūctī atque ōrnātī adessent.[1]
  Gravis ea mīlitia, procul domō, terrā marīque multōs labōrēs,    {125}
  māgna perīcula adlātūra vidēbātur; neque ipsōs modo, sed parentēs
  cōgnātōsque eōrum ea cūra angēbat. Ubi diēs quae dicta
  erat advēnit, arma equōsque ostendērunt, sed omnēs ferē
  longinquum et grave bellum horrēre appārēbat. Tunc Scīpiō mīlitiam
  iīs sē remissūrum ait, sī arma et equōs mīlitibus Rōmānīs        {130}
  voluissent[3] trādere. Laetī condiciōnem accēpērunt iuvenēs Siculī.
  Ita Scīpiō sine pūblicā impēnsā suōs īnstrūxit ōrnāvitque equitēs.

  Tunc Scīpiō ex Siciliā in Āfricam ventō secundō profectus est
  tantō mīlitum ārdōre, ut nōn ad bellum dūcī vidērentur, sed ad
  certa victōriae praemia. Celeriter nāvēs ē cōnspectū Siciliae    {135}
  ablātae sunt cōnspectaque brevī Āfricae lītora. Scīpiō cum ēgrediēns
  ad terram nāvī prōlāpsus esset et ob hōc attonitōs mīlitēs
  cerneret, id, quod trepidātiōnem adferēbat, in hortātiōnem convertēns,
  “Āfricam oppressī” inquit, “mīlitēs!” Expositīs cōpiīs in        {139}
  proximīs tumulīs castra mētātus[4] est. Ibi speculātōrēs hostium
  in castrīs dēprehēnsōs[5] et ad sē perductōs[5] nec suppliciō adfēcit
  nec dē cōnsiliīs ac vīribus Poenōrum percontātus est, sed circā
  omnēs Rōmānī exercitūs manipulōs cūrāvit dēdūcendōs; dein
  interrogātōs[6] num ea satis cōnsīderāssent, quae speculārī erant
  iūssī, prandiō datō incolumēs dīmīsit.                           {145}

    [[58]]
  Scīpiōnī in Āfricam advenientī Masinissa sē coniūnxit cum
  parvā equitum turmā. Syphāx vērō ā Rōmānīs ad Poenōs dēfēcerat.
  Hasdrubal, Poenōrum dux, Syphāxque Scīpiōnī sē opposuērunt,
  quī utrīusque castra ūnā nocte perrūpit et incendit.
  Syphāx ipse captus et vīvus ad Scīpiōnem pertrāctus est.         {150}
  Syphācem in castra addūcī cum esset nūntiātum, omnis velut ad
  spectāculum triumphī multitūdō effūsa est; praecēdēbat ipse[1]
  vinctus, sequēbātur grex nōbilium Maurōrum. Movēbat omnēs
  fortūna[2] virī, cūius amīcitiam ōlim Scīpiō petierat. Rēgem
  aliōsque captīvōs Rōmam mīsit Scīpiō; Masinissam, quī ēgregiē rem
  Rōmānam adiūverat, aureā corōnā dōnāvit.                         {156}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 203.]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 202.]

  Haec et aliae, quae sequēbantur, clādēs Carthāginiēnsibus
  tantum terrōris intulērunt, ut Hannibalem ex Ītaliā ad
  tuendam patriam revocārent. Frendēns gemēnsque ac vix
  lacrimīs[3] temperāns is dīcitur lēgātōrum vērba audīsse         {160}
  mandātīsque pāruisse. Respexit saepe Ītaliae lītora, sēmet accūsāns,
  quod[4] nōn victōrem exercitum statim ab[5] Cannēnsī pūgnā Rōmam
  dūxisset. Zamam vēnerat Hannibal, quae urbs quīnque diērum
  iter[6] ā Carthāgine abest, et nūntium ad Scīpiōnem mīsit ut     {164}
  conloquendī sēcum potestātem faceret. Scīpiō cum conloquium haud
  abnuisset, diēs locusque cōnstituitur. Itaque congressī sunt duo
  clārissimī suae aetātis ducēs. Stetērunt aliquamdiū tacitī mūtuāque
  admīrātiōne dēfīxī.[7] Cum vērō dē condiciōnibus pācis inter
  eōs nōn convēnisset, ad suōs sē recēpērunt, renūntiantēs armīs[8]
  dēcernendum esse. Commissō deinde proeliō Hannibal               {170}
  victus cum quattuor equitibus fūgit. Cēterum[9] cōnstat
    [[59]]
  utrumque dē alterō cōnfessum esse nec melius īnstruī aciem nec
  ācrius potuisse pūgnārī.

  Carthāginiēnsēs metū perculsī[1] ad petendam pācem ōrātōrēs
  mittunt trīgintā cīvitātis prīncipēs. Quī ubi in castra Rōmāna   {175}
  vēnērunt, veniam cīvitātī petēbant nōn culpam pūrgantēs,[2] sed
  initium culpae in Hannibalem trānsferentēs.[2] Victīs lēgēs
  imposuit Scīpiō. Lēgātī, cum nūllās condiciōnēs recūsārent, Rōmam
  profectī sunt, ut, quae ā Scīpiōne pacta[3] essent, ea patrum ac
  populī auctōritāte cōnfīrmārentur. Ita pāce terrā marīque        {180}
  partā,[4] Scīpiō exercitū in nāvēs impositō Rōmam revertit. Ad
  quem advenientem concursus ingēns factus est; effūsa nōn ex
  urbibus modo, sed etiam ex agrīs multitūdō viam obsidēbat.
  Scīpiō inter grātulantium plausūs triumphō omnium[5] clārissimō
  urbem est invectus prīmusque nōmine victae ā sē gentis est       {185}
  nōbilitātus Āfricānusque appellātus.

    [Illustration: TEMPLE OF IUPPITER CAPITŌLĪNUS]

  Ex hīs rēbus gestīs virum eum esse virtūtis dīvīnae vulgō
  crēditum est. Id etiam dīcere haud piget,[6] quod scrīptōrēs dē
  eō litterīs mandāvērunt, Scīpiōnem cōnsuēvisse, priusquam
  dīlūcēsceret, in Capitōlium[7] ventitāre ac iubēre               {190}
  aperīrī cellam Iovis ibi sōlum diū dēmorārī,
  quasi cōnsultantem dē rē pūblicā cum Iove:
  aedituōsque ēius templī saepe esse mīrātōs,
  quod eum id[8] temporis in Capitōlium
  ingredientem canēs, semper in aliōs saevientēs,                  {195}
  nōn lātrārent. Hās vulgī dē Scīpiōne
  opīniōnēs cōnfīrmāre atque approbāre vidēbantur
  dicta factaque ēius plēraque admīranda, ex
  quibus est ūnum hūiuscemodī. Adsidēbat oppūgnābatque oppidum
    [[60]]
  in Hispāniā, sitū moenibusque ac dēfēnsōribus validum et         {200}
  mūnītum, rē etiam cibāriā cōpiōsum, neque ūlla ēius potiundī
  spēs erat. Quōdam diē iūs in castrīs sedēns dīcēbat Scīpiō atque
  ex eō locō id oppidum procul vidēbātur. Tum ē[1] mīlitibus, quī
  in iūre apud eum stābant, interrogāvit quispiam ex mōre in[2]
  quem diem locumque vadēs sistī iubēret. Et Scīpiō manum ad       {205}
  ipsam oppidī, quod obsidēbātur, arcem prōtendēns, “Perendiē”
  inquit “sēsē[3] sistant illō in locō,” atque ita factum. Diē[4]
tertiā,
  in quam vadēs sistī iusserat, oppidum captum est. Eōdem diē
  in arce ēius oppidī iūs dīxit.

  Hannibal, ā Scīpiōne victus suīsque invīsus, ad Antiochum,       {210}
  Syriae rēgem, cōnfūgit eumque hostem Rōmānīs fēcit. Missī
  sunt Rōmā lēgātī ad Antiochum, in quibus erat Scīpiō Āfricānus,
  quī cum Hannibale Ephesī[5] conlocūtus ab eō quaesīvit, quem
  fuisse māximum imperātōrem crēderet. Respondit Hannibal
  Alexandrum, Macedonum rēgem, māximum sibi vidērī, quod           {215}
  parvā manū innumerābilēs exercitūs fūdisset. Quaerentī deinde,
  quem secundum pōneret, “Pyrrhum” inquit, “quod prīmus castra[6]
  mētārī docuit nēmōque illō[7] ēlegantius loca[8] cēpit et praesidia
  dēposuit.” Scīscitantī dēnique quem tertium dūceret, sēmet ipsum
  dīxit. Tum rīdēns Scīpiō “Quidnam tū dīcerēs[9]” inquit “sī mē   {220}
  vīcissēs[9]?” “Tum[10] mē vērō” respondit Hannibal “et ante
  Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnēs aliōs imperātōrēs
  posuissem.[9]” Ita imprōvīsō adsentātiōnis genere Scīpiōnem ē
  grege imperātōrum velut inaestimābilem sēcernēbat.

    [[61]]
  Scīpiō ipse fertur quondam dīxisse, cum eum quīdam parum         {225}
  pūgnācem dīcerent, “Imperātōrem mē māter, nōn bellātōrem[1]
  peperit.[2]” Īdem dīcere solitus est nōn sōlum dandam esse viam
  fugientibus, sed etiam mūniendam.

  Dēcrētō adversus Antiochum bellō[3] cum Syria prōvincia          {229}
  obvēnisset Lūciō Scīpiōnī, quia parum in eō putābātur esse animī,[4]
  parum rōboris,[4] senātus gerendī hūius bellī cūram mandārī volēbat
  conlēgae ēius C. Laeliō. Surgēns tunc Scīpiō Āfricānus,
  frāter māior Lūciī Scīpiōnis, illam familiae īgnōminiam
  dēprecātus est: dīxit in frātre suō summam esse virtūtem, summum
  cōnsilium sēque eī lēgātum fore prōmīsit. Quod cum ab eō esset   {235}
  dictum, nihil[5] est dē Lūciī Scīpiōnis prōvinciā commūtātum:
  itaque frāter nātū māior minōrī lēgātus in Asiam profectus est
  et tam diū eum cōnsiliō operāque adiūvit, dōnec triumphum ille
  et cōgnōmen Asiāticī peperisset.

  Eōdem bellō fīlius Scīpiōnis Āfricānī captus est et ad Antiochum
  dēductus. Benīgnē et līberāliter adulēscentem rēx habuit,[6]     {241}
  quamquam ab ēius patre tum[7] māximē fīnibus imperiī pellēbātur.
  Cum deinde pācem Antiochus ā Rōmānīs peteret, lēgātus ēius
  Pūblium Scīpiōnem adiit eīque fīlium sine pretiō redditūrum
  rēgem dīxit, sī per eum pācem impetrāsset.[8] Cuī Scīpiō respondit
  “Abī, nūntiā rēgī, mē prō tantō mūnere grātiās[9] agere; sed     {246}
  nunc aliam grātiam nōn possum referre, quam ut eī suādeam[10] ut
  bellō absistat et pācis condiciōnem nūllam recūset.” Pāx nōn
  convēnit[11]; tamen Antiochus Scīpiōnī fīlium remīsit tantīque virī
  māiestātem venerārī quam dolōrem suum ulcīscī māluit.            {250}

  Victō Antiochō cum praedae ratiō ā L. Scīpiōne repōscerētur,
    [[62]]
  Āfricānus prōlātum[1] ab eō librum, quō[2] acceptae et expēnsae
  summae continēbantur et refellī inimīcōrum accūsātiō poterat,
  discerpsit, indīgnātus[3] dē eā rē dubitārī, quae sub ipsō lēgātō
  administrāta esset. Quīn etiam hunc[4] in modum verba fēcit:     {255}
  “Nōn[5] est quod quaerātis, patrēs cōnscrīptī, num parvam pecūniam
  in aerārium rettulerim, quī anteā illud Pūnicō aurō replēverim,
  neque mea innocentia potest in dubium vocārī. Cum
  Āfricam tōtam potestātī vestrae subiēcerim, nihil ex eā praeter
  cōgnōmen rettulī. Nōn igitur mē Pūnicae, nōn frātrem meum        {260}
  Asiāticae gazae avārum reddidērunt; sed uterque nostrum[6]
  invidiā quam pecūniā est locuplētior.” Tam cōnstantem dēfēnsiōnem
  Scīpiōnis ūniversus senātus comprobāvit.

    [Illustration: CORŌNA TRIUMPHĀLIS]

  Deinde Scīpiōnī Āfricānō duo tribūnī plēbis diem dīxērunt,
  quod praedā ex Antiochō captā aerārium fraudāsset. Ubi causae    {265}
  dīcendae diēs vēnit, Scīpiō māgnā hominum frequentiā in Forum
  est dēductus. Iussus causam dīcere rōstra cōnscendit et, corōnā[7]
  triumphālī capitī suō impositā, “Hōc ego diē”
  inquit “Hannibalem Poenum, imperiō nostrō
  inimīcissimum, māgnō proeliō vīcī in terrā                       {270}
  Āfricā pācemque nōbīs et victōriam peperī
  īnspērābilem. Nē[8] igitur sīmus adversus deōs
  ingrātī, sed cēnseō relinquāmus[9] nebulōnēs hōs
  eāmusque nunc prōtinus in Capitōlium Iovī
  optimō māximō supplicātum.” Ā rōstrīs in Capitōlium āscendit;    {275}
  simul sē ūniversa cōntiō ab accūsātōribus āvertit et secūta Scīpiōnem
    [[63]]
  est, nec quisquam praeter praecōnem, quī reum citābat, cum
  tribūnīs remānsit. Celebrātior is diēs favōre[1] hominum fuit, quam
  quō[2] triumphāns dē Syphāce rēge et Carthāginiēnsibus urbem est
  ingressus. Inde, nē amplius tribūnīciīs iniūriīs vexārētur, in   {280}
  Līternīnum concessit, ubi reliquam ēgit aetātem sine urbis dēsīderiō.

  Cum in Līternīnā vīllā sē continēret, complūrēs praedōnum
  ducēs ad eum videndum forte cōnfluxērunt. Quōs cum ad vim
  faciendam venīre exīstimāsset, praesidium servōrum in tēctō
  conlocāvit aliaque parābat, quae[3] ad eōs repellendōs opus erant.
  Quod ubi praedōnēs animadvertērunt, abiectīs armīs iānuae        {286}
  appropinquant et clārā vōce nūntiant Scīpiōnī sē nōn vītae ēius
hostēs,
  sed virtūtis admīrātōrēs vēnisse, cōnspectum[4] tantī virī, quasi
  caeleste aliquod beneficium, expetentēs; proinde nē[5] gravārētur
  sē spectandum praebēre. Haec postquam audīvit Scīpiō, forēs      {290}
  reserārī eōsque intrōdūcī iussit. Illī postēs iānuae tamquam
  religiōsissimam āram venerātī, cupidē Scīpiōnis dextram
  apprehendērunt ac diū deōsculātī sunt; deinde positīs ante vēstibulum
  dōnīs laetī, quod sibi Scīpiōnem ut vidērent contigisset, domum
  revertērunt. Paulō post mortuus est Scīpiō moriēnsque ab uxōre   {295}
  petiit nē corpus suum Rōmam referrētur.

    [Footnotes: XXI (pages 52-63)

    52.2: See Vocab., _Āfricānus_ and _Scīpiō_.
    52.3: #quī cum#: ‘for when he.’ Cf. p. 4, n. 3.
    52.4: ‘in (the course of) the battle.’ _pūgna_, like _bellum_ and
    _proelium_, is often used in the abl. of time without a prep.
    52.5: Cf. XIX, 16.
    52.6: #iam iam . . . esset#: ‘was on the very point of falling.’
    52.7: #interiectō corpore#: ‘by interposing his body.’ See p.
    xxiii, K 8.
    52.8: #Quae pietās#: ‘this act of devotion.’
    52.9: #negantēs . . . habendam#: ‘by saying that no account should
    be taken of him.’ For #negantēs#, see p. 41, n. 15. _ratiōnem
    habēre_ is a phrase of mercantile life.
    52.10: Scipio was less than twenty-five years old. In later times
    no one could be aedile till he had completed his thirty-sixth
    year.
    52.11: impersonal pass. from _eō_: ‘they proceeded.’
    52.12: #admodum adulēscentem#: ‘though but,’ etc.
    53.1: #adlātum erat#: impersonal pass.: ‘the news had been
    brought.’
    53.2: _patior_.
    53.3: #quī . . . iūrāverit# (fut. perf. indic.) = a conditional
    clause, _sī quis nōn iūrāverit_. Cf. _quī . . . crēderent_, l. 35,
    below.
    53.4: Cf. p. 31, n. 9.
    53.5: #Haud . . . sī#: ‘Quite as much frightened as if.’
    53.6: Cf. p. 47, n. 12.
    53.7: P. Cornelius Scipio and Cn. Cornelius Scipio, respectively
    father and uncle of Africanus.
    53.8: Sc. _senātuī_ or _populō_.
    53.9: Cf. p. 3, n. 2.
    53.10: Subjunctive by attraction: see p. 13, n. 10.
    53.11: #inops cōnsiliī#: ‘at its wit’s end.’
    53.12: The gen. is regularly used with adjectives denoting
    fullness or the opposite: H 451, 2 (399, I, 3): M 573: A 218, a:
    G 374: B 204, 1.
    53.13: = ‘to be a candidate.’
    53.14: #unde . . . posset = ut inde . . . posset#; cf. p. 5, n. 3.
    53.15: #animōrum impetus#: ‘enthusiasm,’ ‘excitement.’
    53.16: #populum . . . paenitēre#: cf. _Vēientēs . . .
    paenituisset_, XI, 13, and note.
    54.1: Cf. p. 42, n. 5.
    54.2: = _in eum locum_.
    54.3: _congerō_.
    54.4: #satis# often = our ‘tolerably.’
    54.5: A brother of Hannibal.
    54.6: #victum . . . expulit# = _vīcit et expulit_.
    54.7: = ‘_but_ the captives,’ etc. Cf. p. 2, n. 24, and p. 5,
    n. 13.
    54.8: We have here side by side the gen. and the abl. of
    characteristic. For the difference between them, see H 473, 2, N.
    1 (419, 2): M 558: A 215, N.: G 400, R. 1.
    54.9: #id aetātis#: ‘at that age,’ i.e. though he was so young.
    The accus. #id# is variously explained: see H 416, 2 (378, 2):
    M 507: A 240, _b_: G 336, N. 2; B 185. #aetātis# is partitive gen.
    (p. 30, n. 2) with #id#.
    55.1: Why is #vellet# subjunctive?
    55.2: #effūsīs# (_effundō_) . . . #lacrimīs#: ‘with tears of joy.’
    How literally?
    55.3: #quī . . . dēdūcerent#: ‘to escort him.’
    55.4: #quō . . . appellārunt#: Roman soldiers, after a victory,
    hailed their general as Imperator. It was a way of saying that the
    leader had won his spurs and had really earned his title, which he
    had assumed on beginning the campaign.
    55.5: ‘in my eyes,’ ‘to my mind’; a dative of reference.
    55.6: #rēgium nōmen# = _rēgis nōmen_, ‘the title of king.’ Cf.
    _nōmen imperātōris_, l. 80, and _rēgis appellātiōne_, l. 84.
    55.7: Sc. _esse_.
    55.8: #quem . . . spērāret#: causal rel. clause (p. 31, n. 1).
    55.9: For the two datives, see p. 25, n. 6.
    55.10: future infinitive of _sum_.
    56.1: Son of Gisco (so also in l. 148); to be carefully
    distinguished from the Hasdrubal of l. 61.
    56.2: Sc. _nāvem_; ‘was sailing.’
    56.3: _= ut peteret_. Cf. p. xviii, E 5.
    56.4: #Cēnātum . . . est# (_ab iīs_): impers. pass.; ‘they dined.’
    56.5: #lectō . . . accubuērunt# (_accumbō_): the writer has in
    mind the Roman custom, according to which men reclined at meals,
    supporting themselves on the left elbow. Three persons or more
    occupied the same couch.
    56.6: #iam dūdum cupiēbat#: ‘had long desired.’ _Iam diū_, _iam
    dūdum_, and _iam prīdem_ give to the _present_ the force of the
    English _perfect_, to the _imperfect_ the force of the English
    _pluperfect_.
    56.7: Sc. _ēius_: ‘of him present’ = ‘now that he met him face to
    face.’
    56.8: #cultus# (_colō_) #munditiīs#: ‘(too) elegantly adorned.’
    How literally?
    56.9: #dē . . . remissō#: ‘for the release of his nephew.’ For the
    construction, see p. 5, n. 15.
    56.10: _quaerō_.
    56.11: #oblātam# (_offerō_): ‘now that it was at last offered.’
    56.12: ‘the legal time’; _lēgitima aetās_, l. 11. In later days
    forty-three was the legal age.
    57.1: See p. 5, n. 3.
    57.2: Sc. _diē_, for the gender of which, as in _diēs, quae dicta
    erat_, l. 127, see Vocab., _diēs_.
    57.3: For mood and tense, see p. 6, n. 1. What did Scipio say?
    57.4: ‘pitched,’ lit. ‘measured.’ The Roman camp was always laid
    out with great care, according to a fixed plan, and was carefully
    fortified, even if the stay was to last but one night.
    57.5: The participles = rel. clauses: see p. xxiv, L 1.
    57.6: #interrogātōs# (sc. _eōs_) #. . . dīmīsit# = _interrogāvit
    (eōs) . . . et . . . dīmīsit_, or _cum (eōs) . . . interrogāsset,
    . . . dīmīsit_.
    58.1: = Syphax. For _ipse_ referring to the principal personage,
    see also I, 5, and II, 4 [[notes 2.5 and 5.1]].
    58.2: ‘misfortune.’ So _fāma_ = both ‘fame’ and ‘ill repute,’
    _valētūdō_ = both ‘health’ and ‘sickness.’
    58.3: dat. of indir. object with #temperāns#.
    58.4: #quod . . . dūxisset.# What does the subjunctive show?
    58.5: #ab . . . dūxisset#: cf. p. 50, n. 4.
    58.6: acc. of extent of space: cf. p. xvii, D 2.
    58.7: ‘motionless.’
    58.8: #armīs . . . esse#: ‘that the issue must be decided by
    arms.’ Note the method employed in translating the impers. passive
    here and in lines 13, 23, and 98, and apply it to #pūgnārī#,
    l. 173.
    58.9: #Cēterum cōnstat#: ‘it is, however, well known.’
    59.1: _percellō_.
    59.2: Cf. _negantēs_, l. 10, and p. 6, n. 20.
    59.3: #pacta# (_pacīscor_) #essent#: subjunctive by attraction:
    see p. 13, n. 10.
    59.4: _pariō_.
    59.5: i.e. of all ever celebrated in Rome.
    59.6: #haud piget#: sc. _mē_; ‘I am not ashamed.’ _piget_ is
    construed exactly like _paenitet_: see p. 28, n. 7.
    59.7: Here = the temple, sacred to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
    59.8: #id temporis# = _eō tempore_. Cf. note on _id aetātis_,
    l. 66.
    60.1: Join #ē mīlitibus# with #quispiam#, l. 204.
    60.2: #in . . . iubēret#: ‘when and where he bade (the accused)
    appear for trial.’ #vadēs sistī# is the passive of _vadēs
    sistere_, a legal phrase = ‘to make one’s bail stand,’ i.e. to
    make it effective, and so ‘to stand trial.’ _Sistere_ often means
    ‘to produce in court,’ as in l. 207.
    60.3: #sēsē sistant#: ‘let them produce themselves,’ i.e. appear
    for trial.
    60.4: #Diē tertiā# = _perendiē_, l. 206. In counting days, the
    Romans usually included the day from which they started.
    60.5: locative.
    60.6: Cf. n. on _castra mētātus est_, l. 140.
    60.7: #illō ēlegantius#: ‘more judiciously than he.’ For #illō#,
    see p. 10, n. 18.
    60.8: Sc. _castrīs_.
    60.9: See p. 47, n. 12. #dīcerēs# is imperfect, as referring to
    present time; the other verbs denote past time.
    60.10: ‘in that event’; = _sī tē vīcissem_.
    61.1: ‘a (mere) fighter.’
    61.2: _pariō_.
    61.3: This war lasted from 192 to 190.
    61.4: partitive gen. with #parum#, which is here a noun. In l. 225
    it was an adverb.
    61.5: #nihil . . . commūtātum#: ‘no change was made.’ Note that
    #nihil# is an adverbial acc. of degree, and that #commūtātum est#
    is impersonal.
    61.6: ‘treated.’
    61.7: #tum māximē#: ‘at that very moment.’
    61.8: Explain mood and tense.
    61.9: Distinguish between _grātiās agere_ and _grātiam referre_.
    61.10: Notice that _suādeō_ = merely ‘to advise’; ‘to persuade’ is
    _persuādeō_.
    61.11: ‘was not arranged.’
    62.1: = _quī prōlātus erat_; cf. p. xxiv, L 1.
    62.2: abl. of means (though rendered ‘in which’) both with
    #continēbantur# and #refellī poterat#.
    62.3: #indīgnātus . . . dubitārī#: ‘angry because doubts were
    raised.’ For the infin. see p. 19, n. 6.
    62.4: See p. 16, n. 9. #verba fēcit#: ‘he delivered a speech.’
    62.5: #Nōn . . . quaerātis#: ‘there is no reason why you should
    ask’; lit., ‘there is not (anything) as to which,’ etc. H 591, 4
    (503, 1, N. 2): M 836: A 320, _a_: G 631, 2: B 283, 2.
    62.6: _nostrum_, like _vestrum_, is regularly used only as a
    partitive gen.
    62.7: A crown of laurel, worn by the general at his triumph.
    62.8: #Nē . . . sīmus#: cf. p. 31, n. 9.
    62.9: (_ut_) #relinquāmus . . . eāmus# is a substantive clause of
    purpose. For the omission of _ut_ see H 565, 4 (499, 2): M 781:
    A 331, _f_, R.: G 546, R. 2: B 295, 8.
    63.1: abl. of specification.
    63.2: #quō# (sc. _diē_) = _eō diē quō_.
    63.3: #quae . . . opus erant#: ‘which were necessary’; lit. ‘which
    were a necessity.’ For a very different construction with _opus_,
    cf. _nihil opus esse . . . eō cīve_, XV, 22, and note.
    63.4: #cōnspectum . . . expetentēs#: ‘craving a chance to see so
    great a man, as a sort of heaven-sent favor.’
    63.5: #nē . . . gravārētur#: the subjunctive is used here in
    indir. disc., as representing an imperative of the direct: H 642,
    4 (523, III): M 1023: A 339: G 652: B 316.]


#XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus# [[stripped text]]

Tiberius et Gaius Gracchi Scipionis Africani ex filia nepotes erant.
Horum adulescentia bonis artibus et magna omnium spe exacta est: ad
egregiam enim indolem optima accedebat educatio. Erant enim diligentia
Corneliae matris a pueris docti et Graecis litteris eruditi. Maximum
matronis ornamentum esse liberos bene institutos merito putabat mater
illa sapientissima. Cum Campana matrona, apud illam hospita, ornamenta
sua, illo saeculo pulcherrima, ostentaret ei muliebriter, Cornelia
traxit eam sermone quousque e schola redirent liberi. Quos reversos
hospitae ostendens, “Haec” inquit “mea ornamenta sunt.” Nihil quidem his
adulescentibus neque a natura neque a doctrina defuit; sed ambo rem
publicam, quam tueri poterant, perturbare maluerunt.

Tiberius Gracchus, tribunus plebis creatus, a senatu descivit: populi
favorem profusis largitionibus sibi conciliavit; agros plebi dividebat;
provincias novis coloniis replebat. Cum autem tribuniciam potestatem
sibi prorogari vellet et palam dictitasset, interempto senatu omnia per
plebem agi debere, viam sibi ad regnum parare videbatur. Quare cum
convocati patres deliberarent quidnam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius
Capitolium petit, manum ad caput referens, quo signo salutem suam populo
commendabat. Hoc nobilitas ita accepit, quasi diadema posceret,
segniterque cessante consule, Scipio Nasica, cum esset consobrinus
Tiberii Gracchi, patriam cognationi praeferens sublata dextra
proclamavit: “Qui rem publicam salvam esse volunt, me sequantur!” Dein
optimates, senatus atque equestris ordinis pars maior in Gracchum
inruunt, qui fugiens decurrensque Clivo Capitolino fragmento subsellii
ictus vitam, quam gloriosissime degere potuerat, immatura morte finivit.
Mortui Tiberii corpus in flumen proiectum est.

Gaium Gracchum idem furor, qui fratrem, Tiberium, occupavit. Tribunatum
enim adeptus, seu vindicandae fraternae necis, seu comparandae regiae
potentiae causa, pessima coepit inire consilia: maximas largitiones
fecit; aerarium effudit: legem de frumento plebi dividendo tulit:
civitatem omnibus Italicis dabat. His Gracchi consiliis quanta poterant
contentione obsistebant omnes boni, in quibus maxime Piso, vir
consularis. Is cum multa contra legem frumentariam dixisset, lege tamen
lata ad frumentum cum ceteris accipiendum venit. Gracchus ubi
animadvertit in contione Pisonem stantem, eum sic compellavit audiente
populo Romano: “Qui tibi constas, Piso, cum ea lege frumentum petas,
quam dissuasisti?” Cui Piso “Nolim quidem, Gracche” inquit, “mea bona
tibi viritim dividere liceat; sed si facies, partem petam.” Quo responso
aperte declaravit vir gravis et sapiens lege, quam tulerat Gracchus,
patrimonium publicum dissipari.

Decretum a senatu est ut videret consul Opimius ne quid detrimenti res
publica caperet: quod nisi in maximo discrimine decerni non solebat.
Gaius Gracchus, armata familia, Aventinum occupavit. Consul, vocato ad
arma populo, Gaium aggressus est, qui pulsus profugit et, cum iam
comprehenderetur, iugulum servo praebuit, qui dominum et mox semet ipsum
super domini corpus interemit. Ut Tiberii Gracchi antea corpus, ita Gaii
mira crudelitate victorum in Tiberim deiectum est. Caput autem a
Septimuleio, amico Gracchi, ad Opimium relatum auro repensum fertur.
Sunt qui tradunt infuso plumbo eum partem capitis, quo gravius
efficeretur, explesse.

Occiso Tiberio Graccho cum senatus consulibus mandasset, ut in eos, qui
cum Graccho consenserant, animadverteretur, Blosius quidam, Tiberii
amicus, pro se deprecatum venit, hanc, ut sibi ignosceretur, causam
adferens, quod tanti Gracchum fecisset, ut, quidquid ille vellet, sibi
faciendum putaret. Tum consul “Quid?” inquit “si te Gracchus templo
Iovis in Capitolio faces subdere iussisset, obsecuturusne voluntati
illius fuisses propter istam, quam iactas, familiaritatem?” “Numquam”
inquit Blosius “voluisset id quidem, sed si voluisset, paruissem.”
Nefaria est ea vox, nulla enim est excusatio peccati, si amici causa
peccaveris.

Exstat Gaii Gracchi e Sardinia Romam reversi oratio, in qua cum alia tum
haec de se narrat: “Versatus sum in provincia, quomodo ex usu vestro
existimabam esse, non quomodo ambitioni meae conducere arbitrabar. Nemo
possit vere dicere assem aut eo plus in muneribus me accepisse aut mea
causa quemquam sumptum fecisse. Zonas, quas Roma proficiscens plenas
argenti extuli, eas ex provincia inanes rettuli. Alii amphoras, quas
vini plenas extulerunt, eas argento repletas domum reportarunt.”


  #XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus# [[as printed]]

  Tiberius et Gāius Gracchī[6] Scīpiōnis Āfricānī[7] ex fīliā[8]
  nepōtēs erant. Hōrum adulēscentia bonīs artibus et māgnā omnium spē
    [[64]]
  exācta est: ad ēgregiam enim indolem optima accēdēbat ēducātiō.
  Erant enim dīligentiā Cornēliae mātris ā[1] puerīs doctī et Graecīs
  lītterīs[2] ērudītī. Māximum mātrōnīs ōrnāmentum esse līberōs      {5}
  bene īnstitūtōs meritō putābat māter illa sapientissima. Cum
  Campāna mātrōna, apud illam hospita,[3] ōrnāmenta sua, illō
  saeculō[4] pulcherrima, ostentāret eī muliebriter,[5] Cornēlia trāxit
  eam sermōne quoūsque[6] ē scholā redīrent līberī. Quōs reversōs
  hospitae ostendēns, “Haec” inquit “mea ōrnāmenta sunt.” Nihil[7]  {10}
  quidem hīs adulēscentibus neque[7] ā nātūrā neque[7] ā doctrīnā
  dēfuit; sed[8] ambō rem pūblicam, quam tuērī poterant, perturbāre
  māluērunt.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 134.]

  Tiberius Gracchus, tribūnus plēbis creātus, ā senātū dēscīvit:
  populī favōrem profūsīs largītiōnibus sibi conciliāvit;           {15}
  agrōs[9] plēbī dīvidēbat; prōvinciās novīs colōniīs[10]
  replēbat. Cum autem tribūnīciam potestātem sibi prōrogārī[11] vellet
    [[65]]
  et palam dictitāsset,[1] interēmptō senātū omnia per plēbem agī
  dēbēre, viam sibi ad rēgnum parāre vidēbātur. Quārē cum convocātī
  patrēs dēlīberārent quidnam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius      {20}
  Capitōlium petit, manum ad caput referēns, quō sīgnō salūtem
  suam populō commendābat. Hōc[2] nōbilitās ita accēpit, quasi
  diadēma pōsceret, sēgniterque cessante cōnsule, Scīpiō Nāsīca,
  cum[3] esset cōnsōbrīnus Tiberiī Gracchī, patriam cōgnātiōnī
  praeferēns sublātā dextrā prōclāmāvit: “Quī rem pūblicam salvam   {25}
  esse volunt, mē sequantur!” Dein optimātēs, senātus atque
  equestris[4] ōrdinis pars māior in Gracchum inruunt, quī fugiēns
  dēcurrēnsque Clīvō Capitōlīnō frāgmentō subselliī īctus vītam,
  quam glōriōsissimē dēgere[5] potuerat, immātūrā morte fīnīvit.
  Mortuī Tiberiī corpus in flūmen prōiectum est.                    {30}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 123.]

  Gāium Gracchum īdem furor, quī frātrem, Tiberium, occupāvit.
  Tribūnātum enim adeptus,[6] seu vindicandae frāternae necis,
  seu comparandae rēgiae potentiae causā, pessima coepit inīre
  cōnsilia: māximās largītiōnēs fēcit; aerārium[7] effūdit: lēgem dē
  frūmentō plēbī dīvidendō tulit: cīvitātem[8] omnibus Ītalicīs
      dabat.[9]                                                     {35}
  Hīs Gracchī cōnsiliīs quantā[10] poterant contentiōne obsistēbant
    [[66]]
  omnēs[1] bonī, in quibus māximē Pīsō,[2] vir cōnsulāris. Is
  cum multa contrā lēgem frūmentāriam dīxisset, lēge tamen lātā
  ad frūmentum cum cēterīs accipiendum vēnit. Gracchus ubi
  animadvertit in cōntiōne Pīsōnem stantem, eum sīc compellāvit     {40}
  audiente populō Rōmānō: “Quī[3] tibi cōnstās, Pīsō, cum eā lēge
  frūmentum petās, quam dissuāsistī?” Cuī Pīsō “Nōlim[4] quidem,
  Gracche” inquit, “mea bona tibi[5] virītim dīvidere liceat;
  sed sī faciēs, partem petam.” Quō respōnsō apertē dēclārāvit vir  {44}
  gravis et sapiēns lēge, quam tulerat Gracchus, patrimōnium pūblicum
  dissipārī.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 121.]

  Dēcrētum ā senātū est ut[6] vidēret cōnsul Opīmius nē quid
  dētrīmentī rēs pūblica caperet: quod nisi in māximō
  discrīmine dēcernī nōn solēbat. Gāius Gracchus, armātā
  familiā,[7] Aventīnum occupāvit. Cōnsul, vocātō ad arma populō,   {50}
  Gāium aggressus est, quī pulsus profūgit et, cum iam[8]
  comprehenderētur, iugulum servō praebuit, quī dominum et mox sēmet
  ipsum super dominī corpus interēmit. Ut Tiberiī Gracchī anteā
  corpus, ita Gāiī mīrā crūdēlitāte victōrum in Tiberim dēiectum
  est. Caput autem ā Septimulēiō, amīcō Gracchī, ad Opīmium         {55}
  relātum aurō[9] repēnsum fertur. Sunt[10] quī trādunt īnfūsō[11]
  plumbō eum partem capitis, quō gravius efficerētur, explēsse.[12]

  Occīsō Tiberiō Gracchō cum senātus cōnsulibus mandāsset, ut
    [[67]]
  in[1] eōs, quī cum Gracchō cōnsēnserant, animadverterētur, Blosius
  quīdam, Tiberiī amīcus, prō sē dēprecātum[2] vēnit, hanc, ut[3] sibi
  īgnōscerētur, causam adferēns, quod tantī[4] Gracchum fēcisset,   {61}
  ut, quidquid ille vellet, sibi faciendum putāret. Tum cōnsul
  “Quid?” inquit “sī tē Gracchus templō Iovis in Capitōliō facēs
  subdere iussisset,[5] obsecūtūrusne voluntātī illīus fuissēs[5]
  propter istam, quam iactās, familiāritātem?” “Numquam” inquit     {65}
  Blosius “voluisset[5] id quidem,[6] sed sī voluisset,[5]
      pāruissem.[5]”
  Nefāria est ea vōx, nūlla enim est excūsātiō peccātī, sī amīcī
  causā peccāveris.

    [Illustration: AMPHORAE]

  Exstat Gāiī Gracchī ē Sardiniā Rōmam reversī ōrātiō, in quā       {69}
  cum[7] alia tum[7] haec dē sē nārrat: “Versātus sum in prōvinciā,
  quōmodo ex[8] ūsū vestrō exīstimābam esse, nōn quōmodo ambitiōnī
  meae condūcere arbitrābar. Nēmō possit vērē dīcere assem[9]
  aut eō plūs in mūneribus mē
  accēpisse aut meā causā quemquam
  sūmptum[10] fēcisse. Zōnās, quās                                  {75}
  Rōmā proficīscēns plēnās
  argentī[11] extulī, eās ex prōvinciā
  inānēs rettulī. Aliī amphorās,
  quās vīnī[11] plēnās extulērunt, eās
  argentō[11] replētās domum                                        {80}
  reportārunt.”

    [Footnotes: XXII (pages 63-67)

    63.6: When two persons of the same name are mentioned together,
    the cognomen is usually put in the plural.
    63.7: Africanus Maior.
    63.8: Her brother was the adoptive father of the younger Scipio
    Africanus. The Gracchi were thus connected with two of the most
    distinguished of the Roman clans, the Cornelian and the Aemilian.
    64.1: #ā puerīs#: we say, ‘from _childhood_.’
    64.2: ‘literature’; abl. of means.
    64.3: ‘guest.’
    64.4: #illō saeculō#: temporal abl. We say: ‘for that age.’ The
    writer of these words was familiar with the extraordinary luxury
    and extravagance that marked the later history of Rome.
    64.5: ‘with womanish pride.’ A tone of contempt often attaches to
    _mulier_ and its derivatives.
    64.6: construed here like _dōnec_, p. 39, n. 9.
    64.7: Cf. p. 28, n. 3.
    64.8: #sed . . . māluērunt#: this whole account of the Gracchi was
    manifestly written by one who sympathized with the senatorial or
    aristocratic party. Modern scholars are divided in their
    interpretations of the motives of the Gracchi.
    64.9: The reference is to the _ager pūblicus_, or land gained in
    conquest. It belonged in theory to the state, but the greater part
    of it had fallen into the hands of wealthy capitalists, who,
    though possessing no legal title to the land, yet regarded it as
    their own, and resented any attempt to interfere with their
    occupancy. Meanwhile, the number of small landholders was
    constantly decreasing. These circumstances tended to drive numbers
    of poor people to the cities, especially Rome. The universal
    employment of slave labor aggravated the trouble by shutting the
    poor out from honest labor. Tiberius attempted to remedy these
    evils by limiting the number of acres of the public land which
    might be held by any individual and by distributing the lands thus
    redeemed among the poorer classes.
    64.10: These colonies were intended to aid in relieving the
    distress at Rome by removing part of the population and supplying
    such persons with lands.
    64.11: It was a general rule that no magistrate should hold the
    same office for two successive terms. Thus no man could be
    reëlected consul until ten years after the expiration of the first
    term. When Tiberius, at the end of his year as tribune, presented
    himself for reëlection, the aristocrats appealed to this rule.
    Gracchus might have replied that the rule had often been set aside
    under special circumstances. Still, on the whole, his conduct
    seems to have been unconstitutional.
    65.1: This statement is probably wholly false. As the champions of
    the poor against the rich, the Gracchi were hated by the
    aristocrats, and received no favors at the hands of Roman
    historians.
    65.2: #Hōc . . . pōsceret#: ‘The nobles interpreted this to mean
    that he was demanding a kingly crown.’ #pōsceret# is subjunctive
    as giving in indirect discourse the thought of the nobles; cf.
    p. 3, n. 6.
    65.3: ‘although.’
    65.4: See Vocab., _equestris_ and _eques_.
    65.5: #dēgere potuerat#: ‘he might have spent.’ Cf. _tuērī
    poterant_, l. 12.
    65.6: _adipīscor_.
    65.7: #aerārium effūdit#: ‘he wasted (the money in) the treasury.’
    The reference is to the corn law mentioned in the next sentence.
    This entitled all citizens residing in Rome to a certain measure
    of corn monthly for less than the market price. The distribution
    was thus a constant drain upon the treasury.
    65.8: ‘citizenship.’
    65.9: ‘tried to give.’ The imperfect tense, like the present,
    often denotes attempted action; cf. _dīvidēbat_, l. 16, and
    _commendābat_, l. 22. He was unable to carry the law, as the
    citizens of Rome itself were jealous of any extension of the
    franchise. The Italians did not obtain citizenship till 89 B.C.
    65.10: #quantā . . . contentiōne#: ‘with the greatest possible
    energy.’ Cf. _quantō potuit apparātū_, IX, 39, and note.
    66.1: #omnēs bonī#: ‘all loyal citizens.’ _bonī_, like
    _optimātēs_, often has this political meaning. Cf. the derivation
    of _aristocracy_.
    66.2: Sc. _obsistēbat_.
    66.3: #Quī . . . cōnstās#: ‘How do you explain your conduct?’ How
    literally? See (4) _quī_ in vocabulary.
    66.4: #Nōlim#: ‘I should hardly desire’; lit. ‘I should be
    unwilling.’ The subjunctive is often thus used in a modest
    assertion: H 556 (486, N. 1): M 719: A 311, _b_: G 257, 2: B 280,
    1. Cf. _possit_, l. 72. Often, as here, the modesty is assumed
    ironically.
    66.5: Join with #liceat#.
    66.6: #ut . . . caperet#: this was the formula by which the senate
    conferred unlimited power upon the consuls. Explain the
    subjunctives #vidēret# and #caperet#, and give the words of the
    decree as passed by the senate.
    66.7: here ‘household.’
    66.8: #iam comprehenderētur#: ‘was on the point of being
    arrested.’
    66.9: #aurō . . . fertur#: ‘is said to have been paid for with
    gold.’
    66.10: #Sunt quī trādunt#: ‘there are (those) who relate,’ i.e.
    ‘some say.’
    66.11: #infūsō plumbō#: ‘by pouring in lead.’ Cf. p. xxiii, K 8.
    It is said that Opimius had promised to pay its weight in gold for
    the head of Gaius.
    66.12: = _explēvisse_.
    67.1: #in eōs . . . animadverterētur#: ‘punishment should be
    visited upon those.’
    67.2: Cf. p. xviii, E 6.
    67.3: #ut . . . īgnōscerētur#: a result clause, dependent on
    #causam#: ‘a reason as a result of which he _ought to be
    pardoned_.’ The subjunctive at times expresses necessity or
    obligation and propriety.
    67.4: #tantī . . . fēcisset#: ‘he had so highly esteemed
    Gracchus.’ #tantī# is a so-called gen. of price or value: H 448, 1
    (405): M 576: A 252, _a_: G 380: B 203, 3. For _fēcisset_, cf.
    p. 14, n. 1.
    67.5: Cf. p. 47, n. 12.
    67.6: #quidem# emphasizes #id#. This emphasis in English would be
    indicated by the stress of the voice, thus: ‘he never would have
    dreamed of _that_.’ Cf. _Nōlim quidem_ above, l. 42.
    67.7: #cum . . . tum#: ‘not only . . . but also.’
    67.8: #ex ūsū vestrō#: ‘to your interests.’
    67.9: ‘a red cent,’ ‘a farthing,’ as we say.
    67.10: _sūmptum facere_ = ‘to be put to expense.’
    67.11: Verbs and adjectives denoting fulness and want are
    construed with either the gen. or the abl., the abl. in reality
    expressing means.]


#XXIII. Gaius Marius# [[stripped text]]

C. Marius, humili loco natus, militiae tirocinium in Hispania duce
Scipione posuit. Erat imprimis Scipioni carus ob singularem virtutem et
impigram ad pericula et labores alacritatem. Cum aliquando inter cenam
Scipionem quidam interrogasset, si quid illi accidisset, quemnam res
publica aeque magnum habitura esset imperatorem, Scipio, percusso
leniter Marii umero, “Fortasse hunc” inquit. Quo dicto excitatus Marius
dignos rebus, quas postea gessit, spiritus concepit.

Q. Metellum in Numidiam contra Iugurtham missum, cuius legatus erat, cum
ab eo Romam missus esset, apud populum Romanum criminatus est bellum
ducere: si se consulem fecissent, brevi tempore aut vivum aut mortuum
Iugurtham se in potestatem populi Romani redacturum. Itaque creatus est
consul et in Metelli locum suffectus. Bellum ab illo prospere coeptum
confecit. Iugurtha ad Gaetulos perfugerat eorumque regem Bocchum
adversus Romanos concitaverat. Marius Gaetulos et Bocchum aggressus
fudit; castellum in excelsa ripa positum, ubi regii thesauri erant, non
sine multo labore expugnavit. Bocchus, bello defessus, legatos ad Marium
misit, pacem orantes. Sulla quaestor, a Mario ad regem remissus, Boccho
persuasit ut Iugurtham Romanis traderet. Iugurtha igitur vinctus ad
Marium deductus est; quem Marius triumphans ante currum egit et in
carcerem caenosum inclusit. Quo cum Iugurtha detracta veste
ingrederetur, os ridentis in modum diduxisse et stupens similisque
desipienti exclamasse fertur: “Pro! quam frigidum est vestrum balneum!”
Paucis diebus post in carcere necatus est.

Marius post bellum Numidicum iterum consul creatus bellumque ei contra
Cimbros et Teutones decretum est. Hi novi hostes, ab extremis Germaniae
finibus profugi, novas sedes quaerebant, exclusique Gallia et Hispania
cum in Italiam remigrarent, a Romanis ut aliquid sibi terrae darent
petierunt. Repulsi, quod nequiverant precibus, armis petere constituunt.
Tres duces Romani impetus barbarorum non sustinuerunt. Omnes fugati,
exuti castris. Actum erat de imperio Romano, nisi Marius fuisset. Hic
primo Teutones sub ipsis Alpium radicibus adsecutus proelio oppressit.
Vallem fluviumque medium hostes tenebant: Romanis aquarum nulla copia.
Aucta necessitate virtus causa victoriae fuit. Nam flagitante aquam
exercitu Marius “Viri” inquit “estis, en illic aquam habetis.” Itaque
tanto ardore pugnatum est eaque caedes hostium fuit, ut Romani victores
de cruento flumine non plus aquae biberent quam sanguinis barbarorum.
Caesa traduntur hostium ducenta milia, capta nonaginta. Rex ipse
Teutobochus in proximo saltu comprehensus insigne spectaculum triumphi
fuit: quippe vir proceritatis eximiae super tropaea ipsa eminebat.

Deletis Teutonibus, C. Marius in Cimbros se convertit. Qui cum ex alia
parte Italiam ingressi Athesim flumen non ponte nec navibus, sed
iniectis arborum truncis, velut aggere, traiecissent, occurrit iis C.
Marius. Cimbri legatos ad consulem miserunt, agros urbesque sibi et
fratribus postulantes, Teutonum enim cladem ignorabant. Quaerente Mario
quos illi fratres dicerent, cum Teutones nominassent, ridens Marius
“Omittite” inquit “fratres; tenent hi acceptam a nobis terram
aeternumque tenebunt.” Tum legati se ludibrio haberi sentientes ultionem
Mario minati sunt, simul atque Teutones advenissent. “Atqui adsunt”
inquit Marius “nec sane civile foret vos fratribus vestris non salutatis
discedere.” Tum vinctos adduci iussit Teutonum duces, qui in proelio
capti erant.

His rebus auditis, Cimbri egrediuntur castris et cum paucis suorum ad
vallum Romanum adequitans Boiorix, Cimbrorum dux, Marium ad pugnam
provocat et diem pugnae a Romanorum imperatore petit. Proximum dedit
consul. Marius cum aciem ita instituisset, ut pulvis in oculos et ora
hostium ferretur, incredibili strage prostrata est illa Cimbrorum
multitudo: caesa traduntur centum octoginta hominum milia. Nec minor cum
uxoribus pugna quam cum viris fuit, cum obiectis undique plaustris,
desuper, quasi e turribus, lanceis contisque pugnarent. Victae tamen cum
missa ad Marium legatione libertatem non impetrassent, suffocatis
elisisque infantibus suis aut mutuis conciderunt vulneribus aut vinculo
e crinibus suis facto ab arboribus pependerunt. Canes quoque defendere,
Cimbris caesis, eorum domos. Marius pro duobus triumphis, qui
offerebantur, uno contentus fuit. Primores civitatis, qui ei aliquamdiu
ut novo homini ad tantos honores evecto inviderant, conservatam ab eo
rem publicam fatebantur. In ipsa acie Marius duas Camertium cohortes,
mira virtute vim Cimbrorum sustinentes contra legem civitate donaverat.
Quod quidem factum et vere et egregie postea excusavit, dicens inter
armorum strepitum verba se iuris civilis exaudire non potuisse.

Illa tempestate primum Romae bellum civile commotum est. Causam bello
dedit C. Marius. Cum enim Sulla consul contra Mithridatem, regem Ponti,
missus fuisset, Sulpicius, tribunus plebis, legem ad populum tulit ut
Sullae imperium abrogaretur, C. Mario bellum decerneretur Mithridaticum.
Qua re Sulla commotus cum exercitu ad urbem venit, eam armis occupavit,
Sulpicium interfecit, Marium fugavit. Marius hostes persequentes fugiens
aliquamdiu in palude delituit. Sed paulo post repertus extractusque, ut
erat nudo corpore caenoque oblitus, iniecto in collum loro Minturnas
raptus et in custodiam coniectus est. Missus est ad eum occidendum
servus publicus, natione Cimber, quem Marius vultus auctoritate
deterruit. Cum enim hominem ad se stricto gladio venientem vidisset
“Tune, homo,” inquit “C. Marium audebis occidere?” Quo audito attonitus
ille ac tremens abiecto ferro fugit, Marium se non posse occidere
clamitans. Marius deinde ab iis, qui prius eum occidere voluerant,
e carcere emissus est.

Accepta navicula in Africam traiecit et in agrum Carthaginiensem
pervenit. Ibi cum in locis solitariis sederet, venit ad eum lictor
Sextilii praetoris, qui tum Africam obtinebat. Ab hoc, quem numquam
laesisset, Marius humanitatis tamen aliquod officium exspectabat; at
lictor decedere eum provincia iussit, nisi in se animadverti vellet:
torveque intuentem et vocem nullam emittentem Marium rogavit tandem
ecquid renuntiari praetori vellet? Marius “Abi” inquit, “nuntia vidisse
te Gaium Marium in Carthaginis ruinis sedentem.” Duobus clarissimis
exemplis de inconstantia rerum humanarum eum admonebat, cum et urbis
maximae excidium et viri clarissimi casum ante oculos poneret.

Profecto ad bellum Mithridaticum Sulla, Marius revocatus a Cinna in
Italiam rediit, efferatus magis calamitate quam domitus. Cum exercitu
Romam ingressus eam caedibus et rapinis vastavit; omnes adversae
factionis nobiles variis suppliciorum generibus adfecit: quinque dies
continuos totidemque noctes illa scelerum omnium duravit licentia. Hoc
tempore admiranda sane populi Romani abstinentia fuit. Cum enim Marius
occisorum domos multitudini diripiendas obiecisset, inveniri potuit
nemo, qui civili luctu praedam peteret: quae quidem tam misericors
continentia plebis tacita quaedam crudelium victorum vituperatio fuit.
Tandem Marius, senio et laboribus confectus, in morbum incidit et
ingenti omnium laetitia vitam finivit. Cuius viri si examinentur cum
virtutibus vitia, haud facile sit dictu utrum bello melior, an pace
perniciosior fuerit: namque quam rem publicam armatus servavit, eam
primo togatus omni genere fraudis, postremo armis hostiliter evertit.

Erat Marius durior ad humanitatis studia et ingenuarum artium
contemptor. Cum aedem Honoris de manubiis hostium vovisset, spreta
peregrinorum marmorum nobilitate artificumque Graecorum arte, eam
vulgari lapide per artificem Romanum curavit aedificandam. Et Graecas
litteras despiciebat, quod doctoribus suis parum ad virtutem
profuissent. At idem fortis, validus, adversus dolorem confirmatus. Cum
ei varices in crure secarentur, vetuit se adligari. Acrem tamen fuisse
doloris morsum ipse ostendit: nam medico, alterum crus postulanti,
noluit praebere, quod maiorem esse remedii quem morbi dolorem iudicaret.


    [[68]]

  #XXIII. Gāius Marius# [[as printed]]

  C. Marius, humilī locō nātus,[1] mīlitiae tīrōcinium in Hispāniā
  duce Scīpiōne[2] posuit.[3] Erat imprīmīs Scīpiōnī cārus ob
  singulārem virtūtem et impigram[4] ad perīcula et labōrēs alacritātem.
  Cum aliquandō inter cēnam Scīpiōnem quīdam interrogāsset, sī
  quid illī[5] accidisset, quemnam rēs pūblica aequē māgnum          {5}
  habitūra esset imperātōrem, Scīpiō, percussō lēniter Mariī umerō,
  “Fortāsse hunc” inquit. Quō dictō excitātus Marius dīgnōs
  rēbus, quās posteā gessit, spīritūs concēpit.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 107.]

  Q. Metellum[6] in Numidiam contrā Iugurtham missum,[7] cūius
  lēgātus erat, cum ab eō Rōmam missus esset, apud populum          {10}
  Rōmānum crīminātus[8] est bellum dūcere[9]: sī[10] sē cōnsulem
  fēcissent, brevī tempore aut vīvum aut mortuum Iugurtham sē in
  potestātem populī Rōmānī redāctūrum. Itaque creātus est
  cōnsul et in Metellī locum suffectus.[11] Bellum ab illō
  prōsperē coeptum cōnfēcit. Iugurtha ad Gaetūlōs perfūgerat        {15}
  eōrumque rēgem Bocchum adversus Rōmānōs concitāverat. Marius
  Gaetūlōs et Bocchum aggressus fūdit; castellum[12] in excelsā rīpā
  positum, ubi rēgiī thēsaurī erant, nōn sine multō labōre expūgnāvit.
  Bocchus, bellō dēfessus, lēgātōs ad Marium mīsit, pācem           {19}
  ōrantēs.[13] Sulla[14] quaestor, ā Mariō ad rēgem remissus, Bocchō
    [[69]]
  persuāsit ut Iugurtham Rōmānīs trāderet. Iugurtha igitur
  vinctus ad Marium dēductus est; quem Marius triumphāns ante
  currum ēgit et in carcerem[1] caenōsum inclūsit. Quō cum Iugurtha
  dētrāctā veste ingrederētur, ōs rīdentis[2] in modum dīdūxisse
  et stupēns similisque dēsipientī exclāmāsse fertur: “Prō! quam    {25}
  frīgidum est vestrum balneum!” Paucīs diēbus post in carcere
  necātus est.

    [Illustration {foldout map of Mediterranean}]

    [Illustration: TRIUMPH]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 104.]

  Marius post bellum Numidicum iterum cōnsul creātus bellumque
  eī contrā Cimbrōs[3] et Teutonēs dēcrētum est. Hī novī
  hostēs, ab extrēmīs Germāniae fīnibus profugī, novās sēdēs        {30}
  quaerēbant, exclūsīque Galliā et Hispāniā cum[4] in Ītaliam
  remigrārent, ā Rōmānīs ut aliquid sibi terrae darent petiērunt.
  Repulsī, quod nequīverant[5] precibus, armīs petere cōnstituunt.
  Trēs[6] ducēs Rōmānī impetūs barbarōrum nōn sustinuērunt.
    [[70]]
  Omnēs fugātī,[1] exūtī[1] castrīs. Āctum[2] erat dē imperiō Rōmānō,
  nisi[3] Marius fuisset. Hīc prīmō Teutonēs sub ipsīs Alpium       {36}
  rādīcibus adsecūtus proeliō[4] oppressit. Vallem fluviumque
  medium[5] hostēs tenēbant: Rōmānīs[6] aquārum nūlla cōpia. Aucta
  necessitāte virtūs causa victōriae fuit. Nam flāgitante aquam
  exercitū Marius “Virī[7]” inquit “estis, ēn illīc aquam habētis.”
  Itaque tantō ārdōre pūgnātum est eaque caedēs hostium fuit, ut    {41}
  Rōmānī victōrēs dē cruentō flūmine nōn plūs
  aquae biberent quam sanguinis barbarōrum.
  Caesa trāduntur hostium ducenta mīlia, capta
  nōnāgintā. Rēx ipse Teutobochus in proximō                        {45}
  saltū comprehēnsus īnsīgne spectāculum triumphī
  fuit: quīppe vir prōcēritātis eximiae
  super tropaea ipsa ēminēbat.

    [Illustration: TROPAEUM]

  Dēlētīs Teutonibus, C. Marius in Cimbrōs sē convertit. Quī
  cum ex[8] aliā parte Ītaliam ingressī Athesim flūmen nōn ponte    {50}
  nec nāvibus, sed iniectīs[9] arborum truncīs, velut aggere,
  trāiēcissent, occurrit iīs C. Marius. Cimbrī lēgātōs ad cōnsulem
  mīsērunt, agrōs urbēsque sibi et frātribus pōstulantēs,[10] Teutonum
  enim clādem īgnōrābant. Quaerente[11] Mariō quōs illī frātrēs
  dīcerent, cum Teutonēs nōmināssent, rīdēns Marius “Omittite[12]”  {55}
  inquit “frātrēs; tenent hī acceptam ā nōbīs terram aeternumque
    [[71]]
  tenēbunt.” Tum lēgātī sē lūdibriō[1] habērī sentientēs ultiōnem
  Mariō minātī sunt, simul atque Teutonēs advēnissent. “Atquī
  adsunt” inquit Marius “nec sānē cīvīle foret vōs frātribus vestrīs
  nōn salūtātīs discēdere.” Tum vinctōs addūcī iussit Teutonum      {60}
  ducēs, quī in proeliō captī erant.

  Hīs rēbus audītīs, Cimbrī ēgrediuntur castrīs et cum paucīs
  suōrum ad vāllum Rōmānum adequitāns Boiorix, Cimbrōrum
  dux, Marium ad pūgnam prōvocat et diem pūgnae ā Rōmānōrum
  imperātōre petit. Proximum dedit cōnsul. Marius cum aciem         {65}
  ita īnstituisset, ut pulvis[2] in oculōs et ōra hostium ferrētur,
  incrēdibilī strāge[3] prōstrāta[4] est illa Cimbrōrum multitūdō: caesa
  trāduntur centum octōgintā hominum mīlia. Nec minor cum
  uxōribus pūgna quam cum virīs fuit, cum obiectīs undique plaustrīs,
  dēsuper,[5] quasi ē turribus, lanceīs contīsque pūgnārent.        {70}
  Victae tamen cum missā ad Marium lēgātiōne lībertātem[6] nōn
  impetrāssent, suffōcātīs ēlīsīsque[7] īnfantibus suīs aut mūtuīs[8]
  concidērunt vulneribus aut vinculō ē crīnibus suīs factō ab[9]
  arboribus pependērunt. Canēs quoque dēfendēre, Cimbrīs caesīs,
  eōrum domōs. Marius prō duōbus triumphīs, quī offerēbantur,       {75}
  ūnō contentus fuit. Prīmōrēs cīvitātis, quī eī aliquamdiū ut[10]
  novō hominī ad tantōs honōrēs ēvectō[11] invīderant, cōnservātam[12]
  ab eō rem pūblicam fatēbantur. In ipsā aciē Marius duās Camertium
  cohortēs, mīrā virtūte vim Cimbrōrum sustinentēs[13] contrā
  lēgem[14] cīvitāte dōnāverat. Quod quidem factum et vērē et       {80}
    [[72]]
  ēgregiē posteā excūsāvit, dīcēns inter armōrum strepitum verba
  sē iūris cīvīlis exaudīre nōn potuisse.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 88.]

  Illā tempestāte prīmum Rōmae bellum cīvīle commōtum est.
  Causam bellō dedit C. Marius. Cum enim Sulla[1] cōnsul
  contrā Mithridātem,[2] rēgem Pontī, missus fuisset, Sulpicius,    {85}
  tribūnus plēbis, lēgem[3] ad populum tulit ut Sullae imperium
  abrogārētur, C. Mariō bellum dēcernerētur Mithridāticum. Quā rē
  Sulla commōtus cum exercitū ad urbem vēnit, eam armīs occupāvit,
  Sulpicium interfēcit, Marium fugāvit. Marius hostēs persequentēs
  fugiēns aliquamdiū in palūde dēlituit.[4] Sed paulō post          {90}
  repertus extrāctusque, ut erat nūdō corpore caenōque oblitus,[5]
  iniectō in collum lōrō Minturnās raptus et in cūstōdiam coniectus
  est. Missus est ad eum occīdendum servus[6] pūblicus, nātiōne
  Cimber, quem Marius vultūs auctōritāte dēterruit. Cum enim
  hominem ad sē strictō gladiō venientem vīdisset “Tūne, homō,”     {95}
  inquit “C. Marium audēbis occīdere?” Quō audītō attonitus ille
  ac tremēns abiectō ferrō fūgit, Marium sē nōn posse occīdere
  clāmitāns. Marius deinde ab iīs, quī prius eum occīdere voluerant,
  ē carcere ēmissus est.                                            {99}

  Acceptā nāviculā in Āfricam trāiēcit et in agrum Carthāginiēnsem
  pervēnit. Ibi cum in locīs sōlitāriīs[7] sedēret, vēnit ad eum
  līctor Sextiliī praetōris, quī tum Āfricam obtinēbat. Ab hōc,
  quem[8] numquam laesisset, Marius hūmānitātis tamen[9] aliquod
    [[73]]
  officium exspectābat; at līctor dēcēdere eum prōvinciā iussit,   {104}
  nisi in sē animadvertī vellet: torvēque intuentem et vōcem nūllam
  ēmittentem Marium rogāvit tandem ecquid renūntiārī praetōrī
  vellet? Marius “Abī” inquit, “nūntiā vīdisse tē Gāium
  Marium in Carthāginis ruīnīs sedentem.” Duōbus clārissimīs
  exemplīs dē incōnstantiā rērum hūmānārum eum admonēbat,
  cum et urbis māximae excidium et virī clārissimī cāsum ante      {110}
  oculōs pōneret.

  Profectō ad bellum Mithridāticum Sullā, Marius revocātus ā
  Cinnā[1] in Ītaliam rediit, efferātus magis calamitāte quam domitus.
  Cum exercitū Rōmam ingressus eam caedibus et rapīnīs             {114}
  vāstāvit; omnēs adversae factiōnis nōbilēs variīs[2] suppliciōrum
  generibus adfēcit: quīnque diēs continuōs totidemque noctēs illa
  scelerum omnium dūrāvit licentia.[3] Hōc tempore admīranda sānē
  populī Rōmānī abstinentia fuit. Cum enim Marius occīsōrum        {118}
  domōs multitūdinī dīripiendās[4] obiēcisset, invenīrī potuit nēmō,
  quī[5] cīvīlī[6] lūctū praedam peteret[5]: quae quidem tam misericors
  continentia plēbis tacita[7] quaedam crūdēlium victōrum vituperātiō
  fuit. Tandem Marius, seniō et labōribus cōnfectus, in morbum     {122}
  incidit et ingentī[8] omnium laetitiā vītam fīnīvit. Cūius virī sī
  exāminentur cum virtūtibus vitia, haud facile sit dictū[9] utrum
  bellō melior, an pāce perniciōsior fuerit: namque quam rem       {125}
  pūblicam armātus[10] servāvit, eam prīmō togātus[10] omnī genere
      fraudis,
  postrēmō armīs hostīliter ēvertit.

    [[74]]
  Erat Marius dūrior[1] ad hūmānitātis[2] studia et ingenuārum[3]
  artium contemptor. Cum aedem Honōris dē manubiīs hostium         {129}
  vōvisset, sprētā[4] peregrīnōrum marmorum nōbilitāte artificumque
  Graecōrum arte, eam vulgārī lapide[5] per artificem Rōmānum
  cūrāvit aedificandam. Et Graecās litterās dēspiciēbat, quod[6]
  doctōribus suīs parum ad virtūtem prōfuissent. At īdem fortis,
  validus, adversus dolōrem cōnfīrmātus. Cum eī varicēs in crūre
  secārentur, vetuit sē adligārī. Ācrem tamen fuisse dolōris morsum
  ipse ostendit: nam medicō, alterum crūs pōstulantī, nōluit       {136}
  praebēre, quod māiōrem esse remediī quem morbī dolōrem
  iūdicāret.

    [Footnotes: XXIII (pages 68-74)

    68.1: In 157 B.C., near Arpinum in Latium.
    68.2: Sc. _Āfricānō Minōre_.
    68.3: = _dēposuit_: ‘laid aside, completed, served.’
    68.4: #impigram . . . alacritātem#: ‘his energetic eagerness in
    the direction of (#ad#),’ etc. = ‘his energy and eagerness to
    face,’ etc.
    68.5: i.e. Scipio.
    68.6: Subject of #dūcere#, l. 11.
    68.7: = _quī missus erat_. Cf. _coeptum_, l. 15, and p. xxiv, L1.
    68.8: #crīminātus . . . dūcere#: ‘charged him with prolonging.’
    _crīminārī_ is treated here as a verb of saying.
    68.9: = _prōdūcere_, ‘prolong.’ Simple verbs not infrequently have
    the meanings which are more usually borne by some of their
    compounds. Cf. n. 3 above.
    68.10: #sī . . . redāctūrum#: the words of Marius, reported in
    indir. disc. Cf. p. xxv, M 4, 7.
    68.11: #in . . . suffectus#: ‘he was appointed to supersede
    Metellus.’ How literally?
    68.12: This fortress lay on the steep, rocky bank of the river
    Malucha, which separated the dominions of Jugurtha and Bocchus.
    68.13: #ōrantēs# may be explained (1) as = _quī pācem ōrābant_
    (cf. n. 7 above); or (2) as expressing purpose, and so = _quī
    pācem ōrārent_. In this latter sense, however, the fut. part.
    active is commonly employed, not the present.
    68.14: See next selection.
    69.1: The Tullianum: see illustration on p. 16.
    69.2: ‘of one smiling.’ Join with #modum#.
    69.3: The Cimbri and Teutones had left their homes in Denmark as
    early as 113 B.C. Having overrun Gaul, they made their way to the
    northern slopes of the Alps, defeating three Roman armies on the
    way (cf. l. 34 below). They did not, however, at once enter Italy,
    but turned off to Spain, whence they were speedily expelled by the
    natives.
    69.4: For the position of #cum#, see p. 19, n. 8.
    69.5: Sc. _petere_, or better _adipīscī_, ‘to secure.’
    69.6: Cn. Papirius Carbo, 113; M. Iunius Silanus, 109;
    Q. Servilius Caepio, 105.
    70.1: Sc. _sunt_.
    70.2: #Āctum . . . fuisset#: ‘it was all up with the Romans had
    there not been a Marius.’ For #erat# we should have expected
    _esset_, since we have an unreal condition; but the indic., the
    mood of fact, is used to show that the ruin of the Romans actually
    was inevitable but for one thing. H 581, 1 (511, 1): M 940: A 308,
    _b_: G 597, 2: B 304, 3.
    70.3: #nisi . . . fuisset#: we would say, ‘but for Marius,’ or ‘if
    it hadn’t been for Marius.’
    70.4: in 102, at Aquae Sextiae (now Aix), near Marseilles.
    70.5: ‘that ran through (the valley).’
    70.6: dat. of possession with _erat_ (to be supplied). On the
    whole sentence #Vallem . . . cōpia#, see p. 5, n. 13.
    70.7: #Virī . . . habētis#: a rhetorical, but vigorous way of
    saying _Sī virī_ (‘true men’) _estis_, etc., i.e. the getting of
    water depends wholly on your own courage.
    70.8: ‘from a different side’ (from that by which the Teutones had
    sought to enter Italy). The Cimbri came through the Brenner Pass
    at the eastern side of the Italian Alps.
    70.9: Sc. _in flūmen_.
    70.10: Cf. p. 68, n. 13.
    70.11: #Quaerente . . . nōmināssent# = two temporal clauses: ‘when
    Marius had asked . . . and they had named.’
    70.12: ‘Never mind.’
    71.1: #sē . . . habērī#: ‘that they were being mocked.’ #lūdibriō#
    is a dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6.
    71.2: #pulvis . . . ferrētur#: cf. XX, lines 7 and 8.
    71.3: at the battle of Vercellae (101), near the modern Milan.
    71.4: _prōsternō_.
    71.5: ‘from above,’ i.e. from the tops of the wagons.
    71.6: Captives were either killed or sold into slavery.
    71.7: _ēlīdō_.
    71.8: #mūtuīs . . . vulneribus#: ‘wounds inflicted by each other.’
    71.9: #ab . . . pependērunt#: ‘hung _from_ trees’ = ‘hanged
    themselves _to_ trees.’
    71.10: #ut . . . hominī#: ‘as (i.e. because he was) a new man,’
    i.e. one whose ancestors had never held any state office. Such a
    man was not necessarily of plebeian birth.
    71.11: #ēvectō#: ‘when he had been elevated.’ #eī . . . ēvectō#
    may also be rendered ‘his elevation.’
    71.12: Sc. _esse_.
    71.13: The part. gives the cause of _dōnāverat_.
    71.14: In theory citizenship could be conferred only by action of
    the _comitia tribūta_, or assembly in which the people met by
    tribes.
    72.1: See next selection.
    72.2: Mithridates the Great waged war thrice with the Romans,
    88-84 B.C., 83-81, and 74-66, till finally defeated by Pompey the
    Great. At the time referred to in the text he had overrun Asia
    Minor and had entered Greece.
    72.3: #lēgem . . . tulit#: ‘proposed a law before the people,’
    i.e. submitted a proposed law to their votes. The proposal was
    carried. In the civil strife that followed, Sulla led the
    aristocratic, Marius and Cinna the popular party.
    72.4: _dēlitēscō_.
    72.5: _oblinō_.
    72.6: #servus pūblicus#: i.e. a slave owned by the state. Cf. the
    phrase _ager pūblicus_, p. 64, n. 9.
    72.7: Carthage had been destroyed by the Romans in 149 B.C.
    72.8: #quem . . . laesisset# (_laedō_): a causal rel. clause =
    ‘since he had,’ etc.: H 592 (517): M 839: A 320, _e_: G 633:
    B 283, 3.
    72.9: #tamen# looks back to #quī . . . obtinēbat#, l. 102. The
    thought is that Marius hoped for some kindly consideration
    (#hūmānitātis aliquod officium#) from Sextilius, though his
    official position would naturally constrain him to be hostile to
    an outlaw.
    73.1: L. Cornelius Cinna, leader with Marius of the popular party
    and enemy of Sulla. He was consul 86-84, but was killed by his own
    troops when he ordered them to cross to Greece to fight Sulla, who
    was preparing to return home at the close of the first Mithridatic
    War.
    73.2: #variīs . . . adfēcit#: ‘he punished in various ways.’
    73.3: ‘lawless reign,’ ‘wild revel.’
    73.4: Cf. p. 2, n. 18.
    73.5: #quī . . . peteret#: rel. clause of result: H 591, 1
    (503, I): M 838: A 320: G 631: B 283.
    73.6: #cīvīlī lūctū#: ‘at the price of (lit. by means of) grief to
    his fellow-citizens.’
    73.7: #tacita . . . fuit#: ‘(though) unexpressed was in a sense
    (#quaedam#) a criticism,’ etc.
    73.8: #ingentī . . . laetitiā#: ‘to the great joy of every one’;
    cf. p. 27, n. 3.
    73.9: Join with #facile#, and see p. 19, n. 15.
    73.10: #armātus# = _bellō_; #togātus# = _pāce_. Cf. l. 125. The
    toga was the regular dress of civilians.
    74.1: #Erat dūrior ad#: ‘He was rather hard as regards,’ i.e. ‘he
    had no liking for.’
    74.2: ‘culture.’
    74.3: #ingenuārum artium#: ‘polite accomplishments.’
    74.4: _spernō_.
    74.5: abl. of material: H 470, 1 (415, III): M 610: A 244, _d_:
    G 396, and 3.
    74.6: #quod . . . prōfuissent#: ‘because (so he declared) it had
    been of little service to its teachers in the direction of
    (attaining) virtue.’ Cf. _quod . . . iūdicāret_, l. 137, and see
    p. 14, n. 1.]


#XXIV. Lucius Cornelius Sulla# [[stripped text]]

138-78 B.C.

Cornelius Sulla cum parvulus a nutrice ferretur, mulier obvia “Salve”
inquit “puer tibi et rei publicae tuae felix,” et statim quaesita quae
haec dixisset, nōn potuit inveniri.

Hic bello Iugurthino quaestor Marii fuit. Qui cum usque ad quaesturae
comitia vitam libidine, vino, ludicrae artis amore inquinatam
perduxisset, C. Marius consul moleste tulisse traditur, quod sibi
gravissimum bellum gerenti tam delicatus quaestor sorte obvenisset.
Eiusdem tamen, postquam in Africam venit, virtus enituit. Bello
Cimbrico, legatus consulis bonam operam navavit. Consul ipse deinde
factus, pulso in exsilium Mario, adversus Mithridatem profectus est.
Mithridates enim, Ponticus rex, vir bello acerrimus, virtute eximius,
odio in Romanos non inferior Hannibale, occupata Asia necatisque in ea
omnibus civibus Romanis, quos quidem eadem die atque hora per omnes
civitates interimi iusserat, Europae quoque Italiaeque imminere
videbatur. Ac primo Sulla illius praefectos duobus proeliis in Graecia
profligavit; dein transgressus in Asiam Mithridatem ipsum fudit; et
oppressisset, nisi ad bellum civile adversus Marium festinans
qualemcumque pacem componere maluisset. Mithridatem tamen pecunia
multavit; Asia aliisque provinciis, quas occupaverat, decedere
paternisque finibus contentum esse coegit.

Sulla propter motus urbanos cum victore exercitu Romam properavit; eos,
qui Mario favebant, omnes superavit. Nihil autem ea victoria fuit
crudelius. Sulla, urbem ingressus et dictator creatus, vel in eos, qui
se sponte dediderant, iussit animadverti. Quattuor milia deditorum
inermium civium in Circo interfici iussit. Quis autem illos potest
computare, quos in urbe passim, quisquis voluit, occidit, donec
admoneret Fufidius quidam vivere aliquos debere, ut essent, quibus
imperaret. Novo et inaudito exemplo tabulam proscriptionis proposuit,
qua nomina eorum, qui occidendi essent, continebantur; cumque omnium
orta esset indignatio, postridie plura etiam adiecit nomina. Ingens
caesorum fuit multitudo. Nec solum in eos saevivit, qui armis contra se
dimicavissent, sed etiam quieti animi cives propter pecuniae
magnitudinem proscriptorum numero adiecit. Civis quidam innoxius, cui
fundus in agro Albano erat, cum legens proscriptorum nomina se quoque
videret ascriptum, “Vae” inquit “misero mihi! me fundus Albanus
persequitur.” Neque longe progressus a quodam, qui eum agnoverat,
confossus est.

Depulsis prostratisque inimicorum partibus Sulla Felicem se edicto
appellavit, cumque eius uxor geminos eodem tunc partu edidisset, puerum
Faustum puellamque Faustam nominari voluit. Sed paucis annis post
repente contra omnium exspectationem dictaturam deposuit. Dimissis
lictoribus diu in Foro cum amicis deambulavit. Stupebat populus eum
privatum videns, cuius modo tam formidolosa fuerat potestas; quodque non
minus mirandum fuit, privato ei non solum salus, sed etiam dignitas
constitit, qui cives innumeros occiderat. Unus adulescens fuit, qui
auderet queri et recedentem usque ad fores domus maledictis incessere.
Atque ille, cuius iram potentissimi viri maximaeque civitates nec
effugere nec placare potuerant, unius adulescentuli contumelias patienti
animo tulit, id tantum in limine iam dicens: “Hic adulescens efficiet ne
quis posthac tale imperium deponat.”

Sulla deinde in villam profectus rusticari et venando vitam agere
coepit. Ibi morbo correptus interiit, vir ingentis animi, cupidus
voluptatum, sed gloriae cupidior; litteris Graecis atque Latinis
eruditus et virorum litteratorum adeo amans, ut sedulitatem etiam mali
cuiusdam poetae aliquo praemio dignam duxerit: nam cum ille epigramma in
eum fecisset eique subiecisset, Sulla statim praemium ei dari iussit,
sed ea lege, ne quid postea scriberet. Ante victoriam laudandus, in iis
vero, quae secuta sunt, numquam satis vituperandus, urbem enim et
Italiam civilis sanguinis fluminibus inundavit. Non solum in vivos
saeviit, sed ne mortuis quidem pepercit: nam Gai Marii, cuius, etsi
postea hostis, aliquando tamen quaestor fuerat, erutos cineres in flumen
proiecit. Qua crudelitate rerum praeclare gestarum gloriam corrupit.


  #XXIV. Lūcius Cornēlius Sulla# [[as printed]]

  138-78 B.C.

  Cornēlius Sulla cum parvulus ā nūtrīce ferrētur, mulier[7] obvia
  “Salvē” inquit “puer tibi et reī pūblicae tuae fēlīx,” et statim
  quaesīta[8] quae haec dīxisset, nōn potuit invenīrī.[9]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 107.]

  Hīc bellō Iugurthīnō[10] quaestor Mariī fuit. Quī[11] cum[12] ūsque
  ad quaestūrae comitia vītam libīdine, vīnō, lūdicrae[13] artis     {5}
  amōre inquinātam perdūxisset,[12] C. Marius cōnsul molestē
  tulisse trāditur, quod sibi gravissimum bellum gerentī tam dēlicātus
  quaestor sorte[14] obvēnisset. Ēiusdem tamen, postquam in
    [[75]]
  Āfricam vēnit, virtūs[1] ēnituit. Bellō[2] Cimbricō, lēgātus       {9}
  cōnsulis[3] bonam operam nāvāvit. Cōnsul ipse deinde factus, pulsō
  in exsilium Mariō, adversus Mithridātem[4] profectus est. Mithridātēs
  enim, Ponticus rēx, vir bellō ācerrimus, virtūte eximius,
  odiō in Rōmānōs nōn īnferior Hannibale,[5] occupātā Asiā necātīsque
  in eā omnibus cīvibus Rōmānīs,[6] quōs quidem eādem diē
  atque hōrā per omnēs cīvitātēs interimī iusserat, Eurōpae quoque  {15}
  Ītaliaeque imminēre vidēbātur. Ac prīmō Sulla illīus praefectōs
  duōbus proeliīs[7] in Graeciā prōflīgāvit; dein trānsgressus in
  Asiam Mithridātem ipsum fūdit; et oppressisset,[8] nisi ad bellum
  cīvīle adversus Marium fēstīnāns quālemcumque[9] pācem compōnere
  māluisset.[8] Mithridātem tamen pecūniā[10] multāvit; Asiā[11]    {20}
  aliīsque prōvinciīs,[11] quās occupāverat, dēcēdere paternīsque
  fīnibus contentum esse coēgit.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 82.]

  Sulla propter mōtūs urbānōs[12] cum victōre exercitū Rōmam
  properāvit; eōs, quī Mariō favēbant, omnēs superāvit. Nihil
  autem eā victōriā fuit crūdēlius. Sulla, urbem ingressus et       {25}
  dictātor[13] creātus, vel in eōs, quī sē sponte dēdiderant, iussit
  animadvertī. Quattuor mīlia dēditōrum inermium cīvium
  in Circō interficī iussit. Quis autem illōs potest computāre, quōs
  in urbe passim, quisquis[14] voluit, occīdit, dōnec admonēret Fūfidius
  quīdam vīvere aliquōs dēbēre, ut[15] essent, quibus[15] imperāret.
    [[76]]
  Novō[1] et inaudītō exemplō tabulam prōscrīptiōnis[2] prōposuit,  {31}
  quā nōmina eōrum, quī occīdendī essent, continēbantur; cumque
  omnium orta esset indīgnātiō, postrīdiē plūra etiam adiēcit nōmina.
  Ingēns caesōrum fuit multitūdō. Nec sōlum in[3] eōs saevīvit, quī
  armīs contrā sē dīmicāvissent, sed etiam quiētī animī cīvēs       {35}
  propter pecūniae māgnitūdinem prōscrīptōrum numerō adiēcit.
  Cīvis quīdam innoxius, cuī fundus in agrō Albānō erat, cum
  legēns prōscrīptōrum nōmina sē quoque vidēret āscrīptum,
  “Vae” inquit “miserō mihi[4]! mē fundus Albānus persequitur.”
  Neque[5] longē prōgressus ā quōdam, quī eum āgnōverat,            {40}
  cōnfossus[6] est.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 78.]

  Dēpulsīs prōstrātīsque[7] inimīcōrum partibus Sulla Fēlīcem[8] sē
  ēdictō appellāvit, cumque ēius uxor geminōs eōdem tunc partū
  ēdidisset, puerum Faustum[8] puellamque Faustam[8] nōminārī voluit.
  Sed paucīs annīs post repente contrā omnium exspectātiōnem        {45}
  dictātūram dēposuit. Dīmissīs līctōribus diū in Forō cum
  amīcīs deambulāvit. Stupēbat populus eum prīvātum vidēns,
  cūius modo[9] tam formīdolōsa fuerat potestās; quodque nōn
  minus mīrandum fuit, prīvātō eī nōn sōlum salūs, sed etiam dīgnitās
  cōnstitit,[10] quī cīvēs innumerōs occīderat. Ūnus adulēscēns     {50}
  fuit, quī[11] audēret querī et recēdentem ūsque ad forēs domūs
  maledictīs incessere. Atque ille, cūius īram potentissimī virī
  māximaeque cīvitātēs nec effugere nec plācāre potuerant, ūnīus
  adulēscentulī contumēliās patientī animō tulit, id tantum in[12]
    [[77]]
  līmine iam dīcēns: “Hīc adulēscēns efficiet[1] nē quis[2] posthāc
  tāle imperium dēpōnat.”                                           {56}

  Sulla deinde in vīllam profectus rūsticārī et vēnandō[3] vītam
  agere coepit. Ibi morbō correptus interiit, vir ingentis animī,
  cupidus voluptātum, sed glōriae cupidior; lītterīs[4] Graecīs atque
  Latīnīs ērudītus et virōrum lītterātōrum adeō amāns,[5] ut        {60}
  sēdulitātem etiam malī cūiusdam poētae aliquō praemiō dīgnam dūxerit:
  nam cum ille epigramma in eum fēcisset eīque subiēcisset,[6]
  Sulla statim praemium eī darī iussit, sed eā lēge,[7] nē quid[2]
      posteā                                                        {63}
  scrīberet. Ante victōriam laudandus,[8] in iīs vērō, quae secūta
  sunt, numquam[9] satis vituperandus, urbem enim et Ītaliam cīvīlis
  sanguinis flūminibus inundāvit. Nōn sōlum in vīvōs saeviit,       {66}
  sed nē mortuīs quidem pepercit[10]: nam Gāī Mariī, cūius, etsī
  posteā hostis, aliquandō tamen quaestor fuerat, ērutōs cinerēs in
  flūmen prōiēcit. Quā crūdēlitāte rērum praeclārē gestārum glōriam
  corrūpit.                                                         {70}

    [Footnotes: XXIV (pages 74-77)

    74.7: #mulier obvia . . . inquit#: ‘a woman met them and said.’
    74.8: #quaesīta . . . dīxisset#: ‘though inquiries were made as to
    who had said this.’ How literally? #dīxisset# is a subjunctive of
    indir. question dependent on #quaesīta#: cf. p. 3, n. 2.
    74.9: Cf. VIII, 43.
    74.10: Cf. XXIII, 20.
    74.11: i.e. Sulla.
    74.12: Cf. p. 13, n. 20.
    74.13: #lūdicrae artis#: ‘the sportive art,’ i.e. what we would
    call ‘the stage,’ or ‘the drama.’ The better classes at Rome
    looked with disfavor on the theater. Since no free Roman was
    allowed to appear upon the stage, the actors were slaves or
    freedmen. The praetor was empowered to flog actors publicly at
    will.
    74.14: After the election of the quaestors their posts were
    assigned to them by lot.
    75.1: ‘ability.’ It was mainly through Sulla’s efforts that
    Jugurtha was captured.
    75.2: Cf. XXIII, 49.
    75.3: Q. Lutatius Catulus, colleague of Marius in 101.
    75.4: Cf. 72, n. 2.
    75.5: abl. of comparison with #īnferior#: cf. p. 10, n. 18.
    75.6: This butchery occurred in 88. The number of victims is
    variously stated from 80,000 to 150,000.
    75.7: At Chaeronea and Orchomenus in Boeotia. Both battles were
    fought in 86.
    75.8: Cf. p. 47, n. 12.
    75.9: #quālemcumque pācem#: ‘peace on any terms.’
    75.10: abl. of the penalty: H 456, 3 (410, III): M 584: A 220,
    _b_: G 378, R. 3: B 208, 2, _b_.
    75.11: Cf. p. 1, n. 6.
    75.12: Cf. XXIII, 113-122.
    75.13: Sulla’s dictatorship differed widely from those of former
    times (1) because his was unlimited in time, whereas the old
    dictators held office for six months only; (2) his power extended
    to every department of government, whereas formerly dictators had
    been created to accomplish some _one_ object.
    75.14: #quisquis voluit# contains the subject of #occīdit#.
    75.15: #ut . . . imperāret#: ‘that there might be people for him
    (Sulla) to rule over.’ For #quibus . . . imperāret#, see p. 5,
    n. 3.
    76.1: #Novō . . . prōposuit#: ‘He exposed to public view (in the
    Forum) a proscription list, an unprecedented and unheard of act.’
    #exemplō#: abl. of manner.
    76.2: #prōscrīptiōnis#: Latin often uses a gen. where English
    employs an adj. or a noun with adj. value.
    76.3: #in eōs saevīvit#: ‘he vented his rage upon those.’
    76.4: ethical dat.: H 432 (389, N. 2): M 541: A 235, _e_: G 351:
    B 188, 2, _b_.
    76.5: #Neque# = _et nōn_, as often at the beginning of clauses.
    76.6: _cōnfodiō_.
    76.7: _prōsternō_.
    76.8: These words all = ‘Lucky.’
    76.9: ‘just now,’ ‘but a moment before.’
    76.10: ‘remained intact.’
    76.11: #quī audēret# is a rel. clause of result = _tālis ut
    audēret_. It characterizes or describes the antecedent
    #adulēscēns#. See p. 73, n. 5.
    76.12: #in līmine iam#: ‘when he was already at (on) his own
    threshold,’ i.e. even the brief comment that he deigned to make
    was not uttered till the last moment.
    77.3: #vēnandō . . . coepit#: cf. I, 21, _vēnandō . . .
    coepērunt_, and note.
    77.4: Cf. p. 64, n. 2.
    77.5: #amāns# is treated here as an adj., and so construed with
    the gen. Cf. _cupidus voluptātum_, l. 59.
    77.6: ‘had thrust up from below.’ Sulla was sitting on a tribunal
    in the Forum.
    77.7: Cf. p. 11, n. 9.
    77.8: Sc. _erat_.
    77.9: #numquam . . . vituperandus# (_est_): ‘can never be blamed
    enough.’ In _negative_ sentences the gerundive often conveys this
    idea of possibility. For its other meanings, see p. 39, n. 11.
    77.10: _parcō._]


#XXV. Lucius Lucullus# [[stripped text]]

Lucius Lucullus ingeniō, doctrina, virtute fuit insignis. In Asiam
quaestor profectus ibi per multos annos admirabili quadam laude
provinciae praefuit, deinde absens factus aedilis, continuo praetor,
inde ad consulatum promotus est, quem ita gessit, ut omnes diligentiam
admirarentur, ingenium agnoscerent. Post ad Mithridaticum bellum missus
a senatu non modo opinionem vicit omnium, sed etiam gloriam superiorum
ducum. Idque eo fuit mirabilius, quod ab eo laus imperatoria non admodum
exspectabatur, qui adulescentiam in forensi opera, quaesturae diuturnum
tempus in Asiae pace consumpserat; sed incredibilis quaedam ingenii
magnitudo non desideravit usus disciplinam. Itaque cum totum iter et
navigationem consumpsisset partim in percontando a peritis, partim in
rebus gestis legendis, in Asiam factus imperator venit, cum esset Roma
profectus rei militaris rudis.

Lucullus eo bello magnas ac memorabiles res gessit; Mithridatem saepe
multis locis fudit; Tigranem, regum maximum, in Armenia vicit,
ultimamque bello manum magis noluit imponere, quam non potuit; sed
alioqui per omnia laudabilis et bello paene invictus pecuniae cupidini
nimium deditus fuit; quam tamen ideo expetebat, ut per luxuriam
effunderet. Itaque postquam de Mithridate triumphavit, abiecta omnium
rerum cura coepit delicate ac molliter vivere otioque et luxu diffluere:
magnifice et immenso sumptu villas aedificavit atque ad eorum usum mare
ipsum vexavit. Nam in quibusdam locis moles mari iniecit; in aliis,
suffossis montibus, mare in terras induxit, unde eum haud infacete
Pompeius Xerxem togatum vocare adsueverat.

Habebat Lucullus villam prospectu et ambulatione pulcherrimam. Quo cum
venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit, quod ea habitatio esset quidem
aestate peramoena, sed hieme minus commoda videretur; cui Lucullus
“Putasne” inquit “me minus sapere quam hirundines, quae adveniente hieme
sedem commutant?” Villarum magnificentiae respondebat epularum sumptus.
Cum aliquando modica ei, utpote soli, cena esset posita, coquum graviter
obiurgavit, eique excusanti ac dicenti se non debuisse lautum parare
convivium, quod nemo esset ad cenam invitatus, “Quid ais?” inquit iratus
Lucullus. “Nesciebasne Lucullum hodie cenaturum esse apud Lucullum?”

Laudanda est Luculli impensa et studium in libris. Nam et multos et
optimos conquisivit eosque liberaliter dedit utendos. Patebat omnibus
bibliotheca, et in porticus ei adiectas velut ad Musarum aedem veniebant
maxime Graeci tempusque ibi iucunde inter se traducebant ab aliis curis
liberi. Saepe cum iis versabatur Lucullus et inter magnam doctorum
virorum turbam ambulabat.


  #XXV. Lūcius Lūcullus# [[as printed]]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 74.]

  Lūcius Lūcullus ingeniō, doctrīnā, virtūte fuit īnsīgnis. In
  Asiam quaestor profectus ibi per multōs annōs admīrābilī quādam[11]
  laude[12] prōvinciae praefuit, deinde absēns factus[13] aedīlis,
  continuō praetor, inde ad cōnsulātum[14] prōmōtus est, quem
  ita gessit, ut omnēs dīligentiam admīrārentur, ingenium            {5}
    [[78]]
  āgnōscerent. Post ad Mithridāticum[1] bellum missus ā senātū
  nōn modo opīniōnem vīcit[2] omnium, sed etiam glōriam superiōrum
  ducum. Idque eō[3] fuit mīrābilius, quod ab eō laus[4] imperātōria
  nōn admodum exspectābātur, quī adulēscentiam in forēnsī[5] operā,
  quaestūrae diuturnum tempus in[6] Asiae pāce cōnsūmpserat; sed    {10}
  incrēdibilis quaedam[7] ingeniī māgnitūdō nōn dēsīdērāvit ūsūs[8]
  dīsciplīnam. Itaque cum tōtum iter[9] et nāvigātiōnem cōnsūmpsisset
  partim in percontandō ā perītīs,[10] partim in rēbus[11] gestīs
  legendīs, in Asiam factus[12] imperātor vēnit, cum esset Rōmā
  profectus reī mīlitāris rudis.[13]                                {15}

  Lūcullus eō bellō māgnās ac memorābilēs rēs gessit; Mithridātem
  saepe multīs locīs fūdit; Tigrānem,[14] rēgum māximum, in
  Armeniā vīcit, ultimamque[15] bellō manum magis nōluit impōnere,
  quam nōn potuit; sed alioquī per omnia laudābilis[16] et bellō paene
  invictus pecūniae cupīdinī nimium dēditus fuit; quam tamen        {20}
  ideō expetēbat, ut per lūxuriam effunderet. Itaque postquam
  dē Mithridāte triumphāvit,[17] abiectā omnium rērum cūrā coepit
  dēlicātē ac molliter vīvere ōtiōque et lūxū diffluere: māgnificē et
  immēnsō sūmptū vīllās aedificāvit atque ad eōrum ūsum[18] mare
    [[79]]
  ipsum vexāvit. Nam in quibusdam locīs mōlēs[1] marī iniēcit; in   {25}
  aliīs, suffossīs montibus, mare in terrās indūxit, unde eum haud
  īnfacētē Pompēius Xerxem togātum[2] vocāre adsuēverat.[3]

    [Illustration: VĪLLA]

  Habēbat Lūcullus vīllam prōspectū[4] et ambulātiōne pulcherrimam.
  Quō cum vēnisset Pompēius, id ūnum reprehendit, quod
  ea habitātiō esset[5] quidem aestāte peramoena, sed hieme minus   {30}
  commoda vidērētur[5]; cuī Lūcullus “Putāsne” inquit “mē minus
  sapere quam hirundinēs, quae adveniente hieme sēdem commūtant?”
  Vīllārum māgnificentiae respondēbat epulārum sūmptus.
  Cum aliquandō modica eī, utpote[6] sōlī, cēna esset posita, coquum
  graviter obiūrgāvit, eīque excūsantī ac dīcentī sē nōn dēbuisse   {35}
  lautum parāre convīvium, quod nēmō esset[5] ad cēnam invītātus,
    [[80]]
  “Quid ais?” inquit īrātus Lūcullus. “Nesciēbāsne Lūcullum
  hodiē cēnātūrum esse apud Lūcullum?”

  Laudanda est Lūcullī impēnsa et studium in librīs. Nam et         {39}
  multōs et optimōs conquīsīvit eōsque līberāliter dedit[1] ūtendōs.
  Patēbat omnibus bibliothēca, et in porticūs eī adiectās velut ad
  Mūsārum[2] aedem veniēbant māximē Graecī tempusque ibi iūcundē
  inter sē trādūcēbant ab aliīs cūrīs līberī. Saepe cum iīs
  versābātur Lūcullus et inter māgnam doctōrum virōrum turbam
  ambulābat.                                                        {45}

    [Footnotes: XXV (pages 77-80)

    77.1: #efficiet nē . . . dēpōnat#: ‘will prevent any one from
    resigning.’ For the subjunctive #dēpōnat#, see p. 9, n. 6.
    77.2: The indefinite pronoun _quis_ occurs chiefly after _sī_,
    _nisi_, _nē_, and _num_. Elsewhere _aliquis_ is used.
    77.11: Cf. p. 76, n. 1.
    77.12: ‘ability.’
    77.13: Sc. _est_.
    77.14: The offices mentioned here formed the _cursus honōrum_, or
    official career, through which all desirous of political
    distinction were required to pass. The aedileship, however, might
    be omitted.
    78.1: Cf. p. 72, n. 2. Lucullus assumed command against
    Mithridates in 74 B.C.
    78.2: ‘surpassed,’ ‘outstripped.’
    78.3: causal abl., explained by #quod . . . exspectābātur#.
    78.4: ‘ability.’
    78.5: #forēnsī operā#: ‘legal business,’ i.e. the practice of law.
    In or near the Forum were the law courts, as well as business
    places in general.
    78.6: #in Asiae pāce#: ‘in Asia, which was then at peace.’
    78.7: #quīdam# is often used, as here, to soften a phrase which
    the writer fears may seem exaggerated.
    78.8: #ūsūs dīsciplīnam#: ‘the training of experience.’
    78.9: #iter et nāvigātiōnem#: ‘voyage.’
    78.10: ‘experts.’ Sc. #reī mīlitāris#.
    78.11: #rēbus gestīs#: ‘history’; here, of course, military
    history especially.
    78.12: Cf. our use of the word ‘finished.’
    78.13: The statements in lines 9-15 are untrue, since Lucullus had
    served with distinction under Sulla in the first Mithridatic War.
    78.14: King of Armenia, and son-in-law of Mithridates, with whom
    he had formed alliance.
    78.15: #ultimam . . . potuit#: ‘his failure to put the finishing
    touches (#ultimam manum#) to the war was due more to unwillingness
    than to inability.’ How literally? Here too the biographer shows
    his prejudice. Lucullus’ failure to end the war was due to the
    mutiny of his soldiers, who were weary of their incessant
    exertions, and angry because L. did not permit them to gratify
    their greed for plunder.
    78.16: ‘(though) praiseworthy.’ #invictus# must be similarly
    translated.
    78.17: Cf. p. 18, n. 7.
    78.18: ‘convenience.’
    79.1: #mōlēs . . . iniēcit#: ‘he built huge structures out into
    the sea.’
    79.2: Cf. p. 73, n. 10. Xerxes, king of Persia, made an expedition
    against Greece in 480 B.C., in the course of which he executed
    certain important engineering works.
    79.3: _adsuēscō_.
    79.4: #prōspectū . . . pulcherrimam#: ‘with a very beautiful view
    and promenade.’ #prōspectū# and #ambulātiōne# are abl. of
    specification.
    79.5: Why subjunctive?
    79.6: #utpote sōlī# = _quod sōlus erat_. In phrases like this
    Latin suffers from the lack of a present part. to _sum_.
    80.1: #dedit ūtendōs#: i.e. loaned them. For #ūtendōs#, see p. 2,
    n. 18.
    80.2: The Muses were patrons of literature in its various forms.]


#XXVI. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus# [[stripped text]]

Gnaeus Pompeius, stirpis senatoriae, bello civili se et patrem consilio
servavit. Cum enim Pompei pater exercitui suo ob avaritiam esset
invisus, facta in eum conspiratione, Terentius quidam, Gnaei Pompei
filii contubernalis, hunc occidendum suscepit, dum alii tabernaculum
patris incenderent. Quae res cum iuveni Pompeio cenanti nuntiata esset,
nihil periculo motus solito hilarius bibit et cum Terentio eadem, qua
antea, comitate usus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus clam subduxit se
tentorio et firmam patri circumdedit custodiam. Terentius tum destricto
ense ad lectum Pompei accessit multisque ictibus stragula percussit.
Orta mox seditione Pompeius se in media coniecit agmina, militesque
tumultuantes precibus et lacrimis placavit ac duci reconciliavit.

Eodem bello Pompeius partes Sullae secutus ita se gessit ut ab eo maxime
diligeretur. Annos tres et viginti natus, ut Sullae auxilio veniret,
paterni exercitus reliquias conlegit, statimque dux peritus exstitit.
Magnus illius apud militem amor, magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nullus
ei labor taedio, nulla defatigatio molestiae erat. Cibi vinique
temperans, somni parcus; inter milites corpus exercens cum alacribus
saltu, cum velocibus cursu, cum validis luctando certabat. Tum ad Sullam
iter intendit et in eo itinere tres hostium exercitus aut fudit aut sibi
adiunxit. Quem ubi Sulla ad se accedere audivit egregiamque sub signis
iuventutem aspexit, desiliit ex equo Pompeiumque salutavit imperatorem
et postea ei venienti solebat sella adsurgere et caput aperire et equo
descendere, quem honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat.

Postea Pompeius in Siciliam profectus est, ut eam a Carbone, Sullae
inimico, occupatam reciperet. Carbo comprehensus et ad Pompeium ductus
est: quem Pompeius, etsi Carbo muliebriter mortem extimescens demisse et
flebiliter mortem deprecabatur, ad supplicium duci iussit. Longe
moderatior fuit Pompeius erga Sthenium, Siciliae cuiusdam civitatis
principem. Cum enim in eam civitatem animadvertere decrevisset, quae
sibi adversata fuisset, inique eum facturum Sthenius exclamavit, si ob
unius culpam omnes puniret. Interroganti Pompeio quisnam ille unus
esset, “Ego” inquit Sthenius “qui cives meos ad id induxi.” Tam libera
voce delectatus Pompeius omnibus et Sthenio ipsi pepercit.

Transgressus inde in Africam Iarbam, Numidiae regem, qui Marii partibus
favebat, bello persecutus intra dies quadraginta oppressit et Africam
subegit adulescens quattuor et viginti annorum. Deinde cum litterae ei a
Sulla redditae essent, quibus exercitu dimisso cum una legione
successorem exspectare iubebatur, Pompeius, quamquam aegre id ferebat,
tamen paruit et Romam revertit. Revertenti incredibilis hominum
multitudo obviam ivit; Sulla quoque laetus eum excepit et Magni
cognomine consalutavit. Nihilo minus Pompeio triumphum petenti restitit:
neque vero ea re a proposito deterritus est Pompeius aususque dicere
plures adorare solem orientem quam occidentem: quo dicto innuebat Sullae
potentiam minui, suam crescere. Ea voce audita Sulla, confidentia
adulescentis perculsus, “Triumphet! triumphet!” exclamavit.

Metello iam seni et bellum in Hispania segnius gerenti conlega datus
Pompeius adversus Sertorium vario eventu dimicavit. Maximum ibi in
proelio quodam periculum subiit: cum enim vir vasta corporis magnitudine
impetum in eum fecisset, Pompeius manum amputavit; sed multis in eum
concurrentibus vulnus in femore accepit et a suis fugientibus desertus
in hostium potestate erat. At praeter spem evasit: barbari enim equum
eius auro phalerisque eximiis instructum ceperant. Dum igitur praedam
inter se altercantes partiuntur, Pompeius eorum manus effugit. Altero
proelio cum Metellus Pompeio laboranti auxilio venisset, Sertorius
recedere coactus dixisse fertur: “Nisi anus illa supervenisset, ego hunc
puerum verberibus castigatum Romam dimisissem.” Metellum anum
appellabat, quia is, iam senex, ad mollem et effeminatam vitam
deflexerat. Sertorio interfecto Pompeius Hispaniam recepit.

Cum piratae illa tempestate maria omnia infestarent et quasdam etiam
Italiae urbes diripuissent, ad eos opprimendos cum imperio
extraordinario missus est Pompeius. Nimiae viri potentiae obsistebant
quidam ex optimatibus et imprimis Quintus Catulus. Qui cum in contione
dixisset esse quidem praeclarum virum Cn. Pompeium, sed non esse uni
omnia tribuenda, adiecissetque: “Si quid huic acciderit, quem in eius
locum substituetis?” summo consensu succlamavit universa contio, “Te,
Quinte Catule.” Tam honorifico civium testimonio victus Catulus e
contione discessit. Pompeius, dispositis per omnes maris recessus
navibus, brevi terrarum orbem illa peste liberavit; praedones multis
locis victos fudit; eosdem in deditionem acceptos in urbibus et agris
procul a mari conlocavit. Nihil hac victoria celerius, nam intra
quadragesimum diem piratas toto mari expulit.

Confecto bello piratico, Gnaeus Pompeius contra Mithridatem profectus in
Asiam magna celeritate contendit. Proelium cum rege conserere cupiebat,
neque opportuna dabatur pugnandi facultas, quia Mithridates interdiu
castris se continebat, noctu vero haud tutum erat congredi cum hoste in
locis ignotis. Nocte tamen aliquando cum Pompeius Mithridatem aggressus
esset, luna magno fuit Romanis adiumento. Quam cum Romani a tergo
haberent, umbrae corporum longius proiectae ad primos usque hostium
ordines pertinebant, unde decepti regii milites in umbras, tamquam in
propinquum hostem, tela mittebant. Victus Mithridates in Pontum
profugit. Pharnaces filius bellum ei intulit, qui, occisis a patre
fratribus, vitae suae ipse timebat. Mithridates a filio obsessus venenum
sumpsit; quod cum tardius subiret, quia adversus venena multis antea
medicamentis corpus firmaverat, a milite Gallo, a quo ut adiuvaret se
petierat, interfectus est.

Tigrani deinde, Armeniae regi, qui Mithridatis partes secutus erat,
Pompeius bellum intulit eumque ad deditionem compulit. Qui cum
procubuisset ad genua Pompei, eum erexit, et benignis verbis recreatum
diadema, quod abiecerat, capiti reponere iussit, aeque pulchrum esse
iudicans et vincere reges et facere. Inde in Iudaeam profectus Romanorum
primus Iudaeos domuit, Hierosolyma, caput gentis, cepit, templumque iure
victoriae ingressus est. Rebus Asiae compositis, in Italiam versus ad
urbem venit, non, ut plerique timuerant, armatus, sed dimisso exercitu,
et tertium triumphum biduo duxit. Insignis fuit multis novis
inusitatisque ornamentis hic triumphus; sed nihil inlustrius visum, quam
quod tribus triumphis tres orbis partes devictae causam praebuerant:
Pompeius enim, quod antea contigerat nemini, primum ex Africa, iterum ex
Europa, tertio ex Asia triumphavit, felix opinione hominum futurus, si,
quem gloriae, eundem vitae finem habuisset neque adversam fortunam esset
expertus iam senex.

Posteriore enim tempore orta inter Pompeium et Caesarem gravi
dissensione, quod hic superiorem, ille parem ferre non posset, bellum
civile exarsit. Caesar infesto exercitu in Italiam venit. Pompeius,
relicta urbe ac deinde Italia ipsa, Thessaliam petit et cum eo consules
senatusque omnis: quem insecutus Caesar apud Pharsalum acie fudit.
Victus Pompeius ad Ptolemaeum, Aegypti regem, cui tutor a senatu datus
erat, profugit, qui Pompeium interfici iussit. Latus Pompei sub oculis
uxoris et liberorum mucrone confossum est, caput praecisum, truncus in
Nilum coniectus. Deinde caput cum anulo ad Caesarem delatum est, qui eo
viso lacrimas non continens illud multis pretiosissimisque odoribus
cremandum curavit.

Is fuit Pompei post tres consulatus et totidem triumphos vitae exitus.
Erant in Pompeio multae et magnae virtutes ac praecipue admiranda
frugalitas. Cum ei aegrotanti praecepisset medicus ut turdum ederet,
negarent autem servi eam avem usquam aestivo tempore posse reperiri,
nisi apud Lucullum, qui turdos domi saginaret, vetuit Pompeius turdum
inde peti, medicoque dixit: “Ergo, nisi Lucullus perditus deliciis
esset, non viveret Pompeius?” Aliam avem, quae parabilis esset, sibi
iussit apponi.

Viris doctis magnum honorem habebat Pompeius. Ex Syria decedens,
confecto bello Mithridatico, cum Rhodum venisset, Posidonium cupiit
audire; sed cum audivisset eum graviter esse aegrum, quod vehementer
eius artus laborarent, voluit tamen nobilissimum philosophum visere. Mos
erat ut, consule aedes aliquas ingressuro, lictor fores percuteret,
admonens consulem adesse, at Pompeius fores Posidonii percuti honoris
causa vetuit. Quem ut vidit et salutavit, moleste se dixit ferre, quod
eum non posset audire. At ille “Tu vero” inquit “potes, nec committam ut
dolor corporis efficiat ut frustra tantus vir ad me venerit.” Itaque
cubans graviter et copiose de hoc ipso disputavit: nihil esse bonum nisi
quod honestum esset, nihil malum dici posse, quod turpe non esset. Cum
vero dolores acriter eum pungerent, saepe “Nihil agis,” inquit “dolor!
quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse malum confitebor.”


  #XXVI. Gnaeus Pompēius Māgnus# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: POMPEY]

  Gnaeus Pompēius,[3] stirpis senātōriae, bellō[4]
  cīvīlī sē et patrem cōnsiliō servāvit. Cum enim
  Pompēī pater exercituī suō ob avāritiam esset
  invīsus, factā in eum cōnspīrātiōne, Terentius
  quīdam, Gnaeī Pompēī fīliī[5] contubernālis, hunc[6]               {5}
  occīdendum suscēpit, dum[7] aliī tabernāculum
  patris incenderent.[7] Quae rēs cum iuvenī Pompēiō
  cēnantī nūntiāta esset, nihil perīculō mōtus
  solitō[8] hilarius bibit et cum Terentiō eādem,
  quā[9] anteā, cōmitāte ūsus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus clam  {10}
  subdūxit sē tentōriō et fīrmam patrī circumdedit cūstōdiam.
  Terentius tum dēstrictō ēnse ad lectum Pompēī accessit multīsque
  īctibus strāgula percussit.[10] Ortā mox sēditiōne Pompēius sē in
    [[81]]
  media coniēcit āgmina, mīlitēsque tumultuantēs precibus et lacrimīs
  plācāvit ac ducī reconciliāvit.                                   {15}

  Eōdem bellō Pompēius partēs Sullae secūtus ita sē gessit ut ab
  eō māximē dīligerētur. Annōs trēs et vīgintī nātus, ut Sullae
  auxiliō venīret, paternī exercitūs reliquiās conlēgit, statimque
  dux perītus exstitit.[1] Māgnus illīus apud mīlitem amor, māgna
  apud omnēs admīrātiō fuit; nūllus eī[2] labor taediō,[2] nūlla
      dēfatīgātiō                                                   {20}
  molestiae[2] erat. Cibī[3] vīnīque[3] temperāns, somnī parcus[4];
  inter mīlitēs corpus exercēns cum alacribus saltū,[5] cum vēlōcibus
  cursū,[5] cum validīs luctandō[5] certābat. Tum ad Sullam iter
  intendit et in eō itinere trēs hostium exercitūs aut fūdit aut sibi
  adiūnxit. Quem ubi Sulla ad sē accēdere audīvit ēgregiamque       {25}
  sub sīgnīs iuventūtem āspexit, dēsiliit ex equō Pompēiumque
  salūtāvit imperātōrem et posteā eī[6] venientī solēbat sellā
  adsurgere et caput aperīre et equō dēscendere, quem honōrem nēminī
  nisi Pompēiō tribuēbat.

  Posteā Pompēius in Siciliam profectus est, ut eam ā Carbōne,      {30}
  Sullae inimīcō, occupātam reciperet. Carbō comprehēnsus et ad
  Pompēium ductus est: quem Pompēius, etsi Carbō[7] muliebriter
  mortem extimēscēns dēmissē et flēbiliter mortem dēprecābātur,
  ad supplicium dūcī iussit. Longē moderātior fuit Pompēius ergā
  Sthenium, Siciliae cūiusdam cīvitātis prīncipem. Cum enim in      {35}
  eam cīvitātem animadvertere dēcrēvisset, quae[8] sibi adversāta
  fuisset, inīquē eum factūrum Sthenius exclāmāvit,[9] sī ob ūnīus
  culpam omnēs pūnīret. Interrogantī Pompēiō quisnam ille ūnus
  esset, “Ego” inquit Sthenius “quī cīvēs meōs ad id indūxī.”
    [[82]]
  Tam līberā vōce dēlectātus Pompēius omnibus et Stheniō ipsī       {40}
  pepercit.[1]

  Trānsgressus inde in Āfricam Iarbam, Numidiae rēgem, quī
  Mariī partibus favēbat, bellō persecūtus intrā diēs quadrāgintā
  oppressit et Āfricam subēgit adulēscēns[2] quattuor et vīgintī
  annōrum. Deinde cum litterae eī ā Sullā redditae essent, quibus   {45}
  exercitū[3] dīmissō cum ūnā legiōne successōrem exspectāre
  iubēbātur, Pompēius, quamquam aegrē id ferēbat, tamen pāruit et
  Rōmam revertit. Revertentī incrēdibilis hominum multitūdō
  obviam īvit; Sulla quoque laetus eum excēpit et Māgnī
  cōgnōmine cōnsalūtāvit. Nihilō minus Pompēiō triumphum petentī    {50}
  restitit: neque vērō eā rē ā prōpositō dēterritus est Pompēius
  aususque[4] dīcere plūrēs adōrāre sōlem orientem quam occidentem:
  quō dictō innuēbat Sullae potentiam minuī, suam crēscere.
  Eā vōce audītā Sulla, cōnfīdentiā adulēscentis perculsus,[5]
  “Triumphet! triumphet!” exclāmāvit.                               {55}

  Metellō[6] iam senī[7] et bellum in Hispāniā sēgnius gerentī
  conlēga datus Pompēius adversus Sertōrium variō ēventū dīmicāvit.
  Māximum ibi in proeliō quōdam perīculum subiit: cum enim vir
  vāstā corporis māgnitūdine impetum in eum fēcisset, Pompēius
  manum amputāvit; sed multīs[8] in eum concurrentibus vulnus in    {60}
  femore accēpit et ā suīs fugientibus dēsertus in[9] hostium potestāte
  erat. At praeter spem ēvāsit: barbarī enim equum ēius aurō
  phalerīsque eximiīs īnstrūctum cēperant. Dum igitur praedam
  inter sē altercantēs[10] partiuntur, Pompēius eōrum manūs effūgit.
  Alterō proeliō cum Metellus Pompēiō labōrantī auxiliō vēnisset,   {65}
  Sertōrius recēdere coāctus dīxisse fertur: “Nisi anus illa
    [[83]]
  supervēnisset,[1] ego hunc puerum verberibus castīgātum Rōmam
  dīmīsissem.”[1] Metellum anum appellābat, quia is, iam senex,[2] ad
  mollem et effēminātam vītam dēflexerat. Sertōriō interfectō
  Pompēius Hispāniam recēpit.                                       {70}

  [Sidenote: B.C. 67.]

  Cum[3] pīrātae illā tempestāte
  maria omnia īnfēstārent[3] et quāsdam
  etiam Ītaliae urbēs dīripuissent,[3]
  ad eōs opprimendōs
  cum imperiō extraōrdināriō                                        {75}
  missus est Pompēius. Nimiae
  virī potentiae obsistēbant quīdam
  ex optimātibus et imprīmīs Quīntus Catulus. Quī cum in cōntiōne
  dīxisset esse quidem[4] praeclārum virum Cn. Pompēium, sed[4] nōn
  esse ūnī omnia tribuenda, adiēcissetque: “Sī quid huīc acciderit,
  quem in ēius locum substituētis?” summō cōnsēnsū succlāmāvit      {81}
  ūniversa cōntiō, “Tē, Quīnte Catule.” Tam honōrificō cīvium
  tēstimōniō victus Catulus ē cōntiōne discessit. Pompēius,
  dispositīs[5] per omnēs maris recessūs nāvibus, brevī terrārum orbem
  illā pēste līberāvit; praedōnēs multīs locīs victōs fūdit; eōsdem
  in dēditiōnem acceptōs in urbibus et agrīs procul ā marī          {86}
  conlocāvit. Nihil hāc victōriā celerius, nam intrā quadrāgēsimum
  diem pīrātās tōtō marī expulit.

    [Illustration: NĀVIS PĪRĀTA]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 66.]

  Cōnfectō bellō pīrāticō, Gnaeus Pompēius contrā Mithridātem
  profectus in Asiam māgnā celeritāte contendit. Proelium           {90}
  cum rēge cōnserere cupiēbat, neque[6] opportūna dabātur
  pūgnandī facultās, quia Mithridātēs interdiū castrīs sē continēbat,
  noctū vērō haud tūtum erat congredī cum hoste in locīs īgnōtīs.
  Nocte tamen aliquandō cum Pompēius Mithridātem aggressus
  esset, lūna māgnō fuit Rōmānīs adiūmentō. Quam cum Rōmānī         {95}
    [[84]]
  ā[1] tergō habērent, umbrae corporum longius prōiectae ad prīmōs
  ūsque hostium ōrdinēs pertinēbant, unde dēceptī rēgiī mīlitēs in
  umbrās, tamquam in propinquum hostem, tēla mittēbant. Victus
  Mithridātēs in Pontum profūgit. Pharnacēs fīlius bellum eī        {99}
  intulit, quī, occīsīs ā patre frātribus, vītae suae ipse timēbat.
  Mithridātēs ā fīliō obsessus[2] venēnum sūmpsit; quod cum tardius
  subīret, quia adversus venēna multīs anteā medicāmentīs corpus
  fīrmāverat, ā mīlite Gallō, ā[3] quō ut adiuvāret sē petierat,
  interfectus est.

    [Illustration: DIADĒMA]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 63.]

  Tigrānī deinde, Armeniae rēgī, quī Mithridātis partēs secūtus    {105}
  erat, Pompēius bellum intulit eumque ad dēditiōnem compulit.
  Quī cum prōcubuisset ad genua Pompēī, eum
  ērēxit,[4] et benīgnīs verbīs recreātum diadēma,
  quod abiēcerat, capitī repōnere iussit, aequē[5]
  pulchrum esse iūdicāns et vincere rēgēs et                       {110}
  facere. Inde in Iūdaeam profectus Rōmānōrum
  prīmus[6] Iūdaeōs domuit, Hierosolyma,
  caput gentis, cēpit, templumque iūre[7]
  victōriae ingressus est. Rēbus Asiae                             {114}
  compositīs, in Italiam versus[8] ad urbem[9] vēnit, nōn, ut plērīque
  timuerant, armātus, sed dīmissō exercitū, et tertium triumphum
  bīduō[10] dūxit. Īnsīgnis fuit multīs novīs inūsitātīsque ōrnāmentīs
  hīc triumphus; sed nihil inlūstrius vīsum, quam quod[11] tribus
  triumphīs trēs orbis partēs dēvictae causam praebuerant: Pompēius
    [[85]]
  enim, quod[1] anteā contigerat nēminī, prīmum ex Āfricā,         {120}
  iterum ex Eurōpā, tertiō ex Asiā triumphāvit, fēlīx opīniōne
  hominum futūrus, sī, quem[2] glōriae, eundem vītae fīnem habuisset
  neque adversam fortūnam esset expertus iam senex.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 49.]

  Posteriōre enim tempore ortā inter Pompēium et Caesarem[3]
  gravī dissēnsiōne, quod[4] hīc[5] superiōrem, ille[5] parem ferre
  nōn posset, bellum cīvīle exārsit. Caesar īnfēstō[6] exercitū    {126}
  in Ītaliam vēnit. Pompēius, relīctā urbe ac deinde Ītaliā ipsā,
  Thessaliam petit et cum eō cōnsulēs senātusque omnis: quem
  īnsecūtus Caesar apud Pharsālum aciē fūdit. Victus Pompēius
  ad Ptolemaeum, Aegyptī rēgem, cuī tūtor ā senātū datus erat,     {130}
  profūgit, quī Pompēium interficī iussit. Latus Pompēī sub oculīs
  uxōris et līberōrum mūcrōne cōnfossum est, caput praecīsum,
  truncus in Nīlum coniectus. Deinde caput cum ānulō ad Caesarem
  dēlātum est, quī eō vīsō lacrimās nōn continēns illud
  multīs pretiōsissimīsque odōribus cremandum cūrāvit.             {135}

  Is fuit Pompēī post trēs cōnsulātūs et totidem triumphōs vītae
  exitus. Erant in Pompēiō multae et māgnae virtūtēs ac praecipuē
  admīranda frūgālitās. Cum eī aegrōtantī praecēpisset
  medicus ut turdum ederet, negārent autem[7] servī eam avem
  ūsquam aestīvō tempore posse reperīrī, nisi apud Lūcullum, quī   {140}
  turdōs domī sagīnāret, vetuit Pompēius turdum inde petī, medicōque
  dīxit: “Ergō,[8] nisi Lūcullus perditus dēliciīs esset, nōn
  vīveret Pompēius?” Aliam avem, quae parābilis esset, sibi iussit
  appōnī.

    [[86]]
  Virīs[1] doctīs māgnum honōrem habēbat Pompēius. Ex Syriā        {145}
  dēcēdēns, cōnfectō bellō Mithridāticō, cum Rhodum vēnisset,
  Posīdōnium cupiit audīre[2]; sed cum audīvisset eum graviter esse
  aegrum, quod[3] vehementer ēius artūs labōrārent, voluit tamen
  nōbilissimum philosophum vīsere. Mōs erat ut, cōnsule[4] aedēs   {149}
  aliquās ingressūrō, līctor forēs percuteret,[5] admonēns cōnsulem
  adesse, at Pompēius forēs Posīdōniī percutī honōris causā vetuit.
  Quem ut vīdit et salūtāvit, molestē sē dīxit ferre, quod eum nōn
  posset audīre. At ille “Tū vērō” inquit “potes, nec committam
  ut dolor corporis efficiat[5] ut frūstrā tantus vir ad mē vēnerit.[5]”
  Itaque cubāns graviter et cōpiōsē dē hōc ipsō disputāvit: nihil  {155}
  esse[6] bonum nisi quod honestum esset, nihil malum dīcī posse,
  quod turpe nōn esset. Cum vērō dolōrēs ācriter eum pungerent,
  saepe “Nihil agis,” inquit “dolor! quamvīs[7] sīs molestus, numquam
  tē esse malum cōnfitēbor.”

    [Footnotes: XXVI (pages 80-86)

    80.3: See Vocab., _Pompēius_.
    80.4: The reference is to the war between Marius and Sulla. See
    selections XXIV and XXV.
    80.5: Cf. _iuvenī_, l. 7. We should say ‘the younger.’ He was at
    this time but nineteen years of age.
    80.6: #hunc . . . suscēpit#: ‘undertook to kill him.’ How
    literally? For #occīdendum#, see p. 2, n. 18.
    80.7: #dum#, though meaning ‘while’ (cf. p. xx, G 2), takes the
    subjunctive here because of the informal indir. disc. Terenti
    said: _fīlium . . . suscipiam dum aliī incenditis_.
    80.8: #solitō hilarius#: ‘with (even) more gaiety than usual.’
    #solitō# is here a noun. Neuter adj. and part. are often so used.
    For its case, see p. 10, n. 18.
    80.9: #quā anteā#: sc. _ūsus erat_.
    80.10: _percutiō_.
    81.1: ‘proved himself.’
    81.2: See p. 25, n. 6.
    81.3: objective gen. (p. 14, n. 15) with the part. #temperāns#,
    which here = a simple adj. So #somnī# is obj. gen. with #parcus#.
    81.4: Sc. _erat_.
    81.5: abl. of specification.
    81.6: #eī venientī#: ‘(as a mark of respect) to him when
    approaching.’ #eī# is a dat. of advantage with #adsurgere#.
    81.7: After #quem#, whose antecedent is #Carbō#, l. 31, this word
    might have been omitted without loss of clearness. In fact, such
    omission is the more usual construction.
    81.8: #quae . . . fuisset#: causal. Note that in forming the
    pluperfect subjunctive certain writers often use _fuisset_ for
    _esset_.
    81.9: What were the exact words of Sthenius?
    82.1: _parcō_.
    82.2: ‘(being then) a young man.’ Cf. p. 44, n. 12.
    82.3: #exercitū dīmissō . . . exspectāre# = _exercitum dīmittere
    et . . . exspectāre_.
    82.4: Cf. p. 13, n. 12.
    82.5: _percellō_.
    82.6: Quintus Caecilius Metellus, proconsul in Spain 79-76 B.C.
    82.7: #senī#: ‘because he was old.’
    82.8: #multīs . . . concurrentibus#: the abl. abs. here denotes
    both time and cause; see p. xxiii, K 6. The prefix in
    #concurrentibus# conveys the idea of ‘from every side.’
    82.9: #in . . . erat# = _ab hostibus captus est_.
    82.10: #altercantēs partiuntur#: lit., ‘wrangling they divided’ =
    ‘they wrangled about the division.’
    83.1: Why subjunctive?
    83.2: ‘_though_ already old.’ The thought is that luxury and
    effeminacy are especially unbecoming to old age.
    83.3: See p. xx, H 2. What is the meaning of the change of tense
    in #dīripuissent#?
    83.4: Cf. p. 10, n. 10.
    83.5: See p. xxiii, K 10.
    83.6: #neque . . . facultās#: ‘but no opportunity,’ etc.
    84.1: #ā tergō#: ‘in the rear.’ See p. 11, n. 10.
    84.2: _obsideō_.
    84.3: #ā quō . . . petierat#: ‘whom he had asked to help him.’ How
    literally? #ut adiuvāret sē# is a substantive clause of purpose
    and object of _petierat_. See p. 7, n. 20.
    84.4: _ērigō_.
    84.5: #aequē . . . facere#: lit., ‘because he thought it an
    equally fine thing both to conquer kings and to create them.’ The
    expression is somewhat careless. We would say: ‘as glorious to
    create kings as to conquer them.’ #aequē pulchrum# is predicate,
    #et vincere . . . et facere# subject to #esse#.
    84.6: #prīmus . . . domuit#: cf. p. 38, n. 1.
    84.7: #iūre victōriae#: ‘by right of (i.e. on the strength of) his
    victory.’
    84.8: ‘turning’; lit., ‘having turned himself.’ Cf. n. on
    _cingitur_, XIII, l. 29.
    84.9: ‘the City,’ i.e. Rome.
    84.10: Cf. p. xvii, D 1.
    84.11: #quod . . . praebuerant#: ‘the fact that the conquest of
    (the) three parts,’ etc. Cf. p. 5, n. 15, and p. xxiv, L 4.
    85.1: ‘something which’; its antecedent is the clause #prīmum
    . . . triumphāvit# below.
    85.2: With #quem glōriae#, sc. _fīnem habuit_.
    85.3: The famous C. Julius Caesar, for whom see next selection.
    85.4: #quod . . . posset#: ‘because (as men said) the one,’ etc.
    For the subjunctive, see p. xxi, H 4.
    85.5: #hīc . . . ille#: ‘the one (Caesar) . . . the other
    (Pompey).’
    85.6: #īnfēstō exercitū#: abl. of accompaniment: H 474, 2, N. 1
    (419, III, 1, 1): M 634: A 243, _a_, N.: G 392, R. 1: B 222, 1.
    85.7: #autem# contrasts #negārent# with #praecēpisset#. There is a
    contrast also between #servī# and #medicus#.
    85.8: #Ergō . . . Pompēius#? The force of this sentence can be
    given only by a free rendering, thus: ‘Shall it be said, then,
    that Pompey would not be alive, had not Lucullus ruined himself by
    his luxury?’
    86.1: #Virīs . . . habēbat#: ‘he highly honored learned men.’
    86.2: _audiō_, like our ‘hear,’ is often used of listening to
    lectures or to teachers.
    86.3: #quod . . . labōrārent#: i.e. because he had the gout.
    86.4: #cōnsule . . . ingressūrō#: ‘whenever the consul,’ etc.;
    a temporal abl. abs.
    86.5: Subjunctive in substantive clauses of result: see p. xix,
    F 3.
    86.6: infinitive, because the clause in which it stands is in
    apposition to #hōc#. This use of the infin. is common.
    86.7: #quamvīs sīs#: concessive subjunctive: H 586, II (515, III):
    M 875: A 313, _a_: G 606: B 308.]


#XXVII. Gaius Iulius Caesar# [[stripped text]]

C. Iulius Caesar, nobilissima Iuliorum genitus familia, annum agens
sextum et decimum patrem amisit. Corneliam, Cinnae filiam, duxit uxorem;
cuius pater cum esset Sullae inimicissimus, is Caesarem voluit
compellere ut eam repudiaret; neque id potuit efficere. Qua re Caesar
bonis spoliatus cum etiam ad necem quaereretur, mutata veste nocte urbe
elapsus est et quamquam tunc quartanae morbo laborabat, prope per
singulas noctes latebras commutare cogebatur; et comprehensus a Sullae
liberto, ne ad Sullam perduceretur, vix data pecunia evasit. Postremo
per propinquos et adfines suos veniam impetravit. Satis constat Sullam,
cum deprecantibus amicissimis et ornatissimis viris aliquamdiu
denegasset atque illi pertinaciter contenderent, expugnatum tandem
proclamasse, vincerent, dummodo scirent eum, quem incolumem tanto opere
cuperent, aliquando optimatium partibus, quas secum simul defendissent,
exitio futurum; nam Caesari multos Marios inesse.

Stipendia prima in Asia fecit. In expugnatione Mitylenarum corona civica
donatus est. Mortuo Sulla, Rhodum secedere statuit, ut per otium
Apollonio Moloni, tunc clarissimo dicendi magistro, operam daret. Huc
dum traicit, a praedonibus captus est mansitque apud eos prope
quadraginta dies. Per omne autem illud spatium ita se gessit, ut piratis
pariter terrori venerationique esset. Comites interim servosque ad
expediendas pecunias, quibus redimeretur, dimisit. Viginti talenta
piratae postulaverant: ille quinquaginta daturum se spopondit. Quibus
numeratis cum expositus esset in litore, confestim Miletum, quae urbs
proxime aberat, properavit ibique contracta classe invectus in eum
locum, in quo ipsi praedones erant, partem classis fugavit, partem
mersit, aliquot naves cepit piratasque in potestatem redactos eo
supplicio, quod illis saepe minatus inter iocum erat, adfecit crucique
suffixit.

Quaestori ulterior Hispania obvenit. Quo profectus cum Alpes transiret
et ad conspectum pauperis cuiusdam vici comites per iocum inter se
disputarent num illic etiam esset ambitioni locus, serio dixit Caesar
malle se ibi primum esse, quam Romae secundum. Dominationis avidus
a prima aetate regnum concupiscebat semperque in ore habebat hos
Euripidis, Graeci poetae, versus:

  Nam si violandum est ius, regnandi gratia
  Violandum est. Aliis rebus pietatem colas.

Cumque Gades, quod est Hispaniae oppidum, venisset, animadversa apud
Herculis templum magni Alexandri imagine ingemuit et quasi pertaesus
ignaviam suam, quod nihildum a se memorabile actum esset in ea aetate,
qua iam Alexander orbem terrarum subegisset, missionem continuo
efflagitavit ad captandas quam primum maiorum rerum occasiones in urbe.

Aedilis praeter comitium ac Forum etiam Capitolium ornavit porticibus.
Venationes autem ludosque et cum conlega M. Bibulo et separatim edidit:
quo factum est ut communium quoque impensarum solus gratiam caperet. His
autem rebus patrimonium effudit tantumque conflavit aes alienum, ut ipse
diceret sibi opus esse millies sestertium, ut haberet nihil.

Consul deinde creatus cum M. Bibulo, societatem cum Gnaeo Pompeio et
Marco Crasso iunxit Caesar, ne quid ageretur in re publica, quod
displicuisset ulli ex tribus. Deinde legem tulit ut ager Campanus plebi
divideretur. Cui legi cum senatus repugnaret, rem ad populum detulit.
Bibulus conlega in Forum venit, ut legi obsisteret, sed tanta in eum
commota est seditio, ut in caput eius cophinus stercore plenus
effunderetur fascesque ei frangerentur atque adeo ipse armis Foro
expelleretur. Qua re cum Bibulus per reliquum anni tempus domo abditus
Curia abstineret, unus ex eo tempore Caesar omnia in re publica ad
arbitrium administrabat, ut nonnulli urbanorum, si quid testandi gratia
signarent, per iocum non, ut mos erat, ‘consulibus Caesare et
Bibulo’ actum scriberent, sed ‘Iulio et Caesare,’ unum consulem nomine
et cognomine pro duobus appellantes.

Functus consulatu Caesar Galliam provinciam accepit. Gessit autem novem
annis, quibus in imperio fuit, haec fere: Galliam in provinciae formam
redegit; Germanos, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, primus Romanorum ponte
fabricato aggressus maximis adfecit cladibus. Aggressus est Britannos,
ignotos antea, superatisque pecunias et obsides imperavit. Hic cum multa
Romanorum militum insignia narrantur, tum illud egregium ipsius
Caesaris, quod, nutante in fugam exercitu, rapto fugientis e manu scuto
in primam volitans aciem proelium restituit. Idem alio proelio legionis
aquiliferum ineundae fugae causa iam conversum faucibus comprehensum in
contrariam partem detraxit dextramque ad hostem tendens “Quorsum tu”
inquit “abis? Illic sunt, cum quibus dimicamus.” Qua adhortatione omnium
legionum trepidationem correxit vincique paratas vincere docuit.

Interfecto interea apud Parthos Crasso et defuncta Iulia, Caesaris
filia, quae, nupta Pompeio, generi socerique concordiam tenebat, statim
aemulatio erupit. Iam pridem Pompeio suspectae Caesaris opes et Caesari
Pompeiana dignitas gravis, nec hic ferebat parem, nec ille superiorem.
Itaque cum Caesar in Gallia detineretur, et, ne imperfecto bello
discederet, postulasset ut sibi liceret, quamvis absenti, alterum
consulatum petere, a senatu, suadentibus Pompeio eiusque amicis, negatum
ei est. Hanc iniuriam acceptam vindicaturus in Italiam rediit et
bellandum ratus cum exercitu Rubiconem flumen, qui provinciae eius finis
erat, transiit. Hoc ad flumen paulum constitisse fertur ac reputans
quantum moliretur, conversus ad proximos, “Etiamnunc” inquit “regredi
possumus; quod si ponticulum transierimus, omnia armis agenda erunt.”
Postremo autem “Iacta alea esto!” exclamans exercitum traici iussit
plurimisque urbibus occupatis Brundisium contendit, quo Pompeius
consulesque confugerant.

Qui cum inde in Epirum traiecissent, Caesar, eos secutus a Brundisio,
Dyrrachium inter oppositas classes gravissima hieme transmisit;
copiisque quas subsequi iusserat diutius cessantibus, cum ad eas
arcessendas frustra misisset, mirae audaciae facinus edidit. Morae enim
impatiens castris noctu egreditur, clam naviculam conscendit, obvoluto
capite, ne agnosceretur, et quamquam mare saeva tempestate intumescebat,
in altum tamen protinus dirigi navigium iubet et, gubernatore
trepidante, “Quid times?” inquit “Caesarem vehis!” neque prius
gubernatorem cedere adversae tempestati passus est, quam paene obrutus
esset fluctibus.

Deinde Caesar in Epirum profectus Pompeium Pharsalico proelio fudit, et
fugientem persecutus, ut occisum cognovit, Ptolemaeo regi, Pompeii
interfectori, a quo sibi quoque insidias tendi videret, bellum intulit;
quo victo in Pontum transiit Pharnacemque, Mithridatis filium,
rebellantem et multiplici successu praeferocem intra quintum ab adventu
diem, quattuor, quibus in conspectum venit, horis una profligavit acie,
more fulminis, quod uno eodemque momento venit, percussit, abscessit.
Nec vana de se praedicatio est Caesaris ante victum hostem esse quam
visum. Pontico postea triumpho trium verborum praetulit titulum: “Veni,
vidi, vici.” Deinde Scipionem et Iubam, Numidiae regem, reliquias
Pompeianarum partium in Africa refoventes, devicit.

Victorem Africani belli Gaium Caesarem gravius excepit Hispaniense, quod
Cn. Pompeius, Magni filius, adulescens fortissimus, ingens ac terribile
conflaverat, undique ad eum auxiliis paterni nominis magnitudinem
sequentium ex toto orbe confluentibus. Sua Caesarem in Hispaniam
comitata fortuna est: sed nullum umquam atrocius periculosiusque ab eo
initum proelium, adeo ut, plus quam dubio Marte, descenderet equo
consistensque ante recedentem suorum aciem increpans fortunam, quod se
in eum servasset exitum, denuntiaret militibus vestigio se non
recessurum; proinde viderent, quem et quo loco imperatorem deserturi
essent. Verecundia magis quam virtute acies restituta est. Cn. Pompeius
victus et interemptus est. Caesar, omnium victor, regressus in urbem
omnibus, qui contra se arma tulerant, ignovit et quinquies triumphavit.

Bellis civilibus confectis, conversus iam ad ordinandum rei publicae
statum fastos correxit annumque ad cursum solis accommodavit, ut
trecentorum sexaginta quinque dierum esset et, intercalario mense
sublato, unus dies quarto quoque anno intercalaretur. Ius laboriosissime
ac severissime dixit. Repetundarum convictos etiam ordine senatorio
movit. Peregrinarum mercium portoria instituit: legem praecipue
sumptuariam exercuit. De ornanda instruendaque urbe, item de tuendo
ampliandoque imperio plura ac maiora in dies destinabat: imprimis ius
civile ad certum modum redigere atque ex immensa legum copia optima
quaeque et necessaria in paucissimos conferre libros; bibliothecas
Graecas et Latinas, quas maximas posset, publicare; siccare Pomptinas
paludes: viam munire a Mari Supero per Apennini dorsum ad Tiberim usque:
Dacos, qui se in Pontum effuderant, coercere: mox Parthis bellum inferre
per Armeniam.

Haec et alia agentem et meditantem mors praevenit. Dictator enim in
perpetuum creatus agere insolentius coepit: senatum ad se venientem
sedens excepit et quendam, ut adsurgeret monentem, irato vultu respexit.
Cum Antonius, Caesaris in omnibus bellis comes et tunc consulatus
conlega, capiti eius in sella aurea sedentis pro rostris diadema,
insigne regium, imposuisset, id ita ab eo est repulsum, ut non offensus
videretur. Quare coniuratum in eum est a sexaginta amplius viris, Cassio
et Bruto ducibus conspirationis, decretumque eum Idibus Martiis in
senatu confodere.

Plurima indicia futuri periculi obtulerant dii immortales. Uxor
Calpurnia, territa nocturno visu, ut Idibus Martiis domi subsisteret
orabat et Spurinna haruspex praedixerat ut proximos dies triginta quasi
fatales caveret, quorum ultimus erat Idus Martiae. Hoc igitur die Caesar
Spurinnae “Ecquid scis” inquit “Idus Martias iam venisse?” et is “Ecquid
scis illas nondum praeterisse?” Atque cum Caesar eo die in senatum
venisset, adsidentem conspirati specie officii circumsteterunt ilicoque
unus, quasi aliquid rogaturus, propius accessit renuentique ab utroque
umero togam apprehendit. Deinde clamantem “Ista quidem vis est!” Casca,
unus e coniuratis, adversum vulnerat paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae
bracchium adreptum graphio traiecit conatusque prosilire alio vulnere
tardatus est. Dein ut animadvertit undique se strictis pugionibus peti,
toga caput obvolvit et ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est. Cum
Marcum Brutum, quem filii loco habebat in se inruentem vidisset, dixisse
fertur: “Tu quoque, mi fili!”

Illud inter omnes fere constitit talem ei mortem paene ex sententia
obtigisse. Nam et quondam cum apud Xenophontem legisset Cyrum ultima
valetudine mandasse quaedam de funere suo, aspernatus tam lentum mortis
genus subitam sibi celeremque optaverat, et pridie quam occideretur, in
sermone nato super cenam quisnam esset finis vitae commodissimus,
repentinum inopinatumque praetulerat. Percussorum autem neque triennio
quisquam amplius supervixit neque sua morte defunctus est. Damnati omnes
alius alio casu perierunt, pars naufragio, pars proelio; nonnulli semet
eodem illo pugione, quo Caesarem violaverant, interemerunt.

Quo rarior in regibus et principibus viris moderatio, hoc laudanda magis
est. C. Iulius Caesar victoria civili clementissime usus est; cum enim
scrinia deprehendisset epistularum ad Pompeium missarum ab iis, qui
videbantur aut in diversis aut in neutris fuisse partibus, legere
noluit, sed combussit, ne forte in multos gravius consulendi locum
darent. Cicero hanc laudem eximiam Caesari tribuit, quod nihil oblivisci
soleret nisi iniurias. Simultates omnes, occasione oblata, libens
deposuit. Ultro ac prior scripsit C. Calvo post famosa eius adversum se
epigrammata. Valerium Catullum, cuius versiculis famam suam laceratam
non ignorabat, adhibuit cenae. C. Memmii suffragator in petitione
consulatus fuit, etsi asperrimas fuisse eius in se orationes sciebat.

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, ore paulo pleniore, nigris vegetisque
oculis, capite calvo; quam calvitii deformitatem, quod saepe
obtrectatorum iocis obnoxia erat, aegre ferebat. Ideo ex omnibus
decretis sibi a senatu populoque honoribus non alium aut recepit aut
usurpavit libentius quam ius laureae perpetuo gestandae. Vini
parcissimum eum fuisse ne inimici quidem negaverunt. Verbum Catonis est
unum ex omnibus Caesarem ad evertendam rem publicam sobrium accessisse.
Armorum et equitandi peritissimus, laboris ultra fidem patiens; in
agmine nonnumquam equo, saepius pedibus anteibat, capite detecto, seu
sol, seu imber erat. Longissimas vias incredibili celeritate
conficiebat, ut persaepe nuntios de se praeveniret: neque eum morabantur
flumina, quae vel nando vel innixus inflatis utribus traiciebat.


  #XXVII. Gāius Iūlius Caesar# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: CAESAR]

  C. Iūlius Caesar,[8] nōbilissimā Iūliōrum genitus
  familiā,[9] annum agēns sextum et decimum patrem
  āmīsit. Cornēliam, Cinnae[10] fīliam, dūxit uxōrem;
  cūius pater cum esset Sullae inimīcissimus, is[11]
  Caesarem voluit compellere ut eam repudiāret;                      {5}
  neque[12] id potuit efficere. Quā rē Caesar bonīs
  spoliātus cum etiam ad necem quaererētur, mūtātā
  veste nocte urbe ēlāpsus[13] est et quamquam tunc
    [[87]]
  quārtānae[1] morbō labōrābat, prope[2] per singulās noctēs latebrās
  commūtāre cōgēbātur; et comprehēnsus ā Sullae lībērtō, nē[3] ad   {10}
  Sullam perdūcerētur, vix datā[4] pecūniā ēvāsit. Postrēmō per
  propinquōs et adfīnēs suōs veniam impetrāvit. Satis cōnstat
  Sullam, cum dēprecantibus[5] amīcissimīs et ōrnātissimīs virīs
  aliquamdiū dēnegāsset atque illī pertināciter contenderent,
  expūgnātum tandem prōclāmāsse, vincerent,[6] dummodo scīrent[7] eum,
  quem incolumem tantō opere cuperent, aliquandō optimātium         {16}
  partibus, quās sēcum simul dēfendissent, exitiō futūrum; nam
  Caesarī multōs Mariōs inesse.

  Stīpendia prīma in Asiā fēcit. In expūgnātiōne Mitylēnārum
  corōnā cīvicā dōnātus est. Mortuō Sullā, Rhodum sēcēdere          {20}
  statuit, ut per otium Apollōniō Molōnī, tunc clārissimō dīcendī[8]
  magistrō, operam daret. Hūc dum trāicit, ā praedōnibus captus
  est mānsitque apud eōs prope quadrāgintā diēs. Per omne autem
  illud spatium ita sē gessit, ut pīrātīs pariter terrōrī venerātiōnīque
  esset. Comitēs interim servōsque ad expediendās pecūniās, quibus  {25}
  redimerētur, dīmīsit. Vīgintī talenta pīrātae pōstulāverant: ille
  quīnquāgintā datūrum sē spopondit. Quibus numerātīs cum           {27}
  expositus esset in lītore, cōnfēstim Mīlētum, quae urbs proximē[9]
  aberat, properāvit ibique contrāctā classe invectus in eum locum,
  in quō ipsī praedōnēs erant, partem classis fugāvit, partem mersit,
  aliquot nāvēs cēpit pīrātāsque in potestātem redāctōs eō suppliciō,
  quod illīs saepe minātus inter iocum erat, adfēcit crucīque suffīxit.

    [[88]]
  Quaestōrī ūlterior[1] Hispānia obvēnit. Quō profectus cum Alpēs
  trānsīret et ad cōnspectum pauperis cūiusdam vīcī comitēs per     {35}
  iocum inter sē disputārent num illīc[2] etiam esset ambitiōnī locus,
  sēriō dīxit Caesar mālle sē ibi prīmum esse, quam Rōmae secundum.
  Dominātiōnis avidus[3] ā prīmā aetāte rēgnum concupīscēbat
  semperque in ōre habēbat hōs Eurīpidis, Graecī poētae, versūs:

    Nam sī violandum est iūs, rēgnandī grātiā                       {40}
    Violandum est. Aliīs[4] rēbus pietātem colās.[5]

  Cumque Gadēs, quod est Hispāniae oppidum, vēnisset, animadversā
  apud Herculis templum māgnī Alexandrī imāgine ingemuit
  et quasi pertaesus īgnāviam suam, quod nihildum ā sē memorābile
  āctum esset in eā aetāte, quā iam Alexander orbem terrārum        {45}
  subēgisset, missiōnem continuō efflāgitāvit ad captandās quam prīmum
  māiōrum rērum occāsiōnes in urbe.

  Aedīlis praeter comitium ac Forum etiam Capitōlium ōrnāvit
  porticibus. Vēnātiōnes autem lūdōsque[6] et cum conlēgā M. Bibulō
  et sēparātim ēdidit: quō[7] factum est ut commūnium quoque        {50}
  impēnsārum sōlus grātiam caperet. Hīs autem rēbus patrimōnium
  effūdit tantumque cōnflāvit aes aliēnum, ut ipse dīceret sibi[8] opus
  esse mīlliēs sēstertium, ut habēret nihil.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 60.]

  Cōnsul deinde creātus cum M. Bibulō, societātem[9] cum Gnaeō
  Pompēiō et Marcō Crassō iūnxit Caesar, nē quid agerētur in        {55}
  rē pūblicā, quod displicuisset ūllī ex tribus. Deinde lēgem
    [[89]]
  tulit ut ager Campānus plēbī dīvīderētur. Cuī lēgī cum senātus
  repūgnāret, rem ad populum dētulit. Bibulus conlēga in Forum
  vēnit, ut lēgī obsisteret, sed tanta in eum commōta est sēditiō, ut
  in caput ēius cophinus stercore plēnus effunderētur fascēsque eī  {60}
  frangerentur atque adeō ipse armīs Forō expellerētur. Quā rē
  cum Bibulus per reliquum annī tempus domō abditus Cūriā abstinēret,
  ūnus ex eō tempore Caesar omnia in rē pūblicā ad arbitrium
  administrābat, ut nōnnūllī urbānōrum, sī[1] quid tēstandī grātiā
  sīgnārent, per iocum nōn, ut mōs erat, ‘cōnsulibus[2] Caesare et  {65}
  Bibulō’ āctum[3] scrīberent, sed ‘Iūliō et Caesare,’ ūnum cōnsulem
  nōmine et cōgnōmine prō duōbus appellantēs.

  Fūnctus[4] cōnsulātū Caesar Galliam prōvinciam accēpit. Gessit
  autem novem[5] annīs, quibus[5] in imperiō fuit, haec ferē: Galliam
  in prōvinciae fōrmam redēgit; Germānōs, quī trāns Rhēnum          {70}
  incolunt, prīmus Rōmānōrum ponte fabricātō aggressus māximīs
  adfēcit clādibus. Aggressus est Britannōs, īgnōtōs anteā,
  superātīsque[6] pecūniās et obsidēs imperāvit. Hīc[7] cum[8] multa
  Rōmānōrum mīlitum īnsīgnia nārrantur, tum[8] illud[9] ēgregium ipsīus
  Caesaris, quod, nūtante in fugam exercitū, raptō fugientis ē manū
  scūtō in prīmam volitāns aciem proelium restituit. Īdem aliō      {76}
  proeliō legiōnis aquiliferum ineundae fugae causā iam[10] conversum
  faucibus comprehēnsum[11] in contrāriam partem dētrāxit dextramque
    [[90]]
  ad hostem tendēns “Quōrsum tū” inquit “abīs? Illīc sunt,
  cum quibus dīmicāmus.” Quā adhortātiōne omnium legiōnum           {80}
  trepidātiōnem corrēxit vincīque parātās vincere docuit.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 53.]

  [Sidenote: B.C. 49.]

  Interfectō intereā apud Parthōs Crassō et dēfūnctā Iūliā,
  Caesaris fīliā, quae, nūpta Pompēiō, generī socerīque concordiam
  tenēbat,[1] statim aemulātiō ērūpit. Iam prīdem Pompēiō
  sūspectae[2] Caesaris opēs et Caesarī Pompēiāna dīgnitās gravis,  {85}
  nec hīc[3] ferēbat parem, nec ille[3] superiōrem. Itaque cum
  Caesar in Galliā dētinērētur, et, nē imperfectō bellō discēderet,
  pōstulāsset ut sibi licēret, quamvīs absentī,[4] alterum cōnsulātum
  petere, ā senātū, suādentibus Pompēiō ēiusque amīcīs, negātum eī
  est. Hanc iniūriam acceptam vindicātūrus[5] in Ītaliam rediit et  {90}
  bellandum[6] ratus cum exercitū Rubicōnem flūmen, quī[7]
  prōvinciae ēius fīnis erat, trānsiit. Hōc ad flūmen paulum
  cōnstitisse fertur ac reputāns quantum mōlīrētur, conversus ad
  proximōs, “Etiamnunc” inquit “regredī possumus; quod sī ponticulum
  trānsierimus, omnia armīs agenda erunt.” Postrēmō autem           {95}
  “Iacta ālea estō!” exclāmāns exercitum trāicī iussit plūrimīsque
  urbibus occupātīs Brundisium contendit, quō Pompēius cōnsulēsque
  cōnfūgerant.

  Quī cum inde in Ēpīrum trāiēcissent, Caesar, eōs secūtus ā        {99}
  Brundisiō, Dyrrachium inter[8] oppositās classēs gravissimā hieme
  trānsmīsit; cōpiīsque[9] quās subsequī iusserat diūtius cessantibus,
  cum ad eās arcessendās frūstrā mīsisset, mīrae audāciae facinus
    [[91]]
  ēdidit. Morae enim impatiēns castrīs noctū ēgreditur, clam
  nāviculam cōnscendit, obvolūtō capite, nē āgnōscerētur, et quamquam
  mare saevā tempestāte intumēscēbat, in altum tamen prōtinus      {105}
  dīrigī nāvigium iubet et, gubernātōre trepidante, “Quid timēs?”
  inquit “Caesarem vehis!” neque prius[1] gubernātōrem cēdere
  adversae tempestātī passus est, quam[1] paene obrutus esset[1]
  fluctibus.

  [Sidenote: B.C. 48.]

  Deinde Caesar in Ēpīrum profectus Pompēium Pharsālicō            {110}
  proeliō fūdit, et fugientem persecūtus, ut occīsum cōgnōvit,
  Ptolemaeō rēgī, Pompēiī interfectōrī, ā quō sibi quoque
  īnsidiās tendī vidēret, bellum intulit; quō victō in Pontum
  trānsiit Pharnacemque, Mithridātis fīlium, rebellantem et        {114}
  multiplicī successū[2] praeferōcem intrā[3] quīntum ab adventū diem,
  quattuor, quibus[4] in cōnspectum vēnit, hōrīs[4] ūnā prōflīgāvit
  aciē, mōre fulminis, quod ūnō eōdemque mōmentō vēnit, percussit,
  abscessit. Nec vāna dē sē praedicātiō est Caesaris ante
  victum hostem esse quam vīsum.[5] Ponticō[6] posteā triumphō
  trium verbōrum praetulit titulum: “Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī.” Deinde     {120}
  Scīpiōnem[7] et Iubam, Numidiae rēgem, reliquiās Pompēiānārum
  partium in Āfricā refoventēs, dēvīcit.[8]

  Victōrem Āfricānī bellī Gāium Caesarem gravius excēpit Hispāniēnse,
  quod Cn. Pompēius, Māgnī[9] fīlius, adulēscēns fortissimus,
  ingēns ac terribile cōnflāverat, undique ad eum auxiliīs[10]     {125}
  paternī nōminis māgnitūdinem sequentium[11] ex tōtō orbe
      cōnfluentibus.
    [[92]]
  Sua[1] Caesarem in Hispāniam comitāta fortūna est: sed
  nūllum umquam atrōcius perīculōsiusque ab eō initum proelium,
  adeō ut, plūs[2] quam dubiō Mārte, dēscenderet equō cōnsistēnsque
  ante recēdentem suōrum aciem increpāns fortūnam, quod sē in      {130}
  eum servāsset exitum, dēnūntiāret mīlitibus vēstīgiō sē nōn
  recessūrum; proinde vidērent,[3] quem[4] et quō locō imperātōrem
  dēsertūrī essent. Verēcundiā magis quam virtūte aciēs restitūta est.
  Cn. Pompēius victus et interēmptus est. Caesar, omnium victor,
  regressus in urbem omnibus, quī contrā sē arma tulerant, īgnōvit
  et quīnquiēs triumphāvit.                                        {136}

  Bellīs cīvīlibus cōnfectīs, conversus iam ad ōrdinandum reī
  pūblicae statum fāstōs[5] corrēxit annumque ad cursum sōlis
  accommodāvit, ut trecentōrum sexāgintā quīnque diērum esset
  et, intercalāriō[5] mēnse sublātō, ūnus diēs quārtō quōque[6] annō
  intercalārētur. Iūs labōriōsissimē ac sevērissimē dīxit.         {141}
  Repetundārum[7] convictōs etiam ōrdine senātōriō mōvit. Peregrīnārum
  mercium portōria īnstituit: lēgem[8] praecipuē sūmptuāriam exercuit.
  Dē ōrnandā īnstruendāque urbe, item dē tuendō ampliandōque
  imperiō plūra ac māiōra in diēs dēstinābat: imprīmīs iūs         {145}
  cīvīle ad certum modum redigere[9] atque ex immēnsā lēgum cōpiā
    [[93]]
  optima quaeque et necessāria in paucissimōs cōnferre librōs;
  bibliothēcās Graecās et Latīnās, quās[1] māximās posset, pūblicāre;
  siccāre Pomptīnās palūdēs: viam munīre ā Marī Superō per Apennīnī
  dorsum ad Tiberim ūsque: Dācōs, quī sē in Pontum effūderant,     {150}
  coercēre: mox Parthīs bellum īnferre per Armeniam.

  Haec et alia agentem et meditantem mors praevēnit. Dictātor
  enim in perpetuum creātus agere īnsolentius coepit: senātum ad
  sē venientem sedēns excēpit et quendam, ut adsurgeret monentem,  {154}
  īrātō vultū respexit. Cum Antōnius,[2] Caesaris in omnibus bellīs
  comes et tunc cōnsulātūs conlēga, capitī ēius in sellā aureā sedentis
  prō rōstrīs diadēma, īnsīgne rēgium, imposuisset, id ita ab eō
  est repulsum, ut nōn offēnsus vidērētur. Quārē coniūrātum in
  eum est ā[3] sexāgintā amplius virīs, Cassiō et Brūtō ducibus    {159}
  cōnspīrātiōnis, dēcrētumque eum Īdibus Mārtiīs in senātū cōnfodere.

  [Sidenote: March 15, B.C. 44.]

  Plūrima indicia futūrī perīculī obtulerant diī immortālēs. Uxor
  Calpurnia, territa nocturnō vīsū, ut Īdibus Mārtiīs domī subsisteret
  ōrābat et Spūrinna harūspex praedīxerat[4] ut proximōs diēs
  trīgintā quasi fātālēs cavēret, quōrum ultimus erat Īdūs Mārtiae.
  Hōc igitur diē Caesar Spūrinnae “Ecquid scīs” inquit “Īdūs       {165}
  Mārtiās iam vēnisse?” et is “Ecquid scīs illās nōndum praeterīsse?”
  Atque cum Caesar eō diē in senātum vēnisset, adsīdentem
  cōnspīrātī speciē[5] officiī circumstetērunt īlicōque ūnus, quasi
  aliquid rogātūrus, propius accessit renuentīque[6] ab[7] utrōque
  umerō togam apprehendit. Deinde clāmantem “Ista quidem           {170}
  vīs est!” Casca, ūnus ē coniūrātīs, adversum[8] vulnerat paulum
    [[94]]
  īnfrā iugulum. Caesar Cascae bracchium adreptum graphiō trāiēcit
  cōnātusque prōsilīre aliō vulnere tardātus est. Dein ut
  animadvertit undique sē strictīs pugiōnibus petī,[1] togā caput
  obvolvit et ita tribus et vīgintī plāgīs cōnfossus est. Cum      {175}
  Mārcum Brūtum, quem fīliī locō habēbat in sē inruentem vīdisset,
  dīxisse fertur: “Tū quoque, mī fīlī!”

    [Illustration: THE DEATH OF CAESAR]

  Illud inter omnēs ferē cōnstitit tālem eī mortem paene ex
  sententiā obtigisse.[2] Nam et quondam cum apud Xenophōntem
  lēgisset Cȳrum ultimā valētūdine mandāsse quaedam dē fūnere      {180}
  suō, āspernātus tam lentum mortis genus subitam sibi celeremque
    [[95]]
  optāverat, et prīdiē quam occīderētur, in sermōne nātō super
  cēnam quisnam esset fīnis vītae commodissimus, repentīnum
  inopīnātumque praetulerat. Percussōrum autem neque trienniō
  quisquam amplius supervīxit neque suā[1] morte dēfūnctus est.    {185}
  Damnātī omnēs alius aliō cāsū periērunt, pars naufragiō, pars
  proeliō; nōnnūllī sēmet eōdem illō pugiōne, quō Caesarem violāverant,
  interēmērunt.

  Quō[2] rārior in rēgibus et prīncipibus virīs moderātiō, hōc
  laudanda magis est. C. Iūlius Caesar victōriā cīvīlī[3]          {190}
  clēmentissimē ūsus est; cum enim scrīnia dēprehendisset epistulārum
  ad Pompēium missārum ab iīs, quī[4] vidēbantur aut in dīversīs
  aut in neutrīs fuisse partibus, legere nōluit, sed combūssit, nē[5]
  forte in multōs gravius cōnsulendī locum darent. Cicerō hanc     {194}
  laudem eximiam Caesarī tribuit, quod nihil oblivīscī solēret nisi
  iniūriās. Simultātēs omnēs, occāsiōne oblātā, libēns dēposuit.
  Ultrō ac prior scrīpsit C. Calvō post fāmōsa ēius adversum sē
  epigrammata. Valerium Catullum, cūius[6] versiculīs fāmam suam
  lacerātam nōn īgnōrābat, adhibuit cēnae. C. Memmiī suffrāgātor
  in petītiōne cōnsulātūs fuit, etsī asperrimās fuisse ēius in sē  {200}
  ōrātiōnēs sciēbat.

  Fuisse trāditur excelsā statūrā,[7] ōre[7] paulō[8] plēniōre, nigrīs
  vegetīsque oculīs,[7] capite[7] calvō; quam calvitiī dēfōrmitātem,
  quod saepe obtrēctātōrum iocīs obnoxia erat, aegrē ferēbat. Ideō
  ex omnibus dēcrētīs sibi ā senātū populōque honōribus nōn alium  {205}
  aut recēpit aut ūsūrpāvit libentius quam iūs laureae[9] perpetuō
    [[96]]
  gestandae. Vīnī[1] parcissimum eum fuisse nē inimīcī quidem
  negāvērunt. Verbum Catōnis est ūnum ex omnibus Caesarem
  ad ēvertendam rem pūblicam sōbrium accessisse. Armōrum et
  equitandī perītissimus, labōris ultrā fidem patiēns; in āgmine   {210}
  nōnnumquam equō, saepius pedibus anteībat, capite dētēctō, seu
  sōl, seu imber erat. Longissimās viās incrēdibilī celeritāte
  cōnficiēbat, ut[2] persaepe nūntiōs dē sē praevenīret: neque eum
  morābantur flūmina, quae vel nandō vel innīxus īnflātīs utribus
  trāiciēbat.                                                      {215}

    [Footnotes: XXVII (pages 86-96)

    86.8: See Vocab., _Iūlius_.
    86.9: ablative of source.
    86.10: Cf. p. 73, n. 1.
    86.11: i.e. Sulla.
    86.12: #neque potuit#: ‘_but_ he was not able.’
    86.13: _ēlābor_.
    87.1: #quārtānae# (sc. _febris_) #. . . labōrābat#: ‘he was
    suffering from intermittent fever.’ #morbō# is abl. of cause.
    87.2: #prope . . . noctēs#: ‘almost every night.’
    87.3: #nē . . . ēvāsit#: ‘he barely, by giving money, escaped
    being surrendered to Sulla.’ #nē . . . perdūcerētur# expresses the
    purpose of #datā pecūniā#.
    87.4: Cf. p. xxiii, K 8.
    87.5: = a rel. clause (cf. p. xxiv, L 1): ‘who pleaded (for
    Caesar)’; lit., ‘who sought to beg him off.’
    87.6: For the subjunctive, see p. 63, n. 5. Sulla said: _Vincite,
    dummodo sciātis_, etc. Translate #prōclāmāsse . . . scīrent# thus:
    ‘cried out (bidding them) have their way, but at the same time to
    (lit. provided they) realize.’
    87.7: See H 587 (513, I): M 920: A 314: G 573: B 310.
    87.8: ‘oratory.’
    87.9: _prope abesse_ = ‘to be near by,’ is a common idiom.
    88.1: See Vocab., _Hispānia_.
    88.2: i.e. even in so insignificant a place.
    88.3: = _quod avidus erat_.
    88.4: #aliīs rēbus#: ‘under other circumstances,’ ‘otherwise.’ For
    the case, see p. 27, n. 3.
    88.5: The subjunctive here = an imperative: see p. 31, n. 9. Note
    also that #colās# is an example of the indefinite or universal
    second person, since the command is addressed, not to any
    particular individual, but to any one and every one.
    88.6: #lūdōs ēdidit#: ‘he celebrated games.’ On the magnificence
    of the games which the Aediles gave depended very largely their
    chance of promotion to the higher offices.
    88.7: ‘whereby’; abl. of means.
    88.8: #sibi . . . sēstertium#: with #mīlliēs# sc. _centēna mīlia_,
    and take #sēstertium# as gen. plural from _sēstertius_, and
    dependent on _mīlia_. Translate: ‘that he needed 100,000,000
    sesterces,’ i.e. about $4,000,000. See Vocab., _sēstertius_.
    88.9: #societātem . . . iūnxit#: this combination is called ‘The
    First Triumvirate.’
    89.1: #sī . . . sīgnārent#: an instance of the iterative
    subjunctive (p. 45, n. 2) = ‘whenever they affixed their seals as
    witnesses.’
    89.2: #cōnsulibus . . . Bibulō#: for this way of dating events,
    see XIV, 1.
    89.3: Sc. _esse_.
    89.4: #fūnctus# (_fungor_) = _postquam fūnctus est_.
    89.5: Cf. p. xvii, C 2.
    89.6: Sc. _eīs_, as dat. of indirect object with #imperāvit#.
    Caesar’s operations were confined to the southern portion of Great
    Britain.
    89.7: = _Hōc tempore_, i.e. during this campaign. The language of
    this whole sentence is somewhat loose. The writer begins as if he
    were going to say: _Hīc, cum . . . nārrantur, tum Caesarem ipsum
    ēgregium fēcisse nārrant_, but changes the construction at #tum#.
    89.8: #cum . . . tum#: cf. p. 67, n. 7.
    89.9: #illud# is explained by the clause #quod . . . restituit#.
    The episode occurred in one of Caesar’s Gallic campaigns, not, as
    here stated, in Britain. It is related in the second book of
    Caesar’s _Gallic War_. Cf. also Longfellow’s _Courtship of Miles
    Standish_, II.
    89.10: #iam conversum# = _quī iam conversus erat_.
    89.11: #comprehēnsum . . . dētrāxit# = _comprehendit et . . .
    dētrāxit_.
    90.1: ‘preserved.’
    90.2: Sc. _erant_; also _erat_ with #gravis#. Through the
    influence of #iam prīdem# both verbs have the force of Eng.
    pluperfects: H 535, 1 (469, 2): M 738: A 277, _b_: G 234:
    B 260, 4.
    90.3: Point out the chiasmus (p. 21, n. 15) in #Caesaris . . .
    superiōrem#.
    90.4: The law required a candidate to give notice of his candidacy
    in person at Rome within seventeen days of the election. Caesar
    desired to stand for the consulship in 49 B.C.
    90.5: Cf. p. xviii, E 5.
    90.6: #bellandum# (sc. _esse_): an impersonal passive: ‘that war
    was necessary.’
    90.7: #quī . . . erat#: this river also formed the boundary
    between Italy proper and Cisalpine Gaul; hence by crossing it
    Caesar put himself in a position of open hostility to the
    government.
    90.8: = _per_, ‘through the midst of.’
    90.9: #cōpiīs . . . cēssantibus#: causal abl. abs.: ‘when, because
    his forces . . . tarried too long, he had sent,’ etc.
    91.1: Cf. p. xx, G 4.
    91.2: abl. both of cause and means. Join with #praeferōcem#.
    91.3: #intrā . . . vēnit#: ‘within four days of his arrival (and)
    within four hours after he caught sight of him.’
    91.4: See p. xvii, C 2.
    91.5: Strictly, we ought to have _ante victum esse quam vīsus
    esset_, the subjunctive being due to the indirect discourse.
    Caesar said: _ante victus est quam vīsus_ (_est_). The infinitive
    #vīsum# (_esse_) is due to attraction of the neighboring
    infinitive #victum esse#.
    91.6: #Ponticō . . . triumphō#: i.e. the procession in which he
    celebrated his victory in Pontus. #triumphō# is dat. with
    #praetulit#.
    91.7: Q. Metellus Pius Scipio, father-in-law of Pompey.
    91.8: at Thapsus, 46 B.C.
    91.9: Cf. XXVI, 49.
    91.10: #auxiliīs . . . cōnfluentibus#: the abl. abs. denotes both
    cause and attendant circumstance.
    91.11: = _eōrum quī sequēbantur_. Cf. _volentibus_, XIII, 97.
    92.1: ‘His own,’ i.e. his usual.
    92.2: #plūs . . . Mārte#: ‘since the battle was more than
    doubtful.’ The battle was fought at Munda, 45 B.C.
    92.3: Cf. p. 63, n. 5.
    92.4: = _quālem_. So #quō# = _quālī_.
    92.5: #fāstōs corrēxit#: In III, 22, it is stated that Numa
    divided the year into twelve months according to the course of the
    moon. This year contained only 355 days. In order, therefore, to
    make the months coincide with the seasons to which they belong,
    Numa ordered that every two years an extra month, called a _mēnsis
    intercalāris_, should be added. These intercalary months were
    inserted after February 23d, and contained alternately 22 and 23
    days. This arrangement made the average length of the year 366-1/4
    days. A further cause of confusion was the fact that the
    Pontifices, who had charge of the calendar, often, for political
    reasons, omitted the intercalary month. In Caesar’s time the error
    amounted to about three months. The calendar arranged by him is
    almost identical with that in use to-day.
    92.6: from _quisque_: ‘each,’ ‘every.’
    92.7: Sc. _rērum_. _rēs repetundae_ was a technical term for
    ‘extortion.’ For the gen., see p. 36, n. 8.
    92.8: A _lēx sumptuāria_ was a law regulating the sums of money
    which might be spent for various purposes. Caesar attempted
    especially to check extravagance in dress and at banquets.
    92.9: The infinitives in lines 146-151 are used because the
    clauses in which they stand are in apposition to _plūra ac
    māiōra_, l. 144. See p. 86, n. 5.
    93.1: #quās . . . pūblicāre#: ‘to throw open to the public as
    large libraries as possible.’
    93.2: The celebrated Mark Antony.
    93.3: #ā . . . virīs#: ‘by more than sixty men.’ For the case of
    #virīs#, see p. 10, n. 18.
    93.4: ‘had warned him,’ _not_ ‘had predicted’: hence it may be
    construed with a substantive clause of purpose (#ut . . .
    cavēret#) as its object.
    93.5: #speciē officiī#: ‘under pretense of doing him honor.’ Cf.
    _per speciem vēnandī_, XIX, 60.
    93.6: Sc. _eī_: dat. of interest.
    93.7: ‘by’; cf. p. 11, n. 10.
    93.8: #adversum# (sc. _eum_) #vulnerat#: ‘wounds him in front.’
    The wound was in the shoulder. For #adversum# as = an adverbial
    phrase, cf. p. 4, n. 4.
    94.1: ‘assailed.’
    94.2: _obtingō_.
    95.1: #suā morte#: ‘a natural death’; an ablative of manner.
    95.2: #Quō rārior . . . hōc laudanda magis#: ‘The rarer . . . the
    more praiseworthy.’ #Quō# and #hōc# are ablative of the degree of
    difference (a variety of the ablative of means): cf. p. 39, n. 12.
    95.3: i.e. over his fellow-citizens.
    95.4: #quī . . . partibus#: ‘who had apparently belonged,’ etc.
    How literally? With #dīversīs# sc. _Pompēiō_.
    95.5: #nē . . . darent#: ‘that they might not by any chance give
    occasion to vigorous measures,’ etc.
    95.6: #cūius . . . īgnōrābat#: ‘by whose verses, as he very well
    knew, his own fair fame had been wounded.’
    95.7: ablatives of characteristic.
    95.8: #paulō plēniōre#: ‘somewhat full.’
    95.9: Sc. _corōnae_, and cf. the frequent omission of _manus_ with
    _dextra_ and _sinistra_.
    96.1: #Vīnī parcissimum#: cf. _Cibī vīnīque temperāns, somnī
    parcus_, XXVI, 21, and note.
    96.2: #ut . . . praevenīret# expresses result, not purpose.]


#XXVIII. Marcus Tullius Cicero# [[stripped text]]

Marcus Tullius Cicero, equestri genere, Arpini, quod est Volscorum
oppidum, natus est. Ex eius avis unus verrucam in extremo naso sitam
habuit, ciceris grano similem; inde cognomen Ciceronis genti inditum.
Suadentibus quibusdam ut id nomen mutaret, “Dabo operam” inquit “ut
istud cognomen nobilissimorum nominum splendorem vincat.” Cum a patre
Romam missus, ubi celeberrimorum magistrorum scholis interesset, eas
artes disceret, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem solet informari,
tanto successu tantaque cum praeceptorum tum ceterorum discipulorum
admiratione id fecit, ut, cum fama de Ciceronis ingenio et doctrina ad
alios manasset, non pauci, qui eius videndi et audiendi gratia scholas
adirent, reperti esse dicantur.

Cum nulla re magis ad summos in re publica honores viam muniri posse
intellegeret quam arte dicendi et eloquentia, toto animo in eius studium
incubuit, in quo quidem ita versatus est, ut non solum eos, qui in Foro
et iudiciis causas perorarent, studiose sectaretur, sed privatim quoque
diligentissime se exerceret. Primum eloquentiam et libertatem adversus
Sullanos ostendit. Nam cum Roscium quendam, parricidii accusatum, ob
Chrysogoni, Sullae liberti, qui in eius adversariis erat, potentiam nemo
defendere auderet, tanta eloquentiae vi eum defendit Cicero, ut iam tum
in arte dicendi nullus ei par esse videretur. Ex quo invidiam veritus
Athenas studiorum gratia petiit, ubi Antiochum philosophum studiose
audivit. Inde eloquentiae causa Rhodum se contulit, ubi Molonem, Graecum
rhetorem tum disertissimum, magistrum habuit. Qui cum Ciceronem dicentem
audivisset, flevisse dicitur, quod per hunc Graecia eloquentiae laude
privaretur.

Romam reversus quaestor Siciliam habuit. Nullius vero quaestura aut
gratior aut clarior fuit; cum magna tum esset annonae difficultas,
initio molestus erat Siculis, quos cogeret frumenta in urbem mittere;
postea vero, diligentiam et iustitiam et comitatem eius experti, maiores
quaestori suo honores quam ulli umquam praetori detulerunt. E Sicilia
reversus Romam in causis dicendis ita floruit, ut inter omnes causarum
patronos et esset et haberetur princeps.

Consul deinde factus L. Sergii Catilinae coniurationem singulari
virtute, constantia, cura compressit. Catilinae proavum, M. Sergium,
incredibili fortitudine fuisse Plinius refert. Stipendia is fecit
secundo bello Punico. Secundo stipendio dextram manum perdidit:
stipendiis duobus ter et vicies vulneratus est: ob id neutra manu,
neutro pede satis utilis, plurimisque postea stipendiis debilis miles
erat. Bis ab Hannibale captus, bis vinculorum eius profugus, viginti
mensibus nullo non die in catenis aut compedibus custoditus. Sinistra
manu sola quater pugnavit, duobus equis, insidente eo, suffossis.
Dextram sibi ferream fecit eaque religata proeliatus Cremonam obsidione
exemit, Placentiam tutatus est, duodena castra hostium in Gallia cepit.
Ceteri profecto, Plinius addit, victores hominum fuere, Sergius vicit
etiam fortunam.

Singularem huius viri gloriam foede dehonestavit pronepotis scelus. Hic
enim rei familiaris, quam profuderat, inopia multorumque scelerum
conscientia in furorem actus et dominandi cupiditate incensus
indignatusque, quod in petitione consulatus repulsam passus esset,
coniuratione facta senatum confodere, consules trucidare, urbem
incendere, diripere aerarium constituerat. Actum erat de pulcherrimo
imperio, nisi illa coniuratio in Ciceronem et Antonium consules
incidisset, quorum alter industria rem patefecit, alter manu oppressit.
Cum Cicero, habito senatu, in praesentem reum perorasset, Catilina,
incendium suum ruina se restincturum esse minitans, Roma profugit et ad
exercitum, quem paraverat, proficiscitur, signa inlaturus urbi. Sed
socii eius, qui in urbe remanserant, comprehensi in carcere necati sunt.
A. Fulvius, vir senatorii ordinis, filium, iuvenem et ingenio et forma
inter aequales nitentem, pravo consilio Catilinae amicitiam secutum
inque castra eius ruentem, ex medio itinere retractum supplicio mortis
adfecit, praefatus non se Catilinae illum adversus patriam, sed patriae
adversus Catilinam genuisse.

Neque eo magis ab incepto Catilina destitit, sed infestis signis Romam
petens Antonii exercitu opprimitur. Quam atrociter dimicatum sit exitus
docuit: nemo hostium bello superfuit; quem quisque in pugnando ceperat
locum, eum amissa anima tegebat. Catilina longe a suis inter hostium
cadavera repertus est: pulcherrima morte, si pro patria sic concidisset!
Senatus populusque Romanus Ciceronem patrem patriae appellavit. Cicero
ipse in oratione pro Sulla palam praedicat consilium patriae servandae
fuisse iniectum sibi a diis, cum Catilina coniurasset adversus eam.
“O dii immortales,” inquit “vos profecto incendistis tum animum meum
cupiditate conservandae patriae. Vos avocastis me a cogitationibus
omnibus ceteris et convertistis ad salutem unam patriae. Vos denique
praetulistis menti meae clarissimum lumen in tenebris tantis erroris et
inscientiae. Tribuam enim vobis, quae sunt vestra. Nec vero possum
tantum dare ingenio meo, ut dispexerim sponte mea in tempestate illa
turbulentissima rei publicae, quid esset optimum factu.”

Paucis post annis Ciceroni diem dixit Clodius tribunus plebis, quod
cives Romanos indicta causa necavisset. Senatus maestus, tamquam in
publico luctu, veste mutata pro eo deprecabatur. Cicero, cum posset
armis salutem suam defendere, maluit urbe cedere quam sua causa caedem
fieri. Proficiscentem omnes boni flentes prosecuti sunt. Dein Clodius
edictum proposuit ut Marco Tullio igni et aqua interdiceretur: illius
domum et villas incendit. Sed vis illa non diuturna fuit, mox enim totus
fere populus Romanus ingenti desiderio Ciceronis reditum flagitare
coepit et maximo omnium ordinum studio Cicero in patriam revocatus est.
Nihil per totam vitam Ciceroni itinere, quo in patriam rediit, accidit
iucundius. Obviam ei redeunti ab universis itum est: domus eius publica
pecunia restituta est.

Gravissimae illa tempestate inter Caesarem et Pompeium ortae sunt
inimicitiae, ut res nisi bello dirimi non posse videretur. Cicero quidem
summo studio enitebatur ut eos inter se reconciliaret et a belli civilis
calamitatibus deterreret, sed cum neutrum ad pacem ineundam permovere
posset, Pompeium secutus est. Sed victo Pompeio, a Caesare victore
veniam ultro accepit. Quo interfecto Octavianum, Caesaris heredem,
fovit, Antonium impugnavit effecitque ut a senatu hostis iudicaretur.

Sed Antonius, inita cum Octaviano societate, Ciceronem iam diu sibi
inimicum proscripsit. Qua re audita, Cicero transversis itineribus in
villam, quae a mari proxime aberat, fugit indeque navem conscendit, in
Macedoniam transiturus. Unde aliquotiens in altum provectum cum modo
venti adversi rettulissent, modo ipse iactationem maris pati non posset,
taedium tandem eum et fugae et vitae cepit regressusque ad villam
“Moriar” inquit “in patria saepe servata.” Satis constat, adventantibus
percussoribus, servos fortiter fideliterque paratos fuisse ad
dimicandum, ipsum deponi lecticam et quietos pati, quod sors iniqua
cogeret, iussisse. Prominenti ex lectica et immotam cervicem praebenti
caput praecisum est. Manus quoque abscissae; caput relatum est ad
Antonium eiusque iussu cum dextra manu in rostris positum.

Quamdiu res publica Romana per eos gerebatur, quibus se ipsa commiserat,
in eam curas cogitationesque fere omnes suas conferebat Cicero et plus
operae ponebat in agendo quam in scribendo. Cum autem dominatu unius
C. Iulii Caesaris omnia tenerentur, non se angoribus dedidit nec
indignis homine docto voluptatibus. Fugiens conspectum Fori urbisque
rura peragrabat abdebatque se, quantum licebat, et solus erat. Nihil
agere autem cum animus non posset, existimavit honestissime molestias
posse deponi, si se ad philosophiam rettulisset, cui adulescens multum
temporis tribuerat, et omne studium curamque convertit ad scribendum:
atque ut civibus etiam otiosus aliquid prodesse posset, elaboravit ut
doctiores fierent et sapientiores, pluraque brevi tempore, eversa re
publica, scripsit, quam multis annis ea stante scripserat. Sic facundiae
et Latinarum litterarum parens evasit paruitque virorum sapientium
praecepto, qui docent non solum ex malis eligere minima oportere, sed
etiam excerpere ex his ipsis, si quid insit boni.

Multa exstant facete ab eo dicta. Cum Lentulum, generum suum, exiguae
staturae hominem, vidisset longo gladio accinctum, “Quis” inquit
“generum meum ad gladium adligavit?”--Matrona quaedam iuniorem se, quam
erat, simulans dictitabat se triginta tantum annos habere; cui Cicero
“Verum est,” inquit “nam hoc viginti annos audio.”--Caesar, altero
consule mortuo die Decembris ultima, Caninium consulem hora septima in
reliquam diei partem renuntiaverat; quem cum plerique irent salutatum de
more, “Festinemus” inquit Cicero “priusquam abeat magistratu.” De eodem
Caninio scripsit Cicero: “Fuit mirifica vigilantia Caninius, qui toto
suo consulatu somnum non viderit.”


  #XXVIII. Mārcus Tullius Cicerō# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: CICERŌ]

  Mārcus Tullius Cicerō, equestrī genere, Arpīnī,
  quod est Volscōrum oppidum, nātus est. Ex ēius
  avīs[3] ūnus verrūcam[4] in extrēmō nāsō[5] sitam
  habuit, ciceris[6] grānō similem; inde cōgnōmen
  Cicerōnis gentī inditum. Suādentibus quibusdam                     {5}
  ut id nōmen mūtāret, “Dabō operam”
  inquit “ut istud cōgnōmen nōbilissimōrum
  nōminum splendōrem vincat.” Cum ā patre
  Rōmam missus, ubi[7] celeberrimōrum magistrōrum
  scholīs interesset, eās artēs dīsceret, quibus aetās puerīlis ad  {10}
  hūmānitātem[8] solet īnfōrmārī, tantō successū tantāque cum
  praeceptōrum tum cēterōrum dīscipulōrum admīrātiōne id fēcit, ut,
  cum fāma dē Cicerōnis ingeniō et doctrīnā ad aliōs mānāsset,[9]
  nōn paucī, quī ēius videndī et audiendī grātiā scholās adīrent,
  repertī esse dīcantur.                                            {15}

  Cum nūllā rē magis ad summōs in rē pūblicā honōrēs viam
  mūnīrī posse intellegeret quam arte dīcendī et ēloquentiā, tōtō
    [[97]]
  animō in ēius studium incubuit,[1] in quō quidem ita versātus[2] est,
  ut nōn sōlum eōs, quī in Forō et iūdiciīs[3] causās perōrārent,[4]
  studiōsē sectārētur,[5] sed prīvātim quoque dīligentissimē sē     {20}
  exercēret. Prīmum ēloquentiam et lībertātem[6] adversus Sullānōs
  ostendit. Nam cum Rōscium quendam, parricīdiī accūsātum, ob
  Chrȳsogonī, Sullae lībērtī,[7] quī in ēius adversāriīs erat, potentiam
  nēmō dēfendere audēret, tantā ēloquentiae vī eum dēfendit Cicerō,
  ut iam tum in arte dīcendī nūllus eī pār esse vidērētur. Ex quō   {25}
  invidiam veritus[8] Athēnās studiōrum grātiā petiit, ubi Antiochum
  philosophum studiōsē audīvit. Inde ēloquentiae causā Rhodum
  sē contulit, ubi Molōnem, Graecum rhētorem tum disertissimum,[9]
  magistrum habuit. Quī cum Cicerōnem dīcentem audīvisset,
  flēvisse dīcitur, quod per hunc Graecia ēloquentiae laude         {30}
  prīvārētur.[10]

  Rōmam reversus quaestor Siciliam habuit. Nūllīus vērō quaestūra
  aut grātior aut clārior fuit; cum māgna tum esset annōnae[11]
  difficultās, initiō molestus erat Siculīs, quōs cōgeret frūmenta in
  urbem mittere; posteā vērō, dīligentiam et iūstitiam et cōmitātem[12]
  ēius expertī,[13] māiōrēs quaestōrī suō honōrēs quam ūllī         {36}
  umquam praetōrī dētulērunt. Ē Siciliā reversus Rōmam in causīs
  dīcendīs ita flōruit, ut inter omnēs causārum patrōnōs[14] et esset
  et habērētur prīnceps.

  Cōnsul deinde factus L. Sergiī Catilīnae coniūrātiōnem singulārī  {40}
  virtūte, cōnstantiā, cūrā compressit.[15] Catilīnae proavum,[16]
  M. Sergium, incrēdibilī fortitūdine fuisse Plīnius refert.
      Stīpendia[17]
  is fēcit secundō bellō Pūnicō. Secundō stīpendiō[18] dextram      {43}
  manum perdidit: stīpendiīs[18] duōbus ter et vīciēs vulnerātus est:
  ob id neutrā manū, neutrō pede satis ūtilis, plūrimīsque[19] posteā
    [[98]]
  stīpendiīs dēbilis[1] mīles erat. Bis ab Hannibale captus, bis[2]
  vinculōrum ēius profugus, vīgintī mēnsibus nūllō[3] nōn diē in
  catēnīs[4] aut compedibus[5] cūstōdītus. Sinistrā manū sōlā quater
  pūgnāvit, duōbus equīs, īnsidente eō, suffossīs.[6] Dextram sibi
  ferream fēcit eāque religātā[7] proeliātus Cremōnam obsidiōne     {50}
  exēmit, Placentiam tūtātus est, duodēna castra hostium in Galliā
  cēpit. Cēterī profectō, Plīnius addit, victōrēs hominum fuēre,
  Sergius vīcit etiam fortūnam.

  Singulārem hūius virī glōriam foedē dehonestāvit pronepōtis[8]
  scelus. Hīc enim reī familiāris, quam profūderat, inopiā          {55}
  multōrumque scelerum cōnscientiā in furōrem āctus et dominandī
  cupiditāte incēnsus indīgnātusque, quod in petītiōne cōnsulātūs
  repulsam[9] passus esset, coniūrātiōne factā senātum cōnfodere,
  cōnsulēs trucīdāre,[10] urbem incendere, dīripere aerārium
      cōnstituerat.
  Āctum[11] erat dē pulcherrimō imperiō, nisi illa coniūrātiō       {60}
  in[12] Cicerōnem et Antōnium cōnsulēs incidisset, quōrum alter[13]
  indūstriā rem patefēcit, alter manū[14] oppressit. Cum Cicerō,
  habitō senātū, in praesentem reum[15] perōrāsset, Catilīna, incendium
  suum ruīnā[16] sē restinctūrum esse minitāns, Rōmā profūgit
  et ad exercitum, quem parāverat, proficīscitur, sīgna inlātūrus   {65}
  urbī. Sed sociī ēius, quī in urbe remānserant, comprehēnsī in
  carcere necātī sunt. A. Fulvius, vir senātōriī ōrdinis, fīlium,
  iuvenem et ingeniō et fōrmā inter aequālēs nitentem,[17] prāvō
  cōnsiliō Catilīnae amīcitiam secūtum inque castra ēius ruentem,
  ex mediō itinere retrāctum suppliciō mortis adfēcit, praefātus[18]
  nōn sē Catilīnae illum adversus patriam, sed patriae adversus     {71}
  Catilīnam genuisse.[19]

    [[99]]
  Neque eō magis ab inceptō Catilīna dēstitit, sed īnfēstīs sīgnīs
  Rōmam petēns Antōniī exercitū opprimitur. Quam atrōciter
  dīmicātum sit exitus docuit: nēmō hostium bellō superfuit;        {75}
  quem quisque in pūgnandō cēperat locum, eum āmissā animā[1]
  tegēbat. Catilīna longē ā suīs inter hostium cadāvera[2] repertus
  est: pulcherrimā morte,[3] sī prō patriā sīc concidisset! Senātus
  populusque Rōmānus Cicerōnem patrem patriae appellāvit. Cicerō
  ipse in ōrātiōne prō Sullā palam praedicat cōnsilium patriae      {80}
  servandae fuisse iniectum sibi ā diīs, cum Catilīna coniūrāsset
  adversus eam. “Ō diī immortālēs,” inquit “vōs profectō
  incendistis tum animum meum cupiditāte cōnservandae patriae. Vōs
  āvocāstis mē ā cōgitātiōnibus omnibus cēterīs et convertistis ad
  salūtem ūnam patriae. Vōs dēnique praetulistis mentī meae         {85}
  clārissimum lūmen in tenebrīs tantīs errōris et īnscientiae.
  Tribuam enim vōbīs, quae sunt vestra. Nec vērō possum tantum
  dare ingeniō meō, ut[4] dīspexerim sponte meā in tempestāte illā
  turbulentissimā reī pūblicae, quid esset optimum factū.”

  Paucīs post annīs Cicerōnī diem dīxit Clōdius tribūnus plēbis,    {90}
  quod cīvēs Rōmānōs indictā[5] causā necāvisset. Senātus maestus,[6]
  tamquam in pūblicō lūctū, veste[7] mūtātā prō eō dēprecābātur.
  Cicerō, cum posset armīs salūtem suam dēfendere, māluit urbe
  cēdere quam suā causā caedem fierī. Proficīscentem omnēs bonī
  flentēs prōsecūtī sunt. Dein Clōdius ēdictum prōposuit ut Mārcō   {95}
  Tulliō[8] īgnī et aquā interdīcerētur: illīus domum et vīllās
  incendit. Sed vīs illa nōn diuturna fuit, mox enim tōtus ferē populus
  Rōmānus ingentī dēsīderiō Cicerōnis reditum flāgitāre coepit et
  māximō omnium ōrdinum studiō Cicerō in patriam revocātus est.
    [[100]]
  Nihil per tōtam vītam Cicerōnī itinere, quō in patriam rediit,   {100}
  accidit iūcundius. Obviam[1] eī redeuntī ab ūniversīs itum est: domus
  ēius pūblicā pecūniā restitūta est.

  Gravissimae illā tempestāte inter Caesarem et Pompēium ortae
  sunt inimīcitiae, ut rēs[2] nisi bellō dīrimī nōn posse vidērētur.
  Cicerō quidem summō studiō ēnītēbātur[3] ut eōs inter sē reconciliāret
  et ā bellī cīvīlis calamitātibus dēterrēret, sed cum neutrum     {106}
  ad pācem ineundam permovēre posset, Pompēium secūtus est.
  Sed victō Pompēiō, ā Caesare victōre veniam ultrō accēpit. Quō
  interfectō Octāviānum, Caesaris hērēdem, fōvit,[4] Antōnium
  impūgnāvit effēcitque ut ā senātū hostis iūdicārētur.            {110}

  Sed Antōnius, initā cum Octāviānō societāte,[5] Cicerōnem iam
  diū sibi inimīcum prōscrīpsit. Quā rē audītā, Cicerō trānsversīs[6]
  itineribus in vīllam, quae ā marī proximē aberat, fūgit indeque
  nāvem cōnscendit, in Macedoniam trānsitūrus. Unde aliquotiēns
  in altum prōvectum cum modo[7] ventī adversī rettulissent, modo  {115}
  ipse iactātiōnem maris patī nōn posset, taedium[8] tandem eum
  et fugae et vītae cēpit regressusque ad vīllam “Moriar” inquit
  “in patriā saepe servātā.” Satis cōnstat, adventantibus percussōribus,
  servōs fortiter fidēliterque parātōs fuisse ad dīmicandum,
  ipsum dēpōnī lectīcam[9] et quiētōs patī, quod                   {120}
  sors inīqua cōgeret, iussisse. Prōminentī[10]
  ex lectīcā et immōtam cervīcem[11] praebentī[10]
  caput praecīsum est. Manūs quoque abscissae;
  caput relātum est ad Antōnium ēiusque
  iussū cum dextrā manū in rōstrīs positum.                        {125}

    [Illustration: LECTĪCA.]

  Quamdiū rēs pūblica Rōmāna per eōs gerēbātur, quibus sē ipsa
  commīserat, in eam cūrās cōgitātiōnēsque ferē omnēs suās cōnferēbat
    [[101]]
  Cicerō et plūs[1] operae pōnēbat in agendō quam in scrībendō.
  Cum autem dominātū ūnīus C. Iūliī Caesaris omnia tenērentur,
  nōn sē angōribus[2] dēdidit nec indīgnīs homine doctō voluptātibus.
  Fugiēns cōnspectum Forī urbisque rūra peragrābat abdēbatque      {131}
  sē, quantum licēbat, et sōlus erat. Nihil agere autem cum
  animus nōn posset, exīstimāvit honestissimē molestiās posse
  dēpōnī, sī sē ad philosophiam rettulisset, cuī adulēscēns multum
  temporis tribuerat, et omne studium cūramque convertit ad scrībendum:
  atque ut cīvibus etiam ōtiōsus[3] aliquid prōdesse[4] posset,    {136}
  ēlabōrāvit ut doctiōrēs fierent et sapientiōrēs, plūraque brevī
  tempore, ēversā rē pūblicā, scrīpsit, quam multīs annīs eā stante
  scrīpserat. Sīc fācundiae[5] et Latīnārum litterārum parēns      {139}
  ēvāsit[6] pāruitque virōrum sapientium praeceptō, quī docent nōn
  sōlum ex[7] malīs ēligere minima oportēre, sed etiam excerpere[8] ex
  hīs ipsīs, sī quid īnsit bonī.

  Multa exstant facētē[9] ab eō dicta. Cum Lentulum, generum[10]
  suum, exiguae statūrae hominem, vīdisset longō gladiō accinctum,
  “Quis” inquit “generum meum ad gladium adligāvit?”--Mātrōna      {145}
  quaedam iūniōrem sē, quam erat, simulāns dictitābat sē
  trīgintā tantum annōs habēre; cuī Cicerō “Vērum est,” inquit
  “nam hōc vīgintī annōs audiō.”--Caesar, alterō cōnsule mortuō
  diē[11] Decembris ūltimā, Canīnium cōnsulem hōrā septimā in
  reliquam diēī partem renūntiāverat; quem cum plērīque īrent      {150}
  salūtātum dē mōre, “Fēstīnēmus” inquit Cicerō “priusquam abeat
  magistrātū.” Dē eōdem Canīniō scrīpsit Cicerō: “Fuit mīrificā[12]
  vigilantiā Canīnius, quī tōtō suō cōnsulātū somnum nōn
  vīderit.[13]”

    [Footnote: The following selections have been edited for rapid
    reading or reading at sight:]

    [Footnotes: XXVIII (pages 96-101)

    96.3: ‘ancestors.’
    96.4: ‘wart.’
    96.5: ‘nose’; cf. _nasal_.
    96.6: #ciceris grānō#: ‘a tiny chickpea.’
    96.7: = _ut_.
    96.8: ‘culture.’
    96.9: ‘had spread.’
    97.1: ‘applied himself.’
    97.2: ‘engaged.’
    97.3: ‘courts.’
    97.4: ‘pleaded.’
    97.5: ‘followed,’ ‘courted’ (cf. _sequor_).
    97.6: ‘independence.’
    97.7: ‘freedman.’
    97.8: ‘fearing.’
    97.9: ‘most eloquent.’
    97.10: ‘was being deprived.’
    97.11: #annōnae difficultās#: ‘a lack of corn.’
    97.12: ‘courtesy.’
    97.13: ‘having had proof of.’
    97.14: ‘lawyers.’
    97.15: ‘crushed.’
    97.16: ‘great-grandfather.’
    97.17: Cf. XXVII, 19.
    97.18: ‘campaign.’
    97.19: #que# here = ‘but.’
    98.1: ‘_though_ disabled.’
    98.2: #bis . . . profugus# = _bis vincula ēius profūgit_.
    98.3: #nūllō nōn#: ‘every.’
    98.4: ‘chains.’
    98.5: ‘shackles.’
    98.6: ‘slain’; lit., ‘stabbed from below.’
    98.7: ‘fastened’ (to the stump of his arm).
    98.8: ‘great-grandson.’
    98.9: ‘defeat’; a technical term of Roman politics.
    98.10: ‘butcher.’
    98.11: #Āctum erat dē#: ‘it would have been all up with.’
    98.12: #in . . . incidisset#: ‘happened in the days of.’
    98.13: Cicero.
    98.14: ‘prowess.’
    98.15: ‘culprit.’
    98.16: ‘by a general downfall.’
    98.17: ‘conspicuous’; lit., ‘shining.’
    98.18: ‘having first said.’
    98.19: from _gīgnō_, ‘to beget.’
    99.1: ‘life.’
    99.2: ‘corpses.’
    99.3: Sc. _concidisset_.
    99.4: #ut . . . dīspexerim#: ‘(as to say) that I should have of my
    own accord clearly perceived.’
    99.5: #indictā causā#: ‘with their cause unpleaded,’ i.e. without
    giving them a trial.
    99.6: ‘mourning.’
    99.7: #veste mūtātā#: i.e. changing their ordinary attire, which
    was white, for darker robes of mourning.
    99.8: #Tulliō . . . interdīcerētur#: lit., ‘that a ban should be
    laid on Tullius in respect of fire and water,’ i.e. that he should
    be outlawed, and every one forbidden to aid him, even with the
    necessaries of life.
    100.1: #Obviam . . . est#: ‘all went to meet him.’
    100.2: ‘trouble.’
    100.3: ‘strove.’
    100.4: ‘cherished,’ ‘supported.’
    100.5: The reference is to the Second Triumvirate.
    100.6: #trānsversīs itineribus#: i.e. by out of the way paths.
    100.7: #modo . . . modo#: ‘now . . . now.’
    100.8: ‘disgust.’
    100.9: ‘litter,’ ‘sedan chair.’
    100.10: ‘leaning out’; sc. _eī_, dat. of disadvantage with
    #praecīsum est#.
    100.11: ‘neck.’
    101.1: #plūs . . . scrībendō#: ‘he devoted more of his time to
    practical affairs than to literature.’
    101.2: ‘sorrow.’
    101.3: #etiam ōtiōsus#: ‘even though at ease,’ i.e. not burdened
    with official duties. #ōtiōsus# here, as often = _prīvātus_.
    101.4: ‘benefit.’
    101.5: ‘eloquence.’ Sc. #Latīnae#, to be derived from #Latīnārum#.
    101.6: ‘became.’
    101.7: #ex . . . oportēre#: we should say, ‘of two evils choose
    the less.’
    101.8: ‘extract’; lit., ‘pluck.’
    101.9: ‘wittily.’
    101.10: ‘son-in-law.’
    101.11: On this day the consuls went out of office.
    101.12: ‘wondrous.’
    101.13: causal subjunctive.]


#XXIX. Marcus Brutus# [[stripped text]]

M. Brutus, ex illa gente, quae Roma Tarquinios eiecerat, oriundus,
Athenis philosophiam, Rhodi eloquentiam didicit. Eius pater, qui Sullae
partibus adversabatur, iussu Pompei interfectus erat, unde Brutus cum eo
graves gesserat simultates. Bello tamen civili Pompei causam, quod
iustior videretur, secutus dolorem suum rei publicae utilitati
posthabuit. Victo Pompeio Brutus a Caesare servatus est et praetor etiam
factus. Postea vero, cum Caesar superbia elatus senatum contemnere et
regnum adfectare coepisset, populus, praesenti statu haud laetus,
vindicem libertatis requirebat. Subscripsere quidam L. Bruti statuae:
“Utinam viveres!” Item ipsius Caesaris statuae: “Brutus, quia reges
eiecit, primus consul factus est; hic, quia consules eiecit, postremo
rex factus est.” Inscriptum quoque est M. Bruti praetoris tribunali:
“Dormis, Brute!”

Cognita populi Romani voluntate, Brutus adversus Caesarem conspiravit.
Pridie quam Caesar est occisus, Porcia, Bruti uxor, Catonis filia,
consilii conscia, egresso cubiculum Bruto, cultellum tonsorium quasi
unguium resecandorum causa poposcit eoque velut forte elapso se
vulneravit. Clamore deinde ancillarum in cubiculum revocatus obiurgare
eam coepit, quod tonsoris praeripuisset officium. Cui secreto Porcia
“Non est” inquit “hoc temerarium factum meum, sed in tali statu nostro
mei erga te amoris certissimum indicium. Experiri enim volui, si tibi
propositum ex sententia parum cessisset, quam aequo animo me ferro essem
interemptura.” Quibus verbis auditis Brutus ad caelum manus et oculos
sustulisse dicitur et exclamavisse: “Utinam dignus tali coniuge maritus
videri possem!”

Interfecto Caesare, cum Antonius vestem eius sanguinolentam ostentans
populum veluti furore quodam adversus coniuratos inflammasset, Brutus in
Macedoniam concessit ibique apud urbem Philippos adversus Antonium et
Octavianum dimicavit. Victus acie, cum in tumulum se nocte recepisset,
audita Cassii morte, ne in hostium manus veniret, uni ex comitibus latus
transfodiendum praebuit. Antonius Bruti corpus liberto suo sepeliendum
tradidit, quoque honoratius cremaretur, inici ei suum paludamentum
iussit, iacentem non hostem, sed civem deposito existimans odio. Cumque
interceptum a liberto paludamentum comperisset, ira percitus protinus
in eum animadvertit, praefatus: “Quid? tu ignorasti cuius tibi viri
sepulturam commisissem?” Non eadem fuit Octaviani erga Brutum moderatio,
is enim avulsum Bruti caput Romam misit, ut Gai Caesaris statuae
subiceretur. Porcia cum victum et interemptum virum suum cognovisset,
quia ferrum non dabatur, ardentes ore carbones hausit, virilem patris
exitum mulier imitata novo mortis genere.


    [[102]]

  #XXIX. Mārcus Brūtus# [[as printed]]

    [Illustration: BRŪTUS]

  M. Brūtus, ex illā gente, quae Rōmā Tarquiniōs
  ēiēcerat, oriundus,[1] Athēnīs philosophiam,
  Rhodī ēloquentiam didicit. Ēius pater, quī Sullae
  partibus adversābātur, iussū Pompēī interfectus
  erat, unde Brūtus cum eō gravēs gesserat[2]                        {5}
  simultātēs. Bellō tamen cīvīlī Pompēī causam,
  quod iūstior vidērētur, secūtus dolōrem suum reī
  pūblicae ūtilitātī posthabuit. Victō Pompēiō
  Brūtus ā Caesare servātus est et praetor etiam
  factus. Posteā vērō, cum Caesar superbiā ēlātus senātum           {10}
  contemnere et rēgnum adfectāre[3] coepisset, populus, praesentī statū
  haud laetus, vindicem[4] lībērtātis requīrēbat. Subscrīpsēre quīdam
  L. Brūtī[5] statuae: “Utinam[6] vīverēs!” Item ipsīus Caesaris
  statuae: “Brūtus, quia rēgēs ēiēcit, prīmus cōnsul factus         {14}
  est; hīc, quia cōnsulēs ēiēcit, postrēmō rēx factus est.” Īnscrīptum
  quoque est M. Brūtī praetōris tribūnālī: “Dormīs,[7] Brūte!”

  Cōgnitā populī Rōmānī voluntāte, Brūtus adversus Caesarem
  cōnspīrāvit. Prīdiē quam Caesar est occīsus, Porcia, Brūtī uxor,
  Catōnis fīlia, cōnsiliī[8] cōnscia, ēgressō cubiculum[9] Brūtō,   {19}
  cultellum[10] tōnsōrium quasi unguium[11] resecandōrum causā popōscit
  eōque velut forte ēlāpsō sē vulnerāvit. Clāmōre deinde ancillārum[12]
  in cubiculum revocātus obiūrgāre[13] eam coepit, quod tōnsōris
  praeripuisset officium. Cuī sēcrētō Porcia “Nōn est” inquit
  “hōc temerārium[14] factum meum, sed in tālī statū nostrō meī
  ergā tē amōris certissimum indicium. Experīrī enim voluī, sī[15]  {25}
    [[103]]
  tibi prōpositum ex sententiā parum cessisset, quam aequō animō
  mē ferrō essem interēmptūra.” Quibus verbīs audītīs Brūtus ad
  caelum manūs et oculōs sustulisse dīcitur et exclāmāvisse: “Utinam
  dīgnus tālī cōniuge marītus vidērī possem!”

  Interfectō Caesare, cum Antōnius vestem ēius sanguinolentam[1]    {30}
  ostentāns populum velutī furōre quōdam adversus coniūrātōs
  īnflammāsset, Brūtus in Macedoniam concessit ibique apud urbem
  Philippōs adversus Antōnium et Octāviānum dīmicāvit. Victus
  aciē, cum in tumulum[2] sē nocte recēpisset, audītā Cassiī morte,
  nē in hostium manūs venīret, ūnī ex comitibus latus trānsfodiendum
  praebuit. Antōnius Brūtī corpus lībertō suō sepeliendum[3]        {36}
  trādidit, quōque[4] honōrātius cremārētur, inicī eī suum
  palūdāmentum[5] iussit, iacentem[6] nōn hostem, sed cīvem dēpositō
  exīstimāns odiō. Cumque interceptum ā lībertō palūdāmentum
  comperisset, īrā percitus[7] prōtinus in eum animadvertit, praefātus:
  “Quid? tū īgnōrāstī cūius tibi virī sepultūram commīsissem?”      {41}
  Nōn eadem fuit Octāviānī ergā Brūtum moderātiō, is
  enim āvulsum[8] Brūtī caput Rōmam mīsit, ut Gāī Caesaris
  statuae subicerētur. Porcia cum victum et interēmptum virum suum
  cōgnōvisset, quia ferrum nōn dabātur, ārdentēs ōre carbōnes[9]    {45}
  hausit, virīlem patris[10] exitum mulier[11] imitāta novō mortis
  genere.

    [Footnotes: XXIX (pages 102-103)

    102.1: = _ortus, nātus_.
    102.2: _simultātēs gerere_ = ‘to carry on a feud.’
    102.3: ‘to aim at.’
    102.4: ‘champion.’
    102.5: The Brutus of selection IX.
    102.6: #Utinam vīverēs!# ‘O that you were yet alive.’ The
    subjunctive here expresses a wish or prayer; cf. l. 29.
    102.7: ‘you’re fast asleep.’
    102.8: #cōnsiliī cōnscia#: ‘who was aware of,’ etc.
    102.9: ‘sleeping-room.’
    102.10: #cultellum tōnsōrium#: ‘a barber’s knife.’
    102.11: ‘nails.’
    102.12: ‘maids.’
    102.13: ‘scold.’
    102.14: ‘heedless,’ ‘random.’
    102.15: #sī . . . cessisset#: ‘if your plan did not turn out
    according to your expectations.’ Join with what follows.
    103.1: ‘bloody.’
    103.2: ‘hill.’
    103.3: _sepelīre_ = ‘to dispose of a body,’ whether by burial or
    by cremation.
    103.4: #quōque# = ‘and in order that.’
    103.5: ‘cloak.’
    103.6: ‘the dead man.’
    103.7: ‘thoroughly aroused.’
    103.8: ‘torn (from the body).’
    103.9: ‘coals.’
    103.10: See Vocab., _Catō_.
    103.11: ‘woman though she was.’]


#XXX. Octavianus Caesar Augustus# [[stripped text]]

Octavianus, Iuliae, Gai Caesaris sororis, nepos, quartum annum agens
patrem amisit. Ab avunculo adoptatus profectum eum in Hispanias adversus
Gnaei Pompei liberos secutus est. Deinde ab eo Apolloniam missus studiis
vacavit. Utque primum occisum Caesarem heredemque se comperit, in urbem
regressus hereditatem adiit, nomen Caesaris sumpsit conlectoque
veteranorum exercitu opem Decimo Bruto tulit, qui ab Antonio Mutinae
obsidebatur. Cum autem urbis aditu prohiberetur, ut Brutum de omnibus
rebus certiorem faceret, primo litteras misit plumbeis laminis
inscriptas, quas ad bracchium religatas urinatores Scultennam amnem
transnantes ad Brutum deferebant. Quin et avibus internuntiis utebatur.
Columbis enim, quas inclusas ante fame adfecerat, epistulas ad collum
religabat easque a proximo moenibus loco emittebat. Illae, lucis cibique
avidae, altissima aedificiorum petentes excipiebantur a Decimo Bruto,
qui eo modo de omnibus rebus certior fiebat, utique postquam disposito
quibusdam locis cibo columbas illuc devolare instituerat.

Bellum Mutinense Octavianus duobus proeliis confecit, quorum in altero
non ducis modo, sed militis etiam functus est officio atque in media
dimicatione, aquilifero legionis suae graviter saucio, aquilam umeris
subisse diuque fertur portasse. Postea reconciliata cum Antonio
gratiaiunctisque cum eo copiis, ut Gai Caesaris necem ulcisceretur, ad
urbem hostiliter accessit misitque qui nomine exercitus sibi consulatum
deposcerent. Cunctante senatu centurio, princeps legationis, reiecto
sagulo, ostendens gladii capulum non dubitavit in Curia dicere: “Hic
faciet, si vos non feceritis.”

Ita cum Octavianus vicesimo aetatis anno consulatum invasisset, pacem
fecit cum Antonio et Lepido, ita ut triumviri rei publicae constituendae
per quinquennium essent ipse et Lepidus et Antonius, et ut suos quisque
inimicos proscriberent. Quae proscriptio Sullana longe crudelior fuit.
Exstant autem ex ea multa vel extremae impietatis vel mirae fidei ac
constantiae exempla. T. Toranius, triumvirorum partes secutus,
proscripti patris sui, praetorii et ornati viri, latebras, aetatem
notasque corporis, quibus agnosci posset, centurionibus edidit, qui eum
persecuti sunt. Alius quidam cum proscriptum se cognovisset, ad clientem
suum confugit; sed filius eius per ipsa vestigia patris militibus ductis
occidendum eum in conspectu suo obiecit.

Cum C. Plotius Plancus a triumviris proscriptus in regione Salernitana
lateret, servi eius, comprehensi multumque ac diu torti, negabant se
scire ubi dominus esset. Non sustinuit deinde Plancus tam fideles tamque
boni exempli servos ulterius cruciari; sed processit in medium
iugulumque gladiis militum obiecit. Senatoris cuiusdam servus cum ad
dominum proscriptum occidendum milites advenisse cognosset, commutata
cum eo veste, permutato etiam anulo, illum postico clam emisit, se autem
in cubiculum ad lectulum recepit et ut dominum occidi passus est.
“Quanti viri est” addit Seneca, “cum praemia proditionis ingentia
ostendantur, praemium fidei mortem concupiscere!”

Octavianus deinde M. Brutum, interfectorem Caesaris, bello persecutus id
bellum, quamquam invalidus atque aeger, duplici proelio transegit;
quorum priore castris exutus vix fuga evasit. Victor acerbissime se
gessit: in nobilissimum quemque captivum non sine verborum contumelia
saeviit. Uni suppliciter sepulturam precanti respondisse dicitur iam
istam in volucrum fore potestate. Alios, patrem et filium, pro vita
rogantes sortiri fertur iussisse ut alterutri concederetur, ac cum,
patre quia se obtulerat occiso, filius quoque voluntaria occubuisset
nece, spectasse utrumque morientem. Orare veniam vel excusare se
conantibus, una voce occurrebat moriendum esse. Scribunt quidam
trecentos ex dediticiis electos ad aram divo Iulio exstructam Idibus
Martiis hostiarum more mactatos.

Abalienatus postea est ab Antonio, quod is, repudiata Octavia sorore,
Cleopatram, Aegypti reginam, duxisset uxorem: quae quidem mulier cum
Antonio luxu et deliciis certabat. Una se cena centies sestertium
absumpturam aliquando dixerat. Cupiebat discere Antonius, sed fieri
posse non arbitrabatur. Postero igitur die magnificam alias cenam, sed
cottidianam Antonio apposuit inridenti, quod promisso stare non
potuisset. At illa inferri mensam secundam iussit. Ex praecepto ministri
unum tantum vas ante eam posuere aceti, cuius asperitas visque
margaritas resolvit. Exspectante igitur Antonio quidnam esset actura,
margaritam, quam auribus gerebat, detraxit et aceto liquefactam
absorbuit. Victum Antonium omnes, qui aderant, pronuntiaverunt.

Octavianus cum Antonio apud Actium, qui locus est in Epiro, navali
proelio dimicavit. Victum et fugientem persecutus Aegyptum petiit, et
Alexandream, quo Antonius cum Cleopatra confugerat, obsedit. Antonius in
ultima rerum desperatione, cum habitu regis in solio regali sedisset,
mortem sibi ipse conscivit. Cleopatra, quam Octavianus, Alexandrea in
potestatem redacta, magno opere cupiebat vivam comprehendi triumphoque
servari, aspidem sibi adferendam curavit eiusque morsu periit.
Cleopatrae mortuae communem cum Antonio sepulturam tribuit.

Tandem Octavianus, hostibus victis solus imperio potitus, clementem se
exhibuit. Omnia deinceps in eo plena mansuetudinis et humanitatis.
Multis ignovit vel iis qui saepe graviter eum offenderant. Reversus in
Italiam triumphans Romam ingressus est. Tum bellis toto orbe compositis
Iani gemini portas sua manu clausit, quae bis tantum antea clausae
fuerant, primum sub Numa rege, iterum post primum Punicum bellum. Tunc
omnes praeteritorum malorum oblivio cepit populusque Romanus praesentis
otii laetitia perfruebatur. Octaviano maximi honores a senatu delati
sunt. Ipse Augustus cognominatus et in honorem eius mensis Sextilis
eodem nomine appellatus est, quod illo mense bellis civilibus finis
esset impositus. Patris patriae cognomen universi maximo consensu
detulerunt ei. Deferentibus lacrimans respondit Augustus his verbis:
“Compos factus votorum meorum, patres conscripti, quid habeo aliud, quod
deos immortales precer, quam ut hunc consensum vestrum ad ultimum vitae
finem mihi perferre liceat!”

Dictaturam magna vi offerente populo deprecatus est. Domini
appellationem semper exhorruit eamque sibi tribui edicto vetuit. Immo de
restituenda re publica non semel cogitavit, sed reputans et se privatum
non sine periculo fore, et rem publicam plurium arbitrio commissum iri,
summam retinuit potestatem, id vero studuit ne quem novi status
paeniteret. Bene de iis etiam, quos adversarios expertus erat, et
sentiebat et loquebatur. Legentem aliquando unum e nepotibus invenit;
cumque puer territus volumen Ciceronis, quod manu tenebat, veste
tegeret, Augustus librum cepit eoque statim reddito, “Hic vir,” inquit
“fili mi, doctus fuit et patriae amans.”

Pedibus saepe per urbem incedebat summaque comitate adeuntes excipiebat.
Convenit aliquando eum veteranus miles, qui vocatus in ius
periclitabatur rogavitque ut sibi adesset. Statim Augustus unum e
comitatu suo elegit advocatum, qui litigatorem commendaret. Tum
veteranus exclamavit: “At non ego, te periclitante bello Actiaco,
vicarium quaesivi, sed ipse pro te pugnavi,” simulque detexit
cicatrices. Erubuit Augustus atque ipse venit in advocationem.

Cum post Actiacam victoriam Octavianus Romam reverteretur, occurrit ei
inter gratulantes opifex quidam corvum tenens, quem instituerat haec
dicere: “Ave, Caesar, victor, imperator!” Miratus Caesar officiosam avem
viginti milibus nummorum emit. Socius opificis, ad quem nihil ex illa
liberalitate pervenerat, adfirmavit Caesari habere illum et alium
corvum, quem ut adferre cogeretur rogavit. Adlatus verba, quae
didicerat, expressit: “Ave, Antoni, victor, imperator!” Nihil
exasperatus Caesar satis duxit iubere illum dividere donativum cum
contubernali. Salutatus similiter a psittaco emi eum iussit.

Exemplum sutorem pauperem sollicitavit ut corvum institueret ad parem
salutationem. Qui impendio exhaustus saepe ad avem non respondentem
dicere solebat “Opera et impensa periit!” Aliquando tamen corvus coepit
dicere dictam salutationem. Hac audita, dum transit, Augustus respondit:
“Satis domi talium salutatorum habeo.” Superfuit corvo memoria, ut et
illa, quibus dominum querentem solebat audire, subtexeret: “Opera et
impensa periit.” Ad quod Caesar risit emique avem iussit, quanti nullam
ante emerat.

Solebat Graeculus quidam descendenti e palatio Caesari honorificum
aliquod epigramma porrigere. Id cum frustra saepe fecisset et tamen
rursus eum idem facturum duxisset Augustus, breve sua manu in charta
exaravit Graecum epigramma et Graeculo advenienti obviam misit. Ille
inter legendum laudare mirarique tam voce quam vultu gestuque. Deinde
cum accessisset ad sellam, qua Caesar vehebatur, demissa in pauperem
crumenam manu paucos denarios protulit, quos principi daret, dixitque se
plus daturum fuisse, si plus habuisset. Secuto omnium risu,
dispensatorem Caesar vocavit et satis grandem pecuniae summam numerari
Graeculo iussit.

Augustus fere nulli se invitanti negabat. Exceptus igitur a quodam cena
satis parca et paene cottidiana, hoc tantum insusurravit: “Non putabam
me tibi esse tam familiarem.” Cum aliquando apud Pollionem quendam
cenaret fregissetque unus e servis vas crystallinum, rapi eum ad mortem
Pollio iussit et obici muraenis quas ingens piscina continebat. Evasit e
manibus puer et ad pedes Caesaris confugit, nihil aliud petiturus quam
ut aliter periret nec esca piscium fieret. Motus est novo crudelitatis
genere Caesar et illum quidem mitti, crystallina autem omnia coram se
frangi iussit complerique piscinam.

Augustus in quadam villa aegrotans noctes inquietas agebat, rumpente
somnum eius crebro noctuae cantu. Qua molestia cum liberari se
vehementer cupere significasset, miles quidam, aucupii peritus, noctuam
prehendendam curavit, vivamque Augusto attulit, spe ingentis praemii.
Cui cum Augustus mille nummos dari iussisset, ille minus dignum praemium
existimans dicere ausus est: “Malo ut vivat,” et avem dimisit.
Imperatori nec ad irascendum causa deerat nec ad ulciscendum potestas:
hanc tamen iniuriam aequo animo tulit Augustus hominemque impunitum
abire passus est.

Augustus amicitias neque facile admisit et constantissime retinuit.
Imprimis familiarem habuit Maecenatem, equitem Romanum; qui ea, qua apud
principem valebat, gratia ita semper usus est, ut prodesset omnibus,
quibus posset, noceret nemini. Ius aliquando dicebat Augustus et multos
capite damnaturus videbatur. Aderat tum Maecenas, qui per circumstantium
turbam perrumpere et ad tribunal propius accedere conabatur. Quod cum
frustra tentasset, haec verba in tabella scripsit: “Surge tandem,
carnifex!” eamque tabellam ad Augustum proiecit. Qua lecta is statim
surrexit neque quisquam est morte multatus.

Habitavit Augustus in aedibus modicis, neque laxitate neque cultu
conspicuis, ac per annos amplius quadraginta in eodem cubiculo hieme et
aestate mansit. Suppellex quoque eius vix privatae elegantiae erat. Raro
veste alia usus est quam confecta ab uxore, sorore, filia neptibusque.
Item tamen Romam, quam pro maiestate imperii non satis ornatam
invenerat, adeo excoluit, ut iure gloriaretur marmoream se relinquere,
quam latericiam accepisset.

Forma fuit Augustus eximia et per omnes aetatis gradus venustissima.
Erat tamen omnis lenocinii neglegens et in capite comendo tam
incuriosus, ut eo ipso tempore, quo illud tonsoribus committeret, aut
legeret aliquid aut etiam scriberet.

Paucis annis antequam moreretur, gravissimam in Germania accepit cladem,
tribus legionibus cum duce Varo legatisque et auxiliis omnibus caesis.
Hac nuntiata excubias per urbem indixit, ne quis tumultus exsisteret, et
magnos ludos Iovi optimo maximo vovit, si res publica in meliorem statum
vertisset. Adeo denique consternatum ferunt, ut, per continuos menses
barba capilloque submisso, caput interdum foribus inlideret, vociferans:
“Quintili Vare, legiones redde!” diemque cladis quotannis maestum
habuerit ac lugubrem.

Tandem adflicta valetudine in Campaniam concessit, ubi, remisso ad otium
animo, nullo hilaritatis genere abstinuit. Supremo vitae die petito
speculo capillum sibi comi iussit et amicos circumstantes percontatus
ecquid iis videretur mimum vitae commode transegisse, adiecit solitam
clausulam: “Edite strepitum vosque omnes cum gaudio applaudite.” Obiit
Nolae sextum et septuagesimum annum agens.


  #XXX. Octāviānus Caesar Augustus# [[as printed]]

  Octāviānus, Iūliae, Gāī Caesaris sorōris, nepōs, quārtum annum
  agēns patrem āmīsit. Ab avunculō adoptātus profectum eum in
  Hispāniās[12] adversus Gnaeī Pompēī līberōs secūtus est. Deinde
  ab eō Apollōniam missus studiīs[13] vacāvit. Utque prīmum occīsum
    [[104]]
  Caesarem hērēdemque sē comperit, in urbem regressus                {5}
  hērēditātem adiit, nōmen Caesaris sūmpsit conlēctōque veterānōrum
  exercitū opem Decimō[1] Brūtō tulit, quī ab
  Antōniō Mutinae obsidēbātur. Cum autem
  urbis aditū prohibērētur, ut Brūtum dē omnibus
  rēbus certiōrem faceret, prīmō lītterās                           {10}
  mīsit plumbeīs[2] lāminīs īnscrīptās, quās ad
  bracchium[3] religātās ūrīnātōrēs[4] Scultennam
  amnem trānsnantēs[5] ad Brūtum dēferēbant.
  Quīn et avibus internūntiīs ūtēbātur. Columbīs[6]
  enim, quās inclūsās ante famē[7] adfēcerat,                       {15}
  epistulās ad collum religābat eāsque ā proximō moenibus locō
  ēmittēbat. Illae, lūcis cibīque avidae, altissima aedificiōrum
  petentēs excipiēbantur ā Decimō Brūtō, quī eō modō dē omnibus
  rēbus certior fīēbat, utique[8] postquam dispositō quibusdam locīs
  cibō columbās illūc dēvolāre īnstituerat.                         {20}

    [Illustration: YOUNG AUGUSTUS]

  Bellum Mutinēnse Octāviānus duōbus proeliīs cōnfēcit, quōrum
  in alterō nōn ducis modo, sed mīlitis etiam fūnctus est officiō
  atque in mediā dīmicātiōne, aquiliferō legiōnis suae graviter
  sauciō,[9] aquilam umerīs subīsse diūque fertur portāsse. Posteā
  reconciliātā cum Antōniō grātiā[10]iūnctīsque cum eō cōpiīs, ut   {25}
  Gāī Caesaris necem ulcīscerētur, ad urbem hostīliter accessit
  mīsitque quī nōmine exercitūs sibi cōnsulātum dēpōscerent.
  Cunctante senātū centuriō, prīnceps lēgātiōnis, rēiectō sagulō,[11]
  ostendēns gladiī capulum[12] nōn dubitāvit[13] in Cūriā dīcere: “Hīc
  faciet, sī vōs nōn fēceritis.”                                    {30}

  Ita cum Octāviānus vīcēsimō aetātis annō cōnsulātum invāsisset,
  pācem fēcit cum Antōniō et Lepidō, ita ut triumvirī reī
    [[105]]
  pūblicae cōnstituendae per quīnquennium essent ipse et Lepidus
  et Antōnius, et ut suōs quisque inimīcōs prōscrīberent. Quae
  prōscrīptiō Sullānā longē crūdēlior fuit. Exstant autem ex eā     {35}
  multa vel extrēmae impietātis vel mīrae fideī āc cōnstantiae
  exempla. T. Tōranius, triumvirōrum partēs secūtus, prōscrīptī
  patris suī, praetōriī et ōrnātī virī, latebrās, aetātem notāsque[1]
  corporis, quibus āgnōscī posset, centuriōnibus ēdidit, quī eum
  persecūtī sunt. Alius quīdam cum prōscrīptum sē cōgnōvisset,      {40}
  ad clientem suum cōnfūgit; sed fīlius ēius per ipsa vēstīgia
  patris mīlitibus ductīs occīdendum eum in cōnspectū suō obiēcit.

  Cum C. Plōtius Plancus ā triumvirīs prōscrīptus in regiōne
  Salernitānā[2] latēret, servī ēius, comprehēnsī multumque āc diū
  tortī,[3] negābant sē scīre ubi dominus esset. Nōn sustinuit deinde
  Plancus tam fidēlēs tamque bonī exemplī servōs ulterius cruciārī;
  sed prōcessit in medium iugulumque gladiīs mīlitum obiēcit.       {47}
  Senātōris cūiusdam servus cum ad dominum prōscrīptum occīdendum
  mīlitēs advēnisse cōgnōsset, commūtātā cum eō veste,
  permūtātō etiam ānulō, illum postīcō[4] clam ēmīsit, sē autem in  {50}
  cubiculum ad lectulum[5] recēpit et ut dominum occīdī passus est.
  “Quantī[6] virī est” addit Seneca,[7] “cum praemia prōditiōnis
  ingentia ostendantur, praemium fideī mortem concupīscere!”

  Octāviānus deinde M. Brūtum, interfectōrem Caesaris, bellō
  persecūtus id bellum, quamquam invalidus atque aeger, duplicī     {55}
  proeliō trānsēgit; quōrum priōre castrīs exūtus[8] vix fugā ēvāsit.
  Victor acerbissimē sē gessit: in nōbilissimum quemque captīvum
  nōn sine verbōrum contumēliā saeviit. Ūnī suppliciter sepultūram
  precantī respondisse dīcitur iam istam in volucrum fore
  potestāte. Aliōs, patrem et fīlium, prō vītā rogantēs sortīrī     {60}
  fertur iussisse ut alterutrī[9] concēderētur, ac cum, patre quia
    [[106]]
  sē obtulerat occīsō, fīlius quoque voluntāriā occubuisset nece,
  spectāsse utrumque morientem. Ōrāre veniam vel excūsāre sē
  cōnantibus, ūnā vōce occurrēbat[1] moriendum esse. Scrībunt
  quīdam trecentōs ex dēditīciīs[2] ēlēctōs ad āram dīvō[3] Iūliō   {65}
  exstrūctam Īdibus Mārtiīs hostiārum[4] mōre mactātōs.[5]

  Abaliēnātus posteā est ab Antōniō, quod is, repudiātā Octāviā
  sorōre, Cleopatram, Aegyptī rēgīnam, dūxisset uxōrem: quae quidem
  mulier cum Antōniō lūxū et dēliciīs[6] certābat. Ūnā sē cēnā
  centiēs[7] sēstertium absūmptūram aliquandō dīxerat. Cupiēbat     {70}
  dīscere Antōnius, sed fierī posse nōn arbitrābātur. Posterō igitur
  diē māgnificam[8] aliās cēnam, sed cottīdiānam Antōniō apposuit
  inrīdentī, quod prōmissō stāre nōn potuisset. At illa īnferrī
  mēnsam[9] secundam iussit. Ex praeceptō ministrī ūnum tantum      {74}
  vās ante eam posuēre acētī,[10] cūius asperitās vīsque margarītās[11]
  resolvit.[12] Exspectante igitur Antōniō quidnam esset āctūra,
  margarītam, quam auribus gerēbat, dētrāxit et acētō liquefactam
  absorbuit. Victum Antōnium omnēs, quī aderant, prōnūntiāvērunt.   {78}

  Octāviānus cum Antōniō apud Actium, quī locus est in Ēpīrō,       {80}
  nāvālī proeliō dīmicāvit. Victum et fugientem persecūtus Aegyptum
  petiit, et Alexandrēam, quō Antōnius cum Cleopatrā cōnfūgerat,
  obsēdit. Antōnius in ultimā rērum dēspērātiōne, cum
  habitū rēgis in soliō[13] rēgālī sēdisset, mortem sibi ipse cōnscīvit.
  Cleopatra, quam Octāviānus, Alexandrēā in potestātem redāctā,     {85}
  māgnō opere cupiēbat vīvam comprehendī triumphōque servārī,
  aspidem[14] sibi adferendam cūrāvit ēiusque morsū periit. Cleopatrae
  mortuae commūnem cum Antōniō sepultūram tribuit.

    [[107]]
  Tandem Octāviānus, hostibus victīs sōlus imperiō potītus,
  clēmentem sē exhibuit.[1] Omnia deinceps in eō plēna mānsuētūdinis[2]
  et hūmānitātis. Multīs īgnōvit vel iīs quī saepe graviter         {91}
  eum offenderant. Reversus in Ītaliam triumphāns Rōmam
  ingressus est. Tum bellīs tōtō orbe compositīs Iānī geminī portās
  suā manū clausit, quae bis tantum anteā clausae fuerant, prīmum
  sub Numā rēge, iterum post prīmum Pūnicum bellum. Tunc            {95}
  omnēs praeteritōrum malōrum oblīviō cēpit populusque Rōmānus
  praesentis ōtiī laetitiā perfruēbātur. Octāviānō māximī honōrēs
  ā senātū dēlātī sunt. Ipse Augustus cōgnōminātus et in honōrem
  ēius mēnsis Sextīlis[3] eōdem nōmine appellātus est, quod illō
  mēnse bellīs cīvīlibus fīnis esset impositus. Patris patriae     {100}
  cōgnōmen ūniversī māximō cōnsēnsū dētulērunt eī. Dēferentibus
  lacrimāns respondit Augustus hīs verbīs: “Compos[4] factus
  vōtōrum meōrum, patrēs conscrīptī, quid habeō aliud, quod deōs
  immortālēs precer, quam ut hunc cōnsēnsum vestrum ad ultimum
  vītae fīnem mihi perferre liceat!”                               {105}

  Dictātūram māgnā vī offerente populō dēprecātus est. Dominī
  appellātiōnem semper exhorruit eamque sibi tribuī ēdictō vetuit.
  Immō[5] dē restituendā rē pūblicā nōn semel cōgitāvit, sed
  reputāns et sē prīvātum nōn sine perīculō fore, et rem pūblicam
  plūrium arbitriō commissum[6] īrī, summam retinuit potestātem,   {110}
  id vērō studuit nē quem novī statūs paenitēret. Bene dē iīs
  etiam, quōs adversāriōs expertus erat, et sentiēbat et loquēbātur.
  Legentem aliquandō ūnum ē nepōtibus invēnit; cumque puer
  territus volūmen Cicerōnis, quod manū tenēbat, veste tegeret,
  Augustus librum cēpit eōque statim redditō, “Hīc vir,” inquit    {115}
  “fīlī mī, doctus fuit et patriae amāns.”

    [[108]]
  Pedibus saepe per urbem incēdēbat summāque cōmitāte adeuntēs
  excipiēbat. Convēnit[1] aliquandō eum veterānus mīles, quī
  vocātus in iūs perīclitābātur rogāvitque ut sibi adesset. Statim
  Augustus ūnum ē comitātū[2] suō ēlēgit advocātum, quī lītigātōrem
  commendāret. Tum veterānus exclāmāvit: “At nōn ego,              {121}
  tē perīclitante bellō Actiacō, vicārium[3] quaesīvī, sed ipse prō tē
  pūgnāvī,” simulque dētēxit cicātrīcēs.[4] Ērubuit[5] Augustus
  atque ipse vēnit in advocātiōnem.

  Cum post Actiacam victōriam Octāviānus Rōmam reverterētur,       {125}
  occurrit eī inter grātulantēs opifex[6] quīdam corvum[7] tenēns,
  quem īnstituerat haec dīcere: “Avē,[8] Caesar, victor, imperātor!”
  Mīrātus Caesar officiōsam avem vīgintī mīlibus nummōrum[9] ēmit.
  Socius opificis, ad quem nihil ex illā līberālitāte pervēnerat,
  adfīrmāvit Caesarī habēre illum et alium corvum, quem ut adferre
  cōgerētur rogāvit. Adlātus verba, quae didicerat, expressit:     {131}
  “Avē, Antōnī, victor, imperātor!” Nihil exasperātus Caesar
  satis dūxit iubēre illum dīvidere dōnātīvum[10] cum contubernālī.
  Salūtātus similiter ā psittacō[11] emī eum iussit.

  Exemplum sūtōrem[12] pauperem sollicitāvit ut corvum īnstitueret
  ad parem salūtātiōnem. Quī impendiō[13] exhaustus saepe ad       {136}
  avem nōn respondentem dīcere solēbat “Opera et impēnsa[13]
  periit[14]!” Aliquandō tamen corvus coepit dīcere dictam
  salūtātiōnem. Hāc audītā, dum trānsit, Augustus respondit: “Satis
  domī tālium salūtātōrum habeō.” Superfuit corvō memoria, ut      {140}
  et illa, quibus dominum querentem solēbat audīre, subtexeret[15]:
  “Opera et impēnsa periit.” Ad quod Caesar rīsit emīque avem
  iussit, quantī[16] nūllam ante ēmerat.

  Solēbat Graeculus quīdam dēscendentī ē palātiō Caesarī honōrificum
  aliquod epigramma porrigere.[17] Id cum frūstrā saepe fēcisset   {145}
    [[109]]
  et tamen rūrsus eum idem factūrum dūxisset Augustus, breve
  suā manū in chartā[1] exarāvit[2] Graecum epigramma et Graeculō
  advenientī obviam mīsit. Ille inter legendum laudāre[3] mīrārīque[3]
  tam[4] vōce quam[4] vultū gestūque. Deinde cum accessisset       {149}
  ad sellam, quā Caesar vehēbātur, dēmissā in pauperem crumēnam[5]
  manū paucōs dēnāriōs[6] prōtulit, quōs prīncipī daret, dīxitque
  sē plūs datūrum fuisse, sī plūs habuisset. Secūtō omnium
  rīsū, dispēnsātōrem[7] Caesar vocāvit et satis grandem pecūniae
  summam numerārī Graeculō iussit.

  Augustus ferē nūllī sē invītantī negābat. Exceptus igitur ā      {155}
  quōdam cēnā satis parcā et paene cottīdiānā, hōc tantum
  īnsusurrāvit[8]: “Nōn putābam mē tibi esse tam familiārem.” Cum
  aliquandō apud Pōlliōnem quendam cēnāret frēgissetque ūnus ē
  servīs vās crystallinum, rapī eum ad mortem Pōlliō iussit et     {159}
  obicī mūraenīs[9] quās ingēns piscīna[10] continēbat. Ēvāsit ē manibus
  puer et ad pedēs Caesaris cōnfūgit, nihil aliud petītūrus quam
  ut aliter perīret nec ēsca[11] piscium fieret. Mōtus est novō
      crūdēlitātis
  genere Caesar et illum quidem mittī,[12] crystallina autem
  omnia cōram sē frangī iussit complērīque piscīnam.

  Augustus in quādam vīllā aegrōtāns noctēs inquiētās agēbat,      {165}
  rumpente somnum ēius crēbrō noctuae[13] cantū. Quā molestiā cum
  līberārī sē vehementer cupere sīgnificāsset, mīles quīdam, aucupiī
  perītus, noctuam prehendendam cūrāvit, vīvamque Augustō attulit,
  spē ingentis praemiī. Cuī cum Augustus mīlle nummōs[14] darī     {169}
  iussisset, ille minus dīgnum praemium exīstimāns dīcere ausus est:
  “Mālō ut vīvat,” et avem dīmīsit. Imperātōrī nec ad īrāscendum
  causa deerat nec ad ulcīscendum potestās: hanc tamen iniūriam
  aequō animō tulit Augustus hominemque impūnītum abīre passus est.

    [[110]]
  Augustus amīcitiās neque facile admīsit et cōnstantissimē retinuit.
  Imprīmīs familiārem habuit Maecēnātem, equitem Rōmānum;          {175}
  quī eā, quā apud prīncipem valēbat, grātiā ita semper ūsus
  est, ut prōdesset omnibus, quibus posset, nocēret nēminī. Iūs
  aliquandō dīcēbat Augustus et multōs capite damnātūrus vidēbātur.
  Aderat tum Maecēnās, quī per
  circumstantium turbam perrumpere et                              {180}
  ad tribūnal propius accēdere cōnābātur.
  Quod cum frūstrā tentāsset, haec verba
  in tabellā scrīpsit: “Surge tandem,
  carnifex[1]!” eamque tabellam ad Augustum
  prōiēcit. Quā lēctā is statim surrēxit                           {185}
  neque quisquam est morte multātus.

    [Illustration: AUGUSTUS]

  Habitāvit Augustus in aedibus modicīs,
  neque laxitāte[2] neque cultū[3] cōnspicuīs,
  ac per annōs amplius quadrāgintā
  in eōdem cubiculō hieme et aestāte                               {190}
  mānsit. Suppellex[4] quoque ēius vix
  prīvātae ēlegantiae erat. Rārō veste
  aliā ūsus est quam cōnfectā ab uxōre,
  sorōre, fīliā neptibusque.[5] Item tamen
  Rōmam, quam prō māiestāte imperiī nōn                            {195}
  satis ōrnātam invēnerat, adeō excoluit, ut iūre glōriārētur
  marmoream sē relinquere, quam laterīciam[6] accēpisset.

  Fōrmā fuit Augustus eximiā et per omnēs aetātis gradūs
  venustissimā. Erat tamen omnis lēnōciniī[7] neglegēns et in capite
  cōmendō tam incūriōsus, ut eō ipsō tempore, quō illud tōnsōribus
  committeret, aut legeret aliquid aut etiam scrīberet.            {201}

  Paucīs annīs antequam morerētur, gravissimam in Germāniā
  accēpit clādem, tribus legiōnibus cum duce Vārō lēgātīsque et
    [[111]]
  auxiliīs omnibus caesīs. Hāc nūntiātā excubiās[1] per urbem      {204}
  indīxit, nē quis tumultus exsisteret, et māgnōs lūdōs Iovī optimō
  māximō vōvit, sī rēs pūblica in meliōrem statum vertisset. Adeō
  dēnique[2] cōnsternātum ferunt, ut, per continuōs mēnsēs barbā
  capillōque submissō,[3] caput interdum foribus inlīderet, vōciferāns:
  “Quīntilī Vāre, legiōnēs redde!” diemque clādis quotannīs
  maestum habuerit ac lūgubrem.                                    {210}

  Tandem adflīctā valētūdine in Campāniam concessit, ubi, remissō
  ad ōtium animō, nūllō hilaritātis genere abstinuit. Suprēmō vītae
  diē petītō speculō[4] capillum sibi cōmī iussit et amīcōs
  circumstantēs percontātus ecquid iīs vidērētur mīmum[5] vītae commodē
  trānsēgisse, adiēcit solitam clausulam[6]: “Ēdite strepitum      {215}
  vōsque omnēs cum gaudiō applaudite.” Obiit Nōlae sextum et
  septuāgēsimum annum agēns.

    [Footnotes: XXX (pages 103-111)

    103.12: See Vocab., _Hispānia_.
    103.13: #studiīs vacābat#: ‘had time for (i.e. devoted himself to)
    study.’
    104.1: At Caesar’s death he was governor of Cisalpine Gaul. Antony
    carried a law allotting this province to himself, and then
    undertook to expel Brutus.
    104.2: #plumbeīs lāminīs#: ‘leaden plates.’
    104.3: ‘arm.’
    104.4: ‘divers.’
    104.5: ‘by swimming across.’
    104.6: ‘doves.’
    104.7: ‘hunger.’
    104.8: ‘especially.’
    104.9: ‘(being) wounded.’
    104.10: = _amīcitiā_.
    104.11: ‘cloak.’
    104.12: ‘hilt.’
    104.13: ‘hesitate.’
    105.1: ‘marks.’
    105.2: ‘of Salernum,’ a town in Campania; the modern Salerno.
    105.3: ‘though tortured.’
    105.4: ‘by a back door.’
    105.5: ‘couch.’
    105.6: #Quantī . . . est#: ‘What marvelous manhood it shows.’
    105.7: A philosopher of the first century A.D.
    105.8: ‘stripped of.’
    105.9: ‘to one or the other,’ i.e. to one, but not to both.
    106.1: ‘he met,’ i.e. he answered.
    106.2: ‘prisoners of war.’ Cf. _dēdere_, ‘to surrender.’
    106.3: Julius Caesar, like the later emperors, was deified after
    his death.
    106.4: ‘sacrificial victims.’
    106.5: ‘slaughtered.’
    106.6: ‘pleasure.’
    106.7: #centiēs# (sc. _centēna mīlia_) #sēstertium# = ‘ten million
    sesterces,’ or about four hundred thousand dollars. Cf. p. 88,
    n. 8.
    106.8: #māgnificam . . . Antōniō#: ‘under other circumstances
    truly splendid, but to Antony quite commonplace.’
    106.9: ‘course.’
    106.10: ‘vinegar.’
    106.11: ‘pearls.’
    106.12: ‘melts,’ ‘dissolves.’
    106.13: ‘throne.’
    106.14: ‘asp.’
    107.1: = _ostendit_.
    107.2: ‘gentleness.’
    107.3: ‘the sixth,’ counting from March, with which, it is said,
    the Roman year originally began.
    107.4: #Compos . . . meōrum#: ‘Now that I have gained my heart’s
    desire,’ which had been to avenge his uncle’s death.
    107.5: ‘Nay.’
    107.6: #commissum īrī# is fut. infin. pass. of _committō_, and =
    ‘was sure to be (lit. was going to be) handed over,’ i.e. if he
    resigned.
    108.1: ‘met.’
    108.2: ‘retinue.’
    108.3: ‘substitute.’
    108.4: ‘wounds.’
    108.5: ‘blushed.’
    108.6: ‘artisan.’
    108.7: ‘raven.’
    108.8: ‘Hail!’
    108.9: = _sēstertiōrum_.
    108.10: = _dōnum_.
    108.11: ‘parrot.’
    108.12: ‘cobbler.’
    108.13: ‘outlay.’
    108.14: ‘have come to naught.’
    108.15: ‘added’: lit., ‘wove in.’
    108.16: #quantī . . . ēmerat#: ‘at a higher price than he had paid
    before.’
    108.17: ‘offer.’
    109.1: ‘paper.’
    109.2: ‘scratched off,’ ‘wrote.’
    109.3: Examples of the historical infinitive, so called because it
    is especially common in historical writing. It is to be translated
    by an imperfect or perfect indicative.
    109.4: = _et . . . et_.
    109.5: ‘purse.’
    109.6: ‘francs.’
    109.7: ‘steward.’
    109.8: ‘whispered.’
    109.9: ‘eels.’
    109.10: ‘fish-pond.’
    109.11: ‘food.’
    109.12: ‘freed.’
    109.13: ‘night-owl.’
    109.14: = _sēstertiōs_.
    110.1: ‘executioner,’ ‘butcher.’
    110.2: ‘size.’
    110.3: ‘style.’
    110.4: ‘furniture.’
    110.5: ‘granddaughters.’
    110.6: ‘made of brick.’
    110.7: ‘finery.’
    111.1: #excubiās . . . indīxit#: ‘ordered watches to be set.’
    111.2: Often used like our ‘to cut a long story short,’ ‘in
    short.’
    111.3: #barbā . . . submissō#: ‘letting his beard grow.’
    111.4: ‘mirror’ (of metal, generally bronze or silver).
    111.5: ‘comedy.’
    111.6: ‘conclusion.’ Latin plays regularly close with an appeal of
    the actors to the spectators to grant them ‘loud and prolonged
    applause.’]


    [Illustration {SPQR}]



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION INTO LATIN

Words in round brackets are not to be translated; those in square
brackets indicate the Latin rendering. Note the ‘Caution’ on p. xxv. The
section numbers refer to the selections.


I.

#Apposition.#

1. Proca left his kingdom to his older son, Numitor. 2. Romulus and
Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, a priestess of Vesta. 3. The boys
were thrown into the river. 4. A shepherd of the king[1] carried them to
his hut. 5. Who was the grandfather of these boys? 6. Remus, when
grown,[2] was caught by (some) robbers.[3] 7. They thus accused him:
“You have trespassed on the king’s lands.” 8. A dispute arose between
the brothers. 9. Romulus said: “I shall give my name to the new city.”
10. Which of them leaped over the wall?

    [Footnotes:
    1: Use adj.
    2: See p. 2, n. 19.
    3: H. 468 (415, I); M. 614; A 246; G 401; B 216.]


II.

#Agreement of adjectives, pronouns, and participles.#

1. Robbers and shepherds took refuge in[1] the city which Romulus had
founded. 2. These were the fathers of the Romans. 3. The envoys that the
king sent were nowhere kindly received. 4. The tribes to which he sent
did not seek an alliance. 5. Many of those who gathered had not seen
Rome. 6. The maidens whom they seized were the children of the Sabines,
who now undertook war. 7. (While) advancing to battle, the Romans
carried (their) shields on (their) left arms. 8. The Sabines killed
Hostilius (while he was) fighting very bravely. 9. The Romans fell
fighting bravely. 10. They founded a temple in honor[2] of Romulus and
worshiped him as a god.

    [Footnotes:
    1: _ad_ with acc.
    2: See p. 8, n. 1.]


III.

#Expressions of place; extent of time.#

1. Who succeeded Romulus? Numa Pompilius. 2. From what city did he come?
From Cures, [from] a city of the Sabines. 3. What did he do at Rome? 4.
He established many religious customs and had many useful laws passed.
5. A shield once slipped down from the sky. 6. (There) was a smith in
Rome[1] who made twelve shields of the same shape. 7. The Romans had
peace (for) forty-three years. 8. No temple was erected in honor of
Numa, but he was of more use to the state than Romulus.

    [Footnote:
    1: Locative case.]


IV.

#Ablative absolute; locatives of common nouns.#

1. At the death of Numa [Numa having died] the Romans elected a more
warlike king. 2. War[1] having broken[1] out between the Romans and the
Sabines, the dispute was settled by a contest between [of] the Curiatii
and the Horatii. 3. The young men took up arms and [arms having been
taken up][1] advanced to battle. 4. At a given[2] signal,[2] with drawn
swords, they rushed together. 5. As the two Romans fell [the two Romans
falling], the Alban army shouted for joy. 6. The sister of Horatius
began to weep when she saw her lover’s cloak. 7. He drew his sword and
stabbed the girl who forgot [having forgotten] her brothers and her
country. 8. When Tullus learned of the treachery of the Alban general,
in anger[3] he ordered him to be put to death. 9. Then war was declared
against the Sabines.[4] 10. Very many young men were in military
service, a few were at home. 11. Tullus[5] Hostilius, who succeeded
Numa, liked war [war pleased] rather than peace.

    [Footnotes:
    1: See p. 1, n. 4.
    2: See p. 5, l. 12. [[in selection II]]
    3: Use participle.
    4: H. 429 (386); M. 534; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, III.
    5: H. 426, 1 (385, I); M. 531; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II.]


V.

#Ablative of specification; dative with compounds.#

1. Ancus Marcius, the fourth king, was like Numa[1] in justice and
piety, but was more warlike. 2. During[2] his reign[2] a raid was made
on the Roman territory by the Latins. 3. When the king heard of this
[which having been learned], he declared war against them. 4. Having
defeated the Latins, he destroyed their towns and transferred the
citizens to Rome. 5. Romulus had built a wall around the city, but this
wall was larger. 6. Of these four kings of Rome, two were distinguished
in war, two in peace.

    [Footnotes:
    1: H. 434 (391, I); M. 536; A. 234; G. 359; B. 192, 1.
    2: Abl. abs.]


VI.

#Direct and indirect questions.#

1. Tarquin came from Etruria, a city of the Etruscans. 2. When Ancus
died,[2] Tarquin was made guardian of his children. 3. Thus he obtained
the throne. 4. (There) was at Rome a celebrated augur. 5. The king once
asked him whether he could cut a whetstone with a razor. Can[1] you cut
a whetstone with a razor? 7. You cannot[2] cut a whetstone with a razor,
can you? 8. The sons of Ancus asked the shepherds whether they could
commit a crime. 9. Can you commit a crime? 10. The shepherds entered[3]
the palace and[3] began to bawl out. 11. One of them killed the king
with an axe. 12. Does not this seem to you an atrocious crime?

    [Footnotes:
    1: H. 378, 2 (351, 1, N. 1); M. 698; A. 210, _a_; G. 454;
       B. 162, _c_.
    2: H. 378 (351, 1, N. 3); M. 701; A. 210, _c_; G. 456;
       B. 162, _b_.
    3: See p. 2, n. 8.]


VII.

#Ablative of source; ablative of quality.#

1. At the death of Tarquin, Servius Tullius succeeded to the throne. 2.
He was born of a woman[1] of rank, who, however, was a slave in
Tarquin’s house. 3. On the advice of Tanaquil [Tanaquil advising] he was
brought up just as the children of the king. 4. He was a young man of
great bravery,[1] and became the king’s son-in-law. 5. One of Tullius’s
daughters was gentle, the other wild. 6. Tarquin’s sons were of like
character. 7. The king was slain by order of his own son-in-law. 8.
Tullia was a woman of base character and did not love her father. 9. The
people asked Tullia what she had done.[2]

    [Footnotes:
    1: Abl. Why?
    2: See p. 3, n. 2.]


VIII.

#Temporal clauses with _cum_; ablative of price.#

1. The city of Gabii could not be captured by Tarquin. 2. When Sextus
had been chosen general, he sent a messenger to his father. 3. When he
learned of the silence[1] and act of his father, he killed the chief men
of the state. 4. When each of the young men praised his own wife, it was
decided to find out who was the best. 5. When Lucretia had summoned her
husband[1] and father,[1] she killed herself with a knife. 6. An old
woman once asked Tarquin whether he wished to buy some books at an
enormous price. 7. At first Tarquin ridiculed her, but, after she had
burned six books, he bought the remaining three at the same price.

    [Footnote:
    1: Abl. abs.]


IX.

#Causal clauses with _cum_; purpose clauses with _ut_.#

1. Since his brother had been killed, Brutus feared the same fate, for
he was a young man of great sagacity. 2. He set out for Delphi with
Tarquin’s sons. 3. When they had consulted the oracle, they returned to
Rome. 4. The Romans chose Brutus and Collatinus, the son of the sister
of Tarquin the Elder, consuls. 5. As the sons of Brutus were traitors,
they were put to death. 6. In order to regain[1] his throne, Tarquin
undertook war. 7. Brutus, who had gone ahead with the cavalry to[2]
reconnoitre,[2] met the enemy. 8. Brutus and Aruns fell in the first
charge. 9. Since one consul had been slain, the other returned to the
city alone.

    [Footnotes:
    1: See p. 1, l. 3 and n. 5.
    2: Express in two ways; cf. l. 30, and #ageret#, l. 26.]


X.

#Causal clauses with _quod_.#

1. Mucius received permission to go over [of going over] to the enemy,
because (as he said) he wished to kill the king. 2. Because he did not
know which was[1] the king, he killed the clerk. 3. To punish the hand
which had committed the crime, he placed it on a lighted altar. 4. After
this he was called Scaevola.

    [Footnote:
    1: See p. 3, n. 2.]


XI.

#Dative of possessor; construction with _paenitet_.#

1. The Veientes harassed the Romans with repeated raids. 2. The Fabian
gens proposed [had in mind] to carry on the war at its own expense. 3.
The senate thanked the consul because he had provided for this war. 4.
When they arrived at the river Cremera, they established a fortified
post and repeatedly routed the enemy. 5. The Veientes soon repented of
the peace they had secured and renewed the war. 6. The Fabians roamed
about in order to lay waste the enemy’s territory. 7. They were
entrapped in an ambush and all slain.


XII.

#Relative clauses of purpose.#

1. I intend to write about the crime of Appius Claudius, the Decemvir.
2. He fell in love with a beautiful girl, and, when he found that he
could not entice her with money, he claimed her as a slave [for
slavery]. 3. He sent one of his clients to the market place to carry[1]
her off by force. 4. The girl’s friends sent a messenger to carry the
news[1] to her father Virginius, who was then away on military duty. 5.
Virginius immediately returned to Rome and sought the aid of the people.
6. When he saw that there was no aid anywhere, he seized a knife and
killed his daughter. 7. Appius then repented of his crime.

    [Footnote:
    1: See p. 5, n. 3.]


XIII.

#Complementary infinitive; genitive with _oblivīscor_; hortatory
subjunctive.#

1. The tribune of the plebs appointed a day for (the trial of) Manlius,
because with great severity he had banished his son to the country. 2.
When his son Titus heard of this design of the tribune, he hastened to
Rome and forced him to abandon the charge. 3. Such [this] filial
devotion reflected great credit on the young man, and his father
repented of his harshness. 4. Afterwards, when the Gauls were carrying
on war with the Romans, a Gaul of enormous size wanted to fight with the
bravest Roman. 5. “Let him come on,” said Titus Manlius, who was now
tribune of the soldiers, “that I may show him which of us is the
braver.” 6. Between the two lines they joined[1] in close[1] combat,[1]
and with a stroke or two of his Spanish sword he thrust through his
gigantic foe. 7. Having stripped a necklace from the Gaul, he was
afterwards called Torquatus. 8. The son of this same Torquatus, without
the consent of the consul, his father, met and conquered a Latin in a
single combat. 9. When he returned to camp, his father ordered him to be
put to death because he had disobeyed[2] his commander. 10. The young
man’s companions did not forget the father’s cruelty. 11. Cornelius Piso
was also a man of great sternness. 12. He once ordered a soldier to be
put to death on the charge of murdering a comrade. 13. The comrade had
not been murdered and soon appeared in camp. 14. When they returned to
Piso with great rejoicing, he angrily ordered both the comrades and the
centurion who had been placed in charge of the execution to be put to
death. 15. Another Manlius was guilty of [showed] like cruelty toward
his son. 16. The Macedonians sent ambassadors to complain[3] about his
son Silanus. 17. Manlius wanted to try the case himself, and this was
granted by the senate. 18. After he had heard both sides of the case, he
forbade his son to return to his home. 19. The next day[4] the young man
committed[5] suicide.[5]

    [Footnotes:
    1: See p. 11, l. 14.  [[in selection IV]]
    2: The reason is that of the father, not the writer.
    3: Cf. #conquestum#, l. 82, with #quī dēpōsceret#, XII, l. 7, and
       express in two ways.
    4: H. 486 (429); M. 630; A. 256; G. 393; B. 230.
    5: See XII, l. 30.]


XIV.

#Construction of _medius_, _summus_, etc.#

1. The consul sent Publius Decius to get possession of the summit of a
hill. 2. When the consul had escaped, he led his army in safety through
the midst of [middle] enemies. 3. In the Latin war he sacrificed himself
in order to save his army. 4. Let us never forget this brave man.


XV.

#Indirect quotation of simple sentences; ablative with _opus_.#

1. “The Samnites are our enemies,” said Curius; “let us set out against
them.” 2. Immediately he set out, and, having[1] conquered[1] the
Samnites,[1] he took a large amount of land and many captives [men]. 3.
He swore (that there) was[2] none [nothing] of the booty in his house.
4. Cicero says (that) the Samnites brought [to have brought] a great
weight of gold to Curius. 5. Curius scorned[1] their gold[1] (and) said
that he could not be bribed. 6. He told the senate that he was contented
with seven jugera of land. 7. He afterwards sold into slavery a young
man who refused to serve in the army [military service]. 8. The young
man saw that the tribunes could not help him [not to be able to be for
an aid to him]. 9. After he had destroyed the army of Pyrrhus, he
returned to Rome in triumph [triumphing]. 10. It is said that Pyrrhus
was slain by a woman of Argos.[3] 11. So the Romans[4] did not need the
aid[5] of Curius again.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Abl. abs.
    2: See p. 7, n. 16.
    3: Use adj.
    4: Dat. of poss.
    5: Cf. #cīve#, l. 22.]


XVI.

#_Nē_ with verbs of fearing; ablative with _ūtor_.#

1. It is said that Duilius was the first to conquer the Carthaginians in
a naval battle. 2. He used grappling[1] irons[1] to seize and hold the
enemy’s ships. 3. He saw that with this useful contrivance the Romans
would have an easy victory [victory to be about to be easy to the
Romans]. 4. He now set[2] out boldly into the midst[3] of the enemy’s
fleet, and captured many of their ships. 5. The Romans were pleased with
this victory. 6. The Carthaginians feared that the Romans would now be
supreme on land and sea. 7. Hannibal, the leader of the Carthaginians,
by a shrewd trick escaped punishment for losing his fleet.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Cf. #quō#, p. 36, l. 4 and n. 10.
    2: Use participle.
    3: See Ex. XIV, sentence 2.]


XVII.

#Gerundive with _esse_; ablative of separation; ablative with
comparatives.#

1. After the Carthaginians had been defeated by Regulus, Hanno came to
negotiate[1] [about] peace. 2. The Roman soldiers saw that[2] he had
come[2] treacherously and was not in earnest in his negotiations [did
not negotiate seriously]. 3. Hanno was afraid that[3] he would be
arrested and put in chains. 4. Regulus relieved him of his fear[4] and
told him that the Romans did not wish to retaliate. 5. In Africa,
Regulus[5] had[6] to fight not only with men, but also with an enormous
serpent. 6. As its scales could not be pierced by javelins, Regulus was
compelled to use the artillery. 7. In this way the monster was crushed.
8. When Regulus learned that the senate had extended his command to the
next year, he asked that his successor should be sent at once.[7] 9. He
said that he had lost his slave and farming implements and that his wife
and children had no means of support [he had nothing whence his wife and
children should be supported]. 10. The senate relieved him of this
anxiety. 11. After he had defeated the Carthaginians in many battles,
Regulus himself was defeated and captured. 12. It is said that he was
sent from Carthage to Rome to negotiate an exchange of [about
exchanging] prisoners. 13. When the senate ordered him to state his
opinion, he said that the Carthaginian captives ought not to be
returned. 14. He thought that they were better generals than the
Romans.[8] 15. As[9] he had given[9] his oath,[9] he returned to
Carthage and was put to death with terrible torture.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Several forms of expressing purpose have been used in the text.
       Express this in as many ways as you can.
    2: See p. 7, n. 16.
    3: See p. 38, n. 12.
    4: Abl. Why?
    5: H. 431 (388); M. 544; A. 232; G. 355; B. 189, 1.
    6: See p. 39, n. 11.
    7: #statim.#
    8: See #Āfrīs#, l. 10, and note.
    9: Abl. abs.]


XVIII.

#Ablative of time.#

1. Appius Claudius was no[1] better than the preceding generals, who did
not boast that they would sink the enemy’s fleet (on) the first day[2]
of the war. 2. The chicken-keeper informed him that the chickens would
not [to be unwilling to] eat. 3. “Let[3] them drink then,” said Appius,
and ordered them to be plunged into the sea. 4. That very [self] day he
was defeated, and many thousands of the Romans slain. 5. He afterwards
committed suicide, for he knew that he would be put to death by the
people. 6. Upon his sister, too, a heavy fine had[4] to be imposed.

    [Footnotes:
    1: See XVII, l. 10, and note.
    2: Cf. Ex. XIII, sent. 19.
    3: Cf. Ex. XIII, sent. 5.
    4: Cf. Ex. XVII, sent. 5.]


XIX.

#Purpose clauses with _quō_; ablative with _potior_; unreal conditions;
_quīn_ clauses; ablative with _dīgnus_.#

1. It is said that Hannibal, when a boy of nine years, took an oath of
undying hatred toward the Romans. 2. On the death of his father, he
stirred up war by capturing Saguntum [Saguntum captured]. 3. Fabius said
that he carried peace and war in his toga. 4. “Give which you please,”
replied the Carthaginians. 5. “I give war,” said Fabius. [“War,” said
Fabius, “I give.”] 6. After three Roman consuls had been defeated by
Hannibal, Fabius was sent against him. 7. Changing[1] the policy[1] of
the war, he held his soldiers in camp, and did not come to an engagement
with the enemy. 8. When, on account of some trifling successes, his
soldiers had begun to have more confidence in their valor and fortune,
he blockaded Hannibal in a narrow pass. 9. Fabius thought that he could
not escape. 10. But Hannibal knew how[2] cautious Fabius was,[3] and got
out (of the trap) without any loss. 11. Minucius,[4] the master of
horse, did not like the policy of Fabius. 12. He made charges against
the dictator in order to obtain greater authority[5] himself. 13. When
he had joined battle, he had to be rescued from his peril by Fabius. 14.
Minucius now confessed that the policy of Fabius was better than his
own. 15. They say that some young men of rank betrayed Tarentum to
Hannibal. 16. In the middle of the night the gates were opened and the
young men entered, followed by Hannibal [Hannibal following] with his
army. 17. Fabius recaptured Tarentum the same[6] year[6] it was lost.
18. If he had not used cunning he would not have recaptured it. 19. When
an old man, Fabius, at the command of a lictor, dismounted from a horse
which he was riding out of respect for the rank of his son, then consul.
20. “If you were not consul,” said he, “I should not dismount.” 21. No
one doubts that Fabius was worthy of the name _Maximus_. 22. At that
time the Romans needed[7] a cautious general.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Abl. abs.
    2: #quam.#
    3: See p. 3, n. 2.
    4: Cf. l. 43.
    5: Cf. #Tarentō#, l. 58, and note.
    6: See l. 88, and Ex. XVIII, n. 4.
    7: See Ex. XV, sent. 11.]


XX.

#Subjunctive of result; dative with special verbs; partitive genitive.#

1. Varro was so rash that,[1] although he was opposed by his colleague,
he formed[1] his army in line and gave[1] the signal for battle. 2. In
the midst of the carnage a certain military tribune urged[2] Paulus to
take[2] his horse and flee.[2] 3. But Paulus said that he preferred to
perish with his soldiers. 4. When the Carthaginians heard of Hannibal’s
victory, they sent messengers to congratulate him.[3] 5. Maharbal[4] did
not like[4] the advice of the others. 6. He said that Hannibal knew
(how) to conquer, but did not know (how) to make use of a victory. 7.
Hannibal permitted his army to enjoy the luxuries of Campania. 8. The
terror at Rome was so great that they did not delay an instant. 9. No
one doubted that[5] Hannibal would come[5] with his victorious army. 10.
If he had advanced at once to Rome, the city would have been captured.
11. Though Varro survived the battle,[6] he thought that he was not
worthy of office[7] again. 12. As the soldiers did not have enough
weapons,[8] they took down from the temples the ancient spoils of the
enemy. 13. One of the ambassadors,[9] whom Hannibal had sent to Rome to
offer an opportunity of ransoming the captives, did not return. 14. The
senate decided that he must be led back to Hannibal in chains [bound].
15. Rome has no need of citizens who can be captured when armed.

    [Footnotes:
    1: See p. 10, n. 9.
    2: Cf. lines 26 and 27.
    3: H. 426, 2 (385, II); M. 531; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, _a_.
    4: Cf. Ex. XIX, sent. 11.
    5: See p. 39, n. 4.
    6: See p. 2, n. 7.
    7: See Ex. XIX, sent. 21.
    8: H. 440, 5 (397); M. 564; A. 216; G. 367; B. 201.
    9: Cf. with n. 7 ūnus ex ēius praefectīs, l. 27.]


XXI.

#Concessive clauses with _cum_; genitive of characteristic; causal
relative clauses; gerundive with _ad_; accusative of extent.#

1. Scipio would have been slain in the battle at the river Ticinus, if
his son Publius had not rescued him. 2. When Publius Scipio was not yet
twenty years old, he thought that he was old enough [had enough of
years] to be a candidate for[1] the aedileship. 3. After the battle of
Cannae, some young men of rank began to form plans for abandoning Italy.
4. Scipio hastened to their meeting-place, and, although[2] he was
alone, he forced them to give[3] up their conspiracy.[3] 5. After the
Romans had suffered two defeats in Spain, Scipio was chosen proconsul
and sent thither. 6. Here he prosecuted the war with such wisdom and
bravery that he earned the approval of all. 7. Do you not think that he
was worthy of the honor? 8. He gained possession of a large amount of
money and arms, but let the Spanish captives go without ransom. 9. He
did not doubt that in this way he would secure for the Romans the favor
of the Spanish [conciliate the Spanish to the Romans]. 10. Among the
captive Africans he found a boy of remarkable beauty,[4] who said that
his grandfather was the king of Numidia, and that he had crossed over
into Spain with his uncle Masinissa to carry on war with the Romans. 11.
Scipio freed the boy, and thus won the favor of the Numidian king. 12.
When the Spaniards wanted to call Scipio king, he asked them to refrain
from that title. 13. After Hannibal had been driven from Spain, Scipio,
who had[5] long been planning to transfer the war to Africa, sent
Laelius, whose[6] friendship he did not mistrust, to win over some of
the African chiefs. 14. Afterwards he crossed over to Africa himself,
and it is said that he met Hannibal [to him a meeting with Hannibal to
have been] at the court of Syphax. 15. It happened that many of those
chiefs were eager to form an alliance with Scipio. 16. His plan,
therefore, was easily carried out. 17. Although the young men of Sicily
shrank from so great a war themselves, still they were willing to
furnish horses and arms. 18. Although they were wealthy, they were not
(men) of great bravery. 19. In Africa the Romans fought with such
determination that in a short time the Carthaginians recalled Hannibal
from Italy to defend his country. 20. A battle was fought [it was
fought] at Zama, a town five days’ march from Carthage. 21. The
Carthaginians were defeated, and forced to send ambassadors to sue for
peace. 22. As peace was now secured, Scipio returned to Italy. 23. On[7]
his arrival in Rome a vast multitude poured forth to meet him. 24.
Scipio was not only the most illustrious general of his age, but he was
also a man distinguished for [of distinguished] piety.[8] 25. The old
writers say that he used to visit [resort to] the capitol every day, to
consult with Jupiter about the public interests. 26. At Ephesus he[9]
afterwards had a conversation with Hannibal. 27. It is reported that
Hannibal acknowledged that Scipio was the greatest of all commanders.
28. When the senate seemed on the point[10] of transferring the conduct
of the war against Antiochus from Lucius Scipio to Laelius, because
(as was thought) the former[11] had too little courage and too little
wisdom for such a war, Africanus promised to be himself his brother’s
lieutenant. 29. Scipio could endure no dishonor to his family. 30. After
Antiochus had been defeated, when the senate demanded from Lucius Scipio
an accounting of the spoils, Africanus prevented it. 31. He said that he
had been of [for] so great aid to his country that his integrity ought
not to be doubted. 32. It happened that Africanus himself was afterwards
summoned for trial by the tribunes on the very day on which the battle
of Zama had been fought.[12] 33. When ordered to plead his cause, he
mounted the rostrum and said: “Let us offer thanks to Jupiter, by whose
aid we obtained[13] so great a victory.” 34. As the whole assembly
followed him he was relieved from the insults of the tribunes. 35. Soon
afterward Scipio retired to the country and never returned to Rome.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Use #ad# with gerundive or gerund.
    2: H. 598 (515, III); M. 863; A. 326; G. 587; B. 309, 3.
    3: Cf. _inceptō dēsisterent_, l. 14.
    4: Cf. lines 51 and 64.
    5: See p. 56, n. 6.
    6: See p. 55, n. 8.
    7: See XIII, l. 59.
    8: _religiō._
    9: Use dat. of poss. with #esse#.
    10: Use future participle.
    11: _ille._
    12: See sent. 20, and p. 56, n. 4.
    13: See p. 55, n. 8.]


XXII.

#Future conditions.#

1. Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, was the daughter of Scipio
Africanus. 2. She had been educated with such care herself that she was
able to train her sons wisely. 3. She told a Campanian woman, who was a
guest at her house, that she[1] too had some very beautiful jewels. 4.
Everybody knows that Cornelia’s jewels were her sons. 5. She has justly
been considered one of the wisest women of that age. 6. Though her sons
were most worthy of their excellent mother, yet the nobles thought that
they were disturbing the republic. 7. Both of the Gracchi thought more
of [preferred] their country’s safety than [to] their own lives. 8.
Tiberius tried to protect the common people, but the senate thought that
he was preparing for himself a way to regal power. 9. So Nasica urged[2]
all loyal citizens to follow him. 10. When Gracchus saw that the
senators were rushing upon him he fled, but was killed by a broken piece
of a bench. 11. Caius had the same[3] love for the common people as[3]
his brother. 12. All loyal citizens said that they opposed his plans
because they wanted the republic to be safe. 13. “If the law about
distributing grain to the common people is[4] passed,” said Piso,
“I shall come with the others to get the grain.” 14. Finally this was
decreed by the senate: “Let the consul see that the republic receive no
harm.” 15. Some say that Gracchus armed his household and took
possession of the Aventine. 16. When he was put to flight he ordered his
slave to kill him that he might not be arrested. 17. Such was the fate
of the Gracchi, the jewels of Cornelia, the best sons of the Roman
republic.

    [Footnotes:
    1: Use dat. of poss.
    2: Cf. Ex. XX, sent. 2, and note.
    3: Cf. #īdem quī#, l. 31.
    4: See XVII, l. 10, and note.]


XXIII.

#Substantive clauses of purpose; latter supine.#

1. When Marius was in Spain with Scipio, some one asked this (question)
of Scipio. 2. If anything happens[1] to you, what equally great
commander will the republic have? 3. Scipio replied that Marius would be
a great commander. 4. In the war against Jugurtha it is said that he
made charges against Metellus so that he might be appointed commander
himself. 5. If you make me consul, I will shortly bring Jugurtha under
the power of the Romans. 6. Thus he persuaded the people to make[2] him
consul. 7. After Jugurtha had been conquered, he carried on war with the
Cimbri and Teutones. 8. His soldiers entreated Marius to lead them
against the enemy. 9. The battle was fought right at the foot of the
Alps. 10. As the Romans[3] had no water, Marius told his soldiers that,
if they conquered[4] the enemy, they would have abundance of water. 11.
It is said that after the battle the soldiers drank no less blood than
water, because the river was filled with the bodies of the slain. 12.
The Cimbri, having now entered Italy, sent messengers to Marius to ask
him to give them some land. 13. Marius threatened them[5] with the same
fate[5] which had befallen their brothers. 14. On the next day a battle
was fought, and slaughter terrible to witness[6] followed. 15. When the
women saw that they were defeated they strangled their babes and killed
themselves. 16. Marius envied the new consul, Sulla, because the war
against Mithridates had been assigned him. 17. When Sulla heard what
Marius had done, he returned to Rome with his army and drove him into
exile. 18. While Marius was hiding in a swamp, he was caught and thrown
into prison. 19. He asked the slave, who was sent to kill him, whether
he dared kill the great consul. 20. After Sulla had set out for Asia,
Marius, who was a few days’ journey from the city, returned and renewed
the civil war. 21. When he had put to death the best men of the state,
he gave over their homes to the rabble for plunder. 22. His death
afforded the Romans[7] more joy than his victory at Aquae Sextiae.

    [Footnotes:
    1: See p. 40, n. 1.
    2: Cf. #ut trāderet#, l. 21.
    3: Dat. Why?
    4: Cf. #sī fēcissent#, etc., l. 11.
    5: Observe carefully the construction in lines 57 and 58.
    6: Cf. #dictū#, l. 124, and p. 19, n. 15.
    7: #Dative.#]


XXIV.

#Relative clause of characteristic.#

1. A woman told Sulla (when he was) a child that he would be a blessing
to his country. 2. Was this the same woman who sold the Sibylline books
to King Tarquin? 3. Marius was vexed because Sulla had been chosen
quaestor. 4. Although Sulla had been dissolute, his military ability was
soon displayed. 5. He conquered Mithridates, the king of Pontus, and
would have completely subdued him had he not been recalled to Italy. 6.
When he had returned, with the greatest cruelty he punished with death
all who had supported Marius. 7. There was one young man who ventured to
advise him to spare some of his fellow-citizens. 8. If he had killed
all, there would have been none to govern [whom he should govern]. 9. He
wanted to kill not only his enemies, but also all who had money. 10.
When he at last laid down the dictatorship, the people were so crushed
that they did not dare to complain. 11. Sulla was fond of literary men
and was well versed in Greek literature. 12. He once gave a reward to a
wretched poet who had dedicated a poem to him, on condition that he
should write nothing thereafter.


XXV.

#Genitive with adjectives.#

1. Lucullus was distinguished both in war and in peace. 2. It is stated
by certain writers that he spent all of his early life in law practice
and was untrained in the art[1] of war. 3. But in the war with
Mithridates he surpassed even[2] experts in this art.[1] 4. All say that
he was exceedingly fond of money. 5. And this is the more surprising for
the reason that he had been educated in Greek philosophy. 6. He was not
the only one of the Romans to[3] squander his money in building villas.
7. He used to dine with the greatest luxury even when he was alone. 8.
Though fond of banquets, he was no less fond of books, and had a great
library, which was always open to the public.

    [Footnotes:
    1: H. 451, 1 (399, I, 2); M. 573; A. 218, _a_; G. 374; B. 204, 1.
    2: Cf. #mare ipsum#, l. 25.
    3: See p. 76, n. 11.]



ABBREVIATIONS


  abl. = ablative.
  abs. = absolute.
  acc. = accusative.
  act. = active.
  adj. = adjective.
  adv. = adverb.
  cf. = compare.
  comp. = comparative.
  conj. = conjunction.
  dat. = dative.
  def. = defective.
  dem. = demonstrative.
  desid. = desiderative.
  dim. = diminutive.
  disc. = discourse.
  e.g. = for example.
  encl. = enclitic.
  esp. = especially.
  f. = feminine, following.
  freq. = frequentative.
  gen. = genitive.
  i.e. = that is.
  imperf. = imperfect.
  impers. = impersonal.
  indef. = indefinite.
  indir. = indirect.
  insep. = inseparable.
  interj. = interjection.
  interr. = interrogative.
  intrans. = intransitive.
  l. = line.
  m. = masculine.
  n. = neuter, note.
  nom. = nominative.
  num. = numeral.
  obj. = objective.
  orig. = originally.
  p. = page.
  part. = participle, partitive.
  pass. = passive.
  perf. = perfect.
  pers. = personal.
  pl. = plural.
  poss. = possessive.
  prep. = preposition.
  pres. = present.
  pron. = pronoun, pronominal.
  rel. = relative.
  sc. = supply.
  sup. = superlative.
  trans. = transitive.

The star prefixed to certain verbs, e.g. #flīgō# and #speciō#, indicates
that the verb was obsolete, i.e. not in ordinary use. Compound verbs are
defined under the simple verbs from which they are derived. To this
practice there are, however, two exceptions: (1) When neither the simple
verb nor any other compound formed from it occurs in the text, and
(2) in the case of certain verbs like #sūmō# and #surgō#, which, though
themselves compounds, came to be regarded virtually as simple verbs and
served as the base of further compounds.

The student will therefore save time and labor if he accustoms himself
when reading to analyze compound verbs before consulting the Vocabulary.
This analysis will often make plain the meaning of the compound, and
render it unnecessary to seek the aid of the Vocabulary at all.



VOCABULARY


#A.#, abbreviation of the Roman praenomen _Aulus_.

#ā, ab, abs#, prep. with abl.; (1) of place, _from, away from, out of_;
(2) of time, _from, since, after_; (3) of agency, _by_; (4) of
separation, source, cause, _from, through, because of_; in composition,
_off, away_.

#abaliēnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ab# + #aliēnus#], _to remove, alienate,
estrange_.

#abdicō#, see #dicō#.

#abditus# [orig. part. of #abdō#], adj., _hidden, concealed_.

#abdō#, see #dō#.

#abdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#abeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#abiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#abluō, ere, ī, ūtus# [#ab# + #luō#, _to wash_], _to wash, cleanse,
purify_.

#abnuō#, see #*nuō#.

#abripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#abrogō#, see #rogō#.

#abs#, see #ā#.

#abscēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#abscindō#, see #scindō#.

#absēns, entis# [orig. part. of #absum#], adj., _absent, away_.

#absistō#, see #sistō#.

#absolvō#, see #solvō#.

#absorbeō, ēre, uī, absorptus# [#ab# + #sorbeō#, _to swallow_], _to
swallow_.

#abstinentia, ae# [#abstineō#], f., _abstinence, self-restraint,
integrity_.

#abstineō#, see #teneō#.

#abstrahō#, see #trahō#.

#absum#, see #sum#.

#absūmō#, see #sūmō#.

#ac#, see #atque#.

#Acca, ae#, f., praenomen of Acca Larentia, foster-mother of Romulus and
Remus.

#accēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#accendō#, see #candeō#.

#accidō#, see #cadō#.

#accingō#, see #cingō#.

#acciō, īre, īvī, ītus# [#ad# + #cieō#, _to set in motion_], _to summon,
invite_.

#accipiō#, see #capiō#.

#acclāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#accommodō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ad# + #commodus#], _to fit to, adjust,
regulate_.

#accumbō#, see #*cumbō#.

#accurrō#, see #currō#.

#accūsātiō, ōnis# [#accūsō#], f., _accusation, prosecution_.

#accūsātor, ōris# [#accūsō#], m., _accuser, prosecutor_.

#accūsō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ad# + #causa#], _to call to trial, accuse,
blame_.

#ācer, ācris, ācre#, comp. #ācrior#, sup. #ācerrimus#, adj., _sharp,
bitter, piercing_; _keen, eager, vigorous, fierce_.

#acerbē# [#acerbus#, _bitter_], adv., _bitterly, cruelly, severely_.

#acerbitās, ātis# [#acerbus#, _bitter_], f., _harshness, severity,
unkindness_.

#acētum, ī# [cf. #ācer#], n., _vinegar_.

#aciēs, ēī# [cf. #ācer#], f., _a sharp point_ of a sword or dagger; _a
battle line_ (conceived of as a sword point); _battle_.

#ācriter#, comp. #ācrius#, sup. #ācerrimē# [#ācer#], adv., _sharply,
spiritedly, fiercely, grievously_.

#Actiacus#, adj., _of_ or _at Actium_.

#Actium, ī#, n., a promontory and town in Epirus, near which, in 31
B.C., Octavianus defeated Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle.

#ad#, prep. with accus.; (1) of place, _to, towards, to the house of,
at, near_; (2) of time, _up to, towards, until, at_; (3) of purpose,
_to, in order to, for, for the sake of_; (4) of other relations,
_according to, at_. In composition, it = _to, towards_, and also denotes
_addition_ and _intensity_.

#adamō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ad# + #amō#, _to love_], _to love earnestly_.

#addīcō#, see #dīcō#.

#addō#, see #dō#.

#addūcō#, see #dūcō#.

(1) #adeō#, see (1) #eō#.

(2) #adeō# [#ad# + (2) #eō#], adv., _to this point, so very, so, to such
a degree, actually_; #atque adeō#, _and in fact_.

#adequitō#, see #equitō#.

#adfectō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ad# + #faciō#], _to strive after,
aspire to_.

#adferō#, see #ferō#.

#adficiō#, see #faciō#.

#adfīnis, is# [#ad# + #fīnis#], m., _a relative_ (by marriage).

#adfīrmō#, see #fīrmō#.

#adflātus, ūs# [#adflō#], m., _a blast, breath; effluvia, exhalation_.

#adflīctus# [orig. part. of #adflīgō#], adj., _shattered, weakened,
wretched_.

#adflīgō#, see #*flīgō#.

#adflō#, see #flō#.

#adhibeō#, see #habeō#.

#adhortātiō, ōnis# [#adhortor#, _to encourage_], f., _encouragement,
exhortation_.

#adiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#adigō#, see #agō#.

#adipīscor, ī, adeptus sum# [#ad# + #apīscor#, _to reach_], _to gain by
effort, get, acquire_.

#aditus, ūs# [(1) #adeō#], m., _approach, access_.

#adiūmentum# [orig. #adiuvāmentum#, from #adiuvō#], n., _help, aid,
service_.

#adiungō#, see #iungō#.

#adiuvō, āre, iūvī, iūtus# [#ad# + #iuvō#, _to help_], _to aid, help_.

#adliciō#, see #*laciō#.

#adligō#, see #ligō#.

#adloquor#, see #loquor#.

#administrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ad# + #ministrō#, _to manage_], _to
manage, direct, govern, regulate_.

#admīrābilis, e# [#admīror#], adj., _admirable, wonderful_.

#admīrandus# [#admīror#], adj., _marvelous, wonderful, strange_.

#admīrātiō, ōnis# [#admīror#], f., _wonder, admiration_; _surprise_.

#admīrātor, ōris# [#admīror#], m., _admirer_.

#admīror, ārī, ātus sum# [#ad# + #mīror#, _to marvel at_], _to marvel
at, admire_.

#admittō#, see #mittō#.

#admodum# [#ad# + #modus#], adv., _up to the full limit, very,
exceedingly_.

#admoneō#, see #moneō#.

#admoveō#, see #moveō#.

#adnuō#, see #*nuō#.

#adolēscō, ere, olēvī, adultus# [#ad# + #olēscō#, _to grow_], _to grow
up, become mature, reach manhood_.

#adoperiō#, see #pariō#.

#adoptō#, see #optō#.

#adōrnō#, see #ōrnō#.

#adōrō#, see #ōrō#.

#adquīrō#, see #quaerō#.

#adripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#adscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#adsentātiō, ōnis# [#adsentor#, _to agree with, to flatter_], f.,
_flattery_.

#adsequor#, see #sequor#.

#adsideō#, see #sedeō#.

#adsīdō#, see #sīdō#.

#adsiduus# [#adsideō#], adj., _incessant, repeated, continued_.

#adsīgnō#, see #sīgnō#.

#adspiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#adsuēscō#, see #suēscō#.

#adsum#, see #sum#.

#adsūmō#, see #sūmō#.

#adsurgō#, see #surgō#.

#adulēscēns, entis# [#adolēscō#], m. and f., _a young man_ or _woman_
(usually applied to persons between the ages of fifteen and thirty).

#adulēscentia, ae# [#adulēscēns#], f., _youth_.

#adulēscentulus, ī# [dim. of #adulēscēns#], m., _a very young man,
stripling_.

#adūlor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to flatter_.

#adultus# [orig. part. of #adolēscō#], adj., _grown up, mature, adult_.

#advehō#, see #vehō#.

#adveniō#, see #veniō#.

#adventō, āre, āvī#, -- [freq. of #adveniō#], _to advance, approach_.

#adventus, ūs# [#adveniō#], m., _coming, approach, arrival_.

#adversārius, ī# [#adversor#], m., _opponent, enemy_.

#adversor, ārī, ātus sum# [#adversus#], _to oppose, withstand, resist_.

#adversus# [#ad# + #vertō#], adj., _turned towards, facing, in front_;
_opposed, adverse, unfavorable_. As noun, #adversum, ī#, n.,
_misfortune, calamity_.

#adversus# and #adversum#, prep. with acc., _in opposition to, against,
towards_.

#advocātiō, ōnis# [#advocō#], f., _advocacy, legal assistance_; #in
advocātiōnem venīre#, _to come to one’s aid in court_.

#advocātus, ī# [#advocō#], m., _adviser, advocate_.

#advocō#, see #vocō#.

#aedēs#, see #aedis#.

#aedificium, ī# [#aedificō#], n., _a building_.

#aedificō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#aedis# + #faciō#], _to build_.

#aedīlis, is# [#aedis#], m., _aedile, commissioner of public works_, the
name of certain Roman magistrates, four in number, charged with the care
of the streets and public buildings, the regulation of the markets, and
the duty of distributing the corn which the state furnished to the poor.
They took care, also, of the records of the senate and other documents,
and superintended the performance of certain public games.

#aedīlitās, ātis# [#aedīlis#], f., _aedileship_.

#aedis# or #aedēs, is#, f., in sing., _temple_; in pl., _house,
dwelling_.

#aedituus, ī# [#aedis# + #tueor#], m., _keeper of a temple, sexton_.

#aeger, aegra, aegrum#, adj., _sick, ill, feeble_.

#aegrē# [#aeger#], adv., _painfully, with difficulty, scarcely_; #aegrē
ferre#, _to be vexed at, take amiss_.

#aegritūdō, inis# [#aeger#], f., _sickness_; _grief, vexation,
mortification_.

#aegrōtō, āre, āvī#, -- [#aeger#], _to be ill_ or _feeble, lie sick_.

#Aegyptus, ī#, m., _Egypt_.

#Aemilius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens. See #Paulus#.

#aemulātiō, ōnis# [#aemulor#, _to rival_], f., _rivalry, competition_.

#aequālis, e# [#aequus#], adj., _equal, like_ (esp. in age). As noun,
m., _comrade, companion_.

#aequē# [#aequus#], adv., _equally_.

#aequitās, ātis# [#aequus#], f., _evenness, fairness, justice_.

#aequō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#aequus#], _to make even, place on an
equality_.

#aequus#, adj., _even, level_; _fair, just_; #aequō animō#, _patiently_.

#aerārium, ī# [#aes#], n., _state treasury_; _public money_.

#aes, aeris#, n., _copper, bronze_; _money_ (first coined of bronze);
#aes aliēnum#, _debt_.

#aestās, ātis#, f., _summer_.

#aestīvus# [#aestās#], adj., _of summer, summer_.

#aetās, ātis#, f., _time of life, life, age, youth, old age_; _period,
time_.

#aeternum# [acc. sing. neut. of #aeternus#, _eternal_], adv.,
_eternally, forever_.

#Āfer, Āfrī#, m., _an African_, esp. an inhabitant of Carthage.

#Āfrica, ae#, f., _Africa_, esp. that part of it which lay near
Carthage.

#Āfricānus#, adj., _African_. As noun, #Āfricānus, ī#, m., the cognomen
bestowed on Publius Cornelius Scipio, conqueror of Hannibal. See
#Scīpiō#.

#agedum#, an interj., used with the imperative or hortatory subjunctive,
_come on! come! quick!_

#agellus, ī# [dim. of #ager#], m., _a little field, small estate_.

#ager, agrī#, m., _field, farm, estate_; _territory, land, district_;
_the country_.

#agger, eris# [#ad# + #gerō#], m., _mass_ (esp. of earth and brushwood),
_mound, rampart_.

#aggredior#, see #gradior#.

#agitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #agō#], _drive violently hither and
thither_; _discuss, consider, meditate_.

  #con--cōgitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to think, reflect, consider_;
  _plan_.

  #ex# + #con--excōgitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to think out, devise_.

#āgmen, inis# [#agō#], n., _an army_ (on the march), _marching column_;
_troop, array_.

#āgnōscō#, see #nōscō#.

#agō, agere, ēgī, āctus#, _to set in motion, drive, lead_; _act, do,
perform_; _treat, deal, arrange_; _spend, pass_ (of time); #āctum est
dē#, _it was all up with_; #augurium agere#, _to perform the augural
ceremonies_; #cōnsulem agere#, _to act the consul_, #dēlēctum agere#,
_to hold a levy_; #grātiās agere#, _to feel thankful_; #triumphum
agere#, _to celebrate a triumph_.

  #ad--adigō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _drive, urge, compel, constrain_.

  #con--cōgō, ere, coēgī, coāctus#, _drive together, collect_;
  _compel, force_.

  #dē--dēgō, ere, dēgī, ----#, _pass, spend_ (of time).

  #ex--exigō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _to drive out_; _finish_; _pass,
  spend_.

  #per--peragō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _to finish, accomplish, play_
  (a part); _set forth, relate, describe_.

  #re--redigō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _to drive back, force, reduce,
  bring_.

  #sub--subigō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _to drive under, conquer, subdue_.

  #trāns--trānsigō, ere, ēgī, āctus#, _to finish, settle, perform_.

#agrestis, e# [#ager#], adj., _of the fields_; _rustic_; _countrified,
rude, uncouth_.

#āiō, ais, ait, āiunt# [def. verb], _to say_.

#alacer, cris, cre#, adj., _lively, nimble, quick_; often = an adv.,
_eagerly_.

#alacritās, ātis# [#alacer#], f., _liveliness, eagerness, spirit_.

#Alba# or #Alba Longa# (sc. #urbs#), f., an ancient town of the Latins.

#Albānus#, adj., _pertaining to Alba, Alban_. As noun, #Albānus, ī#, m.,
_an inhabitant of Alba_.

#ālea, ae#, f., _game of dice_; _die_.

#Alexander, drī#, m., _Alexander the Great_, king of Macedonia from 336
to 323 B.C., and conqueror of Persia.

#Alexandrēa, ae#, f., _Alexandria_, a city in Egypt, at the mouth of the
Nile, founded by Alexander the Great.

#aliās# [#alius#], adv., _at another time, under other circumstances_.

#alibī# [#alius# + #ibi#], adv., _elsewhere, in other places_.

#aliēnus# [#alius#], adj., _belonging to another, another’s_; #aes
aliēnum#, _debt_.

#alimentum, ī# [#alō#], n., _nourishment_; in plur., _food, provisions_.

#aliōquī#, adv., _in other respects, otherwise_.

#aliquamdiū# [#aliquis# + #diū#], adv., _for a while, for some time_.

#aliquandō# [#aliquis#], adv., _at some time or other, once, on a
certain occasion_; _at length, at last_.

#aliquantus#, adj., _some, considerable_. As noun, #aliquantum, ī#, n.,
_a little, something_.

#aliquī, aliqua, aliquod# [#alius# + #quī#], indef. pron. adj., _some
one or other, some, any_.

#aliquis, qua, quid# [#alius# + #quis#], indef. pron., _some one,
something_; _any one, anything_; _some, any_. As noun, #aliquid#, n.,
_something, anything_.

#aliquot# [#alius# + #quot#], indef. indecl. adj., _some, several_.

#aliquotiēns# [#aliquot#], adv., _several times_.

#aliter# [#alius#], adv., _otherwise, differently_.

#alius, a, ud# (gen. #alīus#, dat. #aliī#), pron. adj., _another, other,
different_; #alius . . . alius#, _one . . . one, one . . . another_;
#aliī . . . aliī#, _some . . . others_.

#alō, ere, uī, tus#, _to feed, nourish, support, keep_.

#Alpēs, ium#, f., _the Alps_.

#altāria, ium#, pl. n., _an altar_.

#alter, altera, alterum# (gen. #alterīus#, dat. #alterī#), pron. adj.,
_one of two, the other, the second_; #alter . . . alter#, _the one . . .
the other_.

#altercor, ārī, ātus sum# [#alter#], _to dispute, wrangle_.

#alteruter, utra, utrum# (gen. #alterutrīus#, dat. #alterutrī#), pron.
adj., _one or the other of two, one_ (only) _of two_.

#altus# [#alō#], adj., _high, lofty_; _deep_. As noun, #altum, ī#, n.,
_the deep sea, the deep_; sup. #altissimum, ī#, n., _top_.

#alveus, ī#, m., _a basket, trough_.

#am, amb, ambi#, insep. prefix (seen in #amputō#), _around, on both
sides_.

#amāns, antis# [part. of #amō#, _to love_], adj., _loving, fond_; with
gen., _fond of, devoted to_.

#ambitiō, ōnis# [#ambiō#, _to go around_], f., _canvassing for public
office, ambition_.

#ambō, ae, ō#, adj., _both_.

#ambulātiō, ōnis# [#ambulō#], f., _a walk, promenade_.

#ambulō, āre, āvī, --#, _to walk, stroll_.

  #dē--deambulō, āre, --, --#, _to walk, stroll, promenade_.

  #in--inambulō, āre, --, --#, _to walk up and down, stroll_.

#amīcitia, ae# [#amīcus#], f., _friendship_.

#amictus# [orig. part. of #amiciō#, _to wrap about_], adj., _clothed in,
clad in_.

#amīcus# [#amō#, _to love_], adj., _friendly_.

#amīcus, ī# [#amō#, _to love_], m., _a friend_.

#āmittō#, see #mittō#.

#amnis, is#, m., _river, torrent, stream_.

#amor, ōris# [#amō#, _to love_], m., _love, passion_.

#āmoveō#, see #moveō#.

#amphora, ae#, f., _a two-handled jar_. It held about six gallons.

#amplector, ī, amplexus sum#, _to twine around, embrace_.

#ampliō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#amplus#], _to enlarge, widen, extend_.

#amplius# [comp. of #amplus#], indecl. adj. and adv., _further, more,
besides_.

#amplus#, adj., _great, large_; _noble, distinguished_.

#amputō#, see #putō#.

#Amūlius, ī#, m., _Amūlius_, son of Proca, a legendary king of Alba
Longa.

#anceps, ancipitis# [#ambi# + #caput#], adj., _two-headed_; _doubtful,
hazardous_.

#ancīle, is#, n., a small oval shield, shaped like the faces of a
guitar.

#ancilla, ae#, f., _a maid-servant, maid_.

#Ancus, ī#, m., the praenomen of Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome.

#angō, ere, --, --#, _squeeze, choke_; _vex, annoy_.

#angor, ōris# [#angō#], m., _vexation, sorrow, anguish_.

#anguis, is# [#angō#], m. and f., _a snake_.

#angulus, ī# [#angō#], m., _corner, nook_.

#angustiae, ārum# [#angustus#], f., _narrowness, narrow place, narrow
pass_.

#angustus# [#angō#], adj., _narrow_.

#anima, ae#, f., _air, breath, soul, life_.

#animadvertō, ere, vertī, versus# [#animus# + #advertō#], _to turn the
mind to, perceive, notice_; #in aliquem animadvertere#, _to punish_.

#animal, ālis# [#anima#], n., _a living thing, an animal_.

#animus, ī#, m., _mind, soul, reason_; _courage, spirit_; _temper,
disposition_; in plur., _affections, allegiance_.

#Aniō, Aniēnis#, m., a tributary of the Tiber.

#annālis, is# [#annus#], adj., _yearly, annual_. As noun, #Annālēs#
(sc. _librī_), _year-books, records_; strictly brief abstracts of
contemporary events kept in early days by the Pontifex Maximus, and
exposed to view on a white-washed plank set up at his official
residence. #Annālēs# is a frequent title of Latin historical works.

#annōna, ae# [#annus#], f., _the year’s crop_, esp. of grain; _corn
supply_.

#annus, ī#, m., _a year_.

#ante# (1) adv.; of space, _before, in front of_; of time, _before,
previously, ago_; (2) prep. with acc., both of space and time, _in front
of, before_.

#anteā# [#ante#], adv., _before, formerly_.

#antecēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#anteeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#antequam# or #ante . . . quam#, conj., _before, until_.

#Antiochus, ī#, m., _Antiochus_.

  1. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria 223-187 B.C., conquered by
  Scipio Asiaticus in 190.

  2. A philosopher, born at Ascalon in Palestine, whose lectures
  Cicero heard at Athens in 79 B.C.

#antīquus#, adj., _ancient_.

#Antōnius, ī#, m., a Roman gentile name.

  1. _M. Antōnius_, a friend of Julius Caesar and a member of the
  second triumvirate. He was defeated by Octavianus off Actium in 31
  B.C., and killed himself the following year.

  2. _C. Antōnius Hybrida_, uncle of the triumvir, and consul with
  Cicero, B.C. 63.

#ānulus, ī# [dim. of #ānus#, _a circle_], m., _a finger ring_.

#anus, ūs#, f., _an old woman_.

#anxius# [#angō#], adj., _anxious, troubled_.

#aper, aprī#, m., _a wild boar_.

#aperiō#, see #pariō#.

#apertē# [#apertus#], adv., _openly, plainly_.

#apertus# [orig. part. of #aperiō#], adj., _open, manifest_.

#Apollō, inis#, m., _Apollo_, the Greek god (worshiped by the Romans
also) of poetry and music, divination and medicine. His chief shrine was
at Delphi, in Greece.

#Apollōnia, ae#, f., a city of Illyria, on the east coast of the
Adriatic. Toward the close of the first century B.C. it was a famous
seat of learning.

#Apollōnius, ī#, m., _Apollōnius_, surnamed _Molō_, under whom Cicero
studied rhetoric at Rhodes.

#apparātus, ūs#, m., _equipment, preparation_; _splendor, pomp_.

#appāreō#, see #pāreō#.

#appellātiō, ōnis# [(2) #appellō#], f., _name, title_.

(1) #appellō#, see #pellō#.

(2) #appellō#, see #pellō#.

#Appennīnus, ī#, m., _the Apennines_, a range of mountains in Italy.

#Appius, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen, esp. common in the Claudian gens.

#applaudō, ere, plausī, plausus# [#ad# + #plaudō#, _to clap the hands_],
_to applaud_.

#appōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#apprehendō#, see #prehendō#.

#approbō#, see #probō#.

#appropinquō, āre, āvī, --# [#ad# + #propinquus#], _to draw near,
approach_.

#aptē# [#aptus#], adv., _fitly, neatly_.

#aptus#, adj., _fitted, suited for, adapted to_.

#apud#, prep. with acc.; of place, _near_; of persons, _with, among, in
the presence of, at the house of_; with the name of an author, _in the
works of_.

#Āpūlia, ae#, f., _Apulia_, a district in the southeastern part of
Italy.

#aqua, ae#, f., _water_.

#aquila, ae#, f., _an eagle_; _standard_ (a metal eagle, elevated upon a
pole).

#aquilifer, ferī# [#aquila# + #ferō#], m., _standard bearer_.

#āra, ae#, f., _an altar_.

#arbiter, trī#, m., _witness, judge, umpire_.

#arbitrium, ī# [#arbiter#], n., _judgment, decision_; _will, caprice_.

#arbitror, ārī, ātus sum# [#arbiter#], _to think, believe, consider_.

#arbor, oris#, f., _a tree_.

#arca, ae# [#arceō#], f., _chest, box_.

#arceō, ēre, uī, --#, _to shut up, inclose_; _hinder, prevent_.

  #con--coerceō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to confine closely, shut in_;
  _restrain, check_.

  #ex--exerceō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to exercise, drill, employ_; #lēgem
  exercēre#, _to enforce a law_.

#arcessō, ere, īvī, ītus#, _to cause to come, summon, send for_.

#Ardea, ae#, f., _Ardea_, a town in Latium, about eighteen miles south
of Rome.

#ārdēns, entis# [orig. part. of #ārdeō#, _to burn, glow_], adj.,
_glowing, fiery, bright_.

#ārdor, ōris# [#ārdeō#, _to burn, glow_], m., _heat, glow_; _zeal,
enthusiasm, fire_.

#argentum, ī#, n., _silver_; _money_.

#Argī, ōrum#, m., _Argos_, a city in the northeastern part of the
Peloponnesus.

#Argīvus#, adj., of _Argos, Argive_.

#arguō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to show, prove_; _charge, accuse, blame_.

#āridus# [#āreō#, _to be dry_], adj., _dry, arid_.

#arma, ōrum#, n. pl., _arms, weapons_ (esp. for defense); _warfare_.

#armātus# [orig. part. of #armō#], adj., _armed, in full armor_. As
noun, #armātī, ōrum#, m. pl., _armed men, soldiers_.

#Armenia, ae#, f., _Armenia_, a country in Asia, southeast of the Black
Sea.

#armilla, ae# [#armus#, _shoulder, arm_], f., _a bracelet, armlet_.

#armō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#arma#], _to arm, equip_.

#Arpīnum, ī#, n., _Arpinum_, a town of the Volsci, fifty miles southeast
of Rome; the birthplace of Marius and Cicero.

#ars, artis#, f., _skill, art, knowledge_; _accomplishment_, esp. in
pl.; _device, stratagem_.

#artifex, icis# [#ars# + #faciō#], m., _workman, artist, builder_.

#artūs, uum#, m. pl., _joints, limbs_.

#Ārūns, untis#, m., a son of Tarquinius Superbus.

#arx, arcis# [#arceō#], f., _citadel, stronghold_.

#ās, assis#, m., _an as_, the unit of Roman coinage, orig. a pound of
copper, but finally reduced to half an ounce. It was then worth about a
cent.

#āscendō#, see #scandō#.

#Asia, ae#, f., _Asia_, esp. Asia Minor.

  #Asiāticus#, adj., _Asiatic_. As noun, #Asiāticus, ī#, m., (cognomen
  of Lucius Cornelius Scipio, conqueror of Antiochus.

#asper, aspera, asperum#, adj., _rough, bitter, sharp_; _harsh, violent,
severe_.

#asperitās, ātis# [#asper#], f., _roughness, harshness_; _acidity_
(of vinegar).

#āspernor#, see #spernō#.

#aspis, idis#, f., _an asp, viper_.

#āstūtia, ae# [#āstūtus#], f., _shrewdness, smartness, cleverness_.

#āstūtus# [#āstū#, _cunning_], adj., _smart, clever, shrewd, cunning_.

#asȳlum, ī#, n., _place of refuge, asylum_.

#at#, conj., _but, but yet, nevertheless_.

#Athēnae, ārum#, f. plur., _Athens_, the chief city of Greece, situated
in Attica, in the southeastern part of central Greece.

#Athesis, is#, m., a river in Cisalpine Gaul, near which Marius defeated
the Cimbri in 101 B.C.

#Atīlius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens. See #Rēgulus#.

#atque, ac#, conj., _and, and also_.

#atquī#, conj., _and yet, but yet, yet_.

#atrōciter# [#atrōx#], adv., _fiercely, cruelly_.

#atrōx, ōcis#, adj., _savage, fierce, cruel, horrible_.

#attentus#, adj., _attentive_.

#attonitus# [#attonō#, _to thunder at_], adj., _thunder-struck,
awe-struck, overwhelmed_.

#Attus, ī#, m., _Attus Nāvius_, an augur who defied Tarquinius Priscus.

#auctor, ōris# [#augeō#], m., _producer, originator, cause_.

#auctōritās, ātis# [#auctor#], f., _authority, power_; _influence,
weight, dignity_.

#aucupium, ī# [#avis# + #capiō#], n., _bird-catching, fowling_.

#audācia, ae# [#audāx#, _bold_], f., _boldness, daring_; _rashness,
presumption_.

#audeō, ēre, ausus sum#, _to venture, dare_.

#audiō, īre, īvī, ītus#, _to hear, listen to_; #dictō audiēns esse#, _to
obey_.

  #ex--exaudiō, īre, īvī, ītus#, _to hear clearly, distinguish_.

#auferō#, see #ferō#.

#aufugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#augeō, ēre, auxī, auctus#, _to increase, enlarge_.

#augur, uris# [#avis#], m., _an augur, soothsayer_, a priest whose
business it was to take the _auspicia_. See #auspicium#.

#augurium, ī# [#augur#], n., _observance of omens, divination_;
#augurium agere#, _to perform the augural ceremonies_.

#augustus# [#augeō#], adj., _majestic, venerable, imposing_.

#Augustus, ī# [#augustus#], m., a title of honor given to Octavianus in
B.C. 27, and after him to all the Roman emperors.

#aureus# [#aurum#], adj., _golden_.

#auris, is#, f., _ear_.

#aurum, ī#, n., _gold_.

#auspicium, ī# [#avis# + #*speciō#], n., _divination_ by noting the
flight or cries of birds. In taking the #auspicia#, _auspices_, the
augur sought to learn whether the gods favored or disapproved a proposed
course of conduct.

#aut#, conj., _or_; #aut . . . aut#, _either . . . or_.

#autem#, conj., always postpositive, _but, however, moreover_.

#auxilium, ī# [#augeō#], n., _help, aid_; plur., _auxiliary troops_
(usually foreign and light-armed troops).

#avāritia, ae# [#avārus#], f., _greed, avarice_.

#avārus#, adj., _greedy, grasping, covetous_.

#āvellō, ere, vellī, vulsus# [#ab# + #vellō#, _to pluck_], _to tear off_
or _away, sever_.

#Aventīnus, ī#, m. (sc. #mōns#), _the Aventine_, one of the seven hills
of Rome.

#Aventīnus#, adj., _of_ or _on the Aventine_.

#aveō, ēre, --, --#, _to fare well_, used only in the imperative #avē!#
_hail! welcome! greetings!_

#āversor, ārī, ātus sum# [#āvertō#], _to scorn, repulse_.

#āvertō#, see #vertō#.

#avidē# [#avidus#], adv., _eagerly, greedily_.

#avidus#, adj., _desirous, eager, greedy_.

#avis, is#, f., _bird_; _sign, omen_.

#avītus# [#avus#], adj., _ancestral_.

#āvocō#, see #vocō#.

#āvolō#, see (2) #volō#.

#avunculus# [dim. of #avus#], m., _uncle, mother’s brother_.

#avus, ī#, m., _grandfather, ancestor_.


#B#

#baculum, ī#, n., _a staff, stick_.

#Bagrada(s), ae#, m., a river near Carthage.

#ballista, ae#, f., _the ballista_, a military engine for hurling
stones.

#balneum, ī#, n., _bath, bathing-place_.

#barba, ae#, f., _beard_.

#barbarus#, adj., _foreign, uncivilized, barbarous_. As noun, #barbarī,
ōrum#, pl. m., _foreigners, barbarians_.

#bellātor, ōris# [#bellō#], m., _fighter, brawler_; _warrior, soldier_.

#bellicōsus# [#bellicus#, _warlike_], adj., _warlike_.

#bellō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#bellum#], _to wage war, fight_.

  #re--rebellō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to wage war again, rebel_.

#bellum, ī# (orig. #duellum#, from #duo#), n., _war, warfare_.

#bēlua, ae#, f., _a wild beast_; of a person, _beast, brute, monster_.

#bene# [#bonus#], adv., _well, successfully_; comp. #melius#, sup.
#optimē#.

#beneficium, ī# [#bene# + #faciō#], n., _favor, kindness, service_.

#benevolentia, ae# [#bene# + (1) #volō#], f., _good will, kindly
feeling_; _favor_.

#benīgnē# [#benīgnus#], adv., _kindly, courteously_.

#benīgnus#, adj., _kind, favorable_.

#bibliothēca, ae#, f., _library_.

#bibō, ere, ī, --#, _to drink_.

#Bibulus, ī#, m., _L. Calpurnius_, consul with Julius Caesar in 59 B.C.

#bīduum, ī# [#bis# + #diēs#], n., _a period of two days, two days’
time_.

#bis# [orig. #duis#; cf. #duo#], num. adv., _twice_.

#blanditia, ae#, f., _flattery_; in pl., _blandishments, allurements_.

#Blosius, ī#, m., gentile name of _C. Blosius Cūmānus_, a friend of
C. Gracchus.

#Bocchus, ī#, m., _Bocchus_, king of the Gaetuli, and ally of Jugurtha.

#Boiorix, icis#, m., _Boiorix_, chief of the Cimbri, defeated by Marius,
101 B.C.

#bonus#, comp. #melior#, sup. #optimus#, adj., _good_; as noun, #bonī,
ōrum#, m. pl., _good men, loyal citizens_; #bona, ōrum#, n. pl., _goods,
possessions_.

#bōs, bovis#, m. and f., _ox, cow_; pl., _cattle_.

#bracchium, ī#, n., _forearm, arm_.

#brevī#, see #brevis#.

#brevis, e#, adj., _short_; #brevī# (sc. #tempore#), adv., _in a little
while, soon_.

#Britannī, ōrum#, m. pl., _the inhabitants of England, the Britons_.

#Brundisium, ī#, n., _Brundisium_, a seaport in southeastern Italy, the
regular point of embarkation for Greece.

#Brūtus, ī#, m., a cognomen in the Junian gens.

  1. _L. Iūnius Brūtus_, the Liberator, nephew of Tarquinius Superbus,
  and consul with Collatinus in 509 B.C.

  2. _M. Iūnius Brūtus_, one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, 44
  B.C.

  3. _D. Iūnius Brūtus_, an officer of Julius Caesar in Gaul, but
  afterwards one of his murderers.

#bulla, ae#, f., an _amulet_ or _charm_ for the neck, commonly of gold,
though often of leather. It was worn by children of free birth, but laid
aside with the _toga praetexta_ (see #praetextus#), and consecrated to
the _Larēs_, or gods of the hearth.


#C#

#C#, orig. = English _G_, later = both _C_ and _G_, finally = _C_ alone;
with proper names = _Gāius_, a Roman praenomen.

#cadāver, eris# [#cadō#], n., _a corpse_.

#cadō, ere, cecidī, cāsūrus#, _to fall_; _fall dead, be killed, die_;
_happen_.

  #ad--accidō, ere, cidī, --#, _to happen, befall, come to pass_.

  #con--concidō, ere, cidī,--#, _to fall, be slain, perish_.

  #in--incidō, ere, cidī,--#, _fall, fall into_ or _on, meet_;
  _happen, occur_; #incidere in aliquem#, _to happen in the time of
  anybody_.

  #ob--occidō, ere, cidī, --#, _fall down, fall, perish_; _set_
  (of the sun).

  #re--recidō, ere, cidī, --#, _to fall back, return_; _fall_.

#caedēs, is# [#caedō#], f., _slaughter, massacre_.

#caedō, ere, cecīdī, caesus#, _to cut, cut to pieces_; _kill, conquer,
rout_; #virgīs caedere#, _to flog_.

  #ob--occīdō, ere, cīdī, cīsus#, _to cut down, kill, slay_.

  #prae--praecīdō, ere, cīdī, cīsus#, _to cut short, cut off_.

#caelestis, e# [#caelum#], adj., _from heaven, heavenly, celestial_.

#Caelius, ī#, m. (sc. #mōns#), _the Caelian hill_, one of the seven
hills of Rome.

#caelum, ī#, n., _the sky, heavens_.

#caenōsus# [#caenum#], adj., _foul, filthy_.

#caenum, ī#, n., _mud, filth, mire_.

#Caesar, aris#, m., _Caesar_, a family name in the Julian gens.

  1. _C. Iūlius Caesar_, the famous dictator, born 100 B.C., quaestor
  in 68, aedile in 65, praetor in 62, consul in 59; conquered Gaul,
  58-50; engaged in civil war with Pompey and his supporters, 49-46;
  created perpetual dictator in 46; murdered, March 15, 44.

  2. The grandson of Caesar’s sister, _C. Octāvius_, was adopted by
  Caesar, and henceforth known as _C. Iūlius Caesar Octāviānus_. He
  was born 63 B.C., formed the second triumvirate with Antony and
  Lepidus in 44; with Antony’s help defeated Brutus and Cassius, the
  murderers of Caesar, in 42, at Philippi; defeated Antony at Actium,
  in 31, and became sole master of the Roman world, which he ruled
  till his death in 14 A.D. See also #Augustus#.

#caesariēs, --#, acc. #em#, f., _hair_ (of the head), _locks_ (only in
sing.).

#calamitās, ātis#, f., _calamity, disaster_.

#calcar, āris#, n., _a spur_.

#callidus#, adj., _shrewd, cunning, sly_.

#Calpurnia, ae#, f., _Calpurnia_, daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso, and
wife of Julius Caesar.

#Calpurnius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens. See #Bibulus#.

#calvitium, ī# [#calvus#], n., _baldness_.

#calvus#, adj., _bald_.

#Calvus, ī# [#calvus#], m., cognomen of _C. Licinius Macer Calvus_, poet
and orator, 82-47 B.C.

#Camers, ertis#, m., an inhabitant of Camerinum, a town of Umbria,
a district in Central Italy.

#Campānia, ae#, f., a district on the west coast of Italy, south of
Latium.

#Campānus#, adj., _Campanian_.

#campus, ī#, m., _a field_, especially the #Campus Mārtius#, a plain
lying between the Capitoline Hill and the Tiber, and thus orig. outside
the walls. It was used as a place of exercise, as a parade ground and
place for reviews. Later, elections were held there.

#candeō, ēre, uī, --#, _to shine, glow_.

  #ad--accendō, ere, ī, cēnsus#, _to set fire to, kindle, burn_;
  _arouse, fire, anger_.

  #in--incendō, ere, ī, cēnsus#, _to set on fire_; _arouse, excite_.

#candidus# [#candeō#], adj., _white_.

#Canīnius, ī#, m., gentile name of _C. Canīnius Rēbilus_, consul for a
few hours on December 31, 45 B.C.

#canis, is#, m. and f., _a dog_.

#Cannae, ārum#, f. pl., a small town in Apulia in southeastern Italy.

#Cannēnsis, e#, adj., _of_ or _at Cannae_.

#canō, ere, cecinī, --#, _to sing, chant, play_; _sound, give signal_.

  #prae--praecinō, ere, uī, --#, _to play before_ (one).

#cantus, ūs# [#canō#], m., _song_; _note, cry_.

#Canusium, ī#, n., a town in Apulia near Cannae.

#capesso, ere, īvī, ītus# [desid. of #capiō#], _to take eagerly, seize,
resort to_.

#capillus, ī# [#caput#], m., _the hair_.

#capiō, ere, cēpī, captus#, _to take, seize, capture_; #cōnsilium
capere#, _to form a plan_.

  #ad--accipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take to one’s self, receive,
  adopt_; _meet with, welcome_; _understand, interpret_.

  #con--concipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take in, imagine, conceive_.

  #dē--dēcipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take in, catch, deceive,
  cheat_.

  #ex--excipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take out, appropriate,
  overhear_; _receive, greet_; _await, confront_.

  #in--incipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take up, begin, undertake_.

  #inter--intercipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to seize in passing, steal,
  usurp_.

  #prae--praecipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptum#, _direct, bid, order_.

  #re--recipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take back, recover_; _take,
  receive_; #sē recipere#, _to retreat, withdraw_.

  #sub--suscipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus#, _to take up, undertake, assume,
  succeed to_.

#Capitōlīnus#, adj., _pertaining to the Capitol_.

#Capitōlium, ī#, n., _the Capitol_, the chief temple of Jupiter in Rome;
often, also, the hill on which this temple stood, the _Mōns
Capitōlīnus_, the citadel of Rome.

#capra, ae#, f., _a she-goat_; #Caprae palūs#, _Goat Swamp_, in the
Campus Martius.

#captīvus# [#capiō#], adj., _captive_; as noun, #captīvus, ī#, m., _a
prisoner, captive_.

#captō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #capiō#], _to seize eagerly, strive to
seize, strive for_; _take in, deceive, trap_.

#Capua, ae#, f., a city in Campania noted for its luxury.

#capulus, ī# [#capiō#], m., _hilt, handle_.

#caput, itis#, n., _the head, life_; _head_ or _capital_ of a nation;
#capite damnāre#, _to condemn to death_.

#carbō, inis#, m., _a coal, charcoal_.

#Carbō, inis#, m., _C. Papīrius_, an enemy of Sulla, defeated by Pompey.

#carcer, eris#, n., _a prison_, esp. the state prison at Rome, built by
Ancus Marcius, and known since the middle ages as the ‘Mamertine
Prison.’ It lay at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, on the side towards
the Forum. The historian Sallust thus describes it: “In the prison there
is a place called the _Tulliānum_, about twelve feet below the surface
of the ground. It is built with strong walls, and above it there is a
room constructed with stone vaulting. It is a disgusting and horrible
place on account of the filth, the darkness, and the stench.”

#carnifex, ficis# [#carō#, _flesh_ + #faciō#], m., _executioner,
butcher_.

#carpentum, ī#, n., _a two-wheeled carriage_.

#carpō, ere, sī, tus#, _to pluck, tear_.

  #dis--discerpō, ere, sī, tus#, _to pluck_ or _tear in pieces_.

  #ex--excerpō, ere, sī, tus#, _to pluck out, choose, select_.

#Carthāginiēnsis, e#, adj., _Carthaginian_.

#Carthāgō, inis#, f., _Carthage_, a city on the northern coast of
Africa, colonized by Phoenicians from Tyre.

#Carthāgō Nova#, f., _New Carthage_, a city on the east coast of Spain,
founded by the Carthaginians.

#cārus#, adj., _dear, beloved_; _costly_.

#casa, ae#, f., _a hut, cottage_.

#Casca, ae#, m., _C. Servīlius_, one of the murderers of Julius Caesar.

#Cassius, ī#, m., gentile name of _C. Cassius Longīnus_, one of the
foremost conspirators against Caesar in 44 B.C.

#castellum, ī# [dim. of #castrum#], n., _a stronghold, castle, fort_.

#castīgō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#castus#, _pure_ + #agō#], _to correct,
punish, chastise_.

#castrum, ī#, n., _a fortified place_; pl., #castra, ōrum#, _a camp_.

#cāsus, ūs# [#cadō#], m., _that which befalls, accident, chance_;
_misfortune, calamity_.

#catapulta, ae#, f., _an engine for hurling arrows, catapult_.

#catēna, ae#, f., _a chain, fetter_.

#Catilīna, ae#, m., _L. Sergius_, who conspired against the state during
Cicero’s consulship, 63 B.C.

#catīllus, ī#, m., _a small dish, plate_.

#Catō, ōnis#, m., _M. Porcius_, called _Uticēnsis_, because he committed
suicide at Utica in Africa, after the battle of Thapsus 46 B.C.

#Catullus, ī#, m., _C. Valerius_, the famous lyric poet, 87-54 B.C.

#catulus, ī#, m., _a young animal, cub_.

#Catulus, ī#, m., _Q. Lutātius_, who in 67 B.C. opposed the grant of
extraordinary powers to Pompey for the war with the pirates.

#cauda, ae#, f., _tail_.

#causa, ae#, f., _cause, reason, occasion_; _case at law_; #causā# (with
preceding gen.), _for the sake of_, a common expression of purpose;
#causam dīcere#, _to plead a case_ in court.

#cautus# [orig. part. of #caveō#], adj., _careful, wary, cautious_.

#cavea, ae# [#cavus#, _hollow_], f., _a cage_.

#caveō, ēre, cāvī, cautus#, _to be on one’s guard, beware, guard
against_.

#cēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to go, move_; _to go from, retire_; _yield,
submit_; #ex sententiā cēdere#, _to turn out to one’s satisfaction_.

  #ab--abscēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus#, _to go away, withdraw, depart_.

  #ad--accēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus#, _to go_ or _come to, move
  towards, approach_; _be added_.

  #ante--antecēdō, ere, cessī, --#, _to go before, precede._

  #con--concēdō, ere, cessī, cessus#, _to withdraw, retire, depart_;
  _yield, submit_; _allow, grant, concede_.

  #dē--dēcēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to go away, withdraw, depart_;
  _to die_ (sc. #vītā#).

  #dis--discēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to go away, depart_; _come
  off_.

  #in--incēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus#, _to advance, approach_; _march_;
  _move slowly_.

  #prae--praecēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus#, _to go before_.

  #prō--prōcēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to move forward, advance, make
  progress_.

  #re--recēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to move back, withdraw, retire,
  retreat_.

  #sē--sēcēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus#, _to retire, withdraw_.

  #sub--succēdō, ere, cessī, cessum#, _to follow, succeed_; _be
  successful_.

#celeber, bris, bre#, adj., _famous_.

#celebrātus# [part. of #celebrō#, _to throng_], adj., of a place,
_thronged, frequented_; of persons, places, or things, _famous,
brilliant_.

#celer, eris, ere#, adj., _swift, quick, lively_.

#celeritās, ātis# [#celer#], f., _swiftness, speed, alertness_.

#celeriter# [#celer#], adv., _quickly, soon_.

#cella, ae#, f., _chamber, sanctuary, shrine_.

#cēlō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to hide, conceal_.

#Celtibērī, ōrum#, m. pl., _the Celtiberi_, a tribe in Spain.

#cēna, ae#, f., _dinner_, the principal meal of the Romans, taken about
three o’clock.

#cēnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#cēna#], _to dine, eat_.

#cēnseō, ēre, uī, us#, _to rate, value_; _be of the opinion, think_;
_determine, decide_.

#cēnsus, ūs# [#cēnseō#], m., _an enumeration_ and _classification of the
people_ according to wealth, _a census_.

#centiēs# [#centum#], adv., _a hundred times_.

#centum#, indecl. num. adj., _a hundred_.

#centuria, ae# [#centum#], f., _a division of the army or the people_,
containing a hundred persons, _a century_.

#centuriō, ōnis# [#centuria#], m., _a commander of a century, centurion,
captain_.

#cernō, ere, crēvī, certus# [#crētus#], _to separate_; _see, perceive_;
_decide, determine_.

  #dē--dēcernō, ere, crēvī, crētus#, _to decide, determine_; _decree,
  vote, entrust_ (by a decree); _contend, fight_.

  #sē--sēcernō, ere, crēvī, crētus#, _to separate, divide_.

#certāmen, inis# [#certō#], n., _match, trial_ of skill or strength;
_contest, battle_.

#certātim# [#certō#], adv., _in rivalry, zealously_.

#certē# [#certus#], adv., _certainly, surely_.

#certō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#certus#], _to vie with, contend_.

#certus# [orig. part. of #cernō#], adj., _determined, fixed_; _certain,
definite, specified, assured_; #certiōrem facere#, _to inform_; #certior
fierī#, _to be informed_.

#cervīx, īcis#, f., _neck, throat_.

#cessō, āre, āvī, ātum# [freq. of #cēdō#], _to be inactive, loiter,
delay_.

#cēterum# [#cēterus#], adv. and conj., _for the rest, but, moreover,
besides_.

#cēterī, ae, a#, adj., _the rest, the other, the others_.

#charta, ae#, f., _writing material, paper, sheet_ (of Egyptian
papyrus).

#Chrȳsogonus, ī#, m., _L. Cornēlius_, a freedman of Sulla.

#cibārius# [#cibus#], adj., _pertaining to food_; #rēs cibāria#,
_provisions_.

#cibus, ī#, m., _food, victuals_.

#cicātrīx, īcis#, f., _a scar_.

#cicer, ciceris#, n., _a pea, chickpea_.

#Cicerō, ōnis# [#cicer#], m., cognomen of _M. Tullius Cicerō_, the
famous orator, born at Arpinum, 106 B.C.; quaestor in Sicily, 75;
praetor, 66; consul, 63; killed by Antony’s order in 43.

#Cimber, brī#, m., _a Cimbrian_, one of the Cimbri, the Teutonic tribe
which, together with the Teutones, invaded Italy, and was defeated by
Marius in 101 B.C.

#Cimbricus#, adj., _Cimbrian_.

#cingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus#, _to encircle, surround_; _gird, gird on,
equip_; #obsidiōne cingere#, _to blockade, besiege_.

  #ad--accingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus#, _to gird, gird on, equip, arm_.

  #sub--succingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus#, _to gird, arm, equip_.

#cinis, eris#, m., _ashes_.

#Cinna, ae#, m., _L. Cornēlius_, leader with Marius of the popular
party.

#circā#, adv. and prep, with acc., _around, round about, throughout_.

#circum#, adv. and prep, with acc., _around, about_.

#circumdō#, see #dō#.

#circumfundō#, see #fundō#.

#circumstō#, see #stō#.

#circumveniō#, see #veniō#.

#circus, ī#, m., _a circle, enclosure_ for athletic sports, esp.
chariot-races; #Circus Māximus#: see p. 18, n. 6.

#citerior, ōris#, adj., _on this side, hither, nearer_.

#citō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #cieō#, _to set in motion_], _to rouse,
urge on_; _summon_.

  #con--concitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to rouse, excite_; _move,
  instigate_.

  #ex--excitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call or bring forth_; _rouse,
  excite_.

  #in--incitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _urge on, arouse, incite_.

#cīvicus# [#cīvis#], adj., _of citizens, civic_; #cīvica corōna#, _the
civic crown_, given to a soldier who saved the life of a citizen in
battle.

#cīvīlis, e# [#cīvis#], adj., _of citizens, civil, civic_; _courteous,
polite_.

#cīvis, is#, m., _citizen, fellow-citizen_.

#cīvitās, ātis# [#cīvis#], f., _citizenship_; _state, body of citizens_.

#clādēs, is#, f., _disaster, overthrow, defeat_; #clādem accipere#, _to
sustain a defeat_; #clāde adficere#, _to defeat_.

#clam# [#cēlō#], adv., _secretly_.

#clāmitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #clāmō#], _to cry aloud, shout
loudly_.

#clāmō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to shout_.

  #ad--acclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to shout loudly, exclaim_.

  #con--conclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _cry out together, shout_.

  #ex--exclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to cry out, shout aloud, exclaim_.

  #in--inclāmō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _shout loudly_; _cry out to, call
  upon, appeal to_.

  #prō--prōclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to call, cry out, proclaim_.

  #sub--succlāmō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to shout in answer, to answer
  loudly_.

#clāmor, ōris# [#clāmō#], m., _shout, cry, noise_.

#clandestīnus# [#clam#], adj., _secret_.

#clangor, ōris#, m., _noise, clash, clang_.

#clārus#, adj., _bright_; _famous, renowned_; of sound, _clear, loud_.

#classicum, ī# [#classis#], n. (sc. #sīgnum#), _battle signal_ on the
trumpet.

#classis, is#, f., _a class_ or _division of citizens_; _a fleet_.

#Claudia, ae#, f., a sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher.

#Claudius, ī#, m., the name of a famous Roman gens.

  1. _Appius Claudius_, one of the Decemvirs of 451 B.C.

  2. _Appius Claudius Pulcher_, consul in 249 B.C., and defeated in a
  naval battle off Drepanum in Sicily.

#claudō, ere, clausī, clausus#, _to shut, close_; _shut in, imprison_.

#ex--exclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus#, _to shut out, exclude_.

#in--inclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus#, _to shut in, enclose_; _imprison_.

#clausula, ae# [#claudō#], f., _conclusion_.

#clāvus, ī#, m., _a nail_.

#clēmēns, entis#, adj., _gentle, kindly, merciful_.

#clēmenter# [#clēmēns#], adv., _quietly, mercifully, mildly_.

#clēmentia, ae# [#clēmēns#], f., _mercifulness, forbearance, kindness_.

#Cleopatra, ae#, f., the famous queen of Egypt, renowned for her wit and
beauty. She lived 69-30 B.C.

#cliēns, entis# [orig. #cluēns#, from #clueō#, _to hear_], m., _a
vassal, dependent, client_. The #clientēs# attached themselves to some
patrician, who aided them in business, esp. legal business, and was
practically their father or guardian. The clients in turn were bound to
respect and serve their patron, and to assist him financially, esp. in
ransoming him, if captured, and in providing a marriage portion for his
daughters.

#clīvus, ī#, m., _ascent, slope, hill_; #Clīvus Capitōlīnus#, a street
running up from the Forum to the Capitol.

#Clōdius, ī#, m., plebeian form of Claudius, the gentile name of
_P. Clōdius Pulcher_, Cicero’s enemy, who, as tribune of the people,
brought about his banishment.

#Clypea, ae#, f., a fortified town in Africa, near Carthage.

#Cn.#, abbreviation of the name #Gnaeus#.

#coepī, coepisse, coeptus#, _to begin_.

#coerceō#, see #arceō#.

#cōgitātiō, ōnis# [#cōgitō#], f., _thought, consideration, plan_.

#cōgitō#, see #agitō#.

#cōgnātiō, ōnis# [#cōgnātus#], f., _blood relationship, ties of blood_.

#cōgnātus# [#con# + #(g)nāscor#], adj., _related by blood_; as noun, _a
kinsman, blood relation_.

#cōgnitiō, ōnis# [#cōgnōscō#], f., _a legal investigation, judicial
hearing_; #cōgnitiōnem īnstituere#, _to hold a hearing_.

#cōgnōmen, inis# [#con# + #(g)nōmen#], n., a name added to the
individual and clan names of a person; _a surname_, either as a title of
honor, as #Āfricānus, Māgnus, Torquātus#, or as a nickname, as #Cicerō#.
_Cōgnōmina_ served to distinguish different families of the same gens.

#cōgnōminō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#cōgnōmen#], _to surname, call_.

#cōgnōscō#, see #nōscō#.

#cōgō#, see #agō#.

#cohors, ortis#, f., _cohort, company_ (the tenth part of a legion). See
#legiō#.

#Collātia, ae#, f., a Sabine town near Rome.

#Collātīnus, ī#, m., _L. Tarquinius_, the husband of Lucretia, and one
of the first two consuls, 509 B.C.

#collis, is#, m., _a hill_.

#collum, ī#, n., _neck_.

#colō, ere, uī, cultus#, to _till, cultivate_; _dwell in_; _practice,
cherish_; _clothe, adorn_; _honor, esteem_.

  #ex--excolō, ere, uī, cultus#, _to cultivate, improve, adorn_;
  _refine_.

  #in--incolō, ere, uī, --#, _to dwell, dwell in, live_.

#colōnia, ae# [#colō#], f., _a colony, settlement_.

#columba, ae#, f., _a dove, pigeon_.

#com, con, co#, forms of the prep. #cum#, found only in compound words.
See #cum#.

#combūrō#, see #ūrō#.

#comes, itis# [#con# + (1) #eō#], m., _companion, comrade_; _attendant,
follower_.

#cōmitās, ātis# [#cōmis#, _courteous_], f., _courtesy, kindness_.

#comitātus, ūs# [#comitor#], m., _escort, train_.

#comitium, ī# [#con# + (1) #eō#], n., _the Comitium_, a place adjoining
the Forum Romanum, where the voters assembled; #comitia, ōrum#, _the
comitia_, an assembly of the people (esp. for elections); _election_;
#comitia indīcere#, _to set a date for an election_.

#comitor, ārī, ātus sum# [#comes#], _to accompany_.

#commeātus, ūs#, m., _a furlough_.

#commendō#, see #mandō#.

#commigrō#, see #migrō#.

#commīlitō, ōnis# [#con# + #mīles#], m., _fellow-soldier, comrade_.

#comminus# [#con# + #manus#], adv., _hand to hand, at close quarters_.

#committō#, see #mittō#.

#commodē# [#commodus#], adv., _properly, fittingly, rightly_.

#commodus# [#con# + #modus#], adj., _in due measure, suitable, fit,
convenient_.

#commoveō#, see #moveō#.

#commūniō#, see #mūniō#.

#commūnis, e# [#con# + #mūnus#], adj., _common, joint, general_.

#commūniter# [#commūnis#], adv., _in common, together_.

#commūtō#, see #mūtō#.

#cōmō#, see #emō#.

#compār, paris# [#con# + #pār#], adj., _equal to, like_; _fitting,
suitable_.

#comparō#, see #parō#.

#compellō#, see #pellō#.

#comperiō#, see #pariō#.

#compēs, edis# [#con# + #pēs#], f., usually in the pl., _shackles,
fetters_.

#complector, ī, plexus sum#, _to embrace_.

#compleō#, see #*pleō#.

#complōrātiō, ōnis# [#complōrō#, _to bewail_], f., _lamentation,
wailing_.

#complūrēs, a# or #ia# [#con# + #plūs#], adj., _several, many, very
many_.

#compōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#compos, potis# [#con# + #potis#, _able_], adj., _master of_; #vōtī
compos fierī#, _to gain one’s heart’s desire_.

#compositum, ī# [#compōnō#], n., _agreement_.

#comprehendō#, see #prehendō#.

#comprimō#, see #premō#.

#comprobō#, see #probō#.

#computō#, see #putō#.

#con#, see #com#.

#concēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#concidō#, see #cadō#.

#conciliō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#concilium#], _to bring together,
conciliate_; _win over, secure_.

  #re--reconciliō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to reunite, reconcile_.

#concilium, ī# [#con# + #calō#, _to call_], n., _assembly, gathering_.

#concipiō#, see #capiō#.

#concitō#, see #citō#.

#conclāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#concordia, ae# [#con# + #cor#, _heart_], f., _union, harmony, concord_.

#concupīscō, ere, cupīvī, cupītus# [#con# + #cupiō#], _to desire
greatly, crave_.

#concurrō#, see #currō#.

#concursus, ūs# [#concurrō#], m., _a concourse, throng_; _attack,
charge, onset_.

#condemnō#, see #damnō#.

#condiciō, ōnis# [#condīcō#, _to agree_], f., _agreement, stipulation,
terms_.

#condō#, see #dō#.

#condūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#cōnferō#, see #ferō#.

#cōnfertus# [part. of #cōnferciō#, _to stuff together_], adj., _crowded,
dense_.

#cōnfessiō, ōnis# [#cōnfiteor#], f., _confession, acknowledgment_.

#cōnfēstim#, adv., _immediately, at once_.

#cōnficiō#, see #faciō#.

#cōnfīdentia, ae# [#cōnfīdō#, _to trust_], f., _boldness, assurance,
confidence_.

#cōnfīrmātus# [orig. part. of #cōnfīrmō#], adj., _courageous, resolute_.

#cōnfīrmō#, see #fīrmō#.

#cōnfiteor#, see #fateor#.

#cōnflagrō, āre, āvī, --# [#con# + #flagrō#, _to burn_], _to burn, be
destroyed_ (by fire).

#cōnflīgō#, see #*flīgō#.

#cōnflō#, see #flō#.

#cōnfluō#, see #fluō#.

#cōnfodiō#, see #fodiō#.

#cōnfugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#congerō#, see #gerō#.

#congredior#, see #gradior#.

#congressus, ūs# [#congredior#], m., _meeting, interview, encounter,
fight_.

#congruō, ere, ī, --#, _to agree, tally_.

#coniciō#, see #iaciō#.

#coniungō#, see #iungō#.

#coniunx# or #coniux# [#coniungō#], m. and f., _married person, husband,
wife_.

#coniūrātiō, ōnis# [#coniūrō#], f., _a conspiracy, plot_.

#coniūrātī, ōrum# [orig. part. of #coniūrō#], m. pl., _conspirators_.

#coniūrō#, see #iūrō#.

#coniux#, see #coniunx#.

#conlaudō#, see #laudō#.

#conlēga, ae# [#con# + #legō#], m., _one chosen at the same time,
a colleague_.

#conligō#, see #legō#.

#conlocō#, see #locō#.

#conloquium, ī# [#conloquor#], n., _an interview, conference_.

#conloquor#, see #loquor#.

#cōnor, ārī, ātus sum#, to _attempt, try_.

#conqueror#, see #queror#.

#conquīrō#, see #quaerō#.

#cōnsalūtō#, see #salūtō#.

#cōnscendō#, see #scandō#.

#cōnscientia, ae# [#con# + #sciō#], f., _consciousness, knowledge_.

#cōnscīscō#, see #scīscō#.

#cōnscius# [#con# + #sciō#], adj., _acquainted with, aware of_.

#cōnscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#cōnscrīptus# [orig. part. of #cōnscrībō#], adj., _enrolled_; #patrēs
cōnscrīptī#, the official title of the senators. Roman writers took this
phrase as = #patrēs et cōnscrīptī#, explaining #patrēs# as _patricians_,
of whom orig. the senate was wholly composed, and #cōnscrīptī# as
denoting the plebeians newly enrolled in the senate in 509 B.C., after
the expulsion of the kings. It may, however, = _enrolled patricians_, to
distinguish the senators from the patricians who were not enrolled in
the senate.

#cōnsecrō#, see #sacrō#.

#cōnsēnsus, ūs# [#cōnsentiō#], m., _united opinion, consent, agreement_.

#cōnsentiō#, see #sentiō#.

#cōnsequor#, see #sequor#.

#cōnserō#, see #serō#.

#cōnservō#, see #servō#.

#cōnsīderō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to look at closely, examine, reflect,
consider_.

#cōnsīdō#, see #sīdō#.

#cōnsilium, ī# [cf. #cōnsulō#], n., _plan, scheme_; _judgment, wit,
sense, shrewdness_; #cōnsilium capere# or #inīre#, _to plan_.

#cōnsistō#, see #sistō#.

#cōnsobrīnus, ī# [#con# + #soror#], m., _first-cousin, cousin_.

#cōnsōlor, ārī, ātus sum# [#con# + #sōlor#, _to comfort_], _to comfort,
cheer_.

#cōnspectus, ūs# [#cōnspiciō#], m., _sight, view_.

#cōnspiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#cōnspicuus# [#cōnspiciō#], adj., _in plain sight, conspicuous,
remarkable_.

#cōnspīrātiō, ōnis# [#cōnspīrō#, _to breathe together, plot_], f., _a
plot_.

#cōnspīrātī, ōrum# [#cōnspīrō#, _to plot_], m. pl., _conspirators_.

#cōnstāns, antis# [orig. part. of #cōnstō#], adj., _of strong character,
firm, resolute_; _steadfast, consistent_.

#cōnstanter# [#cōnstāns#], adv., _firmly, resolutely, steadfastly_.

#cōnstantia, ae# [#cōnstāns#], f., a typical Roman virtue, _strength of
character, steadiness of purpose, firmness_; _courage, faithfulness_.

#cōnsternō#, see #sternō#.

#cōnstituō#, see #statuō#.

#cōnstō#, see #stō#.

#cōnsuēscō#, see #suēscō#.

#cōnsuētūdō, inis# [#cōnsuētus#, part. of #cōnsuēscō#], f., _habit,
custom_.

#cōnsul, ulis#, m., _a consul_, the title given to the two highest
officials of the Roman republic. The office was created in 509 B.C. At
first its powers were equal to those of the kings, except in religious
matters. Later, certain of these powers were transferred to other
magistrates. The consuls were elected annually; their joint names were
used in giving dates. At the close of their official term, the consuls
usually governed a province for a year as proconsuls.

#cōnsulāris, e# [#cōnsul#], adj., _of consular rank_; as noun, _an
ex-consul_.

#cōnsulātus, ūs# [#cōnsul#], m., _consulship_.

#cōnsulō, ere, uī, tus#, _to take counsel, deliberate_; _to take counsel
with, to consult_; #graviter cōnsulere#, _to take vigorous measures_.

#cōnsultō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #cōnsulō#], _to take counsel,
deliberate_.

#cōnsūmō#, see #sūmō#.

#contemnō, ere, tempsī, temptus#, _to despise, scorn_.

#contemptor, ōris# [#contemnō#], m., _one who despises, scorner_.

#contendō#, see #tendō#.

#contentiō, ōnis# [#contendō#], f., _straining, effort, energy_;
_dispute, strife_.

#contentus# [orig. part. of #contineō#], adj., _content, satisfied
with_.

#continentia, ae# [#contineō#], f., _self-restraint, moderation_.

#contineō#, see #teneō#.

#contingō#, see #tangō#.

#continuō# [#continuus#], adv., _forthwith, straightway_.

#continuus# [#contineō#], adj., _uninterrupted, continuous, successive,
incessant_.

#cōntiō, ōnis# [orig. #co(n)ventiō#, from #conveniō#], f., _an assembly,
meeting_.

#contrā#, prep. with acc., _against, contrary to_.

#contrahō#, see #trahō#.

#contrārius# [#contrā#], adj., _opposite, contrary_.

#contubernālis, is# [#con# + #taberna#, _a tent_], m., _tent-companion,
comrade_.

#contumēlia, ae#, f., _insult, reproach, abuse_.

#contundō# [#con# + #tundō#, _to beat, strike_], _to crush, destroy_.

#contus, ī#, m., _a pole, pike_.

#cōnūbium, ī# [#con# + #nūbō#], n., _marriage, right of intermarriage_.

#convalēscō, ere, valuī, --# [#con# + #valeō#], _to begin to be well,
recover_.

#conveniēns, entis# [#conveniō#], adj., _agreeing or consistent with,
befitting_.

#conveniō#, see #veniō#.

#convertō#, see #vertō#.

#convincō#, see #vincō#.

#convīvium, ī# [#con# + #vīvō#], n., _a feast_.

#convocō#, see #vocō#.

#coorior#, see #orior#.

#cophinus, ī#, m., _a basket_.

#cōpia, ae# [#co(n)# + #ops#], f., _abundance, supply_; _opportunity_;
in pl., _resources, forces, troops_.

#cōpiōsē# [#cōpiōsus#], adv., _abundantly_; _of speech, fluently,
eloquently_.

#cōpiōsus# [#cōpia#], adj., _abounding in, well supplied_.

#coquus, ī#, m., _a cook_.

#cōram# [#co(n)# + #ōs#], adv., _before one’s eyes, in person_; prep.
with abl., _before, in the presence of_.

#corium, ī#, n., _skin, hide_.

#Cornēlia, ae#, f., _Cornelia_.

  1. A daughter of P. Scipio Africanus Maior, and mother of the
  Gracchi.

  2. A daughter of L. Cornelius Cinna, first wife of Julius Caesar.

#Cornēlius, ī#, m., the name of a very important Roman gens. See #Cinna,
Cossus, Lentulus, Scīpiō#, and #Sulla#.

#cornū, ūs#, n., _horn_; _wing_ (of an army).

#corōna, ae#, f., _a crown, garland_. See #cīvicus#.

#corpus, oris#, n., _a body_.

#corrigō#, see #regō#.

#corripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#corrumpō#, see #rumpō#.

#corruō#, see #ruō#.

#corvus, ī#, m., _a raven_. In XVI. 3 it may be translated
_grappling-iron_, though the reference is rather to a wooden boarding
bridge, which swung freely round a pole in the prow of the ship. In
battle it was dropped upon the deck of a hostile vessel and held there
by a sharp iron spike in its under side.

#cōs, cōtis#, f., _flint stone, whetstone_.

#Cossus, ī#, m., _A. Cornēlius_, consul in 343 B.C.

#cottīdiānus# [#cottīdiē#, _daily_], adj., _daily_; _usual, customary_;
_everyday, commonplace_.

#Crassus, ī#, m., _M. Licinius_, called _Dīves_ because of his enormous
wealth; consul in 70 B.C., and triumvir with Caesar and Pompey in 60;
defeated and killed by the Parthians 53 B.C.

#crēber, bra, brum#, adj., _crowded, numerous, incessant_.

#crēdō, ere, crēdidī, crēditus#, _to lend, entrust to_; _believe in,
trust_; _believe, think_.

#Cremera, ae#, f., a river in Etruria, near Veii.

#cremō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to burn_.

#Cremōna, ae#, f., a town on the river Po.

#creō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to make, create_; _to choose, elect_.

  #re--recreō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to renew, revive, encourage_.

#crēscō, ere, crēvī, crētus#, _to grow, increase_.

#in--incrēscō, ere, crēvī, --#, _to grow upon_; _grow, increase_.

#crīminor, ārī, ātus sum# [#crīmen#, _a charge_], _to complain of,
denounce_; with infin., _to charge_.

#crīnis, is#, m., _hair_.

#cruciātus, ūs# [#cruciō#], m., _torture, torment_.

#cruciō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#crux#], _to crucify, torture, torment_.

#crūdēlis, e#, adj., _cruel, unfeeling_.

#crūdēlitās, ātis# [#crūdēlis#], f., _cruelty_.

#cruentus# [cf. #cruor#], adj., _blood-stained_.

#crumēna, ae#, f., _a purse, money bag_.

#cruor, ōris#, m., _running blood, gore_.

#crūs#, #crūris#, n., _a leg_.

#crux#, #crucis#, f., _cross, gallows_.

#crystallinus# [#crystallum#, _crystal_], adj., _of crystal_; as noun,
#crystallinum, ī# (sc. #vās#), n., _a vase of crystal_.

#cubiculum, ī# [#cubō#], n., _a bedchamber_.

#cubō, āre, uī, itum#, _to lie down, recline_; _to lie sick_.

  #re--recubō, āre, --, --#, _to lie on one’s back, lie, recline_.

#cūiās, ātis#, interr. pron., _of what country? whence?_

#culpa, ae#, ī., _fault, guilt_.

#cultellus, ī# [dim. of #culter#], m., _a small knife_.

#culter, trī#, m., _knife, dagger_.

#cultus, ūs# [#colō#], m., _cultivation; refinement, luxury_; _mode of
living, style_.

#cum#, prep. with abl., _with, together with, at the same time with_. In
composition the forms #com, con#, and #co# are used, and denote
(1) accompaniment, (2) intensity.

#cum#, conj.; of time, _when, while, whenever_; of cause, _since_; of
concession, _although_; #cum . . . tum#, _both . . . and, not only . . .
but also_.

#*cumbō#, an old verb, same root as #cubō#.

  #ad--accumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum#, _to lie or recline_ (esp. at
  table).

  #in--incumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum#, _to lie or lean upon_; _devote
  one’s self_.

  #ob--occumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum#, _to fall_ (in death), _die_.

  #prō--prōcumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum#, _to fall forward, fall
  prostrate_.

#cunctātiō, ōnis# [#cunctor#], f., _delay_.

#Cunctātor, ōris# [#cunctor#], m., _Delayer_, a name given to Q. Fabius
Maximus.

#cunctor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to delay, linger_.

#cupidē# [#cupidus#], adv., _eagerly_.

#cupiditās, ātis# [#cupidus#], f., _craving, desire, eagerness_.

#cupīdō, inis# [cf. #cupidus#], f., _desire, craving, greed_.

#cupidus# [#cupiō#], adj., _desirous, fond_; _greedy, covetous_.

#cupiō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus#, _to crave, desire, covet_.

#cūr#, adv., _why? for what reason?_

#cūra, ae#, f., _care, anxiety_.

#Curēs, īum#, f. pl., a Sabine town.

#Cūria, ae#, f., _a curia, ward_, one of the ten divisions into which
each of the three orig. Roman tribes was divided; _council chamber_,
esp. the Roman _Senate-house_, either the _Cūria Hostīlia_, adjoining
the Forum on the north side, or the _Cūria Pompēia_, built by Pompey in
the Campus Martius. In the latter Caesar was murdered.

#Cūriātius, ī#, m., name of the three Alban brothers who fought with the
Horatii.

#Curius, ī#, m., gentile name of _Mānius Curius Dentātus_, a famous
Roman hero, renowned for his frugality and simplicity of life. He died
in 270 B.C.

#cūrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#cūra#], _to care for, attend to_; with
gerundive and infin., _see to it that, take care that_.

  #prō--prōcūrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, to _care for, attend to_; of omens,
  _to avert by sacrifices_.

#currō, ere, cucurrī, cursum#, _to run_.

  #ad--accurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum#, _to run, to, hasten towards_.

  #con--concurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum#, _to run together_; _to rush
  together_ (in battle), _charge, fight_.

  #dē--dēcurrō, ere, (cu)curri, cursum#, _to run down, hasten down_.

  #dis--discurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum#, _to run in different
  directions_; _wander, roam_.

  #ob--occurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum#, _to run to meet, meet_;
  _withstand, oppose_.

  #sub--succurrō, ere, ī, --#, _to run to, help, aid_.

#currus, ūs# [#currō#], m., _a chariot_.

#cursus, ūs# [#currō#], m., _running_; _journey, passage, course_;
_speed_.

#curūlis, e# [#currus#], adj., _of a chariot_. #Sella curūlis#, see
#sella#.

#cūstōdia, ae# [#cūstōs#], f., _watching_; _guard-house, prison_; pl.,
_pickets, watchmen_.

#cūstōdiō, īre, īvī, ītus# [#cūstōs#], _to watch, guard, defend_.

#cūstōs, ōdis#, m. and f., _guardian, protector_.

#Cȳrus, ī#, m., Cyrus the Great, 559-529 B.C., founder of the Persian
empire.


#D#

#D.#, abbreviation of the name #Decimus#.

#Dācī, ōrum#, m. pl., _the Dacians_, a people living on the north of the
Danube.

#damnātiō, ōnis# [#damnō#], f., _condemnation_.

#damnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to judge guilty, condemn_; #capite damnāre#,
_to condemn to death_.

  #con--condemnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to find guilty, condemn,
  sentence_.

#dē#, prep, with abl.; of place, _from, down from, out of_; of time,
_after, during_; of cause, _in consequence of, through_; of relation,
_concerning, in respect to_. In compounds it generally denotes
thoroughness, but occasionally has negative force.

#dea, ae#, f., _a goddess_.

#deambulō#, see #ambulō#.

#dēbeō#, see #habeō#.

#dēbilis# [#dē# + #habilis#], adj., _weak, disabled, helpless_.

#dēcēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#decem#, indecl. num. adj., _ten_.

#december, bris, bre#, adj., _tenth_; as noun, #December#
(sc. #mēnsis#), m., _December, the tenth month_ (counting from March,
with which the Roman year originally began).

#decemvir, ī# [#decem# + #vir#], m., _a member of a commission of ten
men, a decemvir_.

#dēcernō#, see #cernō#.

#decet, ēre, uit#, impers., _it is fitting_.

#decimus# [#decem#], num. adj., _tenth_.

#Decimus, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#dēcipiō#, see #capiō#.

#Decius, ī#, m., the gentile name of _P. Decius Mūs_, consul B.C. 340.

#dēclārō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dē# + #clārus#], _to make clear, disclose_;
_show, declare_.

#decorō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#decus#], _to adorn, deck_.

#dēcurrō#, see #currō#.

#decus, oris#, n., _grace, glory, honor, splendor, ornament_.

#dēcutiō#, see #quatiō#.

#dēditīcius, ī# [#dēditus#], m., _a captive_.

#dēditiō, ōnis# [#dēdō#], f., _a surrender_.

#dēditus# [orig. part. of #dēdō#], adj., _surrendered_; #devoted to,
addicted to#. As noun, #dēditus, ī#, m., _a captive_.

#dēdō#, see #dō#.

#dēdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#dēfatīgātiō, ōnis#, f., _weariness_.

#dēfendō#, see #*fendō#.

#dēfēnsiō, ōnis# [#dēfendō#], f., _a defense_.

#dēfēnsor, ōris# [#dēfendō#], m., _a defender_.

#dēferō#, see #ferō#.

#dēfessus#, adj., _worn out, weary_.

#dēficiō#, see #faciō#.

#dēfīgō#, see #fīgō#.

#deflectō#, see #flectō#.

#dēfōrmitās, ātis# [#dēfōrmis#, _ugly_], f., _ugliness, disfigurement_.

#dēfungor#, see #fungor#.

#dēgō#, see #agō#.

#dēhonestō, āre, --, --# [#dē# + #honestō# (cf. #honōs#), _to honor_],
_to disgrace, dishonor_.

#dēiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#dein#, see #deinde#.

#deinceps#, adv., _one after the other, in succession_; _next_;
_thereafter, in the future_.

#deinde# or #dein# [#dē# + #inde#], adv., _subsequently_; _then, next_;
_thereafter, from that time on_.

#dēlābor#, see #lābor#.

#dēlēctō, āre, āvi, ātus# [#dē# + #laciō#], to _delight, please,
entertain_.

#dēlēctus# [orig. part. of (1) #dēligō#], adj., _picked, choice_.

#dēlēctus, ūs# [(1) #dēligō#], m., _a picking out, a levy, draft_;
#dēlēctum agere# or #habēre#, _to hold a levy_.

#dēleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to blot out, destroy_.

#dēlīberābundus# [#dēlīberō#], adj., _pondering, reflecting_.

#dēlīberō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dē# + #lībra#, _a balance_], _to weigh_
(consider) _well, deliberate, ponder_.

#dēlicātē# [#dēlicātus#], adv., _luxuriously, effeminately_.

#dēlicātus# [cf. #dēliciae#], adj., _devoted to pleasure, luxurious,
effeminate_.

#dēliciae, ārum#, pl. f., _delights, pleasure, luxury_.

(1) #dēligō#, see #legō#.

(2) #dēligō, āre#, see #ligō#.

#delīrō, āre, --, --# [#dē# + #līra#, _a furrow_], _to be crazy_.

#dēlitēscō, ere, lituī, --# [#dē# + #lateō#, _to hide_], _lie hid, be
concealed_.

#Delphi, ōrum#, pl. m., _Delphi_, a town of Phocis in Central Greece,
renowned for its oracle of Apollo.

#dēmissē# [#dēmissus#, _modest_], adv., _modestly, humbly, abjectly_.

#dēmittō#, see #mittō#.

#dēmoror#, see #moror#.

#dēmum#, adv., _at last, finally_; #tum dēmum#, _then at last, not till
then_.

#dēnārius, ī#, m., a silver coin, equivalent orig. to 10, afterwards to
16, asses. Its value varied from 16 to 20 cents.

#dēnegō#, see #negō#.

#dēnique#, adv., _thereafter, thereupon_; _at last, finally_; _briefly,
in short_.

#dēnūntiō#, see #nūntiō#.

#dēnuō# [#dē# + #novō#], adv., _anew, again_.

#deōsculor#, see #ōsculor#.

#dēpellō#, see #pellō#.

#dēpereō#, see #pereō#.

#dēpōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#dēpōscō#, see #pōscō#.

#dēprecor#, see #precor#.

#dēprehendō#, see #prehendō#.

#dērīdeō#, see #rīdeō#.

#dēscendō#, see #scandō#.

#dēscīscō#, see #scīscō#.

#dēscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#dēserō#, see #serō#.

#dēsīderium, ī# [#dēsīderō#], n., _longing, yearning_; _regret_.

#dēsīderō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to long for_; _require, need_.

#dēsiliō#, see #saliō#.

#dēsipiēns, entis# [orig. part. of #dēsipiō#], adj., _foolish, silly_.
As noun, #dēsipiēns, entis#, m., _a fool, madman_.

#dēsipiō#, see #sapiō#.

#dēsistō#, see #sistō#.

#dēspērātiō, ōnis# [#dēspērō#], f., _despair, desperation_.

#dēspērō#, see #spērō#.

#dēspiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#dēspondeō#, see #spondeō#.

#dēstinō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to make fast, fix_; _resolve, design, plan_.

#dēstringō#, see #stringō#.

#dēsum#, see #sum#.

#dēsuper# [#dē# + #super#], adv., _from above_.

#dētegō#, see #tegō#.

#dēterreō#, see #terreō#.

#dētineō#, see #teneō#.

#dētrahō#, see #trahō#.

#dētrēctō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dē# neg. + #trāctō#, _to handle, manage_],
_to decline, shirk_.

#dētrīmentum, ī# [#dēterō#, _to rub away_], n., _loss, damage_.

#deūrō#, see #ūrō#.

#deus, ī#, m., _a god, divinity_.

#dēvincō#, see #vincō#.

#dēvolō#, see (2) #volō#.

#dēvoveō#, see #voveō#.

#dexter, era, erum#, and #tra, trum#, adj., _right_. As noun, #dextra#
(sc. #manus#), f., _the right hand_.

#diadēma, atis#, n., _a royal crown, diadem_.

#Diāna, ae#, f., an ancient Italian goddess, identified by the Romans
with the Greek Artemis, goddess of the moon and the chase.

#dīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#, _to say, speak_; _call, name_; _appoint_;
#causam dīcere#, _to plead a case_; #diem dīcere alicuī#, _to bring a
complaint against some one_; #iūs dīcere#, _to administer justice, hold
court_; #multam dīcere#, _to impose a fine_.

  #ad--addīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#, _to be propitious to, assent_;
  with acc., _to adjudge, award_.

  #ē--ēdīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#, _to make known, proclaim_; _order,
  command_; #diem ēdīcere#, _to set a day_ (by public proclamation).

  #in--indīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#, _to proclaim, announce_; _appoint_;
  _impose, inflict_.

  #inter--interdīcō, ere, dīxī, dictum#, _to forbid, prohibit,
  exclude_.

  #prae--praedīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#, _to foretell, prophesy_; _warn,
  admonish_.

#dicō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to declare_; _dedicate, consecrate_.

  #ab--abdicō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to disown, reject_; #sē abdicāre#,
  _to resign_.

  #in--indicō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to make known, reveal_.

  #prae--praedicō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to say openly, assert, declare_.

#dictātor, ōris# [#dictō#, _to order_], m., _a dictator_, a magistrate
usually appointed only in times of extreme peril. He was named by one of
the consuls, after the senate had declared the appointment of a dictator
necessary. He held unlimited powers, but the term of his office was
limited to six months.

#dictātūra, ae# [#dictātor#], f., _dictatorship_.

#dictitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #dīcō#], _to say often, assert,
insist_.

#dictum, ī# [#dīcō#], n., _saying, word, remark_; _command_.

#dīdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#diēs, ēī#, m. and (sometimes in sing.) f., _a day_; #in diēs#, _from
day to day_.

#diffīdō, ere, fīsus sum# [#dis# neg. + #fīdō#, _to trust_], _to
distrust, doubt_.

#diffluō#, see #fluō#.

#dīgnitās, ātis# [#dīgnus#], f., _worth, high character_; _eminence,
rank, reputation_.

#dīgnus#, adj., _worthy, deserving of_.

#dīgredior#, see #gradior#.

#dīligenter# [#dīligō#], adv., _industriously, diligently_.

#dīligentia, ae# [#dīligō#], f., _carefulness, diligence, industry_.

#dīligō#, see #legō#.

#dīlūcēscō, ere, lūxī, --# [cf. #lūx#], _to grow light, dawn_.

#dīmicātiō, ōnis# [#dīmicō#], f., _a fight_.

#dīmicō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to fight_.

#dīmittō#, see #mittō#.

#dīrigō#, see #regō#.

#dīrimō#, see #emō#.

#dīripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#dīruō#, see #ruō#.

#dīs, dītis#, comp. #dītior#, sup. #dītissimus#, adj., _rich, wealthy_.

#dis# or #dī#, inseparable prefix, _apart, asunder_; sometimes negative,
_not_.

#discēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#discerpō#, see #carpō#.

#dīsciplīna, ae# [#dīscō#], f., _teaching, training, discipline_.

#dīscipulus, ī# [#dīscō#], m., _a pupil_.

#dīscō, ere, didicī, --#, _to learn_.

#dīscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#discrīmen, inis# [#discernō#, _to divide_], n., _difference_;
_turning-point, decision_; _peril, crisis_.

#discurrō#, see #currō#.

#disertus# [#disserō#], adj., _eloquent_.

#dispēnsātor, ōris# [#dispēnsō#, _to manage_], m., _manager, steward,
treasurer_.

#dīspiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#displiceō#, see #placeō#.

#dispōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#disputō#, see #putō#.

#dissēnsiō, ōnis# [#dissentiō#, _to disagree_], f., _disagreement,
strife_.

#disserō#, see #serō#.

#dissimilis, e# [#dis# neg. + #similis#], adj., _unlike_.

#dissimulō#, see #simulō#.

#dissipō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to scatter, squander, dissipate_.

#dissuādeō#, see #suādeō#.

#distrahō#, see #trahō#.

#distribuō#, see #tribuō#.

#dītior, dītissimus#, see #dīs#.

#dītō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dīs#], _to enrich_.

#diū#, adv., _for a long time, long_.

#diuturnus# [#diū#], adj., _prolonged, long_.

#dīversus# [#dīvertō#], adj., _turned different ways, opposite,
contrary_; #in dīversa#, _apart, asunder_.

#dīvertō#, see #vertō#.

#dīvidō, ere, vīsī, vīsus#, _to divide, separate, distribute_.

#dīvīnitus# [#dīvīnus#], adv., _by divine agency, providentially_.

#dīvīnus# [#dīvus#], adj., _godlike, divine_.

#dīvitiae, ārum# [#dives#, _rich_], pl. f., _wealth_.

#dīvus#, adj., _godlike, deified_; often applied to the Roman emperors
after death.

#dō, dare, dedī, datus#, _to put, place_; _give, present, entrust_;
#operam dare#, _to pay attention_; #poenās dare#, _to suffer
punishment_.

  #ab--abdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to put away, hide, conceal_.

  #ad--addō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to put or join to, add_.

  #circumdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to place around, surround, enclose_.

  #con--condō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to put together, found, build_;
  _put away, hide_; _sheathe_ (a sword).

  #dē--dēdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to give up, surrender_.

  #ex--ēdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to give out, give_; _give birth to,
  bear_; _publish, announce, reveal_; _perform_; #lūdōs ēdere#, _to
  celebrate games_.

  #in--indō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to put in or on, give, confer_.

  #per--perdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to lose, destroy, ruin, waste_.

  #prō--prōdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to give_ or _put forth, make
  known_; _hand down, record_; _betray_.

  #re--reddō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to give back, restore, return_;
  _deliver_ (a letter); _render_.

  #sub--subdō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to put under, apply_.

  #trāns--trādō, dere, didī, ditus#, _to give over, give up,
  surrender_; _hand down, report, relate_; _hand over, entrust_.

#doceō, ēre, uī, tus#, _to teach, point out_.

  #ē--ēdoceō, ēre, uī, tus#, _to teach thoroughly_.

#doctor, ōris# [#doceō#], m., _teacher_.

#doctrīna, ae# [#doceō#], f., _instruction_; _learning, training_.

#doctus# [orig. part. of #doceō#], adj., _educated, learned, skilled_.

#dolor, ōris# [#doleō#, _to feel pain_], m., _pain, grief, resentment_.

#dolōsē# [#dolus#], adv., _craftily_.

#dolus, ī#, m., _craft, trickery_.

#domicilium, ī# [#domus#], n., _dwelling_.

#dominātiō, ōnis# [#dominor#], f., _rule, supremacy, dominion_.

#dominātus, ūs# [#dominor#, _to rule_], m., _rule, sway, mastery,
command_.

#dominus, ī#, m., #master# (esp. of slaves), _ruler, lord_.

#domō, āre, uī, itus#, _to tame, subdue_.

#domus, ūs#, f., _a house, home_; loc. #domī#, _at home_; acc. #domum#,
_homewards, home_.

#dōnātīvum, ī# [#dōnō#], n., _a gift_.

#dōnec#, conj., _while, until, as long as_.

#dōnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dōnum#], _to give, present_.

#dōnum, ī# [#dō#], n., _a gift, present_.

#dormiō, īre, īvī, --#, _to sleep_.

#dorsum, ī#, n., _back_ (of an animal); _range_ or _ridge_ (of a
mountain).

#dōs, dōtis# [#dō#], f., _dowry_.

#dōtālis, e# [#dōs#], adj., of a dowry; #dōtālia dōna#, _wedding
presents_.

#dubitō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#dubius#], _to doubt, waver, hesitate_.

#dubius#, adj., _doubtful, uncertain_; #in dubium vocāre#, _to call in
question_.

#ducentī, ae, a# [#duo# + #centum#], num. adj., _two hundred_.

#dūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_; _prolong_; _consider, reckon_;
#fossam dūcere#, _to build a ditch_; #fūnus dūcere#, _to celebrate a
funeral_; #uxōrem dūcere#, _to marry_.

  #ab--abdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead off_ or _away, drag off,
  remove_.

  #ad--addūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead to, bring_; _induce,
  influence_.

  #con--condūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to bring together_; _contribute
  to, serve_.

  #dē--dēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ (away); _attend, escort_.

  #dis--dīdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _draw apart,
  separate, open_.

  #ē--ēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead forth_ or _out_; _bring up,
  rear_.

  #in--indūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _bring in, introduce_;
  _lead, induce, influence_.

  #intrō--intrōdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _bring in, usher
  in, admit_.

  #per--perdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead, conduct, escort_;
  _pursue_; _spend, pass_.

  #re--redūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _escort back,
  accompany_.

  #sē--sēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead apart_ or _aside_.

  #sub--subdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _draw away_
  (secretly), _withdraw, remove_; _hide_.

  #trāns--trādūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus#, _to lead_ or _carry across,
  transport_; _spend, pass_ (time).

#dūdum#, adv., _a while ago_. See #iam#.

#Duīlius, ī#, m., _C._, a Roman general who defeated the Carthaginians
in a naval battle, 260 B.C.

(1) #dum#, adverbial particle found only in compounds, _a while_; with
negatives, _yet_.

(2) #dum#, conj., _while, until_.

#dummodo# [#dum# + #modo#], conj., _provided_.

#duo, ae, o#, num. adj., _two_.

#duodecim# [#duo# + #decem#], num. adj., _twelve_.

#duodēnī, ae, a#, adj., _twelve each, twelve_.

#duplex, icis# [#duo# + #plicō#, _to fold_], adj., _twofold, double_.

#duplicō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#duplex#], _to double, repeat_.

#dūrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#dūrus#], _to harden_; _endure, hold out, last_.

#dūrus#, adj., _hard, rough_; _rude, uncultivated_; _unfeeling_.

#dux, ducis# [#dūcō#], m., _leader, guide_; _commander, general_.

#Dȳrrachium, ī#, n., a town in Illyria, on the east coast of the
Adriatic, nearly opposite Brundisium.


#E#

#ē#, see #ex#.

#ecquid#, interr. adv., used (1) to emphasize a direct question, _at
all?_ (2) in indir. question, _whether_.

#ēdīcō#, see #dīcō#.

#ēdictum, ī# [#ēdīcō#], n., _proclamation, edict_.

#ēditus# [orig. part. of #ēdō#], adj., _high_.

#edō, ere (ēsse), ēsī, ēsus#, _to eat, consume_.

#ēdō#, see #dō#.

#ēdoceō#, see #doceō#.

#ēducātiō, ōnis# [#ēducō#], f., _training, education_.

#ēdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#ēducō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ēdūcō#], _to bring up, rear, train, educate_.

#effēminātus# [orig. part. of #effēminō#, _to make womanish_], adj.,
_womanish_.

(1) #efferō#, see #ferō#.

(2) #efferō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #ferus#], _to render wild_ or
_savage_; _madden_.

#efficiō#, see #faciō#.

#efflāgitō#, see #flāgitō#.

#effugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#effundō#, see #fundō#.

#egeō, ēre, uī, --#, _to be lacking_; _to be poor_ or _in need_.

#Egeria, ae#, f., the nymph from whom King Numa received revelations.

#ego, meī#, pers. pron., _I_; pl., #nōs#, _we_.

#ēgredior#, see #gradior#.

#ēgregiē# [#ēgregius#], adv., _excellently, exceedingly, strikingly_.

#ēgregius# [#ē# + #grex#], adj., _select, distinguished, excellent_.

#ēiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#ēlābor#, see #lābor#.

#ēlabōrō#, see #labōrō#.

#ēlanguēscō, ere, ēlanguī, --#, _to grow faint_ or _feeble_; _slacken,
abate_.

#ēlātus# [orig. part. of (1) #efferō#], adj., _high_; _elated, exalted,
puffed up_.

#ēleganter# [#ēlegāns#, _choice_], adv., _with good judgment,
judiciously_.

#ēlegantia, ae# [#ēlegāns#, _choice_], f., _taste, refinement, elegance,
grace_.

#elephantus, ī#, m., _the elephant_.

#ēliciō#, see #*laciō#.

#ēlīdō#, see #laedō#.

#ēligō#, see #legō#.

#ēloquentia, ae# [#ēloquor#, _to speak_], f., _eloquence_.

#ēmineō, ēre, uī, --#, _to stand out, tower up_.

#ēmittō#, see #mittō#.

#emō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus#, _to take_; _buy, purchase_; _gain, acquire_.

  #con--cōmō, ere, cōmpsī, cōmptus#, _to bring together, arrange,
  dress_ (the hair), _comb_.

  #dis--dīrimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus#, _to take apart, separate_; #rēs
  dīrimere#, _to adjust matters_.

  #ex--eximo, ere, ēmī, ēmptus#, _to take out, remove_; _free,
  release_.

  #inter--interimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus#, _to take from the midst_
  (of men), _kill_.

  #re--redimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus#, _to buy back, ransom_; _replace_.

#ēn#, interj., _lo! behold! see!_

#enim#, conj., always postpositive, _namely, in fact, you know_; _for,
because_.

#ēniteō#, see #niteō#.

#ēnītor#, see #nītor#.

#ēnsis, is#, m., _a sword_.

(1) #eō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to go_ or _come, walk, march_.

#ab--abeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to go away, depart_; #abīre in#,
_pass into, change into_.

#ad--adeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to go_ or _come to, approach, visit_.

#ante--anteeō, īre, īvī (iī), --#, _to go before_.

#dē# + #per--dēpereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to die, perish_.

#ex--exeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to go_ or _come forth_; _retire_.

#in--ineō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to enter, begin_; #cōnsilium inīre#,
_to form a plan_.

#inter--intereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to perish, die_.

#intrō--introeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to enter_.

#ob--obeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to go to meet_; _perform_; _perish,
die_.

#per--pereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to perish, disappear, die_.

#praeter--praetereō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to go_ or _pass by_; _omit_.

#re--redeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus#, _to go_ or _come back, return_.

#sub--subeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to come_ or _go up to, go under,
encounter, face_ (danger); #venēnum subit#, _the poison spreads_.

#trāns--transeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus#, _to cross_ (over); _pass by_.

(2) #eō# [#is#], adv., _for that reason, therefore_; _to that place,
thither_; _to that degree, so far_.

#Ephesius#, adj., _Ephesian_.

#Ephesus, ī#, f., a Greek city on the west coast of Asia Minor.

#epigramma, atis#, n., _epigram, poem_.

#Ēpīrus, ī#, f., a country on the Ionian Sea, northwest of Greece
proper.

#epistula, ae#, f., _a letter_.

#epulor, ārī, ātus sum# [#epulum#], _to feast_.

#epulum, ī#, n. (pl., #epulae, ārum#, f.), _a feast, banquet_.

#eques, itis# [#equus#], m., _a horseman, cavalryman_; _knight_, or
member of the equestrian order. The three centuries of knights
established by Romulus formed the cavalry of the Roman army. Later, the
number was increased to 1800, to each of whom a horse was furnished by
the state, together with an allowance for its keep. Later, the term
_equitēs_ included not only those who actually served in the army, but
also those who possessed a certain fortune, which in the time of
Augustus was set at about $15,000.

#equester, tris, tre# [#equus#], adj., _of the knights, knightly_.

#equitō, āre, āvī, --# [#equus#], _to ride_.

  #ad--adequitō, āre, āvī, --#, _to ride to, ride up_.

#equus, ī#, m., _a horse_.

#ērēctus# [orig. part. of #ērigō#], adj., _upright, erect_.

#ergā#, prep. with acc., _towards, to, with respect to_.

#ergō#, adv., expressing an inference, like _now, well, then,
therefore_.

#ērigō#, see #regō#.

#error, ōris# [#errō#, _to wander_], m., _wandering, error, mistake_.

#ērubēscō, ere, ērubuī, --#, _to grow red, blush_; _feel ashamed_.

#ērudiō, īre, īvī, ītus# [#ē# + #rudis#], _to polish, educate, train_.

#ērumpō#, see #rumpō#.

#ēruō#, see #ruō#.

#ēsca, ae# [#edō#], f., _food, bait_.

#ēscendō#, see #scandō#.

#Ēsquilīnus, ī#, m. (sc. #collis#), _the Esquiline Hill_, the largest of
the seven hills of Rome.

#et#, (1) adv., _also, too, even_; (2) conj., _and, and yet, but_; #et
. . . et#, _both . . . and_.

#etiam# [#et# + #iam#], adv. and conj., _and also, also, even_.

#Etrūria, ae#, f., the country of the Etruscans, northwest of Latium.

#Etrūscī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Etruscans_, the people of Etruria.

#etsī# [#et# + #sī#], conj., _even if, although_.

#Eurīpidēs, is#, m., a Greek tragic poet of the fifth century B.C.

#Eurōpa, ae#, f., _Europe_.

#ēvādō#, see #vādō#.

#ēvehō#, see #vehō#.

#ēventus, ūs# [#ēveniō#, _to come out_], m., _outcome, result_;
_occurrence, event_.

#ēvertō#, see #vertō#.

#ēvocō#, see #vocō#.

#ex#, before consonants often #ē#, prep. with abl.; of place, _out of_
(the midst of), _from_; of cause, _in consequence of, because of_;
_according to_; in compounds, _forth, out_; _thoroughly_; _not_.

#exāctor, ōris# [#exigō#, _to exact_], m., _exactor, enforcer_.

#exāminō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#exāmen#, _means of weighing_], _to weigh,
examine, compare_.

#exanimō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #anima#], _to put out of breath,
kill_.

#exārdēscō, ere, ārsī, --# [#ex# + #ārdēscō#, intens. of #ārdeō#, _to
burn, glow_], _to blaze forth_.

#exarō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #arō#, _to plow_], _to scratch off,
compose_.

#exasperō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #asper#], _to roughen, irritate,
provoke_.

#exaudiō#, see #audiō#.

#excelsus#, adj., _lofty, high_; as noun, #excelsum, ī#, n., _elevated
station_.

#excerpō#, see #carpō#.

#excidium, ī#, n., _downfall, ruin_.

#excipiō#, see #capiō#.

#excitō#, see #citō#.

#exclāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#exclūdō#, see #claudō#.

#excōgitō#, see #agitō#.

#excolō#, see #colō#.

#excubiae, ārum# [#ex# + #cubō#], pl. f., _a lying out on guard_; _the
watch, watchmen_.

#excūsātiō, ōnis# [#excūsō#], f., _excuse_.

#excūsō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #causa#], _to free from trial, excuse_.

#excutiō#, see #quatiō#.

#exemplum, ī# [#eximō#], n., _specimen, example, precedent, warning_.

#exeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#exerceō#, see #arceō#.

#exercitus, ūs# [#exerceō#], m., _an army_.

#exhauriō#, see #hauriō#.

#exhibeō#, see #habeō#.

#exhorrēscō, ere, horruī, --#, _to shudder at, shrink from_.

#exigō#, see #agō#.

#exiguus# [#exigō#, _to weigh exactly_], adj., _scanty, short, brief_.

#eximius# [#eximō#], adj., _choice, distinguished, remarkable,
excellent_.

#eximō#, see #emō#.

#exīstimō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #aestimō#, _to value_], _to value_;
_think, believe_.

#exitium, ī# [#exeō#], n., _destruction, ruin, death_.

#exitus, ūs# [#exeō#], m., _outcome, close_; _departure_; _end of life,
death_.

#exorior#, see #orior#.

#expediō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus# [#ex# + #pēs#], _to set free, extricate_;
_procure, obtain_.

#expellō#, see #pellō#.

#expendō#, see #pendō#.

#experīmentum, ī# [#experior#], n., _proof, test, trial_.

#experior, īrī, tus sum#, _to test, try_; _find out, learn, experience_.

#expetō#, see #petō#.

#expīlō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to plunder, rob_.

#expiō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ex# + #piō#, _to appease_], _to make amends
for, atone for_.

#expleō#, see #*pleō#.

#explōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to reconnoiter_.

#expōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#expōscō#, see #pōscō#.

#expositiō, ōnis# [#expōnō#], f., _exposure_.

#exprimō#, see #premō#.

#expūgnātiō, ōnis# [#expūgnō#], f., #a taking by storm, storming,
capture#.

#expūgnō#, see #pūgnō#.

#exquīsītus# [#exquīrō#, _to seek out_], adj., _carefully sought out,
special_.

#exsecrō#, see #sacrō#.

#exsequiae, ārum# [#ex# + #sequor#], pl. f., _funeral procession,
funeral_.

#exserō#, see #serō#.

#exsilium, ī#, n., _banishment, exile_.

#exsistō#, see #sistō#.

#exspectātiō, ōnis# [#exspectō#], f., _expectation, anticipation_.

#exspectō#, see #spectō#.

#exspīrō#, see #spīrō#.

#exstinguō#, see #stinguō#.

#exstō#, see #stō#.

#exstruō#, see #struō#.

#exsultō#, see #saltō#.

#extemplō# [#ex# + dim. of #tempus#], adv., _on the instant, at once,
forthwith_.

#exter# or #exterus, tera, terum#, adj., _outer, foreign_; comp.
#exterior#; sup. #extrēmus#, _outermost, extreme_; _last, furthermost_;
_last part of_.

#extimēscō, ere, timuī, --# [#ex# + #*timēscō#, inceptive of #timeō#],
_to fear_ or _dread greatly_.

#extrā# [#exter#], (1) adv., _on the outside, without_; (2) prep, with
acc., _outside of, beyond_.

#extrahō#, see #trahō#.

#extraōrdinārius# [#extrā# + #ōrdō#], adj., _out of the common run,
uncommon_.

#extrēmus#, see #exter#.

#exuō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to draw or pull off, lay aside_; _strip,
despoil_.

#exūrō#, see #ūrō#.


#F#

#faber, fabrī#, m., _a workman_ (in hard materials), _smith, carpenter_.

#Fabius, ī#, m., the name of a famous Roman gens. See #Māximus#.

#fabricō, āre, āvī, ātus# [cf. #faber#], _to make, build, construct_.

#fābula, ae# [#for#, _to speak_], f., _story, play_.

#facētē# [#facētus#, _witty_], adv., #wittily#.

#facile# [#facilis#], adv., _easily_; _readily, willingly_.

#facilis, e# [#faciō#], adj., _easy_.

#facinus, oris# [#faciō#], n., _a deed_; _crime_.

#faciō, facere, fēcī, factus#, _to make, do, perform_; _choose,
appoint_; #stīpendia facere#, _to serve a campaign_; #sūmptum facere#,
_to spend_; #verba facere#, _to speak_; #vim facere#, _to use violence_;
pass., #fīō, fierī, factus sum#, _to be done, occur, take place,
happen_.

  #ad--adficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to do something to, affect_;
  _treat, visit with_.

  #con--cōnficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to do thoroughly_; _complete,
  prepare_; _accomplish, make_; _exhaust, kill_.

  #dē--dēficiō, ere, fēcī, fectum#, _withdraw, revolt_; _fail,
  disappear, give out_.

  #ex--efficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to work out, bring to pass,
  accomplish_; _make, render, cause, effect_.

  #in--īnficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to stain, dye_; _pollute, taint_.

  #inter--interficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to kill_; _murder_.

  #per--perficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to do thoroughly, execute,
  accomplish_.

  #sub--sufficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus#, _to put under_, or _in place of,
  appoint as successor, substitute_; intrans., _suffice, be
  sufficient_.

#factiō, ōnis# [#faciō#], f., _party, faction_.

#factum, ī# [#faciō#], n., _a deed, act_.

#facultās, ātis# [#facilis#], f., _means, opportunity_; _ability,
skill_.

#fācundia, ae# [#fācundus#, _eloquent_], f., _eloquence, oratory_.

#Falernus#, adj., _Falernian_; #ager Falernus#, _a famous wine-growing
district in Campania_.

#fāma, ae# [#for#, _to speak_], f., _talk, report, rumor_; _tradition_;
_fame, reputation_.

#famēs, is#, f., #hunger#.

#familia, ae# [#famulus#, _a slave_], f., _the slaves in a household_;
_family, house, race_.

#familiāris, e# [#familia#], adj., _belonging to a household, private,
intimate, friendly_; _well-known_; #rēs familiāris#, _private property_.
As noun, m., _an intimate friend_.

#familiāritās, ātis# [#familiāris#], f., _friendship, intimacy_.

#fāmōsus# [#fāma#], adj., _famous_; _notorious_; _scurrilous,
slanderous_.

#famula, ae#, f., _a slave-woman_.

#fānum, ī#, n., _a shrine, temple_.

#fascis, is#, m., _a bundle_; pl., _the fasces_, a bundle of rods
carried by the lictors before various magistrates. Outside of Rome an
axe was bound with the rods. The rods and axe were typical of the
magistrate’s power to punish, even to the extent of inflicting the death
penalty. See #līctor#.

#fāstī, ōrum# [#fāstus#], pl. m., _a register_, esp. of business days,
also of officers, triumphs, etc.; _the calendar_.

#fāstus# [#fās#, _right_], adj., _not forbidden, legal_; #diēs fāstus#,
a day on which it was legal to hold court, a business day.

#fātālis, e# [#fātum#, _fate_], adj., _fateful, fatal_.

#fateor, ērī, fassus sum#, _to confess_.

  #con--cōnfiteor, ērī, fessus sum#, _to confess freely, acknowledge,
  avow_.

  #prō--profiteor, ērī, fessus sum#, _to declare publicly, avow_;
  #nōmen profitērī#, _to avow one’s self a candidate_.

#faucēs, ium#, pl. f., _throat_.

#Faustulus, ī#, m., the shepherd who brought up Romulus and Remus.

#Faustus, ī# [#faveō#], m., _the Lucky_, a name given by Sulla to his
son.

#Fausta, ae# [#faveō#], f., _the Lucky_, a name given by Sulla to his
daughter.

#faveō, ēre, fāvī, fautūrus#, _to favor, support_.

#favor, ōris# [#faveō#], m., _favor, good will_.

#fax, facis#, f., _torch, firebrand_.

#fēlīcitās, ātis# [#fēlīx#], f., _good fortune, luck, happiness_.

#fēlīx, īcis#, adj., _lucky, fortunate, happy_. As noun, m., cognomen of
#Sulla#.

#fēmina, ae#, f., _a woman, female_.

#femur, femoris#, n., _the thigh_.

#*fendō, ere#, _to strike_.

  #dē--dēfendō, ere, ī, fēnsus#, _to ward off, repel_; _defend,
  protect_.

  #ob--offendō, ere, ī, fēnsus#, _to strike against, displease, vex_.

#ferē#, adv., _almost, about_ (esp. with numbers).

#feriō, īre, percussī, percussus#, _to strike_.

#fermē# [for #ferimē#, sup. of #ferē#], adv., _almost, about_ (esp. with
numbers).

#ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bear, carry, take_; _bear, endure,
suffer_; _say, report, tell_; pass., _to be borne, rush_; #aegrē,
indīgnē# or #molestē ferre#, _to take amiss_; #lēgem ferre#, _to propose
a law_.

  #ab--auferō, ferre, abstulī, ablātus#, _to take_ or _carry away,
  remove_; _steal_.

  #ad--adferō, ferre, attulī, adlātus#, _to bring to, offer, give_;
  _announce, report_.

  #con--cōnferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bring together, collect_;
  _devote, apply_; _bestow_; #sē cōnferre#, _betake one’s self, go_.

  #dē--dēferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bring_ or _carry down_ or _to,
  carry off, remove_; _give, offer_; _report_; #rem dēferre ad
  populum#, _to submit a matter to the people_.

  #ex--efferō, ferre, extulī, ēlātus#, _to carry out, take away_;
  _lift up, puff up, elate, exalt_.

  #in--īnferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bring in, upon_, or _against_;
  #bellum īnferre#, _to wage_ (offensive) _war_; #sīgna īnferre#, _to
  advance against_; #sē īnferre#, _to betake one’s self_.

  #ob--offerō, ferre, obtulī, oblātus#, _to bring before, offer,
  present_; _expose_.

  #per--perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bear or carry through,
  carry_; _retain_.

  #prae--praeferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to carry_ or _put before_;
  _set before, prefer, rate higher_.

  #prō--prōferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to carry_ or _bring forth,
  produce_; _cite, quote_; _make known, mention_.

  #re--referō, ferre, rettulī, relātus#, _to bear_ or _bring back_;
  _give back, return, repay_; _lift, raise_; _count, reckon_; #sē
  referre#, _to betake one’s self_.

  #trāns--trānsferō, ferre, tulī, lātus#, _to bear_ or _take over_ or
  _across_, _transport_; _transfer, shift_.

#ferōx, ōcis# [#ferus#], adj., _bold, confident_; _high-strung,
warlike_; _fierce, cruel_.

#ferreus# [#ferrum#], adj., _of iron, iron_.

#ferrum, ī#, n., _iron_; _an iron tool_, as a _sword, axe, dagger_.

#ferus#, adj., _wild, barbarous, cruel_.

#fessus#, adj., _tired, weary_; _weak, feeble_.

#fēstīnō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to hasten, hurry_.

#Fētiālis, is# (sc. #sacerdōs#), m., _an ambassador, treaty priest_, who
negotiated treaties of peace, and made formal declarations of war.

#Fētiālis, e#, adj., _pertaining to the Fetiales, Fetial_ (see preceding
word).

#fīdēliter# [#fīdēlis#, _faithful_], adv., _faithfully_.

#Fīdēnātēs, ium#, pl. m., the people of Fidenae, an ancient town on the
Tiber, five miles north of Rome.

#fidēs, fideī#, f., _good faith, integrity_; _trust, belief, credence_;
_pledge_.

#fīdūcia, ae# [#fīdus#, _faithful_], f., _trust, confidence, reliance_;
_courage_.

#fīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus#, _to fix, fasten_.

  #dē--dēfīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus#, _to fasten_, esp. _to fasten_
  (to the ground) _with amazement, astonish_.

  #sub--suffīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus#, _to fasten beneath_ or _on_;
  #crucī suffīgere#, _to crucify_.

  #trāns--trānsfīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus#, _to pierce through, transfix,
  stab_.

#fīlia, ae#, f., _daughter_.

#fīlius, ī#, m., _son_.

#fingō, ere, finxī, fīctus#, _to form, invent_; _feign, pretend_.

#fīniō, īre, īvī, ītus# [#fīnis#], _to limit, bound_; _finish, end,
settle_.

#fīnis, is#, m., _boundary, limit, end_; pl. m., _territory_.

#fīnitimus# [#fīnis#], adj., _neighboring_; as noun, #fīnitimī, ōrum#,
pl. m., _neighbors_.

#fīō, fierī, factus sum#, see #faciō#.

#fīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#fīrmus#], _to make firm, strengthen_.

  #ad--adfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to strengthen_; _assert, declare_.

  #con--cōnfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to strengthen, ratify, confirm_;
  _assert_.

#fīrmus#, adj., _strong, powerful_; _trusty_.

#flāgitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to demand_.

  #ex--efflāgitō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to demand vigorously_ or
  _earnestly_.

#flāmen, inis#, m., _a Flamen_, a priest devoted to the service of a
particular god, esp. Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. His office was to make
sacrifices and to watch the sacred fire of the god.

#flamma, ae#, f., _flame, fire_.

#flēbiliter# [#flēbilis#, _mournful_], adv., _mournfully, tearfully_.

#flectō, ere, flexī, flexus#, _to bend, turn_.

  #dē--dēflectō, ere, flexī, flexus#, _to bend_ or _turn aside_ or
  _away, turn_.

  #in--īnflectō, ere, flexī, flexus#, _to bend, curb, relax_.

#fleō, flēre, flēvī, flētus#, _to weep_; _bewail_.

#*flīgō, ere#, _to strike_.

  #ad--adflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus#, _to dash against_ or _down_;
  _afflict, ruin_.

  #con--cōnflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus#, _to dash together, contend,
  fight_.

  #prō--prōflīgō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to dash down, overcome_
  (in battle).

#flō, flāre, flāvī, --#, _to blow_.

  #ad--adflō, flāre, flāvī, --#, _to blow towards, blow_.

  #con--cōnflō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to blow up, kindle, cause_; #aes
  aliēnum cōnflāre#, _to contract debt_.

  #in--īnflō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to blow up, inflate_.

#flōrēns, entis# [#flōreō#], adj., _blooming, flourishing_; #flōrēns
iuventa#, _youthful beauty_.

#flōreō, ēre, uī#, -- [#flōs#, _a flower_], _to bloom, flourish,
prosper_.

#fluctus, ūs# [#fluō#], m., _wave, billow, flood_.

#flūmen, inis# [#fluō#], n., _stream, river_.

#fluō, ere, fluxī, --#, _to flow_.

  #con--cōnfluō, ere, fluxī, --#, _to flow_ or _stream together,
  assemble_.

  #dis--diffluō, ere, fluxī, --#, _to flow in different directions,
  melt away, disappear_; #ōtiō et lūxū diffluere#, _to abandon one’s
  self to ease and luxury_.

#fluvius, ī# [#fluō#], m., _a stream, river_.

#foculus, ī# [dim. of #focus#], m., _a fire-pan, brazier_.

#focus, ī#, m., _fireplace, hearth_.

#fodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus#, _to dig_.

  #con--cōnfodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus#, _to stab, pierce_.

  #sub--suffodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus#, _to dig beneath, undermine,
  tunnel_; _stab beneath_.

  #trāns--trānsfodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus#, _to pierce, stab, slash_.

#foedē# [#foedus#, _foul_], adv., _foully, basely_.

#foederātus# [#foedus#], adj., _leagued_ or _allied with_.

#foedus, eris#, n., _a treaty, alliance_.

#fōns, fontis#, m., _a spring, fountain_.

#forās# [#*fora#, _a door_; cf. #foris#], adv., _out of doors, forth,
out_.

#fore#, fut. infin. of #sum#.

#forēnsis, e# [#forum#], adj., _of_ or _in the forum, forensic_.

#foris, is#, f., _a door_; usually in pl.

#fōrma, ae#, f., _form, figure, beauty_.

#formīdolōsus# [#formīdō#, _dread_], adj., _dreadful, terrible_.

#fors, fortis# (only nom. and abl. sing.), f., _chance, accident, good
fortune_.

#fortāsse# [#fors#], adv., _perhaps, possibly_.

#forte# [abl. of #fors#], adv., _by chance_.

#fortis, e#, adj., _strong, brave_.

#fortiter# [#fortis#], adv., _bravely_.

#fortitūdō, inis# [#fortis#], f., _bravery, resolution_.

#fortūna, ae# [#fors#], f., _luck, fortune_ (whether good or ill);
personified, _the goddess of fortune_.

#Forum, ī# [cf. #forīs#, _out of doors_], n., _an out-of-door place,
market, Forum_; esp. the _Forum Rōmānum_ between the Capitoline and
Palatine hills. It was the center of the political, religious, and
business life of Rome.

#fossa, ae# [#fodiō#], f., _a ditch_.

#foveō, ēre, fōvī, fōtus#, _to warm, cherish, favor_.

#re--refoveō, ēre, fōvī, fōtus#, _to restore, refresh, revive_.

#frāgmentum, ī# [#frangō#], n., _fragment, bit_.

#fragor, ōris# [#frangō#], m., _noise_, esp. _thunder peal_.

#frangō, ere, frēgī, frāctus#, _to break in pieces, break_; _subdue,
overcome_.

  #re--refringō, ere, frēgī, frāctus#, _to break up_ or _open_.

#frāter, tris#, m., _brother_.

#frāternus# [#frāter#], adj., _brother’s, brotherly_.

#fraudō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#fraus#], _to cheat, rob_.

#fraus, fraudis#, f., _foul play, treachery_.

#frendō, ere, --, --#, _to gnash the teeth_.

#frēnum, ī#, n., _bridle, curb, rein_.

#frequēns, entis#, adj., _crowded, frequent_; _in great numbers_.

#frequenter# [#frequēns#], adv., _often_.

#frequentia, ae# [#frequēns#], f., _crowd, throng_.

#frīgidus# [#frīgeō#, _to be cold_], adj., _cold_.

#frūgālitās, ātis# [#frūgālis#, _thrifty_], f., _thrift, economy,
frugality_.

#frūmentārius# [#frūmentum#], adj., _concerning corn_; #rēs
frūmentāria#, _the corn supply_.

#frūmentum, ī# [#fruor#], n., _grain, corn_.

#fruor, fruī, frūctus sum#, _to use, enjoy_.

  #per--perfruor, fruī, frūctus sum#, _to enjoy thoroughly_.

#frūstrā#, adv., _in vain, fruitlessly_.

#Fūfetius, ī#, m., _Mettius Fūfetius_, leader of the Albans against
Tullius Hostilius.

#Fūfidius, ī#, m., a follower of Sulla.

#fuga, ae#, f., _flight_.

#fugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee, flee from_.

  #ab--aufugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee from, run away, escape_.

  #con--cōnfugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee for refuge_; _resort to_.

  #ex--effugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to escape_.

  #prō--profugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee, escape_.

  #re--refugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee back, escape_.

  #trāns--trānsfugiō, ere, fūgī, --#, _to flee to the other side, go
  over to the enemy, desert_.

#fugō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#fugiō#], _to put to flight, rout_.

#fulgeō, ēre, fulsī, --#, _to flash, gleam_.

#fulmen, inis# [#fulgeō#], n., _lightning flash, thunderbolt_.

#Fulvius, ī#, m., _A. Fulvius_, who put his son to death because he
joined Catiline’s conspiracy.

#fūnāle, is# [#fūnis#, _a cord_], n., _a torch_.

#fundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus#, _to pour, pour out, shed_; _rout, scatter_.

  #circum--circumfundo, ere, fūdī, fūsus#, _to pour about_; pass., _to
  surround_.

  #ex--effundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus#, _to pour out_; _scatter, squander,
  lavish_.

  #prō--profundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus#, _to pour forth or out, squander,
  waste_.

#fundus, ī#, m., _farm, estate_.

#fungor, ī, fūnctus sum#, _to perform, discharge, serve through_
(an office).

  #dē--dēfungor, ī, fūnctus sum#, _to perform, finish_; _to die_
  (sc. #vītā#).

#fūnus, eris#, n., _burial, funeral rites_.

#furēns, entis# [orig. part, of #furō#, _to rave_], adj., _furious,
raging_.

#Fūrius, ī#, m., _P. Fūrius Philus_, who revealed the plan of certain
nobles to leave Italy after the battle of Cannae.

#furor, ōris# [#furō#, _to rave_], m., _rage, madness, fury_.

#fūrtō# [abl. of #fūrtum#, _theft_], adv., _stealthily, secretly_.

#futūrus# [orig. fut. part, of #sum#], adj., _coming, future_.


#G#

#Gabiī, ōrum#, pl. m., an ancient town in Latium, east of Rome.

#Gabīnī, ōrum#, pl. m., the inhabitants of Gabii.

#Gadēs, ium#, pl. f., a town on the southern coast of Spain (modern
Cadiz).

#Gaetulī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Gaetuli_, a tribe of northern Africa.

#Gāius, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#Gallia, ae#, f., _Gaul_, which included modern France, Belgium and
Holland, and the parts of Germany and Switzerland west of the Rhine.

#Gallus, ī#, m., _a Gaul_.

#gaudium, ī#, n., _joy, gladness_.

#Gaurus, ī#, m., _a mountain of Campania_.

#gaza, ae#, f., _treasure, riches_.

#geminātus#, adj., _doubled, twofold_; _consecutive_.

#geminus#, adj., _twin, twofold_. As noun, #geminī, ōrum#, pl. m.,
_twins_.

#gemō, ere, uī, --#, _to sigh, groan_.

#gener, generī#, m., _a son-in-law_.

#genitus#, see #gīgnō#.

#gēns, gentis#, f., _a gens_ or _clan_, consisting of a number of
families claiming a common lineage, and having certain religious rites
in common; _tribe, people, nation_.

#genū, ūs#, n., _knee_.

#genus, eris#, n., _race, family, stock, birth_; _kind, class, sort_.

#Germānī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Germans_.

#Germānia, ae#, f., _Germany_.

#gerō, ere, gessī, gestus#, _to bear, carry_; _wear_; _carry on, wage,
manage_; _perform, do_; #sē gerere#, _to conduct one’s self, behave_;
#rem pūblicam gerere#, _to administer the state_; #rēs gestae#,
_exploits, history_.

  #con--congerō, ere, gessī, gestus#, _to bring_ or _heap together,
  collect_.

#gestō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #gerō#], _to bear, carry, wear_.

#gestus, ūs# [#gerō#], m., _bearing_; _gesture_.

#gīgnō, ere, genuī, genitus#, _to produce, beget_; #genitus#, _born of_.

#gladius, ī#, m., _a sword_.

#glōria, ae#, f., _glory, fame, renown_.

#glōrior, ārī, ātus sum#, _to boast, brag, pride one’s self_.

#glōriōsē# [#glōria#], adv., _gloriously_.

#Gnaeus, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#Gracchus, ī#, m., a family name in the Sempronian gens.

  1. _Ti. Semprōnius Gracchus_, tribune of the people in 133 B.C.

  2. _C. Semprōnius Gracchus_, brother of (1), and tribune in 123
  B.C.; killed in 121.

#gradior, gradī, gressus sum#, _to walk, step_.

  #ad--aggredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to approach, attack, assail_.

  #con--congredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to meet_; _join battle, fight_.

  #dis--dīgredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to go apart or away, depart_.

  #ex--ēgredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to go_ or _march out_ or _away_;
  _disembark_. (The verb is construed with the abl., the abl. with
  #ex#, or the acc.).

  #in--ingredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to enter, advance, proceed_.

  #prō--prōgredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to go forth_ or _on, advance_.

  #re--regredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to go back, return, retreat_.

  #trāns--trānsgredior, ī, gressus sum#, _to step over_ or _across,
  cross_.

#gradus, ūs#, m., _a step_; _stage, period, degree_; pl., _steps,
stairs_.

#Graecia, ae#, f., _Greece_.

#Graeculus, ī# [dim. of #Graecus#], m., _a poor_ or _paltry Greek_.

#Graecus#, adj., _Greek, Grecian_. As noun, #Graecus, ī#, m., _a Greek_.

#grānum, ī#, n., _a grain, seed_.

#graphium, ī#, n., _stylus_ (of metal) for writing, _pen_.

#grātia, ae# [#grātus#], f., _favor, regard, credit_; _influence_;
_return, thanks, gratitude_; #grātiam habēre#, _to feel thankful_;
#grātiās agere#, _to show gratitude, thank_; #grātiam referre#, _to
repay a favor_; #grātiā#, with preceding gen., frequent in expressions
of purpose, _for the sake of_.

#grātulor, ārī, ātus sum# [#grātus#], _to show joy, congratulate_.

#grātus#, adj., _pleasing, dear, acceptable_.

#gravis, e#, adj., _heavy, severe, difficult_; _weighty, important_.

#gravitās, ātis# [#gravis#], f., _weight_; _dignity, influence,
importance_.

#graviter# [#gravis#], adv., _weightily_; _vigorously, seriously, with
dignity_.

#gravor, ārī, ātus sum# [#gravis#], _to be burdened_; _take amiss,
grudge_.

#grex, gregis#, f., _herd, common herd_; _band, company_.

#gubernātor, ōris# [#gubernō#, _to steer_], m., _helmsman, pilot_.


#H#

#habeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to have, hold, keep_; _consider, regard, treat,
use_; _render_ (honor, etc.); #ōrātiōnem habēre#, _to deliver a speech_;
#lūdibriō habēre#, _to mock_.

  #ad--adhibeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to hold to_ or _toward, apply,
  employ_; _employ as counsel, consult_; _summon, invite_.

  #dē--dēbeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to withhold, owe_; #dēbet, dēbuit# +
  inf., _ought, must, should_.

  #ex--exhibeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to hold forth, show, display,
  exhibit_.

  #in--inhibeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to hold_ or _draw in, restrain_.

  #post--posthabeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to place after_ (i.e. lower
  than), _rate lower, esteem less_.

  #prae--praebeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to hold forth, offer, grant,
  supply, furnish_; #aurēs praebēre#, _to listen_.

  #prō--prohibeō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to check, keep off_; _hinder,
  prevent_.

#habilis, e# [#habeō#], adj., _handy, easily wielded_.

#habitātiō, ōnis# [#habitō#], f., _dwelling-place_.

#habitō, āre, āvī, ātum# [freq. of #habeō#], _to inhabit_; _dwell,
live_.

#habitus, ūs# [#habeō#], m., _state, condition_; _habit, dress, attire_.

#hālitus, ūs#, m., _breath_.

#Hamilcar, aris#, m., a famous Carthaginian general, father of
Hannibal (2).

#Hannibal, alis#, m., a Carthaginian name.

  1. A naval commander, defeated by C. Duilius, 260 B.C.

  2. The son of Hamilcar, born B.C. 247. He invaded Italy in 218, but
  was defeated by Scipio at Zama in 202; he then fled to the East, and
  died in 183.

#Hannō, ōnis#, m., a Carthaginian general, defeated by Regulus.

#haruspex, icis#, m., _a soothsayer_.

#Hasdrubal, alis#, m., a Carthaginian name.

  1. Son of Hamilcar, and brother of Hannibal (2); fought against
  Scipio Africanus in Spain; defeated and killed at the battle of the
  Metaurus in Italy, 207 B.C.

  2. Son of Gisco; fought against Scipio Africanus in Spain and
  Africa.

#hasta, ae#, f., _a spear_.

#haud#, adv., _by no means, not, not at all_.

#hauriō, īre, hausī, haustus#, _to drink, swallow_.

  #ex--exhauriō, īre, hausī, haustus#, _to empty, exhaust_; _ruin,
  impoverish_.

#Herculēs, is#, m., a Grecian hero, celebrated for his strength and
marvelous deeds in many parts of the world.

#hērēs, ēdis#, m., _an heir_.

#hīc, haec, hōc#, dem. pron., _this, the following, the latter_; _he,
she, it_.

#hīc# [#hīc#], adv., _here, hereupon, at this point_.

#hiems, hiemis#, f., _winter, storm_.

#Hierosolyma, ōrum#, pl. n., _Jerusalem_.

#hilarē# [#hilarus#, _merry_], adv., _merrily, cheerfully, gaily_.

#hilaritās, ātis# [#hilaris#, _merry_], f., _merriment, gaiety_.

#hinc# [#hīc#], adv., _from this place_ or _time, hence_; #hinc--hinc#,
_on this side . . . on that, on the one side . . . on the other_.

#hirundō, inis#, f., _a swallow_.

#Hispānia, ae#, f., _Spain_ (including Portugal). It was divided into
two provinces, _Hispānia Citerior_ and _Hispānia Ūlterior_.

#Hispāniēnsis, e#, adj., _Spanish, in Spain_.

#Hispānus#, adj., _Spanish_. As noun, #Hispānus, ī#, m., _a Spaniard_.

#hodiē# [#hō(c)# + #diē#], adv., _to-day_.

#homō, inis#, m. and f., _a human being, man_; #hominēs#, _mankind, the
world_.

#honestē# [#honestus#], adv., _honorably_.

#honestus# [#honōs#], adj., _honored, respected_; _honorable, right,
virtuous_.

#honōrātē# [#honōrātus#, _honored_], adv., _honorably, with respect_.

#honōrificus# [#honōs# + #faciō#], adj., _that does honor,
complimentary_.

#honorō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#honōs#], _to honor, do honor to_.

#honōs# or #honor, ōris#, m., _honor, respect, esteem_; _public office_;
personified, _Honor_ (a deity).

#hōra, ae#, f., _hour_, the twelfth part of the day (sunrise to sunset)
or night.

#Horātius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens.

#horreō, ēre, uī, --#, _to stand on end, bristle_; _shudder at, shrink
from_.

#horror, ōris# [#horreō#], m., _dread, terror, horror_.

#hortātiō, ōnis# [#hortor#], f., _encouragement, exhortation_.

#hortor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to exhort, urge_.

#hortus, ī#, m., _a garden_.

#hospes, itis#, m., _entertainer, host_; _guest, friend_; _stranger_.

#hospita, ae# [#hospes#], f., _a stranger_; _guest_.

#hospitium, ī# [#hospes#], n., _entertainment, hospitality_; _lodgings,
inn_.

#hostia, ae#, f., _an animal for sacrifice, victim_.

#hostīlis, e# [#hostis#], adj., _of_ or _from the enemy, hostile_.

#hostīliter# [#hostīlis#], adv., _in hostile manner_.

#Hostīlius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens.

  1. _Hostus Hostīlius_, a general of the time of Romulus.

  2. _Tullus Hostīlius_, third king of Rome.

#hostis, is#, m., _an enemy_.

#hūc# [#hīc#], adv., _to this place, hither_; #hūc . . . illūc#, _hither
. . . thither_.

#hūiuscemodī# [#hīc# + #modus#], adv., _of this_ (i.e. the following)
_kind_.

#hūmānitās, ātis# [#hūmānus#], f., _humanity, kindliness_; _refinement,
culture_.

#hūmānus# [#homō#], adj., _human, of man_; _kind, refined, cultured_.

#humilis, e# [#humus#, _the ground_], adj., _low_; _lowly, humble,
common_.


#I#

#iaceō, ēre, uī, --#, _to lie, lie prostrate_ or _dead_.

#iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactus#, _to throw, cast, hurl_.

  #ab--abiciō, ere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw down, away_, or _aside,
  lay aside_.

  #ad--adiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw to, add_ or _join to,
  add_ (in speech).

  #con--coniciō, icere, coniēcī, coniectus#, _to throw together,
  unite_; _hurl, throw_.

  #dē--dēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw_ or _hurl down, bring
  down_; _lay low, dislodge, destroy_.

  #ex--ēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to cast_ or _drive out, expel_.

  #in--iniciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw in_; _put in_ or _on,
  lay_; _inspire, suggest_.

  #inter--intericiō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw_ or _place
  between, interpose; intervene_ (in pass.).

  #ob--obiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw before, put in the
  way_; _put in the hands of, turn over_.

  #prō--prōiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw forth, fling out,
  throw_.

  #re--rēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw back, repel_.

  #sub--subiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw_ or _place under_;
  _hand up_; _present, submit_; _subdue_.

  #super--superiaciō, ere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw across, let down_.

  #trāns--trāiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus#, _to throw_ or _carry across,
  transport_; _pierce, penetrate, transfix_; _go_ or _pass over,
  cross_.

#iactātiō, ōnis# [#iactō#], f., _tossing, motion_.

#iactitō, āre, --, --# [freq. of #iactō#], _to boast, brag_.

#iactō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to push_ or _toss about_; _boast of, take
pride in_.

#iam#, adv., _already, by this time, now_; _soon, presently_; #iam iam#,
_already, at that very moment_; #iam dūdum# or #iam prīdem#, _long ago,
long since_.

#iam dūdum#, see #iam#.

#Iāniculum, ī#, n., a hill on the west bank of the Tiber.

#iānua, ae#, f., _a door, entrance_.

#Iānus, ī#, m., #Janus#, an old Latin divinity, who presided over all
beginnings; commonly represented with two faces.

#Iarbās, ae#, m., king of Numidia and Mauretania (the modern Morocco).

#ibi#, adv., _there, on that side_; _then, thereupon_.

#ibīdem# [#ibi#], adv., _in the same place, on the spot_.

#īcō, ere, īcī, īctus#, _to strike_; #foedus īcere#, _to strike_
(conclude) _a treaty_.

#īctus, ūs# [#īcō#], m., _blow, stroke, wound_.

#īdem, eadem, idem#, dem. pron., _the same_; often best rendered by
adv., _also, too, besides_.

#ideō#, adv., _for that reason, therefore_; _with this_ (that)
_purpose_.

#Īdūs, uum#, pl. f., _the Ides_, or middle of the month; the fifteenth
of March, May, July, and October, the thirteenth of other months.

#igitur#, adv., _then, therefore, accordingly_.

#īgnāvia, ae# [#īgnāvus#, _idle_], f., _idleness, sloth_;
_worthlessness_.

#īgnis, is#, m., _fire_.

#īgnōminia, ae# [#in# neg. + #(g)nōmen#], f., _dishonor, disgrace,
degradation_.

#īgnōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _not to know_; _to be ignorant of, be
unacquainted with_.

#īgnōscō#, see #nōscō#.

#īgnōtus# [#in# neg. + #(g)nōtus#], adj., _unknown, unfamiliar,
strange_.

#īlicō# [#in# + #locō#], adv., _on the spot, at once, immediately_.

#ille, illa, illud#, dem. pron., _that, yonder_; _he, she, it_; _the
famous, the_.

#illīc# [#ille#], adv., _there, yonder_.

#illūc# [#ille#], adv., _to that place, thither_.

#imāgō, inis#, f., _likeness, semblance, image_; _statue_.

#imbellis, e# [#in# neg. + #bellum#], adj., _unfit for war, unwarlike,
cowardly_.

#imber, bris#, m., _rain, shower_.

#imbuō, ere, ī, būtus#, _to wet, moisten_; _inspire, imbue_.

#imitor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to imitate, copy_.

#immātūrus# [#in# neg. + #mātūrus#, _ripe_], adj., _unripe_; _untimely,
premature_.

#immēnsus# [#in# neg. + #mētior#, _to measure_], adj., _immeasurable,
vast, immense_.

#immineō, ēre, uī, --#, _to overhang, threaten_.

#immittō#, see #mittō#.

#immō#, adv., _by no means, nay_.

#immolō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #mola#, _meal_], _to sprinkle_
(a victim) _with sacrificial meal, sacrifice_.

#immortālis, e# [#in# neg. + #mortālis#], adj., _immortal_.

#immōtus# [#in# neg. + #mōtus#, part of #moveō#], adj., _unmoved,
motionless_.

#impār, paris# [#in# neg. + #pār#], adj., _unequal_.

#impatiēns, entis# [#in# neg. + #patiēns#], adj., _impatient,
intolerant_.

#impendium, ī# [#impendō#, _to expend_], n., _outlay, cost, expense_.

#impēnsa, ae# [#impendō#, _to expend_], f., _outlay, cost, expense_.

#imperātor, ōris# [#imperō#], m., _commander-in-chief, general_;
_emperor_.

#imperātōrius# [#imperātor#], adj., _of a general_.

#imperfectus# [#in# neg. + #perfectus#, part. of #perficiō#], adj.,
_unfinished_.

#imperium, ī# [#imperō#], n., _a command, order_; _military authority_;
_sovereignty, supremacy_; _the state_.

#imperō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to command, order_; _rule, govern_; _levy,
demand_.

#impetrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to gain by asking, obtain, procure_.

#impetus, ūs# [#in# + #petō#], m., _an attack, onset_; _impulse,
excitement_; _violence, energy, fury_.

#impietās, ātis# [#impius#], f., _irreverence, impiety_.

#impiger, gra, grum# [#in# neg. + #piger#, _lazy_], adj., _active,
energetic_.

#impius# [#in# + #pius#], adj., _irreverent, wicked, undutiful_.

#impleō#, see #*pleō#.

#implicō, āre, āvī# or #uī, ātus# or #itus# [#in# + #plicō#, _to fold_],
_to fold in, envelop_; _involve, attack_.

#implōrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #plōrō#, _to wail, lament_], _to beg,
beseech, implore_.

#impōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#imprīmīs# [= #in prīmīs#], adv., _especially_.

#imprōvīsus# [#in# neg. + #prōvideō#], adj., _unforeseen, unexpected_.

#impūbēs, eris# [#in# neg. + #pūbēs#, _full grown_], adj., _youthful_.

#impūgnō#, see #pūgnō#.

#impūnītus# [#in# neg. + #pūniō#], adj., _unpunished_.

#in#, prep, with (1) acc.; of place, _into, to, on, upon, towards,
against_; of purpose, _for, with a view to_; of other relations,
_respecting, according to_; #in diēs#, _day by day_; (2) with abl.; of
place, _in, on, upon, in the midst of, among_; of time, _in, in the
course of, during_; of other relations, _in the case of, respecting,
according to_.

#in#, _not_, a prefix, which, when attached to adj. or participles,
negatives or reverses their meaning.

#inaestimābilis, e# [#in# neg. + #aestimō#, _to reckon_], _inestimable_.

#inambulō#, see #ambulō#.

#inānis, e#, adj., _empty_; _vain, idle_.

#inaudītus# [#in# neg. + #audītus#, part. of #audiō#], adj., _unheard
of, strange_.

#incautus# [#in# neg. + #cautus#, _wary_], adj., _unsuspecting, off
one’s guard_.

#incēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#incendium, ī# [#incendō#], n., _fire, conflagration_.

#incendō#, see #candeō#·

#inceptum, ī# [#incipiō#], n., _beginning, attempt_; _undertaking,
purpose_.

#incertus# [#in# neg. + #certus#], adj., _uncertain, doubtful_.

#incēssō, ere, --, --# [freq. of #incēdō#], _to assail, attack_;
_rail at_.

#incidō#, see #cadō#.

#incipiō#, see #capiō#.

#incitō#, see #citō#.

#inclāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#inclīnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #*clīnō#, _to lean_], (1) trans., _to
cause to lean, bend, turn_; (2) intrans., _lean, incline_; _yield, give
way_.

#inclitus#, adj., _famous_.

#inclūdō#, see #claudō#.

#incōgnitus# [#in# neg. + #cōgnitus#, part. of #cōgnōscō#], adj.,
_unknown_.

#incola, ae# [#incolō#], m., _inhabitant_.

#incolō#, see #colō#.

#incolumis, e#, adj., _safe, unharmed_.

#incōnstantia, ae# [#in# neg. + #cōnstantia#], f., _changeableness,
fickleness_.

#incrēdibilis, e# [#in# neg. + #crēdō#], adj., _beyond belief,
incredible_.

#increpō, āre, uī, itus#, _to sound, resound_; _scold, upbraid_;
_exclaim_.

#incrēscō#, see #crēscō#.

#incumbō#, see #*cumbō#.

#incūriōsus# [#in# neg. + #cūriōsus#, _careful_], adj., _careless,
negligent_.

#incursiō, ōnis# [#incurrō#, _to attack_], f., _onset, attack, raid_.

#inde#, adv., _from that place_ or _time, thence_; _thereupon_; _from
that circumstance, therefore_.

#index, icis# [#indicō#], m., _mark, sign_.

#indicium, ī# [#indicō#], n., _sign, indication, evidence_.

#indīcō# see #dīcō#.

#indicō#, see #dicō#.

#indictus# [#in# neg. + #dictus#, part of #dīcō#], adj., _unsaid_;
_unplead_.

#indīgnātiō, ōnis# [#indīgnor#, _to be angry_], f., _displeasure,
anger_.

#indīgnē# [#indīgnus#], adv., _unworthily_; _angrily_; #indīgnē ferre#
_to take_ (_it_) _amiss_.

#indīgnor, ārī, ātus sum# [#indīgnus#], _to think unworthy_; _be angry_.

#indīgnus# [#in# neg. + #dīgnus#], adj., _unworthy of, unfit for_ (with
abl.).

#indō#, see #dō#.

#indolēs, is#, f., _inborn quality, natural gifts_; _character, nature,
spirit_.

#indūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#indūstria, ae# [#indūstrius#, _active_], f., _diligence, activity,
industry_.

#ineō#, see (1) #eō#.

#inermis, e# [#in# neg. + #arma#], adj., _unarmed, defenseless_.

#īnfacētē# [#in# neg. + #facētē#], adv., _without wit_.

#īnfāns, antis# [#in# neg. + #fāns#, part. of #fārī#, _to speak_], adj.,
_not speaking, speechless_; as noun, m. and f., _an infant_.

#īnfēlīx, īcis# [#in# neg. + #fēlīx#], adj., _unfortunate, disastrous_.

#īnferior, ōris# [comp. of #īnferus#, _low_], adj., _lower, inferior_.

#īnferō#, see #ferō#.

#īnfēstō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#īnfēstus#], _to annoy, disturb_.

#īnfēstus#, adj., _hostile, threatening_.

#īnficiō#, see #faciō#.

#īnflammō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #flamma#], _to kindle, arouse,
excite_.

#īnflātus# [#īnflō#], adj., _blown up, inflated_.

#īnflectō#, see #flectō#.

#īnflō#, see #flō#.

#īnfōrmō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #fōrma#], _to shape, mould, fashion_;
_train, instruct_.

#īnfrā#, adv. and prep. with acc., _below, beneath_.

#ingemīscō, ere, gemuī, --# [#in# + #gemīscō#, incep. of #gemō#], _to
groan over, groan_.

#ingenium, ī# [#in# + #gīgnō#], n., _natural gifts, nature_; _ability,
intellect, wit_; _character, disposition_.

#ingēns, entis#, adj., _large, huge, great_.

#ingenuus#, adj., _free-born_; _noble, liberal_.

#ingrātus# [#in# neg. + #grātus#], adj., _unpleasant, thankless,
ungrateful_.

#ingredior#, see #gradior#.

#inhibeō#, see #habeō#.

#iniciō#, see #iaciō#.

#inimīcitia, ae# [#inimīcus#], f., _enmity_.

#inimīcus# [#in# neg. + #amīcus#], adj., _unfriendly, hostile_; as noun,
_a personal enemy, foe_, as distinguished from #hostis#, _a public
enemy_.

#inīquē# [#inīquus#, _unjust_], adv., _unjustly_.

#initium, ī# [#ineō#], n., _beginning_; #initiō#, abl. as adv., _at the
outset, at first_.

#iniūria, ae# [#in# neg. + #iūs#], f., _wrong, injustice_; _insult,
injury_.

(#iniussus, ūs#) [#in# neg. + #iubeō#], m., found in abl. only, _without
orders_.

#inlīdō#, see #laedō#.

#inlūstris, e#, adj., _bright, clear_; _famous, renowned_
(cf. #clārus#).

#innītor#, see #nītor#.

#innocentia, ae# [#in# neg. + #noceō#], f., _harmlessness, innocence,
integrity_.

#innōtēscō, ere, nōtuī, --# [#in# + #nōtēscō#, _to become known_], _to
become known_.

#innoxius# [#in# neg. + #noxius#, _harmful_], adj., _harmless,
blameless, innocent_.

#innumerābilis, e# [#in# neg. + #numerō#, _to count_], adj., _beyond
number, countless_.

#innumerus# [#in# neg. + #numerus#], adj., _countless_.

#innuō#, see #*nuō#.

#inopia, ae# [#inops#], f., _want, scarcity, need, poverty_.

#inopīnātus# [#in# neg. + #opīnor#, _to think_], adj., _unexpected_.

#inops, opis# [#in# neg. + #ops#], adj., _without resources, helpless,
poor, needy_.

#inquam#, def. verb, _I say_. See #297#, II, 2: 144, _b_: _175_, 2.

#inquiētus# [#in# neg. + #quiētus#], adj., _restless_.

#inquinō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to stain, defile_.

#inrīdeō#, see #rīdeō#.

#inrīsus, ūs# [#inrīdeō#], m., _derision, mockery_.

#inruō#, see #ruō#.

#īnscientia, ae# [#īnsciēns#, _ignorant_], adj., _ignorance_.

#īnscius# [#in# neg. + #sciō#], adj., _ignorant, unaware_.

#īnscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#īnsequor#, see #sequor#.

#īnsideō#, see #sedeō#.

#īnsidiae, ārum# [#īnsideō#], pl. f., _ambush_; _trap_; _artifice,
plot_.

#īnsidior, ārī, ātus sum# [#īnsidiae#], _to lie in wait for, plot
against_.

#īnsīgne, is# [#īnsīgnis#], n., _a mark, badge_.

#īnsīgnis, e# [#in# + #sīgnum#], adj., _marked, conspicuous, noted,
famous_.

#īnsiliō#, see #saliō#.

#īnsinuō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #sinus#, _fold, coil_], _to push or
thrust in_.

#īnsitus# [#inserō#, _to implant_], adj., _inborn, innate, ingrafted_.

#īnsolēns, entis# [#in# neg. + #solēns#, part. of #soleō#], adj.,
_unusual, haughty, insolent_.

#īnsolenter# [#īnsolēns#], adv., _haughtily_.

#īnsolentia, ae# [#īnsolēns#], f., _unusual_ or _extravagant conduct,
insolence_.

#īnspērābilis, e# [#in# neg. + #spērō#], adj., _unhoped for,
unexpected_.

#īnspiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#īnstituō#, see #statuō#.

#īnstitūtum, ī# [#īnstituō#], n., _institution_; _habit, custom_.

#īnstrūmentum, ī# [#īnstruō#], n., _tool_; _collectively, stock of
tools, plant_.

#īnstruō#, see #struō#.

#īnsusurrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #susurrus#, _a whisper_], _to
whisper to, suggest_.

#īnsum#, see #sum#.

#intāctus# [#in# neg. + #tāctus#, part. of #tangō#], adj., _untouched,
uninjured_.

#integer, gra, grum# [#in# neg. + root #tag# in #tangō#], adj.,
_untouched, uninjured_; #integer, ā#, _free from, untouched by_.

#intellegō#, see #legō#.

#intempestus#, adj., _stormy_.

#intendō#, see #tendō#.

#intentus# [orig. part. of #intendō#], adj., _attentive, intent_.

#inter#, prep. with acc.; of place, _between, among_; of time, _during_.

#intercalārius# [#intercalō#], adj., _intercalary, inserted in the
calendar_.

#intercalō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to intercalate, insert in the calendar_.

#intercipiō#, see #capiō#.

#interdīcō#, see #dīcō#.

#interdiū# [#inter# + #diū#], adv., _by day_.

#interdum# [#inter# + (1) #dum#], adv., _between whiles, now and then,
sometimes_.

#intereā# [#inter# + #is#], adv., _in the meantime, meanwhile_.

#intereō#, see (1) #eō#.

#interfector, ōris# [#interficiō#], m., _slayer, assassin, murderer_.

#interficiō#, see #faciō#.

#intericiō#, see #iaciō#.

#interim#, adv., _meanwhile_.

#interimō#, see #emō#.

#interitus, ūs# [#intereō#], m., _overthrow, death, destruction_.

#internūntius, ī# [#inter# + #nūntius#], m., _go-between, messenger_.

#interpretor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to explain, interpret_; _maintain_.

#interrogō#, see #rogō#.

#intersum#, see #sum#.

#intervāllum, ī# [#inter# + #vāllum#], n., _interval_ (of time or
space), _distance_.

#intervertō#, see #vertō#.

#intimus#, adj., _inmost, deepest_; _close, intimate_.

#intolerābilis, e# [#in# neg. + #tolerō#, _to bear_], adj.,
_unendurable_.

#intrā#, adv. and prep. with acc., _inside of, within, during_.

#intrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#intrō#, adv., _within_], _to enter_.

#intrōdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#introeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#intueor#, see #tueor#.

#intumēscō, ere, tumuī, --# [#in# + #tumēscō#, incep. of #tumeō#, _to be
swollen_], _to swell, rise_.

#inundō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#in# + #undō#, _to rise in waves_], _to
deluge, flood_.

#inūsitātus# [#in# neg. + #ūsitātus#, _usual_], adj., _unusual,
unfamiliar, novel_.

#invādō#, see #vādō#.

#invalidus# [#in# neg. + #validus#], adj., _weak, feeble_.

#invehō#, see #vehō#.

#inveniō#, see #veniō#.

#invicem, in vicem#, see #vicis#.

#invictus# [#in# neg. + #victus#, part. of #vincō#], adj.,
_unconquerable_.

#invideō#, see #videō#.

#invidia, ae# [#invideō#], f., _envy_; _ill-will, odium, unpopularity_.

#invidiōsus# [#invidia#], adj., _envious_; _exciting envy, unpopular,
hateful_.

#inviolātus# [#in# neg. + #violō#], adj., _unhurt_.

#invīsus# [orig. part. of #invideō#], adj., _hated, hateful_.

#invītō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to invite, ask, summon_; _feast, entertain_.

#invītus#, adj., _unwilling, on compulsion_.

#iocus, ī# (pl. also #ioca#), m., _a jest, joke_.

#ipse, a, um#, _himself, herself, itself, themselves_; often best
rendered by _very, mere, in person, even, actually_.

#īra, ae#, f., _anger, passion_.

#īrāscor, ī, īrātus sum# [#īra#], _to be_ or _become angry_.

#īrātus# [orig. part. of #īrāscor#], adj., _angered, enraged_; _in
anger, angrily_.

#is, ea, id#, dem. pron., _this_ or _that_; _he, she, it_; _such_ (esp.
before #ut# with #subj.#).

#iste, a, ud#, gen. #istīus#, dat. #istī#, _that of yours, your_; _that,
this_.

#ita# [#is#], adv., _in this way, so, thus, as follows_.

#Ītalia, ae#, f., _Italy_. The name did not include the basin of the Po
(Cisalpine Gaul) until the time of Augustus.

#Ītalicus, ī#, m., _an Italian_.

#itaque# [#ita# + #que#], adv. and conj., _and so, therefore, as a
consequence, accordingly_.

#item#, adv., _besides, likewise, also_.

#iter, itineris# [#eō, īre#], n., _a journey, march_; _road, highway_.

#iterum#, adv., _a second time, again_.

#Iuba, ae#, m., a king of Numidia, ally of Pompey, but defeated by
Caesar at the battle of Thapsus, B.C. 46.

#iubeō, ēre, iussī, iussus#, _to order, command_.

#iūcundē# [#iūcundus#], adv., _agreeably, pleasantly, delightfully_.

#iūcundus#, adj., _pleasing, agreeable, charming, delightful_.

#Iudaea, ae#, f., _Judaea_.

#Iudaeus, ī#, m., _a Jew_.

#iūdex, icis# [#iūs# + #dīcō#], m., _a judge, juror_.

#iūdicium, ī# [#iūdex#], n., _judgment, decision_.

#iūdicō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#iūdex#], _to examine judicially, judge,
adjudge_; _think, consider_; _declare, resolve_.

#iūgerum, ī#, n., a land measure = about two thirds of an English acre;
_an acre_.

#iugulum, ī# [dim. of #iugum#], n., _throat, neck_.

#iugum, ī# [#iungō#], n., _a yoke, collar_; _mountain summit, range of
mountains_; _a military yoke_, formed by fixing two spears upright in
the ground and tying a third across between their upper ends. Beneath
such a yoke the Romans made their conquered enemies pass, in token of
complete surrender of liberty and life to their conquerors.

#Iugurtha, ae#, m., the famous king of Numidia, who fought with Rome 111
to 106 B.C.; defeated by Marius.

#Iugurthīnus#, adj., _of_ or _with Jugurtha, Jugurthine_.

#Iūlia, ae#, f., _Julia_.

  1. Daughter of Julius Caesar, and wife of Pompey.

  2. Sister of Julius Caesar and grandmother of the Emperor Augustus.

#Iūlius, ī#, m., the name of a famous Roman gens. See #Caesar#.

#iungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus#, _to join together, unite, bind, fasten,
yoke_.

  #ad--adiungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus#, _to join_ or _add to, attach_.

  #con--coniungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus#, _to fasten together, join,
  unite_.

#iūnior#, see #iuvenis#.

#Iūnius, ī#, m., the name of a famous Roman gens. See #Brūtus#.

#Iuppiter, Iovis#, m., the chief god of the Latins, orig.
a personification of the sky. He controlled thunder, lightning, rain,
and storms.

#iūre#, see #iūs#.

#iūrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#iūs#], _to take an oath, swear_; _swear to_.

  #con--cōniūrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to take an oath together, conspire,
  plot_.

#iūs, iūris#, n., _right, justice, law_; _court of justice, trial in
court_; abl. #iūre# as adv., _rightly, justly_; #in iūs vocāre#, _to
summon into court, bring to trial_.

#iūsiūrandum, ī# [#iūs# + #iūrō#], n., _an oath_.

(#iussus, ūs#) [#iubeō#], m., _order, command_ (found only in abl.
sing.).

#iūstitia, ae# [#iūs#], f., _justice, uprightness_.

#iuvenis, is#, comp. #iūnior#, sup. #minimus nātū#, adj., _young_. As
noun, #iuvenis, is#, m., _young person, youth_ (between 17 and 45);
#iuvenēs# or #iūniōrēs#, _the fighting men_.

#iuventa, ae# [#iuvenis#], f., _youth_.

#iuventūs, ūtis# [#iuvenis#], f., _youth_; collectively, _young people_,
esp. _fighting men_. Cf. #iuvenis#.


#K#

#Kalendae, ārum#, pl. f., _the Kalends_, or the first day of the month.


#L#

#labor, ōris#, m., _labor, toil_; _hardship, distress_.

#lābor, ī, lāpsus sum#, _to slip_.

  #dē--dēlābor, ī, lāpsus sum#, _to glide down_; _slip_ or _fall down,
  fall_.

  #ex--ēlābor, ī, lāpsus sum#, _to slip away, glide off, escape_.

  #prō--prōlābor, ī, lāpsus sum#, _to fall down_; _slip, stumble_.

  #re--relābor, ī, lāpsus sum#, _to slip_ or _sink back_; _flow back,
  subside_.

#labōriōsē# [#labōriōsus#, _toilsome_], adv., _laboriously, carefully_.

#labōrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to labor, toil_; _be hard pressed, suffer, be
afflicted_.

  #ex--ēlabōrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to labor, toil, endeavor_.

#Lacedaemonius, ī#, m., an inhabitant of Lacedaemon or Sparta, the chief
city of Laconia, a district of Southern Greece.

#lacerō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to tear to pieces, rend, mutilate, wound_.

#*laciō, ere#, _to entice_.

  #ad--adliciō, ere, lexī, lectus#, _to entice, win over, attract_.

  #ex--ēliciō, ere, uī, itus#, _to draw forth, call down_.

  #per--perliciō, ere, lexī, lectus#, _to entice, allure, win over_.

#lacrima, ae#, f., _a tear_.

#lacrimābundus# [#lacrimō#, _to weep_], adj., _weeping_.

#laedō, ere, laesī, laesus#, _to hurt, injure_.

  #ex--ēlīdō, ere, līsī, līsus#, _to dash out_; _shatter, crush_.

  #in--inlīdō, ere, līsī, līsus#, _to dash against_.

#Laelius, ī#, m., gentile name of _C. Laelius_, a friend of Scipio
Africanus.

#laetitia, ae# [#laetus#], f., _joy, exultation_.

#laetus#, adj., _joyful, glad, cheerful_.

#laevus#, adj., _left_.

#lambō, ere, --, --#, _to lick, lap_.

#lāmenta, ōrum#, pl. n., _lamentations_.

#lāmina, ae#, f., _a thin plate_.

#lāna, ae#, f., _wool_.

#lancea, ae#, f., _a spear, lance, dart_.

#lānificium, ī# [#lānā# + #faciō#], n., _spinning, weaving_.

#lanius, ī#, m., _a butcher_.

#lapideus# [#lapis#], adj., _of stone, stone_.

#lapis, idis#, m., _a stone_; _milestone_.

#laqueus, ī#, m., _noose, halter_.

#Lārentia, ae#, f., see #Acca#.

#largītiō, ōnis# [#largior#, _to bribe_], f., _liberality_; _bribery_.

#latebra, ae#, [#lateō#, _to lie hid_], f., _hiding place_ (usually only
in pl.).

#laterīcius# [#later#, _a brick_], adj., _made of brick, brick_.

#Latīnus#, adj., _pertaining to Latium, Latin_; as noun, #Latīnus, ī#,
m., _an inhabitant of Latium, a Latin_.

#lātrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bark at_.

#latrō, ōnis#, m., _robber, brigand_.

#latus, eris#, n., _side_; _flank_.

#laudābilis, e# [#laudō#], adj., _praiseworthy, commendable_.

#laudandus# [gerundive of #laudō#], adj., _praiseworthy, commendable_.

#laudō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to praise, extol_.

  #con--conlaudō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to praise very highly, extol_.

#laurea, ae# (sc. #corōna#), f., _a laurel wreath_ or _crown_.

#laus, laudis#, f., _praise, fame, glory_; _ability_ (as that which
excites praise). #laudibus ferre#, _to extol_.

#lautus# [part. of #lavō#, _to wash_], adj., _well-washed, neat_;
_elegant, splendid_.

#laxitās, ātis# [#laxus#, _roomy_], f., _spaciousness, roominess, size_.

#lectīca, ae# [#lectus#], f., _a litter, sedan chair, palanquin_.

#lectulus, ī# [dim. of #lectus#], m., _a small couch, bed_.

#lectus, ī#, m., _a couch, bed_.

#lēgātiō, ōnis# [#lēgō#, to commission], f., _embassy, legation_.

#lēgātus, ī# [#lēgō#, _to commission_], m., _one specially commissioned,
ambassador, envoy_; _a deputy, lieutenant_, an officer next in command
to the #imperātor#, who selected him subject to the approval of the
senate. Often several attended the general, serving in turn, acting as
his counsellors, and commanding in his absence.

#legiō, ōnis# [#legō#], f., _a legion_, containing from four to six
thousand men; #legiōnēs#, _the infantry_, as distinct from the cavalry.

#lēgitimus# [#lēx#], adj., _fixed by law, legal_.

#legō, ere, lēgī, lēctus#, _to gather, collect_; _select, appoint,
choose_; _read_.

  #con--conligō, ere, lēgī, lēctus#, _to collect, gather_.

  #dē--dēligō, ere, lēgī, lēctus#, _to choose, select_; _levy_.

  #dis--dīligō, ere, lēxī, lēctus#, _to single out, esteem, love,
  prize_.

  #ex--ēligō, ere, lēgī, lēctus#, _to pick out, choose, select_.

  #inter--intellegō, ere, lēxī, lēctus#, _learn_; _perceive,
  understand_.

#lēniter# [#lēnis#, _soft, gentle_], adv., _softly, mildly, lightly_.

#lēnōcinium, ī#, n., _excessive finery_ or _nicety in dress_.

#Lentulus, ī#, m., _P. Cornēlius Lentulus Dolābella_, a son-in-law of
Cicero.

#lentus#, adj., _pliant, tough_; _slow, sluggish_.

#Lepidus, ī#, m., _M. Aemilius_, consul with Caesar, B.C. 46; a member,
with Octavianus and Antony, of the second triumvirate.

#lētālis, e# [#lētum#, _death_], adj., _deadly, fatal_.

#levis, e#, adj., _light, slight, trivial_.

#leviter# [#levis#], adv., _lightly, slightly_.

#lēx, lēgis#, f., _law, decree_; _term, condition_.

#libēns, entis# [#libet#, _it pleases_], adj., _willing_; _with good
will_ or _pleasure, gladly_.

#libenter# [#libēns#], adv., _gladly, willingly_.

#līber, lībera, līberum#, adj., _free_; _generous_; _outspoken, frank_.

#liber, librī#, m., _a book_.

#līberālitās, ātis# [#līberālis#, _generous_], f., _generosity,
kindness_; _a gift_.

#līberāliter# [#līberālis#, _generous_], adv., _kindly, generously,
graciously_.

#līberī, ōrum# [#līber#], pl. m., _children_; properly the free persons
of the family as distinct from the slaves.

#līberō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#līber#], _to set free, free_; _acquit,
absolve_.

#lībertās, ātis# [#līber#], f., _freedom, independence_.

#lībertus, ī# [#līber#], m., _a freedman_.

#libīdō, inis# [#libet#, _it pleases_], f., _pleasure_; _lust,
wantonness, passion_.

#lībrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#lībra#, _a balance_], _to balance, poise,
brandish_.

#licentia, ae# [#licet#], f., _freedom, license_.

#licet, ēre, uit# or #itum est#, impers., _it is allowed_ or
_permitted_.

#līctor, ōris#, m., _a lictor_, a Roman officer. The lictors were orig.
attendants of the kings, but later were granted to dictators, consuls,
and praetors. They accompanied these magistrates whenever they appeared
in public, and cleared the way before them. They also carried the
fasces, and executed criminal sentences.

#līgneus# [#līgnum#, _wood_], adj., _wooden_.

#ligō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bind_.

  #ad--adligō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bind to, bind fast, bind_.

  #dē--dēligō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bind to, tie, fasten_.

  #re--religō, āre, avī, ātus#, _to bind, fasten_.

#līmen, inis#, n., _threshold, doorstep_.

#līneāmentum, ī# [#līnea#, _a line_], n., _a line_; _feature,
lineament_.

#lingua, ae#, f., _tongue_; _language_.

#liquefaciō, ere, fēcī, factus# [#liqueō#, _to be liquid_ + #faciō#],
_to melt, dissolve_.

#Līternīnus#, adj., _at Literum_, a town of Campania. As noun,
#Līternīnum, ī# (sc. #praedium#, _an estate_), n., an estate of Scipio
Africanus Maior at Liternum.

#lītigātor, ōris# [#līs#, _lawsuit_ + #agō#], m., _a party to a lawsuit,
litigant_.

#littera, ae#, f., _a letter_ (of the alphabet); in pl., _a letter,
epistle_; _literature_.

#litterātus# [#littera#], adj., _lettered, educated, learned_.

#lītus, oris#, n., (sea)_shore, beach, strand_.

#Līvius, ī#, m., gentile name of _M. Līvius Salīnātor_, who commanded
the garrison of Tarentum during the second Punic War.

#locō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#locus#], _to place, put_; _contract for, let,
lease_.

  #con--conlocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to place, arrange, station,
  establish_.

#locuplēs, ētis# [#locus# + #plēnus#], adj., _rich in lands, rich_.

#locus, ī#, m. (pl., #locī# and #loca#), _a place, spot_; _locality,
region_; _position, station, post_; _room, opportunity_.

#longē# [#longus#], adv., _a long way_ or _distance, at a distance_;
_far, by far_.

#longinquus# [#longus#], adj., _remote, distant_.

#longus#, adj., _long_; _distant_.

#loquor, ī, locūtus sum#, _to speak, talk, say_.

  #ad--adloquor, ī, locūtus sum#, _to speak to, address_.

  #con--conloquor, ī, locūtus sum#, _to talk with, converse, confer_.

#lōrīca, ae# [#lōrum#], f., _a corselet_ of leather, _coat of mail_;
#squāmārum lōrīca#, _armor-like covering of scales_.

#lōrum, ī#, n., _a leather thong_ or _strap_.

#Lūcius, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#Lucrētia, ae#, f., the wife of Collatinus, a type of the Roman matron
of the olden time.

#luctor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to wrestle, struggle_.

#lūctus, ūs# [#lūgeō#], m., _grief, sorrow, mourning_.

#Lūcullus, ī#, m., _L. Licinius_, born about 110 B.C., consul 74;
conducted the war against Mithridates 74-67, after which he gave himself
to a life of luxury, dying in 57 or 56.

#lūcus, ī#, m., _a sacred grove, grove_.

#lūdibrium, ī# [#lūdus#], n., _laughing-stock, jest_; _mockery,
derision_.

#lūdicer, cra, crum# [#lūdus#], adj., _playful, sportive_.

#lūdus, ī#, m., _play, sport_; _a game_, esp. (in pl.) _the public
games_, consisting of chariot races, gladiatorial combats, and
theatrical performances.

#lūgeō, ēre, lūxī, lūctus#, _to grieve_; _grieve for, mourn, lament_.

#lūgubris, e# [#lūgeō#], adj., _mournful_.

#lūmen, inis# [cf. #lux#], n., _light_.

#lūna, ae# [cf. #lūx#], f., _the moon_.

#lupa, ae#, f., _a she-wolf_.

#lūstrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to purify, cleanse_; _to review, inspect_.

#lūx, lūcis#, f., _light, daylight, day_; #prīmā lūce#, _at dawn_.

#lūxuria, ae# [#lūxus#], f., _luxury, excess_.

#lūxus, ūs#, m., _excess, luxury, self-indulgence_.


#M#

#Macedō, onis#, m., _a Macedonian_.

#Macedonia, ae#, f., _Macedonia_, an extensive country north of Greece.
Its inhabitants were not generally reckoned as Greeks. Under Alexander
the Great it became the chief power of the ancient world.

#māchina, ae#, f., _machine_ or _engine of war_; _a contrivance, trick_.

#mactō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to offer as sacrifice, kill, slaughter_.

#mactus#, adj., _worshiped, glorified_.

#Maecēnās, ātis#, m., _C. Cilnius_, the close friend of Augustus and his
chief adviser in civil affairs.

#maestus#, adj., _sad, gloomy, mournful_.

#magis#, comp., adv., _in a greater degree_; _more, rather_; sup.
#māximē# [#māximus#], _in the highest degree, particularly_;
_exceedingly, very_.

#magister, trī#, m., _master, chief_; _teacher_; #magister equitum#,
_Master of the Horse_, an officer appointed by a dictator as his
lieutenant. The name perhaps indicates that he had especial command of
the cavalry.

#magistrātus, ūs# [#magister#], m., _civil office, magistracy_.

#māgnificē# [#māgnificus#], adv., in good sense, _grandly_; in bad
sense, _in lordly fashion, haughtily, proudly_.

#māgnificentia, ae# [#māgnificus#], f., _splendor, grandeur_.

#māgnificus# [#māgnus# + #faciō#], adj., _splendid, magnificent_.

#māgnitūdō, inis# [#māgnus#], f., _greatness, size_.

#māgnus#, comp. #māior#, sup. #māximus#, adj., _great, large_; #māior#
or #māximus# (sc. #nātū#), _elder, eldest_. As noun, #Māgnus, ī#, m.,
_the Great_, cognomen of Pompey; #māiōrēs# (sc. #nātū#), pl. m.,
_ancestors_.

#Maharbal, alis#, m., _a Carthaginian general_.

#māiestās, ātis# [cf. #māior#], f., _greatness, dignity_.

#māior, māius#, gen. #māiōris#, see #māgnus#.

#male# [#malus#], comp. #pēius#, sup. #pessimē#, adv., _badly, ill,
unsuccessfully_; _feebly, barely, scarcely_.

#maledictum, ī# [#male# + #dīcō#], n., _a curse_.

#mālō, mālle, māluī# [#magis# + (1) #volō#], _to prefer_.

#malus#, comp. #pēior#, sup. #pessimus#, adj., _bad, wicked_; _evil,
unfortunate_. As noun, #malum, ī#, n., _evil, misfortune, trouble_.

#Māmurius, ī#, m., a Roman smith of the time of King Numa.

#mandātum, ī# [#mandō#], n., _an order, command_.

#mandō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#manus# + #dō#], _to hand over, commit,
entrust_; _order, command_; #lītterīs mandāre#, _to write_.

  #con--commendō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to commit, entrust_; _assist,
  defend_.

#māne#, adv., _early in the morning_.

#maneō, ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus#, _to remain, stay, tarry_.

  #re--remaneō, ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus#, _to stay behind, remain_.

#Mānēs, ium#, pl. m., _the deified spirits of the dead_, to whom
sacrifice was regularly made.

#manifēstus# [#manus# + #*fendō#], adj., _clear, manifest, evident_;
_exposed_.

#manipulus, ī# [#manus# + #*pleō#] m., _a company of soldiers, maniple_
(one third of a cohort). The standard of the maniple orig. bore (it is
said) a _handful_ of hay.

#Mānius, ī#, m., abbreviated #M’.#, a Roman praenomen.

#Mānliānus#, adj., _Manlian_.

#Mānlius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens. See #Torquātus#.

#mānō, āre, āvī, --#, _to flow, trickle_; _to flow_ or _stream abroad,
spread_.

#mānsuētūdō, inis# [#mānsuētus#, _tame_], f., _mildness, gentleness_.

#manubiae, ārum# [#manus#], pl. f., _prize-money, booty, plunder_.

#manūmittō, ere, mīsī, missus# [#manus# + #mittō#], _to set free,
emancipate_.

#manus, ūs#, f., _hand, arm_; #ferreae manūs#, _grappling irons_ (see
#corvus#); _force, strength, prowess_; _band, troop_; #manūs cōnserere#,
_to join battle_.

#Mārcus, ī#, m., a common praenomen.

#Mārcius, ī#, m., see #Ancus#.

#mare, is#, n., _the sea_; #Mare Superum#, _the Upper_ or _Adriatic
Sea_.

#margarīta, ae#, f., _a pearl_.

#maritimus# [#mare#], adj., _pertaining to the sea, sea, maritime_.

#marītus, ī#, m., _husband_.

#Marius, ī#, m., _C._, born near Arpinum in Latium, 107 B.C.; conquered
Jugurtha, 106; was seven times consul; defeated Teutones in 102, Cimbri
in 101; died in 86.

#marmor, oris#, n., _marble_.

#marmoreus# [#marmor#], adj., _marble, of marble_.

#Mārs, Mārtis#, m., _Mars_, the Roman god of war; _war, battle_.

#Mārtius# [#Mārs#], adj., _of March_.

#Masinissa, ae#, m., king of Numidia, ally of Scipio Africanus Maior, in
Africa, B.C. 202. He reigned till 148.

#Massīva, ae#, m., nephew of Masinissa.

#māter, mātris#, f., _mother_.

#māternus# [#māter#], adj., _of a mother, mother’s_; _maternal, on the
mother’s side_.

#mātrimōnium, ī# [#māter#], n., _marriage_.

#mātrōna, ae# [#māter#], f., _a married woman, wife, matron_.

#Maurī, ōrum#, pl. m., _Moors_, inhabitants of Mauretania, the modern
Morocco.

#māximē# [#māximus#], adv., see #magis#.

#māximus#, adj., see #māgnus#.

#Māximus, ī#, m., a Roman cognomen.

  1. _M. Valerius Māximus Corvīnus_, consul 343 B.C.

  2. _Q. Fabius Māximus_, a famous general opposed to Hannibal,
  surnamed _Cunctātor_, from his caution. He was five times consul,
  and died in 203.

#medicāmentum, ī# [#medicō#, _to heal_], n., _drug, potion_; _antidote,
cure_.

#medicus, ī# [#medeor#, _to heal_], m., _a physician, surgeon, doctor_.

#meditor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to reflect upon, consider_; _plan, devise_.

#medius#, adj., _in the middle, middle, midst of_. As noun, #medium, ī#,
n., _the middle, midst, intervening space_; #in mediō#, _in the midst
of, between_; #in medium prōferre#, _to bring out, produce_.

#melior, ius#, gen. #ōris#, adj., see #bonus#.

#melius#, adv., see #bene#.

#Memmius, ī#, m., gentile name of _C. Memmius Gemellus_, an opponent of
Julius Caesar.

#memorābilis, e# [#memorō#], adj., _worth telling, remarkable_.

#memoria, ae# [#memor#, _mindful_], f., _memory_; _record, account_.

#memorō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#memor#, _mindful_], _to bring to mind,
relate_; _say, tell_.

#mēns, mentis#, f., _the mind, intellectual faculties_; _thought,
purpose_.

#mēnsa, ae#, f., _table_; _course_ (at dinner).

#mēnsis, is#, m., _a month_.

#mentiō, ōnis#, f., _mention_.

#mercor, ārī, ātus sum# [#merx#], _to buy, purchase_.

#mereō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to earn, deserve, merit_.

#mergō, ere, mersī, mersus#, _to dip, plunge in_; _sink_.

#meritō# [#meritum#, _desert_], adv., _deservedly, justly_.

#merx, mercis#, f., _goods, wares, merchandise_.

#Metellus, ī#, m., a Roman cognomen.

  1. _L. Caecilius Metellus_, one of the young nobles who, after the
  battle of Cannae, proposed to leave Italy.

  2. _Q. Caecilius Metellus_, called _Numidicus_, because of the
  success with which he carried on the Jugurthine War, till superseded
  by Marius.

  3. _Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius_, consul B.C. 80. He fought against
  Sertorius.

#mētor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to measure off, mark out_.

#Mettius, ī#, m., see #Fūfetius#.

#metus, ūs#, m., _fear, dread, terror_.

#meus#, adj., _my, mine_. As noun, #meī, meōrum#, pl. m., _my friends,
my followers_.

#mī#, vocative sing. of #meus#.

#micō, āre, uī, --#, _to quiver, flash, gleam_.

#migrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to remove, migrate_.

  #con--commigrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to change one’s home, move,
  migrate_.

  #re--remigrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to journey_ (back), _return_.

#mīles, itis#, m., _a soldier, fellow-soldier_; as collective noun,
_soldiery_.

#Mīlētus, ī#, f., a city in Asia Minor, near Ephesus.

#mīlitāris, e# [#mīles#], adj., _soldierly, military_; #rēs mīlitāris#,
_the art of war, military tactics_.

#mīlitia, ae# [#mīles#], f., _military service, war_; #mīlitiae#, loc.,
_in the field, abroad_, opposed to #domī#, _at home_.

#mīlitō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to be a soldier, serve in war, fight_.

#mīlle#, indecl. adj., _a thousand_; as noun, #mīlia#, pl. n.,
_thousands_.

#mīlliēs# [#mīlle#], adv., _a thousand times_.

#mīmus, ī#, m., _farce, comedy_.

#minimē# [#minimus#], adv., see #parum#.

#minister, trī#, m., _attendant, servant_.

#minitor, ārī, ātus sum# [freq. of #minor#], _to threaten_.

#minor, us#, gen. #ōris#, see #parvus#.

#minor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to threaten_.

#Minucius, ī#, m., _M. Minucius Rūfus, magister equitum_ under Q. Fabius
Maximus.

#Minturnae, ārum#, pl. f., a town between Campania and Latium.

#minuō, ere, ī, ūtus# [#minus#], _to diminish, lessen_; _weaken_.

#minus#, adv., see #parum#.

#mīrābilis, e# [#mīror#], adj., _wonderful, strange, amazing_.

#mīrāculum, ī# [#mīror#], n., _a wonder, marvel, miracle_.

#mīrificus# [#mīrus# + #faciō#], adj., _wonderful_.

#mīror, ārī, ātus sum#, _to wonder, marvel at_.

#mīrus#, adj., _wonderful, marvelous_.

#miser, era, erum#, adj., _wretched, unfortunate_.

#misericordia, ae# [#misericors#], f., _pity, compassion, mercy_.

#misericors, cordis# [#misereō#, _to pity_ + #cor#, _heart_], adj.,
_tender-hearted, merciful_.

#missiō, ōnis# [#mittō#], f., _release from service, discharge_.

#Mithridātēs#, is, m., surnamed _the Great_, king of Pontus, B.C.
120-63.

#Mithridāticus#, adj., _Mithridatic_.

#mītigō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#mītis# + #agō#], _to make gentle, soften,
civilize_.

#mītis, e#, adj., _mild, gentle, kind_.

#mittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _send, despatch, dismiss_; _throw, hurl,
shoot_.

  #ab--āmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send away, let go, lose_.

  #ad--admittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to admit, receive_.

  #con--committō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send_ or _bring together,
  join_; _entrust, commit, bring_ (it) _about, cause, allow_; #pūgnam#
  or #proelium committere#, _to begin battle_.

  #dē--dēmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send_ or _let down, cast down,
  let fall_; _put_.

  #dis--dīmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send_ (away), _dismiss_;
  _give up, abandon_.

  #ex--ēmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send forth_ or _out_; _hurl,
  cast_; _utter_; _let loose_.

  #in--immittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send in, admit_; _send, hurl_.

  #ob--omittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to lay aside_; _neglect, omit_;
  _pass over, say nothing of_; _lose sight of, let slip_.

  #per--permittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to let pass_; _permit, allow_.

  #prō--prōmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to put forward_; _promise_.

  #re--remittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send back_; _yield, give up_;
  _remit, grant exemption from_.

  #re + prō--reprōmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to promise in return_.

  #sub--submittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send_ or _let down_; _let
  grow_.

  #trāns--trānsmittō, ere, mīsī, missus#, _to send_ or _put across_,
  _make to cross_; _despatch_; intrans., _to go across, cross_.

#Mitylēnae, ārum#, pl. f., capital of Lesbos, an island in the Aegean
Sea.

#moderātiō, ōnis# [#moderor#, _to set bounds to_], f., _self-control,
moderation_.

#moderātus# [#moderor#, _to check_], adj., _within bounds, moderate,
merciful_.

#modicus# [#modus#], adj., _moderate, modest_.

#modius, ī# [#modus#], m., _a measure_; _a peck_.

#modo# [#modus#], adv., _only_; _just now, lately_; #modo . . . modo#,
_at one time . . . at another, now . . . now_; #nōn; modo . . . sed
etiam#, _not only . . . but also_.

#modus, ī#, m., _measure, limit, end_; _way, manner_; _measure, strains_
(of music).

#moenia, ium#, pl. n., _defensive walls, city walls, fortifications_.

#mōlēs, is#, f., _mass, weight, bulk_; _massive structure_.

#molestē# [#molestus#], adv., _with difficulty_ or _vexation_; #aegrē#
or #molestē ferre#, _to take amiss, be vexed_ (at).

#molestia, ae# [#molestus#], f., _trouble, annoyance, burden_.

#molestus# [#mōlēs#], adj., _troublesome, annoying, vexatious_.

#mōlior, īrī, ītus sum# [#mōlēs#], _to struggle, toil_; _undertake,
attempt_.

#mollis, e#, adj., _soft, tender_; _effeminate, unmanly_.

#molliter# [#mollis#], adv., _effeminately, luxuriously_.

#Molō, ōnis#, m., see #Apollōnius#.

#mōmentum, ī# [#moveō#], n., _movement_; _cause, circumstance_;
(sc. #temporis#), _moment, instant_.

#moneō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to remind, admonish_; _advise, warn_.

  #ad--admoneō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to remind, admonish, warn_.

#monitus, ūs# [#moneō#], m., _warning, counsel_.

#mōns, montis#, m., _a mountain, height, hill_.

#mōnstrum, ī# [#moneō#], n., _a warning, omen_; _strange being,
monster_.

#mora, ae#, f., _delay, policy of delay_.

#morbus, ī#, m., _sickness, disease_.

#morior, morī, mortuus sum#, _to die_.

#moror, ārī, ātus sum#, _to delay, linger, tarry_; with acc., _to
hinder, impede_.

  #dē--dēmoror, ārī, ātus sum#, _to linger, tarry, remain_.

#mors, mortis#, f., _death_.

#morsus, ūs# [#mordeō#, _to bite_], m., _bite_; _pain, sting, agony_.

#mortālis, e# [#mors#], adj., _mortal, human_; as noun, _mortālis, is_,
m., _a man, mortal_.

#mortuus# [part. of #morior#], adj., _dead_.

#mōs, mōris#, m., _a habit, custom_; _manner, fashion_; pl., _customs,
character_.

#mōtus, ūs# [#moveō#], m., _movement, agitation, tumult, insurrection_.

#moveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to stir, move, remove_; _affect, arouse_.

  #ab--āmoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to take away, remove_.

  #ad--admoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to move towards_; _bring near_;
  _offer_.

  #con--commoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to move thoroughly_; _agitate,
  excite_.

  #per--permoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to move deeply, excite,
  influence_.

  #prō--prōmoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to move forward, promote,
  advance_.

  #sub--submoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus#, _to thrust aside, remove,
  dislodge_.

#mox#, adv., _soon, presently_; _thereupon, next_.

#mūcrō, ōnis#, m., _sword-point, sword_.

#muliebriter# [#muliebris#, _womanish_], adv., _like a woman, in
womanish fashion_.

#mulier, ieris#, f., _a woman, wife_.

#muliercula, ae# [dim. of #mulier#], f., a (little, i.e.) _young woman,
girl_.

#mūliō, ōnis# [#mūlus#, _a mule_], m., _a mule-driver_.

#multa, ae#, f., _a fine, penalty_.

#multiplex, icis# [#multus# + #plicō#, _to fold_], adj., _manifold,
many_.

#multitūdō, inis# [#multus#], f., _a multitude, throng_.

#multō# [#multus#], adv., _by far, much_.

#multō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#multa#], _to fine, punish_.

#multum# [#multus#], adv., _much_; _greatly, severely_.

#multus#, comp. #plūs#, sup. #plūrimus#, adj., _much, many a_; in pl.,
_many_; #plūrēs#, _several_; often used as noun in all three degrees.

#munditia, ae# [#mundus#, _neat_], f., _neatness, elegance, niceness_.

#mūniō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus#, _to fortify, protect_; _open up, build_
(a road).

  #con--commūniō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus#, _to fortify strongly,
  intrench_.

#mūnus, eris#, n., _service_; _present, gift_.

#muraena, ae#, f., _an eel_.

#mūrus, ī#, m., _city wall, wall_.

#Mūsae, ārum#, pl. f., _the Muses_, the goddesses of the liberal arts,
esp. music and poetry.

#Mutina, ae#, f., _Mutina_ (now Modena), a city in Cisalpine Gaul, south
of the Po.

#Mutinēnsis, e#, adj., _of_ or _at Mutina_.

#mūtō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to change, alter_.

  #con--commūtō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to alter, change_; _exchange_.

  #per--permūtō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to change throughout, exchange,
  interchange_.

#mūtuus# [#mūtō#], adj., _mutual_.


#N#

#nam#, conj. (1) causal, _for, because, inasmuch as_; (2) explanatory,
_you know, indeed_.

#nancīscor, ī, nactus sum#, _to get_ (by accident), _happen upon, find,
meet with_.

#nārrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to narrate, tell_.

#nāscor, ī, nātus sum#, _to be born_; _spring from, arise_.

#Nāsīca, ae#, m., cognomen of _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Nāsīca Serāpiō_,
opponent of Tiberius Gracchus.

#nāsus, ī#, m., _the nose_.

#nātiō, ōnis# [#nāscor#], f., _birth, race_; _tribe, nation, people_.

#nātūra, ae# [#nāscor#], f., _nature, character, disposition_;
personified, _Nature_.

#nātus# [orig. part. of #nāscor#], adj., lit. _born_; with #annōs#,
_old_.

(#nātus, ūs#) [#nāscor#], m., _birth, age_ (found only in abl. sing.).

#naufragium, ī# [#nāvis# + #frangō#], n., _shipwreck_.

#nāvālis, e# [#nāvis#], adj., _naval_.

#nāvicula, ae# [dim. of #nāvis#], f., _a small vessel, boat, skiff_.

#nāvigātiō, ōnis# [#nāvigō#, _to sail_], f., _voyage_.

#nāvigium, ī# [#nāvigō#, _to sail_], n., _ship, boat_.

#nāvis, is#, f., _a ship_.

#Nāvius, ī#, m., see #Attus#.

#nāvō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#(g)nāvus#, _busy_], _to do with zeal_; #operam
nāvāre#, _to render vigorous aid, act with vigor_.

#nē#, (1) adv., _not_; #nē . . . quidem#, _not even, not at all_;
(2) conj., _in order that not, not to, for fear that, lest_.

#ne#, enclitic interrog. particle, used (1) in direct questions, and
then translatable only by the inflection of the voice; (2) as conj. with
indirect questions, _whether_.

#nebulō, ōnis# [#nebula#, _mist_], m., _a worthless fellow,
good-for-naught, scamp_.

#nec#, see #neque#.

#necessārius# [#necesse#, _necessary_], adj., _necessary,
indispensable_.

#necessitās, ātis# [#necesse#, _necessary_], f., _necessity_.

#necō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#nex#], _to kill, slay_.

#nefārius# [#nefās#, _a crime_], adj., _wicked, impious, nefarious_.

#nefāstus# [#nefās#, _a crime_], adj., _unhallowed_; #diēs nefāstus#,
a day on which no public business could be transacted.

#neglegēns, entis# [orig. part. of #neglegō#], adj., _heedless,
careless_.

#neglegō, ere, lēxī, lēctus# [#nec# + #legō#], _to disregard, despise,
neglect_.

#negō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to say no_; _deny, refuse_.

  #dē--dēnegō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to say no, deny_; _refuse, reject_.

#nēmō#, gen. #nūllīus#, dat. #nēminī#, acc. #nēminem#, abl. #nūllō#; pl.
not found [#nē# + #homō#], m. and f., _no one, nobody_.

#nemus, oris#, n., _a grove_.

#nepōs, ōtis#, m., _grandson, descendant_.

#neptis, is#, f., _granddaughter_.

#neque# or #nec# [#nē# + #que#], adv. and conj., _and not, but not, nor,
nor yet_; #neque# or #nec . . . neque# or #nec#, _neither . . . nor_.

#nequeō, īre, īvī, --# [#nē# + #queō#, _to be able_], _to be unable_.

#nē . . . quidem#, see #nē#.

#nesciō, īre, īvī (iī), --# [#nē# + #sciō#], _not know, to be ignorant_.

#neuter, tra, trum# [#nē# + #uter#], adj., _neither_.

#nex, necis#, f., _death_; _murder, slaughter_.

#nī#, conj., _if not, unless_.

#niger, gra, grum#, adj., _black_.

#nihil# or #nīl# [#nē# + #hīlum#, _a trifle_], n. indecl., _nothing_;
acc. often as adv., _in no wise, not at all, not_.

#nihilum, ī# [older form of #nihil#], n., _nothing_; abl. #nihilō#, as
adv., _not at all_; #nihilō minus#, _none the less_.

#nihildum# [#nihil# + (1) #dum#], n. indecl., _nothing as yet_.

#Nīlus, ī#, m., _the river Nile_.

#nīmīrum#, adv., _without doubt, surely, truly, plainly_.

#nimium# [#nimius#], adv., _excessively_.

#nimius#, adj., _beyond measure, excessive, too much, too great_.

#nisi# [#nē# + #sī#], conj., _if not, unless, except_.

#niteō, ēre, uī, --#, _to shine, glitter_; _be conspicuous, flourish_.

  #ex--ēniteō, ēre, uī, --#, _to shine forth_; _be distinguished_.

#nītor, ī, nīsus# or #nīxus sum#, _lean_ or _rest upon_; _to exert one’s
self, strive_.

#ex--ēnītor, ī, nīsus# or #nīxus sum#, _to strive, struggle_.

#in--innītor, ī, nīsus# or #nīxus sum#, _to lean upon, support one’s
self by_.

#nō, nāre, nāvī, --#, _to swim_.

#trāns--trānō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to swim across_.

#nōbilis, e# [#nōscō#], adj., _known, noted, famous_; _high-born,
noble_.

#nōbilitās, ātis# [#nōbilis#], f., _fame, renown_; _high birth_; _the
nobility, nobles_.

#nōbilitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#nōbilis#], _to make known_ or _famous,
glorify, dignify_.

#noceo, ēre, uī, itūrus#, _to hurt, injure_.

#noctū# [abl. of #*noctus# = #nox#], adv., _by night_.

#noctua, ae# [#nox#], f., _night-owl, owl_.

#nocturnus# [#nox#], adj., _of_ or _by night, nocturnal_.

#Nōla, ae#, f., a town of Campania.

#nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, --# [#nōn# + (1) #volō#], _to be unwilling, not
wish_.

#nōmen, inis# [#nōscō#], n., _a name_, esp. the gentile name; #nōmina
dare# or #profitērī#, _to volunteer_.

#nōminō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#nōmen#], _to name, designate_.

#nōn# [#nē# + #oenum# = #ūnum#], adv., _not, not at all_.

#nōnāgintā#, indecl. num. adj., _ninety_.

#nōndum# [#nōn# + (1) #dum#], adv., _not yet_.

#nōnnūllus# [#nōn# + #nūllus#], adj., _some, several_.

#nōnnumquam# [#nōn# + #numquam#], adv., _sometimes, at times_.

#nōscō, ere, nōvī, nōtus#, _to come to know, become acquainted with_; in
perf., plup.; and fut. perf., _to know_.

  #ad--āgnōscō, ere, gnōvī, gnitus#, _to recognize_.

  #con--cōgnōscō, ere, cognōvī, cōgnitus#, _to learn, perceive,
  understand_.

  #in--īgnōscō, ere, īgnōvī, īgnōtus#, _to overlook, pardon, forgive_.

#nota, ae# [cf. #nōscō#], f., _a mark, sign_.

#nōtus# [orig. part. of #nōscō#], adj., _well-known, familiar_.

#novācula, ae#, f., _a razor_.

#novem#, indecl. num. adj., _nine_.

#novus#, adj., _new, fresh, young, recent_.

#nox, noctis#, f., _night_.

#nūbēs, is#, f., _a cloud_.

#nūbō, ere, nūpsī, nūptum#, _to veil one’s self, be married, wed_.

#nūdō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#nūdus#], _to strip, bare_.

#nūdus#, adj., _naked, lightly clad_.

#nūllus#, gen. #nūllīus#, dat. #nūllī# [#nē# + #ūllus#], adj., _none,
no_; as noun, _no one_.

#num#, interrog. particle, used (1) in direct questions expecting a
negative answer, _not so . . . is it?_ (2) in indir. questions,
_whether, if_.

#Numa, ae#, m., see #Pompilius#.

#numerō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#numerus#], _to count out_ (money), _pay_.

#numerus, ī#, m., _number, quantity_.

#Numida, ae#, m., _a Numidian_.

#Numidia, ae#, f., a country of Northern Africa, west of Carthage; now
Algiers.

#Numidicus#, adj., _Numidian_.

#Numitor, ōris#, m., king of Alba Longa, grandfather of Romulus.

#nummus, ī#, m., _a piece of money, coin_, esp. the #sēstertius#. See
#sēstertius#.

#numquam# [#nē# + #umquam#, _ever_], adv., _never_.

#nunc#, adv., _at the present moment, now_.

#nūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#nūntius#], _to announce, inform, report_;
_bid, urge, direct_.

  #dē--dēnūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to announce, declare, proclaim_.

  #prō--prōnūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to announce, declare_.

  #re--renūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to send_ or _bring back word,
  report, announce_; with dat., _to refuse, decline_.

#nūntius, ī#, m., _a messenger_; _message tidings_.

#*nuō, nuere#, _to nod_.

  #ab--abnuō, ere, ī, --#, _to refuse_.

  #ad--adnuō, ere, ī, --#, _to nod assent to, agree to_; _agree,
  promise_.

  #in--innuō, ere, ī, --#, _to signal by a nod, hint, intimate_.

  #re--renuō, ere, ī, --#, _to nod refusal, refuse_.

#nūper#, adv., _lately, recently_.

#nurus, ūs#, f., _a daughter-in-law_.

#nūsquam# [#nē# + #ūsquam#], adv., _nowhere, in no place_.

#nūtō, āre, āvī, ātum# [freq. of #*nuō#], _to nod_; of an army, _to
waver, be ready to give way_.

#nūtrīx, īcis# [#nūtriō#, _to nourish_], f., _a nurse_.


#O#

#ob#, prep. with acc., _to, towards_; _for, on account of, by reason
of_; in composition, _towards, against, at, before_.

#obeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#obiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#obiūrgō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to berate, scold_.

#oblinō, ere, lēvī, litus# [#ob# + #linō#, _to smear_], _to daub, smear,
defile_.

#oblitus#, see #oblinō#.

#oblītus#, see #oblīvīscor#.

#oblīviō, ōnis# [cf. #oblīvīscor#], f., _forgetfulness_.

#oblīvīscor, ī, oblītus sum#, _to forget_.

#obnoxius# [#ob# + #noxa#, _harm_], adj., _liable to punishment_;
_liable, exposed_.

#obruō#, see #ruō#.

#obsequor#, see #sequor#.

#obses, idis#, m., _a hostage, surety_.

#obsideō#, see #sedeō#.

#obsidiō, ōnis# [#obsideō#], f., _a siege_.

#obsistō#, see #sistō#.

#obstrepō, ere, uī, --# [#ob# + #strepō#, _to make a noise_], _to rail
at, roar at_.

#obstupēscō, ere, stupuī, --#, _to become amazed, be struck dumb_.

#obtineō#, see #teneō#.

#obtingō#, see #tangō#.

#obtrēctātor, ōris# [#obtrēctō#, _to under-rate_], m., _detractor,
traducer_.

#obtruncō, āre, --, ātus# [#ob# + #truncō#, _to maim_; cf. #truncus#],
_to lop off_; _kill, slay_.

#obveniō#, see #veniō#.

#obviam# [#ob# + #via#], adv., _across one’s path, in the way, towards_;
#obviam īre, prōgredī# or #venīre#, _to go to meet_; #obviam esse# or
#fierī#, _to meet_.

#obvius# [#ob# + #via#], adj., _in the way, meeting_; with #esse,
fierī#, or #venīre#, _to meet_.

#obvolvō, ere, ī, volūtus# [#ob# + #volvō#, _to roll_], _to wrap round,
envelop, cover_.

#occāsiō, ōnis# [#occidō#], f., _fitting time, opportunity, chance_.

#occāsus, ūs# [#occidō#], m., _downfall_.

#occidō#, see #cadō#.

#occīdō#, see #caedō#.

#occumbō#, see #*cumbō#.

#occupō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ob# + #capiō#], _to take possession of,
seize_; _attack_.

#occurrō#, see #currō#.

#Octāvia, ae#, f., _sister of Octavianus_.

#Octāviānus, ī#, m., see #Augustus# and #Caesar#.

#octō#, indecl. num. adj., _eight_.

#octōgintā#, indecl. num. adj., _eighty_.

#oculus, ī#, m., _the eye_.

#odium, ī#, n., _hatred, grudge, aversion_.

#odor, ōris#, m., _smell, perfume_.

#offendō#, see #*fendō#.

#offēnsus# [orig. part. of #offendō#], adj., _vexed, displeased,
offended_.

#offerō#, see #ferō#.

#officiōsus# [#officium#], adj., _courteous, obliging_.

#officium, ī# [#opus# + #faciō#], n., _service, kindness, favor_; _duty,
office_.

#ōlim# [#ole#, old form of #ille#], adv., _formerly_.

#omittō#, see #mittō#.

#omnīnō# [#omnis#], adv., _in all, altogether_.

#omnis, e#, adj., _each, every, all, the whole_; #omnēs ad ūnum#, _all
to a man_.

#opera, ae# [#opus#], f., _work, labor, pains, aid_; #operam dare#, _to
devote pains to_; #operam nāvāre#, see #nāvō#.

#opifex, ficis# [#opus# + #faciō#], m., _workman, artisan_.

#Opīmius, ī#, m., _Lūcius_, consul 121 B.C., and opponent of
C. Gracchus.

#opīniō, ōnis# [#opīnor#, _to think_], f., _opinion, fancy, belief_.

#oportet, ēre, uit#, impers., _it is necessary_ or _proper, it befits_.

#oppidum, ī#, n., _a walled town, city_.

#oppleō#, see #*pleō#.

#oppōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#opportūnus#, adj., _fit, suitable, convenient_.

#opprimō#, see #premō#.

#oppūgnātiō, ōnis# [#oppūgnō#], f., _assault, attack, siege, storming_.

#oppūgnō#, see #pūgnō#.

#(ops), opīs#, f., _aid, help_; in pl., _power, influence_; _means,
wealth_.

#optimātēs, um# or #ium# [#optimus#], pl. m., _the aristocrats, the
nobles_.

#optimus#, see #bonus#.

#optiō, ōnis# [#optō#], f., _choice, option_.

#optō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to choose, select_; _wish_ or _pray for,
desire_.

  #ad--adoptō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to take to one’s self by choice,
  adopt_.

#opulentus# [#ops#], adj., _rich, wealthy_.

#opus, eris#, n., _work, labor_; _need, necessity_; #opus est# with
abl., _there is need of_; #māgnō opere#, _greatly_; #tantō opere#, _so
greatly_.

#ōrāculum, ī# [#ōrō#], n., _an oracle_; _a prophecy_.

#ōrātiō, ōnis# [#ōrō#], f., _a speech, oration, discourse_.

#ōrātor, ōris# [#ōrō#], m., _speaker, pleader, ambassador_.

#orbis, is#, m., _ring, circle, orbit_; #orbis terrārum# (or #orbis#
alone), _the world_.

#orbus#, adj., _bereft_ (of parents or children), _parentless,
childless_. As noun, #orbus, ī#, m., _an orphan_.

#ōrdinō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ōrdō#], _to set in order, arrange, adjust,
regulate_.

#ōrdior, īrī, ōrsus sum#, _to begin_.

#ōrdō, inis#, f., _row, series, arrangement, order_; _bank_ or _tier of
oars_; _class, rank_.

#oriēns, entis# [part. of #orior#], m. (sc. #sōl#), _the rising sun_;
_the East, Orient_.

#orior, īrī, tus sum#, _to arise, begin_; _to spring from, be descended
from_.

  #con--coorior, īrī, tus sum#, _to arise_.

  #ex--exorior, īrī, tus sum#, _to arise, rise, begin_.

#oriundus# [#orior#], adj., _descended, sprung from_.

#ōrnāmentum, ī# [#ōrnō#], n., _preparation_; _decoration, ornament,
jewel_.

#ōrnātus# [#ōrnō#], adj., _fitted out, equipped_; of men,
_distinguished, illustrious_.

#ōrnātus, ūs# [#ōrnō#], m., _dress, fine attire_; _decoration,
ornament_.

#ōrnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to fit out, equip_; _adorn, decorate,
beautify_.

  #ad--adōrnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to equip, provide_; _adorn,
  beautify_.

  #sub--subōrnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to incite secretly, bribe_.

#ōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to speak, plead, treat_; _entreat, beseech,
pray_.

  #ad--adōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to supplicate_; _worship, reverence_.

  #per--perōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to speak, plead_.

#ōs, ōris#, n., _mouth, face_.

#ōsculor, ārī, ātus sum# [#ōsculum#, _a kiss_], _to kiss_.

  #dē--deōsculor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to kiss_.

#ostendō#, see #tendō#.

#ostentō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #ostendō#], _to show, exhibit_.

#Ōstia, ae# [#ōs#], f., _Ostia_, a town at the Tiber’s mouth, the
sea-port of Rome.

#ōtiōsē# [#ōtiōsus#], adv., _leisurely, idly_.

#ōtiōsus# [#ōtium#], adj., _at leisure, idle_; _in retirement_ (_i.e._,
not in office).

#ōtium, ī#, n., _leisure, ease, idleness_.

#ovō, āre, --, --#, _to exult, rejoice_.


#P#

#P.#, abbreviation of the name _Pūblius_.

#pācātus# [#pācō#, _to subdue_], adj., _pacified, subdued, at peace_.

#pacīscor, ī, pactus sum#, _to agree together, bargain, stipulate_.

#paene#, adv., _almost, nearly_.

#paenitet, ēre, uit, --#, impers., _it grieves, it repents_.

#palam#, adv., _openly, publicly_.

#Palātium, ī#, n., _the Palatine Hill_. Since Augustus had his palace
there, #palātium# came to mean _palace_.

#pālor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to roam abroad, scatter, straggle_.

#palpebrae, ārum#, pl. f., _the eyelids_.

#palūdāmentum, ī#, n., _a military cloak, cloak_.

#pālus, ī#, m., _a stake, post_.

#palūs, ūdis#, f., _swamp, marsh, pool_.

#pandō, ere, ī, passus#, _to spread out, unfold_.

#papāver, eris#, n., _poppy_.

#pār, paris#, adj., _equal, like, similar_; _well-matched_. As noun, _an
equal, mate_.

#parābilis, e# [#parō#], adj., _easily obtainable, readily procured_.

#parcō, ere, pepercī#, and #parsī, --#, _to spare_.

#parcus# [#parcō#], adj., _sparing, frugal, temperate_.

#parēns, entis# [part. of #pariō#], m. and f., _a parent, a father_ or
_mother_.

#pāreō, ēre, uī, --#, _to appear_ (esp. in answer to a command), _obey_.

  #ad--appāreō, ēre, uī, --#, _to become visible, appear_; _be plain_
  or _evident_.

#pariō, ere, peperī, partus#, _to give birth to, bring forth, produce_;
_acquire, obtain, procure_.

#ab--aperiō, īre, uī, tus#, _to uncover, bare_; _open, disclose_.

  #ad# + #op--adoperiō, īre, uī, tus#, _to cover, veil_.

  #con--comperiō, īre, ī, tus#, _to find out, learn_.

  #re--reperiō, īre, repperī, repertus#, _to find_ (again), _meet
  with, discover_.

#pariter# [#pār#], adv., _equally, alike_; _likewise_.

#parō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to make ready, prepare_; _resolve, plan_; _get,
acquire_.

  #con--comparō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to prepare, make ready_; _obtain,
  procure_.

#parricīdium, ī# [#pater# + #caedō#], n., _murder of a father,
parricide_.

#pars, partis#, f., _a part, portion_; _direction_; _a side, faction,
political party_ (both sing. and pl.); _a character, role_ (esp.
in pl.).

#Parthī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Parthians_, a people in Asia, southeast of
the Caspian Sea. In the second century B.C. they overran the country to
the east of the Euphrates. They were brave warriors and skillful
archers, and successfully resisted the Roman power.

#partim# [#pars#], adv., _partly_.

#partior, īrī, ītus sum# [#pars#], _to distribute, divide_.

#partus, ūs# [#pariō#], m., _a bringing forth, delivery, birth_.

#parum#, adv., _too little, not enough_; comp. #minus#, _less, by no
means, not_; sup. #minimē#, _least of all, by no means, not at all_. As
noun, #parum#, indecl. n., _too little, not enough_.

#parvulus# [dim. of #parvus#], adj., _very small, tiny_. As noun,
#parvulus, ī#, m., _a small child, infant_.

#parvus#, adj., _little, small_; comp. #minor#, _smaller, less_;
_younger_ (sc. #nātū#); sup. #minimus#, _smallest, least_.

#pāscō, ere, pāvī, pāstus#, _to feed_; of animals, _to graze, browse_
(esp. in pass. and supine).

#passim# [#passus#, part. of #pandō#], adv., _in every direction,
everywhere_.

#pāstor, ōris# [#pāscō#], m., _herdsman, shepherd_.

#patefaciō# [#pateō# + #faciō#], _to lay open, disclose, bring to
light_.

#pateō, ēre, uī, --#, _to be open_.

#pater, patris#, m., _father_; pl., #patrēs# or #patrēs cōnscrīptī#,
_the senators_. See #cōnscrīptus#.

#paternus# [#pater#], adj., _of a father, fatherly, father’s_.

#patiēns, entis# [#patior#], adj., _able to endure, long suffering,
patient_.

#patior, ī, passus sum#, _to suffer, bear, endure_; _experience_;
_allow, permit_.

#patria, ae# [#pater#], f., _fatherland, native land_.

#patricius# [#pater#], adj., _of fatherly dignity, patrician, noble_. As
noun, #patriciī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the nobles, patricians_, the
descendants of the orig. settlers of Rome.

#patrimōnium, ī# [#pater#], n., _inheritance, patrimony, property_.

#patrius# [#pater#], adj., _of a father, father’s_.

#patrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to carry out, perform, execute_.

#patrōnus, ī# [#pater#], m., _defender, patron_; _pleader, advocate,
lawyer_.

#paucus#, adj., _few, little_ (chiefly in pl.).

#paulātim# [#paulum#], adv., _little by little, by degrees, gradually_.

#paulō# and #paulum# [#paulus#, _little_], adv., _by a little,
somewhat_.

#Paulus, ī#, m., _L. Aemilius_, a famous general, consul in 219 and 216
B.C. In the latter year he fell at Cannae, and was hence regarded as a
national hero.

#pauper, eris#, adj., _poor_; _scanty, small_.

#pauperculus# [dim. of #pauper#], adj., _quite poor_.

#pavidus# [#paveō#, _to be afraid_], adj., _trembling, fearful,
frightened_.

#pavor, ōris# [#paveō#, _to be afraid_], m., _terror, fear, dread_.

#pāx, pācis#, f., _peace_; _treaty_.

#peccātum, ī# [#peccō#], n., _an error, fault, sin_.

#peccō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to do wrong, act amiss, err, sin_.

#pectus, oris#, n., _breast, bosom, heart_.

#pecūnia, ae# [#pecus#], f., _money, property_.

#pecus, oris#, n., _cattle, flock, herd_.

#pedes, itis# [#pēs#], m., _a foot-soldier_; collectively,
_foot-soldiers, infantry_.

#pellō, ere, pepulī, pulsus#, _to drive out_ or _away, expel_; _defeat,
rout_.

  #ad--#(1) #appellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive towards, steer
  for, direct_.

  #ad--#(2) #appellō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call_ (by name), _address_;
  _appeal to, call upon_; _name, term, mention_.

  #con--#(1) #compellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive together_;
  _force, compel_.

  #con--#(2) #compellō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to address_.

  #dē--dēpellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive out_ or _away, expel,
  dislodge_.

  #ex--expellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive out, expel, banish_.

  #per--perpellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive, force, induce_.

  #prō--prōpellō, ere, pulī, pulsus#, _to drive forward_ or _away_;
  _incite_.

  #re--repellō, ere, reppulī, repulsus#, _to drive back, shake off,
  repulse, reject_.

#pendeō, ēre, pependī, --#, _to hang, be suspended_; _hang one’s self_.

#pendō, ere, pependī, pēnsus#, _to weigh, pay_.

  #ex--expendō, ere, ī, pēnsus#, _to weigh_ or _pay out_.

  #re--rependō, ere, ī, pēnsus#, _to pay for, purchase_; used esp. of
  buying a thing with its weight in money.

#penitus#, adv., _inwardly, within_; _deeply, completely_.

#per#, prep. with acc.; used (1) of place, _through, across, over,
throughout_; (2) of time, _through, during_; (3) of means or agency, _by
means of, by the agency of, through_; (4) often in adv. phrases, #per
iocum#, _jokingly_, #per ōtium#, _quietly_, #per intervālla#, _at
intervals_; in composition, _thoroughly, very_.

#peragō#, see #agō#.

#peragrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#per# + #ager#], _to wander through, roam
over, traverse, scour_.

#peramoenus# [#per# + #amoenus#, _lovely_], adj., _very lovely,
charming_.

#percellō, ere, culī, culsus#, _to smite, strike_; _overturn, upset_;
_dishearten, discourage_.

#percieō, ciēre, cīvī, citus# [#per# + #cieō#, _to stir up_], _to arouse
thoroughly, excite_.

#percitus#, see #percieō#.

#percontor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to ask, question_.

#percussor, ōris# [#percutiō#], m., _murderer, assassin_.

#percutiō#, see #quatiō#.

#perdō#, see #dō#.

#perdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#peregrīnus# [#per# + #ager#], adj., _from foreign parts, foreign_.

#perendiē#, adv., _on the day after tomorrow_.

#perennis, e# [#per# + #annus#], adj., _perennial_; _perpetual,
never-failing_.

#pereō#, see (1) #eō#.

#perferō#, see #ferō#.

#perficiō#, see #faciō#.

#perfidia, ae# [#perfidus#], f., _treachery_.

#perfidus#, adj., _faithless, treacherous_.

#perforō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#per# + #forō#, _to bore_], _to bore through,
pierce_.

#perfruor#, see #fruor#.

#perfuga, ae# [#perfugiō#], m., _a fugitive, deserter, refugee_.

#perfugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#pergō#, see #regō#.

#perīclitor, āri, ātus sum# [#perīculum#], _to try, test_; intrans., _to
be in danger, incur risk_.

#perīculōsus# [#perīculum#], adj., _perilous, dangerous_.

#perīculum, ī#, n., _trial_; _danger, peril_.

#perītus#, adj., _experienced, skilled, expert_. As noun, #perītus, ī#,
m., _an expert_.

#perliciō#, see #*laciō#.

#permittō#, see #mittō#.

#permoveō#, see #moveō#.

#permultus# [#per# + #multus#], adj., _very much, very many_. As noun,
#permultum, ī#, n., _a great deal_; #permultī, ōrum#, pl. m., _very
many_ (persons).

#permūtō#, see #mūtō#.

#perniciēs, ēī#, f., _destruction, ruin, overthrow_.

#perniciōsus# [#perniciēs#], adj., _dangerous, destructive_.

#perōrō#, see #ōrō#.

#perpellō#, see #pellō#.

#perpetuō# [abl. of #perpetuus#], adv., _continually, forever_.

#perpetuus#, adj., _continuous, uninterrupted_; #in perpetuum#,
_forever_.

#perrumpō#, see #rumpō#.

#persaepe# [#per# + #saepe#], adv., _very often_.

#perscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#persequor#, see #sequor#.

#perstringō#, see #stringō#.

#persuādeō#, see #suādeō#.

#pertaesus# [orig. part. of #pertaedet#, _it wearies, disgusts_], adj.,
_disgusted with, sick of_.

#pertināciter# [#pertināx#, _persistent_], adv., _persistently,
stubbornly_.

#pertineō#, see #teneō#.

#pertrahō#, see #trahō#.

#perturbō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#per# + #turbō#, _to disturb_], _to confuse,
disturb, upset_.

#perveniō#, see #veniō#.

#pēs, pedis#, m., _the foot_; _a foot_ (in measurements).

#pessimus#, see #malus#.

#pēstifer, fera, ferum# [#pēstis# + #ferō#], adj., _baneful,
destructive_.

#pēstilēns, entis# [#pēstis#], adj., _baneful_.

#pēstilentia, ae# [#pēstilēns#], f., _pest, plague, disease_.

#pēstis, is#, f., _plague, pest_; _curse, bane_.

#petītiō, ōnis# [#petō#], f., _candidacy_.

#petō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus#, _to strive for, seek_; _beg, ask, request_;
_assail, attack_; intrans., _to be a candidate_.

  #ex--expetō, ere, īvī, ītus#, _to seek, desire, crave_.

  #re--repetō, ere, īvī, ītus#, _to seek again, try to get back,
  demand back_.

#phalerae, ārum#, pl. f., _a metal breastplate_ (esp. for horses),
_trappings_.

#Pharnacēs, is#, m., _a son of Mithridates_.

#Pharsālicus#, adj., _of_ or _at Pharsalus_.

#Pharsālus, ī#, f., a city in Thessaly, near which Caesar defeated
Pompey, 48 B.C.

#Philippī, ōrum#, pl. m., a city in Macedonia, near which Brutus and
Cassius were defeated by Octavianus and Antony, B.C. 42.

#philosophia, ae#, f., _philosophy_.

#philosophus, ī#, m., _a philosopher_.

#Philus, ī#, m., see #Fūrius#.

#pietās, ātis# [#pius#, _dutiful_], f., _conscientiousness, dutiful
conduct, devotion, piety_; _filial affection, loyalty_.

#piget, ēre, uit# and #itum est#, impers., _it pains, grieves,
disgusts_.

#pīgnus, oris#, n., _pledge, security_; _assurance, proof_.

#pilleus, ī#, m., _a_ (close-fitting) _cap_.

#pinguis, e#, adj., _fat, sleek_.

#pīrāta, ae#, m., _a sea-robber, pirate_.

#pīrāticus# [#pīrāta#], adj., _of_ or _with_ (against) _the pirates_.

#piscīna, ae# [#piscis#], f., _a fish-pond_.

#piscis, is#, m., _a fish_.

#Pīsō, ōnis#, m., a cognomen in the Calpurnian gens.

  1. _Cn._ (_Calpurnius_) _Pīsō_, mentioned in XIII, 64, as a type of
  excessive rigor and severity.

  2. _L. Calpurnius Pīsō Frūgī_, consul 133 B.C.; opponent of
  C. Gracchus in 121; author of a historical work called _Annālēs_.

#Placentia, ae#, f., a city in Cisalpine Gaul, on the Po.

#placeō, ēre, uī, --#, _to please, be agreeable to_; _seem best to_;
impers., #placet, uit# or #placitum est#, with dat., _to be
resolved by_.

  #dis--displiceō, ēre, uī, --#, _to displease_.

#placidē# [#placidus#, _calm_], adv., _calmly, quietly_.

#plācō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to soothe, appease_; _conciliate, reconcile_.

#plāga, ae#, f., _a stroke, blow_.

#Plancus, ī#, m., _C. Plōtius Plancus_, proscribed by the Second
Triumvirate.

#plaustrum, ī#, n., _a wagon, cart_.

#plausus, ūs# [#plaudō#, _to clap the hands_] m., _applause,
acclamations_.

#plēbēius# [#plēbs#], adj., _plebeian_. As noun, #plēbēī, ōrum#, pl. m.,
_the plebeians_. See #plēbs#.

#plēbs, plēbis#, f., _the common people, rabble_; _the plebeians_, or
the population that grew up round the patricians (see #patricius#) from
such causes as the settlement of foreigners in Rome, or the emancipation
of slaves.

#plectō, ere, --, --#, _to beat, punish_ (usually in pass.).

#plēnus# [cf. #*pleō#], adj., _full, full of_.

#*pleō, plēre, plēvī, plētus#, _to fill_.

  #com--compleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to fill_ (to the brim): _complete_.

  #ex--expleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to fill up, fill_.

  #in--impleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to fill up_.

  #ob--oppleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to fill_; _cover_.

  #re--repleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus#, _to fill again, refill, fill up_.

#plērīque, aeque, aque#, adj., _very many, most_.

#Plīnius, ī#, m., _C. Plīnius Secundus_, commonly known as _Pliny the
Elder_, A.D. 23-79. He wrote a sort of encyclopaedia called _Historia
Nātūrālis_.

#Plōtius, ī#, m., see #Plancus#.

#plumbeus# [#plumbum#], adj., _leaden_.

#plumbum, ī#, n., _lead_.

#plūrimus#, see #multus#.

#plūs, plūris#, adj., see #multus#.

#poena, ae#, f., _compensation, punishment, penalty_.

#Poenī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Phoenicians, Carthaginians_ (see
#Carthāgō#).

#poēta, ae#, m., _a poet_.

#Pōlliō, ōnis#, m., _Vedius Pōlliō_, punished by Augustus for cruelty to
a slave.

#Pompēiānus#, adj., _Pompey’s, Pompeian_.

#Pompēius, ī#, m., _Cn. Pompēius_, surnamed _Māgnus_; born B.C. 106, he
was consul in 70, having fought Sertorius in Spain, 76-71; defeated the
pirates in 67, Mithridates in 66, and formed the First Triumvirate with
Caesar and Crassus in 60. He was defeated by Caesar in 48 at Pharsalus
in Thessaly, and soon after murdered.

#Pompilius, ī#, m., #Numa Pompilius#, second king of Rome.

#Pompōnius, ī#, m., _M. Pompōnius_, tribune of the people in 362 B.C.

#Pomptīnus#, adj., _Pomptine_; #palūdēs Pomptīnae#, _the Pomptine
Marshes_ in Latium, southeast of Rome.

#pondus, eris# [#pendō#,], n., _weight_.

#pōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to put down, place, set, deposit_; _serve_
(at meals); _spend_; _set up, build_; #castra pōnere#, _to pitch a
camp_; #rudīmentum pōnere#, _to lay aside_ (i.e. get through) _the first
steps, to learn_.

  #ad--appōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to set before, serve_
  (at table).

  #con--compōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to arrange, settle_;
  _conclude, finish_.

  #dē--dēpōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to lay down_ or _aside, put
  down_; _stop_; _arrange, establish_.

  #dis--dispōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to arrange, array, dispose_.

  #ex--expōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to set_ or _put forth_; _land,
  disembark_; _expose, abandon_; _relate, explain_.

  #in--impōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to place_ or _put upon_ or _in_;
  #lēgēs impōnere#, _to dictate terms_.

  #ob--oppōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to put in the way, set against,
  oppose_.

  #prae--praepōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to set over, put in
  charge of_.

  #prō--prōpōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to put_ or _set forth_;
  _expose to view, submit_; _propose, offer_; _resolve, determine_.

  #re--repōnō, ere, posuī, positus#, _to put back, replace, restore_.

#pōns, pontis#, m., _a bridge_.

#ponticulus, ī# [dim. of #pōns#], m., _a little bridge_.

#Ponticus#, adj., _pertaining to Pontus, Pontic_.

#Pontus, ī#, m., _Pontus_, a country in Asia Minor, south of the Black
Sea.

#populāris, is# [#populus#], m., _a fellow-countryman_.

#populor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to lay waste, ravage, plunder_.

#populus, ī#, m., _a people, nation_; collectively, _the people, the
citizens_.

#Porcia, ae#, f., a daughter of Cato Uticensis (see #Catō#), and wife of
M. Brutus.

#porrigō#, see #regō#.

#Porsena, ae#, m., _Porsena_, a king of Clusium in Etruria.

#porta, ae#, f., _a city gate, gate_.

#portendō#, see #tendō#.

#porticus, ūs# [#porta#], f., _a colonnade, arcade, portico_.

#portō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bear, carry, bring_.

  #re--reportō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bring back_; _carry off or away_.

#portōrium, ī# [#portus#], n., _a tax, duty, tariff_.

#portus, ūs#, m., _a harbor, haven_.

#pōscō, ere, popōscī, --#, _to ask, demand_.

  #dē--dēpōscō, ere, popōscī, --#, _to demand urgently, claim_.

  #ex--expōscō, ere, popōscī, --#, _to demand, claim_.

  #re--repōscō, ere, --, --#, _to demand_ (back), _claim_.

#Posīdōnius, ī#, m., a Stoic philosopher, contemporary with Cicero and
Pompey.

#possum, posse, potuī, --# [#potis#, _able_ + #sum#], _to be able, can_;
_have influence, be strong_.

#post#, (1) adv., _after, later, afterwards_; (2) prep, with acc.,
_after, behind_.

#posteā# [#post# + #is#], adv., _afterwards_.

#posterus# [#post#], adj., _following, next_; comp. #posterior, us#,
gen. #ōris#, _later_; sup. #postrēmus#, _last, lowest_; #in posterum#,
_for the future_; #ad postrēmum#, _finally_; #postrēmō#, _at last,
finally_. As noun, #posterī, ōrum#, pl. m., _descendants, posterity_.

#posthabeō#, see #habeō#.

#posthāc# [#post# + #hīc#], adv., _hereafter, thereafter, in the
future_.

#postīcum, ī# [#postīcus#, _in the rear_], n., _a back door_.

#postis, is#, m., _a door-post, post_.

#postquam# or #post . . . quam# [#post# + #quam#], conj., _after, when_.

#postrēmō#, see #posterus#.

#postrēmus#, see #posterus#.

#postrīdiē# [#posterus# + #diēs#], adv., _on the following day, next
day_.

#pōstulātum, ī# [#pōstulō#], n., _a demand, request_.

#pōstulō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to request, demand_.

#potēns, entis# [orig. part. of #possum#], adj., _able, mighty,
influential_.

#potentātus, ūs# [#potēns#], m., _power, authority, dominion_.

#potentia, ae# [#potēns#], f., _power, might_.

#potestās, ātis# [#potis#, _able_], f., _might, power_ (esp. that of a
magistrate); _dominion, rule_; _opportunity_.

#potior, īrī, ītus sum#, _to become master of, obtain, acquire, get_.

#prae#, prep, with abl., _before, in front of_; _in comparison with_; in
composition, _before, very_.

#praeacūtus# [#prae# + #acūtus#, _sharp_], adj., _sharp at the end,
pointed_.

#praebeō#, see #habeō#.

#praecēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#praeceptor, ōris# [#praecipiō#], m., _teacher_.

#praeceptum, ī# [#praecipiō#], n., _teaching, maxim, rule_; _command,
order_.

#praecīdō#, see #caedō#.

#praecinō#, see #canō#.

#praecipiō#, see #capiō#.

#praecipuē# [#praecipuus#, _special_], adv., _chiefly, principally,
especially_.

#praeclārē# [#praeclārus#], adv., _gloriously, excellently_.

#praeclārus# [#prae# + #clārus#], adj., _very bright_ or _brilliant,
excellent, distinguished_.

#praecō, ōnis#, m., _a crier, herald_.

#praeda, ae#, f., _booty, spoil, plunder_.

#praedicātiō, ōnis# [#praedicō#], f., _a public proclamation,
statement_.

#praedicō#, see #dicō#.

#praedīcō#, see #dīcō#.

#praedō, ōnis# [#praeda#], m., _one that makes_ (gains) _booty, robber_.

#praefectus, ī# [#praeficiō#, _to place in command_], m., _a leader,
commander_.

#praeferō#, see #ferō#.

#praeferōx, ōcis# [#prae# + #ferōx#], adj., _insolent, full of
confidence_.

#praefor, fārī, fātus sum# [#prae# + #for#, _to speak_], _to say by way
of preface_.

#praelūceō, ēre, lūxī, --# [#prae# + #lūceō#, _to shine_], _to shine
before, light the way before_.

#praemium, ī# [#prae# + #emō#], n., _reward, prize_.

#praepōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#praeripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#praesēns, entis# [orig. part. of #praesum#], adj., _present, at hand_;
_face to face_.

#praesidium, ī# [#praesideō#, _to defend_], n., _help, aid, defense_;
_defensive force, garrison_; _fort, post, station_.

#praestō#, see #stō#.

#praesum#, see #sum#.

#praeter#, prep, with acc., _past, beyond_; _contrary to, against_;
_besides, except_; in composition, _past, beyond_.

#praetereā# [#praeter# + #is#], adv., _in addition to this, besides,
moreover_.

#praetereō#, see (1) #eō#.

#praeteritus# [orig. part. of #praetereō#], adj., _past_.

#praetextus# [orig. part. of #praetexō#, _to edge, border_], adj.,
_bordered, edged_. As noun, #praetexta, ae# (sc. #toga#), f., _the toga
praetexta_, or white toga with purple border, worn by magistrates and by
free-born children till the sixteenth or seventeenth year, when they
became of age and assumed the _toga virīlis_, which was wholly white.

#praetor, ōris# [orig. #praeitor#, from #prae# + (1) #eō#], m., _a
leader, commander_; among the Romans, _a praetor_ or magistrate, whose
especial business was the administration of justice. After Sulla’s time
eight or more were elected annually. The praetors often served in
command of armies, esp. in the provinces, and after acting as judges in
Rome, were regularly assigned to duty in the provinces with the title of
_prōpraetor_.

#praetōrius# [#praetor#], adj., _of_ or _belonging to the general, the
general’s_; _praetorian_. As noun, #praetōrius, ī#, m., _a man of
praetorian rank, an ex-praetor_.

#praeveniō#, see #veniō#.

#prandium, ī#, n., _lunch_.

#prātum, ī#, n., _a field, meadow_.

#prāvus#, adj., _crooked, wrong_; _perverse, wicked_.

#precor, ārī, ātus sum# [#prex#], _to ask, beg, beseech_.

  #dē--dēprecor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to plead against, plead, avert by
  prayer_; _decline_.

#prehendō, ere, ī, prehēnsus#, _to grasp, seize, catch_.

  #ad--apprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus#, _to lay hold of, seize, grasp_.

  #con--comprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus#, _to seize, catch, arrest_;
  _understand_.

  #dē--dēprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus#, _to seize, catch_; _surprise,
  detect, discover_.

  #re--reprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus#, _to hold back, check_; _blame,
  criticise, reprove_.

#premō, ere, pressī, pressus#, _to press_; _press hard, crush_.

#con--comprimō, ere, pressī, pressus#, _to restrain, check, crush_.

#ex--exprimō, ere, pressī, pressus#, _to press_ or _force out_; _utter,
express_.

#ob--opprimō, ere, pressī, pressus#, _to crush utterly, overpower,
overwhelm, master_.

#re--reprimō, ere, pressī, pressus#, _to press_ or _keep back, check,
restrain_.

#pretiōsus# [#pretium#], adj., _of great value, costly, precious_.

#pretium, ī#, n., _money value, price_; _money_; _recompense, reward_;
#operae pretium est#, _it is worth while_.

#prex, precis#, f., _a prayer, entreaty_ (chiefly in pl.).

#prīdem#, adv., _long since, long ago_.

#prīdiē# [#pri(or)# + #diē#], adv., _the day before_.

#prīmō#, see #prior#.

#prīmōrēs, um# [#prīmus#], pl. m., _first men, chiefs, nobles_.

#prīmum#, see #prior#.

#prīmus#, see #prior#.

#prīnceps, ipis# [#prīmus# + #capiō#], adj., _first, foremost_. As noun,
m., _leading man, chief, leader_.

#prīncipium, ī# [#prīnceps#], n., _beginning_.

#prior, us#, gen. #priōris#, comp. adj., _foremost, first, prior_; sup.
#prīmus#, _first, foremost_; #prīmō, prīmum#, _at first, first_.

#Prīscus, ī#, m., cognomen of _Tarquinius Prīscus_, the fifth king of
Rome.

#prius# [neuter of #prior#], adv., _before, sooner, previously, first of
all_.

#priusquam# or #prius . . . quam# [#prius# + #quam#], conj., _earlier
than, before_.

#prīvātim# [#prīvātus#], adv., _individually_; _by one’s self,
privately_.

#prīvātus# [#prīvō#], adj., _personal, private, individual_. As noun,
#prīvātus, ī#, m., _a man in private life, a private citizen_.

#prīvō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to bereave, deprive, rob_.

#prō#, prep. with abl., _in front of, before_; _in behalf of, for_;
_instead of_; _in comparison with, in accordance with_; in composition,
_forth, for_.

#prō#, interj., _O! ah! alas! Heavens!_

#proavus, ī# [#prō# + #avus#], m., _great-grandfather_.

#probō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#probus#, _good_], _to test_ (and find good),
_approve, commend_; _show, prove_.

  #ad--approbō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to approve fully, favor_; _show,
  demonstrate_.

  #con--comprobō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to approve, sanction_; _confirm_.

#Proca, ae#, m., a king of Alba Longa, father of Numitor and Amulius.

#prōcēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#procella, ae#, f., _a strong wind_; _storm_.

#prōcēritās, ātis# [#prōcērus#, _tall_], f., _height, tallness_.

#prōclāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#prōcōnsul, is# [#prō#, _in place of_ + #cōnsul#], m., _a proconsul,
governor of a province_. See #cōnsul# (end).

#procul#, adv., _in the distance, afar_; with abl., _far from_.

#Proculus, ī#, m., a Roman senator who claimed that Romulus appeared to
him after his death.

#prōcumbō#, see #*cumbō#.

#prōcūrō#, see #cūrō#.

#prōdigium, ī#, n., _an omen, portent_; _strange being, prodigy,
monster_.

#prōditiō, ōnis# [#prōdō#], f., _treason_.

#prōditor, ōris# [#prōdō#], m., _a traitor_.

#prōdō#, see #dō#.

#proelior, ārī, ātus sum# [#proelium#], _to fight, wage war_.

#proelium, ī#, n., _a battle, combat_.

#profectō# [#prō# + #factum#], adv., _indeed, in truth, certainly, to be
sure_.

#prōferō#, see #ferō#.

#proficīscor, ī, profectus sum#, _to set out, proceed_; _depart_.

#profiteor#, see #fateor#.

#prōflīgō#, see #*flīgō#.

#profugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#profugus, ī# [#profugiō#], m., _a fugitive, exile_.

#profundō#, see #fundō#.

#profūsus# [orig. part. of #profundō#], adj., _lavish, extravagant,
profuse_.

#prōgredior#, see #gradior#.

#prohibeō#, see #habeō#.

#prōiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#proinde# [#prō# + #inde#], adv., _hence, therefore_.

#prōlābor#, see #lābor#.

#prōmineō, ēre, uī, --#, _to project, extend, lean out_.

#prōmissus# [orig. part. of #prōmittō#], adj., _hanging down, long,
flowing_.

#prōmissum, ī# [#prōmittō#], n., _a promise_.

#prōmittō#, see #mittō#.

#prōmoveō#, see #moveō#.

#prōmptē# [#prōmptus#], adv., _quickly, readily_.

#prōmptus# [#prōmō#, _to put forth_], adj., _visible, at hand_; _ready,
alert, prompt_.

#pronepōs, ōtis# [#prō# + #nepōs#], m., _great-grandson_.

#prōnūntiō#, see #nūntiō#.

#propāgō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to propagate, increase, prolong_.

#prope#, adv., _near by_; _nearly, almost_ (esp. with numbers): comp.
#propius#; sup. #proximē#, _nearest, next_.

#prōpellō#, see #pellō#.

#properō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#properus#, _quick_], _to speed, hasten_.

#propinquus# [#prope#], adj., _neighboring, near_; as noun, _a
relative_.

#propior# [#prope#], comp. adj., _nearer_; sup. #proximus#, _nearest,
next_; _latest, last_; _next, following_; #in proximō#, _near by_. As
noun, #proximī, ōrum#, pl. m., _bystanders_.

#prōpōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#prōpositum, ī# [#prōpōnō#], n., _plan, purpose_.

#propriē# [#proprius#], adv., _peculiarly, especially_.

#proprius#, adj., _own, one’s own_; with gen. or dat., _peculiar to,
characteristic of_.

#propter#, prep. with acc., _on account of_.

#prōripiō#, see #rapiō#.

#prōrogō#, see #rogō#.

#prōscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#prōscrīptiō, ōnis# [#prōscrībō#], f., _a notice of sale_;
_proscription, confiscation_.

#prōsequor#, see #sequor#.

#prōsiliō#, see #saliō#.

#prōspectus, ūs# [#prōspiciō#, _to look forward_], m., _view, prospect_.

#prōsperē# [#prōsperus#], adv., _propitiously, successfully_.

#prōsperus# [#prō# + #spēs#], adj., _according to one’s hopes,
favorable_.

#prōsternō#, see #sternō#.

#prōsum#, see #sum#.

#prōtendō#, see #tendō#.

#prōtinus#, adv., _right on, continuously_; _at once, immediately_.

#prōvehō#, see #vehō#.

#prōvincia, ae#, f., _a province_ (i.e. a territory outside of Italy
under Roman government); _sphere of operations_.

#prōvocō#, see #vocō#.

#proximē#, see #prope#.

#proximus#, see #propior#.

#prūdēns, entis# [orig. #prōvidēns#, part. of #prōvideō#, _to see
ahead_], adj., _fore-seeing, skillful, clever, prudent_.

#prūdentia, ae# [#prūdēns#], f., _foresight, practical wisdom, good
sense_.

#psittacus, ī#, m., _a parrot_.

#Ptolemaeus, ī#, m., a name borne by the kings of Egypt after the time
of Alexander the Great.

#pūblicē# [#pūblicus#], adv., _in the name of_ (by order of) _the state,
publicly, officially_.

#pūblicō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#pūblicus#], _to open to the public, make
public_.

#pūblicus# [orig. #populicus#: cf. #populus#], adj., _belonging to the
people_ (state), _public_; _official_. As noun, #pūblicum, ī#, n., _the
state treasury_.

#Pūblius, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#pudor, ōris#, m., _modesty, shame, hesitancy_.

#puella, ae# [dim. of #puer#], f., _a girl_.

#puer, puerī#, m., _a child_; _boy_; _slave_.

#puerīlis, e# [#puer#], adj., _boyish, youthful_.

#pueritia, ae# [#puer#], f., _childhood_; _boyhood, youth_ (extending
usually to the 17th year).

#pugiō, ōnis#, m., _a dagger, dirk_.

#pūgna, ae#, f., _a combat, fight, battle_.

#pūgnāx, ācis# [#pūgna#], adj., _fond of fighting, combative_.

#pūgnō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to fight_; _oppose, resist_.

  #ex--expūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to take by storm, capture_;
  _overpower, prevail upon_.

  #in--impūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to fight against, oppose, attack_.

  #ob--oppūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to fight against, assault, besiege_.

  #re--repūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to fight back, oppose, resist_.

#pulcher, chra, chrum#, adj., _beautiful_; _excellent, illustrious_.

#Pulcher, chrī#, m., _P. Claudius_, a son of A. Claudius Caecus, consul
249 B.C.

#pullārius, ī# [#pullus#], m., _keeper of the sacred chickens_.

#pullus, ī#, m., _a young animal_; _chicken_.

#pulvis, eris#, m., _dust_.

#pungō, ere, pupugī, punctus#, _to strike, prick, puncture_; _sting,
torment_.

#Pūnicus#, adj., _Phoenician, Punic_; _Carthaginian_ (see #Carthāgō#).

#pūniō, īre, īvī, ītus# [#poena#], _to punish_.

#pūrgō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#pūrus#, _clean_ + #agō#], _to make clean_;
_clear away, excuse_.

#putō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to cleanse_ (vines by cutting); _consider,
think, suppose_.

  #am--amputō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to cut all round, cut away, lop off_.

  #con--computō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to sum up, reckon, compute_.

  #dis--disputō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to weigh, examine_; _discuss_;
  _argue_.

  #re--reputō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to think over, reflect on, reflect_.

#Pȳrēnaeus, ī# (sc. #mōns#), m., _the Pyrenees_.

#Pyrrhus, ī#, m., a king of Epirus, who allied himself with Tarentum,
and invaded Italy, 280-275 B.C.


#Q#

#Q.#, abbreviation of the name #Quīntus#.

#quadrāgēsimus# [#quadrāgintā#], num. adj., _fortieth_.

#quadrāgintā#, indecl. num. adj., _forty_.

#quadrīgae, ārum#, pl. f., a _four-horse team_.

#quadringentī, ae, a# [#quattuor# + #centum#], num. adj., _four
hundred_.

#quaerō, ere, quaesīvī, quaesītus#, _to seek_; _ask_; _get, gain_.

  #ad--adquīrō, ere, quīsīvī, quīsītus#, _to acquire, get, gain_.

  #con--conquīrō, ere, quīsīvī, quīsītus#, _to seek_ or _search fo_;
  _hunt up_.

  #re--requīrō, ere, quīsīvī (iī), quīsītus#, _to seek_ or _search
  for_.

#quaesō, ere, īvī, --#, _to seek_; _beg, pray_.

#quaestor, ōris# [orig. #quaesītor#; cf. #quaerō, quaesō#], m.,
_quaestor, quartermaster_, a name given to certain magistrates who had
the care of public monies and military supplies, both at Rome and in the
provinces.

#quaestūra, ae# [#quaestor#], f., _the quaestorship_.

#quālis, e#, adj., (1) interrog., _of what kind? what sort of?_
(2) rel., _of such a kind, such as, as_.

#quāliscumque, quālecumque#, adj., _of whatsoever kind, of any kind_.

#quam# [(1) #quis#], adv., _how, how much_; after a comp., _than_; with
a sup., _as possible_; #quam prīmum#, _as soon as possible_; #quamdiū#,
_as long as_; #tam . . . quam#, _as . . . so, not only . . . but also_.

#quamquam#, conj., _although, even if_.

#quamvīs# [#quam# + #vīs#, from #volō#], adv. and conj., _howevermuch,
although_.

#quandōquidem# [#quandō#, _since_ + #quidem#], conj., _since indeed_.

#quantus# [#quam#], adj., (1) interr., _how great? how much?_ (2) rel.,
correl. to #tantus#, _as great as, as_.

#quantum#, adv., _how much? how far?_

#quāpropter# [(1) #quis# + #propter#], adv.; (1) interr., _why?
wherefore?_ (2) rel., _for which reason, wherefore_.

#quāre# [#quā# + #rē#], adv., (1) interr., _why?_ (2) rel., _for which
reason, wherefore, therefore_.

#quārtāna, ae# [#quārtus#], f. (sc. #febris#, _fever_), a fever or ague
recurring every fourth day.

#quārtus# [#quattuor#], num. adj., _fourth_.

#quasī#, adv. and conj., _as if, just as if, as though, ostensibly_; _on
the ground that_.

#quater#, adv., _four times_.

#quatiō, ere, --, quassus#, _to shake, strike_.

  #dē--dēcutiō, ere, cussī, cussus#, _to shake off_ or _down, strike
  off_.

  #ex--excutiō, ere, cussī, cussus#, _to shake off, fling off_.

  #per--percutiō, ere, cussī, cussus#, _to strike through, pierce_;
  _smite, strike_; _kill, slay_; _overwhelm, shock_.

#quattuor#, indecl. num. adj., _four_.

#que#, conj., enclitic, _and, and yet, but_.

#queror, ī, questus sum#, _to complain_.

  #con--conqueror, ī, questus sum#, _to complain bitterly, lament,
  deplore_.

#questus, ūs# [#queror#], m., _complaint, lament_.

(1) #quī, quae, quod#, interr. pron., used adjectively, _which? what?
what kind of?_ See (1) #quis#.

(2) #quī, quae, quod#, rel. pron., _who, which, what, that_; _whoever,
whatever_.

(3) #quī, quae#, or #qua, quod#, indef. pron., used adjectively, _any,
some_.

(4) #quī# [old abl. of (1) #quī#], adv., _how?_

#quia#, conj., _because, since_.

#quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque#, indef. rel. pron., _whoever,
whichever, whatever_.

#quīdam, quaedam, quiddam#, and as adj., #quoddam#, indef. pron., _a
certain one, somebody_; _a certain_.

#quidem#, adv., _indeed, in fact, to be sure_; #nē . . . quidem#, _not
even, not at all_.

#quiēs, ētis#, f., _rest, sleep, quiet, respite_.

#quiētus# [orig. part, of #quiēscō#, _to be at rest_], _quiet,
peaceful_.

#quīn# [(4) #quī# + #nē#], conj., _how not? why not_; _that, that not,
but that_; #quīn et# or #etiam#, _nay more_.

#Quīntilius, ī#, m., gentile name of _P. Quīntilius Vārus_, an officer
of Augustus, who sustained a severe defeat at the hands of the Germans,
B.C. 9.

#Quīntīlis, is# [#Quīntus#], m. (sc. #mēnsis#), _July_, the fifth month
(counting from March. See #December#).

#quīndecemvir, ī# [#quīndecem#, _fifteen_ + #vir#], m., _a member of a
board of fifteen men_.

#quīngentī, ae, a# [#quīnque# + #centum#], num. adj., _five hundred_.

#quīnquāgintā#, indecl. num. adj., _fifty_.

#quīnque#, indecl. num. adj., _five_.

#quīnquennium, ī# [#quīnque# + #annus#], n., _a period of five years_.

#quīnquiēs# [#quīnque#], adv., _five times_.

#quīntus# [#quīnque#], num. adj., _fifth_.

#Quīntus, ī#, m., a praenomen.

#quīppe#, adv., _indeed, as you see, surely_.

#Quirīnālis, is# (sc. #collis#), m., _the Quirinal_, one of the hills of
Rome.

#Quirīnus, ī#, m., a name given to Romulus after his death and
deification.

#Quirītēs, ium# [#Curēs#], pl. m., orig. _the people of Cures_; later,
the name used to denote the Romans in their civil capacity, hence:
_citizens, Romans_. See #Rōmānī#.

(1) #quis, quid#, interr. pron. used substantively, _who? which? what?_
See (1) #quī#.

(2) #quis, qua, quid#, indef. pron. used substantively, _some one, any
one_; _something, anything_. See (3) #quī#.

#quisnam, quaenam, quidnam# [(1) #quis# + #nam#], interr. pron., _who_
or _what in the world? who? which? what?_

#quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam# and #quidpiam#, indef. pron., _some, any,
some one_.

#quisquam, quaequam, quicquam#, indef. pron., adj. or noun, _any one,
anything, any_.

#quisque, quaeque, quidque# or #quodque#, indef. pron., noun or adj.,
_each, every, each one, every one_.

#quisquis, quicquid#, indef. pron., _whoever, whatever, every one who,
everything which_.

#quō# [#quī#], adv. and conj. As adv., (1) interr., _whither_? (2) rel.,
_whither_; as conj., _in order that, that, that thereby_.

#quōcumque#, adv., _whithersoever_.

#quod#, conj., _because, that, in that_; _as to the fact that, so far
as_; #quod sī#, _but if_.

#quōmodo# [(1) #quī# + #modus#], adv., (1) interr., _how?_ (2) rel., _in
the manner that, as_.

#quondam#, adv., _once, formerly_.

#quoniam# [#quom# (= #cum#, _since_) + #iam#], conj., _since, because,
seeing that_.

#quoque#, conj., _also, too_ (placed after the word it emphasizes).

#quōrsum# or #quōrsus# [orig. #quōversus#; #quō# + #vertō#], adv.,
_whither?_

#quotannīs# [#quot# + #annus#], adv., _each year, yearly_.

#quoūsque# [#quō# + #ūsque#, _until_], adv., (1) interr., _until what
time?_ (2) rel., _until_.


#R#

#radius, ī#, m., _a staff, rod_; _beam, ray_.

#radīx, īcis#, f., _a root_; _foot, base_.

#rapīna, ae# [#rapiō#], f., _robbery, pillage_.

#rapiō, ere, rapuī, raptus#, _to seize_ and _carry off, drag off_;
_plunder, destroy_; _hasten, hurry_.

  #ab--abripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to take away forcibly, drag off_.

  #ad--adripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to snatch quickly, seize_.

  #con--corripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to seize, catch up_; #morbō
  corripī#, _to fall sick_.

  #dis--dīripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to tear apart_; _ravage, plunder_.

  #prae--praeripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to snatch away, carry off_ or
  _away_.

  #prō--prōripiō, ere, uī, reptus#, _to fling forth_; with #sē#,
  _rush_.

#rārō# [#rārus#], adv., _seldom, rarely_.

#rārus#, adj., _thin_; _scattered, rare_.

#ratiō, ōnis# [#reor#], f., _reckoning, calculation, account_; _method,
plan_.

#ratis, is#, f., _a raft, boat, vessel_.

#re# or #red#, insep. prefix, _again, back_.

#rebellō#, see #bellō#.

#recēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#receptus, ūs# [#recipiō#], m., _a retreat_.

#recessus, ūs# [#recēdō#], m., _nook, corner_.

#recidō#, see #cadō#.

#reciperō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to regain, recover_.

#recipiō#, see #capiō#.

#reconciliō#, see #conciliō#.

#recreō#, see #creō#.

#rēctē# [#rēctus# (part. of #regō#), _straight, right_], adv., _rightly,
duly, well_.

#recubō#, see #cubō#.

#recūsō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#re# + #causa#], _to decline, refuse_.

#reddō#, see #dō#.

#redeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#redigō#, see #agō#.

#redimō#, see #emō#.

#redintegrō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#red# + #integer#], _to make whole again,
renew_.

#reditus, ūs# [#redeō#], m., _a going_ (or coming) _back, return_.

#redūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#refellō, ere, ī, --# [#re# + #fallō#, _to deceive_], _to prove false,
refute, disprove_.

#referō#, see #ferō#.

#refoveō#, see #foveō#.

#refringō#, see #frangō#.

#refugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#rēgālis, e# [#rēx#], adj., _kinglike, royal_.

#rēgia, ae# [#rēgius#], f. (sc. #domus#), _a palace_.

#rēgīna, ae# [#rēx#], f., _a queen_.

#regiō, ōnis# [#regō#], f., _district, region_.

#rēgius# [#rēx#], adj., _kingly, royal, king’s_.

#rēgnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#rēgnum#], _to be king_; _rule, govern_.

#rēgnum, ī# [#rēx#], n., _kingly government, sovereignty, sway_; _a
kingdom_.

#regō, ere, rēxī, rēctus#, _to keep straight, guide, conduct, rule_.

  #con--corrigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus#, _to straighten, correct,
  improve_.

  #dis--dīrigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus#, _to guide, steer, direct_.

  #ex--ērigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus#, _to raise_ or _lift up_; _stir up,
  arouse_.

  #per--pergō, ere, perrēxī, perrēctus#, _to go straight on, proceed,
  hasten_; with acc., _pursue with vigor, perform_; #partēs pergere#,
  _to play the rōle_.

  #por# (= #prō#)#--porrigō, ere, porrēxī, porrēctus#, _to spread_ or
  _stretch out_; _hold forth, offer, present_.

#regredior#, see #gradior#.

#Rēgulus, ī#, m., _M. Atīlius_, consul in 256 B.C.; defeated in Africa
and taken prisoner by the Carthaginians, 255.

#rēiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#relābor#, see #lābor#.

#relēgō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#re# + #lēgō#, _to send_], _to send out of the
way, remove_.

#religiō, ōnis#, f., _sense of duty_; _religion, devotion to the gods_;
_scruple_.

#religiōsus# [#religiō#], adj., _careful, scrupulous_; _sacred, holy_.

#religō#, see #ligō#.

#relinquō, ere, līquī, līctus# [#re# + #linquō#, _to leave_], _to leave
behind, leave_; _bequeath_; _appoint by will_.

#reliquiae, ārum# [#relinquō#], pl. f., _remainder, remnant, residue_.

#reliquus# [cf. #relinquō#], adj., _remaining, rest_.

#remaneō#, see #maneō#.

#remedium, ī# [#re# + #medeor#, _to cure_], n., _a cure, remedy_.

#remigrō#, see #migrō#.

#remittō#, see #mittō#.

#remūneror, ārī, ātus sum# [#re# + #mūnerō#, _to reward_], _to reward,
repay_.

#Remus, ī#, m., the brother of Romulus.

#renovō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#re# + #novus#], _to renew, restore, revive_.

#renūntiō#, see #nūntiō#.

#renuō#, see #*nuō#.

#reor, rērī, ratus sum#, _to reckon_; _think, suppose_; #ratus#,
_thinking_.

#repellō#, see #pellō#.

#rependō#, see #pendō#.

#repente# [#repēns#, _sudden_], adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_.

#repentīnus# [#repēns#, _sudden_], adj., _sudden, unexpected_.

#reperiō#, see #pariō#.

#repetō#, see #petō#.

#repleō#, see #*pleō#.

#repōnō#, see #pōnō#.

#reportō#, see #portō#.

#repōscō#, see #pōscō#.

#reprehendō#, see #prehendō#.

#reprimō#, see #premō#.

#reprōmittō#, see #mittō#.

#repudiō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to cast off, divorce_; _reject, scorn_.

#repūgnō#, see #pūgnō#.

#repulsa, ae# [#repellō#], f., _rejection, repulse_; _a defeat at the
polls_.

#reputō#, see #putō#.

#requīrō#, see #quaerō#.

#rēs, reī#, f., _thing, matter_; _affair, deed, exploit, event_;
_circumstance_; _a story_; _property, fortune_; _trouble_; #rēs
familiāris#, _private property_; #rēs pūblica#, _the commonwealth,
state_; #rēs gestae#, _exploits_; #rēs repetundae#, _extortion_; #rē
vērā#, _in reality, in truth_.

#resecō#, see #secō#.

#reserō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#re# + #sērō#, _to bolt_], _to unlock, open_.

#resīdō#, see #sīdō#.

#resistō#, see #sistō#.

#resolvō#, see #solvō#.

#respergō, ere, spersī, spersus# [#re# + #spargō#, _to strew,
sprinkle_], _to besprinkle, bespatter_.

#respiciō#, see #*speciō#.

#respīrō#, see #spīrō#.

#respondeō#, see #spondeō#.

#respōnsum, ī# [#respondeō#], n., _answer, reply_, esp. of an oracle;
_warning_.

#rēs pūblica#, see #rēs#.

#restinguō#, see #stinguō#.

#restituō#, see #statuō#.

#retineō#, see #teneō#.

#retrahō#, see #trahō#.

#reus, ī#, m., _defendant, accused person, prisoner_.

#revertor#, see #vertō#.

#revīvīscō, ere, --, --# [#re# + #vīvēscō#, inceptive of #vīvō#], _to
come to life again_.

#revocō#, see #vocō#,

#rēx, rēgis# [cf. #regō#], m., _king, monarch_.

#Rhēa, ae#, f., _Rhēa_, also called _Rhēa Silvia_, mother of Romulus and
Remus.

#Rhēnus, ī#, m., the river Rhine.

#rhētor, oris#, m., _a teacher of oratory, rhetorician_; _orator_.

#Rhodus, ī#, f., _Rhodes_, a large island off the coast of Asia Minor,
famous for its schools of rhetoric (see #Apollōnius#), its colossal
statue of Apollo, and for the skill of its people in navigation.

#rīdeō, ēre, rīsī, rīsus#, _to smile, laugh_; _laugh at, mock_.

  #dē--dērīdeō, ēre, rīsī, rīsus#, _to laugh at, mock, deride_.

  #in--inrīdeō, ēre, rīsī, rīsus#, _to jeer at, mock, ridicule_.

#rigō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to wet, moisten_.

#rigor, ōris#, m., _severity, rigor_.

#rīpa, ae#, f., _a bank_ (of a river).

#rīsus, ūs# [#rīdeō#], m., _laughter_.

#rītē# [cf. #rītus#], adv., _with due ceremonies, duly, fitly,
properly_.

#rītus, ūs#, m., _religious ceremony, rite_.

#rixa, ae#, f., _a quarrel_ (of blows), _brawl_.

#rōbur, oris#, n., _hard wood, oak_; _strength, vigor, power_.

#rogō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to ask, inquire_; _request, implore_.

  #ab--abrogō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to repeal, annul_.

  #inter--interrogō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to ask, question_.

  #prō--prōrogō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to prolong, extend_.

#Rōma, ae#, f., _Rome_.

#Rōmānus#, adj., _Roman_; as noun, #Rōmānus, ī#, m., _a Roman_; #Rōmānī,
ōrum#, pl. m., _the Romans_, the name given to the Romans in their
military capacity.

#Rōmulus, ī#, m., _Romulus_, founder and first king of Rome, son of Rhea
and Mars.

#Rōscius, ī#, m., _Sextus Rōscius_, defended by Cicero on a capital
charge.

#rōstrum, ī# [#rōdō#, _to gnaw_], n., _the beak_ or _ram of a ship_;
pl., _the Rostra_, or speaker’s platform in the Forum (adorned with
beaks of captured ships).

#Rubicō, ōnis#, m., _the Rubicon_, a river in the northeastern part of
Italy.

#rudīmentum, ī# [#rudis#], n., _first attempt, beginning_. See #pōnō#.

#rudis, e#, adj., _uncouth, unpolished_; _ignorant, rude_.

#ruīna, ae# [#ruō#], f., _downfall, ruin, destruction_; pl., _a fallen
building, ruins_.

#rūmor, ōris#, m., _a story, report, rumor_.

#rumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus#, _to break, destroy_.

  #con--corrumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus#, _to destroy_; _seduce, bribe,
  corrupt_.

  #ex--ērumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptum#, _to break forth_ or _out, burst
  forth_.

  #per--perrumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus#, _to break through, force a way
  through, get across_.

#ruō, ere, ī, tus#, _to fall_; _rush, hasten_; with acc., _to cause to
fall, overthrow_.

  #con--corruō, ere, ī, --#, _to fall_ (in battle).

  #dis--dīruō, ere, ī, tus#, _to tear apart, overthrow, destroy_.

  #ex--ēruō, ere, ī, tus#, _to cast out_; _dig up, destroy utterly_.

  #in--inruō, ēre, ī, --#, _to rush in, make an attack_.

  #ob--obruō, ere, ī, tus#, _to overwhelm, hide, bury_.

#rūpēs, is# [#rumpō#], f., _a rock, cliff_.

#rūrsus# or #rūrsum# [orig. #revorsus#; cf. #revertō#], adv., _back_;
_again_.

#rūs, rūris#, n., _the country_; pl., _the fields_; #rūrī#, _in the
country_.

#rūsticor, āri, ātus sum# [#rūs#], _to live in the country_; _take a
vacation_.

#rūsticus# [#rūs#], adj., _rural, rustic_.


#S#

#Sabīnī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Sabines_, a race in central Italy,
adjoining Latium on the north.

#sacer, cra, crum#, adj., _holy, sacred_; as noun, #sacrum, ī#, n., _a
holy thing, sacred vessel_; pl., _religious rites, sacrifices_.

#sacerdōs, ōtis# [#sacer#], m. and f., _priest, priestess_.

#sacrārium, ī# [#sacer#], n., _sanctuary, shrine_.

#sacrificium, ī# [#sacer# + #faciō#], n., _a sacrifice_.

#sacrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to set apart_; _bless_; _curse_.

  #con--cōnsecrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to dedicate, consecrate, devote_.

  #ex--exsecror, ārī, ātus sum#, _to curse, abhor_.

#saeculum, ī#, n., _a race_; _generation, age, time_.

#saepe#, adv., _frequently, often_.

#saeviō, īre, īvī (iī), ītum# [#saevus#], _to be fierce_ or _cruel,
rage_; #saevīre in aliquem#, _to treat any one cruelly_.

#saevitia, ae# [#saevus#], f., _fury, cruelty_.

#saevus#, adj., _raging, fierce, cruel_.

#sagīnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#sagīna#, _stuffing_], _to fatten_.

#sagulum, ī#, n., _a short military cloak_.

#Saguntus, ī#, f., and #Saguntum, ī#, n., _Saguntum_, a town on the east
coast of Spain.

#Salernitānus#, adj., _of_ or _near Salernum_ (modern Salerno), a town
in Campania.

#Saliī, ōrum# [#saliō#], pl. m., _the Salii_ or _Leapers_, the dancing
priests of Mars.

#Salīnātor, ōris#, m., see #Līvius#.

#saliō, īre, uī, tus#, _to leap_.

  #dē--dēsiliō, īre, uī, sultum#, _to leap down_.

  #in--īnsiliō, īre, uī, --#, _to leap up_ or _on, mount_.

  #prō--prōsiliō, īre, uī, --#, _to leap_ or _spring forward_.

  #trāns--trānsiliō, īre, uī, --#, _to leap across, jump over_.

#saltem#, adv., _at least, at all events_.

#saltō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #saliō#], _to dance, leap_.

  #ex--exsultō, āre, āvī, --#, _to leap, dance_ (esp. with joy),
  _exult, rejoice_.

#saltus, ūs# [#saliō#], m., _a leap, bound_; _leaping, jumping_.

#saltus, ūs#, m., _a forest pasture, mountain glen, ravine, pass_.

#salūbris, e# [#salūs#], adj., _health-giving, wholesome, healthy_;
_beneficial_.

#salūs, ūtis#, f., _health, vigor_; _safety_.

#salūtātiō, ōnis# [#salūtō#], f., _greeting, salutation_.

#salūtātor, ōris# [#salūtō#], m., _saluter, visitor_.

#salūtō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#salūs#], _to wish one health, greet, salute,
visit_.

  #con--cōnsalūtō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to greet_ or _salute warmly_.

#salveō, ēre, --, --# [#salvus#], _to be well_; imperative, #salvē,
salvēte#, _hail! greetings!_

#salvus#, adj., _well, sound, safe_.

#sambūceus# [#sambūcus#, _an elder-tree_], adj., _of elder, elder_.

#Samnītēs, ium#, pl. m., _the Samnites_, a branch of the Sabine race
inhabiting the mountains southeast of Latium.

#sānē# [#sānus#, _sound_], adv., _indeed, truly, by all means_;
_certainly_.

#sanguinolentus# [#sanguis#], adj., _bloody_.

#sanguis, inis#, m., _blood_.

#sapiō, ere, īvī, --#, _to taste_; _to have taste_ or _understanding_;
_be wise_.

  #dē--dēsipiō, ere, --, --#, _to be foolish_ or _crazy_.

#sapiēns, entis# [orig. part. of #sapiō#], adj., _wise, sensible,
discreet_.

#sapientia, ae# [#sapiēns#], f., _wisdom_.

#Sardinia, ae#, f., an island between Italy and Spain.

#sarmentum, ī# [#sarpō#, _to prune_], n., _a twig_; pl., _brushwood,
fagots_.

#satis#, adv., _enough_; _tolerably, quite_; as noun, n., _enough,
sufficiency_.

#satisfaciō, ere, fēcī, factum# [#satis# + #faciō#], _to satisfy, make
reparation_.

#saucius#, adj., _wounded, hurt_.

#saxum, ī#, n., _a stone, rock, boulder_.

#scamnum, ī#, n., _a bench, stool_.

#scandō, ere, --, --#, _to climb, mount_.

  #ad--āscendō, ere, ī, scēnsus#, _to climb up, mount, ascend_.

  #con--cōnscendō, ere, ī, scēnsus#, _to mount, ascend_; _go on
  board_.

  #dē--dēscendō, ere, ī, scēnsum#, _to climb_ or _come down, descend_;
  _dismount_.

  #ex--ēscendō, ere, ī, scēnsus#, _to mount, ascend_.

  #trāns--trānscendō, ere, ī, scēnsus#, _to climb_ or _pass over,
  cross_.

#scapha, ae#, f., _a light boat, skiff_.

#scelerātus# [#scelus#], adj., _wicked, impious, accursed_.

#scelestē# [#scelestus#, _impious_], adv., _wickedly, impiously_.

#scelus, eris#, n., _wicked deed, sin, crime_.

#schola, ae#, f., _leisure, leisure for learning_; _place of learning,
school_.

#scīlicet# [#scīre# + #licet#], adv., _plainly, of course, doubtless_.

#scindō, ere, scidī, scissus#, _to cut, tear, rend, split_.

  #ab--abscindō, ere, scidī, scissus#, _to cut_ or _tear off, hew
  off_.

#sciō, īre, scīvī, scītus#, _to know, understand_; with infin., _to know
how_.

#Scīpiō, ōnis#, m., the name of one of the most illustrious families of
Rome, belonging to the Cornelian gens.

  1. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō_, consul 218 B.C.; defeated by Hannibal at
  the Ticinus and the Trebia; killed, with his brother Cn., in Spain,
  in 212.

  2. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus Māior_, son of (1), born B.C. 237;
  commanded in Spain 210-206; consul in 205; defeated Hannibal at Zama
  in 202. He died about 183 B.C.

  3. _L. Cornēlius Scīpiō_, brother of (2), consul in B.C. 190. After
  defeating Antiochus at Magnesia, he received the cognomen
  _Asiāticus_.

  4. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus Minor_, captured Carthage, B.C.
  146; took Numantia, in Spain, 133; died in 129.

  5. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Nāsīca Serāpiō_, see #Nāsīca#.

  6. _Q. Metellus Pius Scīpiō_, father-in-law of Pompey.

#scīscitor, ārī, ātus sum# [#scīscō#], _to ask, inquire_.

#scīscō, ere, scīvī, scītus# [#sciō#], _to seek to know_; _approve,
enact, decree_.

  #con--cōnscīscō, ere, scīvī, scītus#, _to approve of, decree_;
  #mortem sibi cōnscīscere#, _to commit suicide_.

  #dē--dēscīscō, ere, scīvī, scītum#, _to withdraw, desert, revolt_.

#scrība, ae# [#scrībō#], m., _a clerk, secretary_.

#scrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to write_.

  #ad--adscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to add, include, enroll_.

  #con--cōnscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to enroll, enlist_.

  #dē--dēscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to copy off, sketch,
  describe_.

  #dis--dīscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to mark off, divide_.

  #īn--īnscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to write on, inscribe on_.

  #per--perscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to write out_ (in full).

  #prō--prōscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to offer for sale_;
  _proscribe, outlaw_.

  #sub--subscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus#, _to write beneath_.

#scrīnium, ī#, n., _a case, box_ (esp. for books or papers).

#scrīptor, ōris# [#scrībō#], m., _a writer, author_; _narrator_.

#Scultenna, ae#, f., a river in Cisalpine Gaul, near Mutina.

#scūtum, ī#, n., _a shield_.

(1) #sē#, see #suī#.

(2) #sē# or #sēd#, insep. prefix, _apart, away from_.

#sēcēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#sēcernō#, see #cernō#.

#secō, āre, uī, tus#, _to cut_.

  #re--resecō, āre, uī, tus#, _to cut loose_ or _off_.

#sēcrētus# [part. of #sēcernō#], adj., _separate_; _hidden, concealed_;
_secret_; abl. #sēcrētō# as adv., _secretly_.

#sector, ārī, ātus sum# [freq. of #sequor#], _to follow eagerly, pursue,
seek the society of_.

#secundus# [#sequor#], adj., _following, second_; _favorable,
fortunate_.

#secūris, is# [#secō#], f., _an axe, hatchet_.

#secus#, comp. #sētius#, adv., _otherwise, differently_.

#sed#, conj., _but, on the contrary_.

#sēdecim# [#sex# + #decem#], indecl. num. adj., _sixteen_.

#sedeō, ēre, sēdī, sessum#, _to sit_.

  #ad--adsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus#, _to sit at_ or _beside, besiege_.

  #in--īnsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus#, with dat., _to sit in, on_, or
  _upon_; with acc., _to settle on, occupy_.

  #ob--obsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus#, _block, besiege, beset_.

#sēdēs, is# [cf. #sedeō#], f., _seat, chair_; _residence, abode_.

#sēditiō, ōnis# [#sēd# + #itiō#, from #eō, īre#], f., _dissension,
rebellion, revolt_.

#sēdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#sēdulitās, ātis# [#sēdulus#, _earnest_], f., _earnestness,
persistency_.

#sēdulō# [abl. of #sēdulus#, _earnest_], adv., _earnestly, busily_;
_purposely, deliberately_.

#sēgnis, ē#, adj., _slow, tardy, sluggish_.

#sēgniter# [#sēgnis#], adv., _without spirit_ or _vigor, lazily_.

#sella, ae# [#sedeō#], f., _a seat, chair_; #sella curūlis#, a portable
stool, with bent legs, made to open and shut like a camp-stool. Such
chairs were often of bronze, or of wood finely carved, and inlaid with
ivory, or even adorned with ornaments of gold. The right to use this
chair belonged at first only to the king, but later to curule aediles,
praetors, consuls, dictators, and the Flamines.

#semel#, adv., _once, once for all_.

#sēmet#, see #suī#.

#semper#, adv., _always, continually_.

#sempiternus# [#semper#], adj., _eternal_.

#Semprōnius, ī#, m., _Ti. Semprōnius Longus_, defeated by Hannibal at
the Trebia B.C. 218.

#senātor, ōris# [#senātus#], m., _a senator_.

#senātōrius# [#senātor#], adj., _senatorial_.

#senātus, ūs# [cf. #senex#], m., _council of elders, senate_, in the
time of the kings a mere advisory body, called together by the king when
he desired advice, but later the chief power in the Roman state.

#Seneca, ae#, m., _L. Annaeus Seneca_, the Stoic philosopher, tutor of
the Emperor Nero.

#senecta, ae# [#senex#], f., _old age_.

#senectūs, ūtis# [#senex#], f., _old age_.

#senex#, gen. #senis#, adj., _old_; comp. #senior#, _elder_; sup.
#māximus# (#nātū#), _eldest_. As noun, #senex, senis#, m., _an old man_;
#seniōrēs, um#, pl. m., _the elders_ (men over 45).

#senior#, see #senex#.

#senium, ī# [#senex#], n., _old age, decay_.

#sententia, ae# [#sentiō#], f., _opinion, thought_; _wish, inclination_.

#sentiō, īre, sēnsī, sēnsus#, _to discern by sense, feel_; _see,
perceive_; #bene sentīre dē#, _to think well of_.

  #con--cōnsentiō, īre, sēnsī, sēnsum#, _to agree_; _conspire, plot_.

#sēparātim# [(2) #sē# + #parō#], adv., _separately, apart_.

#sepeliō, īre, īvī (iī), sepultus#, _to bury, inter_.

#septem#, indecl. num. adj., _seven_.

#septēnī, ae, a# [#septem#], num. adj., _seven each, seven apiece_.

#Septimulēius, ī#, m., _L. Septimulēius_ of Anagnia in Latium, a friend
of Ti. Gracchus, who afterwards sold his head for gold.

#septimus# [#septem#], num. adj., _seventh_.

#septirēmis, e# [#septem# + #rēmus#, _oar_], f. (sc. #nāvis#), _a ship
with seven banks_ or _tiers of oars_.

#septuāgēsimus# [#septuāgintā#, _seventy_], num. adj., _seventieth_.

#sepultūra, ae# [#sepeliō#], f., _burial, funeral_.

#sequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow_; _favor_.

  #ad--adsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow up, overtake_; _gain,
  attain_.

  #con--cōnsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow, overtake_; _attain,
  acquire_.

  #in--īnsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to pursue, overtake_.

  #ob--obsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to comply with, yield to,
  submit to_.

  #per--persequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow persistently, pursue,
  hound_.

  #prō--prōsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow, accompany, escort_.

  #sub--subsequor, ī, secūtus sum#, _to follow after, follow_.

#Sergius, ī#, m., a Roman gentile name.

  1. _L. Sergius Catilīna_, see #Catilīna#.

  2. _M. Sergius Catilīna_, grandfather of (1).

#sēriō# [abl. of #sērius#], adv., _in earnest, seriously, in good
faith_.

#sērius#, adj., _grave, serious, earnest_.

#sermō, ōnis# [#serō#], m., _talk, conversation_; _speech_.

#serō, ere, --, tus#, _to bind together_.

  #con--cōnserō, ere, uī, tus#, _to join_; #manūs# or #pūgnam
  cōnserere#, _to join battle, fight_.

  #dē--dēserō, ere, uī, tus#, _to leave, abandon_; _forsake, neglect_.

  #dis--disserō, ere, uī, tus#, _to speak, discourse, harangue_.

  #ex--exserō, ere, uī, tus#, _to thrust out_.

#sērō# [abl. of #sērus#, _late_], adv., _late, too late_.

#Sertōrius, ī#, m., _Quīntus_, an officer in the army of Marius. He went
to Spain as propraetor in B.C. 82, and maintained himself at the head of
an independent force till his death in 72.

#serva, ae# [#servus#], f., _a slave woman_.

#servīlis, e# [#servus#], adj., _of a slave_; _slavish, servile_.

#servitūs, ūtis# [#servus#], f., _slavery_.

#Servius, ī#, m., see #Tullius#.

#servō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to save, preserve, watch_.

  #con--cōnservō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to keep safe, preserve_.

#servus, ī#, m., _a slave_.

#sēse#, see #suī#.

#sēstertius, ī# [#sēmis#, _half_ + #tertius#], m. (sc. #nummus#), _a
sesterce_, a small silver coin equivalent orig. to two and one-half
asses, but later worth about four cents. See #ās#. In naming large sums
of money the Romans speak of ‘so many times a hundred thousand
_sēstertiī_’ (_centēna mīlia sēstertium_).

#sētius#, see #secus#.

#seu#, see #sīve#.

#sevērē# [#sevērus#], adv., _gravely, severely, sternly, strictly_.

#sevēritās, ātis# [#sevērus#], f., _sternness, strictness_.

#sevērus#, adj., _stern, strict, severe_.

#sex#, indecl. num. adj., _six_.

#sexāgintā#, num. adj., _sixty_.

#Sextīlis, e#, adj., _of the sixth month_. As noun, #Sextīlis, is#, m.
(sc. #mēnsis#), _August_. See #December#.

#Sextīlius, ī#, m., praetor in Africa in B.C. 88.

#sextus# [#sex#], num. adj., _sixth_.

#Sextus, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#sī#, conj., _if, whether_; #quod sī#, _but if_.

#sibi#, see #suī#.

#sībilus, ī#, m., _a hissing, whistling_.

#Sibyllīnus# [#Sibylla#, _a Sibyl, prophetess_], adj., _pertaining to
the Sibyls, Sibylline_.

#sīc#, adv., _in this way, thus, so_.

#siccō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#siccus#], _to drain_.

#siccus#, adj., _dry_. As noun, #siccum, ī#, n., _the dry ground_.

#Sicilia, ae#, f., _Sicily_.

#Siculus#, adj., _Sicilian_.

#sīdō, sīdere, --, --#, _to seat one’s self, sit down_.

  #ad--adsīdō, ere, sēdī, --#, _to seat one’s self, sit down_.

  #con--cōnsīdō, ere, sēdī, sessum#, _to sit down_; _settle, encamp_;
  _take a position_.

  #re--resīdō, ere, sēdī, --#, _to settle down, sink, subside_;
  _abate, grow calm_.

#sīgnificō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#sīgnum# + #faciō#], _to make signs, show_;
_point out, indicate_.

#sīgnō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#sīgnum#], _to set a mark on_; _sign, seal_
(a document).

  #ad--adsīgnō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to allot, award, assign_.

#sīgnum, ī#, n., _sign, signal_; _military standard, ensign_; _statue,
image_; #sīgna īnferre alicuī#, _to advance against_ or _attack any
one_.

#Sīlānus, ī#, m., _D. Iūnius Sīlānus Mānliānus_, praetor in Macedonia
B.C. 142.

#silēns, entis# [orig. part. of #sileō#, _to be still_], adj., _still,
quiet, silent_.

#silentium, ī# [#silēns#], n., _stillness, quiet, silence_.

#silva, ae#, f., _a wood, forest_.

#Silvia, ae#, f., see #Rhēa#.

#similis, e#, adj., _like, similar_.

#similiter# [#similis#], adv., _in like manner, similarly_.

#similitūdō, inis# [#similis#], f., _likeness, resemblance, similarity_.

#simul#, adv., _at the same time_; #simul atque# or #āc#, _as soon as_.

#simulō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#similis#], _to make like, copy_; _feign,
pretend_.

  #dis--dissimulō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to disguise, conceal, dissemble_.

#simultās, ātis# [#simul#], f., _enmity, hatred_; #simultātēs gerere#,
_to carry on a feud_.

#sine#, prep, with abl., _without_.

#singulāris, e# [#singulī#], adj., _one by one, single, individual_;
_remarkable, singular, unparalleled_.

#singulī, ae, a#, adj., _one at a time, one apiece, single_.

#sinister, tra, trum#, adj., _left_.

#sinō, ere, sīvī, situs#, _to put, place_; _permit, let_.

#sinus, ūs#, m., _a curve, hollow, fold_; _fold of the toga_ (as it
crosses the breast), _pocket_; _bosom_.

#sistō, ere, stitī, status#, trans., _to cause to stand, place, set_;
intrans., _stand_.

  #ab--absistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to withdraw, cease, desist_.

  #con--cōnsistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to stand, take position_ (of an
  army); _stop, halt_; _be firm, endure, continue_.

  #dē--dēsistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to stand off from, cease, desist_.

  #ex--exsistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to step forth_; _come to be, become,
  arise_.

  #ob--obsistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to stand in the way of, resist,
  oppose_.

  #re--resistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to oppose, withstand, resist_.

  #sub--subsistō, ere, stitī, --#, _to take a stand, remain, tarry_.

#situs# [orig. part. of #sinō#], adj., _placed, situate, lying_.

#situs, ūs# [#sinō#], m., _location, site_.

#sīve# or #seu#, conj., _or, or if, whether_; #sīve . . . sīve# or #seu
. . . seu#, _whether . . . or, if . . . or if_.

#sōbrius#, adj., _sober, temperate_.

#socer, socerī#, m., _a father-in-law_.

#societās, ātis# [#socius#], f., _fellowship, association_; _alliance_.

#sociō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#socius#], _to join, unite_; _hold in common,
share, divide_.

#socius, ī#, m., _fellow, comrade, ally_.

#sodālis, is#, m., _companion, associate_.

#sōl, sōlis#, m., _the sun_.

#soleō, ēre, itus sum#, _to be wont, be accustomed, use_.

#sōlitārius# [#sōlus#], adj., _lonely, isolated_.

#sōlitūdō, inis# [#solus#], f., _loneliness_; _lonely place,
wilderness_.

#solitus# [#soleō#], adj., _wonted, usual, accustomed_; as noun,
#solitum, ī#, n., _the customary, the usual_.

#solium, ī#, n., _chair of state, throne_.

#sollemnis, e#, adj., _religiously fixed, holy, sacred_.

#sollicitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#sollicitus#, _troubled_], _to stir up,
arouse, excite_.

#sōlum# [#sōlus#], adv., _only_; #nōn . . . sōlum . . . sed . . .
etiam#, _not only . . . but also_.

#sōlus#, adj., _alone, single-handed, single, only_; _lonely, solitary_.

#solvō, ere, ī, solūtus#, _to loosen, unbind_; _let down_; _impair,
destroy_.

  #ab--absolvō, ere, ī, solūtus#, _to set free, release_; _acquit_.

  #re--resolvō, ere, ī, solūtus#, _to loosen_; _dissolve, melt_.

#somnium, ī# [#somnus#], n., _a dream, vision_.

#somnus, ī#, m., _sleep_.

#sonitus, ūs# [#sonō#, _to resound_], m., _sound, crash, noise_.

#sōpiō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus# [cf. #sopor#, _a deep sleep_], _to put to
sleep_; pass., _to sleep_; #sōpītī#, _buried in slumber_.

#soror, ōris#, f., _a sister_.

#sorōrius# [#soror#], adj., _of a sister, sister’s_.

#sors, sortis#, f., _lot, fate, destiny_; _decision by lot_.

#sortior, īrī, ītus sum# [#sors#], _to cast lots_; _obtain by lot_.

#spatium, ī#, n., _space, room_; _distance_; _period of time_.

#speciēs, --#, acc. em, abl. #ē# [#*speciō#], f., _sight, appearance_;
_semblance, pretense_.

#*speciō, ere, spexī, --#, _to look_.

  #ad--adspiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to look at, examine, inspect_.

  #con--cōnspiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to catch sight of, spy_;
  _see_.

  #dē--dēspiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to look down upon, despise_.

  #dīs--dīspiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to descry, perceive_.

  #in--īnspiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to look into, examine,
  consider_.

  #re--respiciō, ere, spexī, spectus#, _to look back_ (_at_), _gaze
  at, consider_; _regard, respect_.

#spectāculum, ī# [#spectō#], n., _show, sight, spectacle_.

#spectātor, ōris# [#spectō#], m., _spectator_.

#spectō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #*speciō#], _to look at, watch,
behold_.

  #ex--exspectō, āre, āvī, ātus#, trans., _to look out for, await,
  expect_; intrans., _wait, wait to see_.

#speculātor, ōris# [#speculor#], m., _a lookout, spy, scout_.

#speculor, ārī, ātus sum# [#specula#, _a watch-tower_], _to spy out,
examine_.

#speculum, ī# [#*speciō#], n., _a looking-glass, mirror_ (usually of
metal).

#spernō, ere, sprēvī, sprētus#, _to set aside, despise, scorn_.

  #ab--āspernor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to disdain, despise, scorn_.

#spērō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#spēs#], _to hope_ (for), _look for, expect_.

  #dē--dēspērō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to lose hope, despair, despair of_.

#spēs, speī#, f., _hope, expectation_; _promise_.

#spīritus, ūs# [#spīrō#], m., _breath_; _disposition, lofty spirit,
ambition, pride_.

#spīrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to breathe_.

  #ex--exspīrō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to breathe out_; _die, expire_
  (sc. #animam#).

  #re--respīrō, āre, āvī, ātum#, _to breathe back_ or _out, breathe_
  (again); intrans., _to recover breath, revive_.

#splendor, ōris# [#splendeō#, _to shine_], m., _brightness, splendor,
magnificence_.

#spoliō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#spolium#], _to strip, rob, plunder_.

#spolium, ī#, n., _booty, spoil_.

#spondeō, ēre, spopondī, spōnsus#, _to promise_ (sacredly), _agree_.

  #dē--dēspondeō, ēre, ī, spōnsus#, _to promise in marriage, betroth_.

  #re--respondeō, ēre, ī, spōnsus#, _to answer, reply_; _correspond
  to, agree with_.

#spōnsus, ī# [#spondeō#], m., _a lover, betrothed man_.

#sponte# [abl. of #*spōns#, _free will_], f., _voluntarily_; with #meā,
tuā#, or #suā#, _of my, your_, or _his own free will_.

#Spūrinna, ae#, m., _Vestritius Spūrinna_, an augur of the time of
Julius Caesar.

#squāma, ae#, f., _scale_ (of fish or snake).

#statim# [cf. #stō#], adv., _instantly, at once_.

#statiō, ōnis# [#stō#], f., _station, post_; _picket line, guard_.

#statua, ae# [#statuō#], f., _a statue, image_.

#statuō, ere, ī, ūtus# [#stō#], _to cause to stand, set up, place_;
_determine_; _determine on, appoint, arrange_.

  #con--cōnstituō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to set up, erect_; _set in order,
  organize_; _arrange, appoint_; _resolve_.

  #in--īnstituō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to set in place, arrange_; _found,
  establish_; _determine, undertake, begin_; _train, teach_.

  #re--restituō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to set up again, replace, restore,
  reinstate_; _repair, remedy, save_.

  #sub--substituō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to put in place of, substitute_;
  _put_.

#statūra, ae# [#stō#], f., _size, height, stature_.

#status, ūs# [#stō#], m., _state, condition, rank_.

#stercus, oris#, n., _dung, manure_.

#Sthenius, ī#, m., _a Sicilian chief_.

#sternō, ere, strāvī, strātus#, _to spread out, scatter_; _lay low_.

  #con--cōnsternō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to terrify, frighten, confound_;
  _move deeply, affect powerfully_.

  #prō--prōsternō, ere, strāvī, strātus#, _to overthrow, destroy_.

#stimulus, ī#, m., _goad_; _sharp point, prick_.

#stinguō, ere, --, --#, _to quench_.

  #ex--exstinguō, ere, stīnxī, stīnctus#, _to extinguish_; _destroy,
  kill_.

  #re--restinguō, ere, stīnxī, stīnctus#, _to quench, extinguish,
  destroy_.

#stīpendium, ī# [#stips#, _gift_ + #pendō#], n., _a payment_; _salary,
pay_; _campaign_; #stīpendia facere# or #merēre#, _to serve a campaign_.

#stirps, stirpis#, f., _stock, race_; _offspring, progeny_.

#stō, stāre, stetī, statum#, _to stand_; _stand firm, abide_; #stāre
prōmissō#, _to stand by_ (lit., _on_) _one’s promise_.

  #circum--circumstō, āre, stitī, --#, _to stand about, surround_.

  #con--cōnstō, āre, stitī, --#, _to agree_; _stand firm, be fixed_;
  _consist of_; #cōnstat#, _it is agreed, it is well known, it is
  certain_; #sibi cōnstāre#, _to be consistent_.

  #ex--exstō, āre, stitī, --#, _to be extant, remain, exist_.

  #prae--praestō, āre, stitī, stitus#, intrans., _to stand before,
  surpass, excel_; trans., _to show, make, render_.

#stolidē# [#stolidus#, _stupid_], adv., _stupidly_.

#strāgēs, is# [#sternō#], f., _overthrow, ruin, defeat_; _massacre_.

#strāgulum, ī# [#sternō#], n., _coverlet, bedspread_.

#strēnuus#, adj., _brisk, active, vigorous_.

#strepitus, ūs# [#strepō#, _to make a noise_], m., _noise, din, crash_;
_applause_.

#stringō, ere, strinxī, strictus#, _to draw_ or _bind tight_, _press
together, graze_; _draw, unsheathe_ (a sword or dagger).

  #dē--dēstringō, ere, strinxī, strictus#, _to draw, unsheathe_.

  #per--perstringō, ere, strinxī, strictus#, _to touch, graze_;
  _thrill, run through_.

#struō, ere, strūxī, strūctus#, _to pile up, arrange_; _build, erect_.

  #ex--exstruō, ere, strūxī, strūctus#, _to pile_ or _heap up, build_.

  #in--īnstruō, ere, strūxī, strūctus#, _to build_; _arrange, draw up_
  or _array_ (troops); _make ready, equip, fit out_.

#studiōsē# [#studiōsus#, _eager_], adv., _eagerly, zealously_.

#studium, ī# [#studeō#, _to be eager_], n., _zeal, enthusiasm_; _desire,
pursuit, study_; _good-will, affection_.

#stultitia, ae# [#stultus#], f., _folly_.

#stultus#, adj., _foolish, silly_.

#stupēns, entis# [orig. part. of #stupeō#], adj., _dazed, confused,
dumbfounded_.

#stupeō, ēre, uī, --#, _to be struck senseless, be amazed_ or
_astounded_.

#suādeō, ēre, suāsī, suāsūrus#, _to advise, urge, exhort_.

  #dis--dissuādeō, ēre, suāsī, suāsus#, _to advise against, oppose_
  (by argument).

  #per--persuādeō, ēre, suāsī, suāsūrus#, _to persuade, induce_;
  _convince_.

#sub#, prep. with (1) acc., _under, towards, until, after_; (2) with
abl., _under, beneath, at the foot of, close to_; _in the reign of_; in
composition, _under, somewhat_; _in place of_; _underhandedly_.

#subdō#, see #dō#.

#subdūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#subeō#, see (1) #eō#.

#subiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#subigō#, see #agō#.

#subitus# [#subeō#], adj., _sudden, unexpected_; abl. #subitō# as adv.,
_on short notice, suddenly_.

#sublātus#, see #tollō#.

#sublicius# [#sublica#, _a pile_], adj., _consisting of_ or _resting on
piles_.

#sublīmis, e#, adj., _uplifted, lofty_; _on high, through the sky_.

#submittō#, see #mittō#.

#submoveō#, see #moveō#.

#subolēs, is#, f., _a sprout, shoot_; _offspring, issue_; _race_.

#subōrnō#, see #ōrnō#.

#subscrībō#, see #scrībō#.

#subsellium, ī# [#sub# + #sella#], n., _a low bench, seat_.

#subsequor#, see #sequor#.

#subsidium, ī# [cf. #subsīdō#, _to lie in wait_], n., _reserve troops_;
_aid, help_.

#subsistō#, see #sistō#.

#substituō#, see #statuō#.

#subtexō, ere, uī, tus# [#sub# + #texō#, _to weave_], _to weave under,
join_; _subjoin, add_ (in speech).

#succēdō#, see #cēdō#.

#succēssor, ōris# [#succēdō#], m., _follower, successor_.

#succēssus, ūs# [#succēdō#], m., _favorable outcome, success_.

#succingō#, see #cingō#.

#succlāmō#, see #clāmō#.

#succurrō#, see #currō#.

#suēscō, ere, suēvī, suētus#, _to become accustomed to_.

  #ad--adsuēscō, ere, suēvī, suētus#, _to accustom one’s self to, be
  wont_.

  #con--cōnsuēscō, ere, suēvī, suētus#, _to become accustomed_.

#sufficiō#, see #faciō#.

#suffīgō#, see #fīgō#.

#suffōcō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#sub# + #fauces#, _the throat_], _to choke,
strangle_.

#suffodiō#, see #fodiō#.

#suffrāgātor, ōris# [#suffrāgor#, _to vote for_], m., _supporter,
partisan, follower_.

#suffrāgium, ī#, n., _a voting tablet, vote, ballot_.

#suī# gen., #sibi# dat., #sē# acc. and abl. of the reflexive pron.,
sing. and pl., _himself, herself, itself, themselves_; #sēse, sēmet#,
strengthened forms of #sē#.

#Sulla, ae#, m., a cognomen in the Cornelian gens.

  1. _L. Cornēlius Sulla_, surnamed Fēlīx, born B.C. 138; consul in
  88; commanded against Mithridates 88-84; fought Marius in 88, and
  again in 83, 82, becoming master of Italy. He was then chosen
  perpetual dictator, and made many changes in the constitution. He
  resigned the dictatorship in 79, and died next year.

  2. _P. Cornēlius Sulla_, nephew of (1), defended in 62 B.C. by
  Cicero from a charge of complicity in Catiline’s conspiracy.

#Sullānus#, adj., _of_ or _by Sulla, Sullan_; as noun, #Sullānī, ōrum#,
pl. m., _the followers of Sulla_.

#Sulpicius, ī#, m., _Ser. Sulpicius Rūfus_, tribune of the people in 88
B.C., and a supporter of Marius.

#sum, esse, fuī, futūrus#, _to be, exist, live_; with gen., _belong to,
be the part of_; _be true, be so_; _happen, take place_; with dat.,
_have, possess_.

  #ab--absum, esse, āfuī#, _to be away_ or _absent, be far from_;
  #prope abesse#, _to be at no great distance, be near_.

  #ad--adsum, esse, adfuī#, _to be present_ or _near_; _to aid_ (esp.
  in court).

  #dē--dēsum, deesse, dēfuī#, _to be away_ or _absent_; _be wanting_;
  _fail_; _to miss, let slip_.

  #in--īnsum, inesse, īnfuī#, _to be in_ or _on_; _belong to_.

  #inter--intersum, esse, fuī#, _to be present at, take part in_.

  #prae--praesum, praeesse, fuī#, _to be over_ or _before_; _rule,
  govern, be in command of_.

  #prō--prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī#, _to benefit, profit, aid_.

  #super--supersum, esse, fuī#, _to be over_ and _above, remain_;
  _survive, outlive_.

#summa, ae# [#summus#], f., _top, summit_; _chief point_ or _place,
supremacy_; _total, amount, sum_.

#summus#, see #superus#.

#sūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus# [#sub# + #emō#], _to take up, take,
choose_; _enter upon, begin_; _spend_.

  #ab--absūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus#, _to use up, consume_; _spend_.

  #ad--adsūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus#, _to take to one’s self,
  receive_.

  #con--cōnsūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus#, _to use up, spend_.

#sūmptuārius# [#sūmptus#], adj., _relating to expense, sumptuary_.

#sūmptus, ūs# [#sūmō#], m., _outlay, expense_.

#supellex, supellectilis#, f., _household stuff, furniture_.

#super#, prep. (1) with acc., _over, above, upon, in addition to_;
_during_; (2) with abl., _over, upon, beyond, in addition to_.

#superbē# [#superbus#], adv., _haughtily, proudly, arrogantly_.

#superbia, ae# [#superbus#], f., _pride, arrogance_.

#superbus# [#super#], adj., _haughty, proud, arrogant, insolent_.

#Superbus, ī#, m., see #Tarquinius#.

#superiaciō#, see #iaciō#.

#superior#, see #superus#.

#superō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#superus#], _to pass over, cross_; _overcome,
subdue, conquer_; _excel, surpass_.

#supersum#, see #sum#.

#superus# [#super#], adj., _above, upper, higher_; comp. #superior#,
_higher, superior, earlier_; as noun, _a superior_; sup. #suprēmus#,
_highest, topmost, last_, or #summus#, _highest, greatest, extreme, most
distinguished_; _often the highest part of, top of_; #Mare Superum#,
_the Upper_ or _Adriatic Sea_.

#superveniō#, see #veniō#.

#supervīvō#, see #vīvō#.

#supplex, icis# [#sub# + #plicō#, _to fold, bend_], adj., bending the
knees in entreaty, _begging, suppliant_; as noun, _a suppliant_.

#suppliciter# [#supplex#], adv., _suppliantly, humbly_.

#supplicium, ī# [#supplex#], n., _a kneeling down_ (as suppliant, or to
receive punishment); _punishment, execution_.

#supplicō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#supplex#], _to kneel down_; _entreat,
beseech_; _pray, worship_; _thank_.

#suprā# [#super#], adv., _above_.

#surgō, ere, surrēxī, surrēctum# [#sub# + #regō#], _to stand up, rise,
arise_.

  #ad--adsurgō, ere, surrēxī, --#, _to rise up, arise_.

#suscipiō#, see #capiō#.

#sūspectus# [orig. part. of #sūspiciō#, _to suspect_], adj.,
_mistrusted, suspected_.

#suspendium, ī#, n., _hanging_.

#sustineō#, see #teneō#.

#sūtor, ōris# [#suō#, _to sew, stitch_], m., _a shoemaker, cobbler_.

#suus# [#suī#], adj., _his own, her own, its own, their own_; _his, her,
its, their_; as noun, #suī, ōrum#, pl. m., _his_ (their) _friends,
followers, soldiers_ or _fellow-citizens_.

#Syphāx, ācis#, m., a prince of Numidia.

#Syria, ae#, f., _Syria_, a country on the eastern coast of the
Mediterranean.


#T#

#T.#, abbreviation of the name #Titus#.

#tabella, ae# [dim. of #tabula#], f., _a small board, writing tablet_.

#taberna, ae#, f., _stall, shop_ (of boards); _hut, tent_.

#tabernāculum, ī# [#taberna#], n., _a tent_.

#tabula, ae#, f., _a board, plank_; _picture_ (sc. #picta#, _painted_);
_writing tablet_; _record, list_.

#taceō, ēre, uī, --#, _to be silent, say nothing_.

#tacitus# [#taceō#], adj., _silent, secret_.

#taedium, ī# [#taedet#, _it wearies_], n., _weariness, disgust,
loathing_.

#talentum, ī#, n., _a talent_, a Greek money measure, worth about $1100.

#tālis, e#, adj., such, _of such a kind_; #tālis . . . quālis#, _such
. . . as_.

#tam#, adv., _to such a degree, so much, as much, so_; #tam . . . quam#,
_as . . . so, not only . . . but also_.

#tamdiū#, adv., _so long_.

#tamen#, adv., _yet, still, for all that, all the same, however,
nevertheless_.

#tamquam#, conj., _as if_.

#Tanaquil, īlis#, f., the wife of Tarquinius Priscus.

#tandem#, adv., _at length, at last, finally_.

#tangō, ere, tetigī tāctus#, _to touch_.

  #con--contingō, ere, tigī, tāctus#, with acc., _to touch_; with
  dat., _to occur to, fall to lot of, befall_; _happen_.

  #ob--obtingō, ere, tigī, --#, _to fall to the lot of, befall_;
  _occur_.

#tantum# [#tantus#], adv., _so much_ (and no more), _only, merely_.

#tantummodō# [#tantum# + #modō#], adv., _only, merely_.

#tantus#, adj., _so great, such_; as noun, #tantum, ī#, n., _so much_.

#tardē# [#tardus#, _slow_], adv., _slowly_.

#tarditās, ātis# [#tardus#, _slow_], f., _slowness, sluggishness_.

#tardō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#tardus#, _slow_], _to delay, hinder, impede_.

#Tarentīnus#, adj., of _Tarentum, Tarentine_; as noun, #Tarentīnī,
ōrum#, pl. m., _the people of Tarentum_.

#Tarentum, ī#, n., a flourishing Greek city on the southern coast of
Italy; modern _Taranto_.

#Tarpēia, ae#, f., a Roman maiden of the time of Romulus.

#Tarpēius#, adj., _of Tarpeia, Tarpeian_; #rūpēs Tarpēia#, _the
Tarpeian_ rock, a part of the Capitoline Hill, on the side toward the
Forum.

(1) #Tarquiniī, ōrum#, pl. m., a city in Etruria.

(2) #Tarquiniī, ōrum#, pl. m., _the Tarquin family, the Tarquins_.

#Tarquinius, ī#, m., the name of a gens in early Rome, said to have come
from Etruria.

  1. _Tarquinius Prīscus_, the fifth king of Rome.

  2. _Tarquinius Superbus_, the last king of Rome, expelled B.C. 509.

  3. _Sextus Tarquinius_, son of (2).

  4. _L. Tarquinius Collātinus_, cousin of (3), and husband of Lucretia.

#Tatius, ī#, m., #Titus Tatius#, a Sabine king, and joint ruler with
Romulus.

#tēctum, ī# [#tegō#], n., _a covering, roof_; _covered structure,
house_.

#tegō, ere, tēxī, tēctus#, _to cover_; _hide, conceal_; _defend, guard_.

  #dē--dētegō, ere, tēxī, tēctus#, _to uncover, expose_; _betray_.

#tēgula, ae# [#tego#], f., _roof tile, tile_.

#tēlum, ī#, n., _missile_; _spear, javelin_.

#temerārius# [#temerē#], adj., _heedless, rash, reckless_.

#temerē#, adv., _blindly, rashly, heedlessly_.

#temeritās, ātis# [#temerē#], f., _rashness, heedlessness, temerity_.

#temperāns, antis# [orig. part. of #temperō#], adj., _moderate,
temperate, sober_.

#temperō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#tempus#], _to set bounds to, restrain_.

#tempestās, ātis# [#tempus#], f., _point_ or _period of time; storm,
tempest_.

#templum, ī#, n., _a sacred spot_; _temple_.

#tempus, oris#, n., _time, period, season_; _opportunity, occasion_.

#tendō, ere, tetendī, tentus# and #tēnsus#, _to spread out, stretch_;
#īnsidiās tendere#, _to lay a trap for, plot against_.

  #con--contendō, ere, ī, tentus#, _to stretch_; _exert one’s self,
  strive, insist_; _hasten, march quickly_.

  #in--intendō, ere, ī, tentus#, _to stretch, stretch, towards_; _aim,
  direct_.

  #ob(s)--ostendō, ere, ī, tentus#, _to stretch out, show_; _produce,
  furnish_; _disclose, make known_.

  #por (= prō)--portendō, ere, ī, tentus#, _to point out, indicate_;
  _foreshadow, portend_.

  #prō--prōtendō, ere, ī, tentus#, _to stretch out, extend_.

#tenebrae, ārum#, pl. f., _darkness, gloom_; _a hiding place_.

#tenebricōsus# [#tenebrae#], adj., _dark, gloomy_.

#teneō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to hold, keep_; _possess_; _maintain, guard,
defend_; _seize_.

  #ab--abstineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to hold back_ or _from_; _keep
  aloof from_; _refrain from, abstain_.

  #con--contineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to keep, hold, contain_;
  _restrain, rule, curb_.

  #dē--dētineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to hold back_ or _off_; _detain,
  hinder_.

  #ob--obtineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to hold, possess_; _rule, govern_.

  #per--pertineō, ēre, uī, --#, _to stretch out, extend_; _reach_.

  #re--retineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to keep_ or _hold_ (back), _retain,
  detain_.

  #sub(s)--sustineō, ēre, uī, tentus#, _to hold up, support, sustain_;
  _bear, endure_; _hold in check, restrain_.

#tentō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #tendō#], _to touch, handle_; _try,
attempt_; _sound, try to win over_.

#tentōrium, ī# [#tendō#], n., _a tent_.

#ter#, num. adv., _thrice, three times_.

#Terentius, ī#, m., a Roman gentile name. See #Varrō#.

#Terentius, ī#, m., a comrade of Pompey the Great.

#tergiversor, ārī, --# [#tergum# + #vertō#], _to twist and turn,
shuffle, evade_.

#tergum, ī#, n., _back, rear_.

#ternī, ae, a# [cf. #trēs#], num. adj., _three on each side, by threes,
three_.

#terō, ere, trīvī, trītus#, _to rub, wear away_; _waste, kill_.

#terra, ae#, f., _the earth, ground_; _land_.

#terreō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to frighten, alarm, terrify_; _deter_.

  #dē--dēterreō, ēre, uī, itus#, _to frighten off, deter, keep from_.

#terribilis, e# [#terreō#], adj., _frightful, dreadful_.

#terror, ōris# [#terreō#], m., _fear, panic_.

#tertius# [cf. #trēs#], adj., _third_; abl. n. #tertiō# as adv., _the
third time_.

#tēstimōnium, ī# [#tēstis#, _a witness_], n., _evidence, testimony,
proof_.

#tēstor, ārī, ātus sum# [#tēstis#, _a witness_], _to bear witness, be a
witness_.

#Teutobochus, ī#, m., a chief of the Teutones.

#Teutonēs, um#, pl. m., _the Teutones_, a Germanic people which invaded
Italy, but was defeated by Marius.

#thēsaurus, ī#, m., _a treasure, hoard_.

#Thessalia, ae#, f., _Thessaly_, a large district in the northeastern
part of Greece.

#Ti.#, abbreviation of the name #Tiberius#.

#Tiberis, is#, m., _the river Tiber_.

#Tiberius, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#Tīcinus, ī#, m., _the Ticinus_, a river in Cisalpine Gaul, tributary to
the Po.

#tigillum, ī# [dim. of #tīgnum#, _beam_], n., _a little beam_.

#Tigrānēs, is#, m., a king of Armenia, son-in-law of Mithridates.

#timeō, ēre, uī, --#, _to be afraid, fear_.

#timidus# [#timeō#], adj., _fearful, timid_.

#tīrōcinium, ī# [#tīrō#, _a raw recruit_], n., _a soldier’s first
campaign_; _military inexperience_.

#titulus, ī#, m., _inscription, placard, notice_.

#Titus, ī#, m., a Roman praenomen.

#toga, ae#, f., _the toga_, the characteristic outer robe of the Romans.
See also #praetextus#.

#togātus# [#toga#], adj., _clad in the toga_; _in peaceful garb,
unarmed_.

#tollō, ere, sustulī, sublātus#, _to lift, raise, take up_; _remove,
abolish_.

#tonitrus, ūs# [#tonō#, _to thunder_], m., _thunder, peal of thunder_.

#tōnsor, ōris# [#tondeō#, _to shear_], m., _a barber_.

#tōnsōrius# [#tōnsor#], adj., _of a barber, barber’s_.

#Tōranius, ī#, m., _Titus_, who betrayed his father to the second
triumvirate.

#Torquātus, ī# [#torquis#], m., a cognomen common in the Manlian gens.

  1. _T. Mānlius Torquātus_, dictator in 353 and 349 B.C., consul 347,
  344, and 340.

  2. _T. Mānlius Torquātus_, son of (1), put to death by his father
  for disobedience of orders.

#torqueō, ēre, torsī, tortus#, _to turn, twist_; _torture, torment_.

#torquis, is# [#torqueō#], m., _a twisted collar, necklace_.

#torvē# [#torvus#, _grim_], adv., _sternly, grimly_.

#tot#, indecl. adj., _so many_.

#totidem# [#tot#], indecl. adj., _just as many, the same number of_.

#totiēns# [#tot#], adv., _so many times, so often_.

#tōtus#, gen. #tōtīus#, dat. #tōtī#, adj., _all, all the, the whole,
entire_.

#trādō#, see #dō#.

#trādūcō#, see #dūcō#.

#trahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw, drag_; _detain_.

  #ab--abstrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to drag off_ or _away_; _carry
  off_.

  #con--contrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw together, collect,
  assemble_.

  #dē--dētrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw_ or _strip off,
  remove_; _drag_.

  #dis--distrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to pull asunder, part,
  separate_.

  #ex--extrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw_ or _pull out_;
  _prolong, waste_.

  #per--pertrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw along, drag_; _lead_.

  #re--retrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#, _to draw_ or _drag back_.

#trāiciō#, see #iaciō#.

#trānō#, see #nō#.

#trāns#, prep. with acc., _across, beyond, over_.

#trānscendō#, see #scandō#.

#trānseō#, see (1) #eō#.

#transferō#, see #ferō#.

#trānsfīgō#, see #fīgō#.

#trānsfodiō#, see #fodiō#.

#trānsfugiō#, see #fugiō#.

#trānsgredior#, see #gradior#.

#trānsigō#, see #agō#.

#trānsiliō#, see #saliō#.

#trānsmittō#, see #mittō#.

#trānsversus# [#trāns# + #vertō#], adj., _turned across, crosswise_;
_out of the way_.

#Trasumēnus, ī#, m., a lake in Etruria, famous as the scene of
Hannibal’s victory over the Romans in B.C. 217.

#Trebia, ae#, f., _the Trebia_, a small tributary of the Po, near
Placentia.

#trecentēsimus# [#trecentī#], num. adj., _three hundredth_.

#trecentī, ae, a# [#trēs# + #centum#], num. adj., _three hundred_.

#tredecim# [#trēs# + #decem#], indecl. num. adj., _thirteen_.

#tremō, ere, uī, --#, _to quake, tremble_.

#trepidātiō, ōnis# [#trepidō#], f., _alarm, confusion_.

#trepidō, āre, āvī, --#, _to be in alarm_ or _confusion_; _tremble,
waver_.

#trēs, tria#, num. adj., _three_.

#tribūnal, ālis# [#tribūnus#], n., _a judgment seat, tribunal_.

#tribūnātus, ūs# [#tribūnus#], m., _the tribuneship, office of tribune_.

#tribūnīcius# [#tribūnus#], adj., _of a tribune, tribunitial_.

#tribūnus, ī# [#tribus#], m., _chief of a tribe, tribune_; #tribūnus
mīlitum# or #mīlitāris#, _military tribune, captain_, one of the minor
officers of a legion, six in number; #tribūnus plēbis#, _tribune of the
people_, elected from the plebeians. The office was created in 494 B.C.
to protect the plebeians against the patricians. Ten _tribūnī plēbis_
were elected annually. Their persons were sacred.

#tribuō, ere, ī, ūtus# [#tribus#], _to assign, grant, give_.

  #dis--distribuō, ere, ī, ūtus#, _to divide, distribute, apportion_.

#tribus, ūs# [cf. #trēs#], f., _a tribe_ (orig. a third part of the
people).

#tribūtum, ī# [#tribuō#], n., _tax, tribute_.

#triennium, ī# [#trēs# + #annus#], n., _the space of three years, three
years_.

#trigeminī, ae, a# [#trēs# + #geminus#], adj., _born three at a birth_;
as noun, pl. m., _triplets_.

#trīgintā#, indecl. num. adj., _thirty_.

#trīstis, e#, adj., _sad, sorrowful_; _stern, severe_.

#triumphālis, e# [#triumphus#], adj., _pertaining to a triumph,
triumphal_.

#triumphō, āre, āvī, ātum# [#triumphus#], _to celebrate a triumph,
triumph_.

#triumphus, ī#, m., _a triumph_, the splendid procession in which the
victorious general entered the city, accompanied by his soldiers and the
spoil and captives he had taken. The procession passed round the
Capitoline Hill into the Via Sacra, then into the Forum, and on up to
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

#triumvir, virī# [#trēs# + #vir#], m., _a triumvir_, one of a board of
three commissioners.

#tropaeum, ī#, n., _a trophy, sign of victory_, made usually by
fastening captured arms to the trunk of a tree.

#trucīdō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to cut to pieces, slaughter, butcher_.

#truncus, ī#, m., _stem, trunk_ (of a tree); _trunk, body_.

#tū, tuī#, pl. #vōs, vestrum# or #vestrī#, pers. pron., _thou, you_.

#tueor, ērī, itus sum#, _to look at, watch_; _defend, protect_.

  #in--intueor, ērī, itus sum#, _to look closely at or upon, gaze at_.

#Tullius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens.

  1. _Servius Tullius_, sixth king of Rome.

  2. _M. Tullius Cicerō_, the orator. See #Cicerō#.

#Tullus, ī#, m., praenomen of _Tullus Hostīlius_, third king of Rome.

#tum#, adv., _then, at that time_; _thereupon_.

#tumultuor, ārī, ātus sum# [#tumultus#], _to make a disturbance, riot_.

#tumultus, ūs#, m., _a disturbance, uproar_; _rebellion, riot_.

#tumulus, ī# [#tumeō#, _to swell_], m., _a hillock, mound, hill_.

#tunc#, adv., _then, at that time_; _accordingly, thereupon_.

#turba, ae#, f., _a hubbub, crowd, throng_.

#turbulentus# [#turba#], adj., _stormy, confused, troubled_.

#turdus, ī#, m., _a thrush, fieldfare_.

#turma, ae#, f., _a troop_ or _squadron_ (of cavalry).

#turpis, e#, adj., _ugly_; _base, dishonorable_.

#turris, is#, m., _tower, castle_; _howdah_.

#tūs, tūris#, n., _incense_.

#tūtēla, ae# [#tueor#], f., _protection, guardianship_.

(1) #tūtor, ōris# [#tueor#], m., _protector, guardian_.

(2) #tūtor, ārī, ātus sum# [freq. of #tueor#], _to guard, protect_.

#tūtus# [orig. part. of #tueor#], adj., _safe_; #tūtō#, abl. as adv.,
_safely_.


#U#

#ūber, eris#, n., _teat, dug, udder_.

#ubi#, interr. adv., _where? when?_ As conj. interr. and rel., _where,
when_.

#ulcīscor, ī, ultus sum#, _to punish, avenge_.

#ūllus#, gen. #ūllīus#, adj., _any, any one_.

#ulterior, ius#, gen. #ōrīs# [#ultrā#], adj., _farther, remoter_; sup.
#ultimus#, _farthest, last, utmost, greatest_; #ultima manus#,
_finishing touches_; #ulterius#, adv., _beyond, farther, more, longer_;
#ultimum#, adv., _for the last time_.

#ultimum, ultimus#, see #ulterior#.

#ultiō, ōnis# [#ulcīscor#], f., _revenge_.

#ultrā#, adv., and prep. with acc., _on the other side, beyond_; #ultrā
fidem#, _incredibly_.

#ultrō#, adv., _of one’s own accord, voluntarily_.

#umbra, ae#, f., _shadow, shade_.

#umerus, ī#, m., _the shoulder_.

#umquam#, adv., _at any time, ever_.

#unde#, adv. (1) interr., _whence? from whom, from which?_ (2) rel.,
_whence, from whom, from which_; _wherefore_.

#ūndecim# [#ūnus# + #decem#], indecl. num. adj., _eleven_.

#undique#, adv., _from all sides_; _on all sides, everywhere_.

#unguis, is#, m., _a_ (finger) _nail_.

#ūniversus# [#ūnus# + #vertō#], adj., _all in one, whole, entire_.

#ūnus#, gen. #unīus#, adj., _one, only, sole, alone_; #ūnus quisque#,
_each one_.

#urbānus# [#urbs#], adj., _of_ or _in the city_, esp. _in Rome_;
_refined, witty_; as noun, #urbānī, ōrum#, pl. m., _city people_; _town
wits_.

#urbs, urbis#, f., _a city_; The City (Rome).

#ūrīnātor, ōris#, m., _a diver_.

#ūrna, ae# [#ūrō#], f., _a vessel, urn_ (of baked clay).

#ūrō, ere, ūssī, ūstus#, _to burn_.

  #co# + #amb(i)--combūrō, ere, ūssī, ūstus#, _to burn up, consume_.

  #dē--deūrō, ere, ūssī, ūstus#, _to burn up, consume_.

  #ex--exūrō, ere, ūssī, ūstus#, _to burn up, consume_.

#ūsquam#, adv., _anywhere_.

#ūsque#, adv., _all the way, right on, continuously, even_.

#ūsūrpō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#ūsus# + #rapiō#], _to make use of, enjoy_.

#ūsus, ūs# [#ūtor#], m., _use, employment_; _experience, training_;
_profit, advantage, convenience_.

#ut#, adv., interr., _how? in what way?_ rel., _as, just as_; _since,
seeing that_; #ut . . . ita#, _just as . . . so_.

#ut#, conj., (1) with indic., _when_; #ut prīmum#, _as soon as_;
(2) with subj. of purpose, _in order that, that_; of result, _so that,
that_.

(1) #uter, utris#, m., _leather bag, skin_.

(2) #uter, utra, utrum#, adj., (1) interr., _which of (the) two?_
(2) rel., _whichever one_ (of the two).

#uterque, traque, trumque# [#uter# + #que#], adj., _each_ (of the two),
_both_.

#ūtilis, e# [#ūtor#], adj., _useful, helpful_; _profitable, expedient_.

#ūtilitās, ātis# [#ūtilis#], f., _profit, advantage_.

#utinam#, adv., _oh that! would that!_

#utique#, adv., _at any rate, surely_; _especially_.

#ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum#, _make use of, employ_; _enjoy, take advantage
of_; #aliquid ūtendum dare#, _to lend_.

#utpote#, adv., _seeing that, inasmuch as, since_.

#utrimque# [#uterque#], adv., _from_ or _on both sides, on either hand_.

#uxor, ōris#, f., _a wife_.


#V#

#vacō, āre, āvī, --#, _to be empty, be free_ (e.g. from labor), _have
leisure_.

#vacuus# [#vacō#], adj., _empty, unoccupied_.

#vādō, ere, --, --#, _to go, rush_.

  #ex--ēvādō, ere, vāsī, vāsus#, _to go forth_ or _away_; _get away,
  escape_; _get to be, become_.

  #in--invādō, ere, vāsī, vāsum#, _to enter_; _attack_; _seize, take
  possession of_.

#vae#, interj., _oh! alas! woe!_

#vāgītus, ūs# [#vāgiō#, _to cry_], m., _squalling, crying_.

#valeō, ēre, uī, itūrus#, _to be well_ or _strong_; _have power_ or
_influence, prevail_.

#Valerius, ī#, m., the name of a Roman gens.

  1. _M. Valerius Māximus Corvīnus_. See #Māximus# (1).

  2. _C. Valerius Catullus_. See #Catullus#.

#valētūdō, inis# [#valeō#], f., _health_ (good or bad); _good health_;
_sickness_.

#validus# [#valeō#], adj., _strong, stout; powerful_.

#vallēs#, or #vallis, is#, f., _valley, vale_.

#vāllum, ī#, n., _stockade, rampart, wall_.

#vānus#, adj., _empty, idle_; _ostentatious, vain_.

#varius#, adj., _various, different, diverse_.

#varix, icis#, m., _a dilated vein_.

#Varrō, ōnis#, m., _C. Terentius Varrō_, consul in 219 and 216; defeated
at Cannae, with his colleague Paulus.

#Vārus, ī#, m., see #Quīntilius#.

#vas, vadis#, m., _bail, security_; _surety_.

#vās, vāsis# (pl. #vāsa, ōrum#), n., _a vessel, dish_.

#vāstō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#vāstus#], _to lay waste, devastate, destroy_.

#vāstus#, adj., _empty, waste_; _immense, huge_.

#vegetus# [#vegeō#, _to quicken_], adj., _lively, animated_.

#vehementer# [#vehemēns#, _earnest_], adv., _earnestly, seriously,
severely_; _exceedingly_.

#vehō, ere, vexī, vectus#, _to bear, carry, convey_; in pass., with
#nāvī# or #equō#, _to sail, ride_.

  #ad--advehō, ere, vexī, vectus#, _to carry_ or _bring to, bring_.

  #ex--ēvehō, ere, vexī, vectus#, _to lift, raise, elevate_.

  #in--invehō, ere, vexī, vectus#, _to carry in_ or _to_; in pass.,
  _ride into, sail to_.

  #prō--prōvehō, ere, vexī, vectus#, _to carry forward_; in pass., _to
  sail, proceed_.

#Vēientēs, um#, pl. m., _the people of Veii_, a town in Etruria, about
twelve miles from Rome.

#vel# [old imperative of (1) #volō#], adv. and conj., _even_; _or, or
else_; #vel . . . vel#, _either . . . or_.

#vēlō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to cover up, veil_.

#vēlōcitās, ātis# [#vēlōx#], f., _speed, swiftness_.

#vēlōx, ōcis#, adj., _swift, fleet, quick_.

#velut# or #velutī#, adv., _just as if, as if_; _ostensibly_.

#vēnābulum, ī# [#vēnor#], n., _a hunting spear_.

#vēnātiō, ōnis# [#vēnor#], f., _hunting_; _a hunting spectacle_, in
which wild beasts fought against men, or against one another.

#vēndō, ere, didī, ditus# [contr. from vēnumdō], _to sell_.

#venēnum, ī#, n., _poison_.

#venerātiō, ōnis# [#veneror#], f., _respect, reverence_; _an object of
reverence_ or _awe_.

#veneror, ārī, ātus sum#, _to reverence, worship, revere, respect,
honor_.

#venia, ae#, f., _indulgence, favor, pardon_.

#veniō, īre, vēnī, ventum#, _to come, go_.

  #ad--adveniō, īre, vēnī, ventum#, _to come to, reach, arrive at,
  arrive_.

  #circum--circumveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus#, _to surround, beset_.

  #con--conveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus#, _to come together, assemble_;
  with acc., _to meet_; #convenit#, impers., _it is agreed, an
  arrangement is made_.

  #in--inveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus#, _to come upon, find, discover_.

  #ob--obveniō, īre, vēnī, ventum#, _to come_ or _go to meet_;
  _befall, occur to_; _fall to the lot of_.

  #per--perveniō, īre, vēnī, ventum#, _to come to, reach_; _penetrate,
  attain to_.

  #prae--praeveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus#, _to come before, get start of,
  anticipate, outstrip_.

  #super--superveniō, īre, vēnī, ventum#, _to come to the rescue,
  arrive_.

#vēnor, ārī, ātus sum#, _to hunt, chase_.

#venter, tris#, m., _the stomach_.

#ventitō, āre, āvī, --# [freq. of #veniō#], _to come_ or _go often,
resort_.

#ventus, ī#, m., _wind_.

#vēnumdō, dare, dedī, datus# [#vēnum#, _sale_ + #dō#], _to sell_.

#Venusia, ae#, f., a town in Southern Italy, between Apulia and Lucania.

#venustus# [#venus#, _grace_], adj., _charming, graceful_.

#verber, eris#, n., _a lash, whip_; _blow_.

#verbum, ī#, n., _a word_; _saying, phrase_.

#vērē# [#vērus#], adv., _truthfully, truly_.

#verēcundia, ae# [#vereor#], f., _modesty, shame_; _respect, reverence_.

#vereor, ērī, itus sum#, _to feel awe of, respect_; _fear, be afraid_.

#vērō# [abl. of #vērus#], adv., _truly, heartily_; _in truth, indeed,
however, but_.

#verrūca, ae#, f., _a wart, pimple_.

#versiculus# [dim. of #versus#], m., _a little verse_; _a line_.

#versō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #vertō#], _to twist, turn_; pass., _to
dwell, abide, be_; _employ one’s self, conduct one’s self_.

#versus, ūs# [#vertō#], m., _a verse, line_.

#vertex, icis# [#vertō#], m., _summit, peak, crest_.

#vertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to turn, change_; in pass., _turn about,
return_.

  #ab--āvertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to turn away_ or _aside, avert,
  divert_.

  #con--convertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to turn round, change_; _turn,
  direct_; _divert, misuse_; #conversus#, _turning_.

  #dis--dīvertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to turn away_ or _aside_.

  #ex--ēvertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to overturn, destroy, ruin_.

  #inter--intervertō, ere, ī, versus#, _to turn aside_; _embezzle,
  misappropriate_.

  #re--revertor, ī, revertī# or (less often) #reversus sum#, _to
  return_; _revert, recur_.

#vērum# [#vērus#], adv., _truly, certainly_; _but_.

#vērus#, adj., _true, real, genuine_. For #rē vērā#, see #rēs#.

#vescor, ī, --#, _to eat_.

#vesper, erī#, m., _evening_.

#Vesta, ae#, f., the goddess of the hearth, and so of the family and the
state. A fire was kept burning continually in her temple near the Forum,
which six maidens, called Vestals, watched in turn, since the Romans
believed that the maintenance of this fire was closely connected with
the continuance of their state. The Vestals were not allowed to marry
during their term of office.

#vester, tra, trum# [orig. #voster#; cf. #vōs#], poss. pron. adj.,
_your, yours_.

#vēstibulum, ī#, n., _vestibule, entrance_.

#vēstīgium, ī#, n., _footstep, footprint_.

#vestis, is#, f., _clothing, garments_; _a robe_.

#veterānus# [#vetus#], adj., _old, veteran_. As noun, #veterānī, ōrum#,
pl. m., _veteran soldiers, veterans_.

#vetō, āre, uī, itus#, _not allow, forbid_.

#vetus, eris#, adj., _old, aged_; _of a former time, ancient_.

#vexō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #vehō#], _to shake_; _trouble,
disturb_.

#via, ae#, f., _highway, road_; _passage, march, journey_.

#vicārius, ī# [#vicis#], m., _a substitute, proxy_.

#vīcēsimus# [cf. #vīgintī#], num. adj., _twentieth_.

#vīciēs# [cf. #vīgintī#], num. adv., _twenty times_.

#vīcīnus# [#vīcus#], adj., _neighboring, near_.

(#vicis#), #is# (nom. wanting), f., _alternation, change, succession_;
#in vicem#, _in turn_.

#victor, ōris# [#vincō#], m., _conqueror, victor_; as adj.,
_victorious_.

#victōria, ae# [#victor#], f., _victory_.

#vīcus, ī#, m., _a street_; _village, town_.

#vidēlicet# [#vidēre# + #licet#], adv., _you see, clearly_; _of course,
that is_.

#videō, ēre, vīdī, vīsus#, _to see, perceive, understand_; in pass.,
_seem_.

  #in--invideō, ēre, vīdī, vīsus#, _to look askance at, to envy_.

#vigil, vigilis#, adj., _wakeful, alert_; as noun, _a watchman,
sentinel_.

#vigilantia, ae# [#vigil#], f., _wakefulness, vigilance, watchfulness_.

#vigilia, ae# [#vigil#], f., _wakefulness_; _a watch_ (a fourth part of
the night).

#vīgintī#, indecl. num. adj., _twenty_.

#vīlicus, ī# [#vīlla#], m., _overseer, steward_.

#vīlla, ae#, f., _a country house, villa_.

#vīminālis, e# [#vīmen#, _an osier_], adj., _of osiers_; as noun,
#Vīminālis, is#, m. (sc. #collis#), _the Viminal Hill_, one of the seven
hills of Rome.

#vinciō, īre, vinxī, vinctus#, _to bind, fetter_.

#vincō, ere, vīcī, victus#, _to conquer, defeat_; _surpass_; intrans.,
_prevail_.

  #dē--dēvincō, ere, vīcī, victus#, _to conquer completely, subdue_.

#vinculum, ī# [#vinciō#], n., _a bond_; in pl., _bonds, chains, jail_.

#vindex, icis#, m., _champion, protector_.

#vindicō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#vīs# + #dīcō#], _to claim_; _protect_;
_avenge_; _punish_.

#vīnum, ī#, n., _wine_.

#violentus# [#vīs#], adj., _violent, impetuous_.

#violō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#vīs#], _to injure_; _dishonor, outrage_.

#vir, virī#, m., _a man, hero_; _husband_.

#vīrēs#, see #vīs#.

#virga, ae#, f., _a rod, scourge_.

#Virgīnia, ae#, f., the maiden whose attempted enslavement by Appius
Claudius led to the downfall of the Decemvirs, B.C. 449.

#Virgīnius, ī#, m., _L._, the father of Virginia, consul in B.C. 449.

#virgō, inis#, f., _young girl, maiden, virgin_.

#virīlis, e# [#vir#], adj., _manly_.

#virītim# [#vir#], adv., _man by man, singly, individually_.

#virtūs, ūtis# [#vir#], f., _manliness, strength, bravery_; _ability_.

#vīs#, gen. and dat. wanting, acc. #vim#, abl. #vī#, f., _strength,
force_; _hostile force, violence_; _quantity, number_; pl., #vīrēs#,
_energy, vigor, resources_; #vim facere#, _to use violence_.

#vīsō, ere, ī, us# [freq. of #videō#], _to go to see, visit_.

#vīsus, ūs# [#videō#], m., _appearance, vision_.

#vīta, ae# [cf. #vīvō#], f., _life_.

#vitium, ī# [#vieō#, _to twist_], n., _a fault, failing, vice_.

#vituperandus# [gerundive of #vituperō#], adj., _blameworthy_.

#vituperātiō, ōnis# [#vituperō#], f., _censure, criticism_.

#vituperō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to blame, censure_.

#vīvō, ere, vīxī, vīctum#, _to live_.

  #super--supervīvō, ere, vīxī, --#, _to live beyond, outlive,
  survive_.

#vīvus# [#vīvō#], adj., _living, alive_; of water, _running_.

#vix#, adv., _with difficulty, hardly, scarcely_.

#vōciferor, ārī, ātus sum# [#vōx# + #ferō#], _to cry out, shout,
exclaim_.

#vocitō, āre, āvī, ātus# [freq. of #vocō#], _to call repeatedly_ or
_loudly_.

#vocō, āre, āvī, ātus# [cf. #vōx#], _to call, summon, name_.

  #ab--āvocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call off_, or _away_.

  #ad--advocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call to_ (one), _summon_; _call
  together_.

  #con--convocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call together, summon_.

  #ex--ēvocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call forth_ or _out, summon_.

  #prō--prōvocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call forth, challenge_;
  _appeal to_.

  #re--revocō, āre, āvī, ātus#, _to call back, call again, recall_.

#volitō, āre, āvī, --# [freq. of (2) #volō#], _flit about_; _fly,
hasten_.

(1) #volō, velle, voluī, --#, _to wish_; _be willing_; _be minded,
determine_.

(2) #volō, āre, āvī, ātūrus#, _to fly_.

  #ab--āvolō, āre, āvī, --#, _to fly_ or _hasten away_.

  #dē--dēvolō, āre, --, --#, _to fly down, fly_.

#Volscī, ōrum#, pl. m., an ancient tribe living in the southern part of
Latium, finally subdued by the Romans in B.C. 338.

#volucer, cris, cre# [(2) #volō#], adj., _flying, winged_; as noun, f.
(sc. #avis#), _a bird_.

#volūmen, inis# [#volvō#, _to roll_], n., _roll of writing, scroll,
volume, book_.

#voluntārius# [#voluntās#], adj., _of free will, voluntary_.

#voluntās, ātis# [(1) #volō#], f., _will, wish, desire, inclination_.

#voluptās, ātis#, f., _pleasure, enjoyment_.

#vōs#, see #tū#.

#vōtum, ī# [#voveō#], n., _a vow, wish, prayer_.

#voveō, ēre, vōvī, vōtus#, _to promise solemnly, vow, dedicate_.

  #dē--dēvoveō, ēre, vōvī, vōtus#, _to consecrate, doom, devote_.

#vōx, vōcis#, f., _voice, sound, tone_; _cry, call_; _saying, speech_.

#vulgāris, e# [#vulgus#], adj., _commonplace, ordinary, vulgar_.

#vulgō# [#vulgus#], adv., _commonly, popularly, generally_.

#vulgus, ī#, n., _the masses, multitude, the common people_.

#vulnerō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#vulnus#], _to wound, hurt, injure_.

#vulnus, eris#, n., _a wound_; _blow, misfortune_.

#vultur, uris#, m., _a vulture_.

#vultus, ūs#, m., _the expression of the face, features, countenance_.


#X#

#Xanthippus, ī#, m., a Spartan general by whose aid the Carthaginians
defeated Regulus in B.C. 255.

#Xenophōn, ōntis#, m., _Xenophon_, an Athenian general and author, who
lived about B.C. 440-350.

#Xerxēs, is#, m., a king of Persia, defeated by the Greeks at Salamis
B.C. 480.


#Z#

#Zama, ae#, f., a city in Numidia, near Carthage.

#zōna, ae#, f., _a girdle, belt_; _money belt_.



REFERENCES TO HARKNESS’ COMPLETE LATIN GRAMMAR

To accompany Arrowsmith and Knapp’s Viri Romae


Page   Note

  1     4  489
        5  568
        6  446, 2

  2     7  429
        8  639
       10  476
       18  622

  3     2  649, II.
        4  418
       10  595
       11  480
       14  533, 4
       15  532, 3

  4     1  475
        6  477, I.
       12  598

  5     3  590
        6  205, 2
       14  396, 2
       20  633

  6     1  646
       16  615

  7     7  600, II.
       16  642
       17  473, 2
       20  565

  8     5  462

  9     6  568

 10     2  430
        6  429
        9  570
       15  417
       18  471

 12     1  417
        5  605, I.
       23  454

 13    10  652, 1

 14    13  568, 7
       15  440, 1 and 2

 15     3  484, 2

 16     6  559, 1

 17     4  427
       11  451, 1

 18     4  584
       17  440, 3

 19    15  424

 20    11  603, 2
       12  426

 21     8  611, 1
       14  473, 2
       15  666, 2

 23     8  467

 24     9  478
       12  565

 25     6  433
        7  483

 27     3  489, 1
        6  588, II.
       16  430

 28     7  457
        9  425, 4, N.
       13  484, 2

 30     2  441
        3  426, 2

 31     1  592, 1
        9  559, 1
       11  576

 33     2  454
       13  426

 34     2  426

 35     2  489
        6  497, 4

 36     8  456
       10  477, I.
       18  476, 1

 37     4  477, III.

 38     1  497 and 1
       12  567

 39     4  595, 1
       12  479

 41    10  473, 3

 42     5  399, 5

 44     2  428, 3

 47    12  579 and N.

 48     4  481
        5  499

 49     4  83, 5
        7  561, 2

 51     6  626, 3

 53    12  451, 2

 54     8  473, 2, N. 1
        9  416, 2

 62     5  591, 4
        9  565, 4

 63     5  642, 4

 66     4  556

 67     4  448, 1

 70     2  581, 1

 72     8  592

 73     5  591, 1

 74     5  470, 1

 75    10  456, 3

 76     4  432

 85     6  474, 2, N. 1

 86     7  586, II.

 87     7  587

 90     2  535, 1

112     3  468

114     2  429
        3  426, 1
        4  434
        6  378, 2

115     1  378

118     4  486

120     7  431

123     2  426, 2
        7  440, 5

124     1  598

129     1  451, 1


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


Harkness’s New Latin Grammars


=A COMPLETE LATIN GRAMMAR=

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VIRGIL’S AENEID

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  Professor of Latin, Colgate Academy

  =Half Leather, 12mo, 566 pages, with Maps and Illustrations.
  Price, $1.30=


This edition of Cicero contains in addition to selected letters all the
orations required by all the colleges throughout the country. It is
intended to be distinctly practical and aims solely to meet the needs of
secondary and preparatory schools.

  =The Orations= have been arranged in the order in which it is
  thought they can be read to the best advantage and include, besides
  the four against Catiline, those for Archais, Milo, Marcellus, and
  Ligarius, Pompey’s Commission, and the Fourteenth Philippic.

  =The Letters= have been selected with special reference to their
  fitness for reading at sight and for this purpose they have no equal
  in Roman literature.

  =The Introduction= includes a well balanced life of Cicero with a
  just estimate of his standing and character and many helpful
  features which will give the student a comprehensive knowledge of
  Roman life and politics.

  =The Notes= suggest rather than tell the student and help him to
  get, instead of getting for him, that acquaintance with the orator
  and with the language which is the result of true study.

  =The Vocabulary= shows great care and thoroughness and meets the
  requirements of the average student.

  =The Maps= are accurate and drawn especially for this work and the
  Illustrations are happily chosen to illustrate both text and time.


  _Copies sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price._

  =American Book Company=
  =New York · Cincinnati · Chicago=



LATIN LITERATURE OF THE EMPIRE

  =Selected and Edited with Revised Texts and Brief Introductions=

  By ALFRED GUDEMAN, Ph.D.
  Associate Professor of Classical Philology,
  University of Pennsylvania

  =In Two Volumes. Cloth, 12mo.  Per Volume, $1.80=

  VOL. I--PROSE. Selections from Velleius, Curtius, Seneca
  Rhetor, Justinus (Trogus Pompeius), Seneca, Petronius, including
  Cena Trimalchionis, Pliny the Elder, Quintilian, Tacitus, Pliny the
  Younger, Suetonius, Minucius Felix Octavius, Apuleius--Ammianus
  Marcellinus, and Boethius.

  VOL. II--POETRY. Pseudo Vergiliana, Aetna, Manilius,
  Calpurnius, Nemesianus, Phaedrus, Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, Seneca,
  the Octavia (anonymous), Persius, Statius, Silius Italicus, Martial,
  Juvenal, Pervigilium Veneris, Ausonius, and Claudianus.


The works of Latin Literature of the post-Augustan period have hitherto,
with a few notable exceptions, been virtually excluded from the
classical curricula of colleges and universities.

The present collection has been made primarily for the use of students
in higher classes in colleges. The selections will be found useful as
collateral reading in connection with lectures on classical literature,
and will also furnish suitable material for sight reading.

The selections themselves contain nothing that is not eminently worthy
of perusal. They are in every case sufficiently extensive to give a
continuous and coherent story, which at the same time exhibits the
author at his best. The text follows the best modern editions, the
deviations from the standard texts being briefly recorded in critical
appendices.


  _Copies sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price._

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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF LATIN INSCRIPTIONS

  By JAMES C. EGBERT, Jr., Ph.D.
  Adjunct Professor of Latin, Columbia University

  =Half Morocco, large 12mo, 468 pages. With numerous illustrations and
  exact reproductions of inscriptions    Price, $3 50=

This work is designed as a text-book for the use of students in
Universities and Colleges, and also to furnish an account of this branch
of archaeological study for general readers. It has been prepared in the
belief that a knowledge of epigraphy forms an essential part of the
equipment of a teacher of the classics, and that the subject itself has
become so important as to justify its introduction, in elementary form
at least, into the curriculum of undergraduate studies.

A distinctive feature of the book is the number and character of its
illustrations,--there being over seven hundred cuts and diagrams of
inscriptions, for the purpose of illustrating the text, and for practice
in reading. Of these, over one hundred are photographic reproductions,
showing the forms of the letters and the arrangement of the
inscriptions. The work is also supplied with an exhaustive bibliography
and valuable tables of abbreviations, archaisms, etc.


_Copies of Egbert’s Latin Inscriptions will be sent, prepaid, to any
address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:_

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FIRST LATIN READINGS

An Equivalent for Caesar

  by

  ROBERT ARROWSMITH, Ph.D.

  and

  G. M. WHICHER, M.A.

  Instructor in Classics, Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y.

  =Cloth, 12mo, 344 pages. Price, $1.25=

This work has been prepared in response to a growing demand for a new
first reading book in Latin, offering more simple and interesting
material for the second-year work than is now provided by Caesar’s
Commentaries, the first connected reading pupils meet in the Latin
course.

It is the aim of the present volume to offer for the student’s first
reading in Latin, material in which the least difficult Latin comes
first; which contains the largest possible general vocabulary, instead
of a small special vocabulary; which is drawn from a wide, instead of a
narrow, range of literature; and which may be associated with other
departments of teaching with greater success and productiveness than
Caesar’s Commentaries.

The selections in First Latin Readings have, therefore, been chosen with
reference to their difficulty, their interest as literature, and, as far
as possible, their relation to Roman life and custom, and not with
reference to their exclusive use as drilling material on formal
classical construction.

Exercises in Latin prose composition, based on the text of each author
represented, have been prepared, and are included in the book.

_Copies of First Latin Readings will be sent, prepaid, to any address on
receipt of the price by the Publishers:_

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LATIN DICTIONARIES


=HARPER’S LATIN DICTIONARY=

  Founded on the translation of “Freund’s Latin-German Lexicon.”
  Edited by E. A. ANDREWS, LL.D. Revised, Enlarged, and in great
  part Rewritten by CHARLTON T. LEWIS, Ph.D., and CHARLES SHORT, LL.D.

Royal Octavo, 2030 pages    Sheep, =$6.50=; Full Russia, =$10.00=

The translation of Dr. Freund’s great Latin-German Lexicon, edited by
the late Dr. E. A. Andrews, and published in 1850 has been from that
time in extensive and satisfactory use throughout England and America.
Meanwhile great advances have been made in the science on which
lexicography depends. The present work embodies the latest advances in
philological study and research, and is in every respect the most
complete and satisfactory Latin Dictionary published.


=LEWIS’S LATIN DICTIONARY FOR SCHOOLS=

  By CHARLTON T. LEWIS, Ph.D.

  Large Octavo, 1200 pages    Cloth, =$4 50=; Half Leather, =$5.00=

This dictionary is not an abridgment, but an entirely new and
independent work, designed to include all of the student’s needs, after
acquiring the elements of grammar, for the interpretation of the Latin
authors commonly read in school.


=LEWIS’S ELEMENTARY LATIN DICTIONARY=

  By CHARLTON T. LEWIS, Ph.D.

  Crown Octavo, 952 pages. Half Leather    =$2.00=

This work is sufficiently full to meet the needs of students in
secondary or preparatory schools, and also in the first and second
years’ work in colleges.


=SMITH’S ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY=

  A Complete and Critical English-Latin Dictionary. By WILLIAM SMITH,
  LL.D., and THEOPHILUS D. HALL, M.A., Fellow of University College,
  London. With a Dictionary of Proper Names.

  Royal Octavo, 765 pages. Sheep    =$4.00=


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GREEK DICTIONARIES


=LIDDELL AND SCOTT’S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON=

  Revised and Enlarged. Compiled by HENRY GEORGE LIDDELL, D.D., and
  ROBERT SCOTT, D.D., assisted by HENRY DRISLER, LL.D. Large Quarto,
  1794 pages. Sheep      =$10.00=

The present edition of this great work has been thoroughly revised, and
large additions made to it. The editors have been favored with the
co-operation of many scholars and several important articles have been
entirely rewritten.


=LIDDELL AND SCOTT’S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON--Intermediate=

  Revised Edition. Large Octavo, 910 pages.

    Cloth, =$3.50=; Half Leather, =$4.00=

This Abridgment is an entirely new work, designed to meet the ordinary
requirements of instructors. It differs from the smaller abridged
edition in that it is made from the last edition of the large Lexicon,
and contains a large amount of new matter.


=LIDDELL AND SCOTT’S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON--Abridged=

  Revised Edition. Crown Octavo, 832 pages. Half Leather =$1.25=

This Abridgment is intended chiefly for use by students in Secondary and
College Preparatory Schools.


=THAYER’S GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT=

  Being Grimm’s Wilke’s Clavis Novi Testamenti. Translated, Revised,
  and Enlarged by JOSEPH HENRY THAYER, D.D., LL.D. Royal Quarto,
  727 pages    Cloth, =$5.00=; Half Leather, =$6.50=

This great work embodies and represents the results of the latest
researches in modern philology and biblical exegesis. It traces
historically the signification and use of all words used in the New
Testament, and carefully explains the difference between classical and
sacred usage.


=YONGE’S ENGLISH-GREEK LEXICON=

  By C. D. YONGE. Edited by HENRY DRISLER, LL.D.

  Royal Octavo, 903 pages. Sheep    =$4.50=


=AUTENRIETH’S HOMERIC DICTIONARY=

  Translated and Edited by ROBERT P. KEEP, Ph.D. New Edition.
  Revised by ISAAC FLAGG, Ph.D.

  12mo, 312 pages. Illustrated. Cloth    =$1.10=


_Copies sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price._

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  =New York · Cincinnati · Chicago=


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


Errors and Inconsistencies (noted by transcriber):

_Main Text_

  page 3: Rōmulus statim armātīs[3] pāstōribus  [armātis]
  Footnote 2.18 ... See p. xviii, E 4, H 622 ... B 337, 7, 2.
    [E 4. H 622 ... B 337, 7, 2).]
  Footnote 3.4 ... B 182, 1, _a_;  [B 182, 1, _a_);]
  Footnote 10.13: _sepeliō_  [_final . missing_]
  Footnote 18.13: Cf. p. 3, n. 2.  [cf.]
  Footnote 18.14 ... quod in mente concēpī?_’  [_close quote missing_]
  page 23: Incidit[10] dē uxōribus mentiō  [de]
  Footnote 28.9: dat. of reference  [dat of]
  page 29: nī faciat,[16]  [faciāt]
  Footnote 29.16 ... vī (tē) abstraham  [te]
  Footnote 39.4 ... H 595, 1 (504, 3, 2)  [(504, 3, 2))]
  page 41 Inde Rōmam dē permūtandīs captīvīs  [captīvis]
  page 48: nē Rōma opprimī posset  [ne]
  Footnote 44.2 ... Cf. H 428, 3 (385, 4, 3):  [(385, 4, 3))]
  page 63: deinde positīs ante vēstibulum dōnīs  [vēstibulūm]
  Footnote 59.6: #haud piget#: sc. _mē_  [sc. _me_]
  page 72: vēnit ad eum līctor  [ād]
  page 74: Cum aedem Honōris  [aēdem]
  Footnote 85.1 ... #prīmum . . . triumphāvit#  [primum]
  Footnote 85.6 ... (419, III, 1, 1)  [(419, III, 1, 1))]
  page 88: sēriō dīxit Caesar mālle  [māllē]
  page 96: [Illustration: CICERŌ]  [CICERO]
  page 100 Sed Antōnius, initā cum Octāviānō societāte,[5]  [Sēd]
  Footnote 98.17: ‘conspicuous’; lit., ‘shining.’
    [_first open quote missing_]
  page 106: aspidem[14] sibi adferendam cūrāvit  [13]

_Glossary_

  #ad#, prep. with accus. ... (3) of purpose  [_missing (3)_]
  #cōnfodiō#, see #fodiō#.  [#cōnfodiō#.]
  #ad--addīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus#  [addīcō, ēre]
  #bis# [orig. #duis#; cf. #duo#], num. adv., _twice_.
    [_close parenthesis for bracket_]
  #Falernus# ... _a famous wine-growing district in Campania_.
    [_printed as shown, with anomalous italics_]
  #implōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#  [āvī ātus]
  #integer, gra, grum# ... #integer, ā#  [integer ā]
  #īrātus# [orig. part. of #īrāscor#]  [orig part.]
  #per--perliciō, ere, lexī, lectus#,  [_missing , after “lectus”_]
  #inquam# ... See #297#, II, 2: 144, _b_: _175_, 2.
    [_reference printed as shown_]
  #introeō#, see (1) #eō#.  [_final . missing_]
  #latebra, ae#,  [_missing , after “ae”_]
  #multō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#multa#], _to fine, punish_.  [āre āvī]
  #per--permūtō, āre, āvī, ātus#  [āre, āvi]
  #ōrdior, īrī, ōrsus sum#, _to begin_.  [īrī ōrsus]
  #ad--adōrō, āre, āvī, ātus#  [ad adōrō]
  #persuādeō#, see #suādeō#.  [#persuādeō# see]
  #dē--dēcutiō, ere, cussī, cussus#  [dē dēcutiō]
  #ex--ērumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptum#,  [_missing , after “ruptum”_]
  #sōpiō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus#  [īro, īvī]
  #spernō, ere, sprēvī, sprētus#  [spernō, ēre]
  #superō, āre, āvī, ātus# [#superus#]  [āre, āvi]
  #re--retrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus#,  [trāctus#.]
  #vindicō, āre, āvī, ātus#  [āre, āvi]

_References to Harkness_

  90  2  535, 1  [_missing 1_]

_Advertising_

Format of prices (usually $4.50, sometimes $4 50) is unchanged.

  sight tests and occasional examinations.  [_final . missing_]
  VOL. I--PROSE. ... Seneca Rhetor, Justinus  [Rhetor. Justinus]
  [last page]
  _Copies sent ... on receipt of the price_.  [_final . missing_]





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