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Title: If Your Baby Must Travel in Wartime
Author: Labor, United States Department of, Bureau, Children's
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  [ Transcriber's Note:
    Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as
    possible, including inconsistencies in spelling and hyphenation;
    changes (corrections of spelling and punctuation) made to the
    original text are listed at the end of this file.
  ]



                   United States. Department of Labor

                           Children's Bureau


                        Publications no. 303-308


                           Washington, D. C.
                                  1944



                                If your
                                  baby
                              must travel
                               in wartime


[Illustration]



IF YOUR BABY MUST TRAVEL IN WARTIME


Have you been on a train lately? The railroads have a hard job to do
these days, one they are doing well. But before you decide on a trip
with a baby, you should realize what a wartime train is like. So let's
look into one.

This train is crowded. At every stop more people get on--more and still
more. Soldiers and sailors on furloughs, men on business trips,
women--young and not so young--and babies, lots of them, mostly small.

The seats are full. People stand and jostle one another in the aisle.
Mothers sit crowded into single seats with toddlers or with babies in
their laps. Three sailors occupy space meant for two. A soldier sits on
his tipped-up suitcase. A marine leans against the back of the seat.
Some people stand in line for 2 hours waiting to get into the diner,
some munch sandwiches obtained from the porter or taken out of a paper
bag, some go hungry. And those who get to the diner have had to push
their way through five or six moving cars.

You will want to think twice before taking your baby into such a
crowded, uncomfortable place as a train. And having thought twice, you'd
better decide to stay home unless your trip is absolutely necessary.

But suppose you and your baby _must_ travel. Well then, you will have to
plan for the dozens of small but essential things incidental to
traveling with a baby and equip yourself to handle them.



Going by Train?


Unless you appreciate the fact that babies and toddlers are very
special people with very special requirements, you are in for a lot of
trouble if you attempt a train trip with them. Planning should be done
well in advance.

[Illustration: Take only what you must]

You will need to make your train reservations early. Select the first or
middle of the week for traveling. Stay off trains on week ends or
holidays. Travel then is like a bargain-counter rush.

Travel arrangements of any kind are hard to make nowadays. Railroads are
geared to military needs and civilians take what is left over.

If you are going on a very long trip, try by all means to arrange for a
stop-over or two with relatives or friends. It will give you a chance to
rest and get things in order again.



When you travel by coach.


If you are traveling by coach, let us hope you are in one of the
up-to-date coaches with comfortable reclining seats rather than in one
of the not-so-modern coaches found on other trains.

If it is a de luxe coach and if your child is 2 or 3 years of age, you
may be able to get a seat reservation for him. Otherwise you will have
to hold him on your lap.

Remember, too, if you have trouble, that the Travelers Aid is always
willing to help. Its workers can help you locate friends or relatives.
They can help you if you lose your tickets or your money, or if any
similar emergencies occur while you are en route. They can get a doctor
for you if you or your baby become ill. They can tell you of good
restaurants to eat in or of places where you can rest or feed your baby.
You can even arrange by telegram with the Travelers Aid to have someone
meet you at the station from which you are leaving or at which you are
arriving to help you. If you are a serviceman's wife, the USO can help
you, too.

_Plan well and travel light._--After you have made all your travel
arrangements, gather your forces at home. Write out in detail your
youngster's schedule and list the food, clothes, and other supplies
needed.

Travel light, so far as your own personal belongings are concerned,
lighter than you've ever imagined you could.

Your aim is to take on the train enough for essential comfort and not
one item more.

Limit yourself to one dark dress or suit. Many mothers have found an
apron a convenience, one that could be slipped over their dresses when
they were caring for their babies. Additional clothing for yourself can
be checked and sent on ahead.

_Clothes, diapers, and such._--Carry an abundance of changes for the
baby or toddler. But plan to dress him simply in clothes that are easy
to put on and take off.

Remember weather may change and many trains are air-cooled. So take
along a warm outer garment, preferably a sweater, and a blanket for the
baby.

Unless your baby has completely mastered the art of keeping dry, use
disposable diapers if you can possibly get them. If you cannot get them,
then the next best bet is a supply of standard diaper linings--specially
treated papers about the size of ordinary cleaning tissues, used with
cloth diapers.

Many mothers prefer to use cloth diapers at night. Some babies become
badly chafed if only paper diapers are used. Used cloth diapers can be
wrapped in wax paper and repacked in your suitcase or put into a
waterproof bag.

If your baby is sufficiently trained to use his own toilet seat, by all
means take it along. He is less likely to be frightened if there is this
one familiar thing in his strange surroundings. Some toilet seats come
with a carrying case. If the one you have did not, then use a canvas
laundry case or a shopping bag for this purpose.

Pack the baby's clothes, diapers, and blankets into a special suitcase
or bag. Keep it unlocked and easily accessible on the train.

_Milk for the baby._--If your baby is breast-fed, feeding him is
relatively easy. Food for babies who are not breast-fed presents a
difficult problem.

[Illustration: Week ends are worst]

[Illustration: Trouble ahead!]

For traveling, the simplest formula is one of evaporated milk. Milk
can be obtained in small cans, and an individual feeding can be made up
when feeding time comes. Then no refrigeration is needed. For such a
feeding you will need to carry the following equipment, all of which
should be assembled in one container, such as a heavy shopping bag or a
medium-sized duffle bag:

  _Bottles and caps_--boiled and ready for use.

    Take enough for all feedings during the trip, plus some extras for
    water. Wrap each bottle separately.

  _Nipples_--boiled and put in a boiled jar with a lid.

  _Can opener_ (or some other instrument to open small cans of
  evaporated milk).

  _Milk in small cans._

    The cans should be washed off before you leave home.

  _Vacuum bottle containing boiled water._

    Sugar or syrup may be added to the water if desired.

  _Funnel_--to put water into bottles.

    This should be boiled and wrapped in clean paper.

If your baby has not been on evaporated milk, and your doctor agrees
that it is satisfactory for him, you should introduce him to it, several
days or even a week before you start on your trip if he gets used to new
things slowly.

Before you leave home, you can prepare the mixture of hot boiled water,
with or without sugar or syrup, and carry it in a vacuum jug on the
train. Then mix this mixture and the evaporated milk as you need it.
Your doctor will tell you the correct proportions.

Usually the hot water in the vacuum bottle, when added to the milk,
will make the feeding the right temperature for the baby. Carry small
cans of milk, using whatever is needed for one feeding only. Perhaps you
can drink what is left in the can yourself or give it to a fellow
traveler. Do not save it to use later.

The one thing you cannot do is to run the risk of giving your baby
contaminated or sour milk. _Never attempt to carry the milk warm in a
vacuum jug._ If you do, the bacteria that are present in milk will
multiply many times, with the result that when the milk is fed to the
baby, it will make him sick.

You can carry boiled nipples in a jar, as already suggested, or you can
use nursing bottles with caps that make it possible to reverse the
nipples into the bottle and thus keep them sterile.

_Water for the baby._--For baby's protection, it is very important that
you do not give him water that has not been boiled. Usually it is better
to take several bottles of boiled water from home even though you may
find it possible to obtain boiled water on the train. Or plan to use the
boiled water from the vacuum jug.

_Other food for the baby._--Orange juice and cod-liver oil usually
cannot be carried conveniently. There is no harm in letting your baby go
without these during the time when you will be traveling.

Unless your baby is on a special diet, don't load yourself down with
canned foods under present traveling conditions. Your baby can get along
for a few days on his milk. Plan to use as little food as you think you
can get by with.

If your baby is a hearty eater and you fear that he will miss his
cereal, then carry dry ready-prepared baby cereal, to which you can add
hot water from the vacuum bottle. You will need to take a dish and a
spoon in the shopping or duffle bag. Foods that require heating will
have to be omitted. Some children do not object to cold food. If yours
does not, and if he has a big appetite, you can take canned vegetables
or fruits, which he can eat from the can. Take rusks or crackers along
for emergency use.

In planning these solid foods, remember that nothing can be heated
except by the addition of hot water from your vacuum jug, and that no
utensils can be washed on the train.

[Illustration: Boys in the bleachers]

_Food for young children._--Meals for toddlers are not so much of a
problem as meals for babies are.

Packing a lunch of customary foods will not be difficult for the short
trip. This may include bread-and-butter sandwiches, wrapped in wax
paper; cookies or crackers; canned tomato or fruit juice; and canned
evaporated milk. (Several large paper bags to be used as "waste baskets"
are a convenience.)

But for a long trip you may have to rely on getting your meals in the
diner even though this is more expensive. Some railroads, however, don't
serve meals to civilians until after servicemen are fed, so you may need
to take along some food even though you are planning to use the diner.
Be sure to go to meals early.

Most little children are thrilled at the idea of eating on the train and
tell about the experience for many days afterward. For a toddler's diet
the railroads even now can usually supply cooked cereals, baked
potatoes, green vegetables, well-cooked meats, fruits, and milk.

Some dining cars provide half portions for children, but if they don't,
no one will object if you order a meal for yourself and give part of it
to Junior. But in case you are unable to get into the diner, it is wise
to take some simple things for your toddler and yourself to eat.

[Illustration: Fun in the diner]

_Keeping baby clean._--Mothers sometimes attempt to bathe babies on a
train in the washroom basins. Don't do it. It isn't sanitary. It is
better to let your baby go unbathed during the trip than to run the risk
of infection. Clean his face and hands off with cold cream and cleansing
tissues and let it go at that.

[Illustration: Solid food and solid comfort]

When changing diapers, use oil and cotton and cleansing tissue. Change
the baby where he lies instead of trying to take him back to the
dressing room.

Keep handy at all times a small emergency diaper kit in a rubber-lined
bag, so you can stop anywhere and take care of the baby if necessary.

_Keeping baby comfortable._--Adjustable canvas seats are available,
chiefly for use in automobiles, but they are very helpful for train
travel, too. They are light and can be folded and put in a suitcase.
Some come in their own carrying cases. They give the child a restful
change from the car seat.

_Sleeping in the coach._--If you travel by coach, the chances are you
are going to have to sleep with your baby cradled in your arms. You may
be able to rent a pillow, which will make the night more comfortable for
you and your baby.

In most coaches lights are turned down at night and often babies sleep
undisturbed. The night trip will be harder on you than it is on the
baby.



When you travel by Pullman.


There is far more space and better service in Pullman accommodations,
and if there is any way that you can manage to have them, you should do
it for your own and your baby's sake. Accommodations on the Pullman are
worth the extra cash, if you have the cash.

Even though you may be unable to reserve a lower berth in advance, it
may be possible to arrange with the Pullman conductor to exchange your
upper for a lower. The greater convenience of a lower berth is worth the
extra cost.

If your baby is very tiny (under 3 months), he can travel by basket
if you go by Pullman. For your baby's food, it is wise to use an
evaporated-milk formula as described on pages 6 and 9. For any type
of travel this formula is probably the safest and the easiest.

For a short daytime trip or an overnight trip, you may be able to
arrange ahead of time to keep the bottles in the refrigerator of the
dining car. If you do so, you must be very sure, though, that the dining
car is not to be taken off the train at any point before you reach your
destination. If you can safely use the refrigerator of the diner, you
can prepare your feedings before you leave. Chill them thoroughly, carry
the bottles containing the milk mixture in your sterilizer, and as you
board the train, hand it to the porter to put into the refrigerator.
When baby is ready for food, the porter will heat a bottle and bring it
to you. Don't forget to include a few bottles of boiled water in your
quota of bottles.

If you are traveling in the Pullman, you can put the baby or young
child to bed at his regular time and expect him to sleep soundly until
morning.

[Illustration: Don't do it! It isn't sanitary!]

[Illustration: It's harder on you]

If your baby is very young, you may use the basket for sleeping
purposes. Berths are wide and long and you can keep the baby, basket and
all, with you at night. Change and feed the baby in the berth each
morning before getting him up.

Put the older child in the half of the berth next to the window,
carefully padding the window sill and window with a pillow to prevent
head bumping and in winter to keep the youngster warm.

Carry along a waterproof sheet to give the porter when he makes up the
berth. If the child is under 4, this is a wise precaution even though he
may be perfectly trained at home.



Entertaining the young child.


Little children get tired on a long trip, and who can blame them? You
can keep them entertained if you take along a few carefully selected
toys: Colored crayons, pencils, tablets, a favorite doll, and story
books. A familiar toy should be included, as new ones are not so
comforting.

Children like books under such circumstances, and you should have
several small ones with you. Books about trains and engines will be good
fun.

Keep a small toy or two in your purse for odd moments--when you are
waiting for your meal in the diner, for example, or when you are waiting
for a train. It is a good plan to have a pencil handy and paper for you
to draw on to amuse your youngster, or for him to scribble on if he is
old enough. Another good thing to have with you is a small cloth picture
book that can be rolled up into a compact cylinder.



Fellow travelers.


Most people like children, so don't get too upset if Jimmy talks with
his fellow passengers. Many grown-ups find an alert, friendly child a
delightful diversion on a long and tiresome trip.

Almost always when you tell the person to whom the child is talking,
"Send Jimmy back if he annoys you," you get the assurance, "He's
perfectly all right. I enjoy talking to him." Accept such statements at
their face value. Don't cramp Jimmy's style "in winning friends and
influencing people."

There are times, although they will be rare, when you may need to curb
Jimmy's friendliness--when he shows too much interest in an obviously
undesirable or uninterested person. Bring him back to your seat to hear
a story or to eat an apple and then keep him busy until he forgets about
the stranger.

[Illustration: Too much is enough]

[Illustration: A time to make friends]

You will need to keep your eyes glued on overfriendly grown-ups who in a
burst of enthusiasm may give your youngster candy or other undesirable
food. Many adults are thoughtless about food for children, and if you
are unfortunate enough to meet one of these individuals, you will need
to be tactful but firm. You can't afford to run the risk of having a
sick child.

Many times people will offer to carry your suitcase, to watch one child
while you attend to another, to carry your toddler into the dining car,
or to keep an eye on your sleeping baby while you go to the rest room.

[Illustration: Journey's end]

Use good judgment about accepting such offers to help you. They are
usually made in good faith and with the best intentions in the world.
And you'll certainly need some help if you're traveling with a youngster
in these days of overworked train crews and few redcaps. But don't ever
leave your baby with a stranger in a railroad station, and do hesitate
to leave him with a total stranger on the train. Don't leave him for
very long with anyone; he may be frightened when you go away. Don't
trust your baby to anyone who has a cold or any other visible illness
that the baby might catch.



Going by Bus?


As a rule busses are even more crowded than trains, and there is far
less space. And traveling by bus with a baby or young child requires
even better planning than travel by train.

There are a few things you will need to know about bus travel before you
start out. Busses make 15-minute rest stops every 2 hours and 40-minute
to 1-hour stops three times a day for meals. Any child who occupies a
seat is required to have a half-fare ticket even though he is under 5.

By all means plan your trip for the first or the middle of the week,
avoiding the week-end travel peak if at all possible. If you are going
on a long trip, plan stop-overs that will break your journey. Everything
that was said about clothes, supplies, and equipment for traveling by
train coach will be needed when you travel by bus. If anything, your
things will need to be packed even more compactly.

If your baby is breast-fed, traveling will be easier than if he is not.
You will need to plan with your doctor about putting your baby on an
evaporated-milk formula if he is bottle-fed. Remember, too, that you
will have to count on preparing his feedings during rest and meal stops.

Emergency supplies of food for yourself and your young child will be
necessary even though you hope to buy your meals on the way. Restaurants
in bus depots are overcrowded and you may not be able to get food in the
time you have.

For a short trip you had better plan on carrying food for yourself and
your youngster.



Going by Car?


Families going to strange cities to establish new homes are still able
to obtain gasoline with which to travel by car. A few tips on automobile
travel may therefore be of value.

Proper care of your baby when traveling by car can be summed up in this
way: Clean milk, clean water, clean food, and as little change as
possible from the regular schedule to which he is accustomed.

Most young children enjoy riding in an automobile although they do get
tired and bored on long trips. There are many things that you can do to
make traveling by car easier.

When your baby is small, take him in his carrying basket, if you have
one, and put him on the back seat in a coach or sedan or on the back
ledge of a coupe, if it is wide enough. Small canvas hammocks that
fasten onto the back of the front seat may still be available and are a
real boon to the baby who must travel. If your baby's crib fits into the
back of the car, you will have it ready for him to sleep in when he
reaches his new home.

When your baby can sit up, there are canvas seats available that hook
over the top of the car seat. These will keep the child comfortable and
erect and allow him to look out the window without stretching his neck.

The young child can take his afternoon nap stretched out on the back
seat and covered with a light robe or coat. Plan your packing of luggage
with this in mind.

The baby's food must loom large in your plans if he is not breast-fed.
You will either have to find a place each night where you can prepare
his feedings and devise a way for keeping them on ice and heating them
while you travel, or you will have to put the baby on the evaporated-milk
formula described on pages 6 and 9. If you plan to prepare his usual
feedings you must take along all the equipment to do it.

Small portable stoves using canned heat can be used to heat the feeding,
or you can stop in restaurants and ask a waitress to have the bottle
heated for you. The important thing is to have a feasible plan worked
out for doing it. Cereal, canned food, and oranges may be obtained along
the way.

When stopping for meals, be sure to select good places where well-cooked
food can be obtained for young children. Be certain that the milk served
the youngsters is pasteurized. And insist that the milk be served
directly from the bottle (opened at the table).

Order sensibly for the children, getting them the same type of meal you
would supply them at home.

By all means carry your own water, and for the baby or young child it
should be boiled. Give the youngsters a drink from your own supply
before stopping for food. Don't let them drink water from drinking
fountains, hotels, or tourist homes. This does not mean that the water
may not be all right; it is merely a precautionary measure against
digestive upsets.

If you are traveling by car, you will be able to take along the baby's
own toilet equipment, and remember to carry it with you into rest rooms,
hotels, or tourist homes.

Don't attempt to drive too many miles in one day when a baby is a
passenger. Babies require many stops, and rest periods for a toddler
should be frequent.

Plan to stop each night by 5:30 or 6 o'clock. This will give you time to
select a hotel or tourist room and get the baby or toddler comfortably
to sleep by his usual bedtime.

If toddlers are part of your carload, you will have amusement problems.
Gather together a number of small toys and place them in a box of their
own. If yours is a two-seated automobile, allow the youngster to change
his seat often. Sometimes he will enjoy riding in the front seat; at
other times he will want to play with his toys or take a nap in the back
seat. It will help to keep him amused if you can think up stories to
tell him about the things he sees along the way--the children, the
cattle, the trains, and the factories. Songs you know by heart will be
used many times over, too.

                   *       *       *       *       *

A job this traveling with babies in wartime! Certainly not something to
attempt lightly. But if you must travel with your baby, you'll be doing
a real war service if you make it as painless as you can to the
transportation system, your baby, and yourself.


The Bureau gratefully acknowledges the work of Mr. Gluyas Williams, who
illustrated this booklet as a contribution to the war effort.


                   UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

                      FRANCES PERKINS, _Secretary_

                           CHILDREN'S BUREAU

                     KATHARINE F. LENROOT, _Chief_

         Children in Wartime No. 6       Bureau Publication 307

              For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
                    U. S. Government Printing Office
                Washington 25, D. C.       Price 5 cents



  [ Transcriber's Note:

    The following is a list of corrections made to the original. The first
    line is the original line, the second the corrected one.

  days or even a week before you start on your trip if he get used to new
  days or even a week before you start on your trip if he gets used to new

  ]





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